Lauritzen, B.; Lykkesfeldt, J.; Skaanild, M.T.
Biomarkers of infection were screened for their possible role as evaluators of antibiotic treatment in an aerosol infection model of porcine pneumonia caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (Ap). Following infection of 12 pigs, clinical signs of pneumonia developed within 20 h, whereafter...... antibiotic treatment of acute Ap-infection ill pigs. The present model provides a valuable tool in the evaluation of antibiotic treatments, offering the advantage of clinical and pathological examinations combined with the use of biochemical infection markers....... recovered clinically within 24h after treatment, whereas tiamulin-treated animals remained clinically ill until the end of the study, 48 h after treatment. A similar Picture was seen for the biomarkers of infection. During the infection period, plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 and haptoglobin...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the etiological agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, a respiratory disease which causes great economic losses worldwide. Many virulence factors are involved in the pathogenesis, namely capsular polysaccharides, RTX toxins, LPS and many iron acquisition systems. In order to identify genes that are expressed in vivo during a natural infection, we undertook transcript profiling experiments with an A. pleuropneumoniae DNA microarray, after recovery of bacterial mRNAs from serotype 5b-infected porcine lungs. AppChip2 contains 2033 PCR amplicons based on the genomic sequence of App serotype 5b strain L20, representing more than 95% of ORFs greater than 160 bp in length. Results Transcriptional profiling of A. pleuropneumoniae recovered from the lung of a pig suffering from a natural infection or following growth of the bacterial isolate in BHI medium was performed. An RNA extraction protocol combining beadbeating and hot-acid-phenol was developed in order to maximize bacterial mRNA yields and quality following total RNA extraction from lung lesions. Nearly all A. pleuropneumoniae transcripts could be detected on our microarrays, and 150 genes were deemed differentially expressed in vivo during the acute phase of the infection. Our results indicate that, for example, gene apxIVA from an operon coding for RTX toxin ApxIV is highly up-regulated in vivo, and that two genes from the operon coding for type IV fimbriae (APL_0878 and APL_0879 were also up-regulated. These transcriptional profiling data, combined with previous comparative genomic hybridizations performed by our group, revealed that 66 out of the 72 up-regulated genes are conserved amongst all serotypes and that 3 of them code for products that are predicted outer membrane proteins (genes irp and APL_0959, predicted to code for a TonB-dependent receptor and a filamentous hemagglutinin/adhesin respectively or lipoproteins (gene APL_0920. Only 4
Hedegaard, Jakob; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Mortensen, Shila
Background: The bacterium Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is responsible for porcine pleuropneumonia, a widespread, highly contagious and often fatal respiratory disease of pigs. The general porcine innate immune response after A. pleuropneumoniae infection is still not clarified. The objective...... lymph node tissue were hybridised to an expanded version of the porcine microarray with 26879 unique PCR products. Results: A total of 357 genes differed significantly in expression between infected and non-infected lung tissue, 713 genes differed in expression in liver tissue from infected versus non-infected...... animals and 130 genes differed in expression in tracheobronchial lymph node tissue from infected versus non-infected animals. Among these genes, several have previously been described to be part of a general host response to infections encoding immune response related proteins. In inflamed lung tissue...
Zhan, Bujie; Angen, Øystein; Hedegaard, Jakob
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a bacterial pathogen that causes highly contagious respiratory infection in pigs and has a serious impact on the production economy and animal welfare. As clear differences in virulence between serotypes have been observed, the genetic basis should be investigat...... at the genomic level. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of the A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 2 (strain 4226) and 6 (strain Femo)....
Klausen, Joan; Andresen, Lars Ole; Barfod, Kristen
An indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay for serological surveillance of infection of pigs with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (Ap) serotype 5 was developed. The antigen used was prepared from Ap serotype 5b strain L20. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis...
Andreasen, Margit; Mousing, Jan; Thomsen, Lars Krogsgård
approximately 4 weeks of age), and sera were analyzed for antibodies to Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotypes 2, 5-7 and 12. Mixed analysis of covariance analyzed the relationship between the average daily weight gain and a categorical variable defining seroconversion as none...... most pigs included in the study were subclinically infected, or because a temporary negative influence of the infections is hidden due to an increased growth in the period following infection. In conclusion. at least in these eight herds, seroresponses to M. hyopneumoniae and A. pleuropneumoniae could...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of pleurisies recorded at slaughter is increasing in Sweden, and acute outbreaks of actinobacillosis that require antimicrobial treatments have become more frequent. As an increased use of antimicrobials may result in the development of antimicrobial resistance it is essential to develop alternative measures to control the disease. Vaccinations present an appealing alternative to antimicrobial treatments. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of two different vaccination strategies in a specialized fattening herd affected by actinobacillosis. Methods The study was conducted in a specialized fattening herd employing age segregated rearing in eight units. The herd suffered from infections caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2, confirmed by necropsy and serology. The study included 54 batches of pigs grouped into five periods. Batches of pigs of the second period were vaccinated against actinobacillosis twice, and pigs in the fourth period were vaccinated three times. Batches of pigs of the first, third and fifth period were not vaccinated. Concentrations of serum antibodies to A. pleuropneumoniae and serum amyloid A (SAA were analysed and production data were recorded. Results Despite vaccinating, medical treatments were required to reduce the impact of the disease. The mean incidence of individual treatments for respiratory diseases during the rearing period ranged from 0 to 4.7 ± 1.8%, and was greatest during the triple vaccination period (period IV; p A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 in the absence of a SAA-response. The prevalence of pleuritis decreased from 25.4 ± 6.5% in the first period to 5.0 ± 3.7% in the fifth period (p Conclusions The vaccine did not effectively prevent clinical expression of A. pleuropneumoniae infections, but seroconversion to A. pleuropneumoniae in the absence of a SAA-response in a large number pigs indicated that the vaccine had activated the immune
Kiorpes, A L; Bäckström, L R; Collins, M T; Kruse, G O
These experiments tested the hypothesis that long-acting oxytetracycline (oxytetracycline-LA) was more effective than regular oxytetracycline in preventing porcine pleuropneumonia when administered either 24 or 48 h prior to experimental challenge with virulent strains of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Two experiments (1 and 2) were conducted using growing pigs (average weight 12-15 kg). Antibiotic treatments were administered once intramuscularly at 20 mg/kg body weight; controls received ...
Brogaard, Louise; Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard; Heegaard, Peter M. H.
Background: Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae causes pleuropneumonia in pigs, a disease which is associated with high morbidity and mortality, as well as impaired animal welfare. To obtain in-depth understanding of this infection, the interplay between virulence factors of the pathogen and defense ...
Podolska, Agnieszka; Anthon, Christian; Bak, Mads
significantly up-regulated in the necrotic sample and 12 were down-regulated. The expression analysis of a number of candidates revealed microRNAs of potential importance in the innate immune response. MiR-155, a known key player in inflammation, was found expressed in both samples. Moreover, miR-664-5p, mi......R-451 and miR-15a appear as very promising candidates for microRNAs involved in response to pathogen infection. Conclusions: This is the first study revealing significant differences in composition and expression profiles of miRNAs in lungs infected with a bacterial pathogen. Our results extend......Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-protein-coding genes that play a crucial regulatory role in mammalian development and disease. Whereas a large number of miRNAs have been annotated at the structural level during the latest years, functional annotation is sparse. Actinobacillus...
Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae 名...詞 一般 * * * * Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae ... MeSH D016977 200906089064706214 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae
Grøndahl-Hansen, Jan; Barfod, Kristen; Klausen, Joan
The objective was to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for simultaneous detection of antibodies against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (Ap) serotypes 2, 6 and 12. The assay was designated MIX-ELISA. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Ap serotypes 2, 6 and 12 was purified using hot...... of the assay indicate that screening of herds for Ap infection can be performed using this ELISA. Efficient serological surveillance can be achieved by using such mixed antigen ELISAs coated with size-selected LPS-antigens from the most prevalent serotypes....... phenol-water extraction followed by fractionation by size-exclusion chromatography. A mixture of fractions containing molecules with molecular weight above 50 kDa from all three serotypes was used as antigen. The MIX-ELISA was evaluated with sera from pigs experimentally infected with the serotypes 1, 2...
Angen, Øystein; Jensen, J.; Lavritsen, D. T.
Sequence detection by the 5' nuclease TaqMan assay uses online detection of internal fluorogenic probes in closed PCR tubes. Primers and probe were chosen from a part of the omlA gene common to all serotypes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, which gave an amplicon of 92 bp, The test was evaluat...
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR baseada no gene cpx para detecção de Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae em suínos natural e experimentalmente infectados Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR based on the cpx gene for detection of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in natural and experimentally infected pigs
Karina Koerich de Souza
Full Text Available A pleuropneumonia suína é uma das mais importantes doenças respiratórias dos suínos, estando presente em todos os países produtores. Para o controle e o monitoramento da pleuropneumonia, é necessário o desenvolvimento de métodos rápidos e acurados de diagnóstico. Com o objetivo de validar a técnica da PCR, baseada no gene cpx de Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, em suínos sabidamente positivos, primeiramente foi realizada inoculação experimental com amostras de A. pleuropneumoniae sorotipo 5B e coletadas amostras por meio de suabe de tonsila, biópsia de tonsila e sangue para realização da técnica de PCR, isolamento bacteriológico e teste de ELISA, respectivamente. Posteriormente, estas técnicas foram aplicadas em suínos naturalmente infectados, em três rebanhos com diferentes situações sanitárias quanto à apresentação clínica da doença. De cada rebanho, foram analisados cinco grupos de suínos com idades diferentes, sendo coletado de cada animal biópsia de tonsila para isolamento bacteriológico e PCR e sangue para determinação do perfil sorológico. Os resultados obtidos na inoculação experimental confirmaram que, mesmo com o estabelecimento da infecção comprovada pelo isolamento bacteriológico, após o período de 45 dias, não foi possível detectar o agente pela técnica de PCR. Em animais naturalmente infectados, a técnica de PCR apresentou maior sensibilidade quando comparado com o isolamento. A associação entre PCR e ELISA demonstrou ser uma boa alternativa para definir a situação sanitária do rebanho quanto à infecção por A. pleuropneumoniae.Swine pleuropneumonia is one of the most important pig respiratory diseases and has been found in all producer countries. For control and monitoring of pleuropneumonia, it is necessary the development of fast and specific methods of diagnosis. To validate PCR based on the cpx gene of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in positive pigs, an experimental
Hennig-Pauka, Isabel; Koch, Rüdiger; Hoeltig, Doris; Gerlach, Gerald-F; Waldmann, Karl-Heinz; Blecha, Frank; Brauer, Carsten; Gasse, Hagen
Host defence peptides are important components of mammalian innate immunity. We have previously shown that PR-39, a cathelicidin host defence peptide, is an important factor in porcine innate immune mechanisms as a first line of defence after infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. PR-39 interacts with bacterial and mammalian cells and is involved in a variety of processes such as killing of bacteria and promotion of wound repair. In bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of infected pigs PR-39 concentrations are elevated during the chronic but not during the acute stage of infection when polymorphonuclear neutrophils (known as the major source of PR-39) are highly increased. Thus it was assumed, that the real impact of PR-39 during infection might not be reflected by its concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Using immunohistochemistry this study demonstrates the actual distribution of PR-39 in tissue of the upper and lower respiratory tract of healthy pigs, and of pigs during the acute and chronic stage of experimental infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.During the acute stage of infection PR-39 accumulated adjacent to blood vessels and within bronchi. Immune reactions were mainly localized in the cytoplasm of cells with morphological characteristics of polymorphonuclear neutrophils as well as in extracellular fluids. During the chronic stage of infection pigs lacked clinical signs and lung alterations were characterized by reparation and remodelling processes such as tissue sequestration and fibroblastic pleuritis with a high-grade accumulation of small PR-39-positive cells resembling polymorphonuclear neutrophils. In healthy pigs, PR-39 was homogenously expressed in large single cells within the alveoli resembling alveolar macrophages or type 2 pneumocytes. PR-39 was found in all tissue samples of the upper respiratory tract in healthy and diseased pigs. Within the tracheobronchial lymph nodes, PR-39 dominated in the cytoplasm and nuclei of
van Dixhoorn, Ingrid D E; Reimert, Inonge; Middelkoop, Jenny; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Wisselink, Henk J; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W G; Kemp, Bas; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Norbert
Until today, anti-microbial drugs have been the therapy of choice to combat bacterial diseases. Resistance against antibiotics is of growing concern in man and animals. Stress, caused by demanding environmental conditions, can reduce immune protection in the host, influencing the onset and outcome of infectious diseases. Therefore psychoneuro-immunological intervention may prove to be a successful approach to diminish the impact of diseases and antibiotics use. This study was designed to investigate the effect of social and environmental enrichment on the impact of disease, referred to as "disease susceptibility", in pigs using a co-infection model of PRRSV and A. pleuropneumoniae. Twenty-eight pigs were raised in four pens under barren conditions and twenty-eight other pigs were raised in four pens under enriched conditions. In the enriched pens a combination of established social and environmental enrichment factors were introduced. Two pens of the barren (BH) and two pens of the enriched housed (EH) pigs were infected with PRRSV followed by A. pleuropneumoniae, the other two pens in each housing treatment served as control groups. We tested if differences in disease susceptibility in terms of pathological and clinical outcome were related to the different housing regimes and if this was reflected in differences in behavioural and immunological states of the animals. Enriched housed pigs showed a faster clearance of viral PRRSV RNA in blood serum (p = 0.014) and histologically 2.8 fold less interstitial pneumonia signs in the lungs (p = 0.014). More barren housed than enriched housed pigs developed lesions in the lungs (OR = 19.2, p = 0.048) and the lesions in the barren housed pigs showed a higher total pathologic tissue damage score (ppigs. EH pigs showed less stress-related behaviour and differed immunologically and clinically from BH pigs. We conclude that enriched housing management reduces disease susceptibility to co-infection of PRRSV and A
Ingrid D E van Dixhoorn
Full Text Available Until today, anti-microbial drugs have been the therapy of choice to combat bacterial diseases. Resistance against antibiotics is of growing concern in man and animals. Stress, caused by demanding environmental conditions, can reduce immune protection in the host, influencing the onset and outcome of infectious diseases. Therefore psychoneuro-immunological intervention may prove to be a successful approach to diminish the impact of diseases and antibiotics use. This study was designed to investigate the effect of social and environmental enrichment on the impact of disease, referred to as "disease susceptibility", in pigs using a co-infection model of PRRSV and A. pleuropneumoniae. Twenty-eight pigs were raised in four pens under barren conditions and twenty-eight other pigs were raised in four pens under enriched conditions. In the enriched pens a combination of established social and environmental enrichment factors were introduced. Two pens of the barren (BH and two pens of the enriched housed (EH pigs were infected with PRRSV followed by A. pleuropneumoniae, the other two pens in each housing treatment served as control groups. We tested if differences in disease susceptibility in terms of pathological and clinical outcome were related to the different housing regimes and if this was reflected in differences in behavioural and immunological states of the animals. Enriched housed pigs showed a faster clearance of viral PRRSV RNA in blood serum (p = 0.014 and histologically 2.8 fold less interstitial pneumonia signs in the lungs (p = 0.014. More barren housed than enriched housed pigs developed lesions in the lungs (OR = 19.2, p = 0.048 and the lesions in the barren housed pigs showed a higher total pathologic tissue damage score (p<0.001 than those in enriched housed pigs. EH pigs showed less stress-related behaviour and differed immunologically and clinically from BH pigs. We conclude that enriched housing management reduces disease
Kokotovic, Branko; Angen, Øystein
Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was evaluated as a method for genotypic characterization and subtyping within the bacterial species Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. A total of 155 isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae, representing the serotypic variation described to occur within...
Gabner, S; Egerbacher, M; Gasse, H; Hewicker-Trautwein, M; Höltig, D; Waldmann, K-H; Blecha, F; Saalmüller, A; Hennig-Pauka, I
Innate immunity is critically important for the outcome of infection in many diseases. It was previously shown that cathelicidin PR-39, an important porcine multifunctional host defence peptide, is elevated in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and respiratory tract tissue after experimental infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A.pp.). To date, neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) are thought to be the only source of PR-39. The aim of this study was to further characterize PR-39⁺ cells and selected immune cell populations in lung tissue during the peracute (7-10 hours), acute (2 days), reconvalescent (7 days) and chronic (21 days) stages of experimental infection with A.pp. serotype 2. In total, six mock-infected control pigs and 12 infected pigs were examined. Using immunofluorescence double-labeling, antibodies against PR-39 were combined with antibodies against CD3 (T-cells), CD79 (B-cells), Iba1 (activated macrophages), TTF-1 (lung epithelial cells expressing surfactant proteins), macrophage/L1 protein and myeloperoxidase (MPO, cells of the myeloid linage). In the peracute and acute phases of infection, total PR-39⁺ cells and myeloid linage cells increased, whereas CD3⁺ cells and TTF-1⁺ cells decreased. Double labeling revealed that most Macrophage/L1 protein+ cells and to a lesser extent MPO⁺ cells co-expressed PR-39. In addition, few bronchial epithelial cells and type 2 alveolar epithelial cells (both identified with TTF-1) produced PR-39. Occasionally, CD3⁺ T cells expressing PR-39 were seen in infected animals. Taken together, this study identifies cell types, other than PMNs, in lungs of A.pp.-infected pigs that are capable of producing PR-39. In addition, these findings provide further insights into the dynamics of different immune cell populations during A.pp.-infection.
Jensen, Tim Kåre; Boye, Mette; Hagedorn-Olsen, T.
Necrotizing osteomyelitis and fibrinopurulent arthritis with isolation of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 is reported in two pigs from a herd with lameness and mild coughing problems among 8 to 12-week-old pigs. Application of fluorescent in situ hybridization targeting 16S ribosomal R......, in joints with arthritis, and in bone necroses including lysis of growth plate and suppurative inflammation in the adjacent trabecular metaphysis, thus demonstrating that well-known infections manifest new, unusual lesions....
Michael T Karwacki
Full Text Available Cell-free extracts isolated from colony biofilms of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 were found to inhibit biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, but not by A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 itself, in a 96-well microtiter plate assay. Physical and chemical analyses indicated that the antibiofilm activity in the extract was due to high-molecular-weight polysaccharide. Extracts isolated from a mutant strain deficient in the production of serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide did not exhibit antibiofilm activity. A plasmid harboring the serotype 5 capsule genes restored the antibiofilm activity in the mutant extract. Purified serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide also exhibited antibiofilm activity against S. aureus. A. pleuropneumoniae wild-type extracts did not inhibit S. aureus growth, but did inhibit S. aureus intercellular adhesion and binding of S. aureus cells to stainless steel surfaces. Furthermore, polystyrene surfaces coated with A. pleuropneumoniae wild-type extracts, but not with capsule-mutant extracts, resisted S. aureus biofilm formation. Our findings suggest that the A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 capsule inhibits cell-to-cell and cell-to-surface interactions of other bacteria. A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide is one of a growing number of bacterial polysaccharides that exhibit broad-spectrum, nonbiocidal antibiofilm activity. Future studies on these antibiofilm polysaccharides may uncover novel functions for bacterial polysaccharides in nature, and may lead to the development of new classes of antibiofilm agents for industrial and clinical applications.
Gutiérrez, C B; Rodríguez Barbosa, J I; Tascón, R I; Costa, L; Riera, P; Rodríguez Ferri, E F
Seventy-one isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolated from the lungs of pigs in outbreaks of pleuropneumonia in Spain were serotyped by indirect haemagglutination. Serotype 4 (42.2 per cent), serotype 7 (22.5 per cent) and serotype 2 (12.8 per cent) were predominant, whereas serotypes 1, 3, 6, 8, 9, 12 and untypable isolates were present only in small numbers. Serotypes 1, 2, 4 and 7 originated mainly from cases of acute pleuropneumonia, whereas serotypes 3, 6, 8, 9 and 12 were associated with chronically infected herds. The susceptibility of the isolates to 20 antimicrobial agents was determined by agar disc diffusion. Most were susceptible to cefuroxime, cefaclor, cefazolin, kanamycin, tobramycin, gentamicin, oxolinic acid, ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, thiamphenicol, colistin and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole. Marked resistance was found with amoxicillin, ticarcillin, oxytetracycline, doxycycline and metronidazole. Rifampicin, fosfomycin and tiamulin were the agents most effective against the isolates tested.
Vigre, Håkan; Angen, Øystein; Barfod, K.
The objectives of this study were to elucidate at which age tonsillar colonisation by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae occurs in pigs and relate this occurrence to the presence of colostral antibodies to A. pleuropneumoniae. The infection patterns were studied in an isolated cohort of pigs, which...... consisted of the offspring from five sows originating from a conventional pig herd. The sows were transferred to isolated research facilities before farrowing. A. pleuropneumoniae was detected on the tonsils of all sows. After a nursing period of 3 weeks, the pigs were weaned and reared isolated from other...
Chevallier, Bruno; Dugourd, Dominique; Tarasiuk, Kazimirez; Harel, Josée; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Kobisch, Marylène; Frey, Joachim
The genome size of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was determined by pulsed field gel electrophoresis of AscI and ApaI digested chromosomal DNA. The genome size of the type strain 4074T (serotype 1) was determined to be 2404±40 kb. The chromosome sizes for the reference strains of the other serotypes range between 2.3 and 2.4 Mb. The restriction pattern profiles of AscI, ApaI and NheI digested chromosomes showed a high degree of polymorphism among the different serotype reference strains and ...
Abdul G Lone
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine contagious pleuropneumonia, is an important pathogen of swine throughout the world. It must rapidly overcome the innate pulmonary immune defenses of the pig to cause disease. To better understand this process, the objective of this study was to identify genes that are differentially expressed in a medium that mimics the lung environment early in the infection process. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Since bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF contains innate immune and other components found in the lungs, we examined gene expression of a virulent serovar 1 strain of A. pleuropneumoniae after a 30 min exposure to BALF, using DNA microarrays and real-time PCR. The functional classes of genes found to be up-regulated most often in BALF were those encoding proteins involved in energy metabolism, especially anaerobic metabolism, and in cell envelope, DNA, and protein biosynthesis. Transcription of a number of known virulence genes including apxIVA and the gene for SapF, a protein which is involved in resistance to antimicrobial peptides, was also up-regulated in BALF. Seventy-nine percent of the genes that were up-regulated in BALF encoded a known protein product, and of these, 44% had been reported to be either expressed in vivo and/or involved in virulence. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that in early stages of infection, A. pleuropneumoniae may modulate expression of genes involved in anaerobic energy generation and in the synthesis of proteins involved in cell wall biogenesis, as well as established virulence factors. Given that many of these genes are thought to be expressed in vivo or involved in virulence, incubation in BALF appears, at least partially, to simulate in vivo conditions and may provide a useful medium for the discovery of novel vaccine or therapeutic targets.
Ito, Hiroya; Takahashi, Sayaka; Asai, Tetsuo; Tamura, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Koshi
An atypical urease-negative mutant of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovar 2 was isolated in Japan. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the urease gene cluster revealed that the insertion of a short DNA sequence into the cbiM gene was responsible for the urease-negative activity of the mutant. Veterinary diagnostic laboratories should be watchful for the presence of aberrant urease-negative A. pleuropneumoniae isolates.
Kristensen, C.S.; Angen, Øystein; Andreasen, M.
Airborne transmission of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was studied as the percentage of air needed to establish airborne transmission from an infected pig unit into a neighbouring non-infected pig unit. The experiment was carried out in two containers constructed as pig units, placed 1 m apart...... and connected by pipes. By manipulating the air pressure in the two units, the amount of ventilation air transferred from the infected pigs (unit A) to the non-infected pigs (unit B) was controlled and measured. In three experiments, between 48 and 50 specific pathogen free-pigs were randomly assigned to each...... of the two units. In unit A, five pigs (experiment 1) or eight pigs (experiments 2 and 3) were inoculated with A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2. In experiments 1 and 3, 10% of the air was transferred from unit A to B; in experiment 2, 70% of the air was transferred. In the non-infected unit (B), 36...
Skovgaard, Kerstin; Mortensen, Shila; Boye, Mette
Knowledge on gene expression in the liver during respiratory infections is limited although it is well-established that this organ is an important site of synthesis of several systemic innate immune components as response to infections. In the present study, the early transcriptional hepatic...... in initiating and orchestrating the innate immune response to A. pleuropneumoniae infection. Keywords: acute phase protein, hepatic transcriptional response, innate defence, gene expression, pig...... differentially expressed. A large group of these genes encoded proteins involved in the acute phase response, including serum amyloid A, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, haptoglobin and tumor necrosis factor-a the expression of which were all found to be up-regulated and glutathione S-transferase, transthyretin...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gene expression profiles of bacteria in their natural hosts can provide novel insight into the host-pathogen interactions and molecular determinants of bacterial infections. In the present study, the transcriptional profile of the porcine lung pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was monitored during the acute phase of infection in its natural host. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bacterial expression profiles of A. pleuropneumoniae isolated from lung lesions of 25 infected pigs were compared in samples taken 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours post experimental challenge. Within 6 hours, focal, fibrino hemorrhagic lesions could be observed in the pig lungs, indicating that A. pleuropneumoniae had managed to establish itself successfully in the host. We identified 237 differentially regulated genes likely to encode functions required by the bacteria for colonization and survival in the host. This group was dominated by genes involved in various aspects of energy metabolism, especially anaerobic respiration and carbohydrate metabolism. Remodeling of the bacterial envelope and modifications of posttranslational processing of proteins also appeared to be of importance during early infection. The results suggested that A. pleuropneumoniae is using various strategies to increase its fitness, such as applying Na+ pumps as an alternative way of gaining energy. Furthermore, the transcriptional data provided potential clues as to how A. pleuropneumoniae is able to circumvent host immune factors and survive within the hostile environment of host macrophages. This persistence within macrophages may be related to urease activity, mobilization of various stress responses and active evasion of the host defenses by cell surface sialylation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The data presented here highlight the importance of metabolic adjustments to host conditions as virulence factors of infecting microorganisms and help to provide insight into the mechanisms
Perry, Malcolm B.; Angen, Øystein; MacLean, Leann L.
Atypical Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 13 strains present in North America are described here for the first time. Different from serotype 13 strains described in Europe, North America strains are biotype I and antigenically related to both, serotypes 13 and 10. Chemical and structural...
Nielsen, R.; Andresen, Lars Ole; Plambeck, Tamara
Eight Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae biotype 2 strains were isolated in pure culture from lungs of pigs originating from two Danish herds with growing and finishing pigs. The antigenic properties were studied by indirect haemagglutination (IHA) and immunodiffusion (ID) tests using soluble surface...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Protection of pigs by vaccination against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, is hampered by the presence of 15 different serotypes. A DIVA subunit vaccine comprised of detergent-released proteins from A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 2 and 5 has been developed and shown to protect pigs from clinical symptoms upon homologous and heterologous challenge. This vaccine has not been characterized in-depth so far. Thus we performed i mass spectrometry in order to identify the exact protein content of the vaccine and ii cross-serotype 2-D immunoblotting in order to discover cross-reactive antigens. By these approaches we expected to gain results enabling us to argue about the reasons for the efficacy of the analyzed vaccine. Results We identified 75 different proteins in the vaccine. Using the PSORTb algorithm these proteins were classified according to their cellular localization. Highly enriched proteins are outer membrane-associated lipoproteins like OmlA and TbpB, integral outer membrane proteins like FrpB, TbpA, OmpA1, OmpA2, HgbA and OmpP2, and secreted Apx toxins. The subunit vaccine also contained large amounts of the ApxIVA toxin so far thought to be expressed only during infection. Applying two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE we showed different isoforms and variations in expression levels of several proteins among the strains used for vaccine production. For detection of cross-reactive antigens we used detergent released proteins of serotype 7. Sera of pigs vaccinated with the detergent-released proteins of serotypes 1, 2, and 5 detected seven different proteins of serotype 7, and convalescent sera of pigs surviving experimental infection with serotype 7 reacted with 13 different proteins of the detergent-released proteins of A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 2, and 5. Conclusions A detergent extraction-based subunit vaccine of A. pleuropneumoniae was
Dubreuil, J.D.; Letellier, A.; Stenbæk, Eva
A polystyrene agglutination test has been developed for serotyping Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5a and 5b strains. Protein A-coated polystyrene microparticles were sensitized with a murine monoclonal antibody recognizing an epitope on serotype 5 LPS-O chain as shown by SDS-PAGE and We......A polystyrene agglutination test has been developed for serotyping Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5a and 5b strains. Protein A-coated polystyrene microparticles were sensitized with a murine monoclonal antibody recognizing an epitope on serotype 5 LPS-O chain as shown by SDS...... suspension of bacterial cells grown for 18 h. All A, pleuropneumoniae strains had been previously serotyped using standard procedures, The polystyrene agglutination test was rapid (less than 3 min) and easy to perform. Overall a very good correlation (97.3%) with the standard techniques was found...
Angen, Øystein; Andreasen, M.; Nielsen, E.O.
The effect of a single or double dose of tulathromycin was evaluated in pigs carrying Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 in their tonsils. Twenty-nine pigs from a reinfected specific pathogen-free-herd were selected from animals testing positive in an A pleuropneumoniae serotype 2-specific...
Gutiérrez, C B; Píriz, S; Vadillo, S; Rodríguez Ferri, E F
Minimal inhibitory concentration of 42 antimicrobial agents was determined against 57 field strains of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolated from pigs in Spain. Penicillins, aminoglycosides, and tetracyclines had irregular activity; ticarcillin, tobramycin, and doxycycline were the most active of each group, respectively. Macrolides, vancomycin, dapsone, and tiamulin, to which strains had high rate of resistance, were almost ineffective. Thiamphenicol, colistin, rifampin, fosfomycin, mupirocin, and metronidazole had good activity, with resistance ranging between 0 and 8.8%. Finally, cephalosporins (except cephalexin) and quinolones (especially ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, and sparfloxacin) were the most active antibiotics against A pleuropneumoniae.
Nielsen, R.; Andresen, Lars Ole; Plambeck, Tamara
Nine Danish Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae biotype 1 isolates were shown by latex agglutination and indirect haemagglutination to possess capsular polysaccharide epitopes identical to those of serotype 2 strain 1536 (reference strain of serotype 2) and strain 4226 (Danish serotype 2 strain). Imm...... in the LPS of strains 1536 and 7317 were revealed. Since an antigenic determinant specific for the 9 isolates could not be demonstrated with the methods used, the strains are proposed to be designated K2:O7....
Andresen, Lars Ole; Klausen, Joan; Barfod, Kristen
and from herds declared free of infection with Ap. The Ap serotype 12 blocking ELISA showed a herd sensitivity of 0.77 (95% confidence interval, 0.62-0.88) and a herd specificity of 1.00 (0.95-1.00) with a cut-off value at 40% relative absorbance or 60% inhibition. The assay may be used advantageously......The objective was to develop a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of antibodies to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (Ap) serotype 12 in pig serum. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Ap serotype 12 was purified and used as antigen in the assay. Antibodies to the LPS antigen...... in samples of pig serum were detected by inhibition of the binding of polyclonal rabbit antibodies raised against Ap serotype 12. The assay was evaluated against sera from experimentally infected pigs, from pig herds naturally infected with Ap and from herds declared free of Ap serotypc 12 infection...
Shin, Min-Kyoung; Jung, Myung Hwan; Lee, Won-Jung; Choi, Pil Son; Jang, Yong-Suk
Corn, one of the most important forage crops worldwide, has proven to be a useful expression vehicle due to the availability of established transformation procedures for this well-studied plant. The exotoxin Apx, a major virulence factor, is recognized as a common antigen of Actinobacillus (A.) pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia. In this study, a cholera toxin B (CTB)-ApxIIA#5 fusion protein and full-size ApxIIA expressed in corn seed, as a subunit vaccine candidate, were observed to induce Apx-specific immune responses in mice. These results suggest that transgenic corn-derived ApxIIA and CTB-ApxIIA#5 proteins are potential vaccine candidates against A. pleuropneumoniae infection. PMID:22122907
Full Text Available Cytotoxins produced by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App suggested to be the most important pathogenic and virulent factors for this organism. However, the mechanisms on how the cytotoxins contribute to the disease process remain unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the cytotoxins on the oxidative-burst metabolism of porcine neutrophils. In this study, neutrophils were firstly loaded with an oxidative probe dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFHDA then expose to cytotoxins. Cells producing oxygen radicals emitted fluorescence and its intensity was measured with a FACScan flow cytometer. All cytotoxins derived from either App serotypes producing ApxI and ApxII, App serotypes producing ApxII only, or App serotypes producing ApxII and ApxIII were capable of stimulating neutrophils for oxygen-radical generation. However, compared with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA, App cytotoxins were much weaker as stimulants for oxygen radicals. In addition, Apx preparation stimulated an oxidative-burst metabolism of neutrophils at a low, narrow range of Apx doses. At higher doses, the toxins inhibit the oxidative burst metabolism. The effects of cytotoxins produced by App during infection on recruited neutrophils into the lungs are assumed to be comparable to those observed in this in vitro study. Neutrophils, and other host cells, adjacent to the bacteria become lysis due to high toxin concentration, whereas those at some distance to the bacteria produce oxygen radicals which in turn cause tissue damage or necrosis.
Subashchandrabose, Sargurunathan; LeVeque, Rhiannon M.; Wagner, Trevor K.; Kirkwood, Roy N.; Kiupel, Matti; Mulks, Martha H.
In Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, which causes porcine pleuropneumonia, ilvI was identified as an in vivo-induced (ivi) gene and encodes the enzyme acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) required for branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) biosynthesis. ilvI and 7 of 32 additional ivi promoters were upregulated in vitro when grown in chemically defined medium (CDM) lacking BCAA. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that BCAA would be found at limiting concentrations in pulmonary secretions and t...
Wallgren, Per; Nörregård, Erik; Molander, Benedicta; Persson, Maria; Ehlorsson, Carl-Johan
Respiratory illness is traditionally regarded as the disease of the growing pig, and has historically mainly been associated to bacterial infections with focus on Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. These bacteria still are of great importance, but continuously increasing herd sizes have complicated the scenario and the influence of secondary invaders may have been increased. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of A. pleuropneumoniae and M. hyopneumoniae, as well as that of the secondary invaders Pasteurella multocida and Streptococcus suis by serology in four pig herds (A-D) using age segregated rearing systems with high incidences of pleuritic lesions at slaughter. Pleuritic lesions registered at slaughter ranged from 20.5 to 33.1 % in the four herds. In herd A, the levels of serum antibodies to A. pleuropneumoniae exceeded A 450 > 1.5, but not to any other microbe searched for. The seroconversion took place early during the fattening period. Similar levels of serum antibodies to A. pleuropneumoniae were also recorded in herd B, with a subsequent increase in levels of antibodies to P. multocida. Pigs seroconverted to both agents during the early phase of the fattening period. In herd C, pigs seroconverted to P. multocida during the early phase of the fattening period and thereafter to A. pleuropneumoniae. In herd D, the levels of antibodies to P. multocida exceeded A 450 > 1.0 in absence (A 450 hyopneumoniae and to S. suis remained below A 450 hyopneumoniae late during the rearing period (herd B-D), or not at all (herd A). Different serological patterns were found in the four herds with high levels of serum antibodies to A. pleuropneumoniae and P. multocida, either alone or in combination with each other. Seroconversion to M. hyopneumoniae late during the rearing period or not at all, confirmed the positive effect of age segregated rearing in preventing or delaying infections with M
Full Text Available Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the etiologic agent of porcine contagious pleuropneumonia, a significant disease that causes serious economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. Persistent infections caused by bacterial biofilms are recalcitrant to treat because of the particular drug resistance of biofilm-dwelling cells. TolC, a key component of multidrug efflux pumps, are responsible for multidrug resistance in many Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we identified two TolC-like proteins, TolC1 and TolC2, in A. pleuropneumoniae. Deletion of tolC1, but not tolC2, caused a significant reduction in biofilm formation, as well as increased drug sensitivity of both planktonic and biofilm cells. The genetic-complementation of the tolC1 mutation restored the competent biofilm and drug resistance. Besides, biofilm formation was inhibited and drug sensitivity was increased by the addition of phenylalanine-arginine beta-naphthylamide (PAβN, a well-known efflux pump inhibitor (EPI, suggesting a role for EPI in antibacterial strategies towards drug tolerance of A. pleuropneumoniae. Taken together, TolC1 is required for biofilm formation and is a part of the multidrug resistance machinery of both planktonic and biofilm cells, which could supplement therapeutic strategies for resistant bacteria and biofilm-related infections of A. pleuropneumoniae clinical isolate SC1516.
Xiao, Longwen; Zhou, Liang; Sun, Changjiang; Feng, Xin; Du, ChongTao; Gao, Yu; Ji, Qun; Yang, Shuxin; Wang, Yu; Han, Wenyu; Langford, P R; Lei, Liancheng
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, and adherence to host cells is a key step in the pathogenic process. Although trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs) were identified in many pathogenic bacteria in recent years, none in A. pleuropneumoniae have been characterized. In this study, we identified a TAA from A. pleuropneumoniae, Apa, and characterized the contribution of its amino acid residues to the adhesion process. Sequence analysis of the C-terminal amino acid residues of Apa revealed the presence of a putative translocator domain and six conserved HsfBD1-like or HsfBD2-like binding domains. Western blot analysis revealed that the 126 C-terminal amino acids of Apa could form trimeric molecules. By confocal laser scanning microscopy, one of these six domains (ApaBD3) was determined to mediate adherence to epithelial cells. Adherence assays and adherence inhibition assays using a recombinant E. coli- ApaBD3 strain which expressed ApaBD3 on the surface of E. coli confirmed that this domain was responsible for the adhesion activity. Moreover, cellular enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays demonstrated that ApaBD3 mediated high-level adherence to epithelial cell lines. Intriguingly, autoagglutination was observed with the E. coli- ApaBD3 strain, and this phenomenon was dependent upon the association of the expressed ApaBD3 with the C-terminal translocator domain. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Fales, W H; Morehouse, L G; Mittal, K R; Bean-Knudsen, C; Nelson, S L; Kintner, L D; Turk, J R; Turk, M A; Brown, T P; Shaw, D P
The antimicrobial susceptibility of 73 Actinobacillus (Haemophilus) pleuropneumoniae isolates from swine in Missouri was determined with a microdilution minimal inhibitory concentration test system. Serotyping was accomplished by means of co-agglutination. Serotype 1 (39/73) and serotype 5 (30/73) were commonly found, whereas serotype 7 (4/73) was infrequently encountered. Most isolates (MIC90) were found susceptible to ampicillin (amoxicillin), cephalothin, penicillin, erythromycin, gentamicin, and kanamycin. Marked resistance was found with oxytetracycline, tylosin, and sulfadimethoxine. The data indicate that use of ampicillin (amoxicillin) or penicillin may correlate well with the favorable outcome of treatment.
Full Text Available Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the pathogen of porcine contagious pleuropneumoniae, a highly contagious respiratory disease of swine. Although the genome of A. pleuropneumoniae was sequenced several years ago, limited information is available on the genome-wide transcriptional analysis to accurately annotate the gene structures and regulatory elements. High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq has been applied to study the transcriptional landscape of bacteria, which can efficiently and accurately identify gene expression regions and unknown transcriptional units, especially small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs, UTRs and regulatory regions. The aim of this study is to comprehensively analyze the transcriptome of A. pleuropneumoniae by RNA-seq in order to improve the existing genome annotation and promote our understanding of A. pleuropneumoniae gene structures and RNA-based regulation. In this study, we utilized RNA-seq to construct a single nucleotide resolution transcriptome map of A. pleuropneumoniae. More than 3.8 million high-quality reads (average length ~90 bp from a cDNA library were generated and aligned to the reference genome. We identified 32 open reading frames encoding novel proteins that were mis-annotated in the previous genome annotations. The start sites for 35 genes based on the current genome annotation were corrected. Furthermore, 51 sRNAs in the A. pleuropneumoniae genome were discovered, of which 40 sRNAs were never reported in previous studies. The transcriptome map also enabled visualization of 5'- and 3'-UTR regions, in which contained 11 sRNAs. In addition, 351 operons covering 1230 genes throughout the whole genome were identified. The RNA-Seq based transcriptome map validated annotated genes and corrected annotations of open reading frames in the genome, and led to the identification of many functional elements (e.g. regions encoding novel proteins, non-coding sRNAs and operon structures. The transcriptional units
Bossé, Janine T; Li, Yanwen; Sárközi, Rita; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Angen, Øystein; Nedbalcova, Katerina; Rycroft, Andrew N; Fodor, László; Langford, Paul R
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae causes pleuropneumonia, an economically significant lung disease of pigs. Recently, isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae that were serologically distinct from the previously characterized 15 serovars were described, and a proposal was put forward that they comprised a new serovar, serovar 16. Here we used whole-genome sequencing of the proposed serovar 16 reference strain A-85/14 to confirm the presence of a unique capsular polysaccharide biosynthetic locus. For molecular diagnostics, primers were designed from the capsule locus of strain A-85/14, and a PCR was formulated that differentiated serovar 16 isolates from all 15 known serovars and other common respiratory pathogenic/commensal bacteria of pigs. Analysis of the capsule locus of strain A-85/14 combined with the previous serological data show the existence of a sixteenth serovar-designated serovar 16-of A. pleuropneumoniae . Copyright © 2017 Bossé et al.
Bossé, Janine T; Li, Yanwen; Walker, Stephanie; Atherton, Tom; Fernandez Crespo, Roberto; Williamson, Susanna M; Rogers, Jon; Chaudhuri, Roy R; Weinert, Lucy A; Oshota, Olusegun; Holden, Matt T G; Maskell, Duncan J; Tucker, Alexander W; Wren, Brendan W; Rycroft, Andrew N; Langford, Paul R
The objective of this study was to determine the distribution and genetic basis of trimethoprim resistance in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolates from pigs in England. Clinical isolates collected between 1998 and 2011 were tested for resistance to trimethoprim and sulphonamide. The genetic basis of trimethoprim resistance was determined by shotgun WGS analysis and the subsequent isolation and sequencing of plasmids. A total of 16 (out of 106) A. pleuropneumoniae isolates were resistant to both trimethoprim (MIC >32 mg/L) and sulfisoxazole (MIC ≥256 mg/L), and a further 32 were resistant only to sulfisoxazole (MIC ≥256 mg/L). Genome sequence data for the trimethoprim-resistant isolates revealed the presence of the dfrA14 dihydrofolate reductase gene. The distribution of plasmid sequences in multiple contigs suggested the presence of two distinct dfrA14-containing plasmids in different isolates, which was confirmed by plasmid isolation and sequencing. Both plasmids encoded mobilization genes, the sulphonamide resistance gene sul2, as well as dfrA14 inserted into strA, a streptomycin-resistance-associated gene, although the gene order differed between the two plasmids. One of the plasmids further encoded the strB streptomycin-resistance-associated gene. This is the first description of mobilizable plasmids conferring trimethoprim resistance in A. pleuropneumoniae and, to our knowledge, the first report of dfrA14 in any member of the Pasteurellaceae. The identification of dfrA14 conferring trimethoprim resistance in A. pleuropneumoniae isolates will facilitate PCR screens for resistance to this important antimicrobial. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.
Kim, Boram; Hur, Jin; Lee, Ji Yeong; Choi, Yoonyoung; Lee, John Hwa
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) causes porcine pleuropneumonia (PP). Serotypes and antimicrobial resistance patterns in APP isolates from pigs in Korea were examined. Sixty-five APP isolates were genetically serotyped using standard and multiplex PCR (polymerase chain reaction). Antimicrobial susceptibilities were tested using the standardized disk-agar method. PCR was used to detect β-lactam, gentamicin and tetracycline-resistance genes. The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) patterns were determined by PCR. Korean pigs predominantly carried APP serotypes 1 and 5. Among 65 isolates, one isolate was sensitive to all 12 antimicrobials tested in this study. Sixty-two isolates was resistant to tetracycline and 53 isolates carried one or five genes including tet(B), tet(A), tet(H), tet(M)/tet(O), tet(C), tet(G) and/or tet(L)-1 markers. Among 64 strains, 9% and 26.6% were resistance to 10 and three or more antimicrobials, respectively. Thirteen different antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed and RAPD analysis revealed a separation of the isolates into two clusters: cluster II (6 strains resistant to 10 antimicrobials) and cluster I (the other 59 strains). Results show that APP serotypes 1 and 5 are the most common in Korea, and multi-drug resistant strains are prevalent. RAPD analysis demonstrated that six isolates resistant to 10 antimicrobials belonged to the same cluster.
Pridmore, Andrew; Burch, David; Lees, Peter
Tiamulin activity was measured against 19 UK field isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae collected between 2003 and 2009 and the type strain ATCC 27090 as a control, with the intention of comparing broth with serum as growth media. Broth microdilution MIC/MBC tests were performed in accordance with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guideline M31-A3, in 'Veterinary Fastidious Medium' (VFM) (supplemented Mueller-Hinton broth at pH 7.3) and in 100% swine serum. For improved precision, a modified, overlapping doubling-dilution series was used (tiamulin concentration range 0.3-72 μg/ml). The MBC was reported as the lowest concentration producing a 99.9% reduction in bacterial density in the sub-cultured well contents, relative to the starting inoculum. The mean MBC/MIC ratio for tiamulin against A. pleuropneumoniae in VFM was low (1.74:1), even though tiamulin is classed as a bacteriostatic drug. Only three of the 19 isolates and the reference strain grew in 100% serum and their MICs were higher than those determined in VFM. It is postulated that this difference was due to differences in pH of the matrices or binding of tiamulin to serum proteins or a combination of both factors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Janine T Bosse
Full Text Available ICEApl1 was identified in the whole genome sequence of MIDG2331, a tetracycline-resistant (MIC = 8 mg/L serovar 8 clinical isolate of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia. PCR amplification of virB4, one of the core genes involved in conjugation, was used to identify other A. pleuropneumoniae isolates potentially carrying ICEApl1. MICs for tetracycline were determined for virB4 positive isolates, and shotgun whole genome sequence analysis was used to confirm presence of the complete ICEApl1. The sequence of ICEApl1 is 56083 bp long and contains 67 genes including a Tn10 element encoding tetracycline resistance. Comparative sequence analysis was performed with similar integrative conjugative elements (ICEs found in other members of the Pasteurellaceae. ICEApl1 is most similar to the 59393 bp ICEHin1056, from Haemophilus influenzae strain 1056. Although initially identified only in serovar 8 isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae (31 from the UK and 1 from Cyprus, conjugal transfer of ICEApl1 to representative isolates of other serovars was confirmed. All isolates carrying ICEApl1 had a MIC for tetracycline of 8 mg/L. This is, to our knowledge, the first description of an ICE in A. pleuropneumoniae, and the first report of a member of the ICEHin1056 subfamily in a non-human pathogen. ICEApl1 confers resistance to tetracycline, currently one of the more commonly used antibiotics for treatment and control of porcine pleuropneumonia.
Antenucci, Fabio; Fougeroux, Cyrielle; Deeney, Alannah
vesicles from its outer membrane (OM), accordingly defined as outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). Thanks to their antigenic similarity to the OM, OMVs have emerged as a promising tool in vaccinology. In this study we describe the in vivo testing of several vaccine prototypes for the prevention of infection...
MacInnes Janet I
Full Text Available Abstract Background Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, is a highly contagious respiratory pathogen that causes severe losses to the swine industry worldwide. Current commercially-available vaccines are of limited value because they do not induce cross-serovar immunity and do not prevent development of the carrier state. Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridizations (M-CGH were used to estimate whole genomic diversity of representative Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae strains. Our goal was to identify conserved genes, especially those predicted to encode outer membrane proteins and lipoproteins because of their potential for the development of more effective vaccines. Results Using hierarchical clustering, our M-CGH results showed that the majority of the genes in the genome of the serovar 5 A. pleuropneumoniae L20 strain were conserved in the reference strains of all 15 serovars and in representative field isolates. Fifty-eight conserved genes predicted to encode for outer membrane proteins or lipoproteins were identified. As well, there were several clusters of diverged or absent genes including those associated with capsule biosynthesis, toxin production as well as genes typically associated with mobile elements. Conclusion Although A. pleuropneumoniae strains are essentially clonal, M-CGH analysis of the reference strains of the fifteen serovars and representative field isolates revealed several classes of genes that were divergent or absent. Not surprisingly, these included genes associated with capsule biosynthesis as the capsule is associated with sero-specificity. Several of the conserved genes were identified as candidates for vaccine development, and we conclude that M-CGH is a valuable tool for reverse vaccinology.
Yoshimura, H; Takagi, M; Ishimura, M; Endoh, Y S
Sixteen antimicrobial agents were tested for their activity against 68 isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Ceftiofur and the fluoroquinolones danofloxacin and enrofloxacin were the most active compounds, with a MIC for 90% of the isolates (MIC90) of (0.05 microg/ml. The MIC90 values of benzylpenicillin, amoxicillin and aspoxicillin were 0.78 units/ml, 0.39 microg/ml and colistin and tiamulin. Of these, spectinomycin was the least active, with a MIC50 of 25 microg/ml, followed by tiamulin, with a MIC50 of 6.25 microg/ml. Of the 68 isolates tested, 49 (72.0%) were of serotype 2; 14 (20.5%) were of serotype 1; 2 each (3.0%) were of serotypes 5 and 6; and one was of serotype 7. Of the isolates, 23 (33.8%) were resistant to one or more of the major antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance was found only infrequently among serotype 2, with 5 (10.2%) of 49 isolates being resistant to chloramphenicol and/or oxytetracycline, while it occurred in 18 (94.7%) of the 19 isolates of other serotypes.
Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard; Friis, Carsten; Angen, Øystein
Background Comparative analysis of gene expression among serotypes within a species can provide valuable information on important differences between related genomes. For the pig lung pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, 15 serotypes with a considerable variation in virulence potential...... and immunogenicity have been identified. This serotypic diversity can only partly be explained by amount of capsule and differences in the RTX toxin genes in their genomes. Iron acquisition in vivo is an important bacterial function and in pathogenic bacteria, iron-limitation is often a signal for the induction...... of virulence genes. We used a pan-genomic microarray to study the transcriptional response to iron restriction in vitro in six serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae (1, 2, 3, 5b, 6, and 7), representing at least two levels of virulence. Results In total, 45 genes were significantly (p
Ciro César Rossi
Full Text Available The OmlA protein is a virulence factor of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, an important pathogen in pigs. The polymorphisms present in the omlA gene sequence of 15 reference serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae and non-serotypable isolates were assessed to determine the possible evolutionary relationship among them and to validate the importance of this gene as a molecular marker for the characterization of this bacterium. Divergence among the 15 serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae probably resulted initially from two major evolutionary events that led to subsequent differentiation into nine groups. This differentiation makes it possible to characterize most of the serotypes by using bionformatics, thereby avoiding problems with immunological cross-reactivity. A conserved α-helix common to all the serotypes was most likely involved in connecting the protein to the outer membrane and acting as a signal peptide. A previously unknown gene duplication was also identified and could contribute to the genetic variability that makes it difficult to serotype some isolates. Our data support the importance of the omlA gene in the biology of A. pleuropneumoniae and provide a new area of research into the OmlA protein.
Nielsen, Ragnhild; van den Bosch, Johannes F.; Plambeck, Tamara
The reference strains of the 12 serotypes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae express one or two of three different RTX exotoxins designated Apr I, Apr II and Apr III. The toxins are important virulence factors. In the present study, ELISAs with purified Apr I, Apr II and Apr III, respectively...... of exotoxin is not revealed serologically in the ELISA test....
Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard; Rundsten, Carsten Friis; Jensen, Tim Kåre
in response to environmental stimuli is critical for bacterial survival within the host. The genes identified as differentially expressed in this study may represent a core set of genes which are mobilized to cope with the host immune response and adapt to the hostile environment. The potential virulence......Aim: To obtain an increased understanding of how the porcine lung pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (Ap) establish infection in the host. Understanding the means by which a pathogen establishes and maintains infection in the host organism is the first step towards controlling disease...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative analysis of gene expression among serotypes within a species can provide valuable information on important differences between related genomes. For the pig lung pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, 15 serotypes with a considerable variation in virulence potential and immunogenicity have been identified. This serotypic diversity can only partly be explained by amount of capsule and differences in the RTX toxin genes in their genomes. Iron acquisition in vivo is an important bacterial function and in pathogenic bacteria, iron-limitation is often a signal for the induction of virulence genes. We used a pan-genomic microarray to study the transcriptional response to iron restriction in vitro in six serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae (1, 2, 3, 5b, 6, and 7, representing at least two levels of virulence. Results In total, 45 genes were significantly (p A. pleuropneumoniae was the up-regulation of a putative cirA-like siderophore in all six serotypes. Three genes, recently described in A. pleuropneumoniae as possibly coding for haemoglobin-haptoglobin binding proteins, displayed significant serotype related up-regulation to iron limitation. For all three genes, the expression appeared at its lowest in serotype 3, which is generally considered one of the least virulent serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae. The three genes share homology with the hmbR haemoglobin receptor of Neisseria meningitidis, a possible virulence factor which contributes to bacterial survival in rats. Conclusions By comparative analysis of gene expression among 6 different serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae we identified a common set of presumably essential core genes, involved in iron regulation. The results support and expand previous observations concerning the identification of new potential iron acquisition systems in A. pleuropneumoniae, showing that this bacterium has evolved several strategies for scavenging the limited iron resources of the
Dorey, L; Pelligand, L; Cheng, Z; Lees, P
Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) integration and modelling were used to predict dosage schedules of oxytetracycline for two pig pneumonia pathogens, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and mutant prevention concentration (MPC) were determined in broth and porcine serum. PK/PD integration established ratios of average concentration over 48 h (C av0-48 h )/MIC of 5.87 and 0.27 μg/mL (P. multocida) and 0.70 and 0.85 μg/mL (A. pleuropneumoniae) for broth and serum MICs, respectively. PK/PD modelling of in vitro time-kill curves established broth and serum breakpoint values for area under curve (AUC 0-24 h )/MIC for three levels of inhibition of growth, bacteriostasis and 3 and 4 log 10 reductions in bacterial count. Doses were then predicted for each pathogen, based on Monte Carlo simulations, for: (i) bacteriostatic and bactericidal levels of kill; (ii) 50% and 90% target attainment rates (TAR); and (iii) single dosing and daily dosing at steady-state. For 90% TAR, predicted daily doses at steady-state for bactericidal actions were 1123 mg/kg (P. multocida) and 43 mg/kg (A. pleuropneumoniae) based on serum MICs. Lower TARs were predicted from broth MIC data; corresponding dose estimates were 95 mg/kg (P. multocida) and 34 mg/kg (A. pleuropneumoniae). © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Padronização de três ELISAs polivalentes com lipopolissacarídeos de cadeia longa dos sorotipos 1 e 5, 2, 3 e 7 ou 10 e 12 de Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Standardization of three polyvalent ELISA based on long chain lipopolysaccharides of serotypes 1 and 5, 2, 3 and 7, or 10 and 12 of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae
Full Text Available Três ELISAs polivalentes baseados em lipopolissacarídeos de cadeia longa (LPS-CL foram estabelecidos para detectar anticorpos para todos os sorotipos prevalentes de Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Foram testadas amostras provenientes do banco de soros de suínos experimentalmente inoculados com todos os sorotipos de A. pleuropneumoniae. Os ELISAs foram sensíveis à detecção de anticorpos contra todos os LPS-CL. Foram observadas reações cruzadas no ELISA polivalente produzido com os sorotipos 1 e 5, com anti-soros específicos para os sorotipos 9 e 11, pois os sorotipos 1, 9 e 11 apresentaram antígenos somáticos comuns. No polivalente com os sorotipos 2, 3 e 7, observaram-se reações com anti-soros dos sorotipos 4, 6 e 8, devido à presença de antígenos somáticos entre os sorotipos 3, 6 e 8 e entre os sorotipos 4 e 7. Amostras de soros de animais infectados com Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma flocculare e Haemophilus parasuis, agentes que acometem o sistema respiratório dos suínos, não apresentaram reações cruzadas com os antígenos baseados em LPS-CL.Three polyvalent ELISA based on long chain lipopolysaccharides (LC-LPS were established to detect all prevalent serotypes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Samples from a serum bank of experimentally inoculated animals with all serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae were tested. Antibodies specific to LC-LPS of each serotype were detected. Cross-reactions were observed in the polyvalent ELISA produced with serotypes 1 and 5, with specific antisera to serotypes 9 and 11 due to common somatic antigens presence in serotypes 1, 9, and 11. In the polyvalent with serotypes 2, 3 and 7 reactions were observed with antisera of serotypes 4, 6, and 8, due to the presence of somatic antigens in serotypes 3, 6, and 8 and serotypes 4 and 7. Experimentally infected animals with respiratory agents of swine Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma flocculare, and Haemophilus parasuis did not present
Lindecrona, R.H.; Friis, C.; Jensen, N.E.
The pharmacodynamic effect of amoxycillin and danofloxacin against two strains of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was evaluated in an in-vitro pharmacodynamic model. For amoxycillin peak concentrations of 0.5, 1, and 4 mu g ml(-1) and half-lives of 3 and 15 hours were examined. For danofloxacin...... peak concentrations of 0.125, 0.5, and 1.5 mu g ml(-1) and half-lives of 1.5 and 7 hours were evaluated. The initial bactericidal effect was measured as the reduction in colony count (log CFU ml(-1)) during the first three hours, and the overall pharmacodynamic effect as the area under the bacterial...... growth versus time curve (AUBC). The initial bactericidal effect of amoxycillin was maximal at peak concentrations of two to four times the hnc. Peak concentration and half-life only influenced the pharmacodynamic effect of amoxycillin if the antibiotic concentration fell below the MIC during...
Differentiation of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae strains by sequence analysis of 16S rDNA and ribosomal intergenic regions, and development of a species specific oligonucleotide for in situ detection
Fussing, Vivian; Paster, Bruce J.; Dewhirst, Floyd E.
. The larger RIS's were different between the 3 species tested. The sequence of the 16S ribosomal gene was determined for 8 serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae. These sequences showed only minor base differences, indicating a close genetic relatedness of these serotypes within the species. An oligonucleotide DNA...... probe designed from the 16S rRNA gene sequence of A. pleuropneumoniae was specific for all strains of the target species and did not cross react with A. lignieresii, the closest known relative of A. pleuropneumoniae. This species-specific DNA probe labeled with fluorescein was used for in situ......The aims of this study were to characterize and determine intraspecies and interspecies relatedness of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae to Actinobacillus lignieresii and Actinobacillus suis by sequence analysis of the ribosomal operon and to find a species-specific area for in situ detection of A...
The aim of the present study was to examine the genomic relationship among 112 Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 strains obtained throughout Europe and North America. HindIII ribotyping of the strains resulted in five ribotypes of high similarity (87-98%). Sequence analysis of the riboso......The aim of the present study was to examine the genomic relationship among 112 Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 strains obtained throughout Europe and North America. HindIII ribotyping of the strains resulted in five ribotypes of high similarity (87-98%). Sequence analysis...... of the ribosomal intergenic region of strains representing each ribotype and each country showed no differences. A common ribotype was further characterized by PFGE of 12 strains representing all countries. The resultant five PFGE patterns of European strains showed a similarity of more than 91%, to which the two...
Sjölund, M; Fossum, C; Martin de la Fuente, AJM
-free pigs were allocated to five groups of six. After acclimatisation, four groups were inoculated with A pleuropneumoniae serotype 2. At the onset of clinical signs, three of the groups of pigs were treated with enrofloxacin, tetracycline or penicillin. A fourth group served as the inoculated control......-binding lectin-A response was less evident in the pigs. Acute phase responses resembling those of the first inoculation were observed in the pigs that had not previously been inoculated and in the pigs treated with enrofloxacin. Acute phase responses were not recorded in the other three groups, where the pigs...
The porcine acute phase response to infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Haptoglobin, C-reactive protein, major acute phase protein and serum amyloid a protein are sensitive indicators of infection
Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Klausen, Joan; Nielsen, J.P.
response peaking at around 2 days after infection. Haptoglobin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and major acute phase protein (MAP) responded with large increases in serum levels, preceding the development of specific antibodies by 4-5 days. Serum amyloid A protein (SAA) was also strongly induced. The increase......, kinetics of induction and normalization were different between these proteins. It is concluded that experimental Ap-infection by the aerosol route induces a typical acute phase reaction in the pig, and that pig Hp, CRP, MAP, and SAA are major acute phase reactants. These findings indicate the possibility...
Full Text Available Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD integration and modelling were used to predict dosage schedules for florfenicol for two pig pneumonia pathogens, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida. Pharmacokinetic data were pooled for two bioequivalent products, pioneer and generic formulations, administered intramuscularly to pigs at a dose rate of 15 mg/kg. Antibacterial potency was determined in vitro as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and Mutant Prevention Concentration in broth and pig serum, for six isolates of each organism. For both organisms and for both serum and broth MICs, average concentration:MIC ratios over 48 h were similar and exceeded 2.5:1 and times greater than MIC exceeded 35 h. From in vitro time-kill curves, PK/PD modelling established serum breakpoint values for the index AUC24h/MIC for three levels of inhibition of growth, bacteriostasis and 3 and 4log10 reductions in bacterial count; means were 25.7, 40.2 and 47.0 h, respectively, for P. multocida and 24.6, 43.8 and 58.6 h for A. pleuropneumoniae. Using these PK and PD data, together with literature MIC distributions, doses for each pathogen were predicted for: (1 bacteriostatic and bactericidal levels of kill; (2 for 50 and 90% target attainment rates (TAR; and (3 for single dosing and daily dosing at steady state. Monte Carlo simulations for 90% TAR predicted single doses to achieve bacteriostatic and bactericidal actions over 48 h of 14.4 and 22.2 mg/kg (P. multocida and 44.7 and 86.6 mg/kg (A. pleuropneumoniae. For daily doses at steady state, and 90% TAR bacteriostatic and bactericidal actions, dosages of 6.2 and 9.6 mg/kg (P. multocida and 18.2 and 35.2 mg/kg (A. pleuropneumoniae were required. PK/PD integration and modelling approaches to dose determination indicate the possibility of tailoring dose to a range of end-points.
Dorey, L; Hobson, S; Lees, P
The pharmacodynamics of oxytetracycline was determined for pig respiratory tract pathogens, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida. Indices of potency were determined for the following: (i) two matrices, broth and pig serum; (ii) five overlapping sets of twofold dilutions; and (iii) a high strength starting culture. For A. pleuropneumoniae, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was similar for the two matrices, but for P. multocida, differences were marked and significantly different. MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) serum: broth ratios for A. pleuropneumoniae were 0.83:1 and 1.22:1, respectively, and corresponding values for P. multocida were 22.0:1 and 7.34:1. For mutant prevention concentration (MPC) serum: broth ratios were 0.79:1 (A. pleuropneumoniae) and 20.9:1 (P. multocida). These ratios were corrected for serum protein binding to yield fraction unbound (fu) serum: broth MIC ratios of 0.24:1 (A. pleuropneumoniae) and 6.30:1 (P. multocida). Corresponding fu serum: broth ratios for MPC were almost identical, 0.23:1 and 6.08:1. These corrections for protein binding did not account for potency differences between serum and broth for either species; based on fu serum MICs, potency in serum was approximately fourfold greater than predicted for A. pleuropneumoniae and sixfold smaller than predicted for P. multocida. For both broth and serum and both bacterial species, MICs were also dependent on initial inoculum strength. The killing action of oxytetracycline had the characteristics of codependency for both A. pleuropneumoniae and P. multocida in both growth media. The in vitro potency of oxytetracycline in pig serum is likely to be closer to the in vivo plasma/serum concentration required for efficacy than potency estimated in broths. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Antenucci, Fabio; Fougeroux, Cyrielle; Bosse, Janine T.
and further characterized, both in silico and in vitro. Additionally, we analysed outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) of A. pleuropneumoniae MIDG2331 as potential immunogens, and compared deletions in degS and nlpI for increasing yields of OMVs compared to the parental strain. Our results indicated that Apf...
Gram, T.; Ahrens, Peter; Nielsen, J.P.
strains of A. lignieresii. The lower detection limit of the PCR test was 10(3) A. pleuropneumoniae CFU/PCR test tube and was not affected by addition of 10(6) E. coli CFU/PCR test tube. Mixed bacterial cultures from tonsils of 101 pigs from 9 different herds were tested by culture and by PCR using four...
Gram, Trine; Ahrens, Peter
species related to A. pleuropneumoniae or isolated from pigs were assayed. They were all found negative in the PCR, as were tonsil cultures from 50 pigs of an A. pleuropneumoniae-negative herd. The sensitivity assessed by agarose gel analysis of the PCR product was 10(2) CFU/PCR test tube. The specificity...
Kyvsgaard, N.C.; Lind, Peter; Preuss, T.
was used as an estimate for the relative posttreatment activity. For a Toxoplasma gondii indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and agglutination assay as well as for a Salmonella dublin indirect ELISA, the posttreatment activity was more than 89% of the pretreatment activity when the samples...... of pretreatment activity were subject to a relatively greater decrease in activity than samples with a high level of pretreatment activity. The complement fixation assay was particularly sensitive to irradiation of serum. ft is concluded that serum samples retain sufficient activity by both methods of virus...... they were irradiated in the frozen state on dry ice but only 35% of their activity when they were irradiated in the liquid state at 0 degrees C. The patterns seen in an S. dublin blocking ELISA and an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae complement fixation assay differed in that samples with a low level...
Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard; Angen, Øystein; Boye, Mette
PCR data. Preliminary results showed that in both serotype 2 and serotype 6, the toxin producing gene apxIV was the most highly expressed of the investigated genes. The major difference observed between the two serotypes was that apfA, involved in type IV vili production, was significantly upregulated...... of high virulence while serotype 6 strains are normally found to be less pathogenic. To gain an understanding of the differential virulence of serotype 2 and 6, the expression of a panel of Ap genes during infection of porcine epithelial lung cells (SJPL) were examined by quantitative real-time PCR (q...... to be important for early establishment of the bacteria in the host were examined by qPCR. The genes examined were apfA, coding for a subunit of Type IV pili, kdsB coding for a gene involved in lippopolysacceride biosynthesis, and pgaB which is involved in biofilm formation, all three believed to be important...
Jakobsen, Marianne; Nielsen, Jens
In order to isolate ActinobacillIus pleuropneumoniae from mixed bacterial flora a selective and indicative medium was developed. The optimal concentrations of antibiotics were determined for selective chocolate agar (S-TSA) and selective blood agar (S-MBA) using a set of 25 strains of A. pleuropn......In order to isolate ActinobacillIus pleuropneumoniae from mixed bacterial flora a selective and indicative medium was developed. The optimal concentrations of antibiotics were determined for selective chocolate agar (S-TSA) and selective blood agar (S-MBA) using a set of 25 strains of A...
Kruse, Amanda Brinch; de Knegt, Leonardo Victor; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum
common endemic infections: Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, porcine circovirus type II, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and Lawsonia intracellularis. Comparison was made to the change after a randomly selected date in herds not vaccinating against each...
Mašín, Jiří; Fišer, Radovan; Linhartová, Irena; Osička, Radim; Bumba, Ladislav; Hewlett, E. L.; Benz, R.; Šebo, Peter
Roč. 81, č. 12 (2013), s. 4571-4582 ISSN 0019-9567 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP302/12/0460; GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/11/0580; GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/11/0717; GA AV ČR IAA500200914; GA ČR GA13-14547S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Bordetella pertussis * Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae * E- coli Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.156, year: 2013
Incidence of Reinfections with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in Pig Farms Located in Respiratory-Disease-Free Regions of Switzerland – Identification and Quantification of Risk Factors
Full Text Available The objective of the study was to identify risk factors for reintroduction of Actinobacillus pleuopneumoniae and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (enzootic pneumonia onto pig farms in areas in Switzerland that were involved in an eradication programme from 1996 to 1999 and to assess the role of dealers in relation to these reinfections. The study was based on the comparison of pig farms that were reinfected in the year 2000 (cases and pig farms that remained uninfected in the same area (controls. Additionally, data were collected from Swiss pig dealers and transport companies. Out of a total of 3983 farms, 107 farms were reinfected in the year 2000. The incidences were 0.1% for Actinobacillus pleuopneumoniae and 2.6% for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (enzootic pneumonia. Compared to reinfection rates prior to the eradication programme, this is a considerable reduction. Statistically significant risk factors for the reinfection were 'finishing farm', 'large mixed breeding-finishing farm', 'reinfected neighbour' and 'parking site for pig transport vehicles close to the farm'. Pig farmers that purchased pigs from only one supplier per batch had a lower risk of reintroducing infection (protective factor. As long as infected and uninfected regions co-exist in Switzerland, direct and indirect contact between farms, pig herds and slaughter sites via transport vehicles are a major pathway of disease spread. Risk management measures linked to these contacts are therefore of key importance. The survey of dealers indicated various areas for improvement such as strategic planning of pick-up routes or cleaning and disinfecting of trucks.
Gram, T.; Ahrens, Peter; Andreasen, Morten
. The PCR typing system was tested on 102 field strains of A. pleuropneumoniae isolated from lungs of diseased pigs. The serotyping results of the investigated field strains were in agreement with the apr and omlA gene patterns found in the reference strains of the bacteria, with the exception of the oml...... gene patterns and in 89% of the isolates using the omlA gene. The same serotype specific apx/omlA gene pattern was thus found in the majority of the tonsil isolates and in isolates from diseased lungs. Most of the differences in the omlA gene were found in 18 tonsil isolates of serotype 12. The oml...
Umer Sadique*, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry1, Muhammad Younus Rana2, Aftab Ahmad Anjum3, Zahoor-Ul-Hassan, Abdul Sajid and Muhammad Mushtaq
Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the pathogenesis of caprine pleuropneumonia (CPP in the experimentally inoculated goats with Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies Capri (Mmc. For this purpose, 12 goats (Group B were inoculated with bacterial isolates of Mmc while four goats were kept as untreated control (Group A. Clinical signs of the disease were recorded twice daily. Two goats from group B were sacrificed on weekly basis to demonstrate gross pathological lesions in different organs. Tissue samples from lungs, trachea, liver, heart, kidney, spleen, and small intestines were preserved for histopathological studies. The lungs and lymph nodes were preserved to demonstrate the antigen in tissue by using immuno- histochemical technique. The disease was successfully reproduced in all infected goats with severe manifestation. The clinical signs and gross lesions of the disease were mild at the beginning and became severe at the third and fourth weeks and then progressed to moderate and chronic forms. The histopathological lesions characteristic of CPP were found in all the organs. Antigen of Mmc was detected in tissue sections of lungs and lymph nodes. In conclusion, the disease was efficiently reproduced in experimental animals that showed acute septicemic form with lethal outcome.
Dixhoorn, van I.D.E.; Reimert, I.; Middelkoop, J.A.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Wisselink, H.J.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Kemp, B.; Stockhofe, Norbert
Until today, anti-microbial drugs have been the therapy of choice to combat bacterial diseases. Resistance against antibiotics is of growing concern in man and animals. Stress, caused by demanding environmental conditions, can reduce immune protection in the host, influencing the onset and outcome
Zhou, L.; Jones, S.C.P.; Angen, Øystein
, but the method has liminations, for example, cross-reactions between serotypes 3, 6, and 8. This study describes the development of a serotype 3-specific PCR, based on the capsule locus, which can be used in a multiplex format with the organism's specific gene apxIV. The PCR test was evaluated on 266 strains...
Friis-Møller, Alice; Christensen, J J; Fussing, V
Clinical findings in 36 immunosuppressed patients with lower respiratory tract infection or bacteremia with Actinobacillus hominis are described. Animal contact was only recorded for three patients; nine patients died despite appropriate antimicrobial treatment. Although infections with this micr......Clinical findings in 36 immunosuppressed patients with lower respiratory tract infection or bacteremia with Actinobacillus hominis are described. Animal contact was only recorded for three patients; nine patients died despite appropriate antimicrobial treatment. Although infections...
Full Text Available Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP is a major threat to goat farming in parts of Africa and Asia. It classically causes acute high morbidity and mortality early in infection, but little is known of its long term epizootiology and course. In this study, 10 goats were inoculated with Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (M. capripneumoniae and then mixed with 15 goats for contact transmission. The disease course was monitored in each goat for 56–105 days, whereafter the goats were killed and necropsied. Varying features signifying infection occurred in altogether 17 goats (7 inoculated, 10 in-contact. Clinical signs were severe in 8 goats but no fatalities occurred. Only 6 goats had serum antibody titres against M. capripneumoniae in ELISA. Fourteen goats (5 inoculated, 9 in-contact had chronic pleuropulmonary lesions compatible with CCPP at necropsy and 7 of those showed M. capripneumoniae antigen in the lung by immunohistochemistry. Neither cultivation nor PCR tests were positive for the agent in any goat. The results indicate that the clinical course of CCPP in a flock may be comparatively mild, M. capripneumoniae-associated lung lesions may be present at a late stage of infection, and chronic infection may occur without a significant serological response.
Andreasen, Margit; Nielsen, Jens; Bækbo, Poul
Sixteen litters of seven pigs from each of nine Danish farrow-to-finish herds were followed to investigate the serological patterns caused by natural infection with Mycoplasma hyponeumoniae, Pasteurella multocida toxin and Actinobacillus pleuroneumoniae serotypes 2, 5-7, 12. In seven of the herds......, pigs were followed as two separate cohorts started 4 weeks apart, and in two herds only one cohort was followed. A total of 999 pigs were included in the study. The pigs were blood sampled at weaning and subsequently every fourth week until slaughter. All pigs were examined for antibodies against M....... hyopneumoniae (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), P. multocida toxin (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 2, 5-7, 12 (complement-fixation tests). The most-common pattern (28%) of seroconversion was that of pigs first seroconverting to A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2, followed...
Skovgaard, Kerstin; Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard; Wendt, Karin Tarp
MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules (18-23 nt), that regulate the activity of other genes at the post-transcriptional level. Recently it has become evident that microRNA plays an important role in modulating and fine tuning innate and adaptive immune responses. Still, little is known about...... the impact of microRNAs in the development and pathogenesis of lung infections. Expression of microRNA known to be induced by bacterial (i.e., LPS) ligands and thus supposed to play a role in the regulation of antimicrobial defence, were studied in lung tissue and in blood from pigs experimentally infected...... with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (AP). Expression differences of mRNA and microRNA were quantified at different time points (6h, 12h, 24h, 48h PI) using reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (Rotor-Gene and Fluidigm). Expression profiles of miRNA in blood of seven animals were further studied using mi...
Mortensen, Shila; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Hedegaard, Jakob
The local transcriptional response was studied in different locations of lungs from pigs experimentally infected with the respiratory pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5B, using porcine cDNA microarrays. This infection gives rise to well-demarcated infection loci in the lung...... of apoptosis and the complement system. Interferon-g was downregulated in both necrotic and bordering areas. Evidence of neutrophil recruitment was seen by the up-regulation of chemotactic factors for neutrophils. In conclusion, we found subsets of genes expressed at different levels in the three selected...... of induced genes as, in unaffected areas a large part of differently expressed genes were involved in systemic reactions to infections, while differently expressed genes in necrotic areas were mainly concerned with homeostasis regulation....
Kokotovic, Branko; Bisgaard, Magne; Angen, Øystein
Within the family Pasteurellaceae Pohl 1981 most taxa seem to be host specific. The aim of the present study was to investigate if bovine and ovine isolates of Actinobacillus lignieresii represent host specific subclones of this taxon. For comparison and to investigate the diagnostic potential...
2Addis Ababa University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia, PO ... conducted on contagious caprine pleuropneumonia in selected districts of Borana ..... A Text Book of the Disease of Cattle, Sheep, Pigs, Goats and Horses.
Olsen, Helle G; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Nielsen, Ole L
Serum amyloid A (SAA) is a prominent acute phase protein. Although its biological functions are debated, the wide species distribution of highly homologous SAA proteins and their uniform behavior in response to injury or inflammation in itself suggests a significant role for this protein. The pig...... is increasingly being used as a model for the study of inflammatory reactions, yet only little is known about how specific SAA genes are regulated in the pig during acute phase responses and other responses induced by pro-inflammatory host mediators. We designed SAA gene specific primers and quantified the gene...... expression of porcine SAA1, SAA2, SAA3, and SAA4 by reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in liver, spleen, and lung tissue from pigs experimentally infected with the Gram-negative swine specific bacterium Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, as well as from pigs experimentally...
Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a trans-boundary infectious and contagious respiratory disease of cattle caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides. It is a disease of high economic importance because of its ability to compromise food security. Information on its economic burden in pastoral cattle ...
Fussing, V.; Barfod, Kristen; Nielsen, R.
was indicated in one of two cases. In many cases findings of predominant ribotypes made interpretations of suspected routes of transmission difficult. The relationship of strains based on ribotypes was calculated using Dices coefficient and clustered by UPGMA. HindIII ribotypes of serotype 2 strains were...
and occasional periodontal abscess formation with concomitant regional lymph node enlargement (12). The prevalence of localized aggressive periodontitis ...brain abscesses , it is the primary pathogen associated with the initiation and progression of localized aggressive periodontitis . In light of recent...Professor: Ellen B. Kraig, Ph.D. The association between Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) and aggressive periodontitis is well documented
Masiga, W N; Domenech, J
Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is widespread in Africa and in other regions of the world. This disease is particularly important in the semi-arid, sub-humid and arid zones of tropical Africa, but CBPP incidence seems to be increasing in some parts of East Africa. The epidemiology of CBPP is characterised by the occurrence of sub-acute and symptomless infections, and the persistence of chronic carriers. Spread of the disease is associated with cattle movement. The major obstacles to eradication of CBPP are the difficulties in controlling cattle movement and applying quarantine and slaughter policies. Other difficulties arise due to the absence of a field test for diagnosis, the relatively short duration of post-vaccinal immunity and the lack of data on the economic impact of the disease. The Pan-African Rinderpest Campaign strategy for CBPP control and eradication conforms with national control programmes, which include cost/benefit analysis. It is planned to perform blanket vaccination against the disease for three to five years, depending on the economic situation of each country. Stringent control of cattle movement will complement vaccination campaigns. The eradication phase, including slaughter measures, will be instituted following reduction of CBPP incidence. Regional and international coordination will be instituted to control international cattle movement and harmonise control strategies.
Becker, P.M.; Wikselaar, van P.G.; Mul, M.F.; Pol, A.; Engel, B.; Wijdenes, J.W.; Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Wisseling, H.J.; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N.
Decomposition products of ingested garlic are to a certain extent excreted via the lungs. If the supposed health-supporting capacities associated with garlic extend to these exhaled sulfurous compounds, they could have an effect on the course of pneumonia. In this study, the garlic-derived volatile
Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomit...ans 名詞 一般 * * * * Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans ... MeSH D016976 200906016161948020 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans
Friis-Møller, Alice; Christensen, J J; Fussing, V
with this microorganism seem to be rare, the fact that 37 of 46 strains characterized in this study have been found in Copenhagen indicates that under-reporting may occur. A. hominis is phenotypically relatively homogeneous but can be difficult to differentiate from other Actinobacillus species unless extensive...... biochemical testing is performed. Mannose-positive strains of A. hominis are especially difficult to differentiate from A. equuli. Attempts to identify A. hominis by automatic identification systems may lead to misidentifications. Ribotyping and DNA-DNA hybridization data show that A. hominis is a homogeneous...
Kleinfelder, JW; Mueller, RF; Lange, DE
Background: Periodontitis patients harboring Actinobacillus actinmycetemcomitans (Aa) are prime candidates for systemic antibiotic therapy. Besides tetracycline and the combination of metronidazole and amoxicillin the fluoroquinolones are also believed to have antibacterial activity against Aa. The
Abstract. Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a disease of cattle caused by ... of veterinary departments have resulted in CBPP running riot in east and ... 5 334 of Sheep, 9 253 of Goat, 72 of Horses, 601 of Mules, 3 300 of Donkeys.
Angen, Øystein; Jessing, Stine Graakjær; Ahrens, Peter
. However, a number of isolates show cross-reaction between serotypes and this has urged the development of quick, serotype specific DNA-based methods necessary. Serotype specific tests have until now been described for the serotypes 2, 5, and 6 (Jessing et al, 2003) and serotypes 1, 2 and 8 (Schuchert et...
Bøg, Yang S.; Andresen, Lars Ole; Bastholm, L.
transferrin. This complex was studied using a monoclonal antibody (Mab 1.48) raised against a synthetic peptide corresponding to a hydrophilic domain of Tbp2 common to several A. pp serotypes. The antibody reacted specifically with a 60-70 kDa Tbp2-antigen found in all serotypes of A. pp obtained from iron...... expressing Tbp2 and in wild type A. pp grown under iron restricted conditions. The subcellular location of Tbp2 in A. pp was studied by immunoelectron microscopy using the Mab 1.48. Interestingly, all antibody binding was found inside the A. pp cells, while Tbp2 expressed in recombinant E. coli was found...
Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard; Rundsten, Carsten Friis; Jensen, Tim Kåre
and survive within the hostile environment of host macrophages. This persistence within macrophages may be related to urease activity, mobilization of various stress responses and active evasion of the host defenses by cell surface sialylation. Conclusions/Significance The data presented here highlight...
Full Text Available Co-infections with parasites or viruses drive tuberculosis dynamics in humans, but little is known about their effects in other non-human hosts. This work aims to investigate the relationship between Mycobacterium bovis infection and other pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa, a recognized reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (bTB in Mediterranean ecosystems. For this purpose, it has been assessed whether contacts with common concomitant pathogens are associated with the development of severe bTB lesions in 165 wild boar from mid-western Spain. The presence of bTB lesions affecting only one anatomic location (cervical lymph nodes, or more severe patterns affecting more than one location (mainly cervical lymph nodes and lungs, was assessed in infected animals. In addition, the existence of contacts with other pathogens such as porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2, Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV, swine influenza virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Metastrongylus spp, was evaluated by means of serological, microbiological and parasitological techniques. The existence of contacts with a structured community of pathogens in wild boar infected by M. bovis was statistically investigated by null models. Association between this community of pathogens and bTB severity was examined using a Partial Least Squares regression approach. Results showed that adult wild boar infected by M. bovis had contacted with some specific, non-random pathogen combinations. Contact with PCV2, ADV and infection by Metastrongylus spp, was positively correlated to tuberculosis severity. Therefore, measures against these concomitant pathogens such as vaccination or deworming, might be useful in tuberculosis control programmes in the wild boar. However, given the unexpected consequences of altering any community of organisms, further research should evaluate the impact of such measures
Risco, David; Serrano, Emmanuel; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Cuesta, Jesús M.; Gonçalves, Pilar; García-Jiménez, Waldo L.; Martínez, Remigio; Cerrato, Rosario; Velarde, Roser; Gómez, Luis; Segalés, Joaquím; Hermoso de Mendoza, Javier
Co-infections with parasites or viruses drive tuberculosis dynamics in humans, but little is known about their effects in other non-human hosts. This work aims to investigate the relationship between Mycobacterium bovis infection and other pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa), a recognized reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in Mediterranean ecosystems. For this purpose, it has been assessed whether contacts with common concomitant pathogens are associated with the development of severe bTB lesions in 165 wild boar from mid-western Spain. The presence of bTB lesions affecting only one anatomic location (cervical lymph nodes), or more severe patterns affecting more than one location (mainly cervical lymph nodes and lungs), was assessed in infected animals. In addition, the existence of contacts with other pathogens such as porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), swine influenza virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Metastrongylus spp, was evaluated by means of serological, microbiological and parasitological techniques. The existence of contacts with a structured community of pathogens in wild boar infected by M. bovis was statistically investigated by null models. Association between this community of pathogens and bTB severity was examined using a Partial Least Squares regression approach. Results showed that adult wild boar infected by M. bovis had contacted with some specific, non-random pathogen combinations. Contact with PCV2, ADV and infection by Metastrongylus spp, was positively correlated to tuberculosis severity. Therefore, measures against these concomitant pathogens such as vaccination or deworming, might be useful in tuberculosis control programmes in the wild boar. However, given the unexpected consequences of altering any community of organisms, further research should evaluate the impact of such measures under
Fabrine Alexandre dos Santos
Full Text Available The present study reports the first isolation of Actinobacillus seminis from a goat in Brazil. A four-year-old Moxotó breeding goat in a flock of 70 goats and 65 sheep reared together in the county of Patos, semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil, showed clinical signs of unilateral orchitis and epididymitis. Diagnosis of A. seminis infection was confirmed by association of clinical findings, bacterial isolation and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. This result suggests that A. seminis may be an additional cause of infertility in goats, and that sheep may be the source of infection because the mixed farming system allows the contact between sheep and goats in the semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil.
Aalbæk, Bent; Østergaard, Stine; Buhl, Rikke
Microbiological and pathological data from a case of equine valvular endocarditis are reported. Limited information is available on the pathogenic potential of equine Actinobacillus species as several strains originate from apparently healthy horses. After the establishment of two subspecies within...... this species, this seems to be the first report of an etiological association between A. equuli subsp. equuli and equine endocarditis. Furthermore, new information on some phenotypical characteristics of this subspecies are reported, compared to previous findings...
Mauro José Gonçalves Bezerra
Full Text Available Relata-se a ocorrência de orquite e epididimite ovina associada ao isolamento de Actinobacillus seminis no Estado de Pernambuco. Clinicamente observou-se aumento de volume nos testículos e epidídimos, dor e aumento de temperatura local à palpação, e atrofia testicular bilateral. Após o abate observou-se a presença de conteúdo purulento no epidídimo. À microscopia dos testículos observou-se espessamento da túnica albugínea, necrose de coagulação e calcificação de túbulos seminíferos, infiltrado inflamatório com predominância de linfócitos entre túbulos seminíferos, além de mineralização incipiente de túbulos. No epidídimo observou-se intensa proliferação de tecido conjuntivo ao redor dos ductos epididimários. O diagnóstico de orquite e epididimite por Actinobacillus seminis foi confirmado pela associação dos achados clínico-patológicos, isolamento e identificação da bactéria.
Nielsen, K. K.; Boye, Mette
up-regulation under iron-restricted conditions compared to bacteria grown in medium with sufficient iron. The observed expression patterns of the genes of interest were consistent with previous observations. This study therefore lends further support to the use of real-time quantitative RT...... controls, as such controls have not been defined yet for this bacterium. Bacterial gene expression was studied during in vitro exponential and early stationary growth in medium with and without sufficient iron, respectively. First, the stability of expression of five genes, the glyA, tpiA, pykA, rec......F, and rhoAP genes involved in basic housekeeping, was evaluated on the basis of the mean pairwise variation. All the housekeeping genes included were stably expressed under the conditions investigated and consequently were included in the normalization procedure. Next, the geometric mean of the internal...
Vigre, Håkan; Dohoo, I.R.; Stryhn, H.
2) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh). Based on the estimated variances, three newly described computational methods (model linearisation, simulation and linear modelling) and the standard method (latent-variable approach) were used to estimate the correlations (intra-class correlation components...
Carpintero, R.; Pineiro, M.; Andres, M.
In this work, apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) was purified from pig sera. The responses of this protein after sterile inflammation and in animals infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae or Streptococcus suis were investigated. Decreases in the concentrations of ApoA-I, two to five times lower...
Stoughton, William B; Gold, Jenifer
A 12-week-old female dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) calf was evaluated because of acute (blood, peritoneal fluid, and pleural fluid samples indicated Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus septicemia as the etiology for the polyserositis (ie, alpaca fever). Treatment with IV broad-spectrum antimicrobials, an NSAID, and pleural drainage was initiated. Clinical signs of pleuropneumonia, peritonitis, and systemic infection improved rapidly 24 hours after initiation of medical treatment. The calf was discharged from the hospital after 11 days, and antimicrobial treatment continued for 2 weeks after discharge. At follow-up approximately 4 weeks after hospital discharge (6 weeks after the initial examination), there were no clinical signs suggestive of relapse or any reported complications. S equi subsp zooepidemicus may cause polyserositis in Old World camelids (eg, dromedary camels) with signs similar to those seen in New World camelids (eg, alpaca and llama). The rapid response to medical treatment for the patient described suggested that S equi subsp zooepidemicus-induced polyserositis (alpaca fever) in dromedary camels may respond favorably to appropriate treatment. Reducing stress, reducing overcrowding, and separate housing of equids and camelids are suggested. Further studies are needed to better assess the epidemiology of alpaca fever in dromedary camels in North America.
Nørskov-Lauritsen, Niels; Christensen, H; Okkels, H.
A 426 bp fragment of infB, a housekeeping gene that encodes translation initiation factor 2, was sequenced from 59 clinical isolates and type strains of Actinobacillus species and sequences were compared. Partial sequences of 16S rRNA genes were also obtained. By comparing infB sequences, Actinob...
Haubek, Dorte; Ennibi, O.-K.; Poulsen, Knud
A particular clone (JP2) of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans with increased leukotoxin production has been isolated from individuals with early-onset periodontitis (EOP). The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of carriers of this clone and its association with EOP in Moroccan...
Groenink, J; Veerman, ECI; Zandvoort, MS; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ; Amerongen, AVN
The adhesion of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is a virulence factor in the aetiology of periodontitis and is determined by physico-chemical properties, e.g. surface charge and hydrophobicity, of the bacterial cell surface. Although oral surfaces are constantly coated with saliva, few studies
Full Text Available Introduction: The bacteria that cause the occurrence of pathogens of periodontal disease are gram negative anaerobes. These bacteria include Pophyromonas Gingivalis and Actinobacillus Actinomycetemcomitans. Mangosteen skin extract is known to have anti-inflammatory, anti microbial, and anti oxidant properties. The extract of the mangosteen peel is altered in gel preparation in order to streamline its clinical application in periodontal disease. The purpose of this study was to examine the antibacterial power of the ginger mangosteen tree extract gel against Pophyromonas gingivalis and Actinobacillus Actinomycetemcomitans (Aggregatibacter Actinomycetemcomitans. Methods: This research was conducted by experimental laboratory. Mangosteen fruit extract gel with concentration of 100%, 50%, 25%, 12,5%, 6,25%, 3,125% and 0,78% were tested against Pophyromonas Gingivalis and Aggregatibacter Actinomycetemcomitans with agar diffusion method. Results and Discussion: The results of this study indicate that for Actinobacilus Aggregatibacter bacteria minimal inhibitory concentration at a concentration of 6.25% with a diameter of 13,5mm inhibition. Minimal bactericidal concentration at 12,5% concentration with 14,7mm inhibitory diameter. In the test of Pophyromonas Gingivalis bacteria, minimal inhibitory concentrations were obtained at a concentration of 1.56% and a minimum bactericidal concentration was obtained at a concentration of 3.125%. Conclusion: The conclusion that mangosteen peel skin gel extract can inhibit bacterial growth and is bactericidal against Pophyromonas Gingivalis and Actinobacillus Actinomycetemcomitans (Aggregatibacter Actinomycetecomitans.
Piao, Shunfu; Xu, Yongbin; Ha, Nam-Chul
A periplasmic membrane-fusion protein MacA from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, an essential component of the multidrug efflux pump in Gram-negative bacteria, was crystallized. Periplasmic membrane-fusion proteins (MFPs) are an essential component of the multidrug efflux pump in Gram-negative bacteria. They play a crucial role in bridging the outer membrane porin TolC and two distinct types of inner membrane transporters. The MFP MacA bridges the inner membrane ABC-type multidrug transporter MacB and the outer membrane porin TolC. MacA from the pathogenic bacterium Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was expressed in Escherichia coli B834 (DE3) and the recombinant protein was purified using Ni–NTA affinity, Q anion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. The purified MacA protein was crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method. A MAD diffraction data set was collected to a resolution of 3.0 Å at 100 K. The crystal belongs to space group P622, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 109.2, c = 255.4 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°, and contains one molecule in the asymmetric unit
Piao, Shunfu; Xu, Yongbin; Ha, Nam-Chul, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [College of Pharmacy and Research Institute for Drug Development, Pusan National University, Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)
A periplasmic membrane-fusion protein MacA from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, an essential component of the multidrug efflux pump in Gram-negative bacteria, was crystallized. Periplasmic membrane-fusion proteins (MFPs) are an essential component of the multidrug efflux pump in Gram-negative bacteria. They play a crucial role in bridging the outer membrane porin TolC and two distinct types of inner membrane transporters. The MFP MacA bridges the inner membrane ABC-type multidrug transporter MacB and the outer membrane porin TolC. MacA from the pathogenic bacterium Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was expressed in Escherichia coli B834 (DE3) and the recombinant protein was purified using Ni–NTA affinity, Q anion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. The purified MacA protein was crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method. A MAD diffraction data set was collected to a resolution of 3.0 Å at 100 K. The crystal belongs to space group P622, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 109.2, c = 255.4 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°, and contains one molecule in the asymmetric unit.
Pasma, Satriani Aga; Daik, Rusli; Maskat, Mohamad Yusof
Succinic acid is a common metabolite in plants, animals and microorganisms. It has been used widely in agricultural, food and pharmaceutical industries. Enzymatic hydrolysate glucose from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) cellulose was used as a substrate for succinic acid production using Actinobacillus succinogenes. Using cellulose extraction from OPEFB can enhance the production of glucose as a main substrate for succinic acid production. The highest concentration of glucose produced from enzymatic hydrolysis is 167 mg/mL and the sugar recovery is 0.73 g/g of OPEFB. By optimizing the culture medium for succinic acid fermentation with enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose, the nitrogen sources could be reduced to just only 2.5 g yeast extract and 2.5 g corn step liquor. Batch fermentation was carried out using enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose with yeast extract, corn steep liquor and the salts mixture, 23.5 g/L succinic acid was obtained with consumption of 72 g/L glucose in enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose at 38 hours and 37°C. This study suggests that enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose maybe an alternative substrate for the efficient production of succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes.
Full Text Available Aggregatibacter (Actinobacillus actimycetemcomitans (Aa is a gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the human oral cavity and is causative agent for localized aggressive (juvenile periodontitis (AgP. In the middle of 1990s, a specific JP2 clone of belonging to the cluster of serotype b strains of Aa with highly leukotoxicity (leukotoxin, LtxA able to kill human immune cells was isolated. JP2 clone of Aa was strongly associated with in particularly in rapidly progressing forms of aggressive periodontitis. The JP2 clone of Aa is transmitted through close contacts. Therefore, AgP patients need intense monitoring of their periodontal status as the risk for developing severely progressing periodontitis lesions are relatively high. Furthermore, timely periodontal treatment, including periodontal surgery supplemented by the use of antibiotics, is warranted. More importantly, periodontal attachment loss should be prevented by early detection of the JP2 clone of Aa by microbial diagnosis testing and/or preventive means. Keywords: Aggregatibacter (Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Aggressive periodontitis, Leukotoxin (LtxA, Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs
Estimation of sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of two serologic tests for the detection of antibodies against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 in the absence of a reference test (gold standard)
Enøe, Claes; Andersen, Søren; Sørensen, Vibeke
Latent-class models were used to determine the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of a polyclonal blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a modified complement-fixation test (CFT) when there was no reference test. The tests were used for detection of antibodies against ...
Tharwat, Mohamed; Al-Sobayil, Fahd
In goats, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is a cause of major economic losses in Africa, Asia and in the Middle East. There is no information emphasising the importance of diagnostic ultrasound in goats with CCPP caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (Mccp). This study was designed to describe the ultrasonographic findings in goats with CCPP caused by Mccp and to correlate ultrasonographic with post-mortem findings. To this end, 55 goats with CCPP were examined. Twenty-five healthy adult goats were used as a control group. Major clinical findings included harried, painful respiration, dyspnoea and mouth breathing. On ultrasonography, a liver-like echotexture was imaged in 13 goats. Upon post-mortem examination, all 13 goats exhibited unilateral pulmonary consolidation. Seven goats had a unilateral hypoechoic pleural effusion. At necropsy, the related lung was consolidated and the pleural fluid appeared turbid and greenish. Pleural abscessiation detected in five goats was confirmed post-mortem. Twenty-eight goats had a bright, fibrinous matrix extending over the chest wall containing numerous anechoic fluid pockets with medial displacement and compression of lung tissue. Echogenic tags imaged floating in the fluid were found upon post-mortem examination to be fibrin. In two goats, a consolidated right parenchyma was imaged together with hypoechoic pericardial effusions with echogenic tags covering the epicardium. At necropsy, the right lung was consolidated in three goats and fibrin threads were found covering the epicardium and pericardium. In goats with CCPP, the extension and the severity of the pulmonary changes could not be verified with clinical certainty in most cases, whereas this was possible most of the time with sonography, thus making the prognosis easier. Ultrasonographic examination of the pleurae and the lungs helped in the detection of various lesions.
MicroRNAs are small single stranded non-coding RNA molecules which contributes to the regulation of gene expression by primarily binding to the 3´end of protein coding mRNA, hereby inhibiting the translation process or promting degradation of the mRNA. The main focus of this PhD project was to ex......MicroRNAs are small single stranded non-coding RNA molecules which contributes to the regulation of gene expression by primarily binding to the 3´end of protein coding mRNA, hereby inhibiting the translation process or promting degradation of the mRNA. The main focus of this PhD project...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of our study is to describe a fast molecular method, able to distinguish and quantize the two different genotypes (652 and JP2 of an important periodontal pathogen: Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. The two genotypes show differences in the expression of an important pathogenic factor: the leukotoxin (ltx. In order to evidence this, we performed a real time PCR procedure on the ltx operon, able to recognize Aa clinical isolates with different leukotoxic potentials. Methods The specificity of the method was confirmed in subgingival plaque and saliva specimens collected from eighty-one Italian (Sardinian subjects with a mean age of 43.9, fifty five (68 % of whom had various clinical forms of periodontal disease. Results This procedure showed a good sensitivity and a high linear dynamic range of quantization (107-102 cells/ml for all genotypes and a good correlation factor (R2 = 0.97–0.98. Compared with traditional cultural methods, this real time PCR procedure is more sensitive; in fact in two subgingival plaque and two positive saliva specimens Aa was only detected with the molecular method. Conclusion A low number of Sardinian patients was found positive for Aa infections in the oral cavity, (just 10 positive periodontal cases out of 81 and two of these were also saliva positive. The highly leukotoxic JP2 strain was the most representative (60 % of the positive specimens; the samples from periodontal pockets and from saliva showed some ltx genotype for the same patient. Our experience suggests that this approach is suitable for a rapid and complete laboratory diagnosis for Aa infection.
Yang, Zhuona; Jiang, Min; Li, Jian; Fang, Xiaojiang; Ye, Guizi; Bai, Xuefei; Zheng, Xiaoyu; Wei, Ping
Different neutralizing agents were used as pH controller to investigate their effects on the growth and succinic acid production of Actinobacillus succinogenes NJ113. The fermentation results showed that Ca(OH)2, CaCO3 and NH4OH were not suitable for succinic acid production by A. succinogenes NJ113 because of their negative effects on cell growth. When Na-base was used, cells would flocculate and lump, and due to the sodium ion concentration reaching to a high level, OD660 dropped sharply after 12 h of fermentation. Mg-base was better because there was no significant inhibition by magnesium ion. Two combined neutralizing agents were used to maintain pH level, one with NaOH and Mg(OH)2 while the other with Na2CO3 and Mg(OH)2. The optimum ratios of the combined neutralizing agents were both 1:1 (g:g) when using 100 g/L glucose. When NaOH and Mg(OH)2 were chosen with the ratio of 1:1(g:g), 69.8 g/L of the succinic acid and 74.5% of the yield was obtained.
Chen, Kequan; Jiang, Min; Wei, Ping; Yao, Jiaming; Wu, Hao
Dilute acid hydrolysate of corn fiber was used as carbon source for the production of succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes NJ113. The optimized hydrolysis conditions were obtained by orthogonal experiments. When corn fiber particles were of 20 mesh in size and treated with 1.0% sulfuric acid at 121 degrees C for 2 h, the total sugar yield could reach 63.3%. It was found that CaCO(3) neutralization combined with activated carbon adsorption was an effective method to remove fermentation inhibitors especially furfural that presented in the acid hydrolysate of corn fiber. Only 5.2% of the total sugar was lost, while 91.9% of furfural was removed. The yield of succinic acid was higher than 72.0% with the detoxified corn fiber hydrolysate as the carbon source in anaerobic bottles or 7.5 L fermentor cultures. It was proved that the corn fiber hydrolysate could be an alternative to glucose for the production of succinic acid by A. succinogenes NJ113.
Cortelli Sheila Cavalca
Full Text Available This study examined the prevalence of highly and minimally leukotoxic Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in patients with periodontal disease. Pooled subgingival plaque samples from 136 patients with some form of periodontal disease were examined. Subjects were between 14 and 76 years of age. Clinical examinations included periodontal pocket depth (PD, plaque index (PI and bleeding index (BI. The obtained plaque samples were examined for the presence of highly or minimally leukotoxic A. actinomycetemcomitans strains by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Chi-square and logistic regression were performed to evaluate the results. Forty-seven subjects were diagnosed with gingivitis, 70 with chronic periodontitis and 19 with aggressive periodontitis. According to chi-square there was no significant correlation detected between PD (chi2 = 0.73, PI (chi2 = 0.35, BI (chi2 = 0.09 and the presence of the highly leukotoxic A. actinomycetemcomitans. The highly leukotoxic A. actinomycetemcomitans strains were correlated with subjects that were 28 years of age and younger (chi2 = 7.41. There was a significant correlation between highly leukotoxic A. actinomycetemcomitans and aggressive periodontitis (chi2 = 22.06. This study of a Brazilian cohort confirms the strong association between highly leukotoxic A. actinomycetemcomitans strains and the presence of aggressive periodontitis.
Full Text Available Background: Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is thought to be one of the etiological agents in aggressive periodontitis as well as indicated in various systemic diseases. Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of A. actinomycetemcomitans in the subgingival plaque of aggressive periodontitis patients. Study Design: Initially, under the selective growth conditions, the isolates were picked from the plaques and their identification was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction using primers specific for A. actinomycetemcomitans subgingival plaque of 15 patients diagnosed clinically and on radiographic criteria as aggressive periodontitis was inoculated on the Tryptic Soy agar with Bacitracin and Vancomycin culture media for 3-5 days under microaerophilic conditions. The positive colonies were selected based on biochemical tests for further analysis using reported primers for A. actinomycetemcomitans. Results: The results showed that 66.67% of aggressive periodontitis patients and 6.67% of control group of normal patients showed evidence of presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans in the subgingival microflora. Conclusion: This is the first study of its kind in an Indian population whereby almost all aggressive periodontitis patients showed evidence of A. actinomycetemcomitans.
Ernie Maduratna Setiawati
Full Text Available Background: Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa serotype B has been associated with aggressive periodontitis. Gingival epithelial cell is exquisitely sensitive to the toxin and may lead to the epithel protective barrier disruption. Experimental models show that minocycline is not related to it’s antimicrobial effect and protection against neuron cell apoptosis of a number experimental models of brain injury and Parkinson’s disease. Purpose: This study, examined antioxidant effect of minocycline to inhibit apoptosis of gingival epithelium induced crude toxin bacteria Aa serotype B in mice. Methods: Thirty adult mice strain Swiss Webster (balb C were divided randomly into three groups: control group (group A, toxin group (group B and toxin and minocycline group (group C. The mice were taken at 24 hours after application, and then the tissue sections of gingival epithelium were stained with tunnel assay and immunohistochemistry. Result: Treatment with these toxin induced apoptosis of gingival epithelium and was associated with DNA fragmentation and reduced gluthatione (GSH. Minocycline 100 nM significantly increased GSH and reduced apoptosis (p < 0.05. Minocycline provides antioxidant effect against citotoxicity of bacteria Aa serotipe B. Conclusion: Nanomolar concentration of minocycline potential as new therapeutic agent to prevent progressivity of aggressiveness of periodontitis.
Chen, Ke-Quan; Li, Jian; Ma, Jiang-Feng; Jiang, Min; Wei, Ping; Liu, Zhong-Min; Ying, Han-Jie
The enzymatic hydrolysate of spent yeast cells was evaluated as a nitrogen source for succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes NJ113, using corn fiber hydrolysate as a carbon source. When spent yeast cell hydrolysate was used directly as a nitrogen source, a maximum succinic acid concentration of 35.5 g/l was obtained from a glucose concentration of 50 g/l, with a glucose utilization of 95.2%. Supplementation with individual vitamins showed that biotin was the most likely factor to be limiting for succinic acid production with spent yeast cell hydrolysate. After supplementing spent yeast cell hydrolysate and 90 g/l of glucose with 150 μg/l of biotin, cell growth increased 32.5%, glucose utilization increased 37.6%, and succinic acid concentration was enhanced 49.0%. As a result, when biotin-supplemented spent yeast cell hydrolysate was used with corn fiber hydrolysate, a succinic acid yield of 67.7% was obtained from 70.3 g/l of total sugar concentration, with a productivity of 0.63 g/(l h). Our results suggest that biotin-supplemented spent yeast cell hydrolysate may be an alternative nitrogen source for the efficient production of succinic acid by A. succinogenes NJ113, using renewable resources. Crown Copyright Â© 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kusiluka, L.J.M.; Semuguruka, W.D.; Kazwala, R.R.
by different degrees of vasculitis, and fibrinocellular exudation into the alveolar septae and lumina, and into interlobular septae and pleura. Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, Small Colony type Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Mycoplasma arginini were isolated...... from some of the examined goats including a case with a sequestrum which yielded Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, Small Colony type. This work reports the first description of an outbreak of caprine pleuropneumonia in Tanzania in which M. capripneumoniae and M. mycoides subsp. mycoides, Small...
Full Text Available An unusual case of pleural empyema related to Nocardia farcinica and Ureaplasma urealyticum, occurring after autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a 30-year-old patient with lymphoma, is reported. This case illustrates the role of repeated and comprehensive microbiological investigations and the contribution of molecular techniques in reaching the aetiological diagnosis. Keywords: Nocardia farcinica, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Pleuropneumonia, Immunocompromised patient, Molecular microbiological diagnosis
characteristic in severe gram-negative sepsis. Hypertriglyceridemia results from an increase in hepatic synthesis in combination with diminished activity of...induced stress, and tissue repair (1). The magnitude and type of nutritional losses caused by an infection reflect both the severity and duration of an... several functional forms of nutrient loss must be anticipated. Functional losses are defined as the within-body losses of nutrients due to infection
Calabrese, Nicolino; Galgut, Peter; Mordan, Nicola
Dental calculus is considered to be simply a "plaque-retentive factor", and therefore only a secondary aetiological factor in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. Recent studies have suggested a more active role for calculus. Our objective was to demonstrate the presence of periodontal pathogens in the non-mineralised areas of supra- and subgingival dental calculus. Subjects for the study were derived from patients with substantial amounts of supragingival calculus in the lower anterior region who had moderate periodontal disease, having been referred to the periodontal department at the Eastman Dental Hospital for periodontal care. Calculus was removed in as large pieces as possible by the use of a sickle or a push scaler placed underneath the apical or facial border of the calculus and fracturing it from the tooth surface in a single stroke. The orientation and absence of dental plaque was confirmed using light microscopy for each sample prior to inclusion in this study. Samples were prepared for transmission electron microscopic (TEM) observation after immunogold staining with polyclonal antibodies for the presence of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (A. a.), Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. g.) and Treponema denticola (T. d.). Most of the samples contained at least one of the bacterial species examined, either in the lacunae or in the covering dental plaque. T. d. was the most frequently identified species and was found in nearly all of the subgingival samples, whilstA. a. was rarely observed. In this limited study, supra- and subgingival dental calculus appears to be capable of maintaining periodontal pathogens within the deep recesses of its structural lacunae and channels. Therefore, calculus could possibly play a relevant role in the aetiology and pathogenesis of periodontitis. The presence of T. d. in the majority of specimens requires further investigation as its pathogenic potential may be underestimated in current published microbiological research, and
Fong, K P; Chung, W O; Lamont, R J; Demuth, D R
The cell density-dependent control of gene expression is employed by many bacteria for regulating a variety of physiological functions, including the generation of bioluminescence, sporulation, formation of biofilms, and the expression of virulence factors. Although periodontal organisms do not appear to secrete acyl-homoserine lactone signals, several species, e.g., Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Fusobacterium nucleatum, have recently been shown to secrete a signal related to the autoinducer II (AI-2) of the signal system 2 pathway in Vibrio harveyi. Here, we report that the periodontal pathogen Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans expresses a homolog of V. harveyi luxS and secretes an AI-2-like signal. Cell-free conditioned medium from A. actinomycetemcomitans or from a recombinant Escherichia coli strain (E. coli AIS) expressing A. actinomycetemcomitans luxS induced luminescence in V. harveyi BB170 >200-fold over controls. AI-2 levels peaked in mid-exponential-phase cultures of A. actinomycetemcomitans and were significantly reduced in late-log- and stationary-phase cultures. Incubation of early-log-phase A. actinomycetemcomitans cells with conditioned medium from A. actinomycetemcomitans or from E. coli AIS resulted in a threefold induction of leukotoxic activity and a concomitant increase in leukotoxin polypeptide. In contrast, no increase in leukotoxin expression occurred when cells were exposed to sterile medium or to conditioned broth from E. coli AIS(-), a recombinant strain in which luxS was insertionally inactivated. A. actinomycetemcomitans AI-2 also induced expression of afuA, encoding a periplasmic iron transport protein, approximately eightfold, suggesting that LuxS-dependent signaling may play a role in the regulation of iron acquisition by A. actinomycetemcomitans. Finally, A. actinomycetemcomitans AI-2 added in trans complemented a luxS knockout mutation in P. gingivalis by modulating the expression of the lux
Rini Devijanti Ridwan
Full Text Available Background: Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans is Gram negative and a major bacterial agent associated with aggressive periodontitis in young adult, this bacteria was an important factor in pathogenesis of aggressive periodontitis. A. actinomycetemcomitans possesses fimbriae with an adhesin protein that was the first bacterial molecules to make physical contact with host. Purpose: The objective of this research was to analyzed the influence of A. actinomycetemcomitans fimbrial adhesin protein induction on MMP-8 activity. Methods: The research was an experimental laboratory study, the step in this study were isolation and identification A. actinomycetemcomitans, characterize A. actinomycetemcomitans adhesin and study the role of A. actinomycetemcomitans adhesin in Wistar rats. Results: The result of this research on the role of adhesin in Wistar rats after analysis with Analysis of Variance (ANOVA showed significant differences in the control group with group induction with A. actinomycetemcomitans, A. actinomycetemcomitans plus adhesin and adhesin. MMP-8 activity increased with induction A. actinomycetemcomitans and 24 kDa A. actinomycetemcomitans adhesin. This fimbrial adhesin protein showed that A. actinomycetemcomitans has the ability to adhesion, colonization and invasion for host in aggressive periodontitis pathogenesis. Conclusion: A. actinomycetemcomitans fimbrial adhesin protein induction increasing MMP-8 activity for aggressive periodontitis pathogenesis.Latar belakang: A. actinomycetemcomitans merupakan salah satu bakteri Gram negatif yang terkait dengan periodontitis agresif yang menyerang penderita usia muda dan merupakan faktor penting dalam patogenesis periodontitis agresif. A. actimycetemcomitans mempunyai fimbriae dengan protein adhesin yang merupakan molekul pertama dari bakteri untuk melakukan kontak fisik dengan host. Tujuan: Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menganalisis pengaruh induksi adhesin A
Yoshino, Yusuke; Okugawa, Shu; Kimura, Satoshi; Makita, Eiko; Seo, Kazunori; Koga, Ichiro; Matsunaga, Naohisa; Kitazawa, Takatoshi; Ota, Yasuo
We report the case of using a long-term combination of meropenem and amikacin to treat infective endocarditis caused by Enterobacter cloacae resistant to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins. Multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacilli, such as the E. cloacae in our study, may become possible pathogens of infective endocarditis. Our experience with this case indicates that long-term use of a combination of β-lactam and aminoglycosides might represent a suitable management option for future infective endocarditis cases due to non-Haemophilus, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, Kingella spp. (HACEK group) Gram-negative bacilli such as ours. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Mbyuzi, Albano O; Komba, Erick V G; Kimera, Sharadhuli I; Kambarage, Dominic M
A retrospective Sero-prevalence analysis was conducted in 2012 in order to find out whether contagious caprine pleuro-pneumonia (CCPP) and peste des petits ruminants (PPR) had already been introduced in Mtwara and Lindi regions of Southern Tanzania by 2007 and 2009. A total of 477 randomly selected sera from a bank of 3500 small ruminant samples that were collected as part of Rift Valley Fever surveillance of 2007 in Mtwara and Lindi regions were used in this study. Seroconversion was also evaluated in the 504 sera that were collected in 2009 as part of disease outbreak investigations in Tandahimba and Newala districts of Mtwara region. Seroconversions to CCPP and PPR were tested using competitive ELISA. In addition, information on different variables available in the existing surveillance forms gathered during sampling was used in the analysis of risk factors associated with seropositivity to the two diseases. The overall seroprevalence of CCPP for the sera of 2007 and 2009 in goats was 52.1% (n=447) and 35.5% (n=434) respectively; while in sheep the seroprevalence was 36.7% (n=30) and 22.9% (n=70) respectively. Seroconversion to PPR in goats and sheep was 28.7% (n=434) and 35.7% (n=70) respectively based on the sera of 2009. However, no antibodies were detected in the 2007 sera. Mixed infections were detected in 7.4% (n=434) of the goat and 12.9% (n=70) of sheep samples. Significant risk factors associated with seropositivity to CCPP in 2007 included introduction of new animals in flocks (OR=3.94; 95% CI 1.86-8.36; p<0.001) and raising animals in government farms (OR=4.92; 95% CI 1.57-15.76; p=0.02); whereas, seropositivity to CCPP in 2009 increased with introduction of new animals in flocks (OR=18.82; 95% CI 8.06-43.96; p<0.001), raising animals in government farms (OR=4.04; 95% CI 2.69-6.42; p<0.001) and raising animals in Newala district (OR=2.35; 95% CI 1.53-3.62; p<0.001). On the other hand, predictors for seropositivity to PPR in 2009 were introduction of
Full Text Available The present study was carried out to compare the normal aerobic and anaerobic bacterial oral flora with flora from deep seated dental caries, gingivitis and adult periodontitis. All the samples belonging to both the control and study groups yielded microbes. Aerobe / Anaerobe ratio was high in normal flora (1.48 as compared to dental caries (0.9, gingivitis (0.72 and periodontitis (0.56. Ninety seven percent of orodental infections were polymicrobial and three or more microbes were found in 84% cases of study group as compared to 28% in controls. Streptococcus mutans and anaerobic lactobacilli were common in dental caries, Actinomyces and Peptostreptococcus spp. in gingivitis, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis in periodontitis.
Lykkeberg, Anne Kruse; Halling-Sørensen, Bent; Jensen, Lars Bogø
:Susceptibilities to metabolites of tiamulin (TIA) and enrofloxacin (ENR) were tested using selected bacteria with previously defined minimal inhibitory concentrations,(,MIC). The TIA metabolites tested were: N-deethyl-tiamulin (I)TIA), 2 beta-hydroxy-tiamulin (2 beta-HTIA),and Sammhydroxy......-tiamulin (8 alpha-HTIA), and the ENR metabolites were: ciprofloxacin (CIP) and enrofloxacin N-oxide (ENR-N). Bacteria, all of porcine origin, we're selected as representatives of bacterial infections (Stap4ylococcus hyicus and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae), zoonotic bacteria (Campylobacter coli...
Full Text Available Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides "Small Colony" (MmmSC is responsible for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP in bovidae, a notifiable disease to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE. Although its origin is not documented, the disease was known in Europe in 1773. It reached nearly world-wide distribution in the 19(th century through the cattle trade and was eradicated from most continents by stamping-out policies. During the 20(th century it persisted in Africa, and it reappeared sporadically in Southern Europe. Yet, classical epidemiology studies failed to explain the re-occurrence of the disease in Europe in the 1990s. The objectives of this study were to obtain a precise phylogeny of this pathogen, reconstruct its evolutionary history, estimate the date of its emergence, and determine the origin of the most recent European outbreaks. A large-scale genomic approach based on next-generation sequencing technologies was applied to construct a robust phylogeny of this extremely monomorphic pathogen by using 20 representative strains of various geographical origins. Sixty two polymorphic genes of the MmmSC core genome were selected, representing 83601 bp in total and resulting in 139 SNPs within the 20 strains. A robust phylogeny was obtained that identified a lineage specific to European strains; African strains were scattered in various branches. Bayesian analysis allowed dating the most recent common ancestor for MmmSC around 1700. The strains circulating in Sub-Saharan Africa today, however, were shown to descend from a strain that existed around 1810. MmmSC emerged recently, about 300 years ago, and was most probably exported from Europe to other continents, including Africa, during the 19(th century. Its diversity is now greater in Africa, where CBPP is enzootic, than in Europe, where outbreaks occurred sporadically until 1999 and where CBPP may now be considered eradicated unless MmmSC remains undetected.
Skovgaard, Kerstin; Mortensen, Shila; Heegaard, Peter M. H.
The acute phase response is playing an important role, aiming to restore the healthy state after tissue injury, inflammation and infection. The biological function of this response and its interplay with other parts of innate defense reactions remain somewhat elusive. Expression of acute phase...... locations of the infected lung (necrotic areas, areas bordering on necrotic areas, and from visually unaffected areas). Expression differences was also studied in the liver and in peripheral lymphoid tissue (tracheobronchial lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils) of infected (n=10) and non-infected (n=5) pigs using......-phase proteins was found 14-18h after experimental infection with A. pleuropneumoniae. This firmly establishes that expression of APPs is widely disseminated, involving changes in the expression of APPs at a dynamic scale comparable to the hepatic response. These results suggest that many different cell...
Kusiluka, L.J.M.; Ojeniyi, B.; Friis, N.F.
anti vaccine strains. The strong genomic homogeneity among, M. mycoides SC strains associated with outbreaks of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in different regions of Tanzania suggests that the outbreaks of the disease in the 1990-99 period might have been caused Ly a single epidemic clone. Moreover......The genetic diversity of 60 field strains of Mycoplasma mycoides ssp. mycoides, small colony type (M,. mycoides), comprising 56 isolates from cattle in Tanzania, one from Kenya, two from Botswana and one from Portugal, as well as the type (PG1(T)) and vaccine (T-1-SR49) strains, was ivestigated...... strains. The AFLP profiles of the type and vaccine strains were indistingiuishable from each other. Indistinguishable AFLP profiles were found for 55 Tanzanian held strains, one of them isolated in 1990 and the other 54 isolated in 1998/1999), although one strain isolated in 1999 showed a different...
Perez-Casal, Jose; Prysliak, Tracy; Maina, Teresa; Wang, Yejun; Townsend, Hugh; Berverov, Emil; Nkando, Isabel; Wesonga, Hezron; Liljander, Anne; Jores, Joerg; Naessens, Jan; Gerdts, Volker; Potter, Andrew
Current contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) vaccines are based on live-attenuated strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm). These vaccines have shortcomings in terms of efficacy, duration of immunity and in some cases show severe side effects at the inoculation site; hence the need to develop new vaccines to combat the disease. Reverse vaccinology approaches were used and identified 66 candidate Mycoplasma proteins using available Mmm genome data. These proteins were ranked by their ability to be recognized by serum from CBPP-positive cattle and thereafter used to inoculate naïve cattle. We report here the inoculation of cattle with recombinant proteins and the subsequent humoral and T-cell-mediated immune responses to these proteins and conclude that a subset of these proteins are candidate molecules for recombinant protein-based subunit vaccines for CBPP control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Coinfection by Ureaplasma spp., Photobacterium damselae and an Actinomyces-like microorganism in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) with pleuropneumonia stranded along the Adriatic coast of Italy.
Di Francesco, Gabriella; Cammà, Cesare; Curini, Valentina; Mazzariol, Sandro; Proietto, Umberto; Di Francesco, Cristina Esmeralda; Ferri, Nicola; Di Provvido, Andrea; Di Guardo, Giovanni
A case of pleuropneumonia is reported in an adult male bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) found stranded in 2014 along the Central Adriatic coast of Italy. A severe pyogranulomatous pneumonia and thoracic lymphadenopathy were present at necropsy. Numerous Splendore-Hoeppli bodies were found microscopically scattered throughout the lung. Histochemical evidence of Actinomyces-like organisms was obtained from the pulmonary parenchyma, with a strain of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida and Ureaplasma spp. being also isolated from the same tissue. For the latter, a genome fragment of approximately 1400 bp from the 16s rDNA was amplified and sequenced. BLAST analysis revealed 100% identity with an uncultured Ureaplasma spp. (JQ193826.1). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lampe, A S; Schroijen, M A; Smith, S J
A 72-year-old man, having had an artificial valve for almost 20 years now, presented with tiredness that had persisted for several weeks and reported weight loss of 5 kg. In more recent days he experienced fever and cold shivers, and an associated dry cough. Bearing in mind the potential for endocarditis, blood cultures were grown. In this, we identified a small, Gram-negative rod with a small, smooth, raised colony that grew slowly. We considered a micro-organism from the 'HACEK group', which is a group of micro-organisms including Haemophilus aphrophilus, Haemophilus paraphrophilus, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, Kingella kingae and Aggregatibacter (formerly: Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans. More careful observation revealed that the bacteria formed star-shaped colonies, proving that A. actinomycetemcomitans was the cause of this non-acute endocarditis. The patient received antibiotic treatment. Because non-acute endocarditis is often caused by hidden abnormalities in the mouth or teeth and A. actinomycetemcomitans plays an important role in severe cases of peridontitis, a dental surgeon was consulted. The dental surgeon diagnosed multifocal peridontitis and treated the patient, who was able to leave the hospital after 6 weeks of antibiotic treatment.
Corona-González, Rosa Isela; Varela-Almanza, Karla María; Arriola-Guevara, Enrique; Martínez-Gómez, Álvaro de Jesús; Pelayo-Ortiz, Carlos; Toriz, Guillermo
The aim of this work was to obtain fermentable sugars by enzymatic or acid hydrolyses of Agave tequilana Weber bagasse in order to produce succinic acid with Actinobacillus succinogenes. Hydrolyses were carried out with mineral acids (sulfuric and hydrochloric acids) or a commercial cellulolytic enzyme, and were optimized statistically by a response surface methodology, having as factors the concentration of acid/enzyme and time of hydrolysis. The concentration of sugars obtained at optimal conditions for each hydrolysis were 21.7, 22.4y 19.8g/L for H2SO4, HCl and the enzymatic preparation respectively. Concerning succinic acid production, the enzymatic hydrolyzates resulted in the highest yield (0.446g/g) and productivity (0.57g/Lh) using A. succinogenes in a batch reactor system. Repeated batch fermentation with immobilized A. succinogenes in agar and with the enzymatic hydrolyzates resulted in a maximum concentration of succinic acid of 33.6g/L from 87.2g/L monosaccharides after 5 cycles in 40h, obtaining a productivity of 1.32g/Lh. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Angelidaki, Irini
Biogas is an attractive renewable energy carrier. However, it contains CO2 which limits certain applications of biogas. Here we report a novel approach for removing CO2 from biogas and capturing it as a biochemical through a biological process. This approach entails converting CO2 into bio...... and titre, CO2 consumption rate and CH4 purity. When using biogas as the only CO2 source at 140 kPa, the CO2 consumption rate corresponded to 2.59 L CO2 L-1 d-1 with a final succinic acid titre of 14.4 g L-1. Under this pressure condition the highest succinic acid yield and biogas quality reached......-succinic acid using the bacterial strain Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z, and simultaneously producing high purity CH4 (>95%). Results showed that when pressure during fermentation was increased from 101.325 to 140 kPa, higher CO2 solubility was achieved, thereby positively affecting final succinic acid yield...
LEUKOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF ACTINOBACILLUS ACTINOMYCETEMCOMITANS ISOLATED FROM HUMAN AND NON-HUMAN PRIMATES Atividade leucotóxica de amostras de Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans de primatas humanos não-humanos
Francisca Lúcia de Lima
Full Text Available Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is a clinically relevant periodontopathogenic Gram-negative coccobacillus that produces a leukotoxin of the RTX cytolysin family. In this study, we evaluated the leukotoxic activity of A. actinomycetemcomitans strains isolated from human and marmosets by Trypan blue exclusion and by the chemiluminescence assays. Among eight A. actinomycetemcomitans human strains studied, two (P2.17 and P8.12 were classified as high leukotoxin producers and among eight marmoset strains, one (M22.11 showed high leukotoxin production, as determined by Trypan blue exclusion assay. The reference strains ATCC 29523 and FDC Y4 respectively behaved like moderate and low producers. The chemiluminescence assay was used to evaluate the leukotoxic activity of M22.11 and P2.17 strains submitted to different growth conditions. Leukotoxic activity was detected on cells at the logarithmic phase and was similar under anaerobic and microaerophilic growth conditions. It was greatly reduced when cells were grown at glucose concentrations lower or higher than 0.75% (0.25% and 1.5% in thioglycolate medium. Leukotoxin production mainly by the M22.11 strain was low in BHI broth, whereas production in TSB medium showed a similar level as in thioglycolate broth medium. Sodium bicarbonate at 10 mM did not affect leukotoxin production.Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans é um cocobacilo Gram negativo, periodontopatógeno clinicamente importante, que produz uma leucotoxina pertencente à família das citolisinas RTX. Neste estudo, avaliou-se a atividade leucotóxica de amostras de A. actinomycetemcomitans isoladas de seres humanos e de calitriquídeos pelos métodos de exclusão de azul de Tripan e quimioluminescência. Duas (P2.17 e P8.12 entre oito amostras de A. actinomycetemcomitans isoladas de seres humanos, e uma (M22.11 entre 8 amostras isoladas de sagüis se apresentaram como altamente produtoras de leucotoxina, como determinado pelo teste de
van Winkelhoff, AJ; Wolf, JWA
Background: Peri-implantitis is a risk factor for implant loss. Late bacterial infection of the peri-implant tissues and loss of alveolar bone in edentulous patients is caused by commensal oral anaerobic bacteria. In partially edentulous patients, Porphyromonas gingivalis and occasionally
Tomich, Mladen; Fine, Daniel H.; Figurski, David H.
The tad locus of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans encodes genes for the biogenesis of Flp pili, which allow the bacterium to adhere tenaciously to surfaces and form strong biofilms. Although tad (tight adherence) loci are widespread among bacterial and archaeal species, very little is known about the functions of the individual components of the Tad secretion apparatus. Here we characterize the mechanism by which the pre-Flp1 prepilin is processed to the mature pilus subunit. We demonstra...
Lorenzon, S; Wesonga, H; Ygesu, Laikemariam; Tekleghiorgis, Tesfaalem; Maikano, Y; Angaya, M; Hendrikx, P; Thiaucourt, F
Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is a major threat to goat farming in developing countries. Its exact distribution is not well known, despite the fact that new diagnostic tools such as PCR and competitive ELISA are now available. The authors developed a study of the molecular epidemiology of the disease, based on the amplification of a 2400 bp long fragment containing two duplicated gene coding for a putative membrane protein. The sequence of this fragment, obtained on 19 Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (Mccp) strains from various geographical locations, gave 11 polymorphic positions. The three mutations found on gene H2prim were silent and did not appear to induce any amino acid modifications in the putative translated protein. The second gene may be a pseudogene not translated in vivo, as it bore a deletion of the ATG codon found in the other members of the "Mycoplasma mycoides cluster" and as the six mutations evidenced in the Mccp strains would induce modifications in the translated amino acids. In addition, an Mccp strain isolated in the United Arab Emirates showed a deletion of the whole pseudogene, a further indication that this gene is not compulsory for mycoplasma growth. Four lineages were defined, based on the nucleotide sequence. These correlated relatively well with the geographical origin of the strains: North, Central or East Africa. The strain of Turkish origin had a sequence similar to that found in North African strains, while strains isolated in Oman had sequences similar to those of North or East African strains. The latter is possibly due to the regular import of goats of various origins. Similar molecular epidemiology tools have been developed by sequencing the two operons of the 16S rRNA gene or by AFLP. All these various techniques give complementary results. One (16S rRNA) offers the likelihood of a finer identification of strains circulating in a region, another (H2) of determining the geographical origin of the
Cruces R, Pablo; Donoso F, Alejandro; Camacho A, Jorge; Llorente H, Marcela
After almost a decade since the introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines in Chile (in a 2-4-6 month schedule), Hib invasive infections have dramatically decreased, albeit they remain to occasionally produce disease in pediatric patients. We report our experience with children whom developed Hib invasive disease in children since 2000 to 2004. Medical records of children with Hib were reviewed in order to describe the epidemiology, main clinical and laboratory findings, management and complications. Twenty three patients (17 male), between 1 and 71 months (median 30 months) were identified: pneumonia (7), meningitis (4), pleuropneumonia (2), empyema (2), sepsis (2), cellulitis (2), meningitis and pleuropneumonia (1), purpura fulminans (1), miositis (1) and epiglottitis (1). No deaths were observed and four patients presented severe sequelae at hospital discharge. Twenty patients were considered vaccine failures. Hib remains as a sporadic cause of severe disease in Chile and thus for physicians should still keep it in mind. Case analysis and active surveillance are necessary to monitor the current immunization regimen.
Kinoshita, Yuta; Niwa, Hidekazu; Katayama, Yoshinari; Hariu, Kazuhisa
Obligate anaerobes are important etiological agents in pneumonia or pleuropneumonia in horses, because they are isolated more commonly from ill horses that have died or been euthanized than from those that survive. We performed bacterial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing for obligate anaerobes to establish effective antimicrobial therapy. We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to identify 58 obligate anaerobes and compared the results with those from a phenotypic identification kit. The identification results of 16S rRNA gene sequencing were more reliable than those of the commercial kit. We concluded that genera Bacteroides and Prevotella-especially B. fragilis and P. heparinolytica-are dominant anaerobes in lower respiratory tract infection in horses; these organisms were susceptible to metronidazole, imipenem and clindamycin.
Shen, N; Qin, Y; Wang, Q; Liao, S; Zhu, J; Zhu, Q; Mi, H; Adhikari, B; Wei, Y; Huang, R
The potential of using corn steep liquor powder (CSLP), peanut meal (PM), soybean meal (SM), cotton meal (CM) and urea as the substitute of yeast extract (YE) as the nitrogen source was investigated for producing succinic acid (SA). Actinobacillus succinogenes GXAS137 was used as the fermenting bacterium and sugarcane molasses was used as the main substrate. None of these materials were able to produce SA as high as YE did. The CSLP could still be considered as a feasible and inexpensive alternate for YE as the yield of SA produced using CSLP was second only to the yield of SA obtained by YE. The use of CSLP-PM mixed formulation (CSLP to PM ratio = 2·6) as nitrogen source produced SA up to 59·2 g l(-1) with a productivity of 1·2 g l(-1) h(-1). A batch fermentation using a stirred bioreactor produced up to 60·7 g l(-1) of SA at the same formulation. Fed-batch fermentation that minimized the substrate inhibition produced 64·7 g l(-1) SA. These results suggest that sugarcane molasses supplemented with a mixture of CSLP and PM as the nitrogen source could be used to produce SA more economically using A. succinogenes. Significance and impact of the study: Succinic acid (SA) is commonly used as a platform chemical to produce a number of high value derivatives. Yeast extract (YE) is used as a nitrogen source to produce SA. The high cost of YE is currently the limiting factor for industrial production of SA. This study reports the use of a mixture of corn steep liquor powder (CSLP) and peanut meal (PM) as an inexpensive nitrogen source to substitute YE. The results showed that this CSLP-PM mixed formulation can be used as an effective and economic nitrogen source for the production of SA. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Tanner, A; Stillman, N
Microbial populations colonizing the teeth are a major source of pathogens responsible for oral and dental infections, including periodontal diseases, gingivitis, pericoronitis, endodontitis, peri-implantitis, and postextraction infections. Each entity has distinct clinical and microbial features. Bacterial species associated with oral infections include Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Bacteroides forsythus, Campylobacter rectus, Eubacterium species, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Eikenella corrodens, and Peptostreptococcus micros. Treponema pallidum-related spirochetes have been associated with acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis. Porphyromonas endodontalis appears to be specifically related to endodontic infections. Oral infections in medically compromised patients, including those with AIDS, are associated with similar species and are usually complicated by superinfection with enteric and Candida species. Isolation of species causing oral infections requires the collection of appropriate samples and the use of strictly anaerobic techniques. Rapid selective culture, immunofluorescence, and DNA probe methods have been developed for the identification of these oral species. The varied measures required in the management of oral and dental infections may include antimicrobial therapy. Accurate microbiological diagnosis, including antibiotic susceptibility testing, is indicated for cases that do not respond to therapy.
Mul, M.F.; Becker, P.M.; Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Wikselaar, van P.G.; Wisselink, H.J.; Stockhofe, N.
De Animal Sciences Group van Wageningen UR heeft in opdracht van biologische varkenshouders onderzocht of het mogelijk is om in plaats van antibiotica, knoflook te gebruiken voor de bestrijding van longontsteking door de bacterie Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App). Uit de resultaten blijkt dat
... gov/ Home Body Your reproductive health Vaginal infections Vaginal infections Help for infections If you have pain, ... infections and how to prevent them. Types of vaginal infections top Two common vaginal infections are bacterial ...
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de Jong, Anno; Thomas, Valérie; Simjee, Shabbir; Moyaert, Hilde; El Garch, Farid; Maher, Kirsty; Morrissey, Ian; Butty, Pascal; Klein, Ulrich; Marion, Hervé; Rigaut, Delphine; Vallé, Michel
VetPath is an ongoing pan-European antibiotic susceptibility monitoring programme collecting pathogens from diseased antimicrobial non-treated cattle, pigs and poultry. In the current study, 1001 isolates from cattle and pig respiratory tract infections were tested for their antimicrobial susceptibilities. Non-replicate lung samples or nasopharyngeal/nasal swabs were collected from animals with acute clinical signs in 11 countries during 2002-2006. Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica from cattle and P. multocida, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Streptococcus suis from pigs were isolated by standard methods. S. suis was also isolated from meningitis cases. MICs of 16 antibiotics were assessed centrally by broth microdilution following CLSI recommendations. Results were interpreted using CLSI breakpoints where available. P. multocida (231) and M. haemolytica (138) isolates were all susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, enrofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Resistance to florfenicol and spectinomycin was 0.4% and 3.5% in P. multocida, respectively, and absent in M. haemolytica isolates. Tetracycline resistance was 5.7% and 14.6% for P. multocida and M. haemolytica. In pigs, 230 P. multocida, 220 A. pleuropneumoniae and 182 S. suis isolates were recovered. Resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, tiamulin and tilmicosin was absent or <1%. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance was 3-6% and tetracycline resistance varied from 14.7% in A. pleuropneumoniae to 81.8% in S. suis. In conclusion, low resistance to antibiotics with defined clinical breakpoints, except for tetracycline, was observed among the major respiratory tract pathogens recovered from cattle and pigs. Since for approximately half of the antibiotics in this panel no CLSI-defined breakpoints were available, setting of the missing veterinary breakpoints is important. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pinworm infection Overview Pinworm infection is the most common type of intestinal worm infection in the United States and one of the most common worldwide. Pinworms are thin and white, measuring about 1/4 ...
Eliana S. Paladino
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The bacterium Pasteurella multocida is a frequent cause of porcine respiratory disease complex in finishing pigs. Historically, the bacterium is recognized as an opportunistic agent, causing secondary bacterial pneumonia in pigs. Several Brazilian reports have suggested the ability of P. multocida to cause primary pulmonary infection that leads to the death of finishing pigs prior to slaughter. The aim of this study was to evaluate anatomopathological pulmonary findings associated with P. multocida infection that were obtained from animals with clinical respiratory disease and from animals at slaughter. Twenty-five lung samples from 14 herds of finishing pigs with acute clinical respiratory disease and 19 lungs collected at slaughter from a different set of 14 herds were studied. In all lung samples, bacterial isolation was performed, and only samples with pure P. multocida growth were included in the study. Gross and histopathological lesions were evaluated, as well as Influenza A, porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae co-infections. Pleuritis and pericarditis were more often observed in clinical samples (P<0.05. Moreover, there was a numerical trend indicating that pericarditis, lymphadenomegaly and cavity exudates were more often present in clinical samples. Thirteen lung samples were negative to M. hyopneumoniae, Influenza A and PCV2 by immunohistochemistry (IHC, with only P. multocida identified. In these cases, gross lesions such as pleuritis, pericarditis and lymphadenomegaly were always present, and no histologic lesions indicative of other agents such as Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Actinobacillus suis or Haemophilus parasuis were observed. These findings suggest the ability of some P. multocida isolates to cause primary respiratory and systemic infection. However, in this study, it was not possible to determine specific virulence markers to explain these findings.
Racklyeft, D J; Love, D N
To investigate associations between the bacteriology and aspects of history, clinical presentation, outcome and pathology of lower respiratory tract disease of 34 horses. Detailed aerobic and anaerobic bacteriological investigations were performed on clinical specimens from horses with pneumonia, lung abscessation and necrotic pneumonia with or without pleurisy in an attempt to identify those bacteria that might contribute to the initiation and progression of infection. Bacteria were cultured from 33 of the 34 horses. In ten cases, only aerobic/facultatively anaerobic isolates were cultured while aerobic/facultatively anaerobic bacteria and obligately anaerobic bacteria were isolated in the other 23 cases. Moderate to large numbers of anaerobic bacteria were isolated only when the estimated duration of illness was at least five days. Bacteria were not cultured from 12 of the pleural fluid samples but were always cultured from pulmonary samples (either transtracheal aspirates from live horses or pulmonary lesions at necropsy). Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus was isolated in the three cases where only one bacterial species was cultured. In the other 30 cases, multiple species were isolated. These included most often and in greatest numbers, Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus, Pasteurellaceae, Escherichia coli, anaerobic cocci, Eubacterium fossor, Bacteroides tectum, Prevotella heparinolytica, Fusobacterium spp, and pigmented members of the genera Prevotella and Porphyromonas. Aerobic/facultatively anaerobic organisms were isolated from 97% of horses, while obligately anaerobic organisms were cultured from 68% of horses. There was no association between the isolation of any specific bacterium and the outcome of disease. However, obligately anaerobic bacteria (such as anaerobic cocci, Bacteroides tectum, P heparinolytica and Fusobacterium spp) and the facultatively anaerobic species Escherichia coli, were recovered more commonly from horses that died or were
3 3 5 4 7 T I NT NT NT NT - - - Prevotella denticola ATCC 33185 1 NT NT NT NT - - - Prevotella intermedia ATCC 2561 IT I NT NT NT NT - - Prevotella...TaqMan and SYBR Green for Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia , tetQ gene and total bacteria...detection of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis. J. Clin.Microbiol. 41, 863-866. (2003). 20. Higgins ,D. et al. CLUSTAL W
... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Infective Endocarditis Updated:Mar 29,2018 View an illustration of endocarditis Infective ... procedure. Web Booklets on Congenital Heart Defects These online publications describe many defects and the procedures used ...
... to spread and sometimes become life-threatening. MRSA infections may affect your: Bloodstream Lungs Heart Bones Joints Prevention Preventing HA-MRSA In the hospital, people who are infected or colonized with MRSA ...
Campylobacter infection is a common foodborne illness. You usually get it from eating contaminated food, especially raw ... You can also get it from drinking contaminated water or raw milk, or handling infected animal feces ( ...
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Optimal design and experimental validation of a simulated moving bed chromatography for continuous recovery of formic acid in a model mixture of three organic acids from Actinobacillus bacteria fermentation.
Park, Chanhun; Nam, Hee-Geun; Lee, Ki Bong; Mun, Sungyong
The economically-efficient separation of formic acid from acetic acid and succinic acid has been a key issue in the production of formic acid with the Actinobacillus bacteria fermentation. To address this issue, an optimal three-zone simulated moving bed (SMB) chromatography for continuous separation of formic acid from acetic acid and succinic acid was developed in this study. As a first step for this task, the adsorption isotherm and mass-transfer parameters of each organic acid on the qualified adsorbent (Amberchrom-CG300C) were determined through a series of multiple frontal experiments. The determined parameters were then used in optimizing the SMB process for the considered separation. During such optimization, the additional investigation for selecting a proper SMB port configuration, which could be more advantageous for attaining better process performances, was carried out between two possible configurations. It was found that if the properly selected port configuration was adopted in the SMB of interest, the throughout and the formic-acid product concentration could be increased by 82% and 181% respectively. Finally, the optimized SMB process based on the properly selected port configuration was tested experimentally using a self-assembled SMB unit with three zones. The SMB experimental results and the relevant computer simulation verified that the developed process in this study was successful in continuous recovery of formic acid from a ternary organic-acid mixture of interest with high throughput, high purity, high yield, and high product concentration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available AK058464 001-016-A10 U27202.1 Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae riboflavin biosynthesis operon, riboflavin...-specific deaminase (ribG), riboflavin synthase alpha subunit (ribB), bifunctional GTP ...cyclohydrase II/3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone-4-phosphate synthase (ribA), and riboflavin synthase beta subunit (ribH) genes, complete cds.|BCT BCT 1e-105 +2 ...
Kanwar, Indulata; Sah, Abhishek K; Suresh, Preeti K
Oral diseases like dental caries and periodontal disease are directly associated with the capability of bacteria to form biofilm. Periodontal diseases have been associated to anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria forming a subgingival plaque (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Actinobacillus, Prevotella and Fusobacterium). Biofilm is a complex bacterial community that is highly resistant to antibiotics and human immunity. Biofilm communities are the causative agents of biological developments such as dental caries, periodontitis, peri-implantitis and causing periodontal tissue breakdown. The review recapitulates the latest advancements in treatment of clinical biofilm infections and scientific investigations, while these novel anti-biofilm strategies are still in nascent phases of development, efforts dedicated to these technologies could ultimately lead to anti-biofilm therapies that are superior to the current antibiotic treatment. This paper provides a review of the literature focusing on the studies on biofilm in the oral cavity, formation of dental plaque biofilm, drug resistance of bacterial biofilm and the antibiofilm approaches as biofilm preventive agents in dentistry, and their mechanism of biofilm inhibition. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at email@example.com.
El Garch, F; Kroemer, S; Galland, D; Morrissey, I; Woehrle, F
A monitoring programme of marbofloxacin susceptibility of bacteria from Europe causing respiratory tract infection and meningitis in pigs has been active since 1994 and 2002, respectively. Monitoring digestive, metritis and urinary tract infection (UTI) in pigs has been active since 2005 and susceptibility results until 2013 are presented. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by broth microdilution. For MIC interpretation, Vétoquinol-evaluated breakpoints were applied. For digestive pathogens, Escherichia coli and Salmonella species (1717 and 300 isolates, respectively) exhibited 7.5 per cent resistance in E coli and no resistance in Salmonella species. Similarly, E coli from metritis (369 isolates) had 7.0 per cent resistance to marbofloxacin. However, E coli from UTI (633 isolates) had higher resistance (10.4 per cent). For Streptococcus suis causing meningitis (585 isolates), marbofloxacin susceptibility was very high with only 0.5 per cent resistance and 0.4 per cent resistance was observed with S suis causing respiratory disease (729 isolates). Other respiratory pathogens were also highly susceptible to marbofloxacin with no resistance in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (647 isolates) or Bordetella bronchiseptica (504 isolates), 0.1 per cent resistance in Pasteurella multocida (1373 isolates) and 1.4 per cent resistance in Haemophilus parasuis (145 isolates). There was no apparent change in marbofloxacin MIC over time for any bacterial pathogen based on MIC 50/90 These data confirm previously published MIC results from porcine and other animal infections. British Veterinary Association.
HARADA, Kazuki; USUI, Masaru; ASAI, Tetsuo
ABSTRACT In this study, susceptibilities of Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae to enrofloxacin and orbifloxacin were tested using an agar diffusion method with the commercial disks and a broth microdilution method. Good correlation between the 2 methods for enrofloxacin and orbifloxacin was observed for P. multocida (r = −0.743 and −0.818, respectively), M. haemolytica (r = −0.739 and −0.800, respectively) and A. pleuropneumoniae (r = −0.785 and −0.809, respectively). Based on the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute interpretive criteria for enrofloxacin, high-level categorical agreement between the 2 methods was found for P. multocida (97.9%), M. haemolytica (93.8%) and A. pleuropneumoniae (92.0%). Our findings indicate that the tested commercial disks can be applied for susceptibility testing of veterinary respiratory pathogens. PMID:25008965
Full Text Available Haemophilus parasuis can be either a commensal bacterium of the porcine respiratory tract or an opportunistic pathogen causing Glässer's disease, a severe systemic disease that has led to significant economical losses in the pig industry worldwide. We determined the complete genomic sequence of H. parasuis SH0165, a highly virulent strain of serovar 5, which was isolated from a hog pen in North China. The single circular chromosome was 2,269,156 base pairs in length and contained 2,031 protein-coding genes. Together with the full spectrum of genes detected by the analysis of metabolic pathways, we confirmed that H. parasuis generates ATP via both fermentation and respiration, and possesses an intact TCA cycle for anabolism. In addition to possessing the complete pathway essential for the biosynthesis of heme, this pathogen was also found to be well-equipped with different iron acquisition systems, such as the TonB system and ABC-type transport complexes, to overcome iron limitation during infection and persistence. We identified a number of genes encoding potential virulence factors, such as type IV fimbriae and surface polysaccharides. Analysis of the genome confirmed that H. parasuis is naturally competent, as genes related to DNA uptake are present. A nine-mer DNA uptake signal sequence (ACAAGCGGT, identical to that found in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Mannheimia haemolytica, followed by similar downstream motifs, was identified in the SH0165 genome. Genomic and phylogenetic comparisons with other Pasteurellaceae species further indicated that H. parasuis was closely related to another swine pathogenic bacteria A. pleuropneumoniae. The comprehensive genetic analysis presented here provides a foundation for future research on the metabolism, natural competence and virulence of H. parasuis.
Crawford, Sue E.; Ramani, Sasirekha; Tate, Jacqueline E.; Parashar, Umesh D.; Svensson, Lennart; Hagbom, Marie; Franco, Manuel A.; Greenberg, Harry B.; O’Ryan, Miguel; Kang, Gagandeep; Desselberger, Ulrich; Estes, Mary K.
Rotavirus infections are a leading cause of severe, dehydrating gastroenteritis in children rotavirus over a decade ago, rotavirus infections still result in >200,000 deaths annually, mostly in low-income countries. Rotavirus primarily infects enterocytes and induces diarrhoea through the destruction of absorptive enterocytes (leading to malabsorption), intestinal secretion stimulated by rotavirus non-structural protein 4 and activation of the enteric nervous system. In addition, rotavirus infections can lead to antigenaemia (which is associated with more severe manifestations of acute gastroenteritis) and viraemia, and rotavirus can replicate in systemic sites, although this is limited. Reinfections with rotavirus are common throughout life, although the disease severity is reduced with repeat infections. The immune correlates of protection against rotavirus reinfection and recovery from infection are poorly understood, although rotavirus-specific immunoglobulin A has a role in both aspects. The management of rotavirus infection focuses on the prevention and treatment of dehydration, although the use of antiviral and anti-emetic drugs can be indicated in some cases. PMID:29119972
... intestinal wall and suck blood, which results in iron deficiency anemia and protein loss. Adult worms and larvae are ... problems that may result from hookworm infection include: Iron deficiency anemia , caused by loss of blood Nutritional deficiencies Severe ...
Mastitis; Infection - breast tissue; Breast abscess ... must continue to breastfeed or pump to relieve breast swelling from milk production. In case if the abscess does not go away, needle aspiration under ultrasound ...
Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Moser, Claus Ernst
A still increasing interest and emphasis on the sessile bacterial lifestyle biofilms has been seen since it was realized that the vast majority of the total microbial biomass exists as biofilms. Aggregation of bacteria was first described by Leeuwenhoek in 1677, but only recently recognized...... as being important in chronic infection. In 1993 the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) recognized that the biofilm mode of growth was relevant to microbiology. This book covers both the evidence for biofilms in many chronic bacterial infections as well as the problems facing these infections...... such as diagnostics, pathogenesis, treatment regimes and in vitro and in vivo models for studying biofilms. This is the first scientific book on biofilm infections, chapters written by the world leading scientist and clinicians. The intended audience of this book is scientists, teachers at university level as well...
... the wound and re-closing to more extensive debridements and removal of infected tissues. In some cases ... will want to obtain cultures to determine the type of bacteria or fungus that is causing the ...
... can cause serious problems such as heart disease, brain damage, deafness, visual impairment, or even miscarriage. Infection later in the pregnancy may lead to less severe effects on the fetus but can still cause problems ...
... a dental infection or procedure such as a tooth extraction or oral surgery or after trauma to the ... diagnosed, your doctor may treat it with intravenous antibiotics (eg, penicillin, ampicillin) for 4 to 6 weeks, ...
... within your body, to produce infections affecting: Internal organs, such as your brain, heart or lungs Bones and muscles Surgically implanted devices, such as artificial joints or cardiac pacemakers Toxic shock syndrome This ...
... Stool sample testing for white blood cells Stool culture for Campylobacter jejuni Treatment The infection almost always ... some salty foods, such as pretzels, soup, and sports drinks. Eat some high-potassium foods, such as ...
Eschenbach, D A; Wager, G P
This comprehensive review on puerperal infections covers risk factors, causative bacteria, pathophysiology, diagnosis, therapy of specific entities, and prevention. Puerperal infection is problematic to define especially with antibiotics that change the course of fever. I may present as endometritis (most common), myometritis, parametritis, pelvic abscess, salpingitis, septic pelvic thrombophlebitis or septicemia, and also includes infections of the urinary tract, episiotomy, surgical wounds, lacerations or breast. Each of these is discussed in terms of contributing factors, microbiology, clinical findings, diagnosis, treatment, prevention and complications. Risk factors in general are cesarean section, premature rupture of the membranes, internal fetal monitoring, general anesthesia, pelvic examinations. The most common bacterial involved are group B and other streptococci, E. coli, Gardnerella vaginalis, Gram positive anaerobic cocci, Mycoplasma and pre-existing Chlamydial infections. Diagnosis of the causative organism is difficult because of polyinfection and difficulty of getting a sterile endometrial swab. Diagnosis of the infection is equally difficult because of the wide variety of symptoms: fever, abnormal lochia, tachycardia, tenderness, mass and abnormal bowel sounds are common. Therapy depends of the responsible microorganism, although 3 empirical tactics are suggested while awaiting results of culture: 1) choose an antibiotic for the most common aerobic bacteria; 2) an antibiotic effective against B. fragilis and one for aerobic bacteria, e.g. clindamycin and an aminoglycoside; 3) a nontoxic antibiotic active against most aerobic and anaerobic organisms, e.g. doxycycline or cefoxitin. An example of an infection recently described is pudendal-paracervical block infection, often signaled by severe hip pain. It is associated with vaginal bacteria, is usually complicated by abscess even with antibiotic coverage, and may end in paraplegia or fatal sepsis
Tali, E. Turgut; Gueltekin, Serap
Spinal infections have an increasing prevalence among the general population. Definitive diagnosis based solely on clinical grounds is usually not possible and radiological imaging is used in almost all patients. The primary aim of the authors is to present an overview of spinal infections located in epidural, intradural and intramedullary compartments and to provide diagnostic clues regarding different imaging modalities, particularly MRI, to the practicing physicians and radiologists. (orig.)
... Home A-Z Health Topics Urinary tract infections Urinary tract infections > A-Z Health Topics Urinary tract infections (PDF, ... Embed Subscribe To receive Publications email updates Submit Urinary tract infections Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are most often caused ...
Karampekios, Spyros [University of Crete, Department of Radiology, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Hesselink, John [UCSD, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)
Despite the development of many effective antibiotic therapies and the general improvement in hygiene and health care systems all over the world, the incidence of central nervous system (CNS) infection has increased significantly in the past 15 years. This can be attributed primarily to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic and its devastating effect on the immune system and secondarily to various immunosuppressive agents that are being used in aggressive cancer treatment and in organ transplantations. The brain particularly is protected from infection by the calvarium, meninges and blood brain barrier. However, different types of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites, can reach the brain hematogenously or, less likely, by direct extension from an adjacent infected focus. The early detection and specific diagnosis of infection are of great importance, since brain infections are potentially treatable diseases. Imaging studies play a crucial role in the diagnostic process, along with the history (exposure to infectious agents), host factors (open head trauma, CSF leak, sinusitis, otitis, immune status), physical examination and laboratory analysis of CSF. (orig.)
Karampekios, Spyros; Hesselink, John
Despite the development of many effective antibiotic therapies and the general improvement in hygiene and health care systems all over the world, the incidence of central nervous system (CNS) infection has increased significantly in the past 15 years. This can be attributed primarily to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic and its devastating effect on the immune system and secondarily to various immunosuppressive agents that are being used in aggressive cancer treatment and in organ transplantations. The brain particularly is protected from infection by the calvarium, meninges and blood brain barrier. However, different types of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites, can reach the brain hematogenously or, less likely, by direct extension from an adjacent infected focus. The early detection and specific diagnosis of infection are of great importance, since brain infections are potentially treatable diseases. Imaging studies play a crucial role in the diagnostic process, along with the history (exposure to infectious agents), host factors (open head trauma, CSF leak, sinusitis, otitis, immune status), physical examination and laboratory analysis of CSF. (orig.)
Reclassification of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Haemophilus aphrophilus, Haemophilus paraphrophilus and Haemophilus segnis as Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans gen. nvo., comb. nov., Aggregatibacter aphrophilus comb. nov. and Aggregatibacter segnis comb. nov., and emended description of Aggregatibacter aphrophilus to include V factor-dependent and V factor-independent isolates
Nørskov-Lauritsen, N.; Kilian, Mogens
-independent growth was identified in Haemophilus aphrophilus. The gene encodes a polypeptide of 462 amino acids that shows 74.5 % amino acid sequence identity to the corresponding enzyme from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. Ten isolates of Haemophilus paraphrophilus all carried a nadV pseudogene. DNA from...... Haemophilus aphrophilus was able to transform Haemophilus paraphrophilus into the NAD-independent phenotype. The transformants carried a full-length nadV inserted in the former locus of the pseudogene. The DNA-DNA relatedness between the type strains of Haemophilus aphrophilus and Haemophilus paraphrophilus...
... contact with fecal matter (poop) from an infected person (especially a child in diapers). Household pets can carry and spread the bacteria to people. ... preparing food. Clean and disinfect toilets after the person with diarrhea uses them. Also, if a pet dog or cat has diarrhea, wash your hands ...
This podcast will educate health care providers on diagnosing baylisascariasis and on providing patients at risk of Baylisascaris infection with prevention messages. Created: 8/27/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria. Date Released: 8/28/2012.
... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Hand Infections Email to a friend * required fields ...
Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes turkey rhinotracheitis (TRT), an acute upper respiratory tract infection of turkeys, and is also associated with swollen head syndrome (SHS) in chickens and egg production losses in layers. Since the first TRT reported in the late 1970s in South Africa, the virus...
Hillen, Sonja; von Berg, Stephan; Köhler, Kernt; Reinacher, Manfred; Willems, Hermann; Reiner, Gerald
Different vaccination strategies against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae have been adopted worldwide. Reports from the field indicate varying levels of protection among currently available vaccines. The goal of the present study was to compare the efficacies of three widespread commercial vaccination strategies against M. hyopneumoniae under field conditions. 20 farms were included. 14 farms used different single dose vaccines (vaccine 1 [V1], 8 herds; vaccine 2 [V2], 6 herds); another 6 farms (V3) used a two dose vaccination strategy. Gross lesions of 854 lungs and histopathology from 140 lungs were quantified, and a quantitative PCR was applied to detect M. hyopneumoniae and porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) DNA in lung tissue (n=140). In addition, porcine reproductive and respiratory disease virus (PRRSV), swine influenza virus (SIV), Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Pasteurella multocida were tested by qualitative PCR. 53% of lungs were positive for M. hyopneumoniae. 55.9% of lungs showed macroscopic enzootic pneumonia (EP)-like lesions. Lung lesion scores (Phyopneumoniae-loads (Phyopneumoniae indicating that the applied diagnostic tools are valuable in confirming the prevalence and severity of M. hyopneumoniae infections. Comparing different vaccination strategies against M. hyopneumoniae indicates varying levels of protection. M. hyopneumoniae is still a major problem despite the widely applied vaccination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bailey, G D; Love, D N
Two hundred and seventy bacterial isolates were obtained from the pharyngeal tonsillar surface of 12 normal horses and 98 obligatory anaerobic bacteria were characterised. Of these, 57 isolates belonging to 7 genera (Peptostreptococcus (1); Eubacterium (9); Clostridium (6); Veillonella (6); Megasphera (1); Bacteroides (28); Fusobacterium (6)) were identified, and 16 of these were identified to species level (P. anaerobius (1); E. fossor (9); C. villosum (1); B. fragilis (1); B. tectum (2); B. heparinolyticus (2)). Three hundred and twenty isolates were obtained from 23 samples from horses with lower respiratory tract (LRT) or paraoral (PO) bacterial infections. Of the 143 bacteria selected for detailed characterisation, obligate anaerobes accounted for 100 isolates, facultative anaerobes for 42 isolates and obligate aerobes for one isolate. Phenotypic characterisation separated 99 of the isolates into 14 genera. Among the obligately anaerobic species, Gram-positive cocci including P. anaerobius comprised 25% of isolates, E. fossor 11% and other Gram-positive rods (excluding Clostridium sp.) 18% of isolates. The Gram-negative rods comprised B. fragilis 5%, B. heparinolyticus 5%, asaccharolytic pigmented Bacteroides 3% and other Bacteroides 13%, while a so-far unnamed species of Fusobacterium (7%), and Gram-negative corroding rods (3%) were isolated. Among the facultatively anaerobic isolates, S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus accounted for 31% of isolates, followed by Pasteurella spp. 19%, Escherichia coli 17%, Actinomyces spp. 9%, Streptococcus spp. 9%. Incidental facultative isolates were Enterococcus spp. 2%, Enterobacter cloaceae 2%, Actinobacillus spp. 2% and Gram-negative corroding rods 5%. On the basis of the similarities (as determined by DNA hybridization data and/or phenotypic characteristics) of some of the bacterial species (e.g. E. fossor and B. heparinolyticus) isolated from both the normal pharyngeal tonsillar surfaces and LRT and PO diseases of horses, it
Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with a parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...
Sénior, Juan Manuel
Full Text Available Infective endocarditis is a disease caused by colonization and proliferation of infectious agents on the endothelial surface of the heart. Its clinical presentation is variable, depending upon conditions of the patient, such as immunosuppression, presence of prosthetic material, intravenous drug use, and the etiologic agent. Diagnosis is usually established through the addition of elements such as medical history, physical examination, results of blood cultures, echocardiography and other aids. We present the case of an adult male who came to the hospital with fever and symptoms and signs of acute heart failure. The presence of a systolic murmur was documented in the aortic area, and the echocardiogram revealed severe valve regurgitation and a vegetating lesion on the bicuspid aortic valve. He required valve replacement and completed antibiotic treatment based on the sensitivity of the Streptococcus mitis strain that was demonstrated in the blood cultures.
Salim Mattar V
Full Text Available The infectious syndromes associated with arenaviruses in South America are four: febrile syndrome of viral origin; Haemorrhagic fevers with or without neurological involvement; Aseptic meningitis and meningo-encephalitis. Among the Arenavirus of the new world is the Tacaribe complex where the viruses are found: Junín (Argentina, Guanarito (Venezuela, Machupo (Bolivia and Sabiá (Brazil, which are characterized by hemorrhagic fevers. In Colombia the arenavirus Pichindé was isolated in 1965, from the rodent Oryzomys albigularis, in the valley of Pichindé (Valle del Cauca. This arenavirus produces a persistent infection in its host and is not pathogenic for the man. There is evidence of the circulation of the Guanarito virus in rodents from Córdoba, but there are no cases diagnosed in humans; In Colombia, the genome of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus was detected in the brains of rodents Mus musculus. The diagnosis is based on the knowledge of local epidemiology and the suspicion of a patient with fever in endemic areas, where infections such as malaria, dengue and leptospirosis, sepsis of bacterial origin and rickectomy have been excluded. Virus isolation in the feverish period is the gold standart, but it implies contact with the virus that is highly infectious, which represents a public health problem. Serology has been used for diagnosis, but there is no commercial evidence and only research groups and large public health laboratories have these tests. Most of the patients present a moderate severity, which needs adequate hydration, antipyretics and anti-inflammatories. All patients with severe signs should be aggressively treated. The use of drugs has not demonstrated a decrease in mortality but a significant reduction in viremia.
Hendriksen Rene S
Full Text Available Abstract Background The project "Antibiotic resistance in bacteria of animal origin – II" (ARBAO-II was funded by the European Union (FAIR5-QLK2-2002-01146 for the period 2003–05. The aim of this project was to establish a program for the continuous monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogenic and indicator bacteria from food animals using validated and harmonised methodologies. In this report the first data on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria causing infections in pigs are reported. Methods Susceptibility data from 17,642 isolates of pathogens and indicator bacteria including Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Streptococcus suis and Escherichia coli isolated from pigs were collected from fifteen European countries in 2002–2004. Results Data for A. pleuropneumoniae from infected pigs were submitted from five countries. Most of the isolates from Denmark were susceptible to all drugs tested with the exceptions of a low frequency of resistance to tetracycline and trimethoprim – sulphonamide. Data for S. suis were obtained from six countries. In general, a high level of resistance to tetracycline (48.0 – 92.0% and erythromycin (29.1 – 75.0% was observed in all countries whereas the level of resistance to ciprofloxacin and penicillin differed between the reporting countries. Isolates from England (and Wales, France and The Netherlands were all susceptible to penicillin. In contrast the proportion of strains resistant to ciprofloxacin ranged from 12.6 to 79.0% (2004 and to penicillin from 8.1 – 13.0% (2004 in Poland and Portugal. Data for E. coli from infected and healthy pigs were obtained from eleven countries. The data reveal a high level of resistance to tetracyclines, streptomycin and ampicillin among infected pigs whereas in healthy pigs the frequency of resistance was lower. Conclusion Bacterial resistance to some antimicrobials was frequent with different levels of resistance being observed to
Camilo Guzmán T
Full Text Available Hantaviruses are the causative agents of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in humans in the Americas; The primary reservoirs are in the rodents of the subfamily Sigmodontinae. In South America, cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome caused by numerous viral genotypes have been diagnosed. In Colombia, different serological studies have reported the circulation of hantavirus in humans and rodents. These viruses act in an intimate association with a rodent species that serves as a reservoir and have a distribution around the wild rodent, being limited to a specific geographic region. In South America, the first HPS-associated hantavirus was described in 1993 in Brazil and was called Juquitiva and from 1993 to 2012, more than 1400 cases had been identified in Brazil. This syndrome should be suspected in all patients with respiratory distress syndrome of unclear etiology, in areas endemic for the disease, especially if accompanied by fever, marked leukocytosis and thrombocytopenia and bilateral interstitial infiltrates. Hemorrhagic febrile syndrome has not yet been described in the Americas. There are no clinical or laboratory signs that are pathognomonic of hantavirus infection. The treatment is based on adequate hydration, use of antipyretics and anti-inflammatories and patients with signs of severity should establish a more aggressive management. Triage is indispensable, patients with co-morbidities have a higher mortality risk and therefore should be hospitalized. Future research in Colombia should be directed to multidisciplinary studies that include viral isolation, different clinical forms of case presentation, epidemiological differences, risk factors, and taxonomy of viruses and rodents.
UTI - children; Cystitis - children; Bladder infection - children; Kidney infection - children; Pyelonephritis - children ... Craig JC. Long-term antibiotics for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2011;(3):CD001534. PMID: ...
During pregnancy, some common infections like the common cold or a skin infection do not usually cause serious problems. ... of the infections that can be dangerous during pregnancy include Bacterial vaginosis (BV) Group B strep (GBS) ...
... Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity ... ) haemolyticum is an organism that most often causes infections and illnesses in teenagers and young adults. The infection is spread from person to person, ...
ANSWERS by heart Cardiovascular Conditions What Is Infective Endocarditis? Infective (bacterial) endocarditis (IE) is an infection of either the heart’s inner lining (endocardium) or the heart valves. Infective endocarditis is a serious — and sometimes fatal — illness. Two ...
Gassiep, Ian; Gilpin, Bradley; Douglas, Joel; Siebert, David
Neisseria gonorrhoea is a common sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Disseminated gonococcal infection is an infrequent presentation and rarely can be associated with septic arthritis. Incidence of this infection is rising, both internationally and in older age groups. We present the first documented case of N. gonorrhoea prosthetic joint infection which was successfully treated with laparoscopic debridement and antimicrobial therapy.
Rastall, S; Catchpole, C; Bright-Thomas, R; Thrush, S
Breast infection and breast sepsis secondary to Pseudomonas aeruginosa is uncommon. We report two cases of pseudomonal breast infection leading to septic shock and abscess formation in women with non-responding breast infection. The management of breast infection is broad-spectrum antibiotics and ultrasound with aspiration of any collection. To treat breast infection effectively, the causative organism must be isolated to enable appropriate antibiotic therapy. PMID:20412664
Chau, C.L.F. [Department of Radiology, North District Hospital, NTEC, Fanling, NT, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Griffith, J.F. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Prince of Wales Hospital, NTEC, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China)
Musculoskeletal infections are commonly encountered in clinical practice. This review will discuss the ultrasound appearances of a variety of musculoskeletal infections such as cellulitis, infective tenosynovitis, pyomyositis, soft-tissue abscesses, septic arthritis, acute and chronic osteomyelitis, and post-operative infection. The peculiar sonographic features of less common musculoskeletal infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, and rice body formation in atypical mycobacterial tenosynovitis, and bursitis will also be presented.
Chau, C.L.F.; Griffith, J.F.
Musculoskeletal infections are commonly encountered in clinical practice. This review will discuss the ultrasound appearances of a variety of musculoskeletal infections such as cellulitis, infective tenosynovitis, pyomyositis, soft-tissue abscesses, septic arthritis, acute and chronic osteomyelitis, and post-operative infection. The peculiar sonographic features of less common musculoskeletal infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, and rice body formation in atypical mycobacterial tenosynovitis, and bursitis will also be presented
Full Text Available Shewanella putrefaciens rarely causes infection in humans. In the last few decades a growing number of cases have been described. The following report outlines the case of a 40-year-old immunocompetent white man with S. putrefaciens infective endocarditis. This is the first known case of infective endocarditis due to an apparently monomicrobial S. putrefaciens infection, and the second known case of S. putrefaciens-related infective endocarditis worldwide.
Aslam, Saima; Darouiche, Rabih O.
Prosthetic joint infections represent a major therapeutic challenge for both healthcare providers and patients. This paper reviews the predisposing factors, pathogenesis, microbiology, diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of prosthetic joint infection. The most optimal management strategy should be identified based on a number of considerations including type and duration of infection, antimicrobial susceptibility of the infecting pathogen, condition of infected tissues and bone stock, patient wishes and functional status. PMID:22847032
Angen, Øystein; Ussery, David
Introduction The bacterial genome sequences are now available for an increasing number of strains within the family Pasteurellaceae. At present, 24 Pasteurellaceae genomes are publicly available through internet databases, and another 40 genomes are being sequenced. This investigation will describe...... the core genome for both the family Pasteurellaceae and for the species Haemophilus influenzae. Methods Twenty genome sequences from the following species were included: Haemophilus influenzae (11 strains), Haemophilus ducreyi (1 strain), Histophilus somni (2 strains), Haemophilus parasuis (1 strain......), Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (2 strains), Actinobacillus succinogenes (1 strain), Mannheimia succiniciproducens (1 strain), and Pasteurella multocida (1 strain). The predicted proteins for each genome were BLASTed against each other, and a set of conserved core gene families was determined as described...
Yeast infection - vagina; Vaginal candidiasis; Monilial vaginitis ... Most women have a vaginal yeast infection at some time. Candida albicans is a common type of fungus. It is often found in small amounts ...
... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Salmonella Infections URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Salmonella Infections - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...
... increases in places with inadequate sanitation and poor personal hygiene. Risk factors Blastocystis is common, and anyone can ... you have blastocystis or another gastrointestinal infection, good personal hygiene can help keep you from spreading the infection ...
... Radiation - preventing infection; Bone marrow transplant - preventing infection; Cancer treatment - immunosuppression ... this is a short-lived side effect of cancer treatment. Your provider may give you medicines to help ...
... Abbreviations Weights & Measures ENGLISH View Professional English Deutsch Japanese Espaniol Find information on medical topics, symptoms, drugs, ... touching the infected area. Diagnosis Skin scrapings or cultures Doctors may suspect a fungal infection when they ...
David L. Hemsell
Full Text Available Antibiotic prophylaxis and advances in technology have reduced operative site infections after hysterectomy to a minimum. Pelvic infections are the most common infection type and respond promptly to a variety of parenteral single-agent and combination antibiotic regimens. Oral antibiotic regimens following parenteral therapy are unnecessary. Abdominal incision infections are less common than pelvic infections, less common than seromas or hematomas, and usually do not require antimicrobial therapy. Abscesses or infected hematomas require parenteral antimicrobial therapy, and drainage of those located above the cuff will predictably shorten therapy time. With early discharge from the hospital, many infections will not become evident until after the patient is home. For that reason, it is important that the patient's discharge instructions outline symptoms and signs associated with these infections so she can present for care at the earliest possible time.
... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...
... Patients Home / Digestive Health Topic / C. Difficile Infection C. Difficile Infection Basics Overview Diarrhea is a frequent ... that change the normal colon bacteria allowing the C. difficile bacteria to grow and produce its toxins. ...
... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Rotavirus Infections URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Rotavirus Infections - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...
Bladder infection - adults; UTI - adults; Cystitis - bacterial - adults; Pyelonephritis - adults; Kidney infection - adults ... control. Menopause also increases the risk of a UTI. The following also increase your chances of developing ...
Dahl, Anders; Bruun, Niels Eske
Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis (IE) is a disease of increasing importance, with more patients infected, increasing frequency of health-care associated infections and increasing incidence of antimicrobial resistances. The typical clinical presentation is a subacute course with fever...... or ceftriaxone. E. faecalis infective endocarditis continues to be a very serious disease with considerable percentages of high-level gentamicin resistant strains and in-hospital mortality around 20%. Strategies to prevent E. faecalis IE, improve diagnostics, optimize treatment and reduce morbidity...
Full Text Available Porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC is a major economic problem for swine producers world-wide. Pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy of florfenicol oral formulations in domestic animals were evaluated. For this purpose the systematic review and meta-analysis were done. In vitro efficacy of florfenicol showed that this drug is highly effective against most important respiratory pathogens. All these facts are shown in our survey. Three studies in pigs were relevant to include in the meta-analysis, which showed that results in the florfenicol group were better than in comparative control groups in all observed parameters: clinical signs, lung lesions and resolution of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (P<0,001. A second meta-analysis with 7 studies showed that the usage of florfenicol reduces mortality in pig herds with PRDC (P<0.05. Other field trials in pigs using florfenicol oral forms where reviewed. After treatment with florfenicol oral solution there was a significant drop of mortality in both groups of pigs (P<0.01; eg. one using florfenicol oral solution in treating PRDC (n=85 and another mixed pneumoenteric infection (n=54. Analysis of data when using premix in pigs (n=118 also suggests that a medicated premix has a favorable anti-infectious effect on pigs, irrespective of the group of animals or the evolution stage of the disease. Finally, favorable effect of florfenicol in treating swine ileitis was also presented. Regarding their pharmacokinetics, in vitro and clinical efficacy of florfenicol oral forms, they should be considered as a powerful tool for combating complex infections that are frequently met in intensive animal production.
Holt, MS; Andersen, SS; Andersen, Ove
of central nervous system infection of at least 0.7% at Odense University Hospital. This degree of infection is of the same magnitude as that reported for intravascular devices. We found that the patients with generalized symptoms of infection had been catheterized for a longer time, and were older than...
Dahl, Anders; Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Bundgaard, Henning
Because of the nephrotoxic effects of aminoglycosides, the Danish guidelines on infective endocarditis were changed in January 2007, reducing gentamicin treatment in enterococcal infective endocarditis from 4 to 6 weeks to only 2 weeks. In this pilot study, we compare outcomes in patients...... with Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis treated in the years before and after endorsement of these new recommendations....
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the possible correlation between Brucella and HIV infections. Iran is a country where HIV infection is expanding and Brucellosis is prevalent. In the present study, 184 HIV infected patients were assigned and for all of them HIV infection was confirmed by western blot test. In order to identify the prevalence rate of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis in these subjects, sera samples were obtained and Brucella specific serological tests were performed to reveal antibody titers. Detailed history was taken and physical examination was carried out for all of patients. 11 (6% subjects had high titers but only 3 of them were symptomatic. Most of these subjects were injection drug user (IDU men and one was a rural woman. Considering both prevalence rates of Brucella infection (3% and symptomatic brucellosis (0.1% in Iran, our HIV positive patients show higher rates of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis. Preserved cellular immunity of participants and retention of granulocytes activity may explain this poor association; whereas other explanations such as immunological state difference and non-overlapping geographical distribution of the 2 pathogens have been mentioned by various authors.
Kagan, Karl Oliver; Hamprecht, Klaus
Due to the severe risk of long-term sequelae, prenatal cytomegalovirus infection is of particular importance amongst intrauterine viral infections. This review summarizes the current knowledge about CMV infection in pregnancy. A search of the Medline and Embase database was done for articles about CMV infection in pregnany. We performed a detailed review of the literature in view of diagnosis, epidemiology and management of CMV infection in pregnancy. The maternal course of the infection is predominantly asymptomatic; the infection often remains unrecognized until the actual fetal manifestation. Typical ultrasound signs that should arouse suspicion of intrauterine CMV infection can be distinguished into CNS signs such as ventriculomegaly or microcephaly and extracerebral infection signs such as hepatosplenomegaly or hyperechogenic bowel. Current treatment strategies focus on hygienic measures to prevent a maternal CMV infection during pregnancy, on maternal application of hyperimmunoglobulines to avoid materno-fetal transmission in case of a maternal seroconversion, and on an antiviral therapy in case the materno-fetal transmission have occurred. CMV infection in pregnancy may result in a severe developmental disorder of the newborn. This should be taken into account in the treatment of affected and non-affected pregnant women.
Doyle, D.J.; Hanbidge, A.E.; O'Malley, M.E.
Imaging plays a significant role in the detection, characterization and treatment of hepatic infections. Infectious diseases of the liver include pyogenic and amoebic abscesses and parasitic, fungal, viral and granulomatous infections. With increases in worldwide travel, immunosuppression and changing population demographics, identification of cases of hepatic infection is becoming more common in daily practice. Knowledge of the imaging features seen with hepatic infections can assist in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. This review presents the imaging appearances of hepatic infections, emphasizing specific features that may contribute to the diagnosis. Examples of the imaging findings seen with pyogenic and amoebic abscesses, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid), schistosomiasis, candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) are presented
Doyle, D.J. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)]. E-mail: email@example.com; Hanbidge, A.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada); O' Malley, M.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)
Imaging plays a significant role in the detection, characterization and treatment of hepatic infections. Infectious diseases of the liver include pyogenic and amoebic abscesses and parasitic, fungal, viral and granulomatous infections. With increases in worldwide travel, immunosuppression and changing population demographics, identification of cases of hepatic infection is becoming more common in daily practice. Knowledge of the imaging features seen with hepatic infections can assist in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. This review presents the imaging appearances of hepatic infections, emphasizing specific features that may contribute to the diagnosis. Examples of the imaging findings seen with pyogenic and amoebic abscesses, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid), schistosomiasis, candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) are presented.
Mete Sucu; Cihan Cetin; Mehmet Ozsurmeli; Ghanim Khatib; Ceren Cetin; Cuneyt Evruke
The management of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is progressing rapidly. In developed countries, the perinatal transmission rates have decreased from 20-30% to 1-2% with the use of antiretroviral therapy and cesarean section. Interventions for the prevention of prenatal transmission has made the prenatal care of pregnant patients with HIV infection more complex. Rapid development of standard care and continuing increase in the distribution of HIV infection has required clinician...
By the year 2000 there will be six million pregnant women and five to ten million children infected with HIV-1. Intervention strategies have been planned and in some instances already started. A timely and cost-effective strategy needs to take into account that most HIV-1 infected individuals reside in developing countries. Further studies are needed on immunological and virological factors affecting HIV-1 transmission from mother to child, on differential disease progression in affected children, and on transient infection.
Periprosthetic infection is one of the most challenging and difficult complications in orthopaedics. It can result in significant patient distress and disability, with repeated surgeries, increased cost and utilization of medical resources, and in rare cases even mortality. The biggest challenge to date is the correct diagnosis of periprosthetic infection and implementation of effective treatment regimens capable of eradicating the organism. This article reviews the various modalities used in the imaging of periprosthetic and post-arthroplasty infection.
Dennis J. Baumgardner
Full Text Available Fungal infections as a result of freshwater exposure or trauma are fortunately rare. Etiologic agents are varied, but commonly include filamentous fungi and Candida. This narrative review describes various sources of potential freshwater fungal exposure and the diseases that may result, including fungal keratitis, acute otitis externa and tinea pedis, as well as rare deep soft tissue or bone infections and pulmonary or central nervous system infections following traumatic freshwater exposure during natural disasters or near-drowning episodes. Fungal etiology should be suspected in appropriate scenarios when bacterial cultures or molecular tests are normal or when the infection worsens or fails to resolve with appropriate antibacterial therapy.
Full Text Available Background: CMV is the most common agent that causes congenital virus infection. Only 10 % of infected children have symptomatic infection immediately after birth. Signs of central nervous system damage, neurosensory deafness and delayed psychomotor development may manifest as a result of asimptomatic congenital infection later in childhood. In the article we present basic properties of CMV; we describe clinical picture of the congenital infection and possibilities of diagnose and its treatment. We present five children with symptomatic congenital CMV infection that were hospitalized for the period 1992–2002 at the Neonatal department in the University Children’s Hospital in Ljubljana.Conclusions: Identification of infected neonates, especially those with asimptomatic congenital CMV infection, is difficult. Latest incidence of infection in Slovenia is unknown. With new investigations the efficiency of antiviral therapy was discovered but exact indications for therapy are not yet known. CMV vaccine, once available, may ultimately be the best control strategy for this important public health problem. Proper educating women in childbearing age about the risks of CMV and how to avoid disease transmission during pregnancy (hand washing, avoiding mouth-to-mouth contact with preschool children, usage of gloves especially when handling dipers or respiratory secretions are the only control strategies available.
... present in some children, including an infection of the joints ( arthritis ), bones (osteomyelitis), and tendons (tenosynovitis). Less frequently, youngsters may have pneumonia , urinary tract ...
This review summarizes the knowledge of the scientific community for Zika-virus infection. It became popular because of severe congenital damage causes of CNS in newborns whose mothers are infected during pregnancy, as well as the risk of pandemic distribution. Discusses the peculiarities of the biology and ecology of vectors--blood-sucking mosquitoes Aedes; stages in the spread of infection and practical problems which caused during pregnancy. Attention is paid to the recommendations that allow leading national and international medical organizations to deal with the threat Zika-virus infection.
... Testing Treatment & Outcomes Health Professionals Statistics More Resources Candidiasis Candida infections of the mouth, throat, and esophagus Vaginal candidiasis Invasive candidiasis Definition Symptoms Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis ...
Lykkeberg, Anne Kruse; Halling-Sørensen, Bent; Jensen, Lars Bogø
Susceptibilities to metabolites of tiamulin (TIA) and enrofloxacin (ENR) were tested using selected bacteria with previously defined minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC). The TIA metabolites tested were: N-deethyl-tiamulin (DTIA), 2beta-hydroxy-tiamulin (2beta-HTIA) and 8alpha-hydroxy-tiamulin (8alpha-HTIA), and the ENR metabolites were: ciprofloxacin (CIP) and enrofloxacin N-oxide (ENR-N). Bacteria, all of porcine origin, were selected as representatives of bacterial infections (Staphylococcus hyicus and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae), zoonotic bacteria (Campylobacter coli) and indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli and enterococci). Furthermore the effects of these compounds were tested on the microbial community of active sludge to test any negative effect on colony forming units (CFU). DTIA had a potency of 12.5-50% of the potency of TIA. 2beta-HTIA and 8alpha-HTIA had potencies less than 1% of the potency of TIA. ENR-N had a potency of 0.75-1.5% of the potency of ENR, while CIP and ENR had similar potencies. Results obtained here indicate that CIP and DTIA could contribute to the selective pressure for upholding antimicrobial resistant bacteria in animals under ENR or TIA treatment. The most potent metabolites CIP and DTIA showed considerable potencies against activated sludge bacteria compared to the parent compounds. EC(50) (microg/ml) for ENR, CIP, TIA and DTIA were 0.018 [95% CI: 0.028-0.149], 0.064 [95% CI: 0.007-0.046], 6.0 [95% CI: 3.6-9.8], and 9.7 [95% CI: 5.8-16.3], respectively. This indicates that the compounds can change the bacterial population in the sludge, and hereby alter the properties of the sludge.
El Garch, Farid; de Jong, Anno; Simjee, Shabbir; Moyaert, Hilde; Klein, Ulrich; Ludwig, Carolin; Marion, Hervé; Haag-Diergarten, Silke; Richard-Mazet, Alexandra; Thomas, Valérie; Siegwart, Ed
VetPath is an ongoing pan-European antibiotic susceptibility monitoring programme that collects pathogens from diseased cattle, pigs and poultry. In the current study, 996 isolates from cattle and pig respiratory tract infections were tested for their antimicrobial susceptibilities. Non-replicate lung samples or nasopharyngeal/nasal swabs were collected from animals with acute clinical signs in 10 countries during 2009-2012. Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica and Histophilus somni from cattle and P. multocida, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis, Bordetella bronchiseptica and Streptococcus suis from pigs were isolated by standard methods. S. suis was also isolated from meningitis cases. MIC values of 16 or 17 antibiotics were assessed centrally by broth microdilution following CLSI standards. Results were interpreted using CLSI breakpoints where available. Cattle isolates were generally highly susceptible to most antibiotics, except to tetracycline (3.0-12.0% resistance). Low levels of resistance (0-4.0%) were observed for the macrolide antibiotics. Resistance to spectinomycin varied from 0 to 6.0%. In pig isolates similar observations were made. Resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, tulathromycin, tiamulin and tilmicosin was absent or <2%. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance varied from 1.9 to 5.3%, but tetracycline resistance varied from 20.4% in P. multocida to 88.1% in S. suis. For most antibiotics and pathogens the percentage resistance remained unchanged or only increased numerically as compared to that of the period 2002-2006. In conclusion, absence or low resistance to antibiotics with defined clinical breakpoints, except for tetracycline, was observed among the major respiratory tract pathogens recovered from livestock. Comparison of all antibiotics and organisms was hampered since for almost half of the antibiotics no CLSI-defined breakpoints were available. Copyright © 2016
Marks, D J B; Hyams, C; Koo, C Y; Pavlou, M; Robbins, J; Koo, C S; Rodger, G; Huggett, J F; Yap, J; Macrae, M B; Swanton, R H; Zumla, A I; Miller, R F
Infective endocarditis (IE) causes substantial morbidity and mortality. Patient and pathogen profiles, as well as microbiological and operative strategies, continue to evolve. The impact of these changes requires evaluation to inform optimum management and identify individuals at high risk of early mortality. Identification of clinical and microbiological features, and surgical outcomes, among patients presenting to a UK tertiary cardiothoracic centre for surgical management of IE between 1998 and 2010. Retrospective observational cohort study. Clinical, biochemical, microbiological and echocardiographic data were identified from clinical records. Principal outcomes were all-cause 28-day mortality and duration of post-operative admission. Patients (n = 336) were predominantly male (75.0%); median age 52 years (IQR = 41-67). Most cases involved the aortic (56.0%) or mitral (53.9%) valves. Microbiological diagnoses, obtained in 288 (85.7%) patients, included streptococci (45.2%); staphylococci (34.5%); Haemophilus, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, Kingella (HACEK) organisms (3.0%); and fungi (1.8%); 11.3% had polymicrobial infection. Valve replacement in 308 (91.7%) patients included mechanical prostheses (69.8%), xenografts (24.0%) and homografts (6.2%). Early mortality was 12.2%, but fell progressively during the study (P = 0.02), as did median duration of post-operative admission (33.5 to 10.5 days; P = 0.0003). Multivariable analysis showed previous cardiothoracic surgery (OR = 3.85, P = 0.03), neutrophil count (OR = 2.27, P = 0.05), albumin (OR = 0.94, P = 0.04) and urea (OR = 2.63, P < 0.001) predicted early mortality. This study demonstrates reduced post-operative early mortality and duration of hospital admission for IE patients over the past 13 years. Biomarkers (previous cardiothoracic surgery, neutrophil count, albumin and urea), predictive of early post-operative mortality, require prospective evaluation to refine algorithms, further improve
The emergence and re-emergence of viral infections is an ongoing process. Large-scale vaccination programmes led to the eradication or control of some viral infections in the last century, but new viruses are always emerging. Increased travel is leading to a rise in the importation of exotic
Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Prag, Jørgen Brorson; Jensen, J S
Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum are common inhabitants of the human genital tract. Evidence for an aetiological role in pyelonephritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, post-abortion and post-partum fever has been presented. There are sporadic reports of Mycoplasma causing serious...... extragenital infection such as septicemia, septic arthritis, neonatal meningitis and encephalitis. We review 38 cases of surgical infections with Mycoplasma....
This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States. Neglected Parasitic Infections are a group of diseases that afflict vulnerable populations and are often not well studied or diagnosed. A subject matter expert from CDC's Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria describes the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of toxocariasis.
Full Text Available Infection of a self-sealing tunnel incision is a rare but vision-threatening complication of cataract surgery. We describe two cases of side port infection following an uneventful phacoemulsification. Nocardia was isolated in one case. Both the cases were worsening on medical treatment and were successfully treated by therapeutic keratoplasty.
Conclusion: Limited diagnostic and therapeutic capacities compounded by nonavailability of essential antimicrobials in most high-TB-burden countries pose great challenges to physicians involved in the management of these infections. These infections affect the overall outcome and lead to high cost for public health systems.
Yu. V. Lobzin
Full Text Available The key questions to solve the problem of congenital infection in the Russian Federation are: using in national practice over world accepted terminology adapted to the recommendations of the World Health Organization; representation of the modern concepts of an infectious process in the classification of congenital infections; scientific development and introducing in clinical practice the «standard case definitions», applied to different congenital infections; optimization of protocols and clinical guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of congenital infections; improvement a knowledge in the infectious disease for all pecialists involved in the risk assessment of congenital infections, manage pregnancy and children. Based on our experience and analysis of publications, the authors suggest possible solutions.
... The Urinary Tract & How It Works Bladder Infection (Urinary Tract Infection—UTI) in Adults View or Print All ... Bladder infections are the most common type of urinary tract infection (UTI), but any part of your urinary ...
Joel M. Palefsky
Full Text Available While much is known about the natural history of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV infection and its consequences, including cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer, relatively little is known about the natural history of anogenital HPV infection and diseases in men. In part this reflects difficulties in penile sampling and visual assessment of penile lesions. Anal HPV infection and disease also remain poorly understood. Although HPV is transmitted sexually and infects the genitals of both sexes, the cervix remains biologically more vulnerable to malignant transformation than does the penis or anus in men. An understanding of male HPV infection is therefore important in terms of reducing transmission of HPV to women and improving women's health. However, it is also important due to the burden of disease in men, who may develop both penile and anal cancer, particularly among HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Improved sampling techniques of the male genitalia and cohort studies in progress should provide important information on the natural history of anogenital HPV infection and disease in men, including risk factors for HPV acquisition and transmission. The impact of HPV vaccination in women on male anogenital HPV infection will also need to be assessed.
Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by a protozoa named Toxoplasma gondii. It is a very important disease because it is related to fetal anomalies and poor perinatal outcomes like abortus and stillbirth. It spreads via uncooked meat and contaminated food. Timely and appropriate treatment and management of this infection prenatally reduces the risk of serious neurological sequelae. Therefore it is crucial that clinician who takes care of pregnant women know this infection deeply. In this review we aimed to summarize the prenatal diagnosis, complications and treatment of toxoplasma infection. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(4.000: 457-466
Tande, Aaron J.
SUMMARY Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a tremendous burden for individual patients as well as the global health care industry. While a small minority of joint arthroplasties will become infected, appropriate recognition and management are critical to preserve or restore adequate function and prevent excess morbidity. In this review, we describe the reported risk factors for and clinical manifestations of PJI. We discuss the pathogenesis of PJI and the numerous microorganisms that can cause this devastating infection. The recently proposed consensus definitions of PJI and approaches to accurate diagnosis are reviewed in detail. An overview of the treatment and prevention of this challenging condition is provided. PMID:24696437
Full text. The use of nuclear medicine techniques to image infection has been with us for over 20 years, indeed this year sees the 20th anniversary of the publication of Matthew Thakur's paper of the use of In-111 oxime labelled leukocytes in imaging infection. Without doubt this technique has stood the test of time and has been used to save many lives in infected patients worldwide. As we approach the 21st century we are faced with new problems which will need new solutions. Infections themselves have changed their very nature, HIV a benign virus which only infected monkeys in central Africa in 1977 has now spread throughout the globe and unfortunately few societies have remained free of its ravages. In its wake tuberculosis continues to infect both the poor and weak but also has started to re-infect more affluent societies. In its wake tuberculosis continues to infect both both the poor and weak but also has started to re-infect more affluent societies. The use of immuno suppressive therapy in many patients with transplants or cancer has lead to new infections in a wider group of patients. The wide spread use of antibiotics has lead to the emergence of antibiotic resistant organisms. The old approach of widespread antibiotic treatment in patients with suspected infection is not acceptable. If possible organisms must be isolated. Normally imaging is required to localize infection and it is important to realize that a combination or anatomical imaging with CT, ultrasound or MRI and nuclear medicine is often the only way to determine the site of infection. Allied to this a new educated public has demanded that diagnostic tests be accurate and non-invasive, particularly in non-fatal inflammatory disease. All these challenges has lead us to a new frontier in nuclear medicine. In some ways we have had to rediscover the old. For example the use of Ga-67 citrate in imaging tuberculosis or infection in patients with Aids. The use of Tc-99 m HMPAO labelled leukocytes in
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... hospital, including: viral meningitis , an infection of the meninges (membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord) ... and meningoencephalitis (an inflammation of the brain and meninges). In newborns, symptoms can develop within 2 weeks ...
Rybtke, Morten; Hultqvist, Louise Dahl; Givskov, Michael
Studies of biopsies from infectious sites, explanted tissue and medical devises have provided evidence that biofilms are the underlying cause of a variety of tissue-associated and implant-associated recalcitrant human infections. With a need for novel anti-biofilm treatment strategies, research...... in biofilm infection microbiology, biofilm formation mechanisms and biofilm-associated antimicrobial tolerance has become an important area in microbiology. Substantial knowledge about biofilm formation mechanisms, biofilm-associated antimicrobial tolerance and immune evasion mechanisms has been obtained...... through work with biofilms grown in in vitro experimental setups, and the relevance of this information in the context of chronic infections is being investigated by the use of animal models of infection. Because our current in vitro experimental setups and animal models have limitations, new advanced...
AJRH Managing Editor
Sexually transmitted infections constitute economic burden for developing countries, exposure to causative agents is an occupational hazard ... In Nigeria, the deteriorating economic situation has led to ..... female sex workers from Mexico City.
... discomfort Frequent, painful urination Blood in urine Urethra (urethritis) Burning with urination Discharge When to see a ... opening to the bladder. Infection of the urethra (urethritis). This type of UTI can occur when GI ...
SBA National Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Catheterization in Children with Neurogenic Bladder and Bowel Why is it important to begin urologic care in infancy and ...
Lamb, Tracey J
... may be manipulated to develop therapeutic interventions against parasitic infection. For easy reference, the most commonly studied parasites are examined in individual chapters written by investigators at the forefront of their field...
Decrease the inflammatory response Vasodilatation leads to better perfusion and ... Must NOT be allowed to come in contact with brain, meninges, eyes or .... project (SCIP): Evolution of National Quality Measure. Surgical. Infection 2008 ...
... to treat ordinary staph germs. What are Risk Factors for Staph Infection? Many healthy people normally have ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...
... of HIV/AIDS during which there are no symptoms of HIV infection. During this phase, the immune system in someone with HIV slowly weakens, but the person has no symptoms. How long this phase lasts depends on how ...
T. L. Vinogradova
Full Text Available The paper presents the characteristic features of the modern course of infective endocarditis. Unresolved questions of classification of diseaseand drug therapy are discussed. Clearly defined indications for surgical treatment of endocarditis.
P. H. M. Bonai
Full Text Available Nosocomial infection or nosocomial infection (NI is one of the factors that increase the cost of maintaining patients in the health system, even in processes that should safely occur, such as hospital patients and performing simple and routine surgical procedures surgical centers and clinics leading to complications resulting from these infections that prolong hospital stay and promote pain and suffering to the patient, resulting in the defense of the quality of services and influencing negatively the hospitals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to review the factors that result in surgical site infection, with the purpose of better understanding of the subject and the possibility of preventive actions to better treatment outcome of the patient.
... ear infections may get better without antibiotics. Using antibiotics cautiously and with good reason helps prevent the development of bacteria that become resistant to antibiotics. If your doctor prescribes an antibiotic, it’s important ...
Marschang, Rachel E
A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch's postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.
Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a worldwide problem that has ... deep tissue is found on clinical examination, re-opening, histopathological or radiological investigation ..... Esposito S, Immune system and SSI, Journal of Chemotherapy, 2001.
... Swelling and tenderness of the testicles Chlamydia and gonorrhea often occur together. The symptoms of chlamydia infection may be similar to symptoms of gonorrhea, but they continue even after treatment for gonorrhea ...
Rachel E. Marschang
Full Text Available A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.
Munot, Khushboo; Kotler, Donald P
Small intestinal infections are extremely common worldwide. They may be bacterial, viral, or parasitic in etiology. Most are foodborne or waterborne, with specific etiologies differing by region and with diverse pathophysiologies. Very young, very old, and immune-deficient individuals are the most vulnerable to morbidity or mortality from small intestinal infections. There have been significant advances in diagnostic sophistication with the development and early application of molecular diagnostic assays, though these tests have not become mainstream. The lack of rapid diagnoses combined with the self-limited nature of small intestinal infections has hampered the development of specific and effective treatments other than oral rehydration. Antibiotics are not indicated in the absence of an etiologic diagnosis, and not at all in the case of some infections.
This podcast discusses the importance of preventing infections in cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy. Dr. Lisa Richardson, CDC oncologist, talks about a new Web site for cancer patients and their caregivers.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) measures - national data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and collected...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infection (HAI) measures - provider data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and collected...
... parasite, Cryptosporidium , is a common culprit behind diarrhea epidemics in childcare centers and other public places. Cryptosporidium ... take prescription antibiotics to prevent the infection from spreading throughout the body. What Can I Do to ...
Transplantation-associated infections are caused by an infected transplanted organ or the endogenic or exogenic environment of the recipient in a state of induced immunodeficiency. The best therapy would be to reconstitute the immunodeficiency, but this is usually impossible as it endangers the transplanted organ. Thus, a specific, standardised anti-infectious therapy is needed even in the absence of clearly identified micro-organisms [bacteria (in two thirds gram-positive rods), parasites (in central Europe predominantly Toxoplasma), fungi (especially Candida spp. or Aspergillus spp.) or viruses (such as Parvovirus B19 and Cytomegalovirus)]. Origins of infection (e.g., hygiene), types of infection (e.g., reactivation), typical localisations, diagnostic tools (e.g., blood cultures, antigenic tests, PCR, CT, advantages and disadvantages of antibody assays) and possible therapies are briefly discussed. The take home messages are to avoid economy measures in microbial diagnostics and to use CMV-seronegative donors whenever possible.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) measures - state data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and collected...
N. I. Khokhlova
Full Text Available The share of norovirus infection is 17–20% of all cases of acute gastroenteritis in the world. The dominant II genogroup of noroviruses is characterized by rapid variability. The new recombinant norovirus GII.P16-GII.2 caused a sharp increase in the incidence of gastroenteritis in Asian and European countries during the winter season 2016–2017. The epidemiological features of norovirus infection are long-term excretion of the pathogen from the body of patients and carriers of viruses, especially in persons with immunosuppression; the implementation of various transmission routes (food, water, contact, aerosol, high contagiosity, winter seasonality in the countries of the northern hemisphere. In recent years, two human systems for the cultivation of noroviruses in vitro have been created, a double tropism of noroviruses has been established for immune cells and epithelial cells of the intestine, and the life cycle of noroviruses has been studied. The microbiota and its members can be either protective or stimulating for norovirus infection. Lactobacillus may play a protective role against norovirus infection. The existence of chronic norovirus infection lasting from several months to several years is proved, especially in patients with immunodeficiency. Severe form of norovirus infection and deaths are more often recorded in young children, the elderly, patients with comorbidity and immunocompromised individuals. The clinical picture of norovirus gastroenteritis is similar in many respects to other viral gastroenteritis, which determines the need for laboratory verification of the diagnosis. The polymerase chain reaction method with reverse transcription is the most widely used in the world for diagnosing infection in patients and for detecting the virus in food and environmental objects. There are still no approved vaccines and antiviral drugs against this infection. Recommended therapeutic interventions include, along with rehydration with
Lasa, I; Del Pozo, J L; Penadés, J R; Leiva, J
In developed countries we tend to think of heart disease and the numerous forms of cancer as the main causes of mortality, but on a global scale infectious diseases come close, or may even be ahead: 14.9 million deaths in 2002 compared to cardiovascular diseases (16.9 million deaths) and cancer (7.1 million deaths) (WHO report 2004). The infectious agents responsible for human mortality have evolved as medical techniques and hygienic measures have changed. Modern-day acute infectious diseases caused by specialized bacterial pathogens such as diphtheria, tetanus, cholera, plague, which represented the main causes of death at the beginning of XX century, have been effectively controlled with antibiotics and vaccines. In their place, more than half of the infectious diseases that affect mildly immunocompromised patients involve bacterial species that are commensal with the human body; these can produce chronic infections, are resistant to antimicrobial agents and there is no effective vaccine against them. Examples of these infections are the otitis media, native valve endocarditis, chronic urinary infections, bacterial prostatitis, osteomyelitis and all the infections related to medical devices. Direct analysis of the surface of medical devices or of tissues that have been foci of chronic infections shows the presence of large numbers of bacteria surrounded by an exopolysaccharide matrix, which has been named the "biofilm". Inside the biofilm, bacteria grow protected from the action of the antibodies, phagocytic cells and antimicrobial treatments. In this article, we describe the role of bacterial biofilms in human persistent infections.
Souza Goebel, Cristine; de Mattos Oliveira, Flávio; Severo, Luiz Carlos
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an ubiquitous yeast widely used in industry and it is also a common colonizer of the human mucosae. However, the incidence of invasive infection by these fungi has significantly increased in the last decades. To evaluate the infection by S. cerevisiae in a hospital in southern Brazil during a period of 10 years (2000-2010). Review of medical records of patients infected by this fungus. In this period, 6 patients were found to be infected by S. cerevisiae. The age range of the patients was from 10 years to 84. Urine, blood, ascitic fluid, peritoneal dialysis fluid, and esophageal biopsy samples were analyzed. The predisposing factors were cancer, transplant, surgical procedures, renal failure, use of venous catheters, mechanical ventilation, hospitalization in Intensive Care Unit, diabetes mellitus, chemotherapy, corticosteroid use, and parenteral nutrition. Amphotericin B and fluconazole were the treatments of choice. Three of the patients died and the other 3 were discharged from hospital. We must take special precautions in emerging infections, especially when there are predisposing conditions such as immunosuppression or patients with serious illnesses. The rapid and specific diagnosis of S. cerevisiae infections is important for therapeutic decision. Furthermore, epidemiological and efficacy studies of antifungal agents are necessary for a better therapeutic approach. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Antachopoulos, C; Walsh, T J
Despite appropriate antifungal treatment, the management of cryptococcal disease remains challenging, especially in immunocompromised patients, such as human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals and solid organ transplant recipients. During the past two decades, our knowledge of host immune responses against Cryptococcus spp. has been greatly advanced, and the role of immunomodulation in augmenting the response to infection has been investigated. In particular, the role of 'protective' Th1 (tumour necrosis factor-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-12, and IL-18) and Th17 (IL-23 and IL-17) and 'non-protective' Th2 (IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13) cytokines has been extensively studied in vitro and in animal models of cryptococcal infection. Immunomodulation with monoclonal antibodies against the capsular polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan, glucosylceramides, melanin and β-glucan and, lately, with radioimmunotherapy has also yielded promising results in animal models. As a balance between sufficiently protective Th1 responses and excessive inflammation is important for optimal outcome, the effect of immunotherapy may range from beneficial to deleterious, depending on factors related to the host, the infecting organism, and the immunomodulatory regimen. Clinical evidence supporting immunomodulation in patients with cryptococcal infection remains too limited to allow firm recommendations. Limited human data suggest a role for IFN-γ. Identification of surrogate markers characterizing patients' immunological status could possibly suggest candidate patients for immunotherapy and the type of immunomodulation to be administered. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2011 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.
Eggers, H J
Enveloped viruses, e.g. influenza- or varicella viruses may cause highly contagious airborne infections. Their spread is difficult to control, also in hospitals. In the case of influenza and varicella immune prophylaxis and chemotherapy/chemoprophylaxis are possible. This is of particular significance, since varicella and zoster are of increasing importance for immunocompromized patients. Diarrhea is caused to a large extent by viruses. Rotavirus infections play an important role in infancy, and are frequently acquired in the hospital. In a study on infectious gastroenteritis of infants in a hospital we were able to show that 30 percent of all rotavirus infections were of nosocomial origin. Admission of a rotavirus-excreting patient (or personnel) may start a long chain of rotavirus infections on pediatric wards. Even careful hygienic measures in the hospital can hardly prevent the spread of enterovirus infections. Such infections may be severe and lethal for newborns, as shown by us in a study on an outbreak of echovirus 11 disease on a maternity ward. We have recently obtained data on the "stickiness" of enteroviruses on human skin. This could explain essential features of the spread of enteroviruses in the population.
Paolo Domenico Parchi
Full Text Available Postoperative spinal wound infection is a potentially devastating complication after operative spinal procedures. Despite the utilization of perioperative prophylactic antibiotics in recent years and improvements in surgical technique and postoperative care, wound infection continues to compromise patients’ outcome after spinal surgery. In the modern era of pending health care reform with increasing financial constraints, the financial burden of post-operative spinal infections also deserves consideration. The aim of our work is to give to the reader an updated review of the latest achievements in prevention, risk factors, diagnosis, microbiology and treatment of post-operative spinal wound infections. A review of the scientific literature was carried out using electronic medical databases Pubmed, Google Scholar, Web of Science and Scopus for the years 1973-2012 to obtain access to all publications involving the incidence, risk factors, prevention, diagnosis, treatment of postoperative spinal wound infections. We initially identified 119 studies; of these 60 were selected. Despite all the measures intended to reduce the incidence of surgical site infections in spine surgery, these remain a common and potentially dangerous complication.
Madsen, M.B.; Skrede, S.; Bruun, T.; Arnell, P.; Rosén, A.; Nekludov, M.; Karlsson, Y.; Bergey, F.; Saccenti, E.; Martins dos Santos, V.A.P.; Perner, A.; Norrby-Teglund, A.; Hyldegaard, O.
Background: The INFECT project aims to advance our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms in necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs). The INFECT observational study is part of the INFECT project with the aim of studying the clinical profile of patients with NSTIs and correlating
Immune Disorders; Chronic Granulomatous Disease; Genetic Immunological Deficiencies; Hyperimmunoglobulin-E Recurrent Infection Syndrome; Recurrent Infections; Unknown Immune Deficiency; GATA2 Deficiency (MonoMAC); Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections; Hyper IgE (Job s) Syndrome; Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency; Susceptibility to Disseminated Infections; Primary Immune Deficiency Disease (PIDD)
Meis, J.F.G.M.; Verweij, P.E.
The management of superficial fungal infections differs significantly from the management of systemic fungal infections. Most superficial infections are treated with topical antifungal agents, the choice of agent being determined by the site and extent of the infection and by the causative organism,
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections KidsHealth / For Teens / Urinary Tract Infections What's ... especially girls — visit a doctor. What Is a Urinary Tract Infection? A bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) is ...
Milind Madhav Chaudhary
Full Text Available Infected nonunions of tibia pose many challenges to the treating surgeon and the patient. Challenges include recalcitrant infection, complex deformities, sclerotic bone ends, large bone gaps, shortening, and joint stiffness. They are easy to diagnose and difficult to treat. The ASAMI classification helps decide treatment. The nonunion severity score proposed by Calori measures many parameters to give a prognosis. The infection severity score uses simple clinical signs to grade severity of infection. This determines number of surgeries and allows choice of hardware, either external or internal for definitive treatment. Co-morbid factors such as smoking, diabetes, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, and hypovitaminosis D influence the choice and duration of treatment. Thorough debridement is the mainstay of treatment. Removal of all necrotic bone and soft tissue is needed. Care is exercised in shaping bone ends. Internal fixation can help achieve union if infection was mild. Severe infections need external fixation use in a second stage. Compression at nonunion site achieves union. It can be combined with a corticotomy lengthening at a distant site for equalization. Soft tissue deficit has to be covered by flaps, either local or microvascular. Bone gaps are best filled with the reliable technique of bone transport. Regenerate bone may be formed proximally, distally, or at both sites. Acute compression can fill bone gaps and may need a fibular resection. Gradual reduction of bone gap happens with bone transport, without need for fibulectomy. When bone ends dock, union may be achieved by vertical or horizontal compression. Biological stimulus from iliac crest bone grafts, bone marrow aspirate injections, and platelet concentrates hasten union. Bone graft substitutes add volume to graft and help fill defects. Addition of rh-BMP-7 may help in healing albeit at a much higher cost. Regeneration may need stimulation and augmentation. Induced
Full Text Available Abstract Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria. They are responsible for a broad range of diseases in animals and humans. In pigs, Chlamydia suis, Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia psittaci have been isolated. Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs are associated with different pathologies such as conjunctivitis, pneumonia, pericarditis, polyarthritis, polyserositis, pseudo-membranous or necrotizing enteritis, periparturient dysgalactiae syndrome, vaginal discharge, return to oestrus, abortion, mummification, delivery of weak piglets, increased perinatal and neonatal mortality and inferior semen quality, orchitis, epididymitis and urethritis in boars. However, Chlamydiaceae are still considered as non-important pathogens because reports of porcine chlamydiosis are rare. Furthermore, Chlamydiaceae infections are often unnoticed because tests for Chlamydiaceae are not routinely performed in all veterinary diagnostic laboratories and Chlamydiaceae are often found in association with other pathogens, which are sometimes more easily to detect. However, recent studies have demonstrated that Chlamydiaceae infections in breeding sows, boars and piglets occur more often than thought and are economically important. This paper presents an overview on: the taxonomy of Chlamydiaceae occurring in pigs, diagnostic considerations, epidemiology and pathology of infections with Chlamydiaceae in pigs, public health significance and finally on prevention and treatment of Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs.
Full Text Available Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases in the world. Presently dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. It has been estimated that almost 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF occur worldwide. An increasing proportion of DHF is in children less than 15 years of age, especially in South East and South Asia. The unique structure of the dengue virus and the pathophysiologic responses of the host, different serotypes, and favorable conditions for vector breeding have led to the virulence and spread of the infections. The manifestations of dengue infections are protean from being asymptomatic to undifferentiated fever, severe dengue infections, and unusual complications. Early recognition and prompt initiation of appropriate supportive treatment are often delayed resulting in unnecessarily high morbidity and mortality. Attempts are underway for the development of a vaccine for preventing the burden of this neglected disease. This review outlines the epidemiology, clinical features, pathophysiologic mechanisms, management, and control of dengue infections.
Full Text Available Adolescents who are sexually active have the highest rates of prevalent and incident HPV infection rates with over 50–80% having infections within 2–3 years of initiating intercourse. These high rates reflect sexual behavior and biologic vulnerability. Most infections are transient in nature and cause no cytologic abnormality. However, a small number of adolescents will not clear the infection. Persistence of HPV is strongly linked to the development of high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions (HSIL and invasive cancer. The HSIL detected, however, does not appear to progress rapidly to invasive cancer. Understanding the natural history of HPV in adolescents has shed light into optional treatment strategies which include watchful observation of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS and low grade (LSIL. The association between age of first intercourse and invasive cancer cannot be ignored. Consequently, initiating screening at appropriate times in this vulnerable group is essential. In addition, with the advent of the HPV vaccine, vaccination prior to the onset of sexual activity is critical since most infections occur within a short time frame post initiation.
Full Text Available The infections of the spinal axis in children are rare when compared with adults. They encompass a large spectrum of diseases ranging from relatively benign diskitis to spinal osteomyleitis and to the rapidly progressive, rare, and potentially devastating spinal epidural, subdural, and intramedullary spinal cord infections. We present a comprehensive review of the literature pertaining to these uncommon entities, in light of our experience from northern India. The most prevalent pediatric spinal infection in Indian scenario is tuberculosis, where an extradural involvement is more common than intradural. The craniovertebral junction is not an uncommon site of involvement in children of our milieu. The majority of pyogenic infections of pediatric spine are associated with congenital neuro-ectodermal defects such as congenital dermal sinus. The clinico-radiological findings of various spinal infections commonly overlap. Hence the endemicity of certain pathogens should be given due consideration, while considering the differential diagnosis. However, early suspicion, rapid diagnosis, and prompt treatment are the key factors in avoiding neurological morbidity and deformity in a growing child.
Bonello, M; Michael, B D; Solomon, T
A wide range of infections of the central nervous system are responsible for both acute seizures and epilepsy. The pathogenesis and clinical semiology of the seizure disorders vary widely between the infective pathogens. The exact mechanisms underlying this are poorly understood, but appear, at least in part, to relate to the pathogen; the degree of cortical involvement; delays in treatment; and the host inflammatory response. The treatment of infective causes of seizures involves both symptomatic treatment with antiepileptic drugs and direct treatment of the underlying condition. In many cases, early treatment of the infection may affect the prognosis of the epilepsy syndrome. The greatest burden of acute and long-term infection-related seizures occurs in resource-poor settings, where both clinical and research facilities are often lacking to manage such patients adequately. Nevertheless, education programs may go a long way toward addressing the stigma, leading to improved diagnosis, management, and ultimately to better quality of life. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Bacteria in natural, industrial and clinical settings predominantly live in biofilms, i.e., sessile structured microbial communities encased in self-produced extracellular matrix material. One of the most important characteristics of microbial biofilms is that the resident bacteria display...... a remarkable increased tolerance toward antimicrobial attack. Biofilms formed by opportunistic pathogenic bacteria are involved in devastating persistent medical device-associated infections, and chronic infections in individuals who are immune-compromised or otherwise impaired in the host defense. Because...... the use of conventional antimicrobial compounds in many cases cannot eradicate biofilms, there is an urgent need to develop alternative measures to combat biofilm infections. The present review is focussed on the important opportunistic pathogen and biofilm model organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Initially...
Full Text Available The management of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection is progressing rapidly. In developed countries, the perinatal transmission rates have decreased from 20-30% to 1-2% with the use of antiretroviral therapy and cesarean section. Interventions for the prevention of prenatal transmission has made the prenatal care of pregnant patients with HIV infection more complex. Rapid development of standard care and continuing increase in the distribution of HIV infection has required clinicians taking care of pregnants to have current information. Therefore, in our review we aimed to summarize the prenatal course, treatment and preventive methods for perinatal transmission of HIV. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(4.000: 522-535
Reinout A. Bem
Full Text Available Pneumovirus infections cause a wide spectrum of respiratory disease in humans and animals. The airway epithelium is the major site of pneumovirus replication. Apoptosis or regulated cell death, may contribute to the host anti-viral response by limiting viral replication. However, apoptosis of lung epithelial cells may also exacerbate lung injury, depending on the extent, the timing and specific location in the lungs. Differential apoptotic responses of epithelial cells versus innate immune cells (e.g., neutrophils, macrophages during pneumovirus infection can further contribute to the complex and delicate balance between host defense and disease pathogenesis. The purpose of this manuscript is to give an overview of the role of apoptosis in pneumovirus infection. We will examine clinical and experimental data concerning the various pro-apoptotic stimuli and the roles of apoptotic epithelial and innate immune cells during pneumovirus disease. Finally, we will discuss potential therapeutic interventions targeting apoptosis in the lungs.
Full Text Available During the retrospective study, which was conducted in the period from 01.01. to 31.12.2012, we have examined 1035 samples of vaginal secretions, cervical swabs and urethral swab the UU and Mh. The main objective of the study was to determine the incidence of mycoplasma infections, the distribution by sex, age of patients, the clinical diagnosis for which it was conducted microbiological testing of patients and determine the sensitivity of the isolated pathogens to antibiotics. From a total of 1035 samples tested positive findings were in 331 patients, of which 316 (95.5% women and 15 (4.5% males. The difference was statistically significant. There were no statistically significant differences in average age among women (29 years and women (30. Infection with a UU was statistically significantly higher (70.1% compared to the MH (5.4% and a mixed infection (24.5%. The incidence of infections caused by UU in females was 70% and 80% in males. Males and females do not differ significantly according to the frequency of infections caused by UU. The highest incidence of female patients, was diagnosed with vulvovaginitis 34% Colpitis had 22%; Colpitis and cervicitis-17%, while only Cervicitis was diagnosed in 10% of patients. The difference in the incidence of clinical diagnosis was statistically significant. The difference in the incidence of clinical diagnosis was statistically significant. All pathogens isolated showed significantly greater osteljivost three or more antibiotics. The sensitivity of the three or more antibiotics is not significantly associated with the cause of the infection.
Vezzani, Annamaria; Fujinami, Robert S.; White, H. Steve; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Blümcke, Ingmar; Sander, Josemir W.; Löscher, Wolfgang
Epilepsy is the tendency to have unprovoked epileptic seizures. Anything causing structural or functional derangement of brain physiology may lead to seizures, and different conditions may express themselves solely by recurrent seizures and thus be labelled “epilepsy.” Worldwide, epilepsy is the most common serious neurological condition. The range of risk factors for the development of epilepsy varies with age and geographic location. Congenital, developmental and genetic conditions are mostly associated with the development of epilepsy in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood. Head trauma, infections of the central nervous system (CNS) and tumours may occur at any age and may lead to the development of epilepsy. Infections of the CNS are a major risk factor for epilepsy. The reported risk of unprovoked seizures in population-based cohorts of survivors of CNS infections from developed countries is between 6.8 and 8.3 %, and is much higher in resource-poor countries. In this review, the various viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic infectious diseases of the CNS which result in seizures and epilepsy are discussed. The pathogenesis of epilepsy due to brain infections, as well as the role of experimental models to study mechanisms of epileptogenesis induced by infectious agents, is reviewed. The sterile (non-infectious) inflammatory response that occurs following brain insults is also discussed, as well as its overlap with inflammation due to infections, and the potential role in epileptogenesis. Furthermore, autoimmune encephalitis as a cause of seizures is reviewed. Potential strategies to prevent epilepsy resulting from brain infections and non-infectious inflammation are also considered. PMID:26423537
Cabello, Raúl Romero; Ruiz, Aurora Candil; Feregrino, Raul Romero; Romero, Leticia Calderón; Feregrino, Rodrigo Romero; Zavala, Jorge Tay
Dipylidium caninum is a cestode that requires from the participation of an arthropod in its life cycle. This parasitosis occurs in dogs and cats, and occasionally in human beings. Human cases of D caninum infection have been reported in Europe, Philippines, China, Japan, Latin America and the United States; mostly children, one third of them being infants under 6 months old. The diagnosis of this disease is done by the parasitological study of the feces, observing the characteristics of the gravid proglottids. The treatment is performed by administering broad-spectrum anthelmintics. The authors report a case of a rare infection in a Mexican child.
This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States. Neglected Parasitic Infections are a group of diseases that afflict vulnerable populations and are often not well studied or diagnosed. A subject matter expert from CDC's Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria describes the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of toxocariasis. Created: 1/5/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria (DPDM); Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC), Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR). Date Released: 1/9/2012.
... one of the most common causes of waterborne disease in the United States. The parasites are found in backcountry streams and lakes but also in municipal water supplies, swimming pools, whirlpool spas and wells. Giardia infection can be transmitted through food and person-to-person contact. Giardia ...
Dr. Nancy Strockbine, Chief of the Escherichia and Shigella Reference Unit at CDC, discusses Shigella sonnei infections. Created: 11/17/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 11/21/2011.
In the early literature, vitamin C deficiency was associated with pneumonia. After its identification, a number of studies investigated the effects of vitamin C on diverse infections. A total of 148 animal studies indicated that vitamin C may alleviate or prevent infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. The most extensively studied human infection is the common cold. Vitamin C administration does not decrease the average incidence of colds in the general population, yet it halved the number of colds in physically active people. Regularly administered vitamin C has shortened the duration of colds, indicating a biological effect. However, the role of vitamin C in common cold treatment is unclear. Two controlled trials found a statistically significant dose-response, for the duration of common cold symptoms, with up to 6-8 g/day of vitamin C. Thus, the negative findings of some therapeutic common cold studies might be explained by the low doses of 3-4 g/day of vitamin C. Three controlled trials found that vitamin C prevented pneumonia. Two controlled trials found a treatment benefit of vitamin C for pneumonia patients. One controlled trial reported treatment benefits for tetanus patients. The effects of vitamin C against infections should be investigated further.
Full Text Available In the early literature, vitamin C deficiency was associated with pneumonia. After its identification, a number of studies investigated the effects of vitamin C on diverse infections. A total of 148 animal studies indicated that vitamin C may alleviate or prevent infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. The most extensively studied human infection is the common cold. Vitamin C administration does not decrease the average incidence of colds in the general population, yet it halved the number of colds in physically active people. Regularly administered vitamin C has shortened the duration of colds, indicating a biological effect. However, the role of vitamin C in common cold treatment is unclear. Two controlled trials found a statistically significant dose–response, for the duration of common cold symptoms, with up to 6–8 g/day of vitamin C. Thus, the negative findings of some therapeutic common cold studies might be explained by the low doses of 3–4 g/day of vitamin C. Three controlled trials found that vitamin C prevented pneumonia. Two controlled trials found a treatment benefit of vitamin C for pneumonia patients. One controlled trial reported treatment benefits for tetanus patients. The effects of vitamin C against infections should be investigated further.
Köhler, Julia R; Hube, Bernhard; Puccia, Rosana; Casadevall, Arturo; Perfect, John R
Fungi must meet four criteria to infect humans: growth at human body temperatures, circumvention or penetration of surface barriers, lysis and absorption of tissue, and resistance to immune defenses, including elevated body temperatures. Morphogenesis between small round, detachable cells and long, connected cells is the mechanism by which fungi solve problems of locomotion around or through host barriers. Secretion of lytic enzymes, and uptake systems for the released nutrients, are necessary if a fungus is to nutritionally utilize human tissue. Last, the potent human immune system evolved in the interaction with potential fungal pathogens, so few fungi meet all four conditions for a healthy human host. Paradoxically, the advances of modern medicine have made millions of people newly susceptible to fungal infections by disrupting immune defenses. This article explores how different members of four fungal phyla use different strategies to fulfill the four criteria to infect humans: the Entomophthorales, the Mucorales, the Ascomycota, and the Basidiomycota. Unique traits confer human pathogenic potential on various important members of these phyla: pathogenic Onygenales comprising thermal dimorphs such as Histoplasma and Coccidioides ; the Cryptococcus spp. that infect immunocompromised as well as healthy humans; and important pathogens of immunocompromised patients- Candida , Pneumocystis , and Aspergillus spp. Also discussed are agents of neglected tropical diseases important in global health such as mycetoma and paracoccidiomycosis and common pathogens rarely implicated in serious illness such as dermatophytes. Commensalism is considered, as well as parasitism, in shaping genomes and physiological systems of hosts and fungi during evolution.
Dr. Lisa Manhart, a professor of Epidemiology and Global Health with the Center for AIDS and STD at the University of Washington, discusses Mycoplasma genitalium Infections. Created: 2/8/2018 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 2/8/2018.
This 30 second public service announcement is about how to avoid a wound infection after a disaster. Created: 10/25/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 10/25/2017.
Baddley, J. W.; Benjamin, D. K.; Patel, M.; Miró, J.; Athan, E.; Barsic, B.; Bouza, E.; Clara, L.; Elliott, T.; Kanafani, Z.; Klein, J.; Lerakis, S.; Levine, D.; Spelman, D.; Rubinstein, E.; Tornos, P.; Morris, A. J.; Pappas, P.; Fowler, V. G.; Chu, V. H.; Cabell, C.; DraGordon, David; Devi, Uma; Spelman, Denis; van der Meer, Jan T. M.; Kauffman, Carol; Bradley, Suzanne; Armstrong, William; Giannitsioti, Efthymia; Giamarellou, Helen; Lerakis, Stamatios; del Rio, Ana; Moreno, Asuncio; Mestres, Carlos A.; Pare, Carlos; Garcia de la Maria, Cristina; de Lazzario, Elisa; Marco, Francesc; Gatell, Jose M.; Miro, Jose M.; Almela, Manel; Azqueta, Manuel; Jimenez-Exposito, Maria Jesus; de Benito, Natividad; Perez, Noel; Almirante, Benito; Fernandez-Hidalgo, Nuria; de Vera, Pablo Rodriguez; Tornos, Pilar; Falco, Vicente
Candida infective endocarditis (IE) is uncommon but often fatal. Most epidemiologic data are derived from small case series or case reports. This study was conducted to explore the epidemiology, treatment patterns, and outcomes of patients with Candida IE. We compared 33 Candida IE cases to 2,716
... IV) to kill the germs. If you take antibiotics while you’re in labor, the chances are very good that your baby won’t get this infection. What if my baby has group B strep? If your baby gets group B strep, he or she will be treated with IV antibiotics to kill the bacteria. Your baby will stay ...
Roderick Micallef has a long family history within the construction industry. He coupled this passion with a fascination with science when reading for an undergraduate degree in Biology and Chemistry (University of Malta). http://www.um.edu.mt/think/healing-stone-by-infection/
Stewart, Philip S
This article examines a likely basis of the tenacity of biofilm infections that has received relatively little attention: the resistance of biofilms to mechanical clearance. One way that a biofilm infection persists is by withstanding the flow of fluid or other mechanical forces that work to wash or sweep microorganisms out of the body. The fundamental criterion for mechanical persistence is that the biofilm failure strength exceeds the external applied stress. Mechanical failure of the biofilm and release of planktonic microbial cells is also important in vivo because it can result in dissemination of infection. The fundamental criterion for detachment and dissemination is that the applied stress exceeds the biofilm failure strength. The apparent contradiction for a biofilm to both persist and disseminate is resolved by recognizing that biofilm material properties are inherently heterogeneous. There are also mechanical aspects to the ways that infectious biofilms evade leukocyte phagocytosis. The possibility of alternative therapies for treating biofilm infections that work by reducing biofilm cohesion could (1) allow prevailing hydrodynamic shear to remove biofilm, (2) increase the efficacy of designed interventions for removing biofilms, (3) enable phagocytic engulfment of softened biofilm aggregates, and (4) improve phagocyte mobility and access to biofilm. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.
... need.) When you visit a patient in the hospital, keep your hands away from your face. Cough or sneeze into a tissue or into the crease of your elbow, not into the air. References Calfee DP. Prevention and control of health care-associated infections. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...
... disrupt the pH balance of the vagina. Common yeast infection symptoms include vaginal itching and a white, thick discharge that looks ... and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/candidiasis.htm. Accessed Aug. 27, ... Vagina, Cervix, Toxic Shock Syndrome, Endometritis, and Salpingitis. In: ...
Sno, H. N.; Storosum, J. G.; Wortel, C. H.
The case of a man who falsely represented himself as being HIV positive is reported. In less than one year he was admitted twice with symptoms suggestive of HIV infection. The diagnoses malingering and factitious disorder were consecutively made. Early recognition of Factitious Disorder is essential
Nsouli, K A; Lazarus, M; Schoenbaum, S C; Gottlieb, M N; Lowrie, E G; Shocair, M
This is a retrospective study of 133 episodes of bacteremic infection in 112 hemodialysis patients. The frequency of bacteremic infection was 9.5% in patients with chronic renal failure and 10.9% in patients with acute renal failure. In patients with acute renal failure, pneumonia and intra-abdominal abscess were the most frequent sources of septicemia. Sepsis was usually due to Gram-negative organisms and mortality was high. In patients with chronic renal failure, infection of the shunt or fistula was the most common cause, was frequently due to Staphylococcus organism, and had a more favorable survival rate. Gram-negative septicemia from a nonaccess source in patients with chronic renal failure was associated with a higher mortality. Bacterial endocarditis and septic pulmonary emboli occurred in 3.6% of septic episodes and 0.35% of patients at risk and had very low mortality. A low threshold for obtaining blood cultures and early antibiotic treatment are believed to be important in the treatment of bacteremic infections in patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis.
Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.
This module on urinary tract infections is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are…
Keller, Tymen T.; Mairuhu, Albert T. A.; de Kruif, Martijn D.; Klein, Saskia K.; Gerdes, Victor E. A.; ten Cate, Hugo; Brandjes, Dees P. M.; Levi, Marcel; van Gorp, Eric C. M.
Systemic infection by various pathogens interacts with the endothelium and may result in altered coagulation, vasculitis and atherosclerosis. Endothelium plays a role in the initiation and regulation of both coagulation and fibrinolysis. Exposure of endothelial cells may lead to rapid activation of
... infected person’s herpes sore or fluid from a herpes sore. Having genital herpes during pregnancy can cause serious health problems for ... pass herpes to your baby if you have genital herpes sores and blisters (called an outbreak) for the ...
Cahill, Thomas J; Baddour, Larry M; Habib, Gilbert; Hoen, Bruno; Salaun, Erwan; Pettersson, Gosta B; Schäfers, Hans Joachim; Prendergast, Bernard D
Infective endocarditis is defined by a focus of infection within the heart and is a feared disease across the field of cardiology. It is frequently acquired in the health care setting, and more than one-half of cases now occur in patients without known heart disease. Despite optimal care, mortality approaches 30% at 1 year. The challenges posed by infective endocarditis are significant. It is heterogeneous in etiology, clinical manifestations, and course. Staphylococcus aureus, which has become the predominant causative organism in the developed world, leads to an aggressive form of the disease, often in vulnerable or elderly patient populations. There is a lack of research infrastructure and funding, with few randomized controlled trials to guide practice. Longstanding controversies such as the timing of surgery or the role of antibiotic prophylaxis have not been resolved. The present article reviews the challenges posed by infective endocarditis and outlines current and future strategies to limit its impact. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dr. David Tribble, acting director of the infectious disease clinical research program at Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, discusses fungal wound infections after combat trauma. Created: 1/28/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 1/28/2016.
ble exposure to HIV infection and associated risk fac- tors, information regarding demographic data, blood transfusion history, travelling from/to HIV endemic countries, history of imprisonment in the past 5 years, symptoms and signs of AIDS, lifestyle (number of sexu- al partners, heterosexual, homosexual, etc.) was collect-.
This podcast is based on the March 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. C. difficile is a germ that causes diarrhea linked to 14,000 deaths in the US each year. This podcast helps health care professionals learn how to prevent C. difficile infections.
Rofael, Martin; Schwartz, Ilan S; Sigler, Lynne; Kong, Li K; Nelson, Nicholas
Emmonsia-like fungi have rarely been reported from North America. We report a fatal case of E. helica infection in a man with advanced HIV infection from California, USA, who had progressive respiratory failure and a brain abscess.
Nelson, H D; Helfand, M
To examine data on the effectiveness of screening for chlamydial infection by a physician or other health care professional. Specifically, we examine the evidence that early treatment of chlamydial infection improves health outcomes, as well as evidence of the effectiveness of screening strategies in nonpregnant women, pregnant women, and men, and the accuracy of tests used for screening. This review updates the literature since the last recommendation of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force published in 1996. We searched the topic of chlamydia in the MEDLINE, HealthSTAR, and Cochrane Library databases from January 1994 to July 2000, supplemented by reference lists of relevant articles and from experts in the field. Articles published prior to 1994 and research abstracts were cited if particularly important to the key questions or to the interpretation of included articles. A single reader reviewed all English abstracts. Articles were selected for full review if they were about Chlamydia trachomatis genitourinary infections in nonpregnant women, pregnant women, or men and were relevant to key questions in the analytic framework. Investigators read the full-text version of the retrieved articles and applied additional eligibility criteria. For all topics, we excluded articles if they did not provide sufficient information to determine the methods for selecting subjects and for analyzing data. We systematically reviewed three types of studies about screening in nonpregnant women that relate to three key questions: (1) studies about the effectiveness of screening programs in reducing prevalence rates of infection, (2) studies about risk factors for chlamydial infection in women, and (3) studies about chlamydial screening tests in women. Our search found too few studies on pregnant women to systematically review, although pertinent studies are described. We systematically reviewed two types of studies about screening in men: (1) studies about prevalence rates and
Sulkowski, Mark S
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a spherical enveloped RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family, classified within the Hepacivirus genus. Since its discovery in 1989, HCV has been recognized as a major cause of chronic hepatitis and hepatic fibrosis that progresses in some patients to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In the United States, approximately 4 million people have been infected with HCV, and 10,000 HCVrelated deaths occur each year. Due to shared routes of transmission, HCV and HIV co-infection are common, affecting approximately one third of all HIV-infected persons in the United States. In addition, HIV co-infection is associated with higher HCV RNA viral load and a more rapid progression of HCV-related liver disease, leading to an increased risk of cirrhosis. HCV infection may also impact the course and management of HIV disease, particularly by increasing the risk of antiretroviral drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Thus, chronic HCV infection acts as an opportunistic disease in HIV-infected persons because the incidence of infection is increased and the natural history of HCV infection is accelerated in co-infected persons. Strategies to prevent primary HCV infection and to modify the progression of HCV-related liver disease are urgently needed among HIV/HCV co-infected individuals.
Takahashi, Saeko; Xu, Chieko; Sakai, Tetsuya; Fujii, Kotaro; Nakamura, Morio
We report the first case of infective endocarditis following urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by Globicatella sanguinis in an 87-year-old Japanese woman with recurrent episodes of UTI. We identified the pathogen using the Rapid ID32 Strep system. Accurate identification of this infection is important and essential for the effective antimicrobial coverage to this pathogen.
Full Text Available The infection from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV or virus of infectious mononucleosis, together with other herpesviruses’ infections, represents a prototype of persistent viral infections characterized by the property of the latency. Although the reactivations of the latent infection are associated with the resumption of the viral replication and eventually with the “shedding”, it is still not clear if this virus can determine chronic infectious diseases, more or less evolutive. These diseases could include some pathological conditions actually defined as “idiopathic”and characterized by the “viral persistence” as the more credible pathogenetic factor. Among the so-called idiopathic syndromes, the “chronic fatigue syndrome” (CFS aroused a great interest around the eighties of the last century when, just for its relationship with EBV, it was called “chronic mononucleosis” or “chronic EBV infection”. Today CFS, as defined in 1994 by the CDC of Atlanta (USA, really represents a multifactorial syndrome characterized by a chronic course, where reactivation and remission phases alternate, and by a good prognosis. The etiopathogenetic role of EBV is demonstrated only in a well-examined subgroup of patients, while in most of the remaining cases this role should be played by other infectious agents - able to remain in a latent or persistent way in the host – or even by not infectious agents (toxic, neuroendocrine, methabolic, etc.. However, the pathogenetic substrate of the different etiologic forms seems to be the same, much probably represented by the oxidative damage due to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines as a response to the triggering event (infectious or not infectious. Anyway, recently the scientists turned their’s attention to the genetic predisposition of the subjects affected by the syndrome, so that in the last years the genetic studies, together with those of molecular biology, received a great impulse
Full Text Available ... urinary tract infection, or UTI, you're probably thinking about peeing quite a lot. Why? Because it ... you have a bladder infection, your doctor will order some medicine for you to take to kill ...
Having HIV/AIDS weakens your body's immune system. It destroys the white blood cells that fight infection. This puts ... such as crypto (cryptosporidiosis) and toxo (toxoplasmosis) Having HIV/AIDS can make infections harder to treat. People ...
Full Text Available ... Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals ... Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Urinary Tract ...
Full Text Available ... Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) ... a bladder infection, your doctor will order some medicine for you to take to kill the bacteria. ...
Full Text Available ... Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety ... Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports ...
Full Text Available ... Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & ... Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Urinary Tract ...
Full Text Available ... padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life ... get up into the bladder more easily and cause an infection there. Some of the bacteria that ...
Full Text Available ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for ... can cause a bladder infection, which is a type of UTI. You may also hear a bladder ...
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The common signs of virus respiratory diseases, role of pathological inclination to infections, value of immunodeficiency are presented at lecture. Features of most often meeting respiratory virus infections are given.
5.00%) of 140 examined at the secondary school category were infected. There were more infections among the secondary school students than their primary school counterparts, though the difference was not significant (p>0.05). Full Length R.
Full Text Available ... infection before anyone else can see there's anything wrong with you. That's why it's important to talk ... kidney infection and you should see a doctor right away. What Will the Doctor Do? First, your ...
Benn, Marianne; Hagelskjaer, L H; Tvede, M
To characterize the epidemiology and the clinical and microbiological spectrum of infective endocarditis in a Danish population.......To characterize the epidemiology and the clinical and microbiological spectrum of infective endocarditis in a Danish population....
Full Text Available ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? What Exactly Is ...
Full Text Available ... padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life ... Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) ...
Full Text Available ... Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & ... para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert ...
Sahil Aggarwal, BS
Full Text Available History of present illness: A 71-year-old woman with a history of metastatic ovarian cancer presented with sudden onset, rapidly progressing painful rash in the genital region and lower abdominal wall. She was febrile to 103°F, heart rate was 114 beats per minute, and respiratory rate was 24 per minute. Her exam was notable for a toxic-appearing female with extensive areas of erythema, tenderness, and induration to her lower abdomen, intertriginous areas, and perineum with intermittent segments of crepitus without hemorrhagic bullae or skin breakdown. Significant findings: Computed tomography (CT of the abdominal and pelvis with intravenous (IV contrast revealed inflammatory changes, including gas and fluid collections within the ventral abdominal wall extending to the vulva, consistent with a necrotizing soft tissue infection. Discussion: Necrotizing fasciitis is a serious infection of the skin and soft tissues that requires an early diagnosis to reduce morbidity and mortality. Classified into several subtypes based on the type of microbial infection, necrotizing fasciitis can rapidly progress to septic shock or death if left untreated.1 Diagnosing necrotizing fasciitis requires a high index of suspicion based on patient risk factors, presentation, and exam findings. Definitive treatment involves prompt surgical exploration and debridement coupled with IV antibiotics.2,3 Clinical characteristics such as swelling, disproportionate pain, erythema, crepitus, and necrotic tissue should be a guide to further diagnostic tests.4 Unfortunately, lab values such as white blood cell count and lactate imaging studies have high sensitivity but low specificity, making the diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis still largely a clinical one.4,5 CT is a reliable method to exclude the diagnosis of necrotizing soft tissue infections (sensitivity of 100%, but is only moderately reliable in correctly identifying such infections (specificity of 81%.5 Given the emergent
Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Skov Jensen, J; Prag, J
laboratory techniques, the percentage of culture-negative yet grossly infected vascular grafts seems to be increasing and is not adequately explained by the prior use of antibiotics. We have recently reported the first case of aortic graft infection with Mycoplasma. We therefore suggest the hypothesis...... that the large number of culture-negative yet grossly infected vascular grafts may be due to Mycoplasma infection not detected with conventional laboratory technique....
Hartmann, K.M.; Zimmer, A.; Reith, W.
This article gives a review of the most frequent infective agents reasonable for CNS infections in immunocompetent patients as well as their localisation and imaging specifications. MRI scanning is the gold standard to detect inflammatory conditions in the CNS. Imaging can be normal or nonspecifically altered although the infection is culturally or bioptically proven. There are no pathognomonic, pathogen-specific imaging criteria. The localization and dimension of the inflammation depends on the infection pathway. (orig.) [de
Kokotovic, Branko; Angen, Øystein; Bisgaard, Magne
Genetic diversity detected by analysis of amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) of 54 Actinobacilus lignieresii isolates from different hosts and geographic localities is described. On the basis of variances in AFLP profiles, the strains were grouped in two major clusters; one comprisin...
Ihlemann, Nikolaj; Møller-Hansen, Michael; Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten
OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) infections are increasing in numbers. The objective was to review the clinical presentation and outcome in patients affected with CIED infections with either local pocket or systemic presentation. DESIGN: All device removals due to CIED......-up no relapses and two cases of new infections were noted (2.8%). CONCLUSIONS: CIED infection with systemic or pocket infection was difficult to distinguish in clinical presentation and outcome. Complete device removal and antibiotic treatment of long duration was safe and without relapses....
Madsen, M. B.; Skrede, S.; Bruun, T.
these to patient-important outcomes. With this protocol and statistical analysis plan we describe the methods used to obtain data and the details of the planned analyses. Methods: The INFECT study is a multicentre, prospective observational cohort study. Patients with NSTIs are enrolled in five Scandinavian......Background: The INFECT project aims to advance our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms in necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs). The INFECT observational study is part of the INFECT project with the aim of studying the clinical profile of patients with NSTIs and correlating...
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common bacterial infections in women, with ... Acute cystitis refers to symptomatic infection of the bladder in the lower ... lungs in a patient with pneumonia.4. Risk factors ... use of antimicrobial agents for community-acquired UTIs has resulted in the emergence of antimicrobial resistance.
Full Text Available Purpose. Hand infections are common, usually resulting from an untreated injury. In this retrospective study, we report on hand infection cases needing surgical drainage in order to assess patient demographics, causation of infection, clinical course, and clinical management.Methods. Medical records of patients presenting with hand infections, excluding post-surgical infections, treated with incision and debridement over a one-year period were reviewed. Patient demographics; past medical history; infection site(s and causation; intervals between onset of infection, hospital admission, surgical intervention and days of hospitalization; gram stains and cultures; choice of antibiotics; complications; and outcomes were reviewed.Results. Most infections were caused by laceration and the most common site of infection was the palm or dorsum of the hand. Mean length of hospitalization was 6 days. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, beta-hemolytic Streptococcus and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus were the most commonly cultured microorganisms. Cephalosporins, clindamycin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, penicillin, vancomycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole were major antibiotic choices. Amputations and contracture were the primary complications.Conclusions. Surgery along with medical management were key to treatment and most soft tissue infections resolved without further complications. With prompt and appropriate care, most hand infection patients can achieve full resolution of their infection.
Nosocomial infections are a major source of morbidity and mortality in hospital settings. The most important defences against nosocomial transmission of viral, bacterial, and other infections are detailed and continuing education of staff and strict adherence to infection control policies. The issue is no longer whether hand hygiene is effective, but how to produce a sustained improvement in health workers' compliance.
Elbur, Abubaker Ibrahim; M.A., Yousif; El-Sayed, Ahmed S.A.; Abdel-Rahman, Manar E.
Introduction: Surgical site infections account for 14%-25% of all nosocomial infections. The main aims of this study were to audit the use of prophylactic antibiotic, to quantify the rate of post-operative wound infection, and to identify risk factors for its occurrence in general surgery.
Griffith, D P; Osborne, C A
Infection-induced stones in man probably form solely as a consequence of urealysis which is catalyzed by the bacterial protein urease. Urease stones composed of struvite and carbonate-apatite may form primarily, or as secondary stones or pre-existent metabolic stones. Struvite stones form and grow rapidly owing to (a) supersaturation of urine with stone forming salts, (b) 'salting out' of poorly soluble organic substances normally dissolved in urine and (c) ammonia-induced destruction of the normally protective urothelial glycosaminoglycan layer. Immature (predominantly organic) matrix stones mature into densely mineralized stones. Curative treatment is possible only by eliminating all of the stone and by eradicating all urinary and parenchymal infection. A variety of operative and pharmaceutical approaches are available. Patient treatment must be individualized inasmuch as some patients are better candidates for one type of treatment than another.
Schwartz, Robert A
Superficial fungal infections arise from a pathogen that is restricted to the stratum corneum, with little or no tissue reaction. In this Seminar, three types of infection will be covered: tinea versicolor, piedra, and tinea nigra. Tinea versicolor is common worldwide and is caused by Malassezia spp, which are human saprophytes that sometimes switch from yeast to pathogenic mycelial form. Malassezia furfur, Malassezia globosa, and Malassezia sympodialis are most closely linked to tinea versicolor. White and black piedra are both common in tropical regions of the world; white piedra is also endemic in temperate climates. Black piedra is caused by Piedraia hortae; white piedra is due to pathogenic species of the Trichosporon genus. Tinea nigra is also common in tropical areas and has been confused with melanoma.
Acute pulmonary infection may be caused by a variety of organisms. In some instances they produce a reasonably characteristic, gross pathologic pattern and, therefore, a recognizable roentgenographic pattern. In the subsequent discussions the most common gross anatomic findings in the pneumonias of various causes as reflected in chest roentgenograms will be described. The roentgenographic manifestations of pulmonary infections are so varied that the pattern observed often gives us little information regarding the causative organism. Therefore, in each instance it should be remembered that roentgenographic findings must be correlated with clinical, bacteriological, and laboratory data to ascertain the correct etiologic diagnosis upon which treatment is based. The role of the radiologist is to locate and define the extent of the disease and any complicating findings such as lung abscess and pleural effusion or empyema
Jones, Katherine A.; Finley, Patrick D.; Moore, Thomas W.; Nozick, Linda Karen; Martin, Nathaniel; Bandlow, Alisa; Detry, Richard Joseph; Evans, Leland B.; Berger, Taylor Eugen
Infectious diseases can spread rapidly through healthcare facilities, resulting in widespread illness among vulnerable patients. Computational models of disease spread are useful for evaluating mitigation strategies under different scenarios. This report describes two infectious disease models built for the US Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) motivated by a Varicella outbreak in a VA facility. The first model simulates disease spread within a notional contact network representing staff and patients. Several interventions, along with initial infection counts and intervention delay, were evaluated for effectiveness at preventing disease spread. The second model adds staff categories, location, scheduling, and variable contact rates to improve resolution. This model achieved more accurate infection counts and enabled a more rigorous evaluation of comparative effectiveness of interventions.
This podcast discusses the importance of preventing infections in cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy. Dr. Lisa Richardson, CDC oncologist, talks about a new Web site for cancer patients and their caregivers. Created: 10/24/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC). Date Released: 10/24/2011.
Malavige, G; Fernando, S; Fernando, D; Seneviratne, S
Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito borne diseases in the world. They may be asymptomatic or may give rise to undifferentiated fever, dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), or dengue shock syndrome. Annually, 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of DHF occur worldwide. Ninety percent of DHF subjects are children less than 15 years of age. At present, dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. No vaccine is available for preventing...
Pougnet, Laurence; Thill, Chloé; Pougnet, Richard; Auvinet, Henri; Giacardi, Christophe; Drouillard, Isabelle
A 21-year old woman from New-Caledonia had 40 ̊C fever with vomiting, arthralgia, myalgia, and measles-like rash. Etiological analyses showed primary infection with Zika virus. Because of severe clinical presentation, she was hospitalized in the intensive care unit of the Brest military Hospital. Zika virus is mainly transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. If they settle in Metropolitan France, Zika virus might also spread there.
Saadeh, Sermin A.; Mattoo, Tej K.
Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in childhood. Presence of pyuria and bacteriuria in an appropriately collected urine sample are diagnostic of UTI. The risk of UTI is increased with an underlying urological abnormality such as vesicoureteral reflux, constipation, and voiding dysfunction. Patients with acute pyelonephritis are at risk of renal scarring and subsequent complications such as hypertension, proteinuria with and without FSGS, pregnancy-related complications and even end-sta...
This podcast is based on the March 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. C. difficile is a germ that causes diarrhea linked to 14,000 deaths in the US each year. This podcast helps health care professionals learn how to prevent C. difficile infections. Created: 3/6/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 3/6/2012.
Thomas, Konstantinos; Vassilopoulos, Dimitrios
To review recent evidence for infection rates in patients with systemic vasculitides, the role of specific infectious agents in the pathogenesis of vasculitis and recent breakthroughs in the treatment of virus-associated vasculitides. In well designed recent studies, infections were found to be common during the first 6-12 months in patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitides (AAV) and giant cell arteritis (GCA) and to contribute significantly to increased mortality during this period. New therapeutic schemes with lower cyclophosphamide doses and shorter corticosteroid courses were associated with decreased infectious rates in elderly patients with AAV whereas a prednisone dose greater than 10 mg/day at the end of the first year were associated with increased infectious-related mortality in patients with GCA. Recently, a potential role for varicella zoster virus in GCA pathogenesis has been proposed but more data are needed in order to establish a causal relationship. Finally, preliminary data show excellent short-term efficacy and safety of the new, interferon-free, oral antiviral agents in the treatment of hepatitis C virus-associated cryoglobulinemic vasculitis. Infections continue to be one of the main causes of mortality in patients with systemic vasculitides, emphasizing the need for safer immunosuppressive therapies and appropriate prophylaxis.
Day, Michael J
Physicians and veterinarians have many opportunities to partner in promoting the well-being of people and their pets, especially by addressing zoonotic diseases that may be transmitted between a pet and a human family member. Common cutaneous pet-acquired zoonoses are dermatophytosis (ringworm) and sarcoptic mange (scabies), which are both readily treated. Toxoplasmosis can be acquired from exposure to cat feces, but appropriate hygienic measures can minimize the risk to pregnant women. Persons who work with animals are at increased risk of acquiring bartonellosis (e.g., cat-scratch disease); control of cat fleas is essential to minimize the risk of these infections. People and their pets share a range of tick-borne diseases, and exposure risk can be minimized with use of tick repellent, prompt tick removal, and appropriate tick control measures for pets. Pets such as reptiles, amphibians, and backyard poultry pose a risk of transmitting Salmonella species and are becoming more popular. Personal hygiene after interacting with these pets is crucial to prevent Salmonella infections. Leptospirosis is more often acquired from wildlife than infected dogs, but at-risk dogs can be protected with vaccination. The clinical history in the primary care office should routinely include questions about pets and occupational or other exposure to pet animals. Control and prevention of zoonoses are best achieved by enhancing communication between physicians and veterinarians to ensure patients know the risks of and how to prevent zoonoses in themselves, their pets, and other people.
Sahng G. Kim
Full Text Available The regeneration of the pulp-dentin complex has been a great challenge to both scientists and clinicians. Previous work has shown that the presence of prior infection may influence the characteristics of tissues formed in the root canal space after regenerative endodontic treatment. The formation of ectopic tissues such as periodontal ligament, bone, and cementum has been observed in the root canal space of immature necrotic teeth with apical periodontitis, while the regeneration of dentin and pulp has been identified in previously non-infected teeth. The current regenerative endodontic therapy utilizes disinfection protocols, which heavily rely on chemical irrigation using conventional disinfectants. From a microbiological point of view, the current protocols may not allow a sufficiently clean root canal microenvironment, which is critical for dentin and pulp regeneration. In this article, the significance of root canal disinfection in regenerating the pulp-dentin complex, the limitations of the current regenerative endodontic disinfection protocols, and advanced disinfection techniques designed to reduce the microorganisms and biofilms in chronic infection are discussed.
Rieder, Martina; Finke, Stefan; Conzelmann, Karl-Klaus
Rabies is a zoonosis still claiming more than 50 000 human deaths per year. Typically, human cases are due to infection with rabies virus, the prototype of the Lyssavirus genus, but sporadic cases of rabies-like encephalitis caused by other lyssaviruses have been reported. In contrast to rabies virus, which has an extremely broad host range including many terrestrial warm-blooded animals, rabies-related viruses are associated predominantly with bats and rarely infect terrestrial species. In spite of a very close genetic relationship of rabies and rabies-related viruses, the factors determining the limited host range of rabies-related viruses are not clear. In the past years the importance of viral countermeasures against the host type I interferon system for establishment of an infection became evident. The rabies virus phosphoprotein (P) has emerged as a critical factor required for paralysing the signalling cascades leading to transcriptional activation of interferon genes as well as interferon signalling pathways, thereby limiting expression of antiviral and immune stimulatory genes. Comparative studies would be of interest in order to determine whether differential abilities of the lyssavirus P proteins contribute to the restricted host range of lyssaviruses.
Maria do Carmo Menezes Bezerra Duarte
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: the infection of chikungunya virus presents clinical manifestations variables, particularly in infants in which may present multiple cutaneous manifestations. Description: a case series study was carried out in an analytical character of 14 infants (>28 days to < 2 years old admitted in a hospital between November 2015 and January 2016 with suspected case of chikungunya, by a specific IgM reactive serology. Patients positive for dengue fever, Zika virus, bacterial infections and other exanthematic diseases were excluded. Fever and cutaneous alterations were the most frequent clinical manifestations in 100% of the cases, followed by irritability (64.3%, vomits and arthralgia/arthritis in 35.7% each. Three children presented alterations in the cerebrospinal fluid compatible to meningitis. Anemia frequency was 85.7%. The median white blood cells count was 7.700/mm3 (2.600 to 20.300/mm3. High levels of aminotransferases were observed in three cases (230 to 450 U/L. Antibiotic therapy was indicated in 64.3% of the cases. Two infants needed opioid derivatives for analgesia while others took acetaminophen and/or dipyrone. Discussion: the study shows evident multi-systemic involvement of chikungunya infection in infants. The treatment is supportive, giving special attention to hydration, analgesia, skin care, and rational use of antibiotic therapy.
... Staph infections - hospital (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Infection Control updates ... infections when visiting Staph infections - hospital Related Health Topics Hepatitis HIV/AIDS MRSA National Institutes of Health ...
Full Text Available
The infection from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV or virus of infectious mononucleosis, together with other herpesviruses’ infections, represents a prototype of persistent viral infections characterized by the property of the latency. Although the reactivations of the latent infection are associated with the resumption of the viral replication and eventually with the “shedding”, it is still not clear if this virus can determine chronic infectious diseases, more or less evolutive. These diseases could include some pathological conditions actually defined as “idiopathic”and characterized by the “viral persistence” as the more credible pathogenetic factor. Among the so-called idiopathic syndromes, the “chronic fatigue syndrome” (CFS aroused a great interest around the eighties of the last century when, just for its relationship with EBV, it was called “chronic mononucleosis” or “chronic EBV infection”.
Today CFS, as defined in 1994 by the CDC of Atlanta (USA, really represents a multifactorial syndrome characterized by a chronic course, where reactivation and remission phases alternate, and by a good prognosis
Sandra F Moreira-Silva
Full Text Available Nematode infection may be a risk factor for pyogenic liver abscess in children and we hypothesized that the immunomodulation induced by those parasites would be a risk factor for any staphylococcal infection in children. The present study was designed to compare, within the same hospital, the frequency of intestinal nematodes and Toxocara infection in children with and without staphylococcal infections. From October 1997 to February 1998, 80 children with staphylococcal infection and 110 children with other diseases were submitted to fecal examination, serology for Toxocara sp., evaluation of plasma immunoglobulin levels, and eosinophil counts. Mean age, gender distribution, birthplace, and socioeconomic conditions did not differ significantly between the two groups. Frequency of intestinal nematodes and positive serology for Toxocara, were remarkably higher in children with staphylococcal infections than in the non-staphylococcal group. There was a significant correlation between intestinal nematodes or Toxocara infection and staphylococcal infection in children, reinforced by higher eosinophil counts and higher IgE levels in these children than in the control group. One possible explanation for this association would be the enhancement of bacterial infection by the immunomodulation induced by helminth infections, due to strong activation of the Th2 subset of lymphocytes by antigens from larvae and adult worms.
Full Text Available Sphingomonas paucimobilis is a causative agent of infection in immunocompromised patients, and healthcare-associated infections. Although the infections associated with S.paucimobilis occurs rarely, it has been encountered with increasing frequency in clinical settings. In the current study we noted the risk factors and clinical features of the children with S.paucimobilis infections, and the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the isolated strains among the patients. This study was conducted in Dr. Behçet Uz Children’s Hospital, Turkey, during the period of January 2005 and December 2012. The medical records of pediatric patients with positive cultures for S.paucimobilis were reviewed. Sphingomonas paucimobilis isolates were recovered from 24 pediatric patients. The median age was 4 years (ranging from 3 days infant to 15 years and 58,3% were male. Eight (33,3% of the patients were under 1 months of age. Among the patients; 13 (54,2% infections were community related however 11(45.8% infections were nosocomial infection. The median duration of hospital stay was 7 days (ranging from 4 to 22 days. The most effective antibiotics were fluoroquinolones, carbapenems, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. This is the first largest study in children to evaluate the clinical features of S. paucimobilis infections. Sphingomonas paucimobilis may cause infections in both previously healthy and immunocompromised children. Although variable antimicrobial regimens were achieved to the patients, there was no attributable fatality due to S.paucimobilis infections due to the low virulence of the bacteria.
Full Text Available We tried to evaluate prevalence and characteristics of Iranian HIV infected patients with retinitis due to opportunistic infections. In this cross sectional study, we evaluated 106 HIV infected patients via indirect ophthalmoscopy and slit lamp examination by 90 lens to find retinitis cases. General information and results of ophthalmologic examination were analyzed. Prevalence of retinitis due to opportunistic infections was 6.6%: cytomegalovirus (CMV retinitis 1.88%, toxoplasmosis retinochoroiditis 1.88% and tuberculosis chorioretinitis 2.83%. CD4 count was higher than 50 cell/µlit in both cases with CMV retinitis. Along with increasing survival in the HIV infected patients, the prevalence of complications such as ocular manifestation due to opportunistic infections are increasing and must be more considered.
Gurugama Padmalal; Garg Pankaj; Perera Jennifer; Wijewickrama Ananda; Seneviratne Suranjith
Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases in the world. Presently dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. It has been estimated that almost 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) occur worldwide. An increasing proportion of DHF is in children less than 15 years of age, especially in South East and South Asia. The unique structure of the dengue virus and the pathophysiologic responses of the host...
Schaffner, Carl P.; Mosbach, Klaus; Bibit, Venuso C.; Watson, Colin H.
Raw, unprocessed coconut supports the growth of salmonellae as well as that of other enteric bacteria, salmonellae being particularly resistant to subsequent desiccation. Original contamination is not due to carriers or to polluted water supplies, but to contact with bacteria-containing soils followed by dispersion via infected coconut milk and shells. Pasteurization of raw coconut meat in a water bath at 80 C for 8 to 10 min effectively killed such bacteria, did not injure the product, and provided a prophylactic method now widely used by the coconut industry. PMID:5340650
Kim, Seog Joon; Im, Jung Gi; Seong, Chang Kyu; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung; Song, Jae Woo
To analyze the clinical and radiological manifestations of pulmonary infection in patients with AIDS. We reviewed the medical records and analyzed retrospectively analysed the chest radiographs(n=3D24) and CT scans(n=3D11) of 26 patients with AIDS who had been followed up at our institute from 1987 to June 1998. Pulmonary infections were confirmed by sputum smear and culture(n=3D18), pleural examination(n=3D3), bronchoalveolar lavage(n=3D3), autopsy(n=3D4), transbronchial lung biopsy(n=3D1) or clinical history(n=3D9). The study group included 23 men and three women aged 25-54(average 35.2) years. We correlated the radiologic findings with CD4 lymphocyte counts. Pulmonary infections included tuberculosis(n=3D22), pneumocystis carinii pneumonia(n=3D9), cytomegalovirus(n=3D3), and unidentified bacterial pneumonia(n=3D2). Radiologically pulmonary tuberculosis was classified as primary tuberculosis(n=3D11;mean CD4 counts:41.3 cells/mm 3 ) and post-primary tuberculosis(n=3D11;mean CD4 counts:251.3cells/mm 3 ). CT findings of tuberculosis included lymphadenitis(n=3D6), bronchogenic spread(n=3D5), large consolidation(n=3D4), esophago-mediastinal fistula(n=3D2), and cavity(n=3D1). Tuberculosis in AIDS responded rapidly to anti-TB medication with complete or marked resolution of lesions within three months. Radiologic findings of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia included diffuse ground glass opacities, cysts, and reticular opacities. Tuberculosis was the most common infection in patients with AIDS in Korea, and this is attributed to the high prevalence of tuberculosis. Radiological findings varied with CD4+cell count, showing those of primary tuberculosis as a patient's CD4+ cell count decreased. Pulmonary tuberculosis in AIDS responded rapidly to anti-Tb medication. =20
Full Text Available Lissencephaly is a malformation of the brain in which the brain surface is smooth, rather than convoluted. Among the various causes of lissencephaly, infection by a virus during pregnancy plays an important role. Cytomegalovirus (CMV is an important pathogen causing this anomaly. We present this case of a young female with 24-week-gestation diagnosed on ultrasound as carrying an anomalous fetus with lissencephalic features. At autopsy, there were multiple intra-nuclear CMV inclusions in the brain and the kidneys. This case is presented for its rarity and for the documentation of the tissue localization of CMV inclusions at autopsy.
Chun Soo Kim
Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV is currently the most common agent of congenital infection and the leading infectious cause of brain damage and hearing loss in children. Symptomatic congenital CMV infections usually result from maternal primary infection during early pregnancy. One half of symptomatic infants have cytomegalic inclusion disease (CID, which is characterized by involvement of multiple organs, in particular, the reticuloendothelial and central nervous system (CNS. Moreover, such involvement may or may not include ocular and auditory damage. Approximately 90% of infants with congenital infection are asymptomatic at birth. Preterm infants with perinatal CMV infection can have symptomatic diseases such as pneumonia, hepatitis, and thrombocytopenia. Microcephaly and abnormal neuroradiologic imaging are associated with a poor prognosis. Hearing loss may occur in both symptomatic and asymptomatic infants with congenital infection and may progress through childhood. Congenital infection is defined by the isolation of CMV from infants within the first 3 weeks of life. Ganciclovir therapy can be considered for infants with symptomatic congenital CMV infection involving the CNS. Pregnant women of seronegative state should be counseled on the importance of good hand washing and other control measures to prevent CMV infection. Heat treatment of infected breast milk at 72?#608;for 5 seconds can eliminate CMV completely.
Arzul, Isabelle; Corbeil, Serge; Morga, Benjamin; Renault, Tristan
Although a wide range of viruses have been reported in marine molluscs, most of these reports rely on ultrastructural examination and few of these viruses have been fully characterized. The lack of marine mollusc cell lines restricts virus isolation capacities and subsequent characterization works. Our current knowledge is mostly restricted to viruses affecting farmed species such as oysters Crassostrea gigas, abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta or the scallop Chlamys farreri. Molecular approaches which are needed to identify virus affiliation have been carried out for a small number of viruses, most of them belonging to the Herpesviridae and birnaviridae families. These last years, the use of New Generation Sequencing approach has allowed increasing the number of sequenced viral genomes and has improved our capacity to investigate the diversity of viruses infecting marine molluscs. This new information has in turn allowed designing more efficient diagnostic tools. Moreover, the development of experimental infection protocols has answered some questions regarding the pathogenesis of these viruses and their interactions with their hosts. Control and management of viral diseases in molluscs mostly involve active surveillance, implementation of effective bio security measures and development of breeding programs. However factors triggering pathogen development and the life cycle and status of the viruses outside their mollusc hosts still need further investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
G. R. Fatkullina
Full Text Available The variants of the course of chronic herpesvirus infection in children with the involvement of several mesenteric lymph nodes in the process and the formation of inflammatory conglomerates – mesenterite (mesadenite are considered. Possible etiological factors of mesenteritis, morphological changes in affected lymph nodes: nonspecific hyperplasia, in some cases – necrosis and suppuration, are given. Clinical cases of mesenteritis against chronic herpesvirus infections in preschool children are described with a detailed description of clinical manifestations in the form of prolonged fever, chronic intoxication, attacks of abdominal pain accompanied by an unstable stool. Dynamics of the main laboratory markers of herpesvirus activity is given, changes in the indices of instrumental methods of investigation are tracked. Possible pathogenetic mechanisms of the formation of such manifestations of the disease, the role of the systemic inflammatory response and therapeutic approaches with the use of antiviral drugs and glucocorticosteroids are discussed.
Monge, Susana; Pérez-Molina, José A
Migrants represent around one third of patients newly diagnosed with HIV in Spain and they constitute a population with higher vulnerability to its negative consequences due to the socio-cultural, economical, working, administrative and legal contexts. Migrants are diagnosed later, which worsens their individual prognosis and facilitates the maintenance of the HIV epidemic. In spite of the different barriers they experience to access healthcare in general, and HIV-related services in particular, access to antiretroviral treatment has been similar to that of the autochthonous population. However, benefits of treatment have been not, with women in general and men from Sub-Saharan Africa exhibiting the worse response to treatment. We need to proactively promote earlier diagnosis of HIV infection, the adoption of preventive measures to avoid new infections, and to deliver accessible, adapted and high-quality health-care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.
Leukaemia in children has often been suspected of having an infective basis (as specifically identified in certain animal species) but, until recently, formal studies had gone no further than to show that it does not markedly cluster in time and space. Many infective illnesses, however, are uncommon responses to infections that are mainly spread by the majority of infected individuals who are not ill. These include, for example, glandular fever and certain types of meningitis. Such illnesses are not contagious and do not normally cluster. The possibilities that childhood leukamia might belong to this class of infective illnesses and be subject to increases in incidence as a result of epidemics of an underlying infection were suggested by the well-known excesses near Sellafield and Dounreay. (author)
Full Text Available Cryptococcosis is commonly known as a central nervous system infection due to Cryptococcus neoformans. It is one of the most frequent infections in AIDS patients. Disseminated cryptococcosis appears in almost one third of these patients. In this review, we will discuss the clinical presentation of cryptococcal infections among HIV patients and various methods of diagnosis, such as India ink, latex agglutination test and culture.
Duerink, Daphne Offra
The studies in this thesis were performed as part of the AMRIN (Antimicrobial Resistance in Indonesia) study that addressed antimicrobial resistance, antibiotic usage and infection control in Indonesia. They are the first studies that give insight into the incidence of healthcare-associated infections, determinants for carriage of resistant bacteria in Indonesian individuals and the implementation of measures for the prevention of the spread of bacteria and nosocomial infections in Indonesian...
Heyworth Martin F.
Immunodeficiency, particularly antibody deficiency, predisposes to increased intensity and persistence of Giardia infections. Giardia-infected immunocompetent hosts produce serum and intestinal antibodies against Giardia trophozoites. The number of Giardia muris trophozoites, in mice with G. muris infection, is reduced by intra-duodenal administration of anti-G. muris antibody. Giardia intestinalis antigens that are recognised by human anti-trophozoite antibodies include variable (variant-spe...
Michno, Mikolaj; Sydor, Antoni
Review of urinary tract infections in adults including etiology, pathogenesis, classification and the most important therapeutic recommendations. Urinary tract infections are still a common clinical problem occurring more often in sexually active women, pregnancy, elderly , after catherization of a urinary bladder and urological surgery as well as in the co-existence of diabetes or nephrolithiasis. Due to the anatomical differences, women suffer more often than men. The main etiological factor is Escherichia coli, even though it plays a lesser role in the complicated infections, than in non-complicated ones. Apart from that, the infections may also be caused by atypical microbes, viruses and fungi. Relapses as well as reinfections are typical features of urinary tract infections and in some cases prolonged infections can spread from lower to upper urinary tract contributing to pyelonephritis, urosepsis or even death. These long-term infections can progress in a hidden, insidious, oligosymptomatic or asymptomatic manner leading to irreversible, progressive deterioration of renal function. They can also mask other diseases such as tuberculosis or neoplasms of the urinary tract, which leads to the delayed diagnosis and treatment. Diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infections is a complex problem, often requiring specialized procedures as well as hospitalization. The choice of a therapy is determined by the type of infection, general condition, age and coexisting diseases. Rapid diagnosis and implementation of proper pharmacotherapy may shorten the time of treatment and hospitalization, preventing serious complications and reinfections.
Teniasis; Pork tapeworm; Beef tapeworm; Tapeworm; Taenia saginata; Taenia solium; Taeniasis ... undercooked meat of infected animals. Cattle usually carry Taenia saginata ( T saginata ). Pigs carry Taenia solium (T ...
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Full Text Available Respiratory tract infection during Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca is a common illness, and it is responsible for most of the hospital admissions. Influenza virus is the leading cause of upper respiratory tract infection during Hajj, and pneumonia can be serious. Taking into account the close contacts among the pilgrims, as well as the crowding, the potential for transmission of M. tuberculosis is expected to be high. These pilgrims can be a source for spreading infection on their return home. Although vaccination program for influenza is implemented, its efficacy is uncertain in this religious season. Future studies should concentrate on prevention and mitigation of these infections.
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Full Text Available Dengue counts among the most commonly encountered arboviral diseases, representing the fastest spreading tropical illness in the world. It is prevalent in 128 countries, and each year >2.5 billion people are at risk of dengue virus infection worldwide. Neurological signs of dengue infection are increasingly reported. In this review, the main neurological complications of dengue virus infection, such as central nervous system (CNS, peripheral nervous system, and ophthalmic complications were discussed according to clinical features, treatment and possible pathogenesis. In addition, neurological complications in children were assessed due to their atypical clinical features. Finally, dengue infection and Japanese encephalitis were compared for pathogenesis and main clinical manifestations.
Picone, O; Vauloup-Fellous, C; D'Ortenzio, E; Huissoud, C; Carles, G; Benachi, A; Faye, A; Luton, D; Paty, M-C; Ayoubi, J-M; Yazdanpanah, Y; Mandelbrot, L; Matheron, S
A Zika virus epidemic is currently ongoing in the Americas. This virus is linked to congenital infections with potential severe neurodevelopmental dysfunction. However, incidence of fetal infection and whether this virus is responsible of other fetal complications are still unknown. National and international public health authorities recommend caution and several prevention measures. Declaration of Zika virus infection is now mandatory in France. Given the available knowledge on Zika virus, we suggest here a review of the current recommendations for management of pregnancy in case of suspicious or infection by Zika virus in a pregnant woman. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
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Grobusch, M. P.; Calleri, G.; Bogner, J. R.
Infections are of unifying global concern, despite regional differences in disease epidemiology, clinical appearance and the instruments to tackle them. The primary aim of Infection is "to be a forum for the presentation and discussion of clinically relevant information on infectious diseasesaEuro
Rory D. de Vries
Full Text Available Research on morbillivirus infections has led to exciting developments in recent years. Global measles vaccination coverage has increased, resulting in a significant reduction in measles mortality. In 2011 rinderpest virus was declared globally eradicated – only the second virus to be eradicated by targeted vaccination. Identification of new cellular receptors and implementation of recombinant viruses expressing fluorescent proteins in a range of model systems have provided fundamental new insights into the pathogenesis of morbilliviruses, and their interactions with the host immune system. Nevertheless, both new and well-studied morbilliviruses are associated with significant disease in wildlife and domestic animals. This illustrates the need for robust surveillance and a strategic focus on barriers that restrict cross-species transmission. Recent and ongoing measles outbreaks also demonstrate that maintenance of high vaccination coverage for these highly infectious agents is critical. This introduction briefly summarizes the most important current research topics in this field.
Full Text Available A total of 76 anaerobes and 122 aerobes were isolated from 100 patients with pleuropulmonary infections, e.g. empyema (64, pleural effusion (19 and lung abscess (13. In 14% of the patients, only anaerobes were recovered, while a mixture of aerobes and anaerobes was encountered in 58%. From all cases of lung abscess, anaerobic bacteria were isolated, alone (04 or along with aerobic bacteria (13. From empyema and pleural effusion cases, 65.6% and 68.4% anaerobes were recovered respectively. Amongst anaerobes, gram negative anaerobic bacilli predominated (Prevotella melaninogenicus 16, Fusobacterium spp. 10, Bacteroides spp. 9, followed by gram positive anaerobic cocci (Peptostreptococcus spp. 31. Coliform bacteria (45 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (42 were the predominant aerobic isolates.
Mönkemüller, K E; Wilcox, C M
Gastrointestinal infections in children are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Children living in developing countries are particularly susceptible to infectious diarrhea because of poor standards of hygiene and sanitation. Although the magnitude of diarrheal illnesses in developed countries is less, costly hospital admissions are still frequent. The causal agent of infectious diarrhea is most frequently related to age, geographical location, lifestyle habits, use of antibiotics, associated medical conditions, social circumstances, and degree of immune competence. In this article we present some of the most important articles published in the field during the last year. The role of Helicobacter pylori in the pathogenesis of gastritis and peptic ulcer disease has been shown in adults and children. Information about the natural history of H. pylori, symptomatology, and diagnostic therapeutic approaches for children are being generated constantly; we discuss some of the most relevant information in this review.
Feng, Youjun; Zhang, Huimin; Wu, Zuowei; Wang, Shihua; Cao, Min; Hu, Dan; Wang, Changjun
Streptococcus suis (S. suis) is a family of pathogenic gram-positive bacterial strains that represents a primary health problem in the swine industry worldwide. S. suis is also an emerging zoonotic pathogen that causes severe human infections clinically featuring with varied diseases/syndromes (such as meningitis, septicemia, and arthritis). Over the past few decades, continued efforts have made significant progress toward better understanding this zoonotic infectious entity, contributing in part to the elucidation of the molecular mechanism underlying its high pathogenicity. This review is aimed at presenting an updated overview of this pathogen from the perspective of molecular epidemiology, clinical diagnosis and typing, virulence mechanism, and protective antigens contributing to its zoonosis. PMID:24667807
Herrmann, P; Thoele, P; Heppert, V
Treatment of late and chronic infections, which require the replacement of all the infected implant material. All infections lasting more than 4 weeks that have been proven to be bacterial and/or obvious signs of infection. Unsuitable for anesthesia, high acute infection with sepsis and risk for bacteremia with danger to life, large soft tissue damage where plastic surgery coverage is not possible. Arthrotomy, synovectomy, removal of all foreign bodies including all residue of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), jet lavage, spacer, drainage, wound closure or temporary closure using vacuum sealing. Bed rest with a leg brace and drainage until daily drainage volume is exchange of the spacer. In the literature, the success rate for both the one-stage or the two-stage procedure is about 80-95%. In our very nonhomogeneous collective the overall rate of success is about 81%.
Shah, Neel B; Tande, Aaron J; Patel, Robin; Berbari, Elie F
In an effort to improve mobility and alleviate pain from degenerative and connective tissue joint disease, an increasing number of individuals are undergoing prosthetic joint replacement in the United States. Joint replacement is a highly effective intervention, resulting in improved quality of life and increased independence . By 2030, it is predicted that approximately 4 million total hip and knee arthroplasties will be performed yearly in the United States . One of the major complications associated with this procedure is prosthetic joint infection (PJI), occurring at a rate of 1-2% [3-7]. In 2011, the Musculoskeletal Infectious Society created a unifying definition for prosthetic joint infection . The following year, the Infectious Disease Society of America published practice guidelines that focused on the diagnosis and management of PJI. These guidelines focused on the management of commonly encountered organisms associated with PJI, including staphylococci, streptococci and select aerobic Gram-negative bacteria. However, with the exception of Propionibacterium acnes, management of other anaerobic organisms was not addressed in these guidelines . Although making up approximately 3-6% of PJI [9,10], anaerobic microorganisms cause devastating complications, and similar to the more common organisms associated with PJI, these bacteria also result in significant morbidity, poor outcomes and increased health-care costs. Data on diagnosis and management of anaerobic PJI is mostly derived from case reports, along with a few cohort studies . There is a paucity of published data outlining factors associated with risks, diagnosis and management of anaerobic PJI. We therefore reviewed available literature on anaerobic PJI by systematically searching the PubMed database, and collected data from secondary searches to determine information on pathogenesis, demographic data, clinical features, diagnosis and management. We focused our search on five commonly
Ciofu, Oana; Rojo-Molinero, Estrella; Macià, María D.
Bacterial biofilms are associated with a wide range of infections, from those related to exogenous devices, such as catheters or prosthetic joints, to chronic tissue infections such as those occurring in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. Biofilms are recalcitrant to antibiotic treatment due ...
Wewer, Anne Vibeke; Kalach, Nicolas
A high prevalence and early colonization of Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood was described again this year in developing countries in contrast to developed ones. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy including gastric biopsies remains the diagnostic gold standard method for this infection. A...
Samson Sai-Yin Wong
Full Text Available Although exact statistics are lacking, body modifications for cosmetic purposes are performed in many countries. The commonest forms include tattooing, body piercing, and breast and facial augmentation using implants or injectable fillers. Liposuction and, to a lesser extent, mesotherapy are also practiced in many countries. Infective complications of these procedures include local infections, transmission of bloodborne pathogens (viral hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus, and distant infections such as infective endocarditis. Presence of foreign bodies, long healing time of piercing wounds, and poor compliance with infection control practices of some practitioners all predispose the recipients to infections. Apart from the endogenous microbial flora of the skin and mucosae, atypical mycobacteria, especially the rapid growers, have emerged as some of the most important pathogens in such settings. Outbreaks of infection are commonly reported. We hereby review the current knowledge of the topic with specific focus on infections associated with tattooing, body piercing, breast augmentation, mesotherapy, liposuction, and tissue filler injections. Greater awareness among consumers and health-care professionals, as well as more stringent regulations by the health authorities, is essential to minimize the health risks arising from these procedures.
This 60 second PSA describes the signs and symptoms of and ways to prevent Baylisascaris infection, a parasitic roundworm infection that is spread through raccoon feces. Created: 8/27/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 8/28/2012.
Barak, A; Hirsh, A; Rosner, M; Rosen, N
An orbital cyst is a rare complication of orbital trauma and exenteration. Infections of such cysts have not been described, and are potentially dangerous unless treated immediately. The authors describe a case of delayed treatment of such an infected cyst, which resolved following surgical drainage. The potentially hazardous outcome makes knowledge of such cases important.
... will lose his job if he is found to be HIV-infected. ... already infected, has an interest in know- ing about ... and takes every action to do so. AM's ... forceful persuasion. .... patients don't do well, so we have ... set will affect the fairness and legit- ... emotional impact of the situation, will ... than ad hoc, when faced with individ-.
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections ( ... Let's find out more. What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made ...
Full Text Available ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections ( ... Let's find out more. What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made ...
The objective of the present study was to review all cases of infective endocarditis at our hospital between 2002 and 2006 concerning the bacteriological aetiology and outcomes.......The objective of the present study was to review all cases of infective endocarditis at our hospital between 2002 and 2006 concerning the bacteriological aetiology and outcomes....
Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common bacterial infections worldwide. It is accepted as the major cause of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, carcinoma of the distal part of the stomach and gastric lymphoma. However, how and when the infection is acquired remain largely unknown. Identification of mode of transmission is vital for developing preventive measures to interrupt its spread, but studies focused on this issue are difficult to implement. From epidemiological studies, it is known that there are great differences in the prevalence of infection in different populations and in ethnic groups originating from high prevalence regions. This is likely related to inferior hygienic conditions and sanitation. In developing countries, infection occurs at a much earlier age. In developed countries, the prevalence of infection is related to poor socioeconomic conditions, particularly density of living. Humans seem to be the only reservoir of H pylori, which spread from person to person by oral-oral, fecal-oral or gastro-oral routes. Most infections are acquired in childhood, possibly from parents or other children living as close contacts. Infection from the environment or from animals cannot be entirely excluded.
Full Text Available ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? ...
Bereket, W; Hemalatha, K; Getenet, B; Wondwossen, T; Solomon, A; Zeynudin, A; Kannan, S
With increasing use of antimicrobial agents and advance in lifesaving medical practices which expose the patients for invasive procedures, are associated with the ever increasing of nosocomial infections. Despite an effort in hospital infection control measures, health care associated infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality adding additional health care expenditure which may leads to an economic crisis. The problem is further complicated with the emergence of difficult to treat multidrug resistant (MDR) microorganism in the hospital environment. Virtually every pathogen has the potential to cause infection in hospitalized patients but only limited number of both gram positive and gram negative bacteria are responsible for the majority of nosocomial infection. Among them Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococci takes the leading. Many intrinsic and extrinsic factors predispose hospitalized patients for these pathogens. Following simple hospital hygienic practices and strictly following standard medical procedures greatly reduces infection to a significant level although not all nosocomial infections are avoidable. The clinical spectrum caused by nosocomial pathogens depend on body site of infection, the involving pathogen and the patient's underlying condition. Structural and non structural virulence factors associated with the bacteria are responsible for the observed clinical manifestation. Bacteria isolation and characterization from appropriate clinical materials with antimicrobial susceptibility testing is the standard of laboratory diagnosis.
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Full Text Available Abstract Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is no exception to the phenomenon that a second, productive infection with another strain of the same virus is feasible. Experiments with RNA viruses have suggested that both coinfections (simultaneous infection with two strains of a virus and superinfections (second infection after a specific immune response to the first infecting strain has developed can result in increased fitness of the viral population. Concerns about dual infections with HIV are increasing. First, the frequent detection of superinfections seems to indicate that it will be difficult to develop a prophylactic vaccine. Second, HIV-1 superinfections have been associated with accelerated disease progression, although this is not true for all persons. In fact, superinfections have even been detected in persons controlling their HIV infections without antiretroviral therapy. Third, dual infections can give rise to recombinant viruses, which are increasingly found in the HIV-1 epidemic. Recombinants could have increased fitness over the parental strains, as in vitro models suggest, and could exhibit increased pathogenicity. Multiple drug resistant (MDR strains could recombine to produce a pan-resistant, transmittable virus. We will describe in this review what is presently known about super- and re-infection among ambient viral infections, as well as the first cases of HIV-1 superinfection, including HIV-1 triple infections. The clinical implications, the impact of the immune system, and the effect of anti-retroviral therapy will be covered, as will as the timing of HIV superinfection. The methods used to detect HIV-1 dual infections will be discussed in detail. To increase the likelihood of detecting a dual HIV-1 infection, pre-selection of patients can be done by serotyping, heteroduplex mobility assays (HMA, counting the degenerate base codes in the HIV-1 genotyping sequence, or surveying unexpected increases in the
Maragkoudakis, Emmanouil; Realdi, Giuseppe; Dore, Maria Pina
In immunocompetent subjects fungal infections of the gastrointestinal tract are uncommon. Candida esophagitis remains the single most common fungal infection in immunocompromised hosts or in H. pylori- infected patients who receive antibiotic therapy. Enteric fungal infections are uncommon even in HIV-infected patients. Antifungal agents such as amphotericin B, ketoconazole, fluconazole, and the various formulations of itraconazole are effective for most cases.
Jones, Kelsey D J; Berkley, James A
Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is associated with increased severity of common infectious diseases, and death amongst children with SAM is almost always as a result of infection. The diagnosis and management of infection are often different in malnourished versus well-nourished children. The objectives of this brief are to outline the evidence underpinning important practical questions relating to the management of infectious diseases in children with SAM and to highlight research gaps. Overall, the evidence base for many aspects covered in this brief is very poor. The brief addresses antimicrobials; antipyretics; tuberculosis; HIV; malaria; pneumonia; diarrhoea; sepsis; measles; urinary tract infection; nosocomial Infections; soil transmitted helminths; skin infections and pharmacology in the context of SAM. The brief is structured into sets of clinical questions, which we hope will maximise the relevance to contemporary practice. PMID:25475887
Bacterial Infections; Bone Diseases, Infectious; Osteomyelitis; Central Nervous System Bacterial Infections; Meningitis, Bacterial; Encephalitis; Brain Abscess; Urinary Tract Infections; Respiratory Tract Infections; Pneumonia, Bacterial; Skin Diseases, Bacterial; Soft Tissue Infections; Intraabdominal Infections; Sepsis; Bacteremia; Endocarditis, Bacterial
Liberatore, M.; Fiore, V.; D'Agostini, A.; Prosperi, D.; Iurilli, A.P.; Santini, C.; Baiocchi, P.; Galie, M.; Di Nucci, G.D.; Sinatra, R.
Sternal wound infections (SWIs) can be subdivided into two types, superficial or deep, that require different treatments. The clinical diagnosis of superficial SWI is normally easy to perform, whereas the involvement of deep tissues is frequently difficult to detect. Therefore, there is a need for an imaging study that permits the assessment of SWIs and is able to distinguish between superficial and deep SWI. The present work was a prospective study aiming to evaluate the role of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO) labelled leucocyte scan in SWI management. Twenty-eight patients with suspected SWIs were included in the study. On the basis of clinical examination they were subdivided into three groups: patients with signs of superficial SWI (group 1), patients with signs of superficial SWI and suspected deep infection (group 2) and patients with suspected deep SWI without superficial involvement (group 3). Ten patients previously submitted to median sternotomy, but without suspected SWI, were also included in the study as a control group (group 4). All patients with suspected SWI had bacteriological examinations of wound secretion, if present. In addition 99m Tc-HMPAO labelled leucocyte scan was performed in all patients. The patients of groups 1, 2 and 3 were treated on the basis of the clinical signs and microbiological findings, independently of the scintigraphic results. The patients of group 4 did not receive treatment. The final assessment of infection was based on histological and microbiological findings or on long-term clinical follow-up. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and positive and negative predictive values for scintigraphic and non-scintigraphic results were calculated. In the diagnosis of superficial and deep SWI, clinical and microbiological examination (combined) yielded, respectively, a sensitivity of 68.7% and 100%, a specificity of 77.3% and 80.8%, an accuracy of 73.7% and 86.8%, a positive predictive value of 68
Full Text Available Dengue Virus Infections are distributed in tropical and sub-tropical regions and transmitted by the mosquitoes such as Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Dengue virus can cause dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome or dengue and severe dengue classified by World Health Organization. Beside it concurrent infection virus salmonella had been found some cases who showed fever more than 7 days. Concurrent infection with two agents can result in an illness having overlapping symptoms creating a diagnostic dilemma for treating physician, such as dengue fever with typhoid fever. The aim of this research is detection of dengue virus and secondary infection with Salmonella typhi in patients suspected dengue virus infection. Detection of dengue virus and Salmonella typhi using immunochromatography test such as NS1, IgG/IgM for dengue virus infection, and IgM/IgG Salmonella and blood culture. The fifty children with dengue virus infection came to Soerya hospital and 17 cases suspected dengue virus infection, five cases showed a positive NS1 on the second day of fever and one case concurrent with clinical manifestation of convulsi on the third days of fever there were five cases only showed positive. It was showed in this study that on the fourth to six day of fever in dengue virus infection accompanied by antibody IgM & IgG dengue. There were 12 cases showed the clinical manifestation of concurrent dengue viral infection and Salmonella, all of them showed a mild clinical manifestation and did not show plasma leakage and shock. In this study we found the length of stay of concurrent Dengue Virus Infection and Salmonella infection is more than 10 days. These patients were also more likely to have co-existing haemodynamic disturbances and bacterial septicaemia which would have required treatment with inotropes and antibiotics. This idea is very important to make update dengue viral management to decrease mortality in outbreak try to
Acute urinary tract infection (UTI) is an important cause of morbidity in children and may be complicated by congenital urinary tract abnormalities of a functional or anatomic nature which, predispose to recurrent UTI's that in turn may lead to renal failure and hypertension. Early radiologic and ultrasonographic investigations may reveal these anatomic anomalies in particular because the urinary tract, specifically in children, is not readily accessible to adequate clinical examinations Excretory urography (EU) has been considered as the 'gold standard' of upper urinary tract visualization, while the voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) was thought to be the preferential method of imaging of the lower urinary tract. Recently, major technical advances have altered this commonly accepted diagnostic workup. Although ultrasonography, radio-nuclide scanning and urodynamics have become important contributors to the understanding of pathophysiology of UTI's their value and place in assessment of the sequence of imaging has not been comprehensively studied. This thesis deals about the optimization of the choice and the order of the different imaging techniques used in the evaluation of children, younger than six year with UTI. (author). 243 refs.; 23 figs.; 8 tabs.
Objective: Infective Endocarditis (IE) during pregnancy is a rare but grave condition. The diagnosis and management can be challenging, especially when the pregnant patient warrants a cardiac operation under cardiopulmonary bypass. The present article describes IE during pregnancy based on a series of published case reports in the literature. IE during pregnancy often causes embolic events and mycotic aneurysms. Two-thirds of IE in the pregnant patients requires timely or urgent cardiac surgery to alleviate patients deterioration. At least a 3-week antibiotic therapy is mandatory before cardiac surgery aiming at improving the patients. Conditions. During cardiac surgery, fetal heart rates may temporarily be slowed down but may gradually recover to normal after the operation. The fetal and maternal mortalities were 16.7% and 3.3%, respectively. The fetal deaths were apparently associated with a cardiac surgery during early pregnancy. Cardiopulmonary bypass, hypothermia and rewarming can adversely affect both the mother and the fetus by triggering placental deficits, fetal hypoxia and uterine contraction. Avoidance of cardiac operations before 24th gestation week and preferably deferred until after 28th gestation week have been a plausible argument as per the possible fetal deaths related to immaturity. (author)
Acute urinary tract infection (UTI) is an important cause of morbidity in children and may be complicated by congenital urinary tract abnormalities of a functional or anatomic nature which, predispose to recurrent UTI's that in turn may lead to renal failure and hypertension. Early radiologic and ultrasonographic investigations may reveal these anatomic anomalies in particular because the urinary tract, specifically in children, is not readily accessible to adequate clinical examinations Excretory urography (EU) has been considered as the 'gold standard' of upper urinary tract visualization, while the voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) was thought to be the preferential method of imaging of the lower urinary tract. Recently, major technical advances have altered this commonly accepted diagnostic workup. Although ultrasonography, radio-nuclide scanning and urodynamics have become important contributors to the understanding of pathophysiology of UTI's their value and place in assessment of the sequence of imaging has not been comprehensively studied. This thesis deals about the optimization of the choice and the order of the different imaging techniques used in the evaluation of children, younger than six year with UTI. (author). 243 refs.; 23 figs.; 8 tabs
... cause some minor infections, like a bladder or urinary tract infection (UTI). While GBS may not be harmful to you, ... baby with a GBS infection. You had a UTI during your pregnancy that was caused by GBS. ...
Complement Deficiency; Antibody Deficiency; Chronic Sinus Infection; Meningitis, Bacterial; Pneumonia, Bacterial; Otitis Media; Streptococcal Infection; Neisseria Infections; Haemophilus Influenza; Pneumococcal Infections
Streptococcus Pyogenes Pharyngitis; Streptococcus Pharyngitis; Strep Throat; Streptococcus Pyogenes Infection; Group A Streptococcus: B Hemolytic Pharyngitis; Group A Streptococcal Infection; Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections; Bacterial Infections
Ovalle, A; Levancini, M
Urinary tract infections are very common during pregnancy. Escherichia coli is the most common pathogen isolated from pregnant women. Ampicillin should not be used because of its high resistance to Escherichia coli. Pyelonephritis can cause morbidity and can be life-threatening to both mother and fetus. Second and third-generation cephalosporins are recommended for treatment, administered initially intravenously during hospitalization. Cultures and the study of virulence factors of uropathogenic Escherichia coli are recommended for the adequate management of pyelonephritis. The lower genital tract infection associated with pyelonephritis is responsible for the failure of antibiotic treatment. Asymptomatic bacteriuria can evolve into cystitis or pyelonephritis. All pregnant women should be routinely screened for bacteriuria using urine culture, and should be treated with nitrofurantoin, sulfixosazole or first-generation cephalosporins. Recurrent urinary infection should be treated with prophylactic antibiotics. Pregnant women who develop urinary tract infections with group B streptococcal infection should be treated with prophylactic antibiotics during labour to prevent neonatal sepsis. Preterm delivery is frequent. Evidence suggests that infection plays a role in the pathogenesis of preterm labour. Experimental models in pregnant mice support the theory that Escherichia coli propagated by the transplacental route, involving bacterial adhesins, induces preterm delivery, but this has not been demonstrated in humans. Ascending lower genital tract infections are the most probable cause of preterm delivery, but this remains to be proved.
Full Text Available Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV is the feline analogue of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and features many hallmarks of HIV infection and pathogenesis, including the development of concurrent oral lesions. While HIV is typically transmitted via parenteral transmucosal contact, recent studies prove that oral transmission can occur, and that saliva from infected individuals contains significant amounts of HIV RNA and DNA. While it is accepted that FIV is primarily transmitted by biting, few studies have evaluated FIV oral infection kinetics and transmission mechanisms over the last 20 years. Modern quantitative analyses applied to natural FIV oral infection could significantly further our understanding of lentiviral oral disease and transmission. We therefore characterized FIV salivary viral kinetics and antibody secretions to more fully document oral viral pathogenesis. Our results demonstrate that: (i saliva of FIV-infected cats contains infectious virus particles, FIV viral RNA at levels equivalent to circulation, and lower but significant amounts of FIV proviral DNA; (ii the ratio of FIV RNA to DNA is significantly higher in saliva than in circulation; (iii FIV viral load in oral lymphoid tissues (tonsil, lymph nodes is significantly higher than mucosal tissues (buccal mucosa, salivary gland, tongue; (iv salivary IgG antibodies increase significantly over time in FIV-infected cats, while salivary IgA levels remain static; and, (v saliva from naïve Specific Pathogen Free cats inhibits FIV growth in vitro. Collectively, these results suggest that oral lymphoid tissues serve as a site for enhanced FIV replication, resulting in accumulation of FIV particles and FIV-infected cells in saliva. Failure to induce a virus-specific oral mucosal antibody response, and/or viral capability to overcome inhibitory components in saliva may perpetuate chronic oral cavity infection. Based upon these findings, we propose a model of oral FIV pathogenesis
Di Franco, Manuela; Lucchino, Bruno; Spaziante, Martina; Iannuccelli, Cristina; Valesini, Guido; Iaiani, Giancarlo
Systemic rheumatic diseases have significant morbidity and mortality, due in large part to concurrent infections. The lung has been reported among the most frequent sites of infection in patients with rheumatic disease, who are susceptible to developing pneumonia sustained both by common pathogens and by opportunistic microorganisms. Patients with rheumatic disease show a peculiar vulnerability to infectious complications. This is due in part to intrinsic disease-related immune dysregulation and in part to the immunosuppressive treatments. Several therapeutic agents have been associated to a wide spectrum of infections, complicating the management of rheumatic diseases. This review discusses the most frequent pulmonary infections encountered in rheumatic diseases, focusing on opportunistic agents, consequent diagnostic challenges and appropriate therapeutic strategies.
Taylor, Steven L; McGuckin, Michael A; Wesselingh, Steve; Rogers, Geraint B
Glycans form a highly variable constituent of our mucosal surfaces and profoundly affect our susceptibility to infection and disease. The diversity and importance of these surface glycans can be seen in individuals who lack a functional copy of the fucosyltransferase gene, FUT2. Representing around one-fifth of the population, these individuals have an altered susceptibility to many bacterial and viral infections and diseases. The mediation of host-pathogen interactions by mucosal glycans, such as those added by FUT2, is poorly understood. We highlight, with specific examples, important mechanisms by which host glycans influence infection dynamics, including by: acting as pathogen receptors (or receptor-decoys), promoting microbial stability, altering the physical characteristics of mucus, and acting as immunological markers. We argue that the effect glycans have on infection dynamics has profound implications for many aspects of healthcare and policy, including clinical management, outbreak control, and vaccination policy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tome, Tania; De Oliveira, Mario J
Two stochastic epidemic lattice models, the susceptible-infected-recovered and the susceptible-exposed-infected models, are studied on a Cayley tree of coordination number k. The spreading of the disease in the former is found to occur when the infection probability b is larger than b c = k/2(k - 1). In the latter, which is equivalent to a dynamic site percolation model, the spreading occurs when the infection probability p is greater than p c = 1/(k - 1). We set up and solve the time evolution equations for both models and determine the final and time-dependent properties, including the epidemic curve. We show that the two models are closely related by revealing that their relevant properties are exactly mapped into each other when p = b/[k - (k - 1)b]. These include the cluster size distribution and the density of individuals of each type, quantities that have been determined in closed forms.
James, Scott H; Kimberlin, David W
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 and HSV-2 infections are highly prevalent worldwide and are characterized by establishing lifelong infection with periods of latency interspersed with periodic episodes of reactivation. Acquisition of HSV by an infant during the peripartum or postpartum period results in neonatal HSV disease, a rare but significant infection that can be associated with severe morbidity and mortality, especially if there is dissemination or central nervous system involvement. Diagnostic and therapeutic advances have led to improvements in mortality and, to a lesser extent, neurodevelopmental outcomes, but room exists for further improvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pinninti, Swetha G; Kimberlin, David W
Neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) is an uncommon but devastating infection in the newborn, associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The use of PCR for identification of infected infants and acyclovir for treatment has significantly improved the prognosis for affected infants. The subsequent use of suppressive therapy with oral acyclovir following completion of parenteral treatment of acute disease has further enhanced the long-term prognosis for these infants. This review article will discuss the epidemiology, risk factors and routes of acquisition, clinical presentation, and evaluation of an infant suspected to have the infection, and treatment of proven neonatal HSV disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lange, Jeppe; Troelsen, Anders; Thomsen, Reimar W
Two-stage revision is regarded by many as the best treatment of chronic infection in hip arthroplasties. Some international reports, however, have advocated one-stage revision. No systematic review or meta-analysis has ever compared the risk of reinfection following one-stage and two-stage revisi......Two-stage revision is regarded by many as the best treatment of chronic infection in hip arthroplasties. Some international reports, however, have advocated one-stage revision. No systematic review or meta-analysis has ever compared the risk of reinfection following one-stage and two......-stage revisions for chronic infection in hip arthroplasties....
Choneva, I.; Abadjieva, D.; Kirilov, R.
Full text: Introduction: The lung is one of the most commonly affected organs in immunocompromised patients. Primary complication is pulmonary infection which is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Although radiography and CT, as main diagnostic tools are reliable and credible methods, often there is difficulty with the correct diagnose. The reasons for this are that immunocompromised patients are potentially susceptible to infection by various microorganisms and that the radiographic findings are rarely specific for detecting a particular pathogen. What you will learn : Our objective is to present general nosological classification of pulmonary infections in immunocompromised patients, and to evaluate and analyze new imaging methods and discuss their correlation with the clinical setting, which aims to facilitate the diagnosis and to take a decision for the treatment. The experience indicates that a clinical environment conducive the immunocompromised patients to infection with certain pathogens, thereby changing the frequency of their occurrence. The most commonly cited fungal infections, cytomegalovirus infections, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) of which convincing is the Imaging diagnosis primarily in fungal infections, and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and less accurate - in bacterial and viral infections. Discussion: The term 'immunocompromised' describes a subject with an increased risk for life-threatening infection as a result of congenital or acquired abnormalities of the immune system. Over the past few decades, the number of immunocompromised patients has grown considerably, reflecting the increased use of immunosuppressive drugs, and the syndrome of acquired immunodeficiency. Given the high incidence of pulmonary infections in immunocompromised patients (lung is one of the most commonly affected organs, such as lung infection is about 75% of pulmonary complications), rapid and accurate diagnosis is important
Clausen, M R; Meyer, C N; Krantz, T
Trichinellosis is caused by ingestion of insufficiently cooked meat contaminated with infective larvae of Trichinella species. The clinical course is highly variable, ranging from no apparent infection to severe and even fatal disease. We report two illustrative cases of trichinellosis. Returning....... Life-threatening cardiopulmonary, renal and central nervous system complications developed. The patient recovered after several months. Her husband, who also ate the pork, did not have clinical symptoms, but an increased eosinophil count and a single larva in a muscle biopsy confirmed infection....... The epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of trichinellosis are reviewed....
Rasmussen, Angela L
Ebola virus (EBOV) emerged in West Africa in 2014 to devastating effect, and demonstrated that infection can cause a broad range of severe disease manifestations. As the virus itself was genetically similar to other Zaire ebolaviruses, the spectrum of pathology likely resulted from variable responses to infection in a large and genetically diverse population. This review comprehensively summarizes current knowledge of the host response to EBOV infection, including pathways hijacked by the virus to facilitate replication, host processes that contribute directly to pathogenesis, and host-pathogen interactions involved in subverting or antagonizing host antiviral immunity.
Full Text Available The objective of the study was to design a prediction model for eyespot (Tapesia yallundae infection based on climatic factors (temperature, precipitation, air humidity. Data from experiment years 1994-2002 were used to study correlations between the eyespot infection index and individual weather characteristics. The model of prediction was constructed using multiple regression when a separate parameter is assigned to each factor, i.e. the frequency of days with optimum temperatures, humidity, and precipitation. The correlation between relative air humidity and precipitation and the infection index is significant.
Goede, Matthew R; Coopersmith, Craig M
Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSIs) are a common, frequently preventable complication of central venous catheterization. CR-BSIs can be prevented by strict attention to insertion and maintenance of central venous catheters and removing unneeded catheters as soon as possible. Antiseptic- or antibiotic-impregnated catheters are also an effective tool to prevent infections. The diagnosis of CR-BSI is made largely based on culture results. CR-BSIs should always be treated with antibiotics, and except in rare circumstances the infected catheter needs to be removed.
Pfaller, M A; Jones, R N; Walter, D H
Quality control guidelines for standardized antimicrobial susceptibility test methods are critical for the continuing accuracy of these clinical tests. In this report, quality control limits were proposed for the veterinary antimicrobial agent tiamulin with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges of three or four log(2) dilution steps in two different medium formulations. Disk diffusion zone diameter ranges were proposed for tiamulin tested against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae ATCC 27090 (12-18 mm) and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 (25-32 mm). The data from eight participating laboratories produced 100% of results within proposed MIC limits (8-32 microg/mL), and 95.8-97.0% of zones were found within suggested zone diameter QC guidelines. These proposed QC ranges should be validated by in-use results from veterinary clinical laboratories.
Mar 1, 2018 ... Healthcare Workers in Governmental Healthcare Facilities in Addis. Ababa .... personal protective equipments and materials, ... disinfection practice, tuberculosis infection control ..... E. Knowledge and practice of infection.
Grobusch, M P; Calleri, G; Bogner, J R
Infections are of unifying global concern, despite regional differences in disease epidemiology, clinical appearance and the instruments to tackle them. The primary aim of Infection is "to be a forum for the presentation and discussion of clinically relevant information on infectious diseases… from all over the world". To that end, and as a reflection of the global burden of infectious diseases, we intend to increase the number of high-quality contributions from authors addressing the aetiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases from outside Europe and the affluent North (Chang et al. Infection 40:359-365, 2012; Misra et al. Infection 40:125-130, 2012). The Editorial Board of Infection envisages the journal as an interface between where infectious diseases meet and mix between "North and South"--i.e., the field of travel medicine--frequently functioning as a sentinel for altered/novel disease activities that are encountered as imported conditions. With the change in generation on the Editorial Board, Infection aims to expand the areas of tropical medicine, travel medicine and global health with its own section editors (GC and MPG). Contributions from outside Europe are actively encouraged.
Infection of the urinary tract (UTI) is frequently encountered in clinical practice — in the USA these ... Asymptomatic UTI is identified when organisms can be isolated in appropriate numbers .... Pregnancy ... men, so pre-treatment urine culture is.
... Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections More about neglected tropical diseases News WHO recommends large-scale deworming to improve children’s health and nutrition 29 September 2017 About us ...
Full Text Available ... urinary tract infection, or UTI, you're probably thinking about peeing quite a lot. Why? Because it ... Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys ...
Full Text Available ... signs that you might have a bladder infection, so based on your answers, your mom or dad ... off before you collect the pee. This is so your urine sample won't contain germs from ...
Full Text Available ... Your pee smells bad. These things happen because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary ... shorter than boys' urethras. The shorter urethra means bacteria can get up into the bladder more easily ...
Full Text Available ... when you do, phew! Your pee smells bad. These things happen because bacteria have caused an infection ... tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys two ureters (say: YUR- ...
Redfield, Robert R.; Burke, Donald S.
Reports on the human immunodeficiency virus which causes disease that culminates in the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). States that the key to prolonging life and health is early detection of the infection which usually occurs years before symptoms emerge. (RT)
Full Text Available ... site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & ... KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? What Exactly Is a Urinary ...
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Full Text Available ... five to six times a day but never think twice about? Answer: Pee! But if you have ... urinary tract infection, or UTI, you're probably thinking about peeing quite a lot. Why? Because it ...
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Full Text Available ... Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol ... stick into your cup of urine. The stick has specially treated paper on it and if it ...
Full Text Available ... a bladder infection, your doctor will order some medicine for you to take to kill the bacteria. ... the hospital. At the hospital, the germ-fighting medicine can be delivered more effectively through a tiny ...
Full Text Available ... an infection somewhere in your urinary tract. Let's find out more. What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? ... bladder, your brain tells you it's time to find a bathroom. Once you're ready to pee, ...
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Full Text Available ... of your body. If they aren't wiped away properly, they stay on your skin. In girls, ... infection and you should see a doctor right away. What Will the Doctor Do? First, your doctor ...
Kaspersen, Kathrine Agergård; Pedersen, Ole Birger Vesterager; Petersen, Mikkel Steen
BACKGROUND: It is well known that obesity complicates the course of several diseases. However, it is unknown whether obesity affects the risk of infection among healthy individuals. METHODS: We included 37,808 healthy participants from the Danish Blood Donor Study, who completed a questionnaire...... on health-related items. Obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2). Infections among participants were identified by relevant ICD-10 codes in the Danish National Patient Register and Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) codes in the Danish Prescription Register. Multivariable Cox proportional...... prescription of antimicrobials. Obesity was associated with risk of hospital-based treatment for infection (women: hazard ratio [HR] = 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1, 1.9; men: HR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2, 1.9). For specific infections, obesity was associated with increased risk of abscesses (both sexes...
Full Text Available ... Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works Puberty & Growing Up Staying Healthy Staying Safe ... More for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections ...
Heyworth, Martin F
Immunodeficiency, particularly antibody deficiency, predisposes to increased intensity and persistence of Giardia infections. Giardia-infected immunocompetent hosts produce serum and intestinal antibodies against Giardia trophozoites. The number of Giardia muris trophozoites, in mice with G. muris infection, is reduced by intra-duodenal administration of anti-G. muris antibody. Giardia intestinalis antigens that are recognised by human anti-trophozoite antibodies include variable (variant-specific) and invariant proteins. Nitric oxide (NO) appears to contribute to host clearance of Giardia trophozoites. Arginine is a precursor of NO and is metabolised by Giardia trophozoites, possibly reducing its availability for generation of NO by the host. Work with mice suggests that T lymphocytes and interleukin-6 (IL-6) contribute to clearance of Giardia infection via mechanisms independent of antibodies. © M.F. Heyworth, published by EDP Sciences, 2014.
Heyworth Martin F.
Full Text Available Immunodeficiency, particularly antibody deficiency, predisposes to increased intensity and persistence of Giardia infections. Giardia-infected immunocompetent hosts produce serum and intestinal antibodies against Giardia trophozoites. The number of Giardia muris trophozoites, in mice with G. muris infection, is reduced by intra-duodenal administration of anti-G. muris antibody. Giardia intestinalis antigens that are recognised by human anti-trophozoite antibodies include variable (variant-specific and invariant proteins. Nitric oxide (NO appears to contribute to host clearance of Giardia trophozoites. Arginine is a precursor of NO and is metabolised by Giardia trophozoites, possibly reducing its availability for generation of NO by the host. Work with mice suggests that T lymphocytes and interleukin-6 (IL-6 contribute to clearance of Giardia infection via mechanisms independent of antibodies.
Full Text Available ... Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals ... 237 milliliters) of urine in your bladder, your brain tells you it's time to find a bathroom. ...
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Full Text Available ... You also might have the feeling that you need to go to the bathroom all the time. ... infection — with chills and a high fever — may need to spend a couple of days in the ...
Full Text Available ... kidney infection and you should see a doctor right away. What Will the Doctor Do? First, your ... consult your doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, ...
Full Text Available ... the night to pee? Do you feel pain, pressure, or a tickle in your lower belly? Is ... has a kidney infection — with chills and a high fever — may need to spend a couple of ...
Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTI are frequent conditions in children. Untreated urinary tract infections can lead to serious kidney problems that could threaten the life of the child. Therefore, early detection and treatment of urinary tract infection is important. In older children, urinary tract infections may cause obvious symptoms such as stomach ache and disuria. In infants and young children, UTIs may be harder to detect because of less specific symptoms. Recurrences are common in children with urinary abnormalities such as neurogenic bladder, vesicourethral reflux or those with very poor toilet and hygiene habits. This article reviews the diagnostic approach and presents the current data related to the roles of radiologic imaging, surgical correction and antibiotic prophylaxis of UTIs in children. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(2.000: 57-69
Tande, Aaron J; Gomez-Urena, Eric O; Berbari, Elie F; Osmon, Douglas R
Although uncommon, prosthetic joint infection is a devastating complication. This challenging condition requires a coordinated management approach to achieve good patient outcomes. This review details the general principles to consider when managing patients with prosthetic joint infection. The different medical/surgical treatment strategies and how to appropriately select a strategy are discussed. The data to support each strategy are presented, along with discussion of antimicrobial strategies in specific situations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kalach, Nicolas; Bontems, Patrick; Raymond, Josette
Helicobacter pylori infection in children differs from that in adults, from the point of view of epidemiology, host response, clinical features, related diseases, and diagnosis, as well as treatment strategies. The prevalence of H. pylori infection, in both children and adults, is decreasing in the Western World as well as in some developing countries, which contrasts with the increase in childhood asthma and allergic diseases. Recurrent abdominal pain is not specific during H. pylori infection in children. The role of H. pylori infection and failure to thrive, children's growth, type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and celiac disease remains controversial. The main initial diagnosis is based on upper digestive endoscopy with biopsy-based methods. Nodular gastritis may be a pathognomonic endoscopic finding of childhood H. pylori infection. The infection eradication control is based on validated noninvasive tests. The main cause of treatment failure of H. pylori infection is its clarithromycin resistance. We recommend standard antibiotic susceptibility testing of H. pylori in pediatric patients prior to the initiation of eradication therapy. H. pylori treatment in children should be based on an evaluation of the rate of eradication in the local population, a systematic use of a treatment adapted to the susceptibility profile and a treatment compliance greater than 90%. The last meta-analysis in children did not show an advantage for sequential therapy when compared to a 14-day triple therapy. Finally, the high rate of antibiotic resistance responsible for therapy failure in recent years justifies the necessity of a novel vaccine to prevent H. pylori infection in children. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sedberry-Ross, Sherry; Pohl, Hans G
Urinary tract infections can be a significant source of morbidity in the pediatric population. The mainstay of evaluating urinary tract infections in children has been physical examination, urinalysis and culture, and renal and bladder sonography and contrast cystography. However, novel clinical paradigms now consider the importance of various risk factors, such as bacterial virulence and antibiotic-resistance patterns, elimination disorders, and the role of innate immunity and inflammation in determining the likelihood of renal cortical scarring.
William J. Ledger
Full Text Available We believe the prevention of infection-related adverse pregnancy outcome is the most important focus for obstetricians today. An emphasis upon immunization of susceptible women, prevention of transmissible disease by modification of patient behavior, and identification and treatment of silent infections should become standards of practice. This will require educational initiatives for physicians and their patients as well as continued clinical trials to determine costs and effectiveness.
Full Text Available Nancy Nguyen1, Mark Holodniy21University of the Pacific School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Stockton, CA, USA; 2VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA, USAAbstract: In the US, an estimated 1 million people are infected with HIV, although one-third of this population are unaware of their diagnosis. While HIV infection is commonly thought to affect younger adults, there are an increasing number of patients over 50 years of age living with the condition. UNAIDS and WHO estimate that of the 40 million people living with HIV/AIDS in the world, approximately 2.8 million are 50 years and older. With the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in the mid-1990s, survival following HIV diagnosis has risen dramatically and HIV infection has evolved from an acute disease process to being managed as a chronic medical condition. As treated HIV-infected patients live longer and the number of new HIV diagnoses in older patients rise, clinicians need to be aware of these trends and become familiar with the management of HIV infection in the older patient. This article is intended for the general clinician, including geriatricians, and will review epidemiologic data and HIV treatment as well as provide a discussion on medical management issues affecting the older HIV-infected patient.Keywords: HIV, epidemiology, treatment, aging, review
Chelli Bouaziz, Mouna; Jelassi, Helmi; Chaabane, Skander; Ladeb, Mohamed Fethi; Ben Miled-Mrad, Khaoula
A wide variety of infections can affect the chest wall including pyogenic, tuberculous, fungal, and some other unusual infections. These potentially life-threatening disorders are frequent especially among immunocompromised patients but often misdiagnosed by physical examination and radiographs. The purpose of this article is to describe the clinical and imaging features of these different chest wall infections according to the different imaging modalities with emphasis on ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The outcome of chest wall infection depends on early diagnosis, severity of the immunosuppression, offending organism, and extent of infection. Because clinical findings and laboratory tests may be not contributive in immunocompromised patients, imaging plays an important role in the early detection and precise assessment of the disease. US, CT, and MRI are all useful: bone destruction is more accurately detected with CT whereas soft tissue involvement are better visualized with US and MRI. CT and US are also used to guide percutaneous biopsy and drainage procedures. MR images are helpful in pre-operative planning of extensive chest wall infections. (orig.)
Mani, Deepthi; Haigentz, Missak; Aboulafia, David M
Lung cancer is the most prevalent non-AIDS-defining malignancy in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era. Smoking plays a significant role in the development of HIV-associated lung cancer, but the cancer risk is two to four times greater in HIV-infected persons than in the general population, even after adjusting for smoking intensity and duration. Lung cancer is typically diagnosed a decade or more earlier among HIV-infected persons (mean age, 46 years) compared to those without HIV infection. Adenocarcinoma is the most common histological subtype, and the majority of patients are diagnosed with locally advanced or metastatic carcinoma. Because pulmonary infections are common among HIV-infected individuals, clinicians may not suspect lung cancer in this younger patient population. Surgery with curative intent remains the treatment of choice for early-stage disease. Although there is increasing experience in using radiation and chemotherapy for HIV-infected patients who do not have surgical options, there is a need for prospective studies because this population is frequently excluded from participating in cancer trials. Evidence-based treatments for smoking-cessation with demonstrated efficacy in the general population must be routinely incorporated into the care of HIV-positive smokers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
N L Prokopjeva
Full Text Available To study features of bacterial infections course in pts with rheumatoid arthritis (RA and changes of laboratory measures after focus of infection sanation. Material and methods. 46 pts with definite rheumatoid arthritis were examined at the time of comorbid infection (Cl detection and after infection focus sanation. Bacteriological test with evaluation of flora sensitivity to antibiotics by disco-diffusion method was performed at baseline and after the course of antibacterial therapy to assess its efficacy. Hemogram, serum fibrinogen, rheumatoid factor, circulating immune complexes (CIC, C-reactive protein levels were assessed. Serum interleukin (IL 1(3, IL6 and neopterin concentrations were examined by immune-enzyme assay in a part of pts. Typical clinical features of Cl were present in only 28 (60,9% pts. 13 (28,3% pts had fever, 12 (26,0% — leukocytosis, 15 (32,6% — changes of leucocyte populations. Some laboratory measures (thrombocytes, fibrinogen, CIC, neopterin levels significantly decreased (p<0,05 after infection focus sanation without correction of disease modifying therapy. Cl quite often develop as asymptomatic processes most often in pts with high activity and can induce disturbances promoting appearance of endothelial dysfunction, atherothrombosis and reduction of life duration. So timely detection and proper sanation of infection focuses should be performed in pts with RA
Hainer, V; Zamrazilová, H; Kunešová, M; Bendlová, B; Aldhoon-Hainerová, I
Associations between different infectious agents and obesity have been reported in humans for over thirty years. In many cases, as in nosocomial infections, this relationship reflects the greater susceptibility of obese individuals to infection due to impaired immunity. In such cases, the infection is not related to obesity as a causal factor but represents a complication of obesity. In contrast, several infections have been suggested as potential causal factors in human obesity. However, evidence of a causal linkage to human obesity has only been provided for adenovirus 36 (Adv36). This virus activates lipogenic and proinflammatory pathways in adipose tissue, improves insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and hepatic steatosis. The E4orf1 gene of Adv36 exerts insulin senzitizing effects, but is devoid of its pro-inflammatory modalities. The development of a vaccine to prevent Adv36-induced obesity or the use of E4orf1 as a ligand for novel antidiabetic drugs could open new horizons in the prophylaxis and treatment of obesity and diabetes. More experimental and clinical studies are needed to elucidate the mutual relations between infection and obesity, identify additional infectious agents causing human obesity, as well as define the conditions that predispose obese individuals to specific infections.
Razonable, R R; Eid, A J
Solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients are uniquely predisposed to develop clinical illness, often with increased severity, due to a variety of common and opportunistic viruses. Patients may acquire viral infections from the donor (donor-derived infections), from reactivation of endogenous latent virus, or from the community. Herpes viruses, most notably cytomegalovirus and Epstein Barr virus, are the most common among opportunistic viral pathogens that cause infection after solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The polyoma BK virus causes opportunistic clinical syndromes predominantly in kidney and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. The agents of viral hepatitis B and C present unique challenges particularly among liver transplant recipients. Respiratory viral illnesses due to influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, and parainfluenza virus may affect all types of transplant recipients, although severe clinical disease is observed more commonly among lung and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Less common viral infections affecting transplant recipients include those caused by adenoviruses, parvovirus B19, and West Nile virus. Treatment for viruses with proven effective antiviral drug therapies should be complemented by reduction in the degree of immunosuppression. For others with no proven antiviral drugs for therapy, reduction in the degree of immunosuppression remains as the sole effective strategy for management. Prevention of viral infections is therefore of utmost importance, and this may be accomplished through vaccination, antiviral strategies, and aggressive infection control measures.
The anorexia of infection is part of the host's acute phase response (APR). Despite being beneficial in the beginning, long lasting anorexia delays recovery and is ultimately deleterious. Microbial products such as bacterial cell wall compounds (e.g., lipopolysaccharides and peptidoglycans), microbial nucleic acids (e. g., bacterial DNA and viral double-stranded RNA), and viral glycoproteins trigger the APR and presumably also the anorexia during infections. Microbial products stimulate the production of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., interleukins [ILs], tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interferons), which serve as endogenous mediators. Several microbial products and cytokines reduce food intake after parenteral administration, suggesting a role of these substances in the anorexia during infection. Microbial products are mainly released and cytokines are produced in the periphery during most infections; they might inhibit feeding through neural and humoral pathways activated by their peripheral actions. Activation of peripheral afferents by locally produced cytokines is involved in several cytokine effects, but is not crucial for the anorectic effect of microbial products and IL-1beta. Cytokines increase leptin expression in the adipose tissue, and leptin may contribute to, but is also not essential for, the anorectic effects of microbial products and cytokines. In addition, a direct action of cytokines and microbial products on the central nervous system (CNS) is presumably involved in the anorexia during infection. Cytokines can reach CNS receptors through circumventricular organs and through active or passive transport mechanisms or they can act through receptors on endothelial cells of the brain vasculature and stimulate the release of subsequent mediators such as eicosanoids. De novo CNS cytokine synthesis occurs in response to peripheral infections, but its role in the accompanying anorexia is still open to discussion. Central mediators of the anorexia during
Olsen, Ingar; van Winkelhoff, Arie J.
This article describes the most important pus-producing acute oral infections (dental infections) that can spread extra-orally. Most of these infections are spread by bacteria entering the bloodstream. However, dental infections have a number of other pathways for dissemination. By forming abscesses
Background: Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide. There is little information about this infection in Nigeria. This study determined the prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduates of University of Port Harcourt and ...
Riet, Petronella Helena van
Worldwide, more than a billion people are infected with helminths. These worm infections are chronic in nature and can lead to considerable morbidity. Immunologically these infections are interesting; chronic helminth infections are characterized by skewing towards a T helper 2 type response as well
... non-GAS and non-GBS infections can cause urinary tract infections, inflammation of the heart’s lining (endocarditis), respiratory tract ... newborns, as well as other infections such as urinary tract infections in older children. The most prevalent enterococci species ...
Hayakawa, Itaru; Hataya, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Hanako; Sakakibara, Hiroshi; Terakawa, Toshiro
Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a known pathogen of infective endocarditis, but not of urinary tract infection. We report a previously healthy neonate without congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract who developed urinary tract infection due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis, illustrating that Staphylococcus lugdunensis can cause urinary tract infection even in those with no urinary tract complications. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.
Kammersgaard, L P; Jørgensen, H S; Reith, J
Infection is a frequent complication in the early course of acute stroke and may adversely affect stroke outcome. In the present study, we investigate early infection developing in patients within 3 days of admission to the hospital and its independent relation to recovery and stroke outcome....... In addition, we identify predictors for early infections, infection subtypes, and their relation to initial stroke severity....
Tuberculosis is indeed an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, only a small percentage of individuals infected develops overt disease, tuberculosis whereas the infected bacilli persist alive years long within the vast majority of persons infected but remained healthy. There are several riddles or enigmas in the natural history of M. tuberculosis infection in humans. Some of them are as follows: 1. What is the virulence of M. tuberculosis? 2. How does M. tuberculosis persist dormant within the host? 3. What determines the development of disease from remaining healthy after infection with M. tuberculosis? 4. What is the mechanism of "endogenous reactivation" of dormant M. tuberculosis within the host? 5. Can we expect more potent anti-TB vaccine than BCG in near future? Most of these issues cited above remain unsolved. What is urgently needed today to answer correctly to these questions is the production of appropriate animal model of tuberculosis infection which mimics human tuberculosis. Murine TB does not reflect human TB at all. What characterizes the mycobacterial organism is its armour-plated unique cell wall structure which is rich in lipid and carbohydrate. Cord factor or trehalose dimycolate (TDM), the main component of cell wall, has once been regarded as the virulence factor of mycobacteria. Cord factor is responsible for the pathogenesis of TB and cachexia or even death of the patients infected. However, cord factor in itself is not toxic but exerts its detrimental effect to the host through the excessive stimulation of the host's immune system to produce abundant varied cytokines including TNF-alpha. How to evade this embarrassing effect of mycobacterial cell wall component on the host immune system seems very important for the future development of better TB vaccine than the currently used BCG.
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The clinical approach to thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies, specifically Sickle Cell Disease (SCD, based on transfusions, iron chelation and bone marrow transplantation has ameliorated their prognosis. Nevertheless, infections still may cause serious complications in these patients. The susceptibility to infections in thalassemia and SCD arises both from a large spectrum of immunological abnormalities and from exposure to specific infectious agents. Four fundamental issues will be focused upon as central causes of immune dysfunction: the diseases themselves; iron overload, transfusion therapy and the role of the spleen. Thalassemia and SCD differ in their pathogenesis and clinical course. It will be outlined how these differences affect immune dysfunction, the risk of infections and the types of most frequent infections in each disease. Moreover, since transfusions are a fundamental tool for treating these patients, their safety is paramount in reducing the risks of infections. In recent years, careful surveillance worldwide and improvements in laboratory tests reduced greatly transfusion transmitted infections, but the problem is not completely resolved. Finally, selected topics will be discussed regarding Parvovirus B19 and transfusion transmitted infections as well as the prevention of infectious risk postsplenectomy or in presence of functional asplenia.
Knudsen, Andreas; Benfield, Thomas; Kofoed, Kristian
BACKGROUND: Little is known about cytokine responses to syphilis infection in HIV-1-infected individuals. METHODS: We retrospectively identified patients with HIV-1 and Treponema pallidum coinfection. Plasma samples from before, during, and after coinfection were analyzed for interleukin (IL)-2, IL......-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon (IFN)-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients were included. IL-10 levels increased significantly in patients with primary or secondary stage syphilis from a median of 12.8 pg/mL [interquartile range (IQR), 11.0-27.8] before...... infection to 46.7 pg/mL (IQR, 28.4-78.9) at the time of diagnosis (P = 0.027) and decreased to 13.0 pg/mL (IQR, 6.2-19.4) after treatment of syphilis (P syphilis in patients with primary or secondary stage syphilis (median 3.9 pg...
Lei, Zhixin; Liu, Qianying; Yang, Bing; Xiong, Jincheng; Li, Kun; Ahmed, Saeed; Hong, Liping; Chen, Pin; He, Qigai; Cao, Jiyue
A new, more palatable formulation of 10% enrofloxacin enteric-coated granules was investigated to evaluate the pharmacokinetic effect in plasma, the residue elimination in tissues and the clinical efficacy against Actinobacillus pleuropneumonia (APP) and Mycoplasam suis (MS) in pigs. In this study, the enrofloxacin concentrations in plasma and tissues were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography with phosphate buffer (pH = 3) and acetonitrile. The pharmacokinetics and elimination of enrofloxacin enteric-coated granules were performed after oral administration at a single dose of 10 mg/kg body weight (bw) and 5 mg/kg twice per day for 5 consecutive days, respectively. The in vivo antibacterial efficacy and clinical effectiveness of enrofloxacin enteric-coated granules against APP and MS were assayed at 2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg, compared with tiamulin (8 mg/kg) based on establishment of APP and MS infection models. 56 APP strains were selected and tested for in vitro antibacterial activity of enrofloxacin enteric-coated granules. The main parameters of elimination half-life (t 1/2β ), T max , and area under the curve (AUC) were 14.99 ± 4.19, 3.99 ± 0.10, and 38.93 ± 1.52 μg h/ml, respectively, revealing that the enrofloxacin concentration remained high and with a sustainable distribution in plasma. Moreover, the analysis on the evaluation of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in muscle, fat, liver and kidney showed that the recovery were more than 84% recovery in accordance with the veterinary drug residue guidelines of United States pharmacopeia, and the withdrawal periods were 4.28, 3.81, 4.84, and 3.51 days, respectively, suggesting that the withdrawal period was 5 d after oral administration of 5 mg/kg twice per day. The optimal dosage of enrofloxacin enteric-coated granules against APP and MS was 5 mg/kg, with over 90% efficacy, which was significantly different ( p enrofloxacin enteric-coated granules had significant potential for treating APP and MS
Full Text Available A new, more palatable formulation of 10% enrofloxacin enteric-coated granules was investigated to evaluate the pharmacokinetic effect in plasma, the residue elimination in tissues and the clinical efficacy against Actinobacillus pleuropneumonia (APP and Mycoplasam suis (MS in pigs. In this study, the enrofloxacin concentrations in plasma and tissues were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography with phosphate buffer (pH = 3 and acetonitrile. The pharmacokinetics and elimination of enrofloxacin enteric-coated granules were performed after oral administration at a single dose of 10 mg/kg body weight (bw and 5 mg/kg twice per day for 5 consecutive days, respectively. The in vivo antibacterial efficacy and clinical effectiveness of enrofloxacin enteric-coated granules against APP and MS were assayed at 2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg, compared with tiamulin (8 mg/kg based on establishment of APP and MS infection models. 56 APP strains were selected and tested for in vitro antibacterial activity of enrofloxacin enteric-coated granules. The main parameters of elimination half-life (t1/2β, Tmax, and area under the curve (AUC were 14.99 ± 4.19, 3.99 ± 0.10, and 38.93 ± 1.52 μg h/ml, respectively, revealing that the enrofloxacin concentration remained high and with a sustainable distribution in plasma. Moreover, the analysis on the evaluation of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in muscle, fat, liver and kidney showed that the recovery were more than 84% recovery in accordance with the veterinary drug residue guidelines of United States pharmacopeia, and the withdrawal periods were 4.28, 3.81, 4.84, and 3.51 days, respectively, suggesting that the withdrawal period was 5 d after oral administration of 5 mg/kg twice per day. The optimal dosage of enrofloxacin enteric-coated granules against APP and MS was 5 mg/kg, with over 90% efficacy, which was significantly different (p < 0.05 to the 2.5 mg/kg group, but not to the 10 mg/kg group or the positive
Flores-Mireles, Ana L.; Walker, Jennifer N.; Caparon, Michael; Hultgren, Scott J.
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a severe public health problem and are caused by a range of pathogens, but most commonly by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. High recurrence rates and increasing antimicrobial resistance among uropathogens threaten to greatly increase the economic burden of these infections. In this Review, we discuss how basic science studies are elucidating the molecular details of the crosstalk that occurs at the host–pathogen interface, as well as the consequences of these interactions for the pathophysiology of UTIs. We also describe current efforts to translate this knowledge into new clinical treatments for UTIs. PMID:25853778