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Sample records for action congruency influence

  1. How does information congruence influence diagnosis performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kejin; Li, Zhizhong

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis performance is critical for the safety of high-consequence industrial systems. It depends highly on the information provided, perceived, interpreted and integrated by operators. This article examines the influence of information congruence (congruent information vs. conflicting information vs. missing information) and its interaction with time pressure (high vs. low) on diagnosis performance on a simulated platform. The experimental results reveal that the participants confronted with conflicting information spent significantly more time generating correct hypotheses and rated the results with lower probability values than when confronted with the other two levels of information congruence and were more prone to arrive at a wrong diagnosis result than when they were provided with congruent information. This finding stresses the importance of the proper processing of non-congruent information in safety-critical systems. Time pressure significantly influenced display switching frequency and completion time. This result indicates the decisive role of time pressure. Practitioner Summary: This article examines the influence of information congruence and its interaction with time pressure on human diagnosis performance on a simulated platform. For complex systems in the process control industry, the results stress the importance of the proper processing of non-congruent information in safety-critical systems.

  2. The interaction between felt touch and tactile consequences of observed actions: an action-based somatosensory congruency paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschrijver, Eliane; Wiersema, Jan R; Brass, Marcel

    2016-07-01

    Action observation leads to a representation of both the motor aspect of an observed action (motor simulation) and its somatosensory consequences (action-based somatosensory simulation) in the observer's brain. In the current electroencephalography-study, we investigated the neuronal interplay of action-based somatosensory simulation and felt touch. We presented index or middle finger tapping movements of a human or a wooden hand, while simultaneously presenting 'tap-like' tactile sensations to either the corresponding or non-corresponding fingertip of the participant. We focused on an early stage of somatosensory processing [P50, N100 and N140 sensory evoked potentials (SEPs)] and on a later stage of higher-order processing (P3-complex). The results revealed an interaction effect of animacy and congruency in the early P50 SEP and an animacy effect in the N100/N140 SEPs. In the P3-complex, we found an interaction effect indicating that the influence of congruency was larger in the human than in the wooden hand. We argue that the P3-complex may reflect higher-order self-other distinction by signaling simulated action-based touch that does not match own tactile information. As such, the action-based somatosensory congruency paradigm might help understand higher-order social processes from a somatosensory point of view. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Perceived Odor-Taste Congruence Influences Intensity and Pleasantness Differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsellem, Sherlley; Ohla, Kathrin

    2016-10-01

    The role of congruence in cross-modal interactions has received little attention. In most experiments involving cross-modal pairs, congruence is conceived of as a binary process according to which cross-modal pairs are categorized as perceptually and/or semantically matching or mismatching. The present study investigated whether odor-taste congruence can be perceived gradually and whether congruence impacts other facets of subjective experience, that is, intensity, pleasantness, and familiarity. To address these questions, we presented food odorants (chicken, orange, and 3 mixtures of the 2) and tastants (savory-salty and sour-sweet) in pairs varying in congruence. Participants were to report the perceived congruence of the pairs along with intensity, pleasantness, and familiarity. We found that participants could perceive distinct congruence levels, thereby favoring a multilevel account of congruence perception. In addition, familiarity and pleasantness followed the same pattern as the congruence while intensity was highest for the most congruent and the most incongruent pairs whereas intensities of the intermediary-congruent pairs were reduced. Principal component analysis revealed that pleasantness and familiarity form one dimension of the phenomenological experience of odor-taste pairs that was orthogonal to intensity. The results bear implications for the understanding the behavioral underpinnings of perseverance of habitual food choices. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Infants' Sensitivity to the Congruence of Others' Emotions and Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepach, Robert; Westermann, Gert

    2013-01-01

    As humans, we are attuned to the moods and emotions of others. This understanding of emotions enables us to interpret other people's actions on the basis of their emotional displays. However, the development of this capacity is not well understood. Here we show a developmental pattern in 10- and 14-month-old infants' sensitivity to others'…

  5. The Influence of Sponsor-Event Congruence in Sponsorship of Music Festivals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Hutabarat

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses the research on the Influence of Sponsor-Event Congruence toward Brand Image, Attitudes toward the Brand and Purchase Intention. Having reviewed the literatures and arranged the hypotheses, the data has been gathered by distributing the questionnaire to 155 audiences at the Java Jazz Music Festival, firstly with convenience sampling and then snowballing sampling approach. The analysis of data was executed with Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The result shows the sponsor-event congruence variable has a positive impact toward brand image and attitudes toward the brand sponsor. Brand Image also has a positive impact toward purchase intention; in contrary attitudes toward the brand do not have a positive purchase intention. With those results, to increase the sponsorship effectiveness, the role of congruency is very significant in the sponsorship event. Congruency is a key influencer to trigger the sponsorship effectiveness. Congruency between the event and the sponsor is able to boost up the brand image and bring out favorable attitudes towards the brand for the success of marketing communication programs, particularly sponsorship. In addition to it, image transfer gets higher due to the congruency existence (fit between sponsor and event and directs the intention creation to buy sponsor brand product/service (purchase intention. In conclusion, sponsor-event congruence has effect on consumer responds toward sponsorship, either on the cognitive level, affective and also behavior.

  6. The Influence of Sponsor-Event Congruence in Sponsorship of Music Festivals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Hutabarat

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE This paper focuses the research on the Influence of Sponsor-Event Congruence toward Brand Image, Attitudes toward the Brand and Purchase Intention. Having reviewed the literatures and arranged the hypotheses, the data has been gathered by distributing the questionnaire to 155 audiences at the Java Jazz Music Festival, firstly with convenience sampling and then snowballing sampling approach. The analysis of data was executed with Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The result shows the sponsor-event congruence variable has a positive impact toward brand image and attitudes toward the brand sponsor. Brand Image also has a positive impact toward purchase intention; in contrary attitudes toward the brand do not have a positive purchase intention. With those results, to increase the sponsorship effectiveness, the role of congruency is very significant in the sponsorship event. Congruency is a key influencer to trigger the sponsorship effectiveness. Congruency between the event and the sponsor is able to boost up the brand image and bring out favorable attitudes towards the brand for the success of marketing communication programs, particularly sponsorship. In addition to it, image transfer gets higher due to the congruency existence (fit between sponsor and event and directs the intention creation to buy sponsor brand product/service (purchase intention. In conclusion, sponsor-event congruence has effect on consumer responds toward sponsorship, either on the cognitive level, affective and also behavior.

  7. Host and parasite morphology influence congruence between host and parasite phylogenies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Andrew D; Bush, Sarah E; Gustafsson, Daniel R; Allen, Julie M; DiBlasi, Emily; Skeen, Heather R; Weckstein, Jason D; Johnson, Kevin P

    2018-03-23

    Comparisons of host and parasite phylogenies often show varying degrees of phylogenetic congruence. However, few studies have rigorously explored the factors driving this variation. Multiple factors such as host or parasite morphology may govern the degree of phylogenetic congruence. An ideal analysis for understanding the factors correlated with congruence would focus on a diverse host-parasite system for increased variation and statistical power. In this study, we focused on the Brueelia-complex, a diverse and widespread group of feather lice that primarily parasitise songbirds. We generated a molecular phylogeny of the lice and compared this tree with a phylogeny of their avian hosts. We also tested for the contribution of each host-parasite association to the overall congruence. The two trees overall were significantly congruent, but the contribution of individual associations to this congruence varied. To understand this variation, we developed a novel approach to test whether host, parasite or biogeographic factors were statistically associated with patterns of congruence. Both host plumage dimorphism and parasite ecomorphology were associated with patterns of congruence, whereas host body size, other plumage traits and biogeography were not. Our results lay the framework for future studies to further elucidate how these factors influence the process of host-parasite coevolution. Copyright © 2018 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Congruence Reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, Keith; Worrall, Mike

    1994-01-01

    Discusses Carl Rogers' definitions of congruence, and identifies four specific requirements for the concept and practice of therapeutic congruence. Examines the interface between congruence and the other necessary and sufficient conditions of change, drawing on examples from practice. (JPS)

  9. Does Discourse Congruence Influence Spoken Language Comprehension before Lexical Association? Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudewyn, Megan A.; Gordon, Peter C.; Long, Debra; Polse, Lara; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine how lexical association and discourse congruence affect the time course of processing incoming words in spoken discourse. In an ERP norming study, we presented prime-target pairs in the absence of a sentence context to obtain a baseline measure of lexical priming. We observed a typical N400 effect when participants heard critical associated and unassociated target words in word pairs. In a subsequent experiment, we presented the same word pairs in spoken discourse contexts. Target words were always consistent with the local sentence context, but were congruent or not with the global discourse (e.g., “Luckily Ben had picked up some salt and pepper/basil”, preceded by a context in which Ben was preparing marinara sauce (congruent) or dealing with an icy walkway (incongruent). ERP effects of global discourse congruence preceded those of local lexical association, suggesting an early influence of the global discourse representation on lexical processing, even in locally congruent contexts. Furthermore, effects of lexical association occurred earlier in the congruent than incongruent condition. These results differ from those that have been obtained in studies of reading, suggesting that the effects may be unique to spoken word recognition. PMID:23002319

  10. The Influence of Cultural Congruency, Communication, and Work Alienation on Employee Satisfaction and Commitment in Mexican Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madlock, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of cultural congruency between societal and organizational cultures on Mexican supervisors' and employees' communication behaviors and employees' work alienation, satisfaction, and commitment. The participants were full time nonmanagement adults working for Mexican owned organizations located in Mexico. This study…

  11. How artefacts influence our actions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pols, A.J.K.

    2013-01-01

    Artefacts can influence our actions in several ways. They can be instruments, enabling and facilitating actions, where their presence affects the number and quality of the options for action available to us. They can also influence our actions in a morally more salient way, where their presence

  12. The influence of thematic congruency, typicality and divided attention on memory for radio advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Luengo, Beatriz; Luna, Karlos; Migueles, Malen

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of the thematic congruence between ads and the programme in which they are embedded. We also studied the typicality of the to-be-remembered information (high- and low-typicality elements), and the effect of divided attention in the memory for radio ad contents. Participants listened to four radio programmes with thematically congruent and incongruent ads embedded, and completed a true/false recognition test indicating the level of confidence in their answer. Half of the sample performed an additional task (divided attention group) while listening to the radio excerpts. In general, recognition memory was better for incongruent ads and low-typicality statements. Confidence in hits was higher in the undivided attention group, although there were no differences in performance. Our results suggest that the widespread idea of embedding ads into thematic-congruent programmes negatively affects memory for ads. In addition, low-typicality features that are usually highlighted by advertisers were better remembered than typical contents. Finally, metamemory evaluations were influenced by the inference that memory should be worse if we do several things at the same time.

  13. Grounding grammatical categories: attention bias in hand space influences grammatical congruency judgment of Chinese nominal classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobben, Marit; D'Ascenzo, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Embodied cognitive theories predict that linguistic conceptual representations are grounded and continually represented in real world, sensorimotor experiences. However, there is an on-going debate on whether this also holds for abstract concepts. Grammar is the archetype of abstract knowledge, and therefore constitutes a test case against embodied theories of language representation. Former studies have largely focussed on lexical-level embodied representations. In the present study we take the grounding-by-modality idea a step further by using reaction time (RT) data from the linguistic processing of nominal classifiers in Chinese. We take advantage of an independent body of research, which shows that attention in hand space is biased. Specifically, objects near the hand consistently yield shorter RTs as a function of readiness for action on graspable objects within reaching space, and the same biased attention inhibits attentional disengagement. We predicted that this attention bias would equally apply to the graspable object classifier but not to the big object classifier. Chinese speakers (N = 22) judged grammatical congruency of classifier-noun combinations in two conditions: graspable object classifier and big object classifier. We found that RTs for the graspable object classifier were significantly faster in congruent combinations, and significantly slower in incongruent combinations, than the big object classifier. There was no main effect on grammatical violations, but rather an interaction effect of classifier type. Thus, we demonstrate here grammatical category-specific effects pertaining to the semantic content and by extension the visual and tactile modality of acquisition underlying the acquisition of these categories. We conclude that abstract grammatical categories are subjected to the same mechanisms as general cognitive and neurophysiological processes and may therefore be grounded.

  14. Cross-cultural differences in item and background memory: examining the influence of emotional intensity and scene congruency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickley Steinmetz, Katherine R; Sturkie, Charlee M; Rochester, Nina M; Liu, Xiaodong; Gutchess, Angela H

    2018-07-01

    After viewing a scene, individuals differ in what they prioritise and remember. Culture may be one factor that influences scene memory, as Westerners have been shown to be more item-focused than Easterners (see Masuda, T., & Nisbett, R. E. (2001). Attending holistically versus analytically: Comparing the context sensitivity of Japanese and Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 922-934). However, cultures may differ in their sensitivity to scene incongruences and emotion processing, which may account for cross-cultural differences in scene memory. The current study uses hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to examine scene memory while controlling for scene congruency and the perceived emotional intensity of the images. American and East Asian participants encoded pictures that included a positive, negative, or neutral item placed on a neutral background. After a 20-min delay, participants were shown the item and background separately along with similar and new items and backgrounds to assess memory specificity. Results indicated that even when congruency and emotional intensity were controlled, there was evidence that Americans had better item memory than East Asians. Incongruent scenes were better remembered than congruent scenes. However, this effect did not differ by culture. This suggests that Americans' item focus may result in memory changes that are robust despite variations in scene congruency and perceived emotion.

  15. The Influence of Congruence between Incentive System and Locus of Control on Team Performance: An Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Mutmainah; Slamet Sugiri

    2017-01-01

    Organizations are increasingly relying upon teamwork; however, little is known about the best fit among incentive system, team composition, and group performance. To further explore this issue this study examines whether the congruence between incentive system and locus of control (LoC) affects team performance. To reconcile opposite lines of argument in literature regarding the best incentive system for a team, this paper uses the social identity perspective and person-environment (P-E) fit ...

  16. When congruence breeds preference: the influence of selective attention processes on evaluative conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blask, Katarina; Walther, Eva; Frings, Christian

    2017-09-01

    We investigated in two experiments whether selective attention processes modulate evaluative conditioning (EC). Based on the fact that the typical stimuli in an EC paradigm involve an affect-laden unconditioned stimulus (US) and a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS), we started from the assumption that learning might depend in part upon selective attention to the US. Attention to the US was manipulated by including a variant of the Eriksen flanker task in the EC paradigm. Similarly to the original Flanker paradigm, we implemented a target-distracter logic by introducing the CS as the task-relevant stimulus (i.e. the target) to which the participants had to respond and the US as a task-irrelevant distracter. Experiment 1 showed that CS-US congruence modulated EC if the CS had to be selected against the US. Specifically, EC was more pronounced for congruent CS-US pairs as compared to incongruent CS-US pairs. Experiment 2 disentangled CS-US congruence and CS-US compatibility and suggested that it is indeed CS-US stimulus congruence rather than CS-US response compatibility that modulates EC.

  17. Influence of geometry variations on the gravitational focusing of timelike geodesic congruences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seriu, Masafumi

    2015-10-01

    We derive a set of equations describing the linear response of the convergence properties of a geodesic congruence to arbitrary geometry variations. It is a combination of equations describing the deviations from the standard Raychaudhuri-type equations due to the geodesic shifts and an equation describing the geodesic shifts due to the geometry variations. In this framework, the geometry variations, which can be chosen arbitrarily, serve as probes to investigate the gravitational contraction processes from various angles. We apply the obtained framework to the case of conformal geometry variations, characterized by an arbitrary function f (x ), and see that the formulas get simplified to a great extent. We investigate the response of the convergence properties of geodesics in the latest phase of gravitational contractions by restricting the class of conformal geometry variations to the one satisfying the strong energy condition. We then find out that in the final stage, f and D .D f control the overall contraction behavior and that the contraction rate gets larger when f is negative and |f | is so large as to overwhelm |D .D f |. (Here D .D is the Laplacian operator on the spatial hypersurfaces orthogonal to the geodesic congruence in concern.) To get more concrete insights, we also apply the framework to the time-reversed Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model as the simplest case of the singularity formations.

  18. Influences on the Congruence between Parents' and Teachers' Ratings of Young Children's Social Skills and Problem Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinnebeil, Laurie A.; Sawyer, Brook E.; Logan, Jessica; Dynia, Jaclyn M.; Cancio, Edward; Justice, Laura M.

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive research base exists concerning the congruence between parents' and teachers' ratings of the behavior of typically developing young children. However, little research has been conducted regarding the degree to which parents' and teachers' behavioral ratings of young children with disabilities are congruent. Additionally, previous…

  19. Voice congruency facilitates word recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Campeanu

    Full Text Available Behavioral studies of spoken word memory have shown that context congruency facilitates both word and source recognition, though the level at which context exerts its influence remains equivocal. We measured event-related potentials (ERPs while participants performed both types of recognition task with words spoken in four voices. Two voice parameters (i.e., gender and accent varied between speakers, with the possibility that none, one or two of these parameters was congruent between study and test. Results indicated that reinstating the study voice at test facilitated both word and source recognition, compared to similar or no context congruency at test. Behavioral effects were paralleled by two ERP modulations. First, in the word recognition test, the left parietal old/new effect showed a positive deflection reflective of context congruency between study and test words. Namely, the same speaker condition provided the most positive deflection of all correctly identified old words. In the source recognition test, a right frontal positivity was found for the same speaker condition compared to the different speaker conditions, regardless of response success. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the benefit of context congruency is reflected behaviorally and in ERP modulations traditionally associated with recognition memory.

  20. Voice congruency facilitates word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campeanu, Sandra; Craik, Fergus I M; Alain, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral studies of spoken word memory have shown that context congruency facilitates both word and source recognition, though the level at which context exerts its influence remains equivocal. We measured event-related potentials (ERPs) while participants performed both types of recognition task with words spoken in four voices. Two voice parameters (i.e., gender and accent) varied between speakers, with the possibility that none, one or two of these parameters was congruent between study and test. Results indicated that reinstating the study voice at test facilitated both word and source recognition, compared to similar or no context congruency at test. Behavioral effects were paralleled by two ERP modulations. First, in the word recognition test, the left parietal old/new effect showed a positive deflection reflective of context congruency between study and test words. Namely, the same speaker condition provided the most positive deflection of all correctly identified old words. In the source recognition test, a right frontal positivity was found for the same speaker condition compared to the different speaker conditions, regardless of response success. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the benefit of context congruency is reflected behaviorally and in ERP modulations traditionally associated with recognition memory.

  1. Influence of Action-Effect Associations Acquired by Ideomotor Learning on Imitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunlon, Frédérique; Marshall, Peter J.; Quandt, Lorna C.; Bouquet, Cedric A.

    2015-01-01

    According to the ideomotor theory, actions are represented in terms of their perceptual effects, offering a solution for the correspondence problem of imitation (how to translate the observed action into a corresponding motor output). This effect-based coding of action is assumed to be acquired through action-effect learning. Accordingly, performing an action leads to the integration of the perceptual codes of the action effects with the motor commands that brought them about. While ideomotor theory is invoked to account for imitation, the influence of action-effect learning on imitative behavior remains unexplored. In two experiments, imitative performance was measured in a reaction time task following a phase of action-effect acquisition. During action-effect acquisition, participants freely executed a finger movement (index or little finger lifting), and then observed a similar (compatible learning) or a different (incompatible learning) movement. In Experiment 1, finger movements of left and right hands were presented as action-effects during acquisition. In Experiment 2, only right-hand finger movements were presented during action-effect acquisition and in the imitation task the observed hands were oriented orthogonally to participants’ hands in order to avoid spatial congruency effects. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that imitative performance was improved after compatible learning, compared to incompatible learning. In Experiment 2, although action-effect learning involved perception of finger movements of right hand only, imitative capabilities of right- and left-hand finger movements were equally affected. These results indicate that an observed movement stimulus processed as the effect of an action can later prime execution of that action, confirming the ideomotor approach to imitation. We further discuss these findings in relation to previous studies of action-effect learning and in the framework of current ideomotor approaches to imitation. PMID:25793755

  2. Searching for flavor labels in food products: The influence of color-flavor congruence and association strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos eVelasco

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Prior research provides robust support for the existence of a number of associations between colors and flavors. In the present study, we examined whether congruent (vs. incongruent combinations of product packaging colors and flavor labels would facilitate visual search for products labelled with specific flavors in a Stroop-like manner. Across two experiments, a Stroop-like effect between flavor words and packaging colors is documented and we demonstrate that people are able to search for packaging flavor labels more rapidly when the color of the packaging is congruent with the flavor label (e.g., red/tomato than when it is incongruent (e.g., yellow/tomato. In addition, when the packaging color was incongruent, those flavor labels that were more strongly associated with a specific color yielded slower reaction times and more errors (Stroop interference than those that were less strongly tied to a specific color. Importantly, search efficiency was affected both by color/flavor congruence and association strength. Taken together, these results therefore highlight the role of color congruence and color-word association strength when it comes to searching for specific flavor labels.

  3. Searching for flavor labels in food products: the influence of color-flavor congruence and association strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Carlos; Wan, Xiaoang; Knoeferle, Klemens; Zhou, Xi; Salgado-Montejo, Alejandro; Spence, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Prior research provides robust support for the existence of a number of associations between colors and flavors. In the present study, we examined whether congruent (vs. incongruent) combinations of product packaging colors and flavor labels would facilitate visual search for products labeled with specific flavors. The two experiments reported here document a Stroop-like effect between flavor words and packaging colors. The participants were able to search for packaging flavor labels more rapidly when the color of the packaging was congruent with the flavor label (e.g., red/tomato) than when it was incongruent (e.g., yellow/tomato). In addition, when the packaging color was incongruent, those flavor labels that were more strongly associated with a specific color yielded slower reaction times and more errors (Stroop interference) than those that were less strongly tied to a specific color. Importantly, search efficiency was affected both by color/flavor congruence and association strength. Taken together, these results therefore highlight the role of color congruence and color-word association strength when it comes to searching for specific flavor labels.

  4. Style Congruency and Persuasion: A Cross-Cultural Study Into the Influence of Differences in Style Dimensions on the Persuasiveness of Business Newsletters in Great Britain and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, B.C.; Meurs, W.F.J. van; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Pair, R.G. le; Blanc-Damen, S. le

    2012-01-01

    Abstract—Research problem: The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether style congruency on the dimensions succinct-elaborate and instrumental-affective influenced the persuasiveness of business newsletters in the Netherlands and Great Britain. Research question: Is a writing style

  5. Congruency within rural social networks as an indicator of interpersonal influence on risk judgments: the great stir caused by BSE in a village in northern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmkuhl, Markus J

    2008-10-01

    In the following survey, congruency within a sample of 150 rural social networks ascertained by comparing independently gathered data is used as an indicator of interpersonal influence concerning BSE-related current knowledge and consumption habits. Our findings suggest that friends, relatives and acquaintances mutually orientated each other about what was worth knowing about BSE. Concerning the behavioral dimension of risk judgments, our findings indicate that social networks obtained within the village explored have activated collective resistance against fear. This is explained by the character of the risk source. Positive attitudes towards conventional farming obviously contributed to the social identity of villagers. The devaluation of conventional farming as a source of societal threat by the mass media touched on an integral part of the self-definitions of villagers and activated resistance within their social networks. It is argued that a central point in explaining the role of interpersonal influence in risk judgments is not only the dimension of risk judgments but the character of the risk source. If attitudes concerning a risk source contribute positively to one's identity, the devaluation of the risk source by mass media coverage may enhance the probability of collective resistance against fear.

  6. Congruence properties of induced representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Dieter; Momeni, Arash; Venkov, Alexei

    In this paper we study representations of the projective modular group induced from the Hecke congruence group of level 4 with Selberg's character. We show that the well known congruence properties of Selberg's character are equivalent to the congruence properties of the induced representations...

  7. Congruences of totally geodesic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plebanski, J.F.; Rozga, K.

    1989-01-01

    A general theory of congruences of totally geodesic surfaces is presented. In particular their classification, based on the properties of induced affine connections, is provided. In the four-dimensional case canonical forms of the metric tensor admitting congruences of two-dimensional totally geodesic surfaces of rank one are given. Finally, congruences of two-dimensional extremal surfaces are studied. (author)

  8. An Investigation of Person-Environment Congruence

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, Marissa Johnstun

    2013-01-01

    This study tested a hypothesis derived from Holland's (1997) theory of personality and environment that congruence between person and environment would influence satisfaction with doctoral training environments and career certainty. Doctoral students' (N = 292) vocational interests were measured using questions from the Interest Item Pool, and…

  9. Influence of fragment size and postoperative joint congruency on long-term outcome of posterior malleolar fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drijfhout van Hooff, Cornelis Christiaan; Verhage, Samuel Marinus; Hoogendoorn, Jochem Maarten

    2015-06-01

    One of the factors contributing to long-term outcome of posterior malleolar fractures is the development of osteoarthritis. Based on biomechanical, cadaveric, and small population studies, fixation of posterior malleolar fracture fragments (PMFFs) is usually performed when fragment size exceeds 25-33%. However, the influence of fragment size on long-term clinical and radiological outcome size remains unclear. A retrospective cohort study of 131 patients treated for an isolated ankle fracture with involvement of the posterior malleolus was performed. Mean follow-up was 6.9 (range, 2.5-15.9) years. Patients were divided into groups depending on size of the fragment, small (25%, n = 25), and presence of step-off after operative treatment. We have compared functional outcome measures (AOFAS, AAOS), pain (VAS), and dorsiflexion restriction compared to the contralateral ankle and the incidence of osteoarthritis on X-ray. There were no nonunions, 56% of patients had no radiographic osteoarthritis, VAS was 10 of 100, and median clinical score was 90 of 100. More osteoarthritis occurred in ankle fractures with medium and large PMFFs compared to small fragments (small 16%, medium 48%, large 54%; P = .006). Also when comparing small with medium-sized fragments (P = .02), larger fragment size did not lead to a significantly decreased function (median AOFAS 95 vs 88, P = .16). If the PMFF size was >5%, osteoarthritis occurred more frequently when there was a postoperative step-off ≥1 mm in the tibiotalar joint surface (41% vs 61%, P = .02) (whether the posterior fragment had been fixed or not). In this group, fixing the PMFF did not influence development of osteoarthritis. However, in 42% of the cases with fixation of the fragment a postoperative step-off remained (vs 45% in the group without fixation). Osteoarthritis is 1 component of long-term outcome of malleolar fractures, and the results of this study demonstrate that there was more radiographic osteoarthritis in

  10. Predictors of symptom congruence among patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox-Wasylyshyn, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The extent of congruence between one's symptom experience and preconceived ideas about the nature of myocardial infarction symptoms (ie, symptom congruence) can influence when acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients seek medical care. Lengthy delays impede timely receipt of medical interventions and result in greater morbidity and mortality. However, little is known about the factors that contribute to symptom congruence. Hence, the purpose of this study was to examine how AMI patients' symptom experiences and patients' demographic and clinical characteristics contribute to symptom congruence. Secondary data analyses were performed on interview data that were collected from 135 AMI patients. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to examine how specific symptom attributes and demographic and clinical characteristics contribute to symptom congruence. Chest pain/discomfort and other symptom variables (type and location) were included in step 1 of the analysis, whereas symptom severity and demographic and clinical factors were included in step 2. In a second analysis, quality descriptors of discomfort replaced chest pain/discomfort in step 1. Although chest pain/discomfort, and quality descriptors of heaviness and cutting were significant in step 1 of their respective analyses, all became nonsignificant when the variables in step 2 were added to the analyses. Severe discomfort (β = .29, P congruence in the first analysis. Only severe discomfort (β = .23, P congruence in the second analysis. Although the location and quality of discomfort were important components of symptom congruence, symptom severity outweighed their importance. Nonsevere symptoms were less likely to meet the expectations of AMI symptoms by those experiencing this event. Those without a previous history of AMI also experienced lower levels of symptom congruence. Implications pertaining to these findings are discussed.

  11. Influence of verbal instructions on effect-based action control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Andreas B; Dignath, David

    2017-03-01

    According to ideomotor theory, people use bidirectional associations between movements and their effects for action selection and initiation. Our experiments examined how verbal instructions of action effects influence response selection without prior experience of action effects in a separate acquisition phase. Instructions for different groups of participants specified whether they should ignore, attend, learn, or intentionally produce acoustic effects produced by button presses. Results showed that explicit instructions of action-effect relations trigger effect-congruent action tendencies in the first trials following the instruction; in contrast, no evidence for effect-based action control was observed in these trials when instructions were to ignore or to attend to the action effects. These findings show that action-effect knowledge acquired through verbal instruction and direct experience is similarly effective for effect-based action control as long as the relation between the movement and the effect is clearly spelled out in the instruction.

  12. Axioms for behavioural congruence of single-pass instruction sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2017-01-01

    In program algebra, an algebraic theory of single-pass instruction sequences, three congruences on instruction sequences are paid attention to: instruction sequence congruence, structural congruence, and behavioural congruence. Sound and complete axiom systems for the first two congruences were

  13. Body posture modulates action perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Marius; Toni, Ivan; de Lange, Floris P

    2013-04-03

    Recent studies have highlighted cognitive and neural similarities between planning and perceiving actions. Given that action planning involves a simulation of potential action plans that depends on the actor's body posture, we reasoned that perceiving actions may also be influenced by one's body posture. Here, we test whether and how this influence occurs by measuring behavioral and cerebral (fMRI) responses in human participants predicting goals of observed actions, while manipulating postural congruency between their own body posture and postures of the observed agents. Behaviorally, predicting action goals is facilitated when the body posture of the observer matches the posture achieved by the observed agent at the end of his action (action's goal posture). Cerebrally, this perceptual postural congruency effect modulates activity in a portion of the left intraparietal sulcus that has previously been shown to be involved in updating neural representations of one's own limb posture during action planning. This intraparietal area showed stronger responses when the goal posture of the observed action did not match the current body posture of the observer. These results add two novel elements to the notion that perceiving actions relies on the same predictive mechanism as planning actions. First, the predictions implemented by this mechanism are based on the current physical configuration of the body. Second, during both action planning and action observation, these predictions pertain to the goal state of the action.

  14. Singularities in geodesic surface congruence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yong Seung; Hong, Soon-Tae

    2008-01-01

    In the stringy cosmology, we investigate singularities in geodesic surface congruences for the timelike and null strings to yield the Raychaudhuri type equations possessing correction terms associated with the novel features owing to the strings. Assuming the stringy strong energy condition, we have a Hawking-Penrose type inequality equation. If the initial expansion is negative so that the congruence is converging, we show that the expansion must pass through the singularity within a proper time. We observe that the stringy strong energy conditions of both the timelike and null string congruences produce the same inequality equation.

  15. C-connected frame congruences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmanand Baboolal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the congruences $theta$ that are connected as  elements of the (totally disconnected congruence frame $CF L$,  and show that they are in a one-to-one correspondence with the completely prime elements of $L$, giving an explicit formula. Then we investigate those frames $L$ with enough connected congruences to cover the whole of $CF L$. They are, among others, shown to be $T_D$-spatial;  characteristics for some special cases (Boolean, linear, scattered and Noetherian are presented.

  16. Soft Congruence Relations over Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xiaolong; Li, Wenting

    2014-01-01

    Molodtsov introduced the concept of soft sets, which can be seen as a new mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty. In this paper, we initiate the study of soft congruence relations by using the soft set theory. The notions of soft quotient rings, generalized soft ideals and generalized soft quotient rings, are introduced, and several related properties are investigated. Also, we obtain a one-to-one correspondence between soft congruence relations and idealistic soft rings and a one-to-one correspondence between soft congruence relations and soft ideals. In particular, the first, second, and third soft isomorphism theorems are established, respectively. PMID:24949493

  17. Action adaptation during natural unfolding social scenes influences action recognition and inferences made about actor beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Bruce D; Wincenciak, Joanna; Jellema, Tjeerd; Ward, James W; Barraclough, Nick E

    2016-07-01

    When observing another individual's actions, we can both recognize their actions and infer their beliefs concerning the physical and social environment. The extent to which visual adaptation influences action recognition and conceptually later stages of processing involved in deriving the belief state of the actor remains unknown. To explore this we used virtual reality (life-size photorealistic actors presented in stereoscopic three dimensions) to see how visual adaptation influences the perception of individuals in naturally unfolding social scenes at increasingly higher levels of action understanding. We presented scenes in which one actor picked up boxes (of varying number and weight), after which a second actor picked up a single box. Adaptation to the first actor's behavior systematically changed perception of the second actor. Aftereffects increased with the duration of the first actor's behavior, declined exponentially over time, and were independent of view direction. Inferences about the second actor's expectation of box weight were also distorted by adaptation to the first actor. Distortions in action recognition and actor expectations did not, however, extend across different actions, indicating that adaptation is not acting at an action-independent abstract level but rather at an action-dependent level. We conclude that although adaptation influences more complex inferences about belief states of individuals, this is likely to be a result of adaptation at an earlier action recognition stage rather than adaptation operating at a higher, more abstract level in mentalizing or simulation systems.

  18. Are we on the same page? The performance effects of congruence between supervisor and group trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Min Z; Mossholder, Kevin W

    2015-09-01

    Taking a multiple-stakeholder perspective, we examined the effects of supervisor-work group trust congruence on groups' task and contextual performance using a polynomial regression and response surface analytical framework. We expected motivation experienced by work groups to mediate the positive influence of trust congruence on performance. Although hypothesized congruence effects on performance were more strongly supported for affective rather than for cognitive trust, we found significant indirect effects on performance (via work group motivation) for both types of trust. We discuss the performance effects of trust congruence and incongruence between supervisors and work groups, as well as implications for practice and future research. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Action Intentions: Action Influences Both On-Line Perception and Off-Line Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Kirtley

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Given that one role of vision is to gather information for upcoming tasks, previous studies have investigated whether the preparation for action affects visual behaviour. The current studies aimed to determine if such influences on visual selection would also influence the formation of subsequent memory representations. Two experiments were conducted- in the first, participants' action intentions towards a scene were manipulated by the performance of different grasping postures as they observed the scene. This was followed by a memory test for the objects presented. Participants' eye movements were affected by their action intention, so that performing a power grip led to significantly longer fixation durations on power grip compatible objects. In contrast, memory for the objects and their properties was not affected by the action. Our second study required participants to make the action posture during the recall phase. No effect on eye movements was found, but recall was affected, with a particular advantage for recall of the position of grip-compatible objects. Previous studies have shown that action intentions can affect the on-line perception of objects. The current study suggests this may not extend to off-line representations if they are accessed after the action has been completed or abandoned. However, the recall of information may be affected if gestures are formed during retrieval. Memory representations may not be tailored specifically to an action, but actions can still affect the recall of information.

  20. Factors associated with congruence between preferred and actual place of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Christina L; Somogyi-Zalud, Emese; Masaki, Kamal H

    2010-03-01

    Congruence between preferred and actual place of death may be an essential component in terminal care. Most patients prefer a home death, but many patients do not die in their preferred location. Specialized (physician, hospice, and palliative) home care visits may increase home deaths, but factors associated with congruence have not been systematically reviewed. This study sought to review the extent of congruence reported in the literature and examine factors that may influence congruence. In July 2009, a comprehensive literature search was performed using MEDLINE, PsychInfo, CINAHL, and Web of Science. Reference lists, related articles, and the past five years of six palliative care journals were also searched. Overall congruence rates (percentage of met preferences for all locations of death) were calculated for each study using reported data to allow cross-study comparison. Eighteen articles described 30%-91% congruence. Eight specialized home care studies reported 59%-91% congruence. A physician-led home care program reported 91% congruence. Of the 10 studies without specialized home care for all patients, seven reported 56%-71% congruence and most reported unique care programs. Of the remaining three studies without specialized home care for all patients, two reported 43%-46% congruence among hospital inpatients, and one elicited patient preference "if everything were possible," with 30% congruence. Physician support, hospice enrollment, and family support improved congruence in multiple studies. Research in this important area must consider potential sources of bias, the method of eliciting patient preference, and the absence of a single ideal place of death. (c) 2010 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. On the influence of reward on action-effect binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Simon Muhle-Karbe

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ideomotor theory states that the formation of anticipatory representations about the perceptual consequences of an action (i.e. action-effect (A-E binding provides the functional basis of voluntary action control. A host of studies has demonstrated that A-E binding occurs fast and effortlessly, yet only little is known about cognitive and affective factors that influence this learning process. In the present study, we sought to test whether the motivational value of an action modulates the acquisition of A-E associations. To this end, we associated specific actions with monetary incentives during the acquisition of novel A-E mappings. In a subsequent test phase, the degree of binding was assessed by presenting the former effect stimuli as task-irrelevant response primes in a forced-choice response task in the absence of any reward. Binding, as indexed by response priming through the former action effects, was only found for reward-related A-E mappings. Moreover, the degree to which reward associations modulated the binding strength was predicted by individuals’ trait sensitivity to reward. These observations indicate that the association of actions and their immediate outcomes depends on the motivational value of the action during learning, as well as on the motivational disposition of the individual. On a larger scale, these findings also highlight the link between ideomotor theories and reinforcement-learning theories, providing an interesting perspective for future research on anticipatory regulation of behavior.

  2. Congruence Couple Therapy for Pathological Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bonnie K.

    2009-01-01

    Couple therapy models for pathological gambling are limited. Congruence Couple Therapy is an integrative, humanistic, systems model that addresses intrapsychic, interpersonal, intergenerational, and universal-spiritual disconnections of pathological gamblers and their spouses to shift towards congruence. Specifically, CCT's theoretical…

  3. Space for action: How practitioners influence environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kågström, Mari, E-mail: mari.kagstrom@slu.se [Department of Urban and Rural Development, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden); Richardson, Tim, E-mail: tim.richardson@nmbu.no [Department of Landscape Architecture and Spatial Planning, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Frederik A Dahls vei 15, KA-bygningen, Ås (Norway)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • The concept of ‘space for action’ offers an important new lens on EA practice. • Focuses on the relation between practitioner's understanding and their actions • Environmental assessment practice is decisively shaped by practitioners. • Practitioners may underestimate their potential to make a difference. • Contributes to understanding change in the environmental assessment field. This article contributes to understanding of how change occurs in the field of environmental assessment (EA). It argues that the integration of new issues in EA, such as human health, is significantly influenced by how practitioners' understandings shape their actions, and by what happens when those, possibly different, interpretations of appropriate action are acted out. The concept of space for action is developed as a means of investigating this relation between understanding and action. Frame theory is also used, to develop a sharper focus on how ‘potential spaces for action’ are created, what these imply for (individuals') preferred choices and actions in certain situations, and what happens in practice when these are acted out and ‘actual spaces for action’ are created. This novel approach is then applied in a Swedish case study of transport planning. The analysis reveals the important work done by practitioners, revealing just how EA practice is decisively shaped by practitioners. Analysis of practice using the lens of spaces for action offers an important new perspective in understanding how the field adapts to new challenges.

  4. Space for action: How practitioners influence environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kågström, Mari; Richardson, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The concept of ‘space for action’ offers an important new lens on EA practice. • Focuses on the relation between practitioner's understanding and their actions • Environmental assessment practice is decisively shaped by practitioners. • Practitioners may underestimate their potential to make a difference. • Contributes to understanding change in the environmental assessment field. This article contributes to understanding of how change occurs in the field of environmental assessment (EA). It argues that the integration of new issues in EA, such as human health, is significantly influenced by how practitioners' understandings shape their actions, and by what happens when those, possibly different, interpretations of appropriate action are acted out. The concept of space for action is developed as a means of investigating this relation between understanding and action. Frame theory is also used, to develop a sharper focus on how ‘potential spaces for action’ are created, what these imply for (individuals') preferred choices and actions in certain situations, and what happens in practice when these are acted out and ‘actual spaces for action’ are created. This novel approach is then applied in a Swedish case study of transport planning. The analysis reveals the important work done by practitioners, revealing just how EA practice is decisively shaped by practitioners. Analysis of practice using the lens of spaces for action offers an important new perspective in understanding how the field adapts to new challenges

  5. Influence of external action and structural factors on radiation blistering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalin, B.A.; Chernov, I.I.; Fomina, E.P.; Korshunov, S.H.; Polsky, V.I.; Skorov, D.M.; Yakushin, V.L.

    1985-01-01

    A survey of experimental results is presented, pertaining to radiation blistering of a considerable number of materials (stainless steels, alloys with high nickel content, alloys of refractory metals) under helium ion irradiation with energies of 20-100 keV under conditions corresponding to the plasma-wall interaction: bombardment at various angles of incidence and cyclic irradiation in a wide spectrum of ion incidence angles; influence of external action, including thermocyclic; influence of preceding neutron and proton irradiation. It has been shown that external factors have a complex influence on blister parameters and erosion coefficients of materials. A study has been carried out on the influence of aluminium coatings, alloying additions, phase state of material and microstructure on the nature and degree of surface erosion. Complex influence of element and phase composition, as well as microstructural changes during heat treatment and welding on radiation erosion have been established. (orig.)

  6. Person-Environment Congruence: A Response to the Moos Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, W. Bruce

    1987-01-01

    Describes Moos' conceptual framework which delineates how perceptions of collective human environments (social climates) influence behavior, with congruence achieved when individuals adapt their preferences in selecting environments, as underemphasizing the role of individual variables and the actual environment. Advocates continual analysis of…

  7. THE ACTION MODEL FOR MEASURING INFLUENCE IN ADVERTISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Kovacic

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the abundance of different theories there is little agreement on the suitable model that would explain how influence in advertising works. Historically, theoretical models have moved from including solely rational components towards including emotional components and from focusing on sequential processing towards hierarchy free processing models. Based on the existing literature, several most representative models are presented, described and evaluated. In a quest to explain a broader view on advertising influence we introduced the ACTION model (an acronym for Aim, Connection, Techniques, Identity, Opportunity and Numerous. Advantages, suggestions for future research and a critical discussion of using this model are further discussed.

  8. The perception of geometrical structure from congruence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappin, Joseph S.; Wason, Thomas D.

    1989-01-01

    The principle function of vision is to measure the environment. As demonstrated by the coordination of motor actions with the positions and trajectories of moving objects in cluttered environments and by rapid recognition of solid objects in varying contexts from changing perspectives, vision provides real-time information about the geometrical structure and location of environmental objects and events. The geometric information provided by 2-D spatial displays is examined. It is proposed that the geometry of this information is best understood not within the traditional framework of perspective trigonometry, but in terms of the structure of qualitative relations defined by congruences among intrinsic geometric relations in images of surfaces. The basic concepts of this geometrical theory are outlined.

  9. Geodesic congruences in warped spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Suman; Dasgupta, Anirvan; Kar, Sayan

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we explore the kinematics of timelike geodesic congruences in warped five-dimensional bulk spacetimes, with and without thick or thin branes. Beginning with geodesic flows in the Randall-Sundrum anti-de Sitter geometry without and with branes, we find analytical expressions for the expansion scalar and comment on the effects of including thin branes on its evolution. Later, we move on to congruences in more general warped bulk geometries with a cosmological thick brane and a time-dependent extra dimensional scale. Using analytical expressions for the velocity field, we interpret the expansion, shear and rotation (ESR) along the flows, as functions of the extra dimensional coordinate. The evolution of a cross-sectional area orthogonal to the congruence, as seen from a local observer's point of view, is also shown graphically. Finally, the Raychaudhuri and geodesic equations in backgrounds with a thick brane are solved numerically in order to figure out the role of initial conditions (prescribed on the ESR) and spacetime curvature on the evolution of the ESR.

  10. Dysport: pharmacological properties and factors that influence toxin action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Andy

    2009-10-01

    The pharmacological properties of Dysport that influence toxin action are reviewed and compared with other botulinum toxin products. In particular, the subject of diffusion is examined and discussed based upon the evidence that currently exists, both from laboratory studies and from clinical data. Diffusion of botulinum toxin products is not related to the size of the toxin complex in the product since the complex dissociates under physiological conditions, releasing the naked neurotoxin to act. The active neurotoxin in Type A products is the same and therefore diffusion is equal when equal doses are administered.

  11. Response actions influence the categorization of directions in auditory space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella de Castro Campos Velten

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Spatial region concepts such as front, back, left and right reflect our typical interaction with space, and the corresponding surrounding regions have different statuses in memory. We examined the representation of spatial directions in the auditory space, specifically in how far natural response actions, such as orientation movements towards a sound source, would affect the categorization of egocentric auditory space. While standing in the middle of a circle with 16 loudspeakers, participants were presented acoustic stimuli coming from the loudspeakers in randomized order, and verbally described their directions by using the concept labels front, back, left, right, front-right, front-left, back-right and back-left. Response actions varied in three blocked conditions: 1 facing front, 2 turning the head and upper body to face the stimulus, and 3 turning the head and upper body plus pointing with the hand and outstretched arm towards the stimulus. In addition to a protocol of the verbal utterances, motion capture and video recording generated a detailed corpus for subsequent analysis of the participants’ behavior. Chi-square tests revealed an effect of response condition for directions within the left and right sides. We conclude that movement-based response actions influence the representation of auditory space, especially within the sides’ regions.

  12. Global meta-analysis reveals low consistency of biodiversity congruence relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgate, Martin J; Barton, Philip S; Lane, Peter W; Lindenmayer, David B

    2014-05-21

    Knowledge of the number and distribution of species is fundamental to biodiversity conservation efforts, but this information is lacking for the majority of species on earth. Consequently, subsets of taxa are often used as proxies for biodiversity; but this assumes that different taxa display congruent distribution patterns. Here we use a global meta-analysis to show that studies of cross-taxon congruence rarely give consistent results. Instead, species richness congruence is highest at extreme spatial scales and close to the equator, while congruence in species composition is highest at large extents and grain sizes. Studies display highest variance in cross-taxon congruence when conducted in areas with dissimilar areal extents (for species richness) or latitudes (for species composition). These results undermine the assumption that a subset of taxa can be representative of biodiversity. Therefore, researchers whose goal is to prioritize locations or actions for conservation should use data from a range of taxa.

  13. Bisimulation as congruence in the behavioral setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Julius, A.A.; Schaft, A.J. van der

    2005-01-01

    We cast the notion of bisimulation in the Willems’ behavioral setting. We show that in this setting, bisimulation is also a congruence, as it is known in the field of concurrent processes. Bisimulation is a congruence means if A and A' are bisimilar systems, then A || B and A' || B are also

  14. Multiplex congruence network of natural numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Wen-Xu; Chen, Guan-Rong; Shi, Ding-Hua

    2016-03-31

    Congruence theory has many applications in physical, social, biological and technological systems. Congruence arithmetic has been a fundamental tool for data security and computer algebra. However, much less attention was devoted to the topological features of congruence relations among natural numbers. Here, we explore the congruence relations in the setting of a multiplex network and unveil some unique and outstanding properties of the multiplex congruence network. Analytical results show that every layer therein is a sparse and heterogeneous subnetwork with a scale-free topology. Counterintuitively, every layer has an extremely strong controllability in spite of its scale-free structure that is usually difficult to control. Another amazing feature is that the controllability is robust against targeted attacks to critical nodes but vulnerable to random failures, which also differs from ordinary scale-free networks. The multi-chain structure with a small number of chain roots arising from each layer accounts for the strong controllability and the abnormal feature. The multiplex congruence network offers a graphical solution to the simultaneous congruences problem, which may have implication in cryptography based on simultaneous congruences. Our work also gains insight into the design of networks integrating advantages of both heterogeneous and homogeneous networks without inheriting their limitations.

  15. Divide and congruence III : stability & divergence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkink, W.; van Glabbeek, R.; Luttik, B.

    2017-01-01

    In two earlier papers we derived congruence formats for weak semantics on the basis of a decomposition method for modal formulas. The idea is that a congruence format for a semantics must ensure that the formulas in the modal characterisation of this semantics are always decomposed into formulas

  16. Anomaly coefficients: Their calculation and congruences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braden, H.W.

    1988-01-01

    A new method for the calculation of anomaly coefficients is presented. For su(n) some explicit and general expressions are given for these. In particular, certain congruences are discovered and investigated among the leading anomaly coefficients. As an application of these congruences, the absence of global six-dimensional gauge anomalies is shown

  17. Abstract spatial concept priming dynamically influences real-world actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M Tower-Richardi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Experienced regularities in our perceptions and actions play important roles in grounding abstract concepts such as social status, time, and emotion. Might we similarly ground abstract spatial concepts in more experienced-based domains? The present experiment explores this possibility by implicitly priming abstract spatial terms (north, south, east, west and then measuring participants’ hand movement trajectories while they respond to a body-referenced spatial target (up, down, left, right in a verbal (Exp. 1 or spatial (Exp. 2 format. Results from two experiments demonstrate temporally-dynamic and prime-biased movement trajectories when the primes are incongruent with the targets (e.g., north – left, west – up. That is, priming abstract coordinate directions influences subsequent actions in response to concrete target directions. These findings provide the first evidence that abstract concepts of world-centered coordinate axes are implicitly understood in the context of concrete body-referenced axes; critically, this abstract-concrete relationship manifests in motor movements, and may have implications for spatial memory organization.

  18. Congruence Approximations for Entrophy Endowed Hyperbolic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Timothy J.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Building upon the standard symmetrization theory for hyperbolic systems of conservation laws, congruence properties of the symmetrized system are explored. These congruence properties suggest variants of several stabilized numerical discretization procedures for hyperbolic equations (upwind finite-volume, Galerkin least-squares, discontinuous Galerkin) that benefit computationally from congruence approximation. Specifically, it becomes straightforward to construct the spatial discretization and Jacobian linearization for these schemes (given a small amount of derivative information) for possible use in Newton's method, discrete optimization, homotopy algorithms, etc. Some examples will be given for the compressible Euler equations and the nonrelativistic MHD equations using linear and quadratic spatial approximation.

  19. Congruence between gender stereotypes and activity preference in self-identified tomboys and non-tomboys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Carol Lynn; Dinella, Lisa M

    2012-06-01

    The major goal was to examine a central tenet of cognitive approaches to gender development, namely, that congruence exists between personal gender stereotypes and behaviors. Item-by-item comparisons of girls' stereotypes about activities and their preferences for activities were conducted, for both girls who claimed to be tomboys and those who did not. Congruence was expected for all girls, but because of their gender non-normative interests, tomboys may exhibit less congruence. A secondary goal was to examine factors that might influence congruence, specifically, whether tomboys develop more inclusive stereotypes and develop greater understanding of stereotype variability. Participants included 112 girls (7-12 years old, M age=9). Girls were interviewed about their activity preferences, beliefs about girls' and boys' activity preferences, understanding variability of stereotypes, and identification as tomboys. Tomboys (30% of the sample) and non-tomboys did not differ in their liking of or in the number of liked feminine activities. However, tomboys showed more interest in masculine activities than non-tomboys. Tomboys and non-tomboys did not differ in stereotype inclusiveness, although tomboys showed a trend toward more inclusive stereotypes. Both groups showed high levels of congruence between stereotypes and preferences. Congruence was stronger for nontomboys (14 times more likely to exhibit responses congruent with stereotypes vs. incongruent ones), as compared to tomboys who were four times more likely to exhibit responses congruent with stereotypes versus incongruent ones. Implications of these findings for cognitive approaches to gender development are discussed.

  20. Congruence from the Operator's Point of View: Compositionality Requirements on Process Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Gazda

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic sanity properties of a behavioural semantics is that it constitutes a congruence with respect to standard process operators. This issue has been traditionally addressed by the development of rule formats for transition system specifications that define process algebras. In this paper we suggest a novel, orthogonal approach. Namely, we focus on a number of process operators, and for each of them attempt to find the widest possible class of congruences. To this end, we impose restrictions on sublanguages of Hennessy-Milner logic, so that a semantics whose modal characterization satisfies a given criterion is guaranteed to be a congruence with respect to the operator in question. We investigate action prefix, alternative composition, two restriction operators, and parallel composition.

  1. Factors Influencing the Desire To Take Environmental Action in Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruneau, Diane; Chouinard, Omer; Musafiri, Jean-Pierre; IsaBelle, Claire

    In a coastal community, four social groups were chosen to participate in various educational programs designed to promote their desire to take environmental action. At the end of these educational programs, conducted by a scientist and an environmental educator, the participants were invited to get involved in the resolution of an environmental…

  2. Action experience, more than observation, influences mu rhythm desynchronization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin N Cannon

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of mirror neurons in premotor and parietal areas of the macaque monkey, the idea that action and perception may share the same neural code has been of central interest in social, developmental, and cognitive neurosciences. A fundamental question concerns how a putative human mirror neuron system may be tuned to the motor experiences of the individual. The current study tested the hypothesis that prior motor experience modulated the sensorimotor mu and beta rhythms. Specifically, we hypothesized that these sensorimotor rhythms would be more desynchronized after active motor experience compared to passive observation experience. To test our hypothesis, we collected EEG from adult participants during the observation of a relatively novel action: an experimenter used a claw-like tool to pick up a toy. Prior to EEG collection, we trained one group of adults to perform this action with the tool (performers. A second group comprised trained video coders, who only had experience observing the action (observers. Both the performers and the observers had no prior motor and visual experience with the action. A third group of novices was also tested. Performers exhibited the greatest mu rhythm desynchronization in the 8-13 Hz band, particularly in the right hemisphere compared to observers and novices. This study is the first to contrast active tool-use experience and observation experience in the mu rhythm and to show modulation with relatively shorter amounts of experience than prior mirror neuron expertise studies. These findings are discussed with respect to its broader implication as a neural signature for a mechanism of early social learning.

  3. Discrete Line Congruences for Shading and Lighting

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jun

    2013-07-01

    Two-parameter families of straight lines (line congruences) are implicitly present in graphics and geometry processing in several important ways including lighting and shape analysis. In this paper we make them accessible to optimization and geometric computing, by introducing a general discrete version of congruences based on piecewise-linear correspondences between triangle meshes. Our applications of congruences are based on the extraction of a so-called torsion-free support structure, which is a procedure analogous to remeshing a surface along its principal curvature lines. A particular application of such structures are freeform shading and lighting systems for architecture. We combine interactive design of such systems with global optimization in order to satisfy geometric constraints. In this way we explore a new area where architecture can greatly benefit from graphics.

  4. Building Intuitive Arguments for the Triangle Congruence Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatek-Jimenez, Katrina

    2008-01-01

    The triangle congruence conditions are a central focus to nearly any course in Euclidean geometry. The author presents a hands-on activity that uses straws and pipe cleaners to explore and justify the triangle congruence conditions. (Contains 4 figures.)

  5. Data congruence, paedomorphosis and salamanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Struck Torsten H

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The retention of ancestral juvenile characters by adult stages of descendants is called paedomorphosis. However, this process can mislead phylogenetic analyses based on morphological data, even in combination with molecular data, because the assessment if a character is primary absent or secondary lost is difficult. Thus, the detection of incongruence between morphological and molecular data is necessary to investigate the reliability of simultaneous analyses. Different methods have been proposed to detect data congruence or incongruence. Five of them (PABA, PBS, NDI, LILD, DRI are used herein to assess incongruence between morphological and molecular data in a case study addressing salamander phylogeny, which comprises several supposedly paedomorphic taxa. Therefore, previously published data sets were compiled herein. Furthermore, two strategies ameliorating effects of paedomorphosis on phylogenetic studies were tested herein using a statistical rigor. Additionally, efficiency of the different methods to assess incongruence was analyzed using this empirical data set. Finally, a test statistic is presented for all these methods except DRI. Results The addition of morphological data to molecular data results in both different positions of three of the four paedomorphic taxa and strong incongruence, but treating the morphological data using different strategies ameliorating the negative impact of paedomorphosis revokes these changes and minimizes the conflict. Of these strategies the strategy to just exclude paedomorphic character traits seem to be most beneficial. Of the three molecular partitions analyzed herein the RAG1 partition seems to be the most suitable to resolve deep salamander phylogeny. The rRNA and mtDNA partition are either too conserved or too variable, respectively. Of the different methods to detect incongruence, the NDI and PABA approaches are more conservative in the indication of incongruence than LILD and

  6. Open maps, behavioural equivalences, and congruences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Allan; Nielsen, Mogens

    1996-01-01

    -known strong bisimulation in this categorical setting. An issue left open was the congruence properties of P-bisimilarity. We address the following fundamental question: given a category of models of computation M and a category of observations P, are there any conditions under which algebraic constructs...... viewed as functors preserve P-bisimilarity? We define the notion of functors being P -factorisable, show how this ensures that P-bisimilarity is a congruence with respect to such functors. Guided by the definition of P-factorisability we show how it is possible to parametrise proofs of functors being P...

  7. Characterizing behavioural congruences for Petri nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Priese, Lutz; Sassone, Vladimiro

    1995-01-01

    We exploit a notion of interface for Petri nets in order to design a set of net combinators. For such a calculus of nets, we focus on the behavioural congruences arising from four simple notions of behaviour, viz., traces, maximal traces, step, and maximal step traces, and from the corresponding...... four notions of bisimulation, viz., weak and weak step bisimulation and their maximal versions. We characterize such congruences via universal contexts and via games, providing in such a way an understanding of their discerning powers....

  8. Action-Centered Team Leadership Influences More than Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braun, Frank C.; Avital, Michel; Martz, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – Building on a social-technical approach to project management, the authors aim to examine the effect of action-centered leadership attributes on team member's learning, knowledge collaboration and job satisfaction during IT-related projects. Design/methodology/approach – Structural...... collaboration along with individual performance and job satisfaction, and ultimately project success. Research limitations/implications – The action-centered leadership practices construct, developed in this study, can be a good surrogate measure of what is required to be an effective leader in an IT project...... equation modeling was utilized to assess the work environment of team members as well as the leadership practices of their respective project team leaders. Data were collected with a survey questionnaire from 327 team members in a variety of organizations in 15 industry sectors including financial services...

  9. Non-obvious influences on perception-action abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turvey, Michael T; Sheya, Adam

    2017-10-01

    The sciences of development and learning have been slow to acknowledge that absence of an identifiable experience that relates straightforwardly to a given perception-action ability need not mean that experience per se is irrelevant to the emergence of that ability. A recent study reveals that a difference in diet (plain vs. energy rich) leads to a difference in how rats navigate (use of geometry vs. use of features, respectively). It is a good example of how a seemingly unrelated experience (e.g., what the rats eat) can be a non-obvious yet crucial determiner of perception-action modes. We situate this finding in the broader context of the related conceptions of Schneirla's and Lehrman's Developmental Systems Theory, Gottlieb's Probabilistic Epigenesis, and Bolles's Structure of Learning (see article for references). In doing so we highlight that such phenomena may be the norm, both in development and learning, rather than the exception.

  10. Pain Anxiety and Its Association With Pain Congruence Trajectories During the Cold Pressor Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Shannon M; Cano, Annmarie; Goubert, Liesbet; Vlaeyen, Johan W S; Wurm, Lee H; Corley, Angelia M

    2017-04-01

    Incongruence of pain severity ratings among people experiencing pain and their observers has been linked to psychological distress. Previous studies have measured pain rating congruence through static self-report, involving a single rating of pain; however, this method does not capture changes in ratings over time. The present study examined the extent to which partners were congruent on multiple ratings of a participants' pain severity during the cold pressor task. Furthermore, 2 components of pain anxiety-pain catastrophizing and perceived threat-were examined as predictors of pain congruence. Undergraduate couples in a romantic relationship (N = 127 dyads) participated in this study. Both partners completed measures of pain catastrophizing and perceived threat before randomization to their cold pressor participant or observer roles. Participants and observers rated the participant's pain in writing several times over the course of the task. On average, observers rated participants' pain as less severe than participants' rated their own pain. In addition, congruence between partners increased over time because of observers' ratings becoming more similar to participant's ratings. Finally, pain catastrophizing and perceived threat independently and jointly influenced the degree to which partners similarly rated the participant's pain. This article presents a novel application of the cold pressor task to show that pain rating congruence among romantic partners changes over time. These findings indicate that pain congruence is not static and is subject to pain anxiety in both partners. Copyright © 2016 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence des actions anthropiques sur la dynamique spatio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sci-Nat

    Située à proximité de Kinshasa, la province du Bas-Congo (R.D. Congo) est l'une des principales pourvoyeuses en produits vivriers de cette ville. Par conséquent, l'augmentation de la pression sur les ressources naturelles s'accentue. L'analyse diachronique du paysage peut servir à montrer l'effet des actions ...

  12. Congruence and placement in sponsorship: An eye-tracking application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Manuel Alonso Dos; Moreno, Ferran Calabuig; Franco, Manuel Sánchez

    2018-05-30

    Sporting events can be announced using sports posters and by disseminating advertisements on the internet, on the street and in print media. But until now, no prior research has measured the effectiveness of sponsorship in sporting event posters. This study uses eye tracking to measure the effectiveness of sporting event posters and proposes considering the level of the viewer's attention as an indicator. This research involves a factorial experiment based on the following variables: congruence, the number of sponsors, and placement of the sponsor's advertisement in a sporting event poster. The results indicate that sponsors positioned in the poster's area of action receive more attention. However, we were unable to prove that congruent sponsors receive more attention, as claimed in the literature. This result could be due to a situation of blindness towards the sponsor. The conclusion section of this paper discusses theoretical conclusions and potential managerial actions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Bianchi congruences of two-dimensional surfaces in E4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gor'kavyi, V A

    2005-01-01

    Pseudospherical Bianchi congruences in Euclidean 4-space E 4 are considered. The focal surfaces of such congruences are shown to have a constant negative Gaussian curvature. A geometric and an analytic description of special pseudo- spherical surfaces in E 4 admitting a Bianchi congruence are obtained.

  14. An Investigation of the Sampling Distribution of the Congruence Coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbooks, Wendy J.; Elmore, Patricia B.

    This study developed and investigated an empirical sampling distribution of the congruence coefficient. The effects of sample size, number of variables, and population value of the congruence coefficient on the sampling distribution of the congruence coefficient were examined. Sample data were generated on the basis of the common factor model and…

  15. A cultural congruence test for primary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayanova L. F.

    2016-12-01

    relationship between a child at the given age and the environment, is determined by the child’s interaction with an adult. The factor of obedience is the key parameter for children of the age under consideration. New at this age are arbitrariness, self-regulation, self-analysis, and an internal action plan. Self-control is also conceptually linked to these factors. The study offers a new look at the cultural determination of psychological development in ontogenesis. Validated in the course of the investigations, the test can be used to diagnose cultural congruence — that is, the compliance of a primary school student with rules inherent in normative situations.

  16. The Interplay of Networking Activities and Internal Knowledge Actions for Subsidiary Influence within MNCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavani, Zhaleh Najafi; Giroud, Axèle; Andersson, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    Building on resource dependency theory; this research investigates the joint impacts of subsidiary knowledge based actions (Reverse Knowledge Transfer (RKT) and knowledge development) and networking activities (internal and external embeddedness) on its strategic influence in the multinational co...

  17. Influence of external actions on the Bragg-Laue diffraction of X-Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Gasparyan, L G; Grigoryan, A G

    2000-01-01

    The Bragg-Laue diffraction in finite size crystals under the influence of external actions (ultrasound, temperature gradient) is investigated experimentally. It is established that external actions ''charge for the worse'' the crystal quality, which leads to the broadening of the rocking curves and to the sharp decrease of intensity in the center of the reflection angular range.

  18. The influence of visual motion on interceptive actions and perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinovic, Welber; Plooy, Annaliese M; Arnold, Derek H

    2012-05-01

    Visual information is an essential guide when interacting with moving objects, yet it can also be deceiving. For instance, motion can induce illusory position shifts, such that a moving ball can seem to have bounced past its true point of contact with the ground. Some evidence suggests illusory motion-induced position shifts bias pointing tasks to a greater extent than they do perceptual judgments. This, however, appears at odds with other findings and with our success when intercepting moving objects. Here we examined the accuracy of interceptive movements and of perceptual judgments in relation to simulated bounces. Participants were asked to intercept a moving disc at its bounce location by positioning a virtual paddle, and then to report where the disc had landed. Results showed that interceptive actions were accurate whereas perceptual judgments were inaccurate, biased in the direction of motion. Successful interceptions necessitated accurate information concerning both the location and timing of the bounce, so motor planning evidently had privileged access to an accurate forward model of bounce timing and location. This would explain why people can be accurate when intercepting a moving object, but lack insight into the accurate information that had guided their actions when asked to make a perceptual judgment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Branching bisimulation congruence for probabilistic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andova, S.; Georgievska, S.; Trcka, N.

    2012-01-01

    A notion of branching bisimilarity for the alternating model of probabilistic systems, compatible with parallel composition, is defined. For a congruence result, an internal transition immediately followed by a non-trivial probability distribution is not considered inert. A weaker definition of

  20. Therapeutic bond judgments: Congruence and incongruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzil-Slonim, Dana; Bar-Kalifa, Eran; Rafaeli, Eshkol; Lutz, Wolfgang; Rubel, Julian; Schiefele, Ann-Kathrin; Peri, Tuvia

    2015-08-01

    The present study had 2 aims: (a) to implement West and Kenny's (2011) Truth-and-Bias model to simultaneously assess the temporal congruence and directional discrepancy between clients' and therapists' ratings of the bond facet of the therapeutic alliance, as they cofluctuate from session to session; and (b) to examine whether symptom severity and a personality disorder (PD) diagnosis moderate congruence and/or discrepancy. Participants included 213 clients treated by 49 therapists. At pretreatment, clients were assessed for a PD diagnosis and completed symptom measures. Symptom severity was also assessed at the beginning of each session, using client self-reports. Both clients and therapists rated the therapeutic bond at the end of each session. Therapists and clients exhibited substantial temporal congruence in their session-by-session bond ratings, but therapists' ratings tended to be lower than their clients' across sessions. Additionally, therapeutic dyads whose session-by-session ratings were more congruent also tended to have a larger directional discrepancy (clients' ratings being higher). Pretreatment symptom severity and PD diagnosis did not moderate either temporal congruence or discrepancy at the dyad level; however, during sessions when clients were more symptomatic, therapist and client ratings were both farther apart and tracked each other less closely. Our findings are consistent with a "better safe than sorry" pattern, which suggests that therapists are motivated to take a vigilant approach that may lead both to underestimation and to attunement to fluctuations in the therapeutic bond. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Branching bisimulation congruence for probabilistic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trcka, N.; Georgievska, S.; Aldini, A.; Baier, C.

    2008-01-01

    The notion of branching bisimulation for the alternating model of probabilistic systems is not a congruence with respect to parallel composition. In this paper we first define another branching bisimulation in the more general model allowing consecutive probabilistic transitions, and we prove that

  2. Deriving Process Congruences from Reaction Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobocinski, Pawel

    This thesis is concerned with the development of a theory which, given a formalism with a reduction semantics, allows the derivation of a canonical labelled transition system on which bisimilarity as well as other other equiv� alences are congruences; provided that the contexts of the formalism f...

  3. Lifts of projective congruence groups, II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiming, Ian

    2014-01-01

    We continue and complete our previous paper ``Lifts of projective congruence groups'' concerning the question of whether there exist noncongruence subgroups of  that are projectively equivalent to one of the groups  or . A complete answer to this question is obtained: In case of  such noncongruence...

  4. The Motive--Strategy Congruence Model Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, David; Hattie, John

    1992-01-01

    Research with 1,266 Australian secondary school students supports 2 propositions critical to the motive-strategy congruence model of J. B. Biggs (1985). Students tend to use learning strategies congruent with motivation for learning, and congruent motive-strategy combinations are associated with higher average school grades. (SLD)

  5. Spacelike conformal Killing vectors and spacelike congruences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, D.P.; Tsamparlis, M.

    1985-01-01

    Necessary and sufficient conditions are derived for space-time to admit a spacelike conformal motion with symmetry vector parallel to a unit spacelike vector field n/sup a/. These conditions are expressed in terms of the shear and expansion of the spacelike congruence generated by n/sup a/ and in terms of the four-velocity of the observer employed at any given point of the congruence. It is shown that either the expansion or the rotation of this spacelike congruence must vanish if Dn/sup a//dp = 0, where p denotes arc length measured along the integral curves of n/sup a/, and also that there exist no proper spacelike homothetic motions with constant expansion. Propagation equations for the projection tensor and the rotation tensor are derived and it is proved that every isometric spacelike congruence is rigid. Fluid space-times are studied in detail. A relation is established between spacelike conformal motions and material curves in the fluid: if a fluid space-time admits a spacelike conformal Killing vector parallel to n/sup a/ and n/sub a/u/sup a/ = 0, where u/sup a/ is the fluid four-velocity, then the integral curves of n/sup a/ are material curves in an irrotational fluid, while if the fluid vorticity is nonzero, then the integral curves of n/sup a/ are material curves if and only if they are vortex lines. An alternative derivation, based on the theory of spacelike congruences, of some of the results of Collins [J. Math. Phys. 25, 995 (1984)] on conformal Killing vectors parallel to the local vorticity vector in shear-free perfect fluids with zero magnetic Weyl tensor is given

  6. The role of semantic self-perceptions in temporal distance perceptions toward autobiographical events: the semantic congruence model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Jochen E; Haddock, Geoffrey; Broemer, Philip; von Hecker, Ulrich

    2013-11-01

    Why do some autobiographical events feel as if they happened yesterday, whereas others feel like ancient history? Such temporal distance perceptions have surprisingly little to do with actual calendar time distance. Instead, psychologists have found that people typically perceive positive autobiographical events as overly recent, while perceiving negative events as overly distant. The origins of this temporal distance bias have been sought in self-enhancement strivings and mood congruence between autobiographical events and chronic mood. As such, past research exclusively focused on the evaluative features of autobiographical events, while neglecting semantic features. To close this gap, we introduce a semantic congruence model. Capitalizing on the Big Two self-perception dimensions, Study 1 showed that high semantic congruence between recalled autobiographical events and trait self-perceptions render the recalled events subjectively recent. Specifically, interpersonally warm (competent) individuals perceived autobiographical events reflecting warmth (competence) as relatively recent, but warm (competent) individuals did not perceive events reflecting competence (warmth) as relatively recent. Study 2 found that conscious perceptions of congruence mediate these effects. Studies 3 and 4 showed that neither mood congruence nor self-enhancement account for these results. Study 5 extended the results from the Big Two to the Big Five self-perception dimensions, while affirming the independence of the semantic congruence model from evaluative influences. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. High congruence of isotope sewage signals in multiple marine taxa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, Rod M.; Gorman, Daniel; Hindell, Jeremy S.; Kildea, Timothy N.; Schlacher, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Sewage inputs are routinely mapped with stable isotopes ( 15 N) in organisms. • We tested whether choice of species influences spatial 15 N distributions. • Spatial gradients were consistent between algae, seagrasses, crabs, and fish. • A match of sewage-N signals in multiple marine taxa has not been reported before. • Spatially-coupled transfers in the food web produce the congruence of N imprints. -- Abstract: Assessments of sewage pollution routinely employ stable nitrogen isotope analysis (δ 15 N) in biota, but multiple taxa are rarely used. This single species focus leads to underreporting of whether derived spatial N patterns are consistent. Here we test the question of ‘reproducibility’, incorporating ‘taxonomic replication’ in the measurement of δ 15 N gradients in algae, seagrasses, crabs and fish with distance from a sewage outfall on the Adelaide coast (southern Australia). Isotopic sewage signals were equally strong in all taxa and declined at the same rate. This congruence amongst taxa has not been reported previously. It implies that sewage-N propagates to fish via a tight spatial coupling between production and consumption processes, resulting from limited animal movement that closely preserves the spatial pollution imprint. In situations such as this where consumers mirror pollution signals of primary producers, analyses of higher trophic levels will capture a broader ambit of ecological effects

  8. The heterogeneous world of congruency sequence effects: An update.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wout eDuthoo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Congruency sequence effects (CSEs refer to the observation that congruency effects in conflict tasks are typically smaller following incongruent compared to following congruent trials. This measure has long been thought to provide a unique window into top-down attentional adjustments and their underlying brain mechanisms. According to the renowned conflict monitoring theory, CSEs reflect enhanced selective attention following conflict detection. Still, alternative accounts suggested that bottom-up associative learning suffices to explain the pattern of reaction times and error rates. A couple of years ago, a review by Egner (2007 pitted these two rivalry accounts against each other, concluding that both conflict adaptation and feature integration contribute to the CSE. Since then, a wealth of studies has further debated this issue, and two additional accounts have been proposed, offering intriguing alternative explanations. Contingency learning accounts put forward that predictive relationships between stimuli and responses drive the CSE, whereas the repetition expectancy hypothesis suggests that top-down, expectancy-driven control adjustments affect the CSE. In the present paper, we build further on the previous review (Egner, 2007 by summarizing and integrating recent behavioural and neurophysiological studies on the CSE. In doing so, we evaluate the relative contribution and theoretical value of the different attentional and memory-based accounts. Moreover, we review how all of these influences can be experimentally isolated, and discuss designs and procedures that can critically judge between them.

  9. The heterogeneous world of congruency sequence effects: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthoo, Wout; Abrahamse, Elger L; Braem, Senne; Boehler, Carsten N; Notebaert, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Congruency sequence effects (CSEs) refer to the observation that congruency effects in conflict tasks are typically smaller following incongruent compared to following congruent trials. This measure has long been thought to provide a unique window into top-down attentional adjustments and their underlying brain mechanisms. According to the renowned conflict monitoring theory, CSEs reflect enhanced selective attention following conflict detection. Still, alternative accounts suggested that bottom-up associative learning suffices to explain the pattern of reaction times and error rates. A couple of years ago, a review by Egner (2007) pitted these two rivalry accounts against each other, concluding that both conflict adaptation and feature integration contribute to the CSE. Since then, a wealth of studies has further debated this issue, and two additional accounts have been proposed, offering intriguing alternative explanations. Contingency learning accounts put forward that predictive relationships between stimuli and responses drive the CSE, whereas the repetition expectancy hypothesis suggests that top-down, expectancy-driven control adjustments affect the CSE. In the present paper, we build further on the previous review (Egner, 2007) by summarizing and integrating recent behavioral and neurophysiological studies on the CSE. In doing so, we evaluate the relative contribution and theoretical value of the different attentional and memory-based accounts. Moreover, we review how all of these influences can be experimentally isolated, and discuss designs and procedures that can critically judge between them.

  10. INFLUENCE OF METRONIDAZOLE ON BIOLOGICAL ACTION OF DOXORUBICIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Yagubov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Investigation of the effect of the Metronizatol on the biological effect of Doxirubicin.Materials and methods. The studies were performed in the CBA/Lac males and C57Bl/6 females mice grafted with melanoma B16 and mucinous ovarian cancer CaO‑1. Metronidazole and Doxorubicin were used in the work. The antitumor effect was assessed by tumor volume and inhibition of tumor growth.Results. The data obtained indicate that Metronidazole used in oncologic practice for the treatment and prevention of infectious complications, and as a radiosensitizer, can enhance the antitumor effect of Doxorubicin, but this effect is accompanied by a significant increase of the cytostatic toxicity. These effects are leveled by increasing the interval between injections of Metronidazole and Doxorubicin up to 4 hours.Conclusion. The enhancement of the antitumor activity of Doxorubicin under the influence of Metronidazole depends on the interval between the administration of these drugs. When Metronidazole is used in cancer patients, the possibility of enhancing the toxic effect of cytostatics should be considered when they are simultaneously exposed. Patients receiving chemotherapy should be administered antitumor drugs no earlier than 4 hours after exposure to Metronidazole. 

  11. Judging emotional congruency: Explicit attention to situational context modulates processing of facial expressions of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diéguez-Risco, Teresa; Aguado, Luis; Albert, Jacobo; Hinojosa, José Antonio

    2015-12-01

    The influence of explicit evaluative processes on the contextual integration of facial expressions of emotion was studied in a procedure that required the participants to judge the congruency of happy and angry faces with preceding sentences describing emotion-inducing situations. Judgments were faster on congruent trials in the case of happy faces and on incongruent trials in the case of angry faces. At the electrophysiological level, a congruency effect was observed in the face-sensitive N170 component that showed larger amplitudes on incongruent trials. An interactive effect of congruency and emotion appeared on the LPP (late positive potential), with larger amplitudes in response to happy faces that followed anger-inducing situations. These results show that the deliberate intention to judge the contextual congruency of facial expressions influences not only processes involved in affective evaluation such as those indexed by the LPP but also earlier processing stages that are involved in face perception. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Spontaneous movement tempo is influenced by observation of rhythmical actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, Marco; Tacchino, Andrea; Pelosin, Elisa; Moisello, Clara; Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Ghilardi, M Felice

    2009-09-28

    Observation of people performing movements facilitates motor planning, execution and memory formation. Tempo, a crucial aspect involved in the execution of rhythmic movements, is normally perceived and learned through auditory channels. In this work, we ascertained whether: first, the frequency of self-paced finger movements (SPMs), which in normal subjects is around 2 Hz, is modified by prior observation of movements performed at either 1 or 3 Hz; second, such changes are lasting; third, there is an effect of time interval between observation and performance. We finally determined the effect of providing explicit information about the upcoming motor task. Seventy-two normal subjects (12 groups) performed a simple finger sequence at different intervals after observation of videos of either landscapes or finger opposition movements. Both with and without information about the upcoming task, observation influenced the tempo of SPMs and led to memory formation. With knowledge of the upcoming task, such changes occurred at all observation-execution intervals, while without instructions, changes took place only when SPMs were performed immediately after observation. Compared to explicit instructions, the absence of instructions produced tempo's changes that more closely resembled the observed rhythms. We conclude that learning requires a prompt comparison between visual and sensorimotor representations of movements; moreover, learning with explicit instructions is more efficient, as activity in both the dorsal and ventral streams might be potentiated by the chatecholaminergic attentional systems that promote long-term potentiation. These results provide the bases for novel neurorehabilitation strategies in terms of temporal re-organization of movement.

  13. Investigating the influence of military actions on animal genome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosarcic, S.; Kosarcic, D.; Kljajic, R.

    2002-01-01

    Contemporary world is still faced with misunderstandings between countries and nations that are solved in militant way. Using war a way of solving the problems, brings universal misfortune and deepens injustice. Applying modern arms destroys environment and leaves harmful consequences on contemporary and future world. Of course, the most dangerous influence is manifested on changes in genetic material of human beings. The aim of the investigation was to discover if there were changes in genome of the animals present in the area where the refinery in Novi Sad was bombed. By the means of random sampling we chose 60 cows and 30 pigs from the area where air, water and food was contaminated with a considerate quantity of harmful matters that could be genotoxic. By sterile procedure according to modified Moorhead's method lymphocytes were cultivated, than the technique of G-banding was used (Seobright et al. 1971) According to the International Standards for Karyotyping of Domestic Animals (ISCNDA 1990) the chromosomes were analyzed. In all the investigation 3 cows with numerical and structural changes type aneuploidy and break on chromatids in q-arm were discovered. Analyzing the genome in all the pigs, 2 animals with structural changes of chromosome type r ing , deletion and break on q-arm (reciprocal translocation) were discovered. According to the percentage of the changes on 100 examined metaphases, it was discovered that the changes in genetic material appeared 'de novo' and that there are no constitutional changes in karyotype. Out of 90 animals, 5 with chromosome aberration were discovered, which makes 5.5 %. This shows that the changes in genetic material are a consequence of genotoxic agents

  14. Modulation of brain activity during action observation: influence of perspective, transitivity and meaningfulness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Hétu

    Full Text Available The coupling process between observed and performed actions is thought to be performed by a fronto-parietal perception-action system including regions of the inferior frontal gyrus and the inferior parietal lobule. When investigating the influence of the movements' characteristics on this process, most research on action observation has focused on only one particular variable even though the type of movements we observe can vary on several levels. By manipulating the visual perspective, transitivity and meaningfulness of observed movements in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study we aimed at investigating how the type of movements and the visual perspective can modulate brain activity during action observation in healthy individuals. Importantly, we used an active observation task where participants had to subsequently execute or imagine the observed movements. Our results show that the fronto-parietal regions of the perception action system were mostly recruited during the observation of meaningless actions while visual perspective had little influence on the activity within the perception-action system. Simultaneous investigation of several sources of modulation during active action observation is probably an approach that could lead to a greater ecological comprehension of this important sensorimotor process.

  15. Congruency class effects in the Hosotani model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, A.T.; McLachlan, A.

    1989-01-01

    We examine the Wilson loop breaking of gauge and central symmetries by determining the background gauge field which minimises the one-loop effective potential for massless Dirac fermions on manifolds of the form R m x S 1 . By writing the effective potential in terms of the polylogarithm function, it is found that the algebra preserving minima are always turning points of the potential and that the positions of the global minima of the potential are independent of the dimension of the space. A condition is obtained for stability of the classical symmetric vacua with respect to radiative corrections. We find that the gauge algebra can only be broken if we have periodic fermions in a representation of the group which lies in the same congruency class as the adjoint representation. The degree of breaking of the covering group central symmetries is found to depend both on the choice of congruency class and boundary condition for the fermion fields. (orig.)

  16. Real-time Astrometry Using Phase Congruency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, A.; Polo, M.; Tang, Y.

    Phase congruency is a computer vision technique that proves to perform well for determining the tracks of optical objects (Flewelling, AMOS 2014). We report on a real-time implementation of this using an FPGA and CMOS Image Sensor, with on-sky data. The lightweight instrument can provide tracking update signals to the mount of the telescope, as well as determine abnormal objects in the scene.

  17. Immediate movement history influences reach-to-grasp action selection in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Samuel W; Wilson, Andrew D; Plumb, Mandy S; Williams, Justin H G; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Action selection is subject to many biases. Immediate movement history is one such bias seen in young infants. Is this bias strong enough to affect adult behavior? Adult participants reached and grasped a cylinder positioned to require either pronation or supination of the hand. Successive cylinder positions changed either randomly or systematically between trials. Random positioning led to optimized economy of movement. In contrast, systematic changes in position biased action selection toward previously selected actions at the expense of movement economy. Thus, one switches to a new movement only when the savings outweigh the costs of the switch. Immediate movement history had an even larger influence on children aged 7-15 years. This suggests that switching costs are greater in children, which is consistent with their reduced grasping experience. The presence of this effect in adults suggests that immediate movement history exerts a more widespread and pervasive influence on patterns of action selection than researchers had previously recognized.

  18. The Role of RT Carry-Over for Congruence Sequence Effects in Masked Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber-Huber, Christoph; Ansorge, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    The present study disentangles 2 sources of the congruence sequence effect with masked primes: congruence and response time of the previous trial (reaction time [RT] carry-over). Using arrows as primes and targets and a metacontrast masking procedure we found congruence as well as congruence sequence effects. In addition, congruence sequence…

  19. When your decisions are not (quite your own: action observation influences free choices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff G Cole

    Full Text Available A growing number of studies have begun to assess how the actions of one individual are represented in an observer. Using a variant of an action observation paradigm, four experiments examined whether one person's behaviour can influence the subjective decisions and judgements of another. In Experiment 1, two observers sat adjacent to each other and took turns to freely select and reach to one of two locations. Results showed that participants were less likely to make a response to the same location as their partner. In three further experiments observers were asked to decide which of two familiar products they preferred or which of two faces were most attractive. Results showed that participants were less likely to choose the product or face occupying the location of their partner's previous reaching response. These findings suggest that action observation can influence a range of free choice preferences and decisions. Possible mechanisms through which this influence occurs are discussed.

  20. Action potential influences spatial perception: Evidence for genuine top-down effects on perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Jessica K

    2017-08-01

    The action-specific account of spatial perception asserts that a perceiver's ability to perform an action, such as hitting a softball or walking up a hill, impacts the visual perception of the target object. Although much evidence is consistent with this claim, the evidence has been challenged as to whether perception is truly impacted, as opposed to the responses themselves. These challenges have recently been organized as six pitfalls that provide a framework with which to evaluate the empirical evidence. Four case studies of action-specific effects are offered as evidence that meets the framework's high bar, and thus that demonstrates genuine perceptual effects. That action influences spatial perception is evidence that perceptual and action-related processes are intricately and bidirectionally linked.

  1. Bidirectional Influences of Emotion and Action in Evaluation of Emotionally-Connoted Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Milhau

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this review is to present the embodied character of emotionally-connoted language through the study of the mutual influences of affective language and motor action. After a brief definition of the embodied approach of cognition, the activity of language understanding is presented as an off-line embodied process implying sensory-motor resonance. Then the bidirectional character of influences between language and action will be addressed in both behavioral and neuropsychological studies, illustrated by the specific case of emotionally-connoted language. These reciprocal effects are grounded on the motor correspondence between action and the motor dimension of language, emerging from a diversity of source such as adaptive motivation, past experiences, body specificities, or motor fluency.

  2. Disentangling effects of abiotic factors and biotic interactions on cross-taxon congruence in species turnover patterns of plants, moths and beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Meichun; Liu, Yunhui; Yu, Zhenrong; Baudry, Jacques; Li, Liangtao; Wang, Changliu; Axmacher, Jan C

    2016-04-01

    High cross-taxon congruence in species diversity patterns is essential for the use of surrogate taxa in biodiversity conservation, but presence and strength of congruence in species turnover patterns, and the relative contributions of abiotic environmental factors and biotic interaction towards this congruence, remain poorly understood. In our study, we used variation partitioning in multiple regressions to quantify cross-taxon congruence in community dissimilarities of vascular plants, geometrid and arciinid moths and carabid beetles, subsequently investigating their respective underpinning by abiotic factors and biotic interactions. Significant cross-taxon congruence observed across all taxon pairs was linked to their similar responses towards elevation change. Changes in the vegetation composition were closely linked to carabid turnover, with vegetation structure and associated microclimatic conditions proposed causes of this link. In contrast, moth assemblages appeared to be dominated by generalist species whose turnover was weakly associated with vegetation changes. Overall, abiotic factors exerted a stronger influence on cross-taxon congruence across our study sites than biotic interactions. The weak congruence in turnover observed particularly between plants and moths highlights the importance of multi-taxon approaches based on groupings of taxa with similar turnovers, rather than the use of single surrogate taxa or environmental proxies, in biodiversity assessments.

  3. Generalized frame of reference with null congruence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrarese, G.; Antonelli, R.

    2000-01-01

    The paper derives the main properties of a generalized frame of reference with a null congruence (light flux), by means of adapted non-holonomic techniques; then it studies the geometry of the space-time in terms of non-orthogonal projection: longitudinal and transverse covariant derivatives and corresponding commutation formulae, decomposition of the Riemann and gravitational tensors, lie derivatives of the Ricci rotation coefficients, transverse Bianchi identity. Application to the (absolute and relative) light flux: kinematical characteristics and screen, Sachs theorems etc. are also given

  4. Attention Modulation by Proportion Congruency: The Asymmetrical List Shifting Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamse, Elger L.; Duthoo, Wout; Notebaert, Wim; Risko, Evan F.

    2013-01-01

    Proportion congruency effects represent hallmark phenomena in current theorizing about cognitive control. This is based on the notion that proportion congruency determines the relative levels of attention to relevant and irrelevant information in conflict tasks. However, little empirical evidence exists that uniquely supports such an attention…

  5. On the Robinson theorem and shearfree geodesic null congruences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tafel, J.

    1985-01-01

    Null electromagnetic fields and shearfree geodesic null congruences in curved and flat spacetimes are studied. We point out some mathematical problems connected with the validity of the Robinson theorem. The problem of finding nonanalytic twisting congruences in the Minkowski space is reduced to the construction of holomorphic functions with specific boundary conditions. (orig.)

  6. A sound and efficient measure of joint congruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conconi, Michele; Castelli, Vincenzo Parenti

    2014-09-01

    In the medical world, the term "congruence" is used to describe by visual inspection how the articular surfaces mate each other, evaluating the joint capability to distribute an applied load from a purely geometrical perspective. Congruence is commonly employed for assessing articular physiology and for the comparison between normal and pathological states. A measure of it would thus represent a valuable clinical tool. Several approaches for the quantification of joint congruence have been proposed in the biomechanical literature, differing on how the articular contact is modeled. This makes it difficult to compare different measures. In particular, in previous articles a congruence measure has been presented which proved to be efficient and suitable for the clinical practice, but it was still empirically defined. This article aims at providing a sound theoretical support to this congruence measure by means of the Winkler elastic foundation contact model which, with respect to others, has the advantage to hold also for highly conforming surfaces as most of the human articulations are. First, the geometrical relation between the applied load and the resulting peak of pressure is analytically derived from the elastic foundation contact model, providing a theoretically sound approach to the definition of a congruence measure. Then, the capability of congruence measure to capture the same geometrical relation is shown. Finally, the reliability of congruence measure is discussed. © IMechE 2014.

  7. Sequence length variation, indel costs, and congruence in sensitivity analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagesen, Lone; Petersen, Gitte; Seberg, Ole

    2005-01-01

    The behavior of two topological and four character-based congruence measures was explored using different indel treatments in three empirical data sets, each with different alignment difficulties. The analyses were done using direct optimization within a sensitivity analysis framework in which...... the cost of indels was varied. Indels were treated either as a fifth character state, or strings of contiguous gaps were considered single events by using linear affine gap cost. Congruence consistently improved when indels were treated as single events, but no congruence measure appeared as the obviously...... preferable one. However, when combining enough data, all congruence measures clearly tended to select the same alignment cost set as the optimal one. Disagreement among congruence measures was mostly caused by a dominant fragment or a data partition that included all or most of the length variation...

  8. Congruence of Personal and Organizational Values: Moving Beyond Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolita Vveinhardt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review and clarify the knowledge of practice related literature on the concept of congruence between personal and organizational values and to develop the framework for strengthening the congruence between personal and organizational values in order to improve understanding about how the theory is turned into practice. This paper thoroughly analyses an extensive literature in relation to value congruence and its practical management and discusses the relationships between theoretical knowledge and practical implications. By organizing a wide range of practice related aspects into meaningful categories, the paper presents specific practical suggestions how to strengthen the congruence of personal and organizational values. The paper gives clear practical guidance for those who intend to develop and implement the congruence between personal and organizational values, since the model may be useful in selecting the most suitable practices for specific situations in organizations.

  9. Bodily action penetrates affective perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigutti, Sara; Gerbino, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Fantoni & Gerbino (2014) showed that subtle postural shifts associated with reaching can have a strong hedonic impact and affect how actors experience facial expressions of emotion. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure (MAMIP), they found consistent congruency effects in participants who performed a facial emotion identification task after a sequence of visually-guided reaches: a face perceived as neutral in a baseline condition appeared slightly happy after comfortable actions and slightly angry after uncomfortable actions. However, skeptics about the penetrability of perception (Zeimbekis & Raftopoulos, 2015) would consider such evidence insufficient to demonstrate that observer’s internal states induced by action comfort/discomfort affect perception in a top-down fashion. The action-modulated mood might have produced a back-end memory effect capable of affecting post-perceptual and decision processing, but not front-end perception. Here, we present evidence that performing a facial emotion detection (not identification) task after MAMIP exhibits systematic mood-congruent sensitivity changes, rather than response bias changes attributable to cognitive set shifts; i.e., we show that observer’s internal states induced by bodily action can modulate affective perception. The detection threshold for happiness was lower after fifty comfortable than uncomfortable reaches; while the detection threshold for anger was lower after fifty uncomfortable than comfortable reaches. Action valence induced an overall sensitivity improvement in detecting subtle variations of congruent facial expressions (happiness after positive comfortable actions, anger after negative uncomfortable actions), in the absence of significant response bias shifts. Notably, both comfortable and uncomfortable reaches impact sensitivity in an approximately symmetric way relative to a baseline inaction condition. All of these constitute compelling evidence of a genuine top-down effect on

  10. Bodily action penetrates affective perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Fantoni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fantoni & Gerbino (2014 showed that subtle postural shifts associated with reaching can have a strong hedonic impact and affect how actors experience facial expressions of emotion. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure (MAMIP, they found consistent congruency effects in participants who performed a facial emotion identification task after a sequence of visually-guided reaches: a face perceived as neutral in a baseline condition appeared slightly happy after comfortable actions and slightly angry after uncomfortable actions. However, skeptics about the penetrability of perception (Zeimbekis & Raftopoulos, 2015 would consider such evidence insufficient to demonstrate that observer’s internal states induced by action comfort/discomfort affect perception in a top-down fashion. The action-modulated mood might have produced a back-end memory effect capable of affecting post-perceptual and decision processing, but not front-end perception. Here, we present evidence that performing a facial emotion detection (not identification task after MAMIP exhibits systematic mood-congruent sensitivity changes, rather than response bias changes attributable to cognitive set shifts; i.e., we show that observer’s internal states induced by bodily action can modulate affective perception. The detection threshold for happiness was lower after fifty comfortable than uncomfortable reaches; while the detection threshold for anger was lower after fifty uncomfortable than comfortable reaches. Action valence induced an overall sensitivity improvement in detecting subtle variations of congruent facial expressions (happiness after positive comfortable actions, anger after negative uncomfortable actions, in the absence of significant response bias shifts. Notably, both comfortable and uncomfortable reaches impact sensitivity in an approximately symmetric way relative to a baseline inaction condition. All of these constitute compelling evidence of a genuine top

  11. Axial linear patellar displacement: a new measurement of patellofemoral congruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urch, Scott E; Tritle, Benjamin A; Shelbourne, K Donald; Gray, Tinker

    2009-05-01

    The tools for measuring the congruence angle with digital radiography software can be difficult to use; therefore, the authors sought to develop a new, easy, and reliable method for measuring patellofemoral congruence. The abstract goes here and covers two columns. The abstract goes The linear displacement measurement will correlate well with the congruence angle measurement. here and covers two columns. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. On Merchant view radiographs obtained digitally, the authors measured the congruence angle and a new linear displacement measurement on preoperative and postoperative radiographs of 31 patients who suffered unilateral patellar dislocations and 100 uninjured subjects. The linear displacement measurement was obtained by drawing a reference line across the medial and lateral trochlear facets. Perpendicular lines were drawn from the depth of the sulcus through the reference line and from the apex of the posterior tip of the patella through the reference line. The distance between the perpendicular lines was the linear displacement measurement. The measurements were obtained twice at different sittings. The observer was blinded as to the previous measurements to establish reliability. Measurements were compared to determine whether the linear displacement measurement correlated with congruence angle. Intraobserver reliability was above r(2) = .90 for all measurements. In patients with patellar dislocations, the mean congruence angle preoperatively was 33.5 degrees , compared with 12.1 mm for linear displacement (r(2) = .92). The mean congruence angle postoperatively was 11.2 degrees, compared with 4.0 mm for linear displacement (r(2) = .89). For normal subjects, the mean congruence angle was -3 degrees and the mean linear displacement was 0.2 mm. The linear displacement measurement was found to correlate with congruence angle measurements and may be an easy and useful tool for clinicians to evaluate patellofemoral

  12. The value-congruence model of memory for emotional experiences: an explanation for cultural differences in emotional self-reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Shigehiro; Schimmack, Ulrich; Diener, Ed; Kim-Prieto, Chu; Scollon, Christie Napa; Choi, Dong-Won

    2007-11-01

    In 3 studies, the authors found support for the value-congruence model that accounts for cultural variations in memory for emotional experiences. In Study 1, the authors found that in the made-in-the-U.S. scenario condition, European Americans were more accurate than were Asian Americans in their retrospective frequency judgments of emotions. However, in the made-in-Japan scenario condition, European Americans were less accurate than were Asian Americans. In Study 2, the authors demonstrated that value orientation mediates the CulturexType of Event congruence effect. In Study 3 (a daily event sampling study), the authors showed that the congruence effect was explained by the importance of parental approval. In sum, emotional events congruent with personal values remain in memory longer and influence retrospective frequency judgments of emotion more than do incongruent events. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Are Tutor Behaviors in Problem-Based Learning Stable? A Generalizability Study of Social Congruence, Expertise and Cognitive Congruence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Judith C.; Alwis, W. A. M.; Rotgans, Jerome I.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the stability of three distinct tutor behaviors (1) use of subject-matter expertise, (2) social congruence and (3) cognitive congruence, in a problem-based learning (PBL) environment. The data comprised the input from 16,047 different students to a survey of 762 tutors administered in three consecutive…

  14. Influence Actions of School Principals in Hong Kong, Mainland China and the United States: A Cross-Cultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisapia, John; Pang, Nicholas Sun-Keung

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if Chinese school principals use influence actions differently from US principals. The concepts framing this study are leader influence actions, societal and local culture. The analysis was conducted with data from two independent studies conducted in each country using the strategic leadership questionnaire…

  15. Between- and within-Ear Congruency and Laterality Effects in an Auditory Semantic/Emotional Prosody Conflict Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techentin, Cheryl; Voyer, Daniel; Klein, Raymond M.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the influence of within- and between-ear congruency on interference and laterality effects in an auditory semantic/prosodic conflict task. Participants were presented dichotically with words (e.g., mad, sad, glad) pronounced in either congruent or incongruent emotional tones (e.g., angry, happy, or sad) and…

  16. Increasing Personal Value Congruence in Computerized Decision Support Using System Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Hosack

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Theory of Universals in Values (TUV, a reliable and validated conceptualization of personal values used in psychology, is used to examine the effect of system feedback delivered by a Decision Support System (DSS on personal values. The results indicate that value-based decision-making behavior can be influenced by DSS feedback to address value congruence in decision-making. User behavior was shown to follow the outcomes expected by operant theory when feedback was supportive and to follow the outcomes of reactance theory when feedback was challenging. This result suggests that practitioners and Information System (IS researchers should consider user values when designing computerized decision feedback to adjust a system’s design such that the potential user backlash is avoided or congruence between organizational and personal values is achieved.

  17. Reducing Stereotype Threat With Embodied Triggers: A Case of Sensorimotor-Mental Congruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalabaev, Aïna; Radel, Rémi; Masicampo, E J; Dru, Vincent

    2016-08-01

    In four experiments, we tested whether embodied triggers may reduce stereotype threat. We predicted that left-side sensorimotor inductions would increase cognitive performance under stereotype threat, because such inductions are linked to avoidance motivation among right-handers. This sensorimotor-mental congruence hypothesis rests on regulatory fit research showing that stereotype threat may be reduced by avoidance-oriented interventions, and motor congruence research showing positive effects when two parameters of a motor action activate the same motivational system (avoidance or approach). Results indicated that under stereotype threat, cognitive performance was higher when participants contracted their left hand (Study 1) or when the stimuli were presented on the left side of the visual field (Studies 2-4), as compared with right-hand contraction or right-side visual stimulation. These results were observed on math (Studies 1, 2, and 4) and Stroop (Study 3) performance. An indirect effect of congruence on math performance through subjective fluency was also observed. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  18. Is early osteoarthritis associated with differences in joint congruence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conconi, Michele; Halilaj, Eni; Parenti Castelli, Vincenzo; Crisco, Joseph J

    2014-12-18

    Previous studies suggest that osteoarthritis (OA) is related to abnormal or excessive articular contact stress. The peak pressure resulting from an applied load is determined by many factors, among which is shape and relative position and orientation of the articulating surfaces or, referring to a more common nomenclature, joint congruence. It has been hypothesized that anatomical differences may be among the causes of OA. Individuals with less congruent joints would likely develop higher peak pressure and thus would be more exposed to the risk of OA onset. The aim of this work was to determine if the congruence of the first carpometacarpal (CMC) joint differs with the early onset of OA or with sex, as the female population has a higher incidence of OA. 59 without and 38 with early OA were CT-scanned with their dominant or arthritic hand in a neutral configuration. The proposed measure of joint congruence is both shape and size dependent. The correlation of joint congruence with pathology and sex was analyzed both before and after normalization for joint size. We found a significant correlation between joint congruence and sex due to the sex-related differences in size. The observed correlation disappeared after normalization. Although joint congruence increased with size, it did not correlate significantly with the onset of early OA. Differences in joint congruence in this population may not be a primary cause of OA onset or predisposition, at least for the CMC joint. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dynamics of stringy congruence in the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yong Seung; Hong, Soon-Tae

    2011-01-01

    We study twist and shear aspects of the stingy geodesic surface congruence. Under some natural conditions we derive the equations of the twist and shear in terms of the expansion of the Universe. We observe in this higher dimensional cosmology that, as the early universe evolves with expansion rate, the twist of the stringy congruence decreases exponentially and the initial twist value should be large enough to sustain the rotations of the ensuing universe, while the effects of the shear are negligible to produce the isotropic and homogeneous universe. We also investigate the twist and shear of the geodesic surface congruence of the null strings.

  20. When action meets emotions: how facial displays of emotion influence goal-related behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Ferri

    Full Text Available Many authors have proposed that facial expressions, by conveying emotional states of the person we are interacting with, influence the interaction behavior. We aimed at verifying how specific the effect is of the facial expressions of emotions of an individual (both their valence and relevance/specificity for the purpose of the action with respect to how the action aimed at the same individual is executed. In addition, we investigated whether and how the effects of emotions on action execution are modulated by participants' empathic attitudes. We used a kinematic approach to analyze the simulation of feeding others, which consisted of recording the "feeding trajectory" by using a computer mouse. Actors could express different highly arousing emotions, namely happiness, disgust, anger, or a neutral expression. Response time was sensitive to the interaction between valence and relevance/specificity of emotion: disgust caused faster response. In addition, happiness induced slower feeding time and longer time to peak velocity, but only in blocks where it alternated with expressions of disgust. The kinematic profiles described how the effect of the specificity of the emotional context for feeding, namely a modulation of accuracy requirements, occurs. An early acceleration in kinematic relative-to-neutral feeding profiles occurred when actors expressed positive emotions (happiness in blocks with specific-to-feeding negative emotions (disgust. On the other hand, the end-part of the action was slower when feeding happy with respect to neutral faces, confirming the increase of accuracy requirements and motor control. These kinematic effects were modulated by participants' empathic attitudes. In conclusion, the social dimension of emotions, that is, their ability to modulate others' action planning/execution, strictly depends on their relevance and specificity to the purpose of the action. This finding argues against a strict distinction between social

  1. When action meets emotions: how facial displays of emotion influence goal-related behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Francesca; Stoianov, Ivilin Peev; Gianelli, Claudia; D'Amico, Luigi; Borghi, Anna M; Gallese, Vittorio

    2010-10-01

    Many authors have proposed that facial expressions, by conveying emotional states of the person we are interacting with, influence the interaction behavior. We aimed at verifying how specific the effect is of the facial expressions of emotions of an individual (both their valence and relevance/specificity for the purpose of the action) with respect to how the action aimed at the same individual is executed. In addition, we investigated whether and how the effects of emotions on action execution are modulated by participants' empathic attitudes. We used a kinematic approach to analyze the simulation of feeding others, which consisted of recording the "feeding trajectory" by using a computer mouse. Actors could express different highly arousing emotions, namely happiness, disgust, anger, or a neutral expression. Response time was sensitive to the interaction between valence and relevance/specificity of emotion: disgust caused faster response. In addition, happiness induced slower feeding time and longer time to peak velocity, but only in blocks where it alternated with expressions of disgust. The kinematic profiles described how the effect of the specificity of the emotional context for feeding, namely a modulation of accuracy requirements, occurs. An early acceleration in kinematic relative-to-neutral feeding profiles occurred when actors expressed positive emotions (happiness) in blocks with specific-to-feeding negative emotions (disgust). On the other hand, the end-part of the action was slower when feeding happy with respect to neutral faces, confirming the increase of accuracy requirements and motor control. These kinematic effects were modulated by participants' empathic attitudes. In conclusion, the social dimension of emotions, that is, their ability to modulate others' action planning/execution, strictly depends on their relevance and specificity to the purpose of the action. This finding argues against a strict distinction between social and nonsocial

  2. How task goals mediate the interplay between perception and action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal eHaazebroek

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Theories of embodied cognition suppose that perception, action and cognition are tightly intertwined and share common representations and processes. Indeed, numerous empirical studies demonstrate interaction between stimulus perception, response planning and response execution. In this paper, we present an experiment and a connectionist model that show how the Simon effect, a canonical example of perception-action congruency, can be moderated by the (cognitive representation of the task instruction. To date, no representational account of this influence exists. In the experiment, a two-dimensional Simon task was used, with critical stimuli being colored arrows pointing in one of four directions (backward, forward, left or right. Participants stood on a Wii balance board, oriented diagonally towards the screen displaying the stimuli. They were either instructed to imagine standing on a snowboard or on a pair of skis and to respond to the stimulus color by leaning towards either the left or right foot. We expected that participants in the snowboard condition would encode these movements as forward or backward, resulting in a Simon effect on this dimension. This was confirmed by the results. The left–right congruency effect was larger in the ski condition, whereas the forward–backward congruency effect appeared only in the snowboard condition. The results can be readily accounted for by HiTEC, a connectionist model that aims at capturing the interaction between perception and action at the level of representations, and the way this interaction is mediated by cognitive control. Together, the empirical work and the connectionist model contribute to a better understanding of the complex interaction between perception, cognition, and action.

  3. Does Ethics Education Influence the Moral Action of Practicing Nurses and Social Workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Christine; Danis, Marion; Soeken, Karen L.; O’Donnell, Patricia; Taylor, Carol; Farrar, Adrienne; Ulrich, Connie M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose/methods This study investigated the relationship between ethics education and training, and the use and usefulness of ethics resources, confidence in moral decisions, and moral action/activism through a survey of practicing nurses and social workers from four United States (US) census regions. Findings The sample (n = 1215) was primarily Caucasian (83%), female (85%), well educated (57% with a master’s degree). no ethics education at all was reported by 14% of study participants (8% of social workers had no ethics education, versus 23% of nurses), and only 57% of participants had ethics education in their professional educational program. Those with both professional ethics education and in-service or continuing education were more confident in their moral judgments and more likely to use ethics resources and to take moral action. Social workers had more overall education, more ethics education, and higher confidence and moral action scores, and were more likely to use ethics resources than nurses. Conclusion Ethics education has a significant positive influence on moral confidence, moral action, and use of ethics resources by nurses and social workers. PMID:18576241

  4. The influence of vegetable bioactive compounds on systemic immune reactions to ionizing radiation action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coretchi, Liuba; Plavan, Irina; Bahnarel, Ion; Rosca, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the summary of the scientific results analysis of the published in the last 10 years studies of the influence of secondary metabolites essential oils and essential-oil plants extracts, on the resistance/sensitivity of the animal and human body to the action of ionizing radiation. An essential problem is the development of new nanotechnologies for mitigation the onset of side effects caused by the use of ionizing radiation therapy of patients with different types of cancer. Widespread application of phyto therapy empiric reveals the beneficial effect of essential oils and essential-oil plants extracts on the immune system. The considered substances have natural antioxidant properties and contribute to the elimination of free radicals which are formed in the body under the action of stress, including ionizing radiation. This reveals about their use in mitigation of ionizing radiation action effects, as a radio protector agent. Unlike other preparations, used to activate the immune system, essential oils at low concentrations show a long-lasting system immune stimulation action. More of that, during their administration the onset of adverse reactions have not been demonstrated. (authors)

  5. BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism Influences Visuomotor Associative Learning and the Sensitivity to Action Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taschereau-Dumouchel, Vincent; Hétu, Sébastien; Michon, Pierre-Emmanuel; Vachon-Presseau, Etienne; Massicotte, Elsa; De Beaumont, Louis; Fecteau, Shirley; Poirier, Judes; Mercier, Catherine; Chagnon, Yvon C.; Jackson, Philip L.

    2016-01-01

    Motor representations in the human mirror neuron system are tuned to respond to specific observed actions. This ability is widely believed to be influenced by genetic factors, but no study has reported a genetic variant affecting this system so far. One possibility is that genetic variants might interact with visuomotor associative learning to configure the system to respond to novel observed actions. In this perspective, we conducted a candidate gene study on the Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism, a genetic variant linked to motor learning in regions of the mirror neuron system, and tested the effect of this polymorphism on motor facilitation and visuomotor associative learning. In a single-pulse TMS study carried on 16 Met (Val/Met and Met/Met) and 16 Val/Val participants selected from a large pool of healthy volunteers, Met participants showed significantly less muscle-specific corticospinal sensitivity during action observation, as well as reduced visuomotor associative learning, compared to Val homozygotes. These results are the first evidence of a genetic variant tuning sensitivity to action observation and bring to light the importance of considering the intricate relation between genetics and associative learning in order to further understand the origin and function of the human mirror neuron system. PMID:27703276

  6. Action-Specific Influences on Perception and Post-Perceptual Processes: Present Controversies and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philbeck, John W.; Witt, Jessica K.

    2015-01-01

    The action-specific perception account holds that people perceive the environment in terms of their ability to act in it. In this view, for example, decreased ability to climb a hill due to fatigue makes the hill visually appear to be steeper. Though influential, this account has not been universally accepted, and in fact a heated controversy has emerged. The opposing view holds that action capability has little or no influence on perception. Heretofore, the debate has been quite polarized, with efforts largely being focused on supporting one view and dismantling the other. We argue here that polarized debate can impede scientific progress and that the search for similarities between two sides of a debate can sharpen the theoretical focus of both sides and illuminate important avenues for future research. In this paper, we present a synthetic review of this debate, drawing from the literatures of both approaches, to clarify both the surprising similarities and the core differences between them. We critically evaluate existing evidence, discuss possible mechanisms of action-specific effects, and make recommendations for future research. A primary focus of future work will involve not only the development of methods that guard against action-specific post-perceptual effects, but also development of concrete, well-constrained underlying mechanisms. The criteria for what constitutes acceptable control of post-perceptual effects and what constitutes an appropriately specific mechanism vary between approaches, and bridging this gap is a central challenge for future research. PMID:26501227

  7. An Emotion-Enriched Context Influences the Effect of Action Observation on Cortical Excitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Lagravinese

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Observing other people in action activates the “mirror neuron system” that serves for action comprehension and prediction. Recent evidence suggests that this function requires a high level codification triggered not only by components of motor behavior, but also by the environment where the action is embedded. An overlooked component of action perceiving is the one related to the emotional information provided by the context where the observed action takes place. Indeed, whether valence and arousal associated to an emotion might exert an influence on motor system activation during action observation has not been assessed so far. Here, cortico-spinal excitability of the left motor cortex was recorded in three groups of subjects. In the first condition, motor-evoked potential (MEPs were recorded from a muscle involved in the grasping movement (i.e., abductor pollicis brevis, APB while participants were watching the same reach-to-grasp movement embedded in contexts with negative emotional valence, but different levels of arousal: sadness (low arousal, and disgust (high arousal (“Context plus Movement-APB” condition. In the second condition, MEPs were recorded from APB muscle while participants were observing static images representing the contexts in which the movement observed by participants in “Context plus Movement-APB” condition took place (“Context Only-APB” condition. Finally, in the third condition, MEPS were recorded from a muscle not involved in the grasping action, i.e., abductor digiti minimi, ADM, while participants were watching the same videos shown during the “Context plus Movement-APB” condition (“Context plus Movement-ADM” condition. Results showed a greater increase of cortical excitability only during the observation of the hand moving in the context eliciting disgust, and these changes were specific for the muscle involved in the observed action. Our findings show that the emotional context in which a

  8. Spring or string: does tendon elastic action influence wing muscle mechanics in bat flight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konow, Nicolai; Cheney, Jorn A; Roberts, Thomas J; Waldman, J Rhea S; Swartz, Sharon M

    2015-10-07

    Tendon springs influence locomotor movements in many terrestrial animals, but their roles in locomotion through fluids as well as in small-bodied mammals are less clear. We measured muscle, tendon and joint mechanics in an elbow extensor of a small fruit bat during ascending flight. At the end of downstroke, the tendon was stretched by elbow flexion as the wing was folded. At the end of upstroke, elastic energy was recovered via tendon recoil and extended the elbow, contributing to unfurling the wing for downstroke. Compared with a hypothetical 'string-like' system lacking series elastic compliance, the tendon spring conferred a 22.5% decrease in muscle fascicle strain magnitude. Our findings demonstrate tendon elastic action in a small flying mammal and expand our understanding of the occurrence and action of series elastic actuator mechanisms in fluid-based locomotion. © 2015 The Author(s).

  9. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus modulates reward processing and action selection in Parkinson patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenbreth, Caroline; Zaehle, Tino; Galazky, Imke; Voges, Jürgen; Guitart-Masip, Marc; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Düzel, Emrah

    2015-06-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an effective treatment for motor impairments in Parkinson's disease (PD) but its effect on the motivational regulation of action control is still not fully understood. We investigated whether DBS of the STN influences the ability of PD patients to act for anticipated reward or loss, or whether DBS improves action execution independent of motivational valence. 16 PD patients (12 male, mean age = 58.5 ± 10.17 years) treated with bilateral STN-DBS and an age- and gender-matched group of healthy controls (HC) performed a go/no-go task whose contingencies explicitly decouple valence and action. Patients were tested with (ON) and without (OFF) active STN stimulation. For HC, there was a benefit in performing rewarded actions when compared to actions that avoided punishment. PD patients showed such a benefit reliably only when STN stimulation was ON. In fact, the relative behavioral benefit for go for reward over go to avoid losing was stronger in the PD patients under DBS ON than in HC. In PD patients, rather than generally improving motor functions independent of motivational valence, modulation of the STN by DBS improves action execution specifically when rewards are anticipated. Thus, STN-DBS establishes a reliable congruency between action and reward ("Pavlovian congruency") and remarkably enhances it over the level observed in HC.

  10. Scenario Design for the Empirical Testing of Organizational Congruence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kleinman, David L; Levchuk, Georgiy M; Hutchins, Susan G; Kemple, William G

    2005-01-01

    ...) research program have been investigating the concept of organizational "congruence." These model-based theories loosely state that the better an organization is matched structurally to the overall mission...

  11. Scenario Design for the Empirical Testing of Organizational Congruence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kleinman, David L; Levchuk, Georgiy M; Hutchins, Susan G; Kemple, William G

    2005-01-01

    ... (as measured using a multi-variant set of workload/congruence metrics) the better will that organization perform, and that mismatches are potential drivers for the adaptation of organization structure...

  12. Workplace Congruence and Occupational Outcomes among Social Service Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, John R; Shier, Micheal L; Nicholas, David

    2016-06-01

    Workplace expectations reflect an important consideration in employee experience. A higher prevalence of workplace congruence between worker and employer expectations has been associated with higher levels of productivity and overall workplace satisfaction across multiple occupational groups. Little research has investigated the relationship between workplace congruence and occupational health outcomes among social service workers. This study sought to better understand the extent to which occupational congruence contributes to occupational outcomes by surveying unionised social service workers ( n = 674) employed with the Government of Alberta, Canada. Multiple regression analysis shows that greater congruence between workplace and worker expectations around workloads, workplace values and the quality of the work environment significantly: (i) decreases symptoms related to distress and secondary traumatic stress; (ii) decreases intentions to leave; and (iii) increases overall life satisfaction. The findings provide some evidence of areas within the workplace of large government run social welfare programmes that can be better aligned to worker expectations to improve occupational outcomes among social service workers.

  13. The heterogeneous world of congruency sequence effects: An update.

    OpenAIRE

    Wout eDuthoo; Elger eAbrahamse; Senne eBraem; Senne eBraem; C. Nico Boehler; Wim eNotebaert

    2014-01-01

    Congruency sequence effects (CSEs) refer to the observation that congruency effects in conflict tasks are typically smaller following incongruent compared to following congruent trials. This measure has long been thought to provide a unique window into top-down attentional adjustments and their underlying brain mechanisms. According to the renowned conflict monitoring theory, CSEs reflect enhanced selective attention following conflict detection. Still, alternative accounts suggested that bot...

  14. On the geometry of null congruences in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahsan, Zafar; Malik, N.P.

    1977-01-01

    Some theorems for the null congruences within the framework of general theory of relativity are given. These theorems are important in themselves as they illustrate the geometric meaning of the spin coefficients. The newly developed Geroch-Held-Penrose (GHP) formalism has been used throughout the investigations. The salient features of GHP formalism that are necessary for the present work are given and these techniques are applied to a pair of null congruences C(l) and C(n). (author)

  15. Focusing of geodesic congruences in an accelerated expanding Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albareti, F.D.; Cembranos, J.A.R.; Cruz-Dombriz, A. de la

    2012-01-01

    We study the accelerated expansion of the Universe through its consequences on a congruence of geodesics. We make use of the Raychaudhuri equation which describes the evolution of the expansion rate for a congruence of timelike or null geodesics. In particular, we focus on the space-time geometry contribution to this equation. By straightforward calculation from the metric of a Robertson-Walker cosmological model, it follows that in an accelerated expanding Universe the space-time contribution to the Raychaudhuri equation is positive for the fundamental congruence, favoring a non-focusing of the congruence of geodesics. However, the accelerated expansion of the present Universe does not imply a tendency of the fundamental congruence to diverge. It is shown that this is in fact the case for certain congruences of timelike geodesics without vorticity. Therefore, the focusing of geodesics remains feasible in an accelerated expanding Universe. Furthermore, a negative contribution to the Raychaudhuri equation from space-time geometry which is usually interpreted as the manifestation of the attractive character of gravity is restored in an accelerated expanding Robertson-Walker space-time at high speeds

  16. Focusing of geodesic congruences in an accelerated expanding Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albareti, F.D.; Cembranos, J.A.R. [Departamento de Física Teórica I, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Cruz-Dombriz, A. de la, E-mail: fdalbareti@estumail.ucm.es, E-mail: cembra@fis.ucm.es, E-mail: alvaro.delacruz-dombriz@uct.ac.za [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre (ACGC), University of Cape Town, 7701 Rondebosch, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2012-12-01

    We study the accelerated expansion of the Universe through its consequences on a congruence of geodesics. We make use of the Raychaudhuri equation which describes the evolution of the expansion rate for a congruence of timelike or null geodesics. In particular, we focus on the space-time geometry contribution to this equation. By straightforward calculation from the metric of a Robertson-Walker cosmological model, it follows that in an accelerated expanding Universe the space-time contribution to the Raychaudhuri equation is positive for the fundamental congruence, favoring a non-focusing of the congruence of geodesics. However, the accelerated expansion of the present Universe does not imply a tendency of the fundamental congruence to diverge. It is shown that this is in fact the case for certain congruences of timelike geodesics without vorticity. Therefore, the focusing of geodesics remains feasible in an accelerated expanding Universe. Furthermore, a negative contribution to the Raychaudhuri equation from space-time geometry which is usually interpreted as the manifestation of the attractive character of gravity is restored in an accelerated expanding Robertson-Walker space-time at high speeds.

  17. Influence of CAG Repeat Polymorphism on the Targets of Testosterone Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Tirabassi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, ample evidence has demonstrated the growing importance of androgen receptor (AR CAG repeat polymorphism in andrology. This genetic parameter is able to condition the peripheral effects of testosterone and therefore to influence male sexual function and fertility, cardiovascular risk, body composition, bone metabolism, the risk of prostate and testicular cancer, the psychiatric status, and the onset of neurodegenerative disorders. In this review, we extensively discuss the literature data and identify a role for AR CAG repeat polymorphism in conditioning the systemic testosterone effects. In particular, our main purpose was to provide an updated text able to shed light on the many and often contradictory findings reporting an influence of CAG repeat polymorphism on the targets of testosterone action.

  18. Smoking Cessation in Cardiac Patients: The Influence of Action Plans, Coping Plans and Self-Efficacy on Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoog, Natascha; Bolman, Catherine; Berndt, Nadine; Kers, Esther; Mudde, Aart; de Vries, Hein; Lechner, Lilian

    2016-01-01

    Smoking cessation is the most effective action for cardiac patients who smoke to improve their prognosis, yet more than one-half of cardiac patients continue to smoke after hospital admission. This study examined the influence of action plans, coping plans and self-efficacy on intention to quit and smoking cessation in cardiac patients. Cardiac…

  19. Selective attention and recognition: effects of congruency on episodic learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Tamara M; D'Angelo, Maria C; MacLellan, Ellen; Milliken, Bruce

    2015-05-01

    Recent research on cognitive control has focused on the learning consequences of high selective attention demands in selective attention tasks (e.g., Botvinick, Cognit Affect Behav Neurosci 7(4):356-366, 2007; Verguts and Notebaert, Psychol Rev 115(2):518-525, 2008). The current study extends these ideas by examining the influence of selective attention demands on remembering. In Experiment 1, participants read aloud the red word in a pair of red and green spatially interleaved words. Half of the items were congruent (the interleaved words had the same identity), and the other half were incongruent (the interleaved words had different identities). Following the naming phase, participants completed a surprise recognition memory test. In this test phase, recognition memory was better for incongruent than for congruent items. In Experiment 2, context was only partially reinstated at test, and again recognition memory was better for incongruent than for congruent items. In Experiment 3, all of the items contained two different words, but in one condition the words were presented close together and interleaved, while in the other condition the two words were spatially separated. Recognition memory was better for the interleaved than for the separated items. This result rules out an interpretation of the congruency effects on recognition in Experiments 1 and 2 that hinges on stronger relational encoding for items that have two different words. Together, the results support the view that selective attention demands for incongruent items lead to encoding that improves recognition.

  20. Auditory conflict and congruence in frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Camilla N; Nicholas, Jennifer M; Agustus, Jennifer L; Hardy, Christopher J D; Russell, Lucy L; Brotherhood, Emilie V; Dick, Katrina M; Marshall, Charles R; Mummery, Catherine J; Rohrer, Jonathan D; Warren, Jason D

    2017-09-01

    Impaired analysis of signal conflict and congruence may contribute to diverse socio-emotional symptoms in frontotemporal dementias, however the underlying mechanisms have not been defined. Here we addressed this issue in patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD; n = 19) and semantic dementia (SD; n = 10) relative to healthy older individuals (n = 20). We created auditory scenes in which semantic and emotional congruity of constituent sounds were independently probed; associated tasks controlled for auditory perceptual similarity, scene parsing and semantic competence. Neuroanatomical correlates of auditory congruity processing were assessed using voxel-based morphometry. Relative to healthy controls, both the bvFTD and SD groups had impaired semantic and emotional congruity processing (after taking auditory control task performance into account) and reduced affective integration of sounds into scenes. Grey matter correlates of auditory semantic congruity processing were identified in distributed regions encompassing prefrontal, parieto-temporal and insular areas and correlates of auditory emotional congruity in partly overlapping temporal, insular and striatal regions. Our findings suggest that decoding of auditory signal relatedness may probe a generic cognitive mechanism and neural architecture underpinning frontotemporal dementia syndromes. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Phase congruency map driven brain tumour segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilágyi, Tünde; Brady, Michael; Berényi, Ervin

    2015-03-01

    Computer Aided Diagnostic (CAD) systems are already of proven value in healthcare, especially for surgical planning, nevertheless much remains to be done. Gliomas are the most common brain tumours (70%) in adults, with a survival time of just 2-3 months if detected at WHO grades III or higher. Such tumours are extremely variable, necessitating multi-modal Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI). The use of Gadolinium-based contrast agents is only relevant at later stages of the disease where it highlights the enhancing rim of the tumour. Currently, there is no single accepted method that can be used as a reference. There are three main challenges with such images: to decide whether there is tumour present and is so localize it; to construct a mask that separates healthy and diseased tissue; and to differentiate between the tumour core and the surrounding oedema. This paper presents two contributions. First, we develop tumour seed selection based on multiscale multi-modal texture feature vectors. Second, we develop a method based on a local phase congruency based feature map to drive level-set segmentation. The segmentations achieved with our method are more accurate than previously presented methods, particularly for challenging low grade tumours.

  2. Influence of extra training means on effectiveness of fencers’ technical tactic actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.O. Lopatenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine influence of the worked out extra training means’ complex on effectiveness of realization of elite sportsmen’s competition functioning components. Material: in the research 12 fencers participated. The researches were conducted in the morning, against the background of organism’s recreation. Before sportsmen’s duel we applied two types of pre-competition warming up: traditional and experimental. Video recording was fulfilled with video camera Samsung HMX-S15. Results: we calculated volume, effectiveness and efficiency of sportsmen’s actions in fights with different opponents and in different situations of duel. We showed possibility of extra training complexes’ application, oriented on mobilization of workability in the process of direct pre-start preparation of elite sportsmen. Such exercises considered main actions and organism’s typical responses in the process of competition functioning. Conclusions: Consideration of typolical (for fencing organism’s responses and peculiarities of competition functioning structure influence positively on indicators of sportsmen’s competition functioning.

  3. Measuring Stratigraphic Congruence Across Trees, Higher Taxa, and Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Anne; Wills, Matthew A

    2016-09-01

    The congruence between the order of cladistic branching and the first appearance dates of fossil lineages can be quantified using a variety of indices. Good matching is a prerequisite for the accurate time calibration of trees, while the distribution of congruence indices across large samples of cladograms has underpinned claims about temporal and taxonomic patterns of completeness in the fossil record. The most widely used stratigraphic congruence indices are the stratigraphic consistency index (SCI), the modified Manhattan stratigraphic measure (MSM*), and the gap excess ratio (GER) (plus its derivatives; the topological GER and the modified GER). Many factors are believed to variously bias these indices, with several empirical and simulation studies addressing some subset of the putative interactions. This study combines both approaches to quantify the effects (on all five indices) of eight variables reasoned to constrain the distribution of possible values (the number of taxa, tree balance, tree resolution, range of first occurrence (FO) dates, center of gravity of FO dates, the variability of FO dates, percentage of extant taxa, and percentage of taxa with no fossil record). Our empirical data set comprised 647 published animal and plant cladograms spanning the entire Phanerozoic, and for these data we also modeled the effects of mean age of FOs (as a proxy for clade age), the taxonomic rank of the clade, and the higher taxonomic group to which it belonged. The center of gravity of FO dates had not been investigated hitherto, and this was found to correlate most strongly with some measures of stratigraphic congruence in our empirical study (top-heavy clades had better congruence). The modified GER was the index least susceptible to bias. We found significant differences across higher taxa for all indices; arthropods had lower congruence and tetrapods higher congruence. Stratigraphic congruence-however measured-also varied throughout the Phanerozoic, reflecting

  4. Revisiting the link between body and agency: visual movement congruency enhances intentional binding but is not body-specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zopf, Regine; Polito, Vince; Moore, James

    2018-01-09

    Embodiment and agency are key aspects of how we perceive ourselves that have typically been associated with independent mechanisms. Recent work, however, has suggested that these mechanisms are related. The sense of agency arises from recognising a causal influence on the external world. This influence is typically realised through bodily movements and thus the perception of the bodily self could also be crucial for agency. We investigated whether a key index of agency - intentional binding - was modulated by body-specific information. Participants judged the interval between pressing a button and a subsequent tone. We used virtual reality to manipulate two aspects of movement feedback. First, form: participants viewed a virtual hand or sphere. Second, movement congruency: the viewed object moved congruently or incongruently with the participant's hidden hand. Both factors, form and movement congruency, significantly influenced embodiment. However, only movement congruency influenced intentional binding. Binding was increased for congruent compared to incongruent movement feedback irrespective of form. This shows that the comparison between viewed and performed movements provides an important cue for agency, whereas body-specific visual form does not. We suggest that embodiment and agency mechanisms both depend on comparisons across sensorimotor signals but that they are influenced by distinct factors.

  5. From Credit to Collective Action: The Role of Microfinance in Promoting Women's Social Capital and Normative Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Paromita

    2009-01-01

    Can economic ties positively influence social relations and actions? If so, how does this influence operate? Microfinance programs, which provide credit through a group-based lending strategy, provide the ideal setting for exploring these questions. This article examines whether structuring socially isolated women into peer-groups for an…

  6. Congruence of happy and sad emotion in music and faces modifies cortical audiovisual activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jeong-Won; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A; Chugani, Carla D; Sinsoongsud, Piti; Muzik, Otto; Behen, Michael E; Chugani, Harry T; Chugani, Diane C

    2011-02-14

    The powerful emotion inducing properties of music are well-known, yet music may convey differing emotional responses depending on environmental factors. We hypothesized that neural mechanisms involved in listening to music may differ when presented together with visual stimuli that conveyed the same emotion as the music when compared to visual stimuli with incongruent emotional content. We designed this study to determine the effect of auditory (happy and sad instrumental music) and visual stimuli (happy and sad faces) congruent or incongruent for emotional content on audiovisual processing using fMRI blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal contrast. The experiment was conducted in the context of a conventional block-design experiment. A block consisted of three emotional ON periods, music alone (happy or sad music), face alone (happy or sad faces), and music combined with faces where the music excerpt was played while presenting either congruent emotional faces or incongruent emotional faces. We found activity in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and fusiform gyrus (FG) to be differentially modulated by music and faces depending on the congruence of emotional content. There was a greater BOLD response in STG when the emotion signaled by the music and faces was congruent. Furthermore, the magnitude of these changes differed for happy congruence and sad congruence, i.e., the activation of STG when happy music was presented with happy faces was greater than the activation seen when sad music was presented with sad faces. In contrast, incongruent stimuli diminished the BOLD response in STG and elicited greater signal change in bilateral FG. Behavioral testing supplemented these findings by showing that subject ratings of emotion in faces were influenced by emotion in music. When presented with happy music, happy faces were rated as more happy (p=0.051) and sad faces were rated as less sad (p=0.030). When presented with sad music, happy faces were rated as less

  7. The influence of performance on action-effect integration in sense of agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Wen; Yamashita, Atsushi; Asama, Hajime

    2017-08-01

    Sense of agency refers to the subjective feeling of being able to control an outcome through one's own actions or will. Prior studies have shown that both sensory processing (e.g., comparisons between sensory feedbacks and predictions basing on one's motor intentions) and high-level cognitive/constructive processes (e.g., inferences based on one's performance or the consequences of one's actions) contribute to judgments of sense of agency. However, it remains unclear how these two types of processes interact, which is important for clarifying the mechanisms underlying sense of agency. Thus, we examined whether performance-based inferences influence action-effect integration in sense of agency using a delay detection paradigm in two experiments. In both experiments, participants pressed left and right arrow keys to control the direction in which a moving dot was travelling. The dot's response delay was manipulated randomly on 7 levels (0-480ms) between the trials; for each trial, participants were asked to judge whether the dot response was delayed and to rate their level of agency over the dot. In Experiment 1, participants tried to direct the dot to reach a destination on the screen as quickly as possible. Furthermore, the computer assisted participants by ignoring erroneous commands for half of the trials (assisted condition), while in the other half, all of the participants' commands were executed (self-control condition). In Experiment 2, participants directed the dot as they pleased (without a specific goal), but, in half of the trials, the computer randomly ignored 32% of their commands (disturbed condition) rather than assisted them. The results from the two experiments showed that performance enhanced action-effect integration. Specifically, when task performance was improved through the computer's assistance in Experiment 1, delay detection was reduced in the 480-ms delay condition, despite the fact that 32% of participants' commands were ignored

  8. Proportion congruency effects: Instructions may be enough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga eEntel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Learning takes time, namely, one needs to be exposed to contingency relations between stimulus dimensions in order to learn, whereas intentional control can be recruited through task demands. Therefore showing that control can be recruited as a function of experimental instructions alone, that is, adapting the processing according to the instructions before the exposure to the task, can be taken as evidence for existence of control recruitment in the absence of learning. This was done by manipulating the information given at the outset of the experiment. In the first experiment, we manipulated list-level congruency proportion. Half of the participants were informed that most of the stimuli would be congruent, whereas the other half were informed that most of the stimuli would be incongruent. This held true for the stimuli in the second part of each experiment. In the first part, however, the proportion of the two stimulus types was equal. A proportion congruent effect was found in both parts of the experiment, but it was larger in the second part. In our second experiment, we manipulated the proportion of the stimuli within participants by applying an item-specific design. This was done by presenting some color words most often in their congruent color, and other color words in incongruent colors. Participants were informed about the exact word-color pairings in advance. Similar to Experiment 1, this held true only for the second experimental part. In contrast to our first experiment, informing participants in advance did not result in an item-specific proportion effect, which was observed only in the second part. Thus our results support the hypothesis that instructions may be enough to trigger list-level control, yet learning does contribute to the proportion congruent effect under such conditions. The item-level proportion effect is apparently caused by learning or at least it is moderated by it.

  9. The Influence of Facial Signals on the Automatic Imitation of Hand Actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Emily E; Ward, Robert; Ramsey, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Imitation and facial signals are fundamental social cues that guide interactions with others, but little is known regarding the relationship between these behaviors. It is clear that during expression detection, we imitate observed expressions by engaging similar facial muscles. It is proposed that a cognitive system, which matches observed and performed actions, controls imitation and contributes to emotion understanding. However, there is little known regarding the consequences of recognizing affective states for other forms of imitation, which are not inherently tied to the observed emotion. The current study investigated the hypothesis that facial cue valence would modulate automatic imitation of hand actions. To test this hypothesis, we paired different types of facial cue with an automatic imitation task. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that a smile prompted greater automatic imitation than angry and neutral expressions. Additionally, a meta-analysis of this and previous studies suggests that both happy and angry expressions increase imitation compared to neutral expressions. By contrast, Experiments 3 and 4 demonstrated that invariant facial cues, which signal trait-levels of agreeableness, had no impact on imitation. Despite readily identifying trait-based facial signals, levels of agreeableness did not differentially modulate automatic imitation. Further, a Bayesian analysis showed that the null effect was between 2 and 5 times more likely than the experimental effect. Therefore, we show that imitation systems are more sensitive to prosocial facial signals that indicate "in the moment" states than enduring traits. These data support the view that a smile primes multiple forms of imitation including the copying actions that are not inherently affective. The influence of expression detection on wider forms of imitation may contribute to facilitating interactions between individuals, such as building rapport and affiliation.

  10. About the influence of wheel slide protection devices action on longitudinal dynamic of trains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruceanu Cătălin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheel slide protection devices (WSPD are destined to avoid important sliding of wheels during braking actions in case of temporarily impaired wheel-rail adhesion by correspondent reductions of air pressure in brake cylinders. Accordingly, longer braking distances and higher longitudinal in-train forces occur, potentially affecting the traffic safety and the passengers comfort. A general analyse and evaluation of these effects are the main targets of the present study. The theoretical considerations are sustained by simulations of braking process, considering situations of normal, respectively diminished wheel-rail adhesion determining random actuations of WSPD. The air pressure evolution in brake cylinders of was experimentally determined on a computerized brake system test stand and adequately used as input in simulations. The results indicate an increase of in-train forces and a more complex evolution of the longitudinal dynamic actions between the vehicles in the case of degraded wheel-rail adhesion, when the random actuation of WSPD have major influence in the whole braking process.

  11. The case for causal influences of action videogame play upon vision and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjánsson, Árni

    2013-05-01

    Over the past decade, exciting findings have surfaced suggesting that routine action videogame play improves attentional and perceptual skills. Apparently, performance during multiple-object tracking, useful-field-of-view tests, and task switching improves, contrast sensitivity and spatial-resolution thresholds decrease, and the attentional blink and backward masking are lessened by short-term training on action videogames. These are remarkable findings showing promise for the training of attention and the treatment of disorders of attentional function. While the findings are interesting, evidence of causal influences of videogame play is not as strong as is often claimed. In many studies, observers with game play experience and those without are tested. Such studies do not address causality, since preexisting differences are not controlled for. Other studies investigate the training of videogame play, with some evidence of training benefits. Methodological shortcomings and potential confounds limit their impact, however, and they have not always been replicated. No longitudinal studies on videogame training exist, but these may be required to provide conclusive answers about any benefits of videogame training and any interaction with preexisting differences. Suggestions for methodological improvement are made here, including recommendations for longitudinal studies. Such studies may become crucial for the field of attentional training to reach its full potential.

  12. The Influence of Glutamate on Axonal Compound Action Potential In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouelela, Ahmed; Wieraszko, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Background  Our previous experiments demonstrated modulation of the amplitude of the axonal compound action potential (CAP) by electrical stimulation. To verify assumption that glutamate released from axons could be involved in this phenomenon, the modification of the axonal CAP induced by glutamate was investigated. Objectives  The major objective of this research is to verify the hypothesis that axonal activity would trigger the release of glutamate, which in turn would interact with specific axonal receptors modifying the amplitude of the action potential. Methods  Segments of the sciatic nerve were exposed to exogenous glutamate in vitro, and CAP was recorded before and after glutamate application. In some experiments, the release of radioactive glutamate analog from the sciatic nerve exposed to exogenous glutamate was also evaluated. Results  The glutamate-induced increase in CAP was blocked by different glutamate receptor antagonists. The effect of glutamate was not observed in Ca-free medium, and was blocked by antagonists of calcium channels. Exogenous glutamate, applied to the segments of sciatic nerve, induced the release of radioactive glutamate analog, demonstrating glutamate-induced glutamate release. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that axolemma contains components necessary for glutamatergic neurotransmission. Conclusion  The proteins of the axonal membrane can under the influence of electrical stimulation or exogenous glutamate change membrane permeability and ionic conductance, leading to a change in the amplitude of CAP. We suggest that increased axonal activity leads to the release of glutamate that results in changes in the amplitude of CAPs.

  13. ISCO and Principal Null Congruences in Extremal Kerr Spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, Parthapratim

    2012-01-01

    The effective potential in universal like coordinates(U, V, θ, φ), which are smooth across the event horizon is derived and investigated the ISCO(Innermost Stable Circular Orbits) explicitly in these coordinates for extremal Kerr spacetime. Extremization of the effective potential for timelike circular orbit shows that the existence of a stable circular geodesics in the extremal spacetime for direct orbit, precisely on the event horizon in terms of the radial coordinate which coincides with the principal null geodesic congruences of the event horizon. These null geodesic congruences mold themselves to the spacetime curvature in such a way that Weyl conformal tensor and its dual are vanished, that is why they are in-fact doubly degenerate principal null congruences.

  14. Gaming to see: Action Video Gaming is associated with enhanced processing of masked stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten ePohl

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent research revealed that action video game players outperform non-players in a wide range of attentional, perceptual and cognitive tasks. Here we tested if expertise in action video games is related to differences regarding the potential of shortly presented stimuli to bias behaviour. In a response priming paradigm, participants classified four animal pictures functioning as targets as being smaller or larger than a reference frame. Before each target, one of the same four animal pictures was presented as a masked prime to influence participants’ responses in a congruent or incongruent way. Masked primes induced congruence effects, that is, faster responses for congruent compared to incongruent conditions, indicating processing of hardly visible primes. Results also suggested that action video game players showed a larger congruence effect than non-players for 20 ms primes, whereas there was no group difference for 60 ms primes. In addition, there was a tendency for action video game players to detect masked primes for some prime durations better than non-players. Thus, action video game expertise may be accompanied by faster and more efficient processing of shortly presented visual stimuli.

  15. Gaming to see: action video gaming is associated with enhanced processing of masked stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Carsten; Kunde, Wilfried; Ganz, Thomas; Conzelmann, Annette; Pauli, Paul; Kiesel, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Recent research revealed that action video game players outperform non-players in a wide range of attentional, perceptual and cognitive tasks. Here we tested if expertise in action video games is related to differences regarding the potential of shortly presented stimuli to bias behavior. In a response priming paradigm, participants classified four animal pictures functioning as targets as being smaller or larger than a reference frame. Before each target, one of the same four animal pictures was presented as a masked prime to influence participants' responses in a congruent or incongruent way. Masked primes induced congruence effects, that is, faster responses for congruent compared to incongruent conditions, indicating processing of hardly visible primes. Results also suggested that action video game players showed a larger congruence effect than non-players for 20 ms primes, whereas there was no group difference for 60 ms primes. In addition, there was a tendency for action video game players to detect masked primes for some prime durations better than non-players. Thus, action video game expertise may be accompanied by faster and more efficient processing of shortly presented visual stimuli.

  16. Subgroups of some Fuchsian groups defined by two linear congruences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yayenie, Omer

    In this article we define a new family of subgroups of Fuchsian groups H(√{m}) , for a squarefree positive integer m , and calculate their index in H(√{m}) and their parabolic class number. Moreover, we will show that the index of these subgroups is closely related to the solvability of a quadratic congruence x2≡ m(mod n) and the number of inequivalent solutions of a quadratic congruence x2≡ 1(mod n) . Finally, we will show that the results obtained by Yilmaz and Keskin [Acta Math. Sin 25 (2005), 215-222] are immediate corollaries of one of the main theorems of this article.

  17. [Factors related to nurses' patient identification behavior and the moderating effect of person-organization value congruence climate within nursing units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Mee; Kang, Seung Wan; Kim, Se Young

    2014-04-01

    This research was an empirical study designed to identify precursors and interaction effects related to nurses' patient identification behavior. A multilevel analysis methodology was used. A self-report survey was administered to registered nurses (RNs) of a university hospital in South Korea. Of the questionnaires, 1114 were analyzed. The individual-level factors that had a significantly positive association with patient identification behavior were person-organization value congruence, organizational commitment, occupational commitment, tenure at the hospital, and tenure at the unit. Significantly negative group-level precursors of patient identification behavior were burnout climate and the number of RNs. Two interaction effects of the person-organization value congruence climate were identified. The first was a group-level moderating effect in which the negative relationship between the number of RNs and patient identification behavior was weaker when the nursing unit's value congruence climate was high. The second was a cross-level moderating effect in which the positive relationship between tenure at the unit and patient identification behavior was weaker when value congruence climate was high. This study simultaneously tested both individual-level and group-level factors that potentially influence patient identification behavior and identified the moderating role of person-organization value congruence climate. Implications of these results are discussed.

  18. The influence of glycyrrhiza and antibiotics on the purgative action of sennoside a from Daiokanzoto in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Emi; Takayama, Kento; Sato, Eiji; Okamura, Nobuyuki

    2011-01-01

    Daiokanzoto (DKT), a Kampo medicine that includes the combination of two crude drugs (rhubarb and glycyrrhiza), is clinically effective for constipation. The aim of this study is to clarify the influence of glycyrrhiza, three glycyrrhiza constituents (glycyrrhizin, liquiritin, and liquiritin apioside), and eight antibiotics on the purgative action of DKT, rhubarb, or sennoside A, a constituent of rhubarb, in mice. The purgative actions of rhubarb and sennoside A were significantly intensified when glycyrrhiza was co-administered orally to mice. Liquiritin and liquiritin apioside but not glycyrrhizin showed significant amplification of the purgative action in a dose-dependent manner. The purgative actions of DKT and sennoside A were significantly reduced by the pre-administration of ampicillin, cefcapene pivoxil, faropenem, fosfomycin, or kanamycin, but were not affected by the pre-administration of clarithromycin or levofloxacin. On the other hand, the purgative action of sennoside A was significantly reduced by the pre-administration of minocycline, whereas that of DKT was not affected. The effect of minocycline on the purgative action of sennoside A was lost when glycyrrhiza was co-administered. These results suggest that liquiritin and liquiritin apioside contribute as active substances for the purgative action of DKT, and some antibiotics reduce the purgative action of DKT and sennoside A. Furthermore, glycyrrhiza has the ability to recover the purgative action of sennoside A suppressed by minocycline via an unknown mechanism.

  19. The Comparative Contributions of Congruence and Social Support in Career Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J. Irene; Moritzen, Sara K.; Robitschek, Christine; Imhoff, Anne; Lynch, Jonathan L. A.

    2001-01-01

    Assesses the relative contributions of social support and interest-occupation congruence in job satisfaction and tenure. Congruence predicted 13% of the variance in job satisfaction for men while social support accounted for 10% of the variance in job satisfaction for women. Neither congruence nor social support predicted tenure. (Contains 35…

  20. Epistemological Belief Congruency in Mathematics between Vocational Technology Students and Their Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schommer-Aikins, Marlene; Unruh, Susan; Morphew, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Three questions were addressed in this study. Is there evidence of epistemological beliefs congruency between students and their instructor? Do students' epistemological beliefs, students' epistemological congruence, or both predict mathematical anxiety? Do students' epistemological beliefs, students' epistemological congruence, or both predict…

  1. Further Insight and Additional Inference Methods for Polynomial Regression Applied to the Analysis of Congruence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ayala; Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Doveh, Etti

    2010-01-01

    In their seminal paper, Edwards and Parry (1993) presented the polynomial regression as a better alternative to applying difference score in the study of congruence. Although this method is increasingly applied in congruence research, its complexity relative to other methods for assessing congruence (e.g., difference score methods) was one of the…

  2. Ept7 influences estrogen action in the pituitary gland and body weight of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Scott G; Dennison, Kirsten L; Samanas, Nyssa Becker; Hickman, Maureen Peters; Eckert, Quincy A; Walker, Tiffany L; Cupp, Andrea S; Shull, James D

    2014-06-01

    Estrogens control many aspects of pituitary gland biology, including regulation of lactotroph homeostasis and synthesis and secretion of prolactin. In rat models, these actions are strain specific and heritable, and multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been mapped that impact the responsiveness of the lactotroph to estrogens. One such QTL, Ept7, was mapped to RNO7 in female progeny generated in an intercross between BN rats, in which the lactotroph population is insensitive to estrogens, and ACI rats, which develop lactotroph hyperplasia/adenoma and associated hyperprolactinemia in response to estrogen treatment. The primary objective of this study was to confirm the existence of Ept7 and to quantify the impact of this QTL on responsiveness of the pituitary gland of female and male rats to 17β-estradiol (E2) and diethylstilbestrol (DES), respectively. Secondary objectives were to determine if Ept7 influences the responsiveness of the male reproductive tract to DES and to identify other discernible phenotypes influenced by Ept7. To achieve these objectives, a congenic rat strain that harbors BN alleles across the Ept7 interval on the genetic background of the ACI strain was generated and characterized to define the effect of administered estrogens on the anterior pituitary gland and male reproductive tissues. Data presented herein indicate Ept7 exerts a marked effect on development of lactotroph hyperplasia in response to estrogen treatment, but does not affect atrophy of the male reproductive tissues in response to hormone treatment. Ept7 was also observed to exert gender specific effects on body weight in young adult rats.

  3. Content congruency and its interplay with temporal synchrony modulate integration between rhythmic audiovisual streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Huang eSu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Both lower-level stimulus factors (e.g., temporal proximity and higher-level cognitive factors (e.g., content congruency are known to influence multisensory integration. The former can direct attention in a converging manner, and the latter can indicate whether information from the two modalities belongs together. The present research investigated whether and how these two factors interacted in the perception of rhythmic, audiovisual streams derived from a human movement scenario. Congruency here was based on sensorimotor correspondence pertaining to rhythm perception. Participants attended to bimodal stimuli consisting of a humanlike figure moving regularly to a sequence of auditory beat, and detected a possible auditory temporal deviant. The figure moved either downwards (congruently or upwards (incongruently to the downbeat, while in both situations the movement was either synchronous with the beat, or lagging behind it. Greater cross-modal binding was expected to hinder deviant detection. Results revealed poorer detection for congruent than for incongruent streams, suggesting stronger integration in the former. False alarms increased in asynchronous stimuli only for congruent streams, indicating greater tendency for deviant report due to visual capture of asynchronous auditory events. In addition, a greater increase in perceived synchrony was associated with a greater reduction in false alarms for congruent streams, while the pattern was reversed for incongruent ones. These results demonstrate that content congruency as a top-down factor not only promotes integration, but also modulates bottom-up effects of synchrony. Results are also discussed regarding how theories of integration and attentional entrainment may be combined in the context of rhythmic multisensory stimuli.

  4. Content congruency and its interplay with temporal synchrony modulate integration between rhythmic audiovisual streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yi-Huang

    2014-01-01

    Both lower-level stimulus factors (e.g., temporal proximity) and higher-level cognitive factors (e.g., content congruency) are known to influence multisensory integration. The former can direct attention in a converging manner, and the latter can indicate whether information from the two modalities belongs together. The present research investigated whether and how these two factors interacted in the perception of rhythmic, audiovisual (AV) streams derived from a human movement scenario. Congruency here was based on sensorimotor correspondence pertaining to rhythm perception. Participants attended to bimodal stimuli consisting of a humanlike figure moving regularly to a sequence of auditory beat, and detected a possible auditory temporal deviant. The figure moved either downwards (congruently) or upwards (incongruently) to the downbeat, while in both situations the movement was either synchronous with the beat, or lagging behind it. Greater cross-modal binding was expected to hinder deviant detection. Results revealed poorer detection for congruent than for incongruent streams, suggesting stronger integration in the former. False alarms increased in asynchronous stimuli only for congruent streams, indicating greater tendency for deviant report due to visual capture of asynchronous auditory events. In addition, a greater increase in perceived synchrony was associated with a greater reduction in false alarms for congruent streams, while the pattern was reversed for incongruent ones. These results demonstrate that content congruency as a top-down factor not only promotes integration, but also modulates bottom-up effects of synchrony. Results are also discussed regarding how theories of integration and attentional entrainment may be combined in the context of rhythmic multisensory stimuli.

  5. The Golden Mean and an Intriguing Congruence Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagni, David L.; Gannon, Gerald E.

    1981-01-01

    Presented is a method for finding two triangles that have five pairs of congruent parts, yet fail to be congruent. The solution is thought to involve some creative insights that should challenge both the teacher and students to recall and analyze all the congruence axioms and theorems. (MP)

  6. The effect of congruence in policy priorities on electoral participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reher, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes that voters are more likely to turn out at elections if candidates and parties address their issue concerns in the election campaign. Voters with high levels of congruence in policy priorities should perceive the campaign as more interesting and the election as more relevant. ...

  7. School Personnel-Student Racial Congruence and the Achievement Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Allison B.; MacGregor, Cynthia; Cornelius-White, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the relationship between student achievement and racial congruence of school personnel and students to help educators and policy makers narrow the achievement gap. Design/methodology/approach: This quasi-experimental, correlational study used publicly available data from 158 elementary schools in the Houston…

  8. Improving Students' Attitudes toward Science Using Instructional Congruence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zain, Ahmad Nurulazam Md; Samsudin, Mohd Ali; Rohandi, Robertus; Jusoh, Azman

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to improve students' attitudes toward science using instructional congruence. The study was conducted in Malaysia, in three low-performing secondary schools in the state of Penang. Data collected with an Attitudes in Science instrument were analysed using Rasch modeling. Qualitative data based on the reflections of…

  9. Semantic congruence in audio-haptic simulation of footsteps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchet, Luca; Serafin, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    of semantic congruence for those audio–haptic pairs of materials which belonged to the same typology. Furthermore, better matching ability was found for the passive case compared to the interactive one, although this may be due to the limits of the technology used for the interactive haptic simulations....

  10. Measuring Perceptual (In) Congruence between Information Service Providers and Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Crystal

    2017-01-01

    Library quality is no longer evaluated solely on the value of its collections, as user perceptions of service quality play an increasingly important role in defining overall library value. This paper presents a retooling of the LibQUAL+ survey instrument, blending the gap measurement model with perceptual congruence model studies from information…

  11. Carbon source and myc expression influence the antiproliferative actions of metformin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javeshghani, Shiva; Zakikhani, Mahvash; Austin, Shane; Bazile, Miguel; Blouin, Marie-José; Topisirovic, Ivan; St-Pierre, Julie; Pollak, Michael N

    2012-12-01

    Epidemiologic and experimental data have led to increased interest in possible roles of biguanides in cancer prevention and/or treatment. Prior studies suggest that the primary action of metformin is inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation, resulting in reduced mitochondrial ATP production and activation of AMPK. In vitro, this may lead to AMPK-dependent growth inhibition if AMPK and its effector pathways are intact or to an energetic crisis if these are defective. We now show that the effect of exposure of several transformed cell lines to metformin varies with carbon source: in the presence of glutamine and absence of glucose, a 75% decrease in cellular ATP and an 80% decrease in cell number is typical; in contrast, when glucose is present, metformin exposure leads to increased glycolysis, with only a modest reduction in ATP level and cell number. Overexpression of myc was associated with sensitization to the antiproliferative effects of metformin, consistent with myc involvement in "glutamine addiction". Our results reveal previously unrecognized factors that influence metformin sensitivity and suggest that metformin-induced increase in glycolysis attenuates the antiproliferative effects of the compound.

  12. Semantic congruency but not temporal synchrony enhances long-term memory performance for audio-visual scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerhoff, Hauke S; Huff, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Human long-term memory for visual objects and scenes is tremendous. Here, we test how auditory information contributes to long-term memory performance for realistic scenes. In a total of six experiments, we manipulated the presentation modality (auditory, visual, audio-visual) as well as semantic congruency and temporal synchrony between auditory and visual information of brief filmic clips. Our results show that audio-visual clips generally elicit more accurate memory performance than unimodal clips. This advantage even increases with congruent visual and auditory information. However, violations of audio-visual synchrony hardly have any influence on memory performance. Memory performance remained intact even with a sequential presentation of auditory and visual information, but finally declined when the matching tracks of one scene were presented separately with intervening tracks during learning. With respect to memory performance, our results therefore show that audio-visual integration is sensitive to semantic congruency but remarkably robust against asymmetries between different modalities.

  13. Teamwork orientation and personal learning: The role of individual cultural values and value congruence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Mustafa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: There is a growing body of research that indicates that personal factors such as collectivist value orientation play an important role in individuals’ preference for teamwork, and an individual’s propensity to work in a team is seen as a contributing factor in one’s personal learning. Research purpose: The purpose of this article is twofold. Firstly, the article aims to explore whether individual-level cultural values of power distance, uncertainty avoidance and masculinity–femininity interact with individual collectivist values to influence teamwork orientation. Secondly, the study aims to examine the influence of teamwork orientation on personal learning further exploring the role of perceived value congruence in this relationship. Motivation for the study: While an extensive amount of research has been conducted on teamwork orientation, the question of how individual cultural values influence formation of teamwork orientation is still largely unanswered. This lack is especially evident with regard to how the influence of collectivism on the development of positive attitudes towards teamwork is promoted or inhibited by other values such as power distance, uncertainty avoidance and masculinity–femininity. Moreover, the current evidence about the influence of teamwork orientation on personal learning and the role of personal and contextual factors in such a relationship is still scarce. Research design, approach and method: The study used a cross-sectional survey, with data collected from 120 business students engaged in project teams at a Norwegian university. All the hypothesised relationships were assessed using partial least square structural equation modelling technique. Main findings: The findings indicate that the link between collectivism–teamwork orientation is stronger for team members who scored high on uncertainty avoidance values and the relationship was weaker for team members who endorsed high

  14. Exam Preparation: The Influence of Action Control, Procrastination and Examination Experience on Students' Goal Intention and Implementation Intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In the framework of the intention-behavior-gap analysis in relation to exam preparation I examined whether intention--subdivided into goal and implementation intention--is influenced directly by the determinants action control, procrastination and examination experience which is consistent with the Theory of Planned Behavior and…

  15. Comparison of congruence judgment and auditory localization tasks for assessing the spatial limits of visual capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosen, Adam K; Fleming, Justin T; Brown, Sarah E; Allen, Paul D; O'Neill, William E; Paige, Gary D

    2016-12-01

    Vision typically has better spatial accuracy and precision than audition and as a result often captures auditory spatial perception when visual and auditory cues are presented together. One determinant of visual capture is the amount of spatial disparity between auditory and visual cues: when disparity is small, visual capture is likely to occur, and when disparity is large, visual capture is unlikely. Previous experiments have used two methods to probe how visual capture varies with spatial disparity. First, congruence judgment assesses perceived unity between cues by having subjects report whether or not auditory and visual targets came from the same location. Second, auditory localization assesses the graded influence of vision on auditory spatial perception by having subjects point to the remembered location of an auditory target presented with a visual target. Previous research has shown that when both tasks are performed concurrently they produce similar measures of visual capture, but this may not hold when tasks are performed independently. Here, subjects alternated between tasks independently across three sessions. A Bayesian inference model of visual capture was used to estimate perceptual parameters for each session, which were compared across tasks. Results demonstrated that the range of audiovisual disparities over which visual capture was likely to occur was narrower in auditory localization than in congruence judgment, which the model indicates was caused by subjects adjusting their prior expectation that targets originated from the same location in a task-dependent manner.

  16. The Effect of Implicit-Explicit Followership Congruence on Benevolent Leadership: Evidence from Chinese Family Firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Peng, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Benevolent leadership, a traditional Chinese leadership style generated under the influence of Confucianism, has been under growing discussion since its proposal. However, existing research has focused mainly on the consequences of benevolent leadership, and research probing into its antecedents is scarce. To fill such research gap, the current study aims to explore the effect of the congruence between implicit positive followership prototype (PFP) and explicit positive followership trait (PFT) on benevolent leadership. Polynomial regression combined with the response surface methodology was used to test the hypotheses herein. The results, based on a sample of 241 leader-follower dyads from four Chinese family firms, indicated the following: (1) benevolent leadership is higher when leader PFP is congruent with follower PFT than when they are incongruent; (2) in cases of congruence, benevolent leadership is higher when leader PFP and follower PFT are both high rather than low; (3) in the case of incongruence, there is no significant difference for the level of benevolent leadership in two scenarios: "low leader PFP - high follower PFT" and "high leader PFP - low follower PFT".

  17. Assessing the Effect of Musical Congruency on Wine Tasting in a Live Performance Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian (Janice Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available At a wine tasting event with live classical music, we assessed whether participants would agree that certain wine and music pairings were congruent. We also assessed the effect of musical congruency on the wine tasting experience. The participants were given two wines to taste and two pieces of music—one chosen to match each wine—were performed live. Half of the participants tasted the wines while listening to the putatively more congruent music, the rest tasted the wines while listening to the putatively less congruent music. The participants rated the wine–music match and assessed the fruitiness, acidity, tannins, richness, complexity, length, and pleasantness of the wines. The results revealed that the music chosen to be congruent with each wine was indeed rated as a better match than the other piece of music. Furthermore, the music playing in the background also had a significant effect on the perceived acidity and fruitiness of the wines. These findings therefore provide further support for the view that music can modify the wine drinking experience. However, the present results leave open the question of whether the crossmodal congruency between music and wine itself has any overarching influence on the wine drinking experience.

  18. Assessing the Effect of Musical Congruency on Wine Tasting in a Live Performance Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian (Janice)

    2015-01-01

    At a wine tasting event with live classical music, we assessed whether participants would agree that certain wine and music pairings were congruent. We also assessed the effect of musical congruency on the wine tasting experience. The participants were given two wines to taste and two pieces of music—one chosen to match each wine—were performed live. Half of the participants tasted the wines while listening to the putatively more congruent music, the rest tasted the wines while listening to the putatively less congruent music. The participants rated the wine–music match and assessed the fruitiness, acidity, tannins, richness, complexity, length, and pleasantness of the wines. The results revealed that the music chosen to be congruent with each wine was indeed rated as a better match than the other piece of music. Furthermore, the music playing in the background also had a significant effect on the perceived acidity and fruitiness of the wines. These findings therefore provide further support for the view that music can modify the wine drinking experience. However, the present results leave open the question of whether the crossmodal congruency between music and wine itself has any overarching influence on the wine drinking experience. PMID:27433313

  19. Comparison of Congruence Judgment and Auditory Localization Tasks for Assessing the Spatial Limits of Visual Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosen, Adam K.; Fleming, Justin T.; Brown, Sarah E.; Allen, Paul D.; O'Neill, William E.; Paige, Gary D.

    2016-01-01

    Vision typically has better spatial accuracy and precision than audition, and as a result often captures auditory spatial perception when visual and auditory cues are presented together. One determinant of visual capture is the amount of spatial disparity between auditory and visual cues: when disparity is small visual capture is likely to occur, and when disparity is large visual capture is unlikely. Previous experiments have used two methods to probe how visual capture varies with spatial disparity. First, congruence judgment assesses perceived unity between cues by having subjects report whether or not auditory and visual targets came from the same location. Second, auditory localization assesses the graded influence of vision on auditory spatial perception by having subjects point to the remembered location of an auditory target presented with a visual target. Previous research has shown that when both tasks are performed concurrently they produce similar measures of visual capture, but this may not hold when tasks are performed independently. Here, subjects alternated between tasks independently across three sessions. A Bayesian inference model of visual capture was used to estimate perceptual parameters for each session, which were compared across tasks. Results demonstrated that the range of audio-visual disparities over which visual capture was likely to occur were narrower in auditory localization than in congruence judgment, which the model indicates was caused by subjects adjusting their prior expectation that targets originated from the same location in a task-dependent manner. PMID:27815630

  20. The Effect of Implicit–Explicit Followership Congruence on Benevolent Leadership: Evidence from Chinese Family Firms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Peng, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Benevolent leadership, a traditional Chinese leadership style generated under the influence of Confucianism, has been under growing discussion since its proposal. However, existing research has focused mainly on the consequences of benevolent leadership, and research probing into its antecedents is scarce. To fill such research gap, the current study aims to explore the effect of the congruence between implicit positive followership prototype (PFP) and explicit positive followership trait (PFT) on benevolent leadership. Polynomial regression combined with the response surface methodology was used to test the hypotheses herein. The results, based on a sample of 241 leader–follower dyads from four Chinese family firms, indicated the following: (1) benevolent leadership is higher when leader PFP is congruent with follower PFT than when they are incongruent; (2) in cases of congruence, benevolent leadership is higher when leader PFP and follower PFT are both high rather than low; (3) in the case of incongruence, there is no significant difference for the level of benevolent leadership in two scenarios: “low leader PFP – high follower PFT” and “high leader PFP – low follower PFT”. PMID:27375514

  1. Automatic imitation effects are influenced by experience of synchronous action in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Eoin P; Bijvoet-van den Berg, Simone; Caldwell, Christine A

    2018-07-01

    By their fourth year of life, children are expert imitators, but it is unclear how this ability develops. One approach suggests that certain types of experience might forge associations between the sensory and motor representations of an action that may facilitate imitation at a later time. Sensorimotor experience of this sort may occur when an infant's action is imitated by a caregiver or when socially synchronous action occurs. This learning approach, therefore, predicts that the strength of sensory-motor associations should depend on the frequency and quality of previous experience. Here, we tested this prediction by examining automatic imitation, that is, the tendency of an action stimulus to facilitate the performance of that action and interfere with the performance of an incompatible action. We required children (aged between 3 years 8 months and 7 years 11 months) to respond to actions performed by an experimenter (e.g., two hands clapping) with both compatible actions (i.e., two hands clapping) and incompatible actions (i.e., two hands waving) at different stages in the experimental procedure. As predicted by a learning account, actions thought to be performed in synchrony (i.e., clapping/waving) produced stronger automatic imitation effects when compared with actions where previous sensorimotor experience is likely to be more limited (e.g., pointing/hand closing). Furthermore, these automatic imitation effects were not found to vary with age, with both compatible and incompatible responses quickening with age. These findings suggest a role for sensorimotor experience in the development of imitative ability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Influence of Principal Actions That Develop Social Capital as Perceived by Elementary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to identify principal actions and strategies that support teachers in the development of social capital as perceived by teachers in high performing Dallas County elementary schools. This study addressed the following research questions: 1. What principal actions or strategies help teachers develop…

  3. The influence of perceived uncertainty on entrepreneurial action in emerging renewable energy technology; biomass gasification projects in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meijer, Ineke S.M.; Hekkert, Marko P.; Koppenjan, Joop F.M.

    2007-01-01

    Emerging renewable energy technologies cannot break through without the involvement of entrepreneurs who dare to take action amidst uncertainty. The uncertainties that the entrepreneurs involved perceive will greatly affect their innovation decisions and can prevent them from engaging in innovation projects aimed at developing and implementing emerging renewable energy technologies. This article analyzes how perceived uncertainties and motivation influence an entrepreneur's decision to act, using empirical data on biomass gasification projects in the Netherlands. Our empirical results show that technological, political and resource uncertainty are the most dominant sources of perceived uncertainty influencing entrepreneurial decision-making. By performing a dynamic analysis, we furthermore demonstrate that perceived uncertainties and motivation are not stable, but evolve over time. We identify critical factors in the project's internal and external environment which influence these changes in perceived uncertainties and motivation, and describe how various interactions between the different variables in the conceptual model (internal and external factors, perceived uncertainty, motivation and previous actions of the entrepreneurs) positively or negatively influence the decision of entrepreneurs to continue entrepreneurial action. We discuss how policymakers can use these insights for stimulating the development and diffusion of emerging renewable energy technologies

  4. Emotional and behavioral problems among adolescent students: the role of immigrant, racial/ethnic congruence and belongingness in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H; Fife, Kelly A

    2013-09-01

    As levels of immigration and ethnic diversity continue to rise in most Western societies, the social demography of schools is changing rapidly. Although schools represent a prominent developmental context, relatively little is known about the extent to which the racial/ethnic composition of schools influences mental health outcomes in students. The objective of the present study is to examine the association between immigrant and racial/ethnic congruence in school-the numerical representation of a student's immigrant generational status and race/ethnicity in the student body-and levels of emotional and behavioral problems. This study also examines the extent to which the association between congruence and emotional-behavioral problems differs across racial/ethnic immigrant sub-groups and is accounted for by individual perceptions of school belonging. Data come from the in-school survey of the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) conducted in the United States. The sample is nationally representative, and includes 128 schools and 77,150 adolescents in grades 7-12 (50 % female, M age = 14.9 years, SD = 1.78). After controlling for school and family socio-demographic characteristics, immigrant and racial/ethnic congruence in school exhibited a negative association with emotional and behavioral problems for most sub-groups examined. School belonging was associated negatively with emotional and behavioral problems, and partially accounted for the effects linked to congruence in schools. The immigrant and racial/ethnic composition of schools and perceptions of belonging have strong links with emotional and behavioral problems and may represent important targets for intervention.

  5. Benefits of stimulus congruency for multisensory facilitation of visual learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn S Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies of perceptual learning have largely focused on unisensory stimuli. However, multisensory interactions are ubiquitous in perception, even at early processing stages, and thus can potentially play a role in learning. Here, we examine the effect of auditory-visual congruency on visual learning. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Subjects were trained over five days on a visual motion coherence detection task with either congruent audiovisual, or incongruent audiovisual stimuli. Comparing performance on visual-only trials, we find that training with congruent audiovisual stimuli produces significantly better learning than training with incongruent audiovisual stimuli or with only visual stimuli. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This advantage from stimulus congruency during training suggests that the benefits of multisensory training may result from audiovisual interactions at a perceptual rather than cognitive level.

  6. Geodesic congruences in the Palatini f(R) theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shojai, Fatimah; Shojai, Ali

    2008-01-01

    We shall investigate the properties of a congruence of geodesics in the framework of Palatini f(R) theories. We shall evaluate the modified geodesic deviation equation and the Raychaudhuri's equation and show that f(R) Palatini theories do not necessarily lead to attractive forces. Also, we shall study energy condition for f(R) Palatini gravity via a perturbative analysis of the Raychaudhuri's equation.

  7. Maxwell fields and shear-free null geodesic congruences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, Ezra T

    2004-01-01

    We study and report on the class of vacuum Maxwell fields in Minkowski space that possess a non-degenerate, diverging, principal null vector field (null eigenvector field of the Maxwell tensor) that is tangent to a shear-free null geodesics congruence. These congruences can be either surface forming (the tangent vectors being proportional to gradients) or not, i.e., the twisting congruences. In the non-twisting case, the associated Maxwell fields are precisely the Lienard-Wiechert fields, i.e., those Maxwell fields arising from an electric monopole moving on an arbitrary worldline. The null geodesic congruence is given by the generators of the light-cones with apex on the worldline. The twisting case is much richer, more interesting and far more complicated. In a twisting subcase, where our main interests lie, the following strange interpretation can be given. If we allow the real Minkowski space to be complexified so that the real Minkowski coordinates x a take complex values, i.e., x a → z a = x a + iy a with complex metric g η ab dz a dz b , the real vacuum Maxwell equations can be extended into the complex space and rewritten as curl W=i W radical, div W=0 with W=E+iB. This subcase of Maxwell fields can then be extended into the complex space so as to have as source, a complex analytic worldline, i.e., to now become complex Lienard-Wiechart fields. When viewed as real fields on the real Minkowski space (z a = x a ), they possess a real principal null vector that is shear-free but twisting and diverging. The twist is a measure of how far the complex worldline is from the real 'slice'. Most Maxwell fields in this subcase are asymptotically flat with a time-varying set of electric and magnetic moments, all depending on the complex displacements and the complex velocities

  8. Shearfree congruences of null geodesics and Killing tensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, W.; Ruediger, R.

    1980-01-01

    In this communication, the mutual connections between quantities that are generalizations of the notion of a a Killing vector field are investigated. A classification of these quantities in terms of a complex vector field αsub(a) is given. A common feature of all these quantities is that they imply the existence of a pair of shearfree geodetic null congruences. There are no explicit restrictions posed on the Ricci tensor. (author)

  9. Nonequilibrium steady state in open quantum systems: Influence action, stochastic equation and power balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiang, J.-T.; Hu, B.L.

    2015-01-01

    The existence and uniqueness of a steady state for nonequilibrium systems (NESS) is a fundamental subject and a main theme of research in statistical mechanics for decades. For Gaussian systems, such as a chain of classical harmonic oscillators connected at each end to a heat bath, and for classical anharmonic oscillators under specified conditions, definitive answers exist in the form of proven theorems. Answering this question for quantum many-body systems poses a challenge for the present. In this work we address this issue by deriving the stochastic equations for the reduced system with self-consistent backaction from the two baths, calculating the energy flow from one bath to the chain to the other bath, and exhibiting a power balance relation in the total (chain + baths) system which testifies to the existence of a NESS in this system at late times. Its insensitivity to the initial conditions of the chain corroborates to its uniqueness. The functional method we adopt here entails the use of the influence functional, the coarse-grained and stochastic effective actions, from which one can derive the stochastic equations and calculate the average values of physical variables in open quantum systems. This involves both taking the expectation values of quantum operators of the system and the distributional averages of stochastic variables stemming from the coarse-grained environment. This method though formal in appearance is compact and complete. It can also easily accommodate perturbative techniques and diagrammatic methods from field theory. Taken all together it provides a solid platform for carrying out systematic investigations into the nonequilibrium dynamics of open quantum systems and quantum thermodynamics. -- Highlights: •Nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) for interacting quantum many-body systems. •Derivation of stochastic equations for quantum oscillator chain with two heat baths. •Explicit calculation of the energy flow from one bath to the

  10. Distribution, congruence, and hotspots of higher plants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lina; Li, Jinya; Liu, Huiyuan; Qin, Haining

    2016-01-11

    Identifying biodiversity hotspots has become a central issue in setting up priority protection areas, especially as financial resources for biological diversity conservation are limited. Taking China's Higher Plants Red List (CHPRL), including Bryophytes, Ferns, Gymnosperms, Angiosperms, as the data source, we analyzed the geographic patterns of species richness, endemism, and endangerment via data processing at a fine grid-scale with an average edge length of 30 km based on three aspects of richness information: species richness, endemic species richness, and threatened species richness. We sought to test the accuracy of hotspots used in identifying conservation priorities with regard to higher plants. Next, we tested the congruence of the three aspects and made a comparison of the similarities and differences between the hotspots described in this paper and those in previous studies. We found that over 90% of threatened species in China are concentrated. While a high spatial congruence is observed among the three measures, there is a low congruence between two different sets of hotspots. Our results suggest that biodiversity information should be considered when identifying biological hotspots. Other factors, such as scales, should be included as well to develop biodiversity conservation plans in accordance with the region's specific conditions.

  11. The Interplay of Networking Activities and Internal Knowledge Actions for Subsidiary Influence within MNCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Najafi-Tavani, Zhaleh; Giroud, Axèle; Andersson, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    in the UK. The results indicate that the possession of strategic resources (knowledge or embedded relations) increases subsidiary influence only when the knowledge is transferred back to headquarters. Importantly, the impact of subsidiary-headquarters embeddedness, external embeddedness and knowledge......Knowledge-based and network-based activities are known determinants of foreign subsidiary influence. We demonstrate that the interaction between these factors is essential in understanding how subsidiaries gain influence within an MNC. We test this using data on 184 foreign-owned subsidiaries...... development on influence is mediated by the extent of reverse knowledge transfer. This mediating role sheds new light on the antecedents to subsidiary influence....

  12. From Awareness to Action: Determining the climate sensitivities that influence decision makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C.

    2017-12-01

    Through the growth of computing power and analytical methods, a range of valuable and innovative tools allow the exhaustive exploration of a water system's response to a limitless set of scenarios. Similarly, possible adaptive actions can be evaluated across this broad set of possible futures. Finally, an ever increasing set of performance indicators is available to judge the relative value of a particular action over others. However, it's unclear whether this is improving the flow of actionable information or further cluttering it. This presentation will share lessons learned and other intuitions from a set of experiences engaging with public and private water managers and investors in the use of robustness-based climate vulnerability and adaptation analysis. Based on this background, a case for reductionism and focus on financial vulnerability will be forwarded. In addition, considerations for simpler, practical approaches for smaller water utilities will be discussed.

  13. The association between patient-therapist MATRIX congruence and treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendlovic, Shlomo; Saad, Amit; Roll, Uri; Ben Yehuda, Ariel; Tuval-Mashiah, Rivka; Atzil-Slonim, Dana

    2018-03-14

    The present study aimed to examine the association between patient-therapist micro-level congruence/incongruence ratio and psychotherapeutic outcome. Nine good- and nine poor-outcome psychodynamic treatments (segregated by comparing pre- and post-treatment BDI-II) were analyzed (N = 18) moment by moment using the MATRIX (total number of MATRIX codes analyzed = 11,125). MATRIX congruence was defined as similar adjacent MATRIX codes. the congruence/incongruence ratio tended to increase as the treatment progressed only in good-outcome treatments. Progression of MATRIX codes' congruence/incongruence ratio is associated with good outcome of psychotherapy.

  14. Asymptotically shear-free and twist-free null geodesic congruences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozameh, Carlos; Newman, Ezra T

    2007-01-01

    The Robinson-Trautman spacetime is a special case of asymptotically flat spacetimes that possess asymptotically shear-free and twist-free (surface forming) null geodesic congruences. In this paper we show that, although they are rare, a larger class of asymptotically flat spacetimes with this property does exist. In particular, we display the class of spacetimes that possess this dual property and demonstrate how these congruences can be found. In addition, we show that in each case the congruence is isolated in the sense that there are no other neighbouring congruences with this dual property

  15. Second language learning and acculturation: The role of motivation and goal content congruence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Rubenfeld

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study explored how having differing goals and motives for learning a second language influences adaptation in the foreign culture. Specifically, we compared English as a second language (ESL students in two programs, which differed in their long-term goal orientations. Some students were taking ESL courses in order to attend university in their second language, whereas other ESL students took courses that were not followed by an immediate reward. Students in both programs completed measures of acculturation as well as measures of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation for learning English. We found that adaptation to the foreign culture, in the form of acculturation, is best facilitated by congruence between students’ motives and goals. The findings are discussed in terms of their methodological and pedagogical implications

  16. A congruence analysis of the inequality-conflict nexus: Evidence from 16 cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartusevicius, Henrikas

    2017-01-01

    finds evidence to support some of the main pathways proposed in the quantitative literature. Furthermore, the analysis finds that different types of inequalities relate to different conflict categories. Specifically, vertical inequalities relate to non-ethnic governmental conflicts (via an “individual......The relationship between inequality and civil conflict has attracted considerable interest in conflict research. Recent large-N studies have shown that inequalities significantly contribute to the outbreak of civil conflict and have proposed a number of causal pathways to account for this....... These pathways, however, have rarely been assessed in systematic case-based research. This study implements a “middle-N” qualitative congruence analysis of 16 conflicts, focusing on the observable implications of the pathways through which inequalities are typically theorized to influence conflict. The study...

  17. Study of base influence on the active pharmaceutical ingredients releasing from combined ointments with antimycotic action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Luc

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Questions of mycotic diseases therapy keep staying in focus of clinical dermatology interest that is caused first of all by their considerable prevalence for international population. At the same time the dominating pathologies in this area are foot mycosis including skin, foot web space and nail plate affections. Etiotropic pharmacotherapy of foot skin and web spaces is carried out using topical antifungal medications effective against dermatomycetes. Also taking into account the frequent mixt infections, medicines with antibacterial action are desirable. Also topical antifungal medicines for therapy of foot skin mycosis have to satisfy the next requirements as rapid absorbance, safety and usability besides efficacy. Domestic dermatology for these aims has a great pharmacotherapeutical arsenal proposed by 34 semisolid dosage forms, 15 from them are made in Ukraine and the remainder are imported in our country. At the heart of practically all antimycotic medicines for topical therapy of smooth foot skin (as imported so domestic imidazole and triazole derivatives are used and because of their high value they limit the therapeutical potential of population with low profit. 2-mercaptobenzothiazole is interesting as biologically active component of ointments not only because of broad spectrum of antifungal and antibacterial action but also exceptional hydrophobic characteristics which provide long adhesion even after washing during hygienic procedures. In this connection creating of semisolid dosage forms for the topical treatment of skin integument and interdigital folds with biologically active substances from the group of nonspecific antifungal matters (2-mercaptobenzothiazole, chinosolum on the base of domestic technologies is actual for modern pharmaceutical and medical science. During creating of semisolid dosage forms for the external use one of the main experimental fragments is a selection of base which provides high consumer

  18. How preschoolers and adults represent their joint action partner's behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacheli, Lucia Maria; Meyer, M; Hartstra, E; Bekkering, H; Hunnius, S

    2017-10-24

    We investigated the cognitive mechanisms underlying turn-taking joint action in 42-month-old children (Experiment 1) and adults (Experiment 2) using a behavioral task of dressing a virtual bear together. We aimed to investigate how participants represent a partners' behavior, i.e., in terms of specific action kinematics or of action effects. The bear was dressed by pressing a smaller and a bigger button. In the Action-response task, instructions asked participants to respond to the partner by pressing the same or opposite button; in the Action-effect task they had to respond to the partner's action effect by dressing the bear with the lacking part of the clothing, which in some cases implied pressing the same button and in other cases implied pressing the opposite button. In 50% of the trials, the partner's association between each button and the ensuing effect (dressing the bear with t-shirt or pants) was reversed, while it never changed for participants. Both children and adults showed no effect of physical congruency of actions, but showed impaired performance in the Action-effect task if their partner achieved her effect through a different action-effect association than their own. These results suggest that, when encoding their partner's actions, agents are influenced by action-effect associations that they learnt through their own experience. While interference led to overt errors in children, it caused longer reaction times in adults, suggesting that a flexible cognitive control (that is still in development in young children) is required to take on the partner's perspective.

  19. Academics and Advocates: Using Participatory Action Research To Influence Welfare Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quoss, Bernita; Cooney, Margaret; Longhurst, Terri

    2000-01-01

    Participatory action research is a useful technique for helping low income groups access postsecondary education. Conducting research involving analysis of the use of surplus welfare funds and federal regulations and advocating policy changes by explaining the benefits of public investment in postsecondary education are two roles for consumer…

  20. Object Manipulation and Motion Perception: Evidence of an Influence of Action Planning on Visual Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindemann, O.; Bekkering, H.

    2009-01-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors investigated the bidirectional coupling of perception and action in the context of object manipulations and motion perception. Participants prepared to grasp an X-shaped object along one of its 2 diagonals and to rotate it in a clockwise or a counterclockwise direction.

  1. The quasi experimental study of the influence of advertising creativity and exposure intensity toward buying action with aida approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramdan Dede Budiawan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Advertisement is one of marketing communication forms made by companies to reach sales goal of certain product. Advertising creativity is one of important factors that determines the success of television advertisement, beside that the exposure intensity also be determining factor to make the television advertisement get attention from spectators. To measure the spectators response toward advertisement in this research, the researcher used AIDA model. AIDA (attention, interest, desire, action model is one of popular response hierarchy models for marketer as guidance to implement the marketing communication activities. The thesis analyzes the influence of advertising creativity and exposure intensity toward the buying action as the final stage of consumer in deciding the decision to buy product. The research used quasi experimental study to 80 respondents as the target market of the advertised, that is ice cream of Haan brand. The experiment as done in 2 treatments, treatment 1: one advertising exposure and treatment 2: three advertising exposures. The Mann Whitney difference test with SPSS program showed no significant differences between treatment of 1 exposure and 3 exposures. The SEM PLS analysis showed that advertising creativity influenced significantly to attention, interest, desire and action in buying product.

  2. Matter of Similarity and Dissimilarity in Multi-Ethnic Society: A Model of Dyadic Cultural Norms Congruence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Bakar Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking this into consideration of diver cultural norms in Malaysian workplace, the propose model explores Malaysia culture and identity with a backdrop of the pushes and pulls of ethnic diversity in a Malaysia. The model seeks to understand relational norm congruence based on multiethnic in Malaysia that will be enable us to identify Malaysia cultural and identity. This is in line with recent call by various interest groups in Malaysia to focus more on model designs that capture contextual and cultural factors that influences Malaysia culture and identity.

  3. Patient and caregiver congruence: the importance of dyads in heart failure care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retrum, Jessica H; Nowels, Carolyn T; Bekelman, David B

    2013-01-01

    Informal (family) caregivers are integrally involved in chronic heart failure (HF) care. Few studies have examined HF patients and their informal caregiver as a unit in a relationship, or a dyad. Dyad congruence, or consistency in perspective, is relevant to numerous aspects of living with HF and HF care. Incongruence or lack of communication could impair disease management and advance care planning. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine for congruence and incongruence between HF patients and their informal (family) caregivers. Secondary analyses examined the relationship of congruence to emotional distress and whether dyad relationship characteristics (eg, parent-child vs spouse) were associated with congruence. Thirty-four interviews consisting of HF patients and their current informal caregiver (N = 17 dyads) were conducted. Each dyad member was asked similar questions about managing HF symptoms, psychosocial care, and planning for the future. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using the general inductive approach. Congruence, incongruence, and lack of communication between patients and caregivers were identified in areas such as managing illness, perceived care needs, perspectives about the future of HF, and end-of-life issues. Seven dyads were generally congruent, 4 were incongruent, and 6 demonstrated a combination of congruence and incongruence. Much of the tension and distress among dyads related to conflicting views about how emotions should be dealt with or expressed. Dyad relationship (parent-child vs spouse) was not clearly associated with congruence, although the relationship did appear to be related to perceived caregiving roles. Several areas of HF clinical and research relevance, including self-care, advance care planning, and communication, were affected by congruence. Further research is needed to define how congruence is related to other relationship characteristics, such as relationship quality, how congruence can best be

  4. Does DNA Methylation of PPARGC1A Influence Insulin Action in First Degree Relatives of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillberg, Linn; Jacobsen, Stine; Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    and in muscle from individuals at risk of T2D. This study aimed to investigate DNA promoter methylation and gene expression of PPARGC1A in skeletal muscle from first degree relatives (FDR) of T2D patients, and to determine the association with insulin action as well as the influence of family relation. We...... genetic regulation to play a role. No significant effect of familiality on DNA methylation was found. Taken together, increased DNA methylation of the PPARGC1A promoter is unlikely to play a major causal role for the development of insulin resistance in FDR of patients with T2D....... included 124 Danish FDR of T2D patients from 46 different families. Skeletal muscle biopsies were excised from vastus lateralis and insulin action was assessed by oral glucose tolerance tests. DNA methylation and mRNA expression levels were measured using bisulfite sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR...

  5. Phylogenetic congruence and ecological coherence in terrestrial Thaumarchaeota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oton, Eduard Vico; Quince, Christopher; Nicol, Graeme W; Prosser, James I; Gubry-Rangin, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Thaumarchaeota form a ubiquitously distributed archaeal phylum, comprising both the ammonia-oxidising archaea (AOA) and other archaeal groups in which ammonia oxidation has not been demonstrated (including Group 1.1c and Group 1.3). The ecology of AOA in terrestrial environments has been extensively studied using either a functional gene, encoding ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) or 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, which show phylogenetic coherence with respect to soil pH. To test phylogenetic congruence between these two markers and to determine ecological coherence in all Thaumarchaeota, we performed high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA and amoA genes in 46 UK soils presenting 29 available contextual soil characteristics. Adaptation to pH and organic matter content reflected strong ecological coherence at various levels of taxonomic resolution for Thaumarchaeota (AOA and non-AOA), whereas nitrogen, total mineralisable nitrogen and zinc concentration were also important factors associated with AOA thaumarchaeotal community distribution. Other significant associations with environmental factors were also detected for amoA and 16S rRNA genes, reflecting different diversity characteristics between these two markers. Nonetheless, there was significant statistical congruence between the markers at fine phylogenetic resolution, supporting the hypothesis of low horizontal gene transfer between Thaumarchaeota. Group 1.1c Thaumarchaeota were also widely distributed, with two clusters predominating, particularly in environments with higher moisture content and organic matter, whereas a similar ecological pattern was observed for Group 1.3 Thaumarchaeota. The ecological and phylogenetic congruence identified is fundamental to understand better the life strategies, evolutionary history and ecosystem function of the Thaumarchaeota.

  6. Understanding Behavior: Application of the Reasoned-Action Approach in Legitimacy- Building Influence Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    or “ nudged ” toward a particular brand. By contrast, in military influence operations, the target audience is often noncompliant, in the sense that...around this problem—a technique the military has not embraced when it comes to influence operations. There are risks associated with self-reporting, and...and environmental factors associated with the behavior of interest are called control beliefs. These have to do with factors the person sees as

  7. The influence of action on episodic memory: a virtual reality study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancher, Gaën; Barra, Julien; Orriols, Eric; Piolino, Pascale

    2013-01-01

    A range of empirical findings suggest that active learning is important for memory. However, few studies have focused on the mechanisms underlying this enactment effect in episodic memory using complex environments. Research using virtual reality has yielded inconsistent results. We postulated that the effect of action depends on the degree of interaction with the environment and freedom in the planning of an itinerary. To test these hypotheses, we disentangled the interaction and planning components of action to investigate whether each enhances factual and spatial memory. Seventy-two participants (36 male and 36 female) explored a virtual town in one of three experimental conditions: (a) a passive condition where participants were immersed as passenger of the car (no interaction, no planning); (b) a planning-only condition (the subject chose the itinerary but did not drive the car); (c) an interaction-only condition (the subject drove the car but the itinerary was fixed). We found that itinerary choice and motor control both enhanced spatial memory, while factual memory was impaired by online motor control. The role of action in memory is discussed.

  8. The Influence of Estrogens on the Biological and Therapeutic Actions of Growth Hormone in the Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Fernández-Pérez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available GH is main regulator of body growth and composition, somatic development, intermediate metabolism and gender-dependent dimorphism in mammals. The liver is a direct target of estrogens because it expresses estrogen receptors which are connected with development, lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity, hepatic carcinogenesis, protection from drug-induced toxicity and fertility. In addition, estrogens can modulate GH actions in liver by acting centrally, regulating pituitary GH secretion, and, peripherally, by modulating GHR-JAK2-STAT5 signalling pathway. Therefore, the interactions of estrogens with GH actions in liver are biologically and clinically relevant because disruption of GH signaling may cause alterations of its endocrine, metabolic, and gender differentiated functions and it could be linked to dramatic impact in liver physiology during development as well as in adulthood. Finally, the interplay of estrogens with GH is relevant because physiological roles these hormones have in human, and the widespread exposition of estrogen or estrogen-related compounds in human. This review highlights the importance of these hormones in liver physiology as well as how estrogens modulate GH actions in liver which will help to improve the clinical use of these hormones.

  9. Interfaces and the Question of Regional Congruence in Spin Glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, C. M.; Stein, D. L.

    2001-01-01

    We present a general theorem restricting properties of interfaces between thermodynamic states and apply it to the spin glass excitations observed numerically by Krzakala and Martin and separately by Palassini and Young in spatial dimensions d=3,4. We show that such excitations, with interface dimension d s < d, cannot yield regionally congruent thermodynamic states. More generally, zero density interfaces of translation-covariant excitations cannot be pinned (by the disorder) in any d but rather must deflect to infinity in the thermodynamic limit. Additional consequences concerning regional congruence in spin glasses and other systems are discussed

  10. On the construction of the Taub-NUT congruence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, P.A.; Criss, T.

    1976-01-01

    It is described how the null congruence tangent to the multiple Debever-Penrose direction of the Taub-NUT solution of Einstein's vacuum field equations may be constructed emanating into the future from a timelike world tube having normal cross sections. The curious shapes of the cross sections of the world tube are plotted, using a computer, for critical ranges of the parameter b/R 0 where b is the Taub-NUT parameter and R 0 is the 'radius' of the world tube. It is found that these cross sections can be maintained spatially compact only for some values of b/R 0 . (author)

  11. The influence of an interfacial heat release on nonlinear convective regimes under the action of an imposed temperature gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simanovskii, Ilya B, E-mail: cesima@tx.technion.ac.il [Department of Mathematics, Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, 32000 Haifa (Israel)

    2016-12-15

    The influence of an interfacial heat release on nonlinear convective regimes, developed under the action of an imposed temperature gradient in the 47v2 silicone oil–water system, has been studied. Two types of boundary conditions—periodic boundary conditions and rigid heat-insulated lateral walls—have been considered. Transitions between the flows with different spatial structures have been investigated. It is shown that the presence of an interfacial heat release can change the sequence of bifurcations and can lead to the appearance of new oscillatory regimes. The period-three phase trajectory has been found. (paper)

  12. Congruence between Students' and Teachers' Goals: Implications for Social and Academic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, Christopher; Wentzel, Kathryn R.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined student-teacher goal congruence and its relation to social and academic motivation. Based on a sample of 97 ninth-graders, high levels of goal congruence for each of the four goals measured (prosocial, responsibility, learning, performance) was positively related to student interest in class and perceived social support from…

  13. Brand visualization: Effects of "product shape- typeface design" congruence on brand perceptions and price expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rompay, Thomas Johannes Lucas; Pruyn, Adriaan T.H.

    2008-01-01

    This research addresses effects of congruence of symbolic meanings connoted through product shape and typeface design on brand perceptions and price expectations. Based on processing fluency accounts, it is predicted that shape-typeface congruence, as opposed to shape-typeface incongruence,

  14. Methodological review: measured and reported congruence between preferred and actual place of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, C L; Somogyi-Zalud, E; Masaki, K H

    2009-09-01

    Congruence between preferred and actual place of death is an important palliative care outcome reported in the literature. We examined methods of measuring and reporting congruence to highlight variations impairing cross-study comparisons. Medline, PsychInfo, CINAHL, and Web of Science were systematically searched for clinical research studies examining patient preference and congruence as an outcome. Data were extracted into a matrix, including purpose, reported congruence, and method for eliciting preference. Studies were graded for quality. Using tables of preferred versus actual places of death, an overall congruence (total met preferences out of total preferences) and a kappa statistic of agreement were determined for each study. Twelve studies were identified. Percentage of congruence was reported using four different definitions. Ten studies provided a table or partial table of preferred versus actual deaths for each place. Three studies provided kappa statistics. No study achieved better than moderate agreement when analysed using kappa statistics. A study which elicited ideal preference reported the lowest agreement, while longitudinal studies reporting final preferred place of death yielded the highest agreement (moderate agreement). Two other studies of select populations also yielded moderate agreement. There is marked variation in methods of eliciting and reporting congruence, even among studies focused on congruence as an outcome. Cross-study comparison would be enhanced by the use of similar questions to elicit preference, tables of preferred versus actual places of death, and kappa statistics of agreement.

  15. Congruence between Culturally Competent Treatment and Cultural Needs of Older Latinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Giuseppe; Malgady, Robert G.; Primavera, Louis H.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated a new 2-factor construct, termed "cultural congruence", which is related to cultural competence in the delivery of mental health services to ethnic minority clients. Cultural congruence was defined as the distance between the cultural competence characteristics of the health care organization and the clients' perception of…

  16. An equation satisfied by the tangent to a shear-free, geodesic, null congruence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, P.A.; Dublin Inst. for Advanced Studies

    1987-01-01

    A tensorial equation satisfied by the tangent to a shear-free geodesic, null congruence is presented. If the congruence is neither twist-free nor expansion-free then the equation defines a second, unique, null direction previously obtained, using the spinor formalism, by Somers. Some further properties of the equation are discussed. (orig.)

  17. Effects of Interest-Major Congruence, Motivation, and Academic Performance on Timely Degree Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jeff; Robbins, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Using longitudinal student data from 15 four-year (n = 3,072) and 13 (n = 788) two-year postsecondary institutions, the authors tested the effects of interest-major congruence, motivation, and 1st-year academic performance on timely degree completion. Findings suggest that interest-major congruence has a direct effect on timely degree completion…

  18. More than words: On the importance of picture-text congruence in the online environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rompay, Thomas Johannes Lucas; de Vries, Pieter Walter; van Venrooij, Xaviera G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses effects of picture–text congruence in the online environment on consumer response. Based on recent theorizing on processing fluency, it is argued that congruence among symbolic meanings connoted by pictorial and textual elements of web design increases processing fluency, in

  19. THE INFLUENCE OF HYPOTHERMIA (SURFACE COOLING) ON THE TIME-COURSE OF ACTION AND ON THE PHARMACOKINETICS OF ROCURONIUM IN HUMANS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BEAUFORT, AM; WIERDA, JMKH; BELOPAVLOVIC, M; NEDERVEEN, PJ; KLEEF, UW; AGOSTON, S

    Hypothermia prolongs the time-course of action of non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents. The mechanism, however, is unknown. We studied the influence of hypothermia (by surface cooling, nasopharyngeal temperature less than or equal to 31 degrees C) on the time-course of action and on the

  20. The Influence of Prior Knowledge on Perception and Action: Relationships to Autistic Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Gavin; Michelakakis, Elizabeth Evgenia; Rajendran, Gnanathusharan

    2016-01-01

    Autism is characterised by a range of perceptual and sensorimotor deficits, which might be related to abnormalities in how autistic individuals use prior knowledge. We investigated this proposition in a large non-clinical population in the context of the size-weight illusion, where individual's expectations about object weight influence their…

  1. Thumb carpometacarpal joint congruence during functional tasks and thumb range-of-motion activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halilaj, Eni; Moore, Douglas C; Patel, Tarpit K; Laidlaw, David H; Ladd, Amy L; Weiss, Arnold-Peter C; Crisco, Joseph J

    2017-01-01

    Joint incongruity is often cited as a possible etiological factor for the high incidence of thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) joint osteoarthritis (OA) in older women. There is evidence suggesting that biomechanics plays a role in CMC OA progression, but little is known about how CMC joint congruence, specifically, differs among different cohorts. The purpose of this in vivo study was to determine if CMC joint congruence differs with sex, age, and early stage OA for different thumb positions. Using CT data from 155 subjects and a congruence metric that is based on both articular morphology and joint posture, we did not find any differences in CMC joint congruence with sex or age group, but found that patients in the early stages of OA exhibit lower congruence than healthy subjects of the same age group. PMID:25570956

  2. Thumb carpometacarpal joint congruence during functional tasks and thumb range-of-motion activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halilaj, Eni; Moore, Douglas C; Patel, Tarpit K; Laidlaw, David H; Ladd, Amy L; Weiss, Arnold-Peter C; Crisco, Joseph J

    2014-01-01

    Joint incongruity is often cited as a possible etiological factor for the high incidence of thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) joint osteoarthritis (OA) in older women. There is evidence suggesting that biomechanics plays a role in CMC OA progression, but little is known about how CMC joint congruence, specifically, differs among different cohorts. The purpose of this in vivo study was to determine if CMC joint congruence differs with sex, age, and early stage OA for different thumb positions. Using CT data from 155 subjects and a congruence metric that is based on both articular morphology and joint posture, we did not find any differences in CMC joint congruence with sex or age group, but found that patients in the early stages of OA exhibit lower congruence than healthy subjects of the same age group.

  3. An analysis of the relation between employee-organization value congruence and employee attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Elizabeth A; Weathington, Bart L

    2008-11-01

    Researchers have examined the fit or match between a person and an organization extensively in the empirical literature. Overall findings have supported the existence of a positive relation between the congruence of employee and organizational values with employee attitudes toward the organization. However, this relation is not fully understood, and more research is needed to understand the relation between the congruence of different value dimensions and multiple employee attitudes. Therefore, the authors aimed to analyze value congruence across 7 dimensions and its relation to (a) job satisfaction, (b) organizational commitment, (c) satisfaction with the organization as a whole, and (d) turnover intentions. The results suggest that the perceived congruence of employee-organizational values by employees is positively associated with satisfaction with the job and organization as a whole and employee commitment to the organization. The results also support a negative relation between value congruence and employee turnover intentions.

  4. Optimisation of information influences on problems of consequences of Chernobyl accident and quantitative criteria for estimation of information actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobaleu, A.

    2004-01-01

    Consequences of Chernobyl NPP accident still very important for Belarus. About 2 million Byelorussians live in the districts polluted by Chernobyl radionuclides. Modern approaches to the decision of after Chernobyl problems in Belarus assume more active use of information and educational actions to grow up a new radiological culture. It will allow to reduce internal doze of radiation without spending a lot of money and other resources. Experience of information work with the population affected by Chernobyl since 1986 till 2004 has shown, that information and educational influences not always reach the final aim - application of received knowledge on radiating safety in practice and changing the style of life. If we take into account limited funds and facilities, we should optimize information work. The optimization can be achieved on the basis of quantitative estimations of information actions effectiveness. It is possible to use two parameters for this quantitative estimations: 1) increase in knowledge of the population and experts on the radiating safety, calculated by new method based on applied theory of the information (Mathematical Theory of Communication) by Claude E. Shannon and 2) reduction of internal doze of radiation, calculated on the basis of measurements on human irradiation counter (HIC) before and after an information or educational influence. (author)

  5. What influences pre-hospital cannulation intentions in paramedics? An application of the theory of reasoned action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Smita C; Siriwardena, A Niroshan; Iqbal, Mohammad

    2011-02-01

    Intravenous cannulation is a common and important intervention undertaken by paramedics for administration of fluids and drugs in the pre-hospital setting. This study was a partial application of the theory of reasoned action to the prediction of pre-hospital cannulation intentions as part of an evaluation of an educational intervention to change cannulation behaviour in paramedics in line with national guidance. In 2008 a self-completion questionnaire was sent to paramedics from Nottinghamshire and Lincolnshire divisions of East Midlands Ambulance Service NHS Trust, UK. This included measures of prior behaviour related to cannulation, attitude towards cannulation, normative influence related to cannulation and intention to cannulate as well as demographic information. Of the 323 paramedics sent questionnaires 137 (42.2%) responded. Attitude towards cannulation (but not normative or peer influence) was a necessary factor for prediction of intention to cannulate in respondents. Past cannulation behaviour was indirectly related to intention to cannulate through the mediation of attitude towards cannulation. The theory of reasoned action provides a parsimonious way to predict intentions to cannulate. This study suggests that design and evaluation of interventions to reduce inappropriate cannulation should be targeted towards changing attitudes of paramedics, rather than towards addressing behavioural norms. Future research could utilize social-psychological theories to better understand clinical behaviour prior to implementation of complex educational or organizational interventions. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Influence of preliminary radiation-oxidizing treatment on the corrosion resistance of zirconium in conditions of action of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibov, A. A.; Aliyev, A. G.; Agayev, T. N.; Velibekova, G. Z.

    2004-01-01

    Today mainly water-cooled nuclear reactors predominate in atomic energetics. For safe work of nuclear reactors detection of accumulation process of explosives, formed during radiation and temperature influence on heat-carriers in contact with materials of nuclear reactors in normal and emergency regimes of work is of great importance. The main sources of molecular hydrogen formation in normal and emergency regimes are the processes of liquid and vaporous water in vapo metallic reaction [1-5]. At the result of these processes molecular hydrogen concentration in heat-carrier composition always exceeds theoretically expected concentration. One of the main ways to solve the problem of water-cooled reactors safety is detection of possibilities to raise material resistance of fuel elements and heat carrier to joint action of ionizing radiation and temperature. The second way is inhibition of radiation-catalytic activity of construction materials' surface during the process of water decomposition. It's been established, that one of the ways to raise resistance of zirconium materials to the influence of ionizing radiation is formation of thin oxide film on the surface of metals. In the given work the influence of preliminary oxidizing treatment of zirconium surface on its radiation-catalytic activity during the process of water decomposition. With this aim zirconium is exposed to preliminary influence of gamma-quantum in contact with hydrogen peroxide at different meanings of absorbed radiation dose

  7. Spontaneous movement tempo can be influenced by combining action observation and somatosensory stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambra eBisio

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous movement tempo (SMT was a popular field of study of the Gestalt psychologists . It can be determined from subjects freely tapping out a rhythm with their finger, and it has been found to average about 2Hz. A previous study showed that SMT changed after the observation of rhythmical movements performed at frequency different from the SMT. This effect was long-lasting only when movement execution immediately followed action observation (AO. We recently demonstrated that only when AO was combined with peripheral nerve stimulation (AO-PNS was it possible to induce plastic changes in the excitability of the motor cortex, whereas AO and PNS alone did not evoke any changes.Here we investigated whether the observation of rhythmical actions at a frequency higher than the SMT combined with PNS induced lasting changes in SMT even in absence of immediate movement execution. Forty-eight participants were assigned to 4 groups. In AO-PNS group they observed a video showing a right hand performing a finger opposition movement sequence at 3Hz and contemporarily received an electrical stimulation at the median nerve; in AO group and PNS group participants either observed the same video or received the same electrical stimulation of the AO-PNS group, respectively; in LANDSCAPE group subjects observed a neutral video. Participants performed a finger opposition movement sequence at spontaneous movement rate before and 30 min after the conditioning protocols. Results showed that SMT significantly changed only after AO-PNS. This result suggested that the AO-PNS protocol was able to induce lasting changes in SMT due to neuroplasticity mechanisms, indicating possible application of AO-PNS in rehabilitative treatments.

  8. Influence of gamma radiation on the antioxidant action extracts from leaves of gross Anacardium occidentale Linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Gustavo Henrique Farias dos; Silva, Edvane Borges da; Amaral, Ademir de Jesus; Lima, Claudia Sampaio de Andrade

    2014-01-01

    Anacardium occidentale Linn. is popularly known as cashew plant, found in Northeastern Brazil, is of great scientific interest because it contains high levels of bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins, which characterize their applications as natural antioxidants, which can contribute to protect against oxidative processes in the human body. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of 60 Co gamma irradiation in the antioxidant action of the extracts of leaves of A. occidentale. The extracts of A. occidentale were extracted with 70% ethanol, evaporated under reduced pressure and divided into samples control and irradiation at 10 kGy. Subsequently analyzing the kidnapping of radical DPPH (concentrations of 6.25; 12.5; 25; 50; 100 and 200 ppm) and reducing power (concentrations of 25; 50; 100; 200; 400; 600; 800 and 1000 ppm). The results showed increased antioxidant actions dependent on the concentration and dose of 10 kGy in both assays. However, the kidnapping of DPPH activity showed variations from 50% to 92% for control, and 75% and 100% for irradiated. It is observed that the irradiated samples showed maximum activity (100%) in a 4-fold lower concentration (50 ppm) than the control samples. Featuring EC 50 of standards BHT (235.8%) and vitamin C (63.5%) was very low compared with control extracts (8.1%) and irradiated (0.48). However the results obtained in this study indicate that extracts of leaves of A. occidentale irradiated at a dose of 10 kGy exhibit strong antioxidant activity against DPPH and power reducer, this paves its use as a natural source of antioxidants

  9. The influence of expertise on brain activation of the action observation network during anticipation of tennis and volleyball serves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balser, Nils; Lorey, Britta; Pilgramm, Sebastian; Naumann, Tim; Kindermann, Stefan; Stark, Rudolf; Zentgraf, Karen; Williams, A Mark; Munzert, Jörn

    2014-01-01

    In many daily activities, and especially in sport, it is necessary to predict the effects of others' actions in order to initiate appropriate responses. Recently, researchers have suggested that the action-observation network (AON) including the cerebellum plays an essential role during such anticipation, particularly in sport expert performers. In the present study, we examined the influence of task-specific expertise on the AON by investigating differences between two expert groups trained in different sports while anticipating action effects. Altogether, 15 tennis and 16 volleyball experts anticipated the direction of observed tennis and volleyball serves while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The expert group in each sport acted as novice controls in the other sport with which they had only little experience. When contrasting anticipation in both expertise conditions with the corresponding untrained sport, a stronger activation of AON areas (SPL, SMA), and particularly of cerebellar structures, was observed. Furthermore, the neural activation within the cerebellum and the SPL was linearly correlated with participant's anticipation performance, irrespective of the specific expertise. For the SPL, this relationship also holds when an expert performs a domain-specific anticipation task. Notably, the stronger activation of the cerebellum as well as of the SMA and the SPL in the expertise conditions suggests that experts rely on their more fine-tuned perceptual-motor representations that have improved during years of training when anticipating the effects of others' actions in their preferred sport. The association of activation within the SPL and the cerebellum with the task achievement suggests that these areas are the predominant brain sites involved in fast motor predictions. The SPL reflects the processing of domain-specific contextual information and the cerebellum the usage of a predictive internal model to solve the anticipation task.

  10. The influence of industry actions on the availability of alcoholic beverages in the African region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babor, Thomas F; Robaina, Katherine; Jernigan, David

    2015-04-01

    The alcohol beverage industry has been expanding its corporate social responsibility and other business activities in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effects of these activities on the physical, economic, psychological and social availability of alcohol in the region. Narrative review. Source materials came from the business press, industry sources (websites, annual reports, press releases, conference proceedings) and the scientific literature published since 2000. The alcohol industry has intensified its activities in the African region, through their funding of social aspect organizations, technical publications, policy workshops and other corporate social responsibility activities. Marketing campaigns, new product designs and the development of industry-civil society partnerships have increased. There is evidence that the alcohol industry also engages in lobbying, information dissemination and legal action to thwart effective public health measures. The corporate social responsibility activities of the global alcohol industry have provided a vehicle to promote industry-favorable policies and increase the physical, economic, social and psychological availability of alcohol. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. Radioprotective action of carbimazole in radioiodine therapy for thyrotoxicosis - influence of the drug on iodine kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connell, J.M.C.; Alexander, W.D.; Glasgow Univ.

    1987-01-01

    Pretreatment with carbimazole of patients given radioiodine ( 131 I) therapy for thyrotoxicosis reduces the incidence of early hypothyroidism. The possibility that this radioprotective effect might be a consequence of drug induced alteration in thyroidal iodide turnover, leading to a reduction in thyroid irradiation, was investigated in a prospective study of 24 thyrotoxic patients. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive 131 I alone or to be treated with carbimazole for a minimum of three months before 131 I. Thyroxine supplements were given in the latter group to prevent iatrogenic hypothyroidism. The effective half-life of therapeutic 131 I in the thyroid was measured using a gamma camera/computer system after oral administration of the dose, allowing the biological half life of the anion and estimated radiation dose to the thyroid to be derived. Effective half life of 131 I, biological half life of 131 I and estimated radiation dose to the thyroid were similar in the two groups of subjects. It is concluded that the radioprotective action of carbimazole is not a consequence of altered thyroidal iodide kinetics. (orig.)

  12. Body-Image Acceptance and Action Questionnaire: Its deleterious influence on binge eating and psychometric validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Lucena-Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes/Objetivo: Este estudio tuvo como objetivo explorar las propiedades psicométricas del BI-AAQ (Body-Image Acceptance and Action Questionnaire y el papel mediador de la inflexibilidad psicológica relacionada con la imagen corporal en una trayectoria nociva hacia la ingesta compulsiva en muestras brasile˜nas. Método: Este estudio transversal se llevó a cabo en grupos clínicos (mujeres con sobrepeso u obesidad actualmente en tratamiento para la pérdida de peso; n= 330 y no clínicos (grupo de población general; n= 682 de mujeres. Resultados: BI-AAQ presenta la estructura de un factor, excelente consistencia interna, capacidad para detectar diferencias entre grupos e invariancia de medida entre diferentes muestras. Sus puntuaciones se asociaron negativamente con la autocompasión y positivamente con la severidad de la compulsión alimentaria, búsqueda de la delgadez y autocrítica. Conclusiones: Este estudio proporcionó datos que confirman que el BI-AAQ tiene propiedades psicométricas sólidas en muestras cualitativamente diferentes. Además, un estudio adicional efectuado en una muestra clínica de mujeres con sobrepeso u obesidad reveló que la inflexibilidad psicológica relacionada con la imagen corporal emergió como mediadora parcial y significativa del efecto de

  13. Designing Effective Natural Hazards Preparedness Communications: Factors that Influence Perceptions and Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-Parodi, G.; Fischhoff, B.

    2012-12-01

    Even though most people believe that natural hazards preparation is important for mitigating damage to their homes and basic survival in the aftermath of a disaster, few actually disaster-proof their homes, create plans, or obtain supplies recommended by agencies such as the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Several observational studies suggest that socio-demographic characteristics such as income and psychological characteristics such as self-efficacy affect whether or not an individual takes action to prepare for a natural hazard. These studies, however, only suggest that these characteristics may play a role. There has been little research that systematically investigates how these characteristics play a role in people's perceptions of recommended preparatory activities and decisions to perform them. Therefore, in Study 1, we explore people's perceptions of natural hazards preparedness measures on four dimensions: time, cost, helpfulness, and sense of preparedness. We further investigate if these responses vary by the socio-demographic and psychological characteristics of self-efficacy, knowledge, and income level. In Study 2, we experimentally test whether people's sense of self-efficacy, as it relates to natural hazards, can be manipulated through exposure to an "easy-and-effective" versus a "hard-and-effective" set of preparation measures. Our findings have implications for the design of natural hazards communication materials for the general public.

  14. Radioprotective action of carbimazole in radioiodine therapy for thyrotoxicosis - influence of the drug on iodine kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connell, J.M.C.; Hilditch, T.E.; Robertson, J.; Alexander, W.D.

    1987-10-01

    Pretreatment with carbimazole of patients given radioiodine (/sup 131/I) therapy for thyrotoxicosis reduces the incidence of early hypothyroidism. The possibility that this radioprotective effect might be a consequence of drug induced alteration in thyroidal iodide turnover, leading to a reduction in thyroid irradiation, was investigated in a prospective study of 24 thyrotoxic patients. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive /sup 131/I alone or to be treated with carbimazole for a minimum of three months before /sup 131/I. Thyroxine supplements were given in the latter group to prevent iatrogenic hypothyroidism. The effective half-life of therapeutic /sup 131/I in the thyroid was measured using a gamma camera/computer system after oral administration of the dose, allowing the biological half life of the anion and estimated radiation dose to the thyroid to be derived. Effective half life of /sup 131/I, biological half life of /sup 131/I and estimated radiation dose to the thyroid were similar in the two groups of subjects. It is concluded that the radioprotective action of carbimazole is not a consequence of altered thyroidal iodide kinetics.

  15. Effects of mass media action on the Axelrod model with social influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Arezky H.; Moreno, Y.

    2010-07-01

    The use of dyadic interaction between agents, in combination with homophily (the principle that “likes attract”) in the Axelrod model for the study of cultural dissemination, has two important problems: the prediction of monoculture in large societies and an extremely narrow window of noise levels in which diversity with local convergence is obtained. Recently, the inclusion of social influence has proven to overcome them [A. Flache and M. W. Macy, e-print arXiv:0808.2710]. Here, we extend the Axelrod model with social influence interaction for the study of mass media effects through the inclusion of a superagent which acts over the whole system and has non-null overlap with each agent of the society. The dependence with different parameters as the initial social diversity, size effects, mass media strength, and noise is outlined. Our results might be relevant in several socioeconomic contexts and for the study of the emergence of collective behavior in complex social systems.

  16. Action-Perception Coupling in Violinists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren eStewart

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigates auditory-motor coupling in musically trained participants using a Stroop-type task that required the execution of simple finger sequences according to aurally presented number sequences (e.g. ‘2’, ‘4’, ‘5’, ‘3’, ‘1’. Digital remastering was used to manipulate the pitch contour of the number sequences such that they were either congruent or incongruent with respect to the resulting action sequence. Conservatoire-level violinists showed a strong effect of congruency manipulation (increased response time for incongruent versus congruent trials, in comparison to a control group of non-musicians. In experiment 2, this paradigm was used to determine whether pedagogical background would influence this effect in a group of young violinists. Suzuki trained violinists differed significantly from those with no musical background, while traditionally trained violinists did not. The findings extend previous research in this area by demonstrating that obligatory audio-motor coupling is directly related to a musicians’ expertise on their instrument of study and is influenced by pedagogy.

  17. Influence of promised rewards on conflict resolution in healthy participants and patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houvenaghel, Jean-François; Duprez, Joan; Naudet, Florian; Argaud, Soizic; Dondaine, Thibaut; Drapier, Sophie; Robert, Gabriel Hadrien; Drapier, Dominique; Vérin, Marc; Sauleau, Paul

    2016-08-15

    The influence of promised rewards on conflict resolution processes is not clearly defined in the literature, and the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Some studies have shown no effect of reward, while others have demonstrated a beneficial influence. In addition, although the basal ganglia are known to play a critical role in the association between motivation and cognition, the influence of promised rewards on conflict resolution processes in Parkinson's disease (PD) has received little attention. In this context, we assessed the influence of promised rewards on both impulse activation and suppression in 36 healthy participants and 36 patients with PD, using a rewarded Simon task. Analysis of performances revealed that promised rewards worsened the overall congruence effect, but only in healthy participants. Although the incentive context did not modulate the congruence effect in patients, by using the activation-suppression model, we were able to show that promised rewards did influence impulse suppression in patients-but not in healthy participants. Suppressing inappropriate response activation in an incentive context appears to be harder in medically treated Parkinson's disease. This indicates that incentive motivation can modulate at least one cognitive process involved in cognitive action control in patients with medically treated PD. The activation-suppression model provides essential additional information concerning the influence of promised rewards on conflict resolution processes in a pathological population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. ATP Modifies the Proteome of Extracellular Vesicles Released by Microglia and Influences Their Action on Astrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Drago

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular ATP is among molecules promoting microglia activation and inducing the release of extracellular vesicles (EVs, which are potent mediators of intercellular communication between microglia and the microenvironment. We previously showed that EVs produced under ATP stimulation (ATP-EVs propagate a robust inflammatory reaction among astrocytes and microglia in vitro and in mice with subclinical neuroinflammation (Verderio et al., 2012. However, the proteome of EVs released upon ATP stimulation has not yet been elucidated. In this study we applied a label free proteomic approach to characterize the proteome of EVs released constitutively and during microglia activation with ATP. We show that ATP drives sorting in EVs of a set of proteins implicated in cell adhesion/extracellular matrix organization, autophagy-lysosomal pathway and cellular metabolism, that may influence the response of recipient astrocytes to EVs. These data provide new clues to molecular mechanisms involved in microglia response to ATP and in microglia signaling to the environment via EVs.

  19. Application of Phase Congruency for Discriminating Some Lung Diseases Using Chest Radiograph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Mohd Rijal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel procedure using phase congruency is proposed for discriminating some lung disease using chest radiograph. Phase congruency provides information about transitions between adjacent pixels. Abrupt changes of phase congruency values between pixels may suggest a possible boundary or another feature that may be used for discrimination. This property of phase congruency may have potential for deciding between disease present and disease absent where the regions of infection on the images have no obvious shape, size, or configuration. Five texture measures calculated from phase congruency and Gabor were shown to be normally distributed. This gave good indicators of discrimination errors in the form of the probability of Type I Error (δ and the probability of Type II Error (β. However, since 1 −  δ is the true positive fraction (TPF and β is the false positive fraction (FPF, an ROC analysis was used to decide on the choice of texture measures. Given that features are normally distributed, for the discrimination between disease present and disease absent, energy, contrast, and homogeneity from phase congruency gave better results compared to those using Gabor. Similarly, for the more difficult problem of discriminating lobar pneumonia and lung cancer, entropy and homogeneity from phase congruency gave better results relative to Gabor.

  20. The effect of congruence in patient and therapist alliance on patient's symptomatic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilcha-Mano, Sigal; Snyder, John; Silberschatz, George

    2017-05-01

    The ability of alliance to predict outcome has been widely demonstrated, but less is known about the effect of the level of congruence between patient and therapist alliance ratings on outcome. In the current study we examined whether the degree of congruence between patient and therapist alliance ratings can predict symptomatic levels 1 month later in treatment. The sample consisted of 127 patient-therapist dyads. Patients and therapists reported on their alliance levels, and patients reported their symptomatic levels 1 month later. Polynomial regression and response surface analysis were used to examine congruence. Findings suggest that when the congruence level of patient and therapist alliance ratings was not taken into account, only the therapist's alliance served as a significant predictor of symptomatic levels. But when the degree of congruence between patient and therapist alliance ratings was considered, the degree of congruence was a significant predictor of symptomatic levels 1 month later in treatment. Findings support the importance of the level of congruence between patient and therapist alliance ratings in predicting patient's symptomatic levels.

  1. Strategic communications in oral health: influencing public and professional opinions and actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Margo; Fulwood, Charles

    2002-01-01

    In the spring of 2000, US Surgeon General Dr. David Satcher convened a meeting of national experts to recommend strategies to promote equity in children's oral health status and access to dental care. The meeting was planned by a diverse group of health professionals, researchers, educators, and national organizations and by several federal agencies, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Center on Medicare and Medicaid Services, the Health Resources and Services Administration, and the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health. This paper was commissioned by the meeting planners to introduce basic principles of social marketing and strategic communications. Many participants were academic researchers, practicing pediatric dentists and pediatricians, dental educators, policy analysts, and industry representatives, and most had no previous experience with public education or communications campaigns. Other participants were communications professionals, journalists, and community organizers without previous experience in oral health care or financing issues. Thus, the paper also served to introduce and illustrate basic ideas about oral health and general health, racial and ethnic disparities in health, and access to care. Through their interactions, the participants developed a series of recommendations to increase public awareness, build public support, improve media coverage, improve care coordination, expand the workforce, and focus the attention of national, state, and local policymakers on legislative and financing initiatives to expand access to dental care. Future coalitions of health professionals working with the policy, research, advocacy, and business communities may find this paper useful in implementing the action steps identified by the Surgeon General's report, "Oral Health in America."

  2. When will collective action be effective? Violent and non-violent protests differentially influence perceptions of legitimacy and efficacy among sympathizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Emma F; Louis, Winnifred R

    2014-02-01

    Collective action will be effective in achieving broader social change goals to the extent that it influences public opinion yet the degree to which collective action "works" in changing opinion is rarely studied. Experiment 1 (n = 158) showed that, consistent with a logic of strategic non-violence, non-violent collective action more effectively conveys a sense of the illegitimacy of the issue and the efficacy of the group, thereby promoting support for future non-violent actions. Experiment 2 (n = 139) explored the moderating role of allegations of corruption. A social context of corruption effectively undermined the efficacy and legitimacy of non-violent collective action, relative to support for violence, thereby promoting (indirectly) support for future extreme action. The implications of this research, for the logic of strategic non-violence and mobilizing supportive public opinion, are discussed.

  3. Congruence between SMS Language and the Standard Persian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Zandi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available These days cell phone, as the modern instrument has various, cheap, and user-friendly accessories and possibilities. As a result SMS is now one of the most important media used in different situations. In this study, the SMS was analyzed from a linguistic point of view. Using the content analysis method, the grammatical and semantic congruence of the short-messages with standard Persian was examined. Furthermore, the SMS content (quotations, love messages, empathy and greetings, ironies, and jokes and language (Persian, English, Pinglish were studied. For this purpose, 1795 SMSs were received and analyzed during the first half of 2007. The analysis and comparison of the SMSs showed that there is still no specific, uniform language used in their writing. The results showed that though the general tendency is to write in Persian, many SMSs are written in Pinglish.

  4. Emotional congruence with children and sexual offending against children: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhail, Ian V; Hermann, Chantal A; Nunes, Kevin L

    2013-08-01

    Emotional congruence with children is an exaggerated affective and cognitive affiliation with children that is posited to be involved in the initiation and maintenance of sexual offending against children. The current meta-analysis examined the relationship between emotional congruence with children and sexual offending against children, sexual recidivism, and change following sexual offender treatment. A systematic literature review of online academic databases, conference proceedings, governmental agency websites, and article, book chapter, and book reference lists was performed. Thirty studies on emotional congruence with children in sexual offenders against children (SOC) were included in a random-effects meta-analysis. Extrafamilial SOC-especially those with male victims--evidenced higher emotional congruence with children than most non--SOC comparison groups and intrafamilial SOC. In contrast, intrafamilial SOC evidenced less emotional congruence with children than many of the non-SOC comparison groups. Higher levels of emotional congruence with children were associated with moderately higher rates of sexual recidivism. The association between emotional congruence with children and sexual recidivism was significantly stronger in extrafamilial SOC samples (d = 0.58, 95% CI [0.31, 0.85]) compared with intrafamilial SOC samples (d = -0.15, 95% CI [-0.58, 0.27]). Similarly, emotional congruence with children showed a significant reduction from pre- to posttreatment for extrafamilial SOC (d = 0.41, 95% CI [0.33, 0.85]), but not for intrafamilial SOC (d = 0.06, 95% CI [-0.10, 0.22]). Emotional congruence with children is a characteristic of extrafamilial SOC, is moderately predictive of sexual recidivism, and is potentially amenable through treatment efforts. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. From recommendation to action: psychosocial factors influencing physician intention to use Health Technology Assessment (HTA recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Emília

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluating the impact of recommendations based upon health technology assessment (HTA represents a challenge for both HTA agencies and healthcare policy-makers. Using a psychosocial theoretical framework, this study aimed at exploring the factors affecting physician intention to adopt HTA recommendations. The selected recommendations were prioritisation systems for patients on waiting lists for two surgical procedures: hip and knee replacement and cataract surgery. Methods Determinants of physician intention to use HTA recommendations for patient prioritisation were assessed by a questionnaire based upon the Theory of Interpersonal Behaviour. A total of 96 physicians from two medical specialties (ophthalmology and orthopaedic surgery responded to the questionnaire (response rate 44.2%. A multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA was performed to assess differences between medical specialties on the set of theoretical variables. Given the main effect difference between specialties, two regression models were tested separately to assess the psychosocial determinants of physician intention to use HTA recommendations for the prioritisation of patients on waiting lists for surgical procedures. Results Factors influencing physician intention to use HTA recommendations differ between groups of specialists. Intention to use the prioritisation system for patients on waiting lists for cataract surgery among ophthalmologists was related to attitude towards the behaviour, social norms, as well as personal normative beliefs. Intention to use HTA recommendations for patient prioritisation for hip and knee replacement among orthopaedic surgeons was explained by: perception of conditions that facilitated the realisation of the behaviour, personal normative beliefs, and habit of using HTA recommendations in clinical work. Conclusion This study offers a model to assess factors influencing the intention to adopt recommendations from health

  6. The influence of expertise on brain activation of the action observation network during anticipation of tennis and volleyball serves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balser, Nils; Lorey, Britta; Pilgramm, Sebastian; Naumann, Tim; Kindermann, Stefan; Stark, Rudolf; Zentgraf, Karen; Williams, A. Mark; Munzert, Jörn

    2014-01-01

    In many daily activities, and especially in sport, it is necessary to predict the effects of others' actions in order to initiate appropriate responses. Recently, researchers have suggested that the action–observation network (AON) including the cerebellum plays an essential role during such anticipation, particularly in sport expert performers. In the present study, we examined the influence of task-specific expertise on the AON by investigating differences between two expert groups trained in different sports while anticipating action effects. Altogether, 15 tennis and 16 volleyball experts anticipated the direction of observed tennis and volleyball serves while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The expert group in each sport acted as novice controls in the other sport with which they had only little experience. When contrasting anticipation in both expertise conditions with the corresponding untrained sport, a stronger activation of AON areas (SPL, SMA), and particularly of cerebellar structures, was observed. Furthermore, the neural activation within the cerebellum and the SPL was linearly correlated with participant's anticipation performance, irrespective of the specific expertise. For the SPL, this relationship also holds when an expert performs a domain-specific anticipation task. Notably, the stronger activation of the cerebellum as well as of the SMA and the SPL in the expertise conditions suggests that experts rely on their more fine-tuned perceptual-motor representations that have improved during years of training when anticipating the effects of others' actions in their preferred sport. The association of activation within the SPL and the cerebellum with the task achievement suggests that these areas are the predominant brain sites involved in fast motor predictions. The SPL reflects the processing of domain-specific contextual information and the cerebellum the usage of a predictive internal model to solve the anticipation

  7. The influence of expertise on brain activation of the Action Observation Network during anticipation of tennis and volleyball serves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils eBalser

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In many daily activities, and especially in sport, it is necessary to predict the effects of others’ actions in order to initiate appropriate responses. Recently, researchers have suggested that the action–observation network (AON including the cerebellum plays an essential role during such anticipation, particularly in sport expert performers. In the present study, we examined the influence of task-specific expertise on the AON by investigating differences between two expert groups trained in different sports while anticipating action effects. Altogether, 15 tennis and 16 volleyball experts anticipated the direction of observed tennis and volleyball serves while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. The expert group in each sport acted as novice controls in the other sport with which they had only little experience. When contrasting anticipation in both expertise conditions with the corresponding untrained sport, a stronger activation of AON areas (SPL, SMA, and particularly of cerebellar structures, was observed. Furthermore, the neural activation within the cerebellum and the SPL was linearly correlated with participant’s anticipation performance, irrespective of the specific expertise. For the SPL, this relationship also holds when an expert performs a domain-specific anticipation task. Notably, the stronger activation of the cerebellum as well as of the SMA and the SPL in the expertise conditions suggests that experts rely on their more fine-tuned perceptual-motor representations that have improved during years of training when anticipating the effects of others’ actions in their preferred sport. The association of activation within the SPL and the cerebellum with the task achievement suggests that these areas are the predominant brain sites involved in fast motor predictions. The SPL reflects the processing of domain-specific contextual information and the cerebellum the usage of a predictive internal model to

  8. The Influence of Social Networks on the Development of Recruitment Actions that Favor User Interface Design and Conversions in Mobile Applications Powered by Linked Data

    OpenAIRE

    Palos-Sanchez, Pedro R.; Saura, Jose Ramon; Debasa, Felipe

    2018-01-01

    This study analyzes the most important influence factors in the literature, which have the greatest influence on the conversions obtained in a mobile application powered by linked data. With the study of user interface design and a small user survey (n = 101,053), we studied the influence of social networks, advertising, and promotional and recruitment actions in conversions for mobile applications powered by linked data. The analysis of the users’ behavior and their application in the design...

  9. 'Proactive' use of cue-context congruence for building reinforcement learning's reward function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsuga, Judit; Biro, Klara; Tajti, Gabor; Szilasi, Magdolna Emma; Papp, Csaba; Juhasz, Bela; Gesztelyi, Rudolf

    2016-10-28

    Reinforcement learning is a fundamental form of learning that may be formalized using the Bellman equation. Accordingly an agent determines the state value as the sum of immediate reward and of the discounted value of future states. Thus the value of state is determined by agent related attributes (action set, policy, discount factor) and the agent's knowledge of the environment embodied by the reward function and hidden environmental factors given by the transition probability. The central objective of reinforcement learning is to solve these two functions outside the agent's control either using, or not using a model. In the present paper, using the proactive model of reinforcement learning we offer insight on how the brain creates simplified representations of the environment, and how these representations are organized to support the identification of relevant stimuli and action. Furthermore, we identify neurobiological correlates of our model by suggesting that the reward and policy functions, attributes of the Bellman equitation, are built by the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), respectively. Based on this we propose that the OFC assesses cue-context congruence to activate the most context frame. Furthermore given the bidirectional neuroanatomical link between the OFC and model-free structures, we suggest that model-based input is incorporated into the reward prediction error (RPE) signal, and conversely RPE signal may be used to update the reward-related information of context frames and the policy underlying action selection in the OFC and ACC, respectively. Furthermore clinical implications for cognitive behavioral interventions are discussed.

  10. Influence of oxcarbazepine on the antinociceptive action of morphine and metamizole in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakulska, Wanda; Czarnecka, Elzbieta

    2009-01-01

    Numerous methods of management applied in order to obtain higher therapeutic efficacy of drugs with minimum adverse effects include taking advantage of interactions taking place between individual agents. Analgesics are combined with drugs belonging to other therapeutic groups, including, more and more frequently, antiepileptic agents. The influence of oxcarbazepine (10 mg/kg) on the antinociceptive effect of morphine (10 mg/kg) and metamizole (500 mg/kg) was investigated in mice using the hot-plate and tail-flick tests. All drugs were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.). Oxcarbazepine was administered 30 min prior to the injection of analgesic drugs. The reactions to noxious stimuli were measured 30, 60 and 90 min after the administration of an analgesic. The study was further conducted for 10 days with repeated drug doses. Single administration of oxcarbazepine enhanced the antinociceptive effect of a single dose of morphine, and 10-day administration led to a decrease of morphine tolerance in the hot-plate test. Oxcarbazepine administered in a single dose did not affect significantly the antinociceptive effect of metamizole in either of the tests. Multiple administration of oxcarbazepine enhanced the antinociceptive effect of metamizole in the hot-plate test. Oxcarbazepine alone, administered in a single and repeated doses, demonstrated an antinociceptive effect, but only for the hot-plate test, which indicates involvement of supraspinal structures in antinociception.

  11. Effects of interest-major congruence, motivation, and academic performance on timely degree attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jeff; Robbins, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Using longitudinal student data from 15 four-year (n = 3,072) and 13 (n = 788) two-year postsecondary institutions, the authors tested the effects of interest-major congruence, motivation, and 1st-year academic performance on timely degree completion. Findings suggest that interest-major congruence has a direct effect on timely degree completion at both institutional settings and that motivation has indirect effects (via 1st-year academic performance). The total effects of both interest-major congruence and motivation on timely degree completion underscore the importance of both constructs in understanding student adjustment and postsecondary success. Implications for theory and counseling practice are discussed.

  12. Emotional Congruence With Children Is Associated With Sexual Deviancy in Sexual Offenders Against Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Chantal A; McPhail, Ian V; Helmus, L Maaike; Hanson, R Karl

    2017-09-01

    Emotional congruence with children is a psychologically meaningful risk factor for sexual offending against children. The present study examines the correlates of emotional congruence with children in a sample of 424 adult male sexual offenders who started a period of community supervision in Canada, Alaska, and Iowa between 2001 and 2005. Consistent with previous work, we found sexual offenders against children high in emotional congruence with children were more likely to be sexually deviant, have poor sexual self-regulation, experience social loneliness, and have more distorted cognitions about sex with children. Overall, our findings are most consistent with a sexual deviancy model, with some support for a blockage model.

  13. Factors Influencing Physical Activity Behavior among Iranian Women with Type 2 Diabetes Using the Extended Theory of Reasoned Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didarloo, Alireza; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Ardebili, Hassan Eftekhar; Niknami, Shamsaddin; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Alizadeh, Mohammad

    2011-10-01

    Findings of most studies indicate that the only way to control diabetes and prevent its debilitating effects is through the continuous performance of self-care behaviors. Physical activity is a non-pharmacological method of diabetes treatment and because of its positive effects on diabetic patients, it is being increasingly considered by researchers and practitioners. This study aimed at determining factors influencing physical activity among diabetic women in Iran, using the extended theory of reasoned action in Iran. A sample of 352 women with type 2 diabetes, referring to a Diabetes Clinic in Khoy, Iran, participated in the study. Appropriate instruments were designed to measure the desired variables (knowledge of diabetes, personal beliefs, subjective norms, perceived self-efficacy, behavioral intention and physical activity behavior). The reliability and validity of the instruments were examined and approved. Statistical analyses of the study were conducted by inferential statistical techniques (independent t-test, correlations and regressions) using the SPSS package. The findings of this investigation indicated that among the constructs of the model, self efficacy was the strongest predictor of intentions among women with type 2 diabetes and both directly and indirectly affected physical activity. In addition to self efficacy, diabetic patients' physical activity also was influenced by other variables of the model and sociodemographic factors. Our findings suggest that the high ability of the theory of reasoned action extended by self-efficacy in forecasting and explaining physical activity can be a base for educational intervention. Educational interventions based on the proposed model are necessary for improving diabetics' physical activity behavior and controlling disease.

  14. Factors Influencing Physical Activity Behavior among Iranian Women with Type 2 Diabetes Using the Extended Theory of Reasoned Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Didarloo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundFindings of most studies indicate that the only way to control diabetes and prevent its debilitating effects is through the continuous performance of self-care behaviors. Physical activity is a non-pharmacological method of diabetes treatment and because of its positive effects on diabetic patients, it is being increasingly considered by researchers and practitioners. This study aimed at determining factors influencing physical activity among diabetic women in Iran, using the extended theory of reasoned action in Iran.MethodsA sample of 352 women with type 2 diabetes, referring to a Diabetes Clinic in Khoy, Iran, participated in the study. Appropriate instruments were designed to measure the desired variables (knowledge of diabetes, personal beliefs, subjective norms, perceived self-efficacy, behavioral intention and physical activity behavior. The reliability and validity of the instruments were examined and approved. Statistical analyses of the study were conducted by inferential statistical techniques (independent t-test, correlations and regressions using the SPSS package.ResultsThe findings of this investigation indicated that among the constructs of the model, self efficacy was the strongest predictor of intentions among women with type 2 diabetes and both directly and indirectly affected physical activity. In addition to self efficacy, diabetic patients' physical activity also was influenced by other variables of the model and sociodemographic factors.ConclusionOur findings suggest that the high ability of the theory of reasoned action extended by self-efficacy in forecasting and explaining physical activity can be a base for educational intervention. Educational interventions based on the proposed model are necessary for improving diabetics' physical activity behavior and controlling disease.

  15. Application of method of organizational congruences to substitution of organic solvents with vegetable agents for cleaning offset printing machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salerno, S [ENEA, Casaccia (Italy). Area Energia Ambiente e Salute; Tartaglia, R [Unita Sanitaria Locale 10/D, Firenze (Italy); Garzi, S; Biagioni, A [Istituto tecnico Leonardo da Vinci, Firenze (Italy)

    1995-06-01

    The aim of this research is the application of the method of organizational congruences before and after the substitution of organic solvents with vegetable agents for the cleaning offset printing machine in order to assess the organizational changes. A solvent free process is the goal of the SUBSPRINT project (Technology Transfer Program of the European Community). In this study it is shown how human and environmental health is improved by using vegetable agents through this change may lead to some other organizational constraints such as the time needed, the monotony and repetitiveness of the technical actions involved. The authors underline that the knowledge of the new technology impact of health help for a better understanding of the resistance to the change and help for a further amelioration of it.

  16. The Impact of Value Congruence on Consumer-Service Brand Relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, J.; Bloemer, J.M.M.

    2008-01-01

    By integrating results from literature pertaining to social psychology, organizational behavior, and relationship marketing, the authors develop and test a model that explains how value congruence affects the key components of consumer-brand relationship quality and outcomes, including satisfaction,

  17. Value congruence, control, sense of community and demands as determinants of burnout syndrome among hospitality workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio-Martínez, Ángela; Leiter, Michael P; Gascón, Santiago; Gumuchian, Stephanie; Masluk, Bárbara; Herrera-Mercadal, Paola; Albesa, Agustín; García-Campayo, Javier

    2017-09-07

    Employees working in the hospitality industry are constantly exposed to occupational stressors that may lead employees into experiencing burnout syndrome. Research addressing the interactive effects of control, community and value congruence to alleviate the impact of workplace demands on experiencing burnout is relatively limited. The present study examined relationships among control, community and value congruence, workplace demands and the three components of burnout. A sample of 418 employees working in a variety of hospitality associations including restaurants and hotels in Spain were recruited. Moderation analyses and linear regressions analyzed the predictive power of control, community and value congruence as moderating variables. Results indicate that control, community and value congruence were successful buffers in the relationships between workplace demands and the burnout dimensions. The present findings offer suggestions for future research on potential moderating variables, as well as implications for reducing burnout among hospitality employees.

  18. Maxwell, Yang-Mills, Weyl and eikonal fields defined by any null shear-free congruence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassandrov, Vladimir V.; Rizcallah, Joseph A.

    We show that (specifically scaled) equations of shear-free null geodesic congruences on the Minkowski space-time possess intrinsic self-dual, restricted gauge and algebraic structures. The complex eikonal, Weyl 2-spinor, SL(2, ℂ) Yang-Mills and complex Maxwell fields, the latter produced by integer-valued electric charges (“elementary” for the Kerr-like congruences), can all be explicitly associated with any shear-free null geodesic congruence. Using twistor variables, we derive the general solution of the equations of the shear-free null geodesic congruence (as a modification of the Kerr theorem) and analyze the corresponding “particle-like” field distributions, with bounded singularities of the associated physical fields. These can be obtained in a straightforward algebraic way and exhibit nontrivial collective dynamics simulating physical interactions.

  19. A Profile-Based Framework for Factorial Similarity and the Congruence Coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Anselma G; Furr, R Michael

    2017-01-01

    We present a novel profile-based framework for understanding factorial similarity in the context of exploratory factor analysis in general, and for understanding the congruence coefficient (a commonly used index of factor similarity) specifically. First, we introduce the profile-based framework articulating factorial similarity in terms of 3 intuitive components: general saturation similarity, differential saturation similarity, and configural similarity. We then articulate the congruence coefficient in terms of these components, along with 2 additional profile-based components, and we explain how these components resolve ambiguities that can be-and are-found when using the congruence coefficient. Finally, we present secondary analyses revealing that profile-based components of factorial are indeed linked to experts' actual evaluations of factorial similarity. Overall, the profile-based approach we present offers new insights into the ways in which researchers can examine factor similarity and holds the potential to enhance researchers' ability to understand the congruence coefficient.

  20. Leader-follower value congruence in social responsibility and ethical satisfaction: a polynomial regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seung-Wan; Byun, Gukdo; Park, Hun-Joon

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents empirical research into the relationship between leader-follower value congruence in social responsibility and the level of ethical satisfaction for employees in the workplace. 163 dyads were analyzed, each consisting of a team leader and an employee working at a large manufacturing company in South Korea. Following current methodological recommendations for congruence research, polynomial regression and response surface modeling methodologies were used to determine the effects of value congruence. Results indicate that leader-follower value congruence in social responsibility was positively related to the ethical satisfaction of employees. Furthermore, employees' ethical satisfaction was stronger when aligned with a leader with high social responsibility. The theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  1. Fast parallel DNA-based algorithms for molecular computation: quadratic congruence and factoring integers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Weng-Long

    2012-03-01

    Assume that n is a positive integer. If there is an integer such that M (2) ≡ C (mod n), i.e., the congruence has a solution, then C is said to be a quadratic congruence (mod n). If the congruence does not have a solution, then C is said to be a quadratic noncongruence (mod n). The task of solving the problem is central to many important applications, the most obvious being cryptography. In this article, we describe a DNA-based algorithm for solving quadratic congruence and factoring integers. In additional to this novel contribution, we also show the utility of our encoding scheme, and of the algorithm's submodules. We demonstrate how a variety of arithmetic, shifted and comparative operations, namely bitwise and full addition, subtraction, left shifter and comparison perhaps are performed using strands of DNA.

  2. Leisure participation-preference congruence of children with cerebral palsy: a Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment International Network descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imms, Christine; King, Gillian; Majnemer, Annette; Avery, Lisa; Chiarello, Lisa; Palisano, Robert; Orlin, Margo; Law, Mary

    2017-04-01

    To examine participation-preference congruence, regional differences in participation-preference congruence, and predictors of whether children with cerebral palsy participate in preferred activities. The sample (n=236) included 148 males and 88 females aged 10 to 13 years, living in Victoria, Australia (n=110), Ontario (n=80), or Quebec (n=46), Canada. Ninety-nine (41.9%) were classed at Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level I; 89 (37.7%) at GMFCS level II/III; and 48 (20.3%) at GMFCS level IV/V. Participants completed the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment and Preferences for Activity of Children questionnaires. Regional comparisons were performed using one-way analyses of variance and factors influencing participation-preference congruence were explored using multiple linear regression. The proportion of children doing non-preferred activities in each activity type was generally low (2-17%), with only one regional difference. Higher proportions were not doing preferred active physical (range 23.2-29.1% across regions), skill-based (range 21.7-27.9% across regions), and social activities (range 12.8-14.5% across regions). GMFCS level was the most important predictor associated with not doing preferred activities. Children with cerebral palsy did not always participate in preferred active physical and skill-based activities. Understanding discrepancies between preferences and actual involvement may allow families and rehabilitation professionals to address participation barriers. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  3. Understanding the online channel extension of traditional retailers: Online-offline and online-prototypical congruence

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Jinfeng; Li Yilong

    2016-01-01

    Many Chinese traditional retailers have turned to the multichannel forms by establishing their own online stores. When doing so, retail managers face a difficult choice between two online marketing orientations: “pursuit of ideal” (i.e. online-prototypical congruence orientation) and “retention of tradition” (i.e. online-offline congruence orientation). To help managers make this choice, this study proposes a conceptual framework to illustrate how these two orientations affect retail store at...

  4. THE IMPACTS OF SELF-BRAND CONGRUENCE ON BRAND LOYALTY: A STUDY ON CELLULAR PHONE USERS

    OpenAIRE

    Köksal, Can Deniz; Demir, Mehmet Özer

    2012-01-01

    In this study, hypothesized that congruence or incongruence of consumer image and brand image leads positive or negative attitudes towards brand and these attitudes affect consumer decision process as mediators, formation of brand loyalty process is approached from an image congruence perspective. A preformed questionnaire form was used as data collection tool and pure data was analyzed with Structural Equation Modeling in order to demonstrate how observed variables fit the theoretical ...

  5. Congruences of null strings in complex space-times and some Cauchy--Kovalevski-like problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, I.; Rozga, K.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that a problem of construction of a local congruence of null strings is equivalent to a natural Cauchy--Kovalevski-like problem, related to an equation for a spinor field k/sub A/ defining the congruence. Initial data are specified on two-dimensional submanifolds. In left-conformally-flat spaces, the solution of that problem exists for arbitrary initial data

  6. Enhancing Congruence between Implicit Motives and Explicit Goal Commitments: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roch, Ramona M; Rösch, Andreas G; Schultheiss, Oliver C

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Theory and research suggest that the pursuit of personal goals that do not fit a person's affect-based implicit motives results in impaired emotional well-being, including increased symptoms of depression. The aim of this study was to evaluate an intervention designed to enhance motive-goal congruence and study its impact on well-being. Method: Seventy-four German students (mean age = 22.91, SD = 3.68; 64.9% female) without current psychopathology, randomly allocated to three groups: motivational feedback (FB; n = 25; participants learned about the fit between their implicit motives and explicit goals), FB + congruence-enhancement training (CET; n = 22; participants also engaged in exercises to increase the fit between their implicit motives and goals), and a no-intervention control group ( n = 27), were administered measures of implicit motives, personal goal commitments, happiness, depressive symptoms, and life satisfaction 3 weeks before (T1) and 6 weeks after (T2) treatment. Results: On two types of congruence measures derived from motive and goal assessments, treated participants showed increases in agentic (power and achievement) congruence, with improvements being most consistent in the FB+CET group. Treated participants also showed a trend-level depressive symptom reduction, but no changes on other well-being measures. Although increases in overall and agentic motivational congruence were associated with increases in affective well-being, treatment-based reduction of depressive symptoms was not mediated by treatment-based agentic congruence changes. Conclusion: These findings document that motivational congruence can be effectively enhanced, that changes in motivational congruence are associated with changes in affective well-being, and they suggest that individuals' implicit motives should be considered when personal goals are discussed in the therapeutic process.

  7. The Effects of Work Values, Work-Value Congruence and Work Centrality on Organizational Citizenship Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Başak Uçanok

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to test the "work values" inventory developed by Tevruz and Turgut and to utilize the concept in a model, which aims to create a greater understanding of the work experience. In the study multiple effects of work values, work-value congruence and work centrality on organizational citizenship behavior are examined. In this respect, it is hypothesized that work values and work-value congruence predict organizational citizenship behavior through work...

  8. Lack of Congruence between Analyses and Conclusions Limits Usefulness of Study of Socio-cultural Influences on Student Choice of LIS Field in Greece. A Review of: Moniarou-Papaconstantinou, V., Tsatsaroni, A., Katsis, A., & Koulaidis, V. (2010. LIS as a field of study: Socio-cultural influences on students’ decision making. Aslib Proceedings: New Information Perspectives, 62(3, 321-344.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana K. Wakimoto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective — To determine how social and cultural factors influence students’ decision to study library and information science (LIS as undergraduates.Design — Semi-structured interviews and quantitative analysis of questionnaire data.Setting — Three schools in Greece with LIS programs at the undergraduate level.Subjects — One hundred eighty-seven first-year students enrolled in Greece’s LIS schools’ undergraduate programs in the autumn semester of the 2005-2006 academic year.Methods — The authors piloted the questionnaire with 52 students at the LIS school in Athens and had three faculty members review the questionnaire. After modification, the two-part questionnaire was administered during the first week of classes to all first-year undergraduate students enrolled in Greece’s three LIS schools. The first section of the questionnaire collected data on student gender, age, area of residence, school from which they graduated, and parental occupation and level of education. The second part of the questionnaire covered students’ reasons for choosing LIS as a field of study, the degree to which students agreed with dominant public views (i.e., stereotypes of librarianship, and practical issues that influenced students’ decision-making processes. The authors conducted two rounds of semi-structured interviews with students from the same 2005-2006 cohort. They interviewed 41 self-selected students and then interviewed a purposive sample of 15 students from the same cohort in the fifth semester of the students’ studies.Main Results — The questionnaire was completed by 187 LIS students, with 177 responses considered relevant and used in the analyses. Demographic information showed that 78% of the respondents were female, 85.8% were from urban areas, and 98.9% graduated from public schools. The authors constructed two indices to assist with further analyses: the Educational Career Index, which quantified students’ educational

  9. Fatigue in Advanced Cancer Patients: Congruence Between Patients and Their Informal Caregivers About Patients' Fatigue Severity During Cancer Treatment With Palliative Intent and Predictors of Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poort, Hanneke; Peters, Marlies E W J; Gielissen, Marieke F M; Verhagen, Constans A H H V M; Bleijenberg, Gijs; van der Graaf, Winette T A; Wearden, Alison J; Knoop, Hans

    2016-09-01

    Informal caregivers (ICs) are increasingly involved in the monitoring of symptoms during advanced cancer patients' treatment with palliative intent. A common but subjective symptom during this extended treatment phase is fatigue. This exploratory longitudinal study aimed to determine agreement between patients and ICs about patients' fatigue severity. In addition, predictors of agreement over time were studied. A sample of 107 patients with advanced cancer (life expectancy ≥ six months) and their ICs completed the subscale fatigue severity of the Checklist Individual Strength based on the patient's status at baseline and six months later. This eight-item subscale has a validated cutoff to determine the presence of clinically relevant levels of fatigue. ICs' own fatigue severity, strain, self-esteem, and relationship satisfaction were examined as predictors of agreement. A total of 107 dyads completed measures at baseline and 69 dyads six months later. At baseline, ICs' significantly overestimated patients' fatigue severity (P congruence about the presence or absence of severe fatigue. On a group level, congruence did not significantly change over time. On a dyad level, there was a tendency to either remain congruent or reach congruence. Next to baseline congruence, ICs' fatigue severity and strain predicted ICs' fatigue ratings (R(2) = 0.22). Most ICs accurately predict presence or absence of clinically relevant levels of patients' fatigue. ICs' own fatigue severity and strain should be taken into account as they influence agreement. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. CLIMCONG: A framework-tool for assessing CLIMate CONGruency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buras, Allan; Kölling, Christian; Menzel, Annette

    2016-04-01

    It is widely accepted that the anticipated elevational and latitudinal shifting of climate forces living organisms (including humans) to track these changes in space over a certain time. Due to the complexity of climate change, prediction of consequent migrations is a difficult procedure afflicted with many uncertainties. To simplify climate complexity and ease respective attempts, various approaches aimed at classifying global climates. For instance, the frequently used Köppen-Geiger climate classification (Köppen, 1900) has been applied to predict the shift of climate zones throughout the 21st century (Rubel and Kottek, 2010). Another - more objective but also more complex - classification approach has recently been presented by Metzger et al. (2013). Though being comprehensive, classifications have certain drawbacks, as I) often focusing on few variables, II) having discrete borders at the margins of classes, and III) subjective selection of an arbitrary number of classes. Ecological theory suggests that when only considering temperature and precipitation (such as Köppen, 1900) particular climate features - e.g. radiation and plant water availability - may not be represented with sufficient precision. Furthermore, sharp boundaries among homogeneous classes do not reflect natural gradients. To overcome the aforementioned drawbacks, we here present CLIMCONG - a framework-tool for assessing climate congruency for quantitatively describing climate similarity through continua in space and time. CLIMCONG allows users to individually select variables for calculation of climate congruency. By this, particular foci can be specified, depending on actual research questions posed towards climate change. For instance, while ecologists focus on a multitude of parameters driving net ecosystem productivity, water managers may only be interested in variables related to drought extremes and water availability. Based on the chosen parameters CLIMCONG determines congruency of

  11. Influence of gamma radiation on molluscicidal and antimicrobial action of leaf and stem bark of Ziziphus joazeiro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, Fabricio O.; Siqueira, Williams N.; Lima, Maira V.; Melo, Larissa S.A.; Luna Filho, Ricardo L.C.; Morais, Vinicius H.T.; Oliveira, Maria L.M.; Melo, Ana M.M.A.; Silva, Edvane B.

    2017-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is a physical agent used in several areas of knowledge: in medicine for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, in the industry, it is apply in the generation of energy, sterilization of equipment and food, for example. Studies show that radiation can modify the molecular structure of substances of natural origin, potentiating or inactivating their function. The compounds derived from plants have received special attention because they constitute a form of medicinal therapy that has been growing notably in recent years. In addition, products of natural origin may also aid in the control of microbiological or animal vectors of parasites. Of the various species of plants being studied, Ziziphus joazeiro, popularly known as jua, native to the Caatinga, is commercially exploited for the manufacture of cosmetics and as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti influenza, fever and gastritis, bruises and has molluscicidal activity. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of cobalt-60 gamma radiation on leaf and bark extracts of Z. joazeiro stem, evaluating possible changes in molluscicidal and antimicrobial action. For the experiments, the Z joazeiro extracts were irradiated with doses of 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy (Gammacell-Cobalt-60, dose rate 7.222 kGy/h). Adult mollusks (n = 60) and embryos (n = 1800) of Biomphalaria glabrata were distributed in the following groups: negative control 1 (water only); negative control 2 (extract only); positive control (CuCO_3); and three groups submitted to irradiated extracts. The antibacterial assay was performed with Gram-positive microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis) belonging to the collection of the Departamento de Antibioticos of the UFPE by disc diffusion method. Statistical analysis was perform by Student's t-test and chi-square test, with a confidence interval of 95%. The results showed that the ionizing radiation was not able

  12. Twisting null geodesic congruences and the Einstein-Maxwell equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, Ezra T; Silva-Ortigoza, Gilberto

    2006-01-01

    In a recent article, we returned to the study of asymptotically flat solutions of the vacuum Einstein equations with a rather unconventional point of view. The essential observation in that work was that from a given asymptotically flat vacuum spacetime with a given Bondi shear, one can find a class of asymptotically shear-free (but, in general, twisting) null geodesic congruences where the class was uniquely given up to the arbitrary choice of a complex analytic 'worldline' in a four-dimensional complex space. By imitating certain terms in the Weyl tensor that are found in the algebraically special type II metrics, this complex worldline could be made unique and given-or assigned-the physical meaning as the complex centre of mass. Equations of motion for this case were found. The purpose of the present work is to extend those results to asymptotically flat solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations. Once again, in this case, we get a class of asymptotically shear-free null geodesic congruences depending on a complex worldline in the same four-dimensional complex space. However in this case there will be, in general, two distinct but uniquely chosen worldlines, one of which can be assigned as the complex centre of charge while the other could be called the complex centre of mass. Rather than investigating the situation where there are two distinct complex worldlines, we study instead the special degenerate case where the two worldlines coincide, i.e., where there is a single unique worldline. This mimics the case of algebraically special Einstein-Maxwell fields where the degenerate principle null vector of the Weyl tensor coincides with a Maxwell principle null vector. Again we obtain equations of motion for this worldline-but explicitly found here only in an approximation. Though there are ambiguities in assigning physical meaning to different terms it appears as if reliance on the Kerr and charged Kerr metrics and classical electromagnetic radiation theory helps

  13. Outcome producing potential influences twelve-month-olds' interpretation of a novel action as goal-directed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biro, Szilvia; Verschoor, Stephan; Coalter, Esther; Leslie, Alan M

    2014-11-01

    Learning about a novel, goal-directed action is a complex process. It requires identifying the outcome of the action and linking the action to its outcome for later use in new situations to predict the action or to anticipate its outcome. We investigated the hypothesis that linking a novel action to a salient change in the environment is critical for infants to assign a goal to the novel action. We report a study in which we show that 12-month-old infants, who were provided with prior experience with a novel action accompanied with a salient visible outcome in one context, can interpret the same action as goal-directed even in the absence of the outcome in another context. Our control condition shows that prior experience with the action, but without the salient effect, does not lead to goal-directed interpretation of the novel action. We also found that, for the case of 9-month-olds infants, prior experience with the outcome producing potential of the novel action does not facilitate a goal-directed interpretation of the action. However, this failure was possibly due to difficulties with generalizing the learnt association to another context rather than with linking the action to its outcome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Take action: influence diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Norma J

    2013-01-01

    Increased diversity brings strength to nursing and ANNA. Being a more diverse association will require all of us working together. There is an old proverb that says: "one hand cannot cover the sky; it takes many hands." ANNA needs every one of its members to be a part of the diversity initiative.

  15. Vegan lifestyle behaviors: an exploration of congruence with health-related beliefs and assessed health indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyett, Patricia A; Sabaté, Joan; Haddad, Ella; Rajaram, Sujatha; Shavlik, David

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate health belief as a major motive for diet and lifestyle behaviors of 100 vegans in the United States; and to determine congruence with selected health and nutrition outcomes. Response data from an administered questionnaire was analyzed. Statistical analyses determined the most common factors influencing diet choice; the number of vegans practicing particular lifestyle behaviors; body mass index; and prevalence of self-reported chronic disease diagnoses. Nutrient intakes were analyzed and assessed against Dietary Reference Intakes. Health was the most reported reason for diet choice (47%). In the health belief, animal welfare, and religious/other motive categories, low percentages of chronic disease diagnoses were reported: 27%, 11%, and 15%, respectively. There were no significant differences in health behaviors and indices among vegan motive categories, except for product fat content choices. Within the entire study population, health-related vegan motive coincided with regular exercise; 71% normal BMI (mean=22.6); minimal alcohol and smoking practices; frequently consumed vegetables, nuts, and grains; healthy choices in meal types, cooking methods, and low-fat product consumption; and adequate intakes for most protective nutrients when compared to reference values. But incongruence was found with 0% intake adequacy for vitamin D; and observation of excessive sodium use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. When dispositional and role power fit: implications for self-expression and self-other congruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Serena; Langner, Carrie A; Mendoza-Denton, Rodolfo

    2009-03-01

    Integrating and extending the literatures on social power and person-environment fit, 4 studies tested the hypothesis that when people's dispositional beliefs about their capacity to influence others fit their assigned role power, they are more likely to engage in self-expression-that is, behave in line with their states and traits-thereby increasing their likelihood of being perceived by others in a manner congruent with their own self-judgments (i.e., self-other congruence). In Studies 1-3, dispositionally high- and low-power participants were randomly assigned to play a high- or low-power role in an interaction with a confederate. When participants' dispositional and role power fit (vs. conflicted), they reported greater self-expression (Study 1). Furthermore, under dispositional-role power fit conditions, the confederate's ratings of participants' emotional experiences (Study 2) and personality traits (Study 3) were more congruent with participants' self-reported emotions and traits. Study 4's results replicated Study 3's results using an implicit manipulation of power and outside observers' (rather than a confederate's) ratings of participants. Implications for research on power and person perception are discussed.

  17. The influence of action-effect anticipation on bistable perception: Differences between onset rivalry and ambiguous motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dogge, M.; Gayet, S.; Custers, R.; Aarts, H.A.G.

    2018-01-01

    Perception is strongly shaped by the actions we perform. According to the theory of event coding, and forward models of motor control, goal-directed action preparation activates representations of desired effects. These expectations about the precise stimulus identity of one's action-outcomes (i.e.

  18. Infants' preference for native audiovisual speech dissociated from congruency preference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Shaw

    Full Text Available Although infant speech perception in often studied in isolated modalities, infants' experience with speech is largely multimodal (i.e., speech sounds they hear are accompanied by articulating faces. Across two experiments, we tested infants' sensitivity to the relationship between the auditory and visual components of audiovisual speech in their native (English and non-native (Spanish language. In Experiment 1, infants' looking times were measured during a preferential looking task in which they saw two simultaneous visual speech streams articulating a story, one in English and the other in Spanish, while they heard either the English or the Spanish version of the story. In Experiment 2, looking times from another group of infants were measured as they watched single displays of congruent and incongruent combinations of English and Spanish audio and visual speech streams. Findings demonstrated an age-related increase in looking towards the native relative to non-native visual speech stream when accompanied by the corresponding (native auditory speech. This increase in native language preference did not appear to be driven by a difference in preference for native vs. non-native audiovisual congruence as we observed no difference in looking times at the audiovisual streams in Experiment 2.

  19. Identification of emission sources of umbral flashes using phase congruency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Song; Yang Yun-Fei; Ji Kai-Fan; Yu Lan

    2014-01-01

    The emission sources of umbral flashes (UFs) are believed to be closely related to running umbral and penumbral waves, and are concluded to be associated with umbral dots in the solar photosphere. Accurate identification of emission sources of UFs is crucial for investigating these physical phenomena and their inherent relationships. A relatively novel model of shape perception, namely phase congruency (PC), uses phase information in the Fourier domain to identify the geometrical shape of the region of interest in different intensity levels, rather than intensity or gradient. Previous studies indicate that the model is suitable for identifying features with low contrast and low luminance. In the present paper, we applied the PC model to identify the emission sources of UFs and to locate their positions. For illustrating the high performance of our proposed method, two time sequences of Ca II H images derived from the Hinode/SOT on 2010 August 10 and 2013 August 20 were used. Furthermore, we also compared these results with the analysis results that are identified by the traditional/classical identification methods, including the gray-scale adjusted technique and the running difference technique. The result of our analysis demonstrates that our proposed method is more accurate and effective than the traditional identification methods when applied to identifying the emission sources of UFs and to locating their positions. (research papers)

  20. Evaluating Phylogenetic Congruence in the Post-Genomic Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Jessica W.; Lapointe, François-Joseph; Lopez, Philippe; Bapteste, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Congruence is a broadly applied notion in evolutionary biology used to justify multigene phylogeny or phylogenomics, as well as in studies of coevolution, lateral gene transfer, and as evidence for common descent. Existing methods for identifying incongruence or heterogeneity using character data were designed for data sets that are both small and expected to be rarely incongruent. At the same time, methods that assess incongruence using comparison of trees test a null hypothesis of uncorrelated tree structures, which may be inappropriate for phylogenomic studies. As such, they are ill-suited for the growing number of available genome sequences, most of which are from prokaryotes and viruses, either for phylogenomic analysis or for studies of the evolutionary forces and events that have shaped these genomes. Specifically, many existing methods scale poorly with large numbers of genes, cannot accommodate high levels of incongruence, and do not adequately model patterns of missing taxa for different markers. We propose the development of novel incongruence assessment methods suitable for the analysis of the molecular evolution of the vast majority of life and support the investigation of homogeneity of evolutionary process in cases where markers do not share identical tree structures. PMID:21712432

  1. Medial Unicondylar Knee Arthroplasty Improves Patellofemoral Congruence: a Possible Mechanistic Explanation for Poor Association Between Patellofemoral Degeneration and Clinical Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thein, Ran; Zuiderbaan, Hendrik A; Khamaisy, Saker; Nawabi, Danyal H; Poultsides, Lazaros A; Pearle, Andrew D

    2015-11-01

    The purpose was to determine the effect of medial fixed bearing unicondylar knee arthroplasty (UKA) on postoperative patellofemoral joint (PFJ) congruence and analyze the relationship of preoperative PFJ degeneration on clinical outcome. We retrospectively reviewed 110 patients (113 knees) who underwent medial UKA. Radiographs were evaluated to ascertain PFJ degenerative changes and congruence. Clinical outcomes were assessed preoperatively and postoperatively. The postoperative absolute patellar congruence angle (10.05 ± 10.28) was significantly improved compared with the preoperative value (14.23 ± 11.22) (P = 0.0038). No correlation was found between preoperative PFJ congruence or degeneration severity, and WOMAC scores at two-year follow up. Pre-operative PFJ congruence and degenerative changes do not affect UKA clinical outcomes. This finding may be explained by the post-op PFJ congruence improvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. IT-Supported Formal Control: How Perceptual (in)Congruence Affects the Convergence of Crowd-Sourced Ideas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeber, Isabella; Waizenegger, Lena; Demetz, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    interactions on the team outcome, i.e. the ideas in a converged list. However, it is unclear if formal control can facilitate perceptual congruence and what effect it has on idea quality, e.g., an idea’s elaborateness. Perceptual congruence is operationalized by examining the agreement between leaders and team...... of perceptual congruence. Perceptual incongruence was found to be detrimental for extent of idea development....

  3. An Action Research Study on the Influence of Gangsta Rap on Academic and Behavioral Issues of 5th Grade African-American Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Shaun; Boes, Susan R.; Chibbaro, Julie S.

    2015-01-01

    This small action research study (ARS) began with a review of the literature examining the relationship of gangsta rap in regards to academic achievement, self-esteem, decision-making, identity issues and development of young African American males. The purpose of the ARS was to examine the correlation between gangsta rap and its influence on 5th…

  4. Spiritual and Religious Supports Part 10: Congruence in Faith and Action--Inclusivity in New Orleans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The First Congregational Church has a heart of mission. Yet, when the mission hits a situation that's personal and makes one squirm a bit, it becomes more of a challenge. Seven teams have been sent from the church to help the rebuilding in New Orleans. The first teams did the mucking, getting all of the belongings out of the house and putting them…

  5. The Role of Speech-Gesture Congruency and Delay in Remembering Action Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galati, Alexia; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2011-01-01

    When watching others describe events, does information from their speech and gestures affect our memory representations for the gist and surface form of the described events? Does our reliance on these memory representations change over time? Forty participants watched videos of stories narrated by an actor. Each story included three target events…

  6. The influence of action video game playing on eye movement behaviour during visual search in abstract, in-game and natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Elham; Abel, Larry A; Stainer, Matthew J

    2017-02-01

    Action game playing has been associated with several improvements in visual attention tasks. However, it is not clear how such changes might influence the way we overtly select information from our visual world (i.e. eye movements). We examined whether action-video-game training changed eye movement behaviour in a series of visual search tasks including conjunctive search (relatively abstracted from natural behaviour), game-related search, and more naturalistic scene search. Forty nongamers were trained in either an action first-person shooter game or a card game (control) for 10 hours. As a further control, we recorded eye movements of 20 experienced action gamers on the same tasks. The results did not show any change in duration of fixations or saccade amplitude either from before to after the training or between all nongamers (pretraining) and experienced action gamers. However, we observed a change in search strategy, reflected by a reduction in the vertical distribution of fixations for the game-related search task in the action-game-trained group. This might suggest learning the likely distribution of targets. In other words, game training only skilled participants to search game images for targets important to the game, with no indication of transfer to the more natural scene search. Taken together, these results suggest no modification in overt allocation of attention. Either the skills that can be trained with action gaming are not powerful enough to influence information selection through eye movements, or action-game-learned skills are not used when deciding where to move the eyes.

  7. The Influence of Social Networks on the Development of Recruitment Actions that Favor User Interface Design and Conversions in Mobile Applications Powered by Linked Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro R. Palos-Sanchez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the most important influence factors in the literature, which have the greatest influence on the conversions obtained in a mobile application powered by linked data. With the study of user interface design and a small user survey (n = 101,053, we studied the influence of social networks, advertising, and promotional and recruitment actions in conversions for mobile applications powered by linked data. The analysis of the users’ behavior and their application in the design of the actions to promote and capture constitutes an important part of the current theories of digital marketing. However, this study shows that its results may be contradictory and depend on other factors and circumstances when mobile applications powered by linked data are considered. The predictive value, reached by the developed model, may be useful for professionals and researchers in the field of digital marketing and the user interface design in mobile applications powered by linked data.

  8. Does value congruence between nurses and supervisors effect job satisfaction and turnover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Deborah

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of congruency of leadership support and value of patient outcomes between nurses and nurse managers and nurses' job satisfaction and turnover intent. Turnover most often has a negative effect on an organization. Leadership support and patient outcomes have been identified as important factors, but congruency has not been studied in great detail. This quantitative non-experimental study included registered nurses (92) and nurse managers (21) in five non-magnet hospitals in the United States. Value congruence on leadership support was correlated with job satisfaction: Satisfaction in Nursing Scale (SINs)-Workload Barriers (r = 0.327, Administrative Support r = 0.544 and Collegiality = 0.920, P congruence and leadership support (Leadership Practices Inventory, LPI) was negatively correlated with turnover intent (r = 0.317, P 0.05) was noted. Value congruence of leadership support is related to job satisfaction and may be a factor in turnover intent. Nurse Administrators can use these results to develop policies to address the turnover especially in the area of leadership support. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Moral Values Congruence and Miners' Policy Following Behavior: The Role of Supervisor Morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hui; Chen, Hong; Du, Wei; Long, Ruyin

    2017-06-01

    Ethical culture construction is beneficial to maximize policy following behavior (PFB) and avoid accidents of coal miners in an economic downturn. This paper examines the congruence between coal mine ethical culture values (ECVs) and miners' moral values (MVs) and the relationship with PFB. To shed light on this relationship, supervisor moral values (SMVs) act as a key moderator. We build on the initial structure of values to measure ECVs, MVs, and SMVs. At the same time, available congruence was defined to describe the relationship between the two values. Drawing upon a survey of 267 miners in Chinese large state-owned coal mining enterprises, results revealed that ECVs-MVs congruence had a linear relationship with intrinsic PFB (IPFB) and a non-linear relationship with extrinsic PFB. These findings demonstrate that SMVs had a moderating effect on the relationship between ECVs-MVs congruence and extrinsic PFB. Thus, we continued to calculate the available congruence scope in tested enterprises. Furthermore, this study gives relative management proposals and suggestions to improve miners' moral standards and to reduce coal mine accidents.

  10. Effects of working memory span on processing of lexical associations and congruence in spoken discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudewyn, Megan A; Long, Debra L; Swaab, Tamara Y

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether variability in working memory (WM) capacity and cognitive control affects the processing of global discourse congruence and local associations among words when participants listened to short discourse passages. The final, critical word of each passage was either associated or unassociated with a preceding prime word (e.g., "He was not prepared for the fame and fortune/praise"). These critical words were also either congruent or incongruent with respect to the preceding discourse context [e.g., a context in which a prestigious prize was won (congruent) or in which the protagonist had been arrested (incongruent)]. We used multiple regression to assess the unique contribution of suppression ability (our measure of cognitive control) and WM capacity on the amplitude of individual N400 effects of congruence and association. Our measure of suppression ability did not predict the size of the N400 effects of association or congruence. However, as expected, the results showed that high WM capacity individuals were less sensitive to the presence of lexical associations (showed smaller N400 association effects). Furthermore, differences in WM capacity were related to differences in the topographic distribution of the N400 effects of discourse congruence. The topographic differences in the global congruence effects indicate differences in the underlying neural generators of the N400 effects, as a function of WM. This suggests additional, or at a minimum, distinct, processing on the part of higher capacity individuals when tasked with integrating incoming words into the developing discourse representation.

  11. Oscillatory signatures of crossmodal congruence effects: An EEG investigation employing a visuotactile pattern matching paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göschl, Florian; Friese, Uwe; Daume, Jonathan; König, Peter; Engel, Andreas K

    2015-08-01

    Coherent percepts emerge from the accurate combination of inputs from the different sensory systems. There is an ongoing debate about the neurophysiological mechanisms of crossmodal interactions in the brain, and it has been proposed that transient synchronization of neurons might be of central importance. Oscillatory activity in lower frequency ranges (congruence. Analysis of the behavioral data showed benefits for congruent visuotactile stimulus combinations. Differences in oscillatory dynamics related to crossmodal congruence within the two tasks were observed in the beta-band for crossmodal target detection, as well as in the theta-band for congruence evaluation. Contrasting ongoing activity preceding visuotactile stimulation between the two tasks revealed differences in the alpha- and beta-bands. Source reconstruction of between-task differences showed prominent involvement of premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, somatosensory association cortex and the supramarginal gyrus. These areas not only exhibited more involvement in the pre-stimulus interval for target detection compared to congruence evaluation, but were also crucially involved in post-stimulus differences related to crossmodal stimulus congruence within the detection task. These results add to the increasing evidence that low frequency oscillations are functionally relevant for integration in distributed brain networks, as demonstrated for crossmodal interactions in visuotactile pattern matching in the current study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. When the Cop Is the Victim: A Test of Target Congruence Theory on Intimate Partner Violence Victimization Experienced by Police Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Egbert

    2017-05-01

    This study analyzed data from the Police Stress and Domestic Violence in Police Families in Baltimore, Maryland, 1997-1999 ( N = 753) to examine propositions derived from target congruence theory in the context of intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization experienced by police officers. Specifically, this study tested the influence of target vulnerability, target gratifiability, and target antagonism on IPV victimization. Results from logistic regression models showed that all three theoretical constructs positively and significantly predicted IPV victimization. Results, as well as the study's limitations and directions for future research, are discussed.

  13. Delineating the effect of semantic congruency on episodic memory: the role of integration and relatedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bein, Oded; Livneh, Neta; Reggev, Niv; Gilead, Michael; Goshen-Gottstein, Yonatan; Maril, Anat

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental challenge in the study of learning and memory is to understand the role of existing knowledge in the encoding and retrieval of new episodic information. The importance of prior knowledge in memory is demonstrated in the congruency effect-the robust finding wherein participants display better memory for items that are compatible, rather than incompatible, with their pre-existing semantic knowledge. Despite its robustness, the mechanism underlying this effect is not well understood. In four studies, we provide evidence that demonstrates the privileged explanatory power of the elaboration-integration account over alternative hypotheses. Furthermore, we question the implicit assumption that the congruency effect pertains to the truthfulness/sensibility of a subject-predicate proposition, and show that congruency is a function of semantic relatedness between item and context words.

  14. Delineating the effect of semantic congruency on episodic memory: the role of integration and relatedness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oded Bein

    Full Text Available A fundamental challenge in the study of learning and memory is to understand the role of existing knowledge in the encoding and retrieval of new episodic information. The importance of prior knowledge in memory is demonstrated in the congruency effect-the robust finding wherein participants display better memory for items that are compatible, rather than incompatible, with their pre-existing semantic knowledge. Despite its robustness, the mechanism underlying this effect is not well understood. In four studies, we provide evidence that demonstrates the privileged explanatory power of the elaboration-integration account over alternative hypotheses. Furthermore, we question the implicit assumption that the congruency effect pertains to the truthfulness/sensibility of a subject-predicate proposition, and show that congruency is a function of semantic relatedness between item and context words.

  15. Scene Integration Without Awareness: No Conclusive Evidence for Processing Scene Congruency During Continuous Flash Suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moors, Pieter; Boelens, David; van Overwalle, Jaana; Wagemans, Johan

    2016-07-01

    A recent study showed that scenes with an object-background relationship that is semantically incongruent break interocular suppression faster than scenes with a semantically congruent relationship. These results implied that semantic relations between the objects and the background of a scene could be extracted in the absence of visual awareness of the stimulus. In the current study, we assessed the replicability of this finding and tried to rule out an alternative explanation dependent on low-level differences between the stimuli. Furthermore, we used a Bayesian analysis to quantify the evidence in favor of the presence or absence of a scene-congruency effect. Across three experiments, we found no convincing evidence for a scene-congruency effect or a modulation of scene congruency by scene inversion. These findings question the generalizability of previous observations and cast doubt on whether genuine semantic processing of object-background relationships in scenes can manifest during interocular suppression. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Establishment of neurovascular congruency in the mouse whisker system by an independent patterning mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Won-Jong; Gu, Chenghua

    2013-10-16

    Nerves and vessels often run parallel to one another, a phenomenon that reflects their functional interdependency. Previous studies have suggested that neurovascular congruency in planar tissues such as skin is established through a "one-patterns-the-other" model, in which either the nervous system or the vascular system precedes developmentally and then instructs the other system to form using its established architecture as a template. Here, we find that, in tissues with complex three-dimensional structures such as the mouse whisker system, neurovascular congruency does not follow the previous model but rather is established via a mechanism in which nerves and vessels are patterned independently. Given the diversity of neurovascular structures in different tissues, guidance signals emanating from a central organizer in the specific target tissue may act as an important mechanism to establish neurovascular congruency patterns that facilitate unique target tissue function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Perceptions of organizational capacity to promote physical activity in Canada and ParticipACTION's influence five years after its relaunch: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Subha; Faulkner, Guy; Berry, Tanya; Deshpande, Sameer; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Rhodes, Ryan E; Spence, John C; Tremblay, Mark S

    2018-04-01

    ParticipACTION is a Canadian physical activity communications and social marketing organization relaunched in 2007. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively investigate organizational capacity for physical activity promotion among Canadian organizations, and the influence of ParticipACTION on capacity five years after relaunch. Using a purposive sampling strategy, semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 44 key informants representing national, provincial, and local organizations with a mandate to promote physical activity. Interview data were analyzed using a thematic analytic approach. Organizational capacity in terms of partnerships and collaborations, and the general climate for physical activity promotion have improved since ParticipACTION's relaunch. Although financial resources reduced the ability of organizations to fulfil their mandates, internal factors such as skilled employees and sponsorships, and external factors such as technological improvements in communication and information sharing helped to offset this strain. There were mixed feelings on ParticipACTION's contribution to capacity. While ParticipACTION has brought more attention to inactivity, this was perceived as a complement to work already taking place. While some organizations perceived ParticipACTION's relaunch as competition to funding and access to popular media, others found it as an opportunity to co-brand social marketing campaigns, utilizing ParticipACTION's products and reputation. According to participants, organizational capacity to promote physical activity in Canada has increased since 2007 in subtle but important ways because of a strong climate for physical activity promotion, skilled employees, and information sharing technology. Organizational capacity changes were minimally attributed to ParticipACTION.

  18. Null Geodesic Congruences, Asymptotically-Flat Spacetimes and Their Physical Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy M. Adamo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A priori, there is nothing very special about shear-free or asymptotically shear-free null geodesic congruences. Surprisingly, however, they turn out to possess a large number of fascinating geometric properties and to be closely related, in the context of general relativity, to a variety of physically significant effects. It is the purpose of this paper to try to fully develop these issues. This work starts with a detailed exposition of the theory of shear-free and asymptotically shear-free null geodesic congruences, i.e., congruences with shear that vanishes at future conformal null infinity. A major portion of the exposition lies in the analysis of the space of regular shear-free and asymptotically shear-free null geodesic congruences. This analysis leads to the space of complex analytic curves in complex Minkowski space. They in turn play a dominant role in the applications. The applications center around the problem of extracting interior physical properties of an asymptotically-flat spacetime directly from the asymptotic gravitational (and Maxwell field itself, in analogy with the determination of total charge by an integral over the Maxwell field at infinity or the identification of the interior mass (and its loss by (Bondi’s integrals of the Weyl tensor, also at infinity. More specifically, we will see that the asymptotically shear-free congruences lead us to an asymptotic definition of the center-of-mass and its equations of motion. This includes a kinematic meaning, in terms of the center-of-mass motion, for the Bondi three-momentum. In addition, we obtain insights into intrinsic spin and, in general, angular momentum, including an angular-momentum–conservation law with well-defined flux terms. When a Maxwell field is present, the asymptotically shear-free congruences allow us to determine/define at infinity a center-of-charge world line and intrinsic magnetic dipole moment.

  19. Culture, salience, and psychiatric diagnosis: exploring the concept of cultural congruence & its practical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, Mohammed Abouelleil

    2013-07-16

    Cultural congruence is the idea that to the extent a belief or experience is culturally shared it is not to feature in a diagnostic judgement, irrespective of its resemblance to psychiatric pathology. This rests on the argument that since deviation from norms is central to diagnosis, and since what counts as deviation is relative to context, assessing the degree of fit between mental states and cultural norms is crucial. Various problems beset the cultural congruence construct including impoverished definitions of culture as religious, national or ethnic group and of congruence as validation by that group. This article attempts to address these shortcomings to arrive at a cogent construct. The article distinguishes symbolic from phenomenological conceptions of culture, the latter expanded upon through two sources: Husserl's phenomenological analysis of background intentionality and neuropsychological literature on salience. It is argued that culture is not limited to symbolic presuppositions and shapes subjects' experiential dispositions. This conception is deployed to re-examine the meaning of (in)congruence. The main argument is that a significant, since foundational, deviation from culture is not from a value or belief but from culturally-instilled experiential dispositions, in what is salient to an individual in a particular context. Applying the concept of cultural congruence must not be limited to assessing violations of the symbolic order and must consider alignment with or deviations from culturally-instilled experiential dispositions. By virtue of being foundational to a shared experience of the world, such dispositions are more accurate indicators of potential vulnerability. Notwithstanding problems of access and expertise, clinical practice should aim to accommodate this richer meaning of cultural congruence.

  20. Null Geodesic Congruences, Asymptotically-Flat Spacetimes and Their Physical Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy M. Adamo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A priori, there is nothing very special about shear-free or asymptotically shear-free null geodesic congruences. Surprisingly, however, they turn out to possess a large number of fascinating geometric properties and to be closely related, in the context of general relativity, to a variety of physically significant effects. It is the purpose of this paper to try to fully develop these issues. This work starts with a detailed exposition of the theory of shear-free and asymptotically shear-free null geodesic congruences, i.e., congruences with shear that vanishes at future conformal null infinity. A major portion of the exposition lies in the analysis of the space of regular shear-free and asymptotically shear-free null geodesic congruences. This analysis leads to the space of complex analytic curves in an auxiliary four-complex dimensional space, H-space. They in turn play a dominant role in the applications. The applications center around the problem of extracting interior physical properties of an asymptotically-flat spacetime directly from the asymptotic gravitational (and Maxwell field itself, in analogy with the determination of total charge by an integral over the Maxwell field at infinity or the identification of the interior mass (and its loss by (Bondi's integrals of the Weyl tensor, also at infinity. More specifically, we will see that the asymptotically shear-free congruences lead us to an asymptotic definition of the center-of-mass and its equations of motion. This includes a kinematic meaning, in terms of the center-of-mass motion, for the Bondi three-momentum. In addition, we obtain insights into intrinsic spin and, in general, angular momentum, including an angular-momentum--conservation law with well-defined flux terms. When a Maxwell field is present, the asymptotically shear-free congruences allow us to determine/define at infinity a center-of-charge world line and intrinsic magnetic dipole moment.

  1. Null Geodesic Congruences, Asymptotically-Flat Spacetimes and Their Physical Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, Timothy M; Newman, Ezra T; Kozameh, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    A priori, there is nothing very special about shear-free or asymptotically shear-free null geodesic congruences. Surprisingly, however, they turn out to possess a large number of fascinating geometric properties and to be closely related, in the context of general relativity, to a variety of physically significant effects. It is the purpose of this paper to try to fully develop these issues. This work starts with a detailed exposition of the theory of shear-free and asymptotically shear-free null geodesic congruences, i.e., congruences with shear that vanishes at future conformal null infinity. A major portion of the exposition lies in the analysis of the space of regular shear-free and asymptotically shear-free null geodesic congruences. This analysis leads to the space of complex analytic curves in an auxiliary four-complex dimensional space, [Formula: see text]-space. They in turn play a dominant role in the applications. The applications center around the problem of extracting interior physical properties of an asymptotically-flat spacetime directly from the asymptotic gravitational (and Maxwell) field itself, in analogy with the determination of total charge by an integral over the Maxwell field at infinity or the identification of the interior mass (and its loss) by (Bondi's) integrals of the Weyl tensor, also at infinity. More specifically, we will see that the asymptotically shear-free congruences lead us to an asymptotic definition of the center-of-mass and its equations of motion. This includes a kinematic meaning, in terms of the center-of-mass motion, for the Bondi three-momentum. In addition, we obtain insights into intrinsic spin and, in general, angular momentum, including an angular-momentum-conservation law with well-defined flux terms. When a Maxwell field is present, the asymptotically shear-free congruences allow us to determine/define at infinity a center-of-charge world line and intrinsic magnetic dipole moment.

  2. Interest Congruency as a Moderator of the Relationships between Job Tenure and Job Satisfaction and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Kenneth; Wiener, Yoash

    1977-01-01

    In a sample of 54 middle managers, significant moderator effects were found for the mental health indices of self-esteem, life-satisfaction, and overall mental health and for satisfaction with supervision. These indices correlated positively with job tenure for high congruency individuals. For low congruency individuals, the obtained correlations…

  3. Moderation of the Relation between Person-Environment Congruence and Academic Success: Environmental Constraint, Personal Flexibility and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Terence J. G.; Allen, Jeff; Robbins, Steven B.

    2012-01-01

    The relation of interest-major congruence to indicators of college success was examined as it was moderated by environmental constraint, individual flexibility, and congruence definition in an initial sample of 88,813 undergraduates (38,787 men and 50,026 women) from 42 different colleges and universities in 16 states. College achievement (GPA…

  4. Measuring Transgender Individuals' Comfort with Gender Identity and Appearance: Development and Validation of the Transgender Congruence Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozee, Holly B.; Tylka, Tracy L.; Bauerband, L. Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Our study used the construct of congruence to conceptualize the degree to which transgender individuals feel genuine, authentic, and comfortable with their gender identity and external appearance. In Study 1, the Transgender Congruence scale (TCS) was developed, and data from 162 transgender individuals were used to estimate the reliability and…

  5. Congruence or Discrepancy? Comparing Patients' Health Valuations and Physicians' Treatment Goals for Rehabilitation for Patients with Chronic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagl, Michaela; Farin, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the congruence of patients' health valuations and physicians' treatment goals for the rehabilitation of chronically ill patients. In addition, patient characteristics associated with greater or less congruence were to be determined. In a questionnaire study, patients' health valuations and physicians' goals were…

  6. Crossmodal semantic congruence can affect visuo-spatial processing and activity of the fronto-parietal attention networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena eMastroberardino

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that multisensory stimuli can contribute to attention control. Here we investigate whether irrelevant audio-visual stimuli can affect the processing of subsequent visual targets, in the absence of any direct bottom-up signals generated by low-level sensory changes and any goal-related associations between the multisensory stimuli and the visual targets. Each trial included two pictures (cat/dog, one in each visual hemifield, and a central sound that was semantically congruent with one of the two pictures (i.e. either meow or woof sound. These irrelevant audio-visual stimuli were followed by a visual target that appeared either where the congruent or the incongruent picture had been presented (valid/invalid trials. The visual target was a Gabor patch requiring an orientation discrimination judgment, allowing us to uncouple the visual task from the audio-visual stimuli. Behaviourally we found lower performance for invalid than valid trials, but only when the task demands were high (Gabor target presented together with a Gabor distractor vs. Gabor target alone. The fMRI analyses revealed greater activity for invalid than for valid trials in the dorsal and the ventral fronto-parietal attention networks. The dorsal network was recruited irrespective of task demands, while the ventral network was recruited only when task demands were high and target discrimination required additional top-down control. We propose that crossmodal semantic congruence generates a processing bias associated with the location of congruent picture, and that the presentation of the visual target on the opposite side required updating these processing priorities. We relate the activation of the attention networks to these updating operations. We conclude that the fronto-parietal networks mediate the influence of crossmodal semantic congruence on visuo-spatial processing, even in the absence of any low-level sensory cue and any goal-driven task

  7. Context Modulates Congruency Effects in Selective Attention to Social Cues

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    Andrea Ravagli

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Head and gaze directions are used during social interactions as essential cues to infer where someone attends. When head and gaze are oriented toward opposite directions, we need to extract socially meaningful information despite stimulus conflict. Recently, a cognitive and neural mechanism for filtering-out conflicting stimuli has been identified while performing non-social attention tasks. This mechanism is engaged proactively when conflict is anticipated in a high proportion of trials and reactively when conflict occurs infrequently. Here, we investigated whether a similar mechanism is at play for limiting distraction from conflicting social cues during gaze or head direction discrimination tasks in contexts with different probabilities of conflict. Results showed that, for the gaze direction task only (Experiment 1, inverse efficiency (IE scores for distractor-absent trials (i.e., faces with averted gaze and centrally oriented head were larger (indicating worse performance when these trials were intermixed with congruent/incongruent distractor-present trials (i.e., faces with averted gaze and tilted head in the same/opposite direction relative to when the same distractor-absent trials were shown in isolation. Moreover, on distractor-present trials, IE scores for congruent (vs. incongruent head-gaze pairs in blocks with rare conflict were larger than in blocks with frequent conflict, suggesting that adaptation to conflict was more efficient than adaptation to infrequent events. However, when the task required discrimination of head orientation while ignoring gaze direction, performance was not impacted by both block-level and current trial congruency (Experiment 2, unless the cognitive load of the task was increased by adding a concurrent task (Experiment 3. Overall, our study demonstrates that during attention to social cues proactive cognitive control mechanisms are modulated by the expectation of conflicting stimulus information at both

  8. Design of variable-weight quadratic congruence code for optical CDMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Gang; Cheng, Wen-Qing; Chen, Fu-Jun

    2015-09-01

    A variable-weight code family referred to as variable-weight quadratic congruence code (VWQCC) is constructed by algebraic transformation for incoherent synchronous optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) systems. Compared with quadratic congruence code (QCC), VWQCC doubles the code cardinality and provides the multiple code-sets with variable code-weight. Moreover, the bit-error rate (BER) performance of VWQCC is superior to those of conventional variable-weight codes by removing or padding pulses under the same chip power assumption. The experiment results show that VWQCC can be well applied to the OCDMA with quality of service (QoS) requirements.

  9. Semantic congruence enhances memory of episodic associations: role of theta oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atienza, Mercedes; Crespo-Garcia, Maite; Cantero, Jose L

    2011-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that theta oscillations play a crucial role in episodic encoding. The present study evaluates whether changes in electroencephalographic theta source dynamics mediate the positive influence of semantic congruence on incidental associative learning. Here we show that memory for episodic associations (face-location) is more accurate when studied under semantically congruent contexts. However, only participants showing RT priming effect in a conceptual priming test (priming group) also gave faster responses when recollecting source information of semantically congruent faces as compared with semantically incongruent faces. This improved episodic retrieval was positively correlated with increases in theta power during the study phase mainly in the bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, and left lateral posterior parietal lobe. Reconstructed signals from the estimated sources showed higher theta power for congruent than incongruent faces and also for the priming than the nonpriming group. These results are in agreement with the attention to memory model. Besides directing top-down attention to goal-relevant semantic information during encoding, the dorsal parietal lobe may also be involved in redirecting attention to bottom-up-driven memories thanks to connections between the medial-temporal and the left ventral parietal lobe. The latter function can either facilitate or interfere with encoding of face-location associations depending on whether they are preceded by semantically congruent or incongruent contexts, respectively, because only in the former condition retrieved representations related to the cue and the face are both coherent with the person identity and are both associated with the same location.

  10. Being moved by the self and others: influence of empathy on self-motion perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Lopez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The observation of conspecifics influences our bodily perceptions and actions: Contagious yawning, contagious itching, or empathy for pain, are all examples of mechanisms based on resonance between our own body and others. While there is evidence for the involvement of the mirror neuron system in the processing of motor, auditory and tactile information, it has not yet been associated with the perception of self-motion. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated whether viewing our own body, the body of another, and an object in motion influences self-motion perception. We found a visual-vestibular congruency effect for self-motion perception when observing self and object motion, and a reduction in this effect when observing someone else's body motion. The congruency effect was correlated with empathy scores, revealing the importance of empathy in mirroring mechanisms. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The data show that vestibular perception is modulated by agent-specific mirroring mechanisms. The observation of conspecifics in motion is an essential component of social life, and self-motion perception is crucial for the distinction between the self and the other. Finally, our results hint at the presence of a "vestibular mirror neuron system".

  11. Risk of punishment influences discrete and coordinated encoding of reward-guided actions by prefrontal cortex and VTA neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junchol

    2017-01-01

    Actions motivated by rewards are often associated with risk of punishment. Little is known about the neural representation of punishment risk during reward-seeking behavior. We modeled this circumstance in rats by designing a task where actions were consistently rewarded but probabilistically punished. Spike activity and local field potentials were recorded during task performance simultaneously from VTA and mPFC, two reciprocally connected regions implicated in reward-seeking and aversive behaviors. At the single unit level, we found that ensembles of putative dopamine and non-dopamine VTA neurons and mPFC neurons encode the relationship between action and punishment. At the network level, we found that coherent theta oscillations synchronize VTA and mPFC in a bottom-up direction, effectively phase-modulating the neuronal spike activity in the two regions during punishment-free actions. This synchrony declined as a function of punishment probability, suggesting that during reward-seeking actions, risk of punishment diminishes VTA-driven neural synchrony between the two regions. PMID:29058673

  12. Influence of ionizing radiation on optical hardness of transparent dielectrics to action of huge intensity laser light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedilov, M.R.; Khalilov, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: This paper presents results of researches of optical hardness of γ -irradiated with doze 10 4 - 10 9 rad alkali-silicate (K, GLS, LGS) and quartz (KU, KV, KSG) glasses against influence of radiation neodymium laser with intensity q = 0,1-1000 GWt/cm 2 . It is observed, that the laser produces damage of surface and volume of investigated glasses before and after γ-irradiation. This damage has threshold character and is always accompanied by a bright luminescence of plasma. Definition of threshold values of intensity superficial q s and volumetric q d laser produced damage was made by the complex method - fixing the moment of damage of transparent dielectric by simultaneous registration of the laser impulse which has passed through plasma of breakdown, mass-charge spectrum of ions of plasma and measuring the energy falling on the glass, and of penetrated and mirror-image radiations; and by optical microscopy. This method of research of influence γ-induced in transparent dielectric radiating defects on its optical stability against influence of laser radiation allows not only to define values q s and q d in the investigated interval of dozes, but also to investigate in details physical phenomena taking place in this process of interaction. On the basis of the received data quantitative characteristics of optical durability of the investigated glasses on wave length of λ1,06 microns depending on dozes of γ-irradiation and intensity of laser radiation are made. Doze dependences of charge and power spectra and quantitative characteristics of ions of plasma of breakdown were investigated at q≥ q s . In the investigated interval of dozes of γ- irradiation and intensity of laser radiation by a method of optical microscopy the morphology of occurring laser damage as surfaces, and volume of glass is also studied. It is found, that γ -induced defects in investigated glasses strongly effect on thresholds of damage q s and q d and on characteristics of ions

  13. Postural complexity influences development in infants born preterm with brain injury: relating perception-action theory to 3 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusing, Stacey C; Izzo, Theresa; Thacker, Leroy R; Galloway, James Cole

    2014-10-01

    Perception-action theory suggests a cyclical relationship between movement and perceptual information. In this case series, changes in postural complexity were used to quantify an infant's action and perception during the development of early motor behaviors. Three infants born preterm with periventricular white matter injury were included. Longitudinal changes in postural complexity (approximate entropy of the center of pressure), head control, reaching, and global development, measured with the Test of Infant Motor Performance and the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, were assessed every 0.5 to 3 months during the first year of life. All 3 infants demonstrated altered postural complexity and developmental delays. However, the timing of the altered postural complexity and the type of delays varied among the infants. For infant 1, reduced postural complexity or limited action while learning to control her head in the midline position may have contributed to her motor delay. However, her ability to adapt her postural complexity eventually may have supported her ability to learn from her environment, as reflected in her relative cognitive strength. For infant 2, limited early postural complexity may have negatively affected his learning through action, resulting in cognitive delay. For infant 3, an increase in postural complexity above typical levels was associated with declining neurological status. Postural complexity is proposed as a measure of perception and action in the postural control system during the development of early behaviors. An optimal, intermediate level of postural complexity supports the use of a variety of postural control strategies and enhances the perception-action cycle. Either excessive or reduced postural complexity may contribute to developmental delays in infants born preterm with white matter injury. © 2014 American Physical Therapy Association.

  14. What is Person-Environment Congruence? Supplementary versus Complementary Models of Fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchinsky, Paul M.; Monahan, Carlyn J.

    1987-01-01

    Proposes that there are two types of person-environment congruence: supplementary, the match between an individual and a group of people who comprise an environment, such as a fraternal organization (the rationale behind vocational counseling decisions); and complementary, the match between an individual's talents and the corresponding needs of…

  15. The Intergenerational Congruence of Mothers' and Preschoolers' Narrative Affective Content and Narrative Coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher-Censor, Efrat; Grey, Izabela; Yates, Tuppett M.

    2013-01-01

    Intergenerational congruence of mothers' and preschoolers' narratives about the mother-child relationship was examined in a sample of 198 Hispanic (59.1%), Black (19.2%), and White (21.7%) mothers and their preschool child. Mothers' narratives were obtained with the Five Minute Speech Sample and were coded for negative and positive affective…

  16. Congruence Effect in Semantic Categorization with Masked Primes with Narrow and Broad Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Wendy Maree; Kinoshita, Sachiko

    2008-01-01

    In semantic categorization, masked primes that are category-congruent with the target (e.g., "Planets: mars-VENUS") facilitate responses relative to category-incongruent primes (e.g., "tree-VENUS"). The present study investigated why this category congruence effect is more consistently found with narrow categories (e.g., "Numbers larger/smaller…

  17. The performance of the Congruence Among Distance Matrices (CADM test in phylogenetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapointe François-Joseph

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CADM is a statistical test used to estimate the level of Congruence Among Distance Matrices. It has been shown in previous studies to have a correct rate of type I error and good power when applied to dissimilarity matrices and to ultrametric distance matrices. Contrary to most other tests of incongruence used in phylogenetic analysis, the null hypothesis of the CADM test assumes complete incongruence of the phylogenetic trees instead of congruence. In this study, we performed computer simulations to assess the type I error rate and power of the test. It was applied to additive distance matrices representing phylogenies and to genetic distance matrices obtained from nucleotide sequences of different lengths that were simulated on randomly generated trees of varying sizes, and under different evolutionary conditions. Results Our results showed that the test has an accurate type I error rate and good power. As expected, power increased with the number of objects (i.e., taxa, the number of partially or completely congruent matrices and the level of congruence among distance matrices. Conclusions Based on our results, we suggest that CADM is an excellent candidate to test for congruence and, when present, to estimate its level in phylogenomic studies where numerous genes are analysed simultaneously.

  18. Clinical information systems end user satisfaction: the expectations and needs congruencies effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Faezeh; Poo, Danny C C; Tan, Yung Ming

    2015-02-01

    Prior research on information systems (IS) shows that users' attitudes and continuance intentions are associated with their satisfaction with information systems. As such, the increasing amount of investments in clinical information systems (CIS) signifies the importance of understanding CIS end users' (i.e., clinicians) satisfaction. In this study, we develop a conceptual framework to identify the cognitive determinants of clinicians' satisfaction formation. The disconfirmation paradigm serves as the core of the framework. The expectations and needs congruency models are the two models of this paradigm, and perceived performance is the basis of the comparisons in the models. The needs and expectations associated with the models are also specified. The survey methodology is adopted in this study to empirically validate the proposed research model. The survey is conducted at a public hospital and results in 112 and 203 valid responses (56% and 98% response rates) from doctors and nurses respectively. The partial least squares (PLS) method is used to analyze the data. The results of the study show that perceived CIS performance is the most influential factor on clinicians' (i.e., doctors and nurses) satisfaction. Doctors' expectations congruency is the next significant determinant of their satisfaction. Contrary to most previous findings, nurses' expectations and expectations congruency do not show a significant effect on their satisfaction. However, the needs congruency is found to significantly affect nurses' satisfaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The congruences of a finite lattice a "proof-by-picture" approach

    CERN Document Server

    Grätzer, George

    2016-01-01

    This is a self-contained exposition by one of the leading experts in lattice theory, George Grätzer, presenting the major results of the last 70 years on congruence lattices of finite lattices, featuring the author's signature Proof-by-Picture method. Key features: * Insightful discussion of techniques to construct "nice" finite lattices with given congruence lattices and "nice" congruence-preserving extensions * Contains complete proofs, an extensive bibliography and index, and over 140 illustrations * This new edition includes two new parts on Planar Semimodular Lattices and The Order of Principle Congruences, covering the research of the last 10 years The book is appropriate for a one-semester graduate course in lattice theory, and it is a practical reference for researchers studying lattices. Reviews of the first edition: "There exist a lot of interesting results in this area of lattice theory, and some of them are presented in this book. [This] monograph…is an exceptional work in lattice theory, like ...

  20. Person-Environment Congruence and Personality Domains in the Prediction of Job Performance and Work Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Kevin M.; Schinka, John A.; Curtiss, Glenn

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the contributions of the 5-Factor Model (FFM; P. T. Costa & R. R. McCrae, 1992) and RIASEC (J. L. Holland, 1994) constructs of consistency, differentiation, and person-environment congruence in predicting job performance ratings in a large sample (N = 514) of employees. Hierarchical regression analyses conducted separately by…

  1. Occupational Congruence and Personal Task-Related Attributes: How Do They Relate to Work Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tziner, Aharon; Meir, Elchanan I.; Segal, Hila

    2002-01-01

    Data from 359 military officers (measures of personality, ability, and congruence) and supervisor and peer performance ratings were analyzed. Personality and person-environment fit were related to performance. Extroverts and those whose interests were congruent with their work environment tended to receive higher ratings. (Contains 41 references.)…

  2. Balanced Scorecard in Higher Education Institutions: Congruence and Roles to Quality Assurance Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reda, Nigusse W.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to highlight the congruence and roles of the balanced scorecard in the quality assurance practices in higher education institutions, and second, to propose a balanced scorecard model for higher education institutions. Design/methodology/approach: A descriptive literature review was used to…

  3. Distributional congruence of mammalian herbivores in the Trans-Himalayan Mountains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Namgail, T.; Wieren, van S.E.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale distribution and diversity patterns of mammalian herbivores, especially less charismatic species in alpine environments remain little understood. We studied distributional congruence of mammalian herbivores in the Trans-Himalayan region of Ladakh to see if the distributions of less

  4. Congruence from the operator's point of view: compositionality requirements on process semantics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gazda, M.; Fokkink, W.J.

    2010-01-01

    One of the basic sanity properties of a behavioural semantics is that it constitutes a congruence with respect to standard process operators. This issue has been traditionally addressed by the development of rule formats for transition system specifications that define process algebras. In this

  5. Congruence from the operator's point of view : compositionality requirements on process semantics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gazda, M.W.; Fokkink, W.J.; Aceto, L.; Sobocinski, P.

    2010-01-01

    One of the basic sanity properties of a behavioural semantics is that it constitutes a congruence with respect to standard process operators. This issue has been traditionally addressed by the development of rule formats for transition system specifications that define process algebras. In this

  6. Proportion Congruency and Practice: A Contingency Learning Account of Asymmetric List Shifting Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Performance is impaired when a distracting stimulus is incongruent with the target stimulus (e.g., "green" printed in red). This congruency effect is decreased when the proportion of incongruent trials is increased, termed the proportion congruent effect. This effect is typically interpreted in terms of the adaptation of attention in…

  7. Functional brain and age-related changes associated with congruency in task switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eich, Teal S.; Parker, David; Liu, Dan; Oh, Hwamee; Razlighi, Qolamreza; Gazes, Yunglin; Habeck, Christian; Stern, Yaakov

    2016-01-01

    Alternating between completing two simple tasks, as opposed to completing only one task, has been shown to produce costs to performance and changes to neural patterns of activity, effects which are augmented in old age. Cognitive conflict may arise from factors other than switching tasks, however. Sensorimotor congruency (whether stimulus-response mappings are the same or different for the two tasks) has been shown to behaviorally moderate switch costs in older, but not younger adults. In the current study, we used fMRI to investigate the neurobiological mechanisms of response-conflict congruency effects within a task switching paradigm in older (N=75) and younger (N=62) adults. Behaviorally, incongruency moderated age-related differences in switch costs. Neurally, switch costs were associated with greater activation in the dorsal attention network for older relative to younger adults. We also found that older adults recruited an additional set of brain areas in the ventral attention network to a greater extent than did younger adults to resolve congruency-related response-conflict. These results suggest both a network and an age-based dissociation between congruency and switch costs in task switching. PMID:27520472

  8. The Impact of Transformational Leadership on Leader-Follower Work Value Congruence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bosch

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study builds on the theory that transformational leadership impacts perceptions of leader-follower value congruence. The study examines intrinsic, altruistic, and social work values in a sample of 150 workers in the United States. The hypotheses tested that different levels of transformational leadership, as perceived by followers, are positively related to follower perceptions of leader-follower intrinsic, altruistic, and social work value congruence. Utilizing hierarchical multiple regression, the findings indicate that  levels of perceived transformational leadership are positively related to higher levels of perceived leader-follower intrinsic, altruistic, and social work value congruency. This study used four different measurement tools to test these hypotheses and controlled for task-oriented behaviors, tenure with supervisor as well as race, gender, and age similarity with supervisor. The findings suggest that organizations involved in a restructuring or reorganization due to either internal or external circumstances should emphasize developing leaders’ transformational leadership behaviors in order to capture benefits related to value congruency.

  9. Medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty improves congruence and restores joint space width of the lateral compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamaisy, Saker; Zuiderbaan, Hendrik A; van der List, Jelle P; Nam, Denis; Pearle, Andrew D

    2016-06-01

    Osteoarthritic progression of the lateral compartment remains a leading indication for medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) revision. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the alterations of the lateral compartment congruence and joint space width (JSW) following medial UKA. Retrospectively, lateral compartment congruence and JSW were evaluated in 174 knees (74 females, 85 males, mean age 65.5years; SD±10.1) preoperatively and six weeks postoperatively, and compared to 41 healthy knees (26 men, 15 women, mean age 33.7years; SD±6.4). Congruence (CI) was calculated using validated software that evaluates the geometric relationship between surfaces and calculates a congruence index (CI). JSW was measured on three sides (inner, middle, outer) by subdividing the lateral compartment into four quarters. The CI of the control group was 0.98 (SD±0.01). The preoperative CI was 0.88 (SD±0.01), which improved significantly to 0.93 (SD±0.03) postoperatively (pcongruence and restores the JSW of the lateral compartment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Explaining cross-national variation in the relationship between priority congruence and satisfaction with democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reher, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that citizens tend to be more satisfied with the functioning of democracy when their ideological positions are more proximate to representatives’.This article argues that congruence in policy priorities between citizens and political elites should have a similar effect...

  11. The Adolescent-Parent Career Congruence Scale: Development and Initial Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawitri, Dian R.; Creed, Peter A.; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.

    2013-01-01

    Although there is a growing interest in the discrepancy between parents and their adolescent children in relation to career expectations, there is no existing, psychometrically sound scale that directly measures adolescent-parent career congruence or incongruence. This study reports the development and initial validation of the Adolescent-Parent…

  12. Life Course Stage in Young Adulthood and Intergenerational Congruence in Family Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucx, Freek; Raaijmakers, Quinten; van Wel, Frits

    2010-01-01

    We investigated how intergenerational congruence in family-related attitudes depends on life course stage in young adulthood. Recent data from the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study were used; the present sample included 2,041 dyads of young adults and their parents. Findings are discussed in terms of the elasticity in intergenerational attitude…

  13. Perceptions of Value-Congruence with One's Department Chair: Does Match Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virick, Meghna; Strage, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Although studies have examined numerous factors that predict junior faculty success, previous research has paid little attention to the role played by department chairs. Drawing on theory from person-environment fit theory and value congruence, we sought to examine the implication of a match versus mismatch between faculty members and their chairs…

  14. Examining the Relationships among Coaching Staff Diversity, Perceptions of Diversity, Value Congruence, and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, George B.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among coaching staff diversity, perceptions of diversity, value congruence, and life satisfaction. Data were collected from 71 coaching staffs (N = 196 coaches). Observed path analysis was used to examine the study predictions. Results indicate that actual staff diversity was positively…

  15. A covariant formalism of spin precession with respect to a reference congruence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Rickard

    2006-01-01

    We derive an effectively three-dimensional relativistic spin precession formalism. The formalism is applicable to any spacetime where an arbitrary timelike reference congruence of worldlines is specified. We employ what we call a stopped spin vector which is the spin vector that we would get if we momentarily make a pure boost of the spin vector to stop it relative to the congruence. Starting from the Fermi transport equation for the standard spin vector we derive a corresponding transport equation for the stopped spin vector. Employing a spacetime transport equation for a vector along a worldline, corresponding to spatial parallel transport with respect to the congruence, we can write down a precession formula for a gyroscope relative to the local spatial geometry defined by the congruence. This general approach has already been pursued by Jantzen et al (see e.g. Jantzen R T, Carini P and Bini D 1992 Ann. Phys. 215 1-50), but the algebraic form of our respective expressions differs. We are also applying the formalism to a novel type of spatial parallel transport introduced in Jonsson (2006 Class. Quantum Grav. 23 1), as well as verifying the validity of the intuitive approach of a forthcoming paper (Jonsson 2006 forthcoming) where gyroscope precession is explained entirely as a double Thomas type of effect. We also present the resulting formalism in explicit three-dimensional form (using the boldface vector notation), and give examples of applications

  16. The performance of the Congruence Among Distance Matrices (CADM) test in phylogenetic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background CADM is a statistical test used to estimate the level of Congruence Among Distance Matrices. It has been shown in previous studies to have a correct rate of type I error and good power when applied to dissimilarity matrices and to ultrametric distance matrices. Contrary to most other tests of incongruence used in phylogenetic analysis, the null hypothesis of the CADM test assumes complete incongruence of the phylogenetic trees instead of congruence. In this study, we performed computer simulations to assess the type I error rate and power of the test. It was applied to additive distance matrices representing phylogenies and to genetic distance matrices obtained from nucleotide sequences of different lengths that were simulated on randomly generated trees of varying sizes, and under different evolutionary conditions. Results Our results showed that the test has an accurate type I error rate and good power. As expected, power increased with the number of objects (i.e., taxa), the number of partially or completely congruent matrices and the level of congruence among distance matrices. Conclusions Based on our results, we suggest that CADM is an excellent candidate to test for congruence and, when present, to estimate its level in phylogenomic studies where numerous genes are analysed simultaneously. PMID:21388552

  17. Examining Congruence within School-Family Partnerships: Definition, Importance, and Current Measurement Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glueck, Courtney L.; Reschly, Amy L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the construct of congruence, particularly with regard to school-family collaboration and partnerships. An in-depth review of the empirical and theoretical literature supporting a shift in focus from encouraging family involvement to creating effective school-family partnerships is presented, followed by an…

  18. Visuotactile motion congruence enhances gamma-band activity in visual and somatosensory cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebber, Martin; Harwood, James; Spitzer, Bernhard; Keil, Julian; Senkowski, Daniel

    2015-08-15

    When touching and viewing a moving surface our visual and somatosensory systems receive congruent spatiotemporal input. Behavioral studies have shown that motion congruence facilitates interplay between visual and tactile stimuli, but the neural mechanisms underlying this interplay are not well understood. Neural oscillations play a role in motion processing and multisensory integration. They may also be crucial for visuotactile motion processing. In this electroencephalography study, we applied linear beamforming to examine the impact of visuotactile motion congruence on beta and gamma band activity (GBA) in visual and somatosensory cortices. Visual and tactile inputs comprised of gratings that moved either in the same or different directions. Participants performed a target detection task that was unrelated to motion congruence. While there were no effects in the beta band (13-21Hz), the power of GBA (50-80Hz) in visual and somatosensory cortices was larger for congruent compared with incongruent motion stimuli. This suggests enhanced bottom-up multisensory processing when visual and tactile gratings moved in the same direction. Supporting its behavioral relevance, GBA was correlated with shorter reaction times in the target detection task. We conclude that motion congruence plays an important role for the integrative processing of visuotactile stimuli in sensory cortices, as reflected by oscillatory responses in the gamma band. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A matter of attention: Crossmodal congruence enhances and impairs performance in a novel trimodal matching paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misselhorn, Jonas; Daume, Jonathan; Engel, Andreas K; Friese, Uwe

    2016-07-29

    A novel crossmodal matching paradigm including vision, audition, and somatosensation was developed in order to investigate the interaction between attention and crossmodal congruence in multisensory integration. To that end, all three modalities were stimulated concurrently while a bimodal focus was defined blockwise. Congruence between stimulus intensity changes in the attended modalities had to be evaluated. We found that crossmodal congruence improved performance if both, the attended modalities and the task-irrelevant distractor were congruent. If the attended modalities were incongruent, the distractor impaired performance due to its congruence relation to one of the attended modalities. Between attentional conditions, magnitudes of crossmodal enhancement or impairment differed. Largest crossmodal effects were seen in visual-tactile matching, intermediate effects for audio-visual and smallest effects for audio-tactile matching. We conclude that differences in crossmodal matching likely reflect characteristics of multisensory neural network architecture. We discuss our results with respect to the timing of perceptual processing and state hypotheses for future physiological studies. Finally, etiological questions are addressed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Congruence and joint space width alterations of the medial compartment following lateral unicompartmental knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuiderbaan, H A; Khamaisy, S; Thein, R; Nawabi, D H; Pearle, A D

    2015-01-01

    Progressive degenerative changes in the medial compartment of the knee following lateral unicompartmental arthroplasty (UKA) remains a leading indication for revision surgery. The purpose of this study is to evaluate changes in the congruence and joint space width (JSW) of the medial compartment following lateral UKA. The congruence of the medial compartment of 53 knees (24 men, 23 women, mean age 13.1 years; sd 62.1) following lateral UKA was evaluated pre-operatively and six weeks post-operatively, and compared with 41 normal knees (26 men, 15 women, mean age 33.7 years; sd 6.4), using an Interactive closest point algorithm which calculated the congruence index (CI) by performing a rigid transformation that best aligns the digitised tibial and femoral surfaces. Inner, middle and outer JSWs were measured by sub-dividing the medial compartment into four quarters on pre- and post-operative, weight bearing tunnel view radiographs. The mean CI of knees following lateral UKA significantly improved from 0.92 (sd 0.06) pre-operatively to 0.96 (sd 0.02) (p congruence and normalise the JSW of the medial compartment, potentially preventing progression of degenerative change. ©2015 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  1. Relation of Interest and Self-Efficacy Occupational Congruence and Career Choice Certainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Terence J. G.

    2010-01-01

    A sample of 2145 adults completed the Personal Globe Inventory (PGI) as well as indicating their occupational choice and the certainty of this choice. The PGI yielded interest and self-efficacy scores and these were used with the occupational choice to calculate a congruence score for interests and one for efficacy. The prediction of career…

  2. A Community of Congruence among Secondary Social Studies Teachers: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Province, Rachael

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to explore the community of one purposely selected department of secondary social studies teachers. I aimed to provide insight into the nature of one community of congruence amid the many constraints and systemic pressures in school systems today. Many have suggested that education is a microcosm of larger…

  3. The Flip Side of Holland Type Congruence: Incongruence and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dik, Bryan J.; Strife, Samantha Roberts; Hansen, Jo-Ida C.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between Holland type (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional; Holland, 1959, 1997) congruence and incongruence (i.e., lack of ft between an occupation's 3-letter Holland code and a person's lowest 3 Holland interest types) and tested whether incongruence predicts unique…

  4. An autonomous surface discontinuity detection and quantification method by digital image correlation and phase congruency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinar, A. F.; Barhli, S. M.; Hollis, D.; Flansbjer, M.; Tomlinson, R. A.; Marrow, T. J.; Mostafavi, M.

    2017-09-01

    Digital image correlation has been routinely used to measure full-field displacements in many areas of solid mechanics, including fracture mechanics. Accurate segmentation of the crack path is needed to study its interaction with the microstructure and stress fields, and studies of crack behaviour, such as the effect of closure or residual stress in fatigue, require data on its opening displacement. Such information can be obtained from any digital image correlation analysis of cracked components, but it collection by manual methods is quite onerous, particularly for massive amounts of data. We introduce the novel application of Phase Congruency to detect and quantify cracks and their opening. Unlike other crack detection techniques, Phase Congruency does not rely on adjustable threshold values that require user interaction, and so allows large datasets to be treated autonomously. The accuracy of the Phase Congruency based algorithm in detecting cracks is evaluated and compared with conventional methods such as Heaviside function fitting. As Phase Congruency is a displacement-based method, it does not suffer from the noise intensification to which gradient-based methods (e.g. strain thresholding) are susceptible. Its application is demonstrated to experimental data for cracks in quasi-brittle (Granitic rock) and ductile (Aluminium alloy) materials.

  5. Pulling your self together: Meditation enhances the congruence between implicit and explicit self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koole, S.L.; Govorun, O.; Chang, C.

    2009-01-01

    Self-reported or explicit self-esteem frequently conflicts with indirectly assessed, implicit self-esteem. The present research investigated whether meditation may reduce such inner conflicts by promoting congruence between implicit and explicit self-esteem. Relative to control conditions,

  6. The Effects of College Major and Job Field Congruence on Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolniak, Gregory C.; Pascarella, Ernest T.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated predictors of job satisfaction and builds on previous research on the effects of bachelor's degree majors and job field congruence on job satisfaction. Data on workers' job experiences in 2001 were matched to those workers' college experiences across 30 institutions and background characteristics up to 25 years earlier.…

  7. The Effects of Congruence in Policy Priorities on Satisfaction with Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reher, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    and news media content data from the 2009 German Longitudinal Election Study. The results show that citizens whose issue concerns are salient amongst party candidates and in the media campaign coverage are indeed more satisfied with democracy in their country. This effect exists not only for congruence...

  8. Determinants of patient-family caregiver congruence on preferred place of death in taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Siew Tzuh; Chen, Cheryl Chia-Hui; Tang, Woung-Ru; Liu, Tsang-Wu

    2010-08-01

    Patient-family caregiver congruence on preferred place of death not only increases the likelihood of dying at home but also contributes significantly to terminally ill cancer patients' quality of life. To examine the determinants of patient-family caregiver congruence on the preferred place of death in Taiwan. Patient-family caregiver dyads (n=1,108) were surveyed on preferences and needs for end-of-life (EOL) care. Determinants of congruence on preferences were identified by multivariate logistic regression. Patient-caregiver dyads achieved 78.1% agreement on the preferred place of death. The kappa coefficient of congruence was 0.55 (95% confidence interval [CI]=0.50, 0.60). The extent of patient-family caregiver congruence on preferred place of death increased with the patient's higher functional dependence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] and 95% CI=1.04 [1.02, 1.05]), higher patient-rated importance for dying at preferred place of death (AOR [95% CI]=1.60 [1.43, 1.79]), and having a spousal caregiver (AOR [95% CI]=1.62 [1.14, 2.31]). Other determinants of patient-family caregiver congruence included patient age (AOR [95% CI]=1.01 [1.00, 1.03]), patient-family concordance on preferred EOL care options (AOR=1.68-1.73), patient knowledge of prognosis (AOR [95% CI]=0.68 [0.48, 0.97]), and impact of caregiving on the family caregiver's life (AOR [95% CI]=0.98 [0.96, 0.99]). Increasing patient-family congruence on preferred place of death not only requires knowledge of the patient's prognosis and advance planning by both parties but also depends on family caregivers endorsing patient preferences for EOL care options and ensuring that supporting patients dying at home does not create an intolerable burden for family caregivers. Copyright (c) 2010 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. An Extension of the Theory of Reasoned Action in Ethical Decision Contexts: The Role of Normative Influence and Ethical Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celuch, Kevin; Dill, Andy

    2011-01-01

    The moral conduct of organizations is ultimately dependent on the discrete actions of individuals. The authors address the scholarly and managerial imperative of how individuals combine various cognitions in their ethical decision making. The study extends the understanding of ethical decision making by exploring relationships among Theory of…

  10. Environmental Action and Student Environmental Leaders: Exploring the Influence of Environmental Attitudes, Locus of Control, and Sense of Personal Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Julie; Blood, Nathaniel; Beery, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The Student Climate and Conservation Congress (SC3) is a joint educational effort between the United States Fish and Wildlife Service and the Green Schools Alliance that aims to develop the next generation of conservation leaders through fostering action competence in youth. Data from SC3 participants was used to investigate four predictors of…

  11. Correlates of emotional congruence with children in sexual offenders against children: a test of theoretical models in an incarcerated sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhail, Ian V; Hermann, Chantal A; Fernandez, Yolanda M

    2014-02-01

    Emotional congruence with children is a psychological construct theoretically involved in the etiology and maintenance of sexual offending against children. Research conducted to date has not examined the relationship between emotional congruence with children and other psychological meaningful risk factors for sexual offending against children. The current study derived potential correlates of emotional congruence with children from the published literature and proposed three models of emotional congruence with children that contain relatively unique sets of correlates: the blockage, sexual deviance, and psychological immaturity models. Using Area under the Curve analysis, we assessed the relationship between emotional congruence with children and offense characteristics, victim demographics, and psychologically meaningful risk factors in a sample of incarcerated sexual offenders against children (n=221). The sexual deviance model received the most support: emotional congruence with children was significantly associated with deviant sexual interests, sexual self-regulation problems, and cognition that condones and supports child molestation. The blockage model received partial support, and the immaturity model received the least support. Based on the results, we propose a set of further predictions regarding the relationships between emotional congruence with children and other psychologically meaningful risk factors to be examined in future research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of working memory span on processing of lexical associations and congruence in spoken discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Ann Boudewyn

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine whether variability in working-memory capacity and cognitive control affects the processing of global discourse congruence and local associations among words when participants listened to short discourse passages. The final, critical word of each passage was either associated or unassociated with a preceding prime word (e.g. He was not prepared for the fame and fortune/praise. These critical words were also either congruent or incongruent with respect to the preceding discourse context (e.g. a context in which a prestigious prize was won (congruent or in which the protagonist had been arrested (incongruent. We used multiple regression to assess the unique contribution of suppression ability (our measure of cognitive control and working memory capacity on the amplitude of individual N400 effects of congruence and association. Our measure of suppression ability did not predict the size of the N400 effects of association or congruence. However, as expected, the results showed that high working-memory capacity individuals were less sensitive to the presence of lexical associations (showed smaller N400 association effects. Furthermore, differences in working memory capacity were related to differences in the topographic distribution of the N400 effects of discourse congruence. The topographic differences in the global congruence effects indicate differences in the underlying neural generators of the N400 effects, as a function of working memory. This suggests additional, or at a minimum, distinct, processing on the part of higher capacity individuals when tasked with integrating incoming words into the developing discourse representation.

  13. Semantic Congruence Accelerates the Onset of the Neural Signals of Successful Memory Encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Pau A; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Bunzeck, Nico; Nicolás, Berta; de Diego-Balaguer, Ruth; Fuentemilla, Lluís

    2017-01-11

    As the stream of experience unfolds, our memory system rapidly transforms current inputs into long-lasting meaningful memories. A putative neural mechanism that strongly influences how input elements are transformed into meaningful memory codes relies on the ability to integrate them with existing structures of knowledge or schemas. However, it is not yet clear whether schema-related integration neural mechanisms occur during online encoding. In the current investigation, we examined the encoding-dependent nature of this phenomenon in humans. We showed that actively integrating words with congruent semantic information provided by a category cue enhances memory for words and increases false recall. The memory effect of such active integration with congruent information was robust, even with an interference task occurring right after each encoding word list. In addition, via electroencephalography, we show in 2 separate studies that the onset of the neural signals of successful encoding appeared early (∼400 ms) during the encoding of congruent words. That the neural signals of successful encoding of congruent and incongruent information followed similarly ∼200 ms later suggests that this earlier neural response contributed to memory formation. We propose that the encoding of events that are congruent with readily available contextual semantics can trigger an accelerated onset of the neural mechanisms, supporting the integration of semantic information with the event input. This faster onset would result in a long-lasting and meaningful memory trace for the event but, at the same time, make it difficult to distinguish it from plausible but never encoded events (i.e., related false memories). Conceptual or schema congruence has a strong influence on long-term memory. However, the question of whether schema-related integration neural mechanisms occur during online encoding has yet to be clarified. We investigated the neural mechanisms reflecting how the active

  14. Impact of value congruence on work-family conflicts: the mediating role of work-related support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Su-Ying; Yeh, Ying-Jung Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    Based on past research regarding the relationship between person-environment fit and work-family conflict (WFC), we examined the mediating effects of perceived organization/supervisor support on the relationship between person-organization/supervisor value congruence and WFC. A structural equation model was used to test three hypotheses using data collected from 637 workers in Taiwan. Person-organization value congruence regarding role boundaries was found to be positively correlated with employee perception of organizational support, resulting in reduced WFC. Person-supervisor value congruence regarding role boundaries also increased employee perception of organizational support, mediated by perceived supervisor support. Research and managerial implications are discussed.

  15. Past Actions as Self-Signals: How Acting in a Self-Interested Way Influences Environmental Decision Making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Yuan Lee

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, awareness of environmental issues has increased significantly. Little has changed, however, in human activities contributing to environmental damage. Why is it so difficult for us to change our behavior in a domain that is clearly so important to the future of humanity? Here we propose and test the possibility that self-signaling, the way we view ourselves based on our past behaviors, is one of the factors contributing to the difficulty of taking environmental action. In three experiments, we show that previous self-interested thoughts or behaviors serve as important signals that hinder the likelihood of acting in line with an individual's reported concern for the environment. This study not only helps explain the gap between environmental awareness and action, but also suggests alternative strategies for policymakers and environmental agencies to promote proenvironmental behavior.

  16. Past Actions as Self-Signals: How Acting in a Self-Interested Way Influences Environmental Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Yuan; Hochman, Guy; Prince, Steven E.; Ariely, Dan

    2016-01-01

    In the last few decades, awareness of environmental issues has increased significantly. Little has changed, however, in human activities contributing to environmental damage. Why is it so difficult for us to change our behavior in a domain that is clearly so important to the future of humanity? Here we propose and test the possibility that self-signaling, the way we view ourselves based on our past behaviors, is one of the factors contributing to the difficulty of taking environmental action. In three experiments, we show that previous self-interested thoughts or behaviors serve as important signals that hinder the likelihood of acting in line with an individual’s reported concern for the environment. This study not only helps explain the gap between environmental awareness and action, but also suggests alternative strategies for policymakers and environmental agencies to promote proenvironmental behavior. PMID:27447822

  17. Past Actions as Self-Signals: How Acting in a Self-Interested Way Influences Environmental Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Yuan; Hochman, Guy; Prince, Steven E; Ariely, Dan

    2016-01-01

    In the last few decades, awareness of environmental issues has increased significantly. Little has changed, however, in human activities contributing to environmental damage. Why is it so difficult for us to change our behavior in a domain that is clearly so important to the future of humanity? Here we propose and test the possibility that self-signaling, the way we view ourselves based on our past behaviors, is one of the factors contributing to the difficulty of taking environmental action. In three experiments, we show that previous self-interested thoughts or behaviors serve as important signals that hinder the likelihood of acting in line with an individual's reported concern for the environment. This study not only helps explain the gap between environmental awareness and action, but also suggests alternative strategies for policymakers and environmental agencies to promote proenvironmental behavior.

  18. The quasi experimental study of the influence of advertising creativity and exposure intensity toward buying action with aida approach

    OpenAIRE

    Budiawan, Ramdan Dede; Satria, Arif; Simanjuntak, Megawati

    2017-01-01

    Advertisement is one of marketing communication forms made by companies to reach sales goal of certain product. Advertising creativity is one of important factors that determines the success of television advertisement, beside that the exposure intensity also be determining factor to make the television advertisement get attention from spectators. To measure the spectators response toward advertisement in this research, the researcher used AIDA model. AIDA (attention, interest, desire, action...

  19. Intentions of Chiropractic Interns Regarding use of Health Promotion in Practice: Applying Theory of Reasoned Action to Identify Attitudes, Beliefs, and Influencing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Marion W.; Ndetan, Harrison; Williams, Ronald D.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The theory of reasoned action is a health behavioral theory that has been used to predict personal health behaviors and intentions as well as those of providers delivering health care. The purpose of this study was to determine interns' future practices regarding the use of health promotion using this model to develop survey questions and to determine attitudes and perceived influences on their prospective behaviors in general, toward the use of health promotion once in practice. Methods: Across the course of one year, all graduating interns at a chiropractic college were queried with a 20 question survey designed using the theory of reasoned action. Frequencies and inferential statistics were performed including prediction modeling using logistic regression. Results: A majority (>85%) of interns indicated they would use health promotion in practice. Differences were noted based on perceived skill levels, perception of educational emphasis, various normative beliefs, and gender. Conclusion: Most interns will use some form of health promotion in practice. Normative influences including those seen as key influencers are as powerful a predictor as perceived education or skill levels on future practice of health promotion. PMID:19390679

  20. Intentions of Chiropractic Interns Regarding use of Health Promotion in Practice: Applying Theory of Reasoned Action to Identify Attitudes, Beliefs, and Influencing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Marion W; Ndetan, Harrison; Williams, Ronald D

    2009-01-01

    The theory of reasoned action is a health behavioral theory that has been used to predict personal health behaviors and intentions as well as those of providers delivering health care. The purpose of this study was to determine interns' future practices regarding the use of health promotion using this model to develop survey questions and to determine attitudes and perceived influences on their prospective behaviors in general, toward the use of health promotion once in practice. Across the course of one year, all graduating interns at a chiropractic college were queried with a 20 question survey designed using the theory of reasoned action. Frequencies and inferential statistics were performed including prediction modeling using logistic regression. A majority (>85%) of interns indicated they would use health promotion in practice. Differences were noted based on perceived skill levels, perception of educational emphasis, various normative beliefs, and gender. Most interns will use some form of health promotion in practice. Normative influences including those seen as key influencers are as powerful a predictor as perceived education or skill levels on future practice of health promotion.

  1. Children's Representation and Imitation of Events: How Goal Organization Influences 3-Year-Old Children's Memory for Action Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucks, Jeff; Mutschler, Christina; Meltzoff, Andrew N

    2017-09-01

    Children's imitation of adults plays a prominent role in human cognitive development. However, few studies have investigated how children represent the complex structure of observed actions which underlies their imitation. We integrate theories of action segmentation, memory, and imitation to investigate whether children's event representation is organized according to veridical serial order or a higher level goal structure. Children were randomly assigned to learn novel event sequences either through interactive hands-on experience (Study 1) or via storybook (Study 2). Results demonstrate that children's representation of observed actions is organized according to higher level goals, even at the cost of representing the veridical temporal ordering of the sequence. We argue that prioritizing goal structure enhances event memory, and that this mental organization is a key mechanism of social-cognitive development in real-world, dynamic environments. It supports cultural learning and imitation in ecologically valid settings when social agents are multitasking and not demonstrating one isolated goal at a time. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  2. Congruence and Incongruence in Adolescents' and Parents' Perceptions of the Family: Using Response Surface Analysis to Examine Links with Adolescents' Psychological Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human, Lauren J; Dirks, Melanie A; DeLongis, Anita; Chen, Edith

    2016-10-01

    Parents and adolescents often hold discrepant views about the family environment and these discrepancies may in turn influence adolescents' psychological adjustment. The current study examined how adolescent-parent perceptions of family routines and chaos, and their congruence and incongruence, relate to adolescents' self-reported psychological adjustment (depressive symptoms and perceived stress), both concurrently (N dyads = 261; 53 % female) and 2 years later (N dyads = 118; 50 % female). Using polynomial regression and response surface analysis, results indicated that adolescents' perceptions of the family environment were a stronger predictor of adolescents' adjustment than parents' perceptions (76 % mothers), concurrently and over time. However, both congruence and incongruence in adolescent-parent perceptions were also related to adolescents' adjustment. Specifically, congruently negative adolescent-parent perceptions were associated with worse concurrent adolescent adjustment. Further, incongruence defined by more negativity in adolescents' versus parents' perceptions was associated with worse adolescent psychological adjustment, concurrently and over time. In sum, in addition to the strong links between adolescents' perceptions of the family and their own psychological adjustment, examining how congruent and incongruent adolescents' perceptions are with parents' perceptions may shed additional light on how the family environment relates to adolescent adjustment.

  3. Phylogenetic congruence of lichenised fungi and algae is affected by spatial scale and taxonomic diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah L. Buckley

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of species’ interactions in structuring biological communities remains unclear. Mutualistic symbioses, involving close positive interactions between two distinct organismal lineages, provide an excellent means to explore the roles of both evolutionary and ecological processes in determining how positive interactions affect community structure. In this study, we investigate patterns of co-diversification between fungi and algae for a range of New Zealand lichens at the community, genus, and species levels and explore explanations for possible patterns related to spatial scale and pattern, taxonomic diversity of the lichens considered, and the level sampling replication. We assembled six independent datasets to compare patterns in phylogenetic congruence with varied spatial extent of sampling, taxonomic diversity and level of specimen replication. For each dataset, we used the DNA sequences from the ITS regions of both the fungal and algal genomes from lichen specimens to produce genetic distance matrices. Phylogenetic congruence between fungi and algae was quantified using distance-based redundancy analysis and we used geographic distance matrices in Moran’s eigenvector mapping and variance partitioning to evaluate the effects of spatial variation on the quantification of phylogenetic congruence. Phylogenetic congruence was highly significant for all datasets and a large proportion of variance in both algal and fungal genetic distances was explained by partner genetic variation. Spatial variables, primarily at large and intermediate scales, were also important for explaining genetic diversity patterns in all datasets. Interestingly, spatial structuring was stronger for fungal than algal genetic variation. As the spatial extent of the samples increased, so too did the proportion of explained variation that was shared between the spatial variables and the partners’ genetic variation. Different lichen taxa showed some variation in

  4. Automated x-ray/light field congruence using the LINAC EPID panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polak, Wojciech [Department of Medical Physics, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford GU2 7XX (United Kingdom); Department of Medical Physics, Radiotherapy Section, Queen Alexandra Hospital NHS Trust, Portsmouth PO6 3LY (United Kingdom); O' Doherty, Jim [Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, King' s College London, London SE1 7EH, United Kingdom and Department of Medical Physics, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford GU2 7XX (United Kingdom); Jones, Matt [Department of Medical Physics, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford GU2 7XX (United Kingdom)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: X-ray/light field alignment is a test described in many guidelines for the routine quality control of clinical linear accelerators (LINAC). Currently, the gold standard method for measuring alignment is through utilization of radiographic film. However, many modern LINACs are equipped with an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) that may be used to perform this test and thus subsequently reducing overall cost, processing, and analysis time, removing operator dependency and the requirement to sustain the departmental film processor. Methods: This work describes a novel method of utilizing the EPID together with a custom inhouse designed jig and automatic image processing software allowing measurement of the light field size, x-ray field size, and congruence between them. The authors present results of testing the method for aS1000 and aS500 Varian EPID detectors for six LINACs at a range of energies (6, 10, and 15 MV) in comparison with the results obtained from the use of radiographic film. Results: Reproducibility of the software in fully automatic operation under a range of operating conditions for a single image showed a congruence of 0.01 cm with a coefficient of variation of 0. Slight variation in congruence repeatability was noted through semiautomatic processing by four independent operators due to manual marking of positions on the jig. Testing of the methodology using the automatic method shows a high precision of 0.02 mm compared to a maximum of 0.06 mm determined by film processing. Intraindividual examination of operator measurements of congruence was shown to vary as much as 0.75 mm. Similar congruence measurements of 0.02 mm were also determined for a lower resolution EPID (aS500 model), after rescaling of the image to the aS1000 image size. Conclusions: The designed methodology was proven to be time efficient, cost effective, and at least as accurate as using the gold standard radiographic film. Additionally, congruence testing can be

  5. Phylogenetic congruence of lichenised fungi and algae is affected by spatial scale and taxonomic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Hannah L; Rafat, Arash; Ridden, Johnathon D; Cruickshank, Robert H; Ridgway, Hayley J; Paterson, Adrian M

    2014-01-01

    The role of species' interactions in structuring biological communities remains unclear. Mutualistic symbioses, involving close positive interactions between two distinct organismal lineages, provide an excellent means to explore the roles of both evolutionary and ecological processes in determining how positive interactions affect community structure. In this study, we investigate patterns of co-diversification between fungi and algae for a range of New Zealand lichens at the community, genus, and species levels and explore explanations for possible patterns related to spatial scale and pattern, taxonomic diversity of the lichens considered, and the level sampling replication. We assembled six independent datasets to compare patterns in phylogenetic congruence with varied spatial extent of sampling, taxonomic diversity and level of specimen replication. For each dataset, we used the DNA sequences from the ITS regions of both the fungal and algal genomes from lichen specimens to produce genetic distance matrices. Phylogenetic congruence between fungi and algae was quantified using distance-based redundancy analysis and we used geographic distance matrices in Moran's eigenvector mapping and variance partitioning to evaluate the effects of spatial variation on the quantification of phylogenetic congruence. Phylogenetic congruence was highly significant for all datasets and a large proportion of variance in both algal and fungal genetic distances was explained by partner genetic variation. Spatial variables, primarily at large and intermediate scales, were also important for explaining genetic diversity patterns in all datasets. Interestingly, spatial structuring was stronger for fungal than algal genetic variation. As the spatial extent of the samples increased, so too did the proportion of explained variation that was shared between the spatial variables and the partners' genetic variation. Different lichen taxa showed some variation in their phylogenetic congruence

  6. Automated x-ray/light field congruence using the LINAC EPID panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polak, Wojciech; O’Doherty, Jim; Jones, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: X-ray/light field alignment is a test described in many guidelines for the routine quality control of clinical linear accelerators (LINAC). Currently, the gold standard method for measuring alignment is through utilization of radiographic film. However, many modern LINACs are equipped with an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) that may be used to perform this test and thus subsequently reducing overall cost, processing, and analysis time, removing operator dependency and the requirement to sustain the departmental film processor. Methods: This work describes a novel method of utilizing the EPID together with a custom inhouse designed jig and automatic image processing software allowing measurement of the light field size, x-ray field size, and congruence between them. The authors present results of testing the method for aS1000 and aS500 Varian EPID detectors for six LINACs at a range of energies (6, 10, and 15 MV) in comparison with the results obtained from the use of radiographic film. Results: Reproducibility of the software in fully automatic operation under a range of operating conditions for a single image showed a congruence of 0.01 cm with a coefficient of variation of 0. Slight variation in congruence repeatability was noted through semiautomatic processing by four independent operators due to manual marking of positions on the jig. Testing of the methodology using the automatic method shows a high precision of 0.02 mm compared to a maximum of 0.06 mm determined by film processing. Intraindividual examination of operator measurements of congruence was shown to vary as much as 0.75 mm. Similar congruence measurements of 0.02 mm were also determined for a lower resolution EPID (aS500 model), after rescaling of the image to the aS1000 image size. Conclusions: The designed methodology was proven to be time efficient, cost effective, and at least as accurate as using the gold standard radiographic film. Additionally, congruence testing can be

  7. Automated x-ray/light field congruence using the LINAC EPID panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Wojciech; O'Doherty, Jim; Jones, Matt

    2013-03-01

    X-ray/light field alignment is a test described in many guidelines for the routine quality control of clinical linear accelerators (LINAC). Currently, the gold standard method for measuring alignment is through utilization of radiographic film. However, many modern LINACs are equipped with an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) that may be used to perform this test and thus subsequently reducing overall cost, processing, and analysis time, removing operator dependency and the requirement to sustain the departmental film processor. This work describes a novel method of utilizing the EPID together with a custom inhouse designed jig and automatic image processing software allowing measurement of the light field size, x-ray field size, and congruence between them. The authors present results of testing the method for aS1000 and aS500 Varian EPID detectors for six LINACs at a range of energies (6, 10, and 15 MV) in comparison with the results obtained from the use of radiographic film. Reproducibility of the software in fully automatic operation under a range of operating conditions for a single image showed a congruence of 0.01 cm with a coefficient of variation of 0. Slight variation in congruence repeatability was noted through semiautomatic processing by four independent operators due to manual marking of positions on the jig. Testing of the methodology using the automatic method shows a high precision of 0.02 mm compared to a maximum of 0.06 mm determined by film processing. Intraindividual examination of operator measurements of congruence was shown to vary as much as 0.75 mm. Similar congruence measurements of 0.02 mm were also determined for a lower resolution EPID (aS500 model), after rescaling of the image to the aS1000 image size. The designed methodology was proven to be time efficient, cost effective, and at least as accurate as using the gold standard radiographic film. Additionally, congruence testing can be easily performed for all four cardinal

  8. The influence of anthropic actions on the evolution of an urban beach: Case study of Marineta Cassiana beach, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagán, J I; Aragonés, L; Tenza-Abril, A J; Pallarés, P

    2016-07-15

    Coastal areas have been historically characterized as being a source of wealth. Nowadays, beaches have become more relevant as a place for rest and leisure. This had led to a very high population pressure due to rapid urbanisation processes. The impacts associated with coastal tourism, demand the development of anthropic actions to protect the shoreline. This paper has studied the impacts of these actions on the Marineta Cassiana beach, in Denia, Spain. This particular Mediterranean beach has traditionally suffered a major shoreline regression, and the beach nourishments carried out in the 1980s would not have achieved the reliability desired. This research has analysed the historic evolution of the beach and its environment for a period of 65years (1950-2015). A Geographic Information System (GIS) has been used to integrate and perform a spatial analysis of urban development, soil erosion, stream flow, swell, longshore transport, submerged vegetation species and shoreline evolution. The results show how the anthropic actions have affected the shoreline. After the excessive urban development of the catchments, there is no natural sediment supply to the beach. The change in the typology of the sediment, from pebbles to sand, during the beach nourishments has led to a crucial imbalance in the studied area. Moreover, the beach area gained has disappeared, affecting the Posidonia oceanica meadow, and incrementing the erosion rates. The findings obtained are relevant, not only in the management and maintenance of the beaches, but also, in the decision-making for future nourishments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of Japanese Regulatory Action on Denosumab-Related Hypocalcemia Using Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeyama, Mayu; Sai, Kimie; Imatoh, Takuya; Segawa, Katsunori; Hirasawa, Noriyasu; Saito, Yoshiro

    2017-01-01

    The anti-receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) antibody, Denosumab (DEN), was approved in April 2012 in Japan, but a Dear Healthcare Professional Letter of Rapid Safety Communication was released in September, 2012 by the regulatory authority because of the severe hypocalcemia risks. Currently, the effectiveness of this regulatory action has not been evaluated and, therefore, this study aimed to assess its impact on DEN-induced hypocalcemia using the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report database (JADER). The case reports from April 2012 to September 2014 were collected from the JADER, which included 151642 adverse events for the primary suspected drugs. The reporting odds ratio (ROR) of hypocalcemia as a signal of the target adverse event was analyzed for DEN and zoledronic acid (ZOL, a reference drug). Changes in RORs were compared between the pre- (Pre, April 2012 to September 2012) and post- (Post 1, October 2012 to September 2013 and Post 2, October 2013 to September 2014) periods of the regulatory action. A decrease in the hypocalcemia ROR was observed for DEN in the post-periods, especially Post 2. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a significant decrease in hypocalcemia signal in Post 1 (p=0.0306 vs. Pre) and Post 2 (p=0.0054 vs. Pre). ZOL caused no significant changes in ROR of hypocalcemia, and none of the drugs caused ROR changes in jaw osteonecrosis (a reference adverse event). This study suggests that the regulatory action against hypocalcemia in DEN effectively decreased hypocalcemia signal. Further studies using medical information databases are needed to confirm this result.

  10. The effects of sad mood on memory in older adults: a test of the mood congruence effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Bob G; Maines, Michele L; Robinson, Gia S

    2002-12-01

    Mood congruence effects have long been studied in younger adults, but not in older adults. Socioemotional selectivity theory (SST) suggests that mood congruence could operate differently in older adults. One hundred and nineteen younger and 78 older adults were randomly assigned to sad or neutral mood inductions, using combined Velten and music induction procedures. Results indicated that during sad mood induction both older and younger adults showed enhanced recall of sad words on delayed word list recall task and in autobiographical memory. However, only older adults displayed mood congruence effects on lexical ambiguity and lower recall of positive words in the word list task. Results provided partial support for developmental effects on mood congruence derived from SST.

  11. Hit and target theories and the molecular theory of radiation action: Notes on the influence of radiation quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    The two target and two hit models are the simplest that can be invoked to explain the dependence of the response of eukaryotic cells on radiation quality. The formal mathematical developments of these two models are contrasted using the LET concept as a description of radiation quality. The two hit model is generalised in terms of event sizes in spherical volumes, as in the dual radiation action theory of Kellerer and Rossi. The effects of short tracks and oxygen enhancement are described. Biological damage is considered as originating in any one of a large number of sites within a cell as in the molecular theory of Chadwick and Leenhouts. Evidence from prokaryotic systems of the possible necessity for more complicated models of radiation action and, in particular, for the necessity to account for the dependence of repair and metabolic factors on radiation quality is cited. The 'track segment' and 'track structure' theories are briefly discussed as alternatives to LET for the description of radiation quality. It is suggested that it would be premature to apply the simple two target or two hit models as a basis for the specification of quality factor in radiological protection. The consequence of doing so would be that the current dose limits for gamma radiation would appear to be too high or that the limits for neutron radiation would appear to be too low. (author)

  12. Audiovisual Modulation in Mouse Primary Visual Cortex Depends on Cross-Modal Stimulus Configuration and Congruency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Guido T; Montijn, Jorrit S; Pennartz, Cyriel M A; Lansink, Carien S

    2017-09-06

    The sensory neocortex is a highly connected associative network that integrates information from multiple senses, even at the level of the primary sensory areas. Although a growing body of empirical evidence supports this view, the neural mechanisms of cross-modal integration in primary sensory areas, such as the primary visual cortex (V1), are still largely unknown. Using two-photon calcium imaging in awake mice, we show that the encoding of audiovisual stimuli in V1 neuronal populations is highly dependent on the features of the stimulus constituents. When the visual and auditory stimulus features were modulated at the same rate (i.e., temporally congruent), neurons responded with either an enhancement or suppression compared with unisensory visual stimuli, and their prevalence was balanced. Temporally incongruent tones or white-noise bursts included in audiovisual stimulus pairs resulted in predominant response suppression across the neuronal population. Visual contrast did not influence multisensory processing when the audiovisual stimulus pairs were congruent; however, when white-noise bursts were used, neurons generally showed response suppression when the visual stimulus contrast was high whereas this effect was absent when the visual contrast was low. Furthermore, a small fraction of V1 neurons, predominantly those located near the lateral border of V1, responded to sound alone. These results show that V1 is involved in the encoding of cross-modal interactions in a more versatile way than previously thought. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The neural substrate of cross-modal integration is not limited to specialized cortical association areas but extends to primary sensory areas. Using two-photon imaging of large groups of neurons, we show that multisensory modulation of V1 populations is strongly determined by the individual and shared features of cross-modal stimulus constituents, such as contrast, frequency, congruency, and temporal structure. Congruent

  13. Do men and their wives see it the same way? Congruence within couples during the first year of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezer, Hélène; Chachamovich, Juliana L Rigol; Chachamovich, Eduardo

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the psychosocial adjustment congruence within couples through the first year of prostate cancer experience, and to explore the personal variables that could predict congruence within couples. Eighty-one couples were interviewed at the time of diagnosis; 69 participated at 3 months and 61 at 12 months. Paired t-tests were used to examine dyadic congruence on seven domains of psychosocial adjustment. Repeated Measures ANOVAs were used to examine the congruence over time. Multiple regressions were used to determine whether mood disturbance, urinary and sexual bother, sense of coherence, and social support were predictors of congruence within couples on each of the adjustment domains. At time 1, couples had incongruent perceptions in 3 of 7 domains: health care, psychological, and social adjustment. Three months later, health care, psychological, and sexual domains showed incongruence within couples. One year after the diagnosis, there were incongruent perceptions only in sexual and psychological domains. There was little variation of the congruence within couples over time. Husbands and wives' mood disturbance, urinary and sexual bother, sense of coherence, and social support accounted for 25-63% of variance in couple congruence in the adjustment domains in the study periods. The findings suggested that there is couple congruence. Domains in which incongruence was observed are important targets for clinical interventions. Greater attention needs to be directed to assisting couples to recognize the differences between their perceptions, especially the ones related to the sexual symptoms and psychological distress. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. The influence of rhein 8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside on the purgative action of sennoside A from rhubarb in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Kento; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki; Ishizu, Takashi; Okamura, Nobuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Rhubarb is one of the most well-known herbal medicines that constitute daiokanzoto (DKT), which is clinically effective for constipation. Sennoside A is transformed into an active metabolite, rheinanthrone, by intestinal bacteria. Sennoside A in rhubarb showed significantly accelerated metabolic activity in intestinal bacteria in comparison with sennoside A alone. In this study, we investigated the influence of rhubarb constituents on the metabolism and purgative activity of sennoside A. The 20% MeOH-eluted fraction separated by MCI-gel CHP-20P column chromatography from the water extract of rhubarb showed sennoside A metabolic activity similar to that of rhubarb extract. The 20% MeOH elute was further purified and rhein 8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (RG) was isolated. The metabolic activity of sennoside A was significantly accelerated by increasing the level of RG. Moreover, rhein, emodin and aloe-emodin also accelerated sennoside A metabolism. The purgative activity of sennoside A was significantly accelerated when RG or rhein was concomitantly given with sennoside A in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that anthraquinones contribute to the purgative action of sennoside A in rhubarb. Therefore, it is assumed that the influence of anthraquinones on the fate of rheinanthrone transformed from sennoside A may promote the purgative action of sennoside A.

  15. Congruency versus strategic effects in multimodal affective picture categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmens, P.M.C.

    2005-01-01

    In communication between humans, emotion is an important aspect having a powerful influence on the structure as well as content of a conversation. In human-factors research, the interaction between humans is often used as a guide to improve the quality of human-computer interaction. Despite its

  16. Understanding the online channel extension of traditional retailers: Online-offline and online-prototypical congruence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jinfeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many Chinese traditional retailers have turned to the multichannel forms by establishing their own online stores. When doing so, retail managers face a difficult choice between two online marketing orientations: “pursuit of ideal” (i.e. online-prototypical congruence orientation and “retention of tradition” (i.e. online-offline congruence orientation. To help managers make this choice, this study proposes a conceptual framework to illustrate how these two orientations affect retail store attitude when retail brand familiarity differs. The results indicate that both orientations can improve consumers’ retail store attitudes. When retail brand familiarity is low, the online stores of traditional retailers should balance both orientations in product selections and adopt “pursuit of ideal” in prices. When retail brand familiarity is high, “retention of tradition” should be applied in product selections and both orientations should be integrated in prices for gaining more positive change in retail store attitude.

  17. Voice over: Audio-visual congruency and content recall in the gallery setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairhurst, Merle T; Scott, Minnie; Deroy, Ophelia

    2017-01-01

    Experimental research has shown that pairs of stimuli which are congruent and assumed to 'go together' are recalled more effectively than an item presented in isolation. Will this multisensory memory benefit occur when stimuli are richer and longer, in an ecological setting? In the present study, we focused on an everyday situation of audio-visual learning and manipulated the relationship between audio guide tracks and viewed portraits in the galleries of the Tate Britain. By varying the gender and narrative style of the voice-over, we examined how the perceived congruency and assumed unity of the audio guide track with painted portraits affected subsequent recall. We show that tracks perceived as best matching the viewed portraits led to greater recall of both sensory and linguistic content. We provide the first evidence that manipulating crossmodal congruence and unity assumptions can effectively impact memory in a multisensory ecological setting, even in the absence of precise temporal alignment between sensory cues.

  18. Liking goes with liking: An intuitive congruence between preference and prominence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morvinski, Coby; Amir, On

    2018-03-26

    In a series of 8 experiments, we demonstrate the existence of a "labeling effect" wherein people intuitively relate preferred choices to prominently labeled cues (such as heads as opposed to tails in a coin toss) and vice versa. Importantly, the observed congruence is asymmetric-it does not manifest for nonprominent cues and nonpreferred choices. This is because the congruence is driven by a process of evaluative matching: prominent cues are liked, but nonprominent cues are neutral or at most slightly negative in contrast. When we test prominent, yet truly negatively labeled cues, we indeed find a matching with less liked products. We discuss the theoretical contributions to the study of preferences and decision making, as well as demonstrate the practical implications to researchers and practitioners by using this process to assess intuitive preferences and reduce the compromise effect. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. The congruence energy: A contribution to nuclear masses and deformation energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, W.D.; Swiatecki, W.J.

    1995-06-01

    The difference between measured binding energies and those calculated using a shell- and pairing-corrected Thomas-Fermi model can be described approximately by C(I) = -10exp(-4.2|I|) MeV. The authors' interpretation of this extra binding is in terms of the granularity of quantal nucleonic density distributions, which leads to a stronger interaction for a neutron and proton with congruent nodal structures of their wave functions. The predicted doubling of this congruence energy in fission is supported by an analysis of measured fission barriers and by a study of wave functions in a dividing Hill-Wheeler box potential. A semi-empirical formula for the shape-dependent congruence energy is described

  20. The congruence energy: a contribution to nuclear masses, deformation energies and fission barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, W.D.; Swiatecki, W.J.

    1997-01-01

    The difference between measured binding energies and those calculated using a shell- and pairing-corrected Thomas-Fermi model can be described approximately by C(I)=-10 exp(-4.2 vertical stroke I vertical stroke) MeV, where I=(N-Z)/A. Our interpretation of this extra binding is in terms of the granularity of quantal nucleonic density distributions, which leads to a stronger interaction for a neutron and proton with congruent nodal structures of their wave functions. The predicted doubling of this congruence energy in fission is supported by an analysis of measured fission barriers and by a study of wave functions in a dividing Hill-Wheeler box potential. A semi-empirical formula for the shape-dependent congruence energy is described. (orig.)

  1. Clinical judgment research on economic topics: Role of congruence of tasks in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttin, Christine C

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses what can ensure the performance of judgment studies with an information design that integrates economics of medical systems, in the context of digitalization of healthcare. It is part of a series of 5 methodological papers on statistical procedures and problems to implement judgment research designs and decision models, especially to address cost of care, and ways to measure conversation on cost of care between physicians and patients, with unstructured data such as economic narratives to complement billing and financial information (e.g. cost cognitive cues in conjoint or reversed conjoint designs). The paper discusses how congruence of tasks can increase the reliability of data. It uses some results of two Meta reviews of judgment studies in different fields of applications: psychology, business, medical sciences and education. It compares tests for congruence in judgment studies and efficiency tests in econometric studies.

  2. Vacuum non-expanding horizons and shear-free null geodesic congruences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamo, T M; Newman, E T

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the geometry of a particular class of null surfaces in spacetime called vacuum non-expanding horizons (NEHs). Using the spin-coefficient equation, we provide a complete description of the horizon geometry, as well as fixing a canonical choice of null tetrad and coordinates on a NEH. By looking for particular classes of null geodesic congruences which live exterior to NEHs but have the special property that their shear vanishes at the intersection with the horizon, a good cut formalism for NEHs is developed which closely mirrors asymptotic theory. In particular, we show that such null geodesic congruences are generated by arbitrary choice of a complex worldline in a complex four-dimensional space, each such choice induces a CR structure on the horizon, and a particular worldline (and hence CR structure) may be chosen by transforming to a privileged tetrad frame.

  3. Leadership and satisfaction in tennis: examination of congruence, gender, and ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemer, H A; Toon, K

    2001-09-01

    The study investigated: (a) the congruency hypothesis, and (b) the member characteristics hypotheses relating to ability and gender, of Chelladurai's (1978) Multidimensional Model of Leadership. One hundred forty-eight tennis players (77 women) competing at the NCAA Division I and II Tennis Championship level participated in the study. Results indicated athlete satisfaction (Athlete Satisfaction Scale; Riemer & Chelladurai, 1998) was not dependent on the congruence between preferred and perceived leadership behavior. Other results indicated that an athlete's level of ability did affect preferences for leadership behavior. Further, while athlete gender was responsible for some variance in preferences for autocratic behavior and positive feedback behavior, the gender of the athlete's coach had a significant effect on the athlete's preferences for social support behavior.

  4. Influence of intertrial interval on basal and drug-induced impulsive action in the 5-choice serial reaction time task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitzpatrick, Ciaràn M; Maric, Vojislav S; Bate, Simon T

    2018-01-01

    test day per week for three weeks) as previous experience had shown that 4 training days would be sufficient to induce consistent premature response levels in male C57BL/6J mice. Once a steady state was achieved, the effects of dextroamphetamine (AMPH) and (±)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI) were...... then assessed using a Latin-square design to determine whether pharmacological-induced impulsive actions depended on ITI length. Mice habituated to the variable ITI schedule after only 3days and showed consistently lower premature response levels until the end of the study. AMPH (pDOI (p....05) increased the percentage of premature responses at 15s ITI trials, while only DOI (pDOI increased omission rates (p

  5. The influence of filtration process on the content of minerals in the functional beverage of adaptogenic action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Khasanov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The market of functional nutrition in Russia has been analyzed. The level of diseases associated with the nervous system and brain is actively growing in Russian Federation. World Health Organization (WHO predicted, brain diseases and mental disorders will enter the five diseases leading to disability in 2020 year. The market of non-alcoholic and functional beverages (FB, which can help for solving this health’s problem, is negligible. A functional bevarage with adaptogenic action based on fruit and berry raw materials and dry plant extracts for the prevention of brain diseases, in particular, the limbic system, as well as the nervous system, has been developed. The functional beveragewas examined in scientific work for the content of macro elements and trace elements. The filtration process is necessary to improve the microbiological stability of FB of adaptogenic action and consumer properties. During the experiment, the effects of the filtration process (one of the most important technological process on the content of mineral elements were studied. As the most appropriate and rational type of filtration for the drink, microfiltration was chosen.The filters were selected in accordance with the regimes and requirements characteristic of microfiltration process. The content of macro elements and trace elements was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy using flame atomization on a Shimadzu AA 6300 spectrophotometer, (Japan. The values of the concentration of mineral substances in the functional beverage were compared before and after the microfiltration process. According to the results of measurements, the content of potassium remained unchanged and the content of copper and iron fell by 19.5 and 79.6 percent, respectively. Reducing the concentrations of magnesium, calcium, sodium and manganese are included in the measurement error intervals. The results obtained make it possible to analyze the losses of mineral substances and

  6. Manipulating affective state influences conditioned appetitive responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaudova, Inna; Krypotos, Angelos-Miltiadis; Effting, Marieke; Kindt, Merel; Beckers, Tom

    2017-10-06

    Affective states influence how individuals process information and behave. Some theories predict emotional congruency effects (e.g. preferential processing of negative information in negative affective states). Emotional congruency should theoretically obstruct the learning of reward associations (appetitive learning) and their ability to guide behaviour under negative mood. Two studies tested the effects of the induction of a negative affective state on appetitive Pavlovian learning, in which neutral stimuli were associated with chocolate (Experiment 1) or alcohol (Experiment 2) rewards. In both experiments, participants showed enhanced approach tendencies towards predictors of reward after a negative relative to a positive performance feedback manipulation. This increase was related to a reduction in positive affect in Experiment 1 only. No effects of the manipulation on conditioned reward expectancies, craving, or consumption were observed. Overall, our findings support the idea of counter-regulation, rather than emotional congruency effects. Negative affective states might therefore serve as a vulnerability factor for addiction, through increasing conditioned approach tendencies.

  7. A Congruence Theorem for Minimal Surfaces in $S^{5}$ with Constant Contact Angle

    OpenAIRE

    Montes, Rodrigo Ristow; Verderesi, Jose A.

    2006-01-01

    We provide a congruence theorem for minimal surfaces in $S^5$ with constant contact angle using Gauss-Codazzi-Ricci equations. More precisely, we prove that Gauss-Codazzi-Ricci equations for minimal surfaces in $S^5$ with constant contact angle satisfy an equation for the Laplacian of the holomorphic angle. Also, we will give a characterization of flat minimal surfaces in $S^5$ with constant contact angle.

  8. Online advertising and congruency effects: It depends on how you look at it

    OpenAIRE

    Janssens, Wim; De Pelsmacker, Patrick; Geuens, Maggie

    2012-01-01

    Three studies investigate the moderating role of divided attention in the relationship between thematic (in)congruency between a web page and a web ad, and evaluations of and click intentions towards the embedded web ad. The first study establishes the traditional priming effect in sequential web page - web ad exposure. Study two manipulates viewers' opportunity to divide their attention when simultaneously exposed to a web page and a web ad, and study three measures divided attention by mea...

  9. The effect of crossmodal congruency between ambient scent and the store environment on consumer reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Carmen; Doucé, Lieve

    2016-01-01

    Previous research found that ambient scents used by retailers should be pleasant and product congruent. This paper proposes that an ambient scent should also be crossmodally congruent with the store environment. Crossmodal congruency refers to the shared crossmodal correspondences (i.e., tendency of a sensory attribute to be associated with an attribute in another sense) of the ambient scent and the store environment. In this study, a scent crossmodally congruent with the store, a scent cross...

  10. Surveying the Relationship between Brand Equity and Brand-Customer Personality Congruency

    OpenAIRE

    Morteza Rezaei; Shahram Jamali Kapak; Shahriar Azizi

    2013-01-01

    Assigning human`s personality features to brands is one of the main subjects that has been focused by researchers in latest decades. On the other hand, congruency of brand personality with customers` personality is a concept that could affect brand equity. So in order to explore this relationship, this research has tested a model in Shahrvand Chain Stores of Tehran. Sample of 185 customers of this store has been selected and finally with return rate of 90%, 163 usable questionnaires have been...

  11. Evaluating and interpreting cross-taxon congruence: Potential pitfalls and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioria, Margherita; Bacaro, Giovanni; Feehan, John

    2011-05-01

    Characterizing the relationship between different taxonomic groups is critical to identify potential surrogates for biodiversity. Previous studies have shown that cross-taxa relationships are generally weak and/or inconsistent. The difficulties in finding predictive patterns have often been attributed to the spatial and temporal scales of these studies and on the differences in the measure used to evaluate such relationships (species richness versus composition). However, the choice of the analytical approach used to evaluate cross-taxon congruence inevitably represents a major source of variation. Here, we described the use of a range of methods that can be used to comprehensively assess cross-taxa relationships. To do so, we used data for two taxonomic groups, wetland plants and water beetles, collected from 54 farmland ponds in Ireland. Specifically, we used the Pearson correlation and rarefaction curves to analyse patterns in species richness, while Mantel tests, Procrustes analysis, and co-correspondence analysis were used to evaluate congruence in species composition. We compared the results of these analyses and we described some of the potential pitfalls associated with the use of each of these statistical approaches. Cross-taxon congruence was moderate to strong, depending on the choice of the analytical approach, on the nature of the response variable, and on local and environmental conditions. Our findings indicate that multiple approaches and measures of community structure are required for a comprehensive assessment of cross-taxa relationships. In particular, we showed that selection of surrogate taxa in conservation planning should not be based on a single statistic expressing the degree of correlation in species richness or composition. Potential solutions to the analytical issues associated with the assessment of cross-taxon congruence are provided and the implications of our findings in the selection of surrogates for biodiversity are discussed.

  12. Emotional congruence between clients and therapists and its effect on treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzil-Slonim, Dana; Bar-Kalifa, Eran; Fisher, Hadar; Peri, Tuvia; Lutz, Wolfgang; Rubel, Julian; Rafaeli, Eshkol

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to (a) explore 2 indices of emotional congruence-temporal similarity and directional discrepancy-between clients' and therapists' ratings of their emotions as they cofluctuate session-by-session; and (b) examine whether client/therapist emotional congruence predicts clients' symptom relief and improved functioning. The sample comprised 109 clients treated by 62 therapists in a university setting. Clients and therapists self-reported their negative (NE) and positive emotions (PE) after each session. Symptom severity and functioning level were assessed at the beginning of each session using the clients' self-reports. To assess emotional congruence, an adaptation of West and Kenny's (2011) Truth and Bias model was applied. To examine the consequences of emotional congruence, polynomial regression, and response surface analyses were conducted (Edwards & Parry, 1993). Clients and therapists were temporally similar in both PE and NE. Therapists experienced less intense PE on average, but did not experience more or less intense NE than their clients. Those therapists who experienced more intense NE than their clients were more temporally similar in their emotions to their clients. Therapist/client incongruence in both PE and NE predicted poorer next-session symptomatology; incongruence in PE was also associated with lower client next-session functioning. Session-level symptoms were better when therapists experienced more intense emotions (both PE and NE) than their clients. The findings highlight the importance of recognizing the dynamic nature of emotions in client-therapist interactions and the contribution of session-by-session emotional dynamics to outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Some Congruence Properties of a Restricted Bipartition Function cN(n

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nipen Saikia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Let cN(n denote the number of bipartitions (λ,μ of a positive integer n subject to the restriction that each part of μ is divisible by N. In this paper, we prove some congruence properties of the function cN(n for N=7, 11, and 5l, for any integer l≥1, by employing Ramanujan’s theta-function identities.

  14. The effects of message quality and congruency on perceptions of tailored health communications ✩

    OpenAIRE

    Updegraff, John A.; Sherman, David K.; Luyster, Faith S.; Mann, Traci L.

    2007-01-01

    Recent research has documented the effectiveness of tailoring health behavior change messages to characteristics of the recipients, but little is known about the processes underlying these effects. Drawing from the elaboration likelihood model (Petty & Cacioppo, 1986), we examined the role of message scrutiny in moderating the congruency effect (Mann, Sherman, & Updegraff, 2004). One hundred and thirty-six undergraduate participants read either a strong or weak message promoting regular denta...

  15. Does Congruence Between Incentive System and Locus of Control Affect Team Performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Mutmainah Siti; Sugiri Slamet

    2017-01-01

    Teamwork is an essential element in most organizations; however, little is known about the best fit among incentive system, team composition, and team performance. This study examines whether the congruence between incentive system and locus of control (LoC) affects team performance. To reconcile opposite lines of arguments regarding the best incentive system for a team, this paper uses the social identity perspective and person-environment fit theory to understand behavior in a group process...

  16. The structure of digraphs associated with the congruence Xk=y(mod n)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Somer, L.; Křížek, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 2 (2011), s. 337-358 ISSN 0011-4642 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100190803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Sophie Germain primes * Fermat primes * primitive roots * Chinese Remainder Theorem * congruence * diagraphs Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.262, year: 2011 http://www.springerlink.com/content/0734x49116250643/

  17. Fronto-Parietal Brain Responses to Visuotactile Congruence in an Anatomical Reference Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Limanowski

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatially and temporally congruent visuotactile stimulation of a fake hand together with one’s real hand may result in an illusory self-attribution of the fake hand. Although this illusion relies on a representation of the two touched body parts in external space, there is tentative evidence that, for the illusion to occur, the seen and felt touches also need to be congruent in an anatomical reference frame. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and a somatotopical, virtual reality-based setup to isolate the neuronal basis of such a comparison. Participants’ index or little finger was synchronously touched with the index or little finger of a virtual hand, under congruent or incongruent orientations of the real and virtual hands. The left ventral premotor cortex responded significantly more strongly to visuotactile co-stimulation of the same versus different fingers of the virtual and real hand. Conversely, the left anterior intraparietal sulcus responded significantly more strongly to co-stimulation of different versus same fingers. Both responses were independent of hand orientation congruence and of spatial congruence of the visuotactile stimuli. Our results suggest that fronto-parietal areas previously associated with multisensory processing within peripersonal space and with tactile remapping evaluate the congruence of visuotactile stimulation on the body according to an anatomical reference frame.

  18. Application of the instructional congruence framework: Developing supplemental materials for English language learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, Tina Skjerping

    2009-12-01

    This dissertation is a study of the instructional congruence framework as it was used to develop and pilot a supplemental science unit on energy and the environment for sixth grade students in Arizona. With the growing linguistic and cultural diversity of children in American schools, congruent materials are more important now than ever before. The supplemental materials were designed by the researcher and underwent a six person, three educator and three engineer, panel review. The revised materials were then piloted in two sixth grade classrooms in the Southwest with high numbers of English language learners. Classroom observation, teacher interviews, and the classroom observation protocol were utilized to understand the fidelity to the instructional congruence framework. The fidelity of implementation of materials was subject to the realities of varied educational contexts. Piloting materials in urban contexts with diverse students involved additional challenges. The results of the study explore the challenges in creating instructionally congruent materials for diverse students in urban contexts. Recommendations are provided for curriculum developers that undertake the task of creating instructionally congruent materials and emphasize the need to devise innovative methods of creation, while understanding that there is no perfect solution. The education community as a whole could benefit from incorporating and synthesizing the instructional congruence framework in order to provide maximum opportunities in science for all students.

  19. Olfactory Context-Dependent Memory and the Effects of Affective Congruency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackländer, Ryan P M; Bermeitinger, Christina

    2017-10-31

    Odors have been claimed to be particularly effective mnemonic cues, possibly because of the strong links between olfaction and emotion processing. Indeed, past research has shown that odors can bias processing towards affectively congruent material. In order to determine whether this processing bias translates to memory, we conducted 2 olfactory-enhanced-context memory experiments where we manipulated affective congruency between the olfactory context and to-be-remembered material. Given the presumed importance of valence to olfactory perception, we hypothesized that memory would be best for affectively congruent material in the olfactory enhanced context groups. Across the 2 experiments, groups which encoded and retrieved material in the presence of an odorant exhibited better memory performance than groups that did not have the added olfactory context during encoding and retrieval. While context-enhanced memory was exhibited in the presence of both pleasant and unpleasant odors, there was no indication that memory was dependent on affective congruency between the olfactory context and the to-be-remembered material. While the results provide further support for the notion that odors can act as powerful contextual mnemonic cues, they call into question the notion that affective congruency between context and focal material is important for later memory performance. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Gender Congruency From a Neutral Point of View: The Roles of Gender Classes and Conceptual Connotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Andrea; Beller, Sieghard; Klauer, Karl Christoph

    2018-02-01

    The question of whether language affects thought is long-standing, with grammatical gender being one of the most contended instances. Empirical evidence focuses on the gender congruency effect, according to which referents of masculine nouns are conceptualized more strongly as male and those of feminine nouns more strongly as female. While some recent studies suggest that this effect is driven by conceptual connotations rather than grammatical properties, research remains theoretically inconclusive because of the confounding of grammatical gender and conceptual connotations in gendered (masculine or feminine) nouns. Taking advantage of the fact that German also includes a neuter gender, the current study attempted to disentangle the relative contributions of grammatical properties and connotations to the emergence of the gender congruency effect. In three pairs of experiments, neuter and gendered nouns were compared in an Extrinsic Affective Simon Task based on gender associations, controlled for a possible role of gender-indicating articles. A congruency effect emerged equally strongly for neuter and gendered nouns, but disappeared when including connotations as covariate, thereby effectively excluding grammatical gender as the (only) driving force for this effect. Based on a critical discussion of these findings, we propose a possible mechanism for the emergence of the effect that also has the potential to accommodate conflicting patterns of findings from previous research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Spatial congruence in language and species richness but not threat in the world's top linguistic hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turvey, Samuel T; Pettorelli, Nathalie

    2014-12-07

    Languages share key evolutionary properties with biological species, and global-level spatial congruence in richness and threat is documented between languages and several taxonomic groups. However, there is little understanding of the functional connection between diversification or extinction in languages and species, or the relationship between linguistic and species richness across different spatial scales. New Guinea is the world's most linguistically rich region and contains extremely high biological diversity. We demonstrate significant positive relationships between language and mammal richness in New Guinea across multiple spatial scales, revealing a likely functional relationship over scales at which infra-island diversification may occur. However, correlations are driven by spatial congruence between low levels of language and species richness. Regional biocultural richness may have showed closer congruence before New Guinea's linguistic landscape was altered by Holocene demographic events. In contrast to global studies, we demonstrate a significant negative correlation across New Guinea between areas with high levels of threatened languages and threatened mammals, indicating that landscape-scale threats differ between these groups. Spatial resource prioritization to conserve biodiversity may not benefit threatened languages, and conservation policy must adopt a multi-faceted approach to protect biocultural diversity as a whole.

  2. Counselors' attachment anxiety and avoidance and the congruence in clients' and therapists' working alliance ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivlighan, Dennis M; Marmarosh, Cheri L

    2018-07-01

    To determine how counselors' attachment anxiety and avoidance related to congruence between counselors' and clients' Working alliance (WA) ratings. Congruence strength was defined as the regression coefficient for clients' WA ratings predicting counselors' WA ratings. Directional bias was defined as the difference in level between counselors' and clients' WA ratings. Twenty-seven graduate student counselors completed an attachment measure and they and their 64 clients completed a measure of WA early in therapy. The truth-and-bias analysis was adapted to analyze the data. As hypothesized counselors' WA ratings were significantly and positively related to clients' WA ratings. Also as hypothesized, counselors' WA ratings were significantly lower than their clients' WA ratings (directional bias). Increasing counselor attachment anxiety was related to increasing negative directional bias; as counselors' attachment anxiety increased the difference between counselors and clients WA ratings became more negative. There was a significant interaction between counselor attachment anxiety and congruence strength in predicting counselor WA ratings. There was a stronger relationship between client WA ratings and counselor WA ratings for counselors low versus high in attachment anxiety. Counselors' attachment anxiety is realted to their ability to accurately percieve their clients' WA.

  3. Value congruence and depressive symptoms among critical care clinicians: The mediating role of moral distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamiani, Giulia; Dordoni, Paola; Argentero, Piergiorgio

    2018-02-01

    Clinicians working in intensive care units are often exposed to several job stressors that can negatively affect their mental health. Literature has acknowledged the role of value congruence and job control in determining clinicians' psychological well-being and depressive symptoms. However, potential mediators of this association have been scarcely examined. This study aimed to test the mediating role of moral distress in the relationship between value congruence and job control, on the one hand, and depression, on the other hand. A cross-sectional study involving physicians, nurses, and residents working in 7 intensive care units in the north of Italy was conducted. Clinicians were administered in the Italian Moral Distress Scale-Revised, the value and control subscales of the Areas of Worklife Scale, and the Beck Depression Inventory II. Structural equation modeling was used to test the mediation model. Analysis on 170 questionnaires (response rate 72%) found no relations between job control and moral distress. A total indirect effect of value congruence on depression through moral distress (β = -.12; p = .02) was found. Moral distress contributes to the development of depressive symptoms among critical care clinicians who perceive a value incongruence with their organization and therefore should be addressed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Fronto-Parietal Brain Responses to Visuotactile Congruence in an Anatomical Reference Frame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limanowski, Jakub; Blankenburg, Felix

    2018-01-01

    Spatially and temporally congruent visuotactile stimulation of a fake hand together with one's real hand may result in an illusory self-attribution of the fake hand. Although this illusion relies on a representation of the two touched body parts in external space, there is tentative evidence that, for the illusion to occur, the seen and felt touches also need to be congruent in an anatomical reference frame. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and a somatotopical, virtual reality-based setup to isolate the neuronal basis of such a comparison. Participants' index or little finger was synchronously touched with the index or little finger of a virtual hand, under congruent or incongruent orientations of the real and virtual hands. The left ventral premotor cortex responded significantly more strongly to visuotactile co-stimulation of the same versus different fingers of the virtual and real hand. Conversely, the left anterior intraparietal sulcus responded significantly more strongly to co-stimulation of different versus same fingers. Both responses were independent of hand orientation congruence and of spatial congruence of the visuotactile stimuli. Our results suggest that fronto-parietal areas previously associated with multisensory processing within peripersonal space and with tactile remapping evaluate the congruence of visuotactile stimulation on the body according to an anatomical reference frame.

  5. Compensator design for hysteresis of a stacked PZT actuator using a congruency-based hysteresis model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Phuong-Bac; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a rate-independent hysteresis compensator for a stacked PZT (lead zirconate titanate) actuator. From a congruency-based hysteresis (CBH) model which is derived from the inherent properties of this actuator, especially the congruency, a feedforward compensator associated with it is developed. The formulation of the proposed compensator is based on an assumption that the inverse operator also possesses the same properties as the CBH model does. This implies that the compensator also possesses properties such as the wiped-out loop closing between the consecutive control points and congruency. Consequently, the expressions for the compensator can be conducted by exploiting the equations for the CBH model in two cases of monotonic increase and monotonic decrease of input excitation. In order to assess the performance of the compensator, several experiments in both open-loop and closed-loop controls are undertaken. In the open-loop control experiment, the performance of the feedforward compensator using the CBH model is compared with the classical Preisach model-based one in three cases of reference waveforms. In the closed-loop control experiment, the proposed compensator is incorporated into a PID (proportional-integral-derivative) control system and the performance of this integrated system is then evaluated and compared to that of the PID with and without compensator. (paper)

  6. Recovery of the matrix operators in the similarity and congruency transformations: Applications in polarimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    November, L.J.

    1993-01-01

    Formulas are presented for the recovery of the matrix operators in arbitrary-order similarity and congruency transformations. Two independent input and output matrix pairs exactly determine the similarity-transformation matrix operator, while three independent Hermitian-matrix pairs are required for the congruency-transformation operator. The congruency transformation is the natural form for the quantum observables of a multiple-element wave function, e.g., for polarized-light transfer: the recovery of the Jones matrix for a nondepolarizing device is demonstrated, given any three linearly independent partially polarized input Stokes states. The recovery formula gives a good solution even with large added noise in the test matrices. Combined with numerical least-squares methods, the formula can give an optimized solution for measures of observation error. A more general operator, which includes the effect of isotropic depolarization, is defined, and its recovery is demonstrated also. The recovery formulas have a three-dimensional geometric interpretation in the second-order case, e.g., in the Poincare sphere. It is pointed out that the geometric property is a purely mathematical property of quantum observables that arises without referring to spatial characteristics for the underlying wave function. 36 refs., 9 figs

  7. Dissociations of spatial congruence effects across response measures: an examination of delta plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeff; Roüast, Nora M

    2016-09-01

    Spatial congruence ("Simon") effects on reaction time (RT) and response force (RF) were studied in two experiments requiring speeded choice responses to the color of a stimulus located irrelevantly to the left or right of fixation. In Experiment 1 with unimanual responses, both RT and incorrect-hand RF were sensitive to spatial congruence, and both showed larger Simon effects following a congruent trial than following an incongruent one. RT and incorrect-hand RF were dissociated in distributional (i.e., delta plot) analyses, however. As in previous studies, the Simon effect on RT was largest for the fastest responses and diminished as RT increased (i.e., decreasing delta plot). In contrast, Simon effects on RF did not decrease for slower responses; if anything, they increased slightly. In Experiment 2 participants made bimanual responses, allowing measurement of the spatial congruence effect for each trial. Responses were both faster and more forceful with the spatially congruent hand than with the spatially incongruent one, but neither of these effects decreased for slower responses. Overall, the results demonstrate that at least some motor-level effects of irrelevant spatial location persist for slower responses.

  8. Effects of motor congruence on visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quak, Michel; Pecher, Diane; Zeelenberg, Rene

    2014-10-01

    Grounded-cognition theories suggest that memory shares processing resources with perception and action. The motor system could be used to help memorize visual objects. In two experiments, we tested the hypothesis that people use motor affordances to maintain object representations in working memory. Participants performed a working memory task on photographs of manipulable and nonmanipulable objects. The manipulable objects were objects that required either a precision grip (i.e., small items) or a power grip (i.e., large items) to use. A concurrent motor task that could be congruent or incongruent with the manipulable objects caused no difference in working memory performance relative to nonmanipulable objects. Moreover, the precision- or power-grip motor task did not affect memory performance on small and large items differently. These findings suggest that the motor system plays no part in visual working memory.

  9. From attitude to action: What shapes attitude toward walking to/from school and how does it influence actual behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chia-Yuan; Zhu, Xuemei

    2016-09-01

    Walking to/from school could promote children's physical activity and help combat childhood obesity. Parental attitudes have been identified as one of the important predictors. But it is unclear what factors shape parental attitudes, and how those in turn influence children's school travel. This study addresses this gap of knowledge by examining the mediating effect of parental attitudes for the relationships between personal, social, and built environmental factors and children's walking-to/from-school behaviors. Survey data (N=2597) were collected from 20 public elementary schools in Austin, Texas, measuring students' typical school travel mode; personal, social, and built environmental factors related to walking-to/from-school; and relevant parental attitudes. The analysis was conducted in M-plus 6.11 to test the proposed conceptual framework using a structural equation model (SEM). Parental attitudes showed significant mediating effects on walking-to/from-school behaviors. Older child, positive peer influence, walkable home-to-school distance, and favorable walking environments were associated with more enjoyment and lower attitudinal barriers, and in turn increased likelihood of walking to/from school. Being Hispanic, increased car ownership, and stronger traffic safety concerns reduced enjoyment and increased attitudinal barriers, and thus decreased likelihood of walking to/from school. This study highlighted the importance of using multilevel interventions to reduce attitudinal barriers and increase enjoyment of walking to/from school. Collaborations among different stakeholders are needed to address environmental issues (e.g., safety concerns) and social factors (e.g., peer influence), while being sensitive to personal factors (e.g., age, ethnicity, and car ownership). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Investigating the congruence of crowdsourced information with official government data: the case of pediatric clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minki; Jung, Yuchul; Jung, Dain; Hur, Cinyoung

    2014-02-03

    Health 2.0 is a benefit to society by helping patients acquire knowledge about health care by harnessing collective intelligence. However, any misleading information can directly affect patients' choices of hospitals and drugs, and potentially exacerbate their health condition. This study investigates the congruence between crowdsourced information and official government data in the health care domain and identifies the determinants of low congruence where it exists. In-line with infodemiology, we suggest measures to help the patients in the regions vulnerable to inaccurate health information. We text-mined multiple online health communities in South Korea to construct the data for crowdsourced information on public health services (173,748 messages). Kendall tau and Spearman rank order correlation coefficients were used to compute the differences in 2 ranking systems of health care quality: actual government evaluations of 779 hospitals and mining results of geospecific online health communities. Then we estimated the effect of sociodemographic characteristics on the level of congruence by using an ordinary least squares regression. The regression results indicated that the standard deviation of married women's education (P=.046), population density (P=.01), number of doctors per pediatric clinic (P=.048), and birthrate (P=.002) have a significant effect on the congruence of crowdsourced data (adjusted R²=.33). Specifically, (1) the higher the birthrate in a given region, (2) the larger the variance in educational attainment, (3) the higher the population density, and (4) the greater the number of doctors per clinic, the more likely that crowdsourced information from online communities is congruent with official government data. To investigate the cause of the spread of misleading health information in the online world, we adopted a unique approach by associating mining results on hospitals from geospecific online health communities with the sociodemographic

  11. Influence of serotonin on the action of melatonin in MIH-induced meiotic resumption in the oocytes of carp Catla catla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattoraj, Asamanja; Seth, Mohua; Maitra, Saumen Kumar

    2008-07-01

    The influences of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) on the action of melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) in MIH (maturation inducing hormone)-induced meiotic resumption were evaluated in the oocytes of carp Catla catla using an in vitro model. Oocytes from gravid female carp were isolated and incubated separately in Medium 199 containing either (a) only melatonin (MEL; 100 pg/mL), or (b) only serotonin (SER; 100 pg/mL), or (c) only MIH (1 microg/mL), or (d) MEL and MIH (e) or MEL (4 h before) and MIH, or (f) MEL and SER, (g) or SER and MIH, or (h) SER (4 h before) and MIH, or (i) luzindole (L-antagonist of MEL receptors; 10 microM) and MEL, or (j) MEL, L and MIH, or (k) MEL (4 h before), L and MIH, or (l) metoclopramide hydrochloride (M-antagonist of SER receptors; 10 microM) and SER, or (m) M, MEL, SER, or (n) M, SER and MIH, or (o) M, SER (4 h before) and MIH, or (p) M, MEL SER and MIH, or (q) MEL, L, SER and M, or (r) MEL, L, SER, M, and MIH, or (s) MEL, SER, L and MIH. Control oocytes were incubated in the medium alone. Oocytes were incubated for 4, or 8, or 12, or 16 h and effects were evaluated by considering the rate (%) of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD). At the end of 16 h incubation, 93.24+/-1.57% oocytes underwent GVBD following incubation with only MIH, while incubation with only MEL or only SER resulted in 77.15+/-1.91% or 14.42+/-0.43% GVBD respectively. Interestingly, incubation with MEL 4 h prior to addition of MIH in the medium, led to an accelerated rate of GVBD (92.58+/-1.10% at 12 h). In contrast, SER, irrespective of its time of application in relation to MIH, resulted in a maximum of 64.57+/-0.86% GVBD. While L was found to reduce the stimulatory actions of melatonin, M suppressed the inhibitory actions of serotonin. In each case, both electrophoretic and immunoblot studies revealed that the rate of GVBD was associated with the rate of formation of maturation promoting factor (a complex of two proteins: a regulatory component--cyclin B

  12. Judgments of auditory-visual affective congruence in adolescents with and without autism: a pilot study of a new task using fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveland, Katherine A; Steinberg, Joel L; Pearson, Deborah A; Mansour, Rosleen; Reddoch, Stacy

    2008-10-01

    One of the most widely reported developmental deficits associated with autism is difficulty perceiving and expressing emotion appropriately. Brain activation associated with performance on a new task, the Emotional Congruence Task, requires judging affective congruence of facial expression and voice, compared with their sex congruence. Participants in this pilot study were adolescents with normal IQ (n = 5) and autism or without (n = 4) autism. In the emotional congruence condition, as compared to the sex congruence of voice and face, controls had significantly more activation than the Autism group in the orbitofrontal cortex, the superior temporal, parahippocampal, and posterior cingulate gyri and occipital regions. Unlike controls, the Autism group did not have significantly greater prefrontal activation during the emotional congruence condition, but did during the sex congruence condition. Results indicate the Emotional Congruence Task can be used successfully to assess brain activation and behavior associated with integration of auditory and visual information for emotion. While the numbers in the groups are small, the results suggest that brain activity while performing the Emotional Congruence Task differed between adolescents with and without autism in fronto-limbic areas and in the superior temporal region. These findings must be confirmed using larger samples of participants.

  13. Demographic diversity, value congruence, and workplace outcomes in acute care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Michael G; Mark, Barbara A

    2012-06-01

    Nursing scholars and healthcare administrators often assume that a more diverse nursing workforce will lead to better patient and nurse outcomes, but this assumption has not been subject to rigorous empirical testing. In a study of nursing units in acute care hospitals, the influence of age, gender, education, race/ethnicity, and perceived value diversity on nurse job satisfaction, nurse intent to stay, and patient satisfaction were examined. Support was found for a negative relationship between perceived value diversity and all outcomes and for a negative relationship between education diversity and intent to stay. Additionally, positive relationships were found between race/ethnicity diversity and nurse job satisfaction as well as between age diversity and intent to stay. From a practice perspective, the findings suggest that implementing retention, recruitment, and management practices that foster a strong shared value system among nurses may lead to better workplace outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Analysis of the Course of Action in Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Fontanille

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This is a semiotic essay in which the production of meaning is analyzed during the course of action. As it is an opened course, its nature and projective scope are relevant,whichplacesus inthe actionfieldas language, and also in the syntagmatic settings needed to maintain the congruence. In order to achieve it, the course of action would have to use adaptation, regulation, adjustment, memory and anticipation, etc. For example, there is a typology of traces which leads us from the forms to the interpretative processes, as well as to the concordance or discordance, and to the interpretation rules.

  15. Perceptual-Semantic Congruency Facilitates Semantic Discrimination of Thermal Qualities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yizhen Zhou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to sense temperature is vital to our life. It signals the environmental condition, reflects the physiological conditions of our own body, and generates feelings of pleasantness or unpleasantness. Moreover, recent studies have demonstrated implicit associations between physical temperature and social/emotional concepts, suggesting the processing of temperature may even influence cognition. In this work, we examined the effect of physical warmth and coldness on semantic cognition. Participants performed speeded target categorization for thermal descriptors in the form of semantic words or illustrative figures representing the thermal qualities “warm” or “cold” while physical thermal stimulation was presented. We compared the average reaction time (RT for the congruent and incongruent conditions managed by response key assignments. In the congruent condition, the response key for the symbol associated with warmth (coldness was assigned to the hand with warm (cold thermal stimulation, and in the incongruent condition the key assignment was reversed. Our results demonstrate that the average RT in the congruent condition was faster than in the incongruent one for both forms of thermal descriptors, suggesting that the experience of physical temperature facilitates the internal processing of the meaning of thermal quality.

  16. Culture and problem-solving: Congruency between the cultural mindset of individualism versus collectivism and problem type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arieli, Sharon; Sagiv, Lilach

    2018-06-01

    This research investigates how the cultural mindset influences problem-solving. Drawing on the notion that cultural mindset influences the cognitive process individuals bring to bear at the moment of judgment, we propose that the congruency between the cultural mindset (individualistic vs. collectivistic) and problem type (rule-based vs. context-based) affects success in problem-solving. In 7 studies we incorporated the traditional approach to studying the impact of culture (i.e., comparing cultural groups) with contemporary approaches viewing cultural differences in a more dynamic and malleable manner. We first show that members of an individualistic group (Jewish Americans) perform better on rule-based problems, whereas members of collectivistic groups (ultra-Orthodox Jews and Arabs from Israel) perform better on context-based problems (Study 1). We then study Arabs in Israel using language (Arabic vs. Hebrew) to prime their collectivistic versus individualistic mindsets (Study 2). As hypothesized, among biculturals (those who internalize both cultures) Arabic facilitated solving context-based problems, whereas Hebrew facilitated solving rule-based problems. We follow up with 5 experiments priming the cultural mindset of individualism versus collectivism, employing various manifestations of the cultural dimension: focusing on the individual versus the collective (Studies 3, 6, and 7); experiencing independence versus interdependence (Study 4); and directing attention to objects versus the context (Studies 5a-b). Finally, we took a meta-analytic approach, showing that the effects found in Studies 3-6 are robust across priming tasks, problems, and samples. Taken together, the differences between cultural groups (Studies 1-2) were recreated when the individualistic/collectivistic cultural mindset was primed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Congruence of Home, Social and Sex Neighborhoods among Men Who Have Sex with Men, NYCM2M Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblin, Beryl A; Egan, James E; Nandi, Vijay; Sang, Jordan M; Cerdá, Magdalena; Tieu, Hong-Van; Ompad, Danielle C; Hoover, Donald R; Frye, Victoria

    2017-06-01

    Substantial literature demonstrates the influence of the neighborhood environment on health behaviors and outcomes. But limited research examines on how gay and bisexual men experience and exist in various geographic and virtual spaces and how this relates to their sexual behavior. New York City Men 2 Men (NYCM2M) was a cross-sectional study designed to identify neighborhood-level characteristics within the urban environment that influence sexual risk behaviors, substance use, and depression among men who have sex with men (MSM) living in NYC. The sample was recruited using a modified venue-based time-space sampling methodology and through select websites and mobile applications. Whether key neighborhoods of human activity, where a participant resided (termed home), socialized (termed social), or had sex most often (termed sex), were the same or different was evaluated. "Congruence" (or the sameness) of home, social, and most often sex neighborhood was reported by 17 % of men, while 30 % reported that none of their neighborhoods were the same. The largest group of men (39 %) reported that their home and sex neighborhoods were the same but their social neighborhood was different while 10 % reported that their home neighborhood was different than their social and sex neighborhood; 5 % men reported same home and social neighborhoods with a different sex neighborhood. Complete neighborhood incongruence was highest among men who were Black and/or Latino, had lower education and personal income levels, and had greater financial insecurity. In adjusted analysis, serodiscordant condomless anal intercourse and condomless anal intercourse with partners from the Internet or mobile applications were significantly associated with having the same social and sex (but not home) neighborhoods. Understanding the complexity of how different spaces and places relate to the health and sexual behavior of MSM is essential for focusing interventions to best reach various populations

  18. Among nonagenarians, congruence between self-rated and proxy-rated health was low but both predicted mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuorisalmi, Merja; Sarkeala, Tytti; Hervonen, Antti; Jylhä, Marja

    2012-05-01

    The congruence between self-rated global health (SRH) and proxy-rated global health (PRH), the factors associated with congruence between SRH and PRH, and their associations with mortality are examined using data from the Vitality 90+ study. The data consist of 213 pairs of subjects--aged 90 years and older--and proxies. The relationship between SRH and PRH was analyzed by chi-square test and Cohen's kappa. Logistic regression analysis was used to find out the factors that are associated with the congruence between health ratings. The association between SRH and PRH with mortality was studied using Cox proportional hazard models. The subjects rated their health more negatively than the proxies. Kappa value indicated only slight congruence between SRH and PRH, and they also predicted mortality differently. Good self-reported functional ability was associated with congruence between SRH and PRH. The results imply that the evaluation processes of SRH and PRH differ, and the measures are not directly interchangeable. Both measures are useful health indicators in very old age but SRH cannot be replaced by PRH in analyses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Congruence in reported frequency of parent-adolescent sexual health communication: A study from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atienzo, Erika E; Ortiz-Panozo, Eduardo; Campero, Lourdes

    2015-08-01

    Most studies on parent-adolescent sexual health communication come from developed countries and are based on either parents' or children's reports. In developing countries, there is little evidence about the agreement among reports of all parties involved in parent-adolescent sexual health communication. The objective of this study is to explore the congruence (agreement) between adolescents and their parents about how frequently they discuss on selected sexual health topics. A total of 1606 parent-adolescent dyads of adolescents attending the first year in public high schools and their parents, in Morelos, Mexico were sampled in this study. The participants completed a self-administered questionnaire that included the frequency of parent-adolescent communication about eight sexual health topics. An ordinal logistic threshold model was used to estimate intra-class correlation coefficients within parent-adolescent dyads (as a measure of congruence) and to test if thresholds were equal between parents and adolescents. Congruence in reported frequency of parent-adolescent sexual health communication ranged from 0.205 (menstruation) to 0.307 (condoms) for mother-adolescent dyads, and from 0.103 (ejaculation) to 0.380 (condoms) for father-adolescent dyads. The thresholds (i.e., the cutoff points that define the categories in the observed ordinal variable) differed between parents and adolescents for each of the sexual health topics explored (pcongruence between parents' and adolescents' reports on parent-adolescent sexual health communication. This might be due to interpretation of frequency and intensity of sexual health communication which differs between parents and adolescents.

  20. Husbands' perceptions of their wives' breast cancer coping efficacy: testing congruence models of adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merluzzi, Thomas V; Martinez Sanchez, MaryAnn

    2018-01-01

    Recent reviews have reinforced the notion that having a supportive spouse can help with the process of coping with and adjusting to cancer. Congruence between spouses' perspectives has been proposed as one mechanism in that process, yet alternative models of congruence have not been examined closely. This study assessed alternative models of congruence in perceptions of coping and their mediating effects on adjustment to breast cancer. Seventy-two women in treatment for breast cancer and their husbands completed measures of marital adjustment, self-efficacy for coping, and adjustment to cancer. Karnofsky Performance Status was obtained from medical records. Wives completed a measure of self-efficacy for coping (wives' ratings of self-efficacy for coping [WSEC]) and husbands completed a measure of self-efficacy for coping (husbands' ratings of wives' self-efficacy for coping [HSEC]) based on their perceptions of their wives' coping efficacy. Interestingly, the correlation between WSEC and HSEC was only 0.207; thus, they are relatively independent perspectives. The following three models were tested to determine the nature of the relationship between WSEC and HSEC: discrepancy model (WSEC - HSEC), additive model (WSEC + HSEC), and multiplicative model (WSEC × HSEC). The discrepancy model was not related to wives' adjustment; however, the additive ( B =0.205, P <0.001) and multiplicative ( B =0.001, P <0.001) models were significantly related to wives' adjustment. Also, the additive model mediated the relationship between performance status and adjustment. Husbands' perception of their wives' coping efficacy contributed marginally to their wives' adjustment, and the combination of WSEC and HSEC mediated the relationship between functional status and wives' adjustment, thus positively impacting wives' adjustment to cancer. Future research is needed to determine the quality of the differences between HSEC and WSEC in order to develop interventions to optimize the

  1. Twisting null geodesic congruences, scri, H-space and spin-angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozameh, Carlos; Newman, E T; Silva-Ortigoza, Gilberto

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to return, with a new observation and rather unconventional point of view, to the study of asymptotically flat solutions of Einstein equations. The essential observation is that from a given asymptotically flat spacetime with a given Bondi shear, one can find (by integrating a partial differential equation) a class of asymptotically shear-free (but, in general, twisting) null geodesic congruences. The class is uniquely given up to the arbitrary choice of a complex analytic world line in a four-parameter complex space. Surprisingly, this parameter space turns out to be the H-space that is associated with the real physical spacetime under consideration. The main development in this work is the demonstration of how this complex world line can be made both unique and also given a physical meaning. More specifically, by forcing or requiring a certain term in the asymptotic Weyl tensor to vanish, the world line is uniquely determined and becomes (by several arguments) identified as the 'complex centre of mass'. Roughly, its imaginary part becomes identified with the intrinsic spin-angular momentum while the real part yields the orbital angular momentum. One should think of this work as developing a generalization of the properties of the algebraically special spacetimes in the sense that the term that is forced here to vanish is automatically vanishing (among many other terms) for all the algebraically special metrics. This is demonstrated in the several given examples. It was, in fact, an understanding of the algebraically special metrics and their associated shear-free null congruence that led us to this construction of the asymptotically shear-free congruences and the unique complex world line. The Robinson-Trautman metrics and the Kerr and charged Kerr metrics with their properties are explicit examples of the construction given here

  2. (M,N-Soft Intersection BL-Algebras and Their Congruences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueling Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to give a foundation for providing a new soft algebraic tool in considering many problems containing uncertainties. In order to provide these new soft algebraic structures, we discuss a new soft set-(M, N-soft intersection set, which is a generalization of soft intersection sets. We introduce the concepts of (M, N-SI filters of BL-algebras and establish some characterizations. Especially, (M, N-soft congruences in BL-algebras are concerned.

  3. Effects of image congruency on persuasiveness and recall in direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernicki, Kristen; Helme, Donald W

    2017-01-01

    Although direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertising is regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, content analyses suggest advertisers may not disclose drug risks in the same way they describe drug benefits. This study tests the relationship between image congruency in televised DTC advertisements, recall of risks/benefits, and perceived persuasiveness. Advertisements for Nasonex, Advair, and Lunesta were shown to college students in either their original (image incongruent) or modified (image neutral) form. Risks were easier to recall with image-neutral advertisements. Gender also had a significant interaction effect, suggesting that males and females process DTC advertisement differently.

  4. Body actions change the appearance of facial expressions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Fantoni

    Full Text Available Perception, cognition, and emotion do not operate along segregated pathways; rather, their adaptive interaction is supported by various sources of evidence. For instance, the aesthetic appraisal of powerful mood inducers like music can bias the facial expression of emotions towards mood congruency. In four experiments we showed similar mood-congruency effects elicited by the comfort/discomfort of body actions. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure, we let participants perform comfortable/uncomfortable visually-guided reaches and tested them in a facial emotion identification task. Through the alleged mediation of motor action induced mood, action comfort enhanced the quality of the participant's global experience (a neutral face appeared happy and a slightly angry face neutral, while action discomfort made a neutral face appear angry and a slightly happy face neutral. Furthermore, uncomfortable (but not comfortable reaching improved the sensitivity for the identification of emotional faces and reduced the identification time of facial expressions, as a possible effect of hyper-arousal from an unpleasant bodily experience.

  5. Leader-team congruence in power distance values and team effectiveness: the mediating role of procedural justice climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Michael S; Carter, Min Z; Zhang, Zhen

    2013-11-01

    We examine the effect of (in)congruence between leaders' and teams' power distance values on team effectiveness. We hypothesize that the (in)congruence between these values would differentially predict team effectiveness, with procedural justice climate serving as a mediator. Using multisource data and polynomial regression, we found that similarities (and differences) between leaders' and their teams' power distance values can have consequential effects on teams' justice climate and, ultimately, their effectiveness (viz., team performance and team organizational citizenship behavior). We conclude that to fully understand the implications of power distance, one should consider the multiple perspectives of both leaders and team members. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Congruence of Transition Perspectives Between Adolescents With Perinatally-Acquired HIV and Their Guardians: An Exploratory Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, Cynthia D; Goldstein, Becca; Dizney, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Youth with perinatally-acquired HIV infection (PHIV) routinely survive into adulthood requiring transition to adult care. Research underscores the importance of assessing transition perspective congruence between adolescents and guardians. Interviews focused on transition decisions were conducted with 18 adolescents with PHIV and their guardians recruited from a southeastern US pediatric infectious disease clinic. Transcribed responses were coded as congruent or divergent. Adolescents and guardians held congruent views that the transition process had not started. Fewer dyads agreed upon the level of adolescent and guardian involvement in transition decisions. Providers should assess congruence of adolescent and guardian perspectives regarding transition-related decisions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Development and Examination of a Family Triadic Measure to Examine Quality of Life Family Congruence in Nursing Home Residents and Two Family Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalgaard Kelly, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The overall purpose of this study was to propose and test a conceptual model and apply family analyses methods to understand quality of life family congruence in the nursing home setting. Method: Secondary data for this study were from a larger study, titled Measurement, Indicators and Improvement of the Quality of Life (QOL) in Nursing Homes . Research literature, family systems theory and human ecological assumptions, fostered the conceptual model empirically testing quality of life family congruence. Results: The study results supported a model examining nursing home residents and two family members on quality of life family congruence. Specifically, family intergenerational dynamic factors, resident personal and social-psychological factors, and nursing home family input factors were examined to identify differences in quality of life family congruence among triad families. Discussion: Formal family involvement and resident cognitive functioning were found as the two most influential factors to quality of life family congruence (QOLFC).

  8. The SOGS-RA vs. the MAGS-7: prevalence estimates and classification congruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Rohling, Martin L; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence rate estimates and congruence in classification status derived from two popular measures of adolescent gambling (SOGS-RA and MAGS-7). Adolescents from three states (Alabama, Mississippi, and Oregon) completed an anonymous questionnaire ( n =1846 high school students total). Results indicate that the prevalence of probable adolescent pathological gambling varied both as a function of instrument and cut-off point utilized for classification (range 1.7%-8.2%). Classification groups (non-problem, at-risk, and problem gamblers) generated by both instruments were found to be associated with reports of gambling frequency, amount of money lost in one gambling occasion, and parental gambling problems. However, concern was raised because the MAGS-7 and the SOGS-RA had little congruence in their three-group classification decisions for specific individuals (e.g., only 20.5% agreement for problem gamblers). To improve clinical utility, an empirical case was made for using the SOGS-RA to generate a fourth group of adolescent gamblers, which we labeled "probable pathological gamblers" (SOGS-RA > or = 6). This group was differentiated from the remaining gambling groups on all the validity indices. The implications and limitations of these findings, as well as future directions, are discussed.

  9. Semantic Congruency in Audiovisual Integration as Revealed by the Continuous Flash Suppression Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Hao Yang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite several demonstrations of crossmodal semantic-congruency effect, it remains controversial as to whether it is a genuine perceptual phenomenon or instead it actually results from post-perceptual response bias such as decision or strategies (de Gelder and Bertelson, 2003. Here we combine the invisible stimuli with sounds to exclude the participants' awareness of the relation between visual and auditory stimuli. We render the visual events invisible by adopting the continuous flash suppression paradigm (Tsuchiya and Koch, 2005 in which the dynamic high-contrast visual patches were presented in one eye to suppress the target that was presented in the other eye. The semantic congruency between visual and auditory stimuli was manipulated and participants had to detect any parts of visual target. The results showed that the time needed to detect the visual target (ie, the release from suppression was faster when it was accompanied by a semantically congruent sound than with an incongruent one. This study therefore demonstrates genuine multisensory integration at the semantic level. Furthermore, it also extends from previous studies with neglect blindsight patients (eg, de Gelder, Pourtois, and Weiskrantz, 2002 to normal participants based on their unawareness of the relation between visual and auditory information.

  10. Target Categorization with Primes that Vary in Both Congruency and Sense Modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn eWeatherford

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In two experiments we examined conceptual priming within and across sense modalities by varying the modality (picture and environmental sounds and the category congruency of prime-target pairs. Both experiments used a repetition priming paradigm, but Experiment 1 studied priming effects with a task that required a superordinate categorization response (man-made or natural, while Experiment 2 used a lower-level category response (musical instruments or animal: one that was more closely associated with the basic level of the semantic network. Results from Experiment 1 showed a strong effect of target modality and two distinct patterns of conceptual priming effects with picture and environmental sound targets. However, no priming advantage was found when congruent and incongruent primes were compared. Results from Experiment 2, found congruency effects that were specific to environmental sound targets when preceded by picture primes. The findings provide support for the intermodal event file and multisensory framework, and suggest that auditory and visual features about a single item in a conceptual category may be more tightly connected than two different items from the same category.

  11. On national flags and language tags: Effects of flag-language congruency in bilingual word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, Jonathan; Declerck, Mathieu; Marzouki, Yousri

    2017-07-01

    French-English bilinguals performed a generalized lexical decision experiment with mixed lists of French and English words and pseudo-words. In Experiment 1, each word/pseudo-word was superimposed on the picture of the French or UK flag, and flag-word congruency was manipulated. The flag was not informative with respect to either the lexical decision response or the language of the word. Nevertheless, lexical decisions to word stimuli were faster following the congruent flag compared with the incongruent flag, but only for French (L1) words. Experiment 2 replicated this flag-language congruency effect in a priming paradigm, where the word and pseudo-word targets followed the brief presentation of the flag prime, and this time effects were seen in both languages. We take these findings as evidence for a mechanism that automatically processes linguistic and non-linguistic information concerning the presence or not of a given language. Language membership information can then modulate lexical processing, in line with the architecture of the BIA model, but not the BIA+ model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The congruency sequence effect 3.0: a critical test of conflict adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthoo, Wout; Abrahamse, Elger L; Braem, Senne; Boehler, C Nico; Notebaert, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, the congruency sequence effect (CSE) -the finding of a reduced congruency effect following incongruent trials in conflict tasks- has played a central role in advancing research on cognitive control. According to the influential conflict-monitoring account, the CSE reflects adjustments in selective attention that enhance task focus when needed, often termed conflict adaptation. However, this dominant interpretation of the CSE has been called into question by several alternative accounts that stress the role of episodic memory processes: feature binding and (stimulus-response) contingency learning. To evaluate the notion of conflict adaptation in accounting for the CSE, we construed versions of three widely used experimental paradigms (the colour-word Stroop, picture-word Stroop and flanker task) that effectively control for feature binding and contingency learning. Results revealed that a CSE can emerge in all three tasks. This strongly suggests a contribution of attentional control to the CSE and highlights the potential of these unprecedentedly clean paradigms for further examining cognitive control.

  13. A novel rate-independent hysteresis model of a piezostack actuator using the congruency property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Phuong-Bac; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel hysteresis prediction model for a piezostack actuator. The model proposed in this work is a type of rate-independent hysteresis and is formulated using the inherent congruency property which exists in most piezoelectric materials. Specifically, the model is established by exploiting the fact that the high-order hysteretic curve segment is congruent with its first-order one that is limited by the same consecutive maximum and minimum values of input. Thus, in order to successfully implement this model two discretized first-order datasets of the ascending and descending curves need to be experimentally identified in advance. Using both the identified datasets and the congruency property, a systematic approach for predicting the hysteresis of the piezostack actuator is then obtained in two cases of input voltage: monotonic ascending and monotonic descending. The developed model is experimentally realized in order to demonstrate the effectiveness on the hysteresis prediction. In the experiment, three waveforms of input excitation schemes—a triangular waveform of decreasing amplitude, a triangular waveform of increasing amplitude and a multi-extremes triangular waveform—are applied to the proposed model. The hysteresis characteristics of the piezostack actuator predicted from the proposed model are compared with those obtained from the classical Preisach model. It is shown that the proposed model gives better accuracy, less computation time for the hysteresis prediction and more feasibility to realize than the classical Preisach model

  14. Congruence of Parents’ and Children’s Perceptions of Parenting: A Meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korelitz, Katherine E.; Garber, Judy

    2016-01-01

    Parents and children often report different perspectives about parents’ behaviors. Such lack of congruence is important because it may reflect problems in their relationship and may be associated with children’s maladjustment. We conducted a systematic, quantitative review of parent-child agreement and discrepancy about parenting behaviors, and potential moderators (e.g., children’s age, race, clinical status, family intactness) of the extent of mother-child and father-child congruence. The meta-analyses included 85 studies with 476 effect sizes of the degree of agreement and discrepancy in parent-child reports of three parenting behaviors: acceptance, psychological control, and behavioral control assessed with one of the most widely-used measures of parenting – the Children’s Report of Parent Behavior Inventory (CRPBI). Mother-child and father-child dyads exhibited significant but modest levels of agreement (r) across parenting constructs. The amount and direction of discrepancy (Hedges’ g) varied by the parenting construct and parents’ sex. Overall, parents’ reports were more favorable than their children’s report about the parents’ behaviors. Significant associations were found between the magnitude of agreement/discrepancy and children’s age, race, clinical status, and family intactness. Moderators differed by parenting construct, parents’ sex, and type of effect size. Implications of these findings for researchers and clinicians are discussed and highlight the need for further research about the meaning of parent-child incongruence, its relation to children’s psychopathology, and interventions for reducing it. PMID:27380467

  15. When music tempo affects the temporal congruence between physical practice and motor imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debarnot, Ursula; Guillot, Aymeric

    2014-06-01

    When people listen to music, they hear beat and a metrical structure in the rhythm; these perceived patterns enable coordination with the music. A clear correspondence between the tempo of actual movement (e.g., walking) and that of music has been demonstrated, but whether similar coordination occurs during motor imagery is unknown. Twenty participants walked naturally for 8m, either physically or mentally, while listening to slow and fast music, or not listening to anything at all (control condition). Executed and imagined walking times were recorded to assess the temporal congruence between physical practice (PP) and motor imagery (MI). Results showed a difference when comparing slow and fast time conditions, but each of these durations did not differ from soundless condition times, hence showing that body movement may not necessarily change in order to synchronize with music. However, the main finding revealed that the ability to achieve temporal congruence between PP and MI times was altered when listening to either slow or fast music. These data suggest that when physical movement is modulated with respect to the musical tempo, the MI efficacy of the corresponding movement may be affected by the rhythm of the music. Practical applications in sport are discussed as athletes frequently listen to music before competing while they mentally practice their movements to be performed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Congruency effects in the remote distractor paradigm: evidence for top-down modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Sabine; Kerzel, Dirk

    2009-08-10

    In three experiments, we examined effects of target-distractor similarity in the remote distractor effect (RDE). Observers made saccades to peripheral targets that were either gray or green. Foveal or peripheral distractors were presented at the same time. The distractors could either share the target's defining property (congruent) or be different from the target (incongruent). Congruent distractors slowed down saccadic reaction times more than incongruent distractors. The increase of the RDE with target-distractor congruency depended on task demands. The more participants had to rely on the target property to locate the target, the larger the congruency effect. We conclude that the RDE can be modulated in a top-down manner. Alternative explanations such as persisting memory traces for the target property or differences in stimulus arrangement were considered but discarded. Our claim is in line with models of saccade generation which assume that the structures underlying the RDE (e.g. the superior colliculus) receive bottom-up as well as top-down information.

  17. The congruency sequence effect 3.0: a critical test of conflict adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wout Duthoo

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, the congruency sequence effect (CSE -the finding of a reduced congruency effect following incongruent trials in conflict tasks- has played a central role in advancing research on cognitive control. According to the influential conflict-monitoring account, the CSE reflects adjustments in selective attention that enhance task focus when needed, often termed conflict adaptation. However, this dominant interpretation of the CSE has been called into question by several alternative accounts that stress the role of episodic memory processes: feature binding and (stimulus-response contingency learning. To evaluate the notion of conflict adaptation in accounting for the CSE, we construed versions of three widely used experimental paradigms (the colour-word Stroop, picture-word Stroop and flanker task that effectively control for feature binding and contingency learning. Results revealed that a CSE can emerge in all three tasks. This strongly suggests a contribution of attentional control to the CSE and highlights the potential of these unprecedentedly clean paradigms for further examining cognitive control.

  18. The Impact of Perceptual/Concurrent and Mnemonic Digits on Temporal Processing: A Congruency Effect of Numerical Magnitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhao; Jing, Guomin; Ding, Xianfeng; Cheng, Xiaorong

    2016-01-01

    Task-irrelevant stimulus numbers can automatically modulate concurrent temporal tasks--leading to the phenomenon of number-time association (NTA). Recent research provides converging evidence that the NTA occurs at the stage of temporal memory. Specifically, a reference memory containing encoded duration information can be modified by perceptual/concurrent digits, i.e., a perceptual/concurrent digit-induced NTA. Here, with five experiments, we investigated whether another working memory (WM)-related mechanism was involved in the generation of NTAs and how this memory-induced NTA was related with the perception-induced NTA. We first explored whether similar NTA effects existed for mnemonic digits which disappeared before time encoding but were actively maintained in WM, i.e., a mnemonic digit-induced NTA. Experiments 1-3 demonstrated both types of NTAs. Further, we revealed a close relationship between the two types of NTAs in two contexts. First, the mnemonic digit-induced NTA also relied on a perceptual number-time co-occurrence at time encoding. We found that the mnemonic digits influenced subsequent temporal processing when a task-irrelevant constant number '5' was presented during target encoding, but not when a non-numerical symbol was presented, suggesting that temporal representations in the reference memory could be accessed and modified by both sensory and postsensory numerical magnitudes through this number-time co-occurrence. Second, the effects of perceptual and mnemonic digits on temporal reproduction could cancel each other out. A congruency effect for perceptual and mnemonic digits (relying on memorization requirement) was demonstrated in Experiments 4 and 5. Specifically, a typical NTA was observed when the magnitudes of memorized and the perceptual/concurrent digits were congruent (both were large or small numbers), but not when they were incongruent (one small and one large numbers). Taken together, our study sheds new light on the mechanism of

  19. The Influence of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals on Undocumented Asian and Pacific Islander Young Adults: Through a Social Determinants of Health Lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhinaraset, May; To, Tu My; Ling, Irving; Melo, Jason; Chavarin, Josue

    2017-06-01

    There is an urgent need to provide evidence-based policies to address the health of the 11.7 million undocumented immigrants in the United States. Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) offers temporary relief to qualified undocumented immigrants. Asians and Pacific Islanders (APIs), in particular, are the fastest growing immigrant population; yet, little is known about their health challenges. This article examines the influence of DACA on the health of API undocumented young adults. In total, 32 unique participants participated in 24 in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions. Participants were aged 18-31 years and identified as undocumented API. DACA potentially improves health outcomes through four potential social determinants: economic stability, educational opportunities, social and community contexts, and access to health care. These determinants improve the mental health and sense of well-being among undocumented young adults. Targeted outreach and education in communities should be informed by these research findings with an eye toward promoting the economic, education, and health benefits of enrolling in DACA. Social policies that address the social determinants of health have significant potential to address health inequities. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of nurses' emotional intelligence on their organizational citizenship behavior, with mediating effects of leader trust and value congruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, So-Hee; Han, Sang-Sook; Joo, Yun-Su

    2018-02-20

    To investigate the causal relationship between nurses' emotional intelligence and their organizational citizenship behavior and the possible mediating effects of leader trust and value congruence. The participants were 348 nurses who were working in a general hospital in a metropolitan area. The data were collected from December 16, 2012 to February 20, 2013. The hypothetical model of emotional intelligence, organizational citizenship behavior, leader trust, and value congruence was fitted to the actual data via structural equation modeling. The leaders' emotional intelligence had a direct positive effect on leader trust and value congruence; however, the nurses' own emotional intelligence had a negative effect on these two variables. Furthermore, leader trust had a direct positive effect on organizational citizenship behavior; value congruence had no such relationship. The nurses' emotional intelligence had a partial, indirect effect on organizational citizenship behavior via leader trust. In a nursing organization, it is necessary to build a system, such as mentoring, to be able to exchange emotions actively among the members in order to enhance emotional intelligence and have the same values between leaders and members throughout open communication. Therefore, nurse managers can contribute greatly to the enhancement of organizational performance by promoting members' organizational citizenship behavior through improving their relationships with them and gaining their trust, while concurrently making efforts to further develop their emotional intelligence. © 2018 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  1. Lost in translation : congruency of teacher and student perceptions of assessment as a predictor of intrinsic motivation in ethnodiverse classrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pat El, Ron Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Students' and teachers' perceptions of the level to which Assesment for Learning (AfL) is practiced in classrooms are largely incongruent. Teachers perceived more practice of AfL than students. Congruency in perceptions of AfL predicted higher student intrinsic motivation. In accordance with

  2. Congruence between patients' preferred and perceived participation in medical decision-making: a review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, L.; Hopmans, W.; Pasman, H.R.W.; Timmermans, D.R.M.; Widdershoven, G.A.M.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients are increasingly expected and asked to be involved in health care decisions. In this decision-making process, preferences for participation are important. In this systematic review we aim to provide an overview the literature related to the congruence between patients'

  3. Congruence between patients’ preferred and perceived participation in medical decision-making: a review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients are increasingly expected and asked to be involved in health care decisions. In this decision-making process, preferences for participation are important. In this systematic review we aim to provide an overview the literature related to the congruence between patients’ preferences and their perceived participation in medical decision-making. We also explore the direction of mismatched and outline factors associated with congruence. Methods A systematic review was performed on patient participation in medical decision-making. Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library databases up to September 2012, were searched and all studies were rigorously critically appraised. In total 44 papers were included, they sampled contained 52 different patient samples. Results Mean of congruence between preference for and perceived participation in decision-making was 60% (49 and 70 representing 25th and 75th percentiles). If no congruence was found, of 36 patient samples most patients preferred more involvement and of 9 patient samples most patients preferred less involvement. Factors associated with preferences the most investigated were age and educational level. Younger patients preferred more often an active or shared role as did higher educated patients. Conclusion This review suggests that a similar approach to all patients is not likely to meet patients’ wishes, since preferences for participation vary among patients. Health care professionals should be sensitive to patients individual preferences and communicate about patients’ participation wishes on a regular basis during their illness trajectory. PMID:24708833

  4. Does patellofemoral congruence following total knee arthroplasty correlate with pain or function? Intraoperative arthroscopic assessment of 30 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senioris, Antoine; Saffarini, Mo; Rahali, Said; Malekpour, Louis; Dujardin, Franck; Courage, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    Anterior knee pain (AKP) is observed in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) both with and without patellar resurfacing, and neither patellar denervation nor secondary resurfacing are effective for treating the symptoms. The exact causes for pain remain unclear, though abnormal patellofemoral forces due to patellar malalignment or inadequate implant design can play an important role. The purpose of this study was to arthroscopically evaluate patellofemoral congruence after wound closure following TKA without patellar resurfacing and correlate it to patellar morphology and postoperative pain and function. The authors prospectively studied 30 patients that received uncemented mobile-bearing TKA. Patellofemoral congruence was assessed arthroscopically after wound closure by estimating the contact area between the native patella and the prosthetic trochlea (> two-thirds, > one-third, congruence was correlated with patellar morphology (Pcongruence and patient characteristics. While patellar morphology and patellofemoral congruence are strongly related, they are not associated with clinical outcomes or patient demographics. Considering that numerous incongruent patellofemoral joints were pain-free, and conversely, many perfectly congruent patellofemoral joints had anterior pain, the authors suppose that pain is probably caused by mechanisms other than patellofemoral pressures.

  5. The effect of CT dose on glenohumeral joint congruency measurements using 3D reconstructed patient-specific bone models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalone, Emily A; Fox, Anne-Marie V; Jenkyn, Thomas R; King, Graham J W; Johnson, James A; Peters, Terry M; Kedgley, Angela E; Athwal, George S

    2011-01-01

    The study of joint congruency at the glenohumeral joint of the shoulder using computed tomography (CT) and three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of joint surfaces is an area of significant clinical interest. However, ionizing radiation delivered to patients during CT examinations is much higher than other types of radiological imaging. The shoulder represents a significant challenge for this modality as it is adjacent to the thyroid gland and breast tissue. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal CT scanning techniques that would minimize radiation dose while accurately quantifying joint congruency of the shoulder. The results suggest that only one-tenth of the standard applied total current (mA) and a pitch ratio of 1.375:1 was necessary to produce joint congruency values consistent with that of the higher dose scans. Using the CT scanning techniques examined in this study, the effective dose applied to the shoulder to quantify joint congruency was reduced by 88.9% compared to standard clinical CT imaging techniques.

  6. Predicting the Gap: Perceptual Congruence between American Principals and Their Teachers' Ratings of Leadership Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Peter T; Goldring, Ellen; Bickman, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the extent to which principals' self-ratings of leadership effectiveness coincide with their teachers' perceptions of their leadership effectiveness. Furthermore, we explore several characteristics of teachers and principals in an attempt to identify the factors that may predict congruence in…

  7. Justification for the Subject of Congruence and Similarity in the Context of Daily Life and Conceptual Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dündar, Sefa; Gündüz, Nazan

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine prospective elementary mathematics teachers' conceptual knowledge level for congruence and similarity in triangles subject and to examine their ability to represent the knowledge, to associate the knowledge with daily life, and to justify and solve the geometry problems about this subject. The study is designed in a…

  8. The Impact of Congruence between Perceived and Preferred Leadership on Satisfaction among College Student-Athletes in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Jingyi Shannon; Pyun, Do Young; Kwon, Hyungil Harry

    2015-01-01

    Chelladurai developed the Multidimensional Model of Leadership, which was designed to be situation-specific to examine leadership behaviour and effectiveness in sporting contexts. Applying Chelladurai's concept to the Singapore sporting context, this study aimed to assess the impact of congruence between perceived and preferred leadership…

  9. (In)Congruence of implicit and explicit communal motives predicts the quality and stability of couple relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemeyer, Birk; Neberich, Wiebke; Asendorpf, Jens B; Neyer, Franz J

    2013-08-01

    Previous research has shown that motive congruence, as observed in convergingly high or low scores on implicit and explicit motive measures, promotes well-being and health. Extending this individual perspective to the realm of couple relationships, the present investigation examined intra- and interpersonal effects of communal motive (in)congruence on relationship satisfaction and stability. The implicit partner-related need for communion, the explicit desire for closeness, and relationship satisfaction were assessed in a sample of 547 heterosexual couples aged 18 to 73 years. In a one-year follow-up study, information on relationship stability was obtained, and relationship satisfaction was reassessed. The researchers tested cross-sectional and longitudinal effects of motive (in)congruence by dyadic moderation analyses. Individuals scoring congruently high on both motives reported the highest relationship satisfaction in concurrence with motive assessment and 1 year later. In addition, motive incongruence predicted an increased risk of relationship breakup over 1 year. The results highlight the significance of both implicit and explicit motives for couple relationships. Motive incongruence was confirmed as a dispositional risk factor that so far has not been considered in couple research. Future research directions addressing potential mediators of the observed effects and potential moderators of motive (in)congruence are discussed. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Identity and Belonging in Social Learning Groups: The Importance of Distinguishing Social, Operational and Knowledge-Related Identity Congruence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Gwyneth

    2010-01-01

    Collaborative learning has much to offer but not all learners participate fully and peer groups can be exclusive. The article examines how belonging or "congruence" in learning groups is related to identities of gender, age, ethnicity and socio-economic status. A study of student experiences of collaborative learning on three different…

  11. Exploring the Effects of Congruence and Holland's Personality Codes on Job Satisfaction: An Application of Hierarchical Linear Modeling Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishitani, Terry T.

    2010-01-01

    This study applied hierarchical linear modeling to investigate the effect of congruence on intrinsic and extrinsic aspects of job satisfaction. Particular focus was given to differences in job satisfaction by gender and by Holland's first-letter codes. The study sample included nationally represented 1462 female and 1280 male college graduates who…

  12. Cultural Congruence and Unbalanced Power between Home and School in Rural Ghana and the Impact on School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masko, Amy L.; Bosiwah, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    This ethnographic inquiry examines the cultural congruence between home and school in rural Ghana, exploring the cultural norms of child-rearing practices within families and the institution of schooling. The data illustrate both the agreement between home and school in regard to discipline practices and instruction in morality, while…

  13. Examining Construct Congruence for Psychometric Tests: A Note on an Extension to Binary Items and Nesting Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.; Dimitrov, Dimiter M.; Li, Tatyana

    2018-01-01

    This article extends the procedure outlined in the article by Raykov, Marcoulides, and Tong for testing congruence of latent constructs to the setting of binary items and clustering effects. In this widely used setting in contemporary educational and psychological research, the method can be used to examine if two or more homogeneous…

  14. Building Commitment: An Examination of Learning Climate Congruence and the Affective Commitment of Academics in an Australian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southcombe, Amie; Fulop, Liz; Carter, Geoff; Cavanagh, Jillian

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between learning climate congruence and the affective commitment of university academics. The strategy of inquiry for this research is quantitative, involving a non-experimental design for the survey research. A non-probability sample of 900 academics from a large Australian university was…

  15. Congruence between patients' preferred and perceived participation in medical decision-making: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brom, Linda; Hopmans, Wendy; Pasman, H Roeline W; Timmermans, Danielle R M; Widdershoven, Guy A M; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D

    2014-04-03

    Patients are increasingly expected and asked to be involved in health care decisions. In this decision-making process, preferences for participation are important. In this systematic review we aim to provide an overview the literature related to the congruence between patients' preferences and their perceived participation in medical decision-making. We also explore the direction of mismatched and outline factors associated with congruence. A systematic review was performed on patient participation in medical decision-making. Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library databases up to September 2012, were searched and all studies were rigorously critically appraised. In total 44 papers were included, they sampled contained 52 different patient samples. Mean of congruence between preference for and perceived participation in decision-making was 60% (49 and 70 representing 25th and 75th percentiles). If no congruence was found, of 36 patient samples most patients preferred more involvement and of 9 patient samples most patients preferred less involvement. Factors associated with preferences the most investigated were age and educational level. Younger patients preferred more often an active or shared role as did higher educated patients. This review suggests that a similar approach to all patients is not likely to meet patients' wishes, since preferences for participation vary among patients. Health care professionals should be sensitive to patients individual preferences and communicate about patients' participation wishes on a regular basis during their illness trajectory.

  16. Congruence in Parent-Teacher Communication: Implications for the Efficacy of CBC for Students with Behavioral Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbacz, S. Andrew; Sheridan, Susan M.; Koziol, Natalie A.; Kwon, Kyongboon; Holmes, Shannon R.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined parent-teacher congruent communication within conjoint behavioral consultation (CBC). Specifically, the study purpose was to determine the extent to which congruence in parent-teacher communication (i.e., the degree to which parents and teachers view their communication in a similar fashion) moderated CBC's effects on…

  17. Creatures of habit (and control: a multi-level learning perspective on the modulation of congruency effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eEgner

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The congruency sequence effect (CSE describes the finding that congruency effects in classic probes of selective attention (like the Stroop, Simon, and flanker tasks are smaller following an incongruent than following a congruent trial. The past two decades have generated a large literature on determinants and boundary conditions for the CSE and similar, congruency-proportion based modulations of congruency effects. A prolonged and heated theoretical discussion has been guided primarily by a historically motivated dichotomy between top-down control versus associative bottom-up explanations for these effects. In the present article, I attempt to integrate and contextualize the major empirical findings in this field by arguing that CSEs (and related effects are best understood as reflecting a composite of multiple levels of learning that differ in their level of abstraction. Specifically, learning does not only involve the trial-by-trial encoding, binding, and cued retrieval of specific stimulus-response associations, but also of more abstract trial features, including the spatial and temporal context in which a stimulus occurs, as well as internal states, like the experience of difficulty, and the attentional control settings that were employed in dealing with the stimulus. From this perspective, top-down control and bottom-up priming processes work in concert rather than in opposition. They represent different levels of abstraction in the same learning scheme and they serve a single, common goal: forming memory ensembles that will facilitate fast and appropriate responding to recurring stimuli or events in the environment.

  18. Congruence as a measurement of extended haplotype structure across the genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Historically, extended haplotypes have been defined using only a few data points, such as alleles for several HLA genes in the MHC. High-density SNP data, and the increasing affordability of whole genome SNP typing, creates the opportunity to define higher resolution extended haplotypes. This drives the need for new tools that support quantification and visualization of extended haplotypes as defined by as many as 2000 SNPs. Confronted with high-density SNP data across the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) for 2,300 complete families, compiled by the Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium (T1DGC), we developed software for studying extended haplotypes. Methods The software, called ExHap (Extended Haplotype), uses a similarity measurement we term congruence to identify and quantify long-range allele identity. Using ExHap, we analyzed congruence in both the T1DGC data and family-phased data from the International HapMap Project. Results Congruent chromosomes from the T1DGC data have between 96.5% and 99.9% allele identity over 1,818 SNPs spanning 2.64 megabases of the MHC (HLA-DRB1 to HLA-A). Thirty-three of 132 DQ-DR-B-A defined haplotype groups have > 50% congruent chromosomes in this region. For example, 92% of chromosomes within the DR3-B8-A1 haplotype are congruent from HLA-DRB1 to HLA-A (99.8% allele identity). We also applied ExHap to all 22 autosomes for both CEU and YRI cohorts from the International HapMap Project, identifying multiple candidate extended haplotypes. Conclusions Long-range congruence is not unique to the MHC region. Patterns of allele identity on phased chromosomes provide a simple, straightforward approach to visually and quantitatively inspect complex long-range structural patterns in the genome. Such patterns aid the biologist in appreciating genetic similarities and differences across cohorts, and can lead to hypothesis generation for subsequent studies. PMID:22369243

  19. The bidirectional congruency effect of brightness-valence metaphoric association in the Stroop-like and priming paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanli; Tse, Chi-Shing; Xie, Jiushu

    2017-11-04

    The conceptual metaphor theory (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980, 1999) postulates a unidirectional metaphoric association between abstract and concrete concepts: sensorimotor experience activated by concrete concepts facilitates the processing of abstract concepts, but not the other way around. However, this unidirectional view has been challenged by studies that reported a bidirectional metaphoric association. In three experiments, we tested the directionality of the brightness-valence metaphoric association, using Stroop-like paradigm, priming paradigm, and Stroop-like paradigm with a go/no-go manipulation. Both mean and vincentile analyses of reaction time data were performed. We showed that the directionality of brightness-valence metaphoric congruency effect could be modulated by the activation level of the brightness/valence information. Both brightness-to-valence and valence-to-brightness metaphoric congruency effects occurred in the priming paradigm, which could be attributed to the presentation of prime that pre-activated the brightness or valence information. However, in the Stroop-like paradigm the metaphoric congruency effect was only observed in the brightness-to-valence direction, but not in the valence-to-brightness direction. When the go/no-go manipulation was used to boost the activation of word meaning in the Stroop-like paradigm, the valence-to-brightness metaphoric congruency effect was observed. Vincentile analyses further revealed that valence-to-brightness metaphoric congruency effect approached significance in the Stroop-like paradigm when participants' reaction times were slower (at around 490ms). The implications of the current findings on the conceptual metaphor theory and embodied cognition are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. An extended model of reasoned action to understand the influence of individual- and network-level factors on African Americans' participation in HIV vaccine research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, Paula M; Archibald, Matthew; Diallo, Dazon Dixon; Hou, Su-I; Horton, Takeia; Chan, Kayshin; Mulligan, Mark J; del Rio, Carlos

    2010-06-01

    In the United States, the number and proportion of HIV/AIDS cases among black/African Americans continue to highlight the need for new biomedical prevention interventions, including an HIV vaccine, microbicide, or new antiretroviral (ARV) prevention strategies such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to complement existing condom usage, harm reduction methods, and behavioral change strategies to stem the HIV epidemic. Although black/African Americans are disproportionately impacted by HIV/AIDS, their participation in HIV clinical research continues to have unique challenges. We theorize that interaction among multilevel factors creates ideal alignment for minority participation in HIV clinical studies. Thus, we initially set out to test an extended model of reasoned action with 362 participants to understand the interplay of sociopsychological and network-level considerations influencing minority participation in HIV prevention research efforts. In this study, we linked the intrapersonal dimensions of attitudes, beliefs, and normative concerns to community-level components, appraisal of involvement with the clinical research organization, an entity which operates within a networked structure of community partner agencies, and identification with coalition advocacy aims. Various participatory outcomes were explored including involvement in future HIV vaccine community functions, participation in community promotion of HIV vaccine research, and community mobilization. Three-stage least squares estimates indicated similar findings across three models. Significant effects demonstrate the importance of positive attitudes toward HIV vaccine research, favorable health research beliefs, perceived social support for participation, HIV/AIDS issue engagement, and perceived relevance of the clinical research site's mission and values. Identification of these nuanced pathway effects provides implications for tailored community program development.

  1. An Extended Model of Reasoned Action to Understand the Influence of Individual- and Network-Level Factors on African Americans’ Participation in HIV Vaccine Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, Paula M.; Archibald, Matthew; Diallo, Dazon Dixon; Hou, Su-I; Horton, Takeia; Chan, Kayshin; Mulligan, Mark J.; del Rio, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    In the United States, the number and proportion of HIV/AIDS cases among black/African Americans continue to highlight the need for new biomedical prevention interventions, including an HIV vaccine, microbicide, or new antiretroviral (ARV) prevention strategies such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to complement existing condom usage, harm reduction methods, and behavioral change strategies to stem the HIV epidemic. Although black/African Americans are disproportionately impacted by HIV/AIDS, their participation in HIV clinical research continues to have unique challenges. We theorize that interaction among multilevel factors creates ideal alignment for minority participation in HIV clinical studies. Thus, we initially set out to test an extended model of reasoned action with 362 participants to understand the interplay of sociopsychological and network-level considerations influencing minority participation in HIV prevention research efforts. In this study, we linked the intrapersonal dimensions of attitudes, beliefs, and normative concerns to community-level components, appraisal of involvement with the clinical research organization, an entity which operates within a networked structure of community partner agencies, and identification with coalition advocacy aims. Various participatory outcomes were explored including involvement in future HIV vaccine community functions, participation in community promotion of HIV vaccine research, and community mobilization. Three-stage least squares estimates indicated similar findings across three models. Significant effects demonstrate the importance of positive attitudes toward HIV vaccine research, favorable health research beliefs, perceived social support for participation, HIV/AIDS issue engagement, and perceived relevance of the clinical research site’s mission and values. Identification of these nuanced pathway effects provides implications for tailored community program development. PMID:20012200

  2. Antifungal activity of phlorotannins against dermatophytes and yeasts: approaches to the mechanism of action and influence on Candida albicans virulence factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciliana Lopes

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, fungal infections, particularly nosocomial, increased all around the world. This increment stimulated the search for new antifungal agents, especially those derived from nature. Among natural products, those from marine sources have gained prominence in the last years. Purified phlorotannins extracts from three brown seaweeds (Cystoseira nodicaulis (Withering M. Roberts, Cystoseira usneoides (Linnaeus M. Roberts and Fucus spiralis Linnaeus were screened for their antifungal activity against human pathogenic yeast and filamentous fungi. The purified phlorotannins extracts from the studied seaweeds displayed fungistatic and fungicidal activity against yeast and dermatophytes, respectively, pointing to their interest as anti-dermatophyte agent. C. albicans ATCC 10231 was the most susceptible among yeast, while Epidermophyton floccosum and Trichophyton rubrum were the most susceptible among dermatophytes. Since the antifungal mechanism constitutes an important strategy for limiting the emergence of resistance to the commercially available agents, the mechanism of action of purified phlorotannins extracts was approached. C. nodicaulis and C. usneoides seem to act by affecting the ergosterol composition of the cell membrane of yeast and dermatophyte, respectively. F. spiralis influenced the dermatophyte cell wall composition by reducing the levels of chitin. Phlorotannins also seem to affect the respiratory chain function, as all of the studied species significantly increased the activity of mitochondrial dehydrogenases and increased the incorporation of rhodamine 123 by yeast cells. Phlorotannins from F. spiralis inhibited the dimorphic transition of Candida albicans, leading to the formation of pseudohyphae with diminished capacity to adhere to epithelial cells. This finding is associated with a decrease of C. albicans virulence and capacity to invade host cells and can be potentially interesting for combined antifungal

  3. School-aged children can benefit from audiovisual semantic congruency during memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Jenni; Tiippana, Kaisa

    2016-05-01

    Although we live in a multisensory world, children's memory has been usually studied concentrating on only one sensory modality at a time. In this study, we investigated how audiovisual encoding affects recognition memory. Children (n = 114) from three age groups (8, 10 and 12 years) memorized auditory or visual stimuli presented with a semantically congruent, incongruent or non-semantic stimulus in the other modality during encoding. Subsequent recognition memory performance was better for auditory or visual stimuli initially presented together with a semantically congruent stimulus in the other modality than for stimuli accompanied by a non-semantic stimulus in the other modality. This congruency effect was observed for pictures presented with sounds, for sounds presented with pictures, for spoken words presented with pictures and for written words presented with spoken words. The present results show that semantically congruent multisensory experiences during encoding can improve memory performance in school-aged children.

  4. Analysis of nurse theorists' definition of health for congruence with holism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouse, S H

    1992-12-01

    This article analyzes the definitions of health of seven nurse theorists for congruence with the American Holistic Nurses' Association's (AHNA) definition of health. The two themes of wholeness and change in the AHNA definition reflect the Fawcett categorization of worldviews as organismic versus mechanistic and change versus persistence. The organismic view assumes the person to be a proactive integrated being; in the change worldview the person is viewed as always in a state of transition and progress in values. All seven theorists' definitions appear to be congruent with the organismic and change focus of the AHNA definition. Clinicians who are seeking a client-focused theory to guide their practice are encouraged to investigate one or more of the nursing theories for adoption. This can have the dual outcome of improving the quality of nursing care and building the knowledge of the discipline as the theories are tested in practice.

  5. Vacuum solutions admitting a geodesic null congruence with shear proportional to expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupeli, A.H.

    1988-01-01

    Algebraically general, nontwisting solutions for the vacuum to vacuum generalized Kerr--Schild (GKS) transformation are obtained. These solutions admit a geodesic null congruence with shear proportional to expansion. In the Newman--Penrose formalism, if l/sup μ/ is chosen to be the null vector of the GKS transformation, this property is stated as σ = arho and Da = 0. It is assumed that a is a constant, and the background is chosen as a pp-wave solution. For generic values of a, the GKS metrics consist of the Kasner solutions. For a = +- (1 +- (2)/sup 1/2/), there are solutions with less symmetries including special cases of the Kota--Perjes and Lukacs solutions

  6. Approach/avoidance motivation, message framing and skin cancer prevention: a test of the congruency hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevey, David; Dolan, Michelle

    2014-08-01

    The congruency hypothesis posits that approach-orientated individuals are persuaded to engage in prevention behaviours by positively framed messages; conversely, negatively framed messages are more persuasive in encouraging those who are avoidance-orientated. A 2 (frame: loss vs gain) × 2 (motivation: avoidance vs approach) design examined the effects of skin cancer information on sun-protective intentions and free sunscreen sample requests among 533 young adults. Gain-framed messages had the strongest effect on sun-protective intentions for approach-oriented individuals, whereas loss-framed messages had the strongest effect on avoidance-oriented individuals. Message framing effects on precautionary sun behaviour intentions were moderated by motivational differences. © The Author(s) 2013.

  7. Pushing the boundaries of cultural congruence pedagogy in science education towards a third space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Cassie

    2011-09-01

    This review explores Meyers and Crawford's "Teaching science as a cultural way of knowing: Merging authentic inquiry, nature of science, and multicultural strategies" by examining how they combine the use of inquiry-based science instruction with multicultural strategies. In this conversation, I point to the need of specific discourse strategies to help teachers and students create hybrid spaces to push the boundaries of cultural congruence as described in this article. These strategies include a reflective component to the explicit instruction that encourages an integration of home and science discourses. My response to this work expands on their use of multicultural strategies to push toward a congruent Third space that asks not only what happens to the students who do not participate in science, but also what happens to science when a diverse group of people does not participate?

  8. Parental Influences and Adolescent Career Behaviours in a Collectivist Cultural Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawitri, Dian R.; Creed, Peter A.; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.

    2014-01-01

    Using social cognitive career theory, we examined the relationships between parental variables (parental career expectations, adolescent-parent career congruence) and adolescent career aspirations and career actions (planning, exploration) in a sample of Grade 10 Indonesian high school students. We found good support for a model that revealed…

  9. Age-Related Effects of Stimulus Type and Congruency on Inattentional Blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han-Hui

    2018-01-01

    Background: Most of the previous inattentional blindness (IB) studies focused on the factors that contributed to the detection of unattended stimuli. The age-related changes on IB have rarely been investigated across all age groups. In the current study, by using the dual-task IB paradigm, we aimed to explore the age-related effects of attended stimuli type and congruency between attended and unattended stimuli on IB. Methods: The current study recruited 111 participants (30 adolescents, 48 young adults, and 33 middle-aged adults) in the baseline recognition experiments and 341 participants (135 adolescents, 135 young adults, and 71 middle-aged adults) in the IB experiment. We applied the superimposed picture and word streams experimental paradigm to explore the age-related effects of attended stimuli type and congruency between attended and unattended stimuli on IB. An ANOVA was performed to analyze the results. Results: Participants across all age groups presented significantly lower recognition scores for both pictures and words in comparison with baseline recognition. Participants presented decreased recognition for unattended pictures or words from adolescents to young adults and middle-aged adults. When the pictures and words are congruent, all the participants showed significantly higher recognition scores for unattended stimuli in comparison with incongruent condition. Adolescents and young adults did not show recognition differences when primary tasks were attending pictures or words. Conclusion: The current findings showed that all participants presented better recognition scores for attended stimuli in comparison with unattended stimuli, and the recognition scores decreased from the adolescents to young and middle-aged adults. The findings partly supported the attention capacity models of IB.

  10. Age-Related Effects of Stimulus Type and Congruency on Inattentional Blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Hui Liu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most of the previous inattentional blindness (IB studies focused on the factors that contributed to the detection of unattended stimuli. The age-related changes on IB have rarely been investigated across all age groups. In the current study, by using the dual-task IB paradigm, we aimed to explore the age-related effects of attended stimuli type and congruency between attended and unattended stimuli on IB.Methods: The current study recruited 111 participants (30 adolescents, 48 young adults, and 33 middle-aged adults in the baseline recognition experiments and 341 participants (135 adolescents, 135 young adults, and 71 middle-aged adults in the IB experiment. We applied the superimposed picture and word streams experimental paradigm to explore the age-related effects of attended stimuli type and congruency between attended and unattended stimuli on IB. An ANOVA was performed to analyze the results.Results: Participants across all age groups presented significantly lower recognition scores for both pictures and words in comparison with baseline recognition. Participants presented decreased recognition for unattended pictures or words from adolescents to young adults and middle-aged adults. When the pictures and words are congruent, all the participants showed significantly higher recognition scores for unattended stimuli in comparison with incongruent condition. Adolescents and young adults did not show recognition differences when primary tasks were attending pictures or words.Conclusion: The current findings showed that all participants presented better recognition scores for attended stimuli in comparison with unattended stimuli, and the recognition scores decreased from the adolescents to young and middle-aged adults. The findings partly supported the attention capacity models of IB.

  11. Structural phylogeny by profile extraction and multiple superimposition using electrostatic congruence as a discriminator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Sandeep [Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Bombay (India); Rao, Basuthkar J. [Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Bombay (India); Baker, Nathan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Asgeirsson, Bjarni [Univ. of Iceland, Reykjavik (Iceland)

    2013-04-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of proteins using multiple sequence alignment (MSA) assumes an underlying evolutionary relationship in these proteins which occasionally remains undetected due to considerable sequence divergence. Structural alignment programs have been developed to unravel such fuzzy relationships. However, none of these structure based methods have used electrostatic properties to discriminate between spatially equivalent residues. We present a methodology for MSA of a set of related proteins with known structures using electrostatic properties as an additional discriminator (STEEP). STEEP first extracts a profile, then generates a multiple structural superimposition providing a consolidated spatial framework for comparing residues and finally emits the MSA. Residues that are aligned differently by including or excluding electrostatic properties can be targeted by directed evolution experiments to transform the enzymatic properties of one protein into another. We have compared STEEP results to those obtained from a MSA program (ClustalW) and a structural alignment method (MUSTANG) for chymotrypsin serine proteases. Subsequently, we used PhyML to generate phylogenetic trees for the serine and metallo-β-lactamase superfamilies from the STEEP generated MSA, and corroborated the accepted relationships in these superfamilies. We have observed that STEEP acts as a functional classifier when electrostatic congruence is used as a discriminator, and thus identifies potential targets for directed evolution experiments. In summary, STEEP is unique among phylogenetic methods for its ability to use electrostatic congruence to specify mutations that might be the source of the functional divergence in a protein family. Based on our results, we also hypothesize that the active site and its close vicinity contains enough information to infer the correct phylogeny for related proteins.

  12. Bimodal emotion congruency is critical to preverbal infants' abstract rule learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Angeline Sin Mei; Ma, Yuen Ki; Ho, Anna; Chow, Hiu Mei; Tseng, Chia-huei

    2016-05-01

    Extracting general rules from specific examples is important, as we must face the same challenge displayed in various formats. Previous studies have found that bimodal presentation of grammar-like rules (e.g. ABA) enhanced 5-month-olds' capacity to acquire a rule that infants failed to learn when the rule was presented with visual presentation of the shapes alone (circle-triangle-circle) or auditory presentation of the syllables (la-ba-la) alone. However, the mechanisms and constraints for this bimodal learning facilitation are still unknown. In this study, we used audio-visual relation congruency between bimodal stimulation to disentangle possible facilitation sources. We exposed 8- to 10-month-old infants to an AAB sequence consisting of visual faces with affective expressions and/or auditory voices conveying emotions. Our results showed that infants were able to distinguish the learned AAB rule from other novel rules under bimodal stimulation when the affects in audio and visual stimuli were congruently paired (Experiments 1A and 2A). Infants failed to acquire the same rule when audio-visual stimuli were incongruently matched (Experiment 2B) and when only the visual (Experiment 1B) or the audio (Experiment 1C) stimuli were presented. Our results highlight that bimodal facilitation in infant rule learning is not only dependent on better statistical probability and redundant sensory information, but also the relational congruency of audio-visual information. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=KYTyjH1k9RQ. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Surface feature congruency effects in the object-reviewing paradigm are dependent on task memory demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimchi, Ruth; Pirkner, Yossef

    2014-08-01

    Perception of object continuity depends on establishing correspondence between objects viewed across disruptions in visual information. The role of spatiotemporal information in guiding object continuity is well documented; the role of surface features, however, is controversial. Some researchers have shown an object-specific preview benefit (OSPB)-a standard index of object continuity-only when correspondence could be based on an object's spatiotemporal information, whereas others have found color-based OSPB, suggesting that surface features can also guide object continuity. This study shows that surface feature-based OSPB is dependent on the task memory demands. When the task involved letters and matching just one target letter to the preview ones, no color congruency effect was found under spatiotemporal discontinuity and spatiotemporal ambiguity (Experiments 1-3), indicating that the absence of feature-based OSPB cannot be accounted for by salient spatiotemporal discontinuity. When the task involved complex shapes and matching two target shapes to the preview ones, color-based OSPB was obtained. Critically, however, when a visual working memory task was performed concurrently with the matching task, the presence of a nonspatial (but not a spatial) working memory load eliminated the color-based OSPB (Experiments 4 and 5). These results suggest that the surface feature congruency effects that are observed in the object-reviewing paradigm (with the matching task) reflect memory-based strategies that participants use to solve a memory-demanding task; therefore, they are not reliable measures of online object continuity and cannot be taken as evidence for the role of surface features in establishing object correspondence.

  14. Children's Representation and Imitation of Events: How Goal Organization Influences 3-Year-Old Children's Memory for Action Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucks, Jeff; Mutschler, Christina; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2017-01-01

    Children's imitation of adults plays a prominent role in human cognitive development. However, few studies have investigated how children represent the complex structure of observed actions which underlies their imitation. We integrate theories of action segmentation, memory, and imitation to investigate whether children's event representation is…

  15. Theater and action research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tofteng, Ditte Maria Børglum; Husted, Mia

    2011-01-01

    Action research on marginalization and exclusion often seeks to examine relations between recognition, respect, and inclusion, but addressing these topics is difficult. Theatre-based action research opens up a new way to communicate and make visible knowledge and experiences from below that have...... difficulties reaching the public agenda or influencing structures of power. In this article we follow the creation of a play and of scenes that address the life, sufferings, and wishes of unemployed people. The skills of actors, writers, and producers are worked into a critical utopian action research project...

  16. Historiografia wobec Action Francaise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Kornat

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Action Franęaise in HistoriographyFrench radical right movement, Action Franęaise belongs to those political phe- nomenon in history which are differently interpreted by historiography. Principally we have eight interpretations. First ofthem is Action Franęaise own image and identity as royalist and anti-liberal "party of order”. One of the most important historical interpretation of this movement is French historian Rene Remond’s one. In his Les Droites aujourdhui Remond argued that Action Franęaise was model example of anti-liberal Right in France and in Europe of the first half of the XX century. The most popular interpretation of Action Franęaise are two: (1 Action Franęaise as an incarnation of conservative revolution (Carl Schmitt and (2 as the ideology of "integral nationalism” (Hans Konh, Carlton Hayes. Very original concept was developed by well known German historian Ernst Nolte, who considered Action Franęaise as pro- to-fascistmovement. British thinker Isaiah Berlin and Israeli historian Zeev Sternhell interpreted Action Franęaise as revolution of "anti-Enlightment” (les anti-Lumieres. Polish philosopher Stanisław Brzozowski argued that Action Franęaise was a con- seąuence of conflict between romanticism and positivism and was sure that Action Franęaise inherited much from positivistphilosophy. Non less controversial problem is forthehistorians the excommunication of Action Franęaise by Pope Pius XI in 1926. To our days there are many opposite attempts to reconstruct of this event and its origins. For many historians Pius XI tried to defend the doctrine of the Church which seemed to him intoxicated by the "nationalist and racialist heresy”. For some other writers the Vatican policy was under German influence and this caused papai action. In 1939 another Pope Pius XII decided to abolish the condemnation from 1926.

  17. Factors influencing performance of health workers in the management of seriously sick children at a Kenyan tertiary hospital--participatory action research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irimu, Grace W; Greene, Alexandra; Gathara, David; Kihara, Harrison; Maina, Christopher; Mbori-Ngacha, Dorothy; Zurovac, Dejan; Migiro, Santau; English, Mike

    2014-02-07

    Implementation of World Health Organization case management guidelines for serious childhood illnesses remains a challenge in hospitals in low-income countries. Facilitators of and barriers to implementation of locally adapted clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have not been explored. This ethnographic study based on the theory of participatory action research (PAR) was conducted in Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya's largest teaching hospital. The primary intervention consisted of dissemination of locally adapted CPGs. The PRECEDE-PROCEED health education model was used as the conceptual framework to guide and examine further reinforcement activities to improve the uptake of the CPGs. Activities focussed on introduction of routine clinical audits and tailored educational sessions. Data were collected by a participant observer who also facilitated the PAR over an eighteen-month period. Naturalistic inquiry was utilized to obtain information from all hospital staff encountered while theoretical sampling allowed in-depth exploration of emerging issues. Data were analysed using interpretive description. Relevance of the CPGs to routine work and emergence of a champion of change facilitated uptake of best-practices. Mobilization of basic resources was relatively easily undertaken while activities that required real intellectual and professional engagement of the senior staff were a challenge. Accomplishments of the PAR were largely with the passive rather than active involvement of the hospital management. Barriers to implementation of best-practices included i) mismatch between the hospital's vision and reality, ii) poor communication, iii) lack of objective mechanisms for monitoring and evaluating quality of clinical care, iv) limited capacity for planning strategic change, v) limited management skills to introduce and manage change, vi) hierarchical relationships, and vii) inadequate adaptation of the interventions to the local context. Educational interventions

  18. Basal Ganglia Activity Mirrors a Benefit of Action and Reward on Long-Lasting Event Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Raphael; Guitart-Masip, Marc; Dolan, Raymond J; Düzel, Emrah

    2015-12-01

    The expectation of reward is known to enhance a consolidation of long-term memory for events. We tested whether this effect is driven by positive valence or action requirements tied to expected reward. Using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm in young adults, novel images predicted gain or loss outcomes, which in turn were either obtained or avoided by action or inaction. After 24 h, memory for these images reflected a benefit of action as well as a congruence of action requirements and valence, namely, action for reward and inaction for avoidance. fMRI responses in the hippocampus, a region known to be critical for long-term memory function, reflected the anticipation of inaction. In contrast, activity in the putamen mirrored the congruence of action requirement and valence, whereas other basal ganglia regions mirrored overall action benefits on long-lasting memory. The findings indicate a novel type of functional division between the hippocampus and the basal ganglia in the motivational regulation of long-term memory consolidation, which favors remembering events that are worth acting for. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  19. P3-10: Crossmodal Perceptual Grouping Modulates Subjective Causality between Action and Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Kawabe

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Agents have to determine which external events their action has causally produced. A sensation of causal relation between action and outcome is called subjective causality. Subjective causality has been linked to the comparator model. This model assumes that the brain compares an internal prediction for action outcome with an actual sensory outcome, distinguishing between self and externally produced outcomes depending on spatiotemporal congruency. However, recent studies have expressed some doubt about the idea that subjective causality arises depending solely on the spatiotemporal congruency, suggesting instead that other perceptual/cognitive factors play a critical role in determining subjective causality. We hypothesized that crossmodal grouping between action and outcome contributed to subjective causality. Crossmodal temporal grouping is an essential factor for crossmodal simultaneity judgments with ungrouped crossmodal signals likely to be judged as non-simultaneous. We predicted that subjective causality would decrease when an agent's action was not temporally grouped with action outcome. In the experiment, observers were asked to press a key in order to trigger a display change with some temporal delay. To disrupt temporal grouping between action and outcome, a task-irrelevant visual flash or tone was sometimes presented synchronously with the button press and/or the display change. Subjective causality was decreased when the flash or the tone was coincided with the button press. This demonstrates that perceptual grouping has a key role in determination of subjective causality, a result that is not accounted for by the standard comparator model.

  20. Negotiating action

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    After years of working towards a climate accord, the Paris Agreement of 2015 marked the shift from negotiating to reach consensus on climate action to implementation of such action. The challenge now is to ensure transparency in the processes and identify the details of what is required.

  1. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October - December 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  2. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July - September 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  3. Effect of Intraoperative Three-Dimensional Imaging During the Reduction and Fixation of Displaced Calcaneal Fractures on Articular Congruence and Implant Fixation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckardt, Henrik; Lind, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Operative treatment of displaced calcaneal fractures should restore joint congruence, but conventional fluoroscopy is unable to fully visualize the subtalar joint. We questioned whether intraoperative 3-dimensional (3D) imaging would aid in the reduction of calcaneal fractures......, resulting in improved articular congruence and implant positioning. METHOD: Sixty-two displaced calcaneal fractures were operated on using standard fluoroscopic views. When the surgeon had achieved a satisfactory reduction, an intraoperative 3D scan was conducted, malreductions or implant imperfections were...

  4. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  5. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  6. Get a taste of your goals: promoting motive-goal congruence through affect-focus goal fantasy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Job, Veronika; Brandstätter, Veronika

    2009-10-01

    Studies show that motive-goal congruence is an important predictor of well-being (Baumann, Kaschel, & Kuhl, 2005; Brunstein, Schultheiss, & Grässmann, 1998). However, little is known about the factors that promote congruence between implicit motives and goals. Relying on McClelland's (1985) concept of implicit motives and the theory of fantasy realization (Oettingen, 1999), we postulated that goal fantasies focusing on motive-specific affective incentives promote motive-congruent goal setting. This hypothesis was tested in 3 experimental studies. In Study 1 (n=46) and Study 2 (n=48), participants were asked to select goals in a hypothetical scenario. In Study 3 (n=179), they rated their commitment to personal goals for their actual life situation. The results of all 3 studies supported our hypothesis that participants who focus on motive-specific affective incentives in their goal fantasies set their goals in line with their corresponding implicit motive dispositions.

  7. Evaluating the Effect of Cognitive Dysfunction on Mental Imagery in Patients with Stroke Using Temporal Congruence and the Imagined 'Timed Up and Go' Test (iTUG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Maxime; Bonnyaud, Céline; Fery, Yves-André; Bussel, Bernard; Roche, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Motor imagery (MI) capacity may be altered following stroke. MI is evaluated by measuring temporal congruence between the timed performance of an imagined and an executed task. Temporal congruence between imagined and physical gait-related activities has not been evaluated following stroke. Moreover, the effect of cognitive dysfunction on temporal congruence is not known. To assess temporal congruence between the Timed Up and Go test (TUG) and the imagined TUG (iTUG) tests in patients with stroke and to investigate the role played by cognitive dysfunctions in changes in temporal congruence. TUG and iTUG performance were recorded and compared in twenty patients with chronic stroke and 20 controls. Cognitive function was measured using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA), the Frontal Assessment Battery at Bedside (FAB) and the Bells Test. The temporal congruence of the patients with stroke was significantly altered compared to the controls, indicating a loss of MI capacity (respectively 45.11 ±35.11 vs 24.36 ±17.91, p = 0.02). Furthermore, iTUG test results were positively correlated with pathological scores on the Bells Test (r = 0.085, p = 0.013), likely suggesting that impairment of attention was a contributing factor. These results highlight the importance of evaluating potential attention disorder in patients with stroke to optimise the use of MI for rehabilitation and recovery. However further study is needed to determine how MI should be used in the case of cognitive dysfunction.

  8. Action of 50 R X-ray doses on the breeding function of C3H strain mice - effect of splitting the dose, action of repeated irradiations on successive generations; Action de 50 R de rayons X sur la fonction de reproduction des souris de race C3H - influence du fractionnement. Action de la repetition des irradiations au cours des generations successives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alix, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    X-rays exposure effect was studied on C3H strain mice, at the standpoint of the effects produced on breeding function. The method used with this purpose was the following: single doses 20 - 30 - 40 and 50 R/dose, fractional doses: 50 R/total dose, divided in 2 - 5 - 10 or 25 irradiations distributed in one month duration. The offsprings were irradiated at the same doses than the parents, consanguinity being maintained. Statistical treatment of results was carried out, that led at the following conclusions: 1) Couples receiving single exposure of 50 R or two exposures of 25 R at one month interval give comparable results. Fractional doses do not involve the slightest diminution of X-rays effect. 2) 30 R exposure brings about a decrease in fertility, with an increase in abortions. Fertility of 20 R irradiated couples remains below controls. 3) After ten times 5 R and twenty-five 2 R, the number of abortions is the largest. Ovarian function is particularly sensitive to X-rays; one may think that twenty-five 2 R give injuries conditioning non-viability of conception products, smaller doses should produce mutations and yield births of altered genotype individuals. (author) [French] L'action d'une exposition aux rayons X de souris de race C3H a ete etudiee du point de vue des effets produits sur la fonction reproductrice. La methode utilisee fut la suivante: doses administrees en irradiation unique: 20 - 30 - 40 et 50 R/seance, en irradiations fractionnees: 50 R au total en 2 - 5 - 10 ou 25 seances reparties en un mois. Les descendants ont ete irradies aux memes doses que leurs parents, en maintenant la consanguinite. Un traitement statistique des resultats a ete effectue dont on a pu conclure : 1) Chez les couples ayant recu une seule exposition de 50 R ou deux expositions de 25 R a intervalle d'un mois les resultats sont comparables. Le fractionnement n' entrainant aucune attenuation de l'action des rayons X. 2) Une exposition de 30 R entraine une baisse de fecondite

  9. Matter of Similarity and Dissimilarity in Multi-Ethnic Society: A Model of Dyadic Cultural Norms Congruence

    OpenAIRE

    Abu Bakar Hassan; Mohamad Bahtiar

    2017-01-01

    Taking this into consideration of diver cultural norms in Malaysian workplace, the propose model explores Malaysia culture and identity with a backdrop of the pushes and pulls of ethnic diversity in a Malaysia. The model seeks to understand relational norm congruence based on multiethnic in Malaysia that will be enable us to identify Malaysia cultural and identity. This is in line with recent call by various interest groups in Malaysia to focus more on model designs that capture contextual an...

  10. Morphological structure mediates the notional meaning of gender marking: Evidence from the gender-congruency effect in Hebrew speech production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Avital; Dank, Maya

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the gender-congruency effect of animate nouns in Hebrew. The Picture-Word Interference paradigm was used to manipulate gender congruency between target pictures and spoken distractors. Naming latency revealed an inhibitory gender-congruency effect, as naming the pictures took longer in the presence of a gender-congruent distractor than with a distractor from a different gender category. The inhibitory effect was demonstrated for feminine (morphologically marked) nouns, across two stimulus-onset asynchronies (SOAs) (Experiments 1a and 1b), and masculine (morphologically unmarked) nouns (Experiment 2). The same pattern was observed when participants had to produce bare nouns (Experiment 1) or gender-marked noun phrases (Experiment 3). The inhibitory pattern of the effect resembles previous findings of bare nouns in a subset of Romance languages, including Italian and Spanish. These findings add to previous research which investigated the gender-congruency effect of inanimate nouns, where no effect of gender-congruent words was found. The results are discussed in relation to the null effect previously found for inanimate nouns. The comparison of the present and previous studies is motivated by a common linguistic distinction between animate and inanimate nouns in Hebrew, which ascribes grammatical gender specifications to derivational structures (for inanimate nouns) versus inflectional structures (for animate nouns). Given the difference in the notional meaning of gender specification for animate and inanimate nouns, the case of Hebrew exemplifies how language-specific characteristics, such as rich morphological structures, can be used by the linguistic system to express conceptual distinctions at the form-word level.

  11. The Effect of Crossmodal Congruency Between Ambient Scent and the Store Environment on Consumer Reactions: An Abstract

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Carmen; Doucé, Lieve

    2017-01-01

    Ambient scents used by retailers should be pleasant and appropriate. This paper proposes that an ambient scent should also be crossmodally congruent with the store environment. Crossmodal congruency refers to the crossmodal correspondences (i.e., the tendency of one sensory attribute to be associated with an attribute in another sense) that are shared between the ambient scent and the store environment. In this study, a scent crossmodally congruent with the store, a scent crossmodally incongr...

  12. Collective Action under Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen

    Collective action in the form of industrial conflict has declined dramatically since the high tide in the 1970s in Europe. This article argues that this decline is the result of significant changes in both economic and institutional factors, influencing the calculations of employees and of their ...

  13. Memory systems in the rat: effects of reward probability, context, and congruency between working and reference memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, William A; Guitar, Nicole A; Marsh, Heidi L; MacDonald, Hayden

    2016-05-01

    The interaction of working and reference memory was studied in rats on an eight-arm radial maze. In two experiments, rats were trained to perform working memory and reference memory tasks. On working memory trials, they were allowed to enter four randomly chosen arms for reward in a study phase and then had to choose the unentered arms for reward in a test phase. On reference memory trials, they had to learn to visit the same four arms on the maze on every trial for reward. Retention was tested on working memory trials in which the interval between the study and test phase was 15 s, 15 min, or 30 min. At each retention interval, tests were performed in which the correct WM arms were either congruent or incongruent with the correct RM arms. Both experiments showed that congruency interacted with retention interval, yielding more forgetting at 30 min on incongruent trials than on congruent trials. The effect of reference memory strength on the congruency effect was examined in Experiment 1, and the effect of associating different contexts with working and reference memory on the congruency effect was studied in Experiment 2.

  14. The Hospice Information System and its association with the congruence between the preferred and actual place of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huang-Ren; Wang, Jen-Hung; Hsieh, Jyh-Gang; Wang, Ying-Wei; Kao, Sheng-Lun

    2017-01-01

    A Hospice Information System (HIS) developed in eastern Taiwan in 2012 aimed to improve the quality of hospice care through an integrated system that provided telemetry-based vital sign records, online 24/7 consultations, online video interviews, and online health educations. The purpose of this study was to explore the congruence between the preferred and actual place of death (POD) among patients who received HIS services. A retrospective study was performed from January 2012 to August 2016. Data from patients enrolled in the HIS who died during this period were included. Data on basic characteristics and the actual and preferred POD were obtained from the HIS database. The primary outcome was the congruence between the preferred and actual POD. Secondary outcomes were comparisons between patients who did and did not achieve their preferred POD. Further comparisons between patients who did and did not achieve home death were also performed. In total, we enrolled 481 patients who received HIS services and died. Of them, 444 (92.3%) died at their preferred POD. Patients who preferred an inpatient hospice as their POD had higher achievement rate than those who wanted a home death. High-intensity HIS utilization was associated with a higher likelihood of home death than low-intensity HIS utilization. Patients living in areas distant from the medical center had lower achievement of home death than those living in local areas. This study suggested that patients enrolled in the HIS had high congruence between the actual and preferred POD.

  15. A comparison of perceived and calculated weight status classification congruence between pre- and post-bariatric surgery patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriby, Megan; Pratt, Keeley; Noria, Sabrena; Needleman, Bradley

    2017-08-01

    One prominent reason patients undergo bariatric surgery is to reduce their excess weight and body mass index. Weight status classifications (WSCs), based on calculated body mass index, organize patients into distinct groups (underweight, healthy weight, overweight, class I obesity, class II obesity, and class III obesity) for treatment recommendations, including surgery for patients with obesity. Bariatric patients' perceptions of their WSC is important to consider, because patients who accurately perceive their WSC presurgery have greater motivation for health behavior changes; alternatively, incongruence between perceived and calculated WSC could deter motivation and ultimately their health changes postsurgery. This study seeks to understand the congruence between patients' perceived and calculated WSC, and to determine if there are differences in congruence between groups of pre- or postsurgery, male and female, and emerging/early adulthood and middle/late adulthood patients. University Hospital. Self-report measures. Results indicate the presurgery patients were more congruent in their perceptions of WSC compared with their postsurgery peers and emerging/early adulthood patients were more congruent in their perceptions of WSC compared with middle/late adulthood patients. No gender differences emerged in the full sample, but when divided by surgical status, presurgery females reported more congruent perceptions of WSC compared with their postsurgery peers. Males did not differ in their rates of congruence. These rates of incongruence may suggest a need for assessment of patients' perceived WSC, particularly postsurgery. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Phylogeographic concordance factors quantify phylogeographic congruence among co-distributed species in the Sarracenia alata pitcher plant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satler, Jordan D; Carstens, Bryan C

    2016-05-01

    Comparative phylogeographic investigations have identified congruent phylogeographic breaks in co-distributed species in nearly every region of the world. The qualitative assessments of phylogeographic patterns traditionally used to identify such breaks, however, are limited because they rely on identifying monophyletic groups across species and do not account for coalescent stochasticity. Only long-standing phylogeographic breaks are likely to be obvious; many species could have had a concerted response to more recent landscape events, yet possess subtle signs of phylogeographic congruence because ancestral polymorphism has not completely sorted. Here, we introduce Phylogeographic Concordance Factors (PCFs), a novel method for quantifying phylogeographic congruence across species. We apply this method to the Sarracenia alata pitcher plant system, a carnivorous plant with a diverse array of commensal organisms. We explore whether a group of ecologically associated arthropods have co-diversified with the host pitcher plant, and identify if there is a positive correlation between ecological interaction and PCFs. Results demonstrate that multiple arthropods share congruent phylogeographic breaks with S. alata, and provide evidence that the level of ecological association can be used to predict the degree of similarity in the phylogeographic pattern. This study outlines an approach for quantifying phylogeographic congruence, a central concept in biogeographic research. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. Is Accessing of Words Affected by Affective Valence Only? A Discrete Emotion View on the Emotional Congruency Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuqian; Liu, Bo; Lin, Shouwen

    2016-01-01

    This paper advances the discussion on which emotion information affects word accessing. Emotion information, which is formed as a result of repeated experiences, is primary and necessary in learning and representing word meanings. Previous findings suggested that valence (i.e., positive or negative) denoted by words can be automatically activated and plays a role in many significant cognitive processes. However, there has been a lack of discussion about whether discrete emotion information (i.e., happiness, anger, sadness, and fear) is also involved in these processes. According to the hierarchy model, emotions are considered organized within an abstract-to-concrete hierarchy, in which emotion prototypes are organized following affective valence. By controlling different congruencies of emotion relations (i.e., matches or mismatches between valences and prototypes of emotion), the present study showed both an evaluative congruency effect (Experiment 1) and a discrete emotional congruency effect (Experiment 2). These findings indicate that not only affective valences but also discrete emotions can be activated under the present priming lexical decision task. However, the present findings also suggest that discrete emotions might be activated at the later priming stage as compared to valences. The present work provides evidence that information about discrete emotion could be involved in word processing. This might be a result of subjects' embodied experiences.

  18. Associations between general parenting, restrictive snacking rules, and adolescent's snack intake. The roles of fathers and mothers and interparental congruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, Dorus W M; van Assema, Patricia; Sleddens, Ester F C; de Vries, Nanne K; Kremers, Stef P J

    2015-04-01

    Little research has been done on the role of fathers and parenting congruence between mothers and fathers. This study aimed to clarify the roles of general parenting and restrictive snacking rules set by fathers and mothers, and to explore parenting congruence in explaining adolescents' snack intake. Adolescents aged 11 to 15 completed a questionnaire assessing their perception of general parenting constructs (i.e. nurturance, structure, behavioral control, coercive control, and overprotection), restrictive snacking rules set by their fathers and mothers, and their own energy-dense snack intakes between meals. Scores for mothers were significantly higher on all constructs than for fathers, except for coercive control. Generally, higher scores on general parenting constructs were associated with higher scores on restrictive snacking rules (most of the associations being significant). Most general parenting constructs were unrelated to the respondents' number of snacks consumed. The use of restrictive snacking rules by both fathers and mothers was significantly and negatively related to respondents' snack intake. Moderation analyses indicated that high levels of incongruence between parents attenuated the favorable impact of fathers' rules and nurturance on their children's snacking, but interactions of congruence with three other paternal scales and all maternal scales were absent. Our findings indicate that both paternal and maternal general parenting and restrictive snacking rules play important roles in adolescents' snacking, and that high parental incongruence regarding restrictive snacking rules and nurturance could be undesirable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An Analysis of Looking Back Method in Problem-Based Learning: Case Study on Congruence and Similarity in Junior High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosasih, U.; Wahyudin, W.; Prabawanto, S.

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to understand how learners do look back their idea of problem solving. This research is based on qualitative approach with case study design. Participants in this study were xx students of Junior High School, who were studying the material of congruence and similarity. The supporting instruments in this research are test and interview sheet. The data obtained were analyzed by coding and constant-comparison. The analysis find that there are three ways in which the students review the idea of problem solving, which is 1) carried out by comparing answers to the completion measures exemplified by learning resources; 2) carried out by examining the logical relationship between the solution and the problem; and 3) carried out by means of confirmation to the prior knowledge they have. This happens because most students learn in a mechanistic way. This study concludes that students validate the idea of problem solving obtained, influenced by teacher explanations, learning resources, and prior knowledge. Therefore, teacher explanations and learning resources contribute to the success or failure of students in solving problems.

  20. Touching lips and hearing fingers: effector-specific congruency between tactile and auditory stimulation modulates N1 amplitude and alpha desynchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guannan; Meltzoff, Andrew N; Marshall, Peter J

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the interactions between audition and sensorimotor processes is of theoretical importance, particularly in relation to speech processing. Although one current focus in this area is on interactions between auditory perception and the motor system, there has been less research on connections between the auditory and somatosensory modalities. The current study takes a novel approach to this omission by examining specific auditory-tactile interactions in the context of speech and non-speech sound production. Electroencephalography was used to examine brain responses when participants were presented with speech syllables (a bilabial sound /pa/ and a non-labial sound /ka/) or finger-snapping sounds that were simultaneously paired with tactile stimulation of either the lower lip or the right middle finger. Analyses focused on the sensory-evoked N1 in the event-related potential and the extent of alpha band desynchronization elicited by the stimuli. N1 amplitude over fronto-central sites was significantly enhanced when the bilabial /pa/ sound was paired with tactile lip stimulation and when the finger-snapping sound was paired with tactile stimulation of the finger. Post-stimulus alpha desynchronization at central sites was also enhanced when the /pa/ sound was accompanied by tactile stimulation of the lip. These novel findings indicate that neural aspects of somatosensory-auditory interactions are influenced by the congruency between the location of the bodily touch and the bodily origin of a perceived sound.