WorldWideScience

Sample records for actinium 231

  1. Actinium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, C.

    1977-01-01

    There are only very few investigations dealing with the chemical and physical properties of actinium, the lanthanum homologue in the actinide series, 227 Ac, the only long-lived isotope can be produced in gram amounts only by neutron irradiation of 226 Ra, the amounts occurring in nature are too low for isolation (about 1 μg 227 Ac/1 uranium ore). Experimental work with 227 Ac gives rise to a lot of problems due to the radiation characteristics of the 227 Ac daughter nuclides. Therefore, the metal and the only ten solid compounds, prepared up to now, have been isolated in the microgram scale. Due to the high specific activity of 227 Ac, the preparation of a lot of compounds, e.g. metal-organic compounds seems to be very difficult, if not impossible. The properties of actinium in aqueous solutions have been deduced from experiments in the tracer scale only. The present investigations on actinium show that only the oxidation state + 3 exists - only radiopolarographic studies indicate the possibility of a lower valancy state (Ac 2+ ). - This review will give a critical and comprehensive description on the present knowledge about this element. The presently decreasing interest in the development of thermionic batteries using 227 Ac 2 O 3 radionuclide also implies that there will be only small progress in the chemistry of this radio-element in the near future. (orig.) [de

  2. The sorption of polonium, actinium and protactinium onto geological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baston, G.M.N.; Berry, J.A.; Brownsword, M.; Heath, T.G.; Ilett, D.J.; McCrohon, R.; Tweed, C.J.; Yui, M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a combined experimental and modeling program of generic sorption studies to increase confidence in the performance assessment for a potential high-level radioactive waste repository in Japan. The sorption of polonium, actinium and protactinium onto geological materials has been investigated. Sorption of these radioelements onto bentonite, tuff and granodiorite from equilibrated de-ionized water was studied under reducing conditions at room temperature. In addition, the sorption of actinium and protactinium was investigated at 60 C. Thermodynamic chemical modeling was carried out to aid interpretation of the results

  3. The sorption of polonium, actinium and protactinium onto geological materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baston, G.M.N.; Berry, J.A.; Brownsword, M.; Heath, T.G.; Ilett, D.J.; McCrohon, R.; Tweed, C.J.; Yui, M.

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes a combined experimental and modeling program of generic sorption studies to increase confidence in the performance assessment for a potential high-level radioactive waste repository in Japan. The sorption of polonium, actinium and protactinium onto geological materials has been investigated. Sorption of these radioelements onto bentonite, tuff and granodiorite from equilibrated de-ionized water was studied under reducing conditions at room temperature. In addition, the sorption of actinium and protactinium was investigated at 60 C. Thermodynamic chemical modeling was carried out to aid interpretation of the results.

  4. Separation of Actinium 227 from the uranium minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Tarango, S.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to separate Actinium 227, whose content is 18%, from the mineral carnotite found in Gomez Chihuahua mountain range in Mexico. The mineral before processing is is pre-concentrated and passed, first through anionic exchange resins, later the eluate obtained is passed through cationic resins. The resins were 20-50 MESH QOWEX and 100-200 MESH 50 X 8-20 in some cased 200-400 MESH AG 50W-X8, 1X8 in other cases. The eluates from the ionic exchange were electrodeposited on stainless steel polished disc cathode and platinum electrode as anode; under a current ODF 10mA for 2.5 to 5 hours and of 100mA for .5 of an hour. it was possible to identify the Actinium 227 by means of its descendents, TH-227 and RA-223, through alpha spectroscopy. Due to the radiochemical purity which the electro deposits were obtained the Actinium 227 was low and was not quantitatively determined. A large majority of the members of the natural radioactive series 3 were identified and even alpha energies reported in the literature with very low percentages of non-identified emissions were observed. We conclude that a more precise study is needed concerning ionic exchange and electrodeposit to obtain an Actinium 227 of radiochemical purity. (Author)

  5. Application of partition chromatography method for separation and analysis of actinium radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinitsina, G.S.; Shestakova, I.A.; Shestakov, B.I.; Plyushcheva, N.A.; Malyshev, N.A.; Belyatskij, A.F.; Tsirlin, V.A.

    1979-01-01

    The method of partition chromatography is considered with the use of different extractants for the extraction of actinium-227, actinium-225 and actinium-228. It is advisable to extract actinium-227 from the irradiated radium with the help of D2FGFK. The use of 2DEGFK allows us to separate actinium-227 from alkaline and alkaline-earth elements. Amines have a higher radiative stability. An express-method has been developed for the identification of actinium-227 with TOA by its intrinsic α-emission in nonequilibrium preparations of irradiated radium-226 of small activity. Actinium-225 is extracted from uranium-233 with due regard for the fact that U, Th, and Ac are extracted differently by TBP from HNO 3 solutions. With the help of the given procedure one can reach the purifying coefficient of 10 4 . Actinium-228 is extracted from the radiummesothorium preparations by a deposition of decay products, including polonium-210 on the iron hydroxyde. Actinium-228 extraction from the mixture of radium radionuclides is performed by the partition chromatography method on D2EGFK. All the procedures for separation of actinium isotopes by the above methods are described

  6. Separation of protactinum, actinium, and other radionuclides from proton irradiated thorium target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassbender, Michael E.; Radchenko, Valery

    2018-04-24

    Protactinium, actinium, radium, radiolanthanides and other radionuclide fission products were separated and recovered from a proton-irradiated thorium target. The target was dissolved in concentrated HCl, which formed anionic complexes of protactinium but not with thorium, actinium, radium, or radiolanthanides. Protactinium was separated from soluble thorium by loading a concentrated HCl solution of the target onto a column of strongly basic anion exchanger resin and eluting with concentrated HCl. Actinium, radium and radiolanthanides elute with thorium. The protactinium that is retained on the column, along with other radionuclides, is eluted may subsequently treated to remove radionuclide impurities to afford a fraction of substantially pure protactinium. The eluate with the soluble thorium, actinium, radium and radiolanthanides may be subjected to treatment with citric acid to form anionic thorium, loaded onto a cationic exchanger resin, and eluted. Actinium, radium and radiolanthanides that are retained can be subjected to extraction chromatography to separate the actinium from the radium and from the radio lanthanides.

  7. Separation of actinium-227 from its daughter products by cationic resins technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nastasi, M.J.C.

    1976-01-01

    A method for separating actinium-227 from its daughter products based on ion exchange principle is shown. Radionuclides mixture in perchloric acid 8,5 N and chloridric acid 0,5 N medium pass by a cationic resin column. Thorium-227 and actinium-227, which are retained by the resin, are eluted with nitric acid 6 N which releases actinium-227 while oxalic acid 7% is used for thorium-227 elution [pt

  8. Short history of radioactivity. No. XIII. The actinium and thorium series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalmers, T W

    1950-06-16

    Discussions of the actinium disintegration series (about 1905), the /sup 235/U or actinium series (as it is accepted today), the disintegration of thorium (about 1905), the thorium series in the modern form, and the 4n, 4n + 1, 4n + 2, and 4n + 3 series are presented.

  9. Actinium-225 and Bismuth-213 Alpha Particle Immunotherapy of Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheinberg, D.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclides with appropriate half-lives and emission characteristics that would be potent enough to kill neoplastic cells in the small quantities that reach targets in vivo, include the high linear energy transfer (LET) alpha emitters such as Actinium-225 and Bi-213. We developed methods for the attachment of radiometals via bifunctional chelates to monoclonal antibodies (mAb) without loss of immunoreactivity. We developed alphaemitting Bi-213 lintuzumab constructs, characterized and qualified them in preclinical models, and took them into human clinical trials in patients with AML. Safety, anti-leukemic activity, and complete responses (CR’s) have been demonstrated through phase 2 trilas. Bi-213 is produced in a portable small generator device based on Ac- 225 in the hospital nuclear medicine lab. The isotope is then purified, attached to the antibody, and the product is qualified and processed. Despite this success, the major obstacle to the widespread use of these drugs remains the short 213 Bi half-life (46 minutes), which poses a large logistical hurdle before injection and limits its delivery to only the most accessible cancer cells after injection

  10. Production of Actinium-225 via High Energy Proton Induced Spallation of Thorium-232

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, James T.; Nolen, Jerry; Vandergrift, George; Gomes, Itacil; Kroc, Tom; Horwitz, Phil; McAlister, Dan; Bowers, Del; Sullivan, Vivian; Greene, John

    2011-12-30

    The science of cancer research is currently expanding its use of alpha particle emitting radioisotopes. Coupled with the discovery and proliferation of molecular species that seek out and attach to tumors, new therapy and diagnostics are being developed to enhance the treatment of cancer and other diseases. This latest technology is commonly referred to as Alpha Immunotherapy (AIT). Actinium-225/Bismuth-213 is a parent/daughter alpha-emitting radioisotope pair that is highly sought after because of the potential for treating numerous diseases and its ability to be chemically compatible with many known and widely used carrier molecules (such as monoclonal antibodies and proteins/peptides). Unfortunately, the worldwide supply of actinium-225 is limited to about 1,000mCi annually and most of that is currently spoken for, thus limiting the ability of this radioisotope pair to enter into research and subsequently clinical trials. The route proposed herein utilizes high energy protons to produce actinium-225 via spallation of a thorium-232 target. As part of previous R and D efforts carried out at Argonne National Laboratory recently in support of the proposed US FRIB facility, it was shown that a very effective production mechanism for actinium-225 is spallation of thorium-232 by high energy proton beams. The base-line simulation for the production rate of actinium-225 by this reaction mechanism is 8E12 atoms per second at 200 MeV proton beam energy with 50 g/cm2 thorium target and 100 kW beam power. An irradiation of one actinium-225 half-life (10 days) produces {approx}100 Ci of actinium-225. For a given beam current the reaction cross section increases slightly with energy to about 400 MeV and then decreases slightly for beam energies in the several GeV regime. The object of this effort is to refine the simulations at proton beam energies of 400 MeV and above up to about 8 GeV. Once completed, the simulations will be experimentally verified using 400 MeV and 8 Ge

  11. Amides with nitrogenous heterocyclic substituent, their manufacturing process and their use to draw out selectively Actinium series (III) and to separate them in particular from Lanthanides (III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuillerdier, C.; Musikas, C.

    1993-01-01

    Present invention is concerned with new amides with nitrogenous heterocyclic substituent utilizable to separate trivalent actinium series from trivalent lanthanides. In these molecules, it is possible to obtain particularly covalent liaison which has more affinity with 5f series, that is to say actinium series; included a manufacturing process for these amides with nitrogenous heterocyclic substituent

  12. Analysis of the gamma spectra of the uranium, actinium, and thorium decay series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momeni, M.H.

    1981-09-01

    This report describes the identification of radionuclides in the uranium, actinium, and thorium series by analysis of gamma spectra in the energy range of 40 to 1400 keV. Energies and absolute efficiencies for each gamma line were measured by means of a high-resolution germanium detector and compared with those in the literature. A gamma spectroscopy method, which utilizes an on-line computer for deconvolution of spectra, search and identification of each line, and estimation of activity for each radionuclide, was used to analyze soil and uranium tailings, and ore

  13. Application of ion exchange and extraction chromatography to the separation of actinium from proton-irradiated thorium metal for analytical purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchenko, V; Engle, J W; Wilson, J J; Maassen, J R; Nortier, F M; Taylor, W A; Birnbaum, E R; Hudston, L A; John, K D; Fassbender, M E

    2015-02-06

    Actinium-225 (t1/2=9.92d) is an α-emitting radionuclide with nuclear properties well-suited for use in targeted alpha therapy (TAT), a powerful treatment method for malignant tumors. Actinium-225 can also be utilized as a generator for (213)Bi (t1/2 45.6 min), which is another valuable candidate for TAT. Actinium-225 can be produced via proton irradiation of thorium metal; however, long-lived (227)Ac (t1/2=21.8a, 99% β(-), 1% α) is co-produced during this process and will impact the quality of the final product. Thus, accurate assays are needed to determine the (225)Ac/(227)Ac ratio, which is dependent on beam energy, irradiation time and target design. Accurate actinium assays, in turn, require efficient separation of actinium isotopes from both the Th matrix and highly radioactive activation by-products, especially radiolanthanides formed from proton-induced fission. In this study, we introduce a novel, selective chromatographic technique for the recovery and purification of actinium isotopes from irradiated Th matrices. A two-step sequence of cation exchange and extraction chromatography was implemented. Radiolanthanides were quantitatively removed from Ac, and no non-Ac radionuclidic impurities were detected in the final Ac fraction. An (225)Ac spike added prior to separation was recovered at ≥ 98%, and Ac decontamination from Th was found to be ≥ 10(6). The purified actinium fraction allowed for highly accurate (227)Ac determination at analytical scales, i.e., at (227)Ac activities of 1-100 kBq (27 nCi to 2.7 μCi). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Nuclear structure of 231Ac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutami, R.; Borge, M.J.G.; Mach, H.; Kurcewicz, W.; Fraile, L.M.; Gulda, K.; Aas, A.J.; Garcia-Raffi, L.M.; Lovhoiden, G.; Martinez, T.; Rubio, B.; Tain, J.L.; Tengblad, O.

    2008-01-01

    The low-energy structure of 231 Ac has been investigated by means of γ ray spectroscopy following the β - decay of 231 Ra. Multipolarities of 28 transitions have been established by measuring conversion electrons with a MINI-ORANGE electron spectrometer. The decay scheme of 231 Ra → 231 Ac has been constructed for the first time. The Advanced Time Delayed βγγ(t) method has been used to measure the half-lives of five levels. The moderately fast B(E1) transition rates derived suggest that the octupole effects, albeit weak, are still present in this exotic nucleus

  15. Developments towards in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy studies of actinium isotopes at LISOL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raeder, S.; Bastin, B.; Block, M.; Creemers, P.; Delahaye, P.; Ferrer, R.; Fléchard, X.; Franchoo, S.; Ghys, L.; Gaffney, L.P.; Granados, C.; Heinke, R.; Hijazi, L.

    2016-01-01

    To study exotic nuclides at the borders of stability with laser ionization and spectroscopy techniques, highest efficiencies in combination with a high spectral resolution are required. These usually opposing requirements are reconciled by applying the in-gas-laser ionization and spectroscopy (IGLIS) technique in the supersonic gas jet produced by a de Laval nozzle installed at the exit of the stopping gas cell. Carrying out laser ionization in the low-temperature and low density supersonic gas jet eliminates pressure broadening, which will significantly improve the spectral resolution. This article presents the required modifications at the Leuven Isotope Separator On-Line (LISOL) facility that are needed for the first on-line studies of in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy. Different geometries for the gas outlet and extraction ion guides have been tested for their performance regarding the acceptance of laser ionized species as well as for their differential pumping capacities. The specifications and performance of the temporarily installed high repetition rate laser system, including a narrow bandwidth injection-locked Ti:sapphire laser, are discussed and first preliminary results on neutron-deficient actinium isotopes are presented indicating the high capability of this novel technique.

  16. Developments towards in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy studies of actinium isotopes at LISOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeder, S., E-mail: s.raeder@gsi.de [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, 55128 Mainz (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Bastin, B. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, B.P. 55027, 14076 Caen (France); Block, M. [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, 55128 Mainz (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Institut für Kernchemie, Johannes Gutenberg Universität, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Creemers, P. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Delahaye, P. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, B.P. 55027, 14076 Caen (France); Ferrer, R. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Fléchard, X. [LPC Caen, ENSICAEN, Université de Caen, CNRS/IN2P3, Caen (France); Franchoo, S. [Institute de Physique Nucléaire (IPN) d’Orsay, 91406 Orsay, Cedex (France); Ghys, L. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); SCK-CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Center, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Gaffney, L.P.; Granados, C. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Heinke, R. [Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg Universität, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Hijazi, L. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, B.P. 55027, 14076 Caen (France); and others

    2016-06-01

    To study exotic nuclides at the borders of stability with laser ionization and spectroscopy techniques, highest efficiencies in combination with a high spectral resolution are required. These usually opposing requirements are reconciled by applying the in-gas-laser ionization and spectroscopy (IGLIS) technique in the supersonic gas jet produced by a de Laval nozzle installed at the exit of the stopping gas cell. Carrying out laser ionization in the low-temperature and low density supersonic gas jet eliminates pressure broadening, which will significantly improve the spectral resolution. This article presents the required modifications at the Leuven Isotope Separator On-Line (LISOL) facility that are needed for the first on-line studies of in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy. Different geometries for the gas outlet and extraction ion guides have been tested for their performance regarding the acceptance of laser ionized species as well as for their differential pumping capacities. The specifications and performance of the temporarily installed high repetition rate laser system, including a narrow bandwidth injection-locked Ti:sapphire laser, are discussed and first preliminary results on neutron-deficient actinium isotopes are presented indicating the high capability of this novel technique.

  17. 48 CFR 231.205 - Selected costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selected costs. 231.205... OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 231.205 Selected costs. ...

  18. 22 CFR 231.15 - Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice. 231.15 Section 231.15 Foreign Relations... WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 231.15 Notice. Any communication to USAID pursuant to this Guarantee shall be in writing in the English language...

  19. 28 CFR 23.1 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose. 23.1 Section 23.1 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS OPERATING POLICIES § 23.1 Purpose. The purpose...-647), are utilized in conformance with the privacy and constitutional rights of individuals. ...

  20. 32 CFR 231.11 - Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guidelines. 231.11 Section 231.11 National... PROCEDURES GOVERNING BANKS, CREDIT UNIONS AND OTHER FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS ON DOD INSTALLATIONS Guidelines for Application of the Privacy Act to Financial Institution Operations § 231.11 Guidelines. (a) The...

  1. 33 CFR 117.231 - Brandywine Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Brandywine Creek. 117.231 Section 117.231 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Delaware § 117.231 Brandywine Creek. The draw of the...

  2. 22 CFR 231.16 - Governing law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing law. 231.16 Section 231.16 Foreign... EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 231.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of...

  3. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified for...

  4. 42 CFR 403.231 - Emblem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emblem. 403.231 Section 403.231 Public Health... Provisions § 403.231 Emblem. (a) The emblem is a graphic symbol, approved by HHS, that indicates that CMS has... display the emblem on policies certified under the voluntary certification program. (c) The manner in...

  5. Nuclear structure of {sup 231}Ac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutami, R. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 113 bis, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Borge, M.J.G. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 113 bis, E-28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: borge@iem.cfmac.csic.es; Mach, H. [Department of Radiation Sciences, ISV, Uppsala University, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Kurcewicz, W. [Department of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pl-00 681 Warsaw (Poland); Fraile, L.M. [Departamento Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad CC. Fisicas, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); ISOLDE, PH Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Gulda, K. [Department of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pl-00 681 Warsaw (Poland); Aas, A.J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo, PO Box 1033, Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway); Garcia-Raffi, L.M. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, CSIC - Universidad de Valencia, Apdo. 22805, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Lovhoiden, G. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, PO Box 1048, Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Martinez, T.; Rubio, B.; Tain, J.L. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, CSIC - Universidad de Valencia, Apdo. 22805, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Tengblad, O. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 113 bis, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); ISOLDE, PH Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2008-10-15

    The low-energy structure of {sup 231}Ac has been investigated by means of {gamma} ray spectroscopy following the {beta}{sup -} decay of {sup 231}Ra. Multipolarities of 28 transitions have been established by measuring conversion electrons with a MINI-ORANGE electron spectrometer. The decay scheme of {sup 231}Ra {yields}{sup 231}Ac has been constructed for the first time. The Advanced Time Delayed {beta}{gamma}{gamma}(t) method has been used to measure the half-lives of five levels. The moderately fast B(E1) transition rates derived suggest that the octupole effects, albeit weak, are still present in this exotic nucleus.

  6. 27 CFR 25.231 - Finished beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finished beer. 25.231... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Purchased From Another Brewer § 25.231 Finished beer. (a) A brewer may obtain beer in barrels and kegs, finished and ready for sale from another brewer. The purchasing...

  7. 22 CFR 231.03 - The Guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The Guarantee. 231.03 Section 231.03 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS...

  8. 22 CFR 231.02 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 231.02 Section 231.02 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS...

  9. 22 CFR 231.14 - Arbitration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arbitration. 231.14 Section 231.14 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS...

  10. 22 CFR 231.01 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose. 231.01 Section 231.01 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS...

  11. 22 CFR 231.04 - Guarantee eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guarantee eligibility. 231.04 Section 231.04 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND...

  12. 40 CFR 231.5 - Recommended determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recommended determination. 231.5... 404(c) PROCEDURES § 231.5 Recommended determination. (a) The Regional Administrator or his designee... public notice of the proposed determination, either withdraw the proposed determination or prepare a...

  13. 16 CFR 23.1 - Deception (general).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... misrepresent the type, kind, grade, quality, quantity, metallic content, size, weight, cut, color, character..., distribution, or any other material aspect of an industry product. Note 1 to § 23.1: If, in the sale or..., the identity of the grading system used should be disclosed. Note 2 to § 23.1: To prevent deception...

  14. Prospection for natural 231Pa in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anupama, P.; Gantayet, L.M.; Verma, R.; Parthasarathy, R.; Anil Kumar, S.; Dingankar, M.V.; Ghosh, S.K.; Patra, R.N.

    2001-08-01

    Protactinium-231 ( 231 Pa) occurs in nature as a member of the decay chain of naturally occuring 235 U of the 4n+ 3 radioactive series. The expected protactinium concentration in the Jaduguda ore body (with uranium concentration of 0.03-0.06 %) is around 0.2 parts per billion (ppb) and that in monazite ore (uranium concentration 0.3%) is 0.9 ppb. The process at uranium ore processing plant at Jaduguda was studied. 231 Pa content in samples from the process streams of the plant was determined. The gamma ray spectrometry method was chosen and standardised in our laboratory to detect and measure 231 Pa in parts per billion levels in these samples. A concentrated source of protactinium could not be found among the assessed streams of Jaduguda uranium plant. The Monazite processing plant at IRE, Aluva was then studied. From the known chemistry of protactinium, the possible distribution of the 231 Pa was guessed at. Accordingly, the process streams of IRE process plant were selected to prospect for 231 Pa and determine the fractionation of protactinium. For analysis of 231 Pa, the thorium bearing samples were chemically treated to remove the thorium daughter products, which interfere in gamma spectrometry. This report describes the planning for prospecting, sample selection, the standardisation of the analysis procedure for determination of 231 Pa content, and the analysis results. The 231 Pa content in various streams of Indian Rare Earths plant was found in the range 0.2 -6.5 ppb. Some of the streams did not carry any protactinium. The fractionation of 231 Pa in the various streams of the plant and the selection of source for recovery of protactinium are discussed in detail. (author)

  15. Dicty_cDB: SLH231 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLH231 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16382-1 SLH231F (Link to Original site) SLH2...31F 431 - - - - - - Show SLH231 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLH231 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLH2-B/SLH231Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLH23...1F (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLH231 (SLH231Q) /CSM/SL/SLH2-B/SLH231Q.Seq.d/ AAAAA...Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value SLH231 (SLH231Q) /CSM/SL/SLH2-B/SLH231Q.Seq

  16. 49 CFR 231.7 - Tank cars with side platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars with side platforms. 231.7 Section 231.7..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.7 Tank cars with side platforms. (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified for “Box and other house cars” (see § 231.1(a)(1)). (2...

  17. 48 CFR 252.231-7000 - Supplemental cost principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... principles. 252.231-7000 Section 252.231-7000 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.231-7000 Supplemental cost principles. As prescribed in 231.100-70, use the following clause: Supplemental Cost Principles (DEC 1991) When the allowability of costs under...

  18. Safety analysis report 231-Z Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, C.S.

    1989-03-01

    This report provides an intensive review of the nuclear safety of the operation of the 231-Z Building. For background information complete descriptions of the floor plan, building services, alarm systems, and glove box systems are included in this report. In addition, references are included to The Plutonium Laboratory Radiation Work Procedures, Safety Guides, 231-Z Operating Procedures Manual and Nuclear Materials accountability Procedures. Engineered and administrative features contribute to the overall safety of personnel, the building, and environs. The consequences of credible incidents were considered and are discussed.

  19. 33 CFR 136.231 - Authorized claimants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.231 Authorized... also involves a claim for injury to, or economic losses resulting from destruction of, real or personal...

  20. 36 CFR 223.231 - Bidding methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bidding methods. 223.231... methods. The Contracting Officer or designated forest officer shall offer advertised sales of special forest products through sealed bid or sealed bid followed by oral auction. The method selected shall: (a...

  1. 12 CFR 231.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ELIGIBILITY FOR FINANCIAL INSTITUTION (REGULATION EE) § 231.2 Definitions. As used in this part, unless the...” contract). (d) Financial market means a market for a financial contract. (e) Gross mark-to-market positions... other person that controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with the person. (c) Financial...

  2. 49 CFR 231.9 - Tank cars without end sills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... clearance, within 30 inches of side of car, until car is shopped for work amounting to practically... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars without end sills. 231.9 Section 231.9..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.9 Tank cars without end sills. (a...

  3. 49 CFR 231.11 - Caboose cars without platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... inches end-ladder clearance, within 30 inches of side of car, until car is shopped for work amounting to... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Caboose cars without platforms. 231.11 Section 231... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.11 Caboose cars without...

  4. 42 CFR 413.231 - Adjustment for wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjustment for wages. 413.231 Section 413.231... Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.231 Adjustment for wages. (a) CMS adjusts the labor-related portion of the base rate to account for geographic differences in the area wage levels...

  5. 14 CFR 16.231 - Offer of proof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offer of proof. 16.231 Section 16.231... PRACTICE FOR FEDERALLY-ASSISTED AIRPORT ENFORCEMENT PROCEEDINGS Hearings § 16.231 Offer of proof. A party whose evidence has been excluded by a ruling of the hearing officer may offer the evidence on the record...

  6. 49 CFR 231.18 - Cars of special construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cars of special construction. 231.18 Section 231... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.18 Cars of special construction. Cars of construction not covered specifically in the foregoing sections in this part, relative to...

  7. Statement of Basis/Proposed Plan for the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (231-F, 231-1F, and 231-2F)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, E.

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this source unit Statement of Basis/Proposed Plan is to describe the preferred alternative for addressing the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (231-F and 231-1F) and Rubble Pit (231-2F) (FBRP) source unit located at SRS, in southwestern Aiken County, South Carolina and to provide an opportunity for public input into the remedial action selection process

  8. Protactinium-231 found in natural thorium irradiated in JMTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Susumu; Mitsugashira, Toshiaki; Hara, Mitsuo; Satoh, Isamu; Shiokawa, Yoshinobu; Satoh, Michiko

    1987-01-01

    Natural thorium dioxides, which differed in the content of 230 Th, were irradiated in JMTR(Japan Material Testing Reactor). 232 U, 233 U, 231 Pa, 233 Pa, and remaining Th were measured radiometrically. High production of 231 Pa and high consumption of 230 Th were observed and it was necessary to assume large resonance capture of 230 Th in order to explain the production of 231 Pa and the consumption of 230 Th. (author)

  9. 5 CFR 532.231 - Responsibilities of participating organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... organizations. 532.231 Section 532.231 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE... organizations. (a) The Office of Personnel Management: (1) Defines the boundaries of wage and survey areas; (2... recommendations of the national headquarters of any agency or labor organization relating to the Office of...

  10. 49 CFR 192.231 - Protection from weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection from weather. 192.231 Section 192.231 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... weather. The welding operation must be protected from weather conditions that would impair the quality of...

  11. 48 CFR 352.231-70 - Precontract costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Precontract costs. 352.231... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 352.231-70 Precontract costs. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1331.205-32, insert the following clause: Precontract Costs (APR 2010) The contractor is...

  12. 22 CFR 231.11 - Subrogation of USAID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Subrogation of USAID. 231.11 Section 231.11 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND...

  13. 22 CFR 231.13 - Change in agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in agreements. 231.13 Section 231.13 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND...

  14. 22 CFR 231.12 - Prosecution of claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prosecution of claims. 231.12 Section 231.12 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND...

  15. 22 CFR 231.07 - Fiscal Agent obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fiscal Agent obligations. 231.07 Section 231.07 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND...

  16. 48 CFR 1352.231-71 - Duplication of effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duplication of effort. 1352.231-71 Section 1352.231-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CLAUSES... benefit of the Government, and not incidental to any other work, pursuit, research, or purpose of the...

  17. 40 CFR 795.231 - Pharmacokinetics of isopropanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pharmacokinetics of isopropanal. 795.231 Section 795.231 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC... radioactivity in blood and in various tissues, including bone, brain, fat, gastrointestinal tract, gonads, heart...

  18. 49 CFR 231.22 - Operation of track motor cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation of track motor cars. 231.22 Section 231... motor cars. On and after August 1, 1963, it shall be unlawful for any railroad subject to the requirements of the Safety Appliance Acts to operate or permit to be operated on its line track motor cars to...

  19. 12 CFR 231.3 - Qualification as a financial institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualification as a financial institution. 231.3... RESERVE SYSTEM NETTING ELIGIBILITY FOR FINANCIAL INSTITUTION (REGULATION EE) § 231.3 Qualification as a financial institution. (a) A person qualifies as a financial institution for purposes of sections 401-407 of...

  20. Meningoencefalite tuberculosa: avaliação de 231 casos Tuberculosis meningoencephalitis: exposure of 231 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceuci Nunes

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo foram avaliados 231 pacientes com meningoencefalite tuberculosa, sendo que 62 casos tiveram diagnóstico comprovado e 169 apresentavam quadro clínico e laboratorial compatíveis com este diagnóstico. Foram 127 (55% pacientes do sexo masculino, a idade variou de 1 mês a 68 anos, com 97 (42% na faixa etária igual ou inferior a um ano. As características clínicas, demográficas e liquóricas foram estudadas e comparadas entre os casos confirmados e os de diagnóstico provável. Em conclusão reafirmamos a gravidade desta doença, com altas taxas de letalidade principalmente na faixa etária de zero a quatro anos e a possibilidade de erros diagnósticos nas apresentações com formas agudas e predominância de neutrófilos no líquor.This study assessed 231 cases of tuberculous meningitis of which 62 (26.8% had diagnostic confirmation against 169 (73.2% with only clinical picture and laboratorial indication for this diagnosis. Fifty-five percent of the sample was male; ages ranged from one month to 68 years, 42% comprising children below four years.Clinical, demographic and liquoric characteristics were investigated and compared amongst those with likely and confirmed diagnosis. In conclusion, atention is drawn to the severity of this desease with high rates of lethality mainly within the age-range of 0-4 years, and to the possibility of misdiagnosis in the presentation of acute forms and predominance of neutrophils in the liquor.

  1. Removal of 230Th and 231Pa at ocean margins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.F.; Bacon, M.P.; Brewer, P.G.

    1983-01-01

    Uranium, thorium and protactinium isotopes were measured in particulate matter collected by sediment traps deployed in the Panama Basin and by in-situ filtration of large volumes of seawater in the Panama and Guatemala Basins. Concentrations of dissolved Th and Pa isotopes were determined by extraction onto MnO 2 adsorbers placed in line behind the filters in the in-situ pumping systems. Concentrations of dissolved 230 Th and 231 Pa in the Panama and Guatemala Basins are lower than in the open ocean, whereas dissolved 230 Th/ 231 Pa ratios are equal to, or slightly greater than, ratios in the open ocean. Particulate 230 Th/ 231 Pa ratios in the sediment trap samples ranged from 4 to 8, in contrast to ratios of 30 or more at the open ocean sites previously studied. Particles collected by filtration in the Panama Basin and nearest to the continental margin in the Guatemala Basin contained 230 Th/ 231 Pa ratios similar to the ratios in the sediment trap samples. The ratios increased with distance away from the continent. Suspended particles near the margin show no preference for adsorption of Th or Pa and therefore must be chemically different from particles in the open ocean, which show a strong preference for adsorption of Th. Ocean margins, as typified by the Panama and Guatemala Basins, are preferential sinks for 231 Pa relative to 230 Th. Furthermore, the margins are sinks for 230 Th and, to a greater extent, 231 Pa transported by horizontal mixing from the open ocean. (orig.)

  2. 27 CFR 40.231 - Consumption by employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consumption by employees... Products § 40.231 Consumption by employees. A manufacturer of tobacco products may gratuitously furnish tobacco products, without determination and payment of tax, for personal consumption by employees in the...

  3. 46 CFR 169.231 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions relating to hull examinations. 169.231... hull examinations. As used in the part— (a) Drydock examination means hauling out a vessel or placing a... and all through-hull fittings, sea chests, sea valves, sea strainers, and valves for the emergency...

  4. 40 CFR 86.231-94 - Vehicle preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle preparation. 86.231-94 Section... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium...

  5. 22 CFR 231.09 - No acceleration of Eligible Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 231.09 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11... have the right to pay any amounts in respect of the Eligible Notes other than in accordance with the...

  6. 12 CFR 231.1 - Authority, purpose, and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... markets. This part expands the Act's definition of “financial institution” to allow more financial market... SYSTEM NETTING ELIGIBILITY FOR FINANCIAL INSTITUTION (REGULATION EE) § 231.1 Authority, purpose, and.... 4401-4407). This part does not affect the status of those financial institutions specifically defined...

  7. Opportunistic infections and malignancies in 231 Danish AIDS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Gerstoft, J; Tauris, P

    1990-01-01

    diseases caused by cytomegalovirus and atypical mycobacteria tended to occur later in the course of AIDS. Compared with all other AIDS patients, homosexual men were more likely to develop Kaposi's sarcoma, cytomegalovirus chorioretinitis and mucocutaneous herpes simplex virus infection. The proportion......We analysed cumulative disease frequencies in the first 231 adult Danish AIDS patients with life tables. There was a certain hierarchical pattern in the occurrence of complicating diseases. Herpes zoster, Kaposi's sarcoma and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia were early manifestations, whereas...

  8. 49 CFR 231.3 - Drop-end high-side gondola cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drop-end high-side gondola cars. 231.3 Section 231... gondola cars. (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified for “Box and other house cars” (see § 231.1(a)(1)). (2) Dimensions. Same as specified for “Box and other house cars” (see § 231.1(a)(2)). (3...

  9. 49 CFR 231.5 - Drop-end low-side gondola cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drop-end low-side gondola cars. 231.5 Section 231... gondola cars. (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified for “Box and other house cars” (see § 231.1(a)(1)). (2) Dimensions. Same as specified for “Box and other house cars” (see § 231.1(a)(2)). (3...

  10. 49 CFR 231.15 - Steam locomotives used in road service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam locomotives used in road service. 231.15 Section 231.15 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.15 Steam locomotives used...

  11. Period of Light Variability in BL Lac ON 231 Xu Yun Bing1, Zhang ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    period light variability may be greater than the current observation history and needs further monitoring certification (Zhang et al. 1998). To establish the real periods of ON 231, we employ wavelet analysis and DCF method to search a periodicity in the light curves. 2. Periodicity analysis of ON231. 2.1 Light curve of ON 231.

  12. 27 CFR 31.231 - Destruction of marks and brands on wine containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... brands on wine containers. 31.231 Section 31.231 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... § 31.231 Destruction of marks and brands on wine containers. A dealer who empties any cask, barrel, keg, or other bulk container of wine must scrape or obliterate from the empty container all marks, brands...

  13. 30 CFR 250.231 - After receiving the EP, what will MMS do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false After receiving the EP, what will MMS do? 250.231 Section 250.231 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE... Decision Process for the Ep § 250.231 After receiving the EP, what will MMS do? (a) Determine whether...

  14. 29 CFR 500.231 - Appearances; representation of the Department of Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Procedures Before Administrative Law Judge § 500.231 Appearances; representation of the Department of Labor... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appearances; representation of the Department of Labor. 500.231 Section 500.231 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT...

  15. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 231 - In-Store Banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In-Store Banking B Appendix B to Part 231.... 231, App. B Appendix B to Part 231—In-Store Banking A. Selection Process. The purpose of this guidance... provide in-store banking services when such services are desired and approved by the installation...

  16. Variation of 231Pa, 230Th and 231Paex/230Thex in surface sediments of the Sabah-Sarawak coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zal U'yun Wan Mahmood; Zaharudin Ahmad; Abdul Kadir Ishak; Norfaizal Mohamed; Che Abd Rahim Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Protactinium and thorium activities were measured in eight surface sediment taken in 2004 to determine effectiveness scavenging of 231 Pa at Sabah-Sarawak coastal waters. The result found that activity ratios of 231 Pa ex / 230 Th ex were ranged from 0.07 to 0.13 at all sampling stations. The high 231 Pa ex / 230 Th ex activity ratio than the production ratio of 0.093 in seawater at station SR 01, SR 02, SR 04, SB 02 and SB 05, revealed that 231 Pa is effectively removed from the water column into the sediment in comparison with 230 Th at those stations. Low percentage of 230 Th ex (90-95%) in comparison with 231 Pa ex at all stations can be attributed to less efficiently scavenged of 230 Th onto particles prior deposited at the marine sediment bed. (author)

  17. PBMC and MDAMB-231 cellular viability after telecobalt irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Lidia M.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R.

    2002-01-01

    Radiotherapy by gamma rays are used for cancer treatment. Ionizing radiation effects on cells has been investigated. Studies in vitro were developed using tumor cell lines and ionizing radiation. The aim of this research was to test the cellular viability response of two cell types through MTT assay: human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) and human breast carcinoma cell line MDAMB-231. These cells were irradiated with 60 Co source Theratron 80 radiotherapy machine from Atomic Energy Canada Limited with 20 x 20 cm field at 136.4 cGy/min, surface source distance 70 cm. Culture flasks contained 10 4 , 10 5 and 10 6 cells were irradiated with 100 Gy, 25 Gy, and 50 Gy using non fractionated doses. Cellular viability were evaluated 1h, 24h, 48h and 72h after irradiation and samples were measured by optical density at 595nm. Our results show that PBMC cells present lower cellular viability post irradiation. On the other hand, MDAMB-231 cells maintain viability after 50 Gy irradiation at 72h indicating cellular radioresistance. (author)

  18. Opportunistic infections and malignancies in 231 Danish AIDS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Gerstoft, J; Tauris, P

    1990-01-01

    We analysed cumulative disease frequencies in the first 231 adult Danish AIDS patients with life tables. There was a certain hierarchical pattern in the occurrence of complicating diseases. Herpes zoster, Kaposi's sarcoma and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia were early manifestations, whereas...... diseases caused by cytomegalovirus and atypical mycobacteria tended to occur later in the course of AIDS. Compared with all other AIDS patients, homosexual men were more likely to develop Kaposi's sarcoma, cytomegalovirus chorioretinitis and mucocutaneous herpes simplex virus infection. The proportion...... of patients who developed particular diseases changed with calendar time. Most striking was a three to fourfold decrease in diseases caused by cytomegalovirus. In conclusion, the study showed that disease frequencies in patients with AIDS may vary with the patients risk behaviour and duration of AIDS...

  19. EVN observations of the OH megamaser galaxies Mrk 231 and IC 694

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klockner, HR; Baan, WA; Migenes,; Reid, MJ

    2002-01-01

    We present EVN observations of hydroxyl (OH) main-line emission in two megamaser sources Mrk 231 and IC 694. The observations indicate that the broad maser emission lines originate within the nuclear regions. A single 1667 MHz main-line feature is seen at the nucleus of IC 694. In Mrk 231 both

  20. 22 CFR 231.05 - Non-impairment of the Guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Non-impairment of the Guarantee. 231.05 Section 231.05 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD...

  1. 49 CFR 231.16 - Steam locomotives used in switching service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam locomotives used in switching service. 231... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.16 Steam..., buffer block, footboard, brake pipe, signal pipe, steam-heat pipe or arms of uncoupling lever shall...

  2. 75 FR 30902 - Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement; U.S. 231 Dubois County, IN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... Impact Statement; U.S. 231 Dubois County, IN AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of intent. SUMMARY: The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), in cooperation with the Indiana... roadway network but serves approximately 40 percent of the nation's highway travel. U.S. 231 is also a...

  3. 30 CFR 285.231 - How will MMS process my unsolicited request for a noncompetitive lease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a noncompetitive lease? 285.231 Section 285.231 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... described in §§ 285.640 through 285.648. (e) The MMS will coordinate and consult with affected Federal.... (1) Within 10 business days after you receive the lease copies you must: (i) Execute the lease; (ii...

  4. 16 CFR 2.31 - Opportunity to submit a proposed consent order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... order. 2.31 Section 2.31 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND... through the operating Bureau or Regional Office having responsibility in the matter a proposal for disposition of the matter in the form of a consent order agreement executed by the party being investigated...

  5. Influence of form factors and multistep effects on the 232Th(d,t) 231Th and 230Th(d,p) 231Th reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcke, W.; Felix, W.; Elze, Th.W.; Huizenga, J.R.; Thompson, R.C.; Dreisler, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    Tables of spectroscopic information are given for the nuclei 233 , 235 , 237 Pa, and 229 , 231 Ac studied in the reactions 234 , 236 , 238 U, and 230 , 232 Th(t,α), including spin, parity, differential cross sections, and spectra. These quantities are discussed and plotted

  6. Design study of Thorium-232 and Protactinium-231 based fuel for long life BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trianti, N.; Su' ud, Z.; Riyana, E. S. [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Division Department of Physics - Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB) Jalan Ganeca 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2012-06-06

    A preliminary design study for the utilization of thorium added with {sup 231}Pa based fuel on BWR type reactor has been performed. In the previous research utilization of fuel based Thorium-232 and Uranium-233 show 10 years operation time with maximum excess-reactivity about 4.075% dk/k. To increase reactor operation time and reduce excess-reactivity below 1% dk/k, Protactinium (Pa-231) is used as Burnable Poison. Protactinium-231 has very interesting neutronic properties, which enable the core to reduce initial excess-reactivity and simultaneously increase production of {sup 233}U to {sup 231}Pa in burn-up process. Optimizations of the content of {sup 231}Pa in the core enables the BWR core to sustain long period of operation time with reasonable burn-up reactivity swing. Based on the optimization of fuel element composition (Th and Pa) in various moderation ratio we can get reactor core with longer operation time, 20 {approx} 30 years operation without fuel shuffling or refuelling, with average power densities maximum of about 35 watt/cc, and maximum excess-reactivity 0.56% dk/k.

  7. Nucleotide, cytogenetic and expression impact of the human chromosome 8p23.1 inversion polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Nina; Morell, Marta; Ponsa, Immaculada; Mercader, Josep Maria; Armengol, Lluís; Estivill, Xavier

    2009-12-14

    The human chromosome 8p23.1 region contains a 3.8-4.5 Mb segment which can be found in different orientations (defined as genomic inversion) among individuals. The identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tightly linked to the genomic orientation of a given region should be useful to indirectly evaluate the genotypes of large genomic orientations in the individuals. We have identified 16 SNPs, which are in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with the 8p23.1 inversion as detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The variability of the 8p23.1 orientation in 150 HapMap samples was predicted using this set of SNPs and was verified by FISH in a subset of samples. Four genes (NEIL2, MSRA, CTSB and BLK) were found differentially expressed (pinversion occurred. Moreover, an impact of 8p23.1 inversion on gene expression levels cannot be ruled out, since four genes from this region have statistically significant different expression levels depending on the inversion status. FISH results in lymphoblastoid cell lines suggest the presence of mosaicism regarding the 8p23.1 inversion.

  8. 231Pa and 230Th profiles in the open ocean water column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Yoshiyuki; Nakanishi, Takashi

    1985-01-01

    231 Pa and two Th isotopes ( 230 Th and 228 Th) were measured using large-volume water samples from the western North Pacific. Although 231 Pa and 230 Th have uniform source distributions (by decay of uranium) throughout the oceans, their vertical profiles are discernibly different from each other. The 231 Pa profile shows a mid-depth maximum around 2.5 km, while 230 Th increases monotonically with depth. This demonstrates that these nuclides follow different pathways for their transport and removal from seawater to depositional sinks. The activity ratio of 230 Th/ 231 Pa in seawater increases from one at the surface to four at a depth of 4 to 5 km, which is lower by a factor of 10 than the ratios published for open ocean particulate matter at the same depth horizon. The distribution coefficient, Ksub(D) for Pa, and the fractionation factor, Fsub(Th/Pa), between natural marine particulate matter and seawater are constant with depth at approx. 2 x 10 6 and 10, respectively. This implies that the adsorptive characteristics of deep open ocean particles are independent of particle composition or the content of manganese. The mean residence time of 231 Pa is estimated to be 200 years, which is considerably longer than that of 230 Th, but close to that of 210 Pb. (author)

  9. Molecular mechanisms mediating the neuroproyective effects of quinacrine and minocycline on cell death induced by the prion protein fragment 90-231 (hPrP90-231

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Villa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of quinacrine and minocycline on the toxicity induced by hPrP90-231 were studied. By mild thermal denaturation, hPrP90-231 can be converted in a toxic PrPSc-like structure affecting the survival of SH-SY5Y cells. Quinacrine and minocycline prevented hPrP90-231-induced toxicity interfering with different mechanisms: protective effects of quinacrine are mediated by the binding to the fragment that abolished hPrP90-231 structural changes and cell internalization, whereas, minocycline reverted MAP kinase neurotoxic signaling exerted by the prion fragment.

  10. Production of 231Pa and 232U by irradiation of 230Th/232Th mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluge, E.; Lieser, K.H.

    1981-01-01

    The production of 231 Pa and of 232 U by irradiating a 230 Th/ 232 Th mixture (containing 12 mol per cent 230 Th) in form of ThO 2 at a thermal neutron flux of 6.9 x 10 13 cm -2 s -1 for 4 months was investigated. Pa, U and Th were separated and the chemical yields were determined. 2.6% of the 230 Th were transformed into 231 Pa and 0.13% into 232 U. These values are higher than those calculated for a thermal flux, but lower than those calculated for a flux ratio epithermal to thermal = 0.03. 231 Pa and 232 U were isolated in form of a protactinium solution and of U 3 O 8 with 94.9 and 89.1% chemical yields, respectively. Foreign activities were not detected. Thorium was recuperated and isolated as ThO 2 , with a chemical yield of 93.6%. (orig.)

  11. 49 CFR 231.1 - Box and other house cars built or placed in service before October 1, 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Box and other house cars built or placed in... APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.1 Box and other house cars built or placed in service before October 1, 1966. Except for box and other house cars that comply with either § 231.27 or § 231.28, each box and other...

  12. Distribution of Pa-231 and Ra-226 in rock. An indicator of rock matrix diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarinen, L.; Suksi, J.

    1995-01-01

    Distribution of Ra-226 and Pa-231 in rock has been studied to find signatures that may be attributed to diffusion. The idea of studying these nuclides originated from the need to obtain interpretative support to the findings of U movement in rock. Concentration profiles of Ra-226 and Pa-231 with other U series nuclides were measured across the secondary U accumulations observed in altered rock close to a fracture in the vicinity of U deposit, and in a radioactivity anomaly. (27 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.)

  13. Preliminary study of the preparation of uranium 232 by irradiation of protactinium 231

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillot, Ph.

    1965-01-01

    A bibliography about preparation of uranium 232 is done. This even-even isotope of uranium is suitable for radioactive tracer, neutron source through α,n reaction and heat source applications. The irradiation of protactinium 231, the chemical separation and the purification of uranium are studied. (author) [fr

  14. 48 CFR 752.231-71 - Salary supplements for HG employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Salary supplements for HG....231-71 Salary supplements for HG employees. As prescribed in 731.205-71, for use in all contracts with... sub-contracts. Salary Supplements for HG Employees (OCT 1998) (a) Salary supplements are payments made...

  15. 29 CFR 779.231 - Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.231... is clear that he retains the control of the management of his business in those respects which... control with respect to the management of his business, the determination of his employment practices, the...

  16. 5 CFR 9701.231 - Conversion of positions and employees to the DHS classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conversion of positions and employees to... Provisions § 9701.231 Conversion of positions and employees to the DHS classification system. (a) This... from the GS system, a prevailing rate system, the SL/ST system, or the SES system, as provided in...

  17. 27 CFR 24.231 - Receipt of spirits in sealed bulk containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.231 Receipt of spirits in sealed bulk containers. The proprietor shall examine sealed bulk containers (packages) of spirits... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Receipt of spirits in...

  18. 48 CFR 231.205-1 - Public relations and advertising costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public relations and... PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 231.205-1 Public relations and advertising costs. (e) See... public relations and advertising costs also include monies paid to the Government associated with the...

  19. X-231B technology demonstration for in situ treatment of contaminated soil: Technology evaluation and screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegrist, R.L.; Morris, M.I.; Donaldson, T.L.; Palumbo, A.V.; Herbes, S.E.; Jenkins, R.A.; Morrissey, C.M.; Harris, M.T.

    1993-08-01

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Ports) is located approximately 70 miles south of Columbus in southern Ohio. Among the several waste management units on the facility, the X-231B unit consists of two adjacent oil biodegradation plots. The plots encompass ∼ 0.8 acres and were reportedly used from 1976 to 1983 for the treatment and disposal of waste oils and degreasing solvents, some containing uranium-235 and technetium-99. The X-231B unit is a regulated solid waste management unit (SWMU) under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The X-231B unit is also a designated SWMU located within Quadrant I of the site as defined in an ongoing RCRA Facilities Investigation and Corrective Measures Study (RFI/CMS). Before implementing one or more Technology Demonstration Project must be completed. The principal goal of this project was to elect and successfully demonstrate one ore more technologies for effective treatment of the contaminated soils associated with the X-231B unit at PORTS. The project was divided into two major phases. Phase 1 involved a technology evaluation and screening process. The second phase (i.e., Phase 2) was to involve field demonstration, testing and evaluation of the technology(s) selected during Phase 1. This report presents the methods, results, and conclusions of the technology evaluation and screening portion of the project

  20. 49 CFR 231.31 - Drawbars for freight cars; standard height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drawbars for freight cars; standard height. 231.31... cars; standard height. (a) Except on cars specified in paragraph (b) of this section— (1) On standard gage (561/2-inch gage) railroads, the maximum height of drawbars for freight cars (measured...

  1. MOX-fuel inherent proliferation-protection due to {sup 231}Pa admixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryuchkov, E.F.; Glebov, V.B.; Apse, V.A.; Shmelev, A.N. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (State University), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2003-07-01

    The proliferation protection levels of MOX-fuel containing small additions of protactinium are evaluated for equilibrium closed and open cycles of a light-water reactor (LWR).Analysis of the ways to the proliferation protection of MOX-fuel by small {sup 231}Pa addition and comparison of this way with another options for giving MOX-fuel the proliferation self-protection property enable us to make the 3 following conclusions: -1) Unique nature of protactinium as a small addition to MOX-fuel is determined by the following properties: - Protactinium is available in the nature (uranium ore) as a long-lived mono-isotope {sup 231}Pa, - under neutron irradiation, {sup 231}Pa is converted into {sup 232}U, which is a long-term source of high energy gamma-radiation and practically non-separable from main fuel mass, - essentially, {sup 231}Pa is a high-quality burnable neutron absorber. -2) From the proliferation self-protection point of view, nuclear fuel cycle closure with fuel recycle is a preferable option because, under this condition, introduction of protactinium into MOX-fuel allows to create the inherent radiation barrier which is in action during full cycle of fuel management at the level corresponding to the accepted today criterion of the Spent Fuel Standard (SFS). In particular, the considered example of multiple MOX-fuel recycle with small addition of {sup 231}Pa (0.2% HM) at each cycle demonstrates a possibility to reach the proliferation protection level of fresh MOX-fuel corresponding to once irradiated fuel with the same cooling time. In this case, the lethal dose (at 30 cm distance from fuel assembly) is received within the minute range. -3) Introduction of {sup 231}Pa into MOX-fuel composition in amount of 0.5% HM allows to prolong action of the SFS from 100 to 200 years. If {sup 231}Pa content is increased up to 5% HM, then MOX-fuel conserves the proliferation self-protection property in respect to short-term unauthorized actions for 200-year period of its

  2. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia interval on chromosome 8p23.1 characterized by genetics and protein interaction networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longoni, Mauro; Hansen, Kasper Lage; Russell, Meaghan K.

    2012-01-01

    Chromosome 8p23.1 is a common hotspot associated with major congenital malformations, including congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and cardiac defects. We present findings from high‐resolution arrays in patients who carry a loss (n = 18) or a gain (n = 1) of sub‐band 8p23.1. We confirm a region...

  3. 49 CFR 231.4 - Fixed-end low-side gondola and low-side hopper cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... cars. 231.4 Section 231.4 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... Fixed-end low-side gondola and low-side hopper cars. (Cars with sides 36 inches or less above the floor are low-side cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified for “Box and other house cars” (see...

  4. 231Pa and 230Th in the ocean model of the Community Earth System Model (CESM1.3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Sifan; Liu, Zhengyu

    2017-12-01

    The sediment 231Pa / 230Th activity ratio is emerging as an important proxy for deep ocean circulation in the past. In order to allow for a direct model-data comparison and to improve our understanding of the sediment 231Pa / 230Th activity ratio, we implement 231Pa and 230Th in the ocean component of the Community Earth System Model (CESM). In addition to the fully coupled implementation of the scavenging behavior of 231Pa and 230Th with the active marine ecosystem module (particle-coupled: hereafter p-coupled), another form of 231Pa and 230Th have also been implemented with prescribed particle flux fields of the present climate (particle-fixed: hereafter p-fixed). The comparison of the two forms of 231Pa and 230Th helps to isolate the influence of the particle fluxes from that of ocean circulation. Under present-day climate forcing, our model is able to simulate water column 231Pa and 230Th activity and the sediment 231Pa / 230Th activity ratio in good agreement with available observations. In addition, in response to freshwater forcing, the p-coupled and p-fixed sediment 231Pa / 230Th activity ratios behave similarly over large areas of low productivity on long timescales, but can differ substantially in some regions of high productivity and on short timescales, indicating the importance of biological productivity in addition to ocean transport. Therefore, our model provides a potentially powerful tool to help the interpretation of sediment 231Pa / 230Th reconstructions and to improve our understanding of past ocean circulation and climate changes.

  5. Preliminary study of the preparation of uranium 232 by irradiation of protactinium 231; Etude preliminaire a la preparation d'uranium 232 par irradiation de protactinium 231

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillot, Ph. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay aux Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    A bibliography about preparation of uranium 232 is done. This even-even isotope of uranium is suitable for radioactive tracer, neutron source through {alpha},n reaction and heat source applications. The irradiation of protactinium 231, the chemical separation and the purification of uranium are studied. (author) [French] Une etude bibliographique de la preparation d'uranium 232 a ete effectuee. Cet isotope pair-pair de l'uranium peut etre utilise en tant que traceur, source d'energie et source de neutrons, lorsqu'il est melange a un element leger tel le beryllium. Une etude du taux de formation des isotopes produits, lors de l'irradiation du protactinium 231 - une des manieres d'obtenir l'uranium 232 - a ete faite a l'aide d'un programme passe sur ordinateur. Les problemes poses par la separation chimique et la purification de l'uranium ont ete egalement envisages dans ce rapport. (auteur)

  6. The influence of nepheloid layers on global model simulations of 231Pa and 230Th.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, C.; Plancherel, Y.; Khatiwala, S.; Anderson, R. F.

    2016-12-01

    231Pa and 230Th in the ocean are produced at a constant ratio by Uranium decay but adsorption onto particles removes these tracers differentially. This fractionation process makes it possible to use the elemental 231Pa/230Th ratio as a paleoceanography proxy, frequently used for deriving the strength of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. The removal process, however, is further complicated by the abundance and composition of the available particle types. Understanding how dissolved tracers interact with the particle field in the ocean is key to better understand the biogeochemical cycling of these particle-reactive elements and their use as a flux tracer in present and past oceans. We here present simulations of the 231Pa/230Th ratio using the Transport Matrix Method (TMM, Khatiwala, 2007), focusing especially on the role of the nepheloid layer in controlling the distribution of these radiotracers. The model simulates each tracer separately, with advective-diffusive transport based on the ECCO ocean state estimate (Stammer et al., 2004). Sources include production by Uranium decay and dust dissolution. Radioactive decay and importantly, reversible scavenging and sedimentation are the main sinks that control the removal of the radiotracers. Similar to previous studies, we consider particle fields consisting of calcium carbonate, opal, particle organic matter, and dust. A novelty is that we explicitly consider the influence of an additional bottom particle layer (nepheloid). Simulations that include a nepheloid layer produce vertical profiles that better fit the observed distribution of 230Th and 231Pa. Specifically, observational data in the South Atlantic and eastern South Pacific indicate a mid-depth inflection (for both Pa and Th), a feature that can only be obtained if a nepheloid layer is included in the simulation. Our simulations reinforce the idea that nepheloid layers play an important role in Pa and Th cycling in the ocean (Deng et al., 2014

  7. 25 CFR 1000.231 - How does a Tribe/Consortium request reconsideration of the Secretary's denial of a waiver?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ANNUAL FUNDING AGREEMENTS UNDER THE TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNMENT ACT AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Waiver of Regulations § 1000.231...

  8. Lactobacillus pentosus B231 Isolated from a Portuguese PDO Cheese: Production and Partial Characterization of Its Bacteriocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Joana; Monteiro, Vitor; Ramos, Carla; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; Martinez, Rafael Chacon Ruiz; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov; Fernandes, Paulo

    2014-06-01

    Bacteriocin B231 produced by Lactobacillus pentosus, isolated from an artisanal raw cow's milk protected designation of origin Portuguese cheese, is a small protein with an apparent relative mass of about 5 kDa and active against a large number of Listeria monocytogenes wild-type strains, Listeria ivanovii and Listeria innocua. Bacteriocin B231 production is highly dependent on the type of the culture media used for growth of Lact. pentosus B231. Replacement of glucose with maltose yielded the highest bacteriocin production from eight different carbon sources. Similar results were recorded in the presence of combination of glucose and maltose or galactose. Production of bacteriocin B231 reached maximal levels of 800 AU/ml during the stationary phase of growth of Lact. pentosus B231 in MRS broth at 30 °C. Bacteriocin B231 (in cell-free supernatant) was sensitive to treatment with trypsin and proteinase K, but not affected by the thermal treatment in range of 55-121 °C, or freezing (-20 °C). Bacteriocin production and inhibitory spectrum were evaluated. Gene encoding plantaricin S has been detected in the genomic DNA. Virulence potential and safety of Lact. pentosus B231 were assessed by PCR targeted the genes gelE, hyl, asa1, esp, cylA, efaA, ace, vanA, vanB, hdc1, hdc2, tdc and odc. The Lact. pentosus B231 strains harbored plantaricin S gene, while the occurrence of virulence, antibiotic resistance and biogenic amine genes was limited to cytolysin, hyaluronidase, aggregation substance, adhesion of collagen protein, gelatinase, tyrosine decarboxylase and vancomycin B genes.

  9. 49 CFR 231.8 - Tank cars without side sills and tank cars with short side sills and end platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars without side sills and tank cars with... APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.8 Tank cars without side sills and tank cars with short side sills and end platforms. (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified for “Box and other house cars” (see § 231.1(a)(1...

  10. The distribution and behaviour of 230Th and 231 Pa at an ocean margin, Baja California, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimmield, G.B.; Price, N.B.; Bacon, M.P.; Anderson, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    Uranium, Th and Pa isotopes were measured in sediments collected by box core along a transect normal to the Baja California continental margin. Six cores were analysed, ranging in depositional environment from manganese nodule-bearing, pelagic, red clay to hemipelagic sediments displaying Mn reduction in the upper 5 cm. In the hemipelagic cores, solid-phase Mn peaks due to diagenetic remobilisation occur within the upper layers which are well mixed with respect to unsupported 230 Th and 231 Pa. The fact that 230 Th and 231 Pa are not concentrated at the Mn peaks suggests that little mobility of these nuclides occurs within the sediment column. Unsupported 230 Th/ 231 Pa activity ratios in the biomixed layer of the sediments range from 10.9 to 6.6, generally decreasing towards the inshore stations. The flux of 230 Th and 231 Pa across the sediment/water interface is almost in balance with the theoretical water column supply in the most distal core, but rapidly increases inshore. This evidence from the sediment column confirms that enhanced 230 Th and 231 Pa removal occurs at ocean margins, and that 231 Pa is removed from the water column to the sediments in preference to 230 Th. (author)

  11. Synergistic action of cisplatin and echistatin in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnomysy, Robert; Surażyński, Arkadiusz; Popławska, Bożena; Rysiak, Edyta; Pawłowska, Natalia; Czajkowska, Anna; Bielawski, Krzysztof; Bielawska, Anna

    2017-03-01

    The aim of our study was to determine whether the use of cisplatin in the presence echistatin in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells leads to a reduction of toxic effects associated with the use of cisplatin. The expression of β 1 -integrin and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-IR), signaling pathway protein expression: protein kinase B (AKT), mitogen-activated protein kinases (ERK1/ERK2), nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB), and caspase-3 and -9 activity was measured after 24 h of incubation with tested compounds to explain detailed molecular mechanism of induction of apoptosis. The viability of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide staining assay was performed to detect the induction of apoptosis. Inhibition DNA biosynthesis was determined by [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation into DNA. The expression of of β 1 -integrin, IGF-IR, AKT, ERK1/ERK2, NFκB, caspase-3 and -9 was evaluated using Western blot. The results suggest that treatment of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells for 24 h cisplatin plus echistatin severely inhibits cell growth and activates apoptosis by upregulation of caspase-3 and -9 expressions. The effect was stronger than treatment cisplatin and echistatin alone. In this study, we have found that cisplatin plus echistatin treatment decreases collagen biosynthesis in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells stronger than the individual compounds. The inhibition was found to be dependent on the β 1 -integrin and IGF receptor activation. A significant reduction of ERK1/ERK2, AKT expression in cancer cells after cisplatin plus echistatin treatment was also found. The cancer cells treated by echistatin, cisplatin, and in particular the combination of both compounds drastically increased expression of NFκB transcription factor. Our results suggest that combined therapy cisplatin plus echistatin is a possible way to improve selectiveness of cisplatin. This

  12. THE BINARY BLACK HOLE MODEL FOR MRK 231 BITES THE DUST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leighly, Karen M. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Terndrup, Donald M. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Gallagher, Sarah C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Centre for Planetary and Space Exploration, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Lucy, Adrian B. [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 W. 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2016-09-20

    Mrk 231 is a nearby quasar with an unusually red near-UV-to-optical continuum, generally explained as heavy reddening by dust. Yan et al. proposed that Mrk 231 is a milliparsec black hole binary with little intrinsic reddening. We show that if the observed FUV continuum is intrinsic, as assumed by Yan et al., it fails by a factor of about 100 in powering the observed strength of the near-infrared emission lines and the thermal near and mid-infrared continuum. In contrast, the line and continuum strengths are typical for a reddened AGN spectral energy distribution (SED). We find that the He i*/P β ratio is sensitive to the SED for a one-zone model. If this sensitivity is maintained in general broadline region models, then this ratio may prove a useful diagnostic for heavily reddened quasars. Analysis of archival Hubble Space Telescope STIS and Faint Object Camera data revealed evidence that the far-UV continuum emission is resolved on size scales of ∼40 pc. The lack of broad absorption lines in the far-UV continuum might be explained if it were not coincident with the central engine. One possibility is that it is the central engine continuum reflected from the receding wind on the far side of the quasar.

  13. The geochemical behavior of protactinium 231 and its chosen geochemical analogue thorium in the biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillberg-Wickman, M.

    1983-03-01

    To be able to judge whether protactinium 231 might represent a major contribution to the human radiation risk from high level radioactive waste a literature study of the geochemical behavior of protactinium has been made. The interest in protactinium determinations has, as far, been in the field of marine geochemistry and geochronology. These investigations show that thorium may be used as a chemical analogue. The content of protactinium 231 is determined by the 235 U content and consequently the occurrence of protactinium in nature is directly associated to the geochemistry of uranium. The pronounced hydrolytic tendency of protactinium and its great sorption and coprecipitation capacity ought to prevent or at least appreciably delay its transport from a back-filled nuclear waste vault to the uppermost surface of the earth. It also has a tendency to form colloids or particulates which may be strongly fixed on a rock surface. In adsorption and desorption processes kinetics must play an important role. Our knowledge in this field is quite limited. Under the physico-chemical conditions in the sea, protactinium is rapidly scavenged from the water column by particulates. It accumulates in the sediments. (author)

  14. Testing the 231Pa/230Th paleo-circulation proxy: A data versus 2D model comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippold, Jorg; Gherardi, Jeanne-Marie; Luo, Yiming

    2011-01-01

    Variations of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) are believed to have crucially influenced Earth's climate due to its key role in the inter-hemispheric redistribution of heat and carbon. To assess its past strength, the sedimentary 231 Pa/ 230 Th proxy has been developed and improved but also contested due to its sensitivity to other factors beyond ocean circulation. In order to provide a better basis for the understanding of the Atlantic 231 Pa/ 230 Th system, and therefore to shed light on the controversy, we compare new measurements of Holocene sediments from the north Brazilian margin to water column data and the output of a two-dimensional scavenging-circulation model, based on modern circulation patterns and reversible scavenging parameters. We show that sedimentary 231 Pa/ 230 Th data from one specific area of the Atlantic are in very good agreement with model results suggesting that sedimentary 231 Pa/ 230 Th is predominantly driven by the AMOC. Therefore, 231 Pa/ 230 Th represents an appropriate method to reconstruct past AMOC at least qualitatively along the western margin. (authors)

  15. Reciprocal deletion and duplication at 2q23.1 indicates a role for MBD5 in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullegama, Sureni V; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Orellana, Carmen; van Bon, Bregje W M; Halbach, Sara; Repnikova, Elena A; Brick, Lauren; Li, Chumei; Dupuis, Lucie; Rosello, Monica; Aradhya, Swaroop; Stavropoulos, D James; Manickam, Kandamurugu; Mitchell, Elyse; Hodge, Jennelle C; Talkowski, Michael E; Gusella, James F; Keller, Kory; Zonana, Jonathan; Schwartz, Stuart; Pyatt, Robert E; Waggoner, Darrel J; Shaffer, Lisa G; Lin, Angela E; de Vries, Bert B A; Mendoza-Londono, Roberto; Elsea, Sarah H

    2014-01-01

    Copy number variations associated with abnormal gene dosage have an important role in the genetic etiology of many neurodevelopmental disorders, including intellectual disability (ID) and autism. We hypothesize that the chromosome 2q23.1 region encompassing MBD5 is a dosage-dependent region, wherein deletion or duplication results in altered gene dosage. We previously established the 2q23.1 microdeletion syndrome and report herein 23 individuals with 2q23.1 duplications, thus establishing a complementary duplication syndrome. The observed phenotype includes ID, language impairments, infantile hypotonia and gross motor delay, behavioral problems, autistic features, dysmorphic facial features (pinnae anomalies, arched eyebrows, prominent nose, small chin, thin upper lip), and minor digital anomalies (fifth finger clinodactyly and large broad first toe). The microduplication size varies among all cases and ranges from 68 kb to 53.7 Mb, encompassing a region that includes MBD5, an important factor in methylation patterning and epigenetic regulation. We previously reported that haploinsufficiency of MBD5 is the primary causal factor in 2q23.1 microdeletion syndrome and that mutations in MBD5 are associated with autism. In this study, we demonstrate that MBD5 is the only gene in common among all duplication cases and that overexpression of MBD5 is likely responsible for the core clinical features present in 2q23.1 microduplication syndrome. Phenotypic analyses suggest that 2q23.1 duplication results in a slightly less severe phenotype than the reciprocal deletion. The features associated with a deletion, mutation or duplication of MBD5 and the gene expression changes observed support MBD5 as a dosage-sensitive gene critical for normal development.

  16. Recovery of protactinium-231 and thorium-230 from cotter concentrate: pilot plant operatins and process development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertz, M.R.; Figgins, P.E.; Deal, W.R.

    1983-01-01

    The equipment and methods used to recover and purify 339 g of thorium-230 and 890 mg of protactinium-231 from 22 of the 1251 drums of Cotter Concentrate are described. The process developed was (1) dissolution at 100 0 C in concentrated nitric acid and dilution to 2 to 3 molar acid, (2) filtration to remove undissolved solids (mostly silica filter aid), (3) extraction of uranium with di-sec-butyl-phenyl phophonate (DSBPP) in carbon tetrachloride, (4) extraction of both thorium and protactinium with tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) in carbon tetrachloride followed by selective stripping of the thorium with dilute of sulfuric acid, (5) thorium purification using oxalic acid, (6) stripping protactinium from the TOPO with oxalic acid, and (7) protactinium purification through a sequence of steps. The development of the separation procedures, the design of the pilot plant, and the operating procedures are described in detail. Analytical procedures are given in an appendix. 8 figures, 4 tables

  17. Flexibility damps macromolecular crowding effects on protein folding dynamics: Application to the murine prion protein (121-231)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergasa-Caceres, Fernando; Rabitz, Herschel A.

    2014-01-01

    A model of protein folding kinetics is applied to study the combined effects of protein flexibility and macromolecular crowding on protein folding rate and stability. It is found that the increase in stability and folding rate promoted by macromolecular crowding is damped for proteins with highly flexible native structures. The model is applied to the folding dynamics of the murine prion protein (121-231). It is found that the high flexibility of the native isoform of the murine prion protein (121-231) reduces the effects of macromolecular crowding on its folding dynamics. The relevance of these findings for the pathogenic mechanism are discussed.

  18. A novel HLA-A*24 allele, A*24:231, was identified by sequencing-based typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G Y; Liu, Y Y; Wu, K L; Tang, Z H

    2018-05-22

    HLA-A*24:231 has 1 nucleotide change from HLA-A*24:02:01:01 at position 784 G>C This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. X-231B technology demonstration for in situ treatment of contaminated soil: Contaminant characterization and three dimensional spatial modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, O.R.; Siegrist, R.L.; Mitchell, T.J.; Pickering, D.A.; Muhr, C.A.; Greene, D.W.; Jenkins, R.A.

    1993-11-01

    Fine-textured soils and sediments contaminated by trichloroethylene (TCE) and other chlorinated organics present a serious environmental restoration challenge at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. DOE and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. initiated a research and demonstration project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The goal of the project was to demonstrate a process for closure and environmental restoration of the X-231B Solid Waste Management Unit at the DOE Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The X-231B Unit was used from 1976 to 1983 as a land disposal site for waste oils and solvents. Silt and clay deposits beneath the unit were contaminated with volatile organic compounds and low levels of radioactive substances. The shallow groundwater was also contaminated, and some contaminants were at levels well above drinking water standards. This document begins with a summary of the subsurface physical and contaminant characteristics obtained from investigative studies conducted at the X-231B Unit prior to January 1992 (Sect. 2). This is then followed by a description of the sample collection and analysis methods used during the baseline sampling conducted in January 1992 (Sect. 3). The results of this sampling event were used to develop spatial models for VOC contaminant distribution within the X-231B Unit

  20. Reciprocal deletion and duplication at 2q23.1 indicates a role for MBD5 in autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullegama, S.V.; Rosenfeld, J.A.; Orellana, C.; Bon, B.W.M. van; Halbach, S.; Repnikova, E.A.; Brick, L.; Li, C.; Dupuis, L.; Rosello, M.; Aradhya, S.; Stavropoulos, D.J.; Manickam, K.; Mitchell, E.; Hodge, J.C.; Talkowski, M.E.; Gusella, J.F.; Keller, K.; Zonana, J.; Schwartz, S.; Pyatt, R.E.; Waggoner, D.J.; Shaffer, L.G.; Lin, A.E.; Vries, B. de; Mendoza-Londono, R.; Elsea, S.H.

    2014-01-01

    Copy number variations associated with abnormal gene dosage have an important role in the genetic etiology of many neurodevelopmental disorders, including intellectual disability (ID) and autism. We hypothesize that the chromosome 2q23.1 region encompassing MBD5 is a dosage-dependent region, wherein

  1. Uranium age determination - Separation and analysis of 230Th and 231Pa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgenstern, A.; Apostolidis, C.; Mayer, K.; Wallenius, M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In recent years several incidents involving illicit trafficking and smuggling of nuclear material, radioactive sources and radioactively contaminated materials have raised growing public concern about criminal acts involving nuclear materials. Consequently, research efforts in nuclear forensic science have been intensified in order to develop and improve methods for the identification of the nature and origin of seized materials. Information obtained from the analysis of unknown nuclear materials is of key importance in order to aide authorities that are in charge of developing fast and appropriate response action. For the identification of nuclear materials various sample characteristics are of relevance, including isotopic composition, the content of chemical impurities, material properties and the date of production. Information on the production date, respectively the 'age' of nuclear materials, will also be of key importance in other fields of nuclear science, i.e. for the verification of a Fissile Materials Cut-Off Treaty (FMCT) in order to distinguish freshly produced materials from 'old' excess weapons materials. The age of nuclear materials may also be of relevance under a strengthened safeguards regime to reveal clandestine production of weapons usable materials, i.e. the separation of plutonium or production of highly enriched uranium (HEU). The age dating of plutonium samples has been described in detail for bulk samples as well as for particles. In this work we focused on the age determination of uranium materials of different uranium enrichment. The radioactive decay of the uranium isotopes provides a chronometer that is inherent to the material, in particular the mother/daughter pairs 234 U/ 230 Th and 235 U/ 231 Pa can be advantageously used. Due to the relatively long half-lives of 234 U (2.46·10 5 years) and 235 U (7.04·10 8 years) only minute amounts of daughter nuclides are growing in, therefore both separation of Th and Pa from

  2. Proteotranscriptomic Profiling of 231-BR Breast Cancer Cells: Identification of Potential Biomarkers and Therapeutic Targets for Brain Metastasis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dun, Matthew D.; Chalkley, Robert J.; Faulkner, Sam; Keene, Sheridan; Avery-Kiejda, Kelly A.; Scott, Rodney J.; Falkenby, Lasse G.; Cairns, Murray J.; Larsen, Martin R.; Bradshaw, Ralph A.; Hondermarck, Hubert

    2015-01-01

    Brain metastases are a devastating consequence of cancer and currently there are no specific biomarkers or therapeutic targets for risk prediction, diagnosis, and treatment. Here the proteome of the brain metastatic breast cancer cell line 231-BR has been compared with that of the parental cell line MDA-MB-231, which is also metastatic but has no organ selectivity. Using SILAC and nanoLC-MS/MS, 1957 proteins were identified in reciprocal labeling experiments and 1584 were quantified in the two cell lines. A total of 152 proteins were confidently determined to be up- or down-regulated by more than twofold in 231-BR. Of note, 112/152 proteins were decreased as compared with only 40/152 that were increased, suggesting that down-regulation of specific proteins is an important part of the mechanism underlying the ability of breast cancer cells to metastasize to the brain. When matched against transcriptomic data, 43% of individual protein changes were associated with corresponding changes in mRNA, indicating that the transcript level is a limited predictor of protein level. In addition, differential miRNA analyses showed that most miRNA changes in 231-BR were up- (36/45) as compared with down-regulations (9/45). Pathway analysis revealed that proteome changes were mostly related to cell signaling and cell cycle, metabolism and extracellular matrix remodeling. The major protein changes in 231-BR were confirmed by parallel reaction monitoring mass spectrometry and consisted in increases (by more than fivefold) in the matrix metalloproteinase-1, ephrin-B1, stomatin, myc target-1, and decreases (by more than 10-fold) in transglutaminase-2, the S100 calcium-binding protein A4, and l-plastin. The clinicopathological significance of these major proteomic changes to predict the occurrence of brain metastases, and their potential value as therapeutic targets, warrants further investigation. PMID:26041846

  3. Radiochemical separation of {sup 231}Pa from siliceous cake prior to its determination by gamma ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalvi, Aditi A. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Analytical Chemistry Div.; Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai (India); Verma, Rakesh

    2017-07-01

    A simple and fast radiochemical method for the separation of protactinium ({sup 231}Pa) from siliceous cake for its determination by gamma ray spectrometry is described. The method involves (a) a novel approach, the fusion of the siliceous cake with sodium peroxide, (b) the dissolution of the fused mass in nitric acid and (c) the co-precipitation of {sup 231}Pa with manganese dioxide formed in-situ by the addition of solid manganous sulfate and potassium permanganate to the solution. The fusion, effected in a single step, is simpler and highly effective in comparison to methods reported hitherto in literature. The radiochemical yield of {sup 231}Pa, determined using 311.9 keV gamma ray of {sup 233}Pa radiotracer is quantitative (∝90%). The decontamination factors calculated using gamma ray spectrometry and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence measurements show that the separation from the interfering radionuclides is high whereas separation from major and minor elements is good. Separation by ion-exchange method in hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid and oxalic acid media have comparatively much lower yields. The concentration of {sup 231}Pa in the siliceous cake measured using interference-free 283.6 keV gamma ray was found to be (6.4 ± 0.33) μg kg{sup -1}. The measured concentration of {sup 231}Pa was well above the limit of quantitation whereas the coefficient of variation was ∝5%. The improvement in the limit of detection was due to the reduction in spectral background. Systematic evaluation of various uncertainty parameters showed that the major contributors to the combined uncertainty were efficiency of the high purity germanium detector and the counting statistics. The present sample decomposition and separation methods are robust, simple to perform and can be effectively used for the determination and hence source prospecting of protactinium.

  4. Nustar Reveals an Intrinsically X-ray Weak Broad Absorption Line Quasar in the Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxy Markarian 231

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Brandt. W. N.; Harrison, F. A.; Luo, B.; Alexander, D. M.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Craig, W. W.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present high-energy (3-30 keV) NuSTAR observations of the nearest quasar, the ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) Markarian 231 (Mrk 231), supplemented with new and simultaneous low-energy (0.5-8 keV) data from Chandra. The source was detected, though at much fainter levels than previously reported, likely due to contamination in the large apertures of previous non-focusing hard X-ray telescopes. The full band (0.5-30 keV) X-ray spectrum suggests the active galactic nucleus (AGN) in Mrk 231 is absorbed by a patchy and Compton-thin N(sub H) approx. 1.2(sup +0.3) sub-0.3) x 10(exp 23) / sq cm) column. The intrinsic X-ray luminosity L(sub 0.5-30 Kev) approx. 1.0 x 10(exp 43) erg /s) is extremely weak relative to the bolometric luminosity where the 2-10 keV to bolometric luminosity ratio is approx. 0.03% compared to the typical values of 2-15%. Additionally, Mrk 231 has a low X-ray-to-optical power law slope alpha(sub 0X) approx. -1.7. It is a local example of a low-ionization broad absorption line (LoBAL) quasar that is intrinsically X-ray weak. The weak ionizing continuum may explain the lack of mid-infrared [O IV], [Ne V], and [Ne VI] fine-structure emission lines which are present in sources with otherwise similar AGN properties. We argue that the intrinsic X-ray weakness may be a result of the super-Eddington accretion occurring in the nucleus of this ULIRG, and may also be naturally related to the powerful wind event seen in Mrk 231, a merger remnant escaping from its dusty cocoon.

  5. [Knock-down of BCL11A expression in breast cancer cells promotes MDA-MB-231 cell apoptosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongli; Gui, Chen; Yan, Lijun

    2016-11-01

    Objective To detect the expression and pathological significance of B-cell CLL/lymphoma 11A (BCL11A) in breast cancer and investigate the effect of its silencing on the apoptosis of human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. MethodsImmunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of BCL11A in 62 cases of human breast cancer tissues and 8 cases of normal tissues. We synthesized siRNA targeting BCL11A, and then siRNA was transfected into MDA-MB-231 cells. Forty-eight hours later, the suppression effect of siRNA on BCL11A was determined by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting. The apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells was detected by flow cytometry. Results The BCL11A protein was mainly expressed in cytoplasm. The expression level of BCL11A in breast cancer tissues was higher than that in paracancerous tissues. The expression had correlations with tumor grade, tumor stage, while it had no correlations with the patients' age and tumor size. BCL11A-siRNA significantly suppressed the expression of BCL11A mRNA and protein as compared with the control group. MDA-MB-231 cells transfected with BCL11A-siRNA had higher apoptosis rate compared with the control group. Conclusion The BCL11A protein is highly expressed in breast cancer and knock-down of BCL11A promotes the apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells.

  6. Tank 241-TX-104, cores 230 and 231 analytical results for the final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, L.A.

    1998-01-01

    This document is the analytical laboratory report for tank 241-TX-104 push mode core segments collected between February 18, 1998 and February 23, 1998. The segments were subsampled and analyzed in accordance with the Tank 241-TX-104 Push Mode Core Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (McCain, 1997), the Data Quality Objective to Support Resolution of the Organic Complexant Safety Issue (Organic DQO) (Turner, et al., 1995) and the Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (DQO) (Dukelow, et.al., 1995). The analytical results are included in the data summary table. None of the samples submitted for Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Total Alpha Activity (AT) exceeded notification limits as stated in the TSAP. The statistical results of the 95% confidence interval on the mean calculations are provided by the Tank Waste Remediation Systems Technical Basis Group in accordance with the Memorandum of Understanding (Schreiber, 1997) and are not considered in this report. Appearance and Sample Handling Attachment 1 is a cross reference to relate the tank farm identification numbers to the 222-S Laboratory LabCore/LIMS sample numbers. The subsamples generated in the laboratory for analyses are identified in these diagrams with their sources shown. Core 230: Three push mode core segments were removed from tank 241-TX-104 riser 9A on February 18, 1998. Segments were received by the 222-S Laboratory on February 19, 1998. Two segments were expected for this core. However, due to poor sample recovery, an additional segment was taken and identified as 2A. Core 231: Four push mode core segments were removed from tank 241-TX-104 riser 13A between February 19, 1998 and February 23, 1998. Segments were received by the 222-S Laboratory on February 24, 1998. Two segments were expected for this core. However, due to poor sample recovery, additional segments were taken and identified as 2A and 2B. The TSAP states the core samples should be transported to the laboratory within three

  7. Optimized Method for Untargeted Metabolomics Analysis of MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L. Peterson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cells often have dysregulated metabolism, which is largely characterized by the Warburg effect—an increase in glycolytic activity at the expense of oxidative phosphorylation—and increased glutamine utilization. Modern metabolomics tools offer an efficient means to investigate metabolism in cancer cells. Currently, a number of protocols have been described for harvesting adherent cells for metabolomics analysis, but the techniques vary greatly and they lack specificity to particular cancer cell lines with diverse metabolic and structural features. Here we present an optimized method for untargeted metabolomics characterization of MDA-MB-231 triple negative breast cancer cells, which are commonly used to study metastatic breast cancer. We found that an approach that extracted all metabolites in a single step within the culture dish optimally detected both polar and non-polar metabolite classes with higher relative abundance than methods that involved removal of cells from the dish. We show that this method is highly suited to diverse applications, including the characterization of central metabolic flux by stable isotope labelling and differential analysis of cells subjected to specific pharmacological interventions.

  8. Another piece of the puzzle: The fast H I outflow in Mrk 231

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morganti, Raffaella; Veilleux, Sylvain; Oosterloo, Tom; Teng, Stacy H.; Rupke, David

    2016-09-01

    We present the detection, performed with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) and the Karl Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), of a fast H I 21 cm outflow in the ultra-luminous infrared galaxy Mrk 231. The outflow is observed as shallow H I absorption blueshifted ~1300 km s-1 with respect to the systemic velocity and located against the inner kpc of the radio source. The outflowing gas has an estimated column density between 5 and 15 × 1018Tspin cm-2. We derive the Tspin to lie in the range 400-2000 K and the corresponding H I densities are nHI ~ 10-100 cm-3. Our results complement previous findings and confirm the multiphase nature of the outflow in Mrk 231. Although effects of the interaction between the radio plasma and the surrounding medium cannot be ruled out, the energetics and the lack of a clear kpc-scale jet suggest that the most likely origin of the H I outflow is a wide-angle nuclear wind, as earlier proposed to explain the neutral outflow traced by Na I and molecular gas in this source. Our results suggest that an H I component is present in fast outflows regardless of the acceleration mechanism (wind vs. jet driven) and that it must be connected with common properties of the pre-interaction gas involved. Considering the observed similarity of their column densities, the H I outflow likely represents the inner part of the broad wind identified on larger scales in atomic Na I. The mass outflow rate of the H I outflow (between 8 and 18 M⊙ yr-1) does not appear to be as large as that observed in molecular gas, partly owing to the smaller sizes of the outflowing region sampled by the H I absorption. These characteristics are commonly seen in other cases of outflows driven by the active galactic nucleus (AGN) suggesting that the H I may represent a short intermediate phase in the rapid cooling of the gas. The results further confirm H I as a good tracer for AGN-driven outflows not only in powerful radio sources. We also obtained deeper continuum

  9. Half-megasecond Chandra spectral imaging of the hot circumgalactic nebula around quasar MRK 231

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veilleux, S.; Teng, S. H.; Rupke, D. S. N.; Maiolino, R.; Sturm, E.

    2014-01-01

    A deep 400 ks ACIS-S observation of the nearest quasar known, Mrk 231, is combined with archival 120 ks data to carry out the first ever spatially resolved spectral analysis of a hot X-ray-emitting circumgalactic nebula around a quasar. The 65 × 50 kpc X-ray nebula shares no resemblance with the tidal debris seen at optical wavelengths. One notable exception is the small tidal arc ∼3.5 kpc south of the nucleus where excess soft X-ray continuum emission and Si XIII 1.8 keV line emission are detected, consistent with star formation and its associated alpha-element enhancement, respectively. An X-ray shadow is also detected at the location of the 15 kpc northern tidal tail. The hard X-ray continuum emission within ∼6 kpc of the center is consistent with being due entirely to the bright central active galactic nucleus. The soft X-ray spectrum of the outer (≳6 kpc) portion of the nebula is best described as the sum of two thermal components with temperatures ∼3 and ∼8 million K and spatially uniform super-solar alpha-element abundances, relative to iron. This result implies enhanced star formation activity over ∼10 8 yr, accompanied by redistribution of the metals on a large scale. The low-temperature thermal component is not present within ∼6 kpc of the nucleus, suggesting extra heating in this region from the circumnuclear starburst, the central quasar, or the optically identified ≳3 kpc quasar-driven outflow. The soft X-ray emission is weaker in the western quadrant, coincident with a deficit of Hα and some of the largest columns of neutral gas outflowing from the nucleus. Shocks may heat the gas to high temperatures at this location, consistent with the tentative ∼2σ detection of extended Fe XXV 6.7 keV line emission.

  10. Applications of neutron activation analysis in determination of natural and man-made radionuclides, including PA-231

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, A. R.; Benedik, L.

    1999-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA), being essentially an isotopic and not an elemental method of analysis, is capable of determining a number of important radionuclides of radioecological interest by transformation into another, more easily quantifiable radionuclide. The nuclear characteristics which favour this technique may be summarized in an advantage factor relative to radiometric analysis of the original radioanalyte. Well known or hardly known examples include235U,238U,232Th,230Th,129I,99Tc,237Np and231Pa; a number of these are discussed and illustrated in analysis of real samples of environmental and biological origin. In particular, determination of231Pa by RNAA was performed using both postirradiation and preseparation methods. Application of INAA to enable the use of238U and232Th as endogenous (internal) radiotracers in alpha spectrometric analyses of uranium and thorium radioisotopes in radioecological studies is described, also allowing independent data sets to be obtained for quality control.

  11. PEA3 activates CXCR4 transcription in MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 breast cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengmei Gu; Li Chen; Qi Hong; Tingting Yan; Zhigang Zhuang; Qiaoqiao wang; Wei Jin; Hua Zhu; Jiong Wu

    2011-01-01

    CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is a cell surface receptor that has been shown to mediate the metastasis of many solid tumors including lung,breast,kidney,and prostate tumors.In this study,we found that overexpression of ets variant gene 4 (PEA3) could elevate CXCR4 mRNA level and CXCR4 promoter activity in human MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells.PEA3 promoted CXCR4 expression and breast cancer metastasis.Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that PEA3 could bind to the CXCR4 promoter in the cells transfected with PEA3 expression vector.PEA3 siRNA attenuated CXCR4 promoter activity and the binding of PEA3 to the CXCR4 promoter in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells.These results indicated that PEA3 could activate CXCR4 promoter transcription and promote breast cancer metastasis.

  12. PIEZO channel protein naturally expressed in human breast cancer cell MDA-MB-231 as probed by atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yuanqi; Yan, Fei; Chen, Runkang; Qian, Ming; Ou, Yun; Xie, Shuhong; Zheng, Hairong; Li, Jiangyu

    2018-05-01

    Mechanical stimuli drives many physiological processes through mechanically activated channels, and the recent discovery of PIEZO channel has generated great interests in its mechanotransduction. Many previous researches investigated PIEZO proteins by transcribing them in cells that originally have no response to mechanical stimulation, or by forming PIEZO-combined complexes in vitro, and few studied PIEZO protein's natural characteristics in cells. In this study we show that MDA-MB-231, a malignant cell in human breast cancer cell line, expresses the mechanosensitive behavior of PIEZO in nature without extra treatment, and we report its characteristics in response to localized mechanical stimulation under an atomic force microscope, wherein a correlation between the force magnitude applied and the channel opening probability is observed. The results on PIEZO of MDA-MB-231 can help establish a basis of preventing and controlling of human breast cancer cell via mechanical forces.

  13. Regulation of MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation by GSK-3β involves epigenetic modifications under high glucose conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Chanchal; Kaur, Jasmine; Tikoo, Kulbhushan

    2014-01-01

    Hyperglycemia is a critical risk factor for development and progression of breast cancer. We have recently reported that high glucose induces phosphorylation of histone H3 at Ser 10 as well as de-phosphorylation of GSK-3β at Ser 9 in MDA-MB-231 cells. Here, we elucidate the mechanism underlying hyperglycemia-induced proliferation in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. We provide evidence that hyperglycemia led to increased DNA methylation and DNMT1 expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. High glucose condition led to significant increase in the expression of PCNA, cyclin D1 and decrease in the expression of PTPN 12, p21 and PTEN. It also induced hypermethylation of DNA at the promoter region of PTPN 12, whereas hypomethylation at Vimentin and Snail. Silencing of GSK-3β by siRNA prevented histone H3 phosphorylation and reduced DNMT1 expression. We show that chromatin obtained after immunoprecipitation with phospho-histone H3 was hypermethylated under high glucose condition, which indicates a cross-talk between DNA methylation and histone H3 phosphorylation. ChIP-qPCR analysis revealed up-regulation of DNMT1 and metastatic genes viz. Vimentin, Snail and MMP-7 by phospho-histone H3, which were down-regulated upon GSK-3β silencing. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report which shows that interplay between GSK-3β activation, histone H3 phosphorylation and DNA methylation directs proliferation of breast cancer cells. - Highlights: • High glucose induces phosphorylation of histone H3 and dephosphorylation of GSK-3β. • Moreover, hyperglycemia also leads to increased DNA methylation in MDA-MB-231 cells. • Inhibition of GSK-3β prevented histone H3 phosphorylation and reduced DNMT1 levels. • Interplay exists between GSK-3β, histone H3 phosphorylation and DNA methylation

  14. Controlli societari e posizioni di garanzia. Un'indagine alla luce del d.lgs. 231/2001

    OpenAIRE

    Molinaro, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The research aims to examine the impact of Legislative Decree 231/2001, which has established a regulation of criminal compliance and liability of corporations, on the responsibility for the omission to prevent crimes of the members of corporate bodies entrusted to adopt and put into effects compliance programs, and to monitor the operation of such programs. The first part of the thesis contains a doctrinal analysis, which intends to define the requirements of omission to act, with particu...

  15. Regulation of MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation by GSK-3β involves epigenetic modifications under high glucose conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Chanchal; Kaur, Jasmine; Tikoo, Kulbhushan, E-mail: tikoo.k@gmail.com

    2014-05-15

    Hyperglycemia is a critical risk factor for development and progression of breast cancer. We have recently reported that high glucose induces phosphorylation of histone H3 at Ser 10 as well as de-phosphorylation of GSK-3β at Ser 9 in MDA-MB-231 cells. Here, we elucidate the mechanism underlying hyperglycemia-induced proliferation in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. We provide evidence that hyperglycemia led to increased DNA methylation and DNMT1 expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. High glucose condition led to significant increase in the expression of PCNA, cyclin D1 and decrease in the expression of PTPN 12, p21 and PTEN. It also induced hypermethylation of DNA at the promoter region of PTPN 12, whereas hypomethylation at Vimentin and Snail. Silencing of GSK-3β by siRNA prevented histone H3 phosphorylation and reduced DNMT1 expression. We show that chromatin obtained after immunoprecipitation with phospho-histone H3 was hypermethylated under high glucose condition, which indicates a cross-talk between DNA methylation and histone H3 phosphorylation. ChIP-qPCR analysis revealed up-regulation of DNMT1 and metastatic genes viz. Vimentin, Snail and MMP-7 by phospho-histone H3, which were down-regulated upon GSK-3β silencing. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report which shows that interplay between GSK-3β activation, histone H3 phosphorylation and DNA methylation directs proliferation of breast cancer cells. - Highlights: • High glucose induces phosphorylation of histone H3 and dephosphorylation of GSK-3β. • Moreover, hyperglycemia also leads to increased DNA methylation in MDA-MB-231 cells. • Inhibition of GSK-3β prevented histone H3 phosphorylation and reduced DNMT1 levels. • Interplay exists between GSK-3β, histone H3 phosphorylation and DNA methylation.

  16. Models of the Hydrodynamic Histories of Post-AGB Stars. I. Multiflow Shaping of OH 231.8+04.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balick, Bruce [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Frank, Adam; Liu, Baowei [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Huarte-Espinosa, Martín, E-mail: balick@uw.edu, E-mail: afrank@pas.rochester.edu, E-mail: baowei.liu@rochester.edu, E-mail: mhuartee@central.uh.edu [Center for Advanced Comp and Data Systems, University of Houston, 4718 Calhoun Rd., Houston, TX 77204-3058 (United States)

    2017-07-10

    We present a detailed hydrodynamic model that matches the present structure of the well-observed preplanetary nebula (“pPN”) OH 231.8+04.2 (“OH231”). The purpose of the model is to present a physically justified and coherent picture of its evolutionary history from about 100 years from the start of the formation of its complex outer structures to the present. We have adopted a set of initial conditions that are heavily constrained by high-quality observations of its present structure and kinematics. The shaping of the nebula occurs while the densities of the flows are “light,” i.e., less than the surrounding AGB-wind environment. The simulations show that pairs of essentially coeval clumps and sprays of the same extent and density, but different outflow speeds, sculpted both the pair of thin axial flow “or spine” and the bulbs. The total ejected mass and momentum in the best-fit model are surprisingly large—3 M {sub ⊙} and 2.2 × 10{sup 41} gm cm s{sup −1}, respectively—however, these values are reduced by up to a factor of 10 in other models that fit the data almost as well. Our ultimate goal is to combine the present model results of masses, momenta, flow speeds, and flow geometries for OH231 with those of other models to be published in the future in order to find common attributes of their ejection histories.

  17. Cytotoxic effect of sanguiin H-6 on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Ji; Lee, Dahae; Baek, Seon-Eun; Kim, Ki Hyun; Kang, Ki Sung; Jang, Tae Su; Lee, Hye Lim; Song, Ji Hoon; Yoo, Jeong-Eun

    2017-09-15

    Sanguiin H-6 is a dimer of casuarictin linked by a bond between the gallic acid residue and one of the hexahydroxydiphenic acid units. It is an effective compound extracted from Rubus coreanus. It has an anticancer effect against several human cancer cells; however, its effect on breast cancer cells has not been clearly demonstrated. Thus, we aimed to investigate the anticancer effect and mechanism of action of sanguiin H-6 against two human breast carcinoma cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231). We found that sanguiin H-6 significantly reduced cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner. It also increased the rates at which MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells underwent apoptosis. Furthermore, sanguiin H-6 induced the cleavage of caspase-8, caspase-3, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, which resulted in apoptosis. However, cleavage of caspase-9 was only detectable in MCF-7 cells. In addition, sanguiin H-6 increased the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2 in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. These findings suggest that sanguiin H-6 is a potent therapeutic agent against breast cancer cells. In addition, it exerts its anticancer effect in an estrogen-receptor-independent manner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of Protein–Protein Interactions in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 Cell Lines Using Phthalic Acid Chemical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Shin Liang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Phthalates are a class of plasticizers that have been characterized as endocrine disrupters, and are associated with genital diseases, cardiotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and nephrotoxicity in the GeneOntology gene/protein database. In this study, we synthesized phthalic acid chemical probes and demonstrated differing protein–protein interactions between MCF-7 cells and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines. Phthalic acid chemical probes were synthesized using silicon dioxide particle carriers, which were modified using the silanized linker 3-aminopropyl triethoxyslane (APTES. Incubation with cell lysates from breast cancer cell lines revealed interactions between phthalic acid and cellular proteins in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Subsequent proteomics analyses indicated 22 phthalic acid-binding proteins in both cell types, including heat shock cognate 71-kDa protein, ATP synthase subunit beta, and heat shock protein HSP 90-beta. In addition, 21 MCF-7-specific and 32 MDA-MB-231 specific phthalic acid-binding proteins were identified, including related proteasome proteins, heat shock 70-kDa protein, and NADPH dehydrogenase and ribosomal correlated proteins, ras-related proteins, and members of the heat shock protein family, respectively.

  19. Deleterious effects on MDAMB-231 breast adenocarcinoma cell lineage submitted to Ho-166 radioactive seeds at very low activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcao, Patricia L.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R., E-mail: campos@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Sarmento, Eduardo V. [Centro de Desenvolvimento de Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Cuperschmid, Ethel M. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (CEMEMOR/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, BR (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Centro de Memoria da Medicina

    2011-07-01

    Herein, the deleterious effect of ionizing radiation provided by Ho-166 radioactive seeds at low activity were addressed, based on experimental in vitro assays at the MDA MB231 cell lineage, a breast adenocarcinoma, compared to PBMC - peripheral blood cells. The methodology involves of the MDBMB-231 and PBMC expansion in culture in suitable environment in 30mm well plates and T-25 flasks. Seeds were synthesized with Ho-165 incorporated and characterized previously. Activation was processed at IPR1 reactor at the peripheral table, at 8h exposition. Three groups of seeds were tested: 0,34 mCi, 0,12 mCi activity, and control group. Such seeds were placed on culture and held to a period of 05 half-lives of the radionuclide. The biological responses at these exposure were documented by inverse microscopic photographic in time. Also, MTT essay were performed. A fast response in producing deleterious effects at cancer cell was observed even if for the low activity seeds. Also, a biological response dependent to a radial distance of the seed was observed. At conclusion, viability clonogenic control of MDAMB231 is identified at the exposition to Ho-166 ceramic seeds, even if at low activity of 0,1 to 0,3mCi. (author)

  20. Deleterious effects on MDAMB-231 breast adenocarcinoma cell lineage submitted to Ho-166 radioactive seeds at very low activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falcao, Patricia L.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R.; Cuperschmid, Ethel M.

    2011-01-01

    Herein, the deleterious effect of ionizing radiation provided by Ho-166 radioactive seeds at low activity were addressed, based on experimental in vitro assays at the MDA MB231 cell lineage, a breast adenocarcinoma, compared to PBMC - peripheral blood cells. The methodology involves of the MDBMB-231 and PBMC expansion in culture in suitable environment in 30mm well plates and T-25 flasks. Seeds were synthesized with Ho-165 incorporated and characterized previously. Activation was processed at IPR1 reactor at the peripheral table, at 8h exposition. Three groups of seeds were tested: 0,34 mCi, 0,12 mCi activity, and control group. Such seeds were placed on culture and held to a period of 05 half-lives of the radionuclide. The biological responses at these exposure were documented by inverse microscopic photographic in time. Also, MTT essay were performed. A fast response in producing deleterious effects at cancer cell was observed even if for the low activity seeds. Also, a biological response dependent to a radial distance of the seed was observed. At conclusion, viability clonogenic control of MDAMB231 is identified at the exposition to Ho-166 ceramic seeds, even if at low activity of 0,1 to 0,3mCi. (author)

  1. Antitumor Activity of Chinese Propolis in Human Breast Cancer MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhuan Xuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chinese propolis has been reported to possess various biological activities such as antitumor. In present study, anticancer activity of ethanol extract of Chinese propolis (EECP at 25, 50, 100, and 200 μg/mL was explored by testing the cytotoxicity in MCF-7 (human breast cancer ER(+ and MDA-MB-231 (human breast cancer ER(− cells. EECP revealed a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effect. Furthermore, annexin A7 (ANXA7, p53, nuclear factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65, reactive oxygen species (ROS levels, and mitochondrial membrane potential were investigated. Our data indicated that treatment of EECP for 24 and 48 h induced both cells apoptosis obviously. Exposure to EECP significantly increased ANXA7 expression and ROS level, and NF-κB p65 level and mitochondrial membrane potential were depressed by EECP dramatically. The effects of EECP on p53 level were different in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, which indicated that EECP exerted its antitumor effects in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells by inducing apoptosis, regulating the levels of ANXA7, p53, and NF-κB p65, upregulating intracellular ROS, and decreasing mitochondrial membrane potential. Interestingly, EECP had little or small cytotoxicity on normal human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. These results suggest that EECP is a potential alternative agent on breast cancer treatment.

  2. Radio-sensitization by Piper longumine of human breast adenoma MDA-MB-231 cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jian-Xin; Yao, Zhi-Feng; Li, Zhan-Feng; Liu, Yong-Biao

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated the effects of Piper longumine on radio-sensitization of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells and underlying mechanisms. Human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells were cultured in vitro and those in logarithmic growth phase were selected for experiments divided into four groups: control, X-ray exposed, Piper longumine, and Piper longumine combined with X-rays. Conogenic assays were performed to determine the radio-sensitizing effects. Cell survival curves were fitted by single-hit multi-target model and then the survival fraction (SF), average lethal dose (D0), quasi-threshold dose (Dq) and sensitive enhancement ratio (SER) were calculated. Cell apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry (FCM).Western blot assays were employed for expression of apoptosis-related proteins (Bc1-2 and Bax) after treatment with Piper longumine and/or X-ray radiation. The intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was detected by FCM with a DCFH-DA probe. The cloning formation capacity was decreased in the group of piperlongumine plus radiation, which displayed the values of SF2, D0, Dq significantly lower than those of radiation alone group and the sensitive enhancement ratio (SER) of D0 was1.22 and 1.29, respectively. The cell apoptosis rate was increased by the combination treatment of Piper longumine and radiation. Piper longumine increased the radiation-induced intracellular levels of ROS. Compared with the control group and individual group, the combination group demonstrated significantly decreased expression of Bcl-2 with increased Bax. Piper longumine at a non-cytotoxic concentration can enhance the radio-sensitivity of MDA- MB-231cells, which may be related to its regulation of apoptosis-related protein expression and the increase of intracellular ROS level, thus increasing radiation-induced apoptosis.

  3. Human Sulfatase 2 inhibits in vivo tumor growth of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer xenografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, Sarah M; Concino, Michael F; Liaw, Lucy; Martini, Paolo GV; Iskenderian, Andrea; Cook, Lynette; Romashko, Alla; Tobin, Kristen; Jones, Michael; Norton, Angela; Gómez-Yafal, Alicia; Heartlein, Michael W

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular human sulfatases modulate growth factor signaling by alteration of the heparin/heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) 6-O-sulfation state. HSPGs bind to numerous growth factor ligands including fibroblast growth factors (FGF), epidermal growth factors (EGF), and vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF), and are critically important in the context of cancer cell growth, invasion, and metastasis. We hypothesized that sulfatase activity in the tumor microenvironment would regulate tumor growth in vivo. We established a model of stable expression of sulfatases in the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and purified recombinant human Sulfatase 2 (rhSulf2) for exogenous administration. In vitro studies were performed to measure effects on breast cancer cell invasion and proliferation, and groups were statistically compared using Student's t-test. The effects of hSulf2 on tumor progression were tested using in vivo xenografts with two methods. First, MDA-MB-231 cells stably expressing hSulf1, hSulf2, or both hSulf1/hSulf2 were grown as xenografts and the resulting tumor growth and vascularization was compared to controls. Secondly, wild type MDA-MB-231 xenografts were treated by short-term intratumoral injection with rhSulf2 or vehicle during tumor growth. Ultrasound analysis was also used to complement caliper measurement to monitor tumor growth. In vivo studies were statistically analyzed using Student's t test. In vitro, stable expression of hSulf2 or administration of rhSulf2 in breast cancer cells decreased cell proliferation and invasion, corresponding to an inhibition of ERK activation. Stable expression of the sulfatases in xenografts significantly suppressed tumor growth, with complete regression of tumors expressing both hSulf1 and hSulf2 and significantly smaller tumor volumes in groups expressing hSulf1 or hSulf2 compared to control xenografts. Despite significant suppression of tumor volume, sulfatases did not affect vascular

  4. A simple quantitative model of macromolecular crowding effects on protein folding: Application to the murine prion protein(121-231)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergasa-Caceres, Fernando; Rabitz, Herschel A.

    2013-06-01

    A model of protein folding kinetics is applied to study the effects of macromolecular crowding on protein folding rate and stability. Macromolecular crowding is found to promote a decrease of the entropic cost of folding of proteins that produces an increase of both the stability and the folding rate. The acceleration of the folding rate due to macromolecular crowding is shown to be a topology-dependent effect. The model is applied to the folding dynamics of the murine prion protein (121-231). The differential effect of macromolecular crowding as a function of protein topology suffices to make non-native configurations relatively more accessible.

  5. X-231B technology demonstration for in situ treatment of contaminated soil: Laboratory evaluation of chemical oxidation using hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, D.D.; Siegrist, R.L.

    1993-09-01

    Treatability studies were conducted as part of a comprehensive research project initiated to demonstrate as well as evaluate in situ treatment technologies for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and radioactive substances in wet, slowly permeable soils. The site of interest for this project was the X-231B Oil Biodegradation unit at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility in southern Ohio. This report describes the treatability studies that investigated the feasibility of the application of low-strength hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) solutions to treat trichloroethylene (TCE)-contaminated soil

  6. Flavokawain A induces apoptosis in MCF-7 and MDA-MB231 and inhibits the metastatic process in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiah Abu

    Full Text Available The kava-kava plant (Piper methsyticum is traditionally known as the pacific elixir by the pacific islanders for its role in a wide range of biological activities. The extract of the roots of this plant contains a variety of interesting molecules including Flavokawain A and this molecule is known to have anti-cancer properties. Breast cancer is still one of the leading diagnosed cancers in women today. The metastatic process is also very pertinent in the progression of tumorigenesis.MCF-7 and MDA-MB231 cells were treated with several concentrations of FKA. The apoptotic analysis was done through the MTT assay, BrdU assay, Annexin V analysis, cell cycle analysis, JC-1 mitochondrial dye, AO/PI dual staining, caspase 8/9 fluorometric assay, quantitative real time PCR and western blot. For the metastatic assays, the in vitro scratch assay, trans-well migration/invasion assay, HUVEC tube formation assay, ex vivo rat aortic ring assay, quantitative real time PCR and western blot were employed.We have investigated the effects of FKA on the apoptotic and metastatic process in two breast cancer cell lines. FKA induces apoptosis in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB231 in a dose dependent manner through the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. Additionally, FKA selectively induces a G2/M arrest in the cell cycle machinery of MDA-MB231 and G1 arrest in MCF-7. This suggests that FKA's anti-cancer activity is dependent on the p53 status. Moreover, FKA also halted the migration and invasion process in MDA-MB231. The similar effects can be seen in the inhibition of the angiogenesis process as well.FKA managed to induce apoptosis and inhibit the metastatic process in two breast cancer cell lines, in vitro. Overall, FKA may serve as a promising candidate in the search of a new anti-cancer drug especially in halting the metastatic process but further in vivo evidence is needed.

  7. The Effect of Histone Hyperacetylation on Viability of Basal-Like Breast Cancer Cells MDA-MB-231

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    Aliasghar Rahimian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background The Basal-Like breast cancer, is always known for lack of expression of estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR and as well, absence of epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 gene amplification. Improper expression pattern of ER, PR, and Her2, makes Basal-Like breast tumors resistant to the current hormonal and anti HER2 treatments. In recent decades, several studies have been conducted to investigate the regulatory role of chemical modifications of core histones in gene expression. Their results have shown that histone acetylation is involved in regulation of cell survival. Acetylation of core histones is regulated by the epigenetic-modifying enzymes named Histone Deacetylases (HDACs. As a new approach to control the viability of breast tumor cells resistant to the hormonal and anti-HER2 treatments, we have targeted the HDACs. Using Trichostatin A (TSA as a known HDACs inhibitor, we have tried to hyperacetylate the core histones of MDA-MB-231 cells as an in vitro model of Basal-Like breast tumors. Then we have investigated the effect of histone hyperacetylation on viability of MDA-MB-231 cells. Methods MDA-MB-231 cells were cultured in RPMI 1640 medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS and were incubated at 37°C, in a humidified incubator with 5% CO2 atmosphere. Then cells were treated with different concentrations of TSA including: 50, 100, 200, 400, 800 and 1000 nM or control (1% DMSO. After 24 and 48 hours, viability of cells was evaluated by MTT assay. Results After 24 and 48h exposure to different concentrations of TSA, MDA-MB-231 cells showed a maximum tolerable dose. At higher concentrations, TSA decreased the percentage of cell viability through a time-dose dependent manner. IC50 value for 48h treatment was 600 nM. Conclusions Our results indicate that HDACs inhibition and subsequently hyperacetylation of histones, leads to cytotoxic effects on breast tumor cells resistant to the current treatments. Following

  8. Decatropis bicolor (Zucc.) Radlk essential oil induces apoptosis of the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estanislao Gómez, C C; Aquino Carreño, A; Pérez Ishiwara, D G; San Martín Martínez, E; Morales López, J; Pérez Hernández, N; Gómez García, M C

    2016-08-05

    Decatropis bicolor (Zucc.)Radlk is a plant that has been traditionally used for the treatment of breast cancer in some communities of Mexico. So, the aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxic and apoptotic effect of the essential oil of Decatropis bicolor against breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231. The essential oil obtained from hydrodestillation of leaves of Decatropis bicolor was studied for its biological activity against breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 by MTT assay, Hematoxylin-eosin stain, Annexin V-FITC, TUNEL and western blot assays and for its chemical composition by GC-MS. The results showed a relevant cytotoxic effect of the essential oil towards MDA-MB-231 cells in a dose- and time- dependent manner, with an IC50 of 53.81 ± 1.691 μg/ml but not in the epithelial mammary cell line MCF10A (207.51 ± 3.26 μg/ml). Morphological examination displayed apoptotic characteristics in the treated cells like cell size reduction, membrane blebbing and apoptotic bodies. In addition, the apoptotic rate significantly increased as well as DNA fragmentation and western blot analysis revealed that the essential oil induced apoptosis in the MDA-MB-231 cells via intrinsic pathways due to the activation of Bax, caspases 9 and 3. Phytochemical analysis of the Decatropis bicolor essential oil showed the presence of twenty-three compounds. Major components of the oil were 1,5-cyclooctadiene,3-(methyl-2)propenyl (18.38 %), β-terpineol (8.16 %) and 1-(3-methyl-cyclopent-2-enyl)-cyclohexene (6.12 %). This study suggests that essential oil of Decatropis bicolor has a potential cytotoxic and antitumoral effect against breast cancer cells, with the presence of potential bioactive compounds. Our results contribute to the validation of the anticancer activity of the plant in Mexican traditional medicine.

  9. Context dependent reversion of tumor phenotype by connexin-43 expression in MDA-MB231 cells and MCF-7 cells: Role of β-catenin/connexin43 association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talhouk, Rabih S.; Fares, Mohamed-Bilal; Rahme, Gilbert J.; Hariri, Hanaa H.; Rayess, Tina; Dbouk, Hashem A.; Bazzoun, Dana; Al-Labban, Dania; El-Sabban, Marwan E.

    2013-01-01

    Connexins (Cx), gap junction (GJ) proteins, are regarded as tumor suppressors, and Cx43 expression is often down regulated in breast tumors. We assessed the effect of Cx43 over-expression in 2D and 3D cultures of two breast adenocarcinoma cell lines: MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. While Cx43 over-expression decreased proliferation of 2D and 3D cultures of MCF-7 by 56% and 80% respectively, MDA-MB-231 growth was not altered in 2D cultures, but exhibited 35% reduction in 3D cultures. C-terminus truncated Cx43 did not alter proliferation. Untransfected MCF-7 cells formed spherical aggregates in 3D cultures, and MDA-MB-231 cells formed stellar aggregates. However, MCF-7 cells over-expressing Cx43 formed smaller sized clusters and Cx43 expressing MDA-MB-231 cells lost their stellar morphology. Extravasation ability of both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells was reduced by 60% and 30% respectively. On the other hand, silencing Cx43 in MCF10A cells, nonneoplastic human mammary cell line, increased proliferation in both 2D and 3D cultures, and disrupted acinar morphology. Although Cx43 over-expression did not affect total levels of β-catenin, α-catenin and ZO-2, it decreased nuclear levels of β-catenin in 2D and 3D cultures of MCF-7 cells, and in 3D cultures of MDA-MB-231 cells. Cx43 associated at the membrane with α-catenin, β-catenin and ZO-2 in 2D and 3D cultures of MCF-7 cells, and only in 3D conditions in MDA-MB-231 cells. This study suggests that Cx43 exerts tumor suppressive effects in a context-dependent manner where GJ assembly with α-catenin, β-catenin and ZO-2 may be implicated in reducing growth rate, invasiveness, and, malignant phenotype of 2D and 3D cultures of MCF-7 cells, and 3D cultures of MDA-MB-231 cells, by sequestering β-catenin away from nucleus. - Highlights: • Cx43 over-expressing MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 were grown in 2D and 3D cultures. • Proliferation and growth morphology were affected in a context dependent manner. • Extravasation ability of both MCF

  10. Context dependent reversion of tumor phenotype by connexin-43 expression in MDA-MB231 cells and MCF-7 cells: Role of β-catenin/connexin43 association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talhouk, Rabih S., E-mail: rtalhouk@aub.edu.lb [Department of Biology, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, American University of Beirut, P.O. Box 11-0236, Beirut (Lebanon); Fares, Mohamed-Bilal; Rahme, Gilbert J.; Hariri, Hanaa H.; Rayess, Tina; Dbouk, Hashem A.; Bazzoun, Dana; Al-Labban, Dania [Department of Biology, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, American University of Beirut, P.O. Box 11-0236, Beirut (Lebanon); El-Sabban, Marwan E., E-mail: me00@aub.edu.lb [Department of Anatomy, Cell Biology and Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, P.O. Box 11-0236, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2013-12-10

    Connexins (Cx), gap junction (GJ) proteins, are regarded as tumor suppressors, and Cx43 expression is often down regulated in breast tumors. We assessed the effect of Cx43 over-expression in 2D and 3D cultures of two breast adenocarcinoma cell lines: MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. While Cx43 over-expression decreased proliferation of 2D and 3D cultures of MCF-7 by 56% and 80% respectively, MDA-MB-231 growth was not altered in 2D cultures, but exhibited 35% reduction in 3D cultures. C-terminus truncated Cx43 did not alter proliferation. Untransfected MCF-7 cells formed spherical aggregates in 3D cultures, and MDA-MB-231 cells formed stellar aggregates. However, MCF-7 cells over-expressing Cx43 formed smaller sized clusters and Cx43 expressing MDA-MB-231 cells lost their stellar morphology. Extravasation ability of both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells was reduced by 60% and 30% respectively. On the other hand, silencing Cx43 in MCF10A cells, nonneoplastic human mammary cell line, increased proliferation in both 2D and 3D cultures, and disrupted acinar morphology. Although Cx43 over-expression did not affect total levels of β-catenin, α-catenin and ZO-2, it decreased nuclear levels of β-catenin in 2D and 3D cultures of MCF-7 cells, and in 3D cultures of MDA-MB-231 cells. Cx43 associated at the membrane with α-catenin, β-catenin and ZO-2 in 2D and 3D cultures of MCF-7 cells, and only in 3D conditions in MDA-MB-231 cells. This study suggests that Cx43 exerts tumor suppressive effects in a context-dependent manner where GJ assembly with α-catenin, β-catenin and ZO-2 may be implicated in reducing growth rate, invasiveness, and, malignant phenotype of 2D and 3D cultures of MCF-7 cells, and 3D cultures of MDA-MB-231 cells, by sequestering β-catenin away from nucleus. - Highlights: • Cx43 over-expressing MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 were grown in 2D and 3D cultures. • Proliferation and growth morphology were affected in a context dependent manner. • Extravasation ability of both MCF

  11. Characterization of inorganic phosphate transport in the triple-negative breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo-Abrahão, Thais; Lacerda-Abreu, Marco Antônio; Gomes, Tainá; Cosentino-Gomes, Daniela; Carvalho-de-Araújo, Ayra Diandra; Rodrigues, Mariana Figueiredo; Oliveira, Ana Carolina Leal de; Rumjanek, Franklin David; Monteiro, Robson de Queiroz; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that interstitial inorganic phosphate is significantly elevated in the breast cancer microenvironment as compared to normal tissue. In addition it has been shown that breast cancer cells express high levels of the NaPi-IIb carrier (SLC34A2), suggesting that this carrier may play a role in breast cancer progression. However, the biochemical behavior of inorganic phosphate (Pi) transporter in this cancer type remains elusive. In this work, we characterize the kinetic parameters of Pi transport in the aggressive human breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, and correlated Pi transport with cell migration and adhesion. We determined the influence of sodium concentration, pH, metabolic inhibitors, as well as the affinity for inorganic phosphate in Pi transport. We observed that the inorganic phosphate is dependent on sodium transport (K0,5 value = 21.98 mM for NaCl). Furthermore, the transport is modulated by different pH values and increasing concentrations of Pi, following the Michaelis-Menten kinetics (K0,5 = 0.08 mM Pi). PFA, monensin, furosemide and ouabain inhibited Pi transport, cell migration and adhesion. Taken together, these results showed that the uptake of Pi in MDA-MB-231 cells is modulated by sodium and by regulatory mechanisms of intracellular sodium gradient. General Significance: Pi transport might be regarded as a potential target for therapy against tumor progression.

  12. Broccoli and watercress suppress matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity and invasiveness of human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, Peter; Huang, Qing; Ong, Choon Nam; Whiteman, Matt

    2005-01-01

    A high dietary intake of cruciferous vegetables has been associated with a reduction in numerous human pathologies particularly cancer. In the current study, we examined the inhibitory effects of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and watercress (Rorripa nasturtium aquaticum) extracts on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced cancer cell invasion and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity using human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Aberrant overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases, including metalloproteinase-9, is associated with increased invasive potential in cancer cell lines. Our results demonstrate that extracts of broccoli and Rorripa suppressed TPA-induced MMP-9 activity and invasiveness in a concentration dependant manner as determined by zymographic analysis. Furthermore, fractionation of individual extracts followed by liquid chromatography mass spectroscopy analysis (LC-MS) revealed that the inhibitory effects of each vegetable were associated with the presence of 4-methysulfinylbutyl (sulforaphane) and 7-methylsulphinylheptyl isothiocyanates. Taken together, our data indicate that isothiocyanates derived form broccoli and Rorripa inhibit metalloproteinase 9 activities and also suppress the invasive potential of human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells in vitro. The inhibitory effects observed in the current study may contribute to the suppression of carcinogenesis by diets high in cruciferous vegetables

  13. KIAA0100 Modulates Cancer Cell Aggression Behavior of MDA-MB-231 through Microtubule and Heat Shock Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Zhong

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The KIAA0100 gene was identified in the human immature myeloid cell line cDNA library. Recent studies have shown that its expression is elevated in breast cancer and associated with more aggressive cancer types as well as poor outcomes. However, its cellular and molecular function is yet to be understood. Here we show that silencing KIAA0100 by siRNA in the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 significantly reduced the cancer cells’ aggressive behavior, including cell aggregation, reattachment, cell metastasis and invasion. Most importantly, silencing the expression of KIAA0100 particularly sensitized the quiescent cancer cells in suspension culture to anoikis. Immunoprecipitation, mass spectrometry and immunofluorescence analysis revealed that KIAA0100 may play multiple roles in the cancer cells, including stabilizing microtubule structure as a microtubule binding protein, and contributing to MDA-MB-231 cells Anoikis resistance by the interaction with stress protein HSPA1A. Our study also implies that the interaction between KIAA0100 and HSPA1A may be targeted for new drug development to specifically induce anoikis cell death in the cancer cell.

  14. MicroRNA-101 inhibits cell proliferation, promotes cell apoptosis and increases sensitivity of breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells to paclitaxel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-Lin Ke

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect that miR-101 inhibits breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation and increases the chemosensitivity of paclitaxel to breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells and its influence on protein expression level of target gene Bcl2. Methods: miR-101 was artificially synthesized, it used liposome 3000 to transfect MDA-MB-231 cells, and experiment was divided into three groups: blank control group, negative control group and miR-101 group. MTT assay was used to detect the effect of miR-101 on MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation and chemosensitivity of paclitaxel-mediated MDA-MB-231 cells; flow cytometer was used to detect cell apoptosis. Real-time PCR and Western bloting were used to detect the changes of mRNA and protein expression levels of Bcl2. Results: After miR-101 transfected MDA-MB- 231 cells, cell proliferation ability significantly decreased compared with negative control group, and differences had statistical significance (P<0.01; after paclitaxel was used to process cells, IC50 of miR-101-processing group decreased by 2.45 times compared with blank control group, differences had statistical significance (P<0.05 and differences between blank control group and negative control group had no statistical significance; detection results by flow cytometer showed that both early-stage and late-stage apoptosis rates of MDA-MB-231 cells of miR-101 group were significantly higher than those of negative control group (P<0.05, and early-stage apoptosis rate was more significant (P<0.01; after transfection of miR-101, mRNA and protein levels of Bcl2 of MDA-MB-231 cells significantly decreased, and differences had statistical significance (P<0.05. Conclusion: miR-101 can inhibit breast cancer MDAMB- 231 cell proliferation through targeting and downregulating Bcl2, thereby increasing the chemosensitivity of breast cancer cells to paclitaxel and promoting cell apoptosis.

  15. BETULINIC ACID WAS MORE CYTOTOXIC TOWARDS THE HUMAN BREAST CANCER CELL LINE MDA-MB-231 THAN THE HUMAN PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKAEMIA CELL LINE HL-60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LATIFAH SAIFUL YAZAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Betulinic acid (BA is a pentacyclic triterpene found in several botanical sources that has been shown to cause apoptosis in a number of cell lines. This study was undertaken to determine the in vitro cytotoxic properties of BA towards the human mammary carcinoma cell line MDA-MB-231 and the human promyelocytic leukaemia cell line HL-60 and the mode of the induced cell death. The cytotoxicity and mode of cell death of BA were determined using the MTT assay and DNAfragmentation analysis, respectively. In our study, the compound was found to be cytotoxic to MDA-MB-231 and HL-60 cells with IC50 values of 58 μg/mL and 134 μg/mL, respectively. Cells treated with high concentrations of BA exhibited features characteristic of apoptosis such as blebbing, shrinking and a number of small cytoplasm body masses when viewed under an inverted light microscope after 24 h. The incidence of apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 was further confirmed bythe DNA fragmentation analysis, with the formation of DNA fragments of oligonucleosomal size (180-200 base pairs, giving a ladder-like pattern on agarose gel electrophoresis. BA was more cytotoxic towards MDA-MB-231 than HL-60 cells, and induced apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells.

  16. Herbal Extract SH003 Suppresses Tumor Growth and Metastasis of MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells by Inhibiting STAT3-IL-6 Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn Kyung Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer inflammation promotes cancer progression, resulting in a high risk of cancer. Here, we demonstrate that our new herbal extract, SH003, suppresses both tumor growth and metastasis of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells via inhibiting STAT3-IL-6 signaling path. Our new herbal formula, SH003, mixed extract from Astragalus membranaceus, Angelica gigas, and Trichosanthes kirilowii Maximowicz, suppressed MDA-MB-231 tumor growth and lung metastasis in vivo and reduced the viability and metastatic abilities of MDA-MB-231 cells in vitro. Furthermore, SH003 inhibited STAT3 activation, which resulted in a reduction of IL-6 production. Therefore, we conclude that SH003 suppresses highly metastatic breast cancer growth and metastasis by inhibiting STAT3-IL-6 signaling path.

  17. The broad-host-range plasmid pSFA231 isolated from petroleum-contaminated sediment represents a new member of the PromA plasmid family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaobin; Top, Eva M; Wang, Yafei; Brown, Celeste J; Yao, Fei; Yang, Shan; Jiang, Yong; Li, Hui

    2014-01-01

    A self-transmissible broad-host-range (BHR) plasmid pSFA231 was isolated from petroleum-contaminated sediment in Shen-fu wastewater irrigation zone, China, using the triparental mating exogenous plasmid capture method. Based on its complete sequence the plasmid has a size of 41.5 kb and codes for 50 putative open reading frames (orfs), 29 of which represent genes involved in replication, partitioning and transfer functions of the plasmid. Phylogenetic analysis grouped pSFA231 into the newly defined PromA plasmid family, which currently includes five members. Further comparative genomic analysis shows that pSFA231 shares the common backbone regions with the other PromA plasmids, i.e., genes involved in replication, maintenance and control, and conjugative transfer. Nevertheless, phylogenetic divergence was found in specific gene products. We propose to divide the PromA group into two subgroups, PromA-α (pMRAD02, pSB102) and PromA-β (pMOL98, pIPO2T, pSFA231, pTer331), based on the splits network analysis of the RepA protein. Interestingly, a cluster of hypothetical orfs located between parA and traA of pSFA231 shows high similarity with the corresponding regions on pMOL98, pIPO2T, and pTer331, suggesting these hypothetical orfs may represent "essential" plasmid backbone genes for the PromA-β subgroup. Alternatively, they may also be accessory genes that were first acquired and then stayed as the plasmid diverged. Our study increases the available collection of complete genome sequences of BHR plasmids, and since pSFA231 is the only characterized PromA plasmid from China, our findings also enhance our understanding of the genetic diversity of this plasmid group in different parts of the world.

  18. The broad-host-range plasmid pSFA231 isolated from petroleum-contaminated sediment represents a new member of the PromA plasmid family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobin eLi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A self-transmissible broad-host-range (BHR plasmid pSFA231 was isolated from petroleum-contaminated sediment in Shen-fu wastewater irrigation zone, China, using the triparental mating exogenous plasmid capture method. Based on its complete sequence the plasmid has a size of 41.5 kb and codes for 50 putative open reading frames (orfs, 28 of which represent genes involved in replication, partitioning and transfer functions of the plasmid. Phylogenetic analysis grouped pSFA231 into the newly defined PromA plasmid family, which currently includes five members. Further comparative genomic analysis shows that pSFA231 shares the common backbone regions with the other PromA plasmids, i.e., genes involved in replication, maintenance and control, and conjugative transfer. Nevertheless, phylogenetic divergence was found in specific gene products. We propose to divide the PromA group into two subgroups, PromA-α (pMRAD02, pSB102 and PromA-β (pMOL98, pIPO2T, pSFA231, pTer331, based on the splits network analysis of the RepA protein. Interestingly, a cluster of hypothetical orfs located between parA and traA of pSFA231 shows high similarity with the corresponding regions on pMOL98, pIPO2T and pTer331, suggesting these hypothetical orfs may represent ‘‘essential’’ plasmid backbone genes for the PromA-β subgroup. Alternatively, they may also be accessory genes that were first acquired and then stayed as the plasmid diverged. Our study increases the available collection of complete genome sequences of BHR plasmids, and since pSFA231 is the only characterized PromA plasmid from China, our findings also enhance our understanding of the genetic diversity of this plasmid group in different parts of the world.

  19. Assembly of highly repetitive genomes using short reads: the genome of discrete typing unit III Trypanosoma cruzi strain 231.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Rodrigo P; Reis-Cunha, Joao Luis; DeBarry, Jeremy D; Chiari, Egler; Kissinger, Jessica C; Bartholomeu, Daniella C; Macedo, Andrea M

    2018-02-14

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods are low-cost high-throughput technologies that produce thousands to millions of sequence reads. Despite the high number of raw sequence reads, their short length, relative to Sanger, PacBio or Nanopore reads, complicates the assembly of genomic repeats. Many genome tools are available, but the assembly of highly repetitive genome sequences using only NGS short reads remains challenging. Genome assembly of organisms responsible for important neglected diseases such as Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas disease, is known to be challenging because of their repetitive nature. Only three of six recognized discrete typing units (DTUs) of the parasite have their draft genomes published and therefore genome evolution analyses in the taxon are limited. In this study, we developed a computational workflow to assemble highly repetitive genomes via a combination of de novo and reference-based assembly strategies to better overcome the intrinsic limitations of each, based on Illumina reads. The highly repetitive genome of the human-infecting parasite T. cruzi 231 strain was used as a test subject. The combined-assembly approach shown in this study benefits from the reference-based assembly ability to resolve highly repetitive sequences and from the de novo capacity to assemble genome-specific regions, improving the quality of the assembly. The acceptable confidence obtained by analyzing our results showed that our combined approach is an attractive option to assemble highly repetitive genomes with NGS short reads. Phylogenomic analysis including the 231 strain, the first representative of DTU III whose genome was sequenced, was also performed and provides new insights into T. cruzi genome evolution.

  20. Anti-proliferative effect of biogenic gold nanoparticles against breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 & MCF-7)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uma Suganya, K.S.; Govindaraju, K.; Ganesh Kumar, V.; Prabhu, D.; Arulvasu, C.; Stalin Dhas, T.; Karthick, V.; Changmai, Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Biosynthesis of stable and well dispersed predominantly spherical gold nanoparticles of size around ∼12.5 nm. • Anticancer assessment of gold nanoparticles on MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cell lines. • AuNPs were found non toxic to normal HMEC cells. • Flow cytometry results revealed significant arrest in cell proliferation in early G0/G1 to S phase. - Abstract: Breast cancer is a major complication in women and numerous approaches are being developed to overcome this problem. In conventional treatments such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy the post side effects cause an unsuitable effect in treatment of cancer. Hence, it is essential to develop a novel strategy for the treatment of this disease. In the present investigation, a possible route for green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using leaf extract of Mimosa pudica and its anticancer efficacy in the treatment of breast cancer cell lines is studied. The synthesized nanoparticles were found to be effective in killing cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 & MCF-7) which were studied using various anticancer assays (MTT assay, cell morphology determination, cell cycle analysis, comet assay, Annexin V-FITC/PI staining and DAPI staining). Cell morphological analysis showed the changes occurred in cancer cells during the treatment with AuNPs. Cell cycle analysis revealed apoptosis in G_0/G_1 to S phase. Similarly in Comet assay, there was an increase in tail length in treated cells in comparison with the control. Annexin V-FITC/PI staining assay showed prompt fluorescence in treated cells indicating the translocation of phosphatidylserine from the inner membrane. PI and DAPI staining showed the DNA damage in treated cells.

  1. Anti-proliferative effect of biogenic gold nanoparticles against breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 & MCF-7)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uma Suganya, K.S. [Centre for Ocean Research, Sathyabama University, Chennai 600119 (India); Govindaraju, K., E-mail: govindtu@gmail.com [Centre for Ocean Research, Sathyabama University, Chennai 600119 (India); Ganesh Kumar, V. [Centre for Ocean Research, Sathyabama University, Chennai 600119 (India); Prabhu, D.; Arulvasu, C. [Department of Zoology, University of Madras, Guindy campus, Chennai 600 025 (India); Stalin Dhas, T.; Karthick, V.; Changmai, Niranjan [Centre for Ocean Research, Sathyabama University, Chennai 600119 (India)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Biosynthesis of stable and well dispersed predominantly spherical gold nanoparticles of size around ∼12.5 nm. • Anticancer assessment of gold nanoparticles on MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cell lines. • AuNPs were found non toxic to normal HMEC cells. • Flow cytometry results revealed significant arrest in cell proliferation in early G0/G1 to S phase. - Abstract: Breast cancer is a major complication in women and numerous approaches are being developed to overcome this problem. In conventional treatments such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy the post side effects cause an unsuitable effect in treatment of cancer. Hence, it is essential to develop a novel strategy for the treatment of this disease. In the present investigation, a possible route for green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using leaf extract of Mimosa pudica and its anticancer efficacy in the treatment of breast cancer cell lines is studied. The synthesized nanoparticles were found to be effective in killing cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 & MCF-7) which were studied using various anticancer assays (MTT assay, cell morphology determination, cell cycle analysis, comet assay, Annexin V-FITC/PI staining and DAPI staining). Cell morphological analysis showed the changes occurred in cancer cells during the treatment with AuNPs. Cell cycle analysis revealed apoptosis in G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} to S phase. Similarly in Comet assay, there was an increase in tail length in treated cells in comparison with the control. Annexin V-FITC/PI staining assay showed prompt fluorescence in treated cells indicating the translocation of phosphatidylserine from the inner membrane. PI and DAPI staining showed the DNA damage in treated cells.

  2. Non-Muscle Myosin II Isoforms Have Different Functions in Matrix Rearrangement by MDA-MB-231 Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget Hindman

    Full Text Available The role of a stiffening extra-cellular matrix (ECM in cancer progression is documented but poorly understood. Here we use a conditioning protocol to test the role of nonmuscle myosin II isoforms in cell mediated ECM arrangement using collagen constructs seeded with breast cancer cells expressing shRNA targeted to either the IIA or IIB heavy chain isoform. While there are several methods available to measure changes in the biophysical characteristics of the ECM, we wanted to use a method which allows for the measurement of global stiffness changes as well as a dynamic response from the sample over time. The conditioning protocol used allows the direct measurement of ECM stiffness. Using various treatments, it is possible to determine the contribution of various construct and cellular components to the overall construct stiffness. Using this assay, we show that both the IIA and IIB isoforms are necessary for efficient matrix remodeling by MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, as loss of either isoform changes the stiffness of the collagen constructs as measured using our conditioning protocol. Constructs containing only collagen had an elastic modulus of 0.40 Pascals (Pa, parental MDA-MB-231 constructs had an elastic modulus of 9.22 Pa, while IIA and IIB KD constructs had moduli of 3.42 and 7.20 Pa, respectively. We also calculated the cell and matrix contributions to the overall sample elastic modulus. Loss of either myosin isoform resulted in decreased cell stiffness, as well as a decrease in the stiffness of the cell-altered collagen matrices. While the total construct modulus for the IIB KD cells was lower than that of the parental cells, the IIB KD cell-altered matrices actually had a higher elastic modulus than the parental cell-altered matrices (4.73 versus 4.38 Pa. These results indicate that the IIA and IIB heavy chains play distinct and non-redundant roles in matrix remodeling.

  3. Effect of 3-bromopyruvate acid on the redox equilibrium in non-invasive MCF-7 and invasive MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowska, Ewa; Wojtala, Martyna; Gajewska, Agnieszka; Soszyński, Mirosław; Bartosz, Grzegorz; Sadowska-Bartosz, Izabela

    2016-02-01

    Novel approaches to cancer chemotherapy employ metabolic differences between normal and tumor cells, including the high dependence of cancer cells on glycolysis ("Warburg effect"). 3-Bromopyruvate (3-BP), inhibitor of glycolysis, belongs to anticancer drugs basing on this principle. 3-BP was tested for its capacity to kill human non-invasive MCF-7 and invasive MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. We found that 3-BP was more toxic for MDA-MB-231 cells than for MCF-7 cells. In both cell lines, a statistically significant decrease of ATP and glutathione was observed in a time- and 3-BP concentration-dependent manner. Transient increases in the level of reactive oxygen species and reactive oxygen species was observed, more pronounced in MCF-7 cells, followed by a decreasing tendency. Activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) decreased in 3-BP treated MDA-MB-231 cells. For MCF-7 cells decreases of GR and GST activities were noted only at the highest concentration of 3-BP.These results point to induction of oxidative stress by 3-BP via depletion of antioxidants and inactivation of antioxidant enzymes, more pronounced in MDA-MB-231 cells, more sensitive to 3-BP.

  4. Cross sections of the reaction Pa-231(d,3n)U-230 for the production of U-230/Th-226 for targeted alpha therapy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morgenstern, A.; Lebeda, Ondřej; Štursa, Jan; Capote, R.; Sin, M.; Bruchertseifer, F.; Zielinska, B.; Apostolidis, C.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 5 (2009), 054612/1-054612/6 ISSN 0556-2813 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Pa-231 * U-230 * Th-226 * reaction cross section * targeted alpha therapy Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 3.477, year: 2009

  5. 40 CFR 264.231 - Special requirements for hazardous wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, and FO27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 264.231 Special requirements for hazardous wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, and FO27. (a) Hazardous Wastes FO20, FO21, FO22... surface impoundments managing hazardous wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, and FO27 in order to reduce...

  6. 49 CFR 231.27 - Box and other house cars without roof hatches or placed in service after October 1, 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Box and other house cars without roof hatches or... SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.27 Box and other house cars without roof hatches or placed in service...) Number. (i) Each box or other house car without roof hatches shall be equipped with an efficient vertical...

  7. 49 CFR 231.28 - Box and other house cars with roof hatches built or placed in service after October 1, 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Box and other house cars with roof hatches built... RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.28 Box and other house cars with roof hatches built or placed in... other house cars with roof hatches. Box and other house cars with roof hatches built on or before April...

  8. Comparing Apoptosis and Necrosis Effects of Arctium Lappa Root Extract and Doxorubicin on MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafari, Fereshteh; Rajabi, Mohammad Reza; Mazoochi, Tahereh; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Nikzad, Hossein; Atlasi, Mohammad Ali; Taherian, Aliakbar

    2017-03-01

    Objective: Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease and very common malignancy in women worldwide. The efficacy of chemotherapy as an important part of breast cancer treatment is limited due to its side effects. While pharmaceutical companies are looking for better chemicals, research on traditional medicines that generally have fewer side effects is quite interesting. In this study, apoptosis and necrosis effect of Arctium lappa and doxorubicin was compared in MCF7, and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. Materials and Methods: MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells were cultured in RPMI 1640 containing 10% FBS and 100 U/ml penicillin/streptomycin. MTT assay and an annexin V/propidium iodide (AV/PI) kit were used respectively to compare the survival rate and apoptotic effects of different concentrations of doxorubicin and Arctium lappa root extract on MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cells. Results: Arctium lappa root extract was able to reduce cell viability of the two cell lines in a dose and time dependent manner similar to doxorubicin. Flow cytometry results showed that similar to doxorubicin, Arctium Lappa root extract had a dose and time dependent apoptosis effect on both cell lines. 10μg/mL of Arctium lappa root extract and 5 μM of doxorubicin showed the highest anti-proliferative and apoptosis effect in MCF7 and MDA231 cells. Conclusion: The MCF7 (ER/PR-) and MDA-MB-231 (ER/PR+) cell lines represent two major breast cancer subtypes. The similar anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of Arctium lappa root extract and doxorubicin (which is a conventional chemotherapy drug) on two different breast cancer cell lines strongly suggests its anticancer effects and further studies. Creative Commons Attribution License

  9. Antioxidant Activity and ROS-Dependent Apoptotic Effect of Scurrula ferruginea (Jack Danser Methanol Extract in Human Breast Cancer Cell MDA-MB-231.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Marvibaigi

    Full Text Available Scurrula ferruginea (Jack Danser is one of the mistletoe species belonging to Loranthaceae family, which grows on the branches of many deciduous trees in tropical countries. This study evaluated the antioxidant activities of S. ferruginea extracts. The cytotoxic activity of the selected extracts, which showed potent antioxidant activities, and high phenolic and flavonoid contents, were investigated in human breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231 and non-cancer human skin fibroblast cells (HSF-1184. The activities and characteristics varied depending on the different parts of S. ferruginea, solvent polarity, and concentrations of extracts. The stem methanol extract showed the highest amount of both phenolic (273.51 ± 4.84 mg gallic acid/g extract and flavonoid contents (163.41 ± 4.62 mg catechin/g extract and strong DPPH• radical scavenging (IC50 = 27.81 μg/mL and metal chelation activity (IC50 = 80.20 μg/mL. The stem aqueous extract showed the highest ABTS•+ scavenging ability. The stem methanol and aqueous extracts exhibited dose-dependent cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231 cells with IC50 of 19.27 and 50.35 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, the extracts inhibited the migration and colony formation of MDA-MB-231 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Morphological observations revealed hallmark properties of apoptosis in treated cells. The methanol extract induced an increase in ROS generation and mitochondrial depolarization in MDA-MB-231 cells, suggesting its potent apoptotic activity. The present study demonstrated that the S. ferruginea methanol extract mediated MDA-MB-231 cell growth inhibition via induction of apoptosis which was confirmed by Western blot analysis. It may be a potential anticancer agent; however, its in vivo anticancer activity needs to be investigated.

  10. Familial isolated clubfoot is associated with recurrent chromosome 17q23.1q23.2 microduplications containing TBX4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, David M; Aferol, Hyuliya; McCall, Kevin; Huang, Jason B; Techy, Matthew; Buchan, Jillian; Cady, Janet; Gonzales, Patrick R; Dobbs, Matthew B; Gurnett, Christina A

    2010-07-09

    Clubfoot is a common musculoskeletal birth defect for which few causative genes have been identified. To identify the genes responsible for isolated clubfoot, we screened for genomic copy-number variants with the Affymetrix Genome-wide Human SNP Array 6.0. A recurrent chromosome 17q23.1q23.2 microduplication was identified in 3 of 66 probands with familial isolated clubfoot. The chromosome 17q23.1q23.2 microduplication segregated with autosomal-dominant clubfoot in all three families but with reduced penetrance. Mild short stature was common and one female had developmental hip dysplasia. Subtle skeletal abnormalities consisted of broad and shortened metatarsals and calcanei, small distal tibial epiphyses, and thickened ischia. Several skeletal features were opposite to those described in the reciprocal chromosome 17q23.1q23.2 microdeletion syndrome associated with developmental delay and cardiac and limb abnormalities. Of note, during our study, we also identified a microdeletion at the locus in a sibling pair with isolated clubfoot. The chromosome 17q23.1q23.2 region contains the T-box transcription factor TBX4, a likely target of the bicoid-related transcription factor PITX1 previously implicated in clubfoot etiology. Our result suggests that this chromosome 17q23.1q23.2 microduplication is a relatively common cause of familial isolated clubfoot and provides strong evidence linking clubfoot etiology to abnormal early limb development. Copyright 2010 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Overexpression of p65 attenuates celecoxib-induced cell death in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ling

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Celecoxib is a selective cyclooxygenase (COX-2 inhibitor that has been reported to reduce the risk of breast cancer. In our previous study, celecoxib induced apoptosis and caused cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase in the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231, and its effects were mediated by downregulation of NF-κB signaling. The NF-κB p65/RelA subunit may play a role in cell death through the activation of anti-apoptotic target genes including the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP and Bcl-2 families, and inhibition of protein kinase B/Akt. The aim of the present study was to investigate p65 as the potential target of celecoxib treatment and determine whether p65 overexpression can override the inhibitory effect of celecoxib on NF-κB activity and affect cell survival. Methods The effects of p65 overexpression on celecoxib-inhibited NF-κB transcriptional activity were examined by western blotting, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA and luciferase reporter gene assay. Cell viability and cell death were evaluated by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT assay, and the levels of cleaved poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP and caspase. Anti-apoptotic NF-κB target genes and cell cycle regulators were examined by western blotting to screen for the expression of target genes under direct regulation by p65. Results Overexpression of p65 increased NF-κB transcriptional activity and interfered with celecoxib-mediated apoptosis as assessed by MTT assay and caspase-3, caspase-9, and PARP expressions. Exogenously overexpressed p65 upregulated NF-κB-responsive genes, including anti-apoptotic genes such as survivin and XIAP, and the cell cycle regulatory gene cyclin D1. However, p65 overexpression did not affect celecoxib-induced p-Akt inactivation, suggesting that celecoxib might have separate molecular mechanisms for regulating Akt signaling independently of its inhibition of NF-κB transcriptional

  12. Performance Evaluation of AODV, DSR, DYMO & ZRP in Cost 231 Walfisch-Ikegami Path Loss Propagation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachit JAIN

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Ad hoc NETwork is a kind of wireless ad-hoc network, and is a self configuring network of mobile routers connected by wireless links. Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET is a wireless network without infrastructure. Self configurability and easy deployment feature of the MANET resulted in numerous applications in this modern era. Efficient routing protocols will make MANETs reliable. Various research communities are working in field of MANET and trying to adopt the protocols and technology in other applications as well. In this work, we present investigations on the behavior of various routing protocol of MANET with a Cost 231 Walfisch-Ikegami Propagation Model. We evaluate the performance of four different ad-hoc routing protocols on four performance metrics such as Average Jitter, Average End-to-End Delay, Throughput, and Packet Delivery Fraction with varying Pause Time. From the simulation results it is concluded that DSR is better in transmission of packets per unit time and maximum number of packets reached their destination successfully with some delays, i.e. PDF & Throughput is more and Average jitter & end-to-end delay is less. Whereas AODV & ZRP having almost same values in all of the performance metrics, they transmit packets with very less delay but transmits less packets to their destination as compare to DSR

  13. A novel IMPDH1 mutation (Arg231Pro) in a family with a severe form of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Sandeep; Fishman, Gerald A; Stone, Edwin M

    2004-10-01

    To define ophthalmic findings in a family with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa and a novel IMPDH1 gene mutation. Genetic and observational family study. Sixteen affected members of a family with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Ophthalmic examination, including best-corrected visual acuity (VA), slit-lamp biomicroscopy, direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy, Goldmann kinetic perimetry, and electroretinography were performed. Deoxyribonucleic acid single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis was done. Abnormal polymerase chain reaction products identified by SSCP analysis were sequenced bidirectionally. All affected patients had the onset of night blindness within the first decade of life. Ocular findings were characterized by diffuse retinal pigmentary degenerative changes, marked restriction of peripheral visual fields, severe loss of VA, nondetectable electroretinography amplitudes, and a high frequency of posterior subcapsular lens opacities. Affected members were observed to harbor a novel IMPDH1 gene mutation. A novel IMPDH1 gene mutation (Arg231Pro) was associated with a severe form of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Families affected with a severe form of this genetic subtype should be investigated for a mutation in the IMPDH1 gene.

  14. Curcumin Suppresses Proliferation and Migration of MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells through Autophagy-Dependent Akt Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yemin; Zhou, Yu; Li, Mingxin; Wang, Changhua

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have evidenced that the anticancer potential of curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a main yellow bioactive compound from plant turmeric was mediated by interfering with PI3K/Akt signaling. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is still poorly understood. This study experimentally revealed that curcumin treatment reduced Akt protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, along with an activation of autophagy and suppression of ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) function. The curcumin-reduced Akt expression, cell proliferation, and migration were prevented by genetic and pharmacological inhibition of autophagy but not by UPS inhibition. Additionally, inactivation of AMPK by its specific inhibitor compound C or by target shRNA-mediated silencing attenuated curcumin-activated autophagy. Thus, these results indicate that curcumin-stimulated AMPK activity induces activation of the autophagy-lysosomal protein degradation pathway leading to Akt degradation and the subsequent suppression of proliferation and migration in breast cancer cell. PMID:26752181

  15. Metabolomic Dynamic Analysis of Hypoxia in MDA-MB-231 and the Comparison with Inferred Metabolites from Transcriptomics Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Jane Tseng

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia affects the tumor microenvironment and is considered important to metastasis progression and therapy resistance. Thus far, the majority of global analyses of tumor hypoxia responses have been limited to just a single omics level. Combining multiple omics data can broaden our understanding of tumor hypoxia. Here, we investigate the temporal change of the metabolite composition with gene expression data from literature to provide a more comprehensive insight into the system level in response to hypoxia. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to perform metabolomic profiling on the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line under hypoxic conditions. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that the metabolic difference between hypoxia and normoxia was similar over 24 h, but became distinct over 48 h. Time dependent microarray data from the same cell line in the literature displayed different gene expressions under hypoxic and normoxic conditions mostly at 12 h or earlier. The direct metabolomic profiles show a large overlap with theoretical metabolic profiles deduced from previous transcriptomic studies. Consistent pathways are glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, pyruvate, purine and arginine and proline metabolism. Ten metabolic pathways revealed by metabolomics were not covered by the downstream of the known transcriptomic profiles, suggesting new metabolic phenotypes. These results confirm previous transcriptomics understanding and expand the knowledge from existing models on correlation and co-regulation between transcriptomic and metabolomics profiles, which demonstrates the power of integrated omics analysis.

  16. Metabolomic Dynamic Analysis of Hypoxia in MDA-MB-231 and the Comparison with Inferred Metabolites from Transcriptomics Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, I-Lin [Department of Pharmacy, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Jen-Ai Road, Section 1 Taipei 10051, Taiwan (China); The Metabolomics Group, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Center for Genomic Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10051, Taiwan (China); Kuo, Tien-Chueh [The Metabolomics Group, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronic and Bioinformatics, National Taiwan University, Room 410 BL Building, No. 1, Roosevelt Road, Sec. 4, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Ho, Tsung-Jung [The Metabolomics Group, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Rd., Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Harn, Yeu-Chern [The Metabolomics Group, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Networking and Multimedia, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Rd., Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Wang, San-Yuan [The Metabolomics Group, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Rd., Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Fu, Wen-Mei [Department of Pharmacology, National Taiwan University, 11 F No. 1 Sec. 1, Ren-ai Rd., Taipei 10051, Taiwan (China); Kuo, Ching-Hua, E-mail: kuoch@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Pharmacy, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Jen-Ai Road, Section 1 Taipei 10051, Taiwan (China); The Metabolomics Group, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Center for Genomic Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10051, Taiwan (China); Tseng, Yufeng Jane, E-mail: kuoch@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Pharmacy, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Jen-Ai Road, Section 1 Taipei 10051, Taiwan (China); The Metabolomics Group, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Center for Genomic Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10051, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronic and Bioinformatics, National Taiwan University, Room 410 BL Building, No. 1, Roosevelt Road, Sec. 4, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Rd., Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2013-05-03

    Hypoxia affects the tumor microenvironment and is considered important to metastasis progression and therapy resistance. Thus far, the majority of global analyses of tumor hypoxia responses have been limited to just a single omics level. Combining multiple omics data can broaden our understanding of tumor hypoxia. Here, we investigate the temporal change of the metabolite composition with gene expression data from literature to provide a more comprehensive insight into the system level in response to hypoxia. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to perform metabolomic profiling on the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line under hypoxic conditions. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that the metabolic difference between hypoxia and normoxia was similar over 24 h, but became distinct over 48 h. Time dependent microarray data from the same cell line in the literature displayed different gene expressions under hypoxic and normoxic conditions mostly at 12 h or earlier. The direct metabolomic profiles show a large overlap with theoretical metabolic profiles deduced from previous transcriptomic studies. Consistent pathways are glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, pyruvate, purine and arginine and proline metabolism. Ten metabolic pathways revealed by metabolomics were not covered by the downstream of the known transcriptomic profiles, suggesting new metabolic phenotypes. These results confirm previous transcriptomics understanding and expand the knowledge from existing models on correlation and co-regulation between transcriptomic and metabolomics profiles, which demonstrates the power of integrated omics analysis.

  17. Metabolomic Dynamic Analysis of Hypoxia in MDA-MB-231 and the Comparison with Inferred Metabolites from Transcriptomics Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, I-Lin; Kuo, Tien-Chueh; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Harn, Yeu-Chern; Wang, San-Yuan; Fu, Wen-Mei; Kuo, Ching-Hua; Tseng, Yufeng Jane

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia affects the tumor microenvironment and is considered important to metastasis progression and therapy resistance. Thus far, the majority of global analyses of tumor hypoxia responses have been limited to just a single omics level. Combining multiple omics data can broaden our understanding of tumor hypoxia. Here, we investigate the temporal change of the metabolite composition with gene expression data from literature to provide a more comprehensive insight into the system level in response to hypoxia. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to perform metabolomic profiling on the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line under hypoxic conditions. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that the metabolic difference between hypoxia and normoxia was similar over 24 h, but became distinct over 48 h. Time dependent microarray data from the same cell line in the literature displayed different gene expressions under hypoxic and normoxic conditions mostly at 12 h or earlier. The direct metabolomic profiles show a large overlap with theoretical metabolic profiles deduced from previous transcriptomic studies. Consistent pathways are glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, pyruvate, purine and arginine and proline metabolism. Ten metabolic pathways revealed by metabolomics were not covered by the downstream of the known transcriptomic profiles, suggesting new metabolic phenotypes. These results confirm previous transcriptomics understanding and expand the knowledge from existing models on correlation and co-regulation between transcriptomic and metabolomics profiles, which demonstrates the power of integrated omics analysis

  18. Geophysical well logging operations and log analysis in Geothermal Well Desert Peak No. B-23-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethi, D.K.; Fertl, W.H.

    1980-03-01

    Geothermal Well Desert Peak No. B-23-1 was logged by Dresser Atlas during April/May 1979 to a total depth of 2939 m (9642 ft). A temperature of 209/sup 0/C (408/sup 0/F) was observed on the maximum thermometer run with one of the logging tools. Borehole tools rated to a maximum temperature of 204.4/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) were utilized for logging except for the Densilog tool, which was from the other set of borehole instruments, rated to a still higher temperature, i.e., 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F). The quality of the logs recorded and the environmental effects on the log response have been considered. The log response in the unusual lithologies of igneous and metamorphic formations encountered in this well could be correlated with the drill cutting data. An empirical, statistical log interpretation approach has made it possible to obtain meaningful information on the rocks penetrated. Various crossplots/histograms of the corrected log data have been generated on the computer. These are found to provide good resolution between the lithological units in the rock sequence. The crossplotting techniques and the statistical approach were combined with the drill cutting descriptions in order to arrive at the lithological characteristics. The results of log analysis and recommendations for logging of future wells have been included.

  19. Diagnostic Performance of Computed Tomography Colonography and Colonoscopy: A Prospective and Validated Analysis of 231 Paired Examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnesen, R.B.; Benzon, E. von; Adamsen, S.; Svendsen, L.B.; Raaschou, H.O.; Hart Hansen, O.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Detection of colorectal tumors with computed tomography colonography (CTC) is an alternative to conventional colonoscopy (CC), and clarification of the diagnostic performance is essential for cost-effective use of both technologies. Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of CTC compared with CC. Material and Methods: 231 consecutive CTCs were performed prior to same-day scheduled CC. The radiologist and endoscopists were blinded to each other's findings. Patients underwent a polyethylene glycol bowel preparation, and were scanned in prone and supine positions using a single-detector helical CT scanner and commercially available software for image analysis. Findings were validated (matched) in an unblinded comparison with video-recordings of the CCs and re-CCs in cases of doubt. Results: For patients with polyps 5 mm and 10 mm, the sensitivity was 69% (95% CI 58-80%) and 81% (68-94%), and the specificity was 91% (84-98%) and 98% (93-100%), respectively. For detection of polyps 5 mm and 10 mm, the sensitivity was 66% (57-75%) and 77% (65-89%). A flat, elevated low-grade carcinoma was missed by CTC. One cancer relapse was missed by CC, and a cecal cancer was missed by an incomplete CC and follow-up double-contrast barium enema. Conclusion: CC was superior to CTC and should remain first choice for the diagnosis of colorectal polyps. However, for diagnosis of lesions 10 mm, CTC and CC should be considered as complementary methods

  20. Th{sup 232} (n,2n) Th{sup 231} cross section from threshold to 20.4 Mev

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, J P; Santry, D C

    1961-07-01

    The excitation curve for the reaction Th{sup 232} (n,2n) Th{sup 231} has been measured by the activation method from the threshold energy, 6.34 Mev, to 20.4 Mev, relative to the known cross section for the S{sup 32} (n, p) P{sup 32} reaction. Monoenergetic neutrons were obtained from the D (d,n) He{sup 3} and T (d,n) He{sup 4} reactions employing a Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator. From threshold to 9.0 Mev, the (n,2n) cross section rises rapidly, reaching its maximum value of 1.88 {+-} 0.09 barns in the region of 9.5 to 11.0 Mev. Above 11.5 Mev the (n,2n) cross section decreases due to competition of the (n,3n) and (n,2nf) reactions and at 20.4 Mev it has a value of 0.22{sub 5} {+-} 0.01{sub 5} barns. (author)

  1. Fluvastatin mediated breast cancer cell death: a proteomic approach to identify differentially regulated proteins in MDA-MB-231 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anantha Koteswararao Kanugula

    Full Text Available Statins are increasingly being recognized as anti-cancer agents against various cancers including breast cancer. To understand the molecular pathways targeted by fluvastatin and its differential sensitivity against metastatic breast cancer cells, we analyzed protein alterations in MDA-MB-231 cells treated with fluvastatin using 2-DE in combination with LC-MS/MS. Results revealed dys-regulation of 39 protein spots corresponding to 35 different proteins. To determine the relevance of altered protein profiles with breast cancer cell death, we mapped these proteins to major pathways involved in the regulation of cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, cell cycle, Rho GDI and proteasomal pathways using IPA analysis. Highly interconnected sub networks showed that vimentin and ERK1/2 proteins play a central role in controlling the expression of altered proteins. Fluvastatin treatment caused proteolysis of vimentin, a marker of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. This effect of fluvastatin was reversed in the presence of mevalonate, a downstream product of HMG-CoA and caspase-3 inhibitor. Interestingly, fluvastatin neither caused an appreciable cell death nor did modulate vimentin expression in normal mammary epithelial cells. In conclusion, fluvastatin alters levels of cytoskeletal proteins, primarily targeting vimentin through increased caspase-3- mediated proteolysis, thereby suggesting a role for vimentin in statin-induced breast cancer cell death.

  2. Anti-proliferative effect of biogenic gold nanoparticles against breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 & MCF-7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. S., Uma Suganya; Govindaraju, K.; Ganesh Kumar, V.; Prabhu, D.; Arulvasu, C.; Stalin Dhas, T.; Karthick, V.; Changmai, Niranjan

    2016-05-01

    Breast cancer is a major complication in women and numerous approaches are being developed to overcome this problem. In conventional treatments such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy the post side effects cause an unsuitable effect in treatment of cancer. Hence, it is essential to develop a novel strategy for the treatment of this disease. In the present investigation, a possible route for green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using leaf extract of Mimosa pudica and its anticancer efficacy in the treatment of breast cancer cell lines is studied. The synthesized nanoparticles were found to be effective in killing cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 & MCF-7) which were studied using various anticancer assays (MTT assay, cell morphology determination, cell cycle analysis, comet assay, Annexin V-FITC/PI staining and DAPI staining). Cell morphological analysis showed the changes occurred in cancer cells during the treatment with AuNPs. Cell cycle analysis revealed apoptosis in G0/G1 to S phase. Similarly in Comet assay, there was an increase in tail length in treated cells in comparison with the control. Annexin V-FITC/PI staining assay showed prompt fluorescence in treated cells indicating the translocation of phosphatidylserine from the inner membrane. PI and DAPI staining showed the DNA damage in treated cells.

  3. Different Molecular Mechanisms Mediate Direct or Glia-Dependent Prion Protein Fragment 90-231 Neurotoxic Effects in Cerebellar Granule Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thellung, Stefano; Gatta, Elena; Pellistri, Francesca; Villa, Valentina; Corsaro, Alessandro; Nizzari, Mario; Robello, Mauro; Florio, Tullio

    2017-10-01

    Glia over-stimulation associates with amyloid deposition contributing to the progression of central nervous system neurodegenerative disorders. Here we analyze the molecular mechanisms mediating microglia-dependent neurotoxicity induced by prion protein (PrP)90-231, an amyloidogenic polypeptide corresponding to the protease-resistant portion of the pathological prion protein scrapie (PrP Sc ). PrP90-231 neurotoxicity is enhanced by the presence of microglia within neuronal culture, and associated to a rapid neuronal [Ca ++ ] i increase. Indeed, while in "pure" cerebellar granule neuron cultures, PrP90-231 causes a delayed intracellular Ca ++ entry mediated by the activation of NMDA receptors; when neuron and glia are co-cultured, a transient increase of [Ca ++ ] i occurs within seconds after treatment in both granule neurons and glial cells, then followed by a delayed and sustained [Ca ++ ] i raise, associated with the induction of the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and phagocytic NADPH oxidase. [Ca ++ ] i fast increase in neurons is dependent on the activation of multiple pathways since it is not only inhibited by the blockade of voltage-gated channel activity and NMDA receptors but also prevented by the inhibition of nitric oxide and PGE 2 release from glial cells. Thus, Ca ++ homeostasis alteration, directly induced by PrP90-231 in cerebellar granule cells, requires the activation of NMDA receptors, but is greatly enhanced by soluble molecules released by activated glia. In glia-enriched cerebellar granule cultures, the activation of inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) and NADPH oxidase represents the main mechanism of toxicity since their pharmacological inhibition prevented PrP90-231 neurotoxicity, whereas NMDA blockade by D(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid is ineffective; conversely, in pure cerebellar granule cultures, NMDA blockade but not iNOS inhibition strongly reduced PrP90-231 neurotoxicity. These data indicate that amyloidogenic peptides

  4. In vitro response of the human breast cancer cell line MDAMB-231 and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells exposed to 60Co at single fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lídia Maria Andrade

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Radiotherapy using gamma rays is a common modality of breast cancer treatment. The aim of this research is to investigate the biological response of the human breast cancer cell line MDAMB-231 and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC exposed in vitro to 60 Co irradiation at a single fraction of 10 Gy, 25 Gy and 50 Gy doses at 136,4 cGy.min-1 rate. Cells were irradiated at room temperature by the Theratron 80 radiotherapy system. Biological response was evaluated through cellular viability using MTT assay and nucleus damages visualized by Propidium Iodide assay and electrophoresis agarose gel after gamma irradiation. Nucleus damages induced by 60Co irradiation were compared to damage caused by cell exposure to 10% methanol. The 50 Gy dose of irradiation did not stimulate nuclus damages at the same level as that affected by 10% methanol induction in the MDAMB-231. Further studies are necessary to understand these mechanisms in the MDAMB-231 human breast carcinoma cell line.Radioterapia utilizando radiação gama é uma modalidade comum no tratamento do câncer de mama. A proposta deste estudo é investigar a resposta biológica in vitro da linhagem celular MDAMB-231 de câncer de mama humano e células do sangue periférico humano (PBMC expostas à irradiação pelo Co60 em frações simples de 10Gy, 25Gy e 50Gy e 136,4cGy min-1 rate. As células foram irradiadas a temperatura ambiente usando o equipamento de radioterapia Theratron 80 radiotherapy system. A resposta biológica, após irradiação gama, foi avaliada através do ensaio do MTT para viabilidade celular e o do ensaio com Iodeto de Propídio para visualização do dano nuclear, além da eletroforese em gel de agarose. Os danos nucleares induzidos pelo Co60 foram comparados aos danos causados pela exposição das células à solução de metanol a 10%. Nós observamos que a dose de 50Gy não estimulou a mesma quantidade de danos nucleares que a solução de metanol a 10% nas c

  5. An in vitro evaluation of graphene oxide reduced by Ganoderma spp. in human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Han, Jaewoong; Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jin Hoi

    2014-01-01

    Recently, graphene and graphene-related materials have attracted much attention due their unique properties, such as their physical, chemical, and biocompatibility properties. This study aimed to determine the cytotoxic effects of graphene oxide (GO) that is reduced biologically using Ganoderma spp. mushroom extracts in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Herein, we describe a facile and green method for the reduction of GO using extracts of Ganoderma spp. as a reducing agent. GO was reduced without any hazardous chemicals in an aqueous solution, and the reduced GO was characterized using a range of analytical procedures. The Ganoderma extract (GE)-reduced GO (GE-rGO) was characterized by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Furthermore, the toxicity of GE-rGO was evaluated using a sequence of assays such as cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase leakage, and reactive oxygen species generation in human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231). The preliminary characterization of reduction of GO was confirmed by the red-shifting of the absorption peak for GE-rGO to 265 nm from 230 nm. The size of GO and GE-rGO was found to be 1,880 and 3,200 nm, respectively. X-ray diffraction results confirmed that reduction processes of GO and the processes of removing intercalated water molecules and the oxide groups. The surface functionalities and chemical natures of GO and GE-rGO were confirmed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The surface morphologies of the synthesized graphene were analyzed using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. Raman spectroscopy revealed single- and multilayer properties of GE-rGO. Atomic force microscopy images provided evidence for the formation of graphene. Furthermore, the effect of GO and GE

  6. An in vitro evaluation of graphene oxide reduced by Ganoderma spp. in human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurunathan S

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sangiliyandi Gurunathan,1,2 JaeWoong Han,1 Jung Hyun Park,1 Jin Hoi Kim1 1Department of Animal Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul, South Korea; 2GS Institute of Bio and Nanotechnology, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India Background: Recently, graphene and graphene-related materials have attracted much attention due their unique properties, such as their physical, chemical, and biocompatibility properties. This study aimed to determine the cytotoxic effects of graphene oxide (GO that is reduced biologically using Ganoderma spp. mushroom extracts in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Methods: Herein, we describe a facile and green method for the reduction of GO using extracts of Ganoderma spp. as a reducing agent. GO was reduced without any hazardous chemicals in an aqueous solution, and the reduced GO was characterized using a range of analytical procedures. The Ganoderma extract (GE-reduced GO (GE-rGO was characterized by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Furthermore, the toxicity of GE-rGO was evaluated using a sequence of assays such as cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase leakage, and reactive oxygen species generation in human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231. Results: The preliminary characterization of reduction of GO was confirmed by the red-shifting of the absorption peak for GE-rGO to 265 nm from 230 nm. The size of GO and GE-rGO was found to be 1,880 and 3,200 nm, respectively. X-ray diffraction results confirmed that reduction processes of GO and the processes of removing intercalated water molecules and the oxide groups. The surface functionalities and chemical natures of GO and GE-rGO were confirmed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The surface morphologies of the synthesized

  7. ESTRATÉGIAS DE RESPONSABILIDADE SOCIAL CORPORATIVA: UM ESTUDO SOBRE OS 231 CASOS CONCRETOS DO INSTITUTO ETHOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciara Maria de Oliveira

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumo
    Um perfil das estratégias de Responsabilidade Social Corporativa adotadas por empresas no Brasil é o objetivo
    principal deste trabalho. Utilizou-se como universo de estudo os 231 Casos Concretos preenchidos
    espontaneamente pelas empresas filiadas na página web do Instituto Ethos de Empresa e Responsabilidade
    Social (Instituto Ethos. Os casos foram analisados pelo software alemão de análise de dados qualitativos
    denominado Atlas.ti 5.0, sob o enfoque metodológico das seis variáveis adotadas por Kotler e Lee (2005 em
    Corporate Social Responsability: doing the most good for your company and your cause, como estratégias para
    alcançar-se a Responsabilidade Social Corporativa. As estratégias analisadas são: Marketing Social
    Corporativo, Marketing de Causa Social, Patrocínio, Filantropia Estratégica, Voluntariado Corporativo e Ação
    Social Responsável. Percebe-se que a maioria das empresas que divulgaram suas estratégias de
    Responsabilidade Social ainda não tem a percepção plena da utilização dessas estratégias, haja vista que a
    grande maioria ainda está classificada com Ação Social Responsável, vindo em seguida o Marketing Social
    Corporativo, Filantropia Estratégica, Voluntariado Corporativo, Patrocínio e Marketing de Causa Social
    Palavras-chave: Estratégias. Marketing. Responsabilidade Social Corporativa.


    Abstract
    A profile of the strategies of Corporate Social Responsibility adopted by companies in Brazil is the main objective
    of this work. It was used as study universe the 231 Concrete Cases filled of spontaneous form for the
    companies registered in the web page of the Ethos Institute of Company and Social Responsibility (Ethos
    Institute. The cases had been analyzed by the German software of analysis of qualitative data called Atlas.ti
    5.0, under the

  8. An in vitro evaluation of graphene oxide reduced by Ganoderma spp. in human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Han, JaeWoong; Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jin Hoi

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, graphene and graphene-related materials have attracted much attention due their unique properties, such as their physical, chemical, and biocompatibility properties. This study aimed to determine the cytotoxic effects of graphene oxide (GO) that is reduced biologically using Ganoderma spp. mushroom extracts in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Methods Herein, we describe a facile and green method for the reduction of GO using extracts of Ganoderma spp. as a reducing agent. GO was reduced without any hazardous chemicals in an aqueous solution, and the reduced GO was characterized using a range of analytical procedures. The Ganoderma extract (GE)-reduced GO (GE-rGO) was characterized by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Furthermore, the toxicity of GE-rGO was evaluated using a sequence of assays such as cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase leakage, and reactive oxygen species generation in human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231). Results The preliminary characterization of reduction of GO was confirmed by the red-shifting of the absorption peak for GE-rGO to 265 nm from 230 nm. The size of GO and GE-rGO was found to be 1,880 and 3,200 nm, respectively. X-ray diffraction results confirmed that reduction processes of GO and the processes of removing intercalated water molecules and the oxide groups. The surface functionalities and chemical natures of GO and GE-rGO were confirmed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The surface morphologies of the synthesized graphene were analyzed using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. Raman spectroscopy revealed single- and multilayer properties of GE-rGO. Atomic force microscopy images provided evidence for the formation of graphene

  9. Mitochondrial calcium uniporter silencing potentiates caspase-independent cell death in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curry, Merril C.; Peters, Amelia A. [School of Pharmacy, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Kenny, Paraic A. [Department of Developmental and Molecular Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461 (United States); Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J. [School of Pharmacy, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Monteith, Gregory R., E-mail: gregm@uq.edu.au [School of Pharmacy, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia)

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •Some clinical breast cancers are associated with MCU overexpression. •MCU silencing did not alter cell death initiated with the Bcl-2 inhibitor ABT-263. •MCU silencing potentiated caspase-independent cell death initiated by ionomycin. •MCU silencing promoted ionomycin-mediated cell death without changes in bulk Ca{sup 2+}. -- Abstract: The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) transports free ionic Ca{sup 2+} into the mitochondrial matrix. We assessed MCU expression in clinical breast cancer samples using microarray analysis and the consequences of MCU silencing in a breast cancer cell line. Our results indicate that estrogen receptor negative and basal-like breast cancers are characterized by elevated levels of MCU. Silencing of MCU expression in the basal-like MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line produced no change in proliferation or cell viability. However, distinct consequences of MCU silencing were seen on cell death pathways. Caspase-dependent cell death initiated by the Bcl-2 inhibitor ABT-263 was not altered by MCU silencing; whereas caspase-independent cell death induced by the calcium ionophore ionomycin was potentiated by MCU silencing. Measurement of cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} levels showed that the promotion of ionomycin-induced cell death by MCU silencing occurs independently of changes in bulk cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} levels. This study demonstrates that MCU overexpression is a feature of some breast cancers and that MCU overexpression may offer a survival advantage against some cell death pathways. MCU inhibitors may be a strategy to increase the effectiveness of therapies that act through the induction of caspase-independent cell death pathways in estrogen receptor negative and basal-like breast cancers.

  10. K2-231 b: A Sub-Neptune Exoplanet Transiting a Solar Twin in Ruprecht 147

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Jason Lee; Vanderburg, Andrew; Torres, Guillermo; Kraus, Adam L.; Huber, Daniel; Mann, Andrew W.; Rizzuto, Aaron C.; Isaacson, Howard; Howard, Andrew W.; Henze, Christopher E.; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Wright, Jason T.

    2018-04-01

    We identify a sub-Neptune exoplanet (R p = 2.5 ± 0.2 {R}\\oplus ) transiting a solar twin in the Ruprecht 147 star cluster (3 Gyr, 300 pc, [Fe/H] = +0.1 dex). The ∼81 day light curve for EPIC 219800881 (V = 12.71) from K2 Campaign 7 shows six transits with a period of 13.84 days, a depth of ∼0.06%, and a duration of ∼4 hr. Based on our analysis of high-resolution MIKE spectra, broadband optical and NIR photometry, the cluster parallax and interstellar reddening, and isochrone models from PARSEC, Dartmouth, and MIST, we estimate the following properties for the host star: M ⋆ = 1.01 ± 0.03 {M}ȯ , R ⋆ = 0.95 ± 0.03 {R}ȯ , and {T}{{eff}} = 5695 ± 50 K. This star appears to be single based on our modeling of the photometry, the low radial velocity (RV) variability measured over nearly 10 yr, and Keck/NIRC2 adaptive optics imaging and aperture-masking interferometry. Applying a probabilistic mass–radius relation, we estimate that the mass of this planet is M p = 7 + 5 – 3 {M}\\oplus , which would cause an RV semi-amplitude of K = 2 ± 1 {\\text{m s}}-1 that may be measurable with existing precise RV facilities. After statistically validating this planet with BLENDER, we now designate it K2-231b, making it the second substellar object to be discovered in Ruprecht 147 and the first planet; it joins the small but growing ranks of 22 other planets and three candidates found in open clusters.

  11. The significance of lead-210, polonium-210 and protactinium-231 in emissions from coal-fired power stations: a comparison with natural environmental sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, J.O.

    1981-04-01

    Recently published calculations have suggested that a hypothetical individual may receive an effective radiation dose equivalent of 23 mrem/y from coal-fired power station emissions through the ingestion of lead-210, polonium-210 and protactinium-231. It is shown that the model used in those calculations is over-pessimistic by one or two orders of magnitude when applied to the deposition of Pb-210 and Po-210 derived from the decay of radon naturally present in the atmosphere. A more recent assessment of metabolic data for Pa-231 suggests that estimated doses from this nuclide also can be reduced by about a factor of twenty. It is concluded that the maximum effective dose equivalent from power station emissions probably does not exceed 1-2 mrem/y. (author)

  12. Identification of Novel Human Breast Carcinoma (MDA-MB-231) Cell Growth Modulators from a Carbohydrate-Based Diversity Oriented Synthesis Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenci, Elena; Innocenti, Riccardo; Biagioni, Alessio; Menchi, Gloria; Bianchini, Francesca; Trabocchi, Andrea

    2016-10-20

    The application of a cell-based growth inhibition on a library of skeletally different glycomimetics allowed for the selection of a hexahydro-2 H -furo[3,2- b ][1,4]oxazine compound as candidate inhibitors of MDA-MB-231 cell growth. Subsequent synthesis of analogue compounds and preliminary biological studies validated the selection of a valuable hit compound with a novel polyhydroxylated structure for the modulation of the breast carcinoma cell cycle mechanism.

  13. Identification of Novel Human Breast Carcinoma (MDA-MB-231 Cell Growth Modulators from a Carbohydrate-Based Diversity Oriented Synthesis Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Lenci

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The application of a cell-based growth inhibition on a library of skeletally different glycomimetics allowed for the selection of a hexahydro-2H-furo[3,2-b][1,4]oxazine compound as candidate inhibitors of MDA-MB-231 cell growth. Subsequent synthesis of analogue compounds and preliminary biological studies validated the selection of a valuable hit compound with a novel polyhydroxylated structure for the modulation of the breast carcinoma cell cycle mechanism.

  14. G-231A and G+70C polymorphisms of endothelin receptor type-A gene could affect the psoriasis area and severity index score and endothelin 1 levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Okan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The etiopathogenesis of psoriasis has not been clearly elucidated although the role of chronic inflammation, imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and many immunological events have been established. Endothelin 1 (EDN1 and endothelin receptor type-A (EDNRA are implicated in the inflammatory process. The relationships between EDN1 and EDNRA polymorphisms with several diseases have been found. Aims and Objectives: This study examined the possible association of EDN1 (G5665T and T-1370G and EDNRA (G-231A and G + 70C single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs with the occurence of psoriasis, and evaluated the relationship between genotypes and clinical/laboratory manifestation of psoriasis. Materials and Methods: We analyzed genotype and allele distributions of the above-mentioned polymorphisms in 151 patients with psoriasis and 152 healthy controls by real-time PCR combined with melting curve analysis. Results: We did not find significant differences in the genotype and allele distributions of EDN1 T-1370G, EDNRA G-231A, and EDNRA G+70C polymorphisms between patients with psoriasis and healthy controls. Psoriasis area and severity index (PASI score of EDNRA -231 polymorphic A allele carrying subjects (AA and AA + AG was higher than that of wild homozygotes (P = 0.044 and P = 0.027, respectively. In addition, EDN1 levels in EDNRA+70 polymorphic C allele carriers (CC + CG were elevated when compared with GG genotype; however, the difference was at borderline significance (P = 0.05. Conclusion: Although there were no associations between studied polymorphisms and psoriasis susceptibility, the PASI score and EDN1 levels seem to be affected by EDNRA G-231A and G + 70C polymorphisms.

  15. Comparing Apoptosis and Necrosis Effects of Arctium Lappa Root Extract and Doxorubicin on MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Ghafari, Fereshteh; Rajabi, Mohammad Reza; Mazoochi, Tahereh; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Nikzad, Hossein; Atlasi, Mohammad Ali; Taherian, Aliakbar

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease and very common malignancy in women worldwide. The efficacy of chemotherapy as an important part of breast cancer treatment is limited due to its side effects. While pharmaceutical companies are looking for better chemicals, research on traditional medicines that generally have fewer side effects is quite interesting. In this study, apoptosis and necrosis effect of Arctium lappa and doxorubicin was compared in MCF7, and MDA-MB-231 cell lines...

  16. Effects of exosomes derived from MDA-MB-231 on proliferation of endothelial cells and the role of MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang LONG

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the effects of exosomes derived from breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 on proliferation of human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, and evaluate the role of MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt signal transduction pathway during the process. Methods  Exosomes were derived and purified from MDA-MB-231 by cryogenic ultracentrifugation and density gradient centrifugation. MTT assay was carried out for measurement of cell proliferation in HUVECs with exosome of 50, 100, 200 and 400μg/ml. The states of cell cycle of HUVECs co-cultured with 200μg/ml exosomes were detected by flow cytometry. The effects of 200μg/ml exosomes on the expression of ERK, Akt and phosphorylated ERK, Akt in HUVECs were detected with Western blotting. Results  Exosomes derived from MDA-MB-231 significantly promoted HUVECs proliferation in a classical time-and dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry revealed that, co-cultured with 200μg/ml exosomes for 24h, S-phase cells in HUVECs increased, while G1/S phase cells in HUVECs decreased. Western blotting showed that, cocultured with 200μg/ml exosomes for 24h, 48h and 72h, the expressions of phosphorylated ERK and Akt were up-regulated in a time-dependent manner. Conclusion  Exosomes derived from breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 may promote HUVECs proliferation, the changes in cell cycle and the continuous activation of the MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt signal transduction pathways may be the underlying mechanism.

  17. High resolution measurement of the 231Pa(n,f) cross section from 0.4 eV to 12 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plattard, S.; Auchampaugh, G.F.; de Saussure, G.

    1980-01-01

    The 231 Pa(n,f) reaction was studied to shed light on the existence of a shallow third minimum in the 232 Pa fission barrier. Results are plotted along with data points derived from ENDF/B-V. The occurrence of a pure vibrational state at E/sub n/ = 156.7 keV (3 + ) together with a nearby state of opposite parity favors the evidence for a third asymmetrically deformed minimum in the 232 Pa fission barrier. 2 figures

  18. Consequences of the natural retinoid/retinoid X receptor ligands action in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell line: Focus on functional proteomics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flodrová, Dana; Toporová, L.; Laštovičková, Markéta; Macejová, D.; Hunaková, L.; Brtko, J.; Bobálová, Janette

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 281, NOV (2017), s. 26-34 ISSN 0378-4274 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-15479S Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) SAV-15-01 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : breast cancer * MDA-MB-231 * biomarker * retinoids Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 3.858, year: 2016

  19. 49 CFR 231.24 - Box and other house cars with roofs, 16 feet 10 inches or more above top of rail. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Box and other house cars with roofs, 16 feet 10... APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.24 Box and other house cars with roofs, 16 feet 10 inches or more above top of.... Same as specified for “Box and Other House Cars.” (2) Dimensions. Same as specified for “Box and Other...

  20. A Breast Cell Atlas: Organelle analysis of the MDA-MB-231 cell line by density-gradient fractionation using isotopic marking and label-free analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Sandin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Protein translocation between organelles in the cell is an important process that regulates many cellular functions. However, organelles can rarely be isolated to purity so several methods have been developed to analyse the fractions obtained by density gradient centrifugation. We present an analysis of the distribution of proteins amongst organelles in the human breast cell line, MDA-MB-231 using two approaches: an isotopic labelling and a label-free approach.

  1. Prenatal diagnosis of two fetuses with deletions of 8p23.1, critical region for congenital diaphragmatic hernia and heart defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitges, Elisabeth A; Pasion, Romela; Burnside, Rachel D; Mason, Carla; Gonzalez-Ruiz, Antonio; Dunn, Teresa; Masiello, Meredith; Gebbia, Joseph A; Fernandez, Carlos O; Risheg, Hiba

    2013-07-01

    Microdeletions of 8p23.1 are mediated by low copy repeats and can cause congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and cardiac defects. Within this region, point mutations of the GATA4 gene have been shown to cause cardiac defects. However, the cause of CDH in these deletions has been difficult to determine due to the paucity of mutations that result in CDH, the lack of smaller deletions to refine the region and the reduced penetrance of CDH in these large deletions. Mice deficient for one copy of the Gata4 gene have been described with CDH and heart defects suggesting mutations in Gata4 can cause the phenotype in mice. We report on the SNP microarray analysis on two fetuses with deletions of 8p23.1. The first had CDH and a ventricular septal defect (VSD) on ultrasonography and a family history of a maternal VSD. Microarray analysis detected a 127-kb deletion which included the GATA4 and NEIL2 genes which was inherited from the mother. The second fetus had an incomplete atrioventricular canal defect on ultrasonography. Microarray analysis showed a 315-kb deletion that included seven genes, GATA4, NEIL2, FDFT1, CTSB, DEFB136, DEFB135, and DEFB134. These results suggest that haploinsufficiency of the two genes in common within 8p23.1; GATA4 and NEIL2 can cause CDH and cardiac defects in humans. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Rapid dimerization of quercetin through an oxidative mechanism in the presence of serum albumin decreases its ability to induce cytotoxicity in MDA-MB-231 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, Anh; Bortolazzo, Anthony; White, J. Brandon

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Quercetin cannot be detected intracellularly despite killing MDA-MB-231 cells. ► Quercetin forms a heterodimer through oxidation in media with serum. ► The quercetin heterodimer does not kill MDA-MB-231 cells. ► Ascorbic acid stabilizes quercetin increasing cell death in quercetin treated cells. ► Quercetin, and not a modified form, is responsible for apoptosis and cell death. -- Abstract: Quercetin is a member of the flavonoid family and has been previously shown to have a variety of anti-cancer activities. We and others have reported anti-proliferation, cell cycle arrest, and induction of apoptosis of cancer cells after treatment with quercetin. Quercetin has also been shown to undergo oxidation. However, it is unclear if quercetin or one of its oxidized forms is responsible for cell death. Here we report that quercetin rapidly oxidized in cell culture media to form a dimer. The quercetin dimer is identical to a dimer that is naturally produced by onions. The quercetin dimer and quercetin-3-O-glucopyranoside are unable to cross the cell membrane and do not kill MDA-MB-231 cells. Finally, supplementing the media with ascorbic acid increases quercetin’s ability to induce cell death probably by reduction oxidative dimerization. Our results suggest that an unmodified quercetin is the compound that elicits cell death.

  3. Enhancement of viability of radiosensitive (PBMC and resistant (MDA-MB-231 clones in low-dose-rate cobalt-60 radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Lima Falcão

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: In the present study, the authors investigated the in vitro behavior of radio-resistant breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB-231 cells line and radiosensitive peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, as a function of different radiation doses, dose rates and postirradiation time kinetics, with a view to the interest of clinical radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: The cells were irradiated with Co-60, at 2 and 10 Gy and two different exposure rates, 339.56 cGy.min–1 and the other corresponding to one fourth of the standard dose rates, present over a 10-year period of cobalt therapy. Post-irradiation sampling was performed at pre-established kinetics of 24, 48 and 72 hours. The optical density response in viability assay was evaluated and a morphological analysis was performed. Results: Radiosensitive PBMC showed decrease in viability at 2 Gy, and a more significant decrease at 10 Gy for both dose rates. MDAMB- 231 cells presented viability decrease only at higher dose and dose rate. The results showed MDA-MB-231 clone expansion at low dose rate after 48–72 hours post-radiation. Conclusion: Low dose rate shows a possible potential clinical impact involving decrease in management of radio-resistant and radiosensitive tumor cell lines in cobalt therapy for breast cancer.

  4. Rapid dimerization of quercetin through an oxidative mechanism in the presence of serum albumin decreases its ability to induce cytotoxicity in MDA-MB-231 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Anh; Bortolazzo, Anthony [Department of Biological Sciences, San Jose State University, San Jose, CA 95192-0100 (United States); White, J. Brandon, E-mail: Brandon.White@sjsu.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, San Jose State University, San Jose, CA 95192-0100 (United States)

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quercetin cannot be detected intracellularly despite killing MDA-MB-231 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quercetin forms a heterodimer through oxidation in media with serum. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The quercetin heterodimer does not kill MDA-MB-231 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ascorbic acid stabilizes quercetin increasing cell death in quercetin treated cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quercetin, and not a modified form, is responsible for apoptosis and cell death. -- Abstract: Quercetin is a member of the flavonoid family and has been previously shown to have a variety of anti-cancer activities. We and others have reported anti-proliferation, cell cycle arrest, and induction of apoptosis of cancer cells after treatment with quercetin. Quercetin has also been shown to undergo oxidation. However, it is unclear if quercetin or one of its oxidized forms is responsible for cell death. Here we report that quercetin rapidly oxidized in cell culture media to form a dimer. The quercetin dimer is identical to a dimer that is naturally produced by onions. The quercetin dimer and quercetin-3-O-glucopyranoside are unable to cross the cell membrane and do not kill MDA-MB-231 cells. Finally, supplementing the media with ascorbic acid increases quercetin's ability to induce cell death probably by reduction oxidative dimerization. Our results suggest that an unmodified quercetin is the compound that elicits cell death.

  5. Proanthocyanidins from Uncaria rhynchophylla induced apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells while enhancing cytotoxic effects of 5-fluorouracil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Xin; Leung, George Pak-Heng; Zhang, Zhang-Jin; Xiao, Jian-Bo; Lao, Li-Xing; Feng, Feng; Mak, Judith Choi-Wo; Wang, Ying; Sze, Stephen Cho-Wing; Zhang, Kalin Yan-Bo

    2017-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Current treatments often result in systematic toxicity and drug resistance. Combinational use of non-toxic phytochemicals with chemotherapeutic agents to enhance the efficacy and reduce toxicity would be one promising approach. In this study, bioactive proanthocyanidins from Uncaria rhynchophylla (UPAs) were isolated and their anti-breast cancer effects alone and in combination with 5- fluorouracil (5-FU) were investigated in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. The results showed that UPAs significantly inhibited cell viability and migration ability in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, UPAs induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner which was associated with increased cellular reactive oxygen species production, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, increases of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and levels of cleaved caspase 3. Treatments of the cells with UPAs resulted in an increase in G2/M cell cycle arrest. Cytotoxic effects of 5-FU against MDA-MB-231 cells were enhanced by UPAs. The combination treatment of UPAs and 5-FU for 48 h elicited a synergistic cytotoxic effect on MDA-MB-231 cells. Altogether, these data suggest that UPAs are potential therapeutic agents for breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. In vitro response of the human breast cancer cell line MDAMB-231 and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells exposed to 60Co at single fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Lidia Maria; Campos, Tarcisio Passos Ribeiro de; Leite, M.F.; Goes, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Radiotherapy using gamma rays is a common modality of breast cancer treatment. The aim of this research is to investigate the biological response of the human breast cancer cell line MDAMB-231 and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) exposed in vitro to 60 Co irradiation at a single fraction of 10 Gy, 25 Gy and 50 Gy doses at 136,4 cGy.min -1 rate. Cells were irradiated at room temperature by the Theratron 80 radiotherapy system. Biological response was evaluated through cellular viability using MTT assay and nucleus damages visualized by Propidium Iodide assay and electrophoresis agarose gel after gamma irradiation. Nucleus damages induced by 60 Co irradiation were compared to damage caused by cell exposure to 10% methanol. The 50 Gy dose of irradiation did not stimulate nucleus damages at the same level as that affected by 10% methanol induction in the MDAMB-231. Further studies are necessary to understand these mechanisms in the MDAMB-231 human breast carcinoma cell line.(author)

  7. In vitro response of the human breast cancer cell line MDAMB-231 and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells exposed to {sup 60}Co at single fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Lidia Maria; Campos, Tarcisio Passos Ribeiro de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mail: lidia.andrade@unifenas.br; Leite, M.F. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fisiologia e Biofisica; Goes, A.M. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia

    2005-10-15

    Radiotherapy using gamma rays is a common modality of breast cancer treatment. The aim of this research is to investigate the biological response of the human breast cancer cell line MDAMB-231 and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) exposed in vitro to {sup 60} Co irradiation at a single fraction of 10 Gy, 25 Gy and 50 Gy doses at 136,4 cGy.min{sup -1} rate. Cells were irradiated at room temperature by the Theratron 80 radiotherapy system. Biological response was evaluated through cellular viability using MTT assay and nucleus damages visualized by Propidium Iodide assay and electrophoresis agarose gel after gamma irradiation. Nucleus damages induced by {sup 60} Co irradiation were compared to damage caused by cell exposure to 10% methanol. The 50 Gy dose of irradiation did not stimulate nucleus damages at the same level as that affected by 10% methanol induction in the MDAMB-231. Further studies are necessary to understand these mechanisms in the MDAMB-231 human breast carcinoma cell line.(author)

  8. Hyperglycemia regulates thioredoxin-ROS activity through induction of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) in metastatic breast cancer-derived cells MDA-MB-231

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turturro, Francesco; Friday, Ellen; Welbourne, Tomas

    2007-01-01

    We studied the RNA expression of the genes in response to glucose from 5 mM (condition of normoglycemia) to 20 mM (condition of hyperglycemia/diabetes) by microarray analysis in breast cancer derived cell line MDA-MB-231. We identified the thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), whose RNA level increased as a gene product particularly sensitive to the variation of the level of glucose in culture media. We investigated the kinesis of the TXNIP RNA and protein in response to glucose and the relationship between this protein and the related thioredoxin (TRX) in regulating the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in MDA-MB-231 cells. MDA-MB-231 cells were grown either in 5 or 20 mM glucose chronically prior to plating. For glucose shift (5/20), cells were plated in 5 mM glucose and shifted to 20 mM at time 0. Cells were analyzed with Affymetrix Human U133A microarray chip and gene expression profile was obtained. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot was used to validate the expression of TXNIP RNA and protein in response to glucose, respectively. ROS were detected by CM-H2DCFDA (5–6-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate) and measured for mean fluorescence intensity with flow cytometry. TRX activity was assayed by the insulin disulfide reducing assay. We found that the regulation of TXNIP gene expression by glucose in MDA-MB-231 cells occurs rapidly within 6 h of its increased level (20 mM glucose) and persists through the duration of the conditions of hyperglycemia. The increased level of TXNIP RNA is followed by increased level of protein that is associated with increasing levels of ROS and reduced TRX activity. The inhibition of the glucose transporter GLUT1 by phloretin notably reduces TXNIP RNA level and the inhibition of the p38 MAP kinase activity by SB203580 reverses the effects of TXNIP on ROS-TRX activity. In this study we show that TXNIP is an oxidative stress responsive gene and its expression is exquisitely regulated by

  9. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor activates GTPase RhoA and inhibits cell invasion in the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Rojas, Arturo; Huerta-Reyes, Maira; Maya-Núñez, Guadalupe; Arechavaleta-Velásco, Fabián; Conn, P Michael; Ulloa-Aguirre, Alfredo; Valdés, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and its receptor (GnRHR) are both expressed by a number of malignant tumors, including those of the breast. In the latter, both behave as potent inhibitors of invasion. Nevertheless, the signaling pathways whereby the activated GnRH/GnRHR system exerts this effect have not been clearly established. In this study, we provide experimental evidence that describes components of the mechanism(s) whereby GnRH inhibits breast cancer cell invasion. Actin polymerization and substrate adhesion was measured in the highly invasive cell line, MDA-MB-231 transiently expressing the wild-type or mutant DesK191 GnRHR by fluorometry, flow cytometric analysis, and confocal microscopy, in the absence or presence of GnRH agonist. The effect of RhoA-GTP on stress fiber formation and focal adhesion assembly was measured in MDA-MB-231 cells co-expressing the GnRHRs and the GAP domain of human p190Rho GAP-A or the dominant negative mutant GAP-Y1284D. Cell invasion was determined by the transwell migration assay. Agonist-stimulated activation of the wild-type GnRHR and the highly plasma membrane expressed mutant GnRHR-DesK191 transiently transfected to MDA-MB-231 cells, favored F-actin polymerization and substrate adhesion. Confocal imaging allowed detection of an association between F-actin levels and the increase in stress fibers promoted by exposure to GnRH. Pull-down assays showed that the effects observed on actin cytoskeleton resulted from GnRH-stimulated activation of RhoA GTPase. Activation of this small G protein favored the marked increase in both cell adhesion to Collagen-I and number of focal adhesion complexes leading to inhibition of the invasion capacity of MDA-MB-231 cells as disclosed by assays in Transwell Chambers. We here show that GnRH inhibits invasion of highly invasive breast cancer-derived MDA-MB-231 cells. This effect is mediated through an increase in substrate adhesion promoted by activation of RhoA GTPase and formation of

  10. Hyperglycemia regulates thioredoxin-ROS activity through induction of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP in metastatic breast cancer-derived cells MDA-MB-231

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friday Ellen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We studied the RNA expression of the genes in response to glucose from 5 mM (condition of normoglycemia to 20 mM (condition of hyperglycemia/diabetes by microarray analysis in breast cancer derived cell line MDA-MB-231. We identified the thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP, whose RNA level increased as a gene product particularly sensitive to the variation of the level of glucose in culture media. We investigated the kinesis of the TXNIP RNA and protein in response to glucose and the relationship between this protein and the related thioredoxin (TRX in regulating the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS in MDA-MB-231 cells. Methods MDA-MB-231 cells were grown either in 5 or 20 mM glucose chronically prior to plating. For glucose shift (5/20, cells were plated in 5 mM glucose and shifted to 20 mM at time 0. Cells were analyzed with Affymetrix Human U133A microarray chip and gene expression profile was obtained. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot was used to validate the expression of TXNIP RNA and protein in response to glucose, respectively. ROS were detected by CM-H2DCFDA (5–6-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and measured for mean fluorescence intensity with flow cytometry. TRX activity was assayed by the insulin disulfide reducing assay. Results We found that the regulation of TXNIP gene expression by glucose in MDA-MB-231 cells occurs rapidly within 6 h of its increased level (20 mM glucose and persists through the duration of the conditions of hyperglycemia. The increased level of TXNIP RNA is followed by increased level of protein that is associated with increasing levels of ROS and reduced TRX activity. The inhibition of the glucose transporter GLUT1 by phloretin notably reduces TXNIP RNA level and the inhibition of the p38 MAP kinase activity by SB203580 reverses the effects of TXNIP on ROS-TRX activity. Conclusion In this study we show that TXNIP is an oxidative stress responsive

  11. Calcium binding promotes prion protein fragment 90-231 conformational change toward a membrane destabilizing and cytotoxic structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacha Sorrentino

    Full Text Available The pathological form of prion protein (PrP(Sc, as other amyloidogenic proteins, causes a marked increase of membrane permeability. PrP(Sc extracted from infected Syrian hamster brains induces a considerable change in membrane ionic conductance, although the contribution of this interaction to the molecular mechanism of neurodegeneration process is still controversial. We previously showed that the human PrP fragment 90-231 (hPrP₉₀₋₂₃₁ increases ionic conductance across artificial lipid bilayer, in a calcium-dependent manner, producing an alteration similar to that observed for PrP(Sc. In the present study we demonstrate that hPrP₉₀₋₂₃₁, pre-incubated with 10 mM Ca⁺⁺ and then re-suspended in physiological external solution increases not only membrane conductance but neurotoxicity as well. Furthermore we show the existence of a direct link between these two effects as demonstrated by a highly statistically significant correlation in several experimental conditions. A similar correlation between increased membrane conductance and cell degeneration has been observed assaying hPrP₉₀₋₂₃₁ bearing pathogenic mutations (D202N and E200K. We also report that Ca⁺⁺ binding to hPrP₉₀₋₂₃₁ induces a conformational change based on an alteration of secondary structure characterized by loss of alpha-helix content causing hydrophobic amino acid exposure and proteinase K resistance. These features, either acquired after controlled thermal denaturation or induced by D202N and E200K mutations were previously identified as responsible for hPrP₉₀₋₂₃₁ cytotoxicity. Finally, by in silico structural analysis, we propose that Ca⁺⁺ binding to hPrP₉₀₋₂₃₁ modifies amino acid orientation, in the same way induced by E200K mutation, thus suggesting a pathway for the structural alterations responsible of PrP neurotoxicity.

  12. Withaferin A Induces ROS-Mediated Paraptosis in Human Breast Cancer Cell-Lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamalini Ghosh

    Full Text Available Advancement in cancer therapy requires a better understanding of the detailed mechanisms that induce death in cancer cells. Besides apoptosis, themode of other types of cell death has been increasingly recognized in response to therapy. Paraptosis is a non-apoptotic alternative form of programmed cell death, morphologically distinct from apoptosis and autophagy. In the present study, Withaferin-A (WA induced hyperpolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and formation of many cytoplasmic vesicles. This was due to progressive swelling and fusion of mitochondria and dilation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER, forming large vacuolar structures that eventually filled the cytoplasm in human breast cancer cell-lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. The level of indigenous paraptosis inhibitor, Alix/AIP-1 (Actin Interacting Protein-1 was down-regulated by WA treatment. Additionally, prevention of WA-induced cell death and vacuolation on co-treatment with protein-synthesis inhibitor indicated requirement of de-novo protein synthesis. Co-treatment with apoptosis inhibitor resulted in significant augmentation of WA-induced death in MCF-7 cells, while partial inhibition in MDA-MB-231 cells; implyingthat apoptosis was not solely responsible for the process.WA-mediated cytoplasmic vacuolationcould not be prevented by autophagy inhibitor wortmanninas well, claiming this process to be a non-autophagic one. Early induction of ROS (Reactive Oxygen Speciesby WA in both the cell-lines was observed. ROS inhibitorabrogated the effect of WA on: cell-death, expression of proliferation-associated factor andER-stress related proteins,splicing of XBP-1 (X Box Binding Protein-1 mRNA and formation of paraptotic vacuoles.All these results conclusively indicate thatWA induces deathin bothMCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines byROS-mediated paraptosis.

  13. X-231A demonstration of in-situ remediation of DNAPL compounds in low permeability media by soil fracturing with thermally enhanced mass recovery or reactive barrier destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegrist, R.L.; Slack, W.W.; Houk, T.C.

    1998-03-01

    The overall goal of the program of activities is to demonstrate robust and cost-effective technologies for in situ remediation of DNAPL compounds in low permeability media (LPM), including adaptations and enhancements of conventional technologies to achieve improved performance for DNAPLs in LPM. The technologies sought should be potential for application at simple, small sites (e.g., gasoline underground storage tanks) as well as at complex, larger sites (e.g., DOE land treatment units). The technologies involved in the X-231A demonstration at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) utilized subsurface manipulation of the LPM through soil fracturing with thermally enhanced mass recovery or horizontal barrier in place destruction. To enable field evaluation of these approaches, a set of four test cells was established at the X-231A land treatment unit at the DOE PORTS plant in August 1996 and a series of demonstration field activities occurred through December 1997. The principal objectives of the PORTS X-231A demonstration were to: determine and compare the operational features of hydraulic fractures as an enabling technology for steam and hot air enhanced soil vapor extraction and mass recovery, in situ interception and reductive destruction by zero valent iron, and in situ interception and oxidative destruction by potassium permanganate; determine the interaction of the delivered agents with the LPM matrix adjacent to the fracture and within the fractured zone and assess the beneficial modifications to the transport and/or reaction properties of the LPM deposit; and determine the remediation efficiency achieved by each of the technology strategies

  14. Differentially expressed proteins in ER+ MCF7 and ER- MDA- MB-231 human breast cancer cells by RhoGDI-α silencing and overexpression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooshmand, Somayeh; Ghaderi, Abbas; Yusoff, Khatijah; Thilakavathy, Karuppiah; Rosli, Rozita; Mojtahedi, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    The consequence of Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor alpha (RhoGDIα) activity on migration and invasion of estrogen receptor positive (ER+) and negative (ER-) breast cancer cells has not been studied using the proteomic approach. Changes in expression of RhoGDIα and other proteins interacting directly or indirectly with RhoGDIα in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231, with different metastatic potentials is of particular interest. ER+ MCF7 and ER- MDA-MB-231 cell lines were subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and spots of interest were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of- flight/time- of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) analysis after downregulation of RhoGDIα using short interfering RNA (siRNA) and upregulated using GFP-tagged ORF clone of RhoGDIα. The results showed a total of 35 proteins that were either up- or down-regulated in these cells. Here we identifed 9 and 15 proteins differentially expressed with silencing of RhoGDIα in MCF-7 and the MDA-MB-231 cells, respectively. In addition, 10 proteins were differentially expressed in the upregulation of RhoGDIα in MCF7, while only one protein was identified in the upregulation of RhoGDIα in MDA-MB-231. Based on the biological functions of these proteins, the results revealed that proteins involved in cell migration are more strongly altered with RhoGDI-α activity. Although several of these proteins have been previously indicated in tumorigenesis and invasiveness of breast cancer cells, some ohave not been previously reported to be involved in breast cancer migration. Hence, these proteins may serve as useful candidate biomarkers for tumorigenesis and invasiveness of breast cancer cells. Future studies are needed to determine the mechanisms by which these proteins regulate cell migration. The combination of RhoGDIα with other potential biomarkers may be a more promising approach in the inhibition of breast cancer cell migration.

  15. Collective and single-particle excitations in the heavy deformable nuclei 234U, 233U, 231Th, 230Pa and 232Pa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotthaus, Tanja

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis five heavy deformed isotopes from the mass region A≥230, namely 234 U, 233 U, 231 Th, 230 Pa and 232 Pa, were investigated by means of deuteron-induced neutron transfer reactions. The even-even isotope 234 U has been studied with the 4π-γ-spectrometer MINIBALL at the Cologne Tandem accelerator. Excited nuclei in the isotope 234 U were produced using the reaction 235 U(d,t) at a beam energy of 11 MeV. The target thickness was 3.5 mg/cm 2 . The analysis of the γγ-coincidence data yielded a reinterpretation of the level scheme in 12 cases. Considering its decay characteristics, the 4 + state at an excitation energy of 1886.7 keV is a potential candidate for a two-phonon vibrational state. The isotopes 233 U, 231 Th, 230 Pa and 232 Pa were investigated at the Munich Q3D spectrometer. For each isotope an angular distribution with angles between 5 and 45 were measured. In all four cases the energy of the polarized deuteron beam (vector polarization of 80%) was 22 MeV. As targets 234 U (160 μg/cm 2 ), 230 Th (140 μg/cm 2 ) and 231 Pa (140 μg/cm 2 ) were used. The experimental angular distributions were compared to results of DWBA calculations. For the odd isotope 233 U spin and parity for 33 states are assigned and in the other odd isotope 231 Th 22 assignments are made. The excitation spectra of the two odd-odd isotopes 230 Pa and 232 Pa were investigated for the first time. For the isotope 230 Pa 63 states below an excitation energy of 1.5 MeV are identified. Based on the new experimental data the Nilsson configuration of the ground state is either 1/2[530] p -5/2[633] n or 1/2[530] p +3/2[631] n . In addition 12 rotational bands are proposed and from this six values for the GM splitting energy are deduced as well as two new values for the Newby shift. In the other odd-odd isotope 232 Pa 40 states below an excitation energy of 850 keV are observed and suggestions for the groundstate band and its GM partner are made. From this one GM splitting

  16. Effects of Chinese medicinal herbs on expression of brain-derived Neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its interaction with human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells and endothelial HUVECs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Jen-Hwey; Chen, Fang-Pey; Tsai, Yi-Fang; Lin, Man-Ting; Tseng, Ling-Ming; Shyr, Yi-Ming

    2017-08-12

    Our previous study demonstrated that an up-regulation of the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) signaling pathway is involved the mechanism causing the recurrence of triple negative breast cancer. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of commonly used Chinese medicinal herbs on MDA-MB-231 and HUVEC cells and how they interact with BDNF. Human TNBC MDA-MB-231 cells and human endothelial HUVEC cells were used to explore the effect of commonly used Chinese herbal medicines on cancer cells alone, on endothelial cells alone and on cancer cell/endothelial cell interactions; this was done via functional studies, including migration and invasion assays. Furthermore, Western blot analysis and real-time PCR investigations were also used to investigate migration signal transduction, invasion signal transduction, and angiogenic signal transduction in these systems. Finally, the effect of the Chinese medicinal herbs on cancer cell/endothelial cell interactions was assessed using co-culture and ELISA. In terms of autoregulation, BDNF up-regulated TrkB gene expression in both MDA-MB-231 and HUVEC cells. Furthermore, BDNF enhanced migration by MDA-MB-231 cells via Rac, Cdc42 and MMP, while also increasing the migration of HUVEC cells via MMP and COX-2 expression. As measured by ELISA, the Chinese herbal medicinal herbs A. membranaceus, P. lactiflora, L. chuanxiong, P. suffruticosa and L. lucidum increased BDNF secretion by MDA-MB-231 cells. Similarly, using a co-culture system with MDA-MB-231 cells, A. membranaceus and L. lucidum modulated BDNF-TrkB signaling by HUVEC cells. We conclude that BDNF plays an important role in the metastatic interaction between MDA-MB-231 and HUVEC cells. Some Chinese medicinal herbs are able to enhance the BDNF-related metastatic potential of the interaction between cancer cells and endothelial cells. These findings provide important information that should help with the development of integrated medical therapies for breast

  17. A de novo 1q22q23.1 Interstitial Microdeletion in a Girl with Intellectual Disability and Multiple Congenital Anomalies Including Congenital Heart Defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksiūnienė, Beata; Preiksaitiene, Egle; Morkūnienė, Aušra; Ambrozaitytė, Laima; Utkus, Algirdas

    2018-01-01

    Many studies have shown that molecular karyotyping is an effective diagnostic tool in individuals with developmental delay/intellectual disability. We report on a de novo interstitial 1q22q23.1 microdeletion, 1.6 Mb in size, detected in a patient with short stature, microcephaly, hypoplastic corpus callosum, cleft palate, minor facial anomalies, congenital heart defect, camptodactyly of the 4-5th fingers, and intellectual disability. Chromosomal microarray analysis revealed a 1.6-Mb deletion in the 1q22q23.1 region, arr[GRCh37] 1q22q23.1(155630752_157193893)×1. Real-time PCR analysis confirmed its de novo origin. The deleted region encompasses 50 protein-coding genes, including the morbid genes APOA1BP, ARHGEF2, LAMTOR2, LMNA, NTRK1, PRCC, RIT1, SEMA4A, and YY1AP1. Although the unique phenotype observed in our patient can arise from the haploinsufficiency of the dosage-sensitive LMNA gene, the dosage imbalance of other genes implicated in the rearrangement could also contribute to the phenotype. Further studies are required for the delineation of the phenotype associated with this rare chromosomal alteration and elucidation of the critical genes for manifestation of the specific clinical features. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. (−)-Xanthatin Selectively Induces GADD45γ and Stimulates Caspase-Independent Cell Death in Human Breast Cancer MDA-MB-231 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shuso; Matsuo, Kazumasa; Yaji, Kentaro; Okajima-Miyazaki, Shunsuke; Harada, Mari; Miyoshi, Hiroko; Okamoto, Yoshiko; Amamoto, Toshiaki; Shindo, Mitsuru; Omiecinski, Curtis J.; Aramaki, Hironori

    2014-01-01

    exo-Methylene lactone group-containing compounds, such as (−)-xanthatin, are present in a large variety of biologically active natural products, including extracts of Xanthium strumarium (Cocklebur). These substances are reported to possess diverse functional activities, exhibiting anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, and anticancer potential. In this study, we synthesized six structurally related xanthanolides containing exo-methylene lactone moieties, including (−)-xanthatin and (+)-8-epi-xanthatin, and examined the effects of these chemically defined substances on the highly aggressive and farnesyltransferase inhibitor (FTI)-resistant MDA-MB-231 cancer cell line. The results obtained demonstrate that (−)-xanthatin was a highly effective inhibitor of MDA-MB-231 cell growth, inducing caspase-independent cell death, and that these effects were independent of FTase inhibition. Further, our results show that among the GADD45 isoforms, GADD45γ was selectively induced by (−)-xanthatin and that GADD45γ-primed JNK and p38 signaling pathways are, at least in part, involved in mediating the growth inhibition and potential anticancer activities of this agent. Given that GADD45γ is becoming increasingly recognized for its tumor suppressor function, the results presented here suggest the novel possibility that (−)-xanthatin may have therapeutic value as a selective inducer of GADD45γ in human cancer cells, in particular in FTI-resistant aggressive breast cancers. PMID:21568272

  19. Long Term Exposure to Polyphenols of Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) Exerts Induction of Senescence Driven Growth Arrest in the MDA-MB231 Human Breast Cancer Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileo, Anna Maria; Di Venere, Donato; Abbruzzese, Claudia; Miccadei, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenolic extracts from the edible part of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) have been shown to be potential chemopreventive and anticancer dietary compounds. High doses of polyphenolic extracts (AEs) induce apoptosis and decrease the invasive potential of the human breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB231. However, the molecular mechanism underlying AEs antiproliferative effects is not completely understood. We demonstrate that chronic and low doses of AEs treatment at sublethal concentrations suppress human breast cancer cell growth via a caspases-independent mechanism. Furthermore, AEs exposure induces a significant increase of senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) staining and upregulation of tumour suppressor genes, p16(INK4a) and p21(Cip1/Waf1) in MDA-MB231 cells. AEs treatment leads to epigenetic alterations in cancer cells, modulating DNA hypomethylation and lysine acetylation levels in total proteins. Cell growth arrest correlates with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in AEs treated breast cancer cells. Inhibition of ROS generation by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) attenuates the antiproliferative effect. These findings demonstrate that chronic AEs treatment inhibits breast cancer cell growth via the induction of premature senescence through epigenetic and ROS-mediated mechanisms. Our results suggest that artichoke polyphenols could be a promising dietary tool either in cancer chemoprevention or/and in cancer treatment as a nonconventional, adjuvant therapy.

  20. Cytotoxic effects of Mangifera indica L. kernel extract on human breast cancer (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines) and bioactive constituents in the crude extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Al-Shwyeh Hussah; Mohammed, Abdulkarim Sabo; Abdullah, Rasedee; Mirghani, Mohamed Elwathig Saeed; Al-Qubaisi, Mothanna

    2014-06-25

    Waterlily Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is thought to be antioxidant-rich, conferred by its functional phytochemicals. The potential anticancer effects of the ethanolic kernel extract on breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) using MTT, anti-proliferation, neutral red (NR) uptake and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assays were evaluated. Cytological studies on the breast cancer cells were also conducted, and phytochemical analyses of the extract were carried out to determine the likely bioactive compounds responsible for such effects. Results showed the extract induced cytotoxicity in MDA-MB-231 cells and MCF-7 cells with IC50 values of 30 and 15 μg/mL, respectively. The extract showed significant toxicity towards both cell lines, with low toxicity to normal breast cells (MCF-10A). The cytotoxic effects on the cells were further confirmed by the NR uptake, antiproliferative and LDH release assays. Bioactive analyses revealed that many bioactives were present in the extract although butylated hydroxytoluene, a potent antioxidant, was the most abundant with 44.65%. M. indica extract appears to be more cytoxic to both estrogen positive and negative breast cancer cell lines than to normal breast cells. Synergistic effects of its antioxidant bioactives could have contributed to the cytotoxic effects of the extract. The extract of M. indica, therefore, has potential anticancer activity against breast cancer cells. This potential is worth studying further, and could have implications on future studies and eventually management of human breast cancers.

  1. A New Chronology of Late Quaternary Sequences From the Central Arctic Ocean Based on "Extinction Ages" of Their Excesses in 231Pa and 230Th

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillaire-Marcel, C.; Ghaleb, B.; de Vernal, A.; Maccali, J.; Cuny, K.; Jacobel, A.; Le Duc, C.; McManus, J.

    2017-12-01

    Merging the late Quaternary Arctic paleoceanography into the Earth's global climate history remains challenging due to the lack of robust marine chronostratigraphies. Over ridges notably, low and variable sedimentation rates, scarce biogenic remains ensuing from low productivity and/or poor preservation, and oxygen isotope and paleomagnetic records differing from global stacks represent major impediments. However, as illustrate here based on consistent records from Mendeleev-Alpha and Lomonosov Ridges, disequilibria between U-series isotopes can provide benchmark ages. In such settings, fluxes of the particle-reactive U-daughter isotopes 230Th and 231Pa from the water column, are not unequivocally linked to sedimentation rates, but rather to sea-ice rafting and brine production histories, thus to the development of sea-ice factories over shelves during intervals of high relative sea level. The excesses in 230Th and 231Pa over fractions supported by their parent U-isotopes, collapse down sedimentary sequences, due to radioactive decay, and provide radiometric benchmark ages of approximately 300 and 140 ka, respectively. These "extinction ages" point to mean sedimentation rates of ˜4.3 and ˜1.7 mm/ka, respectively, over the Lomonosov and Mendeleev Ridges, which are significantly lower than assumed in most recent studies, thus highlighting the need for revisiting current interpretations of Arctic lithostratigraphies in relation to the global-scale late Quaternary climatostratigraphy.

  2. Phenotypic and microRNA transcriptomic profiling of the MDA-MB-231 spheroid-enriched CSCs with comparison of MCF-7 microRNA profiling dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Boo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer spheroids have been widely used as in vitro models of cancer stem cells (CSCs, yet little is known about their phenotypic characteristics and microRNAs (miRNAs expression profiles. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the phenotypic characteristics of MDA-MB-231 spheroid-enriched cells for their CSCs properties and also to determine their miRNAs expression profile. Similar to our previously published MCF-7 spheroid, MDA-MB-231 spheroid also showed typical CSCs characteristics namely self-renewability, expression of putative CSCs-related surface markers and enhancement of drug resistance. From the miRNA profile, miR-15b, miR-34a, miR-148a, miR-628 and miR-196b were shown to be involved in CSCs-associated signalling pathways in both models of spheroids, which highlights the involvement of these miRNAs in maintaining the CSCs features. In addition, unique clusters of miRNAs namely miR-205, miR-181a and miR-204 were found in basal-like spheroid whereas miR-125, miR-760, miR-30c and miR-136 were identified in luminal-like spheroid. Our results highlight the roles of miRNAs as well as novel perspectives of the relevant pathways underlying spheroid-enriched CSCs in breast cancer.

  3. Resveratrol modulates MED28 (Magicin/EG-1) expression and inhibits epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced migration in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ming-Fen; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Chiou, Yi-Siou; Cheng, An-Chin; Huang, Han

    2011-11-09

    Resveratrol and pterostilbene exhibit diverse biological activities. MED28, a subunit of the mammalian Mediator complex for transcription, was also identified as magicin, an actin cytoskeleton Grb2-associated protein, and as endothelial-derived gene (EG-1). Several tumors exhibit aberrant MED28 expression, whereas the underlying mechanism is unclear. Triple-negative breast cancers, often expressing epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR), are associated with metastasis and poor survival. The objective of this study is to compare the effect of resveratrol and pterostilbene and to investigate the role of MED28 in EGFR-overexpressing MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Pretreatment of resveratrol, but not pterostlbene, suppressed EGF-mediated migration and expression of MED28 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, overexpression of MED28 increased migration, and the addition of EGF further enhanced migration. Our data indicate that resveratrol modulates the effect of MED28 on cellular migration, presumably through the EGFR/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway, in breast cancer cells.

  4. Mentha arvensis (Linn.-mediated green silver nanoparticles trigger caspase 9-dependent cell death in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banerjee PP

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Prajna Paramita Banerjee,1 Arindam Bandyopadhyay,1 Singapura Nagesh Harsha,2 Rudragoud S Policegoudra,3 Shelley Bhattacharya,4 Niranjan Karak,2 Ansuman Chattopadhyay1 1Molecular Genetics Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan, West Bengal, 2Advanced Polymer and Nanomaterial Laboratory, Department of Chemical Sciences, Center for Polymer Science and Technology, Tezpur University, Napaam, 3Division of Pharmaceutical Technology, Defence Research Laboratory, Tezpur, Assam, 4Environmental Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan, West Bengal, India Introduction: Leaf extract of Mentha arvensis or mint plant was used as reducing agent for the synthesis of green silver nanoparticles (GSNPs as a cost-effective, eco-friendly process compared to that of chemical synthesis. The existence of nanoparticles was characterized by ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry, dynamic light scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, atomic-force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analyses, which ascertained the formation of spherical GSNPs with a size range of 3–9 nm. Anticancer activities against breast cancer cell lines (MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 were studied and compared with those of chemically synthesized (sodium borohydride [NaBH4]-mediated silver nanoparticles (CSNPs. Materials and methods: Cell survival of nanoparticle-treated and untreated cells was studied by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Cell-cycle analyses were carried out using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Cell morphology was observed by fluorescence microscopy. Expression patterns of PARP1, P53, P21, Bcl2, Bax and cleaved caspase 9 as well as caspase 3 proteins in treated and untreated MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells were studied by Western blot method. Results: MTT assay results showed that Mentha arvensis-mediated GSNPs

  5. Ziyuglycoside I Inhibits the Proliferation of MDA-MB-231 Breast Carcinoma Cells through Inducing p53-Mediated G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest and Intrinsic/Extrinsic Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xue; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Ting; Yin, Yongxiang; Xu, Fei

    2016-11-22

    Due to the aggressive clinical behavior, poor outcome, and lack of effective specific targeted therapies, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has currently been recognized as one of the most malignant types of tumors. In the present study, we investigated the cytotoxic effect of ziyuglycoside I, one of the major components extracted from Chinese anti-tumor herbal Radix Sanguisorbae , on the TNBC cell line MDA-MB-231. The underlying molecular mechanism of the cytotoxic effect ziyuglycoside I on MDA-MB-231 cells was investigated with cell viability assay, flow cytometric analysis and Western blot. Compared to normal mammary gland Hs 578Bst cells, treatment of ziyuglycoside I resulted in a significant growth inhibitory effect on MDA-MB-231 cells. Ziyuglycoside I induced the G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells in a dose-dependent manner. These effects were found to be partially mediated through the up-regulation of p53 and p21 WAF1 , elevated Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and the activation of both intrinsic (mitochondrial-initiated) and extrinsic (Fas/FasL-initiated) apoptotic pathways. Furthermore, the p53 specific siRNA attenuated these effects. Our study suggested that ziyuglycoside I-triggered MDA-MB-231 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were probably mediated by p53. This suggests that ziyuglycoside I might be a potential drug candidate for treating TNBC.

  6. Stromelysin-3 over-expression enhances tumourigenesis in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines: involvement of the IGF-1 signalling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mennerich Detlev

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stromelysin-3 (ST-3 is over-expressed in the majority of human carcinomas including breast carcinoma. Due to its known effect in promoting tumour formation, but its impeding effect on metastasis, a dual role of ST-3 in tumour progression, depending on the cellular grade of dedifferentiation, was hypothesized. Methods The present study was designed to investigate the influence of ST-3 in vivo and in vitro on the oestrogen-dependent, non-invasive MCF-7 breast carcinoma cell line as well as on the oestrogen-independent, invasive MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cell line. Therefore an orthotopic human xenograft tumour model in nude mice, as well as a 3D matrigel cell culture system, were employed. Results Using both in vitro and in vivo techniques, we have demonstrated that over-expression of ST-3 in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells leads to both increased cell numbers and tumour volumes. This observation was dependent upon the presence of growth factors. In particular, the enhanced proliferative capacity was in MCF-7/ST-3 completely and in MDA-MB-231/ST-3 cells partially dependent on the IGF-1 signalling pathway. Microarray analysis of ST-3 over-expressing cells revealed that in addition to cell proliferation, further biological processes seemed to be affected, such as cell motility and stress response. The MAPK-pathway as well as the Wnt and PI3-kinase pathways, appear to also play a potential role. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that breast cancer cell lines of different differentiation status, as well as the non-tumourigenic cell line MCF-10A, have a comparable capability to induce endogenous ST-3 expression in fibroblasts. Conclusion These data reveal that ST-3 is capable of enhancing tumourigenesis in highly differentiated "early stage" breast cancer cell lines as well as in further progressed breast cancer cell lines that have already undergone epithelial-mesenchymal transition. We propose that ST-3 induction in tumour

  7. Stromelysin-3 over-expression enhances tumourigenesis in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines: involvement of the IGF-1 signalling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasper, Grit; Lehmann, Kerstin E; Reule, Matthias; Tschirschmann, Miriam; Dankert, Niels; Stout-Weider, Karen; Lauster, Roland; Schrock, Evelin; Mennerich, Detlev; Duda, Georg N

    2007-01-01

    Stromelysin-3 (ST-3) is over-expressed in the majority of human carcinomas including breast carcinoma. Due to its known effect in promoting tumour formation, but its impeding effect on metastasis, a dual role of ST-3 in tumour progression, depending on the cellular grade of dedifferentiation, was hypothesized. The present study was designed to investigate the influence of ST-3 in vivo and in vitro on the oestrogen-dependent, non-invasive MCF-7 breast carcinoma cell line as well as on the oestrogen-independent, invasive MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cell line. Therefore an orthotopic human xenograft tumour model in nude mice, as well as a 3D matrigel cell culture system, were employed. Using both in vitro and in vivo techniques, we have demonstrated that over-expression of ST-3 in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells leads to both increased cell numbers and tumour volumes. This observation was dependent upon the presence of growth factors. In particular, the enhanced proliferative capacity was in MCF-7/ST-3 completely and in MDA-MB-231/ST-3 cells partially dependent on the IGF-1 signalling pathway. Microarray analysis of ST-3 over-expressing cells revealed that in addition to cell proliferation, further biological processes seemed to be affected, such as cell motility and stress response. The MAPK-pathway as well as the Wnt and PI3-kinase pathways, appear to also play a potential role. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that breast cancer cell lines of different differentiation status, as well as the non-tumourigenic cell line MCF-10A, have a comparable capability to induce endogenous ST-3 expression in fibroblasts. These data reveal that ST-3 is capable of enhancing tumourigenesis in highly differentiated 'early stage' breast cancer cell lines as well as in further progressed breast cancer cell lines that have already undergone epithelial-mesenchymal transition. We propose that ST-3 induction in tumour fibroblasts leads to the stimulation of the IGF-1R pathway in

  8. Mutually exclusive expression of DLX2 and DLX5/6 is associated with the metastatic potential of the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morini, Monica; Astigiano, Simonetta; Gitton, Yorick; Emionite, Laura; Mirisola, Valentina; Levi, Giovanni; Barbieri, Ottavia

    2010-01-01

    The DLX gene family encodes for homeobox transcription factors involved in the control of morphogenesis and tissue homeostasis. Their expression can be regulated by Endothelin1 (ET1), a peptide associated with breast cancer invasive phenotype. Deregulation of DLX gene expression was found in human solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. In particular, DLX4 overexpression represents a possible prognostic marker in ovarian cancer. We have investigated the role of DLX genes in human breast cancer progression. MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cells were grown in vitro or injected in nude mice, either subcutaneously, to mimic primary tumor growth, or intravenously, to mimic metastatic spreading. Expression of DLX2, DLX5 and DLX6 was assessed in cultured cells, either treated or not with ET1, tumors and metastases by RT-PCR. In situ hybridization was used to confirm DLX gene expression in primary tumors and in lung and bone metastases. The expression of DLX2 and DLX5 was evaluated in 408 primary human breast cancers examining the GSE1456 and GSE3494 microarray datasets. Kaplan-Meier estimates for disease-free survival were calculated for the patients grouped on the basis of DLX2/DLX5 expression. Before injection, or after subcutaneous growth, MDA-MB-231 cells expressed DLX2 but neither DLX5 nor DLX6. Instead, in bone and lung metastases resulting from intravenous injection we detected expression of DLX5/6 but not of DLX2, suggesting that DLX5/6 are activated during metastasis formation, and that their expression is alternative to that of DLX2. The in vitro treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with ET1, resulted in switch from DLX2 to DLX5 expression. By data mining in microarray datasets we found that expression of DLX2 occurred in 21.6% of patients, and was significantly correlated with prolonged disease-free survival and reduced incidence of relapse. Instead, DLX5 was expressed in a small subset of cases, 2.2% of total, displaying reduced disease-free survival and high

  9. Application of the 226Ra-230Th-234U and 227Ac-231Pa-235U radiochronometers to uranium certified reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolison, J.M.; Treinen, K.C.; McHugh, K.C.; Gaffney, A.M.; Williams, R.W.

    2017-01-01

    Uranium certified reference materials (CRM) issued by New Brunswick Laboratory were subjected to dating using four independent uranium-series radiochronometers. In all cases, there was acceptable agreement between the model ages calculated using the 231 Pa- 235 U, 230 Th- 234 U, 227 Ac- 235 U or 226 Ra- 234 U radiochronometers and either the certified 230 Th- 234 U model date (CRM 125-A and CRM U630), or the known purification date (CRM U050 and CRM U100). The agreement between the four independent radiochronometers establishes these uranium certified reference materials as ideal informal standards for validating dating techniques utilized in nuclear forensic investigations in the absence of standards with certified model ages for multiple radiochronometers. (author)

  10. Project W-314 acceptance test report HNF-4647 for HNF-4646 241-B pit leak detection ANB-WT-LDSTA-231 for project W-314

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HAMMERS, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the test was to verify that the AN Tank Farm B Pit Leak Detector components are functionally integrated and operate in accordance with engineering design specifications. The Acceptance Test Procedure HNF-4646,241-AN-B-Pit Leak Detection ANB-WT-LDSTA-231 was conducted between 26 June and 02 July 1999 at the 200E AN Tank Farm. The test has been completed with no open test exceptions. The test was conducted prior to final engineering ''as built'' activities being completed this had no impact on the procedure or test results. All components, identified in the procedure were found to be labeled and identified as written in the procedure

  11. The effect of growth phase on the surface properties of three oleaginous microalgae (Botryococcus sp. FACGB-762, Chlorella sp. XJ-445 and Desmodesmus bijugatus XJ-231).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ling; Huang, Rong; Li, Yinta; Song, Shaoxian

    2017-01-01

    The effects of growth phase on the lipid content and surface properties of oleaginous microalgae Botryococcus sp. FACGB-762, Chlorella sp. XJ-445 and Desmodesmus bijugatus XJ-231 were investigated in this study. The results showed that throughout the growth phases, the lipid content of microalgae increased. The surface properties like particle size, the degree of hydrophobicity, and the total concentration of functional groups increased while net surface zeta potential decreased. The results suggested that the growth stage had significant influence not only on the lipid content but also on the surface characteristics. Moreover, the lipid content was significantly positively related to the concentration of hydroxyl functional groups in spite of algal strains or growth phases. These results provided a basis for further studies on the refinery process using oleaginous microalgae for biofuel production.

  12. Environmental Performance Report 2013: Annual Site Environmental Report per the U.S. Department of Energy Order 231.1-1B (Management Publication)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlomberg, K.; Eickhoff, J.; Beatty, B.; Braus, G.; Durbin, L.; Fiehweg, R.; Ray, M.; Ryon, T.; Schmitz, E.

    2014-08-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Environmental Performance Report provides a description of the laboratory's environmental management activities for 2013, including information on environmental and sustainability performance, environmental compliance activities and status, and environmental protection programs, highlights, and successes. The purpose of this report is to ensure that U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the public receive timely, accurate information about events that have affected or could adversely affect the health, safety, and security of the public or workers; the environment; or the operations of DOE facilities. This report meets the requirements of the Annual Site Environmental Report and is prepared in accordance with the DOE Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting.

  13. LPA, HGF, and EGF utilize distinct combinations of signaling pathways to promote migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, Susan MW; Knifley, Teresa; Chen, Min; O’Connor, Kathleen L

    2013-01-01

    Various pathways impinge on the actin-myosin pathway to facilitate cell migration and invasion including members of the Rho family of small GTPases and MAPK. However, the signaling components that are considered important for these processes vary substantially within the literature with certain pathways being favored. These distinctions in signaling pathways utilized are often attributed to differences in cell type or physiological conditions; however, these attributes have not been systematically assessed. To address this question, we analyzed the migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cell line in response to various stimuli including lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) and determined the involvement of select signaling pathways that impact myosin light chain phosphorylation. LPA, a potent stimulator of the Rho-ROCK pathway, surprisingly did not require the Rho-ROCK pathway to stimulate migration but instead utilized Rac and MAPK. In contrast, LPA-stimulated invasion required Rho, Rac, and MAPK. Of these three major pathways, EGF-stimulated MDA-MB-231 migration and invasion required Rho; however, Rac was essential only for invasion and MAPK was dispensable for migration. HGF signaling, interestingly, utilized the same pathways for migration and invasion, requiring Rho but not Rac signaling. Notably, the dependency of HGF-stimulated migration and invasion as well as EGF-stimulated invasion on MAPK was subject to the inhibitors used. As expected, myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), a convergence point for MAPK and Rho family GTPase signaling, was required for all six conditions. These observations suggest that, while multiple signaling pathways contribute to cancer cell motility, not all pathways operate under all conditions. Thus, our study highlights the plasticity of cancer cells to adapt to multiple migratory cues

  14. Gallic acid indanone and mangiferin xanthone are strong determinants of immunosuppressive anti-tumour effects of Mangifera indica L. bark in MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rivera, Dagmar; Delgado, René; Bougarne, Nadia; Haegeman, Guy; Berghe, Wim Vanden

    2011-06-01

    Vimang is a standardized extract derived from Mango bark (Mangifera Indica L.), commonly used as anti-inflammatory phytomedicine, which has recently been used to complement cancer therapies in cancer patients. We have further investigated potential anti-tumour effects of glucosylxanthone mangiferin and indanone gallic acid, which are both present in Vimang extract. We observed significant anti-tumour effects of both Vimang constituents in the highly aggressive and metastatic breast cancer cell type MDA-MB231. At the molecular level, mangiferin and gallic acid both inhibit classical NFκB activation by IKKα/β kinases, which results in impaired IκB degradation, NFκB translocation and NFκB/DNA binding. In contrast to the xanthone mangiferin, gallic acid further inhibits additional NFκB pathways involved in cancer cell survival and therapy resistance, such as MEK1, JNK1/2, MSK1, and p90RSK. This results in combinatorial inhibition of NFκB activity by gallic acid, which results in potent inhibition of NFκB target genes involved in inflammation, metastasis, anti-apoptosis and angiogenesis, such as IL-6, IL-8, COX2, CXCR4, XIAP, bcl2, VEGF. The cumulative NFκB inhibition by gallic acid, but not mangiferin, is also reflected at the level of cell survival, which reveals significant tumour cytotoxic effects in MDA-MB231 cells. Altogether, we identify gallic acid, besides mangiferin, as an essential anti-cancer component in Vimang extract, which demonstrates multifocal inhibition of NFκB activity in the cancer-inflammation network. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Structural analysis of DNA binding by C.Csp231I, a member of a novel class of R-M controller proteins regulating gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevtsov, M. B.; Streeter, S. D.; Thresh, S.-J.; Swiderska, A.; McGeehan, J. E.; Kneale, G. G., E-mail: geoff.kneale@port.ac.uk [University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 2DY (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-01

    The structure of the new class of controller proteins (exemplified by C.Csp231I) in complex with its 21 bp DNA-recognition sequence is presented, and the molecular basis of sequence recognition in this class of proteins is discussed. An unusual extended spacer between the dimer binding sites suggests a novel interaction between the two C-protein dimers. In a wide variety of bacterial restriction–modification systems, a regulatory ‘controller’ protein (or C-protein) is required for effective transcription of its own gene and for transcription of the endonuclease gene found on the same operon. We have recently turned our attention to a new class of controller proteins (exemplified by C.Csp231I) that have quite novel features, including a much larger DNA-binding site with an 18 bp (∼60 Å) spacer between the two palindromic DNA-binding sequences and a very different recognition sequence from the canonical GACT/AGTC. Using X-ray crystallography, the structure of the protein in complex with its 21 bp DNA-recognition sequence was solved to 1.8 Å resolution, and the molecular basis of sequence recognition in this class of proteins was elucidated. An unusual aspect of the promoter sequence is the extended spacer between the dimer binding sites, suggesting a novel interaction between the two C-protein dimers when bound to both recognition sites correctly spaced on the DNA. A U-bend model is proposed for this tetrameric complex, based on the results of gel-mobility assays, hydrodynamic analysis and the observation of key contacts at the interface between dimers in the crystal.

  16. Structural analysis of DNA binding by C.Csp231I, a member of a novel class of R-M controller proteins regulating gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevtsov, M. B.; Streeter, S. D.; Thresh, S.-J.; Swiderska, A.; McGeehan, J. E.; Kneale, G. G.

    2015-01-01

    The structure of the new class of controller proteins (exemplified by C.Csp231I) in complex with its 21 bp DNA-recognition sequence is presented, and the molecular basis of sequence recognition in this class of proteins is discussed. An unusual extended spacer between the dimer binding sites suggests a novel interaction between the two C-protein dimers. In a wide variety of bacterial restriction–modification systems, a regulatory ‘controller’ protein (or C-protein) is required for effective transcription of its own gene and for transcription of the endonuclease gene found on the same operon. We have recently turned our attention to a new class of controller proteins (exemplified by C.Csp231I) that have quite novel features, including a much larger DNA-binding site with an 18 bp (∼60 Å) spacer between the two palindromic DNA-binding sequences and a very different recognition sequence from the canonical GACT/AGTC. Using X-ray crystallography, the structure of the protein in complex with its 21 bp DNA-recognition sequence was solved to 1.8 Å resolution, and the molecular basis of sequence recognition in this class of proteins was elucidated. An unusual aspect of the promoter sequence is the extended spacer between the dimer binding sites, suggesting a novel interaction between the two C-protein dimers when bound to both recognition sites correctly spaced on the DNA. A U-bend model is proposed for this tetrameric complex, based on the results of gel-mobility assays, hydrodynamic analysis and the observation of key contacts at the interface between dimers in the crystal

  17. Phenolic Fractions from Muscadine Grape "Noble" Pomace can Inhibit Breast Cancer Cell MDA-MB-231 Better than those from European Grape "Cabernet Sauvignon" and Induce S-Phase Arrest and Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jianming; Wei, Zheng; Zhang, Shengyu; Peng, Xichun; Huang, Yu; Zhang, Yali; Lu, Jiang

    2017-05-01

    Tons of grape pomace which still contained a rich amount of plant polyphenols, is discarded after winemaking. Plant polyphenols have multi-functional activities for human body. In this study, polyphenols of pomaces from Muscadinia rotundifolia "Noble" and Vitis vinifera "Cabernet Sauvignon" were extracted and fractionated, and then they were analyzed with LC-MS and the inhibitory effects on breast cancer cells were compared. The inhibition on MDA-MB-231 cells of fractions from "Noble" was further evaluated. The results showed that polyphenols from 2 grape pomaces could be separated into 3 fractions, and ellagic acid and/or ellagitannins were only detected in fractions from "Noble" pomace. All 3 fractions from "Noble" pomace inhibited MDA-MB-231 better than MCF-7. But fraction 2 from "Cabernet Sauvignon" inhibited MCF-7 better while fraction 1 and fraction 3 inhibited both 2 cells similarly. Moreover, the fractions from "Noble" pomace rather than "Cabernet Sauvignon" can inhibit MDA-MB-231 better. Finally, fractions from "Noble" pomace can induce S-phase arrest and apoptosis on MDA-MB-231. These findings suggested the extracts from grape pomace especially those from "Noble," are potential to be utilized as health beneficial products or even anti-breast cancer agents. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  18. Age-dependent association between IgG2 and IgG3 subclasses to Pf332-C231 antigen and protection from malaria, and induction of protective antibodies by sub-patent malaria infections, in Daraweesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giha, Hayder A; Nasr, Amre; Iriemenam, Nnaemeka C

    2010-01-01

    The certainty of the protective role of acquired immunity in malaria is the major drive for malaria vaccine development. In this study, we measured the levels of total IgG and IgG subclasses to four candidate malaria vaccine antigens; MSP2-3D7, MSP2-FC27, AMA-1 and Pf332-C231, in plasma obtained ...

  19. [The audiological analysis in the patients homozygous for the c.-23+1G>A mutation in the GJB2 gene presenting with the loss of hearing in Yakutiya].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryutin, F M; Barashkov, N A; Kunel'skaya, N L; Pshennikova, V G; Solov'ev, A V

    2016-01-01

    In the course of previous investigations carried out in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutiya), we have identified the main molecular-genetic factor responsible for the hereditary impairment of hearing among the indigenous population (mostly the Yakuts).The disease was shown to be attributable to the c.-23+1G>A mutation localized in the splice donor site (exon 1) of the GJB2 (Cx26) gene. The present study involved the comprehensive audiological analysis of the patients homozygous for the c.-23+1G>A mutation in the GJB2 gene based on the results of the study of a large sample of the patients residing in Yakutiya. All individuals with the GJB2 genotype c.-23+1G>A/c.-23-1G>A (n=108) at the mean age of 14.32±4.7 years (all ethnic Yakuts)were examined with the use oftonal threshold audiometry for air conduction testing at the frequencies of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 kHz and bone conduction testing at the frequencies of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 4.0 with a step of 5.0 dB.The results of the ASSR test were used whenever tonal threshold audiometry proved impracticable The data obtained in the study characterize the allelic form of the disease associated with the GJB2 genotype c.-23+1G>A/c.-23-1G>A as the congenital bilateral symmetric (90.1%), sensorineural (90.1%) form of hearing impairment of variable severity (from grade 1 to complete deafness) with the «flat» audiological profile (median slope not more than 5.0 dB in the extended frequency range (EFR) of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0, kHz). It is concluded that the results of the audiological analysis performed in the present study give evidence of relatively homogeneous but variable in terms of severity impairment of hearing in the patients homozygous for the c.-23+1G>A mutation in the GJB2 (Cx26) gene. It may serve as a positive prognostic sign to be used in the development and prescription of hearing aids.

  20. The multi-phase winds of Markarian 231: from the hot, nuclear, ultra-fast wind to the galaxy-scale, molecular outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feruglio, C.; Fiore, F.; Carniani, S.; Piconcelli, E.; Zappacosta, L.; Bongiorno, A.; Cicone, C.; Maiolino, R.; Marconi, A.; Menci, N.; Puccetti, S.; Veilleux, S.

    2015-11-01

    Mrk 231 is a nearby ultra-luminous IR galaxy exhibiting a kpc-scale, multi-phase AGN-driven outflow. This galaxy represents the best target to investigate in detail the morphology and energetics of powerful outflows, as well as their still poorly-understood expansion mechanism and impact on the host galaxy. In this work, we present the best sensitivity and angular resolution maps of the molecular disk and outflow of Mrk 231, as traced by CO(2-1) and (3-2) observations obtained with the IRAM/PdBI. In addition, we analyze archival deep Chandra and NuSTAR X-ray observations. We use this unprecedented combination of multi-wavelength data sets to constrain the physical properties of both the molecular disk and outflow, the presence of a highly-ionized ultra-fast nuclear wind, and their connection. The molecular CO(2-1) outflow has a size of 1 kpc, and extends in all directions around the nucleus, being more prominent along the south-west to north-east direction, suggesting a wide-angle biconical geometry. The maximum projected velocity of the outflow is nearly constant out to 1 kpc, thus implying that the density of the outflowing material must decrease from the nucleus outwards as r-2. This suggests that either a large part of the gas leaves the flow during its expansion or that the bulk of the outflow has not yet reached out to 1 kpc, thus implying a limit on its age of 1 Myr. Mapping the mass and energy rates of the molecular outflow yields dot {M} OF = [500-1000] M⊙ yr-1 and Ėkin,OF = [7-10] × 1043 erg s-1. The total kinetic energy of the outflow is Ekin,OF is of the same order of the total energy of the molecular disk, Edisk. Remarkably, our analysis of the X-ray data reveals a nuclear ultra-fast outflow (UFO) with velocity -20 000 km s-1, dot {M}UFO = [0.3-2.1] M⊙ yr-1, and momentum load dot {P}UFO/ dot {P}rad = [0.2-1.6]. We find Ėkin,UFO Ėkin,OF as predicted for outflows undergoing an energy conserving expansion. This suggests that most of the UFO

  1. Cytotoxicity and cell cycle arrest induced by andrographolide lead to programmed cell death of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Malabika; Chattopadhyay, Subrata; Choudhuri, Tathagata; Bera, Rammohan; Kumar, Sanjay; Chakraborty, Biswajit; Mukherjee, Samir Kumar

    2016-04-16

    Breast cancer is considered as an increasing major life-threatening concern among the malignancies encountered globally in females. Traditional therapy is far from satisfactory due to drug resistance and various side effects, thus a search for complementary/alternative medicines from natural sources with lesser side effects is being emphasized. Andrographis paniculata, an oriental, traditional medicinal herb commonly available in Asian countries, has a long history of treating a variety of diseases, such as respiratory infection, fever, bacterial dysentery, diarrhea, inflammation etc. Extracts of this plant showed a wide spectrum of therapeutic effects, such as anti-bacterial, anti-malarial, anti-viral and anti-carcinogenic properties. Andrographolide, a diterpenoid lactone, is the major active component of this plant. This study reports on andrographolide induced apoptosis and its possible mechanism in highly proliferative, invasive breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231 lacking a functional p53 and estrogen receptor (ER). Furthermore, the pharmacokinetic properties of andrographolide have also been studied in mice following intravenous and oral administration. Andrographolide showed a time- and concentration- dependent inhibitory effect on MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell proliferation, but the treatment did not affect normal breast epithelial cells, MCF-10A (>80 %). The number of cells in S as well as G2/M phase was increased after 36 h of treatment. Elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production with concomitant decrease in Mitochondrial Membrane Potential (MMP) and externalization of phosphatidyl serine were observed. Flow cytometry with Annexin V revealed that the population of apoptotic cells increased with prolonged exposure to andrographolide. Activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 were also noted. Bax and Apaf-1 expression were notably increased with decreased Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL expression in andrographolide-treated cells. Pharmacokinetic study with andrographolide

  2. Design, Synthesis and Docking Studies of Flavokawain B Type Chalcones and Their Cytotoxic Effects on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addila Abu Bakar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Flavokawain B (1 is a natural chalcone extracted from the roots of Piper methysticum, and has been proven to be a potential cytotoxic compound. Using the partial structure of flavokawain B (FKB, about 23 analogs have been synthesized. Among them, compounds 8, 13 and 23 were found in new FKB derivatives. All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic properties against two breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, thus establishing the structure–activity relationship. The FKB derivatives 16 (IC50 = 6.50 ± 0.40 and 4.12 ± 0.20 μg/mL, 15 (IC50 = 5.50 ± 0.35 and 6.50 ± 1.40 μg/mL and 13 (IC50 = 7.12 ± 0.80 and 4.04 ± 0.30 μg/mL exhibited potential cytotoxic effects on the MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. However, the methoxy group substituted in position three and four in compound 2 (IC50 = 8.90 ± 0.60 and 6.80 ± 0.35 μg/mL and 22 (IC50 = 8.80 ± 0.35 and 14.16 ± 1.10 μg/mL exhibited good cytotoxicity. The lead compound FKB (1 showed potential cytotoxicity (IC50 = 7.70 ± 0.30 and 5.90 ± 0.30 μg/mL against two proposed breast cancer cell lines. It is evident that the FKB skeleton is unique for anticancer agents, additionally, the presence of halogens (Cl and F in position 2 and 3 also improved the cytotoxicity in FKB series. These findings could help to improve the future drug discovery process to treat breast cancer. A molecular dynamics study of active compounds revealed stable interactions within the active site of Janus kinase. The structures of all compounds were determined by 1H-NMR, EI-MS, IR and UV and X-ray crystallographic spectroscopy techniques.

  3. Linear free energy relationship applied to trivalent cations with lanthanum and actinium oxide and hydroxide structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragavan, Anpalaki J.

    2006-01-01

    Linear free energy relationships for trivalent cations with crystalline M 2 O 3 and, M(OH) 3 phases of lanthanides and actinides were developed from known thermodynamic properties of the aqueous trivalent cations, modifying the Sverjensky and Molling equation. The linear free energy relationship for trivalent cations is as ΔG f,MvX 0 =a MvX ΔG n,M 3+ 0 +b MvX +β MvX r M 3+ , where the coefficients a MvX , b MvX , and β MvX characterize a particular structural family of MvX, r M 3+ is the ionic radius of M 3+ cation, ΔG f,MvX 0 is the standard Gibbs free energy of formation of MvX and ΔG n,M 3+ 0 is the standard non-solvation free energy of the cation. The coefficients for the oxide family are: a MvX =0.2705, b MvX =-1984.75 (kJ/mol), and β MvX =197.24 (kJ/molnm). The coefficients for the hydroxide family are: a MvX =0.1587, b MvX =-1474.09 (kJ/mol), and β MvX =791.70 (kJ/molnm).

  4. An eighteen-membered macrocyclic ligand for actinium-225 targeted alpha therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiele, Nikki A.; MacMillan, Samantha N.; Wilson, Justin J.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    The 18-membered macrocycle H 2 macropa was investigated for 225 Ac chelation in targeted alpha therapy (TAT). Radiolabeling studies showed that macropa, at submicromolar concentration, complexed all 225 Ac (26 kBq) in 5 min at RT. [ 225 Ac(macropa)] + remained intact over 7 to 8 days when challenged with either excess La 3+ ions or human serum, and did not accumulate in any organ after 5 h in healthy mice. A bifunctional analogue, macropa-NCS, was conjugated to trastuzumab as well as to the prostate-specific membrane antigen-targeting compound RPS-070. Both constructs rapidly radiolabeled 225 Ac in just minutes at RT, and macropa-Tmab retained >99 % of its 225 Ac in human serum after 7 days. In LNCaP xenograft mice, 225 Ac-macropa-RPS-070 was selectively targeted to tumors and did not release free 225 Ac over 96 h. These findings establish macropa to be a highly promising ligand for 225 Ac chelation that will facilitate the clinical development of 225 Ac TAT for the treatment of soft-tissue metastases. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. The marine geochemistry of actinium-227: Evidence for its migration through sediment pore water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Yoshiyuki; Yamada, Masatoshi; Nikaido, Hirofumi

    1990-01-01

    227 Ac with a half life of 21.8 years has a potential utility as a tracer of deep water circulation and mixing studies on time scales less than 100 years. Here the authors present the first measurement of 227 Ac profile in the pore water of Northwest Pacific deep-sea sediment and in the ∼10,000 m long water column of Izu-Ogasawara Trench. The results clearly show that 227 Ac is supplied from the sediment to the overlying water through migration in the pore water. The model calculation indicates that the molecular diffusion alone through sediment porewater can support only a half of the standing crop of excess 227 Ac in the water column and the enhanced supply of 227 Ac by particle mixing is necessary to account for the remainder. Thus, bioturbation in the deep sea plays an important role in controlling the flux of some short-lived radionuclides such as 227 Ac and 228 Ra across the sediment-water interface

  6. A Radium-223 microgenerator from cyclotron-produced trace Actinium-227

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou, Diane S.; Pickett, Juile; Mattson, John E.; Thorek, Daniel L.J.

    2017-01-01

    The alpha particle emitter Radium-223 dichloride ("2"2"3RaCl_2) has recently been approved for treatment of late-stage bone metastatic prostate cancer. There is considerable interest in studying this new agent outside of the clinical setting, however the supply of "2"2"3Ra is limited and expensive. We have engineered a "2"2"3Ra microgenerator using traces of "2"2"7Ac previously generated from cyclotron-produced "2"2"5Ac. Radiochemically pure "2"2"3RaCl_2 was made, characterized, evaluated in vivo, and the source was recovered in high yield for regeneration of the microgenerator. - Highlights: • A "2"2"3Ra microgenerator was built using residual "2"2"7Ac from cyclotron-produced "2"2"5Ac. • Following "2"2"5Ac decay, the residual "2"2"7Ac was processed into pure "2"2"3Ra. • "2"2"7Ac and "2"2"7Th were recovered in high yield for a permanent supply of "2"2"3Ra. • Clinically supplied and generator-produced "2"2"3Ra have equivalent in vivo distribution. • Microdose column provides sufficient material for research use.

  7. An eighteen-membered macrocyclic ligand for actinium-225 targeted alpha therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiele, Nikki A.; MacMillan, Samantha N.; Wilson, Justin J. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Chemistry and Chemical Biology; Brown, Victoria; Jermilova, Una; Ramogida, Caterina F.; Robertson, Andrew K.H.; Schaffer, Paul; Radchenko, Valery [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Life Science Div.; Kelly, James M.; Amor-Coarasa, Alejandro; Nikolopoulou, Anastasia; Ponnala, Shashikanth; Williams, Clarence Jr.; Babich, John W. [Radiology, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Cristina [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy and Centre for Comparative Medicine

    2017-11-13

    The 18-membered macrocycle H{sub 2}macropa was investigated for {sup 225}Ac chelation in targeted alpha therapy (TAT). Radiolabeling studies showed that macropa, at submicromolar concentration, complexed all {sup 225}Ac (26 kBq) in 5 min at RT. [{sup 225}Ac(macropa)]{sup +} remained intact over 7 to 8 days when challenged with either excess La{sup 3+} ions or human serum, and did not accumulate in any organ after 5 h in healthy mice. A bifunctional analogue, macropa-NCS, was conjugated to trastuzumab as well as to the prostate-specific membrane antigen-targeting compound RPS-070. Both constructs rapidly radiolabeled {sup 225}Ac in just minutes at RT, and macropa-Tmab retained >99 % of its {sup 225}Ac in human serum after 7 days. In LNCaP xenograft mice, {sup 225}Ac-macropa-RPS-070 was selectively targeted to tumors and did not release free {sup 225}Ac over 96 h. These findings establish macropa to be a highly promising ligand for {sup 225}Ac chelation that will facilitate the clinical development of {sup 225}Ac TAT for the treatment of soft-tissue metastases. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. New method for large scale production of medically applicable Actinium-225 and Radium-223

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliev, R.A.; Vasilyev, A.N.; Ostapenko, V.; Kalmykov, S.N.; Zhuikov, B.L.; Ermolaev, S.V.; Lapshina, E.V.

    2014-01-01

    Alpha-emitters ( 211 At, 212 Bi, 213 Bi, 223 Ra, 225 Ac) are promising for targeted radiotherapy of cancer. Only two alpha decays near a cell membrane result in 50% death of cancer cell and only a single decay inside the cell is required for this. 225 Ac may be used either directly or as a mother radionuclide in 213 Bi isotope generator. Production of 225 Ac is provided by three main suppliers - Institute for Transuranium Elements in Germany, Oak Ridge National Laboratory in USA and Institute of Physics and Power Engineering in Obninsk, Russia. The current worldwide production of 225 Ac is approximately 1.7 Ci per year that corresponds to only 100-200 patients that could be treated annually. The common approach for 225 Ac production is separation from mother 229 Th or irradiation of 226 Ra with protons in a cyclotron. Both the methods have some practical limitations to be applied routinely. 225 Ac can be also produced by irradiation of natural thorium with medium energy protons . Cumulative cross sections of 225 Ac, 227 Ac, 227 Th, 228 Th formations have been obtained recently. Thorium targets (1-9 g) were irradiated by 114-91 MeV proton beam (1-50 μA) at INR linear accelerator. After dissolution in 8 M HNO 3 + 0.004 M HF thorium was removed by double LLX by HDEHP in toluene (1:1). Ac and REE were pre-concentrated and separated from Ra and most fission products by DGA-Resin (Triskem). After washing out by 0.01 M HNO 3 Ac was separated from REE by TRU Resin (Triskem) in 3 M HNO 3 media. About 6 mCi 225 Ac were separated in hot cell with chemical yield 85%. The method may be upscaled for production of Ci amounts of the radionuclide. The main impurity is 227 Ac (0.1% at the EOB) but it does not hinder 225 Ac from being used for medical 225 Ac/ 213 Bi generators. (author)

  9. β3 integrin promotes chemoresistance to epirubicin in MDA-MB-231 through repression of the pro-apoptotic protein, BAD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Madhumathy G.; Desai, Krisha; Prabhu, Jyothi S.; Hari, P.S.; Remacle, Jose; Sridhar, T.S., E-mail: tssridhar@sjri.res.in

    2016-08-01

    Resistance to anthracycline based chemotherapy is a major limitation in the treatment of breast cancer, particularly of the triple negative sub-type that lacks targeted therapies. Resistance that arises from tumor-stromal interaction facilitated by integrins provides the possibility of targeted disruption. In the present study, we demonstrate that integrin β3 signaling inhibits apoptosis induced by a DNA-damaging chemotherapeutic agent, epirubicin, in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Drug efflux based mechanisms do not contribute to this effect. We show that integrin β3 employs the PI3K-Akt and the MAPK pathway for enabling cell survival and proliferation. Further, our results indicate that integrin β3 helps inhibit epirubicin induced cytotoxicity by repression of the pro-apoptotic protein BAD, thus promoting an anti-apoptotic response. Myristoylated RGT peptide and a monoclonal antibody against integrin β3 brought about a reversal of this effect and chemosensitized the cells. These results identify β3 integrin signaling via repression of BAD as an important survival pathway used by breast cancer cells to evade chemotherapy induced stress. - Highlights: • Integrin β3 signaling promotes chemoresistance to epirubicin in breast cancer cells. • Integrin β3 promotes cell survival and proliferation in drug treated cells through the PI3K and MAPK pathways. • Integrin signaling helps evade drug induced cytotoxicity by repression of pro-apoptotic molecule; BAD.

  10. Obtusifoliol related steroids from Euphorbia sogdiana with cell growth inhibitory activity and apoptotic effects on breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and MDA-MB231).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaei, Mahmoud; Yazdiniapour, Zeinab; Ghanadian, Mustafa; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Lanzotti, Virginia; Mirsafaee, Vahid

    2016-11-01

    From the aerial parts of Euphorbia sogdiana Popov, obtusifoliol (1) and two related steroids (2-3) have been isolated and characterized along with a known cycloartane derivative (4). The chemical structure of the obtusifoliol-related compounds, obtained by 1D and 2D NMR, and MS measurements, have been determined as: 3β,7α-dihydroxy-4α,14α-dimethyl-5α-ergosta-8,24(28)-diene-11-one (2) and 3β-hydroxy-4α,14α-dimethyl-5α-ergosta-8,24(28)-diene-1-one (3). Compound 2 has been previously isolated from Euphorbia chamaesyce while compound 3 was never reported before. The isolated compounds 1-4 were subjected to cytotoxic tests on the breast cancer cells, MCF-7 and MDA-MB231. Further pharmacological tests on the more active compounds 2 and 3 indicated their action to be related to cell growth inhibitory activity and apoptotic effects on the tested cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Resveratrol and Estradiol Exert Disparate Effects on Cell Migration, Cell Surface Actin Structures, and Focal Adhesion Assembly in MDA-MB-231 Human Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas G. Azios

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol, a grape polyphenol, is thought to be a cancer preventive, yet its effects on metastatic breast cancer are relatively unknown. Since cancer cell invasion is dependent on cell migration, the chemotactic response of MDA-MB-231 metastatic human breast cancer cells to resveratrol, estradiol (E2, or epidermal growth factor (EGF was investigated. Resveratrol decreased while E2 and EGF increased directed cell migration. Resveratrol may inhibit cell migration by altering the cytoskeleton. Resveratrol induced a rapid global array of filopodia and decreased focal adhesions and focal adhesion kinase (FAK activity. E2 or EGF treatment did not affect filopodia extension but increased lamellipodia and associated focal adhesions that are integral for cell migration. Combined resveratrol and E2 treatment resulted in a filopodia and focal adhesion response similar to resveratrol alone. Combined resveratrol and EGF resulted in a lamellipodia and focal adhesion response similar to EGF alone. E2 and to a lesser extent resveratrol increased EGFR activity. The cytoskeletal changes and EGFR activity in response to E2 were blocked by EGFR1 inhibitor indicating that E2 may increase cell migration via crosstalk with EGFR signaling. These data suggest a promotional role for E2 in breast cancer cell migration but an antiestrogenic, preventative role for resveratrol.

  12. Antibacterial Synthetic Peptides Derived from Bovine Lactoferricin Exhibit Cytotoxic Effect against MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerly Vargas Casanova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Linear, dimeric, tetrameric, and cyclic peptides derived from lactoferricin B, containing the RRWQWR motif, were designed, synthesized, purified, and characterized using RP-HPLC chromatography and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The antibacterial activity of the designed peptides against E. coli (ATCC 11775 and 25922 and their cytotoxic effect against MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines were evaluated. Dimeric and tetrameric peptides showed higher antibacterial activity in both bacteria strains than linear peptides. The dimeric peptide (RRWQWR2K-Ahx exhibited the highest antibacterial activity against the tested bacterial strains. Furthermore, the peptides with high antibacterial activity exhibited significant cytotoxic effect against the tested breast cancer cell lines. This cytotoxic effect was fast and dependent on the peptide concentration. The tetrameric molecule containing RRWQWR motif has an optimal cytotoxic effect at a concentration of 22 µM. The evaluated dimeric and tetrameric peptides could be considered as candidates for developing new therapeutic agents against breast cancer. Polyvalence of linear sequences could be considered as a novel and versatile strategy for obtaining molecules with high anticancer activity.

  13. Antibacterial Synthetic Peptides Derived from Bovine Lactoferricin Exhibit Cytotoxic Effect against MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Casanova, Yerly; Rodríguez Guerra, Jorge Antonio; Umaña Pérez, Yadi Adriana; Leal Castro, Aura Lucía; Almanzar Reina, Giovanni; García Castañeda, Javier Eduardo; Rivera Monroy, Zuly Jenny

    2017-09-29

    Linear, dimeric, tetrameric, and cyclic peptides derived from lactoferricin B, containing the RRWQWR motif, were designed, synthesized, purified, and characterized using RP-HPLC chromatography and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The antibacterial activity of the designed peptides against E. coli (ATCC 11775 and 25922) and their cytotoxic effect against MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines were evaluated. Dimeric and tetrameric peptides showed higher antibacterial activity in both bacteria strains than linear peptides. The dimeric peptide (RRWQWR)₂K-Ahx exhibited the highest antibacterial activity against the tested bacterial strains. Furthermore, the peptides with high antibacterial activity exhibited significant cytotoxic effect against the tested breast cancer cell lines. This cytotoxic effect was fast and dependent on the peptide concentration. The tetrameric molecule containing RRWQWR motif has an optimal cytotoxic effect at a concentration of 22 µM. The evaluated dimeric and tetrameric peptides could be considered as candidates for developing new therapeutic agents against breast cancer. Polyvalence of linear sequences could be considered as a novel and versatile strategy for obtaining molecules with high anticancer activity.

  14. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil spiked with model mixtures of petroleum hydrocarbons and heterocycles using biosurfactants from Rhodococcus ruber IEGM 231.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivshina, Irina; Kostina, Ludmila; Krivoruchko, Anastasiya; Kuyukina, Maria; Peshkur, Tatyana; Anderson, Peter; Cunningham, Colin

    2016-07-15

    Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil using biosurfactants (BS) produced by Rhodococcus ruber IEGM 231 was studied in soil columns spiked with model mixtures of major petroleum constituents. A crystalline mixture of single PAHs (0.63g/kg), a crystalline mixture of PAHs (0.63g/kg) and polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles (PASHs), and an artificially synthesized non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) containing PAHs (3.00g/kg) dissolved in alkanes C10-C19 were used for spiking. Percentage of PAH removal with BS varied from 16 to 69%. Washing activities of BS were 2.5 times greater than those of synthetic surfactant Tween 60 in NAPL-spiked soil and similar to Tween 60 in crystalline-spiked soil. At the same time, amounts of removed PAHs were equal and consisted of 0.3-0.5g/kg dry soil regardless the chemical pattern of a model mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons and heterocycles used for spiking. UV spectra for soil before and after BS treatment were obtained and their applicability for differentiated analysis of PAH and PASH concentration changes in remediated soil was shown. The ratios A254nm/A288nm revealed that BS increased biotreatability of PAH-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Efficient Use of Exogenous Isoprenols for Protein Isoprenylation by MDA-MB-231 Cells Is Regulated Independently of the Mevalonate Pathway*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onono, Fredrick; Subramanian, Thangaiah; Sunkara, Manjula; Subramanian, Karunai Leela; Spielmann, H. Peter; Morris, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian cells can use exogenous isoprenols to generate isoprenoid diphosphate substrates for protein isoprenylation, but the mechanism, efficiency, and biological importance of this process are not known. We developed mass spectrometry-based methods using chemical probes and newly synthesized stable isotope-labeled tracers to quantitate incorporation of exogenously provided farnesol, geranylgeraniol, and unnatural analogs of these isoprenols containing an aniline group into isoprenoid diphosphates and protein isoprenylcysteines by cultured human cancer cell lines. We found that at exogenous isoprenol concentrations >10 μm, this process can generate as much as 50% of the cellular isoprenoid diphosphate pool used for protein isoprenylation. Mutational activation of p53 in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells up-regulates the mevalonate pathway to promote tumor invasiveness. p53 silencing or pharmacological inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase in these cells decreases protein isoprenylation from endogenously synthesized isoprenoids but enhances the use of exogenous isoprenols for this purpose, indicating that this latter process is regulated independently of the mevalonate pathway. Our observations suggest unique opportunities for design of cancer cell-directed therapies and may provide insights into mechanisms underlying pleiotropic therapeutic benefits and unwanted side effects of mevalonate pathway inhibition. PMID:23908355

  16. Probing early tumor response to radiation therapy using hyperpolarized [1-¹³C]pyruvate in MDA-MB-231 xenografts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert P Chen

    Full Text Available Following radiation therapy (RT, tumor morphology may remain unchanged for days and sometimes weeks, rendering anatomical imaging methods inadequate for early detection of therapeutic response. Changes in the hyperpolarized [1-¹³C]lactate signals observed in vivo following injection of pre-polarized [1-¹³C]pyruvate has recently been shown to be a marker for tumor progression or early treatment response. In this study, the feasibility of using ¹³C metabolic imaging with [1-¹³C]pyruvate to detect early radiation treatment response in a breast cancer xenograft model was demonstrated in vivo and in vitro. Significant decreases in hyperpolarized [1-¹³C]lactate relative to [1-¹³C]pyruvate were observed in MDA-MB-231 tumors 96 hrs following a single dose of ionizing radiation. Histopathologic data from the treated tumors showed higher cellular apoptosis and senescence; and changes in the expression of membrane monocarboxylate transporters and lactate dehydrogenase B were also observed. Hyperpolarized ¹³C metabolic imaging may be a promising new tool to develop novel and adaptive therapeutic regimens for patients undergoing RT.

  17. Ganoderiol A-enriched extract suppresses migration and adhesion of MDA-MB-231 cells by inhibiting FAK-SRC-paxillin cascade pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Sheng Wu

    Full Text Available Cell adhesion, migration and invasion are critical steps for carcinogenesis and cancer metastasis. Ganoderma lucidum, also called Lingzhi in China, is a traditional Chinese medicine, which exhibits anti-proliferation, anti-inflammation and anti-metastasis properties. Herein, GAEE, G. lucidum extract mainly contains ganoderiol A (GA, dihydrogenated GA and GA isomer, was shown to inhibit the abilities of adhesion and migration, while have a slight influence on that of invasion in highly metastatic breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells at non-toxic doses. Further investigation revealed that GAEE decreased the active forms of focal adhesion kinase (FAK and disrupted the interaction between FAK and SRC, which lead to deactivating of paxillin. Moreover, GAEE treatment downregulated the expressions of RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42, and decreased the interaction between neural Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (N-WASP and Cdc42, which impair cell migration and actin assembly. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show that G.lucidum triterpenoids could suppress cell migration and adhesion through FAK-SRC-paxillin signaling pathway. Our study also suggests that GAEE may be a potential agent for treatment of breast cancer.

  18. Northern Pintail Telemetry [ds231

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Using radio-telemetry, female northern pintail (Anas acuta) survival, distribution, and movements during late August-March in Central California were determined...

  19. ESTRATÉGIAS DE RESPONSABILIDADE SOCIAL CORPORATIVA: UM ESTUDO SOBRE OS 231 CASOS CONCRETOS DO INSTITUTO ETHOS [doi: 10.5329/RECADM.20060501004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciara Maria de Oliveira

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available ResumoUm perfil das estratégias de Responsabilidade Social Corporativa adotadas por empresas no Brasil é o objetivoprincipal deste trabalho. Utilizou-se como universo de estudo os 231 Casos Concretos preenchidosespontaneamente pelas empresas filiadas na página web do Instituto Ethos de Empresa e ResponsabilidadeSocial (Instituto Ethos. Os casos foram analisados pelo software alemão de análise de dados qualitativosdenominado Atlas.ti 5.0, sob o enfoque metodológico das seis variáveis adotadas por Kotler e Lee (2005 emCorporate Social Responsability: doing the most good for your company and your cause, como estratégias paraalcançar-se a Responsabilidade Social Corporativa. As estratégias analisadas são: Marketing SocialCorporativo, Marketing de Causa Social, Patrocínio, Filantropia Estratégica, Voluntariado Corporativo e AçãoSocial Responsável. Percebe-se que a maioria das empresas que divulgaram suas estratégias deResponsabilidade Social ainda não tem a percepção plena da utilização dessas estratégias, haja vista que agrande maioria ainda está classificada com Ação Social Responsável, vindo em seguida o Marketing SocialCorporativo, Filantropia Estratégica, Voluntariado Corporativo, Patrocínio e Marketing de Causa SocialPalavras-chave: Estratégias. Marketing. Responsabilidade Social Corporativa.AbstractA profile of the strategies of Corporate Social Responsibility adopted by companies in Brazil is the main objectiveof this work. It was used as study universe the 231 Concrete Cases filled of spontaneous form for thecompanies registered in the web page of the Ethos Institute of Company and Social Responsibility (EthosInstitute. The cases had been analyzed by the German software of analysis of qualitative data called Atlas.ti5.0, under the methodical approach of the six variable adopted for Kotler and Lee (2005 in Corporate SocialResponsability: doing the most good for your company and your cause, as strategies to reach

  20. Aqueous extract of Arbutus unedo inhibits STAT1 activation in human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and human fibroblasts through SHP2 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotto, S; Ciampa, A R; de Prati, A Carcereri; Darra, E; Vincenzi, S; Sega, M; Cavalieri, E; Shoji, K; Suzuki, H

    2008-05-01

    Arbutus unedo L. has been for a long time employed in traditional and popular medicine as an astringent, diuretic, urinary anti-septic, and more recently, in the therapy of hypertension and diabetes. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) is a fascinating and complex protein with multiple yet contrasting transcriptional functions. Although activation of this nuclear factor is finely regulated in order to control the entire inflammatory process, its hyper-activation or time-spatially erroneous activation may lead to exacerbation of inflammation. The modulation of this nuclear factor, therefore, has recently been considered as a new strategy in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. In this study, we present data showing that the aqueous extract of Arbutus unedo's leaves exerts inhibitory action on interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) elicited activation of STAT1, both in human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and in human fibroblasts. This down-regulation of STAT1 is shown to result from a reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT1 protein. Evidence is also presented indicating that the inhibitory effect of this extract may be mediated through enhancement of tyrosine phosphorylation of SHP2 tyrosine phosphatase. The modulation of this nuclear factor turns out into the regulation of the expression of a number of genes involved in the inflammatory response such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Taken together, our results suggest that the employment of the Arbutus unedo aqueous extract is promising, at least, as an auxiliary anti-inflammatory treatment of diseases in which STAT1 plays a critical role.

  1. Apigenin inhibits TNFα/IL-1α-induced CCL2 release through IKBK-epsilon signaling in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bauer

    Full Text Available Mortality associated with breast cancer is attributable to aggressive metastasis, to which TNFα plays a central orchestrating role. TNFα acts on breast tumor TNF receptors evoking the release of chemotactic proteins (e.g. MCP-1/CCL2. These proteins direct inward infiltration/migration of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs, tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs, T-regulatory cells (Tregs, T helper IL-17-producing cells (Th17s, metastasis-associated macrophages (MAMs and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs. Tumor embedded infiltrates collectively enable immune evasion, tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis. In the current study, we investigate the potential of apigenin, a known anti-inflammatory constituent of parsley, to downregulate TNFα mediated release of chemokines from human triple-negative cells (MDA-MB-231 cells. The results show that TNFα stimulation leads to large rise of CCL2, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF, IL-1α and IL-6, all suppressed by apigenin. While many aspects of the transcriptome for NFkB signaling were evaluated, the data show signaling patterns associated with CCL2 were blocked by apigenin and mediated through suppressed mRNA and protein synthesis of IKBKe. Moreover, the data show that the attenuation of CCL2 by apigenin in the presence TNFα paralleled the suppression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK 1/ 2. In summary, the obtained findings suggest that there exists a TNFα evoked release of CCL2 and other LSP recruiting cytokines from human breast cancer cells, which can be attenuated by apigenin.

  2. Biological profile of {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-betaAla-NT(8-13) in MDAMB-231 breast cancer cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teodoro, Rodrigo; Faintuch, Bluma L.; Wiecek, Danielle P.; Silva, Natanael G.; Vallejo, Natalia M., E-mail: teodoro_rodrigo@yahoo.com.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Diretoria de Radiofarmacia

    2009-07-01

    Introduction: Neurotensin (NT) is a tridecapeptide involved in several growth-steps of human cancers. Recent studies postulated the role of NT and NT-receptor subtype 1 in breast cancer progression. However, the main drawback of natural NT is its rapid degradation in plasma. In an effort to develop a NT peptide-based radiopharmaceutical for the detection of breast cancer, the aim of this study was the radiolabeling of the double stabilized NT(8-13) peptide using HYNIC as chelating agent. Methods: Conjugated HYNIC-betaAla-NT(8-13) was labeled with {sup 99m}Tc using tricine and EDDA as coligands. Radiochemical purity was checked by TLC and confirmed by RP-HPLC. {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-betaAla-NT(8-13) (0.1 mL/74 MBq) was administered in Nude mice bearing MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and biodistribution studies were carried out at 30 and 90 min postinjection (pi). Blocking evaluation was also conducted by co-injection of 115 nmol of cold NT (8-13) analog. Planar gamma-camera imaging was acquired at the earlier time point studied. Results: Radiochemical purity of the radioconjugate was higher than 99%. Biodistribution studies revealed a very fast accumulation in tumor (1.97+-0.18% ID/g, 30 min pi) with a sharply decrease at the later time point studied (0.44+-0.02% ID/g). The specificity of the radioconjugate was evaluated with blockade studies. A reduction of 45.94%, 27.73% and 36.39% was found for tumor, large and small intestines, respectively, at 30 min pi. Otherwise, a less impressive blockade was observed for tumor and small intestine (28.68% and 24.90%, respectively) at the later time point studied. Conclusion: The results provide encouraging evidence in the development of radiolabeled NT(8-13) analogues for breast cancer diagnosis. (author)

  3. Biological profile of 99mTc-HYNIC-βAla-NT(8-13) in MDAMB-231 breast cancer cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teodoro, Rodrigo; Faintuch, Bluma L.; Wiecek, Danielle P.; Silva, Natanael G.; Vallejo, Natalia M.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Neurotensin (NT) is a tridecapeptide involved in several growth-steps of human cancers. Recent studies postulated the role of NT and NT-receptor subtype 1 in breast cancer progression. However, the main drawback of natural NT is its rapid degradation in plasma. In an effort to develop a NT peptide-based radiopharmaceutical for the detection of breast cancer, the aim of this study was the radiolabeling of the double stabilized NT(8-13) peptide using HYNIC as chelating agent. Methods: Conjugated HYNIC-βAla-NT(8-13) was labeled with 99m Tc using tricine and EDDA as coligands. Radiochemical purity was checked by TLC and confirmed by RP-HPLC. 99m Tc-HYNIC-βAla-NT(8-13) (0.1 mL/74 MBq) was administered in Nude mice bearing MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and biodistribution studies were carried out at 30 and 90 min postinjection (pi). Blocking evaluation was also conducted by co-injection of 115 nmol of cold NT (8-13) analog. Planar gamma-camera imaging was acquired at the earlier time point studied. Results: Radiochemical purity of the radioconjugate was higher than 99%. Biodistribution studies revealed a very fast accumulation in tumor (1.97±0.18% ID/g, 30 min pi) with a sharply decrease at the later time point studied (0.44±0.02% ID/g). The specificity of the radioconjugate was evaluated with blockade studies. A reduction of 45.94%, 27.73% and 36.39% was found for tumor, large and small intestines, respectively, at 30 min pi. Otherwise, a less impressive blockade was observed for tumor and small intestine (28.68% and 24.90%, respectively) at the later time point studied. Conclusion: The results provide encouraging evidence in the development of radiolabeled NT(8-13) analogues for breast cancer diagnosis. (author)

  4. Clinical and laboratory features of cats with feline infectious peritonitis--a retrospective study of 231 confirmed cases (2000-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemer, Friederike; Kuehner, Kirsten A; Ritz, Susanne; Sauter-Louis, Carola; Hartmann, Katrin

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to review signalment, clinical signs and laboratory features in a large number of naturally occurring cases of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), and to evaluate potential changes in diagnostic criteria for FIP and compare findings in cats with and without effusion. The medical records of 231 cats with confirmed FIP that presented to the Clinic of Small Animal Medicine of the Ludwig-Maximilian University of Munich, Germany, were reviewed for signalment, history, and clinical and laboratory parameters. Age, sex and breed distribution of the cats were compared with the clinic population. Male sex and young age were significantly correlated with FIP. Neutering status was not associated with FIP. No breed predisposition was observed and the majority of cats presented were domestic shorthair and mixed breed. Microcytosis of peripheral erythrocytes was found in 35.1% of cats, of which 42.4% did not have concurrent anaemia. Band neutrophilia was documented in 44.3% (81/183), of which 35.8% did not have mature neutrophilia. Lymphopenia, observed significantly more often with effusion, was documented in only 26.8% of cats without effusion. Hyperbilirubinaemia also occurred significantly more often in cats with vs without effusion. While serum total protein was increased in only 17.5% of cats, hyperglobulinaemia was documented in 89.1%. Nearly 85.0% of cats had an albumin-to-globulin (A:G) ratio peritonitis. Globulins and A:G ratio were of higher diagnostic value than hyperproteinaemia. © ISFM and AAFP 2015.

  5. Colorectal cancer risk variants at 8q23.3 and 11q23.1 are associated with disease phenotype in APC mutation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbanoghli, Z; Nieuwenhuis, M H; Houwing-Duistermaat, J J; Jagmohan-Changur, S; Hes, F J; Tops, C M; Wagner, A; Aalfs, C M; Verhoef, S; Gómez García, E B; Sijmons, R H; Menko, F H; Letteboer, T G; Hoogerbrugge, N; van Wezel, T; Vasen, H F A; Wijnen, J T

    2016-10-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a dominantly inherited syndrome caused by germline mutations in the APC gene and characterized by the development of multiple colorectal adenomas and a high risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). The severity of polyposis is correlated with the site of the APC mutation. However, there is also phenotypic variability within families with the same underlying APC mutation, suggesting that additional factors influence the severity of polyposis. Genome-wide association studies identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with CRC. We assessed whether these SNPs are associated with polyp multiplicity in proven APC mutation carriers. Sixteen CRC-associated SNPs were analysed in a cohort of 419 APC germline mutation carriers from 182 families. Clinical data were retrieved from the Dutch Polyposis Registry. Allele frequencies of the SNPs were compared for patients with APC genotype as a covariate. We found a trend of association of two of the tested SNPs with the ≥100 adenoma phenotype: the C alleles of rs16892766 at 8q23.3 (OR 1.71, 95 % CI 1.05-2.76, p = 0.03, dominant model) and rs3802842 at 11q23.1 (OR 1.51, 95 % CI 1.03-2.22, p = 0.04, dominant model). We identified two risk variants that are associated with a more severe phenotype in APC mutation carriers. These risk variants may partly explain the phenotypic variability in families with the same APC gene defect. Further studies with a larger sample size are recommended to evaluate and confirm the phenotypic effect of these SNPs in FAP.

  6. MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell viability, motility and matrix adhesion are regulated by a complex interplay of heparan sulfate, chondroitin-/dermatan sulfate and hyaluronan biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Manuela; Brüggemann, Kathrin; Karousou, Evgenia; Caon, Ilaria; Caravà, Elena; Vigetti, Davide; Greve, Burkhard; Stock, Christian; De Luca, Giancarlo; Passi, Alberto; Götte, Martin

    2017-06-01

    Proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans modulate numerous cellular processes relevant to tumour progression, including cell proliferation, cell-matrix interactions, cell motility and invasive growth. Among the glycosaminoglycans with a well-documented role in tumour progression are heparan sulphate, chondroitin/dermatan sulphate and hyaluronic acid/hyaluronan. While the mode of biosynthesis differs for sulphated glycosaminoglycans, which are synthesised in the ER and Golgi compartments, and hyaluronan, which is synthesized at the plasma membrane, these polysaccharides partially compete for common substrates. In this study, we employed a siRNA knockdown approach for heparan sulphate (EXT1) and heparan/chondroitin/dermatan sulphate-biosynthetic enzymes (β4GalT7) in the aggressive human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 to study the impact on cell behaviour and hyaluronan biosynthesis. Knockdown of β4GalT7 expression resulted in a decrease in cell viability, motility and adhesion to fibronectin, while these parameters were unchanged in EXT1-silenced cells. Importantly, these changes were associated with a decreased expression of syndecan-1, decreased signalling response to HGF and an increase in the synthesis of hyaluronan, due to an upregulation of the hyaluronan synthases HAS2 and HAS3. Interestingly, EXT1-depleted cells showed a downregulation of the UDP-sugar transporter SLC35D1, whereas SLC35D2 was downregulated in β4GalT7-depleted cells, indicating an intricate regulatory network that connects all glycosaminoglycans synthesis. The results of our in vitro study suggest that a modulation of breast cancer cell behaviour via interference with heparan sulphate biosynthesis may result in a compensatory upregulation of hyaluronan biosynthesis. These findings have important implications for the development of glycosaminoglycan-targeted therapeutic approaches for malignant diseases.

  7. Lithium chloride attenuates mitomycin C induced necrotic cell death in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells via HMGB1 and Bax signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmi, Mahdieh; Rabbani-Chadegani, Azra; Hashemi-Niasari, Fatemeh; Ghadam, Parinaz

    2018-07-01

    The clinical use of potent anticancer drug mitomycin C (MMC) has limited due to side effects and resistance of cancer cells. The aim of this study was to investigate whether lithium chloride (LiCl), as a mood stabilizer, can affect the sensitivity of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells to mitomycin C. The cells were exposed to various concentrations of mitomycin C alone and combined with LiCl and the viability determined by trypan blue and MTT assays. Proteins were analyzed by western blot and mRNA expression of HMGB1 MMP9 and Bcl-2 were analyzed by RT-PCR. Flow cytometry was used to determine the cell cycle arrest and percent of apoptotic and necrotic cells. Concentration of Bax assessed by ELISA. Exposure of the cells to mitomycin C revealed IC 50 value of 20 μM, whereas pretreatment of the cells with LiCl induced synergistic cytotoxicity and IC 50 value declined to 5 μM. LiCl combined with mitomycin C significantly down-regulated HMGB1, MMP9 and Bcl-2 gene expression but significantly increased the level of Bax protein. In addition, the content of HMGB1 in the nuclei decreased and pretreatment with LiCl reduced the content of HMGB1 release induced by MMC. LiCl increased mitomycin C-induced cell shrinkage and PARP fragmentation suggesting induction of apoptosis in these cells. LiCl prevented mitomycin C-induced necrosis and changed the cell death arrest at G2/M-phase. Taking all together, it is suggested that LiCl efficiently enhances mitomycin C-induced apoptosis and HMGB1, Bax and Bcl-2 expression may play a major role in this process, the findings that provide a new therapeutic strategy for LiCl in combination with mitomycin C. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Tissue factor-factor VIIa-specific up-regulation of IL-8 expression in MDA-MB-231 cells is mediated by PAR-2 and results in increased cell migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortoe, Gertrud M; Petersen, Lars C; Albrektsen, Tatjana

    2004-01-01

    Tissue factor (TF), the cellular receptor for factor VIIa (FVIIa), besides initiating blood coagulation, is believed to play an important role in tissue repair, inflammation, angiogenesis, and tumor metastasis. Like TF, the chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) is shown to play a critical role...... in these processes. To elucidate the potential mechanisms by which TF contributes to tumor invasion and metastasis, we investigated the effect of FVIIa on IL-8 expression and cell migration in a breast carcinoma cell line, MDA-MB-231, a cell line that constitutively expresses abundant TF. Expression of IL-8 m......RNA in MDA-MB-231 cells was markedly up-regulated by plasma concentrations of FVII or an equivalent concentration of FVIIa (10 nM). Neither thrombin nor other proteases involved in hemostasis were effective in stimulating IL-8 in these cells. Increased transcriptional activation of the IL-8 gene...

  9. A synthetic chalcone derivative, 2-hydroxy-3',5,5'-trimethoxychalcone (DK-139), suppresses the TNFα-induced invasive capability of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells by inhibiting NF-κB-mediated GROα expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Da Young; Lee, Da Hyun; Jung, Jung You; Koh, Dongsoo; Kim, Geum-Soog; Ahn, Young-Sup; Lee, Young Han; Lim, Yoongho; Shin, Soon Young

    2016-01-01

    2-Hydroxy-3',5,5'-trimenthoxyochalcone (DK-139) is a synthetic chalcone-derived compound. This study evaluated the biological activity of DK-139 on the inhibition of tumor metastasis. Growth-regulated oncogene-alpha (GROα) plays an important role in the progression of tumor development by stimulating angiogenesis and metastasis. In this study, DK-139 inhibited tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)-induced GROα gene promoter activity by inhibiting of IκB kinase (IKK) in MDA-MB231 cells. In addition, DK-139 prevented the TNFα-induced cell migration, F-actin formation, and invasive capability of MDA-MB-231 cells. These findings suggest that DK-139 is a potential drug candidate for the inhibition of tumor cell locomotion and invasion via the suppression of NF-κB-mediated GROα expression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Vasodilator-Stimulated Phosphoprotein (VASP) depletion from breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells inhibits tumor spheroid invasion through downregulation of Migfilin, β-catenin and urokinase-plasminogen activator (uPA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gkretsi, Vasiliki; Stylianou, Andreas; Stylianopoulos, Triantafyllos, E-mail: tstylian@ucy.ac.cy

    2017-03-15

    A hallmark of cancer cells is their ability to invade surrounding tissues and form metastases. Cell-extracellular matrix (ECM)-adhesion proteins are crucial in metastasis, connecting tumor ECM with actin cytoskeleton thus enabling cells to respond to mechanical cues. Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) is an actin-polymerization regulator which interacts with cell-ECM adhesion protein Migfilin, and regulates cell migration. We compared VASP expression in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer (BC) cells and found that more invasive MDA-MB-231 cells overexpress VASP. We then utilized a 3-dimensional (3D) approach to study metastasis in MDA-MB-231 cells using a system that considers mechanical forces exerted by the ECM. We prepared 3D collagen I gels of increasing concentration, imaged them by atomic force microscopy, and used them to either embed cells or tumor spheroids, in the presence or absence of VASP. We show, for the first time, that VASP silencing downregulated Migfilin, β-catenin and urokinase plasminogen activator both in 2D and 3D, suggesting a matrix-independent mechanism. Tumor spheroids lacking VASP demonstrated impaired invasion, indicating VASP’s involvement in metastasis, which was corroborated by Kaplan-Meier plotter showing high VASP expression to be associated with poor remission-free survival in lymph node-positive BC patients. Hence, VASP may be a novel BC metastasis biomarker. - Highlights: • More invasive MDA-MB-231 overexpress VASP compared to MCF-7 breast cancer cells. • We prepared 3D collagen I gels of increasing concentration and characterized them. • VASP silencing downregulated Migfilin, β-catenin and uPA both in 2D and 3D culture. • Tumor spheroids lacking VASP demonstrated impaired invasion. • Kaplan-Meier plotter shows association of high VASP expression with poor survival.

  11. Different Expression of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinases (ERK) 1/2 and Phospho-Erk Proteins in MBA-MB-231 and MCF-7 Cells after Chemotherapy with Doxorubicin or Docetaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherian, Aliakbar; Mazoochi, Tahereh

    2012-01-01

    Curative treatment of breast cancer patients using chemotherapy often fails as a result of intrinsic or acquired resistance of the tumor to the drug. ERK is one of the main components of the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK cascade, which mediates signal from cell surface receptors to transcription factors to regulate different gene expression. In this study, cytotoxicity and the expression of Erk1/2 and phospho-ERK was compared in MDA-MB-231 (ER-) and MCF-7 (ER+) cell lines after treatment with doxorubicin (DOX) or docetaxel (DOCT). Cell cytotoxicity of DOX or DOCT was calculated using MTT assay. Immonofluorescent technique was used to show MDR-1 protein in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells after treatment with DOX or DOCT. The expression of ERK1/2 and phpspho-ERK was assayed with immunoblotting. Comparing IC50 values showed that MDA-MB-231 cells are more sensitive than MCF-7 cells to DOX or DOCT. Immonofluorescent results confirmed the expression of MDR-1 in these two cell lines after DOX or DOCT treatment. In MDA-MB-231 cells the expression of ERK1/2 and phospho-ERK was decreased after DOX treatment in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast in MCF-7 cells the expression of ERK1/2 and phospho-ERK was increased after DOX treatment. DOCT treatment demonstrated the same result with less significant differences than DOX. The heterogeneity seen in cell lines actually reflects the heterogeneity of breast cancers. That is why, patients categorized in one group respond differently to a single treatment. These results emphasize the importance of a more accurate classification and a more specific treatment of breast cancer subtypes.

  12. Arctigenin, a lignan from Arctium lappa L., inhibits metastasis of human breast cancer cells through the downregulation of MMP-2/-9 and heparanase in MDA-MB-231 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Chenghua; Zhu, Zhihui; Zhao, Yaping; Zhu, Rui; Zhao, Huajun

    2017-01-01

    Arctigenin is a bioactive lignan isolated from the seeds of Arctium lappa L. which has been widely used as a diuretic and a diaphoretic in Traditional Chinese Medicine. In the present study, the authors investigated the effects of arctigenin on tumor migration and invasion in aggressive human breast cancer cells. The MTT assay results showed that arctigenin did not show a significant cytotoxic effect on the cell viability of MDA-MB-231 cells. However, wound healing migration and Boyden chamber invasion assays demonstrated that arctigenin significantly inhibited in vitro migration and invasion of the MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, gelatin zymography results showed that arctigenin reduced the activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Western blot analysis results demonstrated that the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9 and heparanase proteins was significantly downregulated following the treatment of arctigenin. Finally, the antiangiogenic activity of arctigenin was also examined by the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. Arctigenin treatment significantly inhibited angiogenesis in the CAM. In conclusion, the results revealed that arctigenin significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells by downregulating MMP-2, MMP-9 and heparanase expression. However, further studies are still necessary to investigate the exact mechanisms involved and to explore signal transduction pathways to better understand the biological mechanisms.

  13. Δ(9)-THC modulation of fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H) gene expression: possible involvement of induced levels of PPARα in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shuso; Ikeda, Eriko; Su, Shengzhong; Harada, Mari; Okazaki, Hiroyuki; Yoshioka, Yasushi; Nishimura, Hajime; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Kakizoe, Kazuhiro; Taniguchi, Aya; Tokuyasu, Miki; Himeno, Taichi; Watanabe, Kazuhito; Omiecinski, Curtis J; Aramaki, Hironori

    2014-12-04

    We recently reported that Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), a major cannabinoid component in Cannabis Sativa (marijuana), significantly stimulated the expression of fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H) in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) was previously implicated in this induction. However, the mechanisms mediating this induction have not been elucidated in detail. We performed a DNA microarray analysis of Δ(9)-THC-treated samples and showed the selective up-regulation of the PPARα isoform coupled with the induction of FA2H over the other isoforms (β and γ). Δ(9)-THC itself had no binding/activation potential to/on PPARα, and palmitic acid (PA), a PPARα ligand, exhibited no stimulatory effects on FA2H in MDA-MB-231 cells; thus, we hypothesized that the levels of PPARα induced were involved in the Δ(9)-THC-mediated increase in FA2H. In support of this hypothesis, we herein demonstrated that; (i) Δ(9)-THC activated the basal transcriptional activity of PPARα in a concentration-dependent manner, (ii) the concomitant up-regulation of PPARα/FA2H was caused by Δ(9)-THC, (iii) PA could activate PPARα after the PPARα expression plasmid was introduced, and (iv) the Δ(9)-THC-induced up-regulation of FA2H was further stimulated by the co-treatment with L-663,536 (a known PPARα inducer). Taken together, these results support the concept that the induced levels of PPARα may be involved in the Δ(9)-THC up-regulation of FA2H in MDA-MB-231 cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Δ{sup 9}-THC modulation of fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H) gene expression: Possible involvement of induced levels of PPARα in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Shuso [Department of Molecular Biology, Daiichi University of Pharmacy, 22-1 Tamagawa-cho, Minami-ku, Fukuoka 815-8511 (Japan); Laboratory of Xenobiotic Metabolism and Environmental Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hiroshima International University (HIU), 5-1-1 Hiro-koshingai, Kure, Hiroshima 737-0112 (Japan); Ikeda, Eriko [Department of Molecular Biology, Daiichi University of Pharmacy, 22-1 Tamagawa-cho, Minami-ku, Fukuoka 815-8511 (Japan); Su, Shengzhong [Center for Molecular Toxicology and Carcinogenesis, 101 Life Sciences Building, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Harada, Mari [Department of Molecular Biology, Daiichi University of Pharmacy, 22-1 Tamagawa-cho, Minami-ku, Fukuoka 815-8511 (Japan); Okazaki, Hiroyuki [Drug Innovation Research Center, Daiichi University of Pharmacy, 22-1 Tamagawa-cho, Minami-ku, Fukuoka 815-8511 (Japan); Yoshioka, Yasushi; Nishimura, Hajime; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Kakizoe, Kazuhiro; Taniguchi, Aya; Tokuyasu, Miki; Himeno, Taichi [Department of Molecular Biology, Daiichi University of Pharmacy, 22-1 Tamagawa-cho, Minami-ku, Fukuoka 815-8511 (Japan); Watanabe, Kazuhito [Department of Hygienic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokuriku University, Ho-3 Kanagawa-machi, Kanazawa 920-1181 (Japan); Omiecinski, Curtis J. [Center for Molecular Toxicology and Carcinogenesis, 101 Life Sciences Building, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Aramaki, Hironori [Department of Molecular Biology, Daiichi University of Pharmacy, 22-1 Tamagawa-cho, Minami-ku, Fukuoka 815-8511 (Japan); Drug Innovation Research Center, Daiichi University of Pharmacy, 22-1 Tamagawa-cho, Minami-ku, Fukuoka 815-8511 (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    We recently reported that Δ{sup 9}-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ{sup 9}-THC), a major cannabinoid component in Cannabis Sativa (marijuana), significantly stimulated the expression of fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H) in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) was previously implicated in this induction. However, the mechanisms mediating this induction have not been elucidated in detail. We performed a DNA microarray analysis of Δ{sup 9}-THC-treated samples and showed the selective up-regulation of the PPARα isoform coupled with the induction of FA2H over the other isoforms (β and γ). Δ{sup 9}-THC itself had no binding/activation potential to/on PPARα, and palmitic acid (PA), a PPARα ligand, exhibited no stimulatory effects on FA2H in MDA-MB-231 cells; thus, we hypothesized that the levels of PPARα induced were involved in the Δ{sup 9}-THC-mediated increase in FA2H. In support of this hypothesis, we herein demonstrated that; (i) Δ{sup 9}-THC activated the basal transcriptional activity of PPARα in a concentration-dependent manner, (ii) the concomitant up-regulation of PPARα/FA2H was caused by Δ{sup 9}-THC, (iii) PA could activate PPARα after the PPARα expression plasmid was introduced, and (iv) the Δ{sup 9}-THC-induced up-regulation of FA2H was further stimulated by the co-treatment with L-663,536 (a known PPARα inducer). Taken together, these results support the concept that the induced levels of PPARα may be involved in the Δ{sup 9}-THC up-regulation of FA2H in MDA-MB-231 cells.

  15. Δ9-THC modulation of fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H) gene expression: Possible involvement of induced levels of PPARα in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Shuso; Ikeda, Eriko; Su, Shengzhong; Harada, Mari; Okazaki, Hiroyuki; Yoshioka, Yasushi; Nishimura, Hajime; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Kakizoe, Kazuhiro; Taniguchi, Aya; Tokuyasu, Miki; Himeno, Taichi; Watanabe, Kazuhito; Omiecinski, Curtis J.; Aramaki, Hironori

    2014-01-01

    We recently reported that Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 9 -THC), a major cannabinoid component in Cannabis Sativa (marijuana), significantly stimulated the expression of fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H) in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) was previously implicated in this induction. However, the mechanisms mediating this induction have not been elucidated in detail. We performed a DNA microarray analysis of Δ 9 -THC-treated samples and showed the selective up-regulation of the PPARα isoform coupled with the induction of FA2H over the other isoforms (β and γ). Δ 9 -THC itself had no binding/activation potential to/on PPARα, and palmitic acid (PA), a PPARα ligand, exhibited no stimulatory effects on FA2H in MDA-MB-231 cells; thus, we hypothesized that the levels of PPARα induced were involved in the Δ 9 -THC-mediated increase in FA2H. In support of this hypothesis, we herein demonstrated that; (i) Δ 9 -THC activated the basal transcriptional activity of PPARα in a concentration-dependent manner, (ii) the concomitant up-regulation of PPARα/FA2H was caused by Δ 9 -THC, (iii) PA could activate PPARα after the PPARα expression plasmid was introduced, and (iv) the Δ 9 -THC-induced up-regulation of FA2H was further stimulated by the co-treatment with L-663,536 (a known PPARα inducer). Taken together, these results support the concept that the induced levels of PPARα may be involved in the Δ 9 -THC up-regulation of FA2H in MDA-MB-231 cells

  16. Differential Ratios of Omega Fatty Acids (AA/EPA+DHA Modulate Growth, Lipid Peroxidation and Expression of Tumor Regulatory MARBPs in Breast Cancer Cell Lines MCF7 and MDA-MB-231.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash P Mansara

    Full Text Available Omega 3 (n3 and Omega 6 (n6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs have been reported to exhibit opposing roles in cancer progression. Our objective was to determine whether different ratios of n6/n3 (AA/EPA+DHA FAs could modulate the cell viability, lipid peroxidation, total cellular fatty acid composition and expression of tumor regulatory Matrix Attachment Region binding proteins (MARBPs in breast cancer cell lines and in non-cancerous, MCF10A cells. Low ratios of n6/n3 (1:2.5, 1:4, 1:5, 1:10 FA decreased the viability and growth of MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 significantly compared to the non-cancerous cells (MCF10A. Contrarily, higher n6/n3 FA (2.5:1, 4:1, 5:1, 10:1 decreased the survival of both the cancerous and non-cancerous cell types. Lower ratios of n6/n3 selectively induced LPO in the breast cancer cells whereas the higher ratios induced in both cancerous and non-cancerous cell types. Interestingly, compared to higher n6/n3 FA ratios, lower ratios increased the expression of tumor suppressor MARBP, SMAR1 and decreased the expression of tumor activator Cux/CDP in both breast cancer and non-cancerous, MCF10A cells. Low n6/n3 FAs significantly increased SMAR1 expression which resulted into activation of p21WAF1/CIP1 in MDA-MB-231 and MCF7, the increase being ratio dependent in MDA-MB-231. These results suggest that increased intake of n3 fatty acids in our diet could help both in the prevention as well as management of breast cancer.

  17. Genomic, proteomic and morphological characterization of two novel broad host lytic bacteriophages ΦPD10.3 and ΦPD23.1 infecting pectinolytic Pectobacterium spp. and Dickeya spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Czajkowski

    Full Text Available Pectinolytic Pectobacterium spp. and Dickeya spp. are necrotrophic bacterial pathogens of many important crops, including potato, worldwide. This study reports on the isolation and characterization of broad host lytic bacteriophages able to infect the dominant Pectobacterium spp. and Dickeya spp. affecting potato in Europe viz. Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc, P. wasabiae (Pwa and Dickeya solani (Dso with the objective to assess their potential as biological disease control agents. Two lytic bacteriophages infecting stains of Pcc, Pwa and Dso were isolated from potato samples collected from two potato fields in central Poland. The ΦPD10.3 and ΦPD23.1 phages have morphology similar to other members of the Myoviridae family and the Caudovirales order, with a head diameter of 85 and 86 nm and length of tails of 117 and 121 nm, respectively. They were characterized for optimal multiplicity of infection, the rate of adsorption to the Pcc, Pwa and Dso cells, the latent period and the burst size. The phages were genotypically characterized with RAPD-PCR and RFLP techniques. The structural proteomes of both phages were obtained by fractionation of phage proteins by SDS-PAGE. Phage protein identification was performed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS analysis. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, genome sequencing and comparative genome analysis were used to gain knowledge of the length, organization and function of the ΦPD10.3 and ΦPD23.1 genomes. The potential use of ΦPD10.3 and ΦPD23.1 phages for the biocontrol of Pectobacterium spp. and Dickeya spp. infections in potato is discussed.

  18. Assessment of Interactions between Cisplatin and Two Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors in MCF7, T47D and MDA-MB-231 Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines - An Isobolographic Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wawruszak

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs are promising anticancer drugs, which inhibit proliferation of a wide variety of cancer cells including breast carcinoma cells. In the present study, we investigated the influence of valproic acid (VPA and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, vorinostat, alone or in combination with cisplatin (CDDP on proliferation, induction of apoptosis and cell cycle progression in MCF7, T47D and MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cell lines. The type of interaction between HDIs and CDDP was determined by an isobolographic analysis. The isobolographic analysis is a very precise and rigorous pharmacodynamic method, to determine the presence of synergism, addition or antagonism between different drugs with using variety of fixed dose ratios. Our experiments show that the combinations of CDDP with SAHA or VPA at a fixed-ratio of 1:1 exerted additive interaction in the viability of MCF7 cells, while in T47D cells there was a tendency to synergy. In contrast, sub-additive (antagonistic interaction was observed for the combination of CDDP with VPA in MDA-MB-231 "triple-negative" (i.e. estrogen receptor negative, progesterone receptor negative, and HER-2 negative human breast cancer cells, whereas combination of CDDP with SAHA in the same MDA-MB-231 cell line yielded additive interaction. Additionally, combined HDIs/CDDP treatment resulted in increase in apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in all tested breast cancer cell lines in comparison with a single therapy. In conclusion, the additive interaction of CDDP with SAHA or VPA suggests that HDIs could be combined with CDDP in order to optimize treatment regimen in some human breast cancers.

  19. Meiotic and pedigree segregation analyses in carriers of t(4;8)(p16;p23.1) differing in localization of breakpoint positions at 4p subband 4p16.3 and 4p16.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midro, Alina T; Zollino, Marcella; Wiland, Ewa; Panasiuk, Barbara; Iwanowski, Piotr S; Murdolo, Marina; Śmigiel, Robert; Sąsiadek, Maria; Pilch, Jacek; Kurpisz, Maciej

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare meiotic segregation in sperm cells from two carriers with t(4;8)(p16;p23.1) reciprocal chromosome translocations (RCTs), differing in localization of the breakpoint positions at the 4p subband-namely, 4p16.3 (carrier 1) and 4p16.1 (carrier 2)-and to compare data of the pedigree analyses performed by direct method. Three-color fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) on sperm cells and FISH mapping for the evaluation of the breakpoint positions, data from pedigrees, and direct segregation analysis of the pedigrees were performed. Similar proportions of normal/balanced and unbalanced sperm cells were found in both carriers. The most common was an alternate type of segregation (about 52 % and about 48 %, respectively). Unbalanced adjacent I and adjacent II karyotypes were found in similar proportions about 15 %. The direct segregation analysis (following Stengel-Rutkowski) of the pedigree of carriers of t(4;8)(p16.1;p23.1) was performed and results were compared with the data of the pedigree segregation analysis obtained earlier through the indirect method. The probability of live-born progeny with unbalanced karyotype for carriers of t(4;8)(p16.1;p23.1) was moderately high at 18.8 %-comparable to the value obtained using the indirect method for the same carriership, which was 12 %. This was, however, markedly lower than the value of 41.2 % obtained through the pedigree segregation indirect analysis estimated for carriers of t(4;8)(p16.3;p23.1), perhaps due to the unique composition of genes present within the 4p16.1-4p 16.3 region. Revealed differences in pedigree segregation analysis did not correspond to the very similar profile of meiotic segregation patterns presented by carrier 1 and carrier 2. Most probably, such discordances may be due to differences in embryo survival rates arising from different genetic backgrounds.

  20. [Italian Decree D.lgs 231/2001--"Regulations regarding administrative responsibilities of corporate bodies of Companies and Associations including those not legally recognized"--an organizational model for the healthcare area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberti, Giovanni; Fiore, Rosalia; Franco, Claudia; Pimpinella, Giovanni; Piscioneri, Patrizia

    2010-01-01

    Healthcare organizations must implement organizational and management models of regulation and control systems for effectively preventing possible administrative torts by personnel. We define an organizational management and control model for healthcare organizations, based on the legal dispositions of Decree n.231/2001. The model identifies critical points in the administrative and healthcare services delivery processes that are at high-risk of violations to the code. Its primary aim is to prevent torts by the personnel and safeguard the organization at the same time.

  1. Measurement of neutron energy spectra for Eg=23.1 and 26.6 MeV mono-energetic photon induced reaction on natC using laser electron photon beam at NewSUBARU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoga, Toshiro; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Sanami, Toshiya; Namito, Yoshihito; Kirihara, Yoichi; Miyamoto, Shuji; Takemoto, Akinori; Yamaguchi, Masashi; Asano, Yoshihiro

    2017-09-01

    Photo-neutron energy spectra for Eg=23.1 and 26.6 MeV mono-energetic photons on natC were measured using laser Compton scattering facility at NewSUBARU BL01. The photon energy spectra were evaluated through measurements and simulations with collimator sizes and arrangements for the laser electron photon. The neutron energy spectra for the natC(g,xn) reaction were measured at 60 degrees in horizontal and 90 degrees in horizontal and vertical with respect to incident photon. The spectra show almost isotropic angular distribution and flat energy distribution from detection threshold to upper limit defined by reaction Q-value.

  2. Apigenin inhibits HGF-promoted invasive growth and metastasis involving blocking PI3K/Akt pathway and β4 integrin function in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.-J.; Chen, W.-K.; Wang, C.-J.; Lin, W.-L.; Tseng, T.-H.

    2008-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor, Met, known to control invasive growth program have recently been shown to play crucial roles in the survival of breast cancer patients. The diet-derived flavonoids have been reported to possess anti-invasion properties; however, knowledge on the pharmacological and molecular mechanisms in suppressing HGF/Met-mediated tumor invasion and metastasis is poorly understood. In our preliminary study, we use HGF as an invasive inducer to investigate the effect of flavonoids including apigenin, naringenin, genistein and kaempferol on HGF-dependent invasive growth of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Results show that apigenin presents the most potent anti-migration and anti-invasion properties by Boyden chamber assay. Furthermore, apigenin represses the HGF-induced cell motility and scattering and inhibits the HGF-promoted cell migration and invasion in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of apigenin on HGF-induced signaling activation involving invasive growth was evaluated by immunoblotting analysis, it shows that apigenin blocks the HGF-induced Akt phosphorylation but not Met, ERK, and JNK phosphorylation. In addition to MDA-MB-231 cells, apigenin exhibits inhibitory effect on HGF-induced Akt phosphorylation in hepatoma SK-Hep1 cells and lung carcinoma A549 cells. By indirect immunofluorescence microscopy assay, apigenin inhibits the HGF-induced clustering of β4 integrin at actin-rich adhesive site and lamellipodia through PI3K-dependent manner. Treatment of apigenin inhibited HGF-stimulated integrin β4 function including cell-matrix adhesion and cell-endothelial cells adhesion in MDA-MB-231 cells. By Akt-siRNA transfection analysis, it confirmed that apigenin inhibited HGF-promoted invasive growth involving blocking PI3K/Akt pathway. Finally, we evaluated the effect of apigenin on HGF-promoted metastasis by lung colonization of tumor cells in nude mice and organ metastasis of tumor cells in chick embryo. By

  3. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP/ACP5) promotes metastasis-related properties via TGFβ2/TβR and CD44 in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reithmeier, Anja; Panizza, Elena; Krumpel, Michael; Orre, Lukas M; Branca, Rui M M; Lehtiö, Janne; Ek-Rylander, Barbro; Andersson, Göran

    2017-09-15

    Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP/ACP5), a metalloenzyme that is characteristic for its expression in activated osteoclasts and in macrophages, has recently gained considerable focus as a driver of metastasis and was associated with clinically relevant parameters of cancer progression and cancer aggressiveness. MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells with different TRAP expression levels (overexpression and knockdown) were generated and characterized for protein expression and activity levels. Functional cell experiments, such as proliferation, migration and invasion assays were performed as well as global phosphoproteomic and proteomic analysis was conducted to connect molecular perturbations to the phenotypic changes. We identified an association between metastasis-related properties of TRAP-overexpressing MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and a TRAP-dependent regulation of Transforming growth factor (TGFβ) pathway proteins and Cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44). Overexpression of TRAP increased anchorage-independent and anchorage-dependent cell growth and proliferation, induced a more elongated cellular morphology and promoted cell migration and invasion. Migration was increased in the presence of the extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins osteopontin and fibronectin and the basement membrane proteins collagen IV and laminin I. TRAP-induced properties were reverted upon shRNA-mediated knockdown of TRAP or treatment with the small molecule TRAP inhibitor 5-PNA. Global phosphoproteomics and proteomics analyses identified possible substrates of TRAP phosphatase activity or signaling intermediates and outlined a TRAP-dependent regulation of proteins involved in cell adhesion and ECM organization. Upregulation of TGFβ isoform 2 (TGFβ2), TGFβ receptor type 1 (TβR1) and Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 2 (SMAD2), as well as increased intracellular phosphorylation of CD44 were identified upon TRAP perturbation. Functional antibody-mediated blocking and chemical

  4. Measurement of neutron energy spectra for Eg=23.1 and 26.6 MeV mono-energetic photon induced reaction on natC using laser electron photon beam at NewSUBARU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itoga Toshiro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Photo-neutron energy spectra for Eg=23.1 and 26.6 MeV mono-energetic photons on natC were measured using laser Compton scattering facility at NewSUBARU BL01. The photon energy spectra were evaluated through measurements and simulations with collimator sizes and arrangements for the laser electron photon. The neutron energy spectra for the natC(g,xn reaction were measured at 60 degrees in horizontal and 90 degrees in horizontal and vertical with respect to incident photon. The spectra show almost isotropic angular distribution and flat energy distribution from detection threshold to upper limit defined by reaction Q-value.

  5. A Genome-wide Association Study Provides Evidence of Sex-specific Involvement of Chr1p35.1 (ZSCAN20-TLR12P and Chr8p23.1 (HMGB1P46 With Diabetic Neuropathic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Meng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain is defined as pain arising as a direct consequence of a lesion or a disease affecting the somatosensory system and it affects around 1 in 4 diabetic patients in the UK. The purpose of this genome-wide association study (GWAS was to identify genetic contributors to this disorder. Cases of neuropathic pain were defined as diabetic patients with a multiple prescription history of at least one of five drugs specifically indicated for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Controls were diabetic individuals who were not prescribed any of these drugs, nor amitriptyline, carbamazepine, or nortriptyline. Overall, 961 diabetic neuropathic pain cases and 3260 diabetic controls in the Genetics of Diabetes Audit and Research Tayside (GoDARTS cohort were identified. We found a cluster in the Chr1p35.1 (ZSCAN20-TLR12P with a lowest P value of 2.74 × 10−7 at rs71647933 in females and a cluster in the Chr8p23.1, next to HMGB1P46 with a lowest P value of 8.02 × 10−7 at rs6986153 in males. Sex-specific narrow sense heritability was higher in males (30.0% than in females (14.7%. This GWAS on diabetic neuropathic pain provides evidence for the sex-specific involvement of Chr1p35.1 (ZSCAN20-TLR12P and Chr8p23.1 (HMGB1P46 with the disorder, indicating the need for further research.

  6. Mechanism of metformin action in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells involves oxidative stress generation, DNA damage, and transforming growth factor β1 induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinello, Poliana Camila; da Silva, Thamara Nishida Xavier; Panis, Carolina; Neves, Amanda Fouto; Machado, Kaliana Larissa; Borges, Fernando Henrique; Guarnier, Flávia Alessandra; Bernardes, Sara Santos; de-Freitas-Junior, Júlio Cesar Madureira; Morgado-Díaz, José Andrés; Luiz, Rodrigo Cabral; Cecchini, Rubens; Cecchini, Alessandra Lourenço

    2016-04-01

    The participation of oxidative stress in the mechanism of metformin action in breast cancer remains unclear. We investigated the effects of clinical (6 and 30 μM) and experimental concentrations of metformin (1000 and 5000 μM) in MCF-7 and in MDA-MB-231 cells, verifying cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, DNA damage, and intracellular pathways related to cell growth and survival after 24 h of drug exposure. Clinical concentrations of metformin decreased metabolic activity of MCF-7 cells in the MTT assay, which showed increased oxidative stress and DNA damage, although cell death and impairment in the proliferative capacity were observed only at higher concentrations. The reduction in metabolic activity and proliferation in MDA-MB-231 cells was present only at experimental concentrations after 24 h of drug exposition. Oxidative stress and DNA damage were induced in this cell line at experimental concentrations. The drug decreased cytoplasmic extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and AKT and increased nuclear p53 and cytoplasmic transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) in both cell lines. These findings suggest that metformin reduces cell survival by increasing reactive oxygen species, which induce DNA damage and apoptosis. A relationship between the increase in TGF-β1 and p53 levels and the decrease in ERK1/2 and AKT was also observed. These findings suggest the mechanism of action of metformin in both breast cancer cell lineages, whereas cell line specific undergoes redox changes in the cells in which proliferation and survival signaling are modified. Taken together, these results highlight the potential clinical utility of metformin as an adjuvant during the treatment of luminal and triple-negative breast cancer.

  7. Modelling of the radioactive daughter elements in soil to assess radiation impact due to contaminated irrigation water by parents of 231Pa, 226Ra, 238U, 237Np and 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bela Kanyar; Katalin Eged; Tunde Katona; Gerhard Proehl; Ulla Bergstroem; Bengt Hallberg; Shelly Mobbs; Geert Olyslaegers; Theo Zeevaert; Palome Pinedo; Inmaculade Simon

    2004-01-01

    Radioactive wastes may contain both parent and daughter radionuclides. In some cases the transfer parameters of the daughter radio-elements differ significantly from that of the parent ones and therefore the dose contributions in the different pathways might be important to assess separately. The present work has compared 5 different site specific models by a scenario, using contaminated water for drinking and irrigation. Altogether 5 radionuclides from the investigated 10 ones contained radioactive daughter elements. In general, for long term studies in biosphere the steady-state formulations of processes are adequate to assess the contamination, except the infiltration into the deeper soil and sediment layers. According to the results of the modelling and computer simulations, the following daughters are to be assessed separately from their parents with respect to the radiation impact: for parent 231 Pa the daughter 227 Ac, for parent 226 Ra the daughters 222 Rn, 210 Pb and 210 Po and for parent 237 Np the daughter 233 Pa. The dose contributions of the daughters from parents 238 U and 239 Pu are less significant during the considered 100-10000 years. In case of contamination of irrigation water with 1 Bq x m -3 of the parent radionuclide 231 Pa, more than 90% of the external dose from soil exposure comes from the daughter 227 Ac (annually 15 nSv). By a similar contamination with 226 Ra as a parent radionuclide, 60% of the ingestion dose is due to food contamination with the daughters 210 Pb and 210 Po (approximately 150 nSv x a -1 ). (author)

  8. Purification of radium-226 for the manufacturing of actinium-225 in a cyclotron for alpha-immunotherapy; Radium-Aufreinigung zur Herstellung von Actinium-225 am Zyklotron fuer die Alpha-Immuntherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, Sebastian Markus

    2014-09-23

    The thesis describes the development of methods for the purification of Ra-226. The objective was to obtain the radionuclide in the quality that is needed to be used as starting material in the manufacturing process for Ac-225 via proton-irradiated Ra-226. The radionuclide has been gained efficiently out of huge excesses of impurities. The high purity of the obtained radium affords its use as staring material in a pharmaceutical manufacturing process.

  9. Renal uptake of bismuth-213 and its contribution to kidney radiation dose following administration of actinium-225-labeled antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, J; O' Donoghue, J A; Humm, J L [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Jaggi, J S [Bristol-Myers Squibb, Plainsboro, NJ (United States); Ruan, S; Larson, S M [Nuclear Medicine Service Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); McDevitt, M; Scheinberg, D A, E-mail: schwarj1@mskcc.org [Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry, Sloan-Kettering Institute, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

    2011-02-07

    Clinical therapeutic studies using {sup 225}Ac-labeled antibodies have begun. Of major concern is renal toxicity that may result from the three alpha-emitting progeny generated following the decay of {sup 225}Ac. The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of {sup 225}Ac and non-equilibrium progeny in the mouse kidney after the injection of {sup 225}Ac-huM195 antibody and examine the dosimetric consequences. Groups of mice were sacrificed at 24, 96 and 144 h after injection with {sup 225}Ac-huM195 antibody and kidneys excised. One kidney was used for gamma ray spectroscopic measurements by a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The second kidney was used to generate frozen tissue sections which were examined by digital autoradiography (DAR). Two measurements were performed on each kidney specimen: (1) immediately post-resection and (2) after sufficient time for any non-equilibrium excess {sup 213}Bi to decay completely. Comparison of these measurements enabled estimation of the amount of excess {sup 213}Bi reaching the kidney ({gamma}-ray spectroscopy) and its sub-regional distribution (DAR). The average absorbed dose to whole kidney, determined by spectroscopy, was 0.77 (SD 0.21) Gy kBq{sup -1}, of which 0.46 (SD 0.16) Gy kBq{sup -1} (i.e. 60%) was due to non-equilibrium excess {sup 213}Bi. The relative contributions to renal cortex and medulla were determined by DAR. The estimated dose to the cortex from non-equilibrium excess {sup 213}Bi (0.31 (SD 0.11) Gy kBq{sup -1}) represented {approx}46% of the total. For the medulla the dose contribution from excess {sup 213}Bi (0.81 (SD 0.28) Gy kBq{sup -1}) was {approx}80% of the total. Based on these estimates, for human patients we project a kidney-absorbed dose of 0.28 Gy MBq{sup -1} following administration of {sup 225}Ac-huM195 with non-equilibrium excess {sup 213}Bi responsible for approximately 60% of the total. Methods to reduce renal accumulation of radioactive progeny appear to be necessary for the success of {sup 225}Ac radioimmunotherapy.

  10. Purification of radium-226 for the manufacturing of actinium-225 in a cyclotron for alpha-immunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, Sebastian Markus

    2014-01-01

    The thesis describes the development of methods for the purification of Ra-226. The objective was to obtain the radionuclide in the quality that is needed to be used as starting material in the manufacturing process for Ac-225 via proton-irradiated Ra-226. The radionuclide has been gained efficiently out of huge excesses of impurities. The high purity of the obtained radium affords its use as staring material in a pharmaceutical manufacturing process.

  11. Distribution of trace elements in land plants and botanical taxonomy with special reference to rare earth elements and actinium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Mutsuo

    1989-01-01

    Distribution profiles of trace elements in land plants were studied by neutron activation analysis and radioactivity measurements without activation. Number of botanical samples analyzed were more than three thousand in which more than three hundred botanical species were included. New accumulator plants of Co, Cr, Zn, Cd, rare earth elements, Ac, U, etc., were found. Capabilities of accumulating trace elements can be related to the botanical taxonomy. Discussions are given from view points of inorganic chemistry as well as from botanical physiology

  12. Gallic acid-capped gold nanoparticles inhibit EGF-induced MMP-9 expression through suppression of p300 stabilization and NFκB/c-Jun activation in breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ying-Jung; Lee, Yuan-Chin; Huang, Chia-Hui; Chang, Long-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are highly invasive and have a higher rate of distant metastasis. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) plays a crucial role in EGF/EGFR-mediated malignant progression and metastasis of TNBCs. Various studies have revealed that treatment with gallic acid down-regulates MMP-9 expression in cancer cells, and that conjugation of phytochemical compounds with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) increases the anti-tumor activity of the phytochemical compounds. Thus, the effect of gallic acid-capped AuNPs (GA-AuNPs) on MMP-9 expression in EGF-treated TNBC MDA-MB-231 cells was analyzed in the present study. The so-called green synthesis of AuNPs by means of gallic acid was performed at pH 10, and the resulting GA-AuNPs had spherical shape with an average diameter of approximately 50 nm. GA-AuNPs notably suppressed migration and invasion of EGF-treated cells, and inhibited EGF-induced MMP-9 up-regulation. GA-AuNPs abrogated EGF-induced Akt/p65 and ERK/c-Jun phosphorylation, leading to down-regulation of MMP-9 mRNA and protein expression in EGF-treated cells. Meanwhile, EGF-induced p300 stabilization was found to be involved in MMP-9 expression, whereas GA-AuNPs inhibited the EGF-promoted stability of the p300 protein. Although GA-AuNPs and gallic acid suppressed EGF-induced MMP-9 up-regulation via the same signaling pathway, the effective concentration of gallic acid was approximately 100-fold higher than that of GA-AuNPs for inhibition of MMP-9 expression in EGF-treated cells to a similar extent. Collectively, our data indicate that, in comparison with gallic acid, GA-AuNPs have a superior ability to inhibit EGF/EGFR-mediated MMP-9 expression in TNBC MDA-MB-231 cells. Our findings also point to a way to improve the anti-tumor activity of gallic acid. - Highlights: • Gallic acid-capped gold nanoparticles inhibit EGF-induced MMP-9 expression. • EGF-induced MMP-9 expression via p300 stabilization and NFκB/c-Jun activation. • Gallic acid

  13. Gallic acid-capped gold nanoparticles inhibit EGF-induced MMP-9 expression through suppression of p300 stabilization and NFκB/c-Jun activation in breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Jung; Lee, Yuan-Chin; Huang, Chia-Hui; Chang, Long-Sen

    2016-11-01

    Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are highly invasive and have a higher rate of distant metastasis. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) plays a crucial role in EGF/EGFR-mediated malignant progression and metastasis of TNBCs. Various studies have revealed that treatment with gallic acid down-regulates MMP-9 expression in cancer cells, and that conjugation of phytochemical compounds with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) increases the anti-tumor activity of the phytochemical compounds. Thus, the effect of gallic acid-capped AuNPs (GA-AuNPs) on MMP-9 expression in EGF-treated TNBC MDA-MB-231 cells was analyzed in the present study. The so-called green synthesis of AuNPs by means of gallic acid was performed at pH10, and the resulting GA-AuNPs had spherical shape with an average diameter of approximately 50nm. GA-AuNPs notably suppressed migration and invasion of EGF-treated cells, and inhibited EGF-induced MMP-9 up-regulation. GA-AuNPs abrogated EGF-induced Akt/p65 and ERK/c-Jun phosphorylation, leading to down-regulation of MMP-9 mRNA and protein expression in EGF-treated cells. Meanwhile, EGF-induced p300 stabilization was found to be involved in MMP-9 expression, whereas GA-AuNPs inhibited the EGF-promoted stability of the p300 protein. Although GA-AuNPs and gallic acid suppressed EGF-induced MMP-9 up-regulation via the same signaling pathway, the effective concentration of gallic acid was approximately 100-fold higher than that of GA-AuNPs for inhibition of MMP-9 expression in EGF-treated cells to a similar extent. Collectively, our data indicate that, in comparison with gallic acid, GA-AuNPs have a superior ability to inhibit EGF/EGFR-mediated MMP-9 expression in TNBC MDA-MB-231 cells. Our findings also point to a way to improve the anti-tumor activity of gallic acid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Stable shRNA Silencing of Lactate Dehydrogenase A (LDHA) in Human MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells Fails to Alter Lactic Acid Production, Glycolytic Activity, ATP or Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Nzinga; Mazzio, Elizabeth A; Bauer, David; Flores-Rozas, Hernan; Soliman, Karam F A

    2017-03-01

    In the US, African Americans have a high death rate from triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), characterized by lack of hormone receptors (ER, PR, HER2/ERRB2) which are otherwise valuable targets of chemotherapy. There is a need to identify novel targets that negatively impact TNBC tumorigenesis. TNBCs release an abundance of lactic acid, under normoxic, hypoxic and hyperoxic conditions; this referred to as the Warburg effect. Accumulated lactic acid sustains peri-cellular acidity which propels metastatic invasion and malignant aggressive transformation. The source of lactic acid is believed to be via conversion of pyruvate by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the last step of glycolysis, with most studies focusing on the LDHA isoform. In this study, LDHA was silenced using long-term MISSION® shRNA lentivirus in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Down-regulation of LDHA transcription and protein expression was confirmed by western blot, immunocytochemistry and qPCR. A number of parameters were measured in fully viable vector controls versus knock-down (KD) clones, including levels of lactic acid produced, glucose consumed, ATP and basic metabolic rates. The data show that lentivirus V-165 generated a knock-down clone most effective in reducing both gene and protein levels to less than 1% of vector controls. Stable KD showed absolutely no changes in cell viability, lactic acid production, ATP, glucose consumption or basic metabolic rate. Given the complete absence of impact on any observed parameter by LDH-A KD and this being somewhat contrary to findings in the literature, further analysis was required to determine why. Whole-transcriptome analytic profile on MDA-MB-231 for LDH subtypes using Agilent Human Genome 4×44k microarrays, where the data show the following component breakdown. Transcripts: 30.47 % LDHA, 69.36% LDHB, 0.12% LDHC and 0.05% LDHD. These findings underscore the importance of alternative isoforms of LDH in cancer cells to produce lactic acid

  15. Gallic acid-capped gold nanoparticles inhibit EGF-induced MMP-9 expression through suppression of p300 stabilization and NFκB/c-Jun activation in breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ying-Jung; Lee, Yuan-Chin; Huang, Chia-Hui [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Chang, Long-Sen, E-mail: lschang@mail.nsysu.edu.tw [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Department of Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China)

    2016-11-01

    Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are highly invasive and have a higher rate of distant metastasis. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) plays a crucial role in EGF/EGFR-mediated malignant progression and metastasis of TNBCs. Various studies have revealed that treatment with gallic acid down-regulates MMP-9 expression in cancer cells, and that conjugation of phytochemical compounds with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) increases the anti-tumor activity of the phytochemical compounds. Thus, the effect of gallic acid-capped AuNPs (GA-AuNPs) on MMP-9 expression in EGF-treated TNBC MDA-MB-231 cells was analyzed in the present study. The so-called green synthesis of AuNPs by means of gallic acid was performed at pH 10, and the resulting GA-AuNPs had spherical shape with an average diameter of approximately 50 nm. GA-AuNPs notably suppressed migration and invasion of EGF-treated cells, and inhibited EGF-induced MMP-9 up-regulation. GA-AuNPs abrogated EGF-induced Akt/p65 and ERK/c-Jun phosphorylation, leading to down-regulation of MMP-9 mRNA and protein expression in EGF-treated cells. Meanwhile, EGF-induced p300 stabilization was found to be involved in MMP-9 expression, whereas GA-AuNPs inhibited the EGF-promoted stability of the p300 protein. Although GA-AuNPs and gallic acid suppressed EGF-induced MMP-9 up-regulation via the same signaling pathway, the effective concentration of gallic acid was approximately 100-fold higher than that of GA-AuNPs for inhibition of MMP-9 expression in EGF-treated cells to a similar extent. Collectively, our data indicate that, in comparison with gallic acid, GA-AuNPs have a superior ability to inhibit EGF/EGFR-mediated MMP-9 expression in TNBC MDA-MB-231 cells. Our findings also point to a way to improve the anti-tumor activity of gallic acid. - Highlights: • Gallic acid-capped gold nanoparticles inhibit EGF-induced MMP-9 expression. • EGF-induced MMP-9 expression via p300 stabilization and NFκB/c-Jun activation. • Gallic acid

  16. Cytotoxic effects of dillapiole on MDA-MB-231 cells involve the induction of apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway by inducing an oxidative stress while altering the cytoskeleton network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Adilson Kleber; de-Sá-Júnior, Paulo Luiz; Pasqualoto, Kerly Fernanda Mesquita; de Azevedo, Ricardo Alexandre; Câmara, Diana Aparecida Dias; Costa, André Santos; Figueiredo, Carlos Rogério; Matsuo, Alisson Leonardo; Massaoka, Mariana Hiromi; Auada, Aline Vivian Vatti; Lebrun, Ivo; Damião, Mariana Celestina Frojuello Costa Bernstorff; Tavares, Maurício Temotheo; Magri, Fátima Maria Motter; Kerkis, Irina; Parise Filho, Roberto

    2014-04-01

    Breast cancer is the world's leading cause of death among women. This situation imposes an urgent development of more selective and less toxic agents. The use of natural molecular fingerprints as sources for new bioactive chemical entities has proven to be a quite promising and efficient method. Here, we have demonstrated for the first time that dillapiole has broad cytotoxic effects against a variety tumor cells. For instance, we found that it can act as a pro-oxidant compound through the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) release in MDA-MB-231 cells. We also demonstrated that dillapiole exhibits anti-proliferative properties, arresting cells at the G0/G1 phase and its antimigration effects can be associated with the disruption of actin filaments, which in turn can prevent tumor cell proliferation. Molecular modeling studies corroborated the biological findings and suggested that dillapiole may present a good pharmacokinetic profile, mainly because its hydrophobic character, which can facilitate its diffusion through tumor cell membranes. All these findings support the fact that dillapiole is a promising anticancer agent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. The nuclear structure of [sup 229]Pa from the [sup 231]Pa(p,t)[sup 229]Pa and [sup 230]Th(p,2n[gamma])[sup 229]Pa reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levon, A.I. (Sektion Physik, University of Munich, D-85748 Garching (Germany)); De Boer, J. (Sektion Physik, University of Munich, D-85748 Garching (Germany)); Graw, G. (Sektion Physik, University of Munich, D-85748 Garching (Germany)); Hertenberger, R. (Sektion Physik, University of Munich, D-85748 Garching (Germany)); Hofer, D. (Sektion Physik, University of Munich, D-85748 Garching (Germany)); Kvasil, J. (Sektion Physik, University of Munich, D-85748 Garching (Germany)); Loesch, A. (Sektion Physik, University of Munich, D-85748 Garching (Germany)); Mueller-Zanotti, E. (Sektion Physik, University of Munich, D-85748 Garching (Germany)); Wuerkner, M. (Sektion Physik, University of Munich, D-85748 Garching (Germany)); Baltzer, H. (Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, University of Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany)); Grafen, V. (Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, University of Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany)); Guenther, C. (Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, University of

    1994-08-29

    The level structure of the [sup 229]Pa nucleus has been investigated by means of the [sup 231]Pa(p,t)[sup 229]Pa and [sup 230]Th(p,2n[gamma])[sup 229]Pa reactions. Triton angular-distribution measurements were subjected to a CCBA analysis and combined with the results of in-beam conversion electron and [gamma]-ray spectroscopy to establish a level scheme. Two low-lying bands of opposite parity were observed up to spins (23/2)[sup -] and (17/2)[sup +], respectively. Rotational bands built on some 0[sup +] excitations of the even-even core can be assigned. The lowest states of three further low-lying bands are observed. The level scheme is interpreted in terms of an octupole-deformed core with an unpaired proton. From the E1/E2 branching ratio the electric dipole moment can be deduced vertical stroke D[sub 0]vertical stroke =(0.09 [+-]0.04) e .fm. ((orig.))

  18. Peptides Derived from Type IV Collagen, CXC Chemokines, and Thrombospondin-1 Domain-Containing Proteins Inhibit Neovascularization and Suppress Tumor Growth in MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Xenografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob E. Koskimaki

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis or neovascularization, the process of new blood vessel formation from preexisting microvasculature, involves interactions among several cell types including parenchymal, endothelial cells, and immune cells. The formation of new vessels is tightly regulated by a balance between endogenous proangiogenic and antiangiogenic factors to maintain homeostasis in tissue; tumor progression and metastasis in breast cancer have been shown to be angiogenesis-dependent. We previously introduced a systematic methodology to identify putative endogenous antiangiogenic peptides and validated these predictions in vitro in human umbilical vein endothelial cell proliferation and migration assays. These peptides are derived from several protein families including type IV collagen, CXC chemokines, and thrombospondin-1 domain-containing proteins. On the basis of the results from the in vitro screening, we have evaluated the ability of one peptide selected from each family named pentastatin-1, chemokinostatin-1, and properdistatin, respectively, to suppress angiogenesis in an MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer orthotopic xenograft model in severe combined immunodeficient mice. Peptides were administered intraperitoneally once per day. We have demonstrated significant suppression of tumor growth in vivo and subsequent reductions in microvascular density, indicating the potential of these peptides as therapeutic agents for breast cancer.

  19. Simultaneous lidar observation of peculiar sporadic K and Na layers at São José dos Campos (23.1°S, 45.9°W), Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jing; Yang, Guotao; Cheng, Xuewu; Liu, Zhengkuan; Wang, Jihong; Yan, Zhenzhong; Wang, Chi; Batista, Paulo; Pimenta, Alexandre; Andrioli, Vânia; Denardini, C. M.

    2018-04-01

    We present the first simultaneous observation of mesopause sodium (Na) and potassium (K) layer by a lidar which has Na and K channel simultaneously at the South Hemisphere site, São José dos Campos (23.1°S, 45.9°W). Measurements reported here were conducted on two nights with 3.5 and 8 h of observations in November 2016. On 20 November 2016, sporadic layers in both Na and K layer occurred above 100 km, and the higher layers corresponded well with sporadic E (Es) layer. And the density of Na at 100-105 km is higher than that at main layer around 90 km, but K density around 100 km is at least 3 times smaller compared with the K density around 90 km for the similar period. On 21 November 2016, both sporadic layers occurred in main layer height with obvious descending variations with time, which seems like tidal induced. Notably, the peak K/Na ratio slowly increased with time. And Na layer and K layer showed different processes along with time with K density reaching its maximum 1 h later than that of Na. Correlations of Na/K density, Es, and winds were also discussed.

  20. Publications | Page 231 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Although the policy interventions are well understood, the political economy of ... Latin American and Caribbean Environmental Economics Program : annual ... a case for barrier-free access to mobile phones as a basic right (open access) ... community institutions of citizens is crucial to democratize local governance.

  1. 29 CFR 2.31 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... administer in the form of grants, contracts, loans, loan guarantees, property, cooperative agreements, direct appropriations, or other direct or indirect assistance, but does not include a tax credit, deduction or exemption... families of criminal offenders, and services related to intervention in, and prevention of domestic...

  2. 32 CFR 231.9 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... union facility. A facility employing a communications system with the parent credit union to conduct... requirements that cannot be resolved by the credit union or local command. (q) Geographic franchise... operations are thus differentiated from county-wide or state-wide branch systems consisting of a head office...

  3. Gender | Page 231 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Language English ... Managing Natural Resources for Sustainable Livelihoods analyses and extends this premise to show unequivocally that the process of ... Is Latin America moving toward a new generation of pro-poor land reforms?

  4. 43 CFR 23.1 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... under its jurisdiction where mining is authorized. However, the public interest requires that, with respect to the exploration for, and the surface mining of, such minerals, adequate measures be taken to...: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior SURFACE EXPLORATION, MINING AND RECLAMATION OF LANDS § 23...

  5. 32 CFR 231.4 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... establish an ongoing relationship with installation security authorities on all matters of asset protection... advertising, mailings or telecommunications to reach their customers. (6) Advertising in government-funded... Account (ITGA) depository), the financial institution shall satisfy the risk management standard...

  6. 34 CFR 668.231 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... seeking to continue academic, career and technical, and independent living instruction at an institution... of the following activities: (i) Taking credit-bearing courses with students without disabilities... student does not receive regular academic credit. (iii) Taking non-credit-bearing, nondegree courses with...

  7. 32 CFR 231.3 - Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... franchises assigned to credit unions serving DoD overseas installations. (e) Secretaries of the Military... and credit unions to ensure that they fulfill the requirements upon which the establishment and... presently served. Such requests will include a statement that the requirement has been coordinated with the...

  8. Publications | Page 231 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Think Tanks: en Marcha – la Iniciativa Think Tank Informe Anual 2010-2011. En nuestro Informe Anual 2010-2011 reflexionamos sobre nuestro tercer año de programación y presentamos a las instituciones apoyadas por la Iniciativa. El informe destaca la labor que realizan y el contexto en el que operan.

  9. Gender | Page 231 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    “And I thought: I'm really not making the world a better place,” she says. ... and their full potential as citizens and equal partners in decision-making and development. ... Equity issues are again attracting attention from academics and policy ...

  10. 7 CFR 2.31 - General Counsel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... pursuant to the Federal Tort Claims Act, as amended (28 U.S.C. 2671-2680), and the regulations of the..., determine, compromise, and settle, pursuant to the Federal Tort Claims Act as amended (28 U.S.C. 2671-2680... allege the negligence or wrongful act of an employee of a USDA agency; and consider, ascertain, adjust...

  11. 46_231 - 233_BIO 054 Mohammed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    Hepatotoxicity from these drugs have been linked to in part, the alterations in ... these drugs even in concurrent use. This study was ... being a clinical situation in cancer and malaria .... Effect of Oral Administration of Ethanolic Leaf. Extract of ...

  12. 49 CFR 238.231 - Brake system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Equipped with brake indicators as defined in § 238.5, designed so that the pressure sensor is placed in a... alcohol or other chemicals into the air brake system of passenger equipment is prohibited. (f) The...

  13. Comparative assessment of the apoptotic potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized by Bacillus tequilensis and Calocybe indica in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells: targeting p53 for anticancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurunathan S

    2015-06-01

    -MB-231 breast cancer cells. Western blot analyses revealed that AgNPs induce cellular apoptosis via activation of p53, p-Erk1/2, and caspase-3 signaling, and downregulation of Bcl-2. Cells pretreated with pifithrin-alpha were protected from p53-mediated AgNPs-induced toxicity.Conclusion: We have demonstrated a simple approach for the synthesis of AgNPs using the novel strains B. tequilensis and C. indica, as well as their mechanism of cell death in a p53-dependent manner in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. The present findings could provide insight for the future development of a suitable anticancer drug, which may lead to the development of novel nanotherapeutic molecules for the treatment of cancers.Keywords: apoptosis, UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, ROS generation

  14. Status of thorium cycle nuclear data evaluations: Comparison of cross-section line shapes of JENDL-3 and ENDF-B-VI files for 230Th, 232Th, 231Pa, 233Pa, 232U, 233U and 234U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesan, S.; McLaughlin, P.K.

    1992-02-01

    Since 1990, one of the most interesting developments in the field of nuclear data for nuclear technology applications is that several new evaluated data files have been finalized and made available to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for distribution to its Member States. Improved evaluated nuclear data libraries such as ENDF/B-VI from the United States and JENDL-3 from Japan were developed over a period of 10-15 years. This report is not an evaluation of the evaluations. The report as presented here gives a first look at the cross section line shapes of the isotopes that are important to the thorium fuel cycle derived from the two recently evaluated data files: JENDL-3 and ENDF/B-VI. The basic evaluated data files JENDL-3 and ENDF/B-VI were point-processed successfully using the codes LINEAR and RECENT. The point data were multigrouped in three different group structures using the GROUPIE code. Graphs of intercomparisons of cross section line shapes of JENDL-3 and ENDF/B-VI are presented in this paper for the following isotopes of major interest to studies of the thorium fuel cycle: 230 Th, 232 Th, 231 Pa, 233 Pa, 232 U, 233 U and 234 U. Comparisons between JENDL-3 and ENDF/B-VI which were performed at the point and group levels show large discrepancies in various cross sections. We conclude this report with a general remark that it is necessary to perform sensitivity studies to assess the impacts of the discrepancies between the two different sets of data on calculated reactor design and safety parameters of specific reactor systems and, based on the results of such sensitivity studies, to undertake new tasks of evaluations. (author). 2 refs, 245 figs, 8 tabs

  15. Profilin-1 overexpression in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells is associated with alterations in proteomics biomarkers of cell proliferation, survival, and motility as revealed by global proteomics analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coumans, Joëlle V F; Gau, David; Poljak, Anne; Wasinger, Valerie; Roy, Partha; Moens, Pierre D J

    2014-12-01

    Despite early screening programs and new therapeutic strategies, metastatic breast cancer is still the leading cause of cancer death in women in industrialized countries and regions. There is a need for novel biomarkers of susceptibility, progression, and therapeutic response. Global analyses or systems science approaches with omics technologies offer concrete ways forward in biomarker discovery for breast cancer. Previous studies have shown that expression of profilin-1 (PFN1), a ubiquitously expressed actin-binding protein, is downregulated in invasive and metastatic breast cancer. It has also been reported that PFN1 overexpression can suppress tumorigenic ability and motility/invasiveness of breast cancer cells. To obtain insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms of how elevating PFN1 level induces these phenotypic changes in breast cancer cells, we investigated the alteration in global protein expression profiles of breast cancer cells upon stable overexpression of PFN1 by a combination of three different proteome analysis methods (2-DE, iTRAQ, label-free). Using MDA-MB-231 as a model breast cancer cell line, we provide evidence that PFN1 overexpression is associated with alterations in the expression of proteins that have been functionally linked to cell proliferation (FKPB1A, HDGF, MIF, PRDX1, TXNRD1, LGALS1, STMN1, LASP1, S100A11, S100A6), survival (HSPE1, HSPB1, HSPD1, HSPA5 and PPIA, YWHAZ, CFL1, NME1) and motility (CFL1, CORO1B, PFN2, PLS3, FLNA, FLNB, NME2, ARHGDIB). In view of the pleotropic effects of PFN1 overexpression in breast cancer cells as suggested by these new findings, we propose that PFN1-induced phenotypic changes in cancer cells involve multiple mechanisms. Our data reported here might also offer innovative strategies for identification and validation of novel therapeutic targets and companion diagnostics for persons with, or susceptibility to, breast cancer.

  16. Polymeric Nano-Encapsulation of Curcumin Enhances its Anti-Cancer Activity in Breast (MDA-MB231) and Lung (A549) Cancer Cells Through Reduction in Expression of HIF-1α and Nuclear p65 (Rel A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammed N; Haggag, Yusuf A; Lane, Majella E; McCarron, Paul A; Tambuwala, Murtaza M

    2018-02-14

    The anti-cancer potential of curcumin, a natural NFκβ inhibitor, has been reported extensively in breast, lung and other cancers. In vitro and in vivo studies indicate that the therapeutic efficacy of curcumin is enhanced when formulated in a nanoparticulate carrier. However, the mechanism of action of curcumin at the molecular level in the hypoxic tumour micro-environment is not fully understood. Hence, the aim of our study was to investigate the mechanism of action of curcumin formulated as nanoparticles in in vitro models of breast and lung cancer under an hypoxic microenvironment. Biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) PLGA nanoparticles (NP), loaded with curcumin (cur-PLGA-NP), were fabricated using a solvent evaporation technique to overcome solubility issues and to facilitate intracellular curcumin delivery. Cytotoxicity of free curcumin and cur-PLGA-NP was evaluated in MDA-MB-231 and A549 cell lines using migration, invasion and colony formation assays. All treatments were performed under an hypoxic micro-environment and whole cell lysates from controls and test groups were used to determine the expression of HIF-1α and p65 levels using ELISA assays. A ten-fold increase in solubility, three-fold increase in anti-cancer activity and a significant reduction in the levels of cellular HIF-1α and nuclear p65 (Rel A) were observed for cur-PLGA-NP, when compared to free curcumin. Our findings indicate that curcumin can effectively lower the elevated levels of HIF-1α and nuclear p65 (Rel A) in breast and lung cancer cells under an hypoxic tumour micro-environment when delivered in nanoparticulate form. This applied means of colloidal delivery could explain the improved anti-cancer efficacy of curcumin and has further potential applications in enhancing the activity of anti-cancer agents of low solubility. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Involvement of NF-ΚB and HSP70 signaling pathways in the apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells induced by a prenylated xanthone compound, α-mangostin, from Cratoxylum arborescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim MY

    2014-11-01

    the role of the central apoptosis-related proteins, a protein array followed by immunoblot analysis was conducted. Moreover, the involvement of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-ΚB was also analyzed. Results: Apoptosis was confirmed by the apoptotic cells stained with annexin V and increase in chromatin condensation in nucleus. Treatment of cells with AM promoted cell death-transducing signals that reduced MMP by downregulation of Bcl-2 and upregulation of Bax, triggering cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to the cytosol. The released cytochrome c triggered the activation of caspase-9 followed by the executioner caspase-3/7 and then cleaved the PARP protein. Increase of caspase-8 showed the involvement of extrinsic pathway. AM treatment significantly arrested the cells at the S phase (P<0.05 concomitant with an increase in reactive oxygen species. The protein array and Western blotting demonstrated the expression of HSP70. Moreover, AM significantly blocked the induced translocation of NF-ΚB from cytoplasm to nucleus. Conclusion: Together, the results demonstrate that the AM isolated from C. arborescens inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells, leading to cell cycle arrest and programmed cell death, which was suggested to occur through both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways with involvement of the NF-ΚB and HSP70 signaling pathways. Keywords: mitochondria, protein array, caspase-3/7

  18. Flexible synthesis of poison-frog alkaloids of the 5,8-disubstituted indolizidine-class. II: Synthesis of (--209B, (--231C, (--233D, (--235B", (--221I, and an epimer of 193E and pharmacological effects at neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garraffo H Martin

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 5,8-disubstituted indolizidines constitute the largest class of poison-frog alkaloids. Some alkaloids have been shown to act as noncompetitive blockers at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors but the proposed structures and the biological activities of most of the 5,8-disubstituted indolizidines have not been determined because of limited supplies of the natural products. We have therefore conducted experiments to confirm proposed structures and determine biological activities using synthetic compounds. Recently, we reported that one of this class of alkaloids, (--235B', acts as a noncompetitive antagonist for α4β2 nicotinic receptors, and its sensitivity is comparable to that of the classical competitive antagonist for this receptor, dihydro-β-erythroidine. Results The enantioselective syntheses of (--209B, (--231C, (--233D, (--235B", (--221I, and what proved to be an epimer of natural 193E, starting from common chiral lactams have been achieved. When we performed electrophysiological recordings to examine the effects of the synthetic alkaloids on two major subtypes of nicotinic receptors (α4β2 and α7 expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, (--231C effectively blocked α4β2 receptor responses (IC50 value, 1.5 μM with a 7.0-fold higher potency than for blockade of α7 receptor responses. In contrast, synthetic (--221I and (--epi-193E were more potent in blocking α7 receptor responses (IC50 value, 4.4 μM and 9.1 μM, respectively than α4β2 receptor responses (5.3-fold and 2.0-fold, respectively. Conclusion We achieved the total synthesis of (--209B, (--231C, (--233D, (--235B", (--221I, and an epimer of 193E starting from common chiral lactams, and the absolute stereochemistry of natural (--233D was determined. Furthermore, the relative stereochemistry of (--231C and (--221I was also determined. The present asymmetric synthesis of the proposed structure for 193E revealed that the C-8 configuration of natural 193E

  19. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P. Bernot

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) relevant to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are provided in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log fCO 2 as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. Even though selection of an appropriate set of radionuclides documented in Radionuclide Screening (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160059]) includes actinium, transport of Ac is not modeled in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) model because of its extremely short half-life. Actinium dose is calculated in the TSPA-LA by assuming secular equilibrium with 231 Pa (Section 6.10); therefore, Ac is not analyzed in this report. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for TSPA-LA used to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for the actinides discussed in this report. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or otherwise

  20. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Bernot

    2005-07-13

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) relevant to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are provided in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log fCO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. Even though selection of an appropriate set of radionuclides documented in Radionuclide Screening (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160059]) includes actinium, transport of Ac is not modeled in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) model because of its extremely short half-life. Actinium dose is calculated in the TSPA-LA by assuming secular equilibrium with {sup 231}Pa (Section 6.10); therefore, Ac is not analyzed in this report. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for TSPA-LA used to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for the actinides discussed in this report. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or

  1. Study by Monte Carlo simulation of the absorbed dose in cells of breast cancer of the line MDA-MB231, due to sources of {sup 111}In, {sup 177}Lu and {sup 99m}Tc internalized in the nucleus. First results; Estudio por simulacion Monte Carlo de la dosis absorbida en celulas de cancer de seno de la linea MDA-MB231, debida a fuentes de {sup 11I}n, {sup 177}Lu y {sup 99m}Tc internalizadas en el nucleo. Primeros resultados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas C, E. L.; Perez A, M., E-mail: leticia.rojas@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    The necessity to design innovative treatments and to diagnose the cancer early, has taken to investigate therapies at cellular and molecular level. The design of appropriate radio-molecules to these therapies makes necessary to characterize in way exhaustive radionuclides that they are of accessible production in our country and to study as distributing the dose at cellular level with bio-molecules glued them. In this context, was realized the present work. Using Monte Carlo simulation, the energy deposited in a geometric model of cells of breast cancer was obtained, MDA-MB231, due to different radionuclides. The energy deposited in the nucleus was evaluated, in the cytoplasm and in the membrane of the cell, using the simulation code Monte Carlo Penelope 2008. A punctual source was simulated in the center of the cell nucleus. In each case all the emissions of each radionuclide majors to 400 eV were simulated. The energies deposited by disintegration in the nucleus, cytoplasm, membrane of the cell and in a sphere of 2 cm surrounding the source (in eV) were: 4.30E3, 4.85E2, 1.07E2 and 3.29E4, correspondingly, for the {sup 111}In; 4.46E3, 3.76E3, 1.26E3 and 1.33E5 for the {sup 177}Lu and; 2.12E3, 2.58E2, 9.33E1 and 1.88E4 for the {sup 99m}Tc. We can conclude that if the union of these radionuclides happens to a compound that was internalized to the cell nucleus, the best for therapy at this level is the conjugate with the {sup 177}Lu, followed by that with {sup 111}In and in third place that with {sup 99m}Tc. (Author)

  2. F-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (231-F, 231-1F, {ampersand} 231-2F) Corrective Measures Study/Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate various technologies that can be used to remediate the soil contamination attributed to the FBRP source unit.Section 1 of this report gives the background of this facility. Section 2 discusses the remedial action objectives and the general response actions for each medium of interest. The technology types and process options are identified and evaluated for each medium of interest. A selection and evaluation of representative technologies is included. Section 3 describes the rationale for combining technologies into alternatives. Section 4 gives a detailed analysis of each alternative as well as a comparative analysis of these alternatives.

  3. Record of decision remedial alternative selection for the F-area burning/rubble pits (231-F, 231-1F, and 231-2F)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, E.

    1997-02-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial alternative for the FBRP located at the SRS in Aiken, South Carolina. The selected alternative was developed in accordance with CERCLA, as amended, and to the extent practicable, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan. This decision is based on the Administrative Record File for this specific RCRA/CERCLA unit

  4. F-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (231-F, 231-1F, and 231-2F) Corrective Measures Study/Feasibility Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, E.

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate various technologies that can be used to remediate the soil contamination attributed to the FBRP source unit.Section 1 of this report gives the background of this facility. Section 2 discusses the remedial action objectives and the general response actions for each medium of interest. The technology types and process options are identified and evaluated for each medium of interest. A selection and evaluation of representative technologies is included. Section 3 describes the rationale for combining technologies into alternatives. Section 4 gives a detailed analysis of each alternative as well as a comparative analysis of these alternatives

  5. 1-Amino-4-hydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone - An analogue of anthracycline anticancer drugs, interacts with DNA and induces apoptosis in human MDA-MB-231 breast adinocarcinoma cells: Evaluation of structure-activity relationship using computational, spectroscopic and biochemical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Palash; Roy, Sanjay; Loganathan, Gayathri; Mandal, Bitapi; Dharumadurai, Dhanasekaran; Akbarsha, Mohammad A; Sengupta, Partha Sarathi; Chattopadhyay, Shouvik; Guin, Partha Sarathi

    2015-12-01

    The X-ray diffraction and spectroscopic properties of 1-amino-4-hydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (1-AHAQ), a simple analogue of anthracycline chemotherapeutic drugs were studied by adopting experimental and computational methods. The optimized geometrical parameters obtained from computational methods were compared with the results of X-ray diffraction analysis and the two were found to be in reasonably good agreement. X-ray diffraction study, Density Functional Theory (DFT) and natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis indicated two types of hydrogen bonds in the molecule. The IR spectra of 1-AHAQ were studied by Vibrational Energy Distribution Analysis (VEDA) using potential energy distribution (PED) analysis. The electronic spectra were studied by TDDFT computation and compared with the experimental results. Experimental and theoretical results corroborated each other to a fair extent. To understand the biological efficacy of 1-AHAQ, it was allowed to interact with calf thymus DNA and human breast adino-carcinoma cell MDA-MB-231. It was found that the molecule induces apoptosis in this adinocarcinoma cell, with little, if any, cytotoxic effect in HBL-100 normal breast epithelial cell.

  6. 32 CFR 231.7 - Procedures-domestic credit unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... facility of an existing credit union under the common bond principle. (1) DoD personnel seeking to... changes in fair market value. Duration of this lease shall be commensurate with the extent of the... should be assigned to comptroller or resource management personnel. The CULO's name and duty telephone...

  7. 48 CFR 352.231-70 - Salary rate limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Salary rate limitation... Salary rate limitation. As prescribed in 331.101-70, the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Salary Rate Limitation (January 2010) (a) Pursuant to the current and applicable prior HHS...

  8. 32 CFR 231.6 - Procedures-overseas banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... depository used to make official deposits for credit to the TGA. (E) A list of organizational and... underwrite such banking services. (D) Establishment of a U.S. dollar currency custody account to support... identified and either the banking and currency control laws of certain host countries do not permit MBFs to...

  9. 14 CFR 25.231 - Longitudinal stability and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... takeoff. In addition— (1) Wheel brakes must operate smoothly and may not cause any undue tendency to nose over; and (2) If a tail-wheel landing gear is used, it must be possible, during the takeoff ground run...

  10. 32 CFR 231.5 - Procedures-domestic banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... 2667. Periodic reappraisals shall be based upon the fair market rental value exclusive of the... understand the potential loss of the building in the event of installation closure or other delimiting... shall encourage their conversion to independent or branch banks. (ii) Proposals from the on-base banking...

  11. Dr. Austin's Lab – C231 BNSN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — GC-MS (Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometer) - This machine is a combination of two instruments (GC and MS). It uses gas chromatography to separate samples and then...

  12. Social consequences of epilepsy: A study of 231 Nigerian patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short seizure-free period, long duration of seizure disorder and family history of epilepsy were significantly associated ... food pot.[12] Some children with epilepsy are expelled .... memory (t = -2.763, P value = 0.006, 95% CI = -33.876 to ...

  13. 12 CFR 23.1 - Authority, purpose, and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....1 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LEASING General.... The purpose of this part is to set forth standards for personal property lease financing transactions authorized for national banks. (c) Scope. This part applies to the acquisition of personal property by a...

  14. 42 CFR 456.231 - Continued stay review required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Utilization Control: Mental Hospitals Ur Plan... a review of each recipient's continued stay in the mental hospital to decide whether it is needed...

  15. 32 CFR 231.8 - Procedures-overseas credit unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... geographic franchise. (2) The extension of credit union service overseas is encouraged consistent with the... geographic franchise with a specific field of membership, the Secretary of the Military Department (or... geographic franchises assigned to credit unions serving DoD overseas installations. (ii) Where there is no Do...

  16. 48 CFR 2152.231-70 - Accounting and allowable cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... allowable cost. As prescribed in 2131.270, insert the following clause: Accounting and Allowable Cost (OCT... cost; (ii) Incurred with proper justification and accounting support; (iii) Determined in accordance... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Accounting and allowable...

  17. 48 CFR 231.205-70 - External restructuring costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... subsection: (1) Business combination means a transaction whereby assets or operations of two or more... after a business combination that affect the operations of companies not previously under common ownership or control. They do not include restructuring activities occurring after a business combination...

  18. 48 CFR 231.205-6 - Compensation for personal services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... employee, that are part of restructuring costs associated with a business combination, are unallowable... definitions of “business combination” and “restructuring costs.”) [57 FR 53600, Nov. 12, 1992, as amended at...

  19. Protopine Inhibits Heterotypic Celladhesion In Mda-Mb-231 Cells ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A Chinese herb Corydalis yanhusuo W.T. Wang that showed anticancer and anti-angiogenesis effects in our previous studies was presented for further studies. In the present study, we studied the anticancer proliferation and adhesion effects of five alkaloids which were isolated from Corydalis yanhusuo.

  20. Publications | Page 231 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Projet de recherche "intégration des technologies de l'information et de la communication dans les apprentissages de base à l'école élémentaire au Sénégal" : rapport technique final (restricted access) ...

  1. 231 Using Multiple Regression Analysis in Modelling the Role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    of Internal Revenue, Tourism Bureau and hotel records. The multiple regression .... additional guest facilities such as restaurant, a swimming pool or child care and social function ... and provide good quality service to the public. Conclusion.

  2. 46 CFR 107.231 - Inspection for certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... effectively carry out abandonment and fire fighting procedures. Fire Fighting Equipment (h) Each hand portable... accordance with § 107.235(a). (i) Each fixed fire-extinguishing system is inspected, and serviced if required, in accordance with § 107.235(b). (j) Each fire main system meets the testing requirements in § 107...

  3. JA 231, Reports of Survey and Line of Duty Determinations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ... have responsibility. If either soldier or civilian employee breaches his duty of care toward the government property, and it causes a loss or damage, the individual might have to compensate the government for all or...

  4. All projects related to | Page 231 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-02-20

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are a major cause of death in Peru, accounting for 60% of deaths in 2010. Unhealthy diet is one of the four major risk factors for NCDs. Start Date: February 20, 2012. End Date: August 20, 2014. Topic: URBAN COMMUNITIES, NUTRITION, COMMUNITY SERVICES, PERU, LOW ...

  5. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 231 - Sample Operating Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Electronic banking (i.e., automated teller machines, internet banking). b. Services for disbursing officers... nonaccountholders for use of automated teller machines shall be the customary service charges of the financial...

  6. Origin of elements of the Uranium-235 family observed in the Ellez river near the EL-4 experimental nuclear reactor in dismantling (Monts d'Arree- Finistere department); Origine des elements de la famille de l'uranium-235 observes dans la riviere Ellez a proximite du reacteur nucleaire experimental EL4 en cours de demantelement (Mont d'Arree - departement du Finistere). Resultats et premiers constats annee 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    In a previous study which concerned the catchment basin of the harbour of Brest, the A.C.R.O. put in evidence a marking by artificial radioelements around the power plant of Brennilis which can be imputed without ambiguities to the nuclear installation. It also put in evidence abnormalities concerning the natural radioactivity which justifies this new study. In the area of the Monts d'Arree, actinium 227 ({sup 227}Ac), non born by its ascendents which are {sup 235}U and {sup 231}Pa is observed. This phenomenon is characterized by mass activities superior to these ones of {sup 235}U and able to reach these ones of {sup 238}U. Its presence corresponds with the drainage of the Ellez river since the former channel of radioactive effluents releases from the nuclear power plant EL-4 up to the reservoir Saint-Herblot situated 6 km downstream. The strongest values of radioactivity are registered near the disused power plant, at this place a relationship exists between the level of actinium 227 and this one of the artificial radioactivity as it exists a relationship with the decay products of radon exhaled from the subsoil ({sup 210}Pb). But its presence is not limited to a part of the Ellez river, it is equally observed in terrestrial medium, in places in priori not influenced by the direct liquid effluents of the power plant. This place is situated at more than 4 km and without any connection with the Ellez waters. At this stage of the study, it is not possible to answer with certainty the question of the origin of this phenomenon. A new reorientation is considered indispensable to clarify definitively the origin of this unknown phenomenon in the scientific publications and the environmental monitoring. (N.C.)

  7. origin of elements of the Uranium-235 family observed in the Ellez river near the EL-4 experimental nuclear reactor in dismantling (Monts d'Arree- Finistere department)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    In a previous study which concerned the catchment basin of the harbour of Brest, the A.C.R.O. put in evidence a marking by artificial radioelements around the power plant of Brennilis which can be imputed without ambiguities to the nuclear installation. It also put in evidence abnormalities concerning the natural radioactivity which justifies this new study. In the area of the Monts d'Arree, actinium 227 ( 227 Ac), non born by its ascendents which are 235 U and 231 Pa is observed. This phenomenon is characterized by mass activities superior to these ones of 235 U and able to reach these ones of 238 U. Its presence corresponds with the drainage of the Ellez river since the former channel of radioactive effluents releases from the nuclear power plant EL-4 up to the reservoir Saint-Herblot situated 6 km downstream. The strongest values of radioactivity are registered near the disused power plant, at this place a relationship exists between the level of actinium 227 and this one of the artificial radioactivity as it exists a relationship with the decay products of radon exhaled from the subsoil ( 210 Pb). But its presence is not limited to a part of the Ellez river, it is equally observed in terrestrial medium, in places in priori not influenced by the direct liquid effluents of the power plant. This place is situated at more than 4 km and without any connection with the Ellez waters. At this stage of the study, it is not possible to answer with certainty the question of the origin of this phenomenon. A new reorientation is considered indispensable to clarify definitively the origin of this unknown phenomenon in the scientific publications and the environmental monitoring. (N.C.)

  8. 32 CFR 231.10 - Financial institutions on DoD installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... statutory authority that is separate from State or Federal laws that govern commercial banking. Section 265... forces agreements, other intergovernmental agreements, or host-country law. (ii) Financial services at... a geographic franchise and, where applicable, as authorized by the pertinent status of forces...

  9. 48 CFR 231.205-18 - Independent research and development and bid and proposal costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... effective technologies for achieving such environmental benefits as: Improved environmental data gathering, environmental cleanup and restoration, pollution reduction in manufacturing, environmental conservation, and... and life-cycle costs of military systems. (3) Strengthen the defense industrial and technology base of...

  10. 48 CFR 952.231-70 - Date of incurrence of cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... have been negotiated regarding costs incurred prior to the contract effective date: Date of Incurrence of Cost (APR 1984) The Contractor shall be entitled to reimbursement for costs incurred in an amount... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Date of incurrence of cost...

  11. 25 CFR 162.231 - How can the land be used under an agricultural lease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with recognized principles of sustained yield management, integrated resource management planning, sound conservation practices, and other community goals as expressed in applicable tribal laws, leasing policies, or agricultural resource management plans. Appropriate stipulations or conservation plans must be...

  12. 9 CFR 2.31 - Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... nonmedical care of the animals will be directed by the attending veterinarian or other scientist trained and... with a list of proposed activities to be reviewed. Written descriptions of all proposed activities that...

  13. The World Debt Crisis and Its Resolution. Foreign Agricultural Economic Report No. 231.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shane, Mathew; Stallings, David

    The conclusion of this study of 79 developing countries was that forgiving some of the indebtedness of developing countries may stimulate mutually beneficial trade among all nations. the international debt-repayment problems of Poland in 1981 and was followed by problems in Mexico, Brazil, and Argentina in 1982. This crisis has proven to be a more…

  14. A rookie's guide to Booster operations. Booster technical note no. 231

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeno, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Alternating Gradient Synchrotron Dept.

    1998-09-29

    The purpose of the Booster is to act as an injector for the AGS. It accelerates both protons and other ions. Proton acceleration is distinguished from the acceleration of other ions for several reasons. First, the experimental physics associated with protons, called High Energy Physics is different than that associated with other Ions, called Heavy Ion Physics. From the machine perspective, the process of injection of so called Heavy Ions (ions which are not protons), is distinctly different, from that of protons. A different preinjector, or injector for the Booster, is used for each case. For Protons, a 200 MeV Linear accelerator (The Linac) serves as a preinjector; for Heavy Ions, the Tandem Van De Graaf (The Tandem) is the preinjector. An attribute of the circulating beam which determines to a large degree what problems and what type of machine setup is involved is the beam intensity. The author's focus in this guide is on trying to convey the knowledge and experience involved in the operation of the Booster. Many of the problems encountered can be traced back to equipment failures, often power supplies. Although diagnostics are used, there can also be issues with the controls system itself. Problems with the controls system and prevent fixing or even finding a problem with a machine. The issue of improving a machines' performance can often involve trial and error and observations. The hard part is finding the relationships between things in the day to day operation of the machine. Abstractions about physics, information about controls and instrumentation, and purely empirical observations of how the machine behaves are all part of it.

  15. 7 CFR 1280.231 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES... the rental, sale leasing, franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or...

  16. : tous les projets | Page 231 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    End Date: 12 août 2015. Sujet: ADAPTATION TO CHANGE, FLOODS, RISK MANAGEMENT, DISASTER PREPAREDNESS. Région: India, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South ... AGAINST WOMEN, ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE, COMPENSATION. Région: Colombia, South America, Guatemala, North and Central America.

  17. 49 CFR 231.17 - Specifications common to all steam locomotives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... shall be securely fastened with bolts, rivets, or studs. (ii) Locomotives having Wootten type boilers... inches above outside edge of running boards, securely fastened with bolts, rivets, or studs. (c... inches in height, measured from the top of end sill, and securely fastened with bolts or rivets. (f...

  18. P2-31: In-Group Advantage in Negative Facial Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Chuan Hsu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available To perceive facial expressions is suggested to be universal. However, studies have shown the in-group advantage (IGA in recognition of facial expressions (e.g., Matsumoto, 1989, 1992 which is that people understand emotions more accurately when these emotions are expressed by members of their own culture group. A balanced design was used to investigate whether this IGA was showed in Western people and as well as in Asian people (Taiwanese. An emotional identification task was adopted to ask participants to identify positive (happy and negative (sadness, fear, and anger faces among Eastern and Western faces. We used Eastern faces from the Taiwanese Facial Expression Image Database (Chen, 2007 and Western faces from Ekman & Frisen (1979. Both reaction times and accuracies of performance were measured. Results showed that even all participants can identify positive and negative faces accurately; Asia participants responded significantly faster to negative Eastern faces than to negative Western faces. The similar IGA effect was also shown in Western participants. However, no such culture difference was found to positive faces. The results revealed the in-group advantage of the perception of facial expressions was specific to negative emotions and question the universality of perceiving facial expressions.

  19. 16 CFR 1500.231 - Guidance for hazardous liquid chemicals in children's products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., distributors, and retailers to protect children from exposure to hazardous chemicals found in liquid-filled... purchasing products for resale, importers, distributors, and retailers obtain assurances from manufacturers... subsequent hand-to-mouth or hand-to-eye activity. The specific type and frequency of behavior that a child...

  20. Acute postoperative pain in 1 231 patients at a developing country ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for practical clinical use were found.9,10 In addition, very little is known about the incidence ... study may be used to utilise the available resources appropriately and thereby improve ..... doi: 10.1097/PRS.0000000000000681. 2. Sommer M, de ...

  1. 27 CFR 70.231 - Protection for certain interests even though notice filed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... seller or seller's agent. (2) Cross reference. For provisions relating to additional circumstances in... sale of goods the owner of which is not in the business of selling such goods. (d) Personal property...

  2. Final RFI/RI Report Burma Road Rubble Pit (231-4F). Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, E.

    1995-09-01

    The Savannah River Site is located in Aiken, Barnwell, and Allendale counties, in South Carolina. Certain activities at the SRS require operating or post closure permits issued in accordance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

  3. 20 CFR 702.231 - Noncontroverted claims; payment of compensation without an award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... copy of an audiogram with a report thereon, which indicates the employee has sustained a hearing loss..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LONGSHOREMEN'S AND HARBOR WORKERS' COMPENSATION ACT AND RELATED STATUTES ADMINISTRATION...

  4. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field Scoring Recording Number 231 (Human Factors Applications, Inc.)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry; Robitaille, George

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. The scoring record was coordinated by Larry Overbuy and by the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  5. Asymmetrically deformed third minimum in the 231Th and 233Th fission barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blons, J.; Mazur, C.; Paya, D.; Ribrag, M.; Weigmann, H.

    1981-01-01

    Neutron induced fission cross-sections of 230 Th and 232 Th have been measured up to 5 MeV. The electron linear accelerator (GELINA) has been used as a neutron time of flight spectrometer with a nominal resolution of 84 psec/m for 230 Th(n,f) and 42 psec/m for 232 Th(n,f) reaction. The fission fragment detector was a 6 cell gas scintillator filled with xenon. The existence of fine structure peaks, a few keV wide, in both the 230 Th(n,f) and 232 Th(n,f) cross sections, is definitively confirmed. The analysis of the two vibrational resonances located respectively at 720 keV for 230 Th(the figure) and 1.6 MeV for 232 Th, shows clearly that these peaks can be interpreted, in terms of two rotational bands with opposite parities. This parity degeneracy is a consequence of the asymmetric, pear-like deformation of the excited nucleus [ru

  6. The intrinsic far-UV spectrum of the high-redshift quasar B1422+231

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dowd, M.; Bate, N. F.; Webster, R. L.; Labrie, K.; King, A. L.; Yong, S.-. Y.

    2018-02-01

    We present new spectroscopy of the z = 3.62 gravitationally lensed quasar B1422+117 from the Gemini North GMOS integral field spectrograph. We observe significant differential magnifications between the broad emission lines and the continuum, as well as across the velocity structure of the Lyman-α line. We take advantage of this differential microlensing to algebraically decompose the quasar spectrum into the absorbed broad emission line and absorbed continuum components. We use the latter to derive the intrinsic Ly α forest absorption spectrum. The proximity effect is clearly detected, with a proximity zone edge of 8.6-17.3 Mpc from the quasar, implying (perhaps intermittent) activity over at least 28 Myr. The Ly α line profile exhibits a blue excess that is inconsistent with a symmetric fit to the unabsorbed red side. This has important implications for the use of this fitting technique in estimating the absorbed blue Ly α wings of Gunn-Peterson trough quasars.

  7. Sexospécificités | Page 231 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The results were published in a special supplement of the journal International Health and Human Rights. These are just two example of IDRC-funded research that produced new knowledge and stirred international interest in the past year. Read more about Building a strong foundation for innovation. Langue English.

  8. 5 CFR 9901.231 - Conversion of positions and employees to NSPS classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND LABOR RELATIONS SYSTEMS (DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NATIONAL SECURITY PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Classification Transitional... employee's career group, pay schedule, and band upon conversion. (d) Grade retention prior to conversion...

  9. 50 CFR 23.1 - What are the purposes of these regulations and CITES?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... from the viewpoints of aesthetics, science, culture, recreation, and economics. (3) Although countries should be the best protectors of their own wildlife and plants, international cooperation is essential to...

  10. 231 Effects of Problem-Solving, Guided-Discovery and Expository ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-07-21

    Jul 21, 2011 ... and 0.68, respectively, determined using test-retest method were used in ... nature. Basic chemical products such as ammonia, hydrogen and nearly all ... enzymatic oxidation at ambient temperatures or during combustion at.

  11. 49 CFR 231.2 - Hopper cars and high-side gondolas with fixed ends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hopper cars and high-side gondolas with fixed ends... cars and high-side gondolas with fixed ends. (Cars with sides more than 36 inches above the floor are high-side cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified for “Box and other house cars” (see...

  12. 1,4-Dihydroxyquinoxaline-2,3(1H,4H-dione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Frey

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C8H6N2O4, contains one half-molecule; a twofold rotation axis bisects the molecule. The quinoxaline ring is planar, which can be attributed to electron delocalization. In the crystal structure, intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds link the molecules into R22(10 motifs, leading to layers, which interact via phenyl–phenyl interactions (C...C distances in the range 3.238–3.521 Å.

  13. SU-E-T-231: Cross-Validation of 3D Gamma Comparison Tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, KM; Jechel, C; Pinter, C; Lasso, A; Fichtinger, G; Salomons, G; Schreiner, LJ

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Moving the computational analysis for 3D gel dosimetry into the 3D Slicer (www.slicer.org) environment has made gel dosimetry more clinically accessible. To ensure accuracy, we cross-validate the 3D gamma comparison module in 3D Slicer with an independently developed algorithm using simulated and measured dose distributions. Methods: Two reference dose distributions were generated using the Varian Eclipse treatment planning system. The first distribution consisted of a four-field box irradiation delivered to a plastic water phantom and the second, a VMAT plan delivered to a gel dosimeter phantom. The first reference distribution was modified within Eclipse to create an evaluated dose distribution by spatially shifting one field by 3mm, increasing the monitor units of the second field, applying a dynamic wedge for the third field, and leaving the fourth field unchanged. The VMAT plan was delivered to a gel dosimeter and the evaluated dose in the gel was calculated from optical CT measurements. Results from the gamma comparison tool built into the SlicerRT toolbox were compared to results from our in-house gamma algorithm implemented in Matlab (via MatlabBridge in 3D Slicer). The effects of noise, resolution and the exchange of reference and evaluated designations on the gamma comparison were also examined. Results: Perfect agreement was found between the gamma results obtained using the SlicerRT tool and our Matlab implementation for both the four-field box and gel datasets. The behaviour of the SlicerRT comparison with respect to changes in noise, resolution and the role of the reference and evaluated dose distributions was consistent with previous findings. Conclusion: Two independently developed gamma comparison tools have been cross-validated and found to be identical. As we transition our gel dosimetry analysis from Matlab to 3D Slicer, this validation serves as an important test towards ensuring the consistency of dose comparisons using the 3D Slicer environment

  14. Dual-isotope myocardial imaging: feasibility, advantages and limitations. Preliminary report on 231 consecutive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinmann, P.; Foult, J.M.; Le Guludec, D.; Tamgac, F.; Rechtman, D.; Neuman, A.; Caillat-Vigneron, N.; Moretti, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    Two hundred and thirty-one patients underwent dual-isotope myocardial imaging (rest thallium-201 followed by stress technetium-99m sestamibi). The feasibility of the procedure was excellent: camera scheduling flexibility was improved and the duration of the procedure was less than that of a classical stress-redistribution procedure. Interpretation of defects due to image attenuation was facilitated by the different attenuation properties of 201 Tl and 99m Tc-sestamibi in 11 of 19 patients. 201 Tl cross-over on 99m Tc was found to be 15% ± 3% with doses of 201 Tl and 99m Tc-sestamibi of 3 and 10 mCi, respectively, and 7% ± 2% with doses of 3 and 20 mCi. This protocol should preferentially be reserved for patients with a history of myocardial infarction and/or a basal left ventricular dysfunction, in whom assessment of myocardial viability is of major interest. (orig./MG)

  15. Safety Testing of AGR-2 UCO Compacts 6-4-2 and 2-3-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunn, John D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Morris, Robert N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baldwin, Charles A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Burns, Zachary M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Montgomery, Fred C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Skitt, Darren J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Post-irradiation examination (PIE) and elevated-temperature safety testing are being performed on tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) coated-particle fuel compacts from the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program second irradiation experiment (AGR-2). Details on this irradiation experiment have been previously reported [Collin 2014]. The AGR-2 PIE effort builds upon the understanding acquired throughout the AGR-1 PIE campaign [Demkowicz et al. 2015] and is establishing a database for the different AGR-2 fuel designs.

  16. 48 CFR 952.231-71 - Insurance-litigation and claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... agencies, in connection with this contract. The Contractor shall proceed with such litigation in good faith... litigation in good faith and as directed from time to time by the Contracting Officer. (c)(1) Except as... insurance as required by law or approved in writing by the Contracting Officer. (2) The Contractor may, with...

  17. Final RFI/RI Report Burma Road Rubble Pit (231-4F). Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The Savannah River Site is located in Aiken, Barnwell, and Allendale counties, in South Carolina. Certain activities at the SRS require operating or post closure permits issued in accordance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

  18. Towards efficient energy networks: the role of territorial planning. ADeus' Notes Nr 231, May 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pons, Anne; Berlet, Jessica; Masse, Camille; Gaugler, Karin; Prachazal, Nicolas; Commessie, Fabienne; Isenmann, Jean; Michaut, Chloe

    2017-05-01

    This publication states that things are evolving towards a common view of development by town planners and energy operators as they now share common stakes (a safe and optimised energy supply with anticipation of energy demand and of costs and investments) and are in a situation of mutual support (consistency between planning and energy networks, optimisation of investment programs, energy solidarity between territories). The need of a dialogue between local actors prior to the start of town planning projects is outlined and discussed, as well as the introduction of energy supply planning into town planning documents

  19. Ecodriver. D23.1: Report on test scenarios for val-idation of on-line vehicle algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seewald, P.; Ivens, T.W.T.; Spronkmans, S.

    2014-01-01

    This deliverable provides a description of test scenarios that will be used for validation of WP22’s on-line vehicle algorithms. These algorithms consist of the two modules VE³ (Vehicle Energy and Environment Estimator) and RSG (Reference Signal Genera-tor) and will be tested using the

  20. Constraining Circulation Changes Through the Last Deglaciation with Deep-sea Coral Radiocarbon and Sedimentary Pa231/Th230

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    et al. (2002), U-Th dating of marine isotope stage 7 in Bahamas slope sediments, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 196(3-4), Pii S0012- 821x(01...and radioisotope studies, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 32(2), 420–429, doi:10.1016/ 0012-821X(76)90082-0. Krishnaswami, S., M. M. Sarin, and B. L. K...degree of Doctor of Philosophy ABSTRACT Radioactive isotopes can be used in paleoceanography both for dating samples and as tracers of ocean

  1. SU-F-T-231: Improving the Efficiency of a Radiotherapy Peer-Review System for Quality Assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, S; Basavatia, A; Garg, M; Kalnicki, S; Tome, W

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the efficiency of a radiotherapy peer-review system using a commercially available software application for plan quality evaluation and documentation. Methods: A commercial application, FullAccess (Radialogica LLC, Version 1.4.4), was implemented in a Citrix platform for peer-review process and patient documentation. This application can display images, isodose lines, and dose-volume histograms and create plan reports for peer-review process. Dose metrics in the report can also be benchmarked for plan quality evaluation. Site-specific templates were generated based on departmental treatment planning policies and procedures for each disease site, which generally follow RTOG protocols as well as published prospective clinical trial data, including both conventional fractionation and hypo-fractionation schema. Once a plan is ready for review, the planner exports the plan to FullAccess, applies the site-specific template, and presents the report for plan review. The plan is still reviewed in the treatment planning system, as that is the legal record. Upon physician’s approval of a plan, the plan is packaged for peer review with the plan report and dose metrics are saved to the database. Results: The reports show dose metrics of PTVs and critical organs for the plans and also indicate whether or not the metrics are within tolerance. Graphical results with green, yellow, and red lights are displayed of whether planning objectives have been met. In addition, benchmarking statistics are collected to see where the current plan falls compared to all historical plans on each metric. All physicians in peer review can easily verify constraints by these reports. Conclusion: We have demonstrated the improvement in a radiotherapy peer-review system, which allows physicians to easily verify planning constraints for different disease sites and fractionation schema, allows for standardization in the clinic to ensure that departmental policies are maintained, and builds a comprehensive database for potential clinical outcome evaluation.

  2. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 231 - Sample Certificate of Compliance for Credit Unions Certificate of Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the allotment of space in federal buildings without charge for rent or services. The provision of no... the credit union, military personnel or federal employees, or members of their families. (Date) (Name...

  3. Review on the Book: Pochekaev R.Yu. The Golden Horde Law (Kazan, 2009. 260 p. » 231

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G. Sayfetdinova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains a review of the R.Yu. Pochekaev’s book “The Golden Horde Law”. The reviewer points out that the Pochekaev’s book is a significant academic research in both the study of the Golden Horde history and the law system of the Eurasian Turkic-Mongol peoples. This book is published by the Center for Research on the Golden Horde Civilization at the Sh.Marjani Institute of History of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan. For several years, the author of this book, R.Yu. Pochekaev, has been concerned with the the history of the Golden Horde State and its law system. He has published a number of works on this topic, the main conclusions of which are reflected in this generalizing work. The study is based on a wide range of sources (annals and chronicles, memoirs of contemporaries, bureaucratic and numismatic materials and numerous studies including the works of foreign specialists in the original language. In his book, the author organically combines the latest achievements of research on both the Golden Horde history and theory and history of law. The book will be of interest to experts of the Golden Horde history and Orientalists, who are often faced with the legal aspects of the material under study.

  4. 8 CFR 231.2 - Electronic manifest and I-94 requirement for passengers and crew onboard departing vessels and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... departure, exclusive of Saturdays, Sundays, and legal holidays. Failure to submit the departure I-94 within... States Virgin Islands directly to the British Virgin Islands on a trip terminating there. (c) Aircraft...

  5. SU-F-T-231: Improving the Efficiency of a Radiotherapy Peer-Review System for Quality Assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, S; Basavatia, A; Garg, M; Kalnicki, S; Tome, W [Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To improve the efficiency of a radiotherapy peer-review system using a commercially available software application for plan quality evaluation and documentation. Methods: A commercial application, FullAccess (Radialogica LLC, Version 1.4.4), was implemented in a Citrix platform for peer-review process and patient documentation. This application can display images, isodose lines, and dose-volume histograms and create plan reports for peer-review process. Dose metrics in the report can also be benchmarked for plan quality evaluation. Site-specific templates were generated based on departmental treatment planning policies and procedures for each disease site, which generally follow RTOG protocols as well as published prospective clinical trial data, including both conventional fractionation and hypo-fractionation schema. Once a plan is ready for review, the planner exports the plan to FullAccess, applies the site-specific template, and presents the report for plan review. The plan is still reviewed in the treatment planning system, as that is the legal record. Upon physician’s approval of a plan, the plan is packaged for peer review with the plan report and dose metrics are saved to the database. Results: The reports show dose metrics of PTVs and critical organs for the plans and also indicate whether or not the metrics are within tolerance. Graphical results with green, yellow, and red lights are displayed of whether planning objectives have been met. In addition, benchmarking statistics are collected to see where the current plan falls compared to all historical plans on each metric. All physicians in peer review can easily verify constraints by these reports. Conclusion: We have demonstrated the improvement in a radiotherapy peer-review system, which allows physicians to easily verify planning constraints for different disease sites and fractionation schema, allows for standardization in the clinic to ensure that departmental policies are maintained, and builds a comprehensive database for potential clinical outcome evaluation.

  6. Vol. 4(1), S/No 13, January, 2015:224-231 ISSN: 2225-8590 (Print ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR Nneka

    2015-01-13

    Jan 13, 2015 ... Copyright © IAARR 2014: www.afrrevjo.net/ijah. Indexed African Journals .... It is the divine entity ..... religious framework of an alternative view of the world, a rival cosmology and a different way of ... Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria: Hambaz ...

  7. A genome-wide association study for colorectal cancer identifies a risk locus in 14q23.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Lenora W.M.; Zaidi, Syed H.E.; Wang, Hansong; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bézieau, Stéphane; Brenner, Hermann; Campbell, Peter T.; Chan, Andrew T.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Du, Mengmeng; Edlund, Christopher K.; Gallinger, Steven; Haile, Robert W.; Harrison, Tabitha A.; Hoffmeister, Michael; Hopper, John L.; Hou, Lifang; Hsu, Li; Jacobs, Eric J.; Jenkins, Mark A.; Jeon, Jihyoun; Küry, Sébastien; Li, Li; Lindor, Noralane M.; Newcomb, Polly A.; Potter, John D.; Rennert, Gad; Rudolph, Anja; Schoen, Robert E.; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Seminara, Daniela; Severi, Gianluca; Slattery, Martha L.; White, Emily; Woods, Michael O.; Cotterchio, Michelle; Marchand, Loic Le; Casey, Graham; Gruber, Steven B.; Peters, Ulrike; Hudson, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Over 50 loci associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) have been uncovered by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Identifying additional loci has the potential to help elucidate aspects of the underlying biological processes leading to better understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease. We re-evaluated a GWAS by excluding controls that have family history of CRC or personal history of CR polyps, as we hypothesized that their inclusion reduces power to detect associations. This is supported empirically and through simulations. Two-phase GWAS analysis was performed in a total of 16,517 cases and 14,487 controls. We identified rs17094983, a SNP associated with risk of CRC (p=2.5×10−10; odds ratio estimated by re-including all controls (OR)=0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.83–0.91; minor allele frequency (MAF)=13%). Results were replicated in samples of African descent (1,894 cases and 4,703 controls; p=0.01; OR=0.86, 95% CI: 0.77–0.97; MAF=16%). Gene expression data in 195 colon adenocarcinomas and 59 normal colon tissues from two different studies revealed that this locus has genotypes that are associated with RTN1 (Reticulon 1) expression (p=0.001), a protein-coding gene involved in survival and proliferation of cancer cells that is highly expressed in normal colon tissues but has significantly reduced expression in tumor cells (p=1.3×10−8). PMID:26404086

  8. Fast Facts: Recent Statistics from the Library Research Service, No. 225-231 (July-November, 2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietzau, Zeth; Lance, Keith Curry; Dickenson, Don

    2005-01-01

    Seven issues of Fast Facts from the Library Research Service that cover information from libraries across Colorado are contained in this document. These issues focus on topics from various library sectors and include patron use of AskColorado (a statewide virtual reference service) and the rising use of online services, Colorado public library…

  9. Review on transactinium isotope build-up and decay in reactor fuel and related sensitivities to cross section changes and results and main conclusions of the IAEA-Advisory Group Meeting on Transactinium Nuclear Data, held at Karlsruhe, November 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuesters, H.; Lalovic, M.

    1976-04-01

    In this report a review is given on the actinium isotope build-up and decay in LWRs, LMFBRs and HTRs. The dependence of the corresponding physical aspects on reactor type, fuel cycle strategy, calculational methods and cross section uncertainties is discussed. Results from postirradiation analyses and from integral experiments in fast zero power assemblies are compared with theoretical predictions. Some sensitivity studies about the influence of actinium nuclear data uncertainties on the isotopic concentration, decay heat, and the radiation out-put in fuel and waste are presented. In a second part, the main results of the IAEA-Advisory Group Meeting on Transactinium Nuclear Data are summarized and discussed. (orig.) [de

  10. Prime osservazioni in tema di rappresentanza sindacale: dal protocollo del 31 maggio 2013 alla sentenza della Corte Costitu­zionale n. 231 del 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Capobianco

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - The author tackles the thorny issue of union representation in the light of the conclusion of the recent Intesa bearing indications concerning the measurement of representat­iveness, signed as a unit by the social partners to put an end to the tragic divisions that have occurred in recent years on the endo-union. The Protocol is in perfect continuity with the pre­vious Interfederation Agreement of 28 June 2011, differentiating however, on some parts. Within this framework, it analyses the recent decision of the consultation on the constitutional­ity of Article. 19 of the Statute of Workers today, retracing the stages of progressive develop­ment of the new jurisprudence aimed at finding compromise solutions to end the age-old ques­tion “not risen” representation within the legislative gap in union's area. Résumé - 6. El auteur analyse le sujet “épineux” de la représentativité syndicale par rapport à l’accord ,signé par les acteurs sociaux, en ce qui concerne la détermination de la représentativité pour terminer les dramatiques divisions qui se sont vérifiées dans les dernières années dans le front endo-syndical. Le Protocole se pose dans une ligne de continuité avec le précédent Accord du 28 juin 2011 mais avec certaines différences. Dans ce contexte on analyse le récent arrêt de la Court Constitutionnelle sur la légitimité de l’art. 19 de le “Statuto dei Lavoratori” aujourd’hui, en parcourant de nouveau l’iter d’affirmation de la nouvelle jurisprudence qui est un compromis pour réglementer le problème de la représentation, qui n’a pas été solutionné dans l’absence d’une législation syndicale. Resumen - El autor afronta el espinoso tema de la representación sindical a la luz de la es­tipulación del reciente Acuerdo que incluye indicaciones en tema de medición de la represen­tatividad, suscrito unitariamente por las partes sociales para poner punto final a las dramáti­cas divisiones averiguadas en los últimos años entre los sindicatos. El Protocolo se pone en perfecta línea de continuidad con el anterior Acuerdo Interconfederal del 28 junio del 2011, diferenciándose de ello, sin embargo, en algunas partes. Dentro de este escenario, se analiza la reciente pronunciación de la Corte Constitucional sobre la legitimidad constitucional del art. 19 del Estatuto de los Trabajadores hoy, recorriendo las etapas de progresiva afirmación de la nueva orientación jurisprudencial dirigida a encontrar soluciones de compromiso para poner punto final a la añosa cuestión de la representación "irrisorta", en el ámbito del vacío legislativo en materia sindical. Riassunto - L'Autore affronta lo spinoso tema della rappresentanza sindacale alla luce del­la stipulazione della recente Intesa recante indicazioni in tema di misurazione della rappresen­tatività, sottoscritta unitariamente dalle parti sociali per porre fine alle drammatiche divisioni verificatesi negli ultimi anni sul fronte endo-sindacale. Il Protocollo si pone in perfetta linea di continuità con il precedente Accordo Interconfederale del 28 giugno del 2011, differenziando­sene, tuttavia, su alcune parti. Entro tale scenario, si analizza la recente pronuncia della Con­sulta sulla legittimità costituzionale dell'art. 19 dello Statuto dei Lavoratori oggi, ripercorren­dosi le tappe di progressiva affermazione del nuovo orientamento giurisprudenziale volto a trovare soluzioni di compromesso per porre fine alla annosa questione della rappresentanza “irrisorta”, nell'ambito del vuoto legislativo in materia sindacale. Sommario – 1. L'Accordo del 31 maggio 2013 nel quadro dei previgenti accordi interconfe­derali – 2. Le nuove misure di rappresentatività – 3. L'efficacia soggettiva ed i criteri di votazio­ne - 4. La clausola di esigibilità e di tregua sindacale – 5. La portata e gli effetti del nuovo accordo – 6. La recente decisione della Consulta e le "soluzioni" al problema della "esclusione sindacale".

  11. Comments to " Retrieval of source parameters of an event of the 2000 West Bohemia earthquake swarm assuming an anisotropic crust", Stud. geophys. geod., 51, 231-254

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rössler, D.; Krüger, F.; Pšenčík, Ivan; Rümpker, G.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 2 (2008), s. 285-286 ISSN 0039-3169 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : West Bohemia * tensile faulting * seismic anisotropy * seismic source Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.770, year: 2008

  12. A comparative study of protein patterns of human estrogen receptor positive (MCF-7) and negative (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cell lines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flodrová, Dana; Toporová, L.; Macejová, D.; Laštovičková, Markéta; Brtko, J.; Bobálová, Janette

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 3 (2016), s. 387-392 ISSN 0231-5882 Grant - others:Akademie věd - GA AV ČR(CZ) SAV-15-01 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : cell line * breast cancer * protein * mass spectrometry Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.170, year: 2016

  13. Amyloid beta1–42 and the phoshorylated tau threonine 231 in brains of aged cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darusman, Huda Shalahudin; Gjedde, Albert; Sajuthi, Dondin

    2014-01-01

    angiopathy, and the tauopathy, to possible neurofibrillary tangles. Six aged monkeys were selected based on their spatial memory performance and profile of biomarkers of AD, divided equally to affected aged subject - with Memory-affected and low amyloid level, and aged with higher performance in memory...

  14. Sequencing of 231 forensic genetic markers using the MiSeq FGx™ forensic genomics system – an evaluation of the assay and software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussing, Christian; Huber, Christina; Bytyci, Rajmonda

    2018-01-01

    , and the stutter ratios were larger than those observed with conventional STR genotyping methods. The risk of locus and allele drop-outs increased dramatically when the amount of DNA in the first PCR was lower than 250 pg. Two-person 50:1 mixtures were identified as mixtures, whereas 100:1 and 1000:1 mixtures were...

  15. NuSTAR reveals an intrinsically x-ray weak broad absorption line quasar in the ultraluminous infrared galaxy Markarian 231

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Brandt, W. N.; Harrison, F. A.

    2014-01-01

    -ionization broad absorption line quasar that is intrinsically X-ray weak. The weak ionizing continuum may explain the lack of mid-infrared [O IV], [Ne V], and [Ne VI] fine-structure emission lines which are present in sources with otherwise similar AGN properties. We argue that the intrinsic X-ray weakness may...

  16. The anticancer potential of steroidal saponin, dioscin, isolated from wild yam (Dioscorea villosa) root extract in invasive human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously, we observed that wild yam (Dioscorea villosa) root extract (WYRE) was able to activate GATA3 in human breast cancer cells targeting epigenome. This study aimed to 'nd out if dioscin (DS), a bioactive compound of WYRE, can modulate GATA3 functions and cellular invasion in human breast can...

  17. In infectious endocarditis patients mortality is highly related to kidney function at time of diagnosis: a prospective observational cohort study of 231 cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholtz, Kristine; Larsen, Carsten T; Hassager, Christian

    2009-01-01

    function at the time of admittance. METHODS: In a prospective observational cohort study data from 235 consecutive IE patients were collected at 2 tertiary heart centres in Copenhagen. Kidney function was evaluated as Estimated Endogenous Creatinine Clearance (EECC) calculated at the time of admission...

  18. Inhibition of breast cancer metastasis by using miR-31-mimic in cancer stem cell rich MDA-MB231 cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samila Farokhimanesh

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Metastasis associated miRNA have been represented a promising candi-dates in the field of anti-metastatic therapy and miR-31 as a powerful member of this family can function very effectively in order to inhibit the metastasis and introduce the new possibility of metastasis inhibition.

  19. The relationship of initial embryo crown--rump length to pregnancy outcome and abortus karyotype based on new growth curves for the 2-31 mm embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, R P; Gasser, R F; Olar, T T; Curole, D N; Taylor, S N; Matulich, E M; West, J D; Tsien, F

    1994-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if measurement of initial crown--rump length (CRL) is helpful in predicting low birth weight, newborn length, spontaneous abortions, or abortus karyotype. We measured CRL prospectively in 837 consecutive singleton pregnancies at the time a heart rate was first detectable with transvaginal ultrasonography and compared these measurements to normal values for the 10th through 90th centiles determined from 227 transvaginal ultrasound measurements in in-vitro fertilization and gamete intra-Fallopian transfer pregnancies with known ovulation dates. The relationship of initial CRL to birth weight and length and to abortion and abortus karyotype was analysed after all pregnancies had delivered. Initial CRL measured after the 28th post-ovulation day was predictive of subsequent abortion, but not of low birth weight or length. The abortion rate was 3.3% [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5%, 5.1%] when initial CRL > or = 50th centile, compared to 19.4% (95% CI 15.4%, 23.4%) when aborti. These results indicate that initial CRL measured after the 28th post-ovulation day may help to identify pregnancies at increased risk of abortion due to abnormal karyotypes.

  20. Association studies of the copy-number variable ß-defensin cluster on 8p23.1 in adenocarcinoma and chronic pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taudien Stefan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human ß-defensins are a family of antimicrobial peptides located at the mucosal surface. Both sequence multi-site variations (MSV and copy-number variants (CNV of the defensin-encoding genes are associated with increased risk for various diseases, including cancer and inflammatory conditions such as psoriasis and acute pancreatitis. In a case–control study, we investigated the association between MSV in DEFB104 as well as defensin gene (DEF cluster copy number (CN, and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC and chronic pancreatitis (CP. Results Two groups of PDAC (N=70 and CP (N=60 patients were compared to matched healthy control groups CARLA1 (N=232 and CARLA2 (N=160, respectively. Four DEFB104 MSV were haplotyped by PCR, cloning and sequencing. DEF cluster CN was determined by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Neither the PDAC nor the CP cohorts show significant differences in the DEFB104 haplotype distribution compared to the respective control groups CARLA1 and CARLA2, respectively. The diploid DEF cluster CN exhibit a significantly different distribution between PDAC and CARLA1 (Fisher’s exact test P=0.027, but not between CP and CARLA2 (P=0.867. Conclusion Different DEF cluster b CN distribution between PDAC patients and healthy controls indicate a potential protective effect of higher CNs against the disease.

  1. 2-DE analysis of breast cancer cell lines 1833 and 4175 with distinct metastatic organ-specific potentials: Comparison with parental cell line MDA-MB-231

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Selicharová, Irena; Šanda, Miloslav; Mládková, Jana; Ohri, S. S.; Vashishta, A.; Fusek, M.; Jiráček, Jiří; Vetvicka, V.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 5 (2008), s. 1237-1244 ISSN 1021-335X R&D Projects: GA MZd NR8323 Grant - others:NIH(US) ROI CAA082159-03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : breast cancer * cell line * 2-DE * organ-specific metastases Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.524, year: 2008

  2. Refinement of the basis and impact of common 11q23.1 variation to the risk of developing colorectal cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pittman, A.M.; Webb, E.; Carvajal-Carmona, L.; Howarth, K.; Di-Bernardo, M.; Broderick, P.; Spain, S.; Walther, A.; Price, A.; Sullivan, K.; Twiss, P.; Fielding, S.; Rowan, A.; Jaeger, E.; Vijayakrishnan, J.; Chandler, I.; Penegar, S.; Qureshi, M.; Lubbe, S.; Domingo, E.; Kemp, Z.; Barclay, E.; Wood, W.; Martin, L.; Gorman, M.; Thomas, H.; Peto, J.; Bishop, T.; Gray, R.; Maher, E.R.; Lucassen, A.; Kerr, D.; Evans, G.; van Wezel, T.; Morreau, H.; Wijnen, J.T.; Hopper, J.L.; Southey, M.C.; Giles, G.G.; Försti, A.; Hemminki, K.; Vodička, Pavel; Naccarati, Alessio; Lipton, L.; Ho, J.W.C.; Cheng, K.K.; Sham, P.C.; Luk, J.; Agúndez, J.A.G.; Ladero, J.M.; de la Hoya, M.; Caldés, T.; Niittymäki, I.; Tuupanene, S.; Karhu, A.; Aaltonen, L.; Cazier, J.B.; Tomlinson, I.P.M.; Houlston, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 23 (2008), s. 3720-3727 ISSN 0964-6906 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/07/1430 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : Polymorphism * CRC Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.249, year: 2008

  3. Multibeam collection for TN231: Multibeam data collected aboard Thomas G. Thompson from 2009-03-15 to 2009-03-28, Auckland, New Zealand to Apra, Guam

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  4. Guillem Rainol d’At, “Quant aug chantar lo gal sus en l’erbos” (BdT 231.4)

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Paterson

    2010-01-01

    Despite appearing in several editions and interpretations, this piece continues to pose problems. To what poetic genre does it belong? Should it be regarded as ‘fictive’ in some sense? How coherent is it, and to what should be attributed any incoherence? Are the interlocutors married or not? How many ‘dramatis personae’ are involved and who are they? It is argued here that any apparent incoherence derives from the manuscript transmission and the difficulties posed by the unusual vocabulary an...

  5. Guillem Rainol d’At, “Quant aug chantar lo gal sus en l’erbos” (BdT 231.4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Paterson

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite appearing in several editions and interpretations, this piece continues to pose problems. To what poetic genre does it belong? Should it be regarded as ‘fictive’ in some sense? How coherent is it, and to what should be attributed any incoherence? Are the interlocutors married or not? How many ‘dramatis personae’ are involved and who are they? It is argued here that any apparent incoherence derives from the manuscript transmission and the difficulties posed by the unusual vocabulary and popularising register, the narrative situation is simpler than has been previously thought, and wordplay or semantic ambivalence works primarily as humour rather than jongleuresque display. The piece would appear to be designed for performance as a comic sketch, imaginable in dramatised form with appropriate costumes, props and gestures, with the troubadour possibly coming on stage in his own persona as a ‘knight’, being interrupted by a ‘woman’ whose part could have been sung and acted by another man, a woman, or even the troubadour himself. The text may be aptly described as a 'fabliau' in dialogue form.

  6. William F. Sater, La imagen heroica de Chile: Arturo Prat, santo secular, Santiago, Centro de Estudios Bicentenario, 2005, 231 págs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANTIAGO ARÁNGUIZ PINTO

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available LA PERSONA Y LA FIGURA de Arturo Prat parece que, a simple vista, representan una misma y única unidad. Pero, si profundizamos algo más en la vida de este marino y abogado, nos daremos cuenta de que sus datos biográficos y la percepción que tuvo la sociedad de éste, varían considerablemente, pues, por su misma condición de héroe, está sujeto a los vaivenes interpretativos propios de la sobreabundante mitología nacional. Y es que el héroe, dice Sater, plantea otras problemáticas y disyuntivas cuando se le estudia, diferente a las del hombre público que posee figuración o renombre. En el héroe, por el contrario, confluyen elementos que responden a otro tipo de variables sociales, espirituales y culturales, y que es, por cierto, la preocupación fundamental que se ha propuesto desarrollar en este libro el historiador norteamericano. Analizar, comprender o estudiar la imagen heroica de Prat exige la participación de otros elementos analíticos que, a su vez, se plantean en relación a determinados momentos de la historia de Chile. No hay dudas al respecto: a nadie dejaba indiferente los rasgos y virtudes que desprendía la cautivante personalidad de Prat, considerando que éste era un ejemplo único de abnegación, heroísmo y de entrega hacia su patria, digno de imitar y difundir hacia el resto de la sociedad. Cada vez que ocurría alguna desgracia, el país requería a su vez de un estímulo moral para superar los problemas nacionales. ¿Cómo lograrlo? Recurriendo a Prat, que luego se transformaría en una práctica común, que excedió los límites de la mesura y el entendimiento.

  7. KNK II, third core: Design Report of the breeder assemblies NR-230R, NR-231R, NR-233D and NR-234D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricken, E.

    1988-07-01

    The report describes the blanket assemblies of the third core of KNK II and their operational behavior. The assemblies and their individual components are described and the design criteria, design methods and design results are presented. With the help of enveloping proofs the respectation of the design targets up to the foreseen residence time of 720 equivalent full-power days is evidenced [de

  8. Mapping Breakpoints of Complex Chromosome Rearrangements Involving a Partial Trisomy 15q23.1-q26.2 Revealed by Next Generation Sequencing and Conventional Techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Pan

    Full Text Available Complex chromosome rearrangements (CCRs, which are rather rare in the whole population, may be associated with aberrant phenotypes. Next-generation sequencing (NGS and conventional techniques, could be used to reveal specific CCRs for better genetic counseling. We report the CCRs of a girl and her mother, which were identified using a combination of NGS and conventional techniques including G-banding, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and PCR. The girl demonstrated CCRs involving chromosomes 3 and 8, while the CCRs of her mother involved chromosomes 3, 5, 8, 11 and 15. HumanCytoSNP-12 Chip analysis identified a 35.4 Mb duplication on chromosome 15q21.3-q26.2 in the proband and a 1.6 Mb microdeletion at chromosome 15q21.3 in her mother. The proband inherited the rearranged chromosomes 3 and 8 from her mother, and the duplicated region on chromosome 15 of the proband was inherited from the mother. Approximately one hundred genes were identified in the 15q21.3-q26.2 duplicated region of the proband. In particular, TPM1, SMAD6, SMAD3, and HCN4 may be associated with her heart defects, and HEXA, KIF7, and IDH2 are responsible for her developmental and mental retardation. In addition, we suggest that a microdeletion on the 15q21.3 region of the mother, which involved TCF2, TCF12, ADMA10 and AQP9, might be associated with mental retardation. We delineate the precise structures of the derivative chromosomes, chromosome duplication origin and possible molecular mechanisms for aberrant phenotypes by combining NGS data with conventional techniques.

  9. Environmental Performance Report 2011: Annual Site Environmental Report per the U.S. Department of Energy Order 231.1B (Management Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: NREL's Environmental Performance Report provides a description of the lab's environmental activities for 2011 including information on environmental and sustainability performance, environmental compliance activities and status, and environmental protection programs, highlights, and successes.

  10. Environmental Performance Report 2012: Annual Site Environmental Report per the U.S. Department of Energy Order 231.1-1B (Management Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-07-01

    This report presents a summary of NREL's environmental protection programs and activities for CY 2012. It is organized according to the different environmental media (e.g., air, waste, ground water, etc.), and includes a brief summary of how the program is managed in that area, any permitting or notification efforts that have been completed during the reporting period or are ongoing, and activities that have occurred during the reporting period in that environmental area. A description of the environmental condition and features of NREL's sites is also included to provide a basis for the program overview.

  11. Individualismo: lócus da dificuldade de Ler e Escrever entre Universitários - 10.5102/uri.v4i2.231

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivar César Oliveira de Vasconcelos

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the difficulty on reading and writing among college students, an authentic intellectual absence, making a relation with the individualism. Intellectual absence and individualism are two closely related social phenomenon, whose relation stimulates the curiosity of researchers. In the base of the individualism, there is the competition, and it can be perceived, among the students, a tendency of naturalization of it, what means they consider the competition a normal and definitive fact in society. In general, college students do not see nothing wrong about such situation and understand that the competition does not impact the formation of groups into the classroom. However, it was verified through such research that the formation of groups is not enough to build a proper culture of active intellectual interaction. In addition, students have no consciousness about the true reasons, which prevent such interaction. Important to this research was Durkheim, due to his explanatory method on individualism, as well as Weber, through his comprehensive method of analysis on the motivations of the social actors, following Bourdieu’s regards on research methodology. So, such research focus on a specific object, which is the difficulty on reading and writing by college students, and the question is related to the individualism phenomenon. The studies concluded that the individualism is the locus where the intellectual absence completes itself and they present us, in addition to the aim of the research, some classroom practices that can be allocated by professors.

  12. Study of fission mechanism with the reactions 230Th, 231Pa, 235U, 237Np(n,f) and 252Cf(fs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benfoughal, T.

    1983-01-01

    In this work, the different stages of the nuclear fission process have been investigated. The analysis of fission cross-section and fission fragment angular distribution measurements are made using the hypothesis of asymmetrically deformed states. From the correlation between fissioning nucleus excitation energy and fragment total kinetic energy measurement for several fissioning systems, it is shown that the nuclear viscosity is relatively strong during the saddle-point to scission-point transition. The study of the spontaneous fission of 252 Cf shows that the fragment mass and kinetic energy distributions are mainly determinated by the nucleon shell effects and pairing correlations [fr

  13. Synthesis, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activities of novel 2-[3-(1-adamantyl)-4-substituted-5-thioxo-1,2,4-triazolin-1-yl] acetic acids, 2-[3-(1-adamantyl)-4-substituted-5-thioxo-1,2,4-triazolin-1-yl]propionic acids and related derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Deeb, Omar A; Al-Omar, Mohamed A; El-Brollosy, Nasser R; Habib, Elsayed E; Ibrahim, Tarek M; El-Emam, Ali A

    2006-01-01

    The reaction of 3-(1-adamantyl)-4-substituted-1,2,4-triazoline-5-thiones 3a-g with sodium chloroacetate, in ethanolic sodium hydroxide yielded the corresponding N1-acetic acid derivatives 4a-g. The interaction of 3a-g with ethyl 2-bromopropionate in acetone, in the presence of potassium carbonate, yielded the corresponding N1-ethyl propionate derivatives 5a-g, which upon hydrolysis with aqueous sodium hydroxide afforded the corresponding propionic acid derivatives 6a-g. Similarly, the reaction of 3-(1-adamantyl)-4-amino-1,2,4-triazoline-5-thione 7 with sodium chloroacetate in ethanolic sodium hydroxide yielded the corresponding N1-acetic acid derivative 8. On the other hand, the reaction of 2-(1-adamantyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazoline-5-thione 9 with sodium chloroacetate yielded the corresponding S-acetic acid derivative 10. Compounds 4a-g, 5b, 5c, 5g, 6a-g, 8 and 10 were tested for in vitro activities against a panel of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and the yeast-like pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. Several derivatives produced good or moderate activities particularly against Bacillus subtilis. In addition, the in vivo anti-inflammatory activities of these compounds were determined using the carrageenin-induced paw oedema method in rats. Compounds 4a, 4b, 4e, 4f, 6f, 6g and 10 produced good dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activities.

  14. Formation and evolution of ultrafine particles produced by radiolysis and photolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madelaine, G.J.; Perrin, M.L.; Renoux, A.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented, concerning the formation, the size distribution, and the behavior of ultrafine particles produced by alpha disintegration of actinium and uv irradiation in filtered and natural atmospheric air. The characterization of these particles is obtained by electrical aerosol analyzer and diffusion battery method. Measurements are made in the range between 0.003 and 0.5 micrometer. Some qualitative indications are obtained on the different mechanisms which govern the evolution of ultrafine particles in the atmosphere (nucleation, coagulation, and condensation). It is now well established that the photo-oxydation of SO 2 in the atmosphere leads to the production of sulphuric acid and of sulphate, which are usually found in the form of submicronic particles. This paper concerns the evolution of ultrafine particles generated in the presence of a preexisting aerosol. They are either instantaneously produced by the alpha disintegrations of actinium 219 or continuously produced by the transformation of SO 2 under uv irradiation

  15. Status of liquid metal reactor development in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, J.D.; Horton, K.E.

    1991-01-01

    An existing network of government and industry research facilities and engineering test centers in the United States is currently providing test capabilities and the technical expertise required to conduct an aggressive advanced reactor development program. Subsequent to the directive to shut down the Fast Flux Test Facility in early 1990, a variety of activities were undertaken to provide support for continued operation. The United States has made substantial progress in achieving ALMR program objectives. The metal fuel cycle is designed to recycle and burn its own actiniums, and has the potential to be a very effective burner of actiniums generated in the LWRs. The current emphasis in the IFR Program is on the comprehensive development of the IFR (Integral Fast Reactor) technology, to be followed by a period of technology demonstration which would verify the economic feasibility of the concept. The United States has been active in international cooperative activities in the fast reactor sector since 1969. (author). 11 figs, 1 tab

  16. Sorption studies of radioelements on geological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, John A.; Yui, Mikazu; Kitamura, Akira

    2007-11-01

    Batch sorption experiments have been carried out to study the sorption of uranium, technetium, curium, neptunium, actinium, protactinium, polonium, americium and plutonium onto bentonite, granodiorite and tuff. Mathematical modelling using the HARPHRQ program and the HATCHES database was carried out to predict the speciation of uranium and technetium in the equilibrated seawater, and neptunium, americium and plutonium in the rock equilibrated water. Review of the literature for thermodynamic data for curium, actinium, protactinium and polonium was carried out. Where sufficient data were available, predictions of the speciation and solubility were made. This report is a summary report of the experimental work conducted by AEA Technology during April 1991-March 1998, and the main results have been presented at Material Research Society Symposium Proceedings and published as proceedings of them. (author)

  17. The production of radioisotopes with a betatron using an internal bombarding technique; Production de radioisotopes par bombardement interne dans un betatron; Proizvodstvo radioizotopov s pomoshch'yu betatrona s ispol'zovaniem metoda vnutrennej bombardirovki; Obtencion de radioisotopos por bombardeo interno en el betatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morinaga, H [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    1962-01-15

    des cibles internes n'a ete employee que pour les travaux de spectroscopie nucleaire; elle a permis d'identifier huit nouvelles especes d'isotopes radioactifs (cobalt-63, gallium-75, arsenic-81, indium-121, indium-123, thulium-173, thulium-175 et actinium-231) et de decouvrir plusieurs nouveaux isomeres. L'efficacite de cette technique de bombardement ouvre de nouvelles perspectives, car les betatrons employes a des fins medicales ou industrielles ou pour la recherche peuvent aussi servir a la production de radioelements. Les radioisotopes de courte periode sont souvent plus commodes a utiliser dans diverses applications en raison de leur desintegration rapide et des rayonnements de haute energie qu'ils emettent, et peuvent etre fabriques facilement sans exiger d'operations compliquees. (author) [Spanish] El autor ha ideado y empleado con exito un nuevo metodo para obtener en el betatron radioisotopos de elevada actividad especifica. Los materiales que se desee activar se colocan en el extremo de una varilla que se introduce desde el exterior en el tubo toroidal, y se irradian a la presion de una atmosfera en un lugar situado inmediatamente detras clel blanco que emite las radiaciones de frenado, en el que la intensidad de las radiaciones es extremadamente elevada. El autor produjo en una pieza pequena de cobre una actividad de saturacion de {sup 62}Cu superior a un milicurie, y la actividad especifica mas elevada que pudo alcanzar era unas 500 veces mayor que la obtenida con ayuda de los dispositivos corrientes. Por ahora, la tecnica del blanco interior solo se emplea para trabajos de espectroscopia nuclear. El autor ha Identificado por este metodo ocho nuevas especies radioisotopicas ({sup 63}Co, {sup 75}Ga, {sup 81}As, {sup 121}In, {sup 123}In, {sup 173}Tm, {sup 175}Tm y {sup 231}Ac) y ha encontrado varios nuevos isomeros. Esta tecnica de bombardeo abre posibilidades nuevas porque los betatrones que hoy se emplean en medicina, en la industria o en la investigacion

  18. LASL experience in decontamination of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlquist, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    This discussion represents one part of a major effort in soil decontamination at the Los Alamos site. A contaminated industrial waste line in the Los Alamos townsite was removed, and a plutonium incineration facility, and a filter building contaminated with actinium-227 were dismantled. The former plutonium handling facility has been decontaminated, and canyons and an old firing site contaminated with strontium-90 have been surveyed

  19. Determination of radionuclides in discharged water from gold ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Long-lived radionuclides from the Uranium-, Thorium- and Actinium-decay chains in the discharged water into the environment were radiochemically separated and the activity concentrations determined for 238U-series ranged from 3.8 ± 1.5 to 178 ± 19 mBqL-1, 232Th-series ranged from < 2.0 to 47.8 ± 7.3 mBqL-1 and ...

  20. Study of the origin of elements of the uranium-235 family observed in excess in the vicinity of the experimental nuclear EL4 reactor under dismantling. Lessons got at this day and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This study resumes the discovery of an excess of actinium 227 found around by EL4 nuclear reactor actually in dismantling. The search for the origin of this excess revealed a real inquiry of investigation during three years. Because a nuclear reactor existed in this area a particular attention will have concerned this region. The doubt became the line of conduct to find the answer to the human or natural origin of this excess. Finally and against any evidence, it appears that the origin of this phenomenon was natural, consequence of the particular local geology. The detail of the different investigations is given: search of a possible correlation with the composition of elevations constituent of lanes, search (and underlining) of new sites in the surroundings of the Rusquec pond and the Plouenez station, study of the atmospheric deposits under winds of the nuclear power plant and in the east direction, search of a possible relationship with the gaseous effluents of the nuclear power plant in the past, historical study of radioactive effluents releases in the fifty last years by the analysis of the sedimentary deposits in the Saint-Herbiot reservoir, search of a possible correlation between the excess of actinium 227 and the nuclear power plant activity; search of a possible correlation with a human activity without any relationship with the nuclear activities, search of a correlation with the underground waters, search of a correlation with the geological context, collect of information on the possible transfers in direction of the food chain, determination of the radiological composition of the underground waters ( not perturbed by human activity), search of the cause of an excess of actinium 227 in the old channel of liquid effluents release of the nuclear power plant. The results are given and discussed. And contrary to all expectations the origin of the excess of actinium 227 is completely natural. (N.C.)

  1. Study of the origin of elements of the uranium-235 family observed in excess in the vicinity of the experimental nuclear EL4 reactor under dismantling. Lessons got at this day and conclusions; Etude de l'origine des elements de la famille de l'uranium-235 observes en exces dans les environs du reacteur nucleaire experimental EL4 en cours de demantelement. Enseignements retires a ce jour et conclusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This study resumes the discovery of an excess of actinium 227 found around by EL4 nuclear reactor actually in dismantling. The search for the origin of this excess revealed a real inquiry of investigation during three years. Because a nuclear reactor existed in this area a particular attention will have concerned this region. The doubt became the line of conduct to find the answer to the human or natural origin of this excess. Finally and against any evidence, it appears that the origin of this phenomenon was natural, consequence of the particular local geology. The detail of the different investigations is given: search of a possible correlation with the composition of elevations constituent of lanes, search (and underlining) of new sites in the surroundings of the Rusquec pond and the Plouenez station, study of the atmospheric deposits under winds of the nuclear power plant and in the east direction, search of a possible relationship with the gaseous effluents of the nuclear power plant in the past, historical study of radioactive effluents releases in the fifty last years by the analysis of the sedimentary deposits in the Saint-Herbiot reservoir, search of a possible correlation between the excess of actinium 227 and the nuclear power plant activity; search of a possible correlation with a human activity without any relationship with the nuclear activities, search of a correlation with the underground waters, search of a correlation with the geological context, collect of information on the possible transfers in direction of the food chain, determination of the radiological composition of the underground waters ( not perturbed by human activity), search of the cause of an excess of actinium 227 in the old channel of liquid effluents release of the nuclear power plant. The results are given and discussed. And contrary to all expectations the origin of the excess of actinium 227 is completely natural. (N.C.)

  2. Behaviour of uranium series radionuclides in surface water (Crouzille, Limousin). Geochemical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulin, J.

    2008-06-01

    Understanding natural radionuclides behaviour in surface water is a required step to achieve uranium mine rehabilitation and preserve water quality. The first objective of this thesis is to determine which are the radionuclides sources in a drinking water reservoir. The second objective is to improve the knowledge about the behaviour of uranium series radionuclides, especially actinium. The investigated site is a brook (Sagnes, Limousin, France) which floods a peat bog contaminated by a former uranium mine and which empties into the Crouzille lake. It allows studying radionuclides transport in surface water and radionuclides retention through organic substance or water reservoir. Radionuclides distribution in particulate, colloidal and dissolved phases is determined thanks to ultra-filtrations. Gamma spectrometry allows measuring almost all natural radionuclides with only two counting stages. However, low activities of 235 U series radionuclides impose the use of very low background well-type Ge detectors, such as those of the Underground Laboratory of Modane (France). Firstly, this study shows that no or few radionuclides are released by the Sagnes peat bog, although its radioactivity is important. Secondly, it provides details on the behaviour of uranium series radionuclides in surface water. More specifically, it provides the first indications of actinium solubility in surface water. Actinium's behaviour is very close to uranium's even if it is a little less soluble. (author)

  3. Investigation of the origin of elements of the uranium-235 family noticed in excess around the EL4 experimental nuclear reactor during its dismantling. Site of the Monts d'Arree - Brennilis (29) power plant. Years 2007-2008. Report and appendices with results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-02-01

    The presence of actinium-227 has been noticed in the Mont d'Arree region (Finistere district) and such a presence in the environment had never been reported before. Thus, a study has been performed to investigate the origin of this element: about 300 samples have been analysed. After an indication of the investigation chronology, the report outlines that there is no relationship between the excess of actinium-227 and land amendment or embankments, that there is no obvious relationship between this presence and radioactive liquid effluents or atmospheric effluents from the Brennilis nuclear site. It shows that there is an obvious relationship with the radiological quality. It states that this excess of actinium 227 is related to the management of rain waters about the Brennilis site. An appendix specifies the location, nature and agenda of samplings (bio-indicators, samplings in sludge, soils, food and tap water, aquatic foams and sediments, ponds, wet lands, and at the vicinity of the power plant channel), presents detailed results obtained by gamma spectrometry, and measurement equipment and methods

  4. SU-E-J-231: Comparison of Delineation Variability of Soft Tissue Volume and Position in Head-And-Neck Between Two T1-Weighted Pulse Sequences Using An MR-Simulator with Immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, O; Lo, G; Yuan, J; Law, M; Ding, A; Cheng, K; Chan, K; Cheung, K; Yu, S [Hong Kong Sanatorium & Hospital, Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: There is growing interests in applying MR-simulator(MR-sim) in radiotherapy but MR images subject to hardware, patient and pulse sequence dependent geometric distortion that may potentially influence target definition. This study aimed to evaluate the influence on head-and-neck tissue delineation, in terms of positional and volumetric variability, of two T1-weighted(T1w) MR sequences on a 1.5T MR-sim Methods: Four healthy volunteers were scanned (4 scans for each on different days) using both spin-echo (3DCUBE, TR/TE=500/14ms, TA=183s) and gradient-echo sequences (3DFSPGR, TE/TR=7/4ms, TA=173s) with identical coverage, voxel-size(0.8×0.8×1.0mm3), receiver-bandwidth(62.5kHz/pix) and geometric correction on a 1.5T MR-sim immobilized with personalized thermoplastic cast and head-rest. Under this setting, similar T1w contrast and signal-to-noise ratio were obtained, and factors other than sequence that might bias image distortion and tissue delineation were minimized. VOIs of parotid gland(PGR, PGL), pituitary gland(PIT) and eyeballs(EyeL, EyeR) were carefully drawn, and inter-scan coefficient-of-variation(CV) of VOI centroid position and volume were calculated for each subject. Mean and standard deviation(SD) of the CVs for four subjects were compared between sequences using Wilcoxon ranksum test. Results: The mean positional(<4%) and volumetric(<7%) CVs varied between tissues, majorly dependent on tissue inherent properties like volume, location, mobility and deformability. Smaller mean volumetric CV was found in 3DCUBE, probably due to its less proneness to tissue susceptibility, but only PGL showed significant difference(P<0.05). Positional CVs had no significant differences for all VOIs(P>0.05) between sequences, suggesting volumetric variation might be more sensitive to sequence-dependent delineation difference. Conclusion: Although 3DCUBE is considered less prone to tissue susceptibility-induced artifact and distortion, our preliminary data showed that both sequences had insignificant differences on positional and volumetric CV in most head-and-neck tissues except for PGL. This study is majorly limited in its small sample size. Influences of image contrasts(T1w v.s. T2w) and inter-observer difference have to be further investigated.

  5. SU-E-T-231: Measurements of Gold Nanoparticle-Mediated Proton Dose Enhancement Due to Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission and Activation Products Using Radiochromic Films and CdTe Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, J; Cho, S; Manohar, N; Krishnan, S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: There have been several reports of enhanced cell-killing and tumor regression when tumor cells and mouse tumors were loaded with gold nanoparticles (GNPs) prior to proton irradiation. While particle-induced xray emission (PIXE), Auger electrons, secondary electrons, free radicals, and biological effects have been suggested as potential mechanisms responsible for the observed GNP-mediated dose enhancement/radiosensitization, there is a lack of quantitative analysis regarding the contribution from each mechanism. Here, we report our experimental effort to quantify some of these effects. Methods: 5-cm-long cylindrical plastic vials were filled with 1.8 mL of either water or water mixed with cylindrical GNPs at the same gold concentration (0.3 mg Au/g) as used in previous animal studies. A piece of EBT2 radiochromic film (30-µm active-layer sandwiched between 80/175-µm outer-layers) was inserted along the long axis of each vial and used to measure dose enhancement due to PIXE from GNPs. Vials were placed at center-of-modulation (COM) and 3-cm up-/down-stream from COM and irradiated with 5 different doses (2–10 Gy) using 10-cm-SOBP 160-MeV protons. After irradiation, films were cleaned and read to determine the delivered dose. A vial containing spherical GNPs (20 mg Au/g) was also irradiated, and gamma-rays from activation products were measured using a cadmium-telluride (CdTe) detector. Results: Film measurements showed no significant dose enhancement beyond the experimental uncertainty (∼2%). There was a detectable activation product from GNPs, but it appeared to contribute to dose enhancement minimally (<0.01%). Conclusion: Considering the composition of EBT2 film, it can be inferred that gold characteristic x-rays from PIXE and their secondary electrons make insignificant contribution to dose enhancement. The current investigation also suggests negligible dose enhancement due to activation products. Thus, previously-reported GNP-mediated proton dose enhancement/radiosensitization needs to be attributed to one or more of the other mechanisms listed earlier. Supported in part by NIH/NCI grant R01CA155446;This investigation was supported in part by NIH/NCI grant R01CA155446

  6. 231. Cirugía cardíaca en adultos con cardiopatías congénitas: ¿qué pacientes y patologías intervenimos actualmente?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.C. Ruiz-Solano

    2012-04-01

    Conclusiones: La cirugía congénita sobre pacientes adultos representa una actividad de relevancia en la cirugía cardíaca de hoy día. Nuestros resultados evidencian que este tipo de intervenciones se puede llevar a cabo con una baja morbimortalidad.

  7. Decree nr 2017-231 of the 23 February 2017 in application of the article L. 542-1-2 of the Code of the Environment, and establishing prescriptions of the National Plan of Management of Radioactive Materials and Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazeneuve, Bernard; Royal, Segolene; Vallaud-Belkacem, Najat; Le Drian, Jean-Yves

    2017-01-01

    The articles of this decree contain additional arrangements which are to be introduced within the Code of the Environment to take the French national plan of management of radioactive materials and wastes (PNGMDR) into account. These new articles define general arrangements regarding the implementation of this management and obligations of radioactive waste producers, the management of temporary situations, the long term management of radioactive wastes. Due to these new arrangements, a previous decree concerning the PNGMDR and some article of the Code of the Environment are revoked

  8. Complejidad molecular en envolturas de estrellas evolucionadas: estudio detallado de la emisión molecular de los objetos IK Tau, OH231.8 + 4,2 e IRC + 10216

    OpenAIRE

    Velilla Prieto, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Las estrellas evolucionadas cuyas masas durante la secuencia principal estaban comprendidas aproximadamente entre 1 y 8 masas solares, como lo será nuestro Sol dentro de aproximadamente 4500 millones de años, son las principales responsables del enriquecimiento del medio interestelar. En la fase llamada rama asintótica de las gigantes, estas estrellas crean una envoltura a su alrededor que se forma debido a intensos procesos de pérdida de masa. Dichas envolturas están compuestas principalment...

  9. González de la Vega, René. (2017. Tolerance and Modern Liberalism. From Paradox to Aretaic Moral Ideal. Maryland, United States of America: Lexington. 231 pp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Lariguet

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In political and moral philosophy we are used to an uninterrupted succession of texts, heirs of the liberal traditions (headed by John Rawls, communitarians (led by the likes of Michael Sandel, Charles Taylor, etc., analytical Marxists (authors like Gerald Cohen, Jon Elster, etc..Besides the names mentioned above, there is a succession of texts that tend to give rise to a sense of routine and, as a result, of lethargy. It is the feeling that political and moral philosophy has reached a plateau within a set of accepted doctrines. Doctrines which, to paraphrase Thomas Kuhn, make up a kind of “normal science” of philosophical theory.But from time to time, the routine drowsiness is sharply interrupted. This happens when works of philosophy show up to question prevailing theories in political philosophy. Such is the case of the work I propose to review herein. It is the work of Mexican philosopher René González de la Vega, whose text on political philosophy features philosophical rigour, originality and depth...

  10. Phenotyping breast cancer cell lines EM-G3, HCC1937, MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 using 2-D electrophoresis and affinity chromatography for glutathione-binding proteins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mládková, Jana; Šanda, Miloslav; Matoušková, E.; Selicharová, Irena

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 10, - (2010), 449/1-449/10 ISSN 1471-2407 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06077 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : 2-DE * breast cancer * glutathione Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.153, year: 2010 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2407/10/449

  11. Ascofuranone suppresses EGF-induced HIF-1α protein synthesis by inhibition of the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yun-Jeong; Cho, Hyun-Ji [Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Department of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu School of Medicine, Daegu 705-718 (Korea, Republic of); Magae, Junji [Magae Bioscience Institute, 49-4 Fujimidai, Tsukuba 300-1263 (Japan); Lee, In-Kyu [Department of Internal Medicine, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu 700-721 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Keun-Gyu, E-mail: kpark@knu.ac.kr [Department of Internal Medicine, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu 700-721 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Young-Chae, E-mail: ycchang@cu.ac.kr [Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Department of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu School of Medicine, Daegu 705-718 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 plays an important role in tumor progression, angiogenesis and metastasis. In this study, we investigated the potential molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-angiogenic effect of ascofuranone, an isoprenoid antibiotic from Ascochyta viciae, in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-1 responsive human breast cancer cells. Ascofuranone significantly and selectively suppressed EGF-induced HIF-1α protein accumulation, whereas it did not affect the expression of HIF-1β. Furthermore, ascofuranone inhibited the transcriptional activation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by reducing protein HIF-1α. Mechanistically, we found that the inhibitory effects of ascofuranone on HIF-1α protein expression are associated with the inhibition of synthesis HIF-1α through an EGF-dependent mechanism. In addition, ascofuranone suppressed EGF-induced phosphorylation of Akt/mTOR/p70S6 kinase, but the phosphorylation of ERK/JNK/p38 kinase was not affected by ascofuranone. These results suggest that ascofuranone suppresses EGF-induced HIF-1α protein translation through the inhibition of Akt/mTOR/p70S6 kinase signaling pathways and plays a novel role in the anti-angiogenic action. - Highlights: • Inhibitory effect of ascofuranone on HIF-1α expression is EGF-specific regulation. • Ascofuranone decreases HIF-1α protein synthesis through Akt/mTOR pathways. • Ascofuranone suppresses EGF-induced VEGF production and tumor angiogenesis.

  12. Independent verification survey report for exposure units Z2-24, Z2-31, Z2-32, AND Z2-36 in zone 2 of the East Tennessee technology park Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, David A. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management selected Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), through the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, to perform independent verification (IV) at Zone 2 of the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. ORAU has concluded IV surveys, per the project-specific plan (PSP) (ORAU 2013a) covering exposure units (EUs) Z2-24, -31, -32, and -36. The objective of this effort was to verify the target EUs comply with requirements in the Zone 2 Record of Decision (ROD) (DOE 2005), as implemented by using the dynamic verification strategy presented in the dynamic work plan (DWP) (BJC 2007); and confirm commitments in the DWP were adequately implemented, as verified via IV surveys and soil sampling.

  13. Neutron Diffraction Study of the Irreversible R-MA-MC Phase Transition in Single Crystal Pb[(Zn1/3Nb2/3)1-xTix]O3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohwada, Kenji; Hirota, Kazuma; Rehrig, Paul W.; Gehring, Peter M.; Noheda, Beatriz; Fujii, Yasuhiko; Park, Seung-Eek Eagle; Shirane, Gen

    2001-01-01

    Single crystals of the relaxor PZN-xPT display an enormously strong piezoelectric character. Recent x-ray scattering studies have revealed novel electric-field induced phase transitions in PZN-8%PT. As-grown crystals exhibit a rhombohedral structure that, under application of an electric field

  14. ORF Alignment: NC_003305 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... Length = 231 ... Query: 171 LDAALRGAEITQKRATELQAKDVGTVAASDNAQVALDQARANVVAGEAAISSAKANVELL 230 ... LDA...ALRGAEITQKRATELQAKDVGTVAASDNAQVALDQARANVVAGEAAISSAKANVELL Sbjct: 9 ... LDAALRGAEITQKRATELQAKDVGTVAASDNAQVALDQARANVVAGEAAISSAKANVEL

  15. ORF Alignment: NC_003063 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... Length = 231 ... Query: 198 LDAALRGAEITQKRATELQAKDVGTVAASDNAQVALDQARANVVAGEAAISSAKANVELL 257 ... LDA...ALRGAEITQKRATELQAKDVGTVAASDNAQVALDQARANVVAGEAAISSAKANVELL Sbjct: 9 ... LDAALRGAEITQKRATELQAKDVGTVAASDNAQVALDQARANVVAGEAAISSAKANVEL

  16. Catalog of Navy Training Courses (CANTRAC). Volume 1. Introductory General Information and Quota Control Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    S-231-0040 Classic Wizard Tuner e. S-231-0001 Classic Wizard Collection System Operator f. S-231-0002 Classic Wizard Network System Operator g. S-231...aircraft. HKLM[ NERON 12 has its headquarters at NAS Norfolk. (1) Pilots and Aircrew Training: HEIMINERON TWELVE Training Officer Naval Air Station Norfolk

  17. ORF Alignment: NC_003071 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DSPIQCFIKRNRATATYILYYGLMPSETENDKLLLAARRIRRATCTDFIISLSAK 60 ... Query: 231 ITYELNVLRTRGPRRMHCAMDSIPLSSVIAEPSVVQG...IEEEVSSSPSPKGETITTDKEIP 290 ... ITYELNVLRTRGPRRMHCAMDSIPLSSVIAEPSVVQGIEEEVSSSPSPKGETITTDKEIP Sbjct: 121 ITYELNVLRTRGPRRMHC

  18. Actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinot, L.; Fuger, J.

    1985-01-01

    The oxidation behavior of the actinides is explained on the basis of their electronic structure. The actinide elements, actinium, thorium, protactinium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, curium, berkelium, californium, einsteinium, fermium, mendelevium, nobelium, and laurencium are included. For all except the last three elements, the points of discussion are oxidation states, Gibbs energies and potentials, and potential diagram for the element in acid solution; and thermodynamic properties of these same elements are tabulated. References are cited following discussion of each element with a total of 97 references being cited. 13 tables

  19. Radiometric determination of {sup 226}, {sup 228}Ac and {sup 40}K in fly ashes and building materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harangozo, M; Toelgyessy, J; Lesny, J; Cik, G [Slovak Technical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia). Fac. of Chemical Technology, Dept. of Environmental Science

    1996-12-31

    In this paper the activities of radium-226, actinium-228 and potassium-40 in fly ashes and building materials of Slovakia were determined. Different origin of coals combusted results in significant differences in specific activities of radium-226 and activities-228 of measured fly-ashes and building materials. The knowledge of the specific activity of selected nuclides contained in fly-ashes is, therefore, very important and in specific cases can indicate the possibilities of their further technological use. (J.K.) 1 tab., 3 refs.

  20. Status of the lanthanides and actinides in the periodic table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holden, N.E.

    1985-01-01

    In extended discussions and correspondence with Ekkehard Fluck, the author was made aware of a problem with the Periodic Table, i.e., which element should be shown in the main table as the representative of the lanthanide series and the actinide series. In earlier discussion, he came to the conclusion that lanthanum and actinium are not the elements which should appear, but rather lutetium and lawrencium are more appropriate for inclusion in their place. This paper will attempt to justify the reasons for the above conclusions. 4 refs

  1. Calculation of entropy of liquid metals using acoustic measurements in the framework of the rigid sphere model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekuchev, V.V.; Barashkov, B.I.; Rygalov, L.N.; Dolzhikov, Yu.S.

    2001-01-01

    For the first time one obtained the polytherms of ultrasound velocity for liquid high-melting metals within wide temperature range. In terms of the rigid sphere model on the basis of the acoustic data one calculated the entropy values for 34 liquid metals at the melting point. The average discrepancy of the calculated values of entropy with the published one constitutes 8.2%. With increase of metal valency the error increases from 2.8 up to 13%. In case of francium, radium, promethium, actinium, hafnium, polonium, rhenium one obtained data for the first time [ru

  2. Journal of Naval Science. Volume 2. Number 3. July 1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-07-01

    supplementary food to the beakers containing stage VI nauplii: cyprids do not feed. The larvae in each beaker were con- fined within a close-fitting plastic...99-274% of Natural U) Uranium-234 (234U) (0-006% of Natural U) 2-48 X 10"’yrs Thorium-230 (230Th) Polonium -218(2I8Po) /through short lived...Natural U) Actinium-227 (--7Ac) FIG. 1. Nuclide chart. 4-51 X 10’Yrs 7 hours P 8 X 10’ Yrs 4 days Lead- 210 (210Pb) (22 yrs,/3"). 1-39 X 10

  3. 'Masurium' and the 'early transuranium elements' or how discovery of nuclear fission was not clearly seen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, C.

    1988-01-01

    Fifty years after the discovery of fission, the scientific community is aware that this type of nuclear reaction could have been discovered more than a decade earlier. Noddack, Tacke and Berg announced in 1925 the discovery of elements Z = 43 (masurium) and rhenium (Z = 75), the first one could be detected only in U-bearing minerals. A recent re-examination by P.H.M. von Assche of the published data clearly showed that the original claim for element Z = 43 of the authors in 1925 was correct and, therefore, they detected not only element Z = 43 but also the first fission product. Because this discovery of element Z = 43 could not be repeated by other authors as that time, the scientific credibility of Noddack-Tacke was very low in order to give credit to her proposal that the 'early' transuranium elements by Enrico Fermi might also be fragments of known (lighter) elements. Enrico Fermi in 1934 obtained these 'early' (and as we today know: wrong) transuranium isotopes by irradiation of uranium with neutrons. A 'wrong' periodic system in the thirties which placed Th, Pa and U as 6d-elements and not as 5f-actinides chemically helped to consider these fission products as transuranium elements Z = 93/94. In 1937/38 I. Curie and P. Savitch discovered an 'actinium-nuclide' with 3,5 h half-life which, however, had properties similar to lanthanium and not to actinium, as they stated. (orig.) [de

  4. A study of uranium and thorium migration at the Koongarra uranium deposit with application to actinide transport from nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, T.E.

    1991-01-01

    One way to gain confidence in modelling possible radionuclide releases is to study natural systems which are similar to components of the multibarrier waste repository. Several such analogues are currently under study and these provide useful data about radionuclide behaviour in the natural environment. One such system is the Koongarra uranium deposit in the Northern Territory. In this dissertation, the migration of actinides, primarily uranium and thorium, has been studied as an analogue for the behaviour of transuranics in the far-field of a waste repository. The major findings of this study are: 1. the main process retarding uranium migration in the dispersion fan at Koongarra is sorption, which suppresses dissolved uranium concentrations well below solubility limits, with ferrihydrite being a major sorbing phase; 2. thorium is extremely immobile, with very low dissolved concentrations and corresponding high distribution ratios for 230 Th. Overall, it is estimated that colloids are relatively unimportant in Koongarra groundwater. Uranium migrates mostly as dissolved species, whereas thorium and actinium are mostly adsorbed to larger, relatively immobile particles and the stationary phase. However, of the small amount of 230 Th that passes through a 1μm filter, a significant proportion is associated with colloidal particles. Actinium appears to be slightly more mobile than thorium and is associated with colloids to a greater extent, although generally present in low concentrations. These results support the possibility of colloidal transport of trivalent and tetravalent actinides in the vicinity of a nuclear waste repository. 112 refs., 23 tabs., 32 figs

  5. Actinide metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Paul L. [Geochem Australia, Kiama, NSW (Australia); Ekberg, Christian [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Nuclear Chemistry/Industrial Materials Recycling

    2016-07-01

    All isotopes of actinium are radioactive and exist in aqueous solution only in the trivalent state. There have been very few studies on the hydrolytic reactions of actinium(III). The hydrolysis reactions for uranium would only be important in alkaline pH conditions. Thermodynamic parameters for the hydrolysis species of uranium(VI) and its oxide and hydroxide phases can be determined from the stability and solubility constants. The hydrolytic behaviour of neptunium(VI) is quite similar to that of uranium(VI). The solubility constant of NpO{sub 2}OH(am) has been reported a number of times for both zero ionic strength and in fixed ionic strength media. Americium can form four oxidation states in aqueous solution, namely trivalent, tetravalent, pentavalent and hexavalent. Desire, Hussonnois and Guillaumont determined stability constants for the species AmOH{sup 2+} for the actinides, plutonium(III), americium(III), curium(III), berkelium(III) and californium(III) using a solvent extraction technique.

  6. Purification of cerium, neodymium and gadolinium for low background experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boiko R.S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerium, neodymium and gadolinium contain double beta active isotopes. The most interesting are 150Nd and 160Gd (promising for 0ν2β search, 136Ce (2β+ candidate with one of the highest Q2β. The main problem of compounds containing lanthanide elements is their high radioactive contamination by uranium, radium, actinium and thorium. The new generation 2β experiments require development of methods for a deep purification of lanthanides from the radioactive elements. A combination of physical and chemical methods was applied to purify cerium, neodymium and gadolinium. Liquid-liquid extraction technique was used to remove traces of Th and U from neodymium, gadolinium and for purification of cerium from Th, U, Ra and K. Co-precipitation and recrystallization methods were utilized for further reduction of the impurities. The radioactive contamination of the samples before and after the purification was tested by using ultra-low-background HPGe gamma spectrometry. As a result of the purification procedure the radioactive contamination of gadolinium oxide (a similar purification efficiency was reached also with cerium and neodymium oxides was decreased from 0.12 Bq/kg to 0.007 Bq/kg in 228Th, from 0.04 Bq/kg to <0.006 Bq/kg in 226Ra, and from 0.9 Bq/kg to 0.04 Bq/kg in 40K. The purification methods are much less efficient for chemically very similar radioactive elements like actinium, lanthanum and lutetium.

  7. Actinide metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Paul L.; Ekberg, Christian

    2016-01-01

    All isotopes of actinium are radioactive and exist in aqueous solution only in the trivalent state. There have been very few studies on the hydrolytic reactions of actinium(III). The hydrolysis reactions for uranium would only be important in alkaline pH conditions. Thermodynamic parameters for the hydrolysis species of uranium(VI) and its oxide and hydroxide phases can be determined from the stability and solubility constants. The hydrolytic behaviour of neptunium(VI) is quite similar to that of uranium(VI). The solubility constant of NpO 2 OH(am) has been reported a number of times for both zero ionic strength and in fixed ionic strength media. Americium can form four oxidation states in aqueous solution, namely trivalent, tetravalent, pentavalent and hexavalent. Desire, Hussonnois and Guillaumont determined stability constants for the species AmOH 2+ for the actinides, plutonium(III), americium(III), curium(III), berkelium(III) and californium(III) using a solvent extraction technique.

  8. Kinetics of radioisotope exchange between brine and rock in a geothermal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, D.E.; Zukin, J.G.; Teh-Lung Ku

    1988-01-01

    A wide range of isotopes in the /sup 238/U, /sup 235/U, and /sup 232/Th decay chains was measured in geothermal brines collected from two production zones at 1898 and 3220 m in the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project well. High concentrations of radium, radon, and lead isotopes are generated and maintained by the input of these isotopes from solid phases into brine by both recoil and leaching processes, by the high chloride content of the brine which complexes radium and lead, and by the apparent absence of suitable unoccupied adsorption sites. In contrast, uranium, thorium, actinium, bismuth, and polonium isotopes all have low concentrations due to their efficient sorption from brine to rock. Measurements of short-lived isotopes in these decay series yield insights regarding the mechanisms controlling radioisotope exchange, and they permit estimation of rates of brine-rock interaction. For example, the /sup 228/Ac//sup 228/Ra activity ratio of 0.2 in brines indicates that the mean residence time of actinium in solution before sorption onto solid surfaces is less than 2.5 hours

  9. An aerial radiological survey of the Sandia National Laboratories and surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedhauser, S.R.

    1994-06-01

    A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory conducted an aerial radiological survey of the area surrounding the Sandia National Laboratories and Kirtland Air Force Base in Albuquerque, New Mexico, during March and April 1993. The survey team measured the terrestrial gamma radiation at the site to determine the levels of natural and man-made radiation. This survey includes the areas covered by a previous survey in 1981. The results of the aerial survey show a background exposure rate which varies between 5 and 18 μR/h plus an approximate 6 μR/h contribution from cosmic rays. The major radioactive isotopes found in this survey were: potassium-40, thallium-208, bismuth-214, and actinium-228, which are all naturally-occurring isotopes, and cobalt-60, cesium-137, and excess amounts of thallium-208 and actinium-228, which are due to human actions in the survey area. In regions away from man-made activity, the exposure rates inferred from this survey's gamma ray measurements agree almost exactly with the exposure rates inferred from the 1981 survey. In addition to the aerial measurements, another survey team conducted in situ and soil sample radiation measurements at three sites within the survey perimeter. These ground-based measurements agree with the aerial measurements within ± 5%

  10. Application of Kalman filter to short-term tide level prediction by Yen, P.-H., Jan, C.-D., Lee, Y.-P. and Lee, H.-F. (J. Waterway Port Coast. Ocean Eng. 122(5); 1996; pp 226-231: Discussion

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.; Chandramohan, P.

    stream_size 2 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Waterway_Port_Coast_Eng_124_213.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Waterway_Port_Coast_Eng_124_213.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  11. Statistical Measures Alone Cannot Determine Which Database (BNI, CINAHL, MEDLINE, or EMBASE Is the Most Useful for Searching Undergraduate Nursing Topics. A Review of: Stokes, P., Foster, A., & Urquhart, C. (2009. Beyond relevance and recall: Testing new user-centred measures of database performance. Health Information and Libraries Journal, 26(3, 220-231.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Badia

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – The research project sought to determine which of four databases was the most useful for searching undergraduate nursing topics. Design – Comparative database evaluation. Setting – Nursing and midwifery students at Homerton School of Health Studies (now part of Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, United Kingdom, in 2005-2006. Subjects – The subjects were four databases: British Nursing Index (BNI, CINAHL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE.Methods – This was a comparative study using title searches to compare BNI (BritishNursing Index, CINAHL, MEDLINE and EMBASE.According to the authors, this is the first study to compare BNI with other databases. BNI is a database produced by British libraries that indexes the nursing and midwifery literature. It covers over 240 British journals, and includes references to articles from health sciences journals that are relevant to nurses and midwives (British Nursing Index, n.d..The researchers performed keyword searches in the title field of the four databases for the dissertation topics of nine nursing and midwifery students enrolled in undergraduate dissertation modules. The list of titles of journals articles on their topics were given to the students and they were asked to judge the relevancy of the citations. The title searches were evaluated in each of the databases using the following criteria: • precision (the number of relevant results obtained in the database for a search topic, divided by the total number of results obtained in the database search;• recall (the number of relevant results obtained in the database for a search topic, divided by the total number of relevant results obtained on that topic from all four database searches;• novelty (the number of relevant results that were unique in the database search, which was calculated as a percentage of the total number of relevant results found in the database;• originality (the number of unique relevant results obtained in the database for a search topic, which was calculated as a percentage of the total number of unique results found in all four database searches;• availability (the number of relevant full text articles obtained from the database search results, which was calculated as a percentage of the total number of relevant results found in the database;• retrievability (the number of relevant full text articles obtained from the database search results, which was calculated as a percentage of the total number of relevant full text articles found from all four database searches;• effectiveness (the probable odds that a database will obtain relevant search results;• efficiency (the probable odds that a database will obtain both unique and relevant search results; and• accessibility (the probable odds that the full text of the relevant references obtained from the database search are available electronically or in print via the user’s library.Students decided whether the search results were relevant to their topic by using a “yes/no” scale. Only record titles were used to make relevancy judgments.Main Results – Friedman’s Test and odds ratios were used to compare the performance of BNI, CINAHL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE when searching for information about nursing topics.These two statistical measures demonstrated the following:• BNI had the best average score for the precision, availability, effectiveness, and accessibility of search results;• CINAHL scored the highest for the novelty, retrievability, and efficiency of results, and ranked second place for all the other criteria;• MEDLINE excelled in the areas of recall and originality, and ranked second place for novelty and retrievability; and• EMBASE did not obtain the highest, or second highest score, for any of the criteria.Conclusion – According to the authors, these results suggest that none of the databases studied can be considered the most useful for searching undergraduate nursing topics. CINAHL and MEDLINE emerge as consistently good performers, but both databases are needed to find relevant material on a topic.Friedman’s Test clearly differentiated between the databases for the accessibility of search results. Odds ratio testing may assist librarians to make decisions about database purchases. BNI scored the highest for availability of results and CINAHL ranked the highest for retrievability. Statistical measures need to be supplemented with qualitative data about user preferences in order to determine which database is the most useful to our users.

  12. Decree of the 23 February 2017 in application of the decree nr 2017-231 of the 23 February 2017 in application of the article L. 542-1-2 of the Code of the Environment, and establishing prescriptions of the National Plan of Management of Radioactive Materials and Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royal, Segolene

    2017-01-01

    This decree defines legal arrangements about the implementation of the French national plan of management of radioactive materials and wastes (PNGMDR). It contains some general arrangements, issues related to radioactive materials (depleted uranium, uranium from reprocessing, plutonium and spent fuels, thorium-containing materials), and issues related to the long term management of radioactive wastes. These issues notably concern historical storages and the different types of radioactive wastes: very low level radioactive wastes, short lived low and intermediate level wastes, long-lived intermediate level wastes, long-lived high and intermediate level wastes, radioactive wastes requiring specific works such as mercury-containing wastes, organic liquids and oils, tritiated wastes, and so on, and uranium tailings

  13. Safety assessment of poloxamers 101, 105, 108, 122, 123, 124, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 188, 212, 215, 217, 231, 234, 235, 237, 238, 282, 284, 288, 331, 333, 334, 335, 338, 401, 402, 403, and 407, poloxamer 105 benzoate, and poloxamer 182 dibenzoate as used in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh-Joy, Subhashni D; McLain, Valerie C

    2008-01-01

    Poloxamers are polyoxyethlyene, polyoxypropylene block polymers. The impurities of commercial grade Poloxamer 188, as an example, include low-molecular-weight substances (aldehydes and both formic and acetic acids), as well as 1,4-dioxane and residual ethylene oxide and propylene oxide. Most Poloxamers function in cosmetics as surfactants, emulsifying agents, cleansing agents, and/or solubilizing agents, and are used in 141 cosmetic products at concentrations from 0.005% to 20%. Poloxamers injected intravenously in animals are rapidly excreted in the urine, with some accumulation in lung, liver, brain, and kidney tissue. In humans, the plasma concentration of Poloxamer 188 (given intravenously) reached a maximum at 1 h, then reached a steady state. Poloxamers generally were ineffective in wound healing, but were effective in reducing postsurgical adhesions in several test systems. Poloxamers can cause hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia in animals, but overall, they are relatively nontoxic to animals, with LD(50) values reported from 5 to 34.6 g/kg. Short-term intravenous doses up to 4 g/kg of Poloxamer 108 produced no change in body weights, but did result in diffuse hepatocellular vacuolization, renal tubular dilation in kidneys, and dose-dependent vacuolization of epithelial cells in the proximal convoluted tubules. A short-term inhalation toxicity study of Poloxamer 101 at 97 mg/m(3) identified slight alveolitis after 2 weeks of exposure, which subsided in the 2-week postexposure observation period. A short-term dermal toxicity study of Poloxamer 184 in rabbits at doses up to 1000 mg/kg produced slight erythema and slight intradermal inflammatory response on histological examination, but no dose-dependent body weight, hematology, blood chemistry, or organ weight changes. A 6-month feeding study in rats and dogs of Poloxamer 188 at exposures up to 5% in the diet produced no adverse effects. Likewise, Poloxamer 331 (tested up to 0.5 g/kg day(-1)), Poloxamer 235 (tested up to 1.0 g/kg day(-1)), and Poloxamer 338 (at 0.2 or 1.0 g/kg day(-1)) produced no adverse effects in dogs. Poloxamer 338 (at 5.0 g/kg day(-1)) produced slight transient diarrhea in dogs. Poloxamer 188 at levels up to 7.5% in diet given to rats in a 2-year feeding study produced diarrhea at 5% and 7.5% levels, a small decrease in growth at the 7.5% level, but no change in survival. Doses up to 0.5 mg/kg day(-1) for 2 years using rats produced yellow discoloration of the serum, high serum alkaline phosphatase activity, and elevated serum glutamicpyruvic transaminase and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase activities. Poloxamers are minimal ocular irritants, but are not dermal irritants or sensitizers in animals. Data on reproductive and developmental toxicity of Poloxamers were not found. An Ames test did not identify any mutagenic activity of Poloxamer 407, with or without metabolic activation. Several studies have suggested anticarcinogenic effects of Poloxamers. Poloxamers appear to increase the sensitivity to anticancer drugs of multidrug-resistant cancer cells. In clinical testing, Poloxamer 188 increased the hydration of feces when used in combination with a bulk laxative treatment. Compared to controls, one study of angioplasty patients receiving Poloxamer 188 found a reduced myocardial infarct size and a reduced incidence of reinfarction, with no evidence of toxicity, but two other studies found no effect. Poloxamer 188 given to patients suffering from sickle cell disease had decreased pain and decreased hospitilization, compared to controls. Clinical tests of dermal irritation and sensitization were uniformly negative. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel stressed that the cosmetic industry should continue to use the necessary purification procedures to keep the levels below established limits for ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, and 1,4-dioxane. The Panel did note the absence of reproductive and developmental toxicity data, but, based on molecular weight and solubility, there should be little skin penetration and any penetration of the skin should be slow. Also, the available data demonstrate that Poloxamers that are introduced into the body via routes other than dermal exposure have a rapid clearance from the body, suggesting that there would be no risk of reproductive and/or developmental toxicity. Overall, the available data do not suggest any concern about carcinogenesis. Although there are gaps in knowledge about product use, the overall information available on the types of products in which these ingredients are used, and at what concentration, indicates a pattern of use. Based on these safety test data and the information that the manufacturing process can be controlled to limit unwanted impurities, the Panel concluded that these Poloxamers are safe as used.

  14. The Information Practices of Physical Science Librarians Differ from Those of the Scientific Community: More Research is Needed to Characterize Specific Information Seeking and Use. A Review of: Brown, Cecilia M. and Lina Ortega. “Information-Seeking Behavior of Physical Science Librarians: Does Research Inform Practice?” College & Research Libraries 66.3 (2005): 231-47.

    OpenAIRE

    Carol Perryman

    2008-01-01

    Objective - As part of a larger study exploring the information environments of physical science librarians (Ortega & Brown), the authors’ overall objective for this study is to profile physical science librarians’ information behaviours. The authors’ two-part hypothesis was that first, peer-reviewed journals would be preferred over all other sources for research dissemination, resembling the preferences of scientists, and second, that peer-to-peer consultation would predominate for practice-...

  15. The Information Practices of Physical Science Librarians Differ from Those of the Scientific Community: More Research is Needed to Characterize Specific Information Seeking and Use. A Review of: Brown, Cecilia M. and Lina Ortega. “Information-Seeking Behavior of Physical Science Librarians: Does Research Inform Practice?” College & Research Libraries 66.3 (2005: 231-47.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Perryman

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective - As part of a larger study exploring the information environments of physical science librarians (Ortega & Brown, the authors’ overall objective for this study is to profile physical science librarians’ information behaviours. The authors’ two-part hypothesis was that first, peer-reviewed journals would be preferred over all other sources for research dissemination, resembling the preferences of scientists, and second, that peer-to-peer consultation would predominate for practice-oriented decisions.Design – Mixed methods: survey questionnaire followed by citation and content analysis.Setting – Five internationally disseminated professional association electronic mailing lists whose readership comprised those with interests in science librarianship: the American Library Association (ALA Science and Technology Section; the American Society for Information Science & Technology (ASIST Science and Technology Information Special Interest Group; the Special Library Association (SLA Chemistry Division and its Physics-Astronomy-Mathematics Division; and the American Geological Institute Geoscience Information Society.Subjects – Seventy-two physical science librarians voluntarily responding to an online survey.Methods – A questionnaire was distributed to inquire about physical science librarians’ professional reading practices as well as their perceptions about the applicability of research to their work. Participants were asked to rank preferences among 11 resource types as sources supporting daily business, including personal communication, conference attendance, electronic mailing lists, and scholarly journals. Differences between the mean rankings of preferences were tested for significance by applying the Friedman test with p>0.0005. Journals identified most frequently were analyzed using the Institute for Scientific Information’s (ISI Web of Science index and Ulrich’s Periodical Index to measure proportions of research and nonresearch citations, as well as the general topic areas covered by the journals. Next, content analysis was performed for the years 1995, 1997, and 2000 in order to characterize research methodologies used in the previously identified journals according to a previously tested schema (Buscha &Harter. Results from this portion of the study were compared with participants’ responses about journal usage.Main Results – Librarians reported using personal communication (both face-to-face and electronic mailing lists more frequently as a means of information gathering than professional journals, Web sites, conferences, trade publications, monographs, or ‘other’ resources. Variations in responses appeared to correlate with years in the profession and in the respondents’ time in their current positions, although there are indications that theimportance of all information resources to practice and research declines over time. The relative importance of resources is alsoshown in time spent reading journal literature, less than 5 hours per week for 86% of participants. Conclusion – For the first hypothesis, the authors found that unlike scientists, survey participants did not prefer research publications as vehicles for dissemination of their research results. For the second, librarians ranked peer-reviewed journals third in preference after personal communication and electronic mailing lists as sources of information supporting daily practice, supporting the second hypothesis that respondents would emulate the information use practices of mathematicians.

  16. Comment on the paper "Thermoluminescence glow-curve deconvolution functions for mixed order of kinetics and continuous trap distribution by G. Kitis, J.M. Gomez-Ros, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 440, 2000, pp 224-231"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakis, Nikolaos A.

    2018-01-01

    The present comment concerns the correct presentation of an algorithm proposed in the above paper for the glow-curve deconvolution in the case of continuous distribution of trapping states. Since most researchers would use directly the proposed algorithm as published, they should be notified of its correct formulation during the fitting of TL glow curves of materials with continuous trap distribution using this Equation.

  17. ORF Alignment: NC_004354 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available L) ... Length = 231 ... Query: 9 ... KVIPSASEEQLVQALGDLLQRCSQEALAKHDKFXXXXXXXXX...XXXXTKALKSCNLKTAKW 68 ... KVIPSASEEQLVQALGDLLQRCSQEALAKHDKF ... TKALKSCNLKTAKW Sbjct: 1 ... KVIPSAS

  18. Experiment list: SRX185912 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MB-231 foxm1 Thiostrepton 1; Homo sapiens; ChIP-Seq source_name=MDA-MB-231 breast adenocarcinoma cells, thio...strepton, FOXM1 ChIP || cell_line=MDA-MB-231 || cell_type=ER-negative breast adenocarcinoma

  19. Experiment list: SRX185911 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available B-231 foxm1 DMSO 1; Homo sapiens; ChIP-Seq source_name=MDA-MB-231 breast adenocarcinoma cells, control, FOXM...1 ChIP || cell_line=MDA-MB-231 || cell_type=ER-negative breast adenocarcinoma cel

  20. Experiment list: SRX185914 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available B-231 foxm1 Thiostrepton 2; Homo sapiens; ChIP-Seq source_name=MDA-MB-231 breast adenocarcinoma cells, thios...trepton, FOXM1 ChIP || cell_line=MDA-MB-231 || cell_type=ER-negative breast adenocarcinoma

  1. Experiment list: SRX185913 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MB-231 foxm1 DMSO 2; Homo sapiens; ChIP-Seq source_name=MDA-MB-231 breast adenocarcinoma cells, control, FOX...M1 ChIP || cell_line=MDA-MB-231 || cell_type=ER-negative breast adenocarcinoma ce

  2. Dicty_cDB: [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VF (Link to library) VFC231 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16593-1 VFC231P (Link... to Original site) VFC231F 428 VFC231Z 202 VFC231P 630 - - Show VFC231 Library VF (Link to library) Clone ID VFC231 (Link to dict...yBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U16593-1 Original site URL http://dict...amoeba histolytica genomic, DNA sequence. 48 0.13 1 AC116984 |AC116984.2 Dictyostelium discoideum chromosome...mbrane 4.0 %: vesicles of secretory system 4.0 %: extracellular, including cell wall >> predict

  3. Radionuclide interactions with marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgo, J.J.W.

    1987-09-01

    A critical review of the literature on the subject of the interactions of radionuclides with marine sediments has been carried out. On the basis of the information available, an attempt has been made to give ranges and 'best estimates' for the distribution ratios between seawater and sediments. These estimates have been based on an understanding of the sediment seawater system and the porewater chemistry and mineralogy. Field measurements, laboratory measurements and estimates based on stable-element geochemical data are all taken into account. Laboratory measurements include distribution-ratio and diffusion-coefficient determinations. The elements reviewed are carbon, chlorine, calcium, nickel, selenium, strontium, zirconium, niobium, technetium, tin, iodine, caesium, lead, radium, actinium, thorium, protactinium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium. (author)

  4. A neutron source of variable fluence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachet, Guy; Demichel, Pascal; Prigent, Yvon; Riche, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    The invention concerns a variable fluence neutron source, like those that use in the known way a reaction between a radioactive emitter and a target, particularly of type (α,n). The emitter being in powder form lies in a carrier fluid forming the target, inside a closed containment. Facilities are provided to cause the fluidisation of the emitter by the carrier fluid in the containment. The fluidisation of the emitting powder is carried out by a booster with blades, actuated from outside by a magnetic coupling. The powder emitter is a α emitter selected in the group of curium, plutonium, thorium, actinium and americium oxides and the target fluid is formed of compounds of light elements selected from the group of beryllium, boron, fluorine and oxygen 18. The target fluid is a gas used under pressure or H 2 O water highly enriched in oxygen 18 [fr

  5. Calculation technique of free and impurity ion electronic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulagin, N.A.; Sviridov, D.T.

    1986-01-01

    The monograph deals with calculation technique of free and impurity ion spectra with completed nl N -shell. The principles of the theory of irreducible tensor operators, genealogical coefficients, calculation technique of angular and radial parts of matrix elements operators are stated. The correlation accounting methods in free ions are considered in detail. The principles of the theory of crystal field and ligand field, the method of self-consistent field for impurity ions are reported. The technique efficiency based on example of lanthanum and actinium group ions is shown. Experimental data by nf N -ion spectra are given. The tables of angular coefficients, energy values of X-ray lines of rare earth ions and genealogical coefficients are given in the appendix

  6. Formerly utilized MED/AEC sites Remedial Action Program. Radiological survey of the St. Louis Airport Storage Site, St. Louis, Missouri. Final report. [U, Ra-bearing wastes stored in 1940-60's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-09-01

    Results of two radiological surveys of the St. Louis-Lambert Airport property, formerly known as the Airport Storage Site, St. Louis, Missouri, are presented. Uranium- and radium-bearing waste materials were stored from the 1940's to the late 1960's in this area. The surveys included direct measurements of beta-gamma radiation; determination of uranium, actinium, and radium concentrations in soil samples and from bore holes; determination of radionuclide concentrations in groundwater and surface water; measurement of radon flux from the ground surface; and measurements of /sup 222/Rn in air near the site. Results indicate that some offsite drainage pathways are becoming contaminated, probably by runoff from the site; no migration of /sup 222/Rn from the site was observed.

  7. The chemistry of the actinide elements. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, J.J.; Seaborg, G.T.; Morss, L.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Chemistry of the Actinide Elements is a comprehensive, contemporary and authoritative exposition of the chemistry and related properties of the 5f series of elements: actinium, thorium, protactinium, uranium and the first eleven. This second edition has been completely restructured and rewritten to incorporate current research in all areas of actinide chemistry and chemical physics. The descriptions of each element include accounts of their history, separation, metallurgy, solid-state chemistry, solution chemistry, thermo-dynamics and kinetics. Additionally, separate chapters on spectroscopy, magnetochemistry, thermodynamics, solids, the metallic state, complex ions and organometallic compounds emphasize the comparative chemistry and unique properties of the actinide series of elements. Comprehensive lists of properties of all actinide compounds and ions in solution are given, and there are special sections on such topics as biochemistry, superconductivity, radioisotope safety, and waste management, as well as discussion of the transactinides and future elements

  8. Development of ion beam sputtering techniques for actinide target preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, W.S.; Zevenbergen, L.A.; Adair, H.L.

    1985-01-01

    Ion beam sputtering is a routine method for the preparation of thin films used as targets because it allows the use of minimum quantity of starting material, and losses are much lower than most other vacuum deposition techniques. Work is underway in the Isotope Research Materials Laboratory (IRML) at ORNL to develop the techniques that will make the preparation of actinide targets up to 100 μg/cm 2 by ion beam sputtering a routinely available service from IRML. The preparation of the actinide material in a form suitable for sputtering is a key to this technique, as is designing a sputtering system that allows the flexibility required for custom-ordered target production. At present, development work is being conducted on low-activity in a bench-top system. The system will then be installed in a hood or glove box approved for radioactive materials handling where processing of radium, actinium, and plutonium isotopes among others will be performed. (orig.)

  9. How fission was discovered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluegge, S.

    1989-01-01

    After the great survey of neutron induced radioactivity by Fermi and co-workers, the laboratories in Paris and Berlin-Dahlen tried to disentangle the complex results found in uranium. At that time neutron sources were small, activities low, and equipment very simple. Chemistry beyond uranium still was unknown. Hahn and Meitner believed to have observed three transuranic isomeric chains, a doubtful result even then. Early in 1938, Curie and Savic in Paris found an activity interpreted to be actinium, and Hahn and Meitner another to be radium. Both interpretations seemed impossible from energy considerations. Hahn and Strassmann, therefore, continued this work and succeeded to separate the new activity from radium. There remained no doubt that a barium isotope had been produced, the uranium nucleus splitting in the yet-unknown process we now call fission

  10. Proposed training program for construction personnel involved in remedial action work at sites contaminated by naturally occurring radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berven, B.A.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Haywood, F.F.; Schiager, K.J.

    1979-01-01

    Many sites used during the early days of the US atomic energy program are contaminated with radionuclides of the primordial decay chains (uranium, thorium, and actinium series). This contamination consists of residues resulting from refining and processing uranium and thorium. Preparation of these sites for release to unrestricted private use will involve the assistance of construction workers, many of whom have limited knowledge of the hazards associated with radioactive materials. Therefore, there is a need to educate these workers in the fundamentals of radioactive material handling to minimize exposures and possible spread of contamination. This training should disseminate relevant information at an appropriate educational level and should instill a cautious, common-sense attitude toward the handling of radioactive materials. The training should emphasize basic information concerning environmental radiation within a context of relative risk. A multi-media format, including colorful visual aids, demonstration, and discussion, should be used to maximize motivation and retention. A detailed, proposed training program design is presented

  11. Process for radioisotope recovery and system for implementing same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikrantz, David H [Idaho Falls, ID; Todd, Terry A [Aberdeen, ID; Tranter, Troy J [Idaho Falls, ID; Horwitz, E Philip [Naperville, IL

    2009-10-06

    A method of recovering daughter isotopes from a radioisotope mixture. The method comprises providing a radioisotope mixture solution comprising at least one parent isotope. The at least one parent isotope is extracted into an organic phase, which comprises an extractant and a solvent. The organic phase is substantially continuously contacted with an aqueous phase to extract at least one daughter isotope into the aqueous phase. The aqueous phase is separated from the organic phase, such as by using an annular centrifugal contactor. The at least one daughter isotope is purified from the aqueous phase, such as by ion exchange chromatography or extraction chromatography. The at least one daughter isotope may include actinium-225, radium-225, bismuth-213, or mixtures thereof. A liquid-liquid extraction system for recovering at least one daughter isotope from a source material is also disclosed.

  12. JAEA thermodynamic database for performance assessment of geological disposal of high-level and TRU wastes. Refinement of thermodynamic data for trivalent actinoids and samarium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Akira; Fujiwara, Kenso; Yui, Mikazu

    2010-01-01

    Within the scope of the JAEA thermodynamic database project for performance assessment of geological disposal of high-level radioactive and TRU wastes, the refinement of the thermodynamic data for the inorganic compounds and complexes of trivalent actinoids (actinium(III), plutonium(III), americium(III) and curium(III)) and samarium(III) was carried out. Refinement of thermodynamic data for these elements was based on the thermodynamic database for americium published by the Nuclear Energy Agency in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD/NEA). Based on the similarity of chemical properties among trivalent actinoids and samarium, complementary thermodynamic data for their species expected under the geological disposal conditions were selected to complete the thermodynamic data set for the performance assessment of geological disposal of radioactive wastes. (author)

  13. Dissolved Concentration Limits of Radioactive Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Y. Chen; E.R. Thomas; F.J. Pearson; P.L. Cloke; T.L. Steinborn; P.V. Brady

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of radioactive elements under possible repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, and measurements made in laboratory experiments and field work. The scope of this modeling activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for 14 radioactive elements (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium), which are important to calculated dose. Model outputs are mainly in the form of look-up tables plus one or more uncertainty terms. The rest are either in the form of distributions or single values. The results of this analysis are fundamental inputs for total system performance assessment to constrain the release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Solubilities of plutonium, neptunium, uranium, americium, actinium, thorium, protactinium, lead, and radium have been re-evaluated using the newly updated thermodynamic database (Data0.ymp.R2). For all of the actinides, identical modeling approaches and consistent environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models in this revision. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so that they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, activity coefficients, and selection of solubility controlling phase have been quantified or otherwise addressed. Moreover, a new blended plutonium solubility model has been developed in this revision, which gives a mean solubility that is three orders of magnitude lower than the plutonium solubility model used for the Total System Performance Assessment for the Site Recommendation. Two alternative neptunium solubility models have also been

  14. Dissolved Concentration Limits of Radioactive Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Chen; E.R. Thomas; F.J. Pearson; P.L. Cloke; T.L. Steinborn; P.V. Brady

    2003-06-20

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of radioactive elements under possible repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, and measurements made in laboratory experiments and field work. The scope of this modeling activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for 14 radioactive elements (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium), which are important to calculated dose. Model outputs are mainly in the form of look-up tables plus one or more uncertainty terms. The rest are either in the form of distributions or single values. The results of this analysis are fundamental inputs for total system performance assessment to constrain the release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Solubilities of plutonium, neptunium, uranium, americium, actinium, thorium, protactinium, lead, and radium have been re-evaluated using the newly updated thermodynamic database (Data0.ymp.R2). For all of the actinides, identical modeling approaches and consistent environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models in this revision. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so that they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, activity coefficients, and selection of solubility controlling phase have been quantified or otherwise addressed. Moreover, a new blended plutonium solubility model has been developed in this revision, which gives a mean solubility that is three orders of magnitude lower than the plutonium solubility model used for the Total System Performance Assessment for the Site Recommendation. Two alternative neptunium solubility models have also been

  15. Shape of intrinsic alpha pulse height spectra in lanthanide halide scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolszczak, W.; Dorenbos, P.

    2017-06-01

    Internal contamination with actinium-227 and its daughters is a serious drawback in low-background applications of lanthanide-based scintillators. In this work we showed the important role of nuclear γ de-excitations on the shape of the internal alpha spectrum measured in scintillators. We calculated with Bateman equations the activities of contamination isotopes and the time evolution of actinium-227 and its progenies. Next, we measured the intrinsic background spectra of LaBr3(Ce), LaBr3(Ce,Sr) and CeBr3 with a digital spectroscopy technique, and we analyzed them with a pulse shape discrimination method (PSD) and a time-amplitude analysis. Finally, we simulated the α background spectrum with Geant4 tool-kit, consequently taking into account complex α-γ-electron events, the α / β ratio dependence on the α energy, and the electron/γ nonproportionality. We found that α-γ mixed events have higher light yield than expected for alpha particles alone, which leads to overestimation of the α / β ratio when it is measured with internal 227Th and 223Ra isotopes. The time-amplitude analysis showed that the α peaks of 219Rn and 215Po in LaBr3(Ce) and LaBr3(Ce,Sr) are not symmetric. We compared the simulation results with the measured data and provided further evidence of the important role of mixed α-γ-electron events for understanding the shape of the internal α spectrum in scintillators.

  16. J.-P. Giraud, F. Pons, Th. Janin, dir., Nécropoles protohistoriques de la région de Castres (Tarn. Le Causse, Gourjade, Le Martinet. Volume 1 : études et synthèses, 276 p. ; volume 2 : catalogue des ensembles funéraires, 268 p. ; volume 3 : planches du mobilier, 231 p., DAF n° 94

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Yves Milcent

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Entre 1987 et 1995, plusieurs campagnes de fouilles préventives ont permis l'exploration de trois importantes nécropoles à incinération de la fin de l'âge du Bronze et du premier âge du Fer dans les environs de Castres, en Midi-Pyrénées. Trois volumes, l'un de planches, un autre de description et un troisième d'analyse et de synthèse, nous apportent, dans des délais qu'il faut saluer pour leur brièveté, la publication exhaustive d'un corpus exceptionnel par la quantité des informations collec...

  17. A Novel Differentiation Therapy Approach to Reduce the Metastatic Potential of Basal, Highly Metastatic, Triple-Negative Breast Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    metastatic process (Condeelis and Pollard 2006), we quantitated macrophage recruitment in the lungs of mice injected with 231-Empty or 231-GATA3 cells by...image quantitation of Ki-67 expression and H&E staining of metastatic lung lesions using Apirio Image Analysis software (Figure 9) which demonstrated...expression in MD A-MB-231 and in another triple negative breast cancer cell line, Hs578T Transient knock down of GATA3 in the lum inal GATA3 positiv

  18. GETDB: 112612 [GETDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 112612 Link to Original y[*] w[*]; P{GawB}NP1294 / TM6, P{UAS-lacZ.UW23-1}UW23-1 --...- Link to DGRC Genome Viewer: 112612 CG40182 CG40188 1294 3 NP line. Received from the National Institute of... sg, tr abdomen - - - - - - - Show 112612 DGRC Number 112612 Link to Original Gen...otype y[*] w[*]; P{GawB}NP1294 / TM6, P{UAS-lacZ.UW23-1}UW23-1 Insertion Site --- Map Viewer Link to DGRC Genome Viewer: 112612... Related Genes CG40182 CG40188 Original Number 1294 Chr. 3 Comments NP line. Received fro

  19. GETDB: 112712 [GETDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 112712 Link to Original y[*] w[*]; P{GawB}NP1582 / TM6, P{UAS-lacZ.UW23-1}UW23-1 86...E17 Link to DGRC Genome Viewer: 112712 CG10535 CG17309 1582 3 NP line. Received from the National Institute ...oenocyte internal - - - - - - - Show 112712 DGRC Number 112712 Link to Original G...enotype y[*] w[*]; P{GawB}NP1582 / TM6, P{UAS-lacZ.UW23-1}UW23-1 Insertion Site 86E17 Map Viewer Link to DGRC Genome Viewer: 112712

  20. A noncognate interaction with anti-receptor antibody-activated helper T cells induces small resting murine B cells to proliferate and to secrete antibody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, T

    1988-01-01

    on resting B cells (even in the presence of intact F23.1 antibody), but could induce antibody secretion by anti-Ig-preactivated B cells. Both F23.1+ clones (E9.D4 and 4.35F2) and one F23.1- clone (D2.2) could synergize with supernatants from activated E9.D4 T cells to induce B cell activation. F(ab')2......Culture of small resting allogeneic B cells (of an irrelevant haplotype) with two clones of T helper (Th) cells that were activated by the F23.1 anti-T cell receptor antibody led to the activation of B cells to proliferate and to secrete antibody. Th cell supernatants by themselves had no effect...... fragments of F23.1 induced E9.D4 to activate B cells as efficiently as intact F23.1 and B cell populations that had been incubated with F23.1 were not activated when cultured with E9.D4, although T cells recognized cell-presented F23.1 and were weakly activated. Reduction of the density of F23.1 adsorbed...

  1. Molecular Characterization of Squamous Cell Carcinomas From Recessive Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    8 A ppendices ...................................................................................... 8 3 Mahoney...activation after acute injury to stratified epithelia. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 236, 231-238. Cowin, P. (1994). Unraveling the cytoplasmic

  2. Search Results | Page 24 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 231 - 240 of 8492 ... AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT WOMEN IN AGRICULTURE Gender ... policymakers, agricultural businesses, researchers, and agriculture donors. ... GENDER EQUALITY FAMILY FARMS WOMEN'S ECONOMIC ...

  3. ORF Alignment: NC_006361 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ator ... [Nocardia farcinica IFM 10152] ... Length = 102 ... Query: 231 DLAHVQRVIEQQLHDPELTLAQVAA...EAGMSLRTVQKLFSAAGTTPRTWLYQARLERARKY 290 ... DLAHVQRVIEQQLHDPELTLAQVAAEAGMS...LRTVQKLFSAAGTTPRTWLYQARLERARKY Sbjct: 1 ... DLAHVQRVIEQQLHDPELTLAQVAAEAGMSLRTVQKLFSAAGTTPRTWLYQARLERARKY 60 ...

  4. MicroRNA-3646 Contributes to Docetaxel Resistance in Human Breast Cancer Cells by GSK-3?/?-Catenin Signaling Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhong, Shanliang; Xu, Yong; Yu, Dandan; Ma, Tengfei; Chen, Lin; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Xiu; Yang, Sujin; Wu, Yueqin; Tang, Jinhai; Zhao, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Acquisition of resistance to docetaxel (Doc) is one of the most important problems in treatment of breast cancer patients, but the underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. In present study, Doc-resistant MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231/Doc and MCF-7/Doc) were successfully established in vitro by gradually increasing Doc concentration on the basis of parental MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cell lines (MDA-MB-231/S and MCF-7/S). The potential miRNAs relevant to the ...

  5. GETDB: 114063 [GETDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 114063 Link to Original w[*]; P{GawB}NP7072 / TM6, P{UAS-lacZ.UW23-1}UW23-1 - - - 7...t. lateral cell cluster, ch, tr, mt - - - - - - - - Show 114063 DGRC Number 114063 Link to Original Genotype

  6. Střednědobá makroekonomická predikce: makroekonomické modely v analytickém systému ČNB

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beneš, J.; Vávra, David; Vlček, J.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 4 (2002), s. 197-231 ISSN 0015-1920 Keywords : monetary policy * central bank * medium-term macroeconomic modeling Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.222, year: 2002 http://journal.fsv.cuni.cz/ storage /287_197_231.pdf

  7. GETDB: 112071 [GETDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 69 3 NP line. Received from the National Institute of Genetics. TM6UW23-1 - 2 - - 0 - a small # of cells sg ... Number 169 Chr. 3 Comments NP line. Received from the National Institute of Genetics. Balancer TM6UW23-1 Li

  8. GETDB: 114071 [GETDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 090 3 NP line. Received from the National Institute of Genetics. TM6UW23-1 - 2 - - 0 - weak tr (DT) sg, tr -...0 Chr. 3 Comments NP line. Received from the National Institute of Genetics. Balancer TM6UW23-1 Link to Clon

  9. GETDB: 112107 [GETDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 42 3 NP line. Received from the National Institute of Genetics. TM6UW23-1 - 2 - - 0 - sg, a small # of cells...mber 242 Chr. 3 Comments NP line. Received from the National Institute of Genetics. Balancer TM6UW23-1 Link

  10. Effect of calcium electroporation in combination with metformin in vivo and correlation between viability and intracellular ATP level after calcium electroporation in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gehl, Julie

    2017-01-01

    cancer cell lines: Breast (MDA-MB231) and colon (HT29), and in normal human fibroblasts (HDF-n), as well as investigating viability in human bladder cancer cells (SW780) and human small cell lung cancer cells (H69) where we have previously published intracellular ATP levels. RESULTS: Calcium...... with calcium alone (pHDF-n, and MDA-MB231; p

  11. Identification of a small-molecule inhibitor of the PICK1 PDZ domain that inhibits hippocampal LTP and LTD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Thor S; Madsen, Kenneth L; Rebola, Nelson

    2010-01-01

    interacting protein 1 (GRIP1). Pretreatment of cultured hippocampal neurons with FSC231 inhibited coimmunopreciptation of the AMPA receptor GluR2 subunit with PICK1. In agreement with inhibiting the role of PICK1 in GluR2 trafficking, FSC231 accelerated recycling of pHluorin-tagged GluR2 in hippocampal...

  12. Experiment list: SRX891827 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available d, replicate 2; Homo sapiens; ChIP-Seq source_name=MDA-MB-231 || cell line=MDA-MB-231 || cell type=triple negative breast adenocarcin...oma || chip antibody=H3K9ac, Millipore #07-352, Lot 2388

  13. Experiment list: SRX891837 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available denocarcinoma || chip antibody=none (input) http://dbarc...ut, treated, replicate 2; Homo sapiens; ChIP-Seq source_name=MDA-MB-231 || cell line=MDA-MB-231 || cell type=triple negative breast a

  14. Experiment list: SRX891826 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ed, replicate 1; Homo sapiens; ChIP-Seq source_name=MDA-MB-231 || cell line=MDA-MB-231 || cell type=triple negative breast adenocarci...noma || chip antibody=H3K9ac, Millipore #07-352, Lot 238

  15. Mothers' and Fathers' Responsive Problem Solving with Early Adolescents: Do Gender, Shyness, and Social Acceptance Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Scott R.; Brody, Gene H.; Murry, Velma M.

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the extent to which youths' (n = 231) shyness and social acceptance in preadolescence were associated with parents' responsive problem solving 1 year later after controlling for initial levels of parents' problem solving. Teachers (n = 176) completed assessments of youths' shyness and social acceptance, and parents (n = 231 married…

  16. Identification and visualization of dominant patterns and anomalies in remotely sensed vegetation phenology using a parallel tool for principal components analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Tran Mills; Jitendra Kumar; Forrest M. Hoffman; William W. Hargrove; Joseph P. Spruce; Steven P. Norman

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the use of principal components analysis (PCA) to visualize dominant patterns and identify anomalies in a multi-year land surface phenology data set (231 m × 231 m normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)) used for detecting threats to forest health in the conterminous...

  17. 78 FR 42544 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Oil and Gas Lease Sale, Western Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) SUMMARY: Consistent with the regulations... 248; Central Planning Area (CPA) Lease Sales 227, 231, 235, 241, and 247, Final Environmental Impact... Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (OCS EIS/EA BOEM 2013-0118) (WPA 233/CPA 231 Supplemental EIS). The...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FCAT-01-1240 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FCAT-01-1240 ref|ZP_01126060.1| DNA internalization-related competence protein... ComEC/Rec2 [Nitrococcus mobilis Nb-231] gb|EAR23543.1| DNA internalization-related competence protein ComEC/Rec2 [Nitrococcus mobilis Nb-231] ZP_01126060.1 3.6 31% ...

  19. Why do software manufacturers tolerate piracy in transition and less developed countries? A theoretical model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kúnin, Michael

    -, č. 231 (2004), s. 1-16 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : intellectual property rights * software * piracy Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp231.pdf

  20. Area Handbook Series: Cyprus: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    the forces of the Egyptian pharaoh, Thutmose III, invaded the island. After 1400 B.C., Mycenaean and Mycenaean -Achaean traders from the northeastern... Mycenaeans : as settlers, 5; trade with, ish, 33 5-7 military spending, 230-31; amount, 231; ’udgets for, 230; as percentage of GNP, 231; sources of, 230