WorldWideScience

Sample records for actinium 228

  1. Radium-228 analysis of natural waters by Cherenkov counting of Actinium-228

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleissa, Khalid A.; Almasoud, Fahad I.; Islam, Mohammed S. [Atomic Energy Research Institute, King Abdul Aziz City for Science and Technology, P.O. Box 6086, Riyadh 11442 (Saudi Arabia); L' Annunziata, Michael F. [IAEA Expert, Montague Group, P.O. Box 5033, Oceanside, CA 92052-5033 (United States)], E-mail: mlannunziata@cox.net

    2008-12-15

    The activities of {sup 228}Ra in natural waters were determined by the Cherenkov counting of the daughter nuclide {sup 228}Ac. The radium was pre-concentrated on MnO{sub 2} and the radium purified via ion exchange and, after a 2-day period of incubation to allow for secular equilibrium between the parent-daughter {sup 228}Ra({sup 228}Ac), the daughter nuclide {sup 228}Ac was isolated by ion exchange according to the method of Nour et al. [2004. Radium-228 determination of natural waters via concentration on manganese dioxide and separation using Diphonix ion exchange resin. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 61, 1173-1178]. The Cherenkov photons produced by {sup 228}Ac were counted directly without the addition of any scintillation reagents. The optimum Cherenkov counting window, sample volume, and vial type were determined experimentally to achieve optimum Cherenkov photon detection efficiency and lowest background count rates. An optimum detection efficiency of 10.9{+-}0.1% was measured for {sup 228}Ac by Cherenkov counting with a very low Cherenkov photon background of 0.317{+-}0.013 cpm. The addition of sodium salicylate into the sample counting vial at a concentration of 0.1 g/mL yielded a more than 3-fold increase in the Cherenkov detection efficiency of {sup 228}Ac to 38%. Tests of the Cherenkov counting technique were conducted with several water standards of known activity and the results obtained compared closely with a conventional liquid scintillation counting technique. The advantages and disadvantages of Cherenkov counting compared to liquid scintillation counting methods are discussed. Advantages include much lower Cherenkov background count rates and consequently lower minimal detectable activities for {sup 228}Ra and no need for expensive environmentally unfriendly liquid scintillation cocktails. The disadvantages of the Cherenkov counting method include the need to measure {sup 228}Ac Cherenkov photon detection efficiency and optimum Cherenkov counting volume

  2. Radium-228 analysis of natural waters by Cherenkov counting of Actinium-228.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleissa, Khalid A; Almasoud, Fahad I; Islam, Mohammed S; L'Annunziata, Michael F

    2008-12-01

    The activities of (228)Ra in natural waters were determined by the Cherenkov counting of the daughter nuclide (228)Ac. The radium was pre-concentrated on MnO(2) and the radium purified via ion exchange and, after a 2-day period of incubation to allow for secular equilibrium between the parent-daughter (228)Ra((228)Ac), the daughter nuclide (228)Ac was isolated by ion exchange according to the method of Nour et al. [2004. Radium-228 determination of natural waters via concentration on manganese dioxide and separation using Diphonix ion exchange resin. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 61, 1173-1178]. The Cherenkov photons produced by (228)Ac were counted directly without the addition of any scintillation reagents. The optimum Cherenkov counting window, sample volume, and vial type were determined experimentally to achieve optimum Cherenkov photon detection efficiency and lowest background count rates. An optimum detection efficiency of 10.9+/-0.1% was measured for (228)Ac by Cherenkov counting with a very low Cherenkov photon background of 0.317+/-0.013cpm. The addition of sodium salicylate into the sample counting vial at a concentration of 0.1g/mL yielded a more than 3-fold increase in the Cherenkov detection efficiency of (228)Ac to 38%. Tests of the Cherenkov counting technique were conducted with several water standards of known activity and the results obtained compared closely with a conventional liquid scintillation counting technique. The advantages and disadvantages of Cherenkov counting compared to liquid scintillation counting methods are discussed. Advantages include much lower Cherenkov background count rates and consequently lower minimal detectable activities for (228)Ra and no need for expensive environmentally unfriendly liquid scintillation cocktails. The disadvantages of the Cherenkov counting method include the need to measure (228)Ac Cherenkov photon detection efficiency and optimum Cherenkov counting volume, which are not at all required when liquid

  3. Thorium and actinium polyphosphonate compounds as bone-seeking alpha particle-emitting agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Gjermund; Bruland, Oyvind S; Larsen, Roy H

    2004-01-01

    The present study explores the use of alpha-particle-emitting, bone-seeking agents as candidates for targeted radiotherapy. Actinium and thorium 1,4,7,10 tetraazacyclododecane N,N',N'',N''' 1,4,7,10-tetra(methylene) phosphonic acid (DOTMP) and thorium-diethylene triamine N,N',N'' penta(methylene) phosphonic acid (DTMP) were prepared and their biodistribution evaluated in conventional Balb/C mice at four hours after injection. All three bone-seeking agents showed a high uptake in bone and a low uptake in soft tissues. Among the soft tissue organs, only kidney had a relatively high uptake. The femur/kidney ratios for 227Th-DTMP, 228-Ac-DOTMP and 227Th-DOTMP were 14.2, 7.6 and 6.0, respectively. A higher liver uptake of 228Ac-DOTMP was seen than for 227Th-DTMP and 227Th-DOTMP. This suggests that some demetallation of the 228Ac-DOTMP complex had occurred. The results indicate that 225Ac-DOTMP, 227Th-DOTMP and 227Th-DTMP have promising properties as potential therapeutic bone-seeking agents.

  4. Spectroscopic and computational investigation of actinium coordination chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrier, Maryline G.; Batista, Enrique R.; Berg, John M.; Birnbaum, Eva R.; Cross, Justin N.; Engle, Jonathan W.; La Pierre, Henry S.; Kozimor, Stosh A.; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S.; Stein, Benjamin W.; Stieber, S. Chantal E.; Wilson, Justin J.

    2016-08-01

    Actinium-225 is a promising isotope for targeted-α therapy. Unfortunately, progress in developing chelators for medicinal applications has been hindered by a limited understanding of actinium chemistry. This knowledge gap is primarily associated with handling actinium, as it is highly radioactive and in short supply. Hence, AcIII reactivity is often inferred from the lanthanides and minor actinides (that is, Am, Cm), with limited success. Here we overcome these challenges and characterize actinium in HCl solutions using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and molecular dynamics density functional theory. The Ac-Cl and Ac-OH2O distances are measured to be 2.95(3) and 2.59(3) Å, respectively. The X-ray absorption spectroscopy comparisons between AcIII and AmIII in HCl solutions indicate AcIII coordinates more inner-sphere Cl1- ligands (3.2+/-1.1) than AmIII (0.8+/-0.3). These results imply diverse reactivity for the +3 actinides and highlight the unexpected and unique AcIII chemical behaviour.

  5. Separation of Actinium 227 from the uranium minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work was to separate Actinium 227, whose content is 18%, from the mineral carnotite found in Gomez Chihuahua mountain range in Mexico. The mineral before processing is is pre-concentrated and passed, first through anionic exchange resins, later the eluate obtained is passed through cationic resins. The resins were 20-50 MESH QOWEX and 100-200 MESH 50 X 8-20 in some cased 200-400 MESH AG 50W-X8, 1X8 in other cases. The eluates from the ionic exchange were electrodeposited on stainless steel polished disc cathode and platinum electrode as anode; under a current ODF 10mA for 2.5 to 5 hours and of 100mA for .5 of an hour. it was possible to identify the Actinium 227 by means of its descendents, TH-227 and RA-223, through alpha spectroscopy. Due to the radiochemical purity which the electro deposits were obtained the Actinium 227 was low and was not quantitatively determined. A large majority of the members of the natural radioactive series 3 were identified and even alpha energies reported in the literature with very low percentages of non-identified emissions were observed. We conclude that a more precise study is needed concerning ionic exchange and electrodeposit to obtain an Actinium 227 of radiochemical purity. (Author)

  6. Spectroscopic and computational investigation of actinium coordination chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrier, Maryline G.; Batista, Enrique R.; Berg, John M.; Birnbaum, Eva R.; Cross, Justin N.; Engle, Jonathan W.; La Pierre, Henry S.; Kozimor, Stosh A.; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S.; Stein, Benjamin W.; Stieber, S. Chantal E.; Wilson, Justin J.

    2016-01-01

    Actinium-225 is a promising isotope for targeted-α therapy. Unfortunately, progress in developing chelators for medicinal applications has been hindered by a limited understanding of actinium chemistry. This knowledge gap is primarily associated with handling actinium, as it is highly radioactive and in short supply. Hence, AcIII reactivity is often inferred from the lanthanides and minor actinides (that is, Am, Cm), with limited success. Here we overcome these challenges and characterize actinium in HCl solutions using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and molecular dynamics density functional theory. The Ac–Cl and Ac–OH2O distances are measured to be 2.95(3) and 2.59(3) Å, respectively. The X-ray absorption spectroscopy comparisons between AcIII and AmIII in HCl solutions indicate AcIII coordinates more inner-sphere Cl1– ligands (3.2±1.1) than AmIII (0.8±0.3). These results imply diverse reactivity for the +3 actinides and highlight the unexpected and unique AcIII chemical behaviour. PMID:27531582

  7. Discovery of the actinium, thorium, protactinium, and uranium isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, C

    2012-01-01

    Currently, 31 actinium, 31 thorium, 28 protactinium, and 23 uranium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  8. Spectroscopic and computational investigation of actinium coordination chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrier, Maryline G; Batista, Enrique R; Berg, John M; Birnbaum, Eva R; Cross, Justin N; Engle, Jonathan W; La Pierre, Henry S; Kozimor, Stosh A; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S; Stein, Benjamin W; Stieber, S Chantal E; Wilson, Justin J

    2016-01-01

    Actinium-225 is a promising isotope for targeted-α therapy. Unfortunately, progress in developing chelators for medicinal applications has been hindered by a limited understanding of actinium chemistry. This knowledge gap is primarily associated with handling actinium, as it is highly radioactive and in short supply. Hence, Ac(III) reactivity is often inferred from the lanthanides and minor actinides (that is, Am, Cm), with limited success. Here we overcome these challenges and characterize actinium in HCl solutions using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and molecular dynamics density functional theory. The Ac-Cl and Ac-OH2O distances are measured to be 2.95(3) and 2.59(3) Å, respectively. The X-ray absorption spectroscopy comparisons between Ac(III) and Am(III) in HCl solutions indicate Ac(III) coordinates more inner-sphere Cl(1-) ligands (3.2±1.1) than Am(III) (0.8±0.3). These results imply diverse reactivity for the +3 actinides and highlight the unexpected and unique Ac(III) chemical behaviour. PMID:27531582

  9. Radium-228 determination of natural waters via concentration on manganese dioxide and separation using Diphonix ion exchange resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, S; El-Sharkawy, A; Burnett, W C; Horwitz, E P

    2004-12-01

    The objective of this work was to establish a new procedure for 228Ra determination of natural waters via preconcentration of radium on MnO2 and separation of its daughter, 228Ac, using Diphonix ion exchange resin. Following removal of potential interferences via passage through an initial Diphonix Resin column, the first daughter of 228Ra, 228Ac, is isolated by chromatographic separation via a second Diphonix column. A holding time of > 30 h for 228Ac ingrowth in between the two column separations ensures secular equilibrium. Barium-133 is used as a yield tracer. Actinium-228 is eluted from the second Diphonix Resin with 5 ml 1M 1-Hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDPA) and quantified by addition of scintillation cocktail and LSC counting. Radium (and 133Ba) from the load and rinse solutions from the 2nd Diphonix column may be prepared for alpha spectrometry (for determination of 223Ra, 224Ra, and 226Ra) by BaSO4 microprecipitation and filtration. Decontamination tests indicate that U, Th, and Ra series nuclides do not interfere with these measurements, although high contents of 90Sr (90Y) require additional treatment for accurate measurement of 228Ra. Addition of stable Sr as a "hold back" carrier during the initial MnO2 preconcentration step was shown to remove most 90Sr interference.

  10. Nuclear Data Sheets for A=228

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abusaleem, Khalifeh

    2014-02-01

    The evaluated spectroscopic data are presented for known nuclides of mass 228 (Ac, At, Fr, Np, Pa, Pu, Ra, Rn, Th, and U). Excited states in {sup 228}At, {sup 228}Rn, {sup 228}Fr, {sup 228}Np, and {sup 228}Pu have not been identified as yet. Significant amounts of new data have been added since the last evaluation of A=228 nuclides. This work supersedes earlier full evaluations of A=228 published by 1997Ar08.

  11. Groundwater seepage from the Ranger uranium mine tailings dam: radioisotopes of radium, thorium and actinium. Supervising Scientist report 106

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring of bores near the Ranger uranium mine tailings dam has revealed deterioration in water quality in several bores since 1983. In a group of bores to the north of the dam, increases have been observed of up to 500 times for sulphate concentrations and of up to 5 times for 226Ra concentrations. Results are presented here of measurements of members of the uranium, thorium and actinium decay series in borewater samples collected between 1985 and 1993. In particular, measurements of all four naturally-occurring radium isotopes have been used in an investigation of the mechanism of radium concentration changes. For the most seepage-affected bores the major findings of the study include: 228Ra/226Ra 223Ra /226Ra and 224Ra/228Ra ratios all increased over the course of the study; barium concentrations show high seasonal variability, being lower in November than May, but strontium concentrations show a steady increase with time. Calculations show that the groundwater is probably saturated with respect to barite but not with respect to celestite or anglesite; sulphide concentrations are low in comparison with sulphate, and are higher in November than in May; and 227Ac concentrations have increased with time, but do not account for the high 223Ra/226Ra ratios. It is concluded on the basis of these observations that increases in Ra isotope concentrations observed in a number of seepage-affected bores arise from increases in salinity leading to desorption of radium from adsorption sites in the vicinity of the bore rather by direct transport of radium from the tailings. Increased salinity is also causing the observed increases in 227Ac and strontium concentrations, while formation of a barite solid phase in the groundwater is causing the removal of some radium from solution. This is the cause of the increasing radium isotope ratios noted above

  12. AAS 228: Welcome!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Greetings from the 228th American Astronomical Society meeting in San Diego, California! This week, along with a team of fellow authorsfrom astrobites, Iwill bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. You can follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.If youre at the meeting, come stop by the AAS booth (Booth #211-213) to learn about the newly-announced partnership between AAS and astrobites and pick up some swag.And dont forget to visit the IOP booth in the Exhibit Hall (Booth #223) to learn more about the new corridors for AAS Journals and to pick up a badge pin to representyour corridor!

  13. Production of Actinium-225 via High Energy Proton Induced Spallation of Thorium-232

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The science of cancer research is currently expanding its use of alpha particle emitting radioisotopes. Coupled with the discovery and proliferation of molecular species that seek out and attach to tumors, new therapy and diagnostics are being developed to enhance the treatment of cancer and other diseases. This latest technology is commonly referred to as Alpha Immunotherapy (AIT). Actinium-225/Bismuth-213 is a parent/daughter alpha-emitting radioisotope pair that is highly sought after because of the potential for treating numerous diseases and its ability to be chemically compatible with many known and widely used carrier molecules (such as monoclonal antibodies and proteins/peptides). Unfortunately, the worldwide supply of actinium-225 is limited to about 1,000mCi annually and most of that is currently spoken for, thus limiting the ability of this radioisotope pair to enter into research and subsequently clinical trials. The route proposed herein utilizes high energy protons to produce actinium-225 via spallation of a thorium-232 target. As part of previous R and D efforts carried out at Argonne National Laboratory recently in support of the proposed US FRIB facility, it was shown that a very effective production mechanism for actinium-225 is spallation of thorium-232 by high energy proton beams. The base-line simulation for the production rate of actinium-225 by this reaction mechanism is 8E12 atoms per second at 200 MeV proton beam energy with 50 g/cm2 thorium target and 100 kW beam power. An irradiation of one actinium-225 half-life (10 days) produces ∼100 Ci of actinium-225. For a given beam current the reaction cross section increases slightly with energy to about 400 MeV and then decreases slightly for beam energies in the several GeV regime. The object of this effort is to refine the simulations at proton beam energies of 400 MeV and above up to about 8 GeV. Once completed, the simulations will be experimentally verified using 400 MeV and 8 GeV protons

  14. Production of Actinium-225 via High Energy Proton Induced Spallation of Thorium-232

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, James T.; Nolen, Jerry; Vandergrift, George; Gomes, Itacil; Kroc, Tom; Horwitz, Phil; McAlister, Dan; Bowers, Del; Sullivan, Vivian; Greene, John

    2011-12-30

    The science of cancer research is currently expanding its use of alpha particle emitting radioisotopes. Coupled with the discovery and proliferation of molecular species that seek out and attach to tumors, new therapy and diagnostics are being developed to enhance the treatment of cancer and other diseases. This latest technology is commonly referred to as Alpha Immunotherapy (AIT). Actinium-225/Bismuth-213 is a parent/daughter alpha-emitting radioisotope pair that is highly sought after because of the potential for treating numerous diseases and its ability to be chemically compatible with many known and widely used carrier molecules (such as monoclonal antibodies and proteins/peptides). Unfortunately, the worldwide supply of actinium-225 is limited to about 1,000mCi annually and most of that is currently spoken for, thus limiting the ability of this radioisotope pair to enter into research and subsequently clinical trials. The route proposed herein utilizes high energy protons to produce actinium-225 via spallation of a thorium-232 target. As part of previous R and D efforts carried out at Argonne National Laboratory recently in support of the proposed US FRIB facility, it was shown that a very effective production mechanism for actinium-225 is spallation of thorium-232 by high energy proton beams. The base-line simulation for the production rate of actinium-225 by this reaction mechanism is 8E12 atoms per second at 200 MeV proton beam energy with 50 g/cm2 thorium target and 100 kW beam power. An irradiation of one actinium-225 half-life (10 days) produces {approx}100 Ci of actinium-225. For a given beam current the reaction cross section increases slightly with energy to about 400 MeV and then decreases slightly for beam energies in the several GeV regime. The object of this effort is to refine the simulations at proton beam energies of 400 MeV and above up to about 8 GeV. Once completed, the simulations will be experimentally verified using 400 MeV and 8 Ge

  15. AAS 228: Day 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note: Lastweek we were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Here is a final post aboutselectedevents on the last day of the meeting, written by authors fromastrobites.com, a grad-student collaborative project with which we recently announced a new partnership! Starting in July,keep an eye out for astrobites postsat AAS Nova in between Highlights(i.e., on Tuesdays and Thursdays).Were excited to be working together to bring you more recent astronomy research from AAS journals!Extrasolar Planets: Detection (by Leonardo dos Santos)Thursdays first session on exoplanets was about detecting these distant worlds, and the opening talk was given by Robert Siverd (Las Cumbres Observatory). He describes the NRES, a network of spectrographs that will look for exoplanets using the radial velocity method. One of the coolest aspects of this instrument is that it will feature an on the fly scheduling system that will perform observations as efficiently as possible. The spectrograph is still being tested, but a unit will be deployed at CTIO later this year.@lcogt contracted by @NASA_TESS for follow up of their candidates. #aas228 Jessie Christiansen (@aussiastronomer) June 16, 2016Measuring the depths of transits and eclipses in Spitzer has been problematic in the past, since the Spitzer instrument IRAC (InfraRed Array Camera) has a non-uniform response in its detectors pixels. But, as reported by James Ingalls (Spitzer Science Center, Caltech), observers are circumventing this issue by using what they call the staring mode (avoiding large pointing jumps) and an algorithm to pick sweet spot pixels. Moreover, the results from the IRAC Data Challenge are helping to better understand its behavior. Giuseppe Morello (University College London), on the other hand, explained how his research group gets rid of instrumental effects from IRAC using machine learning. This method removes systematics from exoplanet transit data no matter if the noise source is from an instrument or

  16. AAS 228: Day 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note: Lastweek we were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Here is a final post aboutselectedevents on the last day of the meeting, written by authors fromastrobites.com, a grad-student collaborative project with which we recently announced a new partnership! Starting in July,keep an eye out for astrobites postsat AAS Nova in between Highlights(i.e., on Tuesdays and Thursdays).Were excited to be working together to bring you more recent astronomy research from AAS journals!Extrasolar Planets: Detection (by Leonardo dos Santos)Thursdays first session on exoplanets was about detecting these distant worlds, and the opening talk was given by Robert Siverd (Las Cumbres Observatory). He describes the NRES, a network of spectrographs that will look for exoplanets using the radial velocity method. One of the coolest aspects of this instrument is that it will feature an on the fly scheduling system that will perform observations as efficiently as possible. The spectrograph is still being tested, but a unit will be deployed at CTIO later this year.@lcogt contracted by @NASA_TESS for follow up of their candidates. #aas228 Jessie Christiansen (@aussiastronomer) June 16, 2016Measuring the depths of transits and eclipses in Spitzer has been problematic in the past, since the Spitzer instrument IRAC (InfraRed Array Camera) has a non-uniform response in its detectors pixels. But, as reported by James Ingalls (Spitzer Science Center, Caltech), observers are circumventing this issue by using what they call the staring mode (avoiding large pointing jumps) and an algorithm to pick sweet spot pixels. Moreover, the results from the IRAC Data Challenge are helping to better understand its behavior. Giuseppe Morello (University College London), on the other hand, explained how his research group gets rid of instrumental effects from IRAC using machine learning. This method removes systematics from exoplanet transit data no matter if the noise source is from an instrument or

  17. 49 CFR 228.207 - Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Training. 228.207 Section 228.207 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION HOURS OF SERVICE OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES Electronic Recordkeeping § 228.207 Training. (a) In general. A railroad, or a contractor or subcontractor to a railroad, shall provide its train...

  18. 12 CFR 228.27 - Strategic plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strategic plan. 228.27 Section 228.27 Banks and... REINVESTMENT (REGULATION BB) Standards for Assessing Performance § 228.27 Strategic plan. (a) Alternative...(s) under a strategic plan if: (1) The bank has submitted the plan to the Board as provided for...

  19. 22 CFR 228.34 - Joint ventures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Joint ventures. 228.34 Section 228.34 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES ON SOURCE, ORIGIN AND NATIONALITY FOR COMMODITIES AND... Financing § 228.34 Joint ventures. A joint venture or unincorporated association is eligible only if each...

  20. 22 CFR 228.40 - Local procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Local procurement. 228.40 Section 228.40... COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY USAID Conditions Governing Source and Nationality of Local Procurement Transactions for USAID Financing § 228.40 Local procurement. Local procurement in the cooperating...

  1. 42 CFR 457.228 - Cost allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation. 457.228 Section 457.228 Public...; Reduction of Federal Medical Payments § 457.228 Cost allocation. A State plan must provide that the single or appropriate CHIP Agency will have an approved cost allocation plan on file with the Department...

  2. 49 CFR 228.23 - Criminal penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Criminal penalty. 228.23 Section 228.23..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HOURS OF SERVICE OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES Records and Reporting § 228.23 Criminal... criminal penalties of a fine up to $5,000, imprisonment for up to two years, or both, in accordance with...

  3. 12 CFR 228.22 - Lending test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lending test. 228.22 Section 228.22 Banks and... REINVESTMENT (REGULATION BB) Standards for Assessing Performance § 228.22 Lending test. (a) Scope of test. (1) The lending test evaluates a bank's record of helping to meet the credit needs of its assessment...

  4. 12 CFR 228.24 - Service test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Service test. 228.24 Section 228.24 Banks and... REINVESTMENT (REGULATION BB) Standards for Assessing Performance § 228.24 Service test. (a) Scope of test. The service test evaluates a bank's record of helping to meet the credit needs of its assessment area(s)...

  5. 12 CFR 228.23 - Investment test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment test. 228.23 Section 228.23 Banks... COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT (REGULATION BB) Standards for Assessing Performance § 228.23 Investment test. (a) Scope of test. The investment test evaluates a bank's record of helping to meet the credit needs of...

  6. 22 CFR 228.22 - Air transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... criteria for determining when U.S. flag air carriers are unavailable. See 48 CFR 47.403-1, or USAID... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Air transportation. 228.22 Section 228.22... for USAID Financing § 228.22 Air transportation. (a) The eligibility of air transportation...

  7. 22 CFR 228.21 - Ocean transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ocean transportation. 228.21 Section 228.21... for USAID Financing § 228.21 Ocean transportation. (a) The Cargo Preference Act of 1954, Section 901(b... transportation services is determined by the flag registry of the vessel. (1) When the authorized source...

  8. 36 CFR 228.2 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 228.2 Section 228.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Locatable Minerals § 228.2 Scope. These regulations apply to operations hereafter conducted under the United...

  9. 48 CFR 228.106 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration. 228.106 Section 228.106 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Bonds 228.106 Administration....

  10. 22 CFR 228.51 - Commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commodities. 228.51 Section 228.51 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES ON SOURCE, ORIGIN AND NATIONALITY FOR COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY USAID Waivers § 228.51 Commodities. (a) Waiver criteria. Any waiver must be based...

  11. 49 CFR 228.21 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalty. 228.21 Section 228.21..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HOURS OF SERVICE OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES Records and Reporting § 228.21 Civil... requirement is subject to a civil penalty of at least $650 and not more than $25,000 per violation,...

  12. 21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl acetate. 173.228 Section 173.228 Food and..., Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.228 Ethyl acetate. Ethyl acetate (CAS Reg. No. 141-78... the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 1 (Ethyl Acetate; p. 372, 3d Ed., 1981), which...

  13. 42 CFR 438.228 - Grievance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grievance systems. 438.228 Section 438.228 Public... Operation Standards § 438.228 Grievance systems. (a) The State must ensure, through its contracts, that each MCO and PIHP has in effect a grievance system that meets the requirements of subpart F of this...

  14. 22 CFR 228.32 - Nonprofit organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonprofit organizations. 228.32 Section 228.32 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES ON SOURCE, ORIGIN AND NATIONALITY FOR... USAID Financing § 228.32 Nonprofit organizations. (a) Nonprofit organizations, such as...

  15. Analysis of the gamma spectra of the uranium, actinium, and thorium decay series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the identification of radionuclides in the uranium, actinium, and thorium series by analysis of gamma spectra in the energy range of 40 to 1400 keV. Energies and absolute efficiencies for each gamma line were measured by means of a high-resolution germanium detector and compared with those in the literature. A gamma spectroscopy method, which utilizes an on-line computer for deconvolution of spectra, search and identification of each line, and estimation of activity for each radionuclide, was used to analyze soil and uranium tailings, and ore

  16. Production of actinium-225 for alpha particle mediated radioimmunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, Rose A; Malkemus, Dairin; Mirzadeh, Saed

    2005-05-01

    The initial clinical trials for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia have demonstrated the effectiveness of the alpha emitter (213)Bi in killing cancer cells. Bismuth-213 is obtained from a radionuclide generator system from decay of 10-days (225)Ac parent. Recent pre-clinical studies have also shown the potential application of both (213)Bi, and the (225)Ac parent radionuclide in a variety of cancer systems and targeted radiotherapy. This paper describes our five years of experience in production of (225)Ac in partial support of the on-going clinical trials. A four-step chemical process, consisting of both anion and cation exchange chromatography, is utilized for routine separation of carrier-free (225)Ac from a mixture of (228)Th, (229)Th and (232)Th. The separation of Ra and Ac from Th is achieved using the marcoporous anion exchange resin MP1 in 8M HNO(3) media. Two sequential MP1/NO(3) columns provide a separation factor of approximately 10(6) for Ra and Ac from Th. The separation of Ac from Ra is accomplished on a low cross-linking cation exchange resin AG50-X4 using 1.2M HNO(3) as eluant. Two sequential AG50/NO(3) columns provide a separation factor of approximately 10(2) for Ac from Ra. A 60-day processing schedule has been adopted in order to reduce the processing cost and to provide the highest levels of (225)Ac possible. Over an 8-week campaign, a total of approximately 100 mCi of (225)Ac (approximately 80% of the theoretical yield) is shipped in 5-6 batches, with the first batch typically consisting of approximately 50 mCi. After the initial separation and purification of Ac, the Ra pool is re-processed on a bi-weekly schedule or as needed to provide smaller batches of (225)Ac. The averaged radioisotopic purity of the (225)Ac was 99.6 +/- 0.7% with a (225)Ra content of < or =0.6%, and an average (229)Th content of (4(-4)(+5)) x 10(-5)%.

  17. 36 CFR 228.50 - Production records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Production records. 228.50... Disposal of Mineral Materials General Provisions § 228.50 Production records. At least annually, the..., to the authorized officer. The units of measurement must correspond to the units used in...

  18. 40 CFR 86.228-94 - Transmissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.228-94 Section 86.228-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New...

  19. 31 CFR 800.228 - Voting interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Voting interest. 800.228 Section 800... TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.228 Voting interest. The term voting interest means any interest in an entity that entitles the owner or holder of that interest to vote for the election...

  20. AAS 228: Day 3 afternoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Wikipedia Year of Science Editathon (by Meredith Rawls)Whats your first go-to source for an unfamiliar topic on the internet? If you said Wikipedia, youre not alone. For many people, Wikipedia is the primary source of information about astronomy and science. However, many Wikipedia articles about science topics are incomplete or missing, and women are underrepresented among scientists with biographies.To address this, the AAS Astronomy Education Board teamed up with the Wiki Education Foundation to host an edit-a-thon as part of the Wikipedia Year of Science. More than forty attendees spent the better part of three hours working through tutorials, creating new articles, and editing existing ones. The session was generously sponsored by the Simons Foundation.The Year of Science initiative seeks to bring Wikipedia editing skills to the classroom and help new editors find sustainable ways to contribute to Wikipedia in the long term. Anybody can create a free account and start editing!As a first-time Wikipedia contributor, I took the time to go through nearly all the tutorial exercises and familiarize myself with the process of editing a page. I decided to flesh out one section in an existing page about asteroseismology. Others created biography pages from scratch or selected various astronomical topics to write about. To me, the editing process felt like a cross between writing a blog post and a journal article, in a hack day type environment. Working through the tutorial and some examples renewed my empathy for learners who are tackling a new skill set for the first time. A full summary of our

  1. AAS 228: Day 3 afternoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Wikipedia Year of Science Editathon (by Meredith Rawls)Whats your first go-to source for an unfamiliar topic on the internet? If you said Wikipedia, youre not alone. For many people, Wikipedia is the primary source of information about astronomy and science. However, many Wikipedia articles about science topics are incomplete or missing, and women are underrepresented among scientists with biographies.To address this, the AAS Astronomy Education Board teamed up with the Wiki Education Foundation to host an edit-a-thon as part of the Wikipedia Year of Science. More than forty attendees spent the better part of three hours working through tutorials, creating new articles, and editing existing ones. The session was generously sponsored by the Simons Foundation.The Year of Science initiative seeks to bring Wikipedia editing skills to the classroom and help new editors find sustainable ways to contribute to Wikipedia in the long term. Anybody can create a free account and start editing!As a first-time Wikipedia contributor, I took the time to go through nearly all the tutorial exercises and familiarize myself with the process of editing a page. I decided to flesh out one section in an existing page about asteroseismology. Others created biography pages from scratch or selected various astronomical topics to write about. To me, the editing process felt like a cross between writing a blog post and a journal article, in a hack day type environment. Working through the tutorial and some examples renewed my empathy for learners who are tackling a new skill set for the first time. A full summary of our

  2. AAS 228: Day 1 morning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Come visit astrobites at the AAS booth we have swag!Things kicked off last night at our undergraduate reception booth. Thanks to all of you who stopped by we were delightedto hear from undergrads who already know and love the site, educators who want to use it in their classrooms, and students who had not yet been introduced to astrobites and were excited about a new resource!For the rest of the meeting we will be stationed at theAAS booth in the exhibit hall (booth #211-213), so drop by if you want to learn more (or pick up swag: weve got lots of stickers and sunglasses)!Mondaymorning was the official start of the meeting. Here are just a few of the talks and workshops astrobiters attended this morning.Opening Address(by Susanna Kohler)AAS President Meg Urry kicked off the meeting this morning at 8am with an overview of some of the great endeavors AAS is supporting. We astrobiters had personal motivation to drag ourselves out of bed that early: during this session, Urryannounced the new partnership between AAS and astrobites!Urry touched on some difficult topics in her welcome, including yesterdays tragedy in Orlando. Shereiteratedthe AASs support fortheCommittee for Sexual-Orientation and Gender Minorities in Astronomy (SGMA). She also reminded meeting attendees about the importance ofkeeping conference interactions professional, and pointed to the meetings anti-harassment policy.Partnership Announcement (by Michael Zevin)This morning, the American Astronomical Society announced the new partnership that it will have with Astrobites! We are beyond excited to embark on this new partnership with the

  3. AAS 228: Day 1 morning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Come visit astrobites at the AAS booth we have swag!Things kicked off last night at our undergraduate reception booth. Thanks to all of you who stopped by we were delightedto hear from undergrads who already know and love the site, educators who want to use it in their classrooms, and students who had not yet been introduced to astrobites and were excited about a new resource!For the rest of the meeting we will be stationed at theAAS booth in the exhibit hall (booth #211-213), so drop by if you want to learn more (or pick up swag: weve got lots of stickers and sunglasses)!Mondaymorning was the official start of the meeting. Here are just a few of the talks and workshops astrobiters attended this morning.Opening Address(by Susanna Kohler)AAS President Meg Urry kicked off the meeting this morning at 8am with an overview of some of the great endeavors AAS is supporting. We astrobiters had personal motivation to drag ourselves out of bed that early: during this session, Urryannounced the new partnership between AAS and astrobites!Urry touched on some difficult topics in her welcome, including yesterdays tragedy in Orlando. Shereiteratedthe AASs support fortheCommittee for Sexual-Orientation and Gender Minorities in Astronomy (SGMA). She also reminded meeting attendees about the importance ofkeeping conference interactions professional, and pointed to the meetings anti-harassment policy.Partnership Announcement (by Michael Zevin)This morning, the American Astronomical Society announced the new partnership that it will have with Astrobites! We are beyond excited to embark on this new partnership with the

  4. AAS 228: Day 3 morning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Plenary Session 2015 Newton Lacy Pierce Prize Lecture: The Elephant in the Room: Effects of Distant, Massive Companions on Planetary System Architectures (by Leonardo dos Santos)The first session on Wednesday at 228th AAS Meeting was the Newton Lacy Pierce Prize Lecture by Heather Knutson (California Institute of Technology). This talk featured a broad range of research efforts on exoplanets, with the main focus on how we study the composition of their atmospheres, and how multi-body interactions carve the structure of the planetary systems we observe.One of her first points is the well-known idea that the Solar System is an oddball, compared to the exoplanet systems we have found so far: most of these systems contain hot Jupiters and mini-Neptunes at very close-in orbits around their host stars. Moreover, even when studying their transmission spectra, it is difficult to know the exact composition of their atmospheres.Knutson: it is difficult to constrain atmospheric composition of exoplanets (H-poor or H-rich+clouds?) #aas228pic.twitter.com/LdyN4o9RC7 astrobites (@astrobites) June 15, 2016The main proposal on how these systems formed is the migration scenario. In order to validate this idea, Dr. Knutson and her group The Friends of Hot Jupiters study systems with close-in gas giants and their frequency of binary companions, which are supposed to be the main culprits causing gas-giant migration. They found that approximately half of the observed systems have long-distance companions, providing strong validation of the migration scenario. Moreover, Dr. Knutson speculates that wide binaries have more

  5. AAS 228: Day 1 afternoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Plenary Session: From Space Archeology to Serving the World Today: A 20-year Journey from the Jungles of Guatemala to a Network of Satellite Remote Sensing Facilities Around the World(by Michael Zevin)In the conferences second plenary session, NASAs Daniel Irwin turned the eyes of the conference back to Earth by highlighting the huge impact that NASA missions play in protecting and developing our own planet.Daniel Irwin: using satellite imagery to detect differences in vegetation and find ancient Mayan cities. #aas228 pic.twitter.com/9LFPQdCHTM astrobites (@astrobites) June 13, 2016Irwin came to be involved in NASA through his work mapping Guatemalan jungles, where he would spend 22 days at a time exploring the treacherous jungles on foot armed with a 1st generation GPS, a compass, and a machete. A colleague introduced Irwin to the satellite imagery thathe was exploring, demonstratinghow these images are a strong complement to field work. The sharing of this satellite data with nearby villages helped to show the encroachment of agriculture and the necessity of connecting space to the village. Satellite imagery also played a role in archeological endeavors, uncovering dozens of Mayan cities that have been buried for over a millennia by vegetation, and it provided evidence that the fall of the Mayan civilization may have been due to massive deforestation that ledto drought.Glacial retreat in Chile imaged by ISERV.Irwin displayed the constellation of NASAs Earth-monitoring satellites that have played an integral role in conserving our planet and alerting the world of natural disasters. He also showed

  6. AAS 228: Day 2 afternoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.The Limits of Scientific Cosmology: Setting the Stage: Accepted Facts, and Testing Limitations in Theory and Data (by Gourav Khullar)With a stellar lineup of speakers to talk about current and future prospects of cosmology and its limits (or lack thereof), the first session kicked off with talks by Risa Wechsler, Joseph Silk, and Sean Carroll (his talk on Multiverses is described below, by Nathan Sanders). Risa set the stage with an elaborate description of the current accepted facts in the era of precision cosmology including the standard model of concordance cosmology, described by seven parameters and an accepted Lambda-CDM paradigm (with a cosmological constant and cold dark matter). The talk stressed on the fact that all these parameters are understood to a percent order precision, which is a remarkable deviation from the time in 1990s when according to Risa, Alan Guth never thought that any of these numbers could be measured precisely!Risa Wechsler describing our current constraints on what Dark Matter could constitute.Joseph Silk discussing limits on cosmological parameters.The CMB measurements, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis estimates and galaxy clustering statistics all contribute to locking down the description of our universe. She emphasized on the tensions between different probes to measure expansion rate H0 of the universe, and small scale predictions of cold dark matter simulations, but she is hopeful that these shall be resolved eventually. Joe Silk followed this up with his interpretation of trying to understand our place in the universe and placing limits on different parameters and

  7. FK228 from Burkholderia thailandensis MSMB43

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Yang Liu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available FK228 [systematic name: (1S,4S,7Z,10S,16E,21R-7-ethylidene-4,21-di(propan-2-yl-2-oxa-12,13-dithia-5,8,20,23-tetrazabicyclo[8.7.6]tricos-16-ene-3,6,9,19,22-pentone], C24H36N4O6S2, also known as FR901228, depsipeptide, NSC 630176, romidepsin, and marketed as Istodax by Celgene Corporation, is crystallized from ethyl acetate in P21 as compared to the absolute configuration of FK228, first crystallized from methanol in P212121 [Shigematsu et al. (1994. J. Antibiot. 47, 311–314]. A slight difference is observed between the absolute configuration of FK228 and the present structure. The molecular structure is stabilized by intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds. In the crystal, molecules are linked via N—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  8. AAS 228: Day 2 morning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Plenary Session (Day 1) The Galaxy Zoo(by Benny Tsang)Galaxy Zoo was so hot that the servers hosting the galaxy images got melted down soon after being launched.Kevin Schawinski from ETH Zurich took us on a tour ofhis wonderful Galaxy Zoo. It is a huge zoo with about a quarter million zookeepers, they are citizen astronomers who collaboratively classify galaxies by their looks as an attempt to understand galaxy evolution. The big question that is being answered is: how do blue, actively star-forming galaxies evolve into red, quiescent (non-star-forming) galaxies? The Zoo helped reveal that blue galaxies turn into red galaxies via two possible paths galaxies might run out of supply of gas and shut off star formation slowly; or they could merge with one another and turn off star formation by destroying the gas reservoir rapidly!The Galaxy Zoo project also led to the discoveries of:Green Peas: they are the living fossils of galaxy evolution; compact, bright, green galaxies that are actively forming starsOverlapping galaxies: they are pairs of galaxies that are separated physically but happen to lie on the same line of sight; they provide excellent laboratories for studying dust extinctionHannys Voorwerp: an unusual object named after Hanny the discoverer, which is believed to be the first detection of quasar light echoThe idea of Galaxy Zoo in getting help from citizen scientists was further extended into an award-winningproject known as the Zooniverse, which is an online platform for streamlined crowd-sourcing for scientific research that requires human input. The future of astronomy is going to be

  9. AAS 228: Day 2 afternoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.The Limits of Scientific Cosmology: Setting the Stage: Accepted Facts, and Testing Limitations in Theory and Data (by Gourav Khullar)With a stellar lineup of speakers to talk about current and future prospects of cosmology and its limits (or lack thereof), the first session kicked off with talks by Risa Wechsler, Joseph Silk, and Sean Carroll (his talk on Multiverses is described below, by Nathan Sanders). Risa set the stage with an elaborate description of the current accepted facts in the era of precision cosmology including the standard model of concordance cosmology, described by seven parameters and an accepted Lambda-CDM paradigm (with a cosmological constant and cold dark matter). The talk stressed on the fact that all these parameters are understood to a percent order precision, which is a remarkable deviation from the time in 1990s when according to Risa, Alan Guth never thought that any of these numbers could be measured precisely!Risa Wechsler describing our current constraints on what Dark Matter could constitute.Joseph Silk discussing limits on cosmological parameters.The CMB measurements, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis estimates and galaxy clustering statistics all contribute to locking down the description of our universe. She emphasized on the tensions between different probes to measure expansion rate H0 of the universe, and small scale predictions of cold dark matter simulations, but she is hopeful that these shall be resolved eventually. Joe Silk followed this up with his interpretation of trying to understand our place in the universe and placing limits on different parameters and

  10. AAS 228: Day 2 morning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Plenary Session (Day 1) The Galaxy Zoo(by Benny Tsang)Galaxy Zoo was so hot that the servers hosting the galaxy images got melted down soon after being launched.Kevin Schawinski from ETH Zurich took us on a tour ofhis wonderful Galaxy Zoo. It is a huge zoo with about a quarter million zookeepers, they are citizen astronomers who collaboratively classify galaxies by their looks as an attempt to understand galaxy evolution. The big question that is being answered is: how do blue, actively star-forming galaxies evolve into red, quiescent (non-star-forming) galaxies? The Zoo helped reveal that blue galaxies turn into red galaxies via two possible paths galaxies might run out of supply of gas and shut off star formation slowly; or they could merge with one another and turn off star formation by destroying the gas reservoir rapidly!The Galaxy Zoo project also led to the discoveries of:Green Peas: they are the living fossils of galaxy evolution; compact, bright, green galaxies that are actively forming starsOverlapping galaxies: they are pairs of galaxies that are separated physically but happen to lie on the same line of sight; they provide excellent laboratories for studying dust extinctionHannys Voorwerp: an unusual object named after Hanny the discoverer, which is believed to be the first detection of quasar light echoThe idea of Galaxy Zoo in getting help from citizen scientists was further extended into an award-winningproject known as the Zooniverse, which is an online platform for streamlined crowd-sourcing for scientific research that requires human input. The future of astronomy is going to be

  11. 48 CFR 3052.228-70 - Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of Provisions and Clauses 3052.228-70 Insurance. As prescribed in (HSAR) 48 CFR 3028.310-70 and 3028... liability. The contractor shall, as a minimum, meet the requirements specified at (FAR) 48 CFR 28.307-2(a...) 48 CFR 28.307-2(b). (c) Automobile liability. The contractor shall, as a minimum, meet...

  12. 22 CFR 228.55 - Delivery services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES ON SOURCE, ORIGIN AND NATIONALITY FOR... that delaying shipment would increase costs or significantly delay receipt of the cargo; (4) Eligible... waiver. Other free world air carriers may be used only as provided in § 228.22....

  13. 36 CFR 228.12 - Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Minerals § 228.12 Access. An operator is entitled to access in connection with operations, but no road... other means of access, including but not limited to off-road vehicles, be used until the operator has... forest surface resources, including measures to protect scenic values and to insure against erosion...

  14. Developments towards in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy studies of actinium isotopes at LISOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeder, S.; Bastin, B.; Block, M.; Creemers, P.; Delahaye, P.; Ferrer, R.; Fléchard, X.; Franchoo, S.; Ghys, L.; Gaffney, L. P.; Granados, C.; Heinke, R.; Hijazi, L.; Huyse, M.; Kron, T.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Laatiaoui, M.; Lecesne, N.; Luton, F.; Moore, I. D.; Martinez, Y.; Mogilevskiy, E.; Naubereit, P.; Piot, J.; Rothe, S.; Savajols, H.; Sels, S.; Sonnenschein, V.; Traykov, E.; Van Beveren, C.; Van den Bergh, P.; Van Duppen, P.; Wendt, K.; Zadvornaya, A.

    2016-06-01

    To study exotic nuclides at the borders of stability with laser ionization and spectroscopy techniques, highest efficiencies in combination with a high spectral resolution are required. These usually opposing requirements are reconciled by applying the in-gas-laser ionization and spectroscopy (IGLIS) technique in the supersonic gas jet produced by a de Laval nozzle installed at the exit of the stopping gas cell. Carrying out laser ionization in the low-temperature and low density supersonic gas jet eliminates pressure broadening, which will significantly improve the spectral resolution. This article presents the required modifications at the Leuven Isotope Separator On-Line (LISOL) facility that are needed for the first on-line studies of in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy. Different geometries for the gas outlet and extraction ion guides have been tested for their performance regarding the acceptance of laser ionized species as well as for their differential pumping capacities. The specifications and performance of the temporarily installed high repetition rate laser system, including a narrow bandwidth injection-locked Ti:sapphire laser, are discussed and first preliminary results on neutron-deficient actinium isotopes are presented indicating the high capability of this novel technique.

  15. 32 CFR 228.10 - Prohibition on alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition on alcohol. 228.10 Section 228.10 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY PROTECTIVE FORCE § 228.10 Prohibition on alcohol. Entering or being on protected...

  16. 48 CFR 52.228-14 - Irrevocable Letter of Credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Credit. 52.228-14 Section 52.228-14 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....228-14 Irrevocable Letter of Credit. As prescribed in 28.204-4, insert the following clause: Irrevocable Letter of Credit (DEC 1999) (a) “Irrevocable letter of credit” (ILC), as used in this...

  17. 36 CFR 228.11 - Prevention and control of fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prevention and control of fire. 228.11 Section 228.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Locatable Minerals § 228.11 Prevention and control of fire. Operator shall comply...

  18. 22 CFR 228.52 - Suppliers of commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suppliers of commodities. 228.52 Section 228.52... COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY USAID Waivers § 228.52 Suppliers of commodities. Geographic code changes authorized by waiver with respect to the source of commodities automatically apply to the nationality...

  19. 32 CFR 228.15 - Restriction regarding animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restriction regarding animals. 228.15 Section 228.15 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY PROTECTIVE FORCE § 228.15 Restriction regarding animals. No animals...

  20. 48 CFR 1852.228-71 - Aircraft flight risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Aircraft flight risks. 1852.228-71 Section 1852.228-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE... the aircraft has returned to the ground and rotors are disengaged. (iv) With respect to vertical...

  1. 48 CFR 252.228-7001 - Ground and flight risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ground and flight risk. 252.228-7001 Section 252.228-7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION...) Conventional winged aircraft, as well as helicopters, vertical take-off or landing aircraft,...

  2. 4 CFR 22.8 - General Discovery Procedures [Rule 8].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General Discovery Procedures . 22.8 Section 22.8 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES RULES OF PROCEDURE OF THE GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY..., including the existence, description, nature, custody, condition, and location of any books,...

  3. 48 CFR 752.228-9 - Cargo insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo insurance. 752.228-9... insurance. As prescribed in 728.313(a), the following preface is to be used preceding the text of the clause at FAR 52.228-9: Preface: To the extent that marine insurance is necessary or appropriate under...

  4. 36 CFR 228.57 - Types of disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Types of disposal. 228.57... Disposal of Mineral Materials Types and Methods of Disposal § 228.57 Types of disposal. Except as provided... qualified bidder after formal advertising and other appropriate public notice; (b) Sale by...

  5. 22 CFR 228.23 - Eligibility of marine insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligibility of marine insurance. 228.23 Section...-Related Services for USAID Financing § 228.23 Eligibility of marine insurance. The eligibility of marine... a cooperating country discriminates against marine insurance companies authorized to do business...

  6. 20 CFR 228.15 - Reduction for age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... multiplied by the number of months before the annuitant attains full retirement age (presently age 65... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduction for age. 228.15 Section 228.15 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT COMPUTATION...

  7. 22 CFR 228.11 - Source and origin of commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Source and origin of commodities. 228.11... NATIONALITY FOR COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY USAID Conditions Governing Source and Nationality of Commodity Procurement Transactions for USAID Financing § 228.11 Source and origin of commodities. (a)...

  8. 20 CFR 228.18 - Reduction for public pension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... disability annuity, or died, the survivor annuitant must have been receiving at least one-half support from... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduction for public pension. 228.18 Section... COMPUTATION OF SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.18 Reduction for public pension. (a)...

  9. Purification of selenium from thorium, uranium, radium, actinium and potassium impurities for low background measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique of selenium purification from 232Th, 238U, 226,228Ra, 227Ac and 40K was developed. This technique is simple to perform and employs a minimum number of highly pure reagents (bidistilled water, nitric acid). Operations carried out during purification (elution, evaporation) practically exclude losses of the target product (chemical yields of Se > 99%). A test purification of 100 g of selenium was carried out using this technique. The efficiency of this technique was confirmed by low background gamma spectrometry of the purified selenium sample. Distribution coefficients of Th, U, Ra and Ac on DOWEX 50W- x 8 cation-exchange resin at different concentrations of selenium and nitric acid were experimentally determinated. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of bidistilled water, deionized water and nitric acid was performed. (orig.)

  10. Purification of selenium from thorium, uranium, radium, actinium and potassium impurities for low background measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakhimov, A.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Tashkent (Uzbekistan). Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INP AS RUz); Warot, G. [CEA-CNRS, Modane (France). Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane (LSM); Karaivanov, D.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE), Sofia (Bulgaria); Kochetov, O.I.; Lebedev, N.A.; Filosofov, D.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Mukhamedshina, N.M.; Sadikov, I.I. [Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Tashkent (Uzbekistan). Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INP AS RUz)

    2013-07-01

    A technique of selenium purification from {sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U, {sup 226,228}Ra, {sup 227}Ac and {sup 40}K was developed. This technique is simple to perform and employs a minimum number of highly pure reagents (bidistilled water, nitric acid). Operations carried out during purification (elution, evaporation) practically exclude losses of the target product (chemical yields of Se > 99%). A test purification of 100 g of selenium was carried out using this technique. The efficiency of this technique was confirmed by low background gamma spectrometry of the purified selenium sample. Distribution coefficients of Th, U, Ra and Ac on DOWEX 50W- x 8 cation-exchange resin at different concentrations of selenium and nitric acid were experimentally determinated. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of bidistilled water, deionized water and nitric acid was performed. (orig.)

  11. Determination of 228Th, 232Th, and228Ra in wild mushroom from a naturally high radioactive region in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushrooms are fungi which efficiently accumulate radionuclides, as verified by radiochemistry analyses of specimens collected in contaminated areas, specifically after the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Many studies have demonstrated that mushrooms can be used in monitoring of ecosystem contamination and quality. The present paper is part of a broader study conducted in the Pocos de Caldas plateau region in Minas Gerais, Brazil, investigating assimilation of natural Uranium and Thorium radionuclide series by mushrooms. This region has elevated natural radioactivity due to the presence of radiological anomalies of volcanic origin. These anomalies are ore bodies containing Uranium and Thorium, the later being highly predominant. Many researchers have been conducted concerning radionuclide incorporation by agricultural products on the plateau. The present paper aims to determine 232Th, 228Th, and 228Ra radionuclides in wild mushrooms collected at different locations in the plateau region. 228Ra was determined by radiochemical separation using sulphate coprecipitation followed by beta radiometry. 232Th and 228Th were determined using anion exchange resin purification followed by alpha spectrometry. Higher values were obtained to 228Th than to 232Th. This is due to higher 228Ra mobility, which decays to 228Th. The accuracy of the analytical methods employed was evaluated using the reference sample IAEA Soil 327. These methods had high chemical recovery and high sensitivity. It was possible to confirm that mushrooms accumulate radionuclide and so can be used in environmental contamination and quality assessment. (author)

  12. Assessment of the equilibrium of Th-228 and Ra-228 by gamma-ray spectrometry in mangrove soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiva, Jose Daniel S.; Farias, Emerson E.G.; Franca, Elvis J. De, E-mail: paivajds@gmail.com, E-mail: emersonemiliano@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The mangrove environment consists of soil containing high organic matter, characterized by the influence of continental and oceanic waters, relatively high concentrations of salts and exuberant vegetation. Mangroves also present high dynamics of chemical compound cycling, in which soils become quite relevant due to the influence of continental and oceanic sediments. Taking into account the different sources and transport of radionuclides within the mangrove environment, this study focused at the radioactive equilibrium of Thorium-232 series radionuclides, especially the Ra-228 and Thorium-228. For this, soil samples were collected in the crown projection of tree species from two mangroves located in the municipalities of Olinda/Recife and Rio Formoso, Pernambuco State, Brazil. The material was oven-dried and milled and test portions of 38 g were transferred to cylindrical vials and sealed. After 30 days, the natural radioactivity was measured during 80,000 seconds using High Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometry with a germanium detector of 2.2 keV of resolution at the 1,332 keV Co-60 photopeak. For Ra-228 determination, 911 keV gamma-ray line (Ac-228) were employed, while 238 keV (Pb-212) and 727 keV (Bi-212) were considered for estimating activity concentrations of Th-228. As a result, Ra-228 and Th 228 were in equilibrium since the activity concentrations (ranging from 35 Bq/kg to 50 Bq/kg) were not significantly different at the 95% confidence level. The results have confirmed that, even for environments of high dynamics such as mangroves, radioactive equilibrium of Th-228 and Ra-228 was kept, corroborating Th-232 determination in mangrove soils. (author)

  13. 36 CFR 228.61 - Preference right negotiated sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... commercial production occurs during any continuous 2-year period after the award of the contract or if the... AGRICULTURE MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials Types and Methods of Disposal § 228.61 Preference...

  14. Dicty_cDB: SFC228 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SF (Link to library) SFC228 (Link to dictyBase) - G01768 DDB0218080 Contig-U03237-1...brary) Clone ID SFC228 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID G01768 dictyBase ID DDB0218080 Link to Contig ...Contig-U03237-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SF/SFC2-...LTGCFHKRVVCDDND KCTDNICNPETGTCXFRRRICTDNNDCTMD--- ---ICTDNNDCTMDWCNQLTGECVYQPVLVC...KIKLCQIKMMIILLFIIFIQLGNCQLENKTNATTTTTTR YCNNDESCNDENLCTNEMCDPVIGCIYENISCDDDNGCTKDFCDPLTGCFHKRVVCDDND KCTDNICNPETGTCXFRRRICT

  15. 48 CFR 252.228-7000 - Reimbursement for war-hazard losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-hazard losses. 252.228-7000 Section 252.228-7000 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.228-7000 Reimbursement for war-hazard losses. As prescribed in 228.370(a), use the following clause: Reimbursement for War-Hazard Losses (DEC 1991) (a) Costs...

  16. 226Ra i 228Ra in Croatian Rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of 226Ra and 228Ra in Croatian river waters are presented in this paper. The presence of natural radionuclides in the Croatian rivers emphasizes the need for continuous monitoring. 226Ra and 228Ra were chosen as a possible source of human exposure to radioactivity due to their high radio-toxicity. River water samples (50 L) were collected from the Danube, Drava, Sava, Krka and Neretva rivers twice a year from 2002 to 2006. Activity concentrations of 226Ra ranged from 6.54 mBq L-1 to 59.44 mBq L-1 and 228Ra activity concentrations ranged from 2.57 mBq L-1 to 20.76 mBq L-1. The highest values of both 226Ra and 228Ra were measured in the Drava river, and the lowest values in the Sava river. Statistically significant differences were not observed between radium concentrations from two watersheds (the Black Sea and the Adriatic Sea watershed), nor between 226Ra/228Ra ratio in rivers individually. The number of collected samples is insufficient to make statistically significant conclusions. Further investigation is necessary to obtain larger number of samples. However, the data obtained in this study could be the baseline for evaluating possible future changes.(author)

  17. Ra-228, Ra-226 and Ra-228/Ra-226 Activity Ratio in the Northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu-Chia, C.

    2004-05-01

    We report for the first time the surface water distributions of Ra-228 and Ra-226 in the northern South China Sea (SCS) and vertical profiles in the central deep basin of the SCS. Being a marginal sea, the SCS displays activities of both nuclides much higher than the open oceans. The surface water Ra-228 varies between 22 and 33 dpm/100L with higher values at stations adjacent to the landmass. The surface water Ra-226 varies from 10 to 15 dpm/100L with a distribution pattern similar to that of Ra-228. The Ra-228/Ra-226 activity ratio is fairly constant at about 2 or slightly higher. Ra-228 decreases rapidly from a surface maximum of about 22 dpm/100L to about 12 dpm/100L at and below 300m depth in the deep central basin. The deep water values are much higher than those of the open oceans. Ra-226, on the other hand, shows a surface activity of 14 dpm/100L, decreases to 10 dpm/100L at 200m, and then increases monotonically with depth to about 35 dpm/100L at and below 3000m. This distribution pattern is similar to that observed in the western North Pacific but the activity is higher by about 5 dpm/100L for the entire water column. The resulting Ra-228/Ra-226 is greater than one above 250m and becomes less than one below this depth with the ratio decreasing to about 0.35 in the deep water below 3000m. This ratio remains much greater than that in the open oceans, implying a strong Ra-228 input relative to Ra-226 into the SCS deep water.

  18. New method for large scale production of medically applicable Actinium-225 and Radium-223

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpha-emitters (211At, 212Bi, 213Bi, 223Ra, 225Ac) are promising for targeted radiotherapy of cancer. Only two alpha decays near a cell membrane result in 50% death of cancer cell and only a single decay inside the cell is required for this. 225Ac may be used either directly or as a mother radionuclide in 213Bi isotope generator. Production of 225Ac is provided by three main suppliers - Institute for Transuranium Elements in Germany, Oak Ridge National Laboratory in USA and Institute of Physics and Power Engineering in Obninsk, Russia. The current worldwide production of 225Ac is approximately 1.7 Ci per year that corresponds to only 100-200 patients that could be treated annually. The common approach for 225Ac production is separation from mother 229Th or irradiation of 226Ra with protons in a cyclotron. Both the methods have some practical limitations to be applied routinely. 225Ac can be also produced by irradiation of natural thorium with medium energy protons . Cumulative cross sections of 225Ac, 227Ac, 227Th, 228Th formations have been obtained recently. Thorium targets (1-9 g) were irradiated by 114-91 MeV proton beam (1-50 μA) at INR linear accelerator. After dissolution in 8 M HNO3 + 0.004 M HF thorium was removed by double LLX by HDEHP in toluene (1:1). Ac and REE were pre-concentrated and separated from Ra and most fission products by DGA-Resin (Triskem). After washing out by 0.01 M HNO3 Ac was separated from REE by TRU Resin (Triskem) in 3 M HNO3 media. About 6 mCi 225Ac were separated in hot cell with chemical yield 85%. The method may be upscaled for production of Ci amounts of the radionuclide. The main impurity is 227Ac (0.1% at the EOB) but it does not hinder 225Ac from being used for medical 225Ac/213Bi generators. (author)

  19. Light output of EJ228 scintillation neutron detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevanato, L., E-mail: luca.stevanato@pd.infn.i [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Fabris, D. [INFN Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Hao, Xin [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Lunardon, M.; Moretto, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); INFN Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Nebbia, G.; Pesente, S. [INFN Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Sajo-Bohus, L. [Universidad Simon-Bolivar, Laboratorio Fisica Nuclear, Apartado 8900, 1080 A. Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Viesti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); INFN Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2011-02-15

    The light output of neutron detectors based on the plastic scintillator EJ228 is studied as a function of neutron energy using a time tagged {sup 252}Cf source. Calibration of the light output scale is performed by fitting the experimental distribution of Compton scattering events of photons from a {sup 22}Na source with a response function obtained by Gaussian smearing of the predicted line-shape. The light output curve as well as the pulse height resolution for the EJ228 scintillators is very close (within 5%) to those recently reported for NE213 type organic liquid scintillators.

  20. 36 CFR 228.48 - Appraisal and measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appraisal and measurement... MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials General Provisions § 228.48 Appraisal and measurement. (a) Appraisal... weight equivalent. In all cases the units of measurement must correspond to the units used in...

  1. 36 CFR 223.228 - Contents of advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contents of advertisement... SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Special Forest Products Advertisement and Bids § 223.228 Contents of advertisement. The Forest Service shall include the following information in...

  2. 22 CFR 228.14 - Nationality of suppliers of commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 228.14 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES ON SOURCE, ORIGIN AND... laws of a country or area included in the authorized geographic source code and with a place of... by shareholders of the corporation; or (4) A joint venture or unincorporated association...

  3. 48 CFR 52.228-9 - Cargo Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Insurance. 52.228-9... Insurance. As prescribed in 28.313(a), insert the following clause: Cargo Insurance (MAY 1999) (a) The..., cargo insurance of $_____ per vehicle to cover the value of property on each vehicle and of $_____...

  4. 48 CFR 3452.228-70 - Required insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Required insurance. 3452... 3452.228-70 Required insurance. As prescribed in 3428.370, insert the following clause in all solicitations and resultant cost-reimbursement contracts: Required Insurance (AUG 1987) (a) The contractor...

  5. 48 CFR 452.228-71 - Insurance Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance Coverage. 452... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 452.228-71 Insurance Coverage. As prescribed in 428.310, insert the following clause: Insurance Coverage (NOV 1996) Pursuant...

  6. 36 CFR 228.59 - Negotiated or noncompetitive sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials Types and Methods of Disposal § 228.59 Negotiated or... interest and when it is impracticable to obtain competition, mineral materials not exceeding 100,000 cubic... than the appraised value, without advertising or calling for bids, a volume of mineral materials not...

  7. 36 CFR 228.65 - Payment for sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Disposal of Mineral Materials Types and Methods of Disposal § 228.65 Payment for sales. (a) Conditions. Mineral materials may not be removed from the sale area until all conditions of payment in the contract... materials as billed by the authorized officer. The total amount of the purchase price must be paid at...

  8. 48 CFR 1352.228-70 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1352.228-70 Insurance coverage. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1328.310-70(a), insert the following clause: Insurance Coverage (APR 2010... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance coverage....

  9. 36 CFR 228.15 - Operations within National Forest Wilderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... measures to remove any structures, equipment and other facilities no longer needed for mining purposes in... § 228.8(g). (e) The title to timber on patented claims validly established after the land was included... cut and use timber for mining purposes. So much of the mature timber may be cut and used as is...

  10. BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Th-228 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 228Th

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G.; Courte, S.; Lucas, L.; Kossert, K.; Nähle, O.; Ott, O.

    2016-01-01

    Since 1986, two national metrology institutes (NMI) have submitted two samples of known activity of 228Th to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), with comparison identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Th-228. The values of the activity submitted were about 300 kBq and 2 MBq. A key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been evaluated for the first time for 228Th. There is only one result remaining in the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Th-228 comparison, the 1986 NIST result being outdated. The degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR and the KCRV have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a table. A graphical presentation is also given. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  11. 36 CFR 228.46 - Application of other laws and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application of other laws and regulations. 228.46 Section 228.46 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials § 228.46 Application of other laws and regulations....

  12. 22 CFR 228.53 - Suppliers of services-privately owned commercial suppliers and nonprofit organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suppliers of services-privately owned commercial suppliers and nonprofit organizations. 228.53 Section 228.53 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR... Waivers § 228.53 Suppliers of services—privately owned commercial suppliers and nonprofit...

  13. Spectral indices for radio emission of 228 pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jun; Wang, Chen; Xu, Jun; Han, Jin-Lin

    2016-10-01

    We determine spectral indices of 228 pulsars by using Parkes pulsar data observed at 1.4 GHz, among which 200 spectra are newly determined. The indices are distributed in the range from ‑4.84 to ‑0.46. Together with known pulsar spectra from literature, we tried to find clues to the pulsar emission process. The weak correlations between the spectral index, the spin-down energy loss rate E and the potential drop in the polar gap ΔΨ hint that emission properties are related to the particle acceleration process in a pulsar's magnetosphere.

  14. Distribution of Th-230 and Th-228 in food (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hee Dong; Kim, Wan; Lim, X. J.; Choi, M. S.; Kim, C. J.; Zheng, Y. Z. [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Do Sung [Daegu Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-15

    Natural radioisotopes contained in foods can enter the human body by ingestion and contribute to internal doses to the population. It is necessary to measure the concentration of natural radioisotopes especially thorium in Korean foods and estimate the internal doses. In this study, we have established the thorium measuring process based on the thorium extraction chemical process and alpha spectroscopic method. The concentration of Th-228, Th-230 and Th-232 in Korean milk, meats(pork, beef and chicken) and grain (wheat, bean and rice) are measured and internal doses are estimated.

  15. Production of actinium, thorium and radium isotopes from natural thorium irradiated with protons up to 141 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermolaev, S.V.; Zhuikov, B.L.; Kokhanyuk, V.M.; Matushko, V.L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Nuclear Research; Kalmykov, S.N. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). Chemistry Dept.; Aliev, R.A. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). Skobeltsyn Inst. of Nuclear Physics; Tananaev, I.G.; Myasoedov, B.F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). A.N. Frumkin Inst. of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry

    2012-07-01

    Cross sections of {sup 225}Ac, {sup 227}Ac, {sup 227}Th and {sup 228}Th in thorium-232 targets irradiated with protons in the energy range 21-141 MeV have been measured. Based on these data, production yields of {sup 225}Ac and {sup 223}Ra in thick thorium targets have been calculated. It is possible to produce in proton energy range 60-140 MeV about 96 GBq (2.6 Ci) {sup 225}Ac per 10-d irradiation with 100 {mu}A proton beam current and 10-d decay, and much higher amount of {sup 223}Ra. The impurities of {sup 227}Ac and {sup 224}Ra are important and need to be assessed for further medical applications. (orig.)

  16. Determination of {sup 228}Th, {sup 232}Th, and{sup 228}Ra in wild mushroom from a naturally high radioactive region in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Mychelle M.L.; Taddei, Maria Helena T.; Silva, Marco A.; Ferreira, Marcelo T., E-mail: mychelle@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: mhtaddei@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: masilva@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: ferreira@cnen.gov.b [Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Lab. of Pocos de Caldas; Maihara, Vera A., E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.gov.b [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Mushrooms are fungi which efficiently accumulate radionuclides, as verified by radiochemistry analyses of specimens collected in contaminated areas, specifically after the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Many studies have demonstrated that mushrooms can be used in monitoring of ecosystem contamination and quality. The present paper is part of a broader study conducted in the Pocos de Caldas plateau region in Minas Gerais, Brazil, investigating assimilation of natural Uranium and Thorium radionuclide series by mushrooms. This region has elevated natural radioactivity due to the presence of radiological anomalies of volcanic origin. These anomalies are ore bodies containing Uranium and Thorium, the later being highly predominant. Many researchers have been conducted concerning radionuclide incorporation by agricultural products on the plateau. The present paper aims to determine {sup 232}Th, {sup 228}Th, and {sup 228}Ra radionuclides in wild mushrooms collected at different locations in the plateau region. {sup 228}Ra was determined by radiochemical separation using sulphate coprecipitation followed by beta radiometry. {sup 232}Th and {sup 228}Th were determined using anion exchange resin purification followed by alpha spectrometry. Higher values were obtained to {sup 228}Th than to {sup 232}Th. This is due to higher {sup 228}Ra mobility, which decays to {sup 228}Th. The accuracy of the analytical methods employed was evaluated using the reference sample IAEA Soil 327. These methods had high chemical recovery and high sensitivity. It was possible to confirm that mushrooms accumulate radionuclide and so can be used in environmental contamination and quality assessment. (author)

  17. An implanted $^{228}$Ra source for response characterization of bolometers

    CERN Multimedia

    TeO$_{2}$ crystals are used as bolometers in experiments searching for $\\beta-\\beta$- decay without emission of neutrinos. One of the most important issues in this extremely delicate kind of experiments is the discrimination of the background from the real signal. A deep knowledge of the bolometric response to $\\alpha$-particles is therefore needed to recognize and discard them, since it has been proven that $\\alpha$-contamination could be a major contribution in our background budget. We would like to use ISOLDE’s capability of implanting $^{228}$Ra to make a long-lived source feeding several monochromatic $\\alpha$- and recoiling nuclei, with little or no $\\alpha$-peak broadening due to the source itself, for tests of our detectors in Milano and Gran Sasso INFN National Lab

  18. 48 CFR 1852.228-70 - Aircraft ground and flight risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Aircraft ground and flight risk. 1852.228-70 Section 1852.228-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND..., vertical take-off aircraft, lighter-than-air airships, or other nonconventional types of aircraft,...

  19. 48 CFR 252.228-7006 - Compliance with Spanish laws and insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compliance with Spanish... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.228-7006 Compliance with Spanish laws and insurance. As prescribed at 228.370(e), use the following clause: Compliance with Spanish Laws and Insurance (DEC 1998)...

  20. 36 CFR 228.106 - Operator's submission of surface use plan of operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... supplemental plan of operations is submitted. The supplemental plan of operations need only address those... surface use plan of operations. 228.106 Section 228.106 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE....106 Operator's submission of surface use plan of operations. (a) General. No permit to drill on...

  1. 24 CFR 1000.228 - If HUD changes its IHP format will Indian tribes be involved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false If HUD changes its IHP format will Indian tribes be involved? 1000.228 Section 1000.228 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  2. 49 CFR 1544.228 - Access to cargo and cargo screening: Security threat assessments for cargo personnel in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... threat assessments for cargo personnel in the United States. 1544.228 Section 1544.228 Transportation... COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Operations § 1544.228 Access to cargo and cargo screening: Security threat assessments... paragraph (b) of this section— (1) Each individual must successfully complete a security threat...

  3. Daily intake of /sup 234,235,238/U, /sup 228,230,232/Th and /sup 226,228/Ra by New York City residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The daily intake of long-lived alpha-emitting members of the U, Th and Ac series by New York City residents has been estimated from measurements of diet, water and air samples. The total daily intakes from inhalation, food and water consumption in mBq are 18 (234U), 0.7 (235U), 16 (238U), 6 (230Th), 4 (232Th) and 52 (226Ra). From this, we infer that the total daily intakes of 228Th and 228Ra are 4 and 35 mBq, respectively

  4. Gamma spectrometry used for analysis of {sup 228}Ra in water; Utilizacao de espectrometria gama para analise de {sup 228} Ra nas aguas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancini, Luis Henrique [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Petrologia e Metalogenia

    1998-07-01

    A methodology for determination of the natural isotope {sup 228}Ra in water by using the characterization of the underground and superficial waters from thorium an rare earths mineralization at Morro do Ferro, Pocos de Caldas, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The values determined for the {sup 228}Ra in water from 5 logging holes ranged from 0.5 to 391.2 pCi/l and the superficial waters presented a variation of 1.0 to 13.9 pCi/l.

  5. 29 CFR 779.228 - Types of arrangements contemplated by exception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.228 Types of arrangements... section 3(s) would not otherwise apply: (a) Any arrangement, whether by agreement, franchise or...

  6. 226Ra and 228Ra in the Seawater of the Western Yellow Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEN Wu; WEI Hao; LIU Guangshan

    2006-01-01

    Radium isotopes 226Ra and 228Ra in seawater of the western Yellow Sea were measured by using the Mn-fiber adsorption- HPGe γ spectrum method.The distribution features of the two isotopes have been studied.The activities of 226Ra and 228Ra are 2.72-5.57 Bq m-3 and 7.51-34.3 Bq m-3, respectively.The activities of 226Ra and 228Ra from surface to bottom for each depth profile station are comparable within the experimental error, but the mean activities decrease with distance from the shore.From the distribution data of 228Ra, the horizontal eddy diffusion coefficient was estimated at 29 × 106 cm2 s 1.

  7. Normal dietary levels of 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb, and 210Po for man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the literature and the results of some recent measurements were presented on the levels in man's diet of the naturally-occurring radionuclides 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb, and 210Po. The mean intakes for standard U.S. diets for these nuclides are tabulated. Intakes in other countries are similar to those in the U.S., but in localized populations the 226Ra intake may be 8 or more pCi/day. The contents of 226Ra in diets chosen by individuals ranged from 0.4 to 7 pCi/day. The few data on 228Ra show intake of this nuclide to be about 80% that of 226Ra, except in monazite areas where intakes of up to 160 pCi/day 228Ra are reported, which may be 50 to 100 times that of 226Ra. Drinking water contributes less than 5% of the daily intake, except in special areas

  8. Absence of {sup 232,230,228}Th enhancement decay by ultrasound exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aupiais, J. [CEA DAM DIF, Arpajon (France); Cousin, V.; Nikitenko, S.I.; Pflieger, R. [Marcoule Institute for Separation Chemistry, ICSM, UMR 5257, Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Moisy, P. [CEA, Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France). RadioChemistry and Processes Dept.

    2013-08-01

    We report on our attempt to reproduce the {sup 228}Th decay enhancement under the effect of power ultrasound claimed recently in the literature. The evolution of natural thorium isotopic composition ({sup 232}Th, {sup 230}Th, and {sup 228}Th) in various aqueous solutions submitted to 20 kHz power ultrasound (0.18 W mL{sup -1}, 20 C, Ar). The radioactivities of the three isotopes of thorium ({sup 232}Th, {sup 230}Th and {sup 228}Th) were followed by a liquid scintillation counting technique. No change was detected during ultrasonic irradiation. Our results demonstrate that under the studied conditions the rate of Th isotopes radioactive decay is not modified under the effect of ultrasound on aqueous solutions of thorium salts. (orig.)

  9. Measurement of the thorium-228 activity in solutions cavitated by ultrasonic sound

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, R; Vazquez-Jauregui, E

    2009-01-01

    We show that cavitation of a solution of thorium-228 in water does not induce its transformation at a faster rate than the natural radioactive decay. We measured the activity of a thorium-228 solution in water before, and after, it was subjected to a cavitation at 44 kHz and $250 $W for 90 minutes in order to observe any change in the thorium half-life. The results were compared to the original activity of the sample and we observed no change. Our results and conclusions conflict with those in a recent paper by F. Cardone et. al. [Phys. Lett. A 373 (2009) 1956-1958].

  10. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 228 - Guidelines for Clean, Safe, and Sanitary Railroad Provided Camp Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Guidelines for Clean, Safe, and Sanitary Railroad... EMPLOYEES Pt. 228, App. C Appendix C to Part 228—Guidelines for Clean, Safe, and Sanitary Railroad Provided..., medical services, dressing, showering, toilet use, washing, and eating. (g) Potable water means water...

  11. 49 CFR 228.103 - Approval procedure: construction within one-half mile (2,640 feet) (804 meters).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... mile (2,640 feet) (804 meters). 228.103 Section 228.103 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... within one-half mile (2,640 feet) (804 meters). (a) A common carrier that has developed plans for the... less than one-half mile (2,640 feet) (804 meters) from any area where switching or humping...

  12. UAS Integration in the NAS Project Overview: RTCA SC-228 Plenary DAA Working Group 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Debra K.

    2014-01-01

    The presentation is intended to allow the public to know and understand NASA's plans for integrated test to allow them the opportunity to provide feedback and suggestions. The integrated testing will support verification and validation of the RTCA SC-228 UAS minimum operation performance standard requirements.

  13. 19 CFR 10.228 - Additional requirements for preferential treatment of brassieres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... articles that meet the description in § 10.223(a)(6) buys for the U.S., Canadian and Mexican markets; the...: _____ 2. Identity of preparer (producer or entity controlling production): Full name and address... percent (or 85 percent, if applicable under 19 CFR 10.228(b)(1)(ii)) of the aggregate declared...

  14. 48 CFR 1252.228-71 - Fair market value of aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....228-71 Fair market value of aircraft. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1228.306-70(a) and (c), insert the following clause: Fair Market Value of Aircraft (OCT 1994) For purposes of the clause entitled “Loss of or... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fair market value...

  15. 48 CFR 3052.228-92 - Fair market value of aircraft (USCG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fair market value of... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 3052.228-92 Fair market value of aircraft (USCG). As prescribed in USCG guidance at (HSAR) 48 CFR 3028.306-90(a) and (c), insert the...

  16. Development of a low neutron emission 228Th source for the calibration of GERDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GERDA (GERmanium Detector Array) is a very-low background experiment under construction at LNGS (Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, 3400 m.w.e.) in Italy. It is designed to search for the neutrinoless double-β decay using an array of enriched 76Ge detectors. A limit of T1/2=15.1025 y in Phase II of GERDA can be achieved by limiting the background rate to B ≤ 1.10-3 cts/(keV.kg.y). This requires a good understanding and suppression of the background produced by cosmic rays and natural radioactivity. Furthermore neutrons from spontaneous fission and (α,n) reactions in adjacent materials can contribute considerably to the background rate. 228Th has been established as a good calibration source candidate for GERDA due to its γ-emission in the region of interest around Qββ=2.04 MeV. The calibration setup requires that the 228Th source is permanently installed in the setup during data taking in a parking position at 3.5 m above the germanium detector array. Monte Carlo simulations have shown that the γ-background from the calibration source located in its parking position can be suppressed by a Ta absorber. This work investigates the significance of the neutron background induced by (α,n) reactions within the intrinsic components of a commercialy available 228Th calibration source. Furthermore a new type of a 228Th source has been developed in order to reduce the n-rate approximately by two orders of magnitude compared to a commercial 228Th source.

  17. Effects of Pseudoalteromonas sp. BC228 on digestive enzyme activity and immune response of juvenile sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuexin; Sun, Feixue; Zhang, Congyao; Bao, Pengyun; Cao, Shuqing; Zhang, Meiyan

    2014-12-01

    A marine bacterium, Pseudoalteromonas sp. BC228 was supplemented to feed in a feeding experiment aiming to determine its ability of enhancing the digestive enzyme activity and immune response of juvenile Apostichopus japonicus. Sea cucumber individuals were fed with the diets containing 0 (control), 105, 107 and 109 CFU g-1 diet of BC228 for 45 days. Results showed that intestinal trypsin and lipase activities were significantly enhanced by 107 and 109 CFU g-1 diet of BC228 in comparison with control ( P < 0.01). The phagocytic activity in the coelomocytes of sea cucumber fed the diet supplemented with 107 CFU g-1 diet of BC228 was significantly higher than that of those fed control diet ( P < 0.05). In addition, 105 and 107 CFU g-1 diet of BC228 significantly enhanced lysozyme and phenoloxidase activities in the coelomic fluid of sea cucumber, respectively, in comparison with other diets ( P < 0.01). Sea cucumbers, 10 each diet, were challenged with Vibrio splendidus NB13 after 45 days of feeding. It was found that the cumulative incidence and mortality of sea cucumber fed with BC228 containing diets were lower than those of animals fed control diet. Our findings evidenced that BC228 supplemented in diets improved the digestive enzyme activity of juvenile sea cucumber, stimulated its immune response and enhanced its resistance to the infection of V. splendidus.

  18. Determination of 232Th, 230Th and 228Th in liquid effluents from uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A liquid scintillator αlpha spectrometer was built for the determination of Th-228, Th-230 and Th-232 in liquid effluents from Uranium mines and mills. The resolution of the αlpha spectrometer was found to be 200-300 KeV, when the scintillator was 8% T0P0, 0,77% scintimix-4 (91% PP0 and 9% Dimetil-P0P0P) and 10% of naphthalene in toluene. Aliquat-336 in xylene (30% v/v) was used to separate the thorium isotopes from other interfering radionuclides (U-238, U-234, Ra-226, Po-210). Under the extraction experimental conditions, the detection limits were 1,2 pCi/1 for Th-232, 1,2 pCi/1 for Th-230 and 0,9 pCi/1 for Th-228, for 1000 minutes of counting time. (author)

  19. THE REMOVAL OF REACTIVE RED 228 DYE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY CHITOSAN-MODIFIED FLAX SHIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Feng; Jian Li; Lijuan Wang

    2011-01-01

    Flax shive (FS) is a byproduct from flax fiber separation. The use of absorbent prepared from chitosan-modified flax shive (CFS) has been studied for removal of reactive red dye (RR228) from aqueous solutions. CFS was characterized by the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometry (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A batch adsorption study was conducted under various contact time, initial concentration, sol...

  20. 22.8 GHz Substrate Integrated Waveguide Analog Frequency Divide-by-3 Circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiadis, Apostolos; Collado, Ana; Niotaki, Kyriaki

    2015-01-01

    A 22.8 GHz analog frequency divide-by-3 circuit is presented based on an injection locked oscillator. Substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) technology is used to implement the input and output sections of the frequency divider circuit. The input SIW section at the gate of the active device permits the introduction of the injection signal at the third harmonic frequency of the oscillator, while the output section is designed to maximize the DC-RF conversion efficiency of the oscillator circuit....

  1. Study for 228Th reduction in thermal reactor with Th-U fuel cycls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    By using computercode WIMS/CENDL, the effects of some parameters, core configuration such as fuel element structure, neutron flux and burn-up, are discussed in thispaper.It is shown that high neutron flux, small fuel rod diameter,large volume ratio of coolant to fuel, seed-blank heterogeneous corearrangement and 231Pa chemical separation are necessary for reducing 228Th production in reactor.

  2. Development of sequential analytical method for the determination of U-238, U-234, Th-232, Th-230, Th-228, Ra-226 and Ra-228 and its application in mineral waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sequential analytical method for the determination of U-238, U-234, Th-232, Th-230, Th-228, Ra-226 and Ra-228 in environmental samples and applied to the analysis of mineral waters is studied. Thorium isotopes are coprecipitated with lanthanium fluoride before counting in alpha spectrometer, the uranium isotopes are determined by alpha spectrometry following extraction with TOPO onto a polymenic membrane. Radium-226 is determined with the radom emanation technique. (M.J.C.)

  3. Development of an analytical method for the determination of U-238, U-234, Th-232, Th-230, Th-228, Ra-228, Ra-226, Pb-210 and Po-210 and its application on environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison between the environmental impact by nuclear facilities with the burden suffered from natural radioactivity calls for studying the long-lived radionuclides of the U-238 and Th-232 decay series U-238, U-234, Th-232, Th-230, Th-228, Ra-228, Ra-226, Pb-210 and Po-210. This work describes the development of a fast isotope dilution analysis method allowing to separate with one sample solution U, Th, Ra, Pb and Po both from each other and, at the same time, from the matrix. To test its applicability, the method was used with samples consisting of soil, sediments, plants, water, carbon and air dust filter. The detection limit for the chemical yield attained of approx. 70% was 0.27 mBq per sample for Th-232, Th-230, Th-228, U-238, U-234 and Po-210. The detection limit for Pb-210 was 10 mBq per sample. On account of the influence by Ra-226 in the Ra-228 measurement and vice versa the detection limit is a function of the Ra-226 and Ra-228 concentrations, respectively, in the sample. The detection limits for the pure nuclides are 0.9 mBq per sample and 10 mBq per sample, respectively, for Ra-226 and Ra-228. (orig./HP)

  4. Normal dietary levels of radium-226, radium-228, lead-210, and polonium-210 for man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the literature and the results of some recent measurements on the levels in man's diet of the naturally occurring radionuclides 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb, and 210Po are presented. Intakes in other countries are similar to those in the United States, but in localized populations the 226Ra intake can be 8 or more pCi/day. The few data on 228Ra show that intake of this nuclide is about 80% that of 226Ra except in monazite areas where intakes of up to 160 pCi 228Ra/day are reported. Drinking water contributes less than 5% to daily intake except in special areas. For 210Pb, higher levels have been noted for Germany and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics than for the United States. Persons in the Arctic who consume reindeer or caribou meat may ingest 210Pb at the rate of 10 to 40 pCi/day. Normal dietary levels of 210Po are about 20 to 30% higher than those of 210Pb, except in the Arctic. The levels of these nuclides in classes of foods are compared to show that the higher levels observed in certain diets are due to the levels in particular foods. Because of the high levels of 210Pb intake in Japan, total skeletal dose rates in that country are estimated to be more than twice those in the United States. The use of dietary intake for estimating metabolic parameters, such as intestinal absorption of 226Ra and 210Pb, is discussed

  5. Migration of {sup 226} Ra, {sup 228} Ra, {sup 210} Pb, U and Th from phosphogypsum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Nivaldo Carlos da; Cipriani, Moacir; Taddei, Maria Helena T. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de Nadai [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    The physico-chemical availability of radioactive elements ({sup 210} Pb, {sup 226} Ra, {sup 228} Ra, Th and U) in Brazilian phosphogypsum was investigated in a large scale leaching experiment carried out in lysimeters, using phosphogypsum samples (approximately 1.2 tons) from two phosphoric acid industries. Lysimeters were built using cylindrical concrete containers with 0.9 m inner diameter and 2 m depth. The bottom of the lysimeter was filled with a 10 cm layer of gravel covered with geomembrane sheet. Under this layer a pipe was designed to drain the percolated water. Three lysimeters were filled with phosphogypsum from each industry and a mixture of both. As percolated water comes exclusively from the rain, sample was collected daily when available. Samples were then pooled weekly, carefully prepared and submitted to radiochemical analysis. Radiochemical characterization of phosphogypsum and percolated water was performed by radiochemical separation followed by gross alpha and beta counting ({sup 226} Ra, {sup 228} Ra and {sup 210} Pb) and UV-Vis spectrophotometry with Arsenazo III (U and Th). This experiment was carried out from 12/01/1999 to 01/22/2001, with a precipitation of 2,732 mm. It was observed that approximately 40% (534 L) of the rain fall percolated through the lysimeter 1. The analysis of 22 samples of percolated water from lysimeter 1 showed mean radionuclides activities of 70{+-}30 mBqL{sup -1}, 70{+-}50 mBqL{sup -1}, 100{+-}60 mBqL{sup -1} and 110{+-}55 mBqL{sup -1} for U, {sup 226} Ra, {sup 228} Ra and {sup 210} Pb, respectively. Thorium activities were below detection limit. (author)

  6. Distribution of Th-230 and Th-228 in foods(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hee Dong; Kim, Wan; Lim, S. K.; Lee, S. A.; Choi, M. S.; Zheng, Y. C. [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Do Sung [Daegu Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    Natural radioisotopes contained in foods can enter the human body by ingestion and contribute to internal doses to the population. It is necessary to measure the concentration of natural radioisotopes especially thorium in Korean foods and estimate the internal doses. In this study, we have established the thorium measuring process based on the thorium extraction chemical process and alpha spectroscopic method. The concentration of Th-228, Th-230 and Th-232 in Korean vegetables (potato, sweet potato, radish, cabbage, hot pepper, garlic, onion and pumpkin) and fruits(apple, persimmon, orange, pear, grape) are measured and their internal doses are estimated.

  7. The cross-shelf exchange of surface nutrients in the Bering Sea elucidated from 228Ra tracer%白令海表层营养盐水平输送的镭-228示踪

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢娜; 陈敏; 黄奕普; 邱雨生

    2011-01-01

    Surface water in the Bering Sea was collected in July—September 1999 for 22BRa measurements and used as a tracer for the cross-shelf exchange of nutrients. The specific activity of surface 2eBRa ranges from below detection to 0.81 Bq/m3 , which is lower than that reported in the western shelves of the Arctic Ocean. The spatial distribution of 228 Ra and 228 Ra/226 Ra)A. R. shows an increase from the central basin to the northeastern shelf. The relationship between 228Ra/226 Ra)A.R. and salinity indicates the influence of the Bering gyre, the Bering Slope Current and the Alaska Coastal Current on 228Ra and 228Ra/226Ra)A.R. Based on a one-dimensional steady state model of 228Ra, the horizontal eddy diffusion coefficient in study areas was calculated to be 1.9 × 108 m2/d. The horizontal exchange fluxes of nutrients from the central basin to the northeastern shelf were estimated by combining the horizontal eddy diffusion coefficient and the spatial gradients of nutrients. The surface horizontal input of nitrate to the northeastern shelf only contributed a small fraction to the new production in the northeastern Bering Sea shelf waters, indicating the importance of other nutrient input pathways in supporting new production on the northeastern Bering shelf.%对白令海表层海水228 Ra的分析表明,白令海表层海水228Ra比活度从低于检测限变化至0.81 Bq/m3,低于西北冰洋陆架区的报道值.表层水228Ra比活度和228Ra/226Ra)A.R.的空间分布均呈现由西南部中心海盆向东北部陆架区增加的趋势.由228Ra/226Ra)A.R.和盐度的关系揭示出白令海环流、白令海陆坡流和阿拉斯加沿岸流对228Ra和228Ra/226Ra)A.R.分布有明显影响.运用一维稳态扩散模型计算出白令海由中心海盆向东北部陆架方向上水体混合的水平涡动扩散系数为1.9 ×108m2/d.结合海盆-陆架界面营养盐的水平浓度梯度,估算得硝酸盐、活性磷酸盐和活性硅酸盐由白令海中心海盆

  8. 减重手术228例术后并发症分析%Postoperative complications of bariatric surgery:An analysis of 228 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于一凡; 王勇; 刘金钢

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical complications of bariatric surgery and treatment methods. Methods The clinical data of 228 patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes underwent bariatric surgeries between January 2010 and January 2015 in Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University including laparoscopic gastric bypass,sleeve gastrectomy and banding surgery were analyzed retrospectively. The complications were summarized. Results One hundred and forty three cases of laparoscopic gastric bypass included 2 cases of anastomotic ulcer and bleeding,1 case of anastomotic stenosis,2 cases of malnutrition,1 case of pleural effusion,1 case of intestinal twist. In 77 cases of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy,there were 2 cases of postoperative continuous reflux vomiting,1 case of fistula. In 8 cases of laparoscopic banding surgery,there was 1 case of gastric banding withdrawn. Conclusion Postoperative complication rate of bariatric surgeries is relatively low, and the prognosis was good after active treatment.%目的:探讨减重手术的并发症及其处理方法。方法回顾分析中国医科大学附属盛京医院2010年1月至2015年1月行减重手术治疗单纯肥胖或肥胖合并2型糖尿病病人228例临床资料,术式包括腹腔镜胃旁路术、袖状胃切除术、胃束带术,总结并分析其并发症情况。结果腹腔镜胃旁路术143例,其中发生吻合口溃疡并出血2例,吻合口狭窄1例,营养不良2例,胸腔积液1例,腹腔小肠扭转1例;腹腔镜袖状胃切除术77例,术后发生持续反流呕吐2例,残留漏1例;腹腔镜胃束带术8例,取出胃束带1例。结论减重手术术后并发症发生率相对较低,且经积极处理后预后均较好。

  9. Surface water mixing estimated from {sup 228}Ra and {sup 226}Ra in the northwestern North Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, Hajime [Mutsu Institute for Oceanography, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, 690 Aza-kitasekine Oaza-sekine, Mutsu, Aomori 035-0022 (Japan)], E-mail: kawakami@jamstec.go.jp; Kusakabe, Masashi [Department of Ocean Research, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, 2-15 Natsushimacho, Yokosuka 237-0061 (Japan)], E-mail: masashi@nirs.go.jp

    2008-08-15

    We investigated the horizontal distributions of {sup 228}Ra and {sup 226}Ra in surface waters of the northwestern North Pacific Ocean and Okhotsk Sea. Ratios of {sup 228}Ra/{sup 226}Ra were relatively large in the Tsugaru Current (0.6-0.8) and Okhotsk Sea (0.4-0.5), and small in the Western Subarctic Gyre (<0.2) and the Oyashio (0.25-0.3). {sup 228}Ra/{sup 226}Ra ratios in western Subarctic Water (SAW) rose slightly upon mixing with Okhotsk Water (OKW), before becoming the Oyashio Water (OYW). Also, ratios in the OYW increased during mixing with Tsugaru Current Water (TCW). Estimating from {sup 228}Ra/{sup 226}Ra ratios and {sup 226}Ra activities with a simple two-end members-mixing model, we assumed that approximately 23% of the OYW originated from the OKW and the coastal region off northern Honshu (Japan) was strongly influenced by the TCW. From a diagram of {sup 228}Ra activities against salinity, we could roughly divide surface seawater in the study area into the five water masses, which were SAW, OYW, OKW, TCW, and Subtropical Water (STW)

  10. DISTRIBUITION OF 226Ra AND 228Ra IN UNDERGROUND WATER INTO THE SOUTH REGION OF SAO PAULO STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARVALHO DE JESUS, Sueli; CHIRINOS, Hugo;

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Monitor of natural radionuclides in aquatic raw is very important to guaranty the normal control level inthe environmental medium and the human. In this report were available the concentration of 226Ra and 228Ra inCananeia’s underground water, Iguape and Comprida Island into the south region of Sao Paulo state, by grossalpha and beta counting method. The concentration of 226Ra was variety into the interval 0.80 to 23 mBqL-1 inApril/2009 (rain period and into the interval 0.63 to 12 mBqL -1in August/2009 (dried period. The concentrationof 228Ra was variety into the interval 18 to 39 mBqL-1 in April/2009 and into the interval 15 to 72 mBqL-1 inAugust/2009. The Activities ratio of 228Ra/226Ra was variety into the interval 3.3 to 31.7 at rain period and 1.1 to26.7 at dried period. To compare the yield values of 226Ra and 228Ra these show high activity of the 228Raisotope. The calculate dose no arising the reference of effective dose level available by WHO.

  11. Production and characterization of 228Th calibration sources with low neutron emission for GERDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudis, L.; Benato, G.; Carconi, P.; Cattadori, C.; De Felice, P.; Eberhardt, K.; Eichler, R.; Petrucci, A.; Tarka, M.; Walter, M.

    2015-12-01

    The GERDA experiment at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) searches for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge. In view of the GERDA Phase II data collection, four new 228Th radioactive sources for the calibration of the germanium detectors enriched in 76Ge have been produced with a new technique, leading to a reduced neutron emission rate from (α, n) reactions. The gamma activities of the sources were determined with a total uncertainty of ~4% using an ultra-low background HPGe detector operated underground at LNGS. The neutron emission rate was determined using a low background LiI(Eu) detector and a 3He counter at LNGS. In both cases, the measured neutron activity is ~10-6 n/(sṡBq), with a reduction of about one order of magnitude with respect to commercially available 228Th sources. Additionally, a specific leak test with a sensitivity to leaks down to ~10 mBq was developed to investigate the tightness of the stainless steel capsules housing the sources after their use in cryogenic environment.

  12. Production and characterization of 228Th calibration sources with low neutron emission for GERDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GERDA experiment at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) searches for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge. In view of the GERDA Phase II data collection, four new 228Th radioactive sources for the calibration of the germanium detectors enriched in 76Ge have been produced with a new technique, leading to a reduced neutron emission rate from (α, n) reactions. The gamma activities of the sources were determined with a total uncertainty of ∼4% using an ultra-low background HPGe detector operated underground at LNGS. The neutron emission rate was determined using a low background LiI(Eu) detector and a 3He counter at LNGS. In both cases, the measured neutron activity is ∼10−6 n/(s⋅Bq), with a reduction of about one order of magnitude with respect to commercially available 228Th sources. Additionally, a specific leak test with a sensitivity to leaks down to ∼10 mBq was developed to investigate the tightness of the stainless steel capsules housing the sources after their use in cryogenic environment

  13. THE REMOVAL OF REACTIVE RED 228 DYE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY CHITOSAN-MODIFIED FLAX SHIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Feng,

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Flax shive (FS is a byproduct from flax fiber separation. The use of absorbent prepared from chitosan-modified flax shive (CFS has been studied for removal of reactive red dye (RR228 from aqueous solutions. CFS was characterized by the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET method, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometry (FTIR, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. A batch adsorption study was conducted under various contact time, initial concentration, solution pH, and adsorbent dosage. It was found that the BET and Langmuir surface area of CFS were 1.772 m2 g-1 and 3.057 m2 g-1, respectively. Results showed that CFS has the same pores as FS and that the –NH2 group on CFS is the main adsorption site for dye sorption. Equilibrium adsorption capacity could be reached within 480 min, and RR228 uptake was satisfactory at a pH of 2.0. The percentage removal were 100%, 100%, 90%, and 85% at pH 2.0 under dye concentrations of 10 mg/L, 20 mg/L, 30 mg/L, and 40 mg/L, respectively. The adsorption accurately fitted a pseudo-second-order kinetic model and a Langmuir isotherm model. It is proposed that CFS could be applied as a low-cost absorbent in removal of dyes from wastewater.

  14. Production and Characterization of 228Th Calibration Sources with Low Neutron Emission for GERDA

    CERN Document Server

    Baudis, Laura; Carconi, Pierluigi; Cattadori, Carla Maria; De Felice, Pierino; Eberhardt, Klaus; Eichler, Robert; Petrucci, Andrea; Tarka, Michal; Walter, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The GERDA experiment at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) searches for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76-Ge. In view of the GERDA Phase II data collection, four new 228-Th radioactive sources for the calibration of the germanium detectors enriched in 76-Ge have been produced with a new technique, leading to a reduced neutron flux from ( alpha; n ) reactions. The gamma activities of the sources were determined with a total uncertainty of 4 percent using an ultra-low background HPGe detector operated underground at LNGS. The emitted neutron flux was determined using a low background LiI(Eu) detector and a 3-He counter at LNGS. In both cases, a reduction of about one order of magnitude with respect to commercially available 228-Th sources was obtained. Additionally, a specific leak test with a sensitivity to leaks down to 10 mBq was developed to investigate the tightness of the stainless steel capsules housing the sources after their use in cryogenic environment.

  15. The Stealthy Superbug: the Role of Asymptomatic Enteric Carriage in Maintaining a Long-Term Hospital Outbreak of ST228 Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Senn, Laurence; Clerc, Olivier; Zanetti, Giorgio; Basset, Patrick; Prod’Hom, Guy; Gordon, Nicola C.; Sheppard, Anna E.; Crook, Derrick W; James, Richard; Thorpe, Harry A.; Feil, Edward J.; Blanc, Dominique S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of 228 isolates was used to elucidate the origin and dynamics of a long-term outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) sequence type 228 (ST228) SCCmec I that involved 1,600 patients in a tertiary care hospital between 2008 and 2012. Combining of the sequence data with detailed metadata on patient admission and movement confirmed that the outbreak was due to the transmission of a single clonal variant of ST228, rather than repeated i...

  16. The Stealthy Superbug: The role of asymptomatic enteric carriage in maintaining a long-term hospital outbreak of ST228 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    OpenAIRE

    Senn, L; Clerc, O; Zanetti, G; Basset, P.; Prod'hom, G.; Gordon, NC; Sheppard, AE; Crook, DW; JAMES, R; Thorpe, HA; Feil, EJ; Blanc, DS

    2016-01-01

    Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of 228 isolates was used to elucidate the origin and dynamics of a long-term outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) sequence type 228 (ST228) SCCmec I that involved 1,600 patients in a tertiary care hospital between 2008 and 2012. Combining of the sequence data with detailed metadata on patient admission and movement confirmed that the outbreak was due to the transmission of a single clonal variant of ST228, rather than repeated introductio...

  17. Concentration of natural radionuclides (40K, 228Ra and 226Ra) in vegetables and fruits collected around Kudankulam, South India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baseline activity concentration of the natural radio nuclides 40K, 228Ra and 226Ra in vegetables and fruits was determined around Kudankulam. In many of the samples, 228Ra and 226Ra was below minimum detection limit. 40K was found to be more in leafy vegetables followed by pods, tubers and fleshy fruits. The highest accumulator among the matrices was the leafy vegetables with the geometric mean of 189.47 Bq.kg-1 fresh for vegetables and fruits with the geometric mean of 128.95 Bq.kg-1 fresh. 228Ra activity in vegetables and fruits ranged from 0.074 to 1.153 and 0.074 to 0.131 Bq.kg-l fresh respectively. 226Ra in vegetables and fruits ranged from BDL to 0.07 and BDL-.044 Bq.kg-l fresh respectively. 40K in vegetables and fruits followed a log normal distribution. (author)

  18. An evaluation of 226Ra and 228Ra in drinking water in several counties in Texas, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) or Technology Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (TENORM) can be a potential health risk. It is now well known that the underlying geology in many parts of Texas has given rise to levels of 226Ra and 228Ra that often exceed the limits set by the US Environmental Protection Agency. A detailed literature search was undertaken to assess the levels of 226Ra and 228Ra in all of the Texas counties. Several statistical evaluations of the data were performed. The Hickory aquifer in the Llano Uplift region of Texas has consistently had the highest number of 226Ra and 228Ra concentrations above the legal limit. As well many of the affected rural communities may not have the financial resources to rectify the problem

  19. Novel Mutations L228I and Y232H Cause Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor Resistance in Combinational Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Qiwei; Wu, Hao; Lau, Terrence Chi-Kong; Liu, Xuan; Chu, Hin; Zhang, Ke; Zhou, Jie; Chen, Zhi-Wei; Jin, Dong-Yan; Zheng, Bo-Jian

    2016-09-01

    The emergence of drug resistance mutations is increasing after the implementation of highly active antiretroviral therapy. To characterize two novel mutations L228I and Y232H in the primer grip of reverse transcriptase (RT) of HIV-1 circulating recombination form 08_BC (CRF08_BC) subtype, both mutant clones were constructed to determine their impacts on viral phenotypic susceptibility and replication capacity (RC). Results showed that the novel mutation, L228I, conferred a low-level resistance to etravirine by itself. L228I in combination with Y188C displayed a high level of cross-resistance to both nevirapine (NVP) and efavirenz (EFV). The copresence of A139V and Y232H induced a moderate level of resistance to NVP and EFV. Mutations Y188C/L228I, A139V, Y232H, and A139V/Y232H reduced more than 55% of viral RC compared with that of the wild-type (WT) reference virus. Modeling study suggested that the copresence of Y188C/L228I or A139V/Y232H might induce conformational changes to RT, which might result in reduced drug susceptibility and viral RC due to abolished hydrogen bonding or complex interaction with vicinal residues. Our results demonstrated that L228I and Y232H were novel accessory nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance-related mutations and provided valuable information for clinicians to design more effective treatment to patients infected with HIV-1 subtype CRF08_BC. PMID:27067022

  20. Basis document for PFP plutonium nitrate ion exchange process in Room 228A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PFP facility currently has approximately 4300 liters of plutonium nitrate solution in storage. This material will be calcined by the Vertical Denigration Calciner (VDC) located in room 230C. However, part of the material needs to be purified to remove constituents that will interfere with the calcination process. An Ion Exchange process using Reillextrademark HPQ anion exchange resin was tested by the Plutonium Process Support Laboratories (PPSL) (I). The Ion exchange process is to be installed in glovebox HC-7 in room 228A/234-5Z. The plutonium separated from the interfering constituents will be in a concentrated condition ready to be calcined by the VDC in room 230C. The oxide product of the VDC will be placed into the 2736-Z vaults for long term storage

  1. Geochemical Speciation of Soil 7Be,137Cs,226Ra and 228Ra as Tracers to Particle Trnsport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BALZHANGUO; WANGUOJIANG; 等

    1997-01-01

    A brunisolic soil collected from an erosive forest land(HF-1-1) and a yellow soil from and accumulative shallow basin(HF-6-1) in the watershed of Lake Hongfeng (HF) were used for activity measurements of 7Be,137Cs,226Ra and 228Ra in different geochemical speciation.More than 85% of 7Be,137Cs,226Ra and 228Ra in the soils were bound to organic Fe-Mn oxy-hydroxide and residual fractions.They could move with soil particlesw and be used as tracers for the erosion and /or accumulation of soil particles.7Be gohemical specition in the soils agreed with its trace for seasonal particle transport.137Cs geohemial speciaiton was suitable for tracing soil particle accumulation and for sediment aating.226Ra and 228Ra were ombined in crystalline skeleton of clay minerals and mainly remained as residues in the soils and little was bound to the soluble,exchangeable and carbonate fractions.The differentiation of 226 Ra/228Ra activity ratios in different geoheical fractions in the soils could be used as a parameter to trace accumulation and /or erosion of soil particles.

  2. Medullospheres from DAOY, UW228 and ONS-76 cells: increased stem cell population and proteomic modifications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Zanini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Medulloblastoma (MB is an aggressive pediatric tumor of the Central Nervous System (CNS usually treated according to a refined risk stratification. The study of cancer stem cells (CSC in MB is a promising approach aimed at finding new treatment strategies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The CSC compartment was studied in three characterized MB cell lines (DAOY, UW228 and ONS-76 grown in standard adhesion as well as being grown as spheres, which enables expansion of the CSC population. MB cell lines, grown in adherence and as spheres, were subjected to morphologic analysis at the light and electron microscopic level, as well as cytofluorimetric determinations. Medullospheres (MBS were shown to express increasingly immature features, along with the stem cells markers: CD133, Nestin and β-catenin. Proteomic analysis highlighted the differences between MB cell lines, demonstrating a unique protein profile for each cell line, and minor differences when grown as spheres. In MBS, MALDI-TOF also identified some proteins, that have been linked to tumor progression and resistance, such as Nucleophosmin (NPM. In addition, immunocytochemistry detected Sox-2 as a stemness marker of MBS, as well as confirming high NPM expression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Culture conditioning based on low attachment flasks and specialized medium may provide new data on the staminal compartment of CNS tumors, although a proteomic profile of CSC is still elusive for MB.

  3. Can orthotic insoles prevent lower limb overuse injuries? A randomized-controlled trial of 228 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, V M; Sillanpää, P J; Salo, T; Laine, H-J; Mäenpää, H; Pihlajamäki, H

    2011-12-01

    Lower limb overuse injuries are common among people who are exposed to physical stress. Orthotic shoe insoles are widely used to prevent lower limb overuse injuries. Here, we conducted a randomized-controlled study to examine whether the use of orthotic insoles prevents lower limb overuse injuries. Participants (n=228) were randomly assigned to use (n=73) or not to use (n=147) orthotic insoles. The insoles were molded to the shape of the foot to provide support during physical activity. The main outcome measure in the present study was the physician-diagnosed lower limb overuse injury. Thirty-four (46.6%) subjects in the insole group were diagnosed with a lower limb overuse injury compared with 56 (38.1%) in the control group (P=0.29) during the 6-month study period. When body mass index and the results of a 12-min running test and muscle strength were adjusted in a Cox's regression model, the hazard ratio for lower limb overuse injury in the insole group was 1.3 (95% confidence intervals: 0.8-2.1) compared with the control group. Use of orthotic insoles was not associated with a decrease in lower limb overuse injuries. Our findings suggest that routine use of orthotic insoles does not prevent physical-stress-related lower limb injuries in healthy young male adults.

  4. Comparison of LECO FP-228 "nitrogen determinator" with AOAC copper catalyst Kjeldahl method for crude protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, R A; Rexroad, P R

    1987-01-01

    The LECO FP-228 "Nitrogen Determinator" was compared with the AOAC copper catalyst Kjeldahl method, 7.033-7.037, for the determination of crude protein in feed materials. The completely microprocessor-controlled instrument determines nitrogen by measuring the nitrogen gas following combustion of the sample; it was easy to operate and broadly applicable. A wide variety of feed materials of various nitrogen levels were analyzed in one mixed sequence. Results were precise, accurate, and rapid. Analysis time for one sample was approximately 3 min. Fourteen samples containing 2.5-15.5% N were selected for study and consisted of meals, grains, forages, and standard organic materials. The overall mean for the 14 samples by the LECO combustion method was 8.61% N compared with an overall mean of 8.58% N for the AOAC Kjeldahl method. Within-sample standard deviations for the LECO combustion method ranged from 0.013 to 0.052% N with a pooled standard deviation (SD) of 0.033% N for the 14 samples. Standard deviations for the AOAC Kjeldahl method ranged from 0.006 to 0.035% N with a pooled SD of 0.022% N. Combined average recovery of nitrogen from tryptophan, lysine-HCl, and EDTA determined by the LECO combustion method was 99.94% compared to 99.88% determined by the AOAC Kjeldahl method.

  5. A missense mutation S228P in the CRYBB1 gene causes autosomal dominant congenital cataract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun; MA Xu; GU Feng; LIU Ning-pu; HAO Xiao-lin; WANG Kai-jie; WANG Ning-li; ZHU Si-quan

    2007-01-01

    Background Congenital cataract is a highly heterogeneous disorder at both the genetic and phenotypic levels. This study was conducted to identify disease locus for autosomal dominant congenital cataracts in a four generation Chinese family.Methods Family history and clinical data were recorded. All the members were genotyped with microsatellite markers which are close to the known genetic loci for autosomal congenital cataracts. Two-point Lod scores were obtained using the MLINK of the LINKAGE program package (ver 5.1). Candidate genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct cycle sequencing.Results The maximum Lod score of Zmax=2.11 was obtained with three microsatellite markers D22S258, D22S315,and D22S1163 at recombination fraction θ= 0. Haplotype analysis showed that the disease gene was localized to a 18.5 Mbp region on chromosome 22 flanked by markers D22S1174 and D22S270, spanning the β-crystallin gene cluster. A c.752T-->C mutation in exon 6 of CRYBB1 gene, which resulted in a heterozygous S228P mutation in predicted protein,was found to cosegregate with cataract in the family.Conclusions This study identified a novel mutation in CRYBB1 gene in a Chinese family with autosomal dominant congenital cataract. These results provide strong evidence that CRYBB1 is a pathogenic gene for congenital cataract.

  6. Study of viscosity on the fission dynamics of the excited nuclei 228U produced in 19F + 209Bi reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two-dimensional (2D) dynamical model based on Langevin equations was applied to study the fission dynamics of the compound nuclei 228U produced in 19F + 209Bi reactions at intermediate excitation energies. The distance between the centers of masses of the future fission fragments was used as the first dimension and the projection of the total spin of the compound nucleus onto the symmetry axis, K, was considered as the second dimension in Langevin dynamical calculations. The magnitude of post-saddle friction strength was inferred by fitting measured data on the average pre-scission neutron multiplicity for 228U. It was shown that the results of calculations are in good agreement with the experimental data by using values of the post-saddle friction equal to 6–8 × 1021s-1. (author)

  7. No structural change due to G228S substitution of haemagglutinin in emerging H6N1 influenza virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beuy; Joob; Viroj; Wiwanitkit

    2014-01-01

    To the editor,Sir,in later 2013,the newest emerging influenza infection is firstly reported from Taiwan[1,2].This newest cross species influeza is called H6N1 bird flu[1,2].Genetic mutation is believed to be the cause of cross species infection and the G228S substitution of haeniagglutinin is proposed for increasing the mutant affinity for the humanα2-6 linked sialic acid receptor[3].This mechanism is believed to

  8. Bioavailability of radionuclides 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb present in the brazilian phosphate fertilizers and phosphogypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphogypsum, also called gypsum, by-product of the phosphate fertilizer industry, can be used as soil conditioner since it provides improvements in the soil-plant system. However, this by-product concentrates radionuclides of the U and Th series, present in the phosphate rock used as raw material, which can impact the environment. In order to study the bioavailability of radionuclides, samples of phosphogypsum and phosphate fertilizers (monoammonium phosphate and triple superphosphate) were analyzed. The concentration of 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb were determined by gamma spectrometry. The samples were leached with a mild EDTA solution and the radionuclides present in the final solution were determined by total alpha and beta counting on a gas flow proportional counter. The percentage of extraction varied from 1.6% to 1.7% for 210Pb, from 0.5% to 1.4% for 226Ra and from 0.1% to 1.0% for the 228Ra in phosphogypsum samples. The low percentage of extraction obtained for the radionuclides can be partly explained by the low solubility of phosphogypsum, which ranged from 7.7% to 16%. For the monoammonium phosphate samples the percentage of extraction were less than 26% for 226Ra, less than 10% for '228Ra and less than 10% for 210Pb. In spite of the high solubility of 77% of monoammonium phosphate in the EDTA solution, low concentrations of radionuclides were observed in the leached solution. For the triple superphosphate samples, the percentage of extraction was 2.3% for 226Ra, 1.2% for 228Ra and 11.3% for 210Pb. In spite of the high solubility of 66% of triple superphosphate in the EDTA solution, low concentrations of radionuclides were observed in the leached solution. (author)

  9. Half-lives of long-lived isotopes of transactinium elements from 228Th to 257Fm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental measurements and critical evaluation results of the long-lived isotope half-decay periods of transactinium elements (from 228Th to 257Fm) are given on July 1981 to be published in open literature and related to the natural radioactive decay. From the massif of the known half-decay periods the most reliable data were selected, received or evaluated and recommended for practical use; the calculations of isotope specific activities were performed on this data. (author)

  10. Measurement of the Natural Content of Th228, Ra226 and their Daughters in the Human Body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of these investigations was the determination of both the content and the distribution of the alpha emitters radium-226, thorium-228 and polonium-210 in the human body. The content of radium-226 in human bones and soft tissues was determined by the emanation method, the content of polonium-210 by chemical enrichment followed by measuring the activity in a methane flow counter. The thorium-228 content as well as the total alpha activity was measured by means of a specially- developed scintillation method, the so-called mixing method. The content of radium-226 in human bones and organs related to the patient's age is performed in order to get information on the incorporation of this nuclide at continuous administration of extremely low amounts. As to bones and soft tissues the specific activity of radium-226 in man showed to be constant from the fourth month of pregnancy up to an age as high as 80 yr. The content of polonium-210 and lead-210 in femur and tibia bones was measured in order to determine the ratio of polonium-210 and lead-210 in the human skeleton of the living organism. This ratio is 0.8 on the average. The ratio of thorium-228 and radium-226 in human bone ashes is about 0.4. The age of the examined persons ranged from 5 to 70 yr. As a result of these investigations the human radiation burden caused by the radium-226, thorium-228 and polonium-210 content was estimated. (author)

  11. Determination of 226Ra, 224Ra, 223Ra and 228Ra in mineral water samples of the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Slovak Republic is very rich in mineral water sources. In recent years, it has been discovered that a number of mineral waters in the Slovak Republic contain high levels of 226Ra and 228Ra. Moreover, there is a lack of information on 224Ra and 223Ra concentrations in mineral waters as well. The currently approved techniques for alpha emitting radium isotopes are based on radon emanation methods. Due to the long ingrowth periods required by these techniques, any 224Ra and 223Ra in the sample decay away and go undetected. For this reason, we have used an alpha spectrometric method for the simultaneous determination of 226Ra, 223Ra and 224Ra. Radium was concentrated by a lead sulphate co-precipitation. The precipitate was dissolved in EDTA and the radium isotopes were separated from possible interfering radionuclides using barium sulphate micro precipitation. The radium-barium precipitate was filtered and counted by alpha spectrometry. 133Ba was used to quantify the yield by gamma spectrometry. In our laboratory, gamma spectrometry was also used for the determination of 228Ra in mineral water samples. Radium was concentrated by a lead-barium sulphate co-precipitation. 133Ba was used to quantify the yield, found to be 97 % on the average, by gamma spectrometry. Furthermore, the committed effective doses for 226Ra, 224Ra, 223Ra, 228Ra intake via ingestion of mineral waters for the members of public were calculated. (author)

  12. PF573,228 inhibits vascular tumor cell growth, migration as well as angiogenesis, induces apoptosis and abrogates PRAS40 and S6RP phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabeta, Peace

    2016-09-01

    PF573,228 is a compound that targets focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a non-receptor protein kinase, which is over-expressed in various tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of PF573,228 on the cells derived from mouse vascular tumors, namely, endothelioma cells. The treatment of endothelioma cells with PF573,228 reduced their growth with an IC50 of approximately 4.6 μmol L-1 and inhibited cell migration with an IC50 of about 0.01 μmol L-1. Microscopic studies revealed morphological attributes of apoptosis. These observations were confirmed by ELISA, which showed increased caspase-3 activity. PF573,228 also inhibited angiogenesis in a dose-dependent manner, with an IC50 of approximately 3.7 μmol L-1, and abrogated the phosphorylation of cell survival proteins, proline-rich Akt substrate (PRAS40) and S6 ribosomal protein (S6RP). Array data further revealed that PF573,228 induced caspase-3 activation, thus promoting apoptosis. Since all the processes inhibited by PF573,228 provide important support to tumor survival and progression, the drug may have a potential role in the treatment of vascular tumors. PMID:27383888

  13. A Procedure for the Rapid Determination of 226Ra and 228Ra in Drinking Water by Liquid Scintillation Counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 2004, the environment programme of the IAEA has included activities aimed at the development of a set of procedures for the determination of radionuclides in terrestrial environmental samples. Reliable, comparable and ‘fit for purpose’ results are essential requirements for any decision based on analytical measurements. For the analyst, tested and validated analytical procedures are extremely important tools for the production of such data. For maximum utility, such procedures should be comprehensive, clearly formulated and readily available to both the analyst and the customer. This publication describes a procedure for the rapid determination of 226Ra and 228Ra in drinking water. The determination of radium in drinking water is important for protecting human health, since the consumption of drinking water containing radium may lead to an accumulation in the body, contributing to the radiological dose. The method is based on the separation of 226Ra and 228Ra from interfering elements using PbSO4 and Ba(Ra)SO4 coprecipitation steps. The isotopes 226Ra and 228Ra are then determined by liquid scintillation counting. The procedure is expected to be of general use to a wide range of laboratories, including the laboratories of the Analytical Laboratories for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity (ALMERA) network, both in emergency situations and for routine environmental monitoring purposes. The method was established after an extensive review of papers from the scientific literature, and was tested and validated in terms of repeatability and trueness (relative bias) in accordance with International Organization for Standardization guidelines. Reproducibility tests were performed at expert laboratories. The calculation of massic activities, uncertainty budget, decision threshold and detection limit are also described

  14. Determination of Ra-224, Ra-226 and Ra-228 by gamma-ray spectrometry with radon retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The purpose of this work is to improve the determination, through gamma-ray spectrometry, of radium isotopes 228Ra, 226Ra and 224Ra in water. This improvement has been developed after the participation in the IAEA Proficiency test: 'Determination of radium and Uranium radionuclides in water' in December 2002, and applied to the same samples of this proficiency test. The aim of this new procedure is the determination of 228Ra, 226Ra and 224Ra activities by measuring the gamma-ray emissions of their decay products 228Ac, 214Pb and 212Pb, respectively. In the search for these activities, radiochemical separation of radium and lead are required. A coprecipitation method with stable barium and lead was carried out to obtain two different precipitates, both of them as sulphate. However emanation of unknown quantities of 222Rn and 220Rn is produced from the fine precipitate of the radium sulphate obtained which leads to wrong determinations of 224Ra and 226Ra activities. To avoid this radon exhalation effect the mentioned deposit, once the chemical yield has been calculated, is dissolved with EDTA and the resulting liquid incorporated into charcoal, and then it is dried and introduced into a suitable container. Afterwards the container is sealed and stored in a freezer. Different configurations of charcoal sizes and types as well as containers have been analysed. To perform this analysis several samples of those mentioned above containing 226Ra were used in order to test its equilibrium with the progeny, 214Pb and 214Bi, through gamma-ray spectrometry. The following results for contaminated samples with less than 50 Bq of 226Ra and using 30 ∼ 50 g of charcoal have been obtained: 1) There is a slight tendency to obtain better results using metallic containers rather than plastic ones 2) In general, specific activated charcoals, prepared to retain radon or noble gases allow better results than unspecific charcoals, but cannot be considered as better in a clear

  15. Development and evaluation of a technique for the determination of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra by liquid scintillation in biological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Paulo Cesar P.; Sousa, Wanderson O.; Dantas, Bernardo M.; Juliao, Ligia M.Q.C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: pcesar@ird.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    Radium isotopes are dispersed in the environment according to their physicochemical characteristics. Considering their long half-lives and radiological effects, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra are very important issues to radiological protection. In Brazil, radium isotopes represent an exposure problem both in the nuclear fuel cycle installations and in high natural radiation background areas. The experimental part of this work includes the development of a technique for the determination of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra by liquid scintillation in biological samples. Radium was concentrated and then separated from the others constituents of the sample by coprecipitation/ precipitation with Ba(Ra)SO{sub 4}. The precipitate was filtered and weighted to calculate the chemical yield. The filter containing the precipitate of Ba(Ra)SO{sub 4} was transferred to a scintillation vial. Two methods were used to prepare the sources. The first one consisted gel suspension and the second one, phases method. The solutions obtained were counted in a low background scintillation spectrometry system (Quantulus) suitable for the detection and identification of both alpha and beta particles for the determination of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra. The activity values of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra calculated by the two methods are in good agreement with the reference value indicating that both methods are suitable for the determination of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra. The values of minimum detectable activity (MDA) for the gel suspension method were 2.5 mBq.L{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra and 53 mBq.L{sup -1} for {sup 228}Ra and for the method of phases were 2.6 mBq.L{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra and 66 mBq.L{sup -1} for {sup 228}Ra. (author)

  16. Development and evaluation of a technique for the determination of 226Ra and 228Ra by liquid scintillation in biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radium isotopes are dispersed in the environment according to their physicochemical characteristics. Considering their long half-lives and radiological effects, 226Ra and 228Ra are very important issues to radiological protection. In Brazil, radium isotopes represent an exposure problem both in the nuclear fuel cycle installations and in high natural radiation background areas. The experimental part of this work includes the development of a technique for the determination of 226Ra and 228Ra by liquid scintillation in biological samples. Radium was concentrated and then separated from the others constituents of the sample by coprecipitation/ precipitation with Ba(Ra)SO4. The precipitate was filtered and weighted to calculate the chemical yield. The filter containing the precipitate of Ba(Ra)SO4 was transferred to a scintillation vial. Two methods were used to prepare the sources. The first one consisted gel suspension and the second one, phases method. The solutions obtained were counted in a low background scintillation spectrometry system (Quantulus) suitable for the detection and identification of both alpha and beta particles for the determination of 226Ra and 228Ra. The activity values of 226Ra and 228Ra calculated by the two methods are in good agreement with the reference value indicating that both methods are suitable for the determination of 226Ra and 228Ra. The values of minimum detectable activity (MDA) for the gel suspension method were 2.5 mBq.L-1 for 226Ra and 53 mBq.L-1 for 228Ra and for the method of phases were 2.6 mBq.L-1 for 226Ra and 66 mBq.L-1 for 228Ra. (author)

  17. Absolute dimensions of eclipsing binaries. XXIV. The Be star system DW Carinae, a member of the open cluster Collinder 228

    CERN Document Server

    Southworth, J; Southworth, John

    2006-01-01

    DW Carinae is a close but detached early B-type eclipsing binary in the young open cluster Cr 228. We have measured accurate physical properties of its components (masses and radii to 1%) and used these to derive the age, metallicity and distance of Cr 228. The rotational velocities of both components of DW Car are high, so we have investigated the performance of double-Gaussian fitting, one- and two-dimensional cross-correlation and spectral disentangling for measuring radial velocities in the presence of strong line blending. Gaussian and cross-correlation analyses require substantial corrections for the effects of line blending, which are only partially successful for cross-correlation. Disentangling is to be preferred because it does not assume anything about the shapes of spectral lines, and is not significantly affected by blending. Complete Stromgren uvby light curves have been obtained and accurate radii have been measured from them using the Wilson-Devinney program, constrained by an accurate spectro...

  18. Tl-208, Pb-212, Bi-212, Ra-226 and Ac-228 adsorption onto polyhydroxyethylmethacrylate-bentonite composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkaya, Recep [Cumhuriyet University, Chemistry Department, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Ulusoy, Ulvi, E-mail: ulusoy@cumhuriyet.edu.tr [Cumhuriyet University, Chemistry Department, 58140 Sivas (Turkey)

    2012-02-01

    The adsorption of naturally occurring radionuclides ({sup 208}Tl{sup +}, {sup 212}Pb{sup 2+}, {sup 226}Ra{sup 2+}, {sup 212}Bi{sup 3+} and {sup 228}Ac{sup 3+}) onto Polyhydroxyethylmethacrylate-bentonite (PHEMA-B) composite was investigated. Experimentally obtained isotherms were evaluated with reference to Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (DR) models. The adsorption isotherms were L type of Giles classification proving that PHEMA-B had a high affinity adsorbent for the studied radionuclides. The Langmuir adsorption capacities (X{sub L}) were in the order of {sup 226}Ra (2.8 MBq kg{sup -1})>{sup 212}Bi (0.4 MBq kg{sup -1})>{sup 212}Pb (0.3 MBq kg{sup -1})>{sup 228}Ac and {sup 208}Tl (0.2 MBq kg{sup -1}). The adsorption process was physical via complex formation after proton exchanger for which the adsorption energies obtained from DR model was evidence. The enthalpy and entropy changes were positive and the negative free enthalpy change was proof for the spontaneity of adsorption. The reusability tests for PHEMA-B for five uses demonstrated that the adsorbent could be reused after complete recovery of the loaded radionuclide ions by 1 M HCl. The chemical structure of the composite did not change after the reuses and storage foregoing.

  19. Determination of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, and {sup 210}Pb in mushroom from a naturally high radioactive region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Mychelle M.L.; Custodio, Luis Gustavo; Cheberle, Luan T.V.; Taddei, Maria Helena T., E-mail: mychelle@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: lgcustodio@hotmail.com, E-mail: lt.cheberle@bol.com.br, E-mail: mhtaddei@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas; Maihara, Vera A., E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CNEN/IPEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Many studies have shown that mushrooms are organisms which efficiently accumulate radionuclides and can be used as indicators of environmental contamination and ecosystem quality. The Pocos de Caldas plateau, in Minas Gerais, is a region that has elevated natural radioactivity due to the presence of radiological anomalies of volcanic origin. Seventy areas of radioactive anomalies have been identified in this region. From the radiological point of view the determination of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, and {sup 210}Pb is relevant because they are decay products of the natural series of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th, mainly responsible for natural radioactive exposures of man. The present paper is part of a broader study conducted in the Pocos de Caldas plateau, in which the concentration activities of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, and {sup 210}Pb in mushroom samples were determined. The mushrooms were collected at different points of the plateau under the influence of radioactive anomalies and away from the influence of anomalies. From statistical studies a correlation between the accumulation of radionuclides in mushrooms and anomalies was established and it was possible to confirm the efficiency that the mushrooms present as environmental contamination indicators. (author)

  20. Short term evolution of a highly transmissible methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clone (ST228 in a tertiary care hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Vogel

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is recognized as one of the major human pathogens and is by far one of the most common nosocomial organisms. The genetic basis for the emergence of highly epidemic strains remains mysterious. Studying the microevolution of the different clones of S. aureus is essential for identifying the forces driving pathogen emergence and spread. The aim of the present study was to determine the genetic changes characterizing a lineage belonging to the South German clone (ST228 that spread over ten years in a tertiary care hospital in Switzerland. For this reason, we compared the whole genome of eight isolates recovered between 2001 and 2008 at the Lausanne hospital. The genetic comparison of these isolates revealed that their genomes are extremely closely related. Yet, a few more important genetic changes, such as the replacement of a plasmid, the loss of large fragments of DNA, or the insertion of transposases, were observed. These transfers of mobile genetic elements shaped the evolution of the ST228 lineage that spread within the Lausanne hospital. Nevertheless, although the strains analyzed differed in their dynamics, we have not been able to link a particular genetic element with spreading success. Finally, the present study showed that new sequencing technologies improve considerably the quality and quantity of information obtained for a single strain; but this information is still difficult to interpret and important investments are required for the technology to become accessible for routine investigations.

  1. Tl-208, Pb-212, Bi-212, Ra-226 and Ac-228 adsorption onto polyhydroxyethylmethacrylate-bentonite composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkaya, Recep; Ulusoy, Ulvi

    2012-02-01

    The adsorption of naturally occurring radionuclides ( 208Tl +, 212Pb 2+, 226Ra 2+, 212Bi 3+ and 228Ac 3+) onto Polyhydroxyethylmethacrylate-bentonite (PHEMA-B) composite was investigated. Experimentally obtained isotherms were evaluated with reference to Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (DR) models. The adsorption isotherms were L type of Giles classification proving that PHEMA-B had a high affinity adsorbent for the studied radionuclides. The Langmuir adsorption capacities ( XL) were in the order of 226Ra (2.8 MBq kg -1)> 212Bi (0.4 MBq kg -1)> 212Pb (0.3 MBq kg -1)> 228Ac and 208Tl (0.2 MBq kg -1). The adsorption process was physical via complex formation after proton exchanger for which the adsorption energies obtained from DR model was evidence. The enthalpy and entropy changes were positive and the negative free enthalpy change was proof for the spontaneity of adsorption. The reusability tests for PHEMA-B for five uses demonstrated that the adsorbent could be reused after complete recovery of the loaded radionuclide ions by 1 M HCl. The chemical structure of the composite did not change after the reuses and storage foregoing.

  2. Tl-208, Pb-212, Bi-212, Ra-226 and Ac-228 adsorption onto polyhydroxyethylmethacrylate-bentonite composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adsorption of naturally occurring radionuclides (208Tl+, 212Pb2+, 226Ra2+, 212Bi3+ and 228Ac3+) onto Polyhydroxyethylmethacrylate-bentonite (PHEMA-B) composite was investigated. Experimentally obtained isotherms were evaluated with reference to Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (DR) models. The adsorption isotherms were L type of Giles classification proving that PHEMA-B had a high affinity adsorbent for the studied radionuclides. The Langmuir adsorption capacities (XL) were in the order of 226Ra (2.8 MBq kg-1)>212Bi (0.4 MBq kg-1)>212Pb (0.3 MBq kg-1)>228Ac and 208Tl (0.2 MBq kg-1). The adsorption process was physical via complex formation after proton exchanger for which the adsorption energies obtained from DR model was evidence. The enthalpy and entropy changes were positive and the negative free enthalpy change was proof for the spontaneity of adsorption. The reusability tests for PHEMA-B for five uses demonstrated that the adsorbent could be reused after complete recovery of the loaded radionuclide ions by 1 M HCl. The chemical structure of the composite did not change after the reuses and storage foregoing.

  3. Values of soil-plant transfer factor of 226Ra and 228Ra: agricultural areas versus areas of high natural radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, soil to plant transfer factor of 226Ra and 228Ra obtained in areas of traditional agricultural practices varied as a function of the considered cultivated species but little variation was observed as a function of the soil type. Beans and soybeans presented more important absorption than cereals (corn, rice and wheat). In our work legumes (bean and soybean) presented transfer factors up to one order of magnitude higher than average values for regions where natural radioactivity is high. On the other hand, the results for cereals did not presented such clear differences. It can be concluded that cultural inputs of 226Ra and 228Ra are occurring in agricultural areas, but few species can concentrate it. The transfer factor values obtained in this work for 226Ra and 228Ra can be applied in risk assessment models. (author)

  4. Analyzing therapeutic effect of 228 patients with port wine stains by new intense pulsed light (IPL-OPT)%新型强脉冲光(IPL-OPT)治疗228例微静脉畸形疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘耿; 应朝霞; 张淑兰; 王永贤; 邹芥

    2011-01-01

    目的:回顾性分析新型强脉冲光(IPL-OPT)治疗228例微静脉畸形的临床疗效,探讨治疗参数、治疗次数、皮损情况与疗效的关系。方法:按治疗次数、皮损情况等对228例病例进行分组及统计学分析。结果:治疗次数与疗效呈正相关,总有效率为75.9%;皮损越厚总有效率越高,但治愈率降低(P<0.05);不同部位皮损疗效以颈部>面部>躯干>四肢近端>四肢末端;不同颜色皮损总有效率以紫红色>鲜红色,但治愈率两者相反(P<0.05)。结论:新型强脉冲光(IPI-OPT)治疗微静脉畸形安全、有效,疗效与皮损部位、颜色、厚度、治疗次数及合理的治疗参数等综合因素相关。%Objective To analyze the therapeutic effect of 228 Chinese patients with nevus flammeus by Intense pulsed light optimized production technology (IPL-OPT)retrospectively and to further explore the relationship among treatment parameters, treatment frequency, cutaneous lesions and curative efficacy. Methods Randomly, 228 patients with port wine stains were divided into groups according to treatment frequency and dermal lesion respectively and the curative results were analyzed statistically. Results The curative effect and treatment frequency was direct correlation and the total effect rate was 75.9%. The effect of adult was better than children's(P<0.05).The total effective rate of thicker lesion was higher, however, its cure rate was lower (P<0.05). The curative effect of lesions on neck was the best of all lesions, followed by on the face, on the trunk, and on the proximal as well as distal extremities. The curative effect was also related to the colour of lesions. The total effective rate of purple PWS was higher than the bright red PWS, while the previous cure rate was contrary (P<0.05). Conclusion IPL-OPT has been proven to be safe and effective in treating Nevus flammeus. Moreover, the efficacy was associated with the connected

  5. Inventory of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb in marine sediments cores of Southwest Atlantic Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Alice M.R.; Oliveira, Joselene de, E-mail: alice.costa@usp.br, E-mail: jolivei@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Gerencia de Metrologia das Radiacoes. Lab. de Radiometria Ambiental; Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Mahiques, Michel M.; Sousa, Silvia H.M., E-mail: rfigueira@usp.br, E-mail: mahiques@usp.br, E-mail: smsousa@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto Oceanografico

    2015-07-01

    {sup 210}Pb (22.3 y) is a radioactive isotope successfully applied as tracer of sediment dating of the last 100-150 years. The application of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra as paleoceanographic tracers (half-lives of 1,600 y and 5.7 y, respectively) also gives some information of ocean's role in past climate change. In this work, it was analyzed 2 sediment cores collect at Southwest Atlantic Ocean. The sediments samples were freeze-dried and acid digested in microwave. It was carried out a radiochemical separation of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb and performed a gross alpha and gross beta measurement of both precipitates Ba(Ra)SO{sub 4} and PbCrO{sub 4} in a low background gas-flow proportional counter. Activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra ranged from 45 Bq kg{sup -1} to 70 Bq kg{sup -1} in NAP-62 and from 57 Bq kg{sup -1} to 82 Bq kg{sup -1} in NAP-63 samples. The concentration of {sup 228}Ra varied between 37 Bq kg{sup -1} and 150 Bq kg{sup -1} in NAP-62 and between 23 Bq kg{sup -1} and 111 Bq kg{sup -1} in NAP-63 samples. The concentration of total {sup 210}Pb ranged from 126 Bq kg{sup -1} to 256 Bq kg{sup -1} in NAP-62 and from 63 Bq kg{sup -1} to 945 Bq kg{sup -1} in NAP-63 samples. Results of {sup 210}Pb{sub uns} varied from 68 Bq kg{sup -1} to 192 Bq kg{sup -1} for NAP-62, while varied from <4.9 Bq kg{sup -1} to 870 Bq kg{sup -1} in NAP-63 profile. Increased values of {sup 210}Pb{sub uns} were found on the top of both NAP-62 and NAP- 63 sediment profile. (author)

  6. UAS Integration into the NAS: Detect and Avoid Display Evaluations in Support of SC-228 MOPS Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fern, Lisa; Rorie, Conrad; Shively, Jay

    2016-01-01

    At the May 2015 SC-228 meeting, requirements for TCAS II interoperability became elevated in priority. A TCAS interoperability work group was formed to identify and address key issuesquestions. The TCAS work group came up with an initial list of questions and a plan to address those questions. As part of that plan, NASA proposed to run a mini HITL to address display, alerting and guidance issues. A TCAS Interoperability Workshop was held to determine potential displayalertingguidance issues that could be explored in future NASA mini HITLS. Consensus on main functionality of DAA guidance when TCAS II RA occurs. Prioritized list of independent variables for experimental design. Set of use cases to stress TCAS Interoperability.

  7. Congenital erythropoietic porphyria with two mutations of the uroporphyrinogen III synthase gene (Cys73Arg, Thr228Met

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Gucev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism that results from the markedly deficient activity of uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROS. We describe a 14-year-old girl with red urine since infancy, progressive blistering and scarring of the skin, and moderate hemolytic anemia. After years of skin damage, her face is mutilated; she has a bald patch on the scalp, hypertrichosis of the neck, areas of skin darkening, and limited joint movements of the hands. Total urine excretion and fecal total porphyrin were both markedly raised above normal levels. Sequencing of the UROS gene identified two mutations causing CEP (Cys73Arg, Thr228Met. The patient lesions are progressing. Bone marrow transplantation and/or gene therapy are proposed as the next steps in her treatment. In brief, we describe a CEP with confirmed two pathogenic mutations, severe phenotype and discuss the various treatment options available.

  8. Rate constant for the reaction of hydroxyl radical with formaldehyde over the temperature range 228-362 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stief, L. J.; Nava, D. F.; Payne, W. A.; Michael, J. V.

    1980-01-01

    Absolute rate constants for the reaction OH + H2CO have been measured over the temperature range 228-362 K using the flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence technique. The results were independent of variations in forbidden H2CO, total pressure of forbidden Ar and flash intensity (i.e., initial forbidden OH). The rate constant was found to be invariant with temperature in this range, the best representation being k1 = (1.05 + or - 0.11) x 10 to the -11th cu cm/molecule sec where the error is two standard deviations. This result is compared with previous absolute and relative determinations of k1. The reaction is also discussed from a theoretical point of view.

  9. Influence of Tb substitution on low-field magnetocaloric effect in Gd5Si1.72Ge2.28 alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Jian-qiu; ZHUANG Ying-hong; WANG Ri-chu; YANG Zhen; XU Bin

    2008-01-01

    The lattice parameters, magnetic phase transition, Curie temperature and magnetocaloric properties for (Gd1-xTbx)5Si1.72-Ge2.28 alloys with x = 0, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25 were investigated by X-ray powder diffractometry and magnetization measurements. The results show that suitable partial substitution of Tb in Gd5Si1.72Ge2.28 compound remains the first-order magnetic-crystallographic transition and enhances the magnetic entropy change, although Tb substitution decreases the Curie temperature (Tc) of the compounds. The magnetic entropy change of (Gd1-xTbx)5Si1.72Ge2.28 alloys retains a large value in the low magnetic field of 1.0 T.The maximum magnetic entropy change for (Gd0.80Tb0.20)5Si1.72Ge2.28 alloy in the magnetic field from 0 to 1.0 T reaches 8.7 J/(kg·K),which is nearly 4 times as large as that of (Gd0.3Dy0.7)5Si4 compound (|△Smax| = 2.24 J/(kg·K), TC = 198 K).

  10. 75 FR 49513 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Ione Band of Miwok Indians 228.04-Acre Fee-to-Trust...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... the FEIS is now available for public review. The purpose of the proposed action is to establish a land... trust 228.04 acres of land, on which the Tribe proposes to construct a casino, hotel, parking areas...

  11. 20 CFR 228.17 - Adjustments to the widow(er)'s, disabled widow(er)'s, surviving divorced spouse's, and remarried...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... widow(er)'s, surviving divorced spouse's, and remarried widow(er)'s tier I annuity amount. 228.17..., disabled widow(er)'s, surviving divorced spouse's, and remarried widow(er)'s tier I annuity amount. (a) If...), remarried widow(er), or surviving divorced spouse is first eligible after 1984, the Board will compute...

  12. A 2 Tesla Full Scale High Performance Periodic Permanent Magnet Model for Attractive (228 KN) and repulsive Maglev

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stekly, Z. J. J.; Gardner, C.; Domigan, P.; Baker, J.; Hass, M.; McDonald, C.; Wu, C.; Farrell, R. A.

    1996-01-01

    Two 214.5 cm. long high performance periodic (26 cm period) permanent magnet half-assemblies were designed and constructed for use as a wiggler using Nd-B-Fe and vanadium permendur as hard and soft magnetic materials by Field Effects, a division of Intermagnetics General Corporation. Placing these assemblies in a supporting structure with a 2.1 cm pole to pole separation resulted in a periodic field with a maximum value of 2.04 T. This is believed to be the highest field ever achieved by this type of device. The attractive force between the two 602 kg magnet assemblies is 228 kN, providing enough force for suspension of a 45,500 kg vehicle. If used in an attractive maglev system with an appropriate flat iron rail, one assembly will generate the same force with a gap of 1.05 cm leading to a lift to weight ratio of 38.6, not including the vehicle attachment structure. This permanent magnet compares well with superconducting systems which have lift to weight ratios in the range of 5 to 10. This paper describes the magnet assemblies and their measured magnetic performance. The measured magnetic field and resulting attractive magnetic force have a negative spring characteristic. Appropriate control coils are necessary to provide stable operation. The estimated performance of the assemblies in a stable repulsive mode, with eddy currents in a conducting guideway, is also discussed.

  13. {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb determination in surface water and groundwater by liquid scintillation counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Ligia S.; Moreira, Rubens M., E-mail: ligsfaria@gmail.com, E-mail: rubens@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The municipalities of Brumadinho and Nova Lima are located in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte city, in the State of Minas Gerais. These two sites are important due to being located inside an Environmental Protection Area inserted in the Iron Quadrangle. In addition to the mineral wealth, the region has geological features that include quartz conglomerates associated with uranium and a significant groundwater potential exhibiting quite peculiar and complex hydrogeological features, such as the quartzite aquifer itself. Nuclear techniques applied to hydrology, such as Liquid Scintillation Counting technique (LSC), make possible the evaluation of natural radioactivity in surface water and groundwater. The objectives of this study were the determination of the activities of the long half-life radionuclides of the uranium and thorium series, such as {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb, and provide an effective methodology to define if the direct consumption of these waters can cause risk to health due to its radioactivity. The results were compared with the recommendations of the Ministry of Health. (author)

  14. Bioavailability pf radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb present in Brazilian phosphogypsum and phosphate fertilizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Ana Carolina; Saueia, Catia H.R.; Mazzilli, Barbara P., E-mail: chsaueia@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares(IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is a by-product of phosphate fertilizers industries. The USEPA classified PG as a - Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (TENORM). Its worldwide production on 2006 was estimated in 150 million tons. Annually the three main phosphate industries in Brazil are responsible for 5.5x106 tons of phosphogypsum, which is stored in stacks. The level of radionuclides present in phosphogypsum is well-known and makes its disposal or reutilization an environmental concern. Part of this byproduct can be reused, for example, to improve fertility of agricultural soils. To assess the long term environmental impact of radioactive contamination of ecosystems, information on source term including radionuclide speciation, mobility and biological uptakes have high importance. This paper intends to evaluate the bioavailability of the radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb to the environment by following a procedure established by the EC (European Community), which includes a single EDTA-NH{sub 4} 0.05M extraction at pH 7.0 prior to the analyses. These results is compared with the total activity concentration of these radionuclides in Brazilian PG and the most used phosphate fertilizers (SSP, TSP, MAP and DAP). This procedure intends to represent on a more realistic way the leaching of radionuclides from PG and fertilizers to soil and agricultural products. (author)

  15. Current (1984) status of the study of 226Ra and 228Ra in humans at the Center for Human Radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Center for Human Radiobiology has identified 5784 persons by name and type of exposure to 226Ra and 228Ra. Included are 4863 dial painters (mostly women) and non-laboratory employees of the radium dial industry, 410 laboratory workers, 399 persons who received radium for supposed therapeutic effects, and 112 in other categories. Body contents of radium have been measured in 1916 of the dial workers and about one-half of the subjects in the other groups. Bone sarcomas, carcinomas of the paranasal sinuses and mastoids, and deterioration of skeletal tissue are still the only effects unequivocally attributable to internal radium. Excess leukemias have not been observed and other malignancies, if in excess, appear more likely to be related to external gamma radiation or radon than to internal radium. Positive correlations with radium burdens have been found for the incidence of benign exostoses among subjects exposed to radium before age 18 and for shortened latency of ocular cataracts. 27 references, 3 figures, 5 tables

  16. Bioavailability pf radionuclides 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb present in Brazilian phosphogypsum and phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is a by-product of phosphate fertilizers industries. The USEPA classified PG as a - Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (TENORM). Its worldwide production on 2006 was estimated in 150 million tons. Annually the three main phosphate industries in Brazil are responsible for 5.5x106 tons of phosphogypsum, which is stored in stacks. The level of radionuclides present in phosphogypsum is well-known and makes its disposal or reutilization an environmental concern. Part of this byproduct can be reused, for example, to improve fertility of agricultural soils. To assess the long term environmental impact of radioactive contamination of ecosystems, information on source term including radionuclide speciation, mobility and biological uptakes have high importance. This paper intends to evaluate the bioavailability of the radionuclides 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb to the environment by following a procedure established by the EC (European Community), which includes a single EDTA-NH4 0.05M extraction at pH 7.0 prior to the analyses. These results is compared with the total activity concentration of these radionuclides in Brazilian PG and the most used phosphate fertilizers (SSP, TSP, MAP and DAP). This procedure intends to represent on a more realistic way the leaching of radionuclides from PG and fertilizers to soil and agricultural products. (author)

  17. Current (1984) status of the study of 226Ra and 228Ra in humans at the Center for Human Radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Center for Human Radiobiology has identified 5784 persons by name and type of exposure to 226Ra and 228Ra. Included are 4863 dial painters (mostly women) and non-laboratory employees of the radium dial industry, 410 laboratory workers, 399 persons who received radium for supposed therapeutic effects, and 112 in other categories. Body contents of radium have been measured in 1916 of the dial workers and about one-half of the subjects in the other groups. Bone sarcomas, carcinomas of the paranasal sinuses and mastoids, and deterioration of skeletal tissue are still the only effects unequivocally attributable to internal radium. Excess leukemias have not been observed and other malignancies, if in excess, appear more likely to be related to external gamma radiation or radon than to internal radium. Positive correlations with radium burdens have been found for the incidence of benign exostoses among subjects exposed to radium before age 18 and for shortened latency of ocular cataracts. 26 references, 3 figures, 5 tables

  18. Occurrence of radium-224, radium-226, and radium-228 in water of the unconfined Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system, southern New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Zoltan; dePaul, Vincent T.; Kraemer, Thomas F.; Parsa, Bahman

    2005-01-01

    Water in the unconfined Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system in the New Jersey Coastal Plain contains elevated concentrations (above 3 pCi/L (picocuries per liter)) of the alpha-particle-emitting radionuclide radium-224. Previously, water from the aquifer system had been found to contain radium-226 and radium-228. This observation is of concern because the previously undetected presence of radium-224 may pose an additional, quantifiable health risk that currently is not accounted for by the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 5 pCi/L for combined radium (the sum of radium-226 plus radium-228 is termed 'combined radium') in drinking water. Water samples were collected from a regional network of 88 wells for determination of concentrations of radium-224, radium-226, and radium-228; gross alpha-particle activity; and concentrations of major ions and selected trace elements. Both gamma and alpha spectroscopic techniques were used to determine concentrations of radium-224, which ranged from activity of about 15 pCi/L (the MCL) 36 to 48 hours, respectively, after sample collection when ingrowth of radium-224 progeny radionuclides is considered, even with the unlikely assumption that no other alpha-particle-emitting radionuclide is present in the water. Concentrations of 3.4 to 3.7 pCi/L radium-224 result in a gross alpha-particle activity of 10 pCi/L 36 to 48 hours, respectively, after sample collection when ingrowth of Ra-224 progeny radionuclides is considered. In this latter case, it is possible that the summed alpha-particle activity from radium-226 present at a concentration less than or equal to 5 pCi/L (the MCL for combined radium) and from radium-224 present at a concentration about 3.4 pCi/L or greater may exceed the 15-pCi/L MCL for gross alpha-particle activity. In this study, gross alpha-particle activities were measured within 48 hours after sample collection and were found to exceed the MCL of 15 pCi/L in nearly half (43) of the 88 samples collected. The

  19. Temperature dependence of the absolute rate constant for the reaction of hydroxyl radical with hydrogen sulfide. [228/sup 0/K, 298/sup 0/K, 437/sup 0/K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael, J.V.; Nava, D.F.; Brobst, W.D.; Borkowski, R.P.; Stief, L.J.

    1982-01-07

    Absolute rate constants for the reaction of hydroxyl radical with hydrogen sulfide were measured at 228, 298, and 437 K by using the flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence method. Hydroxyl radicals were produced by the photolysis of water, and resonance fluorescence from OH were measured by multiscaling techniques. The results at 228, 298, and 437 K were found to be (5.11 +/- 0.39) X 10/sup -12/, (4.42 +/- 0.36) X 10/sup -12/, and (5.57 +/- 0.48) X 10/sup -12/, respectively, all in units of cm/sup 3/ molecule/sup -1/ s/sup -1/. The average value measured was (5.01 +/- 0.55) X 10/sup -12/ cm/sup 3/ molecule/sup -1/ s/sup -1/, where the uncertainty cited is one standard deviation. The results are discussed theoretically and compared to previous determinations.

  20. A sequential and fast method for low level of 226Ra , 228Ra, 210Pb e 210Po in mine effluents and uranium processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to biological risk and long half lives, the radionuclides 228Ra, 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po should be frequently monitored to check for any environmental contamination around mines and uranium plants. Currently, the methods used for the determination of these radionuclides take about thirty days to reach the radioactive equilibrium of the 210Pb and 226Ra daughter's. The evaluation of effluent discharges and leakage of deposits to water bodies in monitoring programs, require quick answers to implement corrective measures. Thereby fast determination methods must be implemented. This work presents a fast and sequential method to, in three days, determine accurately and sensitively, 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb, 210Po, in water and effluent samples

  1. Clinical experience in treatment of 228 cases with idiopathic teratospermia%特发性畸形精子症228例临床治疗的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁文君; 谷春会; 高利伟; 程俊杰; 付璐璐; 郑连文

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between clinical efficacy of the drug and its treatment time for patients with diopathic teratospermia. Methods Total of 228 patients with idiopathic teratospermia who were treated with VC+VE+ folic acid+ l-carnitine + undecanoic acid testosterone therapy in the Reproductive Center of the Second Hospital of Jilin University from Sep.2011 to Apr. 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. The percentages of normal sperm morphology before treatment and after 3 and/or 6 months treatment were statistically analzyed. Results After 3 months treatment, the effective rate was 68.32%, it was obviously improved in the percentage of normal morphology sperm compared to that of pre-treatment (P<0.05). After 6 months treatment, the effective rate was 81.99%, it was obviously improved in the percentage of normal morphology sperm compared to that of pre-treatment(P<0.05).There was significant different in the percentage of normal morphology sperm between patients treated for 6 months and patients treated for 3 months (P<0.05). Conclusion VC+VE+folicacid+l-carnitine+ undecanoic acid testosterone therapy can obviously improve the percenrage of normal morphology sperm in patients with idiopathic teratospermia. Efficacy of long term treatment (6 months) is superior to that of short term treatment (3 months).%目的:探讨特发性畸形精子症药物治疗效果及与治疗时间的关系。方法回顾性选择2011年9月至2013年4月就诊于吉林大学第二医院生殖医学中心男科门诊确诊为特发性畸形精子症、予以VC+VE+叶酸+左旋肉碱+十一酸睾酮方案治疗的患者,共228例,收集治疗前、治疗3个月后和(或)6个月后正常形态精子百分比,并予以统计学分析。结果治疗3个月后,有效率68.32%,正常形态精子百分比较治疗前明显提高(P<0.05);治疗6个月后,有效率81.99%,正常形态精子百分比较治疗前明显提高(P<0.05

  2. Development of a liquid scintillation method for in vitro determination of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228} Ra in bioassay samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Paulo Cesar P.; Sousa, Wanderson O.; Juliao, Ligia M.Q.C.; Dantas, Bernardo M., E-mail: pcesar@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Radium isotopes are dispersed in the environment according to their physicochemical characteristics. The intake of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra in humans can occur by inhalation and ingestion and the risk of internal exposure are related to their long half-lives, characteristics of the emission and biokinetics of the isotopes in the human body. The goal of this work is to develop a methodology for the analysis of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra in excreta samples (urine and feces), using liquid scintillation technique. Excreta samples were provided by non-exposed humans for the purpose of standardizing the methodology and the establishment of a background level of radium excretion. Radium isotopes were concentrated and separated from the constituents of the sample by co-precipitation with barium sulphate. The precipitate of Ba(Ra)SO{sub 4} was filtrated and weighted for the determination of the chemical yield. The filter containing the precipitate was transferred to a scintillation vial. In the scintillation vial, 8 mL of water, 8 mL of Instagel XF and 4 mL of UltimaGold were added, forming a gel suspension, after stirring the solution. The {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra activities were determined 21 days after the precipitation of samples. The samples were counted in a liquid scintillation spectrometer. The technique presented adequate sensitivity and reproducibility for the analysis of urine and feces. The activities of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra in excreta samples provide useful information for the identification of the main route of intake and for the assessment of the internal exposure of occupationally exposed workers and inhabitants of high background areas. (author)

  3. Analysis of the distribution characteristics of 226Ra and 228Ra and their sources in the western part of Qinghai Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fancui; Sha, Zhanjiang; Du, Jinzhou; Su, Weigang; Yu, Chenguang; Zhao, Shunli; Hu, Jufang; Ye, Mei

    2015-11-01

    The 226Ra and 228Ra activities of Qinghai Lake surface water, groundwater, river water, suspended particles, and bottom sediments were measured in a gamma-ray spectrometer. The sources of 226Ra and 228Ra were discussed according to their distribution characteristics. 226Ra and 228Ra activities (dpm/(100 L)) ranged from 14.13±0.22 to 19.22±0.42 and 17.72±0.66 to 30.96±1.47 in the surface water of the North Bay, respectively, and from 7.88±0.24 to 33.80±0.47 and 15.73±0.74 to 57.31±1.44, respectively, in the South Bay. The surface water near the estuary had a lower salinity and had a higher concentration of radium isotopes than the samples collected further away. The farther offshore the sample, the higher the salinity was, and the lower the radium isotope activity. The distribution of radium activities in the western part of Qinghai Lake is controlled by several factors, including Buha River runoff, desorption from suspended particles derived from the river, groundwater discharge, and a small amount of diffusion from the sediment.

  4. Verification of anticlockwise gyre in the semi-closed water area of Lake Nakaumi, southwest Japan, by using 224Ra/228Ra activity ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Honjyo area in Lake Nakaumi is a semi-closed brackish water area where some mixing of up-flowing marine water and down-flowing lake water take place. A large-scale gyre that caused by the residual circulation was once indicated by a temporal algal blooming that spread over the semi-closed Honjyo area in brackish Lake Nakaumi. In order to verify this type of water circulation, we examined 224Ra (t1/2=3.66 d)/228Ra (t1/2=5.75 y) activity ratios of both upper and lower waters that differentiated by a well-developed halocline. The 224Ra/228Ra ratios in the upper water were lowest in the central area, suggesting the formation of anticlockwise gyre. The ratios in the lower water were rather uniform, but a basin-wide anticlockwise flow of water is also indicated. The 224Ra/228Ra ratio is clearly effective to trace the water flow for both the deep and surface waters. (author)

  5. 226Ra and 228Ra tracer study on material transport in the east coast of Hainan Island, China: a case of nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni SU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Material fluxes (e.g. nutrients from coast to offshore play an important role in controlling the water quality in the concerned adjacent sea not only by the increase of nutrient concentration but by the change of nutrient structure. In the present work, naturally occurring isotopes (226Ra and 228Ra had been measured by alpha spectrometry in Wenjiao/Wenchang and Wanquan river estuaries and adjacent sea water of the east coast of Hainan Island. The excess dissolved 226Ra and 228Ra activities were observed in comparison with the values expected from the conservative mixing of freshwater and seawater end-members in both estuaries. Using 1-Dimensional Diffusion model, the estimated horizontal eddy diffusion coefficients (Kh derived from 228Ra activities away from its sources was 3.16?105 cm2 s-1. Furthermore, the corresponding nutrient fluxes into the coastal area were assessed. The results can provide useful information for the processes of mixing and exchange of coastal water as well as the transportation of dissoluble pollutants in this sea area.

  6. GB/T 228.1-2010中应力速率的三种理解及在宣贯和实施过程中出现的问题%Three Kinds of Interpretation and Relative Problems in Practice for Stress Rates of GB/T 228.1-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李和平; 周星; 徐惟诚; 岑晓燕; 沈佳谊

    2013-01-01

    归纳了对于拉伸试验方法标准GB/T 228.1-2010中应力速率的三种理解,并分析了每种理解在标准宣贯和实施过程中出现的问题,提出了对于GB/T 228.1-2010中方法B更为全面的描述及实施的具体方法;最后报告了用有证标准试样验证6种测试条件测定屈服强度的结果.%Three kinds of interpretation for the stress rates of tensile test methods standards of metallic materials GB/T 228.1-2010 were summed up,and relative problems of every interpretation producing in the standard implementation process were analyzed.A more comprehensive expression for method B of GB/T 228.1-2010 as well as implement method was brought forward.The test results of yield strength (Rp0.2) of certified reference samples under six different measurement conditions were reported.

  7. Using the British National Collection of Asters to Compare the Attractiveness of 228 Varieties to Flower-Visiting Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbuzov, Mihail; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2015-06-01

    Wildlife-friendly gardening practices can help conserve biodiversity in urban areas. These include growing ornamental plant varieties attractive to flower-visiting insects. Because varieties vary greatly in attractiveness, there is a need to quantify it in order to give objective advice to gardeners. Here, we used the British national collection of asters to compare the attractiveness of varieties to flower-visiting insects. We counted and identified insects as they foraged on flowers in 228 varieties growing in discrete patches that flowered during the survey period, 14 September-20 October 2012. In each variety, we also determined the overall capitulum size, the central disc floret area, and the ray floret color (blue, red, purple, or white). We also scored attributes relevant to gardening: attractiveness to humans, ease of cultivation, and availability in the United Kingdom. There was great variation among varieties in their attractiveness to insects, ranging from 0.0 to 15.2 per count per square meter, and highly skewed, with most being unattractive. A similar skew held for the two main insect categories, honey bees and hover flies, which comprised 28 and 64% of all insects, respectively. None of the floral traits or attributes relevant to gardening correlated significantly with attractiveness to insects. Our study shows the practicality of using a national collection for quantifying and comparing the attractiveness of ornamental varieties to flower-visiting insects. These results imply that choosing varieties carefully is likely to be of conservation benefit to flower-visiting insects, and that doing so is a no-cost option in terms of garden beauty and workload.

  8. Using the British National Collection of Asters to Compare the Attractiveness of 228 Varieties to Flower-Visiting Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbuzov, Mihail; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2015-06-01

    Wildlife-friendly gardening practices can help conserve biodiversity in urban areas. These include growing ornamental plant varieties attractive to flower-visiting insects. Because varieties vary greatly in attractiveness, there is a need to quantify it in order to give objective advice to gardeners. Here, we used the British national collection of asters to compare the attractiveness of varieties to flower-visiting insects. We counted and identified insects as they foraged on flowers in 228 varieties growing in discrete patches that flowered during the survey period, 14 September-20 October 2012. In each variety, we also determined the overall capitulum size, the central disc floret area, and the ray floret color (blue, red, purple, or white). We also scored attributes relevant to gardening: attractiveness to humans, ease of cultivation, and availability in the United Kingdom. There was great variation among varieties in their attractiveness to insects, ranging from 0.0 to 15.2 per count per square meter, and highly skewed, with most being unattractive. A similar skew held for the two main insect categories, honey bees and hover flies, which comprised 28 and 64% of all insects, respectively. None of the floral traits or attributes relevant to gardening correlated significantly with attractiveness to insects. Our study shows the practicality of using a national collection for quantifying and comparing the attractiveness of ornamental varieties to flower-visiting insects. These results imply that choosing varieties carefully is likely to be of conservation benefit to flower-visiting insects, and that doing so is a no-cost option in terms of garden beauty and workload. PMID:26313970

  9. Determinants of Survival in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER Study of 14,228 Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Taioli

    Full Text Available Left untreated, malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM is associated with uniformly poor prognosis. Better survival has been reported with surgery-based multimodality therapy, but to date, no trial has demonstrated survival benefit of surgery over other therapies. We evaluated whether cancer-directed surgery influenced survival independently from other predictors in a large population-based dataset.The SEER database was explored from 1973 to 2009 to identify all cases of pathologically-proven MPM. Age, sex, race, year of diagnosis, histology stage, cancer-directed surgery, radiation, and vital status were analyzed. The association between prognostic factors and survival was estimated using Cox regression and propensity matched analysis.There were 14,228 patients with pathologic diagnosis of MPM. On multivariable analysis, female gender, younger age, early stage, and treatment with surgery were independent predictors of longer survival. In comparison to no treatment, surgery alone was associated with significant improvement in survival [adjusted hazard ratio (adj HR 0.64 (0.61-0.67], but not radiation [adj HR 1.15 (1.08-1.23]. Surgery and radiation combined had similar survival as surgery alone [adj HR 0.69 (0.64-0.76]. Results were similar when cases diagnosed between 1973 and 1999 were compared to cases diagnosed between 2000 and 2009.Despite developments in surgical and radiation techniques, the prognosis for MPM patients has not improved over the past 4 decades. Cancer-directed surgery is independently associated with better survival, suggesting that multimodal surgery-based therapy can benefit these patients. Further research in adjuvant treatment is necessary to improve prognosis in this challenging disease.

  10. Evaluation of the activity concentration of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb in sediments from Antarctica in the Admiralty Bay region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora, Tamires de A.; Oliveira, Joselene de, E-mail: tamires.mora@usp.br, E-mail: jolivei@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Mahiques, Michel M.; Sousa, Silvia H.M., E-mail: rfigueira@usp.br, E-mail: mahiques@usp.br, E-mail: smsousa@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto Oceanografico

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we performed the radiochemical characterization of a sedimentary record (1B profile), collected in the vicinity of Admiralty Bay, King George Island in Antarctic Operation XXXI (January/2013). The activities of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb were determined by the counting of gross alpha and gross beta activities in the precipitates of Ba(Ra)SO{sub 4} and PbCrO{sub 4}. Those measurements were carried out in a low background gas flow proportional detector. The {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra were measured after 21 days of the final precipitation. The {sup 210}Pb activity was determined after 10 days of the precipitation date by gross beta counting of its {sup 210}Bi decay product. The activity concentration of {sup 226}Ra ranged from 11±1 (mBq g-1) to 54±3 (mBq g{sup -1}), and the {sup 228}Ra ranged from 48±5 (mBq g{sup -1}) to 155±16 (mBq g{sup -1}). The activity concentration of {sup 210}Pb varied from 8±1 (mBq g{sup -1}) to 458±46 (mBq g{sup -1}), while unsupported {sup 210}Pb ranged from 6±1 (mBq g{sup -1}) to 434±65 (mBq g{sup -1}). The {sup 210}Pb concentrations in sediments have often been used to dating events like deposition and accumulation in various marine environments. Taking into account the results of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 226}Ra activities obtained in testimony-1B it was estimated the unsupported {sup 210}Pb activity which was applied to the CIC geochronological dating model (Constant Initial Concentration). Based in these data, the sedimentation rate obtained was 0.63±0.02 cm year{sup -1}. (author)

  11. Monitoring of Ra-226 and Ra-228 in manioc (Manihot utilissima) and its flour in uranium mining in Caetite - Tropical area in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Tropical ecosystems have few developments from the radioecology point of view. In Brazil, radioecology studies had their development mainly in the 50's decade, but a little attention has been given to the radionuclides in food. The Uranium Concentrate Unit of 'Caetite' started operation in the 90's decade, and was preceded by the environmental pre-operational monitoring program, carried out during 15 years (1982-1999), according to established licensing procedures, using biological samples from the human and animal food chain. This work shows the results of last ten years of the pre-operational monitoring program of 'Caetite' in manioc (Manihot utilissima) and it's flour. The parameters studied are Ra-226 and Ra-228. Manioc (and it's flour) was chosen because of its role as the most important component of human food chain (82 kg/year for manioc and de same for manioc flour). This study was performed in 44 results of Ra-226 and 44 results of Ra-228 analyses, in 22 samples of manioc and 22 samples of manioc flour. For the analysis, initially, the Anderson-Darling goodness-of-fit test for the maximum likelihood to the gaussian distribution is executed. With the data adjusted to the gaussian curve, an Analysis of variance (ANOVA) test is executed. If there is difference between concentrations, t Student tests are then executed. The data have shown best goodness-of-fit to the log-normal distribution. After proper transformation (y=Ln(x+1)), data have shown best goodness-of-fit to the normal distribution. The ANOVA test applied to normalized data have pointed differences in concentrations, that were identified by t Student tests as the Ra-226 values in manioc and the Ra-228 values in manioc flour. All other values are statistically equal. (author)

  12. Molecular characterization of resistance to Rifampicin in an emerging hospital-associated Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clone ST228, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liñares Josefina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA has been endemic in Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, Barcelona, since 1990. During the 1990-95 period the Iberian clone (ST-247; SCCmec-I was dominant. Isolates of clonal complex 5 (ST-125; SCCmec-IV gradually replaced the Iberian clone from 1996 to 2003. A new multiresistant MRSA phenotype showing rifampicin resistance emerged in 2004 and rapidly increased from 25% in 2004 to 45% in 2006. The aims of this study were i the molecular characterisation of rifampicin resistant MRSA isolates, ii the study of the rifampicin resistance expression by disk diffusion, microdilution and E-test, and iii the analysis of the rpoB gene mutations involved in rifampicin resistance. Results A sample of representative 108 rifampicin-resistant MRSA isolates belonged to a single PFGE genotype, ST-228, SCCmec type I and spa type t041. Of 108 isolates, 104 (96% had a low-level rifampicin resistance (MICs, 2 to 4 mg/L and 4 a high-level rifampicin resistance (MICs, 128 - ≥ 256 mg/L. Disk diffusion and E-test methods failed to identify a low-level rifampicin resistance in 20 and 12 isolates, respectively. A low-level rifampicin resistance was associated with amino acid substitution 481His/Asn in the beta-subunit of RNA polymerase. Isolates with a high-level rifampicin resistance carried additional mutations in the rpoB gene. Conclusions The emergence of MRSA clone ST228-SCCmecI, related to the Southern Germany clone, involved a therapeutical challenge for treating serious MRSA infections. Decreased susceptibility to rifampicin in MRSA strains of ST228-SCCmecI was associated with one or two specific mutations in the rpoB gene. One fifth of isolates with low-level rifampicin-resistance were missed by the diffusion methods.

  13. Validation of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb measurements in soil and sediment samples through high resolution gamma ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Danila Carrijo da Silva; Silva, Nivaldo Carlos da; Bonifacio, Rodrigo Leandro; Guerrero, Eder Tadeu Zenun [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas

    2013-07-01

    Radionuclides found in ore extraction waste materials are a great source of concern regarding public health and environmental safety. One technique to determine the concentration of substances is high resolution gamma ray spectrometry using HPGe. Validating a measurement technique is essential to warrant high levels of quality to any scientific work. The Laboratory of Pocos de Caldas of the Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy partakes into a Quality Management System project, seeking Accreditation under ISO/IEC 17025 through the validation of techniques of chemical and radiometric analysis of environmental samples from water, soil and sediment. The focus of the Radon Laboratory at LAPOC is validation of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Pb-210 concentration determinations in soil and sediment through a gamma spectrometer system. The stages of this validation process included sample reception and preparation, detector calibration and sample analyses. Dried samples were sealed in metallic containers and analyzed after radioactive equilibrium between Ra-226 and daughters Pb-214 and Bi-214. Gamma spectrometry was performed using CANBERRA HPGe detector and gamma spectrum software Genie 2000. The photo peaks used for Ra-226 determination were 609 keV and 1020 keV of Bi-214 and 351 keV of Pb-214. For the Ra-228 determination a photopeak of 911 keV was used from its short half-life daughter Ac-228 (T1/2 = 6.12 h). For Pb-210, the photopeak of 46.5 keV was used, which, due to the low energy, self-absorption correction was needed. Parameters such as precision, bias/accuracy, linearity, detection limit and uncertainty were evaluated for that purpose. The results have pointed to satisfying results. (author)

  14. A Preliminary Flight Test on a Basic Performance of the Flight Research Airplane Do 228:Velocity v.s. Glide Path Angle

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshikazu, Miyazawa; Takatsugu, Ono; Yasuhito, Kawagoe

    1989-01-01

    A preliminary flight test was conducted of the research airplane Dornier Do228-200 that is being modified for use as an in-flight simulator by the National Aerospace Laboratory. The basic performance of the airplane was evaluated by the flight test. Glide path angles were examined with various parameters, such as velocity, altitude, and power. The flight test results were compared with those of a mathematical model based on the Dornier GmbH wind-tunnel test data. Since an onboard data acquisi...

  15. Activity concentrations of Rn-222, Ra-226, Ra-228, U-238 and Cs-137 in water samples of Styria/Austria; Aktivitaetskonzentrationen von Rn-222, Ra-226, Ra-228, U-238 und Cs-137 in Wasserproben aus der Steiermark/Oesterreich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichl, E. [Verein zur Foerderung der Strahlenforschung Oesterreich, Graz (Austria). Strahlenmesstechnik Graz; Rauch, P. [Land Steiermark (Austria). Abt. 15 - Energie, Wohnbau, Technik

    2015-07-01

    Activity concentrations of radon (Rn-222), radium (Ra-226, Ra-228), uranium (U-238), and radiocesium (Cs-137), were determined in 50 water samples from different geogenic regions of Styria/Austria. Samples were collected in the years 2010, 2011 and 2012, by experts of the Styrian government. For measuring activities of U-238 we used a low energy-semiconductor detector, and a high purity-semiconductor detector to analyze the activities of all the other radionuclides. More than 90% of the activity concentrations of Rn-222 in all water samples were lower than 50 Bq/l. All activity concentrations observed for radium and uranium were lower than the detection limits of the corresponding radionuclides (Ra-226: 0,02 Bq/l, Ra-228: 0,03 Bq/l, U-238: 0,06 Bq/l). None of the water samples were contaminated by Cs-137.

  16. Methods for the determination of 234U/230 U, 230Th/232 Th and 228Ra/226Ra in uranium ores by TIMS%TIMS测定铀矿石样品中234U/238U、230Th/232Th、228Ra/226Ra的方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱明燕; 郭冬发; 崔建勇; 刘宇昂; 谭靖; 张彦辉

    2009-01-01

    研究了TIMS测定铀矿石样品中234 U/238 U、230 Th/232 Th、228 Ra/226 Ra的方法.建立了铀矿石密闭混酸一次溶样的方法和采用阴离子、阳离子和Sr特效树脂逐级离子交换分离纯化U、Th和Ra的流程,满足了TIMS测量要求.测定结果表明:100~1000 ng的天然铀中234U/238U,其测量精密度从静态多接收的2.34%提高到动态多接收的0.47%;对230Th与232Th丰度接近、质量为1 μg左右的钍,采用三带点样技术和法拉第多接收技术测定230Th/232Th,其内精度平均值为0.0048%,外精度为0.028%;采用单带加钽发射剂,ETP跳峰测定50~100 fg镭-228稀释剂中的228Ra/226Ra,其内精度小于0.10%,外精度小于0.20%.比较TIMS和HR-ICP-MS、α能谱法测定234U/238U、230Th/232Th、228Ra/226Ra结果,三者结果相吻合.TIMS测量法样品用量少、快速、准确、精密度高,是U,Th、Ra同位素比值测定方法的又一补充.

  17. Androgen dependence of hirsutism, acne, and alopecia in women: retrospective analysis of 228 patients investigated for hyperandrogenism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrer-Voegeli, Sandra; Rey, François; Reymond, Marianne J; Meuwly, Jean-Yves; Gaillard, Rolf C; Gomez, Fulgencio

    2009-01-01

    Hirsutism, acne, alopecia, and oligo-amenorrhea are clinical expressions of hyperandrogenism, one of the most frequent endocrine disorders in women of reproductive age. Women referred to our endocrine clinics for skin symptoms of hyperandrogenism underwent a laboratory workup to evaluate hormone measurements and received antiandrogen therapy. We retrospectively analyzed the outcome of 228 consecutive patients investigated over 6 years.Patients with hirsutism had higher levels of androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and salivary testosterone; lower levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG); and a higher prevalence of oligo-amenorrhea than patients with alopecia, while patients with acne showed intermediate values. Hirsutism score correlated positively with androstenedione, DHEAS, and salivary testosterone, and correlated negatively with SHBG; salivary testosterone showed the highest correlation coefficient. Total testosterone was not significantly different among patients with hirsutism, alopecia, or acne, and did not significantly correlate with hirsutism score. Hirsutism and oligo-amenorrhea were the most sensitive symptoms of hyperandrogenism, and no androgenic parameter alone allowed us to identify all cases of hyperandrogenism.Patients of central European origin sought consultation with milder hirsutism scores than patients of southern European origin. There was, however, no difference in the clinical-biological correlation between these groups, arguing against differences in skin sensitivity to androgens.Polycystic ovary syndrome, defined as hyperandrogenism (hirsutism or elevated androgens) and oligo-amenorrhea, was diagnosed in 63 patients (27.6%), an underestimate compared with other reports that include systematic ovarian ultrasound studies. Neither pelvic ultrasound, used in a limited number of cases, nor the luteinizing hormone/follicle-stimulating hormone ratio helped to distinguish patients with polycystic ovary syndrome from

  18. Ra-228, Ra-226, Pb-210 and Po-210 variations in the water columns and the surface water plankton in the Luzon Strait and northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Y.; Lin, C.; Wang, P.; Su, Y.

    2006-12-01

    Profiles of Ra-228, Ra-226, Pb-210 and Po-210 were measured in the Luzon Strait (LS) and northern South China Sea (SCS) areas to delineate the exchanges between the western Philippine Sea (WPS) and the northern SCS waters across the LS. Plankton samples were also collected for Po-210 and Pb-210 measurements to assess the balance between the Po-210 excess over Pb-210 in the plankton and the deficit in the surface water. Profiles of Ra-228 and Ra-226 seem to indicate the out flow of the SCS water below the salinity minimum and above around 1500m depth, below which the WPS water flows into the SCS through the LS above a sill depth of about 2600m. This is consistent with previous studies conducted in the area. All the Pb-210 profiles show a strong subsurface maximum with higher activity in the LS area. This maximum is in large excess over its parent, Ra-226 due to atmospheric input. Po-210 profiles generally follow the associated Pb-210 profiles but with lower activities, showing Po-210 deficiency. Po-210 is strongly enriched over Pb-210 in the plankton samples with an activity ratio generally over 10 and up to 40. Both nuclides in the plankton are higher in the LS area, a trend similar to the surface water. The Po-210 excess in the plankton can account for at least 70 percent of the surface water deficit, part of which may be removed by sinking particles.

  19. Studies of transport pathways of Th, rare earths, Ra-228, and Ra-226 from soil to plants and farm animals. Progress report, April 1, 1985-February 28, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The field study is to assess the soil-to-plant and soil-to-animal concentration factors of the naturally occurring radionuclides 226Ra, 228Ra, 232Th, 230Th, and 228Th, as well as of the light rare earth elements (REE), La, Ce and Nd. Farms situated near the center of a deeply weathered alkalic intrusive known as the Pocos de Caldas (PC) plateau were selected for study because of their proximity (i.e., within a few kilometers) to what may be the largest single near-surface deposit of Th (approx.30,000 tonnes) and REE's (>100,000 tonnes) situated near the summit of a hill (the Morro do Ferro (MF)). An ancillary field study is being conducted in Orange County, New York, where a local cattleman has permitted sampling members of the herd as well as soil and feeds which are all grown on the premises. Vegetable samples and soil have also been analyzed from five additional farms in Orange County, NY. 64 refs., 25 figs., 45 tabs

  20. Resistência de soja a insetos: II. Teste de livre escolha entre a linhagem IAC 73/228 e o cultivar Paraná, infestados por Nezara viridula (L. em telado Resistance of soybean to insects: II. Free choice test between the line IAC 73/228 and the cultivar Paraná infested by Nezara viridula(L. under screen cage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Jorge Rossetto

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available A linhagem de soja IAC 73/228 foi comparada com o cultivar Paraná, em condições de telado e com infestação artificial de Nezara viridula (L. (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae. As plantas foram cultivadas diretamente no solo do telado. Utilizou-se um delineamento em blocos ao acaso com dois tratamentos e trinta repetições, sendo a parcela de uma planta individual. Não houve diferença no número de percevejos observados infestando os dois tratamentos. O número de vagens planas (não granadas resultantes do dano causado pelos insetos, também não diferiu nos dois tratamentos. O número total de vagens da linhagem IAC 73/228 foi em média 291 e, o do 'Paraná', 100. O número de vagens cheias (com grãos desenvolvidos e o peso de grãos comerciais colhidos da linhagem IAC 73/228 foram maiores que os do 'Paraná'. Comparando as produções em peso dos dois materiais, com infestação artificial do inseto e sem infestação em telado contíguo, observou-se que a linhagem não sofreu nenhuma perda na sua produção devida à infestação do inseto, enquanto o cultivar sofreu 67,5% de quebra na produção. Por ocasião da colheita, todas as plantas do 'Paraná' apresentavam o sintoma de retenção foliar, conhecido por "soja louca", contra apenas quatro plantas (13,3% da linhagem IAC 73/228. Concluiu-se que os quatro critérios mais práticos para discriminar materiais resistentes de suscetíveis em condições de alto nível de infestação foram: produção em peso de grãos, porcentagem de plantas com retenção foliar, índice de dano de vagens da região mediana da planta e porcentagem de grãos sadios.A free choice type experiment was made, with two treatments (line IAC 73/228 and cultivar Paraná and thirty replications, inside a screen cage with artificial infestation of Nezara viridula (L. (Hemiptera : Pentatomidae. The level of infestation used in this experiment was, approximately, 1 adult per plant during the reproductive phase of the

  1. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 20 - Nationally Tracked Source Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Category 1(TBq) Category 1(Ci) Category 2(TBq) Category 2(Ci) Actinium-227 20 540 0.2 5.4 Americium-241 60... 2 54 Strontium-90 1,000 27,000 10 270 Thorium-228 20 540 0.2 5.4 Thorium-229 20 540 0.2 5.4...

  2. Activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Th, and 40K in different food crops from a high background radiation area in Bitsichi, Jos Plateau, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibiri, N N; Farai, I P; Alausa, S K

    2007-03-01

    One of the three goals of the United Nations for sustainable food security is to ensure that all people have access to sufficient, nutritionally adequate, and safe food. Decades of tin mining in the Bitsichi area of the Jos Plateau, Nigeria, have left a legacy of polluted water supplies, impoverished agricultural land, and soil containing abnormally high levels of naturally occurring radioactive elements. In order to ascertain the radiological food safety of the population, different crops that constitute the major food nutritive requirements were collected directly across farmlands in the area. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (228)Th, and (40)K were determined in the food and soil samples using gamma-ray spectrometry. Additionally, in situ gamma dose rate measurements were performed on the farms using a pre-calibrated survey meter. The corresponding activity concentrations in the food crops ranged from below detection limit (BDL) to 684.5 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K, from BDL to 83.5 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, and from BDL to 89.8 Bq kg(-1) for (228)Th. Activity concentrations of these radionuclides were found to be lower in cereals than in tubers and vegetables. As for the soil samples, activity concentrations of these radionuclides varied from BDL to 166.4 Bq kg(-1), from 10.9 to 470.6 Bq kg(-1), and from 122.7 to 2,189.5 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K, (226)Ra, and (228)Th, respectively. Average external gamma dose rates were found to vary across the farms from 0.50 +/- 0.01 to 1.47 +/- 0.04 microSv h(-1). Due to past mining activities, the soil radioactivity in the area has been modified and the concentration level of the investigated natural radionuclides in the food crops has also been enhanced. However, the values obtained suggest that the dose from intake of these radionuclides by the food crops is low and that harmful health effects are not expected. PMID:17211656

  3. SPATIALLY RESOLVED M-BAND EMISSION FROM IO’S LOKI PATERA–FIZEAU IMAGING AT THE 22.8 m LBT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, Albert; Veillet, Christian [LBT Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Kleer, Katherine de; Pater, Imke de [University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Leisenring, Jarron; Defrère, Denis; Hinz, Philip; Skemer, Andy [University of Arizona, 1428 E. University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Camera, Andrea La; Bertero, Mario; Boccacci, Patrizia [DIBRIS, University of Genoa, Via Dodecaneso 35, I-16146 Genova (Italy); Arcidiacono, Carmelo [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Hofmann, Karl-Heinz; Schertl, Dieter; Weigelt, Gerd [Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Kürster, Martin [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Rathbun, Julie [Planetary Science Institute, 1700 E. Fort Lowell, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Skrutskie, Michael [University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Spencer, John [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Ste. Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Woodward, Charles E., E-mail: aconrad@lbto.org [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, 116 Church St., Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    The Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer mid-infrared camera, LMIRcam, imaged Io on the night of 2013 December 24 UT and detected strong M-band (4.8 μm) thermal emission arising from Loki Patera. The 22.8 m baseline of the Large Binocular Telescope provides an angular resolution of ∼32 mas (∼100 km at Io) resolving the Loki Patera emission into two distinct maxima originating from different regions within Loki’s horseshoe lava lake. This observation is consistent with the presence of a high-temperature source observed in previous studies combined with an independent peak arising from cooling crust from recent resurfacing. The deconvolved images also reveal 15 other emission sites on the visible hemisphere of Io including two previously unidentified hot spots.

  4. Daily intakes of 238U, 234U, 232Th, 230Th, 228Th and 226Ra in the adult population of central Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietrzak-Flis, Z.; Rosiak, L.; Suplinska, M.M.; Chrzanowski, E.; Dembinska, S. [Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection, Konwaliowa 7, 03-194 Warsaw (Poland)

    2001-06-12

    Activity concentration of the uranium and thorium series radionuclides was determined in foodstuffs and drinking water in central Poland. Annual and daily intake for the adult population was estimated from the concentrations determined and average annual consumption of food and water. The daily intakes (in mBq) were 22.1 (238U), 26.5 (234U), 2.38 (232Th), 4.06 (230Th), 11.2 (228Th) and 42.2 (226Ra). The intake of uranium isotopes occurred mainly with water; the main intake of thorium isotopes was with animal products, vegetables, cereals and potatoes, whereas 226Ra entered mainly with animal products, cereals and vegetables. From the intake and dose coefficients, the annual effective doses for the ingested radionuclides were calculated. The annual effective dose was 5.95 {mu}Sv, of which 72.4% originated from 226Ra.

  5. The dietary intake of 238U, 234U, 230Th, 232Th, 228Th and 226Ra from food and drinking water by inhabitants of the Walbrzych region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intake with food and water of the natural radionuclides of the uranium and thorium series was determined for adult population of the south-western region in Poland, where in the 1950-ies an exploration of uranium ore was conducted. Concentration of the radionuclides was determined in food products and drinking water and their annual intake was estimated on the basis of the average annual consumption. The intake of 238U, 234U and 230Th occurred mainly with water (33% to 68%), whereas the intake of 232Th, 228Th and 226Ra was mainly with vegetables, potatoes, milk and flour. From the intake and dose coefficients the annual effective doses from the ingested radionuclides were calculated. The total dose was 5.6μSv, of which 74% originated from 226Ra. (author)

  6. Daily intakes of 238U, 234U, 232Th, 230Th, 228Th and 226Ra in the adult population of central Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activity concentration of the uranium and thorium series radionuclides was determined in foodstuffs and drinking water in central Poland. Annual and daily intake for the adult population was estimated from the concentrations determined and average annual consumption of food and water. The daily intakes (in mBq) were 22.1 (238U), 26.5 (234U), 2.38 (232Th), 4.06 (230Th), 11.2 (228Th) and 42.2 (226Ra). The intake of uranium isotopes occurred mainly with water; the main intake of thorium isotopes was with animal products, vegetables, cereals and potatoes, whereas 226Ra entered mainly with animal products, cereals and vegetables. From the intake and dose coefficients, the annual effective doses for the ingested radionuclides were calculated. The annual effective dose was 5.95 μSv, of which 72.4% originated from 226Ra

  7. Mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete state-of-the-art report of the RILEM technical committee 228-MPS on mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete

    CERN Document Server

    Schutter, Geert

    2014-01-01

    The State-of-the-Art Report of RILEM Technical Committee 228-MPS on Mechanical properties of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) summarizes an extensive body of information related to mechanical properties and mechanical behaviour of SCC. Due attention is given to the fact that the composition of SCC varies significantly. A wide range of  mechanical properties are considered, including compressive strength, stress-strain relationship, tensile and flexural strengths, modulus of elasticity, shear strength, effect of elevated temperature, such as fire spalling and residual properties after fire, in-situ properties, creep, shrinkage, bond properties, and structural behaviour. A chapter on fibre-reinforced SCC is included, as well as a chapter on specialty SCC, such as light-weight SCC, heavy-weight SCC, preplaced aggregate SCC, special fibre reinforced SCC, and underwater concrete.

  8. Effects of carbon dioxide and nitrogen on adhesive growth and expressions of E-cadherin and VEGF of human colon cancer cell CCL-228

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai-Lin Cai; Guo-Bing Wang; Li-Juan Xiong

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of carbon dioxide on the metastatic capability of cancer cells, and to compare them with that of nitrogen.METHODS: The colon cancer cell CCL-228 was treated with 100 % carbon dioxide or nitrogen at different time points and then cultured under normal condition. Twelve hours after the treatment, the survival rates of suspension cells and the expressions of e-cadherin and VEGF were examined.RESULTS: After 60 min of carbon dioxide and longer time of nitrogen treatment, the suspended cells increased and the expression of e-cadherin decreased while the expression of VEGF was enhanced significantly. And the effects of nitrogen were similar to, but weaker than, those of carbon dioxide.CONCLUSION: Carbon dioxide may improve the metastatic capability of cancer cells and its effects are significantly stronger than that of nitrogen. A sequential use of carbon dioxide and nitrogen in pneumoperitoneum may take the advantage of both gases.

  9. Studies of transport pathways of Th, U, REE's, Ra-228, and Ra-226 from soil to farm animals. Progress report, April 1-December 31, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a report on the Transport Pathways of Thorium, Uranium, Rare Earths Elements, Radium-228 and Radium-226 from Soil to Farm Animals. The investigation is taking place in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, where an ore body (Morro de Ferro) exists that contains about 30,000 metric tons of thorium and more than 50,000 metric tons of rare earth elements. The ore body, which is believed to be about 60 million years old, has eroded to the surface and has been inundated by ground water. Nearby farmers are cooperating in the study. The analytical procedures have been modified to adapt them to the large volumes of biological material. The soils from the farm plots have been sampled, analyzed and characterized by standard pedological methods. Analyses for most of the substances of interest have been completed in pilot samples of vegetables and cow bone

  10. Evaluation of the activity concentration of 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb in sediments from Antarctica in the Admiralty bay region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural radionuclides from radioactive series of 238U, 235U and 232Th have been applied as tracers in environmental studies for understanding the dynamics that occur in both marine and terrestrial environment, as for example, in research of oceanic processes and management of the coastal region. In the marine environment, these radionuclides can be used to estimate biogeochemical fluxes of marine particles and nutrients that occur in the water column as well as in the sediment. Several research works applied the distribution and the respective disequilibrium degree of natural radionuclides in the environment, including geochronological models for obtaining historical information on samples of certain sediment profile. In this study we performed a radiochemical characterization of the distribution of 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb from a sedimentary column called 1B (248 cm long) collected in the Admiralty Bay, Antarctic Peninsula region. The methodology used included the acid leaching of sediment samples followed by the radiochemical sequential separation of 226Ra and 228Ra by co-precipitation with Ba(Ra)SO4 and 210Pb by co-precipitation with PbCrO4. All measurements were carried out by counting of gross alpha and gross beta measures in a low background gas flow proportional detector. The activity concentrations of 226Ra and 210Pb were used to estimate the unsupported 210Pb activities present in sediment profile 1 B. Based on unsupported 210Pb data and the application of the CIC model (Constant Initial Concentration), it was possible to determine the sedimentation rate of 0.59 ± 0.05 cm /year. (author)

  11. Bioavailability of radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb present in the brazilian phosphate fertilizers and phosphogypsum; Avaliacao da biodisponibilidade dos radionuclideos {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra e {sup 210}Pb presentes nos fertilizantes fosfatados e no fosfogesso de procedencia nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Ana Carolina

    2013-08-01

    Phosphogypsum, also called gypsum, by-product of the phosphate fertilizer industry, can be used as soil conditioner since it provides improvements in the soil-plant system. However, this by-product concentrates radionuclides of the U and Th series, present in the phosphate rock used as raw material, which can impact the environment. In order to study the bioavailability of radionuclides, samples of phosphogypsum and phosphate fertilizers (monoammonium phosphate and triple superphosphate) were analyzed. The concentration of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb were determined by gamma spectrometry. The samples were leached with a mild EDTA solution and the radionuclides present in the final solution were determined by total alpha and beta counting on a gas flow proportional counter. The percentage of extraction varied from 1.6% to 1.7% for {sup 210}Pb, from 0.5% to 1.4% for {sup 226}Ra and from 0.1% to 1.0% for the {sup 228}Ra in phosphogypsum samples. The low percentage of extraction obtained for the radionuclides can be partly explained by the low solubility of phosphogypsum, which ranged from 7.7% to 16%. For the monoammonium phosphate samples the percentage of extraction were less than 26% for {sup 226}Ra, less than 10% for '2{sup 28}Ra and less than 10% for {sup 210}Pb. In spite of the high solubility of 77% of monoammonium phosphate in the EDTA solution, low concentrations of radionuclides were observed in the leached solution. For the triple superphosphate samples, the percentage of extraction was 2.3% for {sup 226}Ra, 1.2% for {sup 228}Ra and 11.3% for {sup 210}Pb. In spite of the high solubility of 66% of triple superphosphate in the EDTA solution, low concentrations of radionuclides were observed in the leached solution. (author)

  12. 228Ra/226Ra ratio and 7Be concentration in the Sea of Japan as indicators for water transport: comparison with migration pattern of Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP-derived 134Cs and 137Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the migration patterns of radiocesium emitted from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), we analyzed 228Ra/226Ra ratios and 7Be concentrations and compared them with 134Cs and 137Cs concentrations in seawater samples collected within the Sea of Japan before and after the FDNPP accident (i.e., during the period 2007–2012) using low-background γ-spectrometry. The 228Ra/226Ra ratios in surface waters exhibited lateral and seasonal variations, reflecting the flow patterns of surface water. This indicates the transport patterns of the FDNPP-derived radiocesium by surface water. Cosmogenic 7Be (half-life: 53.3 d) exhibited markedly high concentrations (5–10 mBq/L) at depths shallower than 50 m, with concentrations decreasing steeply (0.2–2 mBq/L) at depths of 50–250 m. The distribution of 7Be concentrations suggests that the downward delivery of the FDNPP-derived radiocesium to below 50 m depth was negligible for a few months prior to its removal from the Sea of Japan. -- Highlights: • We analyzed 7Be and 228Ra/226Ra ratio with 134Cs and 137Cs in the Sea of Japan. • 228Ra/226Ra ratio explained lateral migration of FDNPP-derived radiocesium in surface. • Vertical profile of 7Be concentration indicated minimal downward delivery of radiocesium

  13. Characterization of solar cells for space applications. Volume 11: Electrical characteristics of 2 ohm-cm, 228 micron wraparound solar cells as a function of intensity, temperature, and irradiation. [for solar electric propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Beckert, D. M.; Downing, R. G.; Weiss, R. S.

    1980-01-01

    Parametric characterization data on Spectrolab 2 by 4 cm, 2 ohm/cm, 228 micron thick wraparound cell, a candidate for the Solar Electric Propulsion Mission, are presented. These data consist of the electrical characteristics of the solar cell under a wide range of temperature and illumination intensity combinations of the type encountered in space applications.

  14. 228Ra, 226Ra, 224Ra and 223Ra in potential sources and sinks of land-derived material in the German Bight of the North Sea: implications for the use of radium as a tracer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, C.; Hanfland, C.; Regnier, P.; Van Cappellen, P.; Schlüter, M.; Knauthe, U.; Stimac, I.; Geibert, W.

    2011-01-01

    Activities of the naturally occurring radium nuclides 228Ra, 226Ra, 224Ra and 223Ra were determined in waters of the open German Bight and adjacent nearshore areas in the North Sea, in order to explore the potential use of radium isotopes as natural tracers of land–ocean interaction in an environmen

  15. 高分辨电感耦合等离子体质谱法测定铀矿石样品中234U/238U、230Th/232 Th和228Ra/226Ra同位素比值%Determination of 234U/238U、230Th/232Th、228Ra/226Ra Ratios in Uranium Ores by High-resolution Inductively Coupled PlasmaMass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭冬发; 张彦辉; 武朝晖; 朱明燕; 王玉学; 崔建勇; 谭靖

    2009-01-01

    采用氢氟酸-硝酸-盐酸混合酸密闭消解含铀矿石样品,用阴离子交换树脂、阳离子交换树脂和锶特效树脂逐级分离富集铀、钍和镭.使用高分辨电感耦合等离子体质谱(HR-ICPMS)测定分离纯化液中234 U/238 U、230 Th/232 Th和228 Ra/226 Ra同位素.比值的测量精密度取决于比值的大小和对应核素浓度的大小.对质量浓度为10 ng/mL天然铀测量液,234 U/238 U的测量精密度优于1.2%;对230 Th质量浓度为0.6ng/mL且瑚230 Th和232 Th质量浓度接近的测量液,230 Th/232 Th的测量精密度为1.2%;对228 Ra质量浓度为0.48 pg/mL且228 Ra和226 Ra质量浓度接近的测量液,228 Ra/226 Ra的测量精密度为4.0%.

  16. Studies of transport pathways of Th, U, rare earths, Ra-228, and Ra-226 from soil to plants and farm animals: Final progress report, 1983-1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linsalata, P

    1988-07-01

    This report consists of three parts. Part 1 discusses a field study conducted in an area of enhanced, natural radioactivity to assess the soil to edible vegetable concentration ratios (CR = concentration in dry vegetable/concentration in dry soil) of Th-232, Th-230, Ra-226, Ra-228, and the light rare earth elements (REE's), La, Ce, and Nd. Twenty-eight soil, and approximately 42 vegetable samples consisting of relatively equal numbers of seven varieties, were obtained from 11 farms on the Pocos de Caldas Plateau in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This region is the site of a major natural analogue study to assess the mobilization and retardation processes affecting thorium and the REE's at the Morro do Ferro ore body, and uranium series radionuclides at the Osamu Utsumi open pit uranium mine. Thorium (IV) serves as a chemical analogue for quadrivalent plutonium, the light REE's (III) as chemical analogues for trivalent americium and curium, and uranium (VI) as an analogue for transuranics with stable oxidation states above IV, e.g., Pu(VI). Part 2 includes our final measurement results for naturally occurring light rare earth elements (REE's include La, Ce, Nd, and SM), U-series and Th-series radionuclides in adult farm animal tissues, feeds and soils. Our findings on soil-to-tissue concentration ratios (CR's) and the comparative behavior of these elements in farm animals raised under natural conditions by local farmers are presented. Part 3 summarizes our findings to date on the distribution and mobilization of Th-232, light rare earth elements (LREE), U-238 and Ra-228 in the MF basin. Estimates of first order, present day, mobilization rate constants resulting from ground water solubilization and seepage/stream transport are calculated using revised inventory estimates for the occurrence of these elements in the ore body and annual flux estimates for the transport of these elements away from the ore body. 151 refs., 20 figs., 40 tabs.

  17. Nuclear star clusters in 228 spiral galaxies in the HST/WFPC2 archive: catalogue and comparison to other stellar systems

    CERN Document Server

    Georgiev, Iskren Y

    2014-01-01

    We present a catalogue of photometric and structural properties of 228 nuclear star clusters (NSCs) in nearby late-type disk galaxies. These new measurements are derived from a homogeneous analysis of all suitable WFPC2 images in the $HST$ archive. The luminosity and size of each NSC is derived from an iterative PSF-fitting technique, which adapts the fitting area to the effective radius ($r_{\\rm eff}$) of the NSC, and uses a WFPC2-specific PSF model tailored to the position of each NSC on the detector. The luminosities of NSCs are $\\leq\\!10^8L_{\\rm V,\\odot}$, and their integrated optical colours suggest a wide spread in age. We confirm that most NSCs have sizes similar to Globular Clusters (GCs), but find that the largest and brightest NSCs occupy the regime between Ultra Compact Dwarf (UCD) and the nuclei of early-type galaxies in the size-luminosity plane. The overlap in size, mass, and colour between the different incarnations of compact stellar systems provides a support for the notion that at least some...

  18. White organic light-emitting diodes based on emission from DPVBi-doped 4,48-bis (2,28-diphenylvinyl)-1,18-biphenyl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Rui-li; XU Yuan-zhe; CHEN Shu-fen; SONG Ji-bin; SONG Ji-cheng

    2006-01-01

    @@ White organic light-emitting diodes were fabricated by using 4,48-bis (2,28-diphenylvinyl) -1,18-biphenyl (DPVBi) as a dopant with a structure of ITO/4,4'-bis[N-(1-naphthyl-1-)-N-phenyl-amino]-biphenyl (NPB,50 nm)/NPB:DPVBi (molecular weight ratio 10∶1,30 nm)/tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum(Alq3,20 nm)/LiF(1 nm)/Al.A broad emissive band with four major peaks of 438,464,496 and 520 nm was obtained by electroluminescence spectra,of which 438 nm-,464 nm- and 520 nm-peak come from emission of NPB,DPVBi and Alq3,respectively,and 496 nm-one resulted from the emissive superposition of three materials above.The emission from DPVBi was attributed to the charge trapping from NPB.The emission region was transferred partly from Alq3 to DPVBi-doped NPB by introducing the dopant DPVBi,which leads to emission of DPVBi and an enhanced emission from NPB.The maximum luminance and current efficiency were 4721 cd/m2 at 22 V and 0.80 cd/A at 5V,respectively.

  19. Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, Hypermobility Type, Is Linked to Chromosome 8p22-8p21.1 in an Extended Belgian Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syx, Delfien; Symoens, Sofie; Steyaert, Wouter; De Paepe, Anne; Coucke, Paul J; Malfait, Fransiska

    2015-01-01

    Joint hypermobility is a common, mostly benign, finding in the general population. In a subset of individuals, however, it causes a range of clinical problems, mainly affecting the musculoskeletal system. Joint hypermobility often appears as a familial trait and is shared by several heritable connective tissue disorders, including the hypermobility subtype of the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS-HT) or benign joint hypermobility syndrome (BJHS). These hereditary conditions provide unique models for the study of the genetic basis of joint hypermobility. Nevertheless, these studies are largely hampered by the great variability in clinical presentation and the often vague mode of inheritance in many families. Here, we performed a genome-wide linkage scan in a unique three-generation family with an autosomal dominant EDS-HT phenotype and identified a linkage interval on chromosome 8p22-8p21.1, with a maximum two-point LOD score of 4.73. Subsequent whole exome sequencing revealed the presence of a unique missense variant in the LZTS1 gene, located within the candidate region. Subsequent analysis of 230 EDS-HT/BJHS patients resulted in the identification of three additional rare variants. This is the first reported genome-wide linkage analysis in an EDS-HT family, thereby providing an opportunity to identify a new disease gene for this condition. PMID:26504261

  20. Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, Hypermobility Type, Is Linked to Chromosome 8p22-8p21.1 in an Extended Belgian Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delfien Syx

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Joint hypermobility is a common, mostly benign, finding in the general population. In a subset of individuals, however, it causes a range of clinical problems, mainly affecting the musculoskeletal system. Joint hypermobility often appears as a familial trait and is shared by several heritable connective tissue disorders, including the hypermobility subtype of the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS-HT or benign joint hypermobility syndrome (BJHS. These hereditary conditions provide unique models for the study of the genetic basis of joint hypermobility. Nevertheless, these studies are largely hampered by the great variability in clinical presentation and the often vague mode of inheritance in many families. Here, we performed a genome-wide linkage scan in a unique three-generation family with an autosomal dominant EDS-HT phenotype and identified a linkage interval on chromosome 8p22-8p21.1, with a maximum two-point LOD score of 4.73. Subsequent whole exome sequencing revealed the presence of a unique missense variant in the LZTS1 gene, located within the candidate region. Subsequent analysis of 230 EDS-HT/BJHS patients resulted in the identification of three additional rare variants. This is the first reported genome-wide linkage analysis in an EDS-HT family, thereby providing an opportunity to identify a new disease gene for this condition.

  1. Evaluation of the activity concentration of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb in sediments from Antarctica in the Admiralty bay region; Avaliacao da concentracao de atividade de Ra-226, Ra-228 e Pb-210 em sedimentos provenientes da Antartica na regiao da baia do Almirantado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora, Tamires de Araujo

    2015-07-01

    The natural radionuclides from radioactive series of {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U and {sup 232}Th have been applied as tracers in environmental studies for understanding the dynamics that occur in both marine and terrestrial environment, as for example, in research of oceanic processes and management of the coastal region. In the marine environment, these radionuclides can be used to estimate biogeochemical fluxes of marine particles and nutrients that occur in the water column as well as in the sediment. Several research works applied the distribution and the respective disequilibrium degree of natural radionuclides in the environment, including geochronological models for obtaining historical information on samples of certain sediment profile. In this study we performed a radiochemical characterization of the distribution of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb from a sedimentary column called 1B (248 cm long) collected in the Admiralty Bay, Antarctic Peninsula region. The methodology used included the acid leaching of sediment samples followed by the radiochemical sequential separation of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra by co-precipitation with Ba(Ra)SO{sub 4} and {sup 210}Pb by co-precipitation with PbCrO{sub 4}. All measurements were carried out by counting of gross alpha and gross beta measures in a low background gas flow proportional detector. The activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb were used to estimate the unsupported {sup 210}Pb activities present in sediment profile 1 B. Based on unsupported {sup 210}Pb data and the application of the CIC model (Constant Initial Concentration), it was possible to determine the sedimentation rate of 0.59 ± 0.05 cm /year. (author)

  2. Activity ratios of (234)U/(238)U and (226)Ra/(228)Ra for transport mechanisms of elevated uranium in alluvial aquifers of groundwater in south-western (SW) Punjab, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A; Karpe, R K; Rout, S; Gautam, Y P; Mishra, M K; Ravi, P M; Tripathi, R M

    2016-01-01

    The concentrations of total dissolved uranium (U), its isotopic composition ((234)U, (235)U, (238)U) and two long lived Ra isotopes ((226)Ra and (228)Ra) in alluvial aquifers of groundwater were determined to investigate the groundwater flow pattern in the south-western (SW) Punjab, India. Particular attention was given to the spatial variability of activity ratios (ARs) of (234)U/(238)U and (226)Ra/(228)Ra to predict the possible sources and supply process of U into the water from the solid phase. The measured groundwater (234)U/(238)U ARs were ∼1 or >1 in the shallow zone (depth  30 m) with relatively low U concentration. The simultaneous elevated U concentration and (234)U/(238)U ARs in waters were possibly due to differences in imprints of rock-water interactions under hydrologic conditions. However, (234)U/(238)U ARs uranium in the aquifers.

  3. R22(8 motifs in Aminopyrimidine sulfonate/carboxylate interactions: Crystal structures of pyrimethaminium benzenesulfonate monohydrate (2:2:1 and 2-amino-4,6-dimethylpyrimidinium sulfosalicylate dihydrate (4:2:2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthiah Packianathan

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pyrimethamine [2,4-diamino-5-(p-chlorophenyl-6-ethylpyrimidine] is an antifolate drug used in anti-malarial chemotherapy. Pyrimidine and aminopyrimidine derivatives are biologically important compounds owing to their natural occurrence as components of nucleic acids. Results In the crystal structures of two organic salts, namely pyrimethaminium benzenesulfonate monohydrate 1 and 2-amino-4, 6-dimethylpyrimidinium 3-carboxy-4-hydroxy benzenesulfonate dihydrate 2, pyrimethamine (PMN and 2-amino-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine (AMPY are protonated at one of the nitrogens in the pyrimidine rings. In both the PMN and AMPY sulfonate complexes, the protonated pyrimidine rings are hydrogen bonded to the sulfonate groups, forming a hydrogen-bonded bimolecular ring motif with graph-set notation R22(8. The sulfonate group mimics the carboxylate anion's mode of association, which is more commonly seen when binding with 2-aminopyrimidines. In compound 1, the PMN moieties are centrosymmetrically paired through a complementary DADA array of hydrogen bonds. In compound 2, two types of bimolecular cyclic hydrogen bonded R22(8 motifs (one involving the carboxylate group and the other involving sulfonate group coexist. Furthermore, this compound is stabilized by intra and intermolecular O-H...O hydrogen bonds. Conclusion The crystal structures of pyrimethaminium benzenesulfonate monohydrate and 2-amino-4,6-dimethylpyrimidinium sulfosalicylate dihydrate have been investigated in detail. In compound 1, the R22(8 motif involving the sulfonate group is present. The role the sulfonic acid group plays in mimicking the carboxylate anions is thus evident. In compound 2, two types of bimolecular cyclic hydrogen bonded R22(8 motifs (one involving the carboxylate group and the other involving sulfonate group coexist. In both the compounds base pairing also occurs. Thus homo and hetero synthons are present.

  4. Activity ratios of (234)U/(238)U and (226)Ra/(228)Ra for transport mechanisms of elevated uranium in alluvial aquifers of groundwater in south-western (SW) Punjab, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A; Karpe, R K; Rout, S; Gautam, Y P; Mishra, M K; Ravi, P M; Tripathi, R M

    2016-01-01

    The concentrations of total dissolved uranium (U), its isotopic composition ((234)U, (235)U, (238)U) and two long lived Ra isotopes ((226)Ra and (228)Ra) in alluvial aquifers of groundwater were determined to investigate the groundwater flow pattern in the south-western (SW) Punjab, India. Particular attention was given to the spatial variability of activity ratios (ARs) of (234)U/(238)U and (226)Ra/(228)Ra to predict the possible sources and supply process of U into the water from the solid phase. The measured groundwater (234)U/(238)U ARs were ∼1 or >1 in the shallow zone (depth  30 m) with relatively low U concentration. The simultaneous elevated U concentration and (234)U/(238)U ARs in waters were possibly due to differences in imprints of rock-water interactions under hydrologic conditions. However, (234)U/(238)U ARs geochemistry of the two isotopes. On the other hand, (226)Ra/(228)Ra ARs in groundwaters varied widely and observed about 50-300 times higher than (238)U/(232)Th ARs in granitic rocks or soils. Such elevation in ARs might be attributed to different dissolution properties of their parents during water-rock interactions or lattice damage during decay or local enrichments of uranium in the aquifers. PMID:26555366

  5. Temporal evolution of natural radionuclides distributions 238U, 234Th, 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 210Po in the Bransfield strait, Antarctica peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on the distribution of natural radionuclides in Antarctica is rare and thus, there is great interest in to know their occurrence and factors related to its mobilization, transference and accumulation in this extremely fragile environment. Natural radionuclides have been used intensively as tracers in the ocean, helping to better understand processes as sinking and particle resuspension, water masses mixture and oceanic circulation. 234Th (t½ = 24.1 days) is a particle-reactive radionuclide produced continuously in seawater by the decay of its soluble precursor conservative with salinity 238U (t½ = 4.5 109 years). Since 234Th presents relatively short half-life, it is used to quantify processes that occur in temporal scale varying from days to weeks. The disequilibrium 234Th/238U in the surface ocean has been applied to estimate carbon fluxes exported via sinking material. The flux of particles biologically productive out of the euphotic zone in the Southern Ocean has special attention due to its importance in the control of CO2 atmospheric concentrations. The radionuclides 210Pb (t½ = 22.3 years) and 210Po (t½ = 138 days) are also particle-reactive. The disequilibrium 210Po/210Pb has been used to estimate fluxes of particles exported in the ocean in the time scale of weeks. The long-lived Ra isotopes, 226Ra (t½ = 1,600 years) and 228Ra (t½ = 5.75 years) are soluble in seawater, presenting unique properties that make them excellent tracers of water masses. This research work had the aim to study the distributions of natural radionuclides 238U, 234Th, 22'6Ra, 22'8Ra, 210Pb and 210Po in the Bransfield Strait during 2 samplings carried out in the 2011 Austral Summer (OPERANTAR XXIX and XXX). (author)

  6. Missense mutations in PBP2A Affecting ceftaroline susceptibility detected in epidemic hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clonotypes ST228 and ST247 in Western Switzerland archived since 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, William L; Jousselin, Ambre; Barras, Christine; Lelong, Emmanuelle; Renzoni, Adriana

    2015-04-01

    The development and maintenance of an arsenal of antibiotics is a major health care challenge. Ceftaroline is a new cephalosporin with activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); however, no reports concerning MRSA ceftaroline susceptibility have been reported in Switzerland. We tested the in vitro activity of ceftaroline against an archived set of 60 MRSA strains from the University Hospital of Geneva collected from 1994 to 2003. Our results surprisingly revealed ceftaroline-resistant strains (MIC, >1 μg/ml in 40/60 strains; EUCAST breakpoints, susceptible [S], ≤1 μg/ml; resistant [R], >1 μg/ml) were present from 1998 to 2003. The detected resistant strains predominantly belonged to sequence type 228 (ST228) (South German clonotype) but also to ST247 (Iberian clonotype). A sequence analysis of these strains revealed missense mutations in the penicillin-binding protein 2A (PBP2A) allosteric domain (N146K or E239K and N146K-E150K-G246E). The majority of our ST228 PBP2A mutations (N146K or E150K) were distinct from ST228 PBP2A allosteric domain mutations (primarily E239K) recently described for MRSA strains collected in Thailand and Spain during the 2010 Assessing Worldwide Antimicrobial Resistance Evaluation (AWARE) global surveillance program. We also found that similar allosteric domain PBP2A mutations (N146K) correlated with ceftaroline resistance in an independent external ST228 MRSA set obtained from the nearby University Hospital of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, collected from 2003 to 2008. Thus, ceftaroline resistance was observed in our archived strains (including two examples of an MIC of 4 µg/ml for the Iberian ST247 clonotype with the triple mutation N146K/E150K/G246E), at least as far back as 1998, considerably predating the commercial introduction of ceftaroline. Our results reinforce the notion that unknown parameters can potentially exert selective pressure on PBP2A that can subsequently modulate ceftaroline

  7. 210Pb- 226Ra and 228Ra- 232Th systematics in young arc lavas: implications for magma degassing and ascent rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Simon; Black, Stuart; Berlo, Kim

    2004-10-01

    New data show that island arc rocks have ( 210Pb/ 226Ra) o ratios which range from as low as 0.24 up to 2.88. In contrast, ( 228Ra/ 232Th) appears always within error of 1 suggesting that the large 226Ra-excesses observed in arc rocks were generated more than 30 years ago. This places a maximum estimate on melt ascent velocities of around 4000 m/year and provides further confidence that the 226Ra excesses reflect deep (source) processes rather than shallow level alteration or seawater contamination. Conversely, partial melting must have occurred more than 30 years prior to eruption. The 210Pb deficits are most readily explained by protracted magma degassing. Using published numerical models, the data suggest that degassing occurred continuously for periods up to several decades just prior to eruption but no link with eruption periodicity was found. Longer periods are required if degassing is discontinuous, less than 100% efficient or if magma is recharged or stored after degassing. The long durations suggest much of this degassing occurs at depth with implications for the formation of hydrothermal and copper-porphyry systems. A suite of lavas erupted in 1985-1986 from Sangeang Api volcano in the Sunda arc are characterised by deficits of 210Pb relative to 226Ra from which 6-8 years of continuous 222Rn degassing would be inferred from recent numerical models. These data also form a linear ( 210Pb)/Pb-( 226Ra)/Pb array which might be interpreted as a 71-year isochron. However, the array passes through the origin suggesting displacement downwards from the equiline in response to degassing and so the slope of the array is inferred not to have any age significance. Simple modelling shows that the range of ( 226Ra)/Pb ratios requires thousands of years to develop consistent with differentiation occurring in response to cooling at the base of the crust. Thus, degassing post-dated, and was not responsible for magma differentiation. The formation, migration and extraction

  8. Behaviour of {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 226}Ra in rock alterations: study of Morungaba granitoids, SP-Brazil and ground water in its fractures; Comportamento de {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 228}Ra e {sup 226}Ra na alteracao de rochas: estudo dos granitoides de Morungaba (SP) e aguas subterraneas de suas fraturas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Rosana N. dos [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica]. E-mail: rosana@pucsp.br; Marques, Leila S. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas. Dept. de Geofisica]. E-mail: leila@iag.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    This work presents the first results obtained on the investigation of the behavior of uranium and radium radioisotopes in the processes of weathering and rock-water interaction of Morungaba granitoids belonging to Meridional Pluton (Valinhos Town-SP-Brazil). Specific activities of {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 226}Ra were determined in non altered granitoids (Group A), as well as in those affected by different degrees of weathering (Groups B, C and D). The uranium specific activities were determined by alpha spectrometry method, whereas for the determination of radium isotopes high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry technique was employed. The data indicate that {sup 238}U and {sup 234}U are in radioactive equilibrium in the fresh analyzed granitoids, but show a slight depletion of {sup 234}U in relation to {sup 238}U in the weathered rocks. The ({sup 226}Ra/{sup 238}U) and ({sup 226}Ra/{sup 234}U) activity ratios of all investigated rocks are similar, showing a significant {sup 226}Ra depletion, which is probably caused by its preferential leaching. These results indicate that even samples macroscopically classified as fresh rocks, their systems have been opened for some geochemical changes. The high ({sup 234}U/{sup 238}U) activity ratios of groundwaters which are found in the fractures of these granitoids suggest their prolonged residence times in the aquifer and/or their percolation by other rocks presenting different geochemical properties. (author)

  9. The S228P mutation prevents in vivo and in vitro IgG4 Fab-arm exchange as demonstrated using a combination of novel quantitative immunoassays and physiological matrix preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, John-Paul; Vetterlein, Olivia; Jose, Joby; Peters, Shirley; Kirby, Hishani

    2015-02-27

    Human immunoglobulin G isotype 4 (IgG4) antibodies (Abs) are potential candidates for immunotherapy when reduced effector functions are desirable. IgG4 Abs are dynamic molecules able to undergo a process known as Fab arm exchange (FAE). This results in functionally monovalent, bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) with unknown specificity and hence, potentially, reduced therapeutic efficacy. IgG4 FAE is suggested to be an important biological mechanism that provides the basis for the anti-inflammatory activity attributed to IgG4 Abs. To date, the mechanism of FAE is not entirely understood and studies measuring FAE in ex vivo matrices have been hampered by the presence and abundance of endogenous IgG4 wild-type (WT) Abs. Using representative humanized WT IgG4 monoclonal Abs, namely, anti-IL-6 and anti-TNF, and a core-hinge stabilized serine 228 to proline (S228P) anti-IL-6 IgG4 mutant, it is demonstrated for the first time how anti-IgG4 affinity chromatography can be used to prepare physiologically relevant matrices for assessing and quantifying FAE. A novel method for quantifying FAE using a single MSD immunoassay is also reported and confirms previous findings that, dependent on the redox conditions, the S228P mutation can prevent IgG4 FAE to undetectable levels both in vitro and in vivo. Together, the findings and novel methodologies will allow researchers to monitor and quantify FAE of their own IgG4 molecules in physiologically relevant matrices.

  10. Entwicklung und Validierung einer kombinierten Schnellanalysenmethode zur Bestimmung der natürlichen Radionuklide 210Pb, 210Po, 226Ra, 228Ra, 234U und 238U in Trinkwasser

    OpenAIRE

    Schuster, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Der Richtwert der effektiven Dosis für den Verzehr von Trinkwasser beträgt 0,1 mSv pro Jahr. Zur Berechnung der Dosis müssen die Aktivitätskonzentrationen der relevanten Radionuklide bestimmt werden. Einige Analysenmethoden zur Bestimmung dieser natürlichen Radionuklide sind bekannt, jedoch benötigt man für jedes Nuklid einen komplett anderen und zeitaufwändigen Trennungsgang. In dieser Arbeit wird eine Analysenmethode vorgestellt, mit der die natürlichen Radionuklide 210Pb, 210Po, 226Ra, 228...

  11. Occurrence of Radium-224, Radium-226 and Radium-228 in Water from the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel Aquifers, the Englishtown Aquifer System, and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands, Southwestern and South-Central New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    dePaul, Vincent T.; Szabo, Zoltan

    2007-01-01

    This investigation is the first regionally focused study of the presence of natural radioactivity in water from the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifers, Englishtown aquifer system, and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands. Geologic materials composing the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifers and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands previously have been reported to contain radioactive (uranium-enriched) phosphatic strata, which is common in deposits from some moderate-depth coastal marine environments. The decay of uranium and thorium gives rise to natural radioactivity and numerous radioactive progeny, including isotopes of radium. Naturally occurring radioactive isotopes, especially those of radium, are of concern because radium is a known human carcinogen and ingestion (especially in water used for drinking) can present appreciable health risks. A regional network in southwestern and south-central New Jersey of 39 wells completed in the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifers, the Englishtown aquifer system, and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands was sampled for determination of gross alpha-particle activity; concentrations of radium radionuclides, major ions, and selected trace elements; and physical properties. Concentrations of radium-224, radium-226, and radium-228 were determined for water from 28 of the 39 wells, whereas gross alpha-particle activity was determined for all 39. The alpha spectroscopic technique was used to determine concentrations of radium-224, which ranged from less than 0.5 to 2.7 pCi/L with a median concentration of less than 0.5pCi/L, and of radium-226, which ranged from less than 0.5 to 3.2 pCi/L with a median concentration of less than 0.5 pCi/L. The beta-counting technique was used to determine concentrations of radium-228. The concentration of radium-228 ranged from less than 0.5 to 4.3 pCi/L with a median of less than 0.5. Radium-228, when quantifiable, had the greatest concentration of the three radium

  12. Determination of 210Pb, 210Po, 226Ra, 228Ra and uranium isotopes in drinking water in order to comply with the requirements of the EU ‘Drinking Water Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasile, M; Loots, H; Jacobs, K; Verheyen, L; Sneyers, L; Verrezen, F; Bruggeman, M

    2016-03-01

    The European Union published in 2013 a new Drinking Water Directive with stricter requirements for measuring natural radioactivity. In order to adhere to this, a method for sequential separation of 210Pb, 210Po, 238U and 234U in drinking water was applied using UTEVA® and Sr resins. Polonium-210, 238U and 234U were quantified using alpha-particle spectrometry and 210Pb using liquid scintillation counting. Radium-226 and 228Ra were determined using 3M Empore Radium RAD Disks, and their quantification was done using a Quantulus™ 1220 liquid scintillation counter. PMID:27358946

  13. Activity concentration and radiological impact assessment of 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K in drinking waters from (OML) 30, 58 and 61 oil fields and host communities in Niger Delta region of Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides (226Ra, 228Ra and 40K) measured in hand dug wells, boreholes and river waters collected from three oil mineral leases (OML) 30, 58 and 61 oil and gas fields onshore of the Niger delta, using gamma spectroscopy. Fifty-four water samples from the three sources of drinking water supply were collected within the oil fields and host communities and three water samples from a control site. The results showed average activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K as 8.9 ± 1.0, 8.1 ± 0.9 and 39.8 ± 3.3 respectively for hand dug wells, 4.4 ± 0.8, 4.6 ± 0.5 and 28.5 ± 3.0 for borehole water and 8.2 ± 1.0, 6.7 ± 0.7 and 32.1 ± 3.5 for river water respectively. These 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K average are well above the WHO permissible levels of 1.0, 0.1 and 10 BqL−1 respectively and also above the control values. Although the hazard indices calculated are still within their tolerable levels, the estimated committed effective dose due to intake of the sampled water for all the four age groups considered are far above the ICPR 0.1 mSvyr−1 maximum permissible limit. The result indicates some level of water pollution in the studied area. - Highlights: ► The concentration of natural radioactive series nuclides varies widely within oil fields and from one oil field to another in the OML30. ► The radionuclide activity concentrations in most water samples are higher than world average values. ► Calculated hazard indices and committed effective dose to assess the potential radiological health risk in samples are well above their permissible limit. ► The sources of water in these oil fields have been polluted and may cause some health hazard to the public users.

  14. Temporal evolution of natural radionuclides distributions {sup 238}U, {sup 234}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in the Bransfield strait, Antarctica peninsula; Evolucao temporal das distribuicoes dos radionuclideos naturais {sup 238}U, {sup 234}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po no estreito de Bransfiel, peninsula Antartica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapa, Flavia Valverde

    2013-07-01

    Research on the distribution of natural radionuclides in Antarctica is rare and thus, there is great interest in to know their occurrence and factors related to its mobilization, transference and accumulation in this extremely fragile environment. Natural radionuclides have been used intensively as tracers in the ocean, helping to better understand processes as sinking and particle resuspension, water masses mixture and oceanic circulation. {sup 234}Th (t½ = 24.1 days) is a particle-reactive radionuclide produced continuously in seawater by the decay of its soluble precursor conservative with salinity {sup 238}U (t½ = 4.5 10{sup 9} years). Since {sup 234}Th presents relatively short half-life, it is used to quantify processes that occur in temporal scale varying from days to weeks. The disequilibrium {sup 234}Th/{sup 238}U in the surface ocean has been applied to estimate carbon fluxes exported via sinking material. The flux of particles biologically productive out of the euphotic zone in the Southern Ocean has special attention due to its importance in the control of CO{sub 2} atmospheric concentrations. The radionuclides {sup 210}Pb (t½ = 22.3 years) and {sup 210}Po (t½ = 138 days) are also particle-reactive. The disequilibrium {sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb has been used to estimate fluxes of particles exported in the ocean in the time scale of weeks. The long-lived Ra isotopes, {sup 226}Ra (t½ = 1,600 years) and {sup 228}Ra (t½ = 5.75 years) are soluble in seawater, presenting unique properties that make them excellent tracers of water masses. This research work had the aim to study the distributions of natural radionuclides {sup 238}U, {sup 234}Th, {sup 22}'6Ra, {sup 22}'8Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in the Bransfield Strait during 2 samplings carried out in the 2011 Austral Summer (OPERANTAR XXIX and XXX). (author)

  15. Seasonal variations in activity concentrations of 137Cs, 40K, 7Be, 228Ac, 99Tc, 90Sr, and 239/240Pu in Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum from the South-Eastern coast of Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown algae have been proven to be useful indicator organisms for heavy metals and radionuclides in the marine environments due to their ability to concentrate elements from the ambient water. There is quite a lot of data available on 137Cs in brown algae, especially for Fucus Vesiculosus. Fucus Vesiculosus is also commonly used to monitor the impact of the releases of 99Tc from the reprocessing plant in Sellafield. There is however a lack of data for other long-lived anthropogenic nuclides as 90Sr and Pu, and for natural occurring radionuclides. There is also a need for more knowledge about the mechanisms for uptake and accumulation of the different elements, and about different factors influencing the uptake. In this study activity concentrations of 137Cs, 40K, 7Be, 228Ac, 99Tc, 90Sr and 239/240Pu are measured in whole plants of Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum collected over a period of one year from the south-eastern coast of Norway. Significant differences between the two species have been found. For 137Cs, 40K, 7Be, 228Ra and 239/240Pu, the activity concentrations were significantly higher in Fucus vesiculosus than in Ascophyllum nodosum, whereas for 99Tc the activity concentrations were higher in Ascophyllum nodosum than in Fucus vesiculosus. There were great seasonal variations in the concentrations of the measured radionuclides. For 99Tc there was also a difference in the temporal pattern for the two species. Possible uptake mechanisms will be discussed based on the results and on the known physiological differences between the two species. (author)

  16. QTL Information Table: 228 [Q-TARO

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available i 63 B C547 C2340 pha Xing, Z., Tan, F., Hua, P., Sun, L., Xu, G., and Zhang, Q. (2002). Characterization of the main effects..., epistatic effects and their environmental interactions of QTLs on the genetic basis of yield traits in rice. Theor Appl Genet 105, 248-257. ...

  17. 36 CFR 228.58 - Competitive sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cubic yards must be advertised on the same day once a week for two consecutive weeks in a newspaper of general circulation in the area where the material is located, and in a trade or industrial newspaper when... other access to the sale area which is available to anyone qualified to bid. (b) Advertising—(1)...

  18. 40 CFR 228.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... agencies, public data archives, and social and economic studies and records of affected areas. (d) The term... social and economic studies and records of areas which would be affected by use of the proposed site. (e) The term management authority means the EPA organizational entity assigned responsibility...

  19. 36 CFR 228.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., development, mining or processing of mineral resources and all uses reasonably incident thereto, including... conduct operations. (c) Person. Any individual, partnership, corporation, association, or other legal... States mining laws of May 10, 1872, as amended (30 U.S.C. 22 et seq.). (e) Authorized officer. The...

  20. 50 CFR 228.17 - Direct testimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... at the hearing by a witness shall be considered part of the record. Such direct testimony shall not... immaterial parts thereof; (b) The witness introducing direct testimony shall: (1) State his or her name... direct testimony if such party fails to present a witness to introduce the direct testimony. (d)...

  1. 22 CFR 228.01 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... transaction which is necessary to effect a physical transfer of commodities to the cooperating country... Mission or representative in a cooperating country. (j) Origin means the country where a commodity is... Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES ON SOURCE, ORIGIN AND NATIONALITY FOR COMMODITIES...

  2. Remarks on the cavitation of Thorium-228

    CERN Document Server

    Cardone, F; Petrucci, A

    2010-01-01

    In this short note we would like to provide some useful remarks on our previous work about the piezonuclear decay of Thorium and in general about the methods and protocols that we used in the experiments on piezonuclear reactions. The purpose of these remarks is to highlight the critical points of the experiments and equipment in order to design future experiments that may obtain positive evidences or that can be as more comparable to previous ones as possible.

  3. 48 CFR 228.370 - Additional clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... subcontractor is a permittee or licensee or has a right to use, including Government airfields. (iv) Revise...-7006, Compliance with Spanish Laws and Insurance, in solicitations and contracts for services or construction to be performed in Spain, unless the contractor is a Spanish concern....

  4. 36 CFR 228.41 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... vegetative materials used as or for: Soil conditioners or amendments applied to physically alter soil... soil amendment because of a constituent element other than calcium or magnesium carbonate that... Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Disposal...

  5. Linear free energy relationship applied to trivalent cations with lanthanum and actinium oxide and hydroxide structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linear free energy relationships for trivalent cations with crystalline M2O3 and, M(OH)3 phases of lanthanides and actinides were developed from known thermodynamic properties of the aqueous trivalent cations, modifying the Sverjensky and Molling equation. The linear free energy relationship for trivalent cations is as ΔGf,MvX0=aMvXΔGn,M3+0+bMvX+βMvXrM3+, where the coefficients aMvX, bMvX, and βMvX characterize a particular structural family of MvX, rM3+ is the ionic radius of M3+ cation, ΔGf,MvX0 is the standard Gibbs free energy of formation of MvX and ΔGn,M3+0 is the standard non-solvation free energy of the cation. The coefficients for the oxide family are: aMvX=0.2705, bMvX=-1984.75 (kJ/mol), and βMvX=197.24 (kJ/molnm). The coefficients for the hydroxide family are: aMvX=0.1587, bMvX=-1474.09 (kJ/mol), and βMvX=791.70 (kJ/molnm).

  6. Actinium: A RESTful Runtime Container for Scriptable Internet of Things Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Kovatsch, Matthias; Lanter, Martin; Duquennoy, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Programming Internet of Things (IoT) applications is challenging because developers have to be knowledgeable in various technical domains, from low-power networking, over embedded operating systems, to distributed algorithms. Hence, it will be challenging to find enough experts to provide software for the vast number of expected devices, which must also be scalable and particularly safe due to the connection to the physical world. To remedy this situation, we propose an architecture that pr...

  7. Reflection asymmetry in odd-A and odd-odd actinium nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical calculations and measurements indicate that octupole correlations are at a maximum in the ground states of the odd-proton nuclei Ac and Pa. It has been expected that odd-odd nuclei should have even larger amount of octupole-octupole correlations. We have recently made measurements on the structure of 224Ac. Although spin and parity assignments could not be made, two bands starting at 354.1 and 360.0 keV have properties characteristic of reflection asymmetric shape. These two bands have very similar rotational constants and also similar alpha decay rates, which suggest similarity between the wavefunctions of these bands. These signatures provide evidence for octupole correlations in these nuclides

  8. Bestimmung der Ionisationsenergie von Actinium und Ultraspurenanalyse von Plutonium mit resonanter Ionisationsmassenspektrometrie (RIMS)

    OpenAIRE

    Waldek, Achim Marcus

    2001-01-01

    ZusammenfassungDie Resonanzionisationsmassenspektrometrie (RIMS) verbindet hohe Elementselektivität mit guter Nachweiseffizienz. Aufgrund dieser Eigenschaften ist die Methode für Ultraspurenanalyse und Untersuchungen an seltenen oder schwer handhabbaren Elementen gut geeignet. Für RIMS werden neutrale Atome mit monochromatischem Laserlicht ein- oder mehrfach resonant auf energetisch hoch liegende Niveaus angeregt und anschließend durch einen weiteren Laserstrahl oder durch ein elektrisches Fe...

  9. Diagnotistic analysis and numerical simulation of severe convection on February 28,2008 in low - latitude plateau%2008年"2.28"低纬高原强对流成因诊断与数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤红; 肖子牛; 艾永智

    2011-01-01

    Using the convention observed data,the NCEP1° × 1° grid point material, the mesoscale numerical model WRF, the severe convection in low - latitude plateau on February 28,2008 has been diagnotistic analysed and numerical simulated. The result shows that the severe convection, which occurred under the Spring low temperature, freezing calamity and potential stability condition,cause include strong vertical wind shear, wet low level, adequate vapor served and severe lift movement. In this extremely convection process, severe convection result in the rapid release of strong absolute baroclinic instability, which happen about the wet lingua of low level. The negative twenty degree Celsius layer over hailstorm, thunderstorm snow region on 450 hPa level, the temperature gradient between zero and negative twenty degree celsius of hailstorm is bigger than the thunderstorm snow' s, the saturated vapor location of hailstorm is higher. Vertical dry potential vorticity ( PV) takes on the characteristic of the upper troposphere high PV of strong dry and cold northwest air tends downwards to the low - level and low - latitude, which join with the worm, wet southwest jet on middle and low - level. The WRF simulation scheme in the test has good simulated capability, the case that strong vertical wind shear can cause sever convection under potential stability condition are well validated, the simulation results by WRF meso - scale numerical model such as horizontal wind,lifted condensation level and max convective available potential energy can well indicate the occurrence and kind of strong convection in Yunnan.%利用常规观测、NCEP1°×1°再分析资料和中尺度WRF模式,对低纬高原云南2008年"2.28"强对流进行成因诊断和数值模拟研究,结果表明:此次复杂强对流在春季低温冷冻灾害和位势稳定背景下,由强垂直风切变、低层潮湿和足够水汽供应以及强抬升机制共同作用造成.过程中,强对流由强斜压不稳

  10. Seasonal variations in activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 7}Be, {sup 228}Ac, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 239/240}Pu in Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum from the South-Eastern coast of Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raaum, A.; Christensen, G.C. [Institute for Energy Technology, Health and Safety Dept., Kjeller (Norway)

    2004-07-01

    Brown algae have been proven to be useful indicator organisms for heavy metals and radionuclides in the marine environments due to their ability to concentrate elements from the ambient water. There is quite a lot of data available on {sup 137}Cs in brown algae, especially for Fucus Vesiculosus. Fucus Vesiculosus is also commonly used to monitor the impact of the releases of {sup 99}Tc from the reprocessing plant in Sellafield. There is however a lack of data for other long-lived anthropogenic nuclides as {sup 90}Sr and Pu, and for natural occurring radionuclides. There is also a need for more knowledge about the mechanisms for uptake and accumulation of the different elements, and about different factors influencing the uptake. In this study activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 7}Be, {sup 228}Ac, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239/240}Pu are measured in whole plants of Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum collected over a period of one year from the south-eastern coast of Norway. Significant differences between the two species have been found. For {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 7}Be, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 239/240}Pu, the activity concentrations were significantly higher in Fucus vesiculosus than in Ascophyllum nodosum, whereas for {sup 99}Tc the activity concentrations were higher in Ascophyllum nodosum than in Fucus vesiculosus. There were great seasonal variations in the concentrations of the measured radionuclides. For {sup 99}Tc there was also a difference in the temporal pattern for the two species. Possible uptake mechanisms will be discussed based on the results and on the known physiological differences between the two species. (author)

  11. On the kinetic and thermodynamic fragility of the Pt{sub 60}Cu{sub 16}Co{sub 2}P{sub 22} and Pt{sub 57.3}Cu{sub 14.6}Ni{sub 5.3}P{sub 22.8} bulk metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallino, Isabella, E-mail: i.gallino@mx.uni-saarland.de [Saarland University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Campus C6.3, 66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Gross, Oliver [Saarland University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Campus C6.3, 66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Dalla Fontana, Giulia [Department of Chemistry IFM and NIS, University of Torino, V. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Evenson, Zach; Busch, Ralf [Saarland University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Campus C6.3, 66123 Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • The studied Pt–Cu–(Ni,Co)–P glasses are more fragile than Zr-based alloys. • They show large increases in the C{sub p} at T{sub g} and small barriers for cooperative rearrangements of atoms. • They have fragility parameters among the lowest reported for BMG systems (D{sup *} = 10–12). • They crystallize into a state that melts with distinctly high entropy of fusion. • The microscopic origin of their fragility seems different than that for Zr- and Pd-based BMGs. - Abstract: The investigations in this study focus on bulk metallic glass (BMG) alloy families based on noble metals like Pt, which are more kinetically fragile than Zr-based BMG systems. Thermophysical properties have been investigated by calorimetry and thermal mechanical analyses for the determination of the specific heat capacity and viscosity, respectively. For the Pt{sub 60}Cu{sub 16}Co{sub 2}P{sub 22} and Pt{sub 57.3}Cu{sub 14.6}Ni{sub 5.3}P{sub 22.8} BMG compositions consistent Vogel–Fulcher–Tammann (VFT) fits of the viscosity measurements are established, and the temperature dependence of the configurational entropy is calculated from thermodynamic data. Fits to the Adam–Gibbs equation are performed using this configurational entropy change. Their fragile nature is compared to that of Zr-based alloys in terms of structural considerations.

  12. Purification of radium-226 for the manufacturing of actinium-225 in a cyclotron for alpha-immunotherapy; Radium-Aufreinigung zur Herstellung von Actinium-225 am Zyklotron fuer die Alpha-Immuntherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, Sebastian Markus

    2014-09-23

    The thesis describes the development of methods for the purification of Ra-226. The objective was to obtain the radionuclide in the quality that is needed to be used as starting material in the manufacturing process for Ac-225 via proton-irradiated Ra-226. The radionuclide has been gained efficiently out of huge excesses of impurities. The high purity of the obtained radium affords its use as staring material in a pharmaceutical manufacturing process.

  13. Renal uptake of bismuth-213 and its contribution to kidney radiation dose following administration of actinium-225-labeled antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, J; O' Donoghue, J A; Humm, J L [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Jaggi, J S [Bristol-Myers Squibb, Plainsboro, NJ (United States); Ruan, S; Larson, S M [Nuclear Medicine Service Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); McDevitt, M; Scheinberg, D A, E-mail: schwarj1@mskcc.org [Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry, Sloan-Kettering Institute, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

    2011-02-07

    Clinical therapeutic studies using {sup 225}Ac-labeled antibodies have begun. Of major concern is renal toxicity that may result from the three alpha-emitting progeny generated following the decay of {sup 225}Ac. The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of {sup 225}Ac and non-equilibrium progeny in the mouse kidney after the injection of {sup 225}Ac-huM195 antibody and examine the dosimetric consequences. Groups of mice were sacrificed at 24, 96 and 144 h after injection with {sup 225}Ac-huM195 antibody and kidneys excised. One kidney was used for gamma ray spectroscopic measurements by a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The second kidney was used to generate frozen tissue sections which were examined by digital autoradiography (DAR). Two measurements were performed on each kidney specimen: (1) immediately post-resection and (2) after sufficient time for any non-equilibrium excess {sup 213}Bi to decay completely. Comparison of these measurements enabled estimation of the amount of excess {sup 213}Bi reaching the kidney ({gamma}-ray spectroscopy) and its sub-regional distribution (DAR). The average absorbed dose to whole kidney, determined by spectroscopy, was 0.77 (SD 0.21) Gy kBq{sup -1}, of which 0.46 (SD 0.16) Gy kBq{sup -1} (i.e. 60%) was due to non-equilibrium excess {sup 213}Bi. The relative contributions to renal cortex and medulla were determined by DAR. The estimated dose to the cortex from non-equilibrium excess {sup 213}Bi (0.31 (SD 0.11) Gy kBq{sup -1}) represented {approx}46% of the total. For the medulla the dose contribution from excess {sup 213}Bi (0.81 (SD 0.28) Gy kBq{sup -1}) was {approx}80% of the total. Based on these estimates, for human patients we project a kidney-absorbed dose of 0.28 Gy MBq{sup -1} following administration of {sup 225}Ac-huM195 with non-equilibrium excess {sup 213}Bi responsible for approximately 60% of the total. Methods to reduce renal accumulation of radioactive progeny appear to be necessary for the success of {sup 225}Ac radioimmunotherapy.

  14. Dicty_cDB: VHC228 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CTTACCTCGT TTAA sequence update 2002.10.25 Translated Amino Acid sequence rkccstinptfmink...IIVKQYHLLNNFDEFTNRSALFAGRKQTIQDLQSRTQCIALFAGKIDFPM SGNILPRL Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: rkccstinptfmink

  15. 12 CFR 228.26 - Small bank performance standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... performance is evaluated pursuant to the following criteria: (1) The bank's loan-to-deposit ratio, adjusted... bank performance standards. (a) Performance criteria—(1) Small banks that are not intermediate small...) pursuant to the criteria set forth in paragraph (b) of this section. (2) Intermediate small banks....

  16. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 228 - Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., often in a leadership position; (B) Extensive use of innovative or complex qualified investments; and (C... investors, occasionally in a leadership position; (B) Significant use of innovative or complex qualified... private investors, although rarely in a leadership position; (B) Occasional use of innovative or...

  17. 36 CFR 228.108 - Surface use requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; (iv) Reshape and revegetate disturbed areas; (v) Remove structures, improvements, facilities and... operator shall not conduct operations in areas subject to mass soil movement, riparian areas and wetlands... area of operation and to suppress uncontrolled fires resulting from the operations. (f)...

  18. 36 CFR 228.8 - Requirements for environmental protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and forest surface resources including: (1) Control of erosion and landslides; (2) Control of water... Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1151 et seq.). (c) Solid Wastes. Operator shall comply with applicable... to minimize or, where practicable, eliminate damage to soil, water, and other resource values....

  19. Dicty_cDB: VFB228 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 150475 |pid:none) Macaca mulatta prostatic acid phos... 60 2e-13 (Q8CE08) RecName: Full=Prostatic acid phosp...hatase; EC=3... 57 2e-13 AF210243_1( AF210243 |pid:none) Mus musculus prostatic acid phosph... 56 4e-13 BC09

  20. 48 CFR 1452.228-70 - Liability Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liability Insurance. 1452... Insurance. As prescribed in 1428.301, insert the following clause: Liability Insurance—Department of the... extension thereof liability insurance in form satisfactory to the Contracting Officer by an...

  1. Dicty_cDB: SFD228 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available invnfgsimrkvi*lskvicvt*rmkvcqlkvplekvn* slllilnihrilqmmilknslksyqklppllfqnlivnrlv...ny*tqslvvnsl*thwinvnfgsimrkvi*lskvicvt*rmkvcqlkvplekvn* slllilnihrilqmmilknslksyqklppllfqnlivnrlvsqr*TLIPTNK...rmkvcqlkvplek vn*slllilnihrilqmmilknslksyqklppllfqnlivnrlvsqr*tliptnkvlmvv lvvlinnmvvlmviknnnnkvlillilvlnlvv

  2. Dicty_cDB: VSG228 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available fsppqimiiqyyh*itqhqqqepkeki iqliiiikelerlkdqylkhiqkdmnqn*rmilknlv*vmn*lnqlkriigknqqmfknk lyh*ylkveiqfshqlqvv... ---hasd*islidqrd*ifkifqk*qqqt*y*giv*iiv*fsppqimiiqyyh*itqhqq qepkekiiqliiiikelerlkdqylkhiqkdmnqn*rmilknlv*v... iqliiiikelerlkdqylkhiqkdmnqn*rmilknlv*vmn*lnqlkriigknqqmfknk lyh*ylkveiqfshqlqvvvklvltsyllykf*QLLKGNKLNYLKK

  3. 22 CFR 228.02 - Scope and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES ON SOURCE, ORIGIN AND NATIONALITY FOR... conditions applicable to a procurement of goods or services shall be those in effect on the date of the issuance of a contract for goods or services by USAID or by the cooperating country....

  4. Dicty_cDB: VSJ228 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AAAAAAATAAAATAACCCCCACTTGCTGTTCA CTTT sequence update 2001. 3.22 Translated Amino Acid sequence qqwkenny...NLFKKKEKK--- ---XIYSKKKKKKKEHNDINKKNRKF*kk*nnphllft Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: qqwkenny

  5. 36 CFR 228.102 - Leasing analyses and decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... at 43 CFR parts 1500-1508, and Forest Service implementing policies and procedures set forth in... accordance with the requirements of 36 CFR part 219 (Forest land and resource management planning) and/or, as... there is significant new information or circumstances as defined by 40 CFR 1502.9 requiring...

  6. 40 CFR 795.228 - Oral/dermal pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... animals. For pharmacokinetics testing and dermal studies, adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats, 7 to 9 weeks of age, shall be used. For dermal studies, young adult mini-pigs shall also be used. The... substance. (b) Definitions. (1) Bioavailability refers to the rate and relative amount of administered...

  7. 32 CFR 228.14 - Prohibition on gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... other personal property, or the operating of gambling devices, the conduct of a lottery, or the selling... any lottery set forth in a State law and conducted by an agency of a State as authorized by section...

  8. 12 CFR 228.42 - Data collection, reporting, and disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... bank considered in making its credit decision); (2) Community development loan data. The aggregate... consideration under the lending test. A bank may maintain data for one or more of the following categories of... of the borrower that the bank considered in making its credit decision. (2) Other loan data. At...

  9. Dicty_cDB: VSI228 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sfdqfal vrprgnntflikgvtkarevykhfgrapglpgsharpyvrsegikfqrsktrnp*rqken kvah*kqktf*n*kk--- ---pkgvyqs*rslqtfr*s...VLPKLEKSTNISVELQVYQVPMLVLMSVQKVLNSKDQRPEIHKGKKKI KSPIKNKRLFKIKKK--- ---qkvftkarevykhfgrapglpgsharpyvrsegikfq

  10. 7 CFR 2.28 - Chief Financial Officer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., which— (i) Complies with applicable accounting principles, standards, and requirements, and internal... Department and component agencies. (3) Developing and maintaining an integrated accounting and financial... and for the development and reporting of cost information, the integration of accounting and...

  11. 40 CFR 228.6 - Specific criteria for site selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific criteria for site selection... selection. (a) In the selection of disposal sites, in addition to other necessary or appropriate factors...) Existence at or in close proximity to the site of any significant natural or cultural features of...

  12. Dicty_cDB: AFO228 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mato radicle, 5 d post-imbibition, Cornell University Lycopersicon esculentum cDNA clone cLEZ19K24 5', mRNA ...I782264 |AI782264.1 EST263143 tomato susceptible, Cornell Lycopersicon esculentum

  13. 48 CFR 852.228-70 - Bond premium adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bond premium adjustment...-70 Bond premium adjustment. As prescribed in 828.106-70, insert the following clause: Bond Premium Adjustment (JAN 2008) When net changes in original contract price affect the premium of a Corporate...

  14. 75 FR 70623 - Airworthiness Directives; DORNIER LUFTFAHRT GmbH Models Dornier 228-100, Dornier 228-101, Dornier...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or... proposed AD. Discussion On May 11, 2007, we issued AD 2007-11-03, Amendment 39-15060 (72 FR 28591; May 22... reinforcements and butt straps on frame 19 at the lower part of the fuselage for aeroplanes used in...

  15. Purification of cerium, neodymium and gadolinium for low background experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiko, R. S.; Barabash, A. S.; Belli, P.; Bernabei, R.; Cappella, F.; Cerulli, R.; Danevich, F. A.; Incicchitti, A.; Laubenstein, M.; Mokina, V. M.; Nisi, S.; Poda, D. V.; Polischuk, O. G.; Tretyak, V. I.

    2014-01-01

    Cerium, neodymium and gadolinium contain double beta active isotopes. The most interesting are 150Nd and 160Gd (promising for 0ν2β search), 136Ce (2β+ candidate with one of the highest Q2β). The main problem of compounds containing lanthanide elements is their high radioactive contamination by uranium, radium, actinium and thorium. The new generation 2β experiments require development of methods for a deep purification of lanthanides from the radioactive elements. A combination of physical and chemical methods was applied to purify cerium, neodymium and gadolinium. Liquid-liquid extraction technique was used to remove traces of Th and U from neodymium, gadolinium and for purification of cerium from Th, U, Ra and K. Co-precipitation and recrystallization methods were utilized for further reduction of the impurities. The radioactive contamination of the samples before and after the purification was tested by using ultra-low-background HPGe gamma spectrometry. As a result of the purification procedure the radioactive contamination of gadolinium oxide (a similar purification efficiency was reached also with cerium and neodymium oxides) was decreased from 0.12 Bq/kg to 0.007 Bq/kg in 228Th, from 0.04 Bq/kg to <0.006 Bq/kg in 226Ra, and from 0.9 Bq/kg to 0.04 Bq/kg in 40K. The purification methods are much less efficient for chemically very similar radioactive elements like actinium, lanthanum and lutetium.

  16. The Technological Enhancement of Normally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Red Mud due to the Production of Alumina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice O. Miller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the level of technological enhancement of normally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM in the red mud waste due to the production of alumina in Jamaica. Technological enhancements factors (TEF were determined for the uranium, thorium, actinium series, their progenies, and the nonseries potassium-40 using gamma spectrometry. The study concluded that bauxite production technologically enhances the uranium progenies Th-234, Pb-214, Bi-214, and Pa-234 and the thorium-232 progenies Ac-228, Pb-212, and Bi-212 in red mud. The actinium series was technologically enhanced, but K-40 and the thorium daughter, Tl-208, were reduced. The spectrometric comparison of Tl-208 (at 510 keV was unexpected since its other photopeaks at 583 keV, 934 keV, and 968 keV were markedly different. An explanation for this anomaly is discussed. An explanation regarding the process of accumulation and fractionation of organically derived phosphate deposits and potassium-feldspar is offered to explain the spectrometric differences between the alumina product and its waste material, red mud.

  17. Purification of cerium, neodymium and gadolinium for low background experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boiko R.S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerium, neodymium and gadolinium contain double beta active isotopes. The most interesting are 150Nd and 160Gd (promising for 0ν2β search, 136Ce (2β+ candidate with one of the highest Q2β. The main problem of compounds containing lanthanide elements is their high radioactive contamination by uranium, radium, actinium and thorium. The new generation 2β experiments require development of methods for a deep purification of lanthanides from the radioactive elements. A combination of physical and chemical methods was applied to purify cerium, neodymium and gadolinium. Liquid-liquid extraction technique was used to remove traces of Th and U from neodymium, gadolinium and for purification of cerium from Th, U, Ra and K. Co-precipitation and recrystallization methods were utilized for further reduction of the impurities. The radioactive contamination of the samples before and after the purification was tested by using ultra-low-background HPGe gamma spectrometry. As a result of the purification procedure the radioactive contamination of gadolinium oxide (a similar purification efficiency was reached also with cerium and neodymium oxides was decreased from 0.12 Bq/kg to 0.007 Bq/kg in 228Th, from 0.04 Bq/kg to <0.006 Bq/kg in 226Ra, and from 0.9 Bq/kg to 0.04 Bq/kg in 40K. The purification methods are much less efficient for chemically very similar radioactive elements like actinium, lanthanum and lutetium.

  18. Transform B228 Planer to Planer-type Miller%用B228龙门刨床改造为刨铣两用机床

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹明泉; 吕东伟

    2009-01-01

    针对龙门刨床生产效率低、能耗高及电气系统老化,对机床进行电气、机械一体化的技术升级改造.根据工件的形状、材质的不同,合理使用铣、刨功能,扩大机床加工范围,提高生产效率,降低能耗.

  19. Determination of radium in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These detailed work instructions (DWIs) are tailored for the analysis of radium-226 and radium-228 in drinking water supplies from ground water and surface water sources and composites derived from them. The instructions have been adapted from several sources, including a draft EPA method. One objective was to minimize the generation of mixed wastes. Quantitative determinations of actinium-228 are made at 911 keV. The minimum detection level (MDL) for the gamma spectrometric measurements at this energy vary with matrix, volume, geometry, detector, background, and counting statistics. The range of MDL's for current detectors is 0.07 to 0.5 Bq/sample. Quantitative determinations of radium-226 are made by counting the high energy alpha particles which radium-226 progeny emit using liquid scintillation counting (LSC). The minimum detectable activity (MDA) is 3.8 E-3 Bq/sample. The maximum concentration which may be counted on available instruments without dilution is about 2 E + 5 Bq/sample. Typically, this determination of radium in a 2 L sample has a yield of 80%. If radium-228 is determined using a 16 h count after 50 h grow-in, the typical MDL is 1 E-9 to 8 E-9 μCi/mL (1 to 8 pCi/L). If radium-226 is determined using a 2.5 h count after 150 h grow-in, the typical MDA is about 1 E-10 μCi/mL (0. 1 pCi/L)

  20. Determination of radium in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohorst, F.A.; Huntley, M.W.; Hartenstein, S.D.

    1995-10-01

    These detailed work instructions (DWIs) are tailored for the analysis of radium-226 and radium-228 in drinking water supplies from ground water and surface water sources and composites derived from them. The instructions have been adapted from several sources, including a draft EPA method. One objective was to minimize the generation of mixed wastes. Quantitative determinations of actinium-228 are made at 911 keV. The minimum detection level (MDL) for the gamma spectrometric measurements at this energy vary with matrix, volume, geometry, detector, background, and counting statistics. The range of MDL`s for current detectors is 0.07 to 0.5 Bq/sample. Quantitative determinations of radium-226 are made by counting the high energy alpha particles which radium-226 progeny emit using liquid scintillation counting (LSC). The minimum detectable activity (MDA) is 3.8 E-3 Bq/sample. The maximum concentration which may be counted on available instruments without dilution is about 2 E + 5 Bq/sample. Typically, this determination of radium in a 2 L sample has a yield of 80%. If radium-228 is determined using a 16 h count after 50 h grow-in, the typical MDL is 1 E-9 to 8 E-9 {mu}Ci/mL (1 to 8 pCi/L). If radium-226 is determined using a 2.5 h count after 150 h grow-in, the typical MDA is about 1 E-10 {mu}Ci/mL (0. 1 pCi/L).

  1. 22 CFR 228.03 - Identification of principal geographic code numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Armenia, Austria, Australia, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria..., Germany, Greece, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait,...

  2. 32 CFR 228.9 - Prohibition on narcotics and illegal substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... narcotic drug, hallucinogen, marijuana, barbiturate or amphetamine is prohibited. Operation of a motor..., hallucinogens, marijuana, barbiturates or amphetamines is also prohibited. These prohibitions shall not apply...

  3. 12 CFR 228.25 - Community development test for wholesale or limited purpose banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... performance of a wholesale or limited purpose bank pursuant to the following criteria: (1) The number and... development loan data provided by the bank, such as data on loans outstanding, commitments, and letters of... development loans, and community development services that benefit areas within the bank's assessment...

  4. 48 CFR 1852.228-76 - Cross-waiver of liability for space station activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Claims made by a natural person, his/her estate, survivors, or subrogees for injury or death of such natural person; (iii) Claims for damage caused by willful misconduct; and (iv) Intellectual property... involvement in Protected Space Operations. The cross-waiver shall apply to any claims for damage, whatever...

  5. 48 CFR 1852.228-72 - Cross-waiver of liability for space shuttle services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... exception); (ii) Claims made by a natural person, his/her estate, survivors, or subrogees for injury or death of such natural person; (iii) Claims for damage caused by willful misconduct; and (iv... waiver shall apply to any claims for damage, whatever the legal basis for such claims, including but...

  6. Cumulative Noise and 5.9 GHz DSRC Extensions for ns-2.28

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt-Eisenlohr, Felix; Torrent-Moreno, Marc; Tielert, Tessa; Mittag, Jens; Hartenstein, Hannes

    2006-01-01

    The network simulator ns-2 is a widely used tool in the field of wired and wireless communications research. Although the ns-2 implementation is in constant evolution, it fails, for obvious reasons, to reflect all aspects related to the newest communication technologies. One example of such technology is 5.9GHz Direct Short Range Communications (DSRC) for vehicular environments, which is currently attracting attention due to its promises to reduce the amount of road fa...

  7. 40 CFR 228.15 - Dumping sites designated on a final basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Implementation Manual (SMMP Implementation Manual) containing more detailed operational guidance. The SMMP Implementation Manual may be periodically revised as necessary; proposed revisions to the SMMP Implementation... practicable alternatives (as defined in 40 CFR 227.16(b)) to open-water disposal in Long Island Sound and...

  8. 36 CFR 228.4 - Plan of operations-notice of intent-requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...), resulting in varying degrees of disturbance to vegetative resources, soil, water, air, or wildlife. The... from any person proposing to conduct operations which might cause significant disturbance of surface... cause significant surface resource disturbance and will not involve removal of more than a...

  9. 22 CFR 228.13 - Special source rules requiring procurement from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... must be procured in the United States if the domestic price is less than parity, unless the commodity... buses, motorcycles, scooters, motorized bicycles and utility vehicles. Excluded from this definition...

  10. 48 CFR 52.228-16 - Performance and Payment Bonds-Other Than Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Construction (NOV 2006) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause— Original contract price means the award price of the contract or, for requirements contracts, the price payable for the estimated quantity; or, for indefinite-quantity contracts, the price payable for the specified minimum quantity. Original contract...

  11. 48 CFR 52.228-15 - Performance and Payment Bonds-Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Definitions. As used in this clause— Original contract price means the award price of the contract; or, for requirements contracts, the price payable for the estimated total quantity; or, for indefinite-quantity contracts, the price payable for the specified minimum quantity. Original contract price does not...

  12. AB228. Research on the mechanism of androgen replacement therapy improving erectile dysfunction in castrated rats

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Kai; Li, Rui; WANG, Tao; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Shaogang; Rao, Ke; Liu, Jihong

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the mechanism of androgen replacement therapy (ART) improving erectile dysfunction (ED) in castrated rats. Methods We randomly divided 40 8-week-old healthy male SD rats into 4 groups: group A was the control, and rats of the group B, C and D were castrated, then rats in the groups C and D were treated with different concentrations of testosterone undecanoate orally every day (C: 10 mg/kg, D: 20 mg/kg), while other groups with 0.9% NS instead. 8weeks’ treatment later,...

  13. AB228. Research on the mechanism of androgen replacement therapy improving erectile dysfunction in castrated rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Kai; Li, Rui; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Shaogang; Rao, Ke; Liu, Jihong

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the mechanism of androgen replacement therapy (ART) improving erectile dysfunction (ED) in castrated rats. Methods We randomly divided 40 8-week-old healthy male SD rats into 4 groups: group A was the control, and rats of the group B, C and D were castrated, then rats in the groups C and D were treated with different concentrations of testosterone undecanoate orally every day (C: 10 mg/kg, D: 20 mg/kg), while other groups with 0.9% NS instead. 8weeks’ treatment later, we determined the level of serum testosterone and assessed the erectile function of rats. Western blot, immunohistochemistry were performed to detect the level of target proteins. Results (I) The level of serum testosterone and erectile function (Max ICP/MAP): group Bwas significantly lower than group A, C and D, and group D was higher compared with group C; (II) effect of castration and ART on endothelial cells and androgen receptor (AR)/vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/cyclin A pathway: the expression of CD31, vWF and AR/VEGF/cyclin A in group B were lower than group A, C and D, and group D was higher compared with group C; (III) effect of castration and ART on corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cells (CCSMCs) and TGF-β/S1P2/RhoA/ROCK pathway: the expression of α-sma in group B were lower than group A, C and D, and group D was higher compared with group C; while the expression of TGF-β/S1P2/RhoA/ROCK1 were higher in group B than group A, C and D, and group D was lower compared with group C. Conclusions ART can improve ED in castrated rats through promoting the proliferation of corpus cavernosum endothelial cells by activating AR/VEGF/cyclin A pathway; decreasing the contraction of CCSMCs and corporal fibrosis by inhibiting TGF-β/S1P2/RhoA/ROCK pathway, which provides reference for revealing the mechanism of ART treating ED associated late-onset hypogonadism.

  14. 36 CFR 228.44 - Disposal on existing Federal leased areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Leasing Act, as amended (30 U.S.C. 181-187); section 402 of Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1946 (5 U.S.C. Appendix); the 1947 Mineral Leasing Act for Acquired Lands, as amended (30 U.S.C. 351 et seq.); and the 1970 Geothermal Steam Act (30 U.S.C. 1001-1025), provided that it has been determined...

  15. 22 CFR 228.35 - Construction services from foreign-owned local firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... no United States construction company with the required capability is currently operating in the cooperating country or, if there is such a company, that it is not interested in bidding for the...

  16. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YBR228W, YLR135W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with Slx1p; involved in Rad1p/Rad10p-dependent removal of 3'-nonhomologous tails during DSBR via single-strand annealing...f 3'-nonhomologous tails during DSBR via single-strand annealing Rows with this prey as prey Rows with this

  17. 32 CFR 228.8 - Prohibition on photographic or electronic recording or transmitting equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition on photographic or electronic... Prohibition on photographic or electronic recording or transmitting equipment. No person entering or while on protected property shall bring or possess any kind of photographic, recording or transmitting...

  18. Hospital management of abdominal trauma in Tehran, Iran: a review of 228 patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javad Salimi; Mohammad Ghodsi; Maryam Nassaji Zavvarh; Ali Khaji

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Today, trauma is a major public health problem in some countries. Abdominal trauma is the source of significant mortality and morbidity with both blunt and penetrating injuries. We performed an epidemiological study of abdominal trauma (AT) in Tehran, Iran. We used all our sources to describe the epidemiology and outcome of patients with AT.Methods: This study was done in Tehran. The study population included trauma patients admitted to the emergency department of six general hospitals in Tehran during one year. The data were collected through a questionnaire that was completed by a trained physician at the trauma center. The statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software (version 11.5 for Windows). The statistical analysis was conducted using the chi-square and P<0.05 was accepted as being statistically significant.Results: Two hundred and twenty-eight (2.8%) out of 8 000 patients were referred to the above mentioned centers with abdominal trauma. One hundred and twenty-five (54.9%)of the patients were in their 2nd and 3rd decades of life and 189 (83%) of our patients were male. Road traffic accidents (RTA) were the leading cause of AT with 119 (52.2%) patients. Spleen was the commonly injured organ with 51 cases. Following the analysis of injury severity, 159 (69.7%) patients had mild injuries (ISS<16) and 69 (30.3%) patients had severe injuries (ISS= 16). The overall mortality rate was 46 (20.2%).Conclusions: Blunt abdominal trauma is more common than penetrating abdominal trauma. Road traffic accidents and stab wound are the most common causes of blunt and penetrating trauma, respectively. Spleen is the most commonly injured organ in these patients. The mortality rate is higher in blunt trauma than penetrating one.

  19. 48 CFR 1352.228-74 - Fair market value of aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Fair market value of aircraft. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1328.310-70(e) and 48 CFR 1328.310-70(g) insert the following in all applicable contracts for leased aircraft: Fair Market Value of Aircraft (APR 2010... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fair market value...

  20. 12 CFR 228.43 - Content and availability of public file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... provisions of law; (2) A copy of the public section of the bank's most recent CRA Performance Evaluation...-to-deposit ratio; and (ii) The information required for other banks by paragraph (b)(1) of this... branch: (i) A copy of the public section of the bank's most recent CRA Performance Evaluation and a...

  1. 48 CFR 752.228-7 - Insurance-liability to third persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of them purchase an automobile within the Cooperating Country, the Contractor agrees to make certain..., $5,000. The premium costs for such insurance shall not be a reimbursable cost under this...

  2. Study on laser atomic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser atomic spectroscopic study on actinium element has been performed in many areas of spectroscopy. The study on characteristic of atomic vapor has been proceeded for copper atom and the spatial density distribution of copper vapor is measured. This experimental data has been compared with the theoretically calculated data. In spectroscopic experiment, the first and second excited states for actinium element are identified and the most efficient ionization scheme for actinium element is identified. In addition, the corrosion problem for filament material due to the heating of the actinium element has been studied. (Author)

  3. Purification of lanthanides for double beta decay experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polischuk, O. G. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv, Ukraine and INFN, Section of Rome, La Sapienza, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Barabash, A. S. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 117259 Moscow (Russian Federation); Belli, P. [INFN, Section of Rome Tor Vergata, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Bernabei, R. [INFN, Section of Rome Tor Vergata, I-00133 Rome, Italy and Department of Physics, University of Rome Tor Vergata, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Boiko, R. S.; Danevich, F. A.; Mokina, V. M.; Poda, D. V.; Tretyak, V. I. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Cappella, F.; Incicchitti, A. [INFN, Section of Rome La Sapienza, I-00185 Rome, Italy and Department of Physics, University of Rome La Sapienza, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Cerulli, R.; Laubenstein, M.; Nisi, S. [INFN, Gran Sasso National Laboratories, I-67100 Assergi (Aq) (Italy)

    2013-08-08

    There are several potentially double beta active isotopes among the lanthanide elements. However, even high purity grade lanthanide compounds contain {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232,228}Th typically on the level of ∼ (0.1 - 1) Bq/kg. The liquid-liquid extraction technique was used to remove traces of U, Ra and Th from CeO{sub 2}, Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The radioactive contamination of the samples before and after the purification was tested by using ultra-low-background HPGe γ spectrometry at the underground Gran Sasso National Laboratories of the INFN (Italy). After the purification the radioactive contamination of gadolinium oxide by Ra and Th was decreased at least one order of magnitude. The efficiency of the approach to purify cerium oxide from Ra was on same level, while the radioactive contamination of neodymium sample before and after the purification is below the sensitivity of analytical methods. The purification method is much less efficient for chemically very similar radioactive elements like lanthanum, lutetium and actinium. R and D of the methods to remove the pollutions with improved efficiency is in progress.

  4. Soil and river sediments radionuclides monitoring at Aramar Experimental Center: an historical overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segre, Nadia; Fagundes, Rosane Correa, E-mail: nadia.segre@ctmsp.mar.mil.br [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha (CTM-SP/CEA/LARE), Ipero, SP (Brazil). Centro Experimental Aramar. Lab. Radioecologico; Moraes, Marco Antonio P.V. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In order to evaluate possible effects to the environment resulting from the implementation of the Centro Tecnologico da Marinha - Centro Experimental Aramar (CTMSP-CEA) at Ipero in Sao Paulo state, Brazil, which came into operation in 1989, an Environmental Monitoring Program (PMA) was established in October, 1987. One of the aims of this program is to monitor the soil and river sediments radionuclides levels at CEA and beyond its boundary. The utilization of statistical tools to evaluate the results of radiometric environmental monitoring is a procedure required by National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). The box plot is a simple statistical tool for displaying data. The central tendency and dispersion of the results as well as the observation of unusual results (outliers) in the dataset are easily visualized. Control chart is a graph that maps data and provides a picture of how a process is performing over time. A control chart always has a central line for the mean, an upper line for the upper control limit and a lower line for the lower control limit. Box plots and control charts were used to visualize the annual amount of natural uranium, lead-214, actinium-228 and lead-212 in soil and river sediment detected between 1987 and 2011, considering the measurements of all monitored places each year. This historical observation shows that, in average, the results obtained are below than the 1987-1988 levels (CEA's pre-operational) or below than the backgrounds radionuclides values. (author)

  5. Background radiation and individual dosimetry in the costal area of Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Naoki; Brahmanandhan, G M; Yoshida, Masahiro; Takamura, Noboru; Suyama, Akihiko; Koguchi, Yasuhiro; Juto, Norimichi; Raj, Y Lenin; Winsley, Godwin; Selvasekarapandian, S

    2011-07-01

    South coast of India is known as the high-level background radiation area (HBRA) mainly due to beach sands that contain natural radionuclides as components of the mineral monazite. The rich deposit of monazite is unevenly distributed along the coastal belt of Tamil Nadu and Kerala. An HBRA site that laid in 2×7 m along the sea was found in the beach of Chinnavillai, Tamil Nadu, where the maximum ambient dose equivalent reached as high as 162.7 mSv y(-1). From the sands collected at the HBRA spot, the high-purity germanium semi-conductor detector identified six nuclides of thorium series, four nuclides of uranium series and two nuclides belonging to actinium series. The highest radioactivity observed was 43.7 Bq g(-1) of Th-228. The individual dose of five inhabitants in Chinnavillai, as measured by the radiophotoluminescence glass dosimetry system, demonstrated the average dose of 7.17 mSv y(-1) ranging from 2.79 to 14.17 mSv y(-1).

  6. Způsoby jmenování vlády:Studie č. 1.228

    OpenAIRE

    Kuta, Martin; Němec, Jan; Pecháček, Štěpán

    2013-01-01

    The paper compares the process of nomination of then-to-be prime ministers in parliamentary and semi-presidential systems in which the existence of government depends strictly on the confidence vote expressed by the Parliament. The possibility of the Head of State to form the government poses questions to which extent the prime minister nominee may differ from the will of the parliamentary majority. The respective variations of the nomination process are assessed in terms of advantage for eit...

  7. Bug fixes on the IEEE 802.11 DCF module of the network simulator ns-2.28

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt-Eisenlohr, Felix; Letamendia-Murua, Jon; Torrent-Moreno, Marc; Hartenstein, Hannes

    2006-01-01

    The Network Simulator 2 (ns-2) is largely the most used simulator in the Ad Hoc research community. However, the 802.11 DCF module implemented in the default distribution of ns-2 presents some bugs, i.e., discordances with the IEEE 802.11 Standard specifications. We present in this Technical Report the result of an extensive analysis of both the IEEE 802.11 DCF specification and the ns-2 module. We first describe the discordances found with respect to the different DCF.s pr...

  8. 40 CFR 228.13 - Guidelines for ocean disposal site baseline or trend assessment surveys under section 102 of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of the surface layer; (iii) Bottom of the surface layer; (iv) Middle of the thermocline or halocline, or both if present; (v) Near the top of the stable layer beneath a thermocline or halocline; (vi... thermocline or halocline to exist, the relationship of water movement to such a feature shall be...

  9. Radon fixation for determination of {sup 224}Ra, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra via gamma-ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herranz, M. [Departamento Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, E. S. Ingenieros de Bilbao - Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alda. Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)]. E-mail: inphesom@bi.ehu.es; Idoeta, R. [Departamento Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, E. S. Ingenieros de Bilbao - Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alda. Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Abelairas, A. [Departamento Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, E. S. Ingenieros de Bilbao - Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alda. Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Legarda, F. [Departamento Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, E. S. Ingenieros de Bilbao - Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alda. Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2006-04-15

    The aim of this work is the improvement of the procedure for the determination of radium isotopes activities in water, which is done through radiochemical separation and subsequent gamma-ray spectrometry. In addition, radon gas retention is studied using different activated carbon materials. The results of the IAEA Proficiency test: 'Determination of radium and uranium radionuclides in water' of December 2002 [IAEA, 2003. Analytical quality control services: determination of radium and uranium radionuclides in water. Preliminary Report, Seibersdorf] are considered for this work.

  10. Demand of Chinese Market For Rare Earth Ore By 2020 Is Expected to Reach 228,000 Tonnes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    At the Argus International Rare Earth Annual Meeting 2015 held in Shanghai,Mr.Chen Zhanheng,Deputy Secretary-general of the Association of China Rare Earth Industry,said that currently the rare earth market is at its lowest point since 2011,the market space for further drop is limited,and the situation is expected to stabilize in the near future.Main

  11. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 228 - Requirements of the Hours of Service Act: Statement of Agency Policy and Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... emergency exists and the work of the crew is related to that emergency. Thus, a crew could work up to 16 hours, rather than 12. The Act specifies that an emergency ceases to exist for purposes of this... Act of God” under section 5(d) of the Act. Example: The crew of a wreck train is dispatched to...

  12. Power-Combined GaN Amplifier with 2.28-W Output Power at 87 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, King Man; Ward, John; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Lin, Robert H.; Samoska, Lorene A.; Kangaslahti, Pekka P.; Mehdi, Imran; Lambrigtsen, Bjorn H.; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Soria, Mary M.; Cooperrider, Joelle T.; Bruneau, Peter J.; Kurdoghlian, Ara; Micovic, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Future remote sensing instruments will require focal plane spectrometer arrays with higher resolution at high frequencies. One of the major components of spectrometers are the local oscillator (LO) signal sources that are used to drive mixers to down-convert received radio-frequency (RF) signals to intermediate frequencies (IFs) for analysis. By advancing LO technology through increasing output power and efficiency, and reducing component size, these advances will improve performance and simplify architecture of spectrometer array systems. W-band power amplifiers (PAs) are an essential element of current frequency-multiplied submillimeter-wave LO signal sources. This work utilizes GaN monolithic millimeter-wave integrated circuit (MMIC) PAs developed from a new HRL Laboratories LLC 0.15- m gate length GaN semiconductor transistor. By additionally waveguide power combining PA MMIC modules, the researchers here target the highest output power performance and efficiency in the smallest volume achievable for W-band.

  13. Multi-MW 22.8 GHz Harmonic Multiplier - RF Power Source for High-Gradient Accelerator R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2012-07-26

    Electrodynamic and particle simulation studies have been carried out to optimize design of a two-cavity harmonic frequency multiplier, in which a linear electron beam is energized by rotating fields near cyclotron resonance in a TE111 cavity in a uniform magnetic field, and in which the beam then radiates coherently at the nth harmonic into a TEn11 output cavity. Examples are worked out in detail for 7th and 2nd harmonic converters, showing RF-to-RF conversion efficiencies of 45% and 88%, respectively at 19.992 GHz (K-band) and 5.712 GHz (C-band), for a drive frequency of 2.856 GHz. Details are shown of RF infrastructure (S-band klystron, modulator) and harmonic converter components (drive cavity, output cavities, electron beam source and modulator, beam collector) for the two harmonic converters to be tested. Details are also given for the two-frequency (S- and C-band) coherent multi-MW test stand for RF breakdown and RF gun studies.

  14. Michael Drewett and Martin Cloonan (eds.), Popular Music Censorship in Africa, Ashgate Publishing, 2006, 228 p. ISBN:0754652912

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Annemette

    2007-01-01

    Anmeldelse i et førende engelsk musiketnologisk tidsskrift af en antologi om musikcensur i Afrika. Bogen bebeskriver en række forskellige forekomster af forbud, restriktioner og vold overfor musikere og kunstnere i Afrika, og anmeldelsen konkluderer, at bogen på trods af en del mangler i forhold ...

  15. An aerial radiological survey of the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendricks, T J; Riedhauser, S R

    1999-12-01

    A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory conducted an aerial radiological survey of the US Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site including three neighboring areas during August and September 1994. The survey team measured the terrestrial gamma radiation at the Nevada Test Site to determine the levels of natural and man-made radiation. This survey included the areas covered by previous surveys conducted from 1962 through 1993. The results of the aerial survey showed a terrestrial background exposure rate that varied from less than 6 microroentgens per hour (mR/h) to 50 mR/h plus a cosmic-ray contribution that varied from 4.5 mR/h at an elevation of 900 meters (3,000 feet) to 8.5 mR/h at 2,400 meters (8,000 feet). In addition to the principal gamma-emitting, naturally occurring isotopes (potassium-40, thallium-208, bismuth-214, and actinium-228), the man-made radioactive isotopes found in this survey were cobalt-60, cesium-137, europium-152, protactinium-234m an indicator of depleted uranium, and americium-241, which are due to human actions in the survey area. Individual, site-wide plots of gross terrestrial exposure rate, man-made exposure rate, and americium-241 activity (approximating the distribution of all transuranic material) are presented. In addition, expanded plots of individual areas exhibiting these man-made contaminations are given. A comparison is made between the data from this survey and previous aerial radiological surveys of the Nevada Test Site. Some previous ground-based measurements are discussed and related to the aerial data. In regions away from man-made activity, the exposure rates inferred from the gamma-ray measurements collected during this survey agreed very well with the exposure rates inferred from previous aerial surveys.

  16. Evaluation of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) in inorganic and organic oilfield scales from the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassioni, Ghada; Abdulla, Fareed; Morsy, Zeinab; El-Faramawy, Nabil

    2012-04-01

    The distribution of natural nuclide gamma-ray activities and their respective annual effective dose rates, produced by potassium-40 (⁴⁰K), uranium-238 (²³⁸U), thorium-232 (²³²Th), and radium-226 (²²⁶Ra), were determined for 14 oilfield scale samples from the Middle East. Accumulated radioactive materials concentrate in tubing and surface equipment, and workers at equipment-cleaning facilities and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) disposal facilities are the population most at risk for exposure to NORM radiation. Gamma-spectra analysis indicated that photo-gamma lines represent the parents of 10 radioactive nuclides: ²³⁴Th, plutonium-239, actinium-228, ²²⁶Ra, lead-212 (²¹²Pb), ²¹⁴Pb, thallium-238 (²⁰⁸Tl), bismuth-212 (²¹²Bi), ²¹⁴Bi, and ⁴⁰K. These nuclides represent the daughters of the natural radioactive series ²³⁸U and ²³²Th with ⁴⁰K as well. The mean activity concentration of ²³⁸U, ²³²Th, and ⁴⁰K were found to be 25.8 ± 11.6, 18.3 ± 8.1, and 4487.2 ± 2.5% Bq kg⁻¹ (average values for 14 samples), respectively. The annual effective dose rates and the absorbed doses in air, both indoor and outdoor, for the samples were obtained as well. The results can be used to assess the respective hazard on workers in the field and represent a basis for revisiting current engineering practices.

  17. An aerial radiological survey of the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory conducted an aerial radiological survey of the US Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site including three neighboring areas during August and September 1994. The survey team measured the terrestrial gamma radiation at the Nevada Test Site to determine the levels of natural and man-made radiation. This survey included the areas covered by previous surveys conducted from 1962 through 1993. The results of the aerial survey showed a terrestrial background exposure rate that varied from less than 6 microroentgens per hour (mR/h) to 50 mR/h plus a cosmic-ray contribution that varied from 4.5 mR/h at an elevation of 900 meters (3,000 feet) to 8.5 mR/h at 2,400 meters (8,000 feet). In addition to the principal gamma-emitting, naturally occurring isotopes (potassium-40, thallium-208, bismuth-214, and actinium-228), the man-made radioactive isotopes found in this survey were cobalt-60, cesium-137, europium-152, protactinium-234m an indicator of depleted uranium, and americium-241, which are due to human actions in the survey area. Individual, site-wide plots of gross terrestrial exposure rate, man-made exposure rate, and americium-241 activity (approximating the distribution of all transuranic material) are presented. In addition, expanded plots of individual areas exhibiting these man-made contaminations are given. A comparison is made between the data from this survey and previous aerial radiological surveys of the Nevada Test Site. Some previous ground-based measurements are discussed and related to the aerial data. In regions away from man-made activity, the exposure rates inferred from the gamma-ray measurements collected during this survey agreed very well with the exposure rates inferred from previous aerial surveys

  18. New production in the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI; Pinghe

    2002-01-01

    [1]Dugdale, R. C., Goering, J. J., Uptake of new and regenerated nitrogen in primary productivity, Limnology and Oceanog-raphy, 1967, 12: 196-206.[2]Eppley, R. W., Peterson, B. J., Particulate organic matter flux and planktonic new production in the deep ocean, Nature, 1979, 282: 677-680.[3]Allen, C. B., Kanda, J., Laws, E. A., New production and photosynthetic rates within and outside a cyclonic mesoscale eddy in the North Pacific Subtropical gyre, Deep-Sea Research Ⅱ, 1996, 43(6): 917-936.[4]Jenkins, W. J., Tritium-helium dating in the Sargasso Sea: A measurement of oxygen utilization rates, Nature, 1977, 196: 291-292.[5]Spitzer, W. S., Jenkins, W. J., Rates of vertical mixing, gas exchange and new production: Estimates from seasonal gas cy-cle in the upper ocean near Bermuda, Journal of Marine Research, 1989, 47: 169-196.[6]Sarmiento, J. L., Thiele, G., Key, R. M. et al., Oxygen and nitrate new production and remineralization in the North At-lantic Subtropical Gyre, Journal of Geophysical Research, 1990, 95: 18303-18315.[7]Ku, T. L., Luo, S., Kusakabe, M. et al., 228Ra-derived nutrient budgets in upper equatorial Pacific and the role of "new" silicate in limiting productivity, Deep-Sea Research II, 1995, 42(2/3): 479-497.[8]Wheeler, P. A., Rates of nitrate assimilation at the equator during the US-JGOFS spring time series: Estimates of new pro-duction, EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 1992, 73: 281.[9]Huang, Y., Xie, Y., Chen, M. et al., Distribution feature of 228Ra in surface seawater of the Nansha sea area, in Isotopes Marine Chemistry of Nansha Islands Waters (in Chinese), Beijing: Ocean Press, 1996, 70-78.[10]Reid, D. F., Key, R. M., Schink, D., Radium, thorium and actinium extraction from seawater using an improved manga-nese-oxide-coated fiber, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 1979, 43: 223-226.[11]Shi, W., Qiu, X., Huang, Y., Distribution of dissolved 226Ra in the Jiulongjiang-Xiamen bay

  19. TINGKAT KANDUNGAN UNSUR RADIOAKTIF AIR SUNGAI AYUNG DI DENPASAR BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewa Nyoman Alit Ardana

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ayung river is one of the longest rivers in Bali. The upstream of the river is in regency of Bangli, Badung, Buleleng, Tabananand downstream is located in Padang Galak beach, East Denpasar Sub-regency. As the sample of the study, the water of the river wastaken from the stream entering the city of Denpasar. The sample was taken in five different points and for each point was taken twice. Thefirst was taken at 5 p.m, and the second was at 6 a.m. This study aims at finding out the rate of radioactive content of Ayung river water inthe city of Denpasar.The water sample was analyzed in Radiometry Analysis Group of Radiation Physics and environmental research centre andNuclear Technique Development, Jalan Taman Sari 71 Bandung – 40132. The process of counting was conducted in this place in order toknow the rate of the element activities and then identification of elements contens in the sample. The result of the counting and identifyingwas compered with standard grade of radioactivity in the area.The element of identification result and the amount of activity rate found showed that the element were natural radioactiveelements, the content: 40K (Kalium-40, 234Th (Thorium-234, 233Th (Thorium-233, 228Ac (Actinium-288, 114mIn (Indium-114m. Thehighest activity of radioactive elements in each sample point: in E2 point content element 40K with the activity 2.08 Bq/lt, in point A1 234Thwith the activity 16.34 Bq/lt, in point E1 containts 233Th with activity 598.29 Bq/lt, in point E1 and E2 contain 228Ac with the activity939.63 Bq/lt. The height of activity value of the counting and identifying elements was still under the rate of the highest level.The result of the study showed that radioactive elements 40K had the tendency of increasing radioactivity. The same thinghappened to 233Th at the peak of energi 185.00 keV. The content of its radioactive tends to exist in each point of sample point and theactivity tends to increase. Though the rate of

  20. Radiation doses to members of the U.S. population from ubiquitous radionuclides in the body: Part 1, autopsy and in vivo data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, David J; Strom, Daniel J

    2011-04-01

    This paper is Part 1 of a three-part series investigating steady-state effective dose rates to residents of the United States from intakes of ubiquitous radionuclides, including radionuclides occurring naturally, radionuclides whose concentrations are technologically enhanced, and anthropogenic radionuclides. This series of papers explicitly excludes intakes from inhaling (222)Rn, (220)Rn, and their short-lived decay products; it also excludes intakes of radionuclides in occupational and medical settings. In this work, it is assumed that instantaneous dose rates in target organs are proportional to steady-state radionuclide concentrations in source regions. The goal of Part 1 of this work was to review, summarize, and characterize all published and some unpublished data for U.S. residents on ubiquitous radionuclide concentrations in tissues and organs. Forty-five papers and reports were obtained and their data reviewed, and three data sets were obtained via private communication. The 45 radionuclides of interest are the (238)U series (14 nuclides), the actinium series (headed by (235)U; 11 nuclides), and the (232)Th series (11 nuclides); primordial radionuclides (87)Rb and (40)K; cosmogenic and fallout radionuclides (14)C and (3)H; and purely anthropogenic radionuclides (137)Cs-(137m)Ba, (129)I, and (90)Sr-(90)Y. Measurements judged to be relevant were available for only 15 of these radionuclides: (238)U, (235)U, (234)U, (232)Th, (230)Th, (228)Th, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (210)Pb, (210)Po, (137)Cs, (87)Rb, (40)K, (14)C, and (3)H. Recent and relevant measurements were not available for (129)I and (90)Sr-(90)Y. A total of 11,741 radionuclide concentration measurements were found in one or more tissues or organs from 14 states. Data on age, gender, geographic locations, height, and weight of subjects were available only sporadically. Too often authors did not provide meaningful values of uncertainty of measurements, so that variability in data sets is confounded with

  1. Measurement and Calculation of Rare Earth Mine Tailings Radioactivity%稀土尾矿砂放射性活度的测量与计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑超; 周程; 朱晓翔; 杨师俨; 戴耀东

    2015-01-01

    It is of great significance to measure and calculate rare earth tailing radioactivity for the develop-ment of appropriate standards and exemption disposal. The total activity concentration of the three natural decay series (uranium series, thorium series, actinium series) was analyzed under the equilibrium and disequi-librium state according to the selected characteristic γ-rays. At the same time, we calculated the total activity concentration and the radioactivity for each radionuclide based on the general kinetic equations of decay chain and studied the trend of each radionuclide of thorium-series under different degrees of disequilibrium with time. The results demonstrated that the total radioactivity of α and β calculated in disequilibrium state was more closed to the actual measurement results compared to that in equilibrium state. In addition, the activity changes with time of thorium series in disequilibrium state are related to the initial activity concentration of the mother nuclide and 228Ra. If the activity concentration of 228Ra is less than that of 232Th, the total activity peak will be 10 times to maternal activity and appear after 60 a when the thorium series become balance again. If the activity concentration of 228Ra is greater than that of 232Th, the maximum total activity will appear in 3.82 a, and will be the sum of 4.57 times of the initial activity concentration of the mother nuclide and 5.25 times of the initial activity concentration of the first daughter 228Ra. Therefore, the rare earth tailings have been in disequilibrium state, and its total activity concentration should be determined based on the activity concentration of several feature radionuclides. In addition, the maximum value of the activity concentration is profitable to judge whether the activity concentration is fit with relevant regulations and standards.%准确测量并计算稀土尾矿砂的放射性活度浓度及其变化规律对制定相应的豁免标准和日后

  2. Spatial distribution of 40K, 228Ra, 226Ra, 238U and 137Cs in surface soil layer observed at small areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main goal of this study is to give a more detailed insight into spatial radionuclide distribution in soils. It has been necessary in order to plant the future soil sampling procedure that would assure the representative soil samples for broader areas that are usually covered by in situ gamma-spectrometry measurements or aerial gamma-ray spectrometry. The spatial distributions of natural radionuclides and 137Cs activity in surface soil layer were studed in five regular grids, consisting of 9 points each. The distances between sampled points were 30 cm (A grid), 2.45 m (B grid), 19.5 m (C grid), 156 m (D grid) and 213 m (E grid), respectively. Soil samples were dominantly taken at agricultural ploughed fields from areas of ca. 315 cm2 (circle of a. 20 cm diameter), from surface up to 15 cm depth. The results indicate that representative soil sample must cover the broader area to provide data that could be compared with data collected by aerial gamma-spectrometry. The average sample on each locality must be prepared from several point samples. It seems that the central point and four points, each at approximately 50-100 m N, S, E, and W from the central point, could be enough

  3. Corrigendum to "Groundwater storage changes in the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas revealed from GRACE satellite gravity data" [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 449 (2016) 228-239

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, L.; Wang, H.; Steffen, H.; Wu, P.; Jia, L.; Jiang, L.; Shen, Q.

    2016-10-01

    The authors regret that the Acknowledgement was published with the funding support for Hansheng Wang declared in the incorrect order. The corrected Acknowledgement is as follows (please note the revised section appears in italics):

  4. 2.28 胃术后患者食管内酸及胆汁反流的同步监测*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱爱勇; 许国铭; 李兆申; 邹多武; 尹宁; 王雯

    2001-01-01

    目的研究不同类型胃术后患者食管内酸及胆汁反流情况.方法胃术后患者57例,按手术方式不同分为4组,A组为近端胃大部切除术后食管残胃吻合患者,共15例,B组为远端胃大部切除术后Billroth Ⅰ型吻合患者,共9例 ,C组为无端胃大部切除术后Billroth Ⅱ型吻合患者,共24例,D组为全胃切除术后食管空肠RouX-enY吻合患者共9例;正常对照组20例,男性14例,女性6例,年龄21~68岁,平均( 43.1±12.4)岁,均无胃食管反流症状,内镜证实无食管下段炎症,并排除消化道及严重全身器质性疾病.食管内pH及胆汁监测前分别对A、B、C、D 4组患者根据烧心、反酸、胸痛、呕吐胆汁每一症状不同程度进行症状评定及记分,计算出总积分.用Digitrapper MKⅢ型便携式pH监测仪及Bilitec 2000便携式胆汁监测仪(瑞典Medtronic Synectics公司)行食管内24h pH及胆汁监测.结果胃不同类型手术组患者D组症状积分高于A、B、C 3组(P值分别<0 .05,0.05,0.01),而其食管内酸及胆汁反流指标并不高于A、B、C 3组,提示全胃切除术后的不适症状与食管内的酸及胆汁反流无关.食管内pH监测发现A、B、D 3组反流时间%并不高于对照组(P>值0.05),C组酸反流时间%则明显高于对照组及A、B、D 3组(P 值<0.01,0.05,0.01,0.01),而后3组之间无差异.食管内胆汁反流监测发现:A、C 两组胆汁反流指标较对照组明显增高(P值均<0.01),B、D两组较对照组无差异,各手术组之间比较,食管内胆汁反流次数A组>B、D两组,C组>D组,反流大于5min次数A、C两组>B、D两组,最长反流时间、反流时间百分比A组>B、C、D 3组,B、C、D 3组间差别不显著,总体分析,食管内胆汁反流A、C两组>B、D两组.结论同步动态监测食管pH值及胆汁变化对不同类型胃手术患者有重要意义 .

  5. 49 CFR 228.105 - Additional requirements; construction within one-third mile (1,760 feet) (536 meters) of certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... operations are performed which will be adequate to shield the facility from the direct and severe effects of... humping operations are performed involving any cars required to be placarded “EXPLOSIVES A” or “POISON GAS” or any DOT Specification 112A or 114A tank cars transporting flammable gas subject to FRA...

  6. Organizações automatizadas - desenvolvimento e estrutura da empresa moderna. Nélio Oliveira. Rio de Janeiro: Editora LTC, 2007. 228p. ISBN: 8521614985.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro de Paula Freitas Filho

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A Editora LTC lançou, em 2007, o livro de Nélio Oliveira, Organizações automatizadas: desenvolvimento e estrutura da empresa moderna. Mestre em Administração pela Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, atuou durante anos em diversas organizações públicas, privadas e de economia mista. Nélio Oliveira, no momento atual, é conceituado professor dos cursos de Administração e Sistemas de Informações na Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais. No meio de muitas literaturas disponíveis, a obra destaca-se pela simplicidade, pela objetividade e pelo cuidado com os quais ele trata uma nova configuração, as organizações automatizadas. Em linhas gerais, o autor concentra-se em um trabalho descritivo e procura caracterizar um novo formato organizacional, o qual surge em muitas empresas, em substituição às formas anteriores, vinculadas a modelos mecanizados ou mecanísticos. A obra tem como foco o modelo de cinco estruturas de Henry Mintzberg, base para todo o trabalho. O autor tem como propósito retratar uma realidade, na qual se observam as mudanças do mundo organizacional contemporâneo, o qual está cada vez mais adquirindo espaço no mundo empresarial.

  7. EXECUTIVE LEADERSHIP AND DEVELOPMENT (IN INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY BY B. VONHALLER GILMER AND OTHERS. NEW YORK, MCGRAW-HILL, 1966/ 228-253).

    Science.gov (United States)

    HILTON, THOMAS L.

    THIS CHAPTER FROM A LARGER WORK ON INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY DISCUSSES LEADERSHIP STEREOTYPES AND CONCEPTIONS, EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE OF ACTUAL LEADERSHIP FUNCTIONS, THE SELECTION OF POTENTIAL EXECUTIVES, AND METHODS OF EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT. THE MAJOR PROBLEM OF LEADERSHIP IS TO CREATE SITUATIONS IN WHICH FOLLOWERS WILLINGLY ACCEPT THE LEADER AS THEIR…

  8. Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, Hypermobility Type, Is Linked to Chromosome 8p22-8p21.1 in an Extended Belgian Family

    OpenAIRE

    Delfien Syx; Sofie Symoens; Wouter Steyaert; Anne De Paepe; Coucke, Paul J.; Fransiska Malfait

    2015-01-01

    Joint hypermobility is a common, mostly benign, finding in the general population. In a subset of individuals, however, it causes a range of clinical problems, mainly affecting the musculoskeletal system. Joint hypermobility often appears as a familial trait and is shared by several heritable connective tissue disorders, including the hypermobility subtype of the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS-HT) or benign joint hypermobility syndrome (BJHS). These hereditary conditions provide unique models fo...

  9. Microcystin quota, cell division and microcystin net production of precultured Microcystis aeruginosa CYA 228 (Chroococcales, Cyanophyceae) under field conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyck, S.; Christoffersen, K.

    2003-01-01

    compared with previous data obtained from batch cultures. Growth of an easily recognizable unicellular culture alga in the field made it possible to evaluate different ways of expressing mcyst field data as the ratio of mcyst to dry weight, protein or chlorophyll a (Chl a) against the mcyst quota. The...... or mcyst: protein ratios in the field....

  10. 新疆"2.28"大风过程中热、动力作用的模拟分析%Simulation and Analysis of the Thermal-dynamics Characteristics of "2.28" Severe Wind Event in Xinjiang with WRF Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王澄海; 靳双龙; 杨世莉

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a severe wind event in Xinjiang on February 27-28, 2007 is simulated and analyzed by the use of the WRF model. The results showed that in addition to impact of weather systems and terrain,the downward momentum transmission of high-level caused by the vertical motion of baroclinic drives is a dynamical factor for the formation of the strong wind; The local adiabatic heating, the increase of sensible heat and latent heat flux, the turbulent above surface layer increasing the instability of atmosphere and producing a strong pressure gradient, and strong cold mass behind the cold front, were the main physical mechanism of the strong wind.%对发生在2007年2月27-28日新疆的一次大风天气过程使用WRF模式进行了模拟分析.结果表明,除直接影响天气系统和地形作用外,大风过程中的大气的斜压性产生的垂直速度,使得高空的动量向下传输,是大风形成的原因之一;而局地非绝热加热中的感热和潜热通量的增加,加强近地层的湍流运动,进一步增加了大气的不稳定性,同时和冷锋后部的冷空气形成较强的气压梯度,是此次大风形成的主要的物理机制.

  11. A survey of current status of knowledge,attitude and practice of 228 puerperae concerning infant and young children feeding in Chongqing%重庆市228例产妇婴幼儿喂养知识态度行为的现况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇; 关蕴良; 赵勇; 刘达美; 李廷玉

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过调查重庆市部分产妇关于婴幼儿喂养的知识、态度、行为现况,为母婴保健宣传项目的 开展提供有效参考和指导.方法 对重庆医科大学附属第一、二医院妇产科住院产妇进行问卷调查,询问产妇对婴幼儿喂养相关知识的了解程度,以及与喂养相关的态度和行为情况.结果 产妇对婴幼儿喂养方面的知识平均得分率为(61.40±0.21)%,产妇对于哺乳相关知识掌握较好,但对婴幼儿营养相关疾病预防了解较少.正性的关于婴幼儿喂养的态度和行为产妇的比例并不高,尤其是纯母乳喂养的比例仅23.25%,超过半数的人对喂养没有信心.结论 重庆产妇关于婴幼儿喂养方面的知识、态度和行为情况并不理想,喂养方面的健康宣教有待进一步改进和加强.%Objective To investigate the current status of knowledge, attitude and practice of puerperae concerning infant and young children feeding in Chongqing city and provide effective reference and guidance for carrying out promotion project of maternal, infant and young children health care. Methods Questionary survey was conducted on hospitalized puerperae in obstetric and gynecology departments of the first and the second affiliated hoapital of Chongqing Medical University,and the understanding level, attitude and practice of the puerperae concerning infant and young children feeding were investigated. Results Average score rate of maternal knowledge of infant and young children feeding was(61. 40 + 0. 21)% showing a better understanding of breast-feeding in puerperae, but their knowledge of preventing infant and young children nutrition-related diseases were poor. The proportion of puer-pera who owned positive attitude and practice was not high, especially the proportion of exclusive breastfeeding with only 23. 25% , and more than half of the puerperae had no confidence in breastfeeding. Conclusion Current status of knowledge,attitude and practice of puerperae concerning infant and young children feeding in Chongqing city are not satisfactory and health promotion and education of infant and young children feeding need to be further improved and strengthened.

  12. I. The metabolic properties of plutonium and allied materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, J.G.

    1948-05-24

    This report on the metabolic properties of plutonium and related radioactive materials presents experimental information in the following areas: radioautographic studies; tracer studies (with tables of accumulation in tissues) of actinium, radio-zirconium, technetium, radio-rubidium, radio-germanium, beryllium, and cadmium; decontamination and bone metabolism studies; and radio-chemical isolation.

  13. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 20 - Annual Limits on Intake (ALIs) and Derived Air Concentrations (DACs) of Radionuclides for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Actinium Ac 89 Aluminum Al 13 Americium Am 95 Antimony Sb 51 Argon Ar 18 Arsenic As 33 Astatine At 85... Curium Cm 96 Dysprosium Dy 66 Einsteinium Es 99 Erbium Er 68 Europium Eu 63 Fermium Fm 100 Fluorine F...

  14. Assessment of dietary exposure to annatto (E160b), nitrites (E249-250), sulphites (E220-228) and tartaric acid (E334) in the French population: the second French total diet study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemrah, N; Vin, K; Sirot, V; Aguilar, F; Ladrat, A-C; Ducasse, C; Gey, J-L; Rétho, C; Nougadere, A; Leblanc, J-C

    2012-01-01

    The results of the assessment of the dietary exposure to annatto, nitrites, tartaric acid and sulphites within the framework of the second French total diet study (TDS) are reported. These 4 additives were selected from the Bemrah et al. study [Bemrah N, Leblanc JC, Volatier JL. 2008. Assessment of dietary exposure in the French population to 13 selected food colours, preservatives, antioxidants, stabilizers, emulsifiers and sweeteners. Food Addit Contam B. 1(1):2-14] on 13 food additives which identified a possible health risk for annatto, sulphites and nitrites and a lack of data for tartaric acid. Among the composite samples selected for the whole TDS, 524 were analysed for additives (a sample was analysed for a given additive when it was identified as a major contributor for this additive only): 130 for tartaric acid, 135 for nitrites, 59 for annatto and 200 for sulphites. Estimated concentrations (minimum lower bound to maximum upper bound) vary nationally from 0 to 9 mg/kg for annatto, 0 to 420 mg/kg for tartaric acid, 0 to 108 mg/kg for sulphites and 0 to 3.4 mg/kg for nitrites. Based on the analytical results, the dietary exposure was calculated for adults and children, separately, using lower bound and upper bound assumptions. The European ADIs for these 4 additives were not exceeded except for the dietary exposure for sulphites among 2.9% of the adult population, where the major contributors were alcoholic drinks and especially wine under both hypotheses (lower and upper bound).

  15. Comment on: "Geomorpho-tectonic evolution of the Jamaican restraining bend" by Leomaris Domínguez-González, Louis Andreani, Klaus P. Stanek and Richard Gloaguen [Geomorphology, 228 (2015) 320-334

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Simon F.; James-Williamson, Sherene; Miller, David J.; Mandal, Arpita

    2016-06-01

    We provide comments on the paper: "Geomorpho-tectonic evolution of the Jamaican restraining bend" by Domínguez-González et al. (2015). The literature review given is lacking in significant elements, particularly recent papers detailing the geology and uplift history of Jamaica. The paper undertakes a GIS analysis of a DEM and produces a drainage network for Jamaica, yet the networks created do not match the actual drainage network of the island. River profiles were extracted using 150 m contours and many of the knickpoints identified are not related to tectonics. The recognition of different erosional (and thus evolutionary) stages does not take into account the differing geology and the different geomorphological processes that were in operation, and the proposed model for the progressive uplift of different parts of Jamaica must therefore be treated with caution. This is particularly the case where their uplift model agrees neither with recent models based on provenance analysis or on the origin of Jamaican bauxite deposits. This paper demonstrates the problems of relying on remote sensing using inadequate datasets, no ground truthing and incomplete consideration of previous research.

  16. 利用水电解的清洗系统和方法Natsume,Shinichi(Japan)US 2002 23,847 2002,2,28 10页(英文)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪永亮

    2004-01-01

    一种利用电解室中生成的碱液的清洗系统。该系统包括电解室,其中的碱液由电解液(如盐和水)生成。至少一台泵将碱液泵到被清洗的物件上。第2台泵可将电解室中生成的酸性液泵进一步泵到物件上,使物件消毒。

  17. Expressões teóricas dos processos de libertação: novos paradigmas http://dx.doi.org/10.15601/1983-7631/rt.v6n11p213-228

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Alfonso Díaz Muñoz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available O objeto deste artigo é descrever os eixos comuns às três expressões teóricas dos processos de libertação e apontar os novos paradigmas propostos perante os desafios que a contemporaneidade apresenta com a ajuda dos autores mais representativos de cada área: na teologia, Gustavo Gutiérrez; na filosofia, Enrique Dussel; na pedagogia, Paulo Freire. A análise dos novos paradigmas é feita a partir de James Cone (raça e cultura, Wanda Deifelt (gênero, Leonardo Boff (ecologia, Hans Küng (diálogo e paz e Sturla Stalsett (globalização. O resultado é um artigo que pretende fundamentar os pressupostos de uma reflexão teológica/pedagógica libertadora contemporânea.

  18. Missense mutations in PBP2A Affecting ceftaroline susceptibility detected in epidemic hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clonotypes ST228 and ST247 in Western Switzerland archived since 1998

    OpenAIRE

    Kelley, William; Jousselin, Ambre; Barras, Christine; Lelong, Emmanuelle; Renzoni, Adriana Maria

    2015-01-01

    The development and maintenance of an arsenal of antibiotics is a major health care challenge. Ceftaroline is a new cephalosporin with activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); however, no reports concerning MRSA ceftaroline susceptibility have been reported in Switzerland. We tested the in vitro activity of ceftaroline against an archived set of 60 MRSA strains from the University Hospital of Geneva collected from 1994 to 2003. Our results surprisingly revealed cef...

  19. (9E)-9-benzylidene-2-methylsulfanyl-5-phenyl-6,7,8,9-tetrahydropyrimido[4,5-b]quinolin-4(3H)-one: a hydrogen-bonded R2(2)(8) dimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Diana; Insuasty, Braulio; Cobo, Justo; Glidewell, Christopher

    2013-12-15

    In the molecule of the title compound, C25H21N3OS, which was prepared by mild oxidation of the corresponding 5,6,7,8,9,10-hexahydro analogue, the fused carbocyclic ring adopts an envelope conformation. Pairs of molecules are linked into cyclic centrosymmetric dimers by pairs of inversion-related N-H···O hydrogen bonds.

  20. CTD data of the Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) program in the North Pacific 100 miles north of Oahu, Hawaii for cruises HOT228-237 during 2011 (NODC Accession 0101727)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The HOT program makes repeated observations of the physics, biology and chemistry at a site approximately 100 km north of Oahu, Hawaii. Two stations are visited...

  1. Procedures for determination of 239,240Pu, 241Am, 237Np, 234,238U, 228,230,232Th, 99Tc and 210Pb-210Po in environmental material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1987, the Department of Nuclear Safety Research, Risoe National Laboratory has developed procedures for analysis of low-level amounts of radioactivity in large samples of 200 liters seawater, 10 gram sediment, soil and other environmental materials. These analytical procedures provide high chemical yields, good resolution and excellent decontamination factors for large environmental samples analysed by alpha spectrometry and mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The procedures have been checked through practical analysis work and are used in Norway, the Netherlands, Germany, Spain, France and Denmark. (au)

  2. Genetic and bibliographic information: PLEKHG4 [GenLibi

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4 human Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia; Cerebellar Ataxia (MeSH) Nervous System Diseases (C10) > Central Nervous System Diseas...es (C10.228) > Brain Diseases (C10.228.140) > Cerebellar Diseases (C10.228.140.252)... > Cerebellar Ataxia (C10.228.140.252.190) Nervous System Diseases (C10) > Neurol

  3. Protein (Viridiplantae): 357126612 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 24:2780 3398:2780 4447:228 4734:228 38820:228 4479:228 359160:2357 147368:2136 147385:2136 15367:2136 15368:...2136 PREDICTED: random slug protein 5-like Brachypodium distachyon MGSSGGGDAGEGEWLKVAELRAMAEAQDPHVKEVDNMSLRR

  4. Gene : CBRC-PVAM-01-1225 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 7-228) [Macaca mulatta] 1e-163 90% MAYDRFLAICRPLTYSTRMSQMVQRILVAVSWACAFTNALTHTVAISTLNFCGPNVINHFYCDLPQLFQLSCS...IGCITVTVPAMLGRLLSHTHTISYEACLSQLFFFHLLAGMDCFLLTAMAYDRFLAICRPLTYSTRMSQTVQRILVAVSWACALTNALTHTIALTTLNFCGPNEVNHFY

  5. Genetic and bibliographic information: Gabra4 [GenLibi

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Gabra4 gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, subunit alpha 4 mouse Seizures (MeSH) Nervous... System Diseases (C10) > Central Nervous System Diseases (C10.228) > Brain Diseases (C10.228.140...) > Epilepsy (C10.228.140.490) > Seizures (C10.228.140.490.631) Nervous System Diseases (C10) > Neurologic M

  6. Genetic and bibliographic information: GABRA4 [GenLibi

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tem Diseases (C10) > Central Nervous System Diseases (C10.228) > Brain Diseases (C1...0.228.140) > Epilepsy (C10.228.140.490) > Seizures (C10.228.140.490.631) Nervous System Diseases (C10) > Neu...es (C23.888.592.742) Nervous System Diseases (C10) > Central Nervous System Diseases (C10.228) > Brain Diseases (C10.228.140) > Epilepsy (C10.228.140.490) 05A0765528 ... ...GABRA4 gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, alpha 4 human Seizures (MeSH); epilepsy (MeSH) Nervous Sys

  7. Genetic and bibliographic information: P2rx1 [GenLibi

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available em Diseases (C10) > Central Nervous System Diseases (C10.228) > Brain Diseases (C10....228.140) > Epilepsy (C10.228.140.490) > Seizures (C10.228.140.490.631) Nervous System Diseases (C10) > Neur...s (C23.888.592.742) Nervous System Diseases (C10) > Central Nervous System Diseases (C10.228) > Brain Diseases (C10.228.140) > Epilepsy (C10.228.140.490) 05A0765528 ... ...P2rx1 purinergic receptor P2X, ligand-gated ion channel, 1 rat Seizures (MeSH); epilepsy (MeSH) Nervous Syst

  8. Genetic and bibliographic information: Gabra4 [GenLibi

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Gabra4 gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, alpha 4 rat Seizures (MeSH); epilepsy (MeSH) Nervous Syste...m Diseases (C10) > Central Nervous System Diseases (C10.228) > Brain Diseases (C10....228.140) > Epilepsy (C10.228.140.490) > Seizures (C10.228.140.490.631) Nervous System Diseases (C10) > Neuro... (C23.888.592.742) Nervous System Diseases (C10) > Central Nervous System Diseases (C10.228) > Brain Diseases (C10.228.140) > Epilepsy (C10.228.140.490) 05A0765528 ...

  9. Genetic and bibliographic information: CLCN2 [GenLibi

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CLCN2 chloride channel 2 human Myoclonic Epilepsy, Juvenile (MeSH) Nervous System D...iseases (C10) > Central Nervous System Diseases (C10.228) > Brain Diseases (C10.228.140) > Epilepsy (C10.228....140.490) > Epilepsies, Myoclonic (C10.228.140.490.250) > Myoclonic Epilepsy, Juvenile (C10.228.140.490.250.670) 05A0446636 ...

  10. Genetic and bibliographic information: CACNB4 [GenLibi

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CACNB4 calcium channel, voltage-dependent, beta 4 subunit human Myoclonic Epilepsy,... Juvenile (MeSH) Nervous System Diseases (C10) > Central Nervous System Diseases (C10.228) > Brain Diseases (C10.228.140) > Epilepsy... (C10.228.140.490) > Epilepsies, Myoclonic (C10.228.140.490.250) > Myoclonic Epilepsy, Juvenile (C10.228.140.490.250.670) 05A0446636 ...

  11. Genetic and bibliographic information: GABRA1 [GenLibi

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available GABRA1 gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, alpha 1 human Myoclonic Epilepsy,... Juvenile (MeSH) Nervous System Diseases (C10) > Central Nervous System Diseases (C10.228) > Brain Diseases (C10.228.140) > Epilepsy... (C10.228.140.490) > Epilepsies, Myoclonic (C10.228.140.490.250) > Myoclonic Epilepsy, Juvenile (C10.228.140.490.250.670) 05A0446636 ...

  12. Genetic and bibliographic information: GABRD [GenLibi

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available GABRD gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, delta human Myoclonic Epilepsy, Ju...venile (MeSH) Nervous System Diseases (C10) > Central Nervous System Diseases (C10.228) > Brain Diseases (C10.228.140) > Epilepsy... (C10.228.140.490) > Epilepsies, Myoclonic (C10.228.140.490.250) > Myoclonic Epilepsy, Juvenile (C10.228.140.490.250.670) 05A0446636 ...

  13. Investigation for determining the retention properties of rock over the ASSE II mine for dissolved radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a model consideration of groundwater movement and the associated transport of dissolved substance in deep groundwater, the retention properties of the ASSE II mine for radionuclides dissolved in water were determined. A series of properties of rocks were examined and described for this purpose. Apart from the chemical, mineralogical and petrophysical characteristics of the rocks, the retention was determined by 3 different methods and stated in the form of distribution coefficients for specific elements. A comparison of the results of vibration and diffusion experiments gave good agreement, while the results in through column experiments only reached the same order of magnitude after an expensive determination with the aid of a place concentration distribution. The distribution coefficients for the elements carbon, selenium, strontium, technetium, iodine, caesium, lead, radium, actinium, proto-actinium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium are listed and collected for model rock packages. (orig./HP)

  14. LASL experience in decontamination of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This discussion represents one part of a major effort in soil decontamination at the Los Alamos site. A contaminated industrial waste line in the Los Alamos townsite was removed, and a plutonium incineration facility, and a filter building contaminated with actinium-227 were dismantled. The former plutonium handling facility has been decontaminated, and canyons and an old firing site contaminated with strontium-90 have been surveyed

  15. Sorption studies of radioelements on geological materials

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, J. A; 油井 三和; 北村 暁

    2007-01-01

    Batch sorption experiments have been carried out to study the sorption of uranium, technetium, curium, neptunium, actinium, protactinium, polonium, americium and plutonium onto bentonite, granodiorite and tuff. Mathematical modelling using the HARPHRQ program and the HATCHES database was carried out to predict the speciation of uranium and technetium in the equilibrated seawater, and neptunium, americium and plutonium in the rock equilibrated water. Review of the literature for thermodynamic ...

  16. Study of the origin of elements of the uranium-235 family observed in excess in the vicinity of the experimental nuclear EL4 reactor under dismantling. Lessons got at this day and conclusions; Etude de l'origine des elements de la famille de l'uranium-235 observes en exces dans les environs du reacteur nucleaire experimental EL4 en cours de demantelement. Enseignements retires a ce jour et conclusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This study resumes the discovery of an excess of actinium 227 found around by EL4 nuclear reactor actually in dismantling. The search for the origin of this excess revealed a real inquiry of investigation during three years. Because a nuclear reactor existed in this area a particular attention will have concerned this region. The doubt became the line of conduct to find the answer to the human or natural origin of this excess. Finally and against any evidence, it appears that the origin of this phenomenon was natural, consequence of the particular local geology. The detail of the different investigations is given: search of a possible correlation with the composition of elevations constituent of lanes, search (and underlining) of new sites in the surroundings of the Rusquec pond and the Plouenez station, study of the atmospheric deposits under winds of the nuclear power plant and in the east direction, search of a possible relationship with the gaseous effluents of the nuclear power plant in the past, historical study of radioactive effluents releases in the fifty last years by the analysis of the sedimentary deposits in the Saint-Herbiot reservoir, search of a possible correlation between the excess of actinium 227 and the nuclear power plant activity; search of a possible correlation with a human activity without any relationship with the nuclear activities, search of a correlation with the underground waters, search of a correlation with the geological context, collect of information on the possible transfers in direction of the food chain, determination of the radiological composition of the underground waters ( not perturbed by human activity), search of the cause of an excess of actinium 227 in the old channel of liquid effluents release of the nuclear power plant. The results are given and discussed. And contrary to all expectations the origin of the excess of actinium 227 is completely natural. (N.C.)

  17. The discoveries of uranium 237 and symmetric fission — From the archival papers of Nishina and Kimura

    OpenAIRE

    IKEDA, Nagao

    2011-01-01

    Shortly before the Second World War time, Nishina reported on a series of prominent nuclear physical and radiochemical studies in collaboration with Kimura. They artificially produced 231Th, a member of the natural actinium series of nuclides, by bombarding thorium with fast neutrons. This resulted in the discovery of 237U, a new isotope of uranium, by bombarding uranium with fast neutrons, and confirmed that 237U disintegrates into element 93 with a mass number of 237. They also identified t...

  18. System for recovery of daughter isotopes from a source material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranter, Troy J [Idaho Falls, ID; Todd, Terry A [Aberdeen, ID; Lewis, Leroy C [Idaho Falls, ID; Henscheid, Joseph P [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-08-04

    A method of separating isotopes from a mixture containing at least two isotopes in a solution is disclosed. A first isotope is precipitated and is collected from the solution. A daughter isotope is generated and collected from the first isotope. The invention includes a method of producing an actinium-225/bismuth-213 product from a material containing thorium-229 and thorium-232. A solution is formed containing nitric acid and the material containing thorium-229 and thorium-232, and iodate is added to form a thorium iodate precipitate. A supernatant is separated from the thorium iodate precipitate and a second volume of nitric acid is added to the thorium iodate precipitate. The thorium iodate precipitate is stored and a decay product comprising actinium-225 and bismuth-213 is generated in the second volume of nitric acid, which is then separated from the thorium iodate precipitate, filtered, and treated using at least one chromatographic procedure. A system for producing an actinium-225/bismuth-213 product is also disclosed.

  19. Genetic and bibliographic information: Acp1 [GenLibi

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Acp1 acid phosphatase 1, soluble rat Myoclonic Epilepsy, Juvenile (MeSH) Nervous System... Diseases (C10) > Central Nervous System Diseases (C10.228) > Brain Diseases (C10.228.140) > Epilepsy (C

  20. 75 FR 28005 - Notice of Intent to Suspend Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... 228-123 Density 35935-16 830.7370 Dissociation February 28, 2007 March 16, 2007 November 7, 2008 No data received 35935-19 Constants in 228-123 Water 35935-16 830.7550 Partition February 28, 2007 March... Coefficient, 228-123 Estimation by Liquid Chromatograph 35935-16 830.7840 Water Solubility: February 28,...

  1. Genetic and bibliographic information: BRD2 [GenLibi

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BRD2 bromodomain containing 2 human epilepsy (MeSH) Nervous System Diseases (C10) >... Central Nervous System Diseases (C10.228) > Brain Diseases (C10.228.140) > Epilepsy (C10.228.140.490) 04A0707570 ...

  2. Genetic and bibliographic information: Egr3 [GenLibi

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Egr3 early growth response 3 rat Seizures (MeSH); epilepsy (MeSH) Nervous System Di...seases (C10) > Central Nervous System Diseases (C10.228) > Brain Diseases (C10.228.140) > Epilepsy (C10.228....140.490) > Seizures (C10.228.140.490.631) Nervous System Diseases (C10) > Neurologic Manifestations (C10.597...gns and Symptoms (C23.888) > Neurologic Manifestations (C23.888.592) > Seizures (C23.888.592.742) Nervous System... Diseases (C10) > Central Nervous System Diseases (C10.228) > Brain Diseases (C10.228.140) > Epilepsy (C10.228.140.490) 05A0765528 ...

  3. Genetic and bibliographic information: CTSS [GenLibi

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CTSS cathepsin S human Seizures (MeSH); epilepsy (MeSH) Nervous System Diseases (C10) > Central Nervous Syst... Seizures (C10.228.140.490.631) Nervous System Diseases (C10) > Neurologic Manifestations (C10.597) > Seizur...mptoms (C23.888) > Neurologic Manifestations (C23.888.592) > Seizures (C23.888.592.742) Nervous System Disea...ses (C10) > Central Nervous System Diseases (C10.228) > Brain Diseases (C10.228.140) > Epilepsy (C10.228.140.490) 05A0765528 ... ...em Diseases (C10.228) > Brain Diseases (C10.228.140) > Epilepsy (C10.228.140.490) >

  4. Elementary, Middle, and High School Students Vary in Frequency and Purpose When Using Online Digital References. A review of: Silverstein, Joanne. “Just Curious: Children’s Use of Digital Reference for Unimposed Queries and Its Importance in Informal Education.” Library Trends 54.2 (Fall 2005: 228‐44.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Stephens

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine 1 how and with what frequency children use digital references to answer their own unimposed questions; 2 whether digital reference services support their self‐initiated learning; 3 whether digital reference services support the transfer of student motivation and curiosity from the formal to the informal; and 4 what instructional and software designers should consider in creating tools that support learning.Design – Inductive analysis.Setting – Virtual Reference Desk’s (VRD Learning Center (http://vrd.askvrd.org/ and the National Science Foundation’s (NSFdigital reference service (http://www.esteme.org during Excellence in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education Week (ESTEME, April 11‐16, 2005.Subjects – Elementary (K‐5, middle (6‐8,and high school (9‐12 students from the general public. One hundred fourteen questions were analyzed, however there is no indication of the number of different students who submitted the questions.Methods – This study was conducted using a pool of 600 questions from students, teachers, parents, and the general public that were submitted to two digital reference services intended for students. Three hundred experts in the fields of Math and Science volunteered to answer the submitted questions during Excellence in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education Week. Because the digital services employed a pull‐down menu to describe the user as a student, teacher, parent, etc., the questions could be narrowed to those submitted by students. The questions were also narrowed to those marked as “just curious” from a question purpose menu that contained categories including “written report,” “science fair project,” and “just curious.” A total of 114 unique questions from elementary, middle, and high school students were analyzed to determine the study objectives. The 114 questions were loaded into a qualitative software application (HyperResearch for inductive analysis. Questions from students were coded as elementary, middle, or high school and only those questions derived from students’ self‐initiated interests were analyzed.Main results – Analysis revealed that elementary students submitted a large portion of the questions. Middle school students asked the most questions, of which some questions were compound (more than one question in a given query. Older students submitted the least amount of questions. an unanticipated finding was that students’ grade levels correlated to the foci of their queries, which regarded “My Life,” “My Stuff,” “Other People,” “The World,”“The Universe,” or “Abstract Thought.” High school students were interested in the narrowest foci pertaining to their immediate circumstance rather than the larger topics of other people, the world, and the universe.T he majority of middle school students were interested in abstract concepts, and 45% of elementary school students’ queries were about how the world works. Although this study was not longitudinal, results suggest that student curiosity may shift over time. Results also indicated that younger children demonstrated interests outside the classroom that were related to formal learning previously introduced within the classroom. This carry over of interest declined in upper grades. Queries that were unimposed but related to an academic subject such as science or social studies were most evident in questions submitted by elementary students, while questions dealing more with career planning, health, death, and anxiety were most frequently addressed by middle school students. The findings also indicated that the use of digital reference services is at its highest in elementary school, peaks in middle school, and falls drastically in high school.Conclusion – 1 How and with what frequency do children use digital reference services to answer their own unimposed questions? The results of this study revealed a trend on the frequency and purpose of use of digital references when seeking answers to self‐initiated questions. Elementary students tend to use the digital reference services more often and for answers to questions that may be related to classroom curriculum. Middle school students utilize digital references to look for information pertaining to careers, health and welfare, death and anxiety. High school students submitted questions pertaining to their immediate circumstances (“My Life and My World” rather than focusing on others. 2Do digital reference services support self initiated learning? Of the original 2,258q uestions submitted, 13% were considered “informal.” These findings indicate that digital reference services support self initiated learning. 3 Could digital reference services support the transfer of student motivation and curiosity from formal to informal education and learning? The frequency of questions from elementary students that were coded as “Curriculum Related Interest” leads one to conclude that digital reference services can indeed support the transfer of student interest from formal to informal education. 4 What should instructional and software designers consider when creating tools that support the notion of transformed education and learning? Although it is impossible to actually know the nature of the difficulties experienced by users, duplicate questions from the same user were received by the reference services, which suggests that theu ser may be experiencing difficulty with the software or that the software may actually be malfunctioning during usage. Compound questions were also frequently submitted. Software designers should take note of these findings to design services that are age appropriate,especially regarding the type of questions each age group tends to ask, and that support the needs of elementary, middle, and high school students. Software designers should perhaps even consult with students who use these services during the design process.

  5. Elementary, Middle, and High School Students Vary in Frequency and Purpose When Using Online Digital References. A review of: Silverstein, Joanne. “Just Curious: Children’s Use of Digital Reference for Unimposed Queries and Its Importance in Informal Education.” Library Trends 54.2 (Fall 2005): 228‐44.

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Stephens

    2006-01-01

    Objective – To determine 1) how and with what frequency children use digital references to answer their own unimposed questions; 2) whether digital reference services support their self‐initiated learning; 3) whether digital reference services support the transfer of student motivation and curiosity from the formal to the informal; and 4) what instructional and software designers should consider in creating tools that support learning.Design – Inductive analysis.Setting – Virtual Reference De...

  6. Amossy, R. (2010; La présentation de soi. Ethos et identité verbale. París: PUF. 228 pp. ISBN: 978-2-13-058095-9. Collection « L´interrogation philosophique », dirigée par Michel Meyer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina BettendorffU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La Présentation de soi. Ethos et identité verbale, el más reciente libro de Ruth Amossy, profesora emérita de la Universidad de Tel Aviv, especialista en el área de estudios franceses, se presenta como una continuación de investigaciones y propuestas teóricas que llevan ya más de una década de desarrollo. Si bien sus textos han encontrado un espacio de lectura en determinado ámbito académico argentino, la falta de traducciones, con la excepción de Estereotipos y clichés, escrito en conjunto con Anne Herschberg Pierrot —en el que, por otra parte, no hay una exposición específica de la mencionada teoría—, reclama un informe, una “rendición de cuentas” en español de sus propuestas, ya que estas abren posibles caminos de investigación sobre la subjetividad, importantes no sólo dentro del área del Análisis del Discurso o la Retórica, sino también de la Sociología, la Teoría literaria y la Historia.

  7. European Federation of Neurological Societies Peripheral Nerve Society guideline on management of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy: report of a joint task force of the European Federation of Neurological Societies and the Peripheral Nerve Society (Reprinted from Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System, vol 10, pg 220-228, 2005)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A.C. Hughes; P. Bouche; D.R. Cornblath; E. Evers; R.D.M. Hadden; A. Hahn; I. Illa; C.L. Koski; J.M. Leger; E. Nobile-Orazio; J. Pollard; C. Sommer; P. van den Bergh; P.A. van Doorn; I.N. van Schaik; M.M. Mehndiratta; R. Hughes; J.B. Winer; R. de Haan; M. Vermeulen; P. Agarwal

    2006-01-01

    Numerous sets of diagnostic criteria have sought to define chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) and randomized trials and systematic reviews of treatment have been published. The objective is to prepare consensus guidelines on the definition, investigation and treatment o

  8. Marine geology of the Gulf of California : Tj. H. van Andel and G. G. Shor Jr. (editors). American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, Okla., memoir 3, 1964, 408 pp., 228 illus., 52 tables, 1 separate cover with 6 charts, $ 12.50

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Arnold H.

    1965-01-01

    That an investigation of a certain area made by one or a few scientists can never result in a complete paper is clearly demonstrated by this magnificent book. The combined program for study of the Gulf of California by all available methods, such as geology, oceanography, marine geology, geophysics

  9. Reply to the comment of Mitchell et al. on "Geomorpho-tectonic evolution of the Jamaican restraining bend" by L. Domínguez-González, L. Andreani, K.P. Stanek and R. Gloaguen [Geomorphology, 228 (2015) 320-334

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-González, Leomaris; Andreani, Louis; Stanek, Klaus P.; Gloaguen, Richard

    2016-06-01

    We reply to the comments of Mitchell et al. on our paper entitled "Geomorpho-tectonic evolution of the Jamaican restraining bend". The comments contain statements about the methods that need to be balanced. We agree that the interpretation of the modeled drainage network in some karstified parts of the Jamaican island is difficult, but this does not affect the validity of our analysis elsewhere. We consider that our geomorphic analyses (which also include topographic profiles and morphometric maps) are still valid. The view expressed by Mitchell et al. that we used serially developed landscapes to 'date' progressive uplift is an oversimplification of our discussion. We highlighted the differences between the geomorpho-tectonic provinces of Jamaica, and we proposed to explain these differences by a model which involves (1) a westward propagation of the restraining bend and (2) a difference in tectonic styles between the different provinces of Jamaica. Our interpretation does not contradict existing models based on seismotectonic data, provenance analysis or on the origin of Jamaican bauxite. There is a disagreement between James-Williamson et al. (2014), which suggested that central Jamaica was already being uplifted by the end of the Late Miocene, and Domínguez-González et al. (2015), which proposed a Pliocene to present onset of the NE-trending compression toward the SW. However, the timing of the deformation in central and western Jamaica is still poorly constrained and, at this time, any interpretation of the uplift history of central Jamaica should be considered as hypothetical.

  10. Academics are Reading More Electronic Journal Articles in More Subjects, Using Varying Strategies to Find and Manage Them. A Review of: Ollé, C., & Borrego, Á. (2010. A qualitative study of the impact of electronic journals on scholarlyinformation behavior. Library & Information Science Research, 32(3, 221-228.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina E. Carter

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To assess how the increase in number of electronic journals available to academic scholars has changed their information-seeking or consulting behaviour, with respect to 1 the amount and diversity of sources they read; 2 strategies they use to keep up-to-date in their fields; 3 use of personalized information services; 4 determining the value and relevance of articles; and 5 personal management of scientific information. This study is a follow-up to an earlier quantitative study (Borrego, Anglada, Barrios, & Comellas, 2007 in the same setting.Design – Qualitative, using an open-ended questionnaire, followed by personal interviews of a small group of the respondents.Setting – Universities that are members of the Consortium of Academic Libraries of Catalonia (CBUC, which is made up of the eight public Catalan universities and the National Library of Catalonia, Spain.Subjects – One hundred thirty-seven scholars from the member universities of diverse ages and disciplines. Eleven of these academics were selected for personal interviews.Methods – The authors used a two-staged approach to gather comments from researchers on their use of electronic journals. First, an open-ended, self-administered questionnaire (with some pre-testing donewas sent by e-mail to some 490 academics who had provided e-mail addresses in the quantitative study; 137 were returned and analyzed. Personal interviews were then conducted with 11 scholars who had given the most detailed answers in the questionnaire. Their ages ranged from 28 to 67; each was from a different discipline, and from six of the universities.Informed consent sheets (describing the study and guaranteeing anonymity were given to the 11 interviewees. Personal interviews were conducted in the subjects’ offices by one of the authors, and lasted between 45-60 minutes. In the interview stage, the authors wanted to examine: use and assessment of the library, access to electronic information, and impact of e-resources on information behaviour. Subjects were also asked to provide three suggestions on improving access to scientific information.Main Results – The amount of reading and number of electronic journals and other sources consulted among the scholars who participated in this study has increased. Three-quarters of survey respondents consult more journals and read more articles. The scholars reported that they are grateful for the increase in electronic information and its enhanced ease of access, and are not overwhelmed by it. Their reading has become more discriminatory, though, with many reporting “skimming” much of what they read to save time. Scholars keep up-to-date in three main ways: web browsing of journal issues, library database searches, and TOC e-mail alerts. More than 90% of survey respondents reported conducting database searches. Google and Google Scholar were often mentioned ahead of specific library database names. In determining value and relevance of an article, its author and abstract are key for scholars. In addition, personal information management techniques used by scholars were all over the board. The three main methods were use of print or electronic folders, reference management software, and no system. Many of the academics felt their information management systems were “rudimentary” (p. 225.The request for suggestions and comments on the questionnaire was not answered by “most of the sample” (p. 226. Those who did respond to this request asked for more library resources. The main complaint expressed by scholars concerned the difficulty and complexity of finding journal article content using the Library website (e.g., varying databases, difficulty of interpreting what journal electronic and print holdings are available. Because of this, a number of scholars used Google to find library-subscribed content.Conclusion – By having greater and easier access to e-journals, scholars accessing the CBUC read more articles from more disciplines. Scholars would prefer a simpler library interface to search for online content. Due to the complexity of finding article content, they use web search tools like Google and Google Scholar to get to what they need faster. The authors of this study believe research should be conducted on the use of the Consortium’s metasearch tool to reduce the complexity. Research should also be conducted on value-added features of search interfaces for particular disciplines.

  11. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Bernot

    2005-07-13

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) relevant to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are provided in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log fCO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. Even though selection of an appropriate set of radionuclides documented in Radionuclide Screening (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160059]) includes actinium, transport of Ac is not modeled in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) model because of its extremely short half-life. Actinium dose is calculated in the TSPA-LA by assuming secular equilibrium with {sup 231}Pa (Section 6.10); therefore, Ac is not analyzed in this report. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for TSPA-LA used to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for the actinides discussed in this report. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or

  12. Detection of rare earth elements in Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal ash using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Phuoc [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United State; Mcintyre, Dustin [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United State

    2015-10-01

    We reported our preliminary results on the use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to analyze the rare earth elements contained in ash samples from Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal (PRB-coal). We have identified many elements in the lanthanide series (cerium, europium, holmium, lanthanum, lutetium, praseodymium, promethium, samarium, terbium, ytterbium) and some elements in the actinide series (actinium, thorium, uranium, plutonium, berkelium, californium) in the ash samples. In addition, various metals were also seen to present in the ash samples

  13. Evidence for a Dual Role of an Active Site Histidine in [alpha]-Amino-[beta]-carboxymuconate-[epsilon]-semialdehyde Decarboxylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huo, Lu; Fielding, Andrew J.; Chen, Yan; Li, Tingfeng; Iwaki, Hiroaki; Hosler, Jonathan P.; Chen, Lirong; Hasegawa, Yoshie; Que, Jr., Lawrence; Liu, Aimin (GSU); (Kansai); (UMMC); (UMM)

    2012-10-09

    The previously reported crystal structures of {alpha}-amino-{beta}-carboxymuconate-{epsilon}-semialdehyde decarboxylase (ACMSD) show a five-coordinate Zn(II)(His){sub 3}(Asp)(OH{sub 2}) active site. The water ligand is H-bonded to a conserved His228 residue adjacent to the metal center in ACMSD from Pseudomonas fluorescens (PfACMSD). Site-directed mutagenesis of His228 to tyrosine and glycine in this study results in a complete or significant loss of activity. Metal analysis shows that H228Y and H228G contain iron rather than zinc, indicating that this residue plays a role in the metal selectivity of the protein. As-isolated H228Y displays a blue color, which is not seen in wild-type ACMSD. Quinone staining and resonance Raman analyses indicate that the blue color originates from Fe(III)-tyrosinate ligand-to-metal charge transfer. Co(II)-substituted H228Y ACMSD is brown in color and exhibits an electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum showing a high-spin Co(II) center with a well-resolved {sup 59}Co (I = 7/2) eight-line hyperfine splitting pattern. The X-ray crystal structures of as-isolated Fe-H228Y (2.8 {angstrom}) and Co-substituted (2.4 {angstrom}) and Zn-substituted H228Y (2.0 {angstrom} resolution) support the spectroscopic assignment of metal ligation of the Tyr228 residue. The crystal structure of Zn-H228G (2.6 {angstrom}) was also determined. These four structures show that the water ligand present in WT Zn-ACMSD is either missing (Fe-H228Y, Co-H228Y, and Zn-H228G) or disrupted (Zn-H228Y) in response to the His228 mutation. Together, these results highlight the importance of His228 for PfACMSD's metal specificity as well as maintaining a water molecule as a ligand of the metal center. His228 is thus proposed to play a role in activating the metal-bound water ligand for subsequent nucleophilic attack on the substrate.

  14. Genetic and bibliographic information: EGR3 [GenLibi

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available EGR3 early growth response 3 human Seizures (MeSH); epilepsy (MeSH) Nervous System ...Diseases (C10) > Central Nervous System Diseases (C10.228) > Brain Diseases (C10.228.140) > Epilepsy (C10.22...8.140.490) > Seizures (C10.228.140.490.631) Nervous System Diseases (C10) > Neurologic Manifestations (C10.5...Signs and Symptoms (C23.888) > Neurologic Manifestations (C23.888.592) > Seizures (C23.888.592.742) Nervous System... Diseases (C10) > Central Nervous System Diseases (C10.228) > Brain Diseases (C10.228.140) > Epilepsy (C10.228.140.490) 05A0765528 ...

  15. Rapid determination of 226Ra in environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.

    2012-02-04

    A new rapid method for the determination of {sup 228}Ra in natural water samples has been developed at the SRNL/EBL (Savannah River National Lab/ Environmental Bioassay Laboratory) that can be used for emergency response or routine samples. While gamma spectrometry can be employed with sufficient detection limits to determine {sup 228}Ra in solid samples (via {sup 228}Ac) , radiochemical methods that employ gas flow proportional counting techniques typically provide lower MDA (Minimal Detectable Activity) levels for the determination of {sup 228}Ra in water samples. Most radiochemical methods for {sup 228}Ra collect and purify {sup 228}Ra and allow for {sup 228}Ac daughter ingrowth for ~36 hours. In this new SRNL/EBL approach, {sup 228}Ac is collected and purified from the water sample without waiting to eliminate this delay. The sample preparation requires only about 4 hours so that {sup 228}Ra assay results on water samples can be achieved in < 6 hours. The method uses a rapid calcium carbonate precipitation enhanced with a small amount of phosphate added to enhance chemical yields (typically >90%), followed by rapid cation exchange removal of calcium. Lead, bismuth, uranium, thorium and protactinium isotopes are also removed by the cation exchange separation. {sup 228}Ac is eluted from the cation resin directly onto a DGA Resin cartridge attached to the bottom of the cation column to purify {sup 228}Ac. DGA Resin also removes lead and bismuth isotopes, along with Sr isotopes and {sup 90}Y. La is used to determine {sup 228}Ac chemical yield via ICP-MS, but {sup 133}Ba can also be used instead if ICP-MS assay is not available. Unlike some older methods, no lead or strontium holdback carriers or continual readjustment of sample pH is required.

  16. 16 CFR 20.0 - Scope and purpose of the guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., constant velocity joints, differentials, drive shafts, distributors, electronic control modules, engines..., throttle body injectors, torque convertors, transmissions, turbo chargers, voltage regulators, windshield... Labeling Guides, 16 CFR part 228.)...

  17. Low background counting of 222Rn, 220Rn and 219Rn with electrostatic counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mong, Brian; EXO-200 Collaboration; nEXO Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The radon counting technique based on electrostatic precipitation of progenies in gas followed by alpha spectroscopy has been applied to support the material selection programs of low background, neutrino and dark matter experiments with emphasis on EXO. An array of 8 counters operated by Laurentian University at SNOLAB and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant have reached the sensitivity of 10 atoms/day in the uranium, thorium and actinium chains. Hardware improvements are underway to further increase the capacity and sensitivity in support of nEXO. The radon counting technique based on electrostatic precipitation of progenies in gas followed by alpha spectroscopy has been applied to support the material selection programs of low background, neutrino and dark matter experiments with emphasis on EXO. An array of 8 counters operated by Laurentian University at SNOLAB and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant have reached the sensitivity of 10 atoms/day in the uranium, thorium and actinium chains. Hardware improvements are underway to further increase the capacity and sensitivity in support of nEXO. Supported by NSERC Project Grants ``Search for Double Beta Decay with EXO.''

  18. Mixed valency of the RE and Ac ions in solid states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This review is devoted to consideration of the methods and results of the theoretical and experimental investigations of the electronic state of the rare earths and actinium ions in the separate compound. The methods of the high resolution X ray spectroscopy were used for our consideration. Energy of the X ray lines of the rare earths and actinium ions in free state and solid states was study carefully. Valency shifts of X Ray lines under change of electronic state of nf - ions in different oxide, fluoride and chloride compounds were determined for K -, L- and M - lines for these ions with accuracy near 10 -100 MeV. We studied the electronic state of nf- ions which is changed from '+2' to '+4' and determined the concentration of ions in different electronic state. Relative error for theoretical energy of the most lines for HFP - approach in comparison with experiment is less than 0.5%, and deviation for concentration is less than 5%

  19. A study of uranium and thorium migration at the Koongarra uranium deposit with application to actinide transport from nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One way to gain confidence in modelling possible radionuclide releases is to study natural systems which are similar to components of the multibarrier waste repository. Several such analogues are currently under study and these provide useful data about radionuclide behaviour in the natural environment. One such system is the Koongarra uranium deposit in the Northern Territory. In this dissertation, the migration of actinides, primarily uranium and thorium, has been studied as an analogue for the behaviour of transuranics in the far-field of a waste repository. The major findings of this study are: 1. the main process retarding uranium migration in the dispersion fan at Koongarra is sorption, which suppresses dissolved uranium concentrations well below solubility limits, with ferrihydrite being a major sorbing phase; 2. thorium is extremely immobile, with very low dissolved concentrations and corresponding high distribution ratios for 230Th. Overall, it is estimated that colloids are relatively unimportant in Koongarra groundwater. Uranium migrates mostly as dissolved species, whereas thorium and actinium are mostly adsorbed to larger, relatively immobile particles and the stationary phase. However, of the small amount of 230Th that passes through a 1μm filter, a significant proportion is associated with colloidal particles. Actinium appears to be slightly more mobile than thorium and is associated with colloids to a greater extent, although generally present in low concentrations. These results support the possibility of colloidal transport of trivalent and tetravalent actinides in the vicinity of a nuclear waste repository. 112 refs., 23 tabs., 32 figs

  20. Low Response Rate and Other Factors Render Academic Health Science Library System Study Ungeneralizable. A Review of: Folb, B. L., Wessel, C. B., & Czechowski, L. J. (2011. Clinical and academic use of electronic and print books: The Health Sciences Library System e-book study at the University of Pittsburgh. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 99(3, 218-228. doi:10.3163/1536-5050.99.3.009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Melssen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine the factors, barriersand facilitators, preference, and intended useof e-book compared to print book usage by allpatrons in a health science library system,which serves a university with health sciencedegree programs and a hospital system.Design – Two online surveys.Setting – University of Pittsburgh HealthSciences Library System, which includes theUniversity of Pittsburgh’s six schools of healthsciences (medicine, dental medicine, nursing,pharmacy, public health, and rehabilitationand the University of Pittsburgh MedicalCenter hospitals and programs.Subjects – All health sciences library systemusrers, including faculty, researchers, clinicians,residents, fellows, employees, and students.Methods – Two versions of the survey weredeployed in 2009 using Opinio. There were 46questions for the University of PittsburghMedical Center (UPMC survey and 47questions for the University of Pittsburgh (Pittsurvey. The surveys were pilot tested byHealth Sciences Library System (HSLSlibrarians and graduate students in a surveymethods class. The survey was edited based onthe feedback provided and receivedinstitutional review board approval as anexempt study.A total of 5,292 email addresses wererandomly selected by SPSS from a pool of 9,472 UPMC and Pitt patrons registered with a HSLS remote access password; 2,684 patrons from UPMC and 2,608 patrons from Pitt were selected. HSLS librarians were excluded from the survey. Participants were emailed a link to the survey in March of 2009. Three email reminders were sent at five day intervals. Data was collected for 22 days and exported from Opinio to SPSS statistics software. Survey results were analyzed using basic descriptive statistics and cross-tabulations.Main Results – Of the 5,292 emails sent, 979 surveys were submitted and 871 were completed fully. The 108 partially completed the surveys were analyzed using pair wise deletion. All HSLS user groups were represented and all rated their confidence in computer skills high. The mean age of respondents was 39.9 with the majority of respondents being female.Of the 871 completed surveys, over half (55.4% of the respondents reported using HSLS e-books: 66.7% men and 54.9% women. HSLS e-books were used for in-depth reading by 53.4% of men and 36.8% of women. At UPMC, 70% of attending physicians, interns, residents, fellows, and Pitt postdoctoral/fellows use HSLS e-books. The primary use of the e-books was for clinical care, by 75.3% of attending physicians; 86% of interns, residents, and fellows; and 38.9% of nurses. HSLS e-books are also used by 61.8% of respiratory care and physical therapists, 28.6% of administrators, and 56.8% of researchers.At Pitt, 73% of postdoctoral students or fellows and 64.7% of faculty used HSLS e-books. The primary use of the e-books was to support research. 76.5% of postdoctoral students and fellows and 54.1% of faculty used e-books for this purpose. Only 21.3% of faculty assigned e-books for class readings. Though 14% of undergraduate and 33.5% of medical students responded that they had been assigned readings from e-books, 51% of undergraduates and 62.1% of graduate and medical students used an e-book to complete an assignment.Over half (65.5% of respondents saw information about HSLS e-books on the HSLS website and 55.4% of respondents used an HSLS e-book. When using an e-book, 56.6% look up brief, factual information while 41.9% use e-books for in-depth study.Uses of HSLS e-book search tools were rated: the federated full text search tool was used by 67.2% of respondents and 74.3% of those who use this tool rated it as moderately to extremely useful. Google books and the library catalog were also rated moderately to extremely useful by respondents. The catalog received the lowest rating of the HSLS e-book search tools.More respondents (95.4% use the library’s website than come to the physical library (63.8%; however, 66.9% say they use both the website and physical library. Of the 63.8% of respondents who came to one of the HSLS libraries, 67.2% borrow

  1. 75 FR 33747 - Ocean Dumping; Correction of Typographical Error in 2006 Federal Register Final Rule for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ...) at 71 FR 27396 (May 11, 2006). The EPA is also restoring the coordinates for Site H at 40 CFR 228.15... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 228 Ocean Dumping; Correction of Typographical Error in 2006 Federal Register Final... Final Rule for the Ocean Dumping; De-designation of Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site and...

  2. 78 FR 31941 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... Foster Parent Study 1 228 .1 23 Contact Form DCFS Foster Parent Interview........ 228 2 .75 342 DCFS... youth who are at risk for long- term foster care and who experience the most serious barriers to timely... remain in foster care for 3 years or longer. In addition, evaluation plans were developed to...

  3. 75 FR 35770 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environment Impact Report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... created as the Sea recedes by constructing dikes below the elevation of -228 feet mean sea level (msl... be created in phases as the Sea recedes by constructing dikes below the elevation of -228 feet mean... construction of the dikes or islands. The dike separating adjacent ponds at similar elevations could also...

  4. Nuclear analytical techniques used in water quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work describes the methodologies used for total α and β analysis, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 210 Pb, 228 Th, 230 Th, 40 K, U and Th, and those ones used for precision and accuracy of the Environmental Monitoring Program under execution in the Brazilian State of Minas Gerais. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab

  5. Genetic and bibliographic information: BBS5 [GenLibi

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BBS5 Bardet-Biedl syndrome 5 human Bardet-Biedl Syndrome (MeSH) Nervous System Dise...s (C10.228.140.617) > Bardet-Biedl Syndrome (C10.228.140.617.200) Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Disea... Multiple (C16.131.077) > Bardet-Biedl Syndrome (C16.131.077.112) 99A0284114 ...

  6. Necesidades de la vida cotidiana: alojamiento y gastos básicos

    OpenAIRE

    Conchado Peiró, Andrea; Carot Sierra, José Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Conchado Peiró, A.; Carot Sierra, JM. (2014). Necesidades de la vida cotidiana: alojamiento y gastos básicos. En Desigualdad y universidad. La encuesta de condiciones de vida y de participación de los estudiantes universitarios en España. 201-228. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/60800. Senia 201 228

  7. Thorium exposure during tungsten inert gas welding with thoriated tungsten electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gäfvert, T.; Pagels, J.; Holm, E.

    2003-01-01

    for two scenarios, one realistic and one with conservative assumptions, showing that the annual committed effective dose from inhalation of Th-232, Th-230, Th-228 and Ra-228, for a full-time TIG welder, in the realistic case is below 0.3 mSv and with conservative assumptions around 1 mSv or lower...

  8. AcEST: DK958578 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available A0S7R2_ONCHC Class III peroxidase OS=Oncidium Gower Ra... 228 4e-58 tr|A5AGY5|A5A...>tr|A0S7R2|A0S7R2_ONCHC Class III peroxidase OS=Oncidium Gower Ramsey PE=2 SV=1 Length = 332 Score = 228 bit

  9. 10 CFR Appendix D to Part 835 - Surface Contamination Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... + Removable) 2,3 U-nat, U-235, U-238, and associated decay products 7 1,000 7 5,000 Transuranics, Ra-226, Ra-228, Th-230, Th-228, Pa-231, Ac-227, I-125, I-129 20 500 Th-nat, Th-232, Sr-90, Ra-223, Ra-224,...

  10. National survey on the natural radioactivity and Rn-222 exhalation rate of building materials in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, P.; van Dijk, W.; van der Graaf, E.R.; de Groot, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    The present study reports on results of a nationwide survey on the natural radioactivity concentrations and Rn-222 exhalation rates of the prevailing building materials in the Netherlands. In total 100 samples were taken and analyzed for the activity concentrations of Ra-226, Ra-228, Th-228, and K-4

  11. Measurement of nuclides of uranium and thorium series of disequilibrium using γ-spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘广山; 黄奕普; 李静; 叶林

    2002-01-01

    The decay dynamic equations of two daughters were resolved as initial activities of daughters are not zero, and gave calculation formula of activities for measuring uranium and thorium series of disequilibrium using γ-spectroscopy. 238U, 234Th, 226Ra, 222Rn, 228Ra, 228Th, 224Ra, 212pb, 210pb and 40K in two sediment samples were determined as application.

  12. 30 CFR 75.206 - Conventional roof support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-sectional area of wooden posts shall be as follows: Post length (in inches) Diameter of round posts (in... 204 to 228 11 95 Over 228 12 113 (2) Wooden materials used for support shall have the following dimensions: (i) Cap blocks and footings shall have flat sides and be at least 2 inches thick, 4 inches...

  13. Drug: D08327 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available regation inhibitor thromboxane A2 (TXA2) synthase inhibitor [HSA:6916] [KO:K01832] ...D08327 Drug Ozagrel (INN); Cataclot (TN) C13H12N2O2 228.0899 228.2466 D08327.gif Anticoagulant, platelet agg

  14. AcEST: BP913515 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rotein OS=Medic... 228 1e-58 tr|B5LWQ7|B5LWQ7_ZIZJJ Ubiquitin extensive-like protein OS=Zizip... 228 1e-58 t...N ECGAGTFMANH DRHYCG+ Sbjct: 121 CPNAECGAGTFMANHFDRHYCGK 143 >tr|B5LWQ7|B5LWQ7_ZIZJJ Ubiquitin extensive-lik

  15. 40 CFR 264.144 - Cost estimate for post-closure care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., or of a surface impoundment or waste pile required under §§ 264.228 and 264.258 to prepare a... post-closure regulations in §§ 264.117 through 264.120, 264.228, 264.258, 264.280, 264.310, and...

  16. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U04150-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hondrial DN... 229 7e-59 AF383013_1( AF383013 |pid:none) Basileuterus tristriatus cytochrom... 229 7e-59 AY2...e b; AltName: Full=Ubiquinol-cyt... 228 9e-59 AF383012_1( AF383012 |pid:none) Basileuterus rubifrons cytochr.... 228 9e-59 EF135273_1( EF135273 |pid:none) Sapria himalayana voucher Kocyan 1... 228 9e-59 AY216847_1( AY216847 |pid:none) Basil... 9e-59 AY216809_1( AY216809 |pid:none) Vermivora peregrina specimen-vouch... 228 9e-59 AF382994_1( AF382994 |pid:none) Basil...40209_1( AY340209 |pid:none) Basileuterus rivularis B-1146 cyto... 228 1e-58 AY968861_1( AY968861 |pid:none)

  17. Investigation on the Oral Health Status of Heroin Addicts in the Drug Addiction Treatment Center in Nanning,Guangxi%广西南宁市某戒毒所海洛因依赖者口腔健康状况调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁登忠; 何克新; 梁纲; 李飞; 文春媚; 高碧云; 雷月娟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the oral health status of heroin addicts in the Drug Addiction Treatment Center in Nanning,and to provide reference of the prevention plan. Methods Oral examination was done in 228 heroin addicts and the data were analyzed according to requirement of the Third National Oral Health Epidemiological Survey. Results Of the 228 heroin addicts,the incidences of caries,gums bleeding,dental calculus,periodontal pocket,periodontal attachment loss and oral mucosal disease were 66. 67%( 152/228 ),82.46%( 188/228 ),100%( 228/228 ),82.01%( 187/228 ),41. 23% ( 94/228 ) and 18. 86% ( 43/228 ), respectively. The incidences of gums bleeding and periodontal attachment loss of the subjects aged from 18 to 34 were lower than those of the subjects aged from 35 to 56( P 3 years,the incidences of gums bleeding,the periodontal pocket and periodontal attachment loss of the subjects whose duration of drug addiction ≤3 years were significantly lower( P < 0. 05 ). The incidences of periodontal attachment loss of the subjects with the education level of primary school or lower education were significantly lower than those of the subjects with the education level of junior school or either high school or higher education( P all <0.05 ). Conclusion For the oral health status of heroin addicts is related with age,duration of drug addiction and education level, oral health education should be strengthened to improve their life quality.%目的 调查海洛因依赖者口腔健康情况,为制定防治计划提供依据.方法 按照第三次全国口腔健康流行病学调查的要求,对南宁市某戒毒所228名海洛因依赖者进行口腔检查.结果 228名海洛因依赖者中龋病、牙龈出血、牙结石、牙周袋、牙周附着丧失、口腔黏膜病的检出率分别为66.67%(152/228),82.46%(188/228)、100.00%(228/228)、82.01%(187/228)、41.23%(94/228)、18.86%(43/228);18~34岁年龄段牙龈出血、牙周附着丧失的检出率低于35~56

  18. [Determination of natural radioactive nuclides in the travertine samples from Tamagawa hot spring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, T; Masumura, S; Takahashi, K; Sotobayashi, T

    1982-07-01

    The determination of natural radioactive nuclides was carried out for 7 travertine samples collected from Tamagawa hot spring by means of the non-distructive gamma-ray spectrometry and of the alpha-ray spectrometry. From the former measurements, the relative activity strength, due to 223Ra, 226Ra, and 228Th, and their ratios was obtained in comparison with the photopeak strength due to respective daughters, 228Ac, 214Bi, and 212Pb, and with the results from a monazite sand standard. One travertine sample was engaged to the alpha-ray spectrometric determination of Th isotopes after the chemical purification using a 234Th-yield tracer. On the basis of the resultant absolute content of 228Th, the 228Ra and 228Th contents in the remainder samples were evaluated to be the range of 3 approximately 80 Bq (81 approximately 2160 pCi)/g and 2 approximately 20 Bq (54 approximately pCi)/g respectively. These radioactive nuclides were verified to exist almost within a Hokutolite small crystals up to 90% and there are apparently the radioactive disequilibrium relations between 228Ra and 228Th among freshly deposited travertines. The presence of 227Ac in Hokutolite was also suggested from the detection of 227Th owing to 215Po-alpha peak. PMID:7178540

  19. Radionuclide interactions with marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critical review of the literature on the subject of the interactions of radionuclides with marine sediments has been carried out. On the basis of the information available, an attempt has been made to give ranges and 'best estimates' for the distribution ratios between seawater and sediments. These estimates have been based on an understanding of the sediment seawater system and the porewater chemistry and mineralogy. Field measurements, laboratory measurements and estimates based on stable-element geochemical data are all taken into account. Laboratory measurements include distribution-ratio and diffusion-coefficient determinations. The elements reviewed are carbon, chlorine, calcium, nickel, selenium, strontium, zirconium, niobium, technetium, tin, iodine, caesium, lead, radium, actinium, thorium, protactinium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium. (author)

  20. Process for radioisotope recovery and system for implementing same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikrantz, David H.; Todd, Terry A.; Tranter, Troy J.; Horwitz, E. Philip

    2007-01-02

    A method of recovering daughter isotopes from a radioisotope mixture. The method comprises providing a radioisotope mixture solution comprising at least one parent isotope. The at least one parent isotope is extracted into an organic phase, which comprises an extractant and a solvent. The organic phase is substantially continuously contacted with an aqueous phase to extract at least one daughter isotope into the aqueous phase. The aqueous phase is separated from the organic phase, such as by using an annular centrifugal contactor. The at least one daughter isotope is purified from the aqueous phase, such as by ion exchange chromatography or extraction chromatography. The at least one daughter isotope may include actinium-225, radium-225, bismuth-213, or mixtures thereof. A liquid-liquid extraction system for recovering at least one daughter isotope from a source material is also disclosed.

  1. Proposed training program for construction personnel involved in remedial action work at sites contaminated by naturally occurring radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many sites used during the early days of the US atomic energy program are contaminated with radionuclides of the primordial decay chains (uranium, thorium, and actinium series). This contamination consists of residues resulting from refining and processing uranium and thorium. Preparation of these sites for release to unrestricted private use will involve the assistance of construction workers, many of whom have limited knowledge of the hazards associated with radioactive materials. Therefore, there is a need to educate these workers in the fundamentals of radioactive material handling to minimize exposures and possible spread of contamination. This training should disseminate relevant information at an appropriate educational level and should instill a cautious, common-sense attitude toward the handling of radioactive materials. The training should emphasize basic information concerning environmental radiation within a context of relative risk. A multi-media format, including colorful visual aids, demonstration, and discussion, should be used to maximize motivation and retention. A detailed, proposed training program design is presented

  2. JAEA thermodynamic database for performance assessment of geological disposal of high-level and TRU wastes. Refinement of thermodynamic data for trivalent actinoids and samarium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the scope of the JAEA thermodynamic database project for performance assessment of geological disposal of high-level radioactive and TRU wastes, the refinement of the thermodynamic data for the inorganic compounds and complexes of trivalent actinoids (actinium(III), plutonium(III), americium(III) and curium(III)) and samarium(III) was carried out. Refinement of thermodynamic data for these elements was based on the thermodynamic database for americium published by the Nuclear Energy Agency in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD/NEA). Based on the similarity of chemical properties among trivalent actinoids and samarium, complementary thermodynamic data for their species expected under the geological disposal conditions were selected to complete the thermodynamic data set for the performance assessment of geological disposal of radioactive wastes. (author)

  3. Theoretical Study on Properties of New Isotope 265Bh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The properties of nuclei belonging to the newly observed α-decay chain starting from 265Bh have been studied. The axially deformed relativistic mean-field calculation with the force NL-Z2 has been performed in the blockedBCS approximation. Some ground state properties such as binding energies, deformations, spins, and parities, as well as Q-values of the α-decay for this decay chain have been calculated and compared with known experimental data. Good agreement is found. The single-particle spectrum of the nucleus 265 Bh is studied and some new magic numbers are found,while the magnitudes of the shell gaps in superheavy nuclei are much smaller than those of nuclei before the actinium region, and the Fermi surfaces are close to the continuum. Thus the superheavy nuclei are usually not stable. The The methods which give good agreement with the data are selected.

  4. Origin of elements of the Uranium-235 family observed in the Ellez river near the EL-4 experimental nuclear reactor in dismantling (Monts d'Arree- Finistere department); Origine des elements de la famille de l'uranium-235 observes dans la riviere Ellez a proximite du reacteur nucleaire experimental EL4 en cours de demantelement (Mont d'Arree - departement du Finistere). Resultats et premiers constats annee 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    In a previous study which concerned the catchment basin of the harbour of Brest, the A.C.R.O. put in evidence a marking by artificial radioelements around the power plant of Brennilis which can be imputed without ambiguities to the nuclear installation. It also put in evidence abnormalities concerning the natural radioactivity which justifies this new study. In the area of the Monts d'Arree, actinium 227 ({sup 227}Ac), non born by its ascendents which are {sup 235}U and {sup 231}Pa is observed. This phenomenon is characterized by mass activities superior to these ones of {sup 235}U and able to reach these ones of {sup 238}U. Its presence corresponds with the drainage of the Ellez river since the former channel of radioactive effluents releases from the nuclear power plant EL-4 up to the reservoir Saint-Herblot situated 6 km downstream. The strongest values of radioactivity are registered near the disused power plant, at this place a relationship exists between the level of actinium 227 and this one of the artificial radioactivity as it exists a relationship with the decay products of radon exhaled from the subsoil ({sup 210}Pb). But its presence is not limited to a part of the Ellez river, it is equally observed in terrestrial medium, in places in priori not influenced by the direct liquid effluents of the power plant. This place is situated at more than 4 km and without any connection with the Ellez waters. At this stage of the study, it is not possible to answer with certainty the question of the origin of this phenomenon. A new reorientation is considered indispensable to clarify definitively the origin of this unknown phenomenon in the scientific publications and the environmental monitoring. (N.C.)

  5. origin of elements of the Uranium-235 family observed in the Ellez river near the EL-4 experimental nuclear reactor in dismantling (Monts d'Arree- Finistere department)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a previous study which concerned the catchment basin of the harbour of Brest, the A.C.R.O. put in evidence a marking by artificial radioelements around the power plant of Brennilis which can be imputed without ambiguities to the nuclear installation. It also put in evidence abnormalities concerning the natural radioactivity which justifies this new study. In the area of the Monts d'Arree, actinium 227 (227Ac), non born by its ascendents which are 235U and 231Pa is observed. This phenomenon is characterized by mass activities superior to these ones of 235U and able to reach these ones of 238U. Its presence corresponds with the drainage of the Ellez river since the former channel of radioactive effluents releases from the nuclear power plant EL-4 up to the reservoir Saint-Herblot situated 6 km downstream. The strongest values of radioactivity are registered near the disused power plant, at this place a relationship exists between the level of actinium 227 and this one of the artificial radioactivity as it exists a relationship with the decay products of radon exhaled from the subsoil (210Pb). But its presence is not limited to a part of the Ellez river, it is equally observed in terrestrial medium, in places in priori not influenced by the direct liquid effluents of the power plant. This place is situated at more than 4 km and without any connection with the Ellez waters. At this stage of the study, it is not possible to answer with certainty the question of the origin of this phenomenon. A new reorientation is considered indispensable to clarify definitively the origin of this unknown phenomenon in the scientific publications and the environmental monitoring. (N.C.)

  6. 两种稀土产品中放射性核素分析研究%ANALYSIS OF RADIONUCLIDES IN TWO RARE EARTH PRODUCTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周程; 孙恋君

    2009-01-01

    利用高纯锗γ谱仪对两个稀土产品氯化镧和氯化钇的样品进行能谱分析,研究经湿法冶炼工艺后的稀土产品中放射性核素的活度变化.结果表明,样品中存在天然放射性钍系和锕-铀系的核素,以及天然放射性核素~(138)La和~(176)Lu,但两个样品中所含的放射性核素不相同.氯化镧产品中锕-铀系和钍系核素放射性未达平衡,其主要子体~(224)Ra和~(227)Th的含量随时间发生明显变化,约60天达到平衡;而氯化钇产品没有这种现象.%This paper describes a study on raidoactivity change of rare-earth products after hydrometallurgy technology,using HPGe gamma spectrometer to analyze two rare earth products (LaCl_3 and YCl_3).The results show that in the two samples exist natural radionuclides of thorium series and actinium-uranium series as well as other natural radionuclides 138 La and 176 Lu.In the sample of lanthanum chloride the radioactivity of actinium-uranium series and thorium series has not reached balance,the contents of their main progenies ~(226)Ra and ~(227)Th obviously changes with the time,reaching balance 60 days later,while YCl_3 keeps stability.

  7. Reactor production of Thorium-229.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogle, Susan; Boll, Rose Ann; Murphy, Karen; Denton, David; Owens, Allison; Haverlock, Tamara J; Garland, Marc; Mirzadeh, Saed

    2016-08-01

    Limited availability of (229)Th for clinical applications of (213)Bi necessitates investigation of alternative production routes. In reactor production, (229)Th is produced from neutron transmutation of (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (227)Ac and (228)Th. Irradiations of (226)Ra, (228)Ra, and (227)Ac targets at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor result in yields of (229)Th at 26 days of 74.0±7.4MBq/g, 260±10MBq/g, and 1200±50MBq/g, respectively. Intermediate radionuclide yields and cross sections are also studied. PMID:27163437

  8. Radium in potable waters from Central Victoria : an application of the Australian drinking water guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determinations of 226Ra and 228Ra in potable mineral waters from springs located in the Daylesford-Hepburn region of Victoria, Australia, were carried out. Concentrations ranged from 230-810 mBq L-1 for 228Ra. These levels approach or exceed the guideline limits recommended in the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines. The annual committed effective dose and health risks from radium in potable water is discussed. Assuming consumption of 2 L per day the average committed effective dose received from 226Ra was 0.087 mSv y-1 and from 228Ra was 0.10 mSv y-1. (author). 18 refs., 2 tabs

  9. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U08213-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available es) Frame A: knstfssfiqkctedprtrkldlrsyliqpvqritryhmlleevlkhtdqshtdypplte syrlmkqvtsdane...e: Full=Neuroepithelial cell-transforming gene 1 ... 65 2e-09 AJ010045_1( AJ010045 |pid:none) Mu...ntig-U08213-1Q.Seq.d Length = 798 Score = 714 bits (360), Expect = 0.0 Identities = 360/360 (100%) Strand = ...s (228), Expect = e-127 Identities = 228/228 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 1 aagaattcaacattttc...s (126), Expect = 2e-66 Identities = 126/126 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 673 tcgatcatgc

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16055-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 9822 Start point 2742478 End point 2740389 Strand (PLUS/MINUS) MINUS Number of clones 9 Number of EST 15 Lin...055-1Q) /CSM_Contig/Contig-U16055-1Q.Seq.d Length = 2100 Score = 551 bits (278), Expect = e-156 Identities = 278/278 (100%) Strand...actccaatcactaccactaccacc 278 Score = 507 bits (256), Expect = e-143 Identities = 256/256 (100%) Strand...2 bits (228), Expect = e-126 Identities = 228/228 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 1373 ttagctgaaattgagaag...371 bits (187), Expect = e-102 Identities = 193/193 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plus Q

  11. Genetic and bibliographic information: VEGFA [GenLibi

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VEGFA vascular endothelial growth factor A human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (MeSH) Nervous... System Diseases (C10) > Central Nervous System Diseases (C10.228) > Spinal Cord Diseases (C10.228....854) > Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (C10.228.854.139) Nervous System Diseases (C10) > Neurodegenerative Di...osis (C10.574.562.250) Nervous System Diseases (C10) > Neuromuscular Diseases (C10.668) > Motor Neuron Disea...seases (C10.574) > Motor Neuron Disease (C10.574.562) > Amyotrophic Lateral Scler

  12. Should probenecid be used to reduce the dicloxacillin dosage in orthopaedic infections?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard, M R; Hansen, B A; Slotsbjerg, T;

    1994-01-01

    mg treatment. Serum concentrations above 5 micrograms/ml were in mean measured during 228 min. (dicloxacillin 500 mg) and 190 min. (dicloxacillin 250 mg+probenecid 250 mg), respectively (P theory, treatment with dicloxacillin...

  13. AcEST: DK956057 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FIHLYISNCISTCEQIKDKYMQN 228 >tr|B0BNA9|B0BNA9_RAT Similar to DNA segment, Chr 1, Brigham & Women...s Genetics 0212 expressed (Similar to DNA segment, Chr 1, Brigham & Womens Genetics 0212 expr

  14. Errata: A survey of Bayesian predictive methods for model assessment, selection and comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aki Vehtari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Errata for “A survey of Bayesian predictive methods for model assessment, selection and comparison” by A. Vehtari and J. Ojanen, Statistics Surveys, 6 (2012, 142–228. doi:10.1214/12-SS102.

  15. Kunstipiiride valvaja Ants Juske ja "12 tooli" / Peeter Linnap

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Linnap, Peeter, 1960-

    1999-01-01

    Vastuseks A. Juske kirjutisele 23. nov. Eesti Päevalehes "Backdoor Media" kunstiväljaandest. Kui pahempoolne tohib olla vasakpoolsus kultuuris Ants Juske arvates. Ilmunud ka raamatus: Linnap, P. Silmakirjad. Tartu, 2007, lk. 228

  16. Investigation of the operational quality of germanium gamma detectors. Estimation of Ge:Li detector survival rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A working group has produced tables of information on gamma semiconductor Ge detectors: Ge(Li) or intrinsic Ge. The information was obtained as a result of enquirres addressed to various laboratories, and concerns 228-sources in France and Belgium

  17. Dosimetry of paranasal sinus and mastoid epithelia in radium-exposed humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose calculations for 228Ra and 226Ra are presented for the sinus and mastoid epithelia and lead to the conclusion that the isotopes are of comparable dosimetric significance for the production of carcinomas in patients exposed to comparable levels

  18. Report on progress of researches by common utilization of JAERI nuclear facilities, for fiscal 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the joint researches by utilizing the facilities of JAERI in 1993 fiscal year were summarized. The number of research themes in 1993 was 228 cases. In this book, 243 reports are collected. (J.P.N.)

  19. Radiological characterization of pharmaceutical and cosmetic clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural radionuclide activity concentration (235U, 238U, 234U, 230Th, 226Ra, 232Th, 228Th, 228Ra and 40K) in clay materials used for cosmetic and medical purposes was determined by alpha and gamma spectrometry. The activity concentration resulted in the range of 0.71 and 4.42 Bq kg-1 for 235U, 15.1-91.4 and 15.3-81.6 Bq kg-1 for 238U and 234U, respectively, 18.7-72.4 Bq kg-1 for 230Th, 27.6-59.7 for 226Ra, 7.80-55.0 and 8.76-58.1 for 232Th and 228Th, 8.60-66.9 Bq kg-1 for 228Ra and 151.6-1,459 Bq kg-1 for 40K. In an oral treatment, the intake was calculated and for some radionuclides the results were higher than the annual dietary intake. (author)

  20. Communist Party Heroes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    When a catastrophic 8-magmtude earthquake hit south western Sichuan Province at 2:28 p.m. on May 12, causing 400,000 casualties and destroying towns and villages, the country faced a massive rescue operation.

  1. Strict deformation quantization for actions of a class of symplectic lie groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present explicit universal strict deformation quantization formulae for actions of Iwasawa subgroups AN of SN(1, n). This answers a question raised by Rieffel in [Contemp. Math. 228 (1998), 315]. (author)

  2. Doxorubicin alone versus intensified doxorubicin plus ifosfamide for first-line treatment of advanced or metastatic soft-tissue sarcoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Judson, Ian; Verweij, Jaap; Gelderblom, Hans;

    2014-01-01

    %]), febrile neutropenia (103 (46%) vs 30 [13%]), anaemia (78 [35%] vs 10 [5%]), and thrombocytopenia (75 [33%]) vs one [... response (60 [26%] of 227 patients vs 31 [14%] of 228; pneutropenia (93 [42%] vs 83 [37...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1977 - Content of approved State submitted implementation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .../01) 216-0066Standard ACDPs (7/1/01) 216-0070Permitting Multiple Sources at a Single Adjacent or... (Bubble) (7/1/01) Division 228—Requirements for Fuel Burning Equipment and Fuel Sulfur Content...

  4. 76 FR 41766 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... Environmental Assessment, Regulatory Impact Review, and Regulatory Flexibility Act Analysis. Amendment 18... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... Gulfport Beachfront Hotel, 1600 East Beach Blvd., Gulfport, MS 39501, (228) 864-4310; Amendment...

  5. Drug: D00425 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D00425 Drug Nabumetone (JP16/USP/INN); Relafen (TN) C15H16O2 228.115 228.2863 D00425.gif Anti-inflammatory...Nabumetone D00425 Nabumetone (JP16/USP/INN) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Analgesics Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory... Drugs Nabumetone D00425 Nabumetone (JP16/USP/INN) Anti-inflammatory Agents Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory

  6. 78 FR 74012 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Oregon; Revised Format for Materials...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... Degreasers. 2891. 232-0210 Asphaltic and Coal 10/14/1999 1/22/2003, 68 FR Tar Pitch Used for 2891. Roofing.../2011, 76 FR Regional Haze 38997. Requirements for the Foster-Wheeler Boiler at the Boardman Coal- Fired... Oils. 2891. 228-0120 Coal 10/14/1999 1/22/2003, 68 FR 2891. 228-0130 Exemptions......... 10/14/1999...

  7. Genetic and bibliographic information: ARL6 [GenLibi

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ARL6 ADP-ribosylation factor-like 6 human Bardet-Biedl Syndrome (MeSH) Nervous Syst...Diseases (C10.228.140.617) > Bardet-Biedl Syndrome (C10.228.140.617.200) Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonata...lities, Multiple (C16.131.077) > Bardet-Biedl Syndrome (C16.131.077.112) 99A0284114 ...

  8. Airborne research in cool regions

    OpenAIRE

    Steinhage, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The Alfred Wegener Institute uses ski-equipped aircraft to support and to conduct its research activities both polar regions since 1983 and provides access to the aircraft to the German scientific community. Beside logistic support of field groups, the aircraft were utilized in glaciology, geophysics, meteorology, and physics of the atmosphere. At the beginning Dornier aircraft, first POLAR 1, a Do128, and POLAR 2, a Do228, followed by two Dornier aircraft of typ Do228 were used. While one ai...

  9. Reference material for natural radionuclides in glass designed for underground experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Povinec, P.; PHAM M. K.; Busto, J.; Cerna, C.; Degering, D.; Y. Hamajima; Holy, K.; Hult, Mikael; Jeskovsky, M.; Koehler, M; Kovacik, A.; Laubenstein, Matthias; Loaiza, P.; Mamedov, F.; Marquet, C.

    2015-01-01

    A reference material designed for the determination of natural radionuclides in solid samples (glass pellets) is described and the results of certification are presented. The material has been certified for 7 natural radionuclides (40K, 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th, 232Th, 235U and 238U). An information value is given for 210Pb. Radon (222Rn) emanation experiments showed results comparable within participating laboratories, however, the number of data and precision was too low to carry out a certifica...

  10. 40 CFR 141.25 - Analytical methods for radioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., 7110 C-00 Radium 226 Radon emanation 903.1 p. 16 Ra-04 p. 19 305, 7500-Ra C, 7500-Ra C-01 D3454-97 R... York, NY 10014-3621. 9 “Determination of Ra-226 and Ra-228 (Ra-02),” January 1980, Revised June 1982... January 1, 2005 to satisfy the radium-226 and radium-228 monitoring requirements specified at 40 CFR...

  11. Analysis for the radionuclides of the natural uranium and thorium decay chains with special reference to uranium mine tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed review is made of the experimental techniques that are available, or are in the process of development, for the determination of 238U, 235U, 234U, 231Pa, 232Th, 230Th, 228Th, 228Ra, 226Ra, 223Ra, 210Po and 210Pb. These products of the uranium and thorium decay chains are found in uranium mine tailings. Reference is also made to a procedure for the selective phase extraction of mineral phases from uranium mine tailings

  12. A century of oil and gas exploration in Albania: assessment of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs)

    OpenAIRE

    Xhixha, Gerti; Baldoncini, Marica; Callegari, Ivan; Colonna, Tommaso; Hasani, Fadil; Mantovani, Fabio; Shala, Ferat; Strati, Virginia; Kaçeli, Merita Xhixha

    2015-01-01

    Because potential Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs) generated from oil and gas extractions in Albania have been disposed without regulatory criteria in many decades, an extensive survey in one of the most productive regions (Vlora-Elbasan) has been performed. Among 52 gamma-ray spectrometry measurements of soil, oil-sand, sludge, produced water and crude oil samples, we discover that relatively low activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th and 40K, which are 23 +/- 2 Bq/k...

  13. Natural radioactivity of some spring and bottled mineral waters from several central Balkan sites, as a way of their characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCEPAN S. MILJANIC

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a study of the radioactive content of some spring and bottled mineral waters originating frommetamorphic rock areas was carried out.Ahigh content of radium isotopes (226Ra, 228Ra, was found by radiometric analysis in the spring waters: Studenica (226Ra: 289 mBq/L, ^ibutkovica (226Ra: 92, 4 mBq/L, 228Ra: 610 mBq/L, and Crni Guber (226Ra: 120 mBq/L, 228Ra: 1170 mBq/L. On the other hand, the radiochemical results showed a higher concentration of 238U in the bottled mineral water samples (dissolved uranium concentrations were from 0.21 mBq/L, for "Kopaonik" to 71.5mBq/L fo "Skadarska" than in the spring water samples (dissolved uranium concentrations were very low » 10 mBq/L. The concentrations of all the present naturally occuring radionuclides: 238U, 234U, 232Th, 230Th, 228Th, 228Ra and 226Ra were determined by alpha/gamma spectrometric analysis. The activity ratios 234U/238U, 226Ra/230Th and 228Th/232Th, 228Ra/228Th were calculated and are discussed as an indication of the radioactive disequilibrium in bothe the 238U and 232Th radioactive series. The high contents of radium isotopes with respect to the equilibrium values expected from the respective parents 232Th/(232Th series and 230Th (238U series found in the spring water samples is the main evidence for the existence of significant radioactive disequilibrium in both the radioactive series.

  14. Natural Radium Detection and Inventory Flux of Isotopes in Particulate and Dissolved Phases of Seawater at Kapar Coastal Area Caused by Coal-Fired Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, N.; Ariffin, N. A. N.; Mohamed, C. A. R.

    2016-07-01

    Distribution of 226Ra and 228Ra radioactive in marine have been studied at Kapar coastal area that closed to Sultan Salahudin Abdul Aziz Shah (SJSSAS) power station. The concentration level of 226Ra and 228Ra were measured in seawater include total suspended solids (TSSrw) and dissolved phases from September 2006 to February 2008. The measurement technique used for 226Ra and 228Ra was using cation exchange column and counted using Liquid Scintillator Ciunter (LSC). The radioactivities of 226Rasw and 228Rasw in the dissolved phase of seawater ranged from 1.29 ± 0.52 mBq/L - 3.69 ± 1.29 mBq/L and 2.12 ± 0.71 mbq/L - 17.07 ± 6.03 mBq/L respectively. The measurement of radioactivities of radium isotopes in the particulate phase of seawater ranged from 15.62 ± 1.99 Bq/kg - 241.76 ± 100.23 Bq/kg (226Ratsw) and 7.19 ± 3.21 Bq/kg - 879.66 ± 365.74 Bq/kg (228Ratsw). Radium isotopes inventory in this study showed that suspended solid have higher inventory value than seawater and sediment. Study also found that suspended solid play an important role for flux contribution at seawater. Based on the finding, the radioactivity concentration of 226Ra and 228Ra is higher in particulate phase than in dissolved phase.

  15. An Autophosphorylation Site of the Protein Kinase SOS2 Is Important for Salt Tolerance in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroaki Fujii; Jian-Kang Zhu

    2009-01-01

    The protein kinase SOS2 (Salt Overly Sensitive 2) is essential for salt-stress signaling and tolerance in Arabidopsis. SOS2 is known to be activated by calcium-SOS3 and by phosphorylation at its activation loop. SOS2 is autophosphorylated in vitro, but the autophosphorylation site and its role in salt tolerance are not known. In this study, we identified an autophosphorylation site in SOS2 and analyzed its role in the responses of Arabidopsis to salt stress. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that Ser 228 of SOS2 is autophosphorylated. When this site was mutated to Ala, the autophosphorylation rate of SOS2 decreased. The substrate phosphorylation by the mutated SOS2 was also less than that by the wild-type SOS2. In contrast, changing Ser228 to Asp to mimic the autophosphorylation enhanced substrate phosphorylation by SOS2. Complementation tests in a sos2 mutant showed that the S228A but not the S228D mutation partially disrupted the function of SOS2 in salt tolerance. We also show that activation loop phosphorylation at Thr168 and autophosphorylation at Ser228 cannot substitute for each other, suggesting that both are required for salt tolerance. Our results indicate that Ser 228 of SOS2 is autophosphorylated and that this autophosphorylation is important for SOS2 function under salt stress.

  16. Counting of live mussels on a HPGe detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, P.; Akber, R.A.; Marten, R. [Office of the Supervising Scientist, Jabiru, NT (Australia). Alligator Rivers Region Research Institute

    1994-12-31

    Four mussels collected from Mudginberri billabong were counted live on a HPGe detector. Count time was from 2 to 3 days. Radionuclides detectable by this method included {sup 226}Ra {sup 214}Pb, {sup 214}Bi and {sup 210}Pb from the uranium series and {sup 228}Ac and {sup 212}Pb from the thorium series. The measured {sup 222}Rn retention varied from 7% to 17%. The {sup 228}Ac/{sup 226}Ra and {sup 212}Pb/{sup 228}Ac ratios were used to give an estimate of the mussel age based upon the known {sup 228}Ra/{sup 226}Ra - age and {sup 228}Th/{sup 228}Ra - age relations for mussels from Mudginberri billabong. Two mussels were recounted after living for several months in a 50:50 mix of water from Ranger Uranium Mines retention pond no. 2 with Magela Creek water. The {sup 234}Th peak at 63 keV was then measurable, probably due to uptake of the parent {sup 238}U. This means that live counting cannot be used for detection of {sup 226}Ra releases from uranium mine pond waters, as {sup 235}U interferes with the {sup 226}Ra peak at 186 keV. The method does show promise for studies of the kinetics of uptake of uranium in mussels. 5 refs., 7 tabs., 4 figs.

  17. Evidence for an essential role of intradimer interaction in catalytic function of carnosine dipeptidase II using electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Nobuaki; Tamura, Jun; Takao, Toshifumi

    2016-02-01

    Carnosine dipeptidase II (CN2/CNDP2) is an M20 family metallopeptidase that hydrolyses various dipeptides including β-alanyl-L-histidine (carnosine). Crystallographic analysis showed that CN2 monomer is composed of one catalytic and one dimerization domains, and likely to form homodimer. In this crystal, H228 residue of the dimerization domain interacts with the substrate analogue bestatin on the active site of the dimer counterpart, indicating that H228 is involved in enzymatic reaction. In the present study, the role of intradimer interaction of CN2 in its catalytic activity was investigated using electrospray-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF MS). First, a dimer interface mutant I319K was prepared and shown to be present as a folded monomer in solution as examined by using ESI-TOF MS. Since the mutant was inactive, it was suggested that dimer formation is essential to its enzymatic activity. Next, we prepared H228A and D132A mutant proteins with different N-terminal extended sequences, which enabled us to monitor dimer exchange reaction by ESI-TOF MS. The D132A mutant is a metal ligand mutant and also inactive. But the activity was partially recovered time-dependently when H228A and D132A mutant proteins were incubated together. In parallel, H228A/D132A heterodimer was formed as detected by ESI-TOF MS, indicating that interaction of a catalytic center with H228 residue of the other subunit is essential to the enzymatic reaction. These results provide evidence showing that intradimer interaction of H228 with the reaction center of the dimer counterpart is essential to the enzymatic activity of CN2. PMID:26549037

  18. Minor Actinide Burning in Thermal Reactors. A Report by the Working Party on Scientific Issues of Reactor Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The actinides (or actinoids) are those elements in the periodic table from actinium upwards. Uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) are two of the principal elements in nuclear fuel that could be classed as major actinides. The minor actinides are normally taken to be the triad of neptunium (Np), americium (Am) and curium (Cm). The combined masses of the remaining actinides (i.e. actinium, thorium, protactinium, berkelium, californium, einsteinium and fermium) are small enough to be regarded as very minor trace contaminants in nuclear fuel. Those elements above uranium in the periodic table are known collectively as the transuranics (TRUs). The operation of a nuclear reactor produces large quantities of irradiated fuel (sometimes referred to as spent fuel), which is either stored prior to eventual deep geological disposal or reprocessed to enable actinide recycling. A modern light water reactor (LWR) of 1 GWe capacity will typically discharge about 20-25 tonnes of irradiated fuel per year of operation. About 93-94% of the mass of uranium oxide irradiated fuel is comprised of uranium (mostly 238U), with about 4-5% fission products and ∼1% plutonium. About 0.1-0.2% of the mass is comprised of neptunium, americium and curium. These latter elements accumulate in nuclear fuel because of neutron captures, and they contribute significantly to decay heat loading and neutron output, as well as to the overall radio-toxic hazard of spent fuel. Although the total minor actinide mass is relatively small - approximately 20-25 kg per year from a 1 GWe LWR - it has a disproportionate impact on spent fuel disposal, and thus the longstanding interest in transmuting these actinides either by fission (to fission products) or neutron capture in order to reduce their impact on the back end of the fuel cycle. The combined masses of the trace actinides actinium, thorium, protactinium, berkelium and californium in irradiated LWR fuel are only about 2 parts per billion, which is far too low for

  19. Assessing and modeling sediment mobility in estuarine and coastal settings due to extreme climate events from natural short-lived isotope distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaleb, Bassam; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude; Ruiz Fernandez, Ana-Carolina; Sanchez Cabeza, Joan-Albert

    2016-04-01

    Climatic events (e.g. floods, storminess) and management activities (e.g. dredging) may result in the burial or removal and re-suspension of sediments in estuaries and coastal areas. When such sediments are contaminated, such processes may either help restoring better chemical environments or lead to their long-term contamination. Geochemical signatures in surface sediments may help identifying such sedimentological events. However, short-lived isotope data are generally required to set time-constraints on their occurrence. Whereas 210Pb and radioactive fallout isotope contents can help setting time constraints at ~50 to ~100 yr-time scales, natural disequilibria in the 232Th-228Ra-228Th sequence do provide information on processes which occurred within the last 30 yrs, as illustrated in the present study. Box-cored sediments from the Saguenay Fjord and lower estuary of the St. Lawrence (Canada) as well as from estuaries and lagoons from the Sinaloa Coast (Mexico) are used to document the behavior of these isotopes either under relatively steady conditions (St. Lawrence estuary) or under high-frequency extreme climate events (storms and floods; Saguenay Fjord, Coastal Sinaloa). 228Th/232Th activity ratios were determined by chemical extraction of Th and alpha counting of unspiked samples, rapidly after sampling (228Th/232Th). The activity of the intermediate isotope 228Ra was then estimated based on replicate measurements on aliquot samples made a few years later. Under steady conditions, core-top sediment shows an excess in 228Th vs 232Th (AR ~ 1.6), whereas the intermediate 228Ra depicts a deficit vs its parent 232Th (AR ~0.6). Downcore, radioactive decay carries rapidly 228Th-activities to those of the parent 228Ra within about 10 yrs (i.e., ~ 5 half-lives of 228Th), then both move during the next ~20 yrs (~ i.e., ~ 5 half-lives of 228Ra, when added to the 10 yrs of 228Th-excess) towards secular equilibrium with the parent long-lived 232Th. A few algorithms

  20. Thorium isotopes in human tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehney, A.F.; Lucas, H.F.

    1991-12-31

    Concentrations of {sup 232}Th and activity ratios of {sup 228}Th to {sup 232}Th and {sup 230}Th to {sup 232}Th were determined in autopsy samples from five former employees of a thorium refinery. The ranges of {sup 232}Th activity concentrations (mBq g{sup {minus}1}) were 0.17--94 in lungs, 3.9--1210 in pulmonary lymph nodes, 0.14--1.19 in bones, 0.015--0.68 in liver, 0.97--5.8 in spleen, and 0.009--0.068 in kidneys. These concentrations are 10 to 1000 times greater than have been reported for persons not occupationally exposed to Th. In most of the samples, the ratios of {sup 230}Th to {sup 232}Th and {sup 228}Th to {sup 232}Th activity at death of the subject were 0.1--0.2 and 0.2--0.4, respectively. Thorium-228 to {sup 228}Ra activity ratios ({plus_minus} standard errors) of 0.86 {plus_minus} 0.11 in lungs and 1.18 {plus_minus} 0.13 in lymph nodes of one subject were obtained by calculation from ratios of {sup 228}Th to {sup 232}Th.

  1. Analysis of the conformation and thermal stability of the high-affinity IgE Fc receptor β chain polymorphic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Tomoyoshi; Takahashi, Teppei; Arikawa, Hajime; Era, Seiichi

    2016-07-01

    The high-affinity IgE Fc receptor (FcεRI) β chain acts as a signal amplifier through the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif in its C-terminal intracellular region. Polymorphisms in FcεRI β have been linked to atopy, asthma, and allergies. We investigated the secondary structure, conformation, and thermal stability of FcεRI β polymorphic (β-L172I, β-L174V, and β-E228G) proteins. Polymorphisms did not affect the secondary structure and conformation of FcεRI β. However, we calculated Gibbs free energy of unfolding (ΔGunf) and significant differences were observed in ΔGunf values between the wild-type FcεRI β (β-WT) and β-E228G. These results suggested that β-E228G affected the thermal stability of FcεRI β. The role of β-E228G in biological functions and its involvement in allergic reactions have not yet been elucidated in detail; therefore, differences in the thermal stability of β-E228G may affect the function of FcεRI β.

  2. A century of oil and gas exploration in Albania: assessment of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs)

    CERN Document Server

    Xhixha, Gerti; Callegari, Ivan; Colonna, Tommaso; Hasani, Fadil; Mantovani, Fabio; Shala, Ferat; Strati, Virginia; Kaçeli, Merita Xhixha

    2015-01-01

    Because potential Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs) generated from oil and gas extractions in Albania have been disposed without regulatory criteria in many decades, an extensive survey in one of the most productive regions (Vlora-Elbasan) has been performed. Among 52 gamma-ray spectrometry measurements of soil, oil-sand, sludge, produced water and crude oil samples, we discover that relatively low activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th and 40K, which are 23 +/- 2 Bq/kg, 23 +/- 2 Bq/kg, 24 +/- 3 Bq/kg and 549 +/- 12 Bq/kg, respectively, come from oil-sand produced by hydrocarbon extraction from molasses formations. The mineralogical characterization together with the 228Ra/40K and 226Ra/40K ratios of these Neogene deposits confirm the geological and geodynamic model that predicts a dismantling of Mesozoic source rocks. The average activity concentrations (+/- standard deviations) of the radium isotopes (226Ra, 228Ra) and of the 228Th and 40K radionuclides in soil samples are determined...

  3. TRASH TO TREASURE: CONVERTING COLD WAR LEGACY WASTE INTO WEAPONS AGAINST CANCER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of its commitment to clean up Cold War legacy sites, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated an exciting and unique project to dispose of its inventory of uranium-233 (233U) stored at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and extract isotopes that show great promise in the treatment of deadly cancers. In addition to increasing the supply of potentially useful medical isotopes, the project will rid DOE of a nuclear concern and cut surveillance and security costs. For more than 30 years, DOE's ORNL has stored over 1,200 containers of fissile 233U, originally produced for several defense-related projects, including a pilot study that looked at using 233U as a commercial reactor fuel. This uranium, designated as special nuclear material, requires expensive security, safety, and environmental controls. It has been stored at an ORNL facility, Building 3019A, that dates back to the Manhattan Project. Down-blending the material to a safer form, rather than continuing to store it, will eliminate a $15 million a year financial liability for the DOE and increase the supply of medical isotopes by 5,700 percent. During the down-blending process, thorium-229 (229Th) will be extracted. The thorium will then be used to extract actinium-225 (225Ac), which will ultimately supply its progeny, bismuth-213 (213Bi), for on-going cancer research. The research includes Phase II clinical trials for the treatment of acute myelogenous leukemia at Sloan-Kettering Memorial Cancer Center in New York, as well as other serious cancers of the lungs, pancreas, and kidneys using a technique known as alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy. Alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy is based on the emission of alpha particles by radionuclides. 213Bi is attached to a monoclonal antibody that targets specific cells. The bismuth then delivers a high-powered but short-range radiation dose, effectively killing the cancerous cells but sparing the surrounding tissue. Production of the actinium and

  4. TRASH TO TREASURE: CONVERTING COLD WAR LEGACY WASTE INTO WEAPONS AGAINST CANCER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholas, R.G.; Lacy, N.H.; Butz, T.R.; Brandon, N.E.

    2004-10-06

    As part of its commitment to clean up Cold War legacy sites, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated an exciting and unique project to dispose of its inventory of uranium-233 (233U) stored at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and extract isotopes that show great promise in the treatment of deadly cancers. In addition to increasing the supply of potentially useful medical isotopes, the project will rid DOE of a nuclear concern and cut surveillance and security costs. For more than 30 years, DOE's ORNL has stored over 1,200 containers of fissile 233U, originally produced for several defense-related projects, including a pilot study that looked at using 233U as a commercial reactor fuel. This uranium, designated as special nuclear material, requires expensive security, safety, and environmental controls. It has been stored at an ORNL facility, Building 3019A, that dates back to the Manhattan Project. Down-blending the material to a safer form, rather than continuing to store it, will eliminate a $15 million a year financial liability for the DOE and increase the supply of medical isotopes by 5,700 percent. During the down-blending process, thorium-229 (229Th) will be extracted. The thorium will then be used to extract actinium-225 (225Ac), which will ultimately supply its progeny, bismuth-213 (213Bi), for on-going cancer research. The research includes Phase II clinical trials for the treatment of acute myelogenous leukemia at Sloan-Kettering Memorial Cancer Center in New York, as well as other serious cancers of the lungs, pancreas, and kidneys using a technique known as alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy. Alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy is based on the emission of alpha particles by radionuclides. 213Bi is attached to a monoclonal antibody that targets specific cells. The bismuth then delivers a high-powered but short-range radiation dose, effectively killing the cancerous cells but sparing the surrounding tissue. Production of the actinium and

  5. A study on factors of variation in environmental radiation - concerning natural radionuclides in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article summarizes experimental results concerning the dependency of concentration of 40K, 226Ra and 228Ra in the top soil samples, collected from several geological zones in the central part of Japan's main island, on their mineral composition, on their particle size-distribution and on their organic content. We may conclude that the concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 228Ra in the soil mainly depend on the mineral compositions of the soil from their original rocks and on the particle size. In a homologous soil the concentrations of 226Ra and 228Ra increase with decreasing particle size and the concentration of 40K decreases with decreasing particle size. There is a tendency for the part with particle smaller than 10 mesh of each soil sample to contribute to the dose rate more than the part with particle 10 mesh. The concentration of 40K in the soil samples decreased as ignition loss increased. (2 tabs., 1 fig.)

  6. Radiological Impact of Phosphogypsum Application in Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphogypsum (PG) contains radionuclides from 238U and 232Th decay series. Due to the presence of these radionuclides, many countries restricted the use of PG in agriculture, however there is not such restriction in Brazil. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of PG application on 226Ra (238U) and 228Ra (232Th) concentrations in soil. Gamma-spectrometry was carried out using HPGe detector. No increment of 226Ra and 228Ra was observed for increasing PG doses. Average values found for 226Ra and 228Ra were respectively 37 Bq kg-1 and 57 Bq kg-1. The results showed that the increasing PG doses in the specific conditions of the experiment did not cause a significant increment of radionuclides.

  7. Naturally occurring radionuclides in thermal swimming pools of the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: There are a lot of thermal water sources in the Slovak Republic. The main objective of the presented work was to determine naturally occurring radionuclides in thermal water sources mainly used for recreation and rehabilitation bathing. The concentration of Unat, the volume activity of 226Ra and 228Ra and gross alpha activity and gross beta activity were carried out at 18 thermal water sources during the last two years. The concentration of Unat ranged from -1. The volume activity of 226Ra ranged from 0.025 to 5.050 Bq.1-1, the volume activity of 228Ra ranged from -1. The gross alpha activity ranged from 0.03 to 22.28 Bq.1-1 and the gross beta activity ranged from 0.04 to 10.22 Bq.1-1. Calculations of 226Ra and 228Ra activity ratios were carried out as well. (author)

  8. Combination of emanation thermal analysis with evolved gas analysis and differential thermal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interpretation of the results of emanation thermal analysis was obtained by combination with other thermoanalytical methods: a combination of ETA, EGA and DTA used with samples of CaCO3 and Ca(COO)2. H2O is given as an example. The samples were labelled with 228Th, the parent nuclide of 220Rn, the release of which was measured. Into the samples of CaCO3 the parent nuclide was introduced by impregnation, an alcoholic solution of 228Th and 224Rn in radioactive equilibrium being used. The samples of Ca(COO)2.H2O were labelled in the bulk by coprecipitation, 228Th and 224Ra being added to the initial calcium nitrate solution. (T.I.)

  9. An evaluation of ²²⁶Ra and ²²⁸Ra in drinking water in several counties in Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberger, S G; George, G

    2013-11-01

    Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) or Technology Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (TENORM) can be a potential health risk. It is now well known that the underlying geology in many parts of Texas has given rise to levels of (226)Ra and (228)Ra that often exceed the limits set by the US Environmental Protection Agency. A detailed literature search was undertaken to assess the levels of (226)Ra and (228)Ra in all of the Texas counties. Several statistical evaluations of the data were performed. The Hickory aquifer in the Llano Uplift region of Texas has consistently had the highest number of (226)Ra and (228)Ra concentrations above the legal limit. As well many of the affected rural communities may not have the financial resources to rectify the problem.

  10. Impact of water environmental change and migration of radionuclides on hokutolite conservation in Peito (Taiwan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, C.C. [Nanhua Univ., Chia-Yi, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Natural Biotechnology; Tsai, T.L. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Longtan, Taiwan (China). Chemical Analysis Div.; Lung, C.C. [Chung-Shan Medical Univ., Taichung, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Public Health

    2012-07-01

    Chemical factors (including pH, redox potential, content of total organic compound (TOC) and major ions) and U/Th-series radionuclides in the hot-spring water environment of Peito were determined to investigate the impact of environmental change and migration of radionuclides in water on conserving the precious mineral, hokutolite, in Peito (Taiwan). The activity concentrations of U/Th increased with E{sub h} and those of Cl{sup -} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U ratios were nearly > 1 ascribed to Szilard-Chalmers effect and {alpha}-recoil. {sup 230}Th/{sup 234}U ratios were < 1 resulting from complexation with chloride and sulfate ions. {sup 228}Ra and {sup 226}Ra activities were governed by pH, E{sub h} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentration. Disequilibria of {sup 228}Th/{sup 228}Ra and {sup 228}Ra/{sup 232}Th were evident attributed to complexation of Th with major anions and co-precipitation of radium with (Ba,Pb)SO{sub 4}. Alpha-recoil caused the enrichment of {sup 228}Ra and apparent disequilibrium of {sup 232}Th/{sup 228}Th. A mechanism illustrating the radiochemistry involving the formation of hokutolite in Peito was derived accordingly. The water environment of the studied area was found apparently changed in light of the variation of temperature, TOC and concentration ratio of Ba/Pb, which resulted from the channeling of hot spring water and the release of household waste water. The water environmental change can thus hinder the migration of radionuclides as well as the formation of hokutolite so that the performance of hokutolite conservation can be decreased. Immediate enactment of regulations for conserving hokutolite in Peito was therefore suggested in this research. (orig.)

  11. Modeling the protonation states of β-secretase binding pocket by molecular dynamics simulations and docking studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbah, Dima A; Zhong, Haizhen A

    2016-07-01

    β-secretase (BACE1) is an aspartyl protease that processes the β-amyloid peptide in the human brain in patients with Alzheimer's disease. There are two catalytic aspartates (ASP32 and ASP228) in the active domain of BACE1. Although it is believed that the net charge of the Asp dyad is -1, the exact protonation state still remains a matter of debate. We carried out molecular dynamic (MD) simulations for the four protonation states of BACE1 proteins. We applied Glide docking studies to 21 BACE1 inhibitors against the MD extracted conformations. The dynamic results infer that the protein/ligand complex remains stable during the entire simulation course for HD32D228 model. The results show that the hydrogen bonds between the inhibitor and the Asp dyad are maintained in the 10,000th ps snapshot of HD32D228 model. Our results also reveal the significant loop residues in maintaining the active binding conformation in the HD32D228 model. Molecular docking results show that the HD32D228 model provided the best enrichment factor score, suggesting that this model was able to recognize the most active compounds. Our observations provide an evidence for the preference of the anionic state (HD32D228) in BACE1 binding site and are in accord with reported computational data. The protonation state study would provide significant information to assign the correct protonation state for structure-based drug design and docking studies targeting the BACE1 proteins as a tactic to develop potential AD inhibitors. PMID:27474865

  12. Factors contributing to epidemic MRSA clones replacement in a hospital setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Baldan

    Full Text Available The mechanisms governing the epidemiology dynamics and success determinants of a specific healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (HA-MRSA clone in hospital settings are still unclear. Important epidemiological changes have occurred in Europe since 2000 that have been related to the appearance of the ST22-IV clone. Between 2006 and 2010, we observed the establishment of the ST22-IV clone displacing the predominant Italian clone, ST228-I, in a large Italian university hospital. To investigate the factors associated with a successful spread of epidemic MRSA clones we studied the biofilm production, the competitive behavior in co-culture, the capacity of invasion of the A549 cells, and the susceptibility to infection in a murine model of acute pneumonia of the two major HA-MRSA clones, ST22-IV and ST228-I. We showed that persistence of ST22-IV is associated with its increased biofilm production and capacity to inhibit the growth of ST228-I in co-culture. Compared to ST228-I, ST22-IV had a significantly higher capacity to invade the A549 cells and a higher virulence in a murine model of acute lung infection causing severe inflammation and determining death in all the mice within 60 hours. On the contrary, ST228-I was associated with mice survival and clearance of the infection. ST22-IV, compared with ST228-I, caused a higher number of persistent, long lasting bacteremia. These data suggest that ST22-IV could have exploited its capacity to i increase its biofilm production over time, ii maintain its growth kinetics in the presence of a competitor and iii be particularly invasive and virulent both in vitro and in vivo, to replace other well-established MRSA clones, becoming the predominant European clone.

  13. A century of oil and gas exploration in Albania: assessment of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xhixha, G; Baldoncini, M; Callegari, I; Colonna, T; Hasani, F; Mantovani, F; Shala, F; Strati, V; Xhixha Kaçeli, M

    2015-11-01

    The Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs) that are potentially generated from oil and gas extractions in Albania have been disposed of without regulations for many decades, and therefore, an extensive survey in one of the most productive regions (Vlora-Elbasan) was performed. A total of 52 gamma ray spectrometry measurements of soil, oil-sand, sludge, produced water and crude oil samples were performed. We discovered that relatively low activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (228)Th and (40)K, with concentrations of 23±2Bq/kg, 23±2Bq/kg, 24±3Bq/kg and 549±12Bq/kg, respectively, came from the oil-sands produced by the hydrocarbon extraction of the molasses formations. The mineralogical characterizations and the (228)Ra/(40)K and (226)Ra/(40)K ratios of these Neogene deposits confirmed the predictions of the geological and geodynamic models of a dismantling of the Mesozoic source rocks. The average activity concentrations (±standard deviations) of the radium isotopes ((226)Ra and (228)Ra) and of the (228)Th and (40)K radionuclides in soil samples were 20±5Bq/kg, 25±10Bq/kg, 25±9Bq/kg and 326±83Bq/kg, respectively. Based on the measurements in this study, the future radiological assessments of other fields in the region should be strategically planned to focus on the oil-sands from the molasses sediments. Disequilibrium in the (228)Ra decay segment was not observed in the soil, sludge or oil-sand samples within the standard uncertainties. After a detailed radiological characterization of the four primary oil fields, we concluded that the outdoor absorbed dose rate never exceeded the worldwide population weighted average absorbed dose rate in outdoor air from terrestrial gamma radiation.

  14. Hemagglutinin amino acids related to receptor specificity could affect the protection efficacy of H5N1 and H7N9 avian influenza virus vaccines in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lili; Bao, Linlin; Lau, Siu-Ying; Wu, Wai-Lan; Yuan, Jing; Gu, Songzhi; Li, Fengdi; Lv, Qi; Xu, Yanfeng; Pushko, Peter; Chen, Honglin; Qin, Chuan

    2016-05-17

    The continuous and sporadic human transmission of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 and H7N9 influenza viruses illustrates the urgent need for efficacious vaccines. However, all tested vaccines for the H5N1 and H7N9 viruses appear to be poorly immunogenic in mammals. In this study, a series of vaccines was produced using reverse genetic techniques that possess HA and NA genes from the H5N1 virus in the genetic background of the high-yield strain A/PR/8/34 (H1N1). Meanwhile, a group of H7N9 VLP vaccines that contain HA from H7N9 and NA and M1 from A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) was also produced. The HA amino acids of both the H5N1 and H7N9 vaccines differed at residues 226 and 228, both of which are critical for receptor specificity for an avian or mammalian host. Mice received two doses (3μg of HA each) of each vaccine and were challenged with lethal doses of wild type H5N1 or H7N9 viruses. The results showed that a recombinant H5N1 vaccine in which the HA amino acid G228 (avian specificity) was converted to S228 (mammalian specificity) resulted in higher HI titers, a lower viral titer in the lungs, and 100% protection in mice. However, a H7N9 VLP vaccine that contains L226 (mammalian specificity) and G228 (avian specificity) in HA showed better immunogenicity and protection efficacy in mice than VLP containing HA with either L226+S228 or Q226+S228. This observation indicated that specific HA residues could enhance a vaccine's protection efficacy and HA glycoproteins with both avian-type and human-type receptor specificities may produce better pandemic influenza vaccines for humans. PMID:27083426

  15. A century of oil and gas exploration in Albania: assessment of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xhixha, G; Baldoncini, M; Callegari, I; Colonna, T; Hasani, F; Mantovani, F; Shala, F; Strati, V; Xhixha Kaçeli, M

    2015-11-01

    The Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs) that are potentially generated from oil and gas extractions in Albania have been disposed of without regulations for many decades, and therefore, an extensive survey in one of the most productive regions (Vlora-Elbasan) was performed. A total of 52 gamma ray spectrometry measurements of soil, oil-sand, sludge, produced water and crude oil samples were performed. We discovered that relatively low activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (228)Th and (40)K, with concentrations of 23±2Bq/kg, 23±2Bq/kg, 24±3Bq/kg and 549±12Bq/kg, respectively, came from the oil-sands produced by the hydrocarbon extraction of the molasses formations. The mineralogical characterizations and the (228)Ra/(40)K and (226)Ra/(40)K ratios of these Neogene deposits confirmed the predictions of the geological and geodynamic models of a dismantling of the Mesozoic source rocks. The average activity concentrations (±standard deviations) of the radium isotopes ((226)Ra and (228)Ra) and of the (228)Th and (40)K radionuclides in soil samples were 20±5Bq/kg, 25±10Bq/kg, 25±9Bq/kg and 326±83Bq/kg, respectively. Based on the measurements in this study, the future radiological assessments of other fields in the region should be strategically planned to focus on the oil-sands from the molasses sediments. Disequilibrium in the (228)Ra decay segment was not observed in the soil, sludge or oil-sand samples within the standard uncertainties. After a detailed radiological characterization of the four primary oil fields, we concluded that the outdoor absorbed dose rate never exceeded the worldwide population weighted average absorbed dose rate in outdoor air from terrestrial gamma radiation. PMID:26037957

  16. Application of low background γ-ray spectrometry to seaweed. Behaviors and distributions of natural radionuclides in Noto coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate the behaviors of radionuclides in the coastal area, 68 seaweed (Sargasso) and 27 coastal waters samples were collected at four sites of Shika (r 234Th/238U > ∼10); 2) 228Ra/226Ra activity ratios of Sargasso samples show the seasonal variation with minimum values (228Ra/226Ra = ∼1.2) in Jun. and maximum (2.5 - 3.5) in Dec., which is similar to that of the surrounding water; and 3) even in this small region, the regional difference was observed in 210Pb (and 7Be) activities. (author)

  17. Main: 1H1Y [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1H1Y イネ Rice Oryza sativa L. D-Ribulose-5-Phosphate 3-Epimerase Oryza Sativa Molecu...V. 326 127 2003 3-Epimerase, Oxidative Pentose Phosphate Pathway, Isomerase SWS:Q9SE42,Q9SE42|EMBL; AF189365; AAF01048.1; -.|PDB; 1H...1Y; X-ray; A/B=1-228.|PDB; 1H1Z; X-ray; A/B=1-228.|Gramene; Q9SE42; -.|GO; GO:001685...ELIQSIKAKGMRPGVSLRPGTPVEEVFPLVEAENPVELVLVMTVEPGFGGQKFMPEMMEKVRALRKKYPSLDIEVDGGLGPSTIDVAASAGANCIVAGSSIFGAAEPGEVISALRKSVEGSQNKS rice_1H1Y.jpg ...

  18. Main: 1H1Z [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1H1Z イネ Rice Oryza sativa L. D-Ribulose-5-Phosphate 3-Epimerase Oryza Sativa Molecu...V. 326 127 2003 3-Epimerase, Oxidative Pentose Phosphate Pathway, Isomerase SWS:Q9SE42,Q9SE42|EMBL; AF189365; AAF01048.1; -.|PDB; 1H...1Y; X-ray; A/B=1-228.|PDB; 1H1Z; X-ray; A/B=1-228.|Gramene; Q9SE42; -.|GO; GO:001685...ELIQSIKAKGMRPGVSLRPGTPVEEVFPLVEAENPVELVLVMTVEPGFGGQKFMPEMMEKVRALRKKYPSLDIEVDGGLGPSTIDVAASAGANCIVAGSSIFGAAEPGEVISALRKSVEGSQNKS rice_1H1Z.jpg ...

  19. Agricultural handling and natural radionuclide contents on vegetables cultivated at Rio de Janeiro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The food consumption is an important way of internal exposition of human beings to ionizing radiation. The chemical fertilizers, mainly the phosphate, may contain uranium and thorium and their decay radioactive products in significant levels. This way, the amount of natural radionuclides in vegetables can increase as well as the dose due to food consumption to consumers. This research aims to investigate the level of radionuclides in vegetables which were grown under different tillages and to obtain information about radionuclides concentrations in Brazilian fertilizers as well as it aims to get data of transfer factors for vegetables cultivated in Brazil. In the phosphate fertilizer samples, the concentrations of 226Ra varied from 35 to 430 Bq.kg-1, whereas the 228Ra concentrations ranged from 32 to 176 Bq.kg-1. Among the phosphate fertilizers, the highest radium concentrations were found in the super phosphate one. The values of radium concentrations in organic fertilizers varied from 14 to 51 Bq.kg-1 for 226Ra and from 34 to 142 Bq.kg-1 for 228Ra. Among these fertilizers the highest concentrations were found in bovine manure Significant statistical differences were not observed between the concentration of 226Ra and 228Ra in the vegetables cultivated in conventional tillage and the ones cultivated in organic tillage. The same was observed for the soil-to-plant transfer factors, whose values were 2.56 E-02 for 226Ra and 3.56 E-02 for 228Ra for the bean crop, 3.74 E-02 for 226Ra and 4.74 E-02 for 228Ra to lettuce crop. For carrot, the 226Ra transfer factor value for the two tillages was 5.79 E-02, while the value for 228Ra in the organic tillage (1.14 E-01) was higher than the value observed in the conventional tillages (3.94 E-02). For the culture of the bean, the values of concentration found in the samples of the subsistence handling had been inferior to the values found in the conventional and organic tillage, demonstrating that as much the organic fertilizer

  20. Using short-lived nuclides of the U- and Th-series to probe the kinetics of colloid migration in forested soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihs, Sophie; Prunier, Jonathan; Thien, Bruno; Lemarchand, Damien; Pierret, Marie-Claire; Chabaux, François

    2011-12-01

    The recent chemical dynamics of a podzolic forest soil section (from the Strengbach watershed, France) was investigated using U- and Th-series nuclides. Analyses of ( 238U), ( 230Th), ( 226Ra), ( 232Th), ( 228Ra) and ( 228Th) activities in the soil particles, the seepage waters, and the mature leaves of the beech trees growing on this soil were performed by TIMS or gamma spectrometry. The simultaneous analysis of the different soil ( sl) compartments allows to demonstrate that a preferential Th leaching over Ra must be assumed to explain the ( 226Ra/ 230Th), ( 228Ra/ 232Th) and ( 228Th/ 228Ra) disequilibria recorded in the soil particles. The overall Ra- and Th- transfer schemes are entirely consistent with the prevailing acido-complexolysis weathering mechanism in podzols. Using a continuous open-system leaching model, the ( 226Ra/ 230Th) and ( 228Ra/ 232Th) disequilibria measured in the different soil layers enable dating of the contemporary processes occurring in this soil. In this way, we have determined that a preferential Th-leaching from the shallow Ah horizon, due to a strong complexation with organic colloids, began fairly recently (18 years ago at most). The continual increase in pH recorded in precipitations over the last 20 years is assumed to be the cause of this enhanced organic complexation. A lower soil horizon (50-60 cm) is also affected by preferential Th leaching, though lasting over several centuries at least, with a much smaller leaching rate. The migration of Th isotopes through this soil section might hence be used as a tracer for the organic colloids migration and the induced radioactive disequilibria demonstrate to be useful for assessing the colloidal migration kinetics in a forested soil. Ra and Th isotopic ratios also appear to be valuable tracers of some mineral-water-plant interactions occurring in soil. The ( 228Ra/ 226Ra) ratio enables discrimination of the Ra flux originating from leaf degradation from that originating from mineral

  1. Radioanalytical methods manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Radioanalytical Methods manual is comprised of 12 chapters. It includes a review of the pertinent literature up to the end of 1982 pertaining to the measurement of the radioactive species listed under the terms of the contract. Included is methodology recommended for the decompositions of soils, tailings, ores, biological samples and air filters. Detailed analytical methodology for the measurement of gross alpha, gross beta, gross gamma, uranium, radium-226, radium-228, lead-210, thorium-232, thorium-230, thorium-228, total thorium, radon-222, radon-220 and radon-219 is presented

  2. 白令海峡水团来源的镭同位素示踪%Water masses in the Bering Strait revealed by radium isotopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈敏; 李艳平; 邱雨生; 杨俊鸿

    2011-01-01

    Radium isotopes in the water column along 64.3°N in the Bering Strait were determined to reveal the northward flow of the Pacific water.The specific activities of 226 Ra and 228Ra, and the 228 Ra/226 Ra)A.R.show a longitudinal variation in the Bering Strait, depicting the pathways of Pacific inflow.Based on the distributions of temperature, salinity and radium isotopes in the Bering Strait, three water masses were identified: the Anadyr Water in the western channel, the Alaskan Coastal Water in the eastern channel, and the Bering Shelf Water in the central strait.A subseasonal variation of radium isotopes in the Bering Strait was observed.The specific activities of 226 Ra and 228 Ra, and 228 Ra/226 Ra) A.R in September are higher than those observed in July, indicating water in the western Bering Strait is influenced by the southward flow of the Siberia Coastal Current in September.%对白令海峡64.3°N纬向断面镭同位素的研究表明,水体中226Ra比活度、228Ra比活度和228Ra/226Ra)A.R.存在明显的纬向变化,反映出太平洋与北冰洋水体交换的多种路径.根据温度、盐度和镭同位素的水平与垂直分布,太平洋水进入北冰洋的路径可能主要有3支,分别为白令海峡西侧的阿拉德水、白令海峡东侧的阿拉斯加沿岸水和中部的白令海陆架水.2003年7月和9月对该断面西侧站位进行的复测显示,水体中的226Ra比活度、228Ra比活度和228Ra/226Ra)A.R.发生了明显变化,9月份测值均高于7月份测值,说明白令海峡西部水体在9月份可能受到西伯利亚沿岸流南向混合的影响.

  3. Total half-lives for selected nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of the half-lives of 3H, 10Be, 14C, 26Al, 40K, 39Ar, 53Mn, 87Rb, 92Nb, 129I, 138La, 147Sm, 176Lu, 174Hf, 180Ta, 187Re, 186Os, 190Pt, 204Pb, 210Pb, 210Po, 222Rn, 224Th, 226Ra, 227Ac, 228Ra, 228Th, 230Th, 232Th, 231Pa have been compiled and evaluated. The effect of the 14C half-life value on carbon dating ages is discussed as well as the stability of 204Pb. 237 refs., 30 tabs

  4. Certified Reference Material IAEA-446 for radionuclides in Baltic Sea seaweed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, M.K.; Benmansour, M.; Carvalho, F.P.;

    2014-01-01

    A Certified Reference Material (CRM) for radionuclides in seaweed (Fucus vesiculosus) from the Baltic Sea (IAEA-446) is described and the results of the certification process are presented. The 40K, 137Cs, 234U and 239þ240Pu radionuclides were certified for this material, and information values...... for 12 other radionuclides (90Sr, 99Tc, 210Pb (210Po), 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th, 230Th, 232Th, 235U, 238U, 239Pu and 240Pu) are presented. The CRM can be used for Quality Assurance/Quality Control of analysis of radionuclides in seaweed and other biota samples, as well as for development and validation...

  5. Natural radioactivity in Indian foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents results of gamma spectroscopic measurements of natural radioisotopes in some foodstuffs that form the principal ingredients of a composite Indian diet. A brief description of sampling and measurement procedures is given, along with the natural radioactivity from 40K, 226Ra, and 228Th. The assessment of daily intakes of these isotopes was made on the basis of average daily intake of foodstuffs for the people of Bombay and its environs. The average daily intakes of 226Ra, 228Th, and 40K were 3.8, 3.6, and 1960 pCi, respectively, for the period from 1970 to 1974

  6. Distinct Properties of Nanofibrous Amorphous Ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanyi Cai

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We make glassy water in the form of nanofibers by electrospraying liquid water into a hyperquenching chamber. It is measured with means of differential scanning calorimetry, wide angle X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. It is found that two apparent glass transitions at Tg1 = 136 K and Tg2 = 228 K are detected and non-crystallized water is observed at temperatures up to 228 K. This finding may expand the research objects for liquid water at low temperatures.

  7. 2-Amino-4,6-dimethylpyrimidinium 3,5-dinitrobenzoate dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E. Lynch

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C6H10N3+·C7H3N2O6−·2H2O, the aminopyrimidine molecule is protonated at one of the pyrimidine N atoms. The carboxylate group of the 3,5-dinitrobenzoate anion interacts with the protonated pyrimidine N atom and the 2-amino group through a pair of N—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming an R22(8 motif. Two inversion-related pyrimidine rings are linked via a pair of N—H...N hydrogen bonds, also forming an R22(8 ring motif.

  8. Formerly utilized MED/AEC sites remedial action program. Radiological survey of the E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Co. , Deepwater, New Jersey. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-12-01

    The results of a radiological survey of the E. I. Du Pont Company, Deepwater, New Jersey, are presented in this report. During the 1940's this site was used for development of a process for the conversion of uranium oxide to produce uranium tetrafluoride and small quantities of uranium metal. The survey included measurements of the following: residual alpha and beta--gamma contamination levels, both fixed and transferable, in the one remaining uranium tetrafluoride operations building; external gamma radiation levels at 1 m above the surface inside this building and at outdoor locations where radioactive materials were handled; radon and radon daughter concentrations in the air in the operations building; uranium, radium, actinium, and thorium concentrations in soil and water on and near the site; and the airborne concentrations of uranium, thorium, and radium in the operations building. Elevated concentrations of uranium were found in residues from the operations building and in some surface and subsurface soil samples. Alpha and beta--gamma contamination levels in some areas of the operations building were above the limits of current federal guidelines set for the release of property for unrestricted use. 18 figures, 11 tables.

  9. Ac, La, and Ce radioimpurities in {sup 225}Ac produced in 40-200 MeV proton irradiations of thorium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engle, Jonathan W.; Ballard, Beau D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States); Weidner, John W. [Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH (United States); and others

    2014-10-01

    Accelerator production of {sup 225}Ac addresses the global supply deficiency currently inhibiting clinical trials from establishing {sup 225}Ac's therapeutic utility, provided that the accelerator product is of sufficient radionuclidic purity for patient use. Two proton activation experiments utilizing the stacked foil technique between 40 and 200 MeV were employed to study the likely co-formation of radionuclides expected to be especially challenging to separate from {sup 225}Ac. Foils were assayed by nondestructive γ-spectroscopy and by α-spectroscopy of chemically processed target material. Nuclear formation cross sections for the radionuclides {sup 226}Ac and {sup 227}Ac as well as lower lanthanide radioisotopes {sup 139}Ce, {sup 141}Ce, {sup 143}Ce, and {sup 140}La whose elemental ionic radii closely match that of actinium were measured and are reported. The predictions of the latest MCNP6 event generators are compared with measured data, as they permit estimation of the formation rates of other radionuclides whose decay emissions are not clearly discerned in the complex spectra collected from {sup 232}Th(p,x) fission product mixtures. (orig.)

  10. Pulse-shape discrimination and energy quenching of alpha particles in Cs$_2$LiLaBr$_6$:Ce$^{3+}$

    CERN Document Server

    Mesick, Katherine E; Stonehill, Laura C

    2016-01-01

    Cs$_2$LiLaBr$_6$:Ce$^{3+}$ (CLLB) is an elpasolite scintillator that offers excellent linearity and gamma-ray energy resolution and sensitivity to thermal neutrons with the ability to perform pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) to distinguish gammas and neutrons. Our investigation of CLLB has indicated the presence of intrinsic radioactive alpha background that we have determined to be from actinium contamination of the lanthanum component. We measured the pulse shapes for gamma, thermal neutron, and alpha events and determined that PSD can be performed to separate the alpha background with a moderate figure of merit of 0.98. We also measured the electron-equivalent-energy of the alpha particles in CLLB and simulated the intrinsic alpha background from $^{227}$Ac to determine the quenching factor of the alphas. A linear quenching relationship $L_{\\alpha} = E_{\\alpha} \\times q + L_0$ was found at alpha particle energies above 5 MeV, with a quenching factor $q = 0.71$ MeVee/MeV and an offset $L_0 = - 1.19$ MeVee.

  11. An Ion Exchange Study of Possible Hydridized 5f Bonding in theActinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, R.M.; Street, Jr., K.; Seaborg, G.T.

    1951-08-28

    A study has been made of the elution behavior of curium(III), americium(III), plutonium(III), actinium(III), plutonium(IV), neptunium(IV), uraniuM(IV), thorium(IV), neptunium(V), plutonium (VI), uranium (VI), lanthanum(III), cerium(III), europium(III), ytterbium(III), ytterium(III), strontium(II), barium(II), radium(II), cesium(I) with 3.2 M, 6.2 M, 9.3 M, and 12.2 M HCl solutions from Dowex-50 cation exchange resin columns. These elutions show that in high concentrations of hydrochloric acid the actinides form complex ions with chloride ion to a much greater extent than the lanthanides. The strengths of the tripositive actinide complex ions apparently go in the order plutonium > americium> curium, although their ionic radii also decrease in this same order. To explain these results, a partial covalent character may be ascribed to the bonding in the transuranium complex ions. It is shown that a reasonable structure for such covalent bonding involves hybridization of the 5f orbitals in the actinide elements.

  12. Extending the north-east limit of the chart of nuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Benlliure, J; Kurtukian-Nieto, T; Schmidt, K -H; Audouin, L; Blank, B; Becker, F; Casarejos, E; Cortina-Gil, D; Enqvist, T; Fernández, B; Fernández-Ordóñez, M; Giovinazzo, J; Henzlova, D; Junghans, A R; Jurado, B; Napolitani, P; Pereira, J; Rejmund, F; Yordanov, O

    2010-01-01

    The existence of nuclei with exotic combinations of protons and neutrons provides fundamental information on the forces acting between nucleons. The maximum number of neutrons a given number of protons can bind, neutron drip line1, is only known for the lightest chemical elements, up to oxygen. For heavier elements, the larger its atomic number, the farther from this limit is the most neutron-rich known isotope. The properties of heavy neutron-rich nuclei also have a direct impact on understanding the observed abundances of chemical elements heavier than iron in our Universe. Above half of the abundances of these elements are thought to be produced in rapid-neutron capture reactions, r-process, taking place in violent stellar scenarios2 where heavy neutron-rich nuclei, far beyond the ones known up today, are produced. Here we present a major step forward in the production of heavy neutron-rich nuclei: the discovery of 73 new neutron-rich isotopes of chemical elements between tantalum (Z=72) and actinium (Z=89...

  13. Liquid Scintillation Counting of Environmental Radioisotopes: A Review of the Impact of Background Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, Matthew; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Erchinger, Jennifer L.; Finn, Erin C.; Fuller, Erin S.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Keillor, Martin E.; Morley, Shannon M.; Mullen, Crystal A.; Orrell, John L.; Panisko, Mark E.; Warren, Glen A.; Wright, Michael E.

    2016-03-09

    Liquid scintillation counting (LSC) is a versatile and commonplace method for radiometric measurement of charged particle emitting radionuclides. The LSC method provides utility in a range of environmental science applications including hydrological studies of water transport, anthropogenic releases of radionuclides into the environment, and vertical mixing rates within oceans. Instrumental measurement background is one limiting factor of radiometric measurement sensitivity. As part of the development of a custom low background LSC system located in a shallow underground laboratory at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, a number of measurement applications of LSC have been considered and are summarized here. The focus is on determining which aspects of such measurements would gain the greatest benefit from the reduction of LSC backgrounds by a factor of 10-100 relative to values reported in the literature. Examples of benefits include lowering the minimum detectable activity, reducing the sample size required, and shortening the elapsed timeline of the processing and analysis sequence. In particular tritium, strontium, and actinium isotopes are examined as these isotopes cover a range of requirements related to the LSC measurement method (e.g., 3H: low energy; Sr: spectral deconvolution; Ac: alpha/beta discrimination).

  14. Development of an Ultra-Low Background Liquid Scintillation Counter for Trace Level Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erchinger, Jennifer L.; Orrell, John L.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Douglas, Matthew; Finn, Erin C.; Fuller, Erin S.; Keillor, Martin E.; Morley, Shannon M.; Mullen, Crystal A.; Panisko, Mark E.; Shaff, Sarah M.; Warren, Glen A.; Wright, Michael E.

    2015-09-01

    Low-level liquid scintillation counting (LSC) has been established as one of the radiation detection techniques useful in elucidating environmental processes and environmental monitoring around nuclear facilities. The Ultra-Low Background Liquid Scintillation Counter (ULB-LSC) under construction in the Shallow Underground Laboratory at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory aims to further reduce the MDAs and/or required sample processing. Through layers of passive shielding in conjunction with an active veto and 30 meters water equivalent overburden, the background reduction is expected to be 10 to 100 times below typical analytic low-background liquid scintillation systems. Simulations have shown an expected background of around 14 counts per day. A novel approach to the light collection will use a coated hollow light guide cut into the inner copper shielding. Demonstration LSC measurements will show low-energy detection, spectral deconvolution, and alpha/beta discrimination capabilities, from trials with standards of tritium, strontium-90, and actinium-227, respectively. An overview of the system design and expected demonstration measurements will emphasize the potential applications of the ULB-LSC in environmental monitoring for treaty verification, reach-back sample analysis, and facility inspections.

  15. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    2004-11-22

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this modeling activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for 14 elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) important to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log (line integral) CO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for all of the actinides. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so that they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or otherwise addressed.

  16. A Critical Review of Alpha Radionuclide Therapy-How to Deal with Recoiling Daughters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kruijff, Robin M; Wolterbeek, Hubert T; Denkova, Antonia G

    2015-01-01

    This review presents an overview of the successes and challenges currently faced in alpha radionuclide therapy. Alpha particles have an advantage in killing tumour cells as compared to beta or gamma radiation due to their short penetration depth and high linear energy transfer (LET). Touching briefly on the clinical successes of radionuclides emitting only one alpha particle, the main focus of this article lies on those alpha-emitting radionuclides with multiple alpha-emitting daughters in their decay chain. While having the advantage of longer half-lives, the recoiled daughters of radionuclides like 224Ra (radium), 223Ra, and 225Ac (actinium) can do significant damage to healthy tissue when not retained at the tumour site. Three different approaches to deal with this problem are discussed: encapsulation in a nano-carrier, fast uptake of the alpha emitting radionuclides in tumour cells, and local administration. Each approach has been shown to have its advantages and disadvantages, but when larger activities need to be used clinically, nano-carriers appear to be the most promising solution for reducing toxic effects, provided there is no accumulation in healthy tissue. PMID:26066613

  17. A Critical Review of Alpha Radionuclide Therapy—How to Deal with Recoiling Daughters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kruijff, Robin M.; Wolterbeek, Hubert T.; Denkova, Antonia G.

    2015-01-01

    This review presents an overview of the successes and challenges currently faced in alpha radionuclide therapy. Alpha particles have an advantage in killing tumour cells as compared to beta or gamma radiation due to their short penetration depth and high linear energy transfer (LET). Touching briefly on the clinical successes of radionuclides emitting only one alpha particle, the main focus of this article lies on those alpha-emitting radionuclides with multiple alpha-emitting daughters in their decay chain. While having the advantage of longer half-lives, the recoiled daughters of radionuclides like 224Ra (radium), 223Ra, and 225Ac (actinium) can do significant damage to healthy tissue when not retained at the tumour site. Three different approaches to deal with this problem are discussed: encapsulation in a nano-carrier, fast uptake of the alpha emitting radionuclides in tumour cells, and local administration. Each approach has been shown to have its advantages and disadvantages, but when larger activities need to be used clinically, nano-carriers appear to be the most promising solution for reducing toxic effects, provided there is no accumulation in healthy tissue. PMID:26066613

  18. A Critical Review of Alpha Radionuclide Therapy—How to Deal with Recoiling Daughters?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin M. de Kruijff

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This review presents an overview of the successes and challenges currently faced in alpha radionuclide therapy. Alpha particles have an advantage in killing tumour cells as compared to beta or gamma radiation due to their short penetration depth and high linear energy transfer (LET. Touching briefly on the clinical successes of radionuclides emitting only one alpha particle, the main focus of this article lies on those alpha-emitting radionuclides with multiple alpha-emitting daughters in their decay chain. While having the advantage of longer half-lives, the recoiled daughters of radionuclides like 224Ra (radium, 223Ra, and 225Ac (actinium can do significant damage to healthy tissue when not retained at the tumour site. Three different approaches to deal with this problem are discussed: encapsulation in a nano-carrier, fast uptake of the alpha emitting radionuclides in tumour cells, and local administration. Each approach has been shown to have its advantages and disadvantages, but when larger activities need to be used clinically, nano-carriers appear to be the most promising solution for reducing toxic effects, provided there is no accumulation in healthy tissue.

  19. Tumor Immunotargeting Using Innovative Radionuclides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Kraeber-Bodéré

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others are currently reviving hopes in cancer treatments, both in hematological diseases and solid tumors. At the same time, PET imaging, with short-lived radionuclides, such as gallium-68, fluorine-18 or copper-64, or long half-life ones, particularly iodine-124 and zirconium-89 now offers new perspectives in immuno-specific phenotype tumor imaging. New antibody analogues and pretargeting strategies have also considerably improved the performances of tumor immunotargeting and completely renewed the interest in these approaches for imaging and therapy by providing theranostics, companion diagnostics and news tools to make personalized medicine a reality.

  20. Tumor immunotargeting using innovative radionuclides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Rousseau, Caroline; Bodet-Milin, Caroline; Mathieu, Cédric; Guérard, François; Frampas, Eric; Carlier, Thomas; Chouin, Nicolas; Haddad, Ferid; Chatal, Jean-François; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Chérel, Michel; Barbet, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others are currently reviving hopes in cancer treatments, both in hematological diseases and solid tumors. At the same time, PET imaging, with short-lived radionuclides, such as gallium-68, fluorine-18 or copper-64, or long half-life ones, particularly iodine-124 and zirconium-89 now offers new perspectives in immuno-specific phenotype tumor imaging. New antibody analogues and pretargeting strategies have also considerably improved the performances of tumor immunotargeting and completely renewed the interest in these approaches for imaging and therapy by providing theranostics, companion diagnostics and news tools to make personalized medicine a reality. PMID:25679452

  1. Rutherford's curriculum vitae, 1894-1907.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M

    1995-06-01

    A single page, handwritten document was discovered when the Macdonald Physics building of McGill University in Montreal was gutted in 1978. This proved to be the draft of Ernest Rutherford's curriculum vitae (C.V.) covering the years 1894-1907, probably written in the autumn of 1906 when Rutherford was preparing to leave McGill. The C.V. contains 21 headings in chronological order, referring to research and other activities of Rutherford and his coauthors (especially Soddy and Barnes), plus a further set of headings relating to the associated investigations of Rutherford's team, including Eve and Hahn. A transcript of the document is provided, although in several places, Rutherford's handwriting is difficult to interpret, and the significance of his abbreviations is not always clear. Each of the items in the C.V. is discussed briefly in this review, in the light both of Rutherford's personal career and of the contribution of his team to the development and understanding of radioactivity. This contribution included the cause and nature of radioactivity (with Soddy), energy aspects of radioactive decay (with Barnes), elucidation of the uranium-radium, thorium and actinium series (Godlewski and Hahn), the radioactivity of the earth and atmosphere (Eve), the nature of the gamma rays (Eve) and, perhaps most important of all, the nature and properties of the alpha particle (Rutherford himself). The latter investigations led directly to Rutherford's later work in Manchester, including the nuclear model of the atom and artificial disintegration of the nucleus.

  2. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E4XI-1CF8H [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1E4XI-1CF8H 1E4X 1CF8 I H QVQLQQPGAELVKPGPSVKLSCKASGFTFT-NYWMHWVK...EEE EEEEEEEEEE EEEEEEE EEEEEE - 0 1E4X... I 1E4XI...A 262 ASP CA 228 THR CA 300 ARG CA 287 1E4X... I 1E4XI

  3. Does a Foreign Accent Sell? The Effect of Foreign Accents in Radio Commercials for Congruent and Non-Congruent Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Berna; van Meurs, Frank; van der Meij, Els

    2015-01-01

    Commercials regularly feature foreign accents. This paper aims to investigate whether the use of foreign accents in radio commercials is more effective for congruent than incongruent products, and whether foreign-accented commercials are evaluated differently than non-accented commercials. In an experiment, a group of 228 Dutch participants rated…

  4. Assess the Impact of an Online Tobacco Prevention Training Program on Teachers and Their Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W. William; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Weng, Chung-Bang

    2013-01-01

    School-based tobacco prevention programs have been proven effective in reducing tobacco use. This evaluation aimed to assess the impact of an online tobacco prevention teacher training program on teachers and their students in Florida schools. A total of 344 teachers, including 72 K-3 grade teachers, 44 4th-5th grade teachers, and 228 6th-12th…

  5. Predicting Student Performance in Web-Based Distance Education Courses Based on Survey Instruments Measuring Personality Traits and Technical Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Two common web-based surveys, "Is Online Learning Right for Me?' and "What Technical Skills Do I Need?", were combined into a single survey instrument and given to 228 on-campus and 83 distance education students. The students were enrolled in four different classes (business, computer information services, criminal justice, and…

  6. Team Performance Improvement: Mediating Roles of Employee Job Autonomy and Quality of Team Leader-Member Relations in Supportive Organizations in the Korean Business Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ji Hoon

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the mediating roles of job autonomy and the quality of the leader-member relationship to explain the impact of organizational support on team performance. A total of 228 cases collected from Korean business organizations were used for data analysis. Hierarchical multiple regression, Type 1 SS-based…

  7. 75 FR 48353 - United States Pharmacopeial Convention; Filing of Food Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    .... derived from a recombinant Bacillus subtilis 173.160(d) 3d Ed. Candida guilliermondii Citric acid produced must conform to FCC specifications (under ``Citric acid''). ] 173.165(d) 3d Ed. Candida lipolytica Citric acid produced must conform to FCC specifications (under ``Citric acid''). 173.228(a) 4th Ed....

  8. 78 FR 71457 - Food Additive Regulations; Incorporation by Reference of the Food Chemicals Codex, 7th Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    .... 173.160(d) Candida gulliermondii......... Citric acid produced must conform to FCC 7 specifications (under ``Citric acid''). 173.165(d) Candida lipolytica Citric acid produced must conform to FCC 7 specifications (under ``Citric acid''). 173.228(a) Ethyl acetate Meets FCC 7 specifications. 173.280(c)...

  9. 77 FR 2242 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Pike Road, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Pike Road, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications... filed by Alatron Corporation, Inc., proposing the allotment of Channel 228A at Pike Road, Alabama, as... Pike Road consistent with the minimum distance separation requirements of the Rules with a...

  10. 76 FR 67073 - Safety and Health Requirements Related to Camp Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ....504).'' 49 CFR 228.101(c)(4). ``Construction'' includes the `` lacement of a mobile or modular... authority, FRA is also amending its regulations regarding construction of employee sleeping quarters. In... the hours of service laws at 49 U.S.C. 21106). See notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM), 76 FR...

  11. Crystal structure of 1-methanesulfonyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jeyaseelan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C10H13NO2S, the heterocyclic ring adopts a half-chair conformation and the bond-angle sum at the N atom is 347.9°. In the crystal, inversion dimers linked by pairs of C—H...O hydrogen bonds generate R22(8 loops.

  12. One Year Later

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    It has now been one year since the catastrophic 8.0-magnitude earthquake slammed Sichuan Province on May 12, 2008. At 2:28 p.m. on that terrible day, the most destructive calamity to hit China in 60 years struck

  13. 12 CFR 225.13 - Factors considered in acting on bank acquisition proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... provided in § 211.24(c)(1)(ii) of the Board's Regulation K (12 CFR 211.24(c)(1)(ii)). (b) Other factors. In..., including the Board's Regulation BB (12 CFR part 228). (c) Interstate transactions. The Board may approve... future prospects, including whether current and projected capital positions and levels of...

  14. AcEST: DK954331 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 8I7Z8|HAM_DROME Transcription factor hamlet OS=Drosophila me... 37 0.12 sp|Q16538...ery: 199 PLQLSASGSP 228 P+ SA +P Sbjct: 975 PVDSSAHSTP 984 >sp|Q8I7Z8|HAM_DROME Transcription factor hamlet

  15. Students' Silent Messages: Can Teacher Verbal and Nonverbal Immediacy Moderate Student Use of Text Messaging in Class?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Fang-Yi Flora; Wang, Y. Ken

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between teacher immediacy and college students' use of text messaging in class. Using a cross-sectional survey sample (N=228), structural equation model analyses showed that students' learning motivation does not mediate the potential effects of teacher immediacy and students' use of text messaging in…

  16. 77 FR 1017 - Export and Reexport License Requirements for Certain Microwave and Millimeter Wave Electronic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    ... the Notice of August 12, 2011 (76 FR 50661 (August 16, 2011)). BIS continues to carry out the... et seq.; E.O. 13026, 61 FR 58767, 3 CFR, 1996 Comp., p. 228; E.O. 13222, 66 FR 44025, 3 CFR, 2001 Comp., p. 783; Notice of August 12, 2011, 76 FR 50661 (August 16, 2011). 0 2. Section 740.20 is...

  17. Depletion of penicillin G residues in heavy sows after intramuscular injection. Part II: Application of kidney inhibition swab tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sows (n = 126; 228 ± 30.1 kg) were administered daily IM doses of penicillin G procaine (33 000 IU/kg bw; 5× the label dose) for 3 consecutive days using three different administration patterns. Within treatment, six sows each were slaughtered on withdrawal day 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 32, and 39. Tissues...

  18. 76 FR 1059 - Publicly Available Mass Market Encryption Software and Other Specified Publicly Available...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... ``Know Your Customer'' guidance provided in the EAR (see 67 FR 38855, 38857, June 6, 2002). Therefore, a... extended by successive Presidential Notices, the most recent being that of August 12, 2010, 75 FR 50681....O. 13026, 61 FR 58767, 3 CFR, 1996 Comp., p. 228; E.O. 13222, 66 FR 44025, 3 CFR, 2001 Comp., p....

  19. 75 FR 21823

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... Number Number 227 Occupational Exposure to Beryllium 1218-AB76 228 Methylene Chloride (Section 610 Review... Information (RFI) (67 FR 70707) to solicit information pertinent to occupational exposure to beryllium... Chloride (RIN 1218-AC23) Bloodborne Pathogens (RIN 1218-AC34) All interested members of the public...

  20. 36 CFR 261.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... transportation and all equipment in possession of a person camping. Food and beverage are not considered camping... River Gorge National Scenic Area, Land Between the Lakes, Lake Tahoe Basin Management Unit, Midewin... Forest Service: A plan of operations as provided for in 36 CFR part 228, subparts A and D, and 36...