WorldWideScience

Sample records for actinium 226

  1. Purification of radium-226 for the manufacturing of actinium-225 in a cyclotron for alpha-immunotherapy; Radium-Aufreinigung zur Herstellung von Actinium-225 am Zyklotron fuer die Alpha-Immuntherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, Sebastian Markus

    2014-09-23

    The thesis describes the development of methods for the purification of Ra-226. The objective was to obtain the radionuclide in the quality that is needed to be used as starting material in the manufacturing process for Ac-225 via proton-irradiated Ra-226. The radionuclide has been gained efficiently out of huge excesses of impurities. The high purity of the obtained radium affords its use as staring material in a pharmaceutical manufacturing process.

  2. Production of Actinium-225 via High Energy Proton Induced Spallation of Thorium-232

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    available at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Targets will be processed at Argonne National Laboratory to separate and purify the actinium-225 that will subsequently be transferred to NorthStar laboratory facilities for product quality testing and comparison to the product quality of ORNL produced actinium-225, which is currently the industry standard. The test irradiations at FNAL will produce 1-20 mCi per day which is more than sufficient for quantitative evaluation of the proposed production process. The beneficial outcome of this effort will be a new production route for actinium-225 that does not use or require any uranium-233 materials owned by DOE or use any radium-226 as an irradiation target but can supply the medical community's needs for actinium-225 now and in the future.

  3. Production of Actinium-225 via High Energy Proton Induced Spallation of Thorium-232

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, James T.; Nolen, Jerry; Vandergrift, George; Gomes, Itacil; Kroc, Tom; Horwitz, Phil; McAlister, Dan; Bowers, Del; Sullivan, Vivian; Greene, John

    2011-12-30

    V protons available at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Targets will be processed at Argonne National Laboratory to separate and purify the actinium-225 that will subsequently be transferred to NorthStar laboratory facilities for product quality testing and comparison to the product quality of ORNL produced actinium-225, which is currently the industry standard. The test irradiations at FNAL will produce 1-20 mCi per day which is more than sufficient for quantitative evaluation of the proposed production process. The beneficial outcome of this effort will be a new production route for actinium-225 that does not use or require any uranium-233 materials owned by DOE or use any radium-226 as an irradiation target but can supply the medical community's needs for actinium-225 now and in the future.

  4. Spectroscopic and computational investigation of actinium coordination chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrier, Maryline G.; Batista, Enrique R.; Berg, John M.; Birnbaum, Eva R.; Cross, Justin N.; Engle, Jonathan W.; La Pierre, Henry S.; Kozimor, Stosh A.; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S.; Stein, Benjamin W.; Stieber, S. Chantal E.; Wilson, Justin J.

    2016-08-01

    Actinium-225 is a promising isotope for targeted-α therapy. Unfortunately, progress in developing chelators for medicinal applications has been hindered by a limited understanding of actinium chemistry. This knowledge gap is primarily associated with handling actinium, as it is highly radioactive and in short supply. Hence, AcIII reactivity is often inferred from the lanthanides and minor actinides (that is, Am, Cm), with limited success. Here we overcome these challenges and characterize actinium in HCl solutions using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and molecular dynamics density functional theory. The Ac-Cl and Ac-OH2O distances are measured to be 2.95(3) and 2.59(3) Å, respectively. The X-ray absorption spectroscopy comparisons between AcIII and AmIII in HCl solutions indicate AcIII coordinates more inner-sphere Cl1- ligands (3.2+/-1.1) than AmIII (0.8+/-0.3). These results imply diverse reactivity for the +3 actinides and highlight the unexpected and unique AcIII chemical behaviour.

  5. Separation of Actinium 227 from the uranium minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work was to separate Actinium 227, whose content is 18%, from the mineral carnotite found in Gomez Chihuahua mountain range in Mexico. The mineral before processing is is pre-concentrated and passed, first through anionic exchange resins, later the eluate obtained is passed through cationic resins. The resins were 20-50 MESH QOWEX and 100-200 MESH 50 X 8-20 in some cased 200-400 MESH AG 50W-X8, 1X8 in other cases. The eluates from the ionic exchange were electrodeposited on stainless steel polished disc cathode and platinum electrode as anode; under a current ODF 10mA for 2.5 to 5 hours and of 100mA for .5 of an hour. it was possible to identify the Actinium 227 by means of its descendents, TH-227 and RA-223, through alpha spectroscopy. Due to the radiochemical purity which the electro deposits were obtained the Actinium 227 was low and was not quantitatively determined. A large majority of the members of the natural radioactive series 3 were identified and even alpha energies reported in the literature with very low percentages of non-identified emissions were observed. We conclude that a more precise study is needed concerning ionic exchange and electrodeposit to obtain an Actinium 227 of radiochemical purity. (Author)

  6. Spectroscopic and computational investigation of actinium coordination chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrier, Maryline G.; Batista, Enrique R.; Berg, John M.; Birnbaum, Eva R.; Cross, Justin N.; Engle, Jonathan W.; La Pierre, Henry S.; Kozimor, Stosh A.; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S.; Stein, Benjamin W.; Stieber, S. Chantal E.; Wilson, Justin J.

    2016-01-01

    Actinium-225 is a promising isotope for targeted-α therapy. Unfortunately, progress in developing chelators for medicinal applications has been hindered by a limited understanding of actinium chemistry. This knowledge gap is primarily associated with handling actinium, as it is highly radioactive and in short supply. Hence, AcIII reactivity is often inferred from the lanthanides and minor actinides (that is, Am, Cm), with limited success. Here we overcome these challenges and characterize actinium in HCl solutions using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and molecular dynamics density functional theory. The Ac–Cl and Ac–OH2O distances are measured to be 2.95(3) and 2.59(3) Å, respectively. The X-ray absorption spectroscopy comparisons between AcIII and AmIII in HCl solutions indicate AcIII coordinates more inner-sphere Cl1– ligands (3.2±1.1) than AmIII (0.8±0.3). These results imply diverse reactivity for the +3 actinides and highlight the unexpected and unique AcIII chemical behaviour. PMID:27531582

  7. Discovery of the actinium, thorium, protactinium, and uranium isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, C

    2012-01-01

    Currently, 31 actinium, 31 thorium, 28 protactinium, and 23 uranium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  8. Spectroscopic and computational investigation of actinium coordination chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrier, Maryline G; Batista, Enrique R; Berg, John M; Birnbaum, Eva R; Cross, Justin N; Engle, Jonathan W; La Pierre, Henry S; Kozimor, Stosh A; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S; Stein, Benjamin W; Stieber, S Chantal E; Wilson, Justin J

    2016-01-01

    Actinium-225 is a promising isotope for targeted-α therapy. Unfortunately, progress in developing chelators for medicinal applications has been hindered by a limited understanding of actinium chemistry. This knowledge gap is primarily associated with handling actinium, as it is highly radioactive and in short supply. Hence, Ac(III) reactivity is often inferred from the lanthanides and minor actinides (that is, Am, Cm), with limited success. Here we overcome these challenges and characterize actinium in HCl solutions using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and molecular dynamics density functional theory. The Ac-Cl and Ac-OH2O distances are measured to be 2.95(3) and 2.59(3) Å, respectively. The X-ray absorption spectroscopy comparisons between Ac(III) and Am(III) in HCl solutions indicate Ac(III) coordinates more inner-sphere Cl(1-) ligands (3.2±1.1) than Am(III) (0.8±0.3). These results imply diverse reactivity for the +3 actinides and highlight the unexpected and unique Ac(III) chemical behaviour. PMID:27531582

  9. Groundwater seepage from the Ranger uranium mine tailings dam: radioisotopes of radium, thorium and actinium. Supervising Scientist report 106

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring of bores near the Ranger uranium mine tailings dam has revealed deterioration in water quality in several bores since 1983. In a group of bores to the north of the dam, increases have been observed of up to 500 times for sulphate concentrations and of up to 5 times for 226Ra concentrations. Results are presented here of measurements of members of the uranium, thorium and actinium decay series in borewater samples collected between 1985 and 1993. In particular, measurements of all four naturally-occurring radium isotopes have been used in an investigation of the mechanism of radium concentration changes. For the most seepage-affected bores the major findings of the study include: 228Ra/226Ra 223Ra /226Ra and 224Ra/228Ra ratios all increased over the course of the study; barium concentrations show high seasonal variability, being lower in November than May, but strontium concentrations show a steady increase with time. Calculations show that the groundwater is probably saturated with respect to barite but not with respect to celestite or anglesite; sulphide concentrations are low in comparison with sulphate, and are higher in November than in May; and 227Ac concentrations have increased with time, but do not account for the high 223Ra/226Ra ratios. It is concluded on the basis of these observations that increases in Ra isotope concentrations observed in a number of seepage-affected bores arise from increases in salinity leading to desorption of radium from adsorption sites in the vicinity of the bore rather by direct transport of radium from the tailings. Increased salinity is also causing the observed increases in 227Ac and strontium concentrations, while formation of a barite solid phase in the groundwater is causing the removal of some radium from solution. This is the cause of the increasing radium isotope ratios noted above

  10. ACC 226 Course Tutorial / tutorialrank

    OpenAIRE

    welcome8888

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 5 Times, Rating: A+     ACC 226 Week 1 CheckPoint Accounts Receivable and Uncollectible Accounts   ACC 226 Week 1 DQ 1 and DQ 2   ACC 226 Week 2 Assignment Accounting for Depreciation part   ACC 226 Week 2 CheckPoint Ethics and Computing   ACC 226 Week 3 CheckPoint Classifying Liabilities and Preparing Payroll Entries   ACC 226...

  11. Comment: 226 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Danio rerio Danio rerio Danio_rerio_L.png 226.png Hiroyuki Takeda (The University o...f Tokyo) licensed under CC Attribution2.1 Japan 写真提供:武田洋幸(東京大学) bando 2010/02/15 16:26:21 2010/02/16 15:51:09 ...

  12. acc226uopcoursesTutorial /uophelp

    OpenAIRE

    keller

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com     ACC 226 Week 1 CheckPoint Accounts Receivable and Uncollectible Accounts ACC 226 Week 1 DQ 1 and DQ 2 ACC 226 Week 2 Assignment Accounting for Depreciation part ACC 226 Week 2 CheckPoint Ethics and Computing ACC 226 Week 3 CheckPoint Classifying Liabilities and Preparing Payroll Entries ACC 226 Week 3 DQ 2 ACC 226 Week 4 Assignment Stocks and Earnings per Share part ACC 226 Week 4 CheckPo...

  13. ACC 226 UOP COURSE TUTORIAL/ UOPHELP

    OpenAIRE

    balumgm

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com     ACC 226 Week 1 CheckPoint Accounts Receivable and Uncollectible Accounts ACC 226 Week 1 DQ 1 and DQ 2 ACC 226 Week 2 Assignment Accounting for Depreciation part ACC 226 Week 2 CheckPoint Ethics and Computing ACC 226 Week 3 CheckPoint Classifying Liabilities and Preparing Payroll Entries ACC 226 Week 3 DQ 2 ACC 226 Week 4 Assignment Stocks and Earnings per Share part ACC 226 Week 4 CheckPo...

  14. ACC 226 Ash Course tutorial/uophelp

    OpenAIRE

    THNSSER

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com   ACC 226 Week 1 CheckPoint Accounts Receivable and Uncollectible Accounts ACC 226 Week 1 DQ 1 and DQ 2 ACC 226 Week 2 Assignment Accounting for Depreciation part ACC 226 Week 2 CheckPoint Ethics and Computing ACC 226 Week 3 CheckPoint Classifying Liabilities and Preparing Payroll Entries ACC 226 Week 3 DQ 2 ACC 226 Week 4 Assignment Stocks and Earnings per Share part ACC 226 Week 4 CheckPoint Stock I...

  15. Analysis of the gamma spectra of the uranium, actinium, and thorium decay series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the identification of radionuclides in the uranium, actinium, and thorium series by analysis of gamma spectra in the energy range of 40 to 1400 keV. Energies and absolute efficiencies for each gamma line were measured by means of a high-resolution germanium detector and compared with those in the literature. A gamma spectroscopy method, which utilizes an on-line computer for deconvolution of spectra, search and identification of each line, and estimation of activity for each radionuclide, was used to analyze soil and uranium tailings, and ore

  16. 22 CFR 226.82 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program income. 226.82 Section 226.82 Foreign... ORGANIZATIONS Additional Provisions For Awards to Commercial Organizations § 226.82 Program income. The additional costs alternative described in § 226.24(b)(1) may not be applied to program income earned by...

  17. ACC 226 UOP Course Tutorial / Tutorialrank

    OpenAIRE

    charles

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 5 Times, Rating: A+       ACC 226 Week 1 CheckPoint Accounts Receivable and Uncollectible Accounts   ACC 226 Week 1 DQ 1 and DQ 2   ACC 226 Week 2 Assignment Accounting for Depreciation part   ACC 226 Week 2 CheckPoint Ethics and Computing   ACC 226 Week 3 CheckPoint Classifying Liabilities and Preparing Payroll Entries   ...

  18. 21 CFR 226.30 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equipment. 226.30 Section 226.30 Food and Drugs... Facilities and Equipment § 226.30 Equipment. Equipment used for the manufacture, processing, packaging, bulk... facilitate maintenance and operation for its intended purpose. The equipment shall: (a) Be so...

  19. 22 CFR 226.43 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Competition. 226.43 Section 226.43 Foreign... ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Procurement Standards § 226.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free...

  20. 32 CFR 226.4 - Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities. 226.4 Section 226.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS SHELTER FOR THE HOMELESS § 226.4 Responsibilities. (a) The Deputy Assistant Secretary of...

  1. 22 CFR 226.24 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program income. 226.24 Section 226.24 Foreign... ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.24 Program income. (a) Recipients shall apply the standards set forth in this section to account for program income related to...

  2. 12 CFR 226.24 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 226.24 Section 226.24 Banks and... LENDING (REGULATION Z) Closed-End Credit § 226.24 Advertising. (a) Actually available terms. If an... annual rate of interest will apply over the term of the advertised loan, the advertisement shall...

  3. 7 CFR 226.3 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 226.3 Section 226.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND ADULT CARE FOOD PROGRAM General § 226.3 Administration. (a)...

  4. 7 CFR 226.8 - Audits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Audits. 226.8 Section 226.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND ADULT CARE FOOD PROGRAM State Agency Provisions § 226.8 Audits. (a)...

  5. 22 CFR 226.46 - Procurement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procurement records. 226.46 Section 226.46...-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Procurement Standards § 226.46 Procurement records. Procurement records and files for purchases in excess of the small purchase threshold shall include...

  6. 31 CFR 226.6 - Financial reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Financial reports. 226.6 Section 226..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE RECOGNITION OF INSURANCE COVERING TREASURY TAX AND LOAN DEPOSITARIES § 226.6 Financial reports. Financial reports of Insurance Organizations shall...

  7. 22 CFR 226.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 226.31 Section 226.31...-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Property Standards § 226.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  8. 22 CFR 226.52 - Financial reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Financial reporting. 226.52 Section 226.52...-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Reports and Records § 226.52 Financial reporting. USAID requires recipients to use the Standard Form 425 or Standard Form 425a, Federal Financial Report, or...

  9. 12 CFR 226.4 - Finance charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Finance charge. 226.4 Section 226.4 Banks and... LENDING (REGULATION Z) General § 226.4 Finance charge. (a) Definition. The finance charge is the cost of...) Charges by third parties. The finance charge includes fees and amounts charged by someone other than...

  10. 43 CFR 22.6 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy. 22.6 Section 22.6 Public Lands... Interior Employees § 22.6 Policy. (a) The Department of the Interior may indemnify a Department employee..., judgment, or other monetary award which is rendered against such employee, provided that the conduct...

  11. 22 CFR 226.91 - Marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... forth at 22 CFR 226.61 and 226.62. (j) USAID Principal Officers, defined for purposes of this provision... waiver after the date of completion as defined in 22 CFR 226.2 but before closeout as defined in 22 CFR... Government. (2) The recipient shall provide the Cognizant Technical Officer (CTO) or other USAID...

  12. 31 CFR 226.5 - Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Examinations. 226.5 Section 226.5... LOAN DEPOSITARIES § 226.5 Examinations. (a) Examinations by State regulatory authorities or audits by...) Examinations by State regulatory authorities or audits by CPA firms of insured financial institutions shall...

  13. 25 CFR 226.36 - Control devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Control devices. 226.36 Section 226.36 Indians BUREAU OF... AND GAS MINING Requirements of Lessees § 226.36 Control devices. In drilling operations in fields... shall install an approved gate valve or other controlling device which is in proper working...

  14. 7 CFR 226.26 - Program information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program information. 226.26 Section 226.26 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND ADULT CARE FOOD PROGRAM Other Provisions § 226.26 Program...

  15. Dicty_cDB: SHH226 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SH (Link to library) SHH226 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11737-1 SHH226P (Link to Original site) SHH226...F 626 SHH226Z 574 SHH226P 1180 - - Show SHH226 Library SH (Link to library) Clone ID SHH226...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SH/SHH2-B/SHH226Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SHH226...P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SHH226 (SHH226Q) /CSM/SH/SHH2-B/SHH226...ore E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value SHH226 (SHH226Q) /CSM/SH/SHH2-B/SHH226Q.Seq.d

  16. Dicty_cDB: SSI226 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSI226 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U14708-1 SSI226E (Link... to Original site) - - - - - - SSI226E 573 Show SSI226 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSI226 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SS/SSI2-B/SSI226Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SSI22...6E (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SSI226 (SSI226Q) /CSM/SS/SSI2-B/SSI226Q.Seq.d/ GAAAG...kk*kknk* tiiinkiify Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: erllyssi

  17. Dicty_cDB: AFH226 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AF (Link to library) AFH226 (Link to dictyBase) - - - - AFH226P (Link to Original site) AFH226F 262 AFH226...Z 655 AFH226P 917 - - Show AFH226 Library AF (Link to library) Clone ID AFH226 (Link ...ukuba.ac.jp/CSM/AF/AFH2-B/AFH226Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID AFH226P (Link to ...Original site) Representative DNA sequence >AFH226 (AFH226Q) /CSM/AF/AFH2-B/AFH226Q.Seq.d/ ACTGTTGGCCTACTGGN...rsdppxxqxskgxpppfxsqikrx Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value AFH226 (AFH226

  18. Thorium and actinium polyphosphonate compounds as bone-seeking alpha particle-emitting agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Gjermund; Bruland, Oyvind S; Larsen, Roy H

    2004-01-01

    The present study explores the use of alpha-particle-emitting, bone-seeking agents as candidates for targeted radiotherapy. Actinium and thorium 1,4,7,10 tetraazacyclododecane N,N',N'',N''' 1,4,7,10-tetra(methylene) phosphonic acid (DOTMP) and thorium-diethylene triamine N,N',N'' penta(methylene) phosphonic acid (DTMP) were prepared and their biodistribution evaluated in conventional Balb/C mice at four hours after injection. All three bone-seeking agents showed a high uptake in bone and a low uptake in soft tissues. Among the soft tissue organs, only kidney had a relatively high uptake. The femur/kidney ratios for 227Th-DTMP, 228-Ac-DOTMP and 227Th-DOTMP were 14.2, 7.6 and 6.0, respectively. A higher liver uptake of 228Ac-DOTMP was seen than for 227Th-DTMP and 227Th-DOTMP. This suggests that some demetallation of the 228Ac-DOTMP complex had occurred. The results indicate that 225Ac-DOTMP, 227Th-DOTMP and 227Th-DTMP have promising properties as potential therapeutic bone-seeking agents.

  19. Developments towards in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy studies of actinium isotopes at LISOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeder, S.; Bastin, B.; Block, M.; Creemers, P.; Delahaye, P.; Ferrer, R.; Fléchard, X.; Franchoo, S.; Ghys, L.; Gaffney, L. P.; Granados, C.; Heinke, R.; Hijazi, L.; Huyse, M.; Kron, T.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Laatiaoui, M.; Lecesne, N.; Luton, F.; Moore, I. D.; Martinez, Y.; Mogilevskiy, E.; Naubereit, P.; Piot, J.; Rothe, S.; Savajols, H.; Sels, S.; Sonnenschein, V.; Traykov, E.; Van Beveren, C.; Van den Bergh, P.; Van Duppen, P.; Wendt, K.; Zadvornaya, A.

    2016-06-01

    To study exotic nuclides at the borders of stability with laser ionization and spectroscopy techniques, highest efficiencies in combination with a high spectral resolution are required. These usually opposing requirements are reconciled by applying the in-gas-laser ionization and spectroscopy (IGLIS) technique in the supersonic gas jet produced by a de Laval nozzle installed at the exit of the stopping gas cell. Carrying out laser ionization in the low-temperature and low density supersonic gas jet eliminates pressure broadening, which will significantly improve the spectral resolution. This article presents the required modifications at the Leuven Isotope Separator On-Line (LISOL) facility that are needed for the first on-line studies of in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy. Different geometries for the gas outlet and extraction ion guides have been tested for their performance regarding the acceptance of laser ionized species as well as for their differential pumping capacities. The specifications and performance of the temporarily installed high repetition rate laser system, including a narrow bandwidth injection-locked Ti:sapphire laser, are discussed and first preliminary results on neutron-deficient actinium isotopes are presented indicating the high capability of this novel technique.

  20. Dicty_cDB: VSH226 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VS (Link to library) VSH226 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16444-1 VSH226Z (Link... to Original site) - - VSH226Z 729 - - - - Show VSH226 Library VS (Link to library) Clone ID VSH226 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VS/VSH2-B/VSH226Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VSH226...Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VSH226 (VSH226Q) /CSM/VS/VSH2-B/VSH226Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX...M-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value VSH226 (VSH226Q) /CSM/VS/VSH2-B/VSH226

  1. Dicty_cDB: SLH226 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLH226 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16444-1 SLH226Z (Link... to Original site) - - SLH226Z 516 - - - - Show SLH226 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLH226 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLH2-B/SLH226Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLH226...Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLH226 (SLH226Q) /CSM/SL/SLH2-B/SLH226Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX...VSJ394Q.Seq.d/ 870 0.0 VSH226 (VSH226Q) /CSM/VS/VSH2-B/VSH226Q.Seq.d/ 870 0.0 VSF755 (VSF755Q) /CSM/VS/VSF7-

  2. Dicty_cDB: VFH226 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VF (Link to library) VFH226 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11646-1 VFH226Z (Link... to Original site) - - VFH226Z 713 - - - - Show VFH226 Library VF (Link to library) Clone ID VFH226 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VF/VFH2-B/VFH226Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VFH226...Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VFH226 (VFH226Q) /CSM/VF/VFH2-B/VFH226Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX...icant alignments: (bits) Value VFH226 (VFH226Q) /CSM/VF/VFH2-B/VFH226Q.Seq.d/ 1413 0.0 CHB686 (CHB686Q) /CSM

  3. 22 CFR 226.72 - Subsequent adjustments and continuing responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in §§ 226.31 through 226.37. (5) Records retention as required in § 226.53. (b) After closeout of an... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Subsequent adjustments and continuing responsibilities. 226.72 Section 226.72 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION...

  4. 22 CFR 226.48 - Contract provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... authority as acceptable sureties pursuant to 31 CFR part 223, “Surety Companies Doing Business with the... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contract provisions. 226.48 Section 226.48 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S....

  5. 12 CFR 226.31 - General rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... provisions of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act (E-Sign Act) (15 U.S.C. § 7001 et... shall furnish the disclosures required by § 226.32 at least three business days prior to consummation of... creditor shall furnish the disclosures required by § 226.33 at least three business days prior to:...

  6. 29 CFR 553.226 - Training time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training time. 553.226 Section 553.226 Labor Regulations... time. (a) The general rules for determining the compensability of training time under the FLSA are set forth in §§ 785.27 through 785.32 of this title. (b) While time spent in attending training required...

  7. 21 CFR 226.42 - Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Components. 226.42 Section 226.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR TYPE A MEDICATED ARTICLES Product Quality Control §...

  8. 25 CFR 226.6 - Bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bonds. 226.6 Section 226.6 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS... the lease. (d) The right is specifically reserved to increase the amount of bonds prescribed...

  9. Dicty_cDB: CFH226 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CF (Link to library) CFH226 (Link to dictyBase) - G21772 DDB0219348 Contig-U02590-1 CFH226...Z (Link to Original site) - - CFH226Z 774 - - - - Show CFH226 Library CF (Link to library) Clone ID CFH226...riginal site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CF/CFH2-B/CFH226Q.Seq.d/ ...Representative seq. ID CFH226Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CFH226 (CFH226Q) /CSM/CF/CFH2-B/CFH226...*tnqtk*kqk* Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value CFH226 (CFH226

  10. Dicty_cDB: SSH226 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSH226 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15974-1 SSH226F (Link to Original site) SSH226...F 298 - - - - - - Show SSH226 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSH226 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SS/SSH2-B/SSH226Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SSH226...F (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SSH226 (SSH226Q) /CSM/SS/SSH2-B/SSH226Q.Seq.d/ GAAAA...roducing significant alignments: (bits) Value VSG872 (VSG872Q) /CSM/VS/VSG8-C/VSG872Q.Seq.d/ 297 5e-80 SSH226 (SSH226

  11. Dicty_cDB: SFH226 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SF (Link to library) SFH226 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11649-1 | Contig-U16366-1 SFH226...P (Link to Original site) SFH226F 637 SFH226Z 159 SFH226P 796 - - Show SFH226 Library SF (Link to library) Clone ID SFH226...49-1 | Contig-U16366-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SF/SFH2-B/SFH226...Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SFH226P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SFH226 (SFH226...Q) /CSM/SF/SFH2-B/SFH226Q.Seq.d/ TAAACCAGNATTGTACAGAAGATGAATTAAAGAAAGCATATAGAAAGATGGCTGTTAAAT

  12. Dicty_cDB: VHH226 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHH226 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16477-1 - (Link to Original site) - - VHH226...Z 538 - - - - Show VHH226 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHH226 (Link to dicty...iol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHH2-B/VHH226Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID - (Link to ...Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHH226 (VHH226Q) /CSM/VH/VHH2-B/VHH226Q.Seq.d/ XXXXXXXXXXCTATGTA...41Q) /CSM/VH/VHI5-B/VHI541Q.Seq.d/ 999 0.0 VHH226 (VHH226Q) /CSM/VH/VHH2-B/VHH226Q.Seq.d/ 999 0.0 VHE160 (VH

  13. Dicty_cDB: CHH226 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHH226 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16366-1 | Contig-U16429-1 CHH226...P (Link to Original site) CHH226F 563 CHH226Z 706 CHH226P 1249 - - Show CHH226 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHH22...366-1 | Contig-U16429-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHH2-B/CHH226...Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID CHH226P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHH226 (CHH226...Q) /CSM/CH/CHH2-B/CHH226Q.Seq.d/ ATTAATTTTAATTTATATAAATTACCTTATTACTTAAAGATGACAACAAATAATCCATTT

  14. 21 CFR 226.58 - Laboratory controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR TYPE A MEDICATED ARTICLES Product Quality Control § 226.58...) Provisions for the maintenance of the results of any assays, including dates and endorsement of...

  15. Development of solid radium-226 reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radium-226 reference materials having a matrix similar to soil or tailings samples are not available in sufficient quantity for use by remedial-action contractors to calibrate their laboratory gamma-ray spectrometers. Such reference materials are needed to provide uniform standardization among measurements made by remedial-action contractors. A task, therefore, was undertaken to prepare about 200 pounds each of three different concentrations of radium-226 reference materials by diluting tailings with high-purity silica. Target values for radium-226 content were 50, 15, and 5 pCi/g. The radium-226 content of the reference materials was measured by C.W. Sill of EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, using a high- resolution alpha spectrometry technique standardized with National Bureau of Standards (NBS) standard 4961. A summary of this technique is provided in Appendix A of this report. An independent measurement of the radium-226 content was conducted by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (Bendix), Grand Junction, Colorado, using a high-resolution Ge(Li) detector, which was calibrated using the New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) 100-A Series standards. The Ge(Li) detector has also been used to determine the radium-226 content in the calibration models at the Grand Junction facility; these models are used by remedial-action contractors for calibration of borehole logging gamma-ray probes. 8 references, 12 tables

  16. 21 CFR 226.1 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 226.1 Section...) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR TYPE A MEDICATED ARTICLES General Provisions § 226.1 Current good manufacturing practice. (a) The criteria in §§ 226.10 through 226.115,...

  17. Ra-226 and Pb-210/Ra-226 Activity Ratio in the Northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi-Ju, L.; Yu-Chia, C.; Tsung-En, W.

    2004-05-01

    The surface water distributions and vertical profiles of Ra-226 in the northern South China Sea (SCS) have been measured. Surface water Ra-226 varies between 10 and 16 dpm/100 kg with higher values at stations adjacent to the landmass. Each Ra-226 profile shows an increase from the surface toward the bottom. Above 1000m depth Ra-226 is systematically about 5 dpm/100kg higher in the northern South China Sea than in the western North Pacific. This difference may be attributed to a strong Ra-226 source from the shelf and slope area of the SCS. Below this depth Ra-226 displays large variation within some of the profiles with lower limits being comparable to the activities of the western North Pacific but higher limits being systematically about 5 dpm/100kg higher. These high Ra-226 activities may reflect effects of the longer isolation time for the deep water in the SCS basin and strong Ra input from the underlying sediments. The Pb-210/Ra-226 activity ratio ranges between 1.4 and 2.7 in the surface water with higher activity ratio at the station closer to the Luzon Strait. The Pb-210 in excess over Ra-226 in the surface water due to atmospheric input may penetrate to a depth of about 200 to 500m. Below this depth, Pb-210/Ra-226 activity ratio ranges between 0.5 and 0.7 because Pb-210 is scavenged by settling particulates. Box model calculations within a mixed layer of 50m in the area yield a mean residence time of about 1 yr for Pb-210 if an atmospheric Pb-210 flux of 1 dpm/cm2/y is adopted. The activity ratio of about 0.5 to 0.7 in the deep water corresponds to a Pb-210 mean residence time of about 30 to 70 yrs with respect to particulate scavenging.

  18. The determination of radium-226 in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method for determining radium-226 in urine that is currently being used by the Bioassay Laboratory has been tested and documented. Radium-226 is coprecipitated from urine by alkaline calcium phosphate. This precipitate is redissolved in hydrochloric acid and the radium purified by cation exchange. Radium is collected by a barium sulphate coprecipitation and then estimated by alpha counting. The method has been tested using radium-226 and cross-contamination studies were performed using Am-24l, Pu-239, Np-237, Th-Nat and U-233. With the exception of Am-24l, cross-contaminations were found to be negligible. The method gives an overall chemical recovery of 80 +- 5α and the detection limit is estimated to be 0.39 mBq - counting time, 72 h; background, 0.05 counts per minute (cpm)

  19. Radiation exposure from radium-226 ingestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contribution of radium to total radiation exposure resulting from the consumption of natural levels of 226Ra in several public water supplies in an Oklahoma county was determined. A pilot-level study of total dietary intake indicated that the culinary use of water anomalously high in radium and the consumption of water-based beverages contributed significantly to radiation exposure. The mean dietary intake of 226Ra was 20.6 pCi/day in one community and resulted in an estimated bone dose of 310 mrem/year

  20. Ra-226 activities and Ra-226/Ba ratios on the Kerguelen plateau, Southern Ocean (KEOPS project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourquin, M.; Van Beek, P.; Souhaut, M.; Jeandel, C. [Observ Midi Pyrenees, LEGOS, F-31400 Toulouse, (France); Reyss, J.L. [CEA Saclay, DSM, Lab Sci Climat et Environm, F-91198 Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Jacquet, S.; Dehairs, F. [Vrije Univ Brussels, Dept Analyt and Environm Chem, B-1050 Brussels, (Belgium); Charette, M. [Woods Hole Oceanog Inst, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Complete text of publication follows: High biological productivity takes place on the Kerguelen Plateau in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean known to be a HNLC region. Natural iron fertilization is suspected in that area. One goal of the KEOPS project is to understand the mechanisms controlling iron fertilization. Ra isotopes that are produced in the sediment and diffuse in the water column may be a good analogue for tracing the input of sedimentary iron and its fate on the Kerguelen Plateau. We measured all four radium isotopes during KEOPS ({sup 224}Ra, {sup 223}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 226}Ra) in seawater in order to provide information on the water mass pathways on the Kerguelen plateau. We also measured dissolved Ba concentrations, Ba being a chemical analogue of Ra. Here we report {sup 226}Ra activities and {sup 226}Ra/Ba ratios obtained during repeated visits of station A3 located in the middle of the bloom area on the Kerguelen Plateau. We compare these data to those obtained outside the plateau, in the HNLC area. We observe a pronounced temporal variability in the {sup 226}Ra activities and {sup 226}Ra/Ba ratios found at station A3 suggesting that the dynamic system has changed during the repeated visits or that biological activity significantly impacts {sup 226}Ra activities and {sup 226}Ra/Ba ratios. (authors)

  1. Neutron Resonance Parameters for Ra-226 (Radium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Volume 24 `Neutron Resonance Parameters' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides the neutron resonance parameters for the isotope Ra-226 (Radium).

  2. 7 CFR 226.25 - Other provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND ADULT CARE FOOD PROGRAM Other Provisions § 226.25 Other provisions... 7 CFR part 3016 or 7 CFR part 3019, as applicable. (b) State requirements. Nothing contained in...

  3. Purification of selenium from thorium, uranium, radium, actinium and potassium impurities for low background measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique of selenium purification from 232Th, 238U, 226,228Ra, 227Ac and 40K was developed. This technique is simple to perform and employs a minimum number of highly pure reagents (bidistilled water, nitric acid). Operations carried out during purification (elution, evaporation) practically exclude losses of the target product (chemical yields of Se > 99%). A test purification of 100 g of selenium was carried out using this technique. The efficiency of this technique was confirmed by low background gamma spectrometry of the purified selenium sample. Distribution coefficients of Th, U, Ra and Ac on DOWEX 50W- x 8 cation-exchange resin at different concentrations of selenium and nitric acid were experimentally determinated. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of bidistilled water, deionized water and nitric acid was performed. (orig.)

  4. Purification of selenium from thorium, uranium, radium, actinium and potassium impurities for low background measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakhimov, A.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Tashkent (Uzbekistan). Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INP AS RUz); Warot, G. [CEA-CNRS, Modane (France). Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane (LSM); Karaivanov, D.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE), Sofia (Bulgaria); Kochetov, O.I.; Lebedev, N.A.; Filosofov, D.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Mukhamedshina, N.M.; Sadikov, I.I. [Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Tashkent (Uzbekistan). Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INP AS RUz)

    2013-07-01

    A technique of selenium purification from {sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U, {sup 226,228}Ra, {sup 227}Ac and {sup 40}K was developed. This technique is simple to perform and employs a minimum number of highly pure reagents (bidistilled water, nitric acid). Operations carried out during purification (elution, evaporation) practically exclude losses of the target product (chemical yields of Se > 99%). A test purification of 100 g of selenium was carried out using this technique. The efficiency of this technique was confirmed by low background gamma spectrometry of the purified selenium sample. Distribution coefficients of Th, U, Ra and Ac on DOWEX 50W- x 8 cation-exchange resin at different concentrations of selenium and nitric acid were experimentally determinated. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of bidistilled water, deionized water and nitric acid was performed. (orig.)

  5. 12 CFR 226.20 - Subsequent disclosure requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Closed-End Credit § 226.20 Subsequent disclosure... premiums for continuation of insurance of the types described in § 226.4(d). (5) The renewal of...

  6. 25 CFR 226.39 - Measurement of gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Measurement of gas. 226.39 Section 226.39 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Requirements of Lessees § 226.39 Measurement of gas. All gas, required to...

  7. 25 CFR 226.31 - Lessee's process agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lessee's process agents. 226.31 Section 226.31 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Requirements of Lessees § 226.31 Lessee's process agents. (a) Before...

  8. 21 CFR 226.80 - Packaging and labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaging and labeling. 226.80 Section 226.80 Food...: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR TYPE A MEDICATED ARTICLES Packaging and Labeling § 226.80 Packaging and labeling. (a) Packaging and labeling operations shall be adequately controlled: (1) To...

  9. 25 CFR 226.26 - Determining cost of well.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations § 226.26 Determining cost of well. The term “cost of drilling” as applied where one lessee takes over a well drilled by another, shall include all reasonable, usual... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determining cost of well. 226.26 Section 226.26...

  10. 12 CFR 226.23 - Right of rescission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... obligation, the consumer shall have the right to rescind the transaction if: (i) A mortgage broker fee that... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Right of rescission. 226.23 Section 226.23... TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Closed-End Credit § 226.23 Right of rescission. (a) Consumer's right...

  11. 22 CFR 226.42 - Codes of conduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Codes of conduct. 226.42 Section 226.42 Foreign... ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Procurement Standards § 226.42 Codes of conduct. The recipient shall maintain written standards of conduct governing the performance of its employees engaged in the award...

  12. 7 CFR 226.21 - Food service management companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Food service management companies. 226.21 Section 226... § 226.21 Food service management companies. (a) Any institution may contract with a food service management company. An institution which contracts with a food service management company shall...

  13. 25 CFR 226.38 - Measuring and storing oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Measuring and storing oil. 226.38 Section 226.38 Indians... LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Requirements of Lessees § 226.38 Measuring and storing oil. All production.... Facilities suitable for containing and measuring accurately all crude oil produced from the wells shall...

  14. 40 CFR 86.226-94 - Calibration of other equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calibration of other equipment. 86.226-94 Section 86.226-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.226-94 Calibration of...

  15. 25 CFR 226.22 - Prohibition of pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibition of pollution. 226.22 Section 226.22 Indians... LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations § 226.22 Prohibition of pollution. (a) All operators... holes) in a manner that will prevent pollution and the migration of oil, gas, salt water or...

  16. 49 CFR 195.226 - Welding: Arc burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding: Arc burns. 195.226 Section 195.226 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Construction § 195.226 Welding: Arc burns. (a) Each arc burn must be repaired. (b) An arc burn...

  17. 25 CFR 226.3 - Surrender of lease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surrender of lease. 226.3 Section 226.3 Indians BUREAU OF... AND GAS MINING Leasing Procedure, Rental and Royalty § 226.3 Surrender of lease. Lessee may, with the approval of the Superintendent and payment of a $10 filing fee, surrender all or any portion of any...

  18. 25 CFR 226.10 - Term of lease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Term of lease. 226.10 Section 226.10 Indians BUREAU OF... AND GAS MINING Leasing Procedure, Rental and Royalty § 226.10 Term of lease. Leases issued hereunder..., and so stated in the notice of sale of such leases and so long thereafter as the minerals...

  19. 7 CFR 226.5 - Donation of commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Donation of commodities. 226.5 Section 226.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND ADULT CARE FOOD PROGRAM Assistance to States § 226.5...

  20. 10 CFR 600.226 - Non-Federal audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Non-Federal audit. 600.226 Section 600.226 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES Uniform Administrative....226 Non-Federal audit. (a) Basic rule. Grantees and subgrantees are responsible for obtaining...

  1. Determination of radium-226 in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of soil and water samples for 226Ra by gamma spectrometry with a Ge(Li) detector was compared with that by radiochemical separation followed by 222Rn de-emanation. Lower limits of detection (LLD) for 226Ra were calculated for the two analytical techniques. The Ge(Li) system was found to have an LLD for soil comparable to that calculated for the de-emanation procedure, but the Ge(Li) system was found to have a significantly higher LLD for water samples. Cost analysis indicated that the cost of 222Ra determination with a Ge(Li) system can be less than with the de-emanation procedure if the Ge(Li) system can perform at least one other isotopic anaysis per sample

  2. Radium-226 on drinking water of Camaguey, Cuba; Radio-226 en agua potable de Camaguey, Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montalvan Estrada, Adelmo; Brigido Flores, Osvaldo; Barrera Caballero, Aldo [Centro de Atencion a la Actividad Nuclear, Camaguey (Cuba)]. E-mail: sean@caonao.cmw.inf.cu; Escalante, Alexander [Centro Provincial de Higiene y Epidemiologia, Camaguey (Cuba)

    2001-07-01

    The specific activity of Ra-226 in drinking water of Camaguey city, Cuba, was measured using the emanometric method. The specific activity of Ra-226 in drinking water ranged from 15 {+-} 5 mBq.l{sup -1} to 39 {+-}12 mBq.l{sup -1}. The mean specific activity of Ra-226 was found to be 27 {+-} 8 mBq.l{sup -1}. No seasonal variation was found. Water samples were collected from the two main sources of drinking water: private wells and governmental water supply system, being the mean specific activities of Ra-226: 25 {+-} 7 mBq.l{sup -1} and 31 {+-} 9 mBq.l{sup -1} , respectively. Based upon measured concentrations the age-dependent associated effective doses due to the ingestion of Ra-226, as a consequence of direct consumption of drinking water, have been calculated. For the age interval 1 year to 5 years, the average effective dose was 6,2 {mu}Sv.y{sup -1}, and for adults the average effective dose was 5,2 {mu}Sv.y{sup -1}. (author)

  3. New method for large scale production of medically applicable Actinium-225 and Radium-223

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpha-emitters (211At, 212Bi, 213Bi, 223Ra, 225Ac) are promising for targeted radiotherapy of cancer. Only two alpha decays near a cell membrane result in 50% death of cancer cell and only a single decay inside the cell is required for this. 225Ac may be used either directly or as a mother radionuclide in 213Bi isotope generator. Production of 225Ac is provided by three main suppliers - Institute for Transuranium Elements in Germany, Oak Ridge National Laboratory in USA and Institute of Physics and Power Engineering in Obninsk, Russia. The current worldwide production of 225Ac is approximately 1.7 Ci per year that corresponds to only 100-200 patients that could be treated annually. The common approach for 225Ac production is separation from mother 229Th or irradiation of 226Ra with protons in a cyclotron. Both the methods have some practical limitations to be applied routinely. 225Ac can be also produced by irradiation of natural thorium with medium energy protons . Cumulative cross sections of 225Ac, 227Ac, 227Th, 228Th formations have been obtained recently. Thorium targets (1-9 g) were irradiated by 114-91 MeV proton beam (1-50 μA) at INR linear accelerator. After dissolution in 8 M HNO3 + 0.004 M HF thorium was removed by double LLX by HDEHP in toluene (1:1). Ac and REE were pre-concentrated and separated from Ra and most fission products by DGA-Resin (Triskem). After washing out by 0.01 M HNO3 Ac was separated from REE by TRU Resin (Triskem) in 3 M HNO3 media. About 6 mCi 225Ac were separated in hot cell with chemical yield 85%. The method may be upscaled for production of Ci amounts of the radionuclide. The main impurity is 227Ac (0.1% at the EOB) but it does not hinder 225Ac from being used for medical 225Ac/213Bi generators. (author)

  4. Radium-226 levels in Italian drinking waters and foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levels of 226Ra in Italian waters and foods were measured. Results were similar to those found in other countries, except for some mineral waters with 226Ra concentrations above 1 pCi/liter andup to 19 pCi/liter. No difinite correlation was found between the 226Ra concentrations measured and the high natural background radiation levels determined in central Italy in previous work

  5. Use of carriers for to electrodeposited radium 226; Utilizacion de portadores para electrodepositar radio 226

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iturbe, J.L

    1991-10-15

    The form of the energy distribution of a monoenergetic alpha particle starting from some emitting source of these particles, it depends on the quantity of material that its cross before being detected. Some authors deposit to the radium-226 by means of direct evaporation of the solution on metallic supports, on millipore paper and by electrodeposition. Some other ones place the radium solution in scintillation liquid, to quantify it by this technique. The objective of the present work is using carriers with the same oxidation state of the radium, that is to say of 2{sup +}, for treating to be electrodeposited to the radium-226 with the biggest possible percentage for later use the alpha spectroscopy technique to quantify it. The carriers that have been used until its they are barium and zinc in form of barium chloride, zinc nitrate and zinc sulfate. The first results indicate that with the zinc solution a yield of 40% of electrodeposited radium has been reached. (Author)

  6. 12 CFR 226.11 - Treatment of credit balances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Treatment of credit balances. 226.11 Section... SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Open-End Credit § 226.11 Treatment of credit balances. When a credit balance in excess of $1 is created on a credit account (through transmittal of funds to a...

  7. 12 CFR 226.21 - Treatment of credit balances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Treatment of credit balances. 226.21 Section... SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Closed-End Credit § 226.21 Treatment of credit balances. When a credit balance in excess of $1 is created in connection with a transaction (through transmittal of...

  8. 50 CFR 226.207 - Critical habitat for leatherback turtle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat for leatherback turtle. 226.207 Section 226.207 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Critical habitat for leatherback turtle. Leatherback Sea Turtle (dermochelys coriacea) The waters...

  9. 50 CFR 226.209 - Critical habitat for hawksbill turtle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat for hawksbill turtle. 226.209 Section 226.209 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Critical habitat for hawksbill turtle. (a) Mona and Monito Islands, Puerto Rico—Waters surrounding...

  10. 50 CFR 226.208 - Critical habitat for green turtle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat for green turtle. 226.208 Section 226.208 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... green turtle. (a) Culebra Island, Puerto Rico—Waters surrounding the island of Culebra from the...

  11. 226Ra determination in phosphogypsum by alpha-particle spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiochemical method for 226Ra determination by alpha-particle spectrometry in environmental samples has been developed in our laboratory. The method has been validated by measurements in samples with known concentrations of this radionuclide and it has been applied in studies related to 226Ra behaviour in phosphogypsum (the main by-product of producing phosphoric acid from phosphate rocks). (author)

  12. 21 CFR 226.40 - Production and control procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Production and control procedures. 226.40 Section 226.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR TYPE A MEDICATED ARTICLES Product Quality...

  13. 7 CFR 226.20 - Requirements for meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND ADULT CARE FOOD PROGRAM Operational Provisions § 226.20... listed for lunch in § 226.20(a)(2), except that, for adult participants in adult day care centers,...

  14. 7 CFR Appendix B to Part 226 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false B Appendix B to Part 226 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND ADULT CARE FOOD PROGRAM Appendix B to Part 226...

  15. 25 CFR 226.19 - Use of surface of land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations § 226.19 Use of surface of land. (a) Lessee or his/her... routing shall be set by the Superintendent. The right to use water for lease operations is established by § 226.24. Lessee shall conduct his/her operations in a workmanlike manner, commit no waste and...

  16. 12 CFR 226.22 - Determination of annual percentage rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., the annual percentage rate shall be computed on whatever lower balance will produce an annual... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of annual percentage rate. 226.22... RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Closed-End Credit § 226.22 Determination of...

  17. 22 CFR 226.50 - Purpose of reports and records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... also set forth record retention requirements. ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose of reports and records. 226.50 Section 226.50 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO...

  18. 7 CFR 1280.226 - Use of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of information. 1280.226 Section 1280.226 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  19. 20 CFR 226.63 - Determining monthly compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determining monthly compensation. 226.63... COMPUTING EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Years of Service and Average Monthly Compensation § 226.63 Determining monthly compensation. (a) Based on yearly compensation. If Board records do...

  20. 20 CFR 226.62 - Computing average monthly compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computing average monthly compensation. 226... Compensation § 226.62 Computing average monthly compensation. The employee's average monthly compensation is computed by first determining the employee's highest 60 months of railroad compensation...

  1. 20 CFR 226.31 - Reduction for public pension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduction for public pension. 226.31 Section... § 226.31 Reduction for public pension. (a) The tier I annuity component of a spouse/divorced spouse... in receipt of a public pension. (b) When reduction is required. Unless the spouse or divorced...

  2. 7 CFR 226.14 - Claims against institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Claims against institutions. 226.14 Section 226.14... against institutions. (a) State agencies shall disallow any portion of a claim for reimbursement and recover any payment to an institution not properly payable under this part. State agencies may...

  3. 22 CFR 226.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Metric system of measurement. 226.15 Section....S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Pre-award Requirements § 226.15 Metric system of measurement. (a...) declares that the metric system is the preferred measurement system for U.S. trade and commerce....

  4. 42 CFR 457.226 - Fiscal policies and accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fiscal policies and accountability. 457.226 Section... Claims; Reduction of Federal Medical Payments § 457.226 Fiscal policies and accountability. A State plan...) Maintain an accounting system and supporting fiscal records to assure that claims for Federal funds are...

  5. Toxicity of injected radium-226 in immature dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Griffith, W.C. [and others

    1995-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the toxicity of injected {sup 226}Ra in immature dogs and to compare the results with those from studies of injected {sup 226}Ra in young adult dogs. An historic objective of these studies, initiated at the University of Utah and continued at ITRI, was to compare the results in dogs to the population of dial painters who ingested {sup 226}Ra as young adults. Age at the time of exposure is considered to be an important factor in dosimetry and risk of developing radiation-induced disease, particularly bone cancer. In summary, dogs injected with {sup 226}Ra when immature had increased occurrences of bone tumors in a dose-related fashion.

  6. 226Ra in the western Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Y.

    1987-09-01

    226Ra profiles have been measured in the western Indian Ocean as part of the 1977-1978 Indian Ocean GEOSECS program. These profiles show a general increase in deep and bottom water Ra concentration from the Circumpolar region to the Arabian Sea. A deep Ra maximum which originates in the Arabian Sea and in the Somali basin at about 3000 m depth spreads southward into the Mascarene basin and remains discernible in the Madagascar and Crozet basins. In the western Indian Ocean, the cold Antarctic Bottom Water spreads northward under the possibly southward-flowing deep water, forming a clear benthic front along the Crozet basin across the Southwest Indian Ridge into the Madagascar and Mascarene basins. The Antarctic Bottom Water continues to spread farther north to the Somali basin through the Amirante Passage at 10°S as a western boundary current. The benthic front and other characteristic features in the western Indian Ocean are quite similar to those observed in the western Pacific where the benthic front as a distinctive feature was first described by Craig et al. [15]. Across the Mid-Indian Ridge toward the Ceylon abyssal plain near the triple junction, Ra profiles display a layered structure, reflecting the topographic effect of the mid-ocean ridge system on the mixing and circulation of the deep and bottom waters. Both Ra and Si show a deep maximum north of the Madagascar basin. Linear relationships between these two elements are observed in the deep and bottom water with slopes increasing northward. This suggests a preferential input of Ra over Si from the bottom sediments of the Arabian Sea and also from the flank sediments of the Somali basin.

  7. Novo cultivar de mamona: IAC-226(Tarabay New castor bean cultivar IAC-226 (Tarabay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Savy Filho

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve um novo cultivar de mamona (Ricinus communis 1., IAC-226 (Tarabay originado de linhagem pura, obtida do cruzamento controlado entre o 'Pindorama' e o 'Campinas': trata-se de germoplasma adaptado às condições climáticas normais de cultura no Estado de São Paulo, material de porte alto (250-350cm, diâmetro de copa de 215cm e ciclo vegetativo médio (180 dias, a partir da emergência. A produção econômica é dada pelos racemos primários, secundários, terciários e quaternários, com 19, 30, 23 e 28% da produção total respectivamente, elevado potencial produtivo (2.681kg/ha de sementes e 1.233kg/ha de óleo, e frutos indeiscentes.The characteristics of a new castor bean (Ricinus communis L. cultivar, named IAC-226 (Tarabay, obtained by hybridization between 'Pindorama' and 'Campinas', and selected by the pedigree method, are reported. The origin, characteristics of the plant and fruits such as seed weight and yield are described. Remarkable traits are: tall height indehiscent fruits, adaptation and outstanding yield ability with mean value of 2,681kg of seeds/ha and 1,233kg of oil/ha.

  8. 226Ra bioavailability of plants at urgeirica uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large amounts of solid wastes (tailings) resulting from the exploitation and treatment of uranium ore at the Urgeirica mine (north of Portugal) have been accumulated in dams (tailing ponds). To reduce the dispersion of natural radionuclides into the environment some dams were revegetated with eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globolus) and pines (Pinus pinea). Besides, some shrubs (Cytisus s.p.) are growing at some of the dams. The objective of this study is to determine the 226Ra bioavailability from uranium mill tailings through the quantification of the total and available fraction of radium in the solid wastes and to estimate its transfer to the plants growing on the tailing piles. Plants and solid waste samples were randomly collected at dams. Activity concentration of 226Ra in plants (aerial part and roots) and solid wastes were measured by gamma spectrometry. The exchangeable fraction of radium in solid wastes was quantified using one single step extraction with 1 mol dm-3 ammonium acetate (pH=7) or 1 mol dm-3 calcium chloride solutions. The results obtained for the 226Ra uptake by plants show that 226Ra concentration ratios for eucalyptus and pines decrease at low 226Ra concentration in the solid wastes and appear relatively constant at higher radium concentrations. For shrubs, the concentration ratios increase at higher 226Ra solid waste concentrations approaching a saturation value. Percentage values of 16.0±8.3 and 12.9±8.9, for the fraction of radium extracted from the solid wastes, using 1 mol dm-3 ammonium acetate or calcium chloride solutions respectively, were obtained. The 226Ra concentration ratios determined on the basis of exchangeable radium are one order of magnitude higher than those based on total radium. It can be concluded that, within the standard error values, more consistent 226Ra concentration ratios were obtained when calculated on the basis of available radium than when total radium was considered, for all the dams. (author)

  9. Late excretion rates of 226Ra and 210Pb following occupational or iatrogenic exposure. I. 226Ra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The urinary and fecal excretion rates of 226Ra have been determined for 53 subjects who had been exposed to 226Ra; 25 had been radium dial painters, 16 were iatrogenic (medical) cases and 12 were former radium chemists. The mean coefficient of elimination, CE (fraction of body content excreted annually), was significantly lower for the medical cases than for dial painters. The mean ratio of urinary-to-fecal excretion rates was 3.0 +- 0.7%

  10. Natural Radium-226 accumulation in the human thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Small amounts of Ra-226 and other radium isotopes routinely enter the human body through normal dietary intake and, in some cases, through occupational exposure. Currently accepted biokinetic models for radium in the human body assume a uniform distribution among all soft tissues and a short retention time in those tissues. These assumptions persist despite publications in the mid-1980s indicating that radium concentrations in tissue are related to calcium levels in each organ, implying that the thyroid gland could accumulate greater concentrations of radium isotopes than any other tissue. Moreover, the natural intake or production of sulfate or barium compounds in the body could serve to precipitate radium in the thyroid gland, thereby immobilizing it, with the result that the radionuclide stays resident for many years. Evidence of both accumulation and immobilization of Ra-226 in thyroids of grazing animals has been documented since the 1960s by one of us (LVM). Little is known, however, about the concentration and retention of radium in the human thyroid. Reported here, for the first time, are Ra-226 measurement data from about 100 human thyroids collected from over 95 persons with no known occupational exposure to radium with lifetime residences in the US and other countries, one person who routinely ingested a homeopathic preparation containing Ra-226, and three uranium miners. Sensitive measurements were made using the radon emanation technique. Regardless of the origin of the thyroid sample, Ra-226 activity was almost always detected above the detection limit of 0.65 mBq when at least 10 g of thyroid tissue were available. Our analyses to-date suggests a background concentration in human thyroids of about 0.1 ±0.01 Bq/kg, considerably greater than the commonly reported literature value of 0.003 Bq/kg in soft tissues. In addition, our measurements indicate concentrations of Ra-226 in the three uranium miners (whose exact job description was

  11. 226Ra i 228Ra in Croatian Rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of 226Ra and 228Ra in Croatian river waters are presented in this paper. The presence of natural radionuclides in the Croatian rivers emphasizes the need for continuous monitoring. 226Ra and 228Ra were chosen as a possible source of human exposure to radioactivity due to their high radio-toxicity. River water samples (50 L) were collected from the Danube, Drava, Sava, Krka and Neretva rivers twice a year from 2002 to 2006. Activity concentrations of 226Ra ranged from 6.54 mBq L-1 to 59.44 mBq L-1 and 228Ra activity concentrations ranged from 2.57 mBq L-1 to 20.76 mBq L-1. The highest values of both 226Ra and 228Ra were measured in the Drava river, and the lowest values in the Sava river. Statistically significant differences were not observed between radium concentrations from two watersheds (the Black Sea and the Adriatic Sea watershed), nor between 226Ra/228Ra ratio in rivers individually. The number of collected samples is insufficient to make statistically significant conclusions. Further investigation is necessary to obtain larger number of samples. However, the data obtained in this study could be the baseline for evaluating possible future changes.(author)

  12. The daily intake of 226 Radio by phosphatic region residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranium-phosphate region of northeastern Brazil comprehends a 4 km wide land strip that spans over 150 km of the coastal region of the states of Pernambuco and Paraiba. People that live in these region are subject to higher than normal levels of background radiation, due to the presence of natural uranium and their progeny in the environment. In this study, the concentrations of 226 Ra in locally grown produce, as well as in the water were determined. The mean concentration of 226 Ra in the food items included in this study was of 357.7 mBq/kg (wet weight). The mean 226 Ra concentration in the water was of 282.2 mBq/L. The annul rate, due to the combined consumption of food and water by the local population was estimated to be of 275.35 Bq

  13. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Ra-226 (Radium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Ra-226 (Radium, atomic number Z = 88, mass number A = 226).

  14. Ra-228, Ra-226 and Ra-228/Ra-226 Activity Ratio in the Northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu-Chia, C.

    2004-05-01

    We report for the first time the surface water distributions of Ra-228 and Ra-226 in the northern South China Sea (SCS) and vertical profiles in the central deep basin of the SCS. Being a marginal sea, the SCS displays activities of both nuclides much higher than the open oceans. The surface water Ra-228 varies between 22 and 33 dpm/100L with higher values at stations adjacent to the landmass. The surface water Ra-226 varies from 10 to 15 dpm/100L with a distribution pattern similar to that of Ra-228. The Ra-228/Ra-226 activity ratio is fairly constant at about 2 or slightly higher. Ra-228 decreases rapidly from a surface maximum of about 22 dpm/100L to about 12 dpm/100L at and below 300m depth in the deep central basin. The deep water values are much higher than those of the open oceans. Ra-226, on the other hand, shows a surface activity of 14 dpm/100L, decreases to 10 dpm/100L at 200m, and then increases monotonically with depth to about 35 dpm/100L at and below 3000m. This distribution pattern is similar to that observed in the western North Pacific but the activity is higher by about 5 dpm/100L for the entire water column. The resulting Ra-228/Ra-226 is greater than one above 250m and becomes less than one below this depth with the ratio decreasing to about 0.35 in the deep water below 3000m. This ratio remains much greater than that in the open oceans, implying a strong Ra-228 input relative to Ra-226 into the SCS deep water.

  15. 25 CFR 226.14 - Contracts and division orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Leasing Procedure, Rental and Royalty § 226.14 Contracts and division.... Lessee shall be responsible for the correct measurement and reporting of all oil and/or gas taken...

  16. 12 CFR 226.47 - Content of disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for bankruptcy, the consumer may still be required to pay back the loan. (4) Cost estimates. An... consumer files for bankruptcy, the consumer may still be required to pay back the loan. (vii) An estimate... TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Special Rules for Private Education Loans § 226.47 Content...

  17. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 226 - Contract Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Organizations and Small Business Firms Under Government Grants, Contracts and Cooperative Agreements,” and any... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contract Provisions A Appendix A to Part 226 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S....

  18. 226Ra and calcium in the human eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The left eye from each of two CHR cases, 01 to 144 (body burden 690 nCi) and 01-017 (body burden 1210 nCi) was analyzed for 226Ra and calcium. The total amounts in the eye were 1.80 pCi of 226Ra and 2.3 mg of Ca in case 01 to 144, and 5.4 pCi of 226Ra and 14.2 mg of calcium in case 01 to 017. For the latter case the eye was dissected and showed the highest concentrations of activity (on a wet basis) in the choroid, 3.8 pCi/g, sclera 3.4 pCi/g and iris 2.9 pCi/g. The radium content of the eye was 2.7 x 10-4 percent to 4.7 x 10-4 percent of the total body content at 50 to 55 yr after first exposure. The 226Ra/Ca ratios in the whole eye were 1/3 to 1/4 those in the whole body, but that for the choroid from the dissected eye was identical to that of the whole body

  19. 18 CFR 3b.226 - Accounting of disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accounting of... IDENTIFIABLE PERSONAL INFORMATION Rules for Disclosure of Records § 3b.226 Accounting of disclosures. (a) The....225(b) (5) and (7). (b) Each system manager will retain the accounting made under paragraph (a)...

  20. 12 CFR 226.6 - Account-opening disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Open-End Credit § 226.6 Account-opening disclosures. (a) Rules... effect(s) of an increase. When different periodic rates apply to different types of transactions, the types of transactions to which the periodic rates shall apply shall also be disclosed. A creditor is...

  1. 7 CFR 226.1 - General purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND ADULT CARE FOOD PROGRAM General § 226.1 General purpose and... Child and Adult Care Food Program. Section 17 of the National School Lunch Act, as amended,...

  2. 12 CFR 226.12 - Special credit card provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... both credit and electronic fund transfer aspects, refer to Regulation E, 12 CFR 205.12(a) regarding... Regulation E. For guidance on whether Regulation Z (12 CFR part 226) or Regulation E (12 CFR part 205... CFR 205.12(a) regarding issuance and liability for unauthorized use. On matters other than...

  3. 48 CFR 1452.226-70 - Indian Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1452.226-70 Indian... Indians and is in addition to any incidental benefits which might otherwise accrue to the general public...); and (3) “Indian-owned economic enterprise” means any Indian-owned commercial, industrial, or...

  4. 12 CFR 226.13 - Billing error resolution. 27

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., 12 CFR 205.11 governing error resolution rather than those of paragraphs (a), (b), (c), (e), (f), and... account, the creditor shall comply with the requirements of Regulation E, 12 CFR 205.11 governing error... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Billing error resolution. 27 226.13 Section...

  5. 12 CFR Supplement I to Part 226 - Official Staff Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... print media, are covered by Regulation Z (12 CFR part 226). i. Examples include: A. Messages in a newspaper, magazine, leaflet, promotional flyer, or catalog. B. Announcements on radio, television, or... finance charges, Spanish language disclosures, record retention, and use of model forms, also apply...

  6. 7 CFR 226.11 - Program payments for centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND ADULT CARE FOOD PROGRAM Payment Provisions § 226.11 Program... approved child care centers, at-risk afterschool care centers, adult day care centers, emergency...

  7. 7 CFR 226.27 - Information collection/recordkeeping-OMB assigned control numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND ADULT CARE... numbers. 7 CFR section where requirements are described Current OMB control number 226.3-226.4...

  8. Ra-226 and Ra-226/Ba Signatures of Intermediate and Deep Water Masses of the Labrador Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons-Branchu, E.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.; Ghaleb, B.

    2004-05-01

    The Labrador sea plays an important role in the formation of intermediate North Atlantic water, (cf. Labrador Sea Water -LSW) and subsequently, in the general thermohaline circulation of the ocean. In addition, water masses originating from the Norwegian and Greenland seas are present below the LSW, in the deeper part of the basin. Investigations on the geochemistry of radium have been undertaken as a mean to document these deep and intermediate circulation processes. The vertical distribution of Ra-226 and Ba contents has been established for 8 stations located along 2 sections from 48°44 N; 52°58W to 52°23 N 45°17W and from 53.59°N to 60.34°N, 48.13°W. Thermo-Ionization Mass Spectrometry coupled with a new radium extraction and purification technique permitted the measurement of Ra-226 using 200 ml samples (i.e., appr. 10 femtograms of Ra). In parallel, Ba contents were determined using M-C-ICP-MS in order to normalize Ra-226 concentrations, since Ba is often seen as a subrogate stable isotope of Ra, due to their almost similar geochemical behaviour. Large variations in Ra-226 concentrations are observed. They range from 51 fg/g in intermediate and deep water samples to 31 fg/g in surface waters. When normalised to a salinity of 35 or to the Ba contents large discrepancies are still observed. They suggest a specific Ra-signature for each of the major water masses present in the basin. Particular attention has been paid to Ra-226 contents in the LSW in relation to its production rate as well as to the influence of the Western Boundary Under Current (WBUC), which carries the North Atlantic Deep water masses into their gyre along the lower slopes of the Labrador sea. Based on the presently available data set, a peak in Ra-226 and Ba contents seems to characterise the high velocity axis of the WBUC. These data suggest moreover a lower Ra-226 content for the LSW than for the deeper water masses.

  9. 77 FR 16890 - Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 226, Audio Systems and Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 226, Audio Systems and Equipment... meeting RTCA Special Committee 226, Audio Systems and Equipment. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the second meeting of RTCA Special Committee 226, Audio Systems and...

  10. 76 FR 79755 - First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 226 Audio Systems and Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 226 Audio Systems and Equipment... RTCA Special Committee 226, Audio Systems and Equipment. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 226, Audio Systems and Equipment, for the...

  11. 50 CFR 226.215 - Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica). 226.215 Section 226.215 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE... DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.215 Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica). (a) Primary Constituent Elements. The primary constituent elements of the North Pacific right...

  12. 50 CFR 226.206 - Critical habitat for the Southern Resident killer whale (Orcinus orca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... killer whale (Orcinus orca). 226.206 Section 226.206 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES... CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.206 Critical habitat for the Southern Resident killer whale (Orcinus orca). Critical habitat is designated for the Southern Resident killer whale as described in this section. The...

  13. 17 CFR 256.226 - Unamortized discount on long-term debt-debit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... COMPANIES, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 6. Long-Term Debt § 256.226 Unamortized discount on... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unamortized discount on long-term debt-debit. 256.226 Section 256.226 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND...

  14. 27 CFR 41.226 - Change in control of a corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in control of a corporation. 41.226 Section 41.226 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Ownership and Control § 41.226 Change in control of a corporation. Where the issuance, sale, or transfer...

  15. 25 CFR 226.12 - Government reserves right to purchase oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Government reserves right to purchase oil. 226.12 Section 226.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Leasing Procedure, Rental and Royalty § 226.12...

  16. 7 CFR 226.19a - Adult day care center provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adult day care center provisions. 226.19a Section 226..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND ADULT CARE FOOD PROGRAM Operational Provisions § 226.19a Adult day care center provisions. (a) Adult day care centers may participate in the...

  17. 48 CFR 52.226-6 - Promoting excess food donation to nonprofit organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... donation to nonprofit organizations. 52.226-6 Section 52.226-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.226-6 Promoting excess food donation to nonprofit organizations. As prescribed in 26.404, insert the following clause: PROMOTING EXCESS FOOD DONATION TO NONPROFIT...

  18. 30 CFR 250.226 - What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the EP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the EP? 250.226 Section 250.226 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... and Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.226 What Coastal Zone Management Act...

  19. Increased levels of soluble CD226 in sera accompanied by decreased membrane CD226 expression on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zhuwei

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a cellular membrane triggering receptor, CD226 is involved in the NK cell- or CTL-mediated lysis of tumor cells of different origin, including freshly isolated tumor cells and tumor cell lines. Here, we evaluated soluble CD226 (sCD226 levels in sera, and membrane CD226 (mCD226 expression on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from cancer patients as well as normal subjects, and demonstrated the possible function and origin of the altered sCD226, which may provide useful information for understanding the mechanisms of tumor escape and for immunodiagnosis and immunotherapy. Results Soluble CD226 levels in serum samples from cancer patients were significantly higher than those in healthy individuals (P P Conclusion These findings suggest that sCD226 might be shed from cell membranes by certain proteases, and, further, sCD226 may be used as a predictor for monitoring cancer, and more important, a possible immunotherapy target, which may be useful in clinical application.

  20. Radium - 226 levels in some sudanese plants and soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural levels of 226 Ra in plant and soil samples have been studied. The field study was mainly conducted in western Sudan (Darfur and Kurdofan) where areas of high natural background radiation have been identified and Khartoum area was taken as a control to (i) assess in natural setting the soil-to-plant concentration ratios (concentration in dry sample / concentration in dry soil) of the naturally occurring radionuclide 226 Ra, (ii) establish base-line data on Radium activity concentration levels in environmental materials and (iii) explore the area of high natural radiation background in western Sudan.Low level gamma spectrometry, employing high purity germanium detector (HPGe) of relative efficiency 12%, has been used for the determination of 226 Ra activity concentrations in plant and soil samples. The mean Radium activity concentration found in soil ranged from 14.41 Bq/Kg to 79.08 Bq/Kg, the values correspond to the reported normal background levels of 226 Ra in soils worldwide. Radium activity concentrations found in Sudanese plants were significantly higher compared to those related to plants from normal background regions and significantly lower than those reported for plants from high background regions in other countries. The mean soil/plant concentration ratios (CRs) found in this study were 0.12, 0.15, 0.17 and 0.08 for whole plants, fruits and leafy vegetables, root vegetables and grains, respectively. These ranges of CR values are comparable with overall range of CR where environmental conditions are normal. The estimated daily intakes by individuals consuming foods of local origin were 1.00, 10.4 and 7.91 Bq/Day of radium Khour Abu Habil, Arkuri and Dumpir, respectively. Since the dietary habits were different, as it was noticed, these results have been much lower in comparison with those obtained from some European countries and United States. (author), 44 refs., 18 tabs., 13 figs

  1. Determination of Radium 226 in mexican phosphate fertilizers and gypsum by gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 226 Ra isotope was determined in 17, 20 and 46% m/m phosphate fertilizers and gypsum. The samples of the fertilizers were dissolved in 10% v/v nitric acid solutions. The barium sulphate method was used for the precipitation of 226 Ra. On the other hand, alkaline fusion method was used to separate the 226 Ra from gypsum. The results indicated that 226 Ra was present in the phosphate fertilizers and gypsum. The 226 Ra concentrations present in these materials were between 10 -4 - 10 -5 μg g-1. (Author)

  2. Distribution of 226Ra in the Arctic Ocean and the Bering Sea and its hydrologic implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢娜; 陈敏; 黄奕普; 蔡平河; 邱雨生

    2003-01-01

    Radium-226 (226Ra) activities were measured in the surface water samples collected from the Arctic Ocean and the Bering Sea during the First Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition. The results showed that 226Ra concentrations in the surface water ranged from 0.28 to 1.56 Bq/m3 with an average of 0.76 Bq/m3 in the Arctic Ocean, and from 0.25 to 1.26 Bq/m3 with an average of 0.71 Bq/m3 in the Bering Sea. The values were obviously lower than those from open oceans in middle and low latitudes, indicating that the study area may be partly influenced by sea ice meltwater. In the Bering Sea, 226Ra in the surface water decreased northward, probably as a result of the exchange between the 226Ra-deficientsea ice meltwater and the 226Ra-rich Pacific water. In the Arctic Ocean, 226Ra in the surface water increased northward and eastward. This spatial distributionof 226Ra reflected the variation of the 226Ra-enriched river component in the water mass of the Arctic Ocean. The vertical profiles of 226Ra in the Canadian Basin showed a concentration maximum at 200 m, which could be attributed to the inputs of the Pacific water or/and the bottom shelf water with high 226Ra concentration. This conclusion was consistent with the results from 2H, 18O tracers.

  3. Possibility of rapidly reporting 226Ra activity in 226Ra-222Rn samples with unknown equilibrium factor by γ spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Qiong; ZHENG Rui; CHEN Yong; CHENG Jian-Ping

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the observed changes for equilibrium factors between 226Ra and 222Rn with sealing time of the samples. The samples include soil, raw coal, mineral water, cement, rock, etc. Especially the conceptions of "pre-equilibrium time" and "pre-equilibrium factor" have been put forward and methods of measuring and processing data have been given which can be used for rapidly reporting activity of 226Ra in samples with unknown equilibrium factor. It is definitely concluded that, using methods given in the paper, a test report will be completed in 3~7days, instead of one month, after receiving the sample whose activity is not lower than LLD of the spectrometer.

  4. RAPID DETERMINATION OF RA-226 IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, S.

    2012-01-03

    A new rapid method for the determination of {sup 226}Ra in environmental samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used for emergency response or routine sample analyses. The need for rapid analyses in the event of a Radiological Dispersive Device or Improvised Nuclear Device event is well-known. In addition, the recent accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in March, 2011 reinforces the need to have rapid analyses for radionuclides in environmental samples in the event of a nuclear accident. {sup 226}Ra (T1/2 = 1,620 years) is one of the most toxic of the long-lived alpha-emitters present in the environment due to its long life and its tendency to concentrate in bones, which increases the internal radiation dose of individuals. The new method to determine {sup 226}Ra in environmental samples utilizes a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion method for solid samples, calcium carbonate precipitation to preconcentrate Ra, and rapid column separation steps to remove interferences. The column separation process uses cation exchange resin to remove large amounts of calcium, Sr Resin to remove barium and Ln Resin as a final purification step to remove {sup 225}Ac and potential interferences. The purified {sup 226}Ra sample test sources are prepared using barium sulfate microprecipitation in the presence of isopropanol for counting by alpha spectrometry. The method showed good chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. The determination of {sup 226}Ra in environmental samples can be performed in less than 16 h for vegetation, concrete, brick, soil, and air filter samples with excellent quality for emergency or routine analyses. The sample preparation work takes less than 6 h. {sup 225}Ra (T1/2 = 14.9 day) tracer is used and the {sup 225}Ra progeny {sup 217}At is used to determine chemical yield via alpha spectrometry. The rapid fusion technique is a rugged sample digestion method that ensures that any

  5. Efficient, Tightly-Confined Trapping of 226Ra

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, R H; Bailey, K; Greene, J P; Holt, R J; Kalita, M R; Korsch, W; Lu, Z -T; Mueller, P; O'Connor, T P; Singh, J; Sulai, I A; Trimble, W L

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a technique for transferring $^{226}$Ra atoms from a 3-dimensional magneto-optical-trap (MOT) into a standing wave optical dipole trap (ODT) in an adjacent chamber. The resulting small trapping volume (120 $\\mu$m in diameter) allows for high control of the electric and magnetic fields applied to the atoms. The atoms are first transferred to a traveling-wave optical dipole trap, which is then translated 46 cm to a science chamber. The atoms are subsequently transferred into an orthogonal standing-wave ODT by application of a 1-dimensional MOT along the traveling-wave axis. For each stage, transfer efficiencies exceeding 60% are demonstrated.

  6. Decay of 226Ra by 14C emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the pioneering experiment by Rose and Jones in 1984 demonstrating 14C decay of 223Ra, spontaneous emission of clusters heavier than α particles but lighter than fission products could be found in several cases to be a rare decay mode of heavy nuclei. This new kind of radioactivity has branching ratios relative to α decay well below 10-9. For energetical reasons the emitted fragments are even-even and the daughter nucleus lies close to the doubly magic 208Pb. Polycarbonate track-recording foils which are sensitive to energetic carbon nuclei but not to α particles are very well suited detectors for the study of 14C emission radioactivity. The tracks are made visible under a microscope by etching techniques. Observation of spontaneous emission of 14C from 226Ra claimed by Hourani et al. and Barwick et al. has been confirmed. Since thick sources of 226Ra were used in these experiments the experimental definitions of decay energy and mass were not very accurate. The experiment described in the thesis measured for the first time charge and energy of the emitted fragments by using thin 226Ra sources and polycarbonate track-recording films. The decay mode could thus be identified unambiguously. The track detector was calibrated with tandem-accelerated 14C and 16O ions and tested by observing the now well established 14C emission from 223Ra; for this decay mode a branching ratio of (5,0 ± 1,0).10-10 relative to α decay was found in agreement with values from the literature. In the case of 226Ra the result for 14C/α ratio is (2,3 ± 1,2).10-11. The order of magnitude of the branching ratios can be reproduced by theoretical models. Estimates of partial half-lifes of Ra and other heavy isotopes for rare decay modes are discussed in the theoretical section of the thesis. 100 refs., 3 tabs., 30 figs. (Author)

  7. Sanitary quality of castor bean seeds (cv. IAC-226

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Márcia Santos de Souza David

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the fungicides efficacy on the castor seeds IAC-226 sanitary quality. The seeds were treated with two doses of the fungicides captan (250 and 300 g ai 100 kg-1 seed, thiophanate-methyl (100 and 150 g ai 100 kg-1 seed and thiabendazole (100 and 150 g kg ai 100 seeds. Seeds without fungicide treatment were the control. The seeds sanitary quality was evaluated by sanity test, using 10 replications of 20 seeds per treatment/lot, superficially sterilized (sodium hypochlorite and placed in plastic boxes (gerbox with filter paper and sterilized distilled water, under controlled temperature 25°C for 20 days. Seeds were examinated individually using a stereoscopic microscope and optical microscope. The results were expressed as percentage of infected seeds. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial arrangement (2 x 7, two lots and seven treatments, with ten repetitions. The fungicides captan, tiabendazol and tiofanato-metílico reduced the incidence of fungi, being recommended for the castor seeds IAC-226 treatment. There was a predominance of fungi Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Bipolar, Botrytis ricini, Curvularia sp., Penicillium sp. and Rhizopus sp.

  8. Ionizable (Thia)calix[4]crowns as Highly Selective 226Ra2+ Ionophores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van Fijs W.B.; Beijleveld, Hans; Miermans, Cornelis J.H.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Verboom, Willem; Reinhoudt, David N.

    2005-01-01

    The 226Ra2+ selectivity of the ionizable (thia)calix[4]crowns 1-4 was determined in the presence of a large excess of the most common alkali and alkaline earth cations. Selective 226Ra2+ (2.9 × 10-8 M) extraction occurs even at extremely high Mn+/226Ra2+ ratios of 3.5 × 107 [Mn+ = Na+, K+, Rb+, Cs+,

  9. A multicenter study confirms CD226 gene association with systemic sclerosis-related pulmonary fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Bossini-Castillo, L.; Simeon, C. P.; Beretta, L; Broen, J.C.A.; Vonk, M.C.; Rios-Fernandez, R.; Espinosa, G.; Carreira, P; Camps, M T; Castillo, M.J.; Gonzalez-Gay, M A; Beltran, E.; Carmen Freire, M.; Narvaez, J; Tolosa, C

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction CD226 genetic variants have been associated with a number of autoimmune diseases and recently with systemic sclerosis (SSc). The aim of this study was to test the influence of CD226 loci in SSc susceptibility, clinical phenotypes and autoantibody status in a large multicenter European population. Methods A total of seven European populations of Caucasian ancestry were included, comprising 2,131 patients with SSc and 3,966 healthy controls. Three CD226 single nucleotide p...

  10. 25 CFR 226.34 - Wells and tank batteries to be marked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wells and tank batteries to be marked. 226.34 Section 226.34 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Requirements of Lessees § 226.34 Wells and tank batteries to be marked. Lessee shall clearly...

  11. Comparison of Activity Determination of Radium 226 in FUSRAP Soil using Various Energy Lines - 12299

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, Brian [Shaw Environmental and Infrastructure, Stoughton, MA 02072 (United States); Donakowski, Jough [Unites States Army Corps of Engineers, Kansas City, MO 64106 (United States); Hays, David [United States Army Corps of Engineers, Maywood, NJ 07607 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Gamma spectroscopy is used at the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Maywood Superfund Site as the primary radioanalytical tool for quantization of activities of the radionuclides of concern in site soil. When selecting energy lines in gamma spectroscopy, a number of factors are considered including assumptions concerning secondary equilibrium, interferences, and the strength of the lines. The case of the Maywood radionuclide of concern radium-226 (Ra-226) is considered in this paper. At the FUSRAP Maywood Superfund Site, one of the daughters produced from radioactive decay of Ra-226, lead-214 (Pb- 214), is used to quantitate Ra-226. Another Ra-226 daughter, bismuth-214 (Bi-214), also may be used to quantitate Ra-226. In this paper, a comparison of Ra-226 to Pb-214 activities and Ra-226 to Bi-214 activities, obtained using gamma spectrometry for a large number of soil samples, was performed. The Pb-214, Bi-214, and Ra-226 activities were quantitated using the 352 kilo electron volt (keV), 609 keV, and 186 keV lines, respectively. The comparisons were made after correcting the Ra-226 activities by a factor of 0.571 and both ignoring and accounting for the contribution of a U-235 interfering line to the Ra-226 line. For the Pb-214 and Bi-214 activities, a mean in-growth factor was employed. The gamma spectrometer was calibrated for efficiency and energy using a mixed gamma standard and an energy range of 59 keV to 1830 keV. The authors expect other sites with Ra-226 contamination in soil may benefit from the discussions and points in this paper. Proper use of correction factors and comparison of the data from three different gamma-emitting radionuclides revealed agreement with expectations and provided confidence that using such correction factors generates quality data. The results indicate that if contamination is low level and due to NORM, the Ra-226 can be measured directly if corrected to subtract the contribution from U-235. If there is

  12. Radium-226 concentration in spring water sampled in high radon regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, Aleksandra; Zhukovsky, Michael; Veselinovic, Nenad; Zunic, Zora S

    2010-01-01

    Water (226)Ra concentration in springs was measured in regions with high indoor radon: Ural, North Caucasus (Russia), Niska Banja (Serbia), Piestany (Slovakia), and Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan). This paper presents the results for (226)Ra concentration above 0.03 Bq l(-1). Radium in water could indicate indoor radon problem in the region and water investigation is useful at the initial stage of radon survey. Even low (226)Ra concentration in water (0.1-0.6 Bq l(-1)) caused high (226)Ra activity in travertine (up to 1500 Bq kg(-1)), which resulted in indoor radon concentration above 2000 Bq m(-3) (Niska Banja). PMID:19853463

  13. Distribution of 226Ra Radionuclide in Upwelling Event Off Ulsan, Gampo and Pohang, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muslim

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Upwelling is an important event in the sea for it makes the area to become more productive. The objective of this study is to determine the distribution of radium-226 as radiotoxic in the upwelling area in the summer season. Measurements of the horizontal and vertical activities of 226Ra in the Ulsan, Gampo and Pohang waters were conducted in June, August 1999 and June 2000 when the upwelling event was expected to occur. Water temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen (DO were also measured concurrently. The thermocline layer or the layer where the temperature decreased drastically occurred at a depth between 30 m to 100 m for samples dated June 1999 and 30 m to more than 100 m for samples dated August 1999 and June 2000. The salinity decreased with depth but the DO concentration increased in this layer. The condition affected the vertical distribution of 226Ra in the study area, where the 226Ra activities showed to be relatively homogeneous vertically in each station. This indicates that the upwelling which occurred in the study area was capable to distribute the 226Ra activities from the bottom to the surface. Thus, the 226Ra distribution at that time did not increase with depth, opposite to what usually occurs in the ocean at normal condition. The 226Ra activities also did not decrease after elapsed time of one year, in fact, it increased. However, horizontally the 226Ra activities decreased with increasing distance from the coastal zone. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the upwelling event in the Ulsan, Gampo and Pohang was effective for increasing the 226Ra activities and was capable to create homogeneous 226Ra activities from the bottom to the surface in the water column, and the source of 226Ra was likely to originate from outside area (i.e. coastal zone and bottom area.

  14. 20 CFR 226.72 - Benefits that do not cause a reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Benefits that do not cause a reduction. 226.72 Section 226.72 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD... cause a reduction. The tier I is not reduced for the following types of benefits: (a) A benefit...

  15. 78 FR 18416 - Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 226, Audio Systems and Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 226, Audio Systems and Equipment... Notice of RTCA Special Committee 226, Audio Systems and Equipment. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this... Equipment. DATES: The meeting will be held April 15-17, 2013 from 9:00 a.m.-5:00 p.m. ADDRESSES: The...

  16. 77 FR 37733 - Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 226, Audio Systems and Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 226, Audio Systems and Equipment... Notice of RTCA Special Committee 226, Audio Systems and Equipment. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this... Equipment. DATES: The meeting will be held July 10-12, 2012, from 9 a.m.-5 p.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting...

  17. 78 FR 57673 - Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 226, Audio Systems and Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 226, Audio Systems and Equipment... Notice of RTCA Special Committee 226, Audio Systems and Equipment. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this... Equipment. DATES: The meeting will be held October 8-10, 2012 from 9:00 a.m.-5:00 p.m. ADDRESSES:...

  18. 78 FR 38093 - Seventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 226, Audio Systems and Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Seventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 226, Audio Systems and Equipment... Notice of RTCA Special Committee 226, Audio Systems and Equipment. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this... Equipment ] DATES: The meeting will be held July 15-19, 2013 from 9:00 a.m.-5:00 p.m. ADDRESSES: The...

  19. 77 FR 58209 - Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 226, Audio Systems and Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 226, Audio Systems and Equipment... notice of RTCA Special Committee 226, Audio Systems and Equipment. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this... Equipment. DATES: The meeting will be held October 16-18, 2012 from 9 a.m.-5 p.m. ADDRESSES: The...

  20. 7 CFR Appendix C to Part 226 - Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program C Appendix C to... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND ADULT CARE FOOD PROGRAM Pt. 226, App. C Appendix C to Part 226—Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program 1. The Child Nutrition (CN)...

  1. 25 CFR 226.25 - Gas well drilled by oil lessees and vice versa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gas well drilled by oil lessees and vice versa. 226.25... OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations § 226.25 Gas well drilled by oil lessees and... to drill. When an oil lessee in drilling a well encounters a formation or zone having indications...

  2. 50 CFR 226.201 - Critical habitat for Hawaiian monk seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat for Hawaiian monk seals. 226.201 Section 226.201 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Critical habitat for Hawaiian monk seals. Hawaiian Monk Seal (Monachus schauinslandi) All beach areas,...

  3. 7 CFR Appendix A to Part 226 - Alternate Foods for Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND ADULT CARE FOOD PROGRAM Pt. 226, App. A Appendix A to Part 226... used in the Child and Adult Care Food Program? 1. An alternate protein product used in meals...

  4. Leachable 226Ra in Philippine phosphogypsum and its implication in groundwater contamination in Isabel, Leyte Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphogypsum (PG), the major waste material in phosphate fertilizer processing, has been known to contain enhanced levels of naturally-occurring radionuclides especially 226Ra. The lack of radioactivity data regarding Philippine phosphogypsum and its environmental behavior in the Philippine setting has brought concern on possible contamination of groundwater beneath the phosphogypsum ponds in Isabel, Leyte, Philippines. The radioactivity of Philippine phosphogypsum was determined and the leaching of 226Ra from phosphogypsum and through local soil was quantified. Level of 226Ra in groundwater samples in Isabel, Leyte, Philippines was also quantified to address the primary concern. It was found that the 226Ra activity in Philippine phosphogypsum is distributed in a wide range from 91.5 to 935 Bq/kg. As much as 5% of 226Ra can be leached from Philippine PG with deionized water. In vitro soil leach experiments suggest that the soil in the phosphate fertilizer plant area would be able to deter the intrusion of 226Ra into the water table. Compared to reported values of natural groundwater levels of 226Ra, the concentration of this radionuclide in Isabel, Leyte groundwater suggest that there is no 226Ra intrusion brought about by the presence of phosphogypsum ponds in the area. (Authors)

  5. 12 CFR Appendix M2 to Part 226 - Actual Repayment Disclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to lower annual percentage rate balances before higher annual percentage rate balances. (x) The... SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 226, App. M2 Appendix M2 to Part 226—Actual Repayment...) Annual percentage rate. When calculating the actual repayment disclosure, a credit card issuer must...

  6. 4 CFR 22.6 - Motions, Briefs, and Other Statements [Rule 6].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Motions, Briefs, and Other Statements . 22.6 Section 22.6 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES RULES OF PROCEDURE OF THE GOVERNMENT... shorten or lengthen the time for the response and reply based on the nature of the motion, the nature...

  7. 10 CFR 431.226 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy conservation standards and their effective dates. 431.226 Section 431.226 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Traffic Signal Modules and Pedestrian Modules...

  8. Advisory Report on the Health Effects of Radium 226 in Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Inst. for Environmental Quality, Chicago.

    Examined are the health effects of law concentrations of the radioactive isotope Radium-226 in drinking water. Contents include discussions of the physical properties of radium, biological and metabolic effects, health effects of exposure to Radium-226, and populations at risk. Appendices provide more technical information including equations,…

  9. 25 CFR 226.27 - Gas for operating purposes and tribal use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gas for operating purposes and tribal use. 226.27 Section 226.27 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF... wells shall be furnished any Tribal-owned building or enterprise at a rate not to exceed the price...

  10. Occurrence of natural radium-226 radioactivity in ground water of Sarasota County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R.L.; Sutcliffe, Horace

    1985-01-01

    Water that contains radium-226 radioactivity in excess of the 5.0-picocurie-per-liter limit set in the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations was found in the majority of wells sampled throughout Sarasota County. Highest levels were found areally near the coast or near rivers and vertically in the Tamiami-upper Hawthorn aquifer where semiconsolidated phosphate pebbles occur. Analysis of data suggests that part of the radium-226 in ground water of Sarasota County is dissolved by alpha particle recoil. In slightly mineralized water, radium-226 concentrations are decreased by ion exchange or sorption. In more mineralized water, other ions compete with radium-226 for ion exchange or sorption sites. Dissolution of minerals containing radium-226 by mineralized water probably contributes a significant fraction of the dissolved radium-226. Two types of mineralized water were present in Sarasota County. One type is a marine-like water, presumably associated with saltwater encroachment in coastal areas; the other is a calcium magnesium strontium surfate bicarbonate type. In general, water that contains high radium-226 radioactivities also contains too much water hardness or dissolved solids to be used for public supply without treatment that would also reduce radium-226 radioactivities. (USGS)

  11. 50 CFR 226.203 - Critical habitat for northern right whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat for northern right whales. 226.203 Section 226.203 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Critical habitat for northern right whales. (a) Great South Channel. The area bounded by 41°40′ N/69°45′...

  12. A Study on Sorption of (226)Ra on Different Clay Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhajji, E; Al-Masri, M S; Khalily, H; Naoum, B E; Khalil, H S; Nashawati, A

    2016-08-01

    The sorption of radium 226 ((226)Ra) on different clay materials (bentonite, illite and a mixture of bentonite-illite) was studied. Clay materials are used in the construction of disposal pits for technically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) wastes (i.e., contaminated soil and sludge) generated by the oil and gas industry operations. Experimental conditions (pH, clay materials quantity, and activity concentrations of (226)Ra) were changed in order to determine the optimal state for adsorption of (226)Ra. The results showed that the concentration of adsorbed (226)Ra on clay materials increased with time to reach an equilibrium state after approximately 5 h. More than 95 % of the radium was adsorbed. The mixture of bentonite-illite (1/9) exhibited the greatest adsorption of radium under all experimental conditions. PMID:27329110

  13. Normal dietary levels of 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb, and 210Po for man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the literature and the results of some recent measurements were presented on the levels in man's diet of the naturally-occurring radionuclides 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb, and 210Po. The mean intakes for standard U.S. diets for these nuclides are tabulated. Intakes in other countries are similar to those in the U.S., but in localized populations the 226Ra intake may be 8 or more pCi/day. The contents of 226Ra in diets chosen by individuals ranged from 0.4 to 7 pCi/day. The few data on 228Ra show intake of this nuclide to be about 80% that of 226Ra, except in monazite areas where intakes of up to 160 pCi/day 228Ra are reported, which may be 50 to 100 times that of 226Ra. Drinking water contributes less than 5% of the daily intake, except in special areas

  14. Ra-226 collective dosimetry for surface waters in the uranium mining region of Pocos de Caldas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphs of the collective dose equivalent for the whole body, bone, gastro-intestinal tract (lower large intestine), kidneys, and liver, via the pathways of drinking water and ingestion of food grown in irrigated fields are presented as a function of the 226Ra concentrations in the surface waters of the Pocos de Caldas region. The collective dose equivalent calculated from the 226Ra concentrations measured in the baseline studies are compared with those collective dose equivalent estimated from the projected higher 226Ra concentrations in the river waters. The 226Ra concentrations in river waters of the region are expected to be enhanced due to 226Ra releases from uranium mining and milling operations. The dose equivalent commitment for the exposed population for the referred pathways is also estimated for the contribution of the mine during its predicted time of operation. The assumptions for the dose calculations are presented and the results obtained are discussed. (H.K.)

  15. DISTRIBUTION OF 226Ra IN THE SURFACE WATER OF THE OCEANS%大洋表层水中226 Ra的分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴世炎; 尹明端; 曾宪章; 曾文义; 施纯坦

    2001-01-01

    采用碳酸盐富集-EDTA纯化-Ba(Ra)SO4制源-α计数法,测定了我国第13,14次南极科学考察期间,从西太平洋、南大西洋和东印度洋采集的16个表层水样中的226Ra比活度.测定结果表明,表层水中溶解态226Ra的比活度范围:西太平洋为0.46-0.95Bq@m-3,平均值为0.66Bq@m-3;东印度洋为0.56-1.27 Bq@m-3,平均值为0.81 Bq@m-3;南大西洋为1.17-1.63Bq@m-3,平均值为1.45 Bq@m-3.还测定了上述海域5个表层水样中颗粒态226Ra比活度为0.006-0.030 Bq@m-3,颗粒态226Ra很低,只占溶解态的1.0%-2.6%,说明226Ra主要以溶解态形式存在于上述洋区.测定结果还表明,52°S以南离南极较近的测站226Ra比活度较高,特别是60°S以南的南大洋海域,226Ra比活度更高,与其他作者的测定结果一致.

  16. 12 CFR Appendix J to Part 226 - Annual Percentage Rate Computations for Closed-End Credit Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-End Credit Transactions J Appendix J to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 226, App. J Appendix J to Part 226—Annual Percentage Rate Computations for Closed-End Credit Transactions...

  17. 10 CFR 31.8 - Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or... BYPRODUCT MATERIAL § 31.8 Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources. (a..., americium-241 or radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources: (1) Any person in a...

  18. 10 CFR 32.57 - Calibration or reference sources containing americium-241 or radium-226: Requirements for license...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... or radium-226: Requirements for license to manufacture or initially transfer. 32.57 Section 32.57... americium-241 or radium-226: Requirements for license to manufacture or initially transfer. An application... containing americium-241 or radium-226, for distribution to persons generally licensed under § 31.8 of...

  19. 20 CFR 408.226 - What happens if you begin receiving other benefit income after you become entitled to SVB?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... benefit income after you become entitled to SVB? 408.226 Section 408.226 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL... Entitlement Other Benefit Income § 408.226 What happens if you begin receiving other benefit income after you become entitled to SVB? If you begin receiving other benefit income after you become entitled to SVB,...

  20. 29 CFR 779.226 - Exception for an independently owned retail or service establishment under certain franchise and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... establishment under certain franchise and other arrangements. 779.226 Section 779.226 Labor Regulations Relating... OR SERVICES Employment to Which the Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.226 Exception for an independently owned retail or...

  1. [Uptake of radionuclides from soil to plant and the discovery of 226Ra, 232Th hyperaccumulator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Qiang; Chen, Di-Yun; Song, Gang; Yue, Yu-Mei

    2011-04-01

    11 sorts of plant samples and corresponding soil samples were collected in Conghua and Taishan, Pearl River Delta. The specific activity of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K of samples were investigated by using HPGe-gamma-ray spectra analysis. The results showed that the average specific activity of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in soil samples were 151.8, 146.3, 226.6, 665.5 Bq/kg, which were higher than the average values of China and the world. The concentration of 238U in all sort of plants are very low and most of them are lower than detection limit, while the values of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were high. The contents of 226Ra and 232Th in Dicranopteris dichotoma were the highest, whose average specific activity is 285.9, 986.2 Bq/kg respectively. The average bioconcentration factors (BFs)of 26Ra, 232Th of Dicranopteris dichotoma were 2.20, 4.23, respectively, the other 10 sort of plants have BFs of 2266Ra, 232Th were in the range of 10(-1)-10(-2). The bioconcentration factors and the translocation factors of 226Ra, 232Th of Dicranopteris dichotoma. were all bigger than 1, so Dicranopteris dichotoma can be defined as hyperaccumulator of 226Ra and 232Th. PMID:21717763

  2. Determination of radium-226 in environmental and personal monitoring samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radium-226 is a member of the Uranium-238 natural decay series and is the most hazardous radionuclide released to the environment from uranium mining and milling. Due to its long half-life (1600 years) and radiological effects it is one of the most important isotopes to be determined among the naturally occurring nuclides in environmental samples. It is also among the most toxic long-lived alpha-emitters present in environmental samples, as well as one of the most widespread. The requirement for the determination of radium has become a matter of interest in public health due to its hazardous nature with respect to internal exposure. It is concentrated in bones, thus increasing the internal radiation dose of individuals. The methodology developed involves dissolving solid samples by microwave digestion. The radium is then separated from matrix interferents by cation exchange chromatography and subsequently electrodeposited onto a stainless steel disc. α-Spectrometry is employed to determine the activity in the sample. A limit of detection of 20 mBq l-1 for ground water samples (100 ml) and 20 mBq g-1 for solid samples (0.1 g) is achievable. The method has been validated via an intercomparison exercise and analysis of a marine sediment reference material. Samples analysed include run off waters from uranium mines, coal and fly ash and also trapping media such as silica gel, charcoal and activated carbon

  3. Determination of radium-226 in environmental and personal monitoring samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrie, W C; Desmond, J A; Spence, D; Anderson, S; Edmondson, C

    2000-01-01

    Radium-226 is a member of the Uranium-238 natural decay series and is the most hazardous radionuclide released to the environment from uranium mining and milling. Due to its long half-life (1600 years) and radiological effects it is one of the most important isotopes to be determined among the naturally occurring nuclides in environmental samples. It is also among the most toxic long-lived alpha-emitters present in environmental samples, as well as one of the most widespread. The requirement for the determination of radium has become a matter of interest in public health due to its hazardous nature with respect to internal exposure. It is concentrated in bones, thus increasing the internal radiation dose of individuals. The methodology developed involves dissolving solid samples by microwave digestion. The radium is then separated from matrix interferents by cation exchange chromatography and subsequently electrodeposited onto a stainless steel disc. Alpha-Spectrometry is employed to determine the activity in the sample. A limit of detection of 20 mBq l(-1) for ground water samples (100 ml) and 20 mBq g(-1) for solid samples (0.1 g) is achievable. The method has been validated via an intercomparison exercise and analysis of a marine sediment reference material. Samples analysed include run off waters from uranium mines, coal and fly ash and also trapping media such as silica gel, charcoal and activated carbon. PMID:10879851

  4. Improved method for the determination of dissolved radium-226

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the current techniques for radium determination involve chemical separation of radium from major sample constituents by coprecipitation with barium or lead sulfate, followed by further radium purification. However, when samples contain biological materials, such as algae in wastewater from uranium millponds, or brine water from oil fields, the precipitation and purification processes become tedious and time-consuming. An improved method has been developed for the determination of radium-226 in such water samples, which also is applicable to natural waters. This method is based on a radon determination of alpha activity of the radon and its short-lived daughters in an alpha-scintillation cell. The radon-bubbler volume is either 90 millimeters for concentrated samples or 800 milliliters for dilute samples. For radium concentrations less than 1 picocurie per liter, 2 liters of water sample can be concentrated several-fold by simple evaporation, and decreased to 800 milliliters prior to deemanation. Because the process involves no chemical separations, chemical recoveries are nearly 100 percent. The lower limit of detection is 0.05 picocurie per liter for a 1-liter water sample and a counting time of 1000 minutes. 19 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  5. Selection criteria for the measurement of Radium-226 in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radium-226 is routinely analysed in variety of environmental samples for many investigation and specific studies like dating sediments, water quality measurements, estimation of age of fish etc. Radium-226 is a α-emitters which has the half life of 1620 years. Alpha spectrometry and high resolution gamma spectrometry are some available techniques for the measurement of 226Ra. The properties of each technique are studied. Each technique has different background levels, geometric efficiency, preparation procedure and recoveries of 226Ra. This gives wide range of options with some restrictions imposed on sample size and activity. The paper discusses the selection criteria, optimum procedure and its dependency on sensitivity, precision and lower limit of detection of each technique. The process of method selection is illustrated here with reference to sediments. (author)

  6. Assessment of 226Ra age-dependent dose from water intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactivity in canal and ground waters collected in a 2-year long observation from the vicinity of the Rare Earth Research and Development Center (RRDC), Phathumthani Province, Thailand, was measured in order to determine the concentration of 226Ra and to estimate the age-dependent effective dose to humans due to consumption. 226Ra activities in both canal and ground waters were well below the WHO guidance level for drinking water quality of 1 Bq L-1. The highest 226Ra effective doses per year were found for infants and teens. However, the observed levels of calculated 226Ra effective doses for all age groups in both canal and ground waters show satisfactory low values (less than 15 μSv yr-1). These values are acceptable in accordance with the WHO recommended reference dose level of 100 μSv yr-1 from water intake of 2 L day-1

  7. Determination of 226Ra in water samples using sorbent MnO2-PAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of our study was to determine 226Ra using alpha spectrometer in water samples. The method of separation based on the principle of extraction chromatography was applied by the separation of the natural radionuclides 226Ra from samples of natural mineral, spring, natural medicinal and drinking water from the Slovak Republic, the Czech Republic and Slovenia. The proposed method uses a new selective commercial sorbent MnO2-PAN. The advantage of separating of 226Ra on a given sorbent is the speed of separation, simple sample preparation before the analysis and mainly the high efficiency of the proposed method. The sample was adjusted by coprecipitation with Ba2+ for alpha spectrometric measurements of 226Ra. The radiochemical yield was monitored by radionuclide tracer 133Ba.

  8. Radium-226 concentration in spring water sampled in high radon regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishchenko, Aleksandra [Institute of Industrial Ecology UB RAS, S. Kovalevskoy St., 20A, 620219, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)], E-mail: onischenko@ecko.uran.ru; Zhukovsky, Michael [Institute of Industrial Ecology UB RAS, S. Kovalevskoy St., 20A, 620219, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Veselinovic, Nenad; Zunic, Zora S. [VINCA Institute of Nuclear Sciences, ECE LAB, Mike Alasa St., 12-14, 11000, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2010-04-15

    Water {sup 226}Ra concentration in springs was measured in regions with high indoor radon: Ural, North Caucasus (Russia), Niska Banja (Serbia), Piestany (Slovakia), and Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan). This paper presents the results for {sup 226}Ra concentration above 0.03 Bq l{sup -1}. Radium in water could indicate indoor radon problem in the region and water investigation is useful at the initial stage of radon survey. Even low {sup 226}Ra concentration in water (0.1-0.6 Bq l{sup -1}) caused high {sup 226}Ra activity in travertine (up to 1500 Bq kg{sup -1}), which resulted in indoor radon concentration above 2000 Bq m{sup -3} (Niska Banja)

  9. 226Ra evidence for the ecosystem shift over the past 40 years in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG JunHong; CHEN Min; QIU YuSheng; LI YanPing; MA Qiang; L(U) E; ZHANG Run; HUANG YiPu

    2007-01-01

    Surface seawater was collected for 226Ra measurement in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre from July to October, 1999 and October to December, 2003. Combined with the historical data reported for this sea area, a declined trend of surface 226Ra concentrations was observed since 1960s, indicating the ecosystem shift in response to global warming. On one side, the enhanced stratification of the upper water column resulting from global warming reduced the 226Ra input from the depth, on the other, the temporal increase of biological production resulting from the climate-related ecosystem structure change strengthened the 226Ra removal from the surface ocean. Both the physical and biological processes resulted in the decrease of surface 226Ra concentrations in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. The temporal trend of surface 226Ra concentrations was consistent with the trends of chlorophyll a, silicate, phosphate and primary production previously reported. This study provided 226Ra evidence for the ecosystem shift under global change.

  10. /sup 226/Ra in the western Indian Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y.

    1987-09-01

    /sup 226/Ra profiles have been measured in the western Indian Ocean as part of the 1977-78 Indian Ocean GEOSECS program. These profiles show a general increase in deep and bottom water Ra concentration from the Circumpolar region to the Arabian Sea. A deep Ra maximum which originates in the Arabian Sea and in the Somali basin at about 3000 m depth spreads southward into the Mascarene basin and remains discernible in the Madagascar and Crozet basins. In the western Indian Ocean, the cold Antarctic Bottom Water spreads northward under the possibly southward-flowing deep water, forming a clear benthic front along the Crozet basin across the Southwest Indian Ridge into the Madagascar and Mascarene basins. The Antarctic Bottom Water continues to spread farther north to the Somali basin through the Amirante Passage at 10/sup 0/S as a western boundary current. The benthic front and other characteristic features in the western Indian Ocean are quite similar to those observed in the western Pacific where the benthic front as a distinctive feature was first described by Craig et al. Across the Mid-Indian Ridge toward the Ceylon abyssal plain near the triple junction, Ra profiles display a layered structure, reflecting the topographic effect of the mid-ocean ridge system on the mixing and circulation of the deep and bottom waters. Both Ra and Si show a deep maximum north of the Madagascar Basin. Linear relationships between these two elements are observed in the deep and bottom water with slopes increasing northward. This suggests a preferential input of Ra over Si from the bottom sediments of the Arabian Sea and also from the flank sediments of the Somali basin.

  11. The determination of radium-226 in the tailings of gold mines and their environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radium-226, a daughter product in the uranium-238 decay series, is present in ore mined for the production of both gold and uranium. In this way the radium-226 finds its way into the tailings of mines and is therefore present in all the mine sand dumps and slimes dams in the Republic. Although this radium-226 is in a relatively stable and practically insoluble matrix, it is nevertheless possible for it to migrate from such slimes dams or sand dumps under the influence of various mechanisms. In order to make a survey in these mining environments, it was necessary to adapt an existing emanometric method. In this method radium-226 is co-precipitated from 5 dm3 water samples with barium sulphate. An investigation was carried out on the recoverability of the radium-226 in this way and it was found that the best results were achieved at a pH of 1 with co-precipitation from a homogenous or a simulated homogenous medium. The barium sulphate precipitate was dissolved by a sodium carbonate fusion with the resulting carbonates dissolving in hydrochloric acid. The back-ground reading due to the presence of radium-266 in the reagents used and the radium-226 slightly contaminating the glassware, was determined with blank measurements. This mean background value was used to determine the detection limit. In the survey, samples of water, slimes, sand and sediment were taken in the main gold-mining areas of the RSA. From the results of the survey it appears that radium-226 is definitely present in the abovementioned environments, but that the concentrations are very low. It was, furthermore, evident that, in contrast with the relatively high concentrations measured near the pollution source, the measured quantity of radium-226 decreases rapidly with increasing distance from the source

  12. 226Ra bioavailability to plants at the Urgeiriça uranium mill tailings site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madruga, M J; Brogueira, A; Alberto, G; Cardoso, F

    2001-01-01

    Large amounts of solid wastes (tailings) resulting from the exploitation and treatment of uranium ore at the Urgeiriça mine (north of Portugal) have been accumulated in dams (tailing ponds). To reduce the dispersion of natural radionuclides into the environment, some dams were revegetated with eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globolus) and pines (Pinus pinea). Besides these plants, some shrubs (Cytisus spp.) are growing in some of the dams. The objective of this study is to determine the 226Ra bioavailability from uranium mill tailings by quantifying the total and available fraction of radium in the tailings and to estimate its transfer to plants growing on the tailing piles. Plant and tailing samples were randomly collected and the activity concentration of 226Ra in plants (aerial part and roots) and tailings was measured by gamma-spectrometry. The exchangeable fraction of radium in tailings was quantified using one single step extraction with 1 mol dm-3 ammonium acetate (pH = 7) or 1 mol dm-3 calcium chloride solutions. The results obtained for 226Ra uptake by plants show that 226Ra concentration ratios for eucalyptus and pines decrease at low 226Ra concentrations in the tailings and appear relatively constant at higher radium concentrations. For shrubs, the concentration ratios increase at higher 226Ra solid waste concentrations approaching a saturation value. Percentage values of 16.0 +/- 8.3 and 12.9 +/- 8.9, for the fraction of radium extracted from the tailings, using 1 mol dm-3 ammonium acetate or calcium chloride solutions, respectively, were obtained. The 226Ra concentration ratios determined on the basis of exchangeable radium are one order of magnitude higher than those based on total radium. It can be concluded that, at a 95% confidence level, more consistent 226Ra concentration ratios were obtained when calculated on the basis of available radium than when total radium was considered, for all the dams. PMID:11379070

  13. Distribution and retention in bone of 226Ra and comparison with the ICRP 20 model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analyses are presented of the ratios of 226Ra to calcium in over 650 samples of compact and cancellous bone from 66 female and 26 male subjects who had died from less than one to 60 years after first exposure to radium. The 226Ra/Ca ratios were normalized to the terminal 226Ra skeletal content. The 226Ra/Ca ratios for vertebrae were essentialy identical to those for other cancellous bone for a given subject. Comparisons of the data with predictions of the ICRP model of alkaline earth metabolism show that for female cancellous bone the normalized 226Ra/Ca ratios tended to be greater than predicted, while those for female cortical bone (femoral and tibial shaft) tended to be less. The data for males were fitted better by the model. A modification of the model to reduce the amount of radium deposited in soft tissue fitted the data better in some respects. A straight line linear least squares fit to the data appeared to fit as well as, or better than, the models. A radiation effect was suggested in that the normalized 226Ra/Ca ratio for vertebrae relative to the ratio expected increased with skeletal absorbed dose for vertebra. However, no such effect was apparent for compact bone or for the cancellous bone as a whole

  14. Determination of {sup 226}Ra Isotope in the Leachate around Phosphogypsum Stack Using Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid (EDTA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Geun Ho; Kim, Yong Jae; Chang, Byung Uck [University of Science and Tecknology, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Ba is the most useful element to get the Ba(Ra)SO{sub 4} precipitate. However, when the high concentrations of ions such as sulfate, calcium are existed in the leachate of phosphogypsum stack, it is difficult to get the Ba(Ra)SO{sub 4} precipitate. Since this reason, the developed method for the Ba coprecipitate using EDTA was performed to determine the {sup 226}Ra concentration in the high sulfate sample. The average concentration of {sup 226}Ra in a leachate of phosphogypsum using this method was 0.102 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} and the minimal detectable activity is 3.4 mBq{center_dot}kg{sup -1}. The mBq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} method was 0.102 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} and the minimal detectable activity is 3.4 mBq{center_dot}kg{sup -1}. The {sup 226}Ra stock solution and the CRM (Certified Reference Material) were analyzed to verify this method. In analyzed {sup 226}Ra stock solution, bias with added concentration was approximately 1% and the correlation curve between {sup 226}Ra concentration in simulated standard sample and measured {sup 226}Ra concentration showed good agreement with a correlation coefficient (R{sup 2}) of 0.99. In analyzed CRM, maximum bias with reference value was 5.8% (k=1) and the analytical results were in good agreement with the reference value.

  15. Oral administration of FAK inhibitor TAE226 inhibits the progression of peritoneal dissemination of colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A novel FAK inhibitor TAE226 suppressed FAK activity in HCT116 colon cancer cells. ► TAE226 suppressed proliferation and migration, with a modest effect on adhesion. ► Silencing of FAK by siRNA made no obvious difference on cancer cell attachment. ► TAE226 treatment suppressed the progression of peritoneal dissemination. ► Oral administration of TAE226 prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice. -- Abstract: Peritoneal dissemination is one of the most terrible types of colorectal cancer progression. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) plays a crucial role in the biological processes of cancer, such as cell attachment, migration, proliferation and survival, all of which are essential for the progression of peritoneal dissemination. Since we and other groups have reported that the inhibition of FAK activity exhibited a potent anticancer effect in several cancer models, we hypothesized that TAE226, a novel ATP-competitive tyrosine kinase inhibitor designed to target FAK, can prevent the occurrence and progression of peritoneal dissemination. In vitro, TAE226 greatly inhibited the proliferation and migration of HCT116 colon cancer cells, while their adhesion on the matrix surface was minimally inhibited when FAK activity and expression was suppressed by TAE226 and siRNA. In vivo, when HCT116 cells were intraperitoneally inoculated in mice, the cells could attach to the peritoneum and begin to grow within 24 h regardless of the pretreatment of cells with TAE226 or FAK-siRNA, suggesting that FAK is not essential, at least for the initial integrin-matrix contact. Interestingly, the treatment of mice before and after inoculation significantly suppressed cell attachment to the peritoneum. Furthermore, oral administration of TAE226 greatly reduced the size of disseminated tumors and prolonged survival in tumor-bearing mice. Taken together, a possible strategy for inhibiting peritoneal dissemination by targeting FAK with TAE226 appears to be applicable

  16. Oral administration of FAK inhibitor TAE226 inhibits the progression of peritoneal dissemination of colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Hui-fang [Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 2-5-1 Shikatacho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Takaoka, Munenori [Department of General Surgery, Kawasaki Medical School, 2-1-80 Nakasange, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8505 (Japan); Bao, Xiao-hong [Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 2-5-1 Shikatacho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Wang, Zhi-gang [College of Life Science, Inner Mongolia University, The Key Laboratory of Mammal Reproductive Biology and Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, Hohhot 010021 (China); Tomono, Yasuko [Division of Molecular and Cell Biology, Shigei Medical Research Institute, 2117 Yamada, Okayama 700-0202 (Japan); Sakurama, Kazufumi; Ohara, Toshiaki [Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 2-5-1 Shikatacho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Fukazawa, Takuya; Yamatsuji, Tomoki [Department of General Surgery, Kawasaki Medical School, 2-1-80 Nakasange, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8505 (Japan); Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi [Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 2-5-1 Shikatacho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Naomoto, Yoshio, E-mail: ynaomoto@med.kawasaki-m.ac.jp [Department of General Surgery, Kawasaki Medical School, 2-1-80 Nakasange, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8505 (Japan)

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel FAK inhibitor TAE226 suppressed FAK activity in HCT116 colon cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TAE226 suppressed proliferation and migration, with a modest effect on adhesion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silencing of FAK by siRNA made no obvious difference on cancer cell attachment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TAE226 treatment suppressed the progression of peritoneal dissemination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oral administration of TAE226 prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice. -- Abstract: Peritoneal dissemination is one of the most terrible types of colorectal cancer progression. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) plays a crucial role in the biological processes of cancer, such as cell attachment, migration, proliferation and survival, all of which are essential for the progression of peritoneal dissemination. Since we and other groups have reported that the inhibition of FAK activity exhibited a potent anticancer effect in several cancer models, we hypothesized that TAE226, a novel ATP-competitive tyrosine kinase inhibitor designed to target FAK, can prevent the occurrence and progression of peritoneal dissemination. In vitro, TAE226 greatly inhibited the proliferation and migration of HCT116 colon cancer cells, while their adhesion on the matrix surface was minimally inhibited when FAK activity and expression was suppressed by TAE226 and siRNA. In vivo, when HCT116 cells were intraperitoneally inoculated in mice, the cells could attach to the peritoneum and begin to grow within 24 h regardless of the pretreatment of cells with TAE226 or FAK-siRNA, suggesting that FAK is not essential, at least for the initial integrin-matrix contact. Interestingly, the treatment of mice before and after inoculation significantly suppressed cell attachment to the peritoneum. Furthermore, oral administration of TAE226 greatly reduced the size of disseminated tumors and prolonged survival in tumor-bearing mice. Taken

  17. 利用 HPGe γ谱仪快速测量226 Ra%Rapid Measurement of 226 Ra Using HPGe Gamma Spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张轶名; 於国兵; 杜勤; 闻德运; 顾先宝; 潘灵婧

    2014-01-01

    HPGeγ谱分析中,一般通过测量222 Rn的子体来确定样品中226 Ra的含量,这种方法需要对样品密封数周后测量,无法实现样品中226 Ra含量的快速测量。文章分析了样品γ谱中186 keV全能峰的计数来源,对使用186 keV全能峰计算出的226 Ra的含量结果进行修正,得到较好的实验结果,实现了用186 keV全能峰快速测量样品中Ra的含量。%In general , the content of 226 Ra in a sample is deduced from results of 222 Rn progeny in HPGeγspectral analysis .Because the sample should be sealed for several weeks before the measurement , we can not get the results quickly through this method .The paper analyzes the source of the counts of the full -en-ergy peak in 186 keV in the full-energy peak , and modifies the result of 226 Ra content calculated by using the full-energy peak in 186 keV.The study gets good experiment results and realizes the rapid measurement of Ra in samples using the full -energy peak in 186 keV.

  18. Behavior of 210Pb and 226Ra in tailing samples at Jaduguda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several investigation at various parts of the world as well as in different parts of India reported wide variation in activity of 210Pb and 226Ra in environmental matrices. Since 210Pb occurs in decay chain of 226Ra one would expect that in isolated and undisturbed domain the ratio to be nearly unity. However such a ratio is rarely reached. In the actual experience this ratio is influenced to different degree by several environmental parameters such as soil porosity, particle size distribution, and chemical nature of soil and subsurface and surface movement of water. A thorough study on 226Ra and 210Pb ratio can in principle be used as tool to evaluate some environmental parameters in the tailing ponds. A study of natural radioactivity levels including 226Ra and 210Pb in tailing sample around tailing pond area of uranium mining and milling complex located in the Singhbhum regions of Eastern India were undertaken. Tailing pond is covered with the normal background soil known as capping soil. This also reduces the emanation of radon and exposure due 226Ra and its daughter products. Tailings samples were collected after removing the top capping soil. Samples were processed as described by Environmental Measurement Laboratory (EML 1990). Activity concentration of natural 238U series radionuclide like thorium isotopes (234Th and 228Th), lead isotopes (210Pb and 212Pb), radium isotopes (226Ra and 228Ra) and 234mPa were measured using HPGe based high resolution gamma spectrometric technique after attaining secular equilibrium between 226Ra and its daughters. IAEA standard sources RGTh-1 (800 μg/g of 232Th), RGU-1 (400μg/g of 238U), were used for energy and efficiency calibration of the spectrometer in the same geometry (plastic containers of 6.5 cm dia x 7.5 cm ht) as that of the samples. (author)

  19. Ra-226 and Rn-222 in saline water compartments of the Aral Sea region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • 222Rn and 226Ra concentrations in different water compartments of the Aral Sea region. • 226Ra-analysis based on 222Rn-ingrowth versus MS-analysis after solid-phase extraction. • 226Ra in different groundwater types of the Aral Sea Basin. • 222Rn distribution in the Aral Sea, western basin. - Abstract: The Aral Sea has been shrinking since 1963 due to extensive irrigation and the corresponding decline in the river water inflow. Understanding of the current hydrological situation demands an improved understanding of the surface water/groundwater dynamics in the region. 222Rn and 226Ra measurements can be used to trace groundwater discharge into surface waters. Data of these radiometric parameters were not previously available for the study region. We determined 222Rn activities after liquid phase extraction using Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC) with peak-length discrimination and analyzed 226Ra concentrations in different water compartments of the Amu Darya Delta (surface waters, unconfined groundwater, artesian water, and water profiles from the closed Large Aral Sea (western basin). The water samples comprise a salinity range between 1 and 263 g/l. The seasonal dynamics of solid/water interaction under an arid climate regime force the hydrochemical evolution of the unconfined groundwater in the Amu Darya Delta to high-salinity Na(Mg)Cl(SO4) water types. The dissolved radium concentrations in the waters were mostly very low due to mineral over-saturation, extensive co-precipitation of radium and adsorption of radium on coexisting solid substrates. The analysis of very low 226Ra concentrations (<10 ppq) at remote study sites is a challenge. We used the water samples to test and improve different analytical methods. In particular, we modified a procedure developed for the α-spectrometric determination of 226Ra after solid phase extraction of radium using 3M Empore™ High Performance Extraction Disks (Purkl, 2002) for the analysis of the

  20. Spatial distribution of U-238, Ra-226 and Pb-210 at Urgeirica uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extensive exploitation and treatment of the uranium ore in the Urgeirica mine, Portugal, where exists a chemical treatment plant, led to an accumulation of large amounts of solid wastes (tailings) deposited in piles or dams. The objective of this work is to investigate the extent of the contamination at the oldest dams (more than 40 years old) taking into account the U-238, Ra-226 and Pb-210 distribution at those dams. Tailings core and surface samples were randomly collected at the dams. Tailings samples were dried and the activity in U-238 (through the peaks of Th-234), Ra-226 (through the progenies Pb-214 and Bi-214) and Pb-210 were determined by gamma spectrometry. The results show a big variability (by a factor of 5 to 10) if the U-238, Ra-226 and Pb-210 concentrations at the surface tailings, which indicates a heterogeneity of the radionuclides distribution at the dams area. A good correlation between Ra-226 and U-238 concentrations at the sampling site (dam D2) that presents lower Ra-226 concentrations was obtained. As expected, the most important contribution to the high natural radioactivity at the oldest dams is due to the radium rejected as a waste product from the uranium ore treatment (author)

  1. Lifetime effects of long-term exposures to strontium-90 and radium-226 in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graded doses of injected 226Ra or ingested 90Sr were given to 804 beagles in early life. The median survival times of the various irradiated groups at higher exposures were lower than the control value of 14.7 years. The 226Ra group with the highest total skeletal dose had a median survival of 4.5 years. For 90Sr the highest group had a median survival of 2.2 years. Normal life spans were evident in treatment groups with average skeletal doses of 226Ra or of 2600 rads from 90Sr. The life-shortening effects of 226Ra and 90Sr are related to the tumors produced from the radionuclide exposure. The significant causes of death among the 226Ra-treated beagles were primary bone cancers, mostly osteosarcomas. Among dogs exposed to 90Sr, significant numbers of deaths were from primary bone cancer, myeloproliferative disease, and squamous-cell carcinoma of the gingiva. In general, more of these effects were produced in the groups receiving higher doses and dose rates; at lower doses the effects, when present, appeared later than they did at higher doses. 9 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  2. Evaluation of the variation of 226Ra and Ca uptake by plant and their relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transfer of 226Ra from soil to plant has been studied for wild trees and grasses to identify the site- and the plant-specific variability in relation to the transfer of Ca. Twelve species of plants and soils were sampled from three different forests and one flood plain in Okayama, Japan. The concentrations of 226Ra in plant varied about 60 times by species and sites, while those in soil were not different significantly among sites. The transfer factors defined as the concentration ratio of 226Ra between plant and soil were linearly correlated with that of Ca, implying that the ability of Ca uptake by plant reflect the ability of 226Ra uptake. The Ca concentrations in plant showed species-specific value and varied 22 times. The range of transfer factor (plant/soil) for Ca increased by the variability of the Ca concentration in soil among sites. These results suggest that the wide variability of 226Ra concentration in plant can be ascribed to both the differences in plant and soil factors of Ca concentration. (author)

  3. Sorption of (226)Ra from oil effluents onto synthetic cation exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Attar, Lina; Safia, Bassam

    2013-07-30

    Increasing environmental awareness is being urged for the safe disposal of (226)Ra-contaminated production water generated in the oil industry. Birnessite, antimony silicate and their cationic derivatives were studied for the take-up of (226)Ra using the batch-type method under experimentally determined parameters, viz. contact time, solution-solid ratio and (226)Ra concentration. Data was expressed in terms of distribution coefficients. Sorption experiments were performed in different concentrations of nitric acid in order to speculate the mechanism of (226)Ra uptake. Variation in the magnitude of sorption efficiency of the materials in the presence of the major components of waste streams, i.e. Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+), revealed that K(+) was the greatest competitor and Na(+) the least. The application of the materials to sorb (226)Ra from actual oil co-production water samples, collected from Der Ezzor and Al Fourat petroleum companies (DEZPC and AFPC), was interpreted in terms of the exchange properties of the materials and water characterisation. Of the parameters studied, the selectivity of materials was shown to be greatly dependent on the pH of wastewater to be treated. PMID:23623032

  4. U-238 - Th-230 - Ra-226 disequilibria in volcanics: A new insight into melting conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabaux, Francois; Allegre, Claude J.

    1994-08-01

    Using new mass spectrometry techniques developed for the analysis of Ra isotopes, we present U-238 - Th-230 - Ra-226 disequilibria data from a variety of volcanic settings, and compare them with previously published data. Two correlations are observed with alkali volcanic data, one between (Th-230/U-238) and (Th-230/Ra-226) and another between the intensity of the disequilibria and the buoyancy flux of the underlying plume. These two correlations prove that partial melting is the major cause of U-Th-Ra fractionations in this volcanic context. The U-238 - Th-230 - Ra-226 disequilibria then place new constraints on some parameters of the classical melting models (batch melting and dynamic melting). The comparison of U-238 - Th-230 - Ra-226 disequilibria in alkali volcanics, carbonatites and subduction zones shows a clear parallel between the disequilibria value and the type of volcanic context. Such a parallel reflects the diversity of the conditions of magma generation, and shows that the U-238 - Th-230 - Ra-226 disequilibria systematics are very dependent on the chemical composition of liquids produced during magmatic processes. A systematic difference is observed between disequilibria in MORB and in alkali volcanics, which could indicate that the melting processes in these two volcanic contexts are very different.

  5. Bioaccumulation of 226Ra by plants growing in fresh water ecosystem around the uranium industry at Jaduguda, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field study has been conducted to evaluate the 226Ra bioaccumulation among aquatic plants growing in the stream/river adjoining the uranium mining and ore-processing complex at Jaduguda, India. Two types of plant group have been investigated namely free floating algal species submerged into water and plants rooted in stream and riverbed. The highest 226Ra activity concentration (9850 Bq kg-1) was found in filamentous algae growing in the residual water of tailings pond. The concentration ratios of 226Ra in filamentous algae (activity concentration of 226Ra in plant Bq kg-1 fresh weight/activity concentration of 226Ra in water Bq l-1) widely varied i.e. from 1.1 x 103 to 8.6 x 104. Other aquatic plants were also showing wide variability in the 226Ra activity concentration. The ln-transformed filamentous algae 226Ra activity concentration was significantly correlated with that of ln-transformed water concentration (r = 0.89, p 226Ra in stream/riverbed rooted plants and the substrate. For this group, correlation between 226Ra activity concentration and Mn, Fe, Cu concentration in plants were statistically significant.

  6. Life-span studies in 226Ra-injected animals: Effect of low doses, effect of a decorporative treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A life-span radiation effects study was performed in mice injected with several doses of 226Ra. The study included 788 male C57Bl mice. For the removal of the 226Ra, half the mice were treated daily with a diet 5% of which was sodium-alginate. The experiment revealed that mice that received the lowest dose of 226Ra lived significantly longer than controls, and, despite appreciable skeletal removal of 226Ra as a result of decorporative treatment, no biological benefit was observed in treated animals. 19 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Systematic study of heavy cluster emission from {210-226}^Ra isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Santhosh, K P; Priyanka, B; Unnikrishnan, M S

    2012-01-01

    The half lives for various clusters lying in the cold reaction valleys of {210-226}^Ra isotopes are computed using our Coulomb and proximity potential model (CPPM). The computed half lives of 4^He and 14^C clusters from {210-226}^Ra isotopes are in good agreement with experimental data. Half lives are also computed using the Universal formula for cluster decay (UNIV) of Poenaru et al., and are found to be in agreement with CPPM values. Our study reveals the role of doubly magic 208^Pb daughter in cluster decay process. Geiger - Nuttall plots for all clusters up to 62^Fe are studied and are found to be linear with different slopes and intercepts. {12,14}^C emission from 220^Ra; 14^C emission from {222,224}^Ra; 14^C and 20^O emission from 226^Ra are found to be most favourable for measurement and this observation will serve as a guide to the future experiments.

  8. The concentrations of 226 Ra and 210 Pb in food cultivated in Pocos de Caldas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to determine the average concentrations of 226 Ra and 210 Pb in vegetables widely cultivated in the region, mainly potatoes, carrots, beans and corn which are the main agricultural products (considering production and human consume) in the region and estimation of the average transfer factors soil-foodstuff for both radionuclides. The total 226 Ra and 210 Pb content in the soil was determined by gamma spectrometry. The exchangeable fraction was obtained by ammonium acetate solution extraction. The 226 Ra was analysed by the classical radon emanation procedure and the 210 Pb was isolated by a radiochemical procedure and determined by radiometry of its daughter 210 Bi beta emissions with a Geiger Mueller counter. (author)

  9. Low-level measurements of Ra-226/Rn-222 by pulse ionization chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Daoushy, Fand; Garcia-Tenorio, Rafael

    1988-10-01

    Characteristics of two ionization chambers have been studied and the chambers utilized for 226Ra/ 222Rn measurements for more than ten years. The results obtained show that coating of internal surfaces with a pure and thin Ag-layer enhances the background of ionization chambers in spite of some improvements at the early stages of operation. In addition to previously known parameters influencing the accuracy in routine measurements, new correction factors are suggested. 226Ra impurities in the body of ionization chambers are found to act not only as a permanent, but also as a temperature-dependent source of background. Earlier accuracies of 226Ra/ 222Rn measurements have been considerably improved by assuring long-term mechanical and thermal stability of the ionization chambers.

  10. 238U, 226Ra and 210Pb in some vent waters of the Galapagos spreading center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of 226Ra, 238U and 210Pb have been measured in waters from the Mussel Bed and the Rose Garden thermal fields at the Galapagos spreading center over a temperature range of approx.2.5--16 0C. The 226Ra-T plots yield slopes of 0.112 and 0.036 dpm/kg 0C for the Mussel Bed and the Rose Garden respectively yielding a global hydrothermal 226Ra flux less than 5% of that required to sustain the oceanic inventory. 238U concentration in waters 0C is the same as that in ambient sea water whereas water hotter than approx.9 0C shows a decreasing trend with temperature to zero 238U at approx.29 0C. 210Pb concentration in Mussel Bed increases with temperature, and extrapolated to approx.350 0C yields a 210Pb concentration considerably less than that expected from 222Rn decay and basalt alteration

  11. 226Ra and 228Ra in the Seawater of the Western Yellow Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEN Wu; WEI Hao; LIU Guangshan

    2006-01-01

    Radium isotopes 226Ra and 228Ra in seawater of the western Yellow Sea were measured by using the Mn-fiber adsorption- HPGe γ spectrum method.The distribution features of the two isotopes have been studied.The activities of 226Ra and 228Ra are 2.72-5.57 Bq m-3 and 7.51-34.3 Bq m-3, respectively.The activities of 226Ra and 228Ra from surface to bottom for each depth profile station are comparable within the experimental error, but the mean activities decrease with distance from the shore.From the distribution data of 228Ra, the horizontal eddy diffusion coefficient was estimated at 29 × 106 cm2 s 1.

  12. Specific activities of radium-226 in vegetables grown in Na Mom District, Songkhla Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angkunrat, S.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Specific activity of radium-226 in 13 types of vegetables grown in Namom district, Songkhla province, were analyzed using a low background gamma-ray spectrometer. The analyzed vegetables included Ivy Gourd, Yellow Cassia, White Popinac, Yard Long Bean, Rice, Peanut, Egg Plant, Spineless Amaranth, Swamp Cabbage, Mustart, Chinese Cabbage, Collards and Cucumbers. The control vegetables were taken from Bangklum district, 40 km south of Namom district. The samples were weighed, dried in an oven and finally burnt to ash in a furnace before being analyzed for a gamma ray of 186.2 keV emitted from Radium-226. The results showed that the geometrical means of specific activity of radium-226 of vegetables grown in Pijit, Namom, Klongrang and Thungkamin sub-district and over the Namom district were 1082, 1220, 1457, 1253 and 1250 mBq/kg, respectively. The highest and lowest values were 7882 and 26 mBq/kg, found in Ivy Gourd and Yard Long Bean, respectively. The high specific activities of radium-226 in vegetables were found to be distributed uniformly in the area. This probably indicated the source of radium-226 was also distributed uniformly in the shallow granitic bedrock throughout the area. We concluded that the radium-226 contents in vegetables grown in Namom district depended on the absorbability of alkaline earth metals in vegetables themselves, geographic features and radium content in natural water in the area. The estimated annual effective dose averaged over Namom district was 21 μSv. Consumption of Ivy Gourd may receive the maximum annual effective dose of 132 μSv.

  13. An excess Ra-226 chronology for deep-sea sediments from Saanich Inlet, British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Grayson, R.P.; Plater, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    To further explore the efficacy of 226Ra(excess) dating for deep-sea sediments, previously dated varve sediments from Saanich Inlet were investigated. Ages obtained using 226Ra(excess) are comparable to the varve ages in the upper 20-25 m of the sedimentary record, but radiometric ages for those sediments older than c. 4000 yr BP are significant underestimates. This results from major changes in sedimentation within Saanich Inlet around 4000 yr BP linked to rising sea levels, with younger sed...

  14. The mobility of radium-226 and trace metals in pre-oxidized subaqueous uranium mill tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, A.J.; Crusius, J.; Jay McNee, J.; Yanful, E.K

    2003-07-01

    The exchange of {sup 226}Ra and trace metals across the tailings-water interface and the mechanisms governing their mobility were assessed via sub-centimetre resolution profiling of dissolved constituents across the tailings-water interface in Cell 14 of the Quirke Waste Management Area at Rio Algom's Quirke Mine, near Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada. Shallow zones (<1.5 m water depth) are characterized by sparse filamentous vegetation, well-mixed water columns and fully oxygenated bottom waters. Profiles of dissolved O{sub 2}, Fe and Mn indicate that the tailings deposits in these areas are sub-oxic below tailings depths of {approx}3 cm. These zones exhibit minor remobilization of Ra in the upper 5 cm of the tailings deposit; {sup 226}Ra fluxes at these sites are relatively small, and contribute negligibly to the water column activity of {sup 226}Ra. The shallow areas also exhibit minor remobilization of Ni, As, Mo and U. The release of these elements to the water cover is, however, limited by scavenging mechanisms in the interfacial oxic horizons. The presence of thick vegetation (Chara sp.) in the deeper areas (>2 m water depth) fosters stagnant bottom waters and permits the development of anoxia above the benthic boundary. These anoxic tailings are characterized by substantial remobilization of {sup 226}Ra, resulting in a relatively large flux of {sup 226}Ra from the tailings to the water column. The strong correlation between the porewater profiles of {sup 226}Ra and Ba (r{sup 2}=0.99), as well as solubility calculations, indicate that the mobility of Ra is controlled by saturation with respect to a poorly ordered and/or impure barite phase [(Ra,Ba)SO{sub 4}]. In the anoxic zones, severe undersaturation with respect to barite is sustained by microbial SO{sub 4} reduction. Flux calculations suggest that the increase in {sup 226}Ra activity in the water cover since 1995 (from <0.5 to 2.5 Bq l{sup -1}) can be attributed to an increase in the spatial

  15. 226Ra lovels in surface and drinking waters in selected localities in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples were taken in the West Slovakia region from local water mains, wells and artesian wells. 226Ra was determined from samples immediately following separation from water by coprecipitation with lead sulphate and barium sulphate. From each sample two parallel separations were made with non-active carriers and one with an internal 226Ra standard. The volume activities of the samples were found to be relatively low, 73% within the range of 0 to 10 mBq/l. Activity in samples taken from artesian wells was 30 to 35 mBq/l. (M.D.)

  16. Quantification of {sup 235} U and {sup 226} Ra in soil samples by means of Gamma spectroscopy; Cuantificacion de {sup 235} U y {sup 226} Ra en muestras de suelo por medio de espectrometria gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintero P, E.; Rojas M, V.P.; Montes M, F.R.; Gaso P, M.I.; Cervantes N, M.L. [Gerencia de Innovacion Tecnologica, A.P. 18-1027, C.P. 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In this work it is presented the Gamma Spectroscopy method which is realized in the Environmental Radiological Surveillance Laboratory using the option of deconvolution of a commercial software for the quantification of {sup 235} U and {sup 226} Ra; also is presented the method for the {sup 226} Ra correction activity. (Author)

  17. Behavior of 226Ra in the aquatic environment of the uranium mine region of Pocos de Caldas, MG, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sampling and analytical program for 238U, 226Ra and 210Pb was started, at first, in the uranium mine region, at Pocos de Caldas, MG, Brazil. Afterwards, the interaction was studied between 226Ra and local river sediments and waters. Peliminary studies were also done on the mobility of 226Ra retained on solid matter or soil, induced by local waters. Above normal concentrations of 238U, 226Ra and 210Pb were found in local waters, sediments and plants collected on the imediate vicinity of the mine. 226Ra distribution coefficients are on the order of 103 for the different samples assayed. It was concluded that, in the future, 226Ra discharged into liquid environment should be only temporarily retained by sediments. Its transport by surface waters should be predominantly in the soluble form. 226Ra should become the critical radionuclide in terms of internal radiation dose on the local population, due to its ingestion with water. 226Ra retained on solid supports is mobilized by local waters and its solubilization is dependent on the volume of water passed through. (M.A.)

  18. 48 CFR 252.226-7001 - Utilization of Indian organizations, Indian-owned economic enterprises, and native Hawaiian small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... organizations, Indian-owned economic enterprises, and native Hawaiian small business concerns. 252.226-7001... Hawaiian small business concerns. As prescribed in 226.104, use the following clause: Utilization of Indian Organizations, Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises, and Native Hawaiian Small Business Concerns (SEP 2004)...

  19. Optical behaviour of XTE J1550-564 and XTE J1859+226 from outburst to quiescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez-Fernandez, C.; Castro-Tirado, A.J.; Gimenez, A.;

    2001-01-01

    We present here the optical light curves of the Soft X-ray Transients XTE J1550-564 and XTEJ1859+226 from outburst to quiescence.......We present here the optical light curves of the Soft X-ray Transients XTE J1550-564 and XTEJ1859+226 from outburst to quiescence....

  20. 27 CFR 28.226 - Removals of beer by agent on behalf of brewer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Removals of beer by agent... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Exportation of Beer With Benefit of Drawback Execution of Claims § 28.226 Removals of beer by agent on behalf of...

  1. A new two-phase media method for 226Ra activity measurement in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new two-phase media method was developed for determination of 226Ra activity in water. The method was calibrated by applying 7 standard 226Ra waters with known activities. The method detects alphas in two media; 80 ml of water in a glass bottle with air or a non-polar liquid such as olive oil on top of the water. Alpha particles from 226Ra, 222Rn and progeny were detected by two polycarbonate track detectors (PCTDs) which were mounted on a holder inserted in the bottle so that one PCTD is placed in water and the other in air or in the non-polar liquid. The bottles were hermetically sealed and kept for 40 or 48 d. The PCTDs in the bottles shaken every other day enhanced the sensitivity of the measurements. The Calibration Factors for the standard 226Ra waters, air and olive oil above water are, respectively, (7.85 ± 0.25) x 10-3, (7.94 ± 0.13) x 10-3 and 3.02 x 10-2 tracks.cm-2 kBq-1 h-1 m3. (authors)

  2. Assessment of {sup 226}Ra age-dependent dose from water intake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porntepkasemsan, Boonsom [Research and Development Group, Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology, Vibhavadi Rangsit Road, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)], E-mail: boonsom@oaep.go.th; Srisuksawad, Kanitha [Research and Development Group, Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology, Vibhavadi Rangsit Road, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)

    2008-11-15

    The radioactivity in canal and ground waters collected in a 2-year long observation from the vicinity of the Rare Earth Research and Development Center (RRDC), Phathumthani Province, Thailand, was measured in order to determine the concentration of {sup 226}Ra and to estimate the age-dependent effective dose to humans due to consumption. {sup 226}Ra activities in both canal and ground waters were well below the WHO guidance level for drinking water quality of 1 Bq L{sup -1}. The highest {sup 226}Ra effective doses per year were found for infants and teens. However, the observed levels of calculated {sup 226}Ra effective doses for all age groups in both canal and ground waters show satisfactory low values (less than 15 {mu}Sv yr{sup -1}). These values are acceptable in accordance with the WHO recommended reference dose level of 100 {mu}Sv yr{sup -1} from water intake of 2 L day{sup -1}.

  3. 12 CFR 226.46 - Special disclosure requirements for private education loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., medical, dental, veterinary, or other graduate school and related to relocation, study for a bar or other examination, participation in an internship or residency program, or similar purposes. (1) Relation to other... inaccuracy is not a violation of Regulation Z (12 CFR part 226), although new disclosures may be...

  4. RA-226 concentration in water samples near uranium mines and in marine fishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radium-226 and calcium were measured in water samples from the vicinity of three uranium mines and in fish samples collected from Puget sound, Washington State. The radium content of the samples were below the maximum permissible concentration 3 pCi/L for drinking water recommended by the Public Health Service and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The mean value of Ra-226 in water was 0.428 pCi/L and ranged from 0.043 to 1.552 pCi/L, whereas calcium content ranged from 3.0 to 190.0 mg/L. Ra-226 concentrations and calcium content in whole fish were 0.833-20.328 pCi/kg wet wt. and 114.1-259.3 mg/g ash, respectively. Results of the study indicated that Ra-226 concentration in water was correlated with calcium concentration but that this correlation was not observed in fish sample except English sole

  5. Determination of (226)Ra in produced water by liquid scintillation counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, José Marcus; Vianna, Lucas M; Godoy, Maria Luiza D P; Almeida, Ana Cristina

    2016-08-01

    It is proposed a method for the determination of (226)Ra in offshore platform liquid effluent samples (produced water). The method is based on a two-phase liquid scintillation counting system and allows for the direct and simple determination of (226)Ra content. Samples with high barium content may also have high (226)Ra concentration. Therefore, the sample volume is based on the barium concentration and ranges from 10 mL to 100 mL. Our new method was tested using multiple real samples and was compared with the BaSO4 precipitation method. The results based on the LSC were 30% higher than the precipitation method, which is attributed to the self-absorption of alpha particles in the BaSO4 precipitate. The determination of both (226)Ra and (228)Ra in the liquid effluent of offshore oil platforms is mandatory in Brazil. Thus, a second method of accurately assessing (228)Ra content remains necessary. PMID:27116402

  6. 40 CFR 61.207 - Radium-226 sampling and measurement procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... B, Method 114. (3) Calculate the mean, x 1, and the standard deviation, s 1, of the n 1 radium-226... owner or operator of a phosphogypsum stack shall report the mean, standard deviation, 95th percentile..., Method 114. (4) Recalculate the mean and standard deviation of the entire set of n 2...

  7. 7 CFR 226.7 - State agency responsibilities for financial management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... management system. Each State agency shall establish a financial management system in accordance with 7 CFR... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State agency responsibilities for financial management... State Agency Provisions § 226.7 State agency responsibilities for financial management. (a) This...

  8. Ra-226 concentrations in the hydrographic basins near uranium mining and milling in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A monitoring survey of the 226Ra concentrations in river waters in the vicinity of the mining area and future milling facilities in the Pocos de Caldas region began in January 1977. The objective of the monitoring survey is to establish a baseline to allow future comparisons between the 226Ra concentrations in waters of the hydrographic basins of the Pocos de Caldas plateau before and after the beginning of full scale commercial operations. Open pit mining started in July 1977 in the uranium deposits of Campo do Cercado, but the main uranium body has not been reached yet. Seasonal variations in riverflow are apparently accompanied by little variations in the 226Ra concentrations in river waters. A crude calculational dosimetric model is in the process of being developed to estimate annual dose equivalent to an individual from 226Ra via drinking water and irrigation patterns as a first step to calculate the collective dose equivalent commitment to the population of the Pocos de Caldas plateau and surroundings

  9. Intake of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po with food in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietrzak-Flis, Z.; Chrzanowski, E.; Dembinska, S. [Department of Radiation Hygiene, Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-09-06

    Intake with food and water of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po was determined for an adult population in regions of central, northern and northeastern Poland. The content of radionuclides was determined in the daily diet and, in the central region, also in foodstuffs and drinking water. The annual intake with foodstuffs was estimated on the basis of their average annual consumption. The {sup 226}Ra intake in northeastern Poland was approximately 17% higher than the overall average, correlating well with the higher concentration of this radionuclide in the soil. The {sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb ratio was close to unity in the continental regions, whereas at the Baltic Sea coast it was approximately 1.5. The latter value can be ascribed to a larger consumption of fish for which the {sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb ratio was found to be approximately 10. In central Poland the largest intake of {sup 226}Ra was with flour and vegetables (contribution approx. 60%), the largest intake of {sup 210}Pb was with flour and meat (approx. 50%) and the largest intake of {sup 210}Po was with fish (approx. 34%). From the intake and dose coefficient, annual effective doses were calculated. The dose from {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po was approx. 54 {mu}Sv year{sup -1}, and the dose from {sup 226}Ra was approx. 4 {mu}Sv year{sup -1}.

  10. 7 CFR 226.17a - At-risk afterschool care center provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 226.17a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND ADULT CARE FOOD PROGRAM Operational... standards will remain a precondition for any afterschool center's eligibility for CACFP nutrition...

  11. 7 CFR 226.19 - Outside-school-hours care center provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 226.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND ADULT CARE FOOD PROGRAM Operational... precondition for any outside-school-hours care center's eligibility for CACFP nutrition benefits. In...

  12. 7 CFR 226.13 - Food service payments to sponsoring organizations for day care homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CARE FOOD PROGRAM Payment Provisions § 226.13 Food service payments to sponsoring organizations for day... amount of food service payments shall be disbursed to each day care home on the basis of the number of meals served, by type, to enrolled children. For tier II day care homes, the full amount of food...

  13. 12 CFR 226.5a - Credit and charge card applications and solicitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... lower than the rate that will apply after the temporary rate expires, and a penalty rate that will apply... THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Open-End Credit § 226.5a Credit and charge...), (4), and (7) through (11) of this section. (1) Annual percentage rate. Each periodic rate that may...

  14. Anticancer mechanisms of YC-1 in human lung cancer cell line, NCI-H226.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Jen; Hsu, Mei-Hua; Huang, Li-Jiau; Yamori, Takao; Chung, Jing-Gung; Lee, Fang-Yu; Teng, Che-Ming; Kuo, Sheng-Chu

    2008-01-15

    As part of a continuing search for potential anticancer drug candidates, 1-benzyl-3-(5-hydroxymethyl-2-furyl)indazole (YC-1) was evaluated in the Japanese Cancer Institute's (JCI) in vitro disease-oriented anticancer screen. The results indicated that YC-1 showed impressive selective toxicity against the NCI-H226 cell line. Therefore, the molecular mechanism by which YC-1 affects NCI-H226 cell growth was studied. YC-1 inhibited NCI-H226 cell growth in a time- and a concentration-dependent manner. YC-1 suppressed the protein levels of cyclin D1, CDK2 and cdc25A, up-regulated p16, p21 and p53, increased the number of NCI-H226 cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. Long exposure to YC-1 induced apoptosis by mitochondrial-dependent pathway. In addition, YC-1 inhibited MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein activities to abolish tumor cells metastasis. These findings suggest a mechanism of cytotoxic action of YC-1 and indicate that YC-1 may be a promising chemotherapy agent against lung cancer. PMID:17880926

  15. Radium-226 content and emanating power of some timepieces manufactured in the years 1926--1951

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-two radium-dial timepieces manufactured in the years 1926 to 1951 by a company in Connecticut were individually sealed in small steel cans for determination of radium-C (214Bi) activity by γ-ray spectroscopy. Each can was counted within a few hours after sealing and again 5 or 6 days later; from the two observations, radium-C activities at time of sealing (nonemanating radium content) and at equilibrium (total radium content) were calculated. The mean radium-226 content of 22 pocket watches was 348 nCi (range, 159 to 606), and the mean emanating power (1-nonemanating Ra/total Ra) was 0.175 (range, 0.09 to 0.33). The mean radium-226 content of 9 wrist watches was 150 nCi (range, 54 to 449), and the mean emanating power was 0.242 (range, 0.12 to 0.34). The radium-226 content of the one small clock was 633 nCi, and its emanating power was 0.15. The concentration of radon-222 in the air of a sealed room of dimensions 3 x 3 x 3 m would be increased by about 3 pCi/l if a watch containing 400 nCi of radium-226 with an emanating power of 0.2 were left in the room for a few weeks. (U.S.)

  16. 48 CFR 52.226-1 - Utilization of Indian Organizations and Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Utilization of Indian... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.226-1 Utilization of Indian Organizations and Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises. As prescribed in 26.104, insert the following clause: Utilization of...

  17. 12 CFR 226.19 - Certain mortgage and variable-rate transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... secured by the consumer's dwelling, other than a home equity line of credit subject to § 226.5b or..., provided the fee is bona fide and reasonable in amount. (2) Waiting periods for early disclosures and... consumer by means other than delivery in person, the consumer is deemed to have received the...

  18. 12 CFR Appendix M1 to Part 226 - Generic Repayment Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Generic Repayment Estimates M1 Appendix M1 to... Estimates Effective Date Note: At 74 FR 5441, Jan. 29, 2009, appendix M1 to part 226 was added, effective July 1, 2010. (a) Calculating generic repayment estimates. (1) Definitions. (i) “Retail credit...

  19. RADIU-226 CONTENT IN SOIL OF THE HIGH NATURAL BACKGROUND RADIATION AREA OF RAMSAR (IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Khademi

    1978-11-01

    Full Text Available The existence of a high natural radiation area in the northern part of Iran (Ramsar is proved. Ra 226 in soil is measured. The results are: minimum 23.5 pCi/g and maximum 999 pCi/g soil. Environmental radioactivity is from 0.1 to 5 mr/h.

  20. Tussenrapportage over fase 1 en 2 van het vervolgonderzoek naar Ra-226 in havenspeciepoldergronden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop P; Pennders RMJ; Lembrechts JFMM; LSO

    1994-01-01

    De ook in Nederland belangrijk toegenomen aandacht voor de risico's van radon (met name Rn-222)in het binnenhuismilieu waren voor VROM aanleiding een onderzoek te laten doen naar de relatie tussen de radonconcentratie in woningen en het gehalte aan radium (Ra-226)in de bodem waarop deze sta

  1. Selective 226Ra2+ Ionophores Provided by Self-Assembly of Guanosine and Isoguanosine Derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van Fijs W.B.; Verboom, Willem; Shi, Xiaodong; Davis, Jeffery T.; Reinhoudt, David N.

    2004-01-01

    The self-assembled guanosine (G 1)-based hexadecamers and isoguanosine (isoG 2)-based decamers are excellent 226Ra2+ selective ionophores even in the presence of excess alkali (Na+, K+, Rb+, and Cs+) and alkaline earth (Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, and Ba2+) cations over the pH range 3-11. G 1 requires additio

  2. Intake of 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po with food in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intake with food and water of 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po was determined for an adult population in regions of central, northern and northeastern Poland. The content of radionuclides was determined in the daily diet and, in the central region, also in foodstuffs and drinking water. The annual intake with foodstuffs was estimated on the basis of their average annual consumption. The 226Ra intake in northeastern Poland was approximately 17% higher than the overall average, correlating well with the higher concentration of this radionuclide in the soil. The 210Po/210Pb ratio was close to unity in the continental regions, whereas at the Baltic Sea coast it was approximately 1.5. The latter value can be ascribed to a larger consumption of fish for which the 210Po/210Pb ratio was found to be approximately 10. In central Poland the largest intake of 226Ra was with flour and vegetables (contribution approx. 60%), the largest intake of 210Pb was with flour and meat (approx. 50%) and the largest intake of 210Po was with fish (approx. 34%). From the intake and dose coefficient, annual effective doses were calculated. The dose from 210Pb and 210Po was approx. 54 μSv year-1, and the dose from 226Ra was approx. 4 μSv year-1

  3. 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po in food and in population in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Content of 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po was determined in daily diet, foodstuffs and drinking water in various regions in Poland. The annual intake of the radionuclides with foodstuffs for an adult population was estimated on the basis of the average annual consumption. The 226Ra intake was in all the places similar; variations between the samples from a locality were bigger than the differences between various localities. Slightly higher 226Ra intake was observed in Suwalki, evidently being associated with the higher concentration of this radionuclide in the soil. The average 210Po/210Pb ratios was below and close to unity in the daily diet of continental regions, whereas at the Baltic Sea coast it was about 1.5. The latter value can be ascribed to a larger consumption of fish for which the 210Po/210Pb ratio was close to 10. The calculated body burden for an adult man was 1.6 Bq for 226Ra, 6.8 Bq for210Pb and 6.8 Bq for 210Po. (author)

  4. Protein Profile of Human Lung Squamous Carcinoma Cell Line NCI-H226

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO ZHANG; NA LI; YUE CHEN; LING-YUN HUANG; YI-CHING WANG; GANG FANG; DA-CHENG HE; XUE-YUAN XIAO

    2007-01-01

    Objective To construct a database of human lung squamous carcinoma cell line NCI-H226 and to facilitate discovery of novel subtypes markers of lung cancer. Method Proteomic technique was used to analyze human lung squamous carcinoma cell line NCI-H226. The proteins of the NCI-H226 cells were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identified by mass spectrometry. Results The results showed that a good reproducibility of the 2-D gel pattern was attained. The position deviation of matched spots among three 2-D gels was 1.95±0.53 mm in the isoelectric focusing direction,and 1.73±0.45 mm in the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis direction. One hundred and twenty-seven proteins, including enzymes, signal transduction proteins, structure proteins, transport proteins, etc. were characterized, of which, 29 identified proteins in NCI-H226 cells were reported for the first time to be involved in lung cancer carcinogenesis.Conclusion The information obtained from this study could provide some valuable clues for further study on the carcinogenetic mechanism of different types of lung cancer, and may help us to discover some potential subtype-specific biomarkers of lung cancer.

  5. 7 CFR 226.23 - Free and reduced-price meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND ADULT CARE FOOD PROGRAM Operational Provisions § 226.23 Free... concerning free and reduced-price meals to be used in all child and adult day care facilities under...

  6. 12 CFR Appendix G to Part 226 - Open-End Model Forms and Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... problem with the quality of property or services that you purchased with a credit card, and you have tried... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Open-End Model Forms and Clauses G Appendix G to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE...

  7. A fast and simple method for the determination of radium-226 in aqueous samples (drinking water, mineral water)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described which allows direct determination of the radium-226 content in aqueous samples within a few hours. An exchanger for specific ions on a PAC basis is used in a special application. The evaluation is based on the measurement of the 4.78 MeV α-particles of radium-226. The method is described, and its application to over 200 samples of drinking water and mineral water in the Federal Republic of Germany is reported. The average radium-226 concentration in drinking water from the Saarland is appr. 0.12 pCi of radium-226 per litre, and appr. 1.8 pCiof radium-226 per litre in mineral water from German mineral springs. (orig.)

  8. Volume activity 226Ra mine waters of Ostrava-Karvina coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The State Office for Nuclear Safety, Regional Center Kamenna administers, within the framework of supervision, an inspection on workplaces of mines and discharge radionuclides into the environment from mines of Ostrava-Karvina coal mines. Join-stock company OKD exploit coal in next mines Paskov, Darkov, Lazy and CSA. Join -stock company CMD exploit coal in mine CSM. In 2002 DIAMO, state enterprise took over a part of Ostrava-Karvina coal mines and its division ODRA pump mine waters on Water-pumping shaft Jeremenko, Water- pumping shaft Zofie and close Mine Barbora. A water samples were take on main outflow mine water of mine. The presentation summarizes results from monitoring mine waters from 1999 to 2004 years. Volume activity 226Ra mine waters of Mine Lazy-locality Dukla and Water-pumping shaft Zofie are higher then clearance level from Regulation No.307/2002 Coll. On Radiation Protection. They are comparable with mine waters of uranium mines. Volume activity 226Ra surface waters under outflow perform, without stream Petrvaldska struzka under outflow Water-pumping shaft Zofie, guidance level for contamination surface waters from Government regulation No.61/2003 Coll. Volume activity 226Ra surface waters under outflow coal mines are higher then volume in surface waters under uranium mines, because mine waters from uranium mines are decontaminate on decontamination stations. Considering that volume activities 226Ra surface water of Orlovska struzka stream are under guidance level for contamination surface waters from Government regulation No.61/2003 Coll.. don't urgency arrangement to decontamination mine waters. Mass activity 226Ra in bed sediment under outflow Mine Lazy-locality Dukla are comparable with exemption level from Regulation No.307 /2002 Coll. On Radiation Protection. (authors)

  9. Determination of 226Ra Concentration in the Drinking Water and Internal Dose estimation From Several Locations in Java and Sumatra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Random samples or drinking water have been collected from 51 locations in Java (27 locations) and Sumatra (24 locations). lndonesia. The samples were counted for 17 hours and analyzed for 226Ra (609 keV and 352KeV) using gamma spectrometry with H P-Ge detector. The data were evaluated by the statistical method with 68% confidence level. The 226Ra concentrations in drinking water were within a range of undetectable to ( 177.6 + 3.1) mBq/l and the average concentration was (34.8 + 8.2) mBq/l. The data of 226Ra concentration in Sumatra area was about 10 times higher than 226Ra concentration in Java area, except 226Ra concentration at the hot spring water area. The maximum permissible concentration (4000 mBq/l). These data were comparatively lower than 226Ra concentration in drinking water generally observed in other countries (USA, India, Brazil and Japan). The annual internal dose of 226Ra for the public was also estimated

  10. PSEN1 L226F mutation in a patient with early-onset Alzheimer’s disease in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagyinszky, Eva; Park, Sun Ah; Kim, Hyung Jun; Choi, Seong Hye; An, Seong Soo A; Kim, Sang Yun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we report a first 226leucine (Leu) mutation to phenylalanine (Phe) in (PSEN1, CTC>TTC, L226F) in Asia from a Korean early-onset Alzheimer’s disease (EOAD) patient. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)–single strand conformation polymorphism, sequencing, and in silico predictions were performed. Previously, L226F was reported in EOAD patients by Zekanowski et al and Gómez-Tortosa et al. Disease phenotypes appeared in their thirties, and family history was positive in both cases. In our patient, age of onset was similar (37 years of age), but the mutation seemed to be de novo, since no affected family member was found. This leucine to phenylalanine substitution may cause additional stresses inside the transmembrane region due to large aromatic side chain and increased hydrophobic interactions with hydrocarbon chains in the membrane and its binding partners. Clinical phenotype of the mutation was aggressive progression into neurodegeneration, resulting in rapid cognitive decline. One of the patients was initially diagnosed with frontotemporal dementia, but the diagnosis was revised to AD upon postmortem studies in which Aβ plaques were seen. A second mutation, L226R, was found for the L226 residue. Similar to L226F, the patient with L226R also developed the first symptoms in his 30s, but EOAD was diagnosed in his 40s. These findings suggested that L226 might be an important residue in PSEN1, since mutations could result in neurodegenerative disease phenotypes at relatively young ages. There are mutations, such as L226F, which may not present clear clinical symptoms for the definitive diagnosis between frontotemporal dementia and AD. In addition, the similarities in the phenotypes could also be possible between AD and frontotemporal dementia, suggesting difficulties in differential diagnosis of various neurodegenerative diseases.

  11. Evaluation of the radius-226 doses incorporated with the consumption waters, which is receive by the City of Havana inhabitants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the relatively good solubility of radium compounds contained in the crust of the earths, frequently is this possible to find in spring waters concentration of radium 226 which may be significant. Taking in account that person consumer important volumes of waters annually, it is necessary to assess the dose to population due to the intake of radium 226 by this pathway. Samples were taking in the principal water sources in Havana City and for each samples the radium 226 concentration was determined

  12. Effect of adsorbants on in vitro biohydrogenation of 22:6n-3 by mixed cultures of rumen microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, M; Vlaeminck, B; Jeyanathan, J; Thanh, L P; Shingfield, K J; Wallace, R J; Fievez, V

    2016-09-01

    Studies on microbial biohydrogenation of fatty acids in the rumen are of importance as this process lowers the availability of nutritionally beneficial unsaturated fatty acids for incorporation into meat and milk but also might result in the accumulation of biologically active intermediates. The impact was studied of adsorption of 22:6n-3 (DHA) to particulate material on its disappearance during 24 h in vitro batch incubations with rumen inoculum. Four adsorbants were used in two doses (1 and 5 mg/ml of mucin, gum arabic, bentonite or silicic acid). In addition, the distribution of 22:6n-3 in the pellet and supernatant of diluted rumen fluid was measured. Bentonite and silicic acid did not alter the distribution of 22:6n-3 between pellet and supernatant nor increased the disappearance of 22:6n-3 during the incubation. Both mucin and gum arabic increased the recovery of 22:6n-3 in the supernatant, indicating that these compounds lowered the adsorption of the fatty acid to ruminal particles. This was associated with an increased disappearance of 22:6n-3, when initial 22:6n-3 was 0.06 or 0.10 mg/ml, and an increased formation of 22:0, when initial 22:6n-3 was 0.02 mg/ml, during the 24 h batch culture experiment. Addition of gum arabic to pure cultures of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens or Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus did not negate the inhibitory effect of 22:6n-3 on growth. As both mucin and gum arabic provide fermentable substrate for ruminal bacteria, an additional experiment was performed in which mucin and gum arabic were replaced by equal amounts of starch, cellulose or xylan. No differences in disappearance of 22:6n-3 were observed, suggesting that the stimulatory effect of mucin and gum arabic on disappearance of 22:6n-3 most probably is not due to provision of an alternative site of adsorption but related to stimulation of bacterial growth. A relatively high proportion of 22:6n-3 can be reduced to 22:0 provided the initial concentration is low. PMID:26965186

  13. Vegetation composition and 226Ra uptake by native plant species at a uranium mill tailings impoundment in South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field investigation was conducted for the vegetation composition and 226Ra uptake by native plant species at a uranium mill tailings impoundment in South China. 80 species belonging to 67 genera in 32 families were recorded in the sampling sites. The Poaceae and Asteraceae were the dominant families colonizing the impoundment. The number of the plant species and vegetation community composition in the sampling sites seemed most closely related to the activities of 226Ra and the pH value of the uranium tailings. The plant species in the sampling sites with relatively low activities of 226Ra and relatively high pH value formed a relatively stable vegetation community. The plant species in the sampling sites with medium activities of 226Ra and medium pH value formed the transitional vegetation community. The plant species in the sampling sites with relatively high activities of 226Ra and relatively low pH value formed a simple unstable vegetation community that was similar to that on the unused grassland. The activities of 226Ra and transfer factors (TFs) varied greatly with the plant species. The high activities of 226Ra and TFs were found in the leaves of Pteris multifida (150.6 Bq/g of AW; 9.131), Pteridium aquilinum (122.2 Bq/g of AW; 7.409), and Dryopteris scottii (105.7 Bq/g of AW; 6.408). They satisfied the criteria for a hyperaccumulator for 226Ra. They may be the candidates for phytoremediation of 226Ra in the uranium mill tailings impoundment areas and the contaminated soils around. - Highlights: • Vegetation composition of native plant species at an impoundment was analyzed. • 226Ra uptake by native plant species at the impoundment was investigated. • Poaceae and Asteraceae were the dominated families colonizing this impoundment. • The plant species and composition were related to activities of 226Ra and pH. • Three plant species were found to be hyperaccumulators for 226Ra

  14. Leachability of 226Ra from spiked soil as a function of time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bioavailability of 226Ra for plant uptake may be dependent on its solubility from the soil components. Solubility of radium from soil may change with time due to chemical and physical binding. A laboratory study was designed to provide data on the water leachable fraction of 226Ra from spiked soil as a function of time. A decreasing trend in the percent leachable fraction was observed over time. The data was modeled by non-linear regression to be a decreasing exponential to a constant value. This information may be helpful in providing an understanding of a similar trend observed in plant uptake studies. The value for the available amount of radium determined in this investigation may help to provide a more meaningful measurement of concentration ratios in plants. 22 references, 3 figures, 5 tables

  15. Laser trapping of Ra-225 and Ra-226 and progress towards an electric dipole moment measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, J. R.; Scielzo, N. D.; Ahmad, I.; Bailey, K.; Greene, J. P.; Holt, R. J.; Lu, Z.-T.; O'Connor, T. P.; Potterveld, D. H.

    2006-10-01

    Permanent electric dipole moments (EDMs) in atoms or molecules are signatures of Time (T)-and Parity (P)-violation and represent an important window onto physics beyond the Standard Model. We are developing a next generation EDM search around laser-cooled and trapped Ra-225 (t1/2 = 15 d). Due to octupole deformation of the nucleus, Ra-225 is predicted to be two to three orders of magnitude more sensitive to T-violating interactions than Hg-199, which currently sets the most stringent limits in the nuclear sector. We will discuss our progress, including the successful laser cooling and trapping of Ra-225 and Ra-226 atoms. We have demonstrated transverse cooling, Zeeman slowing, and capture of Ra-225 and Ra-226 atoms in a magneto-optical trap (MOT). By driving a second atomic transition, we have extended the lifetime of the trap from milliseconds to seconds and performed necessary spectroscopic measurements.

  16. Production of Ac-225 for cancer therapy by photon-induced transmutation of Ra-226.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, G; Meriarty, H; Metcalfe, P; Knittel, T; Allen, B J

    2007-09-01

    The increasing application of Ac-225 for cancer therapy indicates the potential need for its increased production and availability. The production of Ac-225 has been achieved using bremsstrahlung photons from an 18 MV medical linear accelerator (linac) to bombard a Ra-226 target. A linac dose of 2800 Gy produced about 64 microCi of Ra-225, which decays to Ac-225. This result, while consistent with the theoretical calculations, is far too low to be of practical use. A more powerful linac is required that runs at a higher current, longer pulse length and higher frequency for practical production. This process could also lead to the reduction of the nuclear waste product Ra-226.

  17. 226Ra, 232Th and 40K analysis in water samples from Assiut, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were determined in water samples, using 2”x 2” NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. Water activity ranges from 0.07 to 0.59 Bq L−1 for 226Ra, 0.05 to 0.37 Bq L−1 for 232Th and 3.25 to 8.72 Bq L−1 for 40K with mean values of 2.64, 2.22 and 119.50 Bq L−1, respectively. As far as the measured gamma radionuclides is concerned, the mean annual effective doses for all analyzed samples of water are in the range of 0.02–0.08, 0.03-0.17 and 0.03-0.10 mSv yr-1 for infants, children and adults, respectively, all being lower than the reference level of the committed effective dose recommended by the WHO.

  18. Investigation of 224Ra in the 226Ra (α,α'2n) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positive and negative parity bands have been followed up to 10+ (possibly 12+) and 11- in 224Ra and are compared to the corresponding bands in the isotone 226Th. If a constant value of the intrinsic quadrupole moment is assumed for all E2 transitions in 224Ra the E1/E2 branching ratios are consistent with an intrinsic dipole moment of vertical strokeQ1vertical stroke=0.032(3) e.fm. This small value, as compared to vertical strokeQ1vertical stroke=0.30(2) e.fm for 226Th, can be explained by an almost complete cancellation of large positive liquid-drop and negative shell-model contributions. (orig.)

  19. Normal dietary levels of radium-226, radium-228, lead-210, and polonium-210 for man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the literature and the results of some recent measurements on the levels in man's diet of the naturally occurring radionuclides 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb, and 210Po are presented. Intakes in other countries are similar to those in the United States, but in localized populations the 226Ra intake can be 8 or more pCi/day. The few data on 228Ra show that intake of this nuclide is about 80% that of 226Ra except in monazite areas where intakes of up to 160 pCi 228Ra/day are reported. Drinking water contributes less than 5% to daily intake except in special areas. For 210Pb, higher levels have been noted for Germany and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics than for the United States. Persons in the Arctic who consume reindeer or caribou meat may ingest 210Pb at the rate of 10 to 40 pCi/day. Normal dietary levels of 210Po are about 20 to 30% higher than those of 210Pb, except in the Arctic. The levels of these nuclides in classes of foods are compared to show that the higher levels observed in certain diets are due to the levels in particular foods. Because of the high levels of 210Pb intake in Japan, total skeletal dose rates in that country are estimated to be more than twice those in the United States. The use of dietary intake for estimating metabolic parameters, such as intestinal absorption of 226Ra and 210Pb, is discussed

  20. 50 CFR Table 1 to Part 226 - Major Stellar Sea Lion Rookery Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Major Stellar Sea Lion Rookery Sites 1... Table 1 to Part 226—Major Stellar Sea Lion Rookery Sites Major Steller sea lion rookery sites are... 168 02.0W Ogchul I.1 53 00.0N 168 24.0W Sea Lion Rocks. (Amak) 1 55 28.0N 163 12.0W Ugamak I.1 54...

  1. Specific activities of radium-226 in vegetables grown in Na Mom District, Songkhla Province

    OpenAIRE

    Angkunrat, S.; Bhongsuwan, T.; Chittrakarn, T.; Bhongsuwan, D.

    2007-01-01

    Specific activity of radium-226 in 13 types of vegetables grown in Namom district, Songkhla province, were analyzed using a low background gamma-ray spectrometer. The analyzed vegetables included Ivy Gourd, Yellow Cassia, White Popinac, Yard Long Bean, Rice, Peanut, Egg Plant, Spineless Amaranth, Swamp Cabbage, Mustart, Chinese Cabbage, Collards and Cucumbers. The control vegetables were taken from Bangklum district, 40 km south of Namom district. The samples were weighed, dried in an oven an...

  2. Reflection Asymmetric Relativistic Mean Field Approach and Its Application to the Octupole Deformed Nucleus 226Ra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENG Li-Sheng; MENG Jie; Toki Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    A reflection asymmetric relativistic mean field (RAS-RMF) approach is developed by expanding the equations of motion for both the nucleons and the mesons on the eigenfunctions of the two-centre harmonic-oscillator potential.The efficiency and reliability of the RAS-RMF approach are demonstrated in its application to the well-known octupole deformed nucleus 226Ra and the available data, including the binding energy and the deformation parameters, are well reproduced.

  3. Study on {sup 222-226}Th isotopes in the cranking framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ram, Daya; Devi, Rani; Khosa, S.K., E-mail: rani_rakwal@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics and Electronics, University of Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir (India)

    2013-08-15

    The yrast spectra, quadrupole moments, quadrupole deformation parameters (β{sub 2}), non-axiality parameters (γ), root mean-square radii for protons and neutrons, occupation probabilities, moment of inertia (I), and B(E2) transition probabilities are calculated for {sup 222{sup -226}}Th in the cranked Hartree-Bogoliubov framework. The calculations employ a quadrupole-quadrupole plus pairing model of residual interaction operating in a reasonably large valence space outside the {sup 164}Pb core. Our calculations reproduce qualitatively the observed yrast spectra in {sup 222-226}Th up to spin 20{sup +}. The calculated results indicate that the non-axiality parameter decreases as one moves along the yrast states. The observed increase in deformation from {sup 222}Th to {sup 226}Th is due to the increase in the occupation of low-κ components of (2g{sub 9/2}){sub π} and (1{sub j15/2}){sub ν} orbits. The model parameters reproduce not only the moment of inertia, deformation, and transition probabilities but also the proton and neutron pairing gaps and are the most appropriate for cranking studies in this region. (author)

  4. Comparative toxicity of strontium-90 and radium-226 in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors are completing a 30-year study of the biologic effects of 90Sr and 226Ra in the beagle in order to predict the possible long-term hazards to people from chronic exposure to low levels of irradiation. Animals received either radionuclide by several means of administration: (a) continual ingestion of 90Sr, (b) a single intravenous injection of 90Sr, or (c) a series of eight intravenous injections of 226Ra. Although administration of 90Sr and 226Ra ended at 540 days of age, the animals continued to receive chronic, low-level radiation doses from these bone-seeking radionuclides throughout life. This project is the largest single cohort study in beagles of internally deposited radionuclides. It is unique in use of the ingestion route for 90Sr and in exposures that began before birth and continued throughout development to adulthood with uniform labeling of the skeletons with 90Sr. The last of the dogs died in 1986 at age 18.5, but the authors are continuing to investigate the significance of these long-term exposures given at low dose rates with regard to cancer production, physiologic well-being, and shortening of life through the detailed records that were kept and by study of preserved materials. All the data have been successfully accumulated and entered into a main-frame computer data base management system. Current work is exclusively directed at preparing research papers summarizing the results and the associated biostatistical and survival analyses

  5. Comparative toxicity of strontium-90 and radium-226 in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors are completing a 30-year study of the biological effects of 90Sr and 226Ra in the beagle in order to predict the possible long-term hazards to people from chronic exposure to low levels of irradiation. Animals received either radionuclide by several means of administration: (a) continual ingestion of 90Sr, (b) a single intravenous injection of 90Sr, or (c) a series of eight intravenous injections of 226Ra. Although administration of 90Sr and 226Ra ended at 540 days of age, the animals continued to receive chronic, low-level radiation doses from these bone-seeking radionuclides throughout life. This project is the largest single cohort study in beagles of internally deposited radionuclides. It is unique in use of the ingestion route for 90Sr and in exposures that began before birth and continued throughout development to adulthood with uniform labeling of the skeletons with 90Sr. The last of the dogs died in 1986 at age 18.5 years, but the authors are continuing to investigate the significance of these long-term exposures given at low dose rates with regard to cancer production, physiologic well-being, and shortening of life through the detailed records that were kept and by study of preserved materials. All the data have been successfully accumulated and entered into a main-frame computer data base management system. Current work is exclusively directed at preparing research papers summarizing the results and the associated biostatistical and survival analyses

  6. An easy method for Ra-226 determination in river waters by liquid-scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    226Ra activity concentration in river water was determined using a low background liquid scintillation counter. Radium was extracted from the samples as Ra-BaSO4 precipitate which, afterwards, was dissolved with EDTA in ammonia medium. Solution was transferred into a low potassium glass vial and then mixed with a scintillation cocktail. Two different scintillation cocktails were selected for comparison. Efficiency, recovery yield and α/β separation were studied with both liquid scintillation cocktails. One single measurement, made one month after radium separation, allows to calculate the 226Ra concentration as well as to assess the presence of alpha contamination of the sample. In the case of negligible interferences, 224Ra concentrations can be subsequently evaluated in the same sample by the measurement made just after chemical separation of radium. This method has been applied for the determination of 226Ra and 224Ra activity concentrations in river water collected from different locations along the Odiel river estuary area (south-west of Spain). The presence of chemical industry, the wastes of which are released into the river, could be connected with radium activity concentration enhancements in the water. (author)

  7. An easy method for Ra-226 determination in river waters by liquid-scintillation counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, H. P.; Vioque, I.; Manjón, G.; García-Tenorio, R.

    1999-01-01

    226Ra activity concentration in river water was determined using a low background liquid scintillation counter. Radium was extracted from the samples as Ra-BaSO4 precipitate which, afterwards, was dissolved with EDTA in ammonia medium. Solution was transferred into a low potassium glass vial and then mixed with a scintillation cocktail. Two different scintillation cocktails were selected for comparison. Efficiency, recovery yield and α/β separation were studied with both liquid scintillation cocktails. One single measurement, made one month after radium separation, allows to calculate the226Ra concentration as well as to assess the presence of alpha contamination of the sample. In the case of negligible interferences,224Ra concentrations can be subsequently evaluated in the same sample by the measurement made just after chemical separation of radium. This method has been applied for the determination of226Ra and224Ra activity concentrations in river water collected from different locations along the Odiel river estuary area (South-west of Spain). The presence of chemical industry, the wastes of which are released into the river, could be connected with radium activity concentration enhancements in the water.

  8. 238U, 226Ra and 210Pb in some vent waters of the Galapagos Spreading Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaswami, S.; Turekian, K. K.

    1982-08-01

    The concentrations of 226Ra, 238U and 210Pb have been measured in waters from the Mussel Bed and the Rose Garden thermal fields at the Galapagos spreading center over a temperature range of ˜2.5-16°C. The 226Ra-T plots yield slopes of 0.112 and 0.036 dpm/kg°C for the Mussel Bed and the Rose Garden respectively yielding a global hydrothermal 226Ra flux less than 5% of that required to sustain the oceanic inventory. 238U concentration in waters <9°C is the same as that in ambient sea water whereas water hotter than ˜9°C shows a decreasing trend with temperature to zero 238U at ˜29°C. 210Pb concentration in Mussel Bed increases with temperature, and extrapolated to ˜350°C yields a 210Pb concentration considerably less than that expected from 222Rn decay and basalt alteration.

  9. 226Ra contamination of soil and foliage as a function of distance downwind from uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study concerned 226Ra contamination of soils and foliage as a function of distance downwind from a uranium mill tailings pile. In soils the radium contamination was primarily associated with particle sizes 226Ra contamination in Artemisia tridentata. Internal contamination appeared to be a larger contributor to total contamination at distances less than or equal to 0.16 km downwind from the tailings pile. At distances > 0.16 km, external contamination became a larger contributor to the total 226Ra contamination. In most soil samples 226Ra concentrations approached background levels at a distance of 1.1 km from the tailings pile. Total vegetation contamination approached background at 6.6 km. This study suggested that a combination of root uptake and foliar absorption were responsible for internal contamination and further studies were suggested. 19 references, 5 figures, 2 tables

  10. A theoretical model for the production of Ac-225 for cancer therapy by neutron capture transmutation of Ra-226.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, G; Melville, P

    2013-02-01

    Radium needles that were once implanted into tumours as a cancer treatment are now obsolete and constitute a radioactive waste problem, as their half-life is 1600 years. We are investigating the reduction of radium by transmutation by bombarding Ra-226 with high-energy neutrons from a neutron source to produce Ra-225 and hence Ac-225, which can be used as a generator to produce Bi-213 for use in 'Targeted Alpha Therapy' for cancer. This paper examines the possibility of producing Ac-225 by neutron capture using a theoretical model in which neutron energy is convoluted with the corresponding neutron cross sections of Ra-226. The total integrated yield can then be obtained. This study shows that an intense beam of high-energy neutrons could initiate neutron capture on Ra-226 to produce Ra-225 and hence practical amounts of Ac-225 and a useful reduction of Ra-226.

  11. Comparative toxicity of strontium-90 and radium-226 in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are completing a 30-year study of the biological effects of 90Sr and 226Ra in the beagle in order to predict the possible long-term hazards to people from chronic exposure to low levels of irradiation. Animals received either radionuclide by several means of administration: (a) continual ingestion of 90Sr, (b) a single intravenous injection of 90Sr, or (c) a series of eight intravenous injections of 226Ra. Although administration of 90Sr and 226Ra ended at 540 days of age, the animals continued to receive chronic, low-level radiation doses from these bone-seeking radionuclides throughout life. This project is the largest single cohort study in beagles of internally deposited radionuclides. It is unique in use of the ingestion route for 90Sr and in exposure that began before birth and continued throughout development to adulthood with uniform labeling of the skeletons with 90Sr. The last of the dogs died in 1986 at age 18.5 years, but we are continuing to investigate the significance of these long-term exposures given at low dose rates with regard to cancer production, physiologic well-being, and shortening of life through the detailed records that were kept and by study of preserved materials. All the data have been successfully accumulated and entered into a main-frame computer data base management system. Current work is exclusively directed at preparing research papers summarizing the results and the associated biostatistical and survival analyses. 15 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  12. Migration of {sup 226} Ra, {sup 228} Ra, {sup 210} Pb, U and Th from phosphogypsum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Nivaldo Carlos da; Cipriani, Moacir; Taddei, Maria Helena T. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de Nadai [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    The physico-chemical availability of radioactive elements ({sup 210} Pb, {sup 226} Ra, {sup 228} Ra, Th and U) in Brazilian phosphogypsum was investigated in a large scale leaching experiment carried out in lysimeters, using phosphogypsum samples (approximately 1.2 tons) from two phosphoric acid industries. Lysimeters were built using cylindrical concrete containers with 0.9 m inner diameter and 2 m depth. The bottom of the lysimeter was filled with a 10 cm layer of gravel covered with geomembrane sheet. Under this layer a pipe was designed to drain the percolated water. Three lysimeters were filled with phosphogypsum from each industry and a mixture of both. As percolated water comes exclusively from the rain, sample was collected daily when available. Samples were then pooled weekly, carefully prepared and submitted to radiochemical analysis. Radiochemical characterization of phosphogypsum and percolated water was performed by radiochemical separation followed by gross alpha and beta counting ({sup 226} Ra, {sup 228} Ra and {sup 210} Pb) and UV-Vis spectrophotometry with Arsenazo III (U and Th). This experiment was carried out from 12/01/1999 to 01/22/2001, with a precipitation of 2,732 mm. It was observed that approximately 40% (534 L) of the rain fall percolated through the lysimeter 1. The analysis of 22 samples of percolated water from lysimeter 1 showed mean radionuclides activities of 70{+-}30 mBqL{sup -1}, 70{+-}50 mBqL{sup -1}, 100{+-}60 mBqL{sup -1} and 110{+-}55 mBqL{sup -1} for U, {sup 226} Ra, {sup 228} Ra and {sup 210} Pb, respectively. Thorium activities were below detection limit. (author)

  13. Radiation-Induced Neoplasms in Beagles after Administrations of 90Sr and 226Ra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comparative carcinogenic efficiency of two bone-seeking radionuclides is under study in a colony of several hundred beagles. The toxicity of internally deposited alpha emitters (226Ra and its daughters) and of beta irradiation (90Sr) at comparable dosage rates indicates marked differences in site of appearance and mode of action in litters studied up to 7 years of age. Radiation carcinogenesis in beagles exposed to 90Sr daily from midgestation to adulthood (1.5 yr) is at present confined to dogs fed 4 μCi 90Sr/d or higher. The 20 cases constitute a spectrum of myeloproliferative disorders characterized by terminal anaemias, and ranging from myeloid metaplasia to granulocytic leukaemia. Continuous high-level 90Sr irradiation to bone and marrow from early life onward causes a thickened hypocellular bone ('pachyostosis'), some instances of myelofibrosis, and persistent mild leukopenia on which the final spectrum of terminal disoideis is superimposed. In contrast, up to 100 μCl 226Ra given intravenously (8 equally spaced injections at 14 to 18 months of age) to young adults is not a potent marrow cell carcinogen. The higher LET, shorter-range alpha particles are efficient in inducing bone cancers (14 cases) and skeletal lesions similar to those documented in watch-dial luminizers exposed to 226Ra in the early 1900's. The incidence of haematopoietic and skeletal neoplasms observed is dose-rate related, and the morphologic characteristics have several analogues in human cancer. The use of identically treated litters rather than individuals affords additional opportunity to study possible familial factors in the distribution of the neoplasms. Pathogenic evaluation at this juncture strongly indicates that continued bone and marrow irradiation in early life is more likely to induce haematopoietic neoplasms than is skeletal irradiation starting in young adulthood, which induces osseous neoplasms. (author)

  14. Radium-226 in water, sediments, and fish from lakes near the city of Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clulow, F V; Davé, N K; Lim, T P; Avadhanula, R

    1998-01-01

    Ra-226 was measured by alpha-emission spectroscopy in water, sediments, and fish (tissues and gut contents), from five lakes in a watershed containing U mining and milling operations at Elliot Lake, Ontario, and from control lakes in an adjacent non-industrialized watershed. Ra-226 transfer parameters from lake water and sediments to fish tissues, and annual intakes by humans consuming fish, were estimated. Mean dissolved 226Ra levels ranged from approximately 76 mBq litre(-1) in water of the most affected lake, to Ra-226 levels in lake trout muscle were low and showed erratic variation among lakes whereas levels in whitefish muscle did not vary significantly among study and control sites. Lake herring (= cisco, Coregonus artedii), a planktivorous fish taken only from Quirke Lake, had mean 226Ra levels of 18 and 1.4 mBq g(-1) dry wt in bone and muscle, respectively. Gut 226Ra levels, highest in lake trout from McCabe and Quirke Lakes (126 +/- 53, 64 +/- 44 mBq g(-1) dry wt, respectively), and just detectable in McCabe and Elliot Lake whitefish (24 +/- 2, 36 +/- 14 mBq g(-1) dry wt, respectively), were below detection in lake trout and whitefish from other lakes. Concentration ratios (CRs) of 226Ra from water to muscle ranged from 8 to 14 in lake trout, 7 to 14 in whitefish, and 4 to 6 in lake herring. The water to bone CRs varied from 81 to 142, 314 to 548, and 126 to 272 in the same species. CRs were always 2 mSv year(-1)) and the public dose limit (5 mSv year(-1)).

  15. Modeling 226Ra behaviour in a Spanish estuary affected by the phosphate industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behaviour of 226Ra in a system like this estuary is complex since radionuclides are affected by tidal actions and interactions with sediments through adsorption/desorption reactions and erosion/deposition processes. A numerical 2D depth-averaged model of the estuary has been developed, including processes mentioned above. It has been applied to reproduce experimental data measured after a release from the industrial complex in the Odiel River and after an accidental release in the Tinto River from the gypsum piles. The model has also been applied to simulate the self-cleaning process observed in the estuary after the direct releases from the fertilizer complex were stopped

  16. Determination of 226Ra and 224Ra in drinking waters by liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for the determination of Ra-isotopes in water samples has been developed. Ra is coprecipitated with Ba as sulphate. The precipitate is then dissolved with EDTA and counted with a liquid scintillation system after mixing with a scintillation cocktail. The study of the temporal evolution of the separated activity gives the isotopic composition of the sample, i.e. the 224Ra and 226Ra contribution to the total activity. The method has been applied to some Spanish drinking waters. (author)

  17. Laser-trapping of Ra-225 and Ra-226 with repumping by room temperature blackbody radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Guest, J R; Scielzo, N. D.; Ahmad, I.; Bailey, K.; Greene, J. P.; Holt, R J; Lu, Z. -T.; O'Connor, T. P.; Potterveld, D. H.

    2007-01-01

    We have demonstrated Zeeman slowing and capture of neutral Ra-225 and Ra-226 atoms in a magneto-optical trap (MOT). The intercombination transition 1S0-3P1 is the only quasi-cycling transition in radium and was used for laser-cooling and trapping. Repumping along the 3D1-1P1 transition extended the lifetime of the trap from milliseconds to seconds. Room-temperature blackbody radiation was demonstrated to provide repumping from the metastable 3P0 level. We measured the isotope shift and hyperf...

  18. Radium-226 and radon-222 in domestic water of Houston-Harris County, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study showed that anomalous concentrations of Ra-226 and Rn-222 exist in parts of the upper Texas Gulf Coast. While all factors influencing the distribution and fate of pollutants in underground porous media might not be easy to measure or even identify, often the very expectation of this great complexity prevents one from observing patterns that otherwise might be quite helpful. The findings summarized in this communication present an encouraging picture for predicting depths and locations in the Gulf Coast where elevated Ra and Rn concentrations may be encountered. Two to four key variables accounted for the statistically significant variation (from 38 to 74 percent) in concentrations observed under field conditions

  19. Optical re-brightening of the black hole binary XTE J1859+226

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral-Santana, J. M.; Rodríguez-Gil, P.; Hurley, D.; Casares, J.

    2010-09-01

    Observations of the black hole binary XTE J1859+226 revealed an unexpected optical re-brightening. Images were taken with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) using ALFOSC on Jul 13-14, the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) with ACAM on Aug 8 and the Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) with WFC on Aug 19 at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Spain. The target is found ~1 magnitude brighter than its quiescence level of R=22.48 +- 0.07 as reported in Zurita et al.

  20. Surface water mixing estimated from {sup 228}Ra and {sup 226}Ra in the northwestern North Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, Hajime [Mutsu Institute for Oceanography, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, 690 Aza-kitasekine Oaza-sekine, Mutsu, Aomori 035-0022 (Japan)], E-mail: kawakami@jamstec.go.jp; Kusakabe, Masashi [Department of Ocean Research, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, 2-15 Natsushimacho, Yokosuka 237-0061 (Japan)], E-mail: masashi@nirs.go.jp

    2008-08-15

    We investigated the horizontal distributions of {sup 228}Ra and {sup 226}Ra in surface waters of the northwestern North Pacific Ocean and Okhotsk Sea. Ratios of {sup 228}Ra/{sup 226}Ra were relatively large in the Tsugaru Current (0.6-0.8) and Okhotsk Sea (0.4-0.5), and small in the Western Subarctic Gyre (<0.2) and the Oyashio (0.25-0.3). {sup 228}Ra/{sup 226}Ra ratios in western Subarctic Water (SAW) rose slightly upon mixing with Okhotsk Water (OKW), before becoming the Oyashio Water (OYW). Also, ratios in the OYW increased during mixing with Tsugaru Current Water (TCW). Estimating from {sup 228}Ra/{sup 226}Ra ratios and {sup 226}Ra activities with a simple two-end members-mixing model, we assumed that approximately 23% of the OYW originated from the OKW and the coastal region off northern Honshu (Japan) was strongly influenced by the TCW. From a diagram of {sup 228}Ra activities against salinity, we could roughly divide surface seawater in the study area into the five water masses, which were SAW, OYW, OKW, TCW, and Subtropical Water (STW)

  1. Field analyses of 238U and 226Ra in two uranium mill tailings piles from Niger using portable HPGe detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactivities of 238U and 226Ra in mill tailings from the U mines of COMINAK and SOMAÏR in Niger were measured and quantified using a portable High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. The 238U and 226Ra activities were measured under field conditions on drilling cores with 600s measurements and without any sample preparation. Field results were compared with those obtained by Inductive Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and emanometry techniques. This comparison indicates that gamma-ray absorption by such geological samples does not cause significant deviations. This work shows the feasibility of using portable HPGe detector in the field as a preliminary method to observe variations of radionuclides concentration with the aim of identifying samples of interest. The HPGe is particularly useful for samples with strong secular disequilibrium such as mill tailings. - Highlights: • A portable HPGe was used in the field to quantify 238U and 226Ra in mill tailings. • 238U and 226Ra quantification was performed on samples with strong radioactive disequilibrium. • HPGe measurements are compared with results obtained on the same samples by ICP-AES and emanometry. • We show the vertical distributions of U and 226Ra measured in two ∼30 m mill tailings piles. • Portable HPGe can be used directly in the field to observe slight variations of content

  2. Self-cleaning in an estuarine area formerly affected by 226Ra anthropogenic enhancements. Numerical simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A numerical model of the Odiel-Tinto estuary (Spain) has been developed to study the self-cleaning process that was evidenced from 226Ra measurements in water and sediments collected in the period 1999-2002, after direct releases from a fertilizer complex ceased (in 1998). The hydrodynamic model is first calibrated, and standard tidal analysis is carried out to calculate tidal constants required by the dispersion code to determine instantaneous water currents and elevations over the estuary. In this way, long-term simulations may be carried out. The dispersion code includes advective/diffusive transport of radionuclides plus exchanges with bottom sediments described through a kinetic approach. The dispersion model is first tested by comparing computed and measured 226Ra concentrations over the estuary resulting after releases in the Odiel and Tinto rivers. Next, it is applied to simulate the self-cleaning process of the estuary. The time evolution of radium concentrations in bed sediments is in generally good agreement with observations. The computed sediment halving time of the estuary is 510 days, which also is in good agreement with that estimated from measurements

  3. Adopted levels and derived limits for Ra-226 and the decision making processes concerning TENORM releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fraction of a primary dose limit can be, in general, agreed upon as a dose related level to be adopted in decision-making processes. In the case of TENORM releases, fractions of primary dose levels for 226Ra, 228Ra, and 210Po may be of particular importance to establish adopted levels for 226Ra could be adopted at the highest portion of the natural background variation. Above such level, intervention and remedial action levels could also be adopted. All those levels would be fractions of the primary level, but translated in terms of derived limits expressed in practical units. Derived limits would then be calculated by using environmental models. In such approach 'critical groups' would have to be carefully defined and identified. In addition, the size of a critical group would be chosen to be used in environmental modeling. Site specific environmental models and parameters are desirable, though unavailable, or very difficult to obtain, in most cases. Thus, mathematical models and parameters of more generic nature are often used. A sensitive parametric analysis can make a ranking of the parameters used in a model, allowing one to choose how important each parameter will be for the model output. The paper will point out that when using the adopted levels and derived limits, as suggested above, the uncertainties and importance of the parameters entering an environmental model can make the difference for decision makers to take the right or wrong decision, as far as radiological protection is concerned. (author)

  4. Dissemination and transmission of the E1-226V variant of chikungunya virus in Aedes albopictus are controlled at the midgut barrier level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Arias-Goeta

    Full Text Available Emergence of arboviruses could result from their ability to exploit new environments, for example a new host. This ability is facilitated by the high mutation rate occurring during viral genome replication. The last emergence of chikungunya in the Indian Ocean region corroborates this statement since a single viral mutation at the position 226 on the E1 glycoprotein (E1-A226V was associated with enhanced transmission by the mosquito Aedes albopictus in regions where the major mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, is absent.We used direct competition assays in vivo to dissect out the mechanisms underlying the selection of E1-226V by Ae. albopictus. When the original variant E1-226A and the newly emerged E1-226V were provided in the same blood-meal at equal titers to both species of mosquitoes, we found that the proportion of both variants was drastically different in the two mosquito species. Following ingestion of the infectious blood-meal, the E1-226V variant was preferentially selected in Ae. albopictus, whereas the E1-226A variant was sometimes favored in Ae. aegypti. Interestingly, when the two variants were introduced into the mosquitoes by intrathoracic inoculations, E1-226V was no longer favored for dissemination and transmission in Ae. albopictus, showing that the midgut barrier plays a key role in E1-226V selection.This study sheds light on the role of the midgut barrier in the selection of novel arbovirus emerging variants. We also bring new insight into how the pre-existing variant E1-226V was selected among other viral variants including E1-226A. Indeed the E1-226V variant present at low levels in natural viral populations could rapidly emerge after being selected in Ae. albopictus at the midgut barrier level.

  5. Uranium and radium-226 in the environment of the post-uranium mining areas in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kardas, M.; Suplinska, M.; Ciupek, K. [Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection (Poland)

    2014-07-01

    The work carried out under the project NCBiR - 'Technologies Supporting Development of Safe Nuclear Power Engineering'; Task 3: Meeting the Polish nuclear power engineering's demand for fuel - fundamental aspects. Depending on location, environmental components may have different concentration levels of radionuclides. Main source of uranium and radium in the natural environment is atmospheric precipitation of the material resulting weathering and erosion of older rocks, enhanced due to human activity by fertilizers used in agriculture and fossil fuel combustion. The waste heaps and dumps, especially derived from post-uranium mining and phosphate fertilizer industry are the another source of uranium and radium in the environment. Our studies include post-uranium mining areas (inactive mines and waste dumps) and those adjacent meadows and grassland at the area of the Giant Mountains (Karkonosze Mountains) in the south-west Poland. Samples of soil and mineral material from mine shafts, water samples from ponds, streams and small rivers and vegetation samples (grass, alfalfa, birch leaves) were analyzed. Also, similar samples from agricultural regions of Poland were examined as a reference level. Uranium isotopes were determined by radiochemical method (ion exchange and extraction) and activity measurement using alpha spectrometry. Concentration of {sup 226}Ra was determined radiochemically using emanation method. For the validation of the method, determinations of uranium isotopes and radium-226 in reference samples were performed. Depending on location, the different levels of activity concentration of analyzed radionuclides were detected. Samples from the mine shafts and dumps, both water and soil, were characterized by the activity concentrations of {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra even by several orders higher than outside of those areas. The concentrations of the radionuclides in the areas located in further distances from mine and dumps are similar to

  6. Biological characterization of PM226, a chromenoisoxazole, as a selective CB2 receptor agonist with neuroprotective profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Cañas, M; Morales, P; García-Toscano, L; Navarrete, C; Muñoz, E; Jagerovic, N; Fernández-Ruiz, J; García-Arencibia, M; Pazos, M R

    2016-08-01

    Cannabinoids have emerged as promising neuroprotective agents due to their capability to activate specific targets, which are involved in the control of neuronal homeostasis and survival. Specifically, those ligands that selectively target and activate the CB2 receptor may be useful for their anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties in various neurological disorders, with the advantage of being devoid of psychotropic effects associated with the activation of CB1 receptors. The aim of this work has been to investigate the neuroprotective properties of 7-(1,1-dimethylheptyl)-4,4-dimethyl-9-methoxychromeno[3,4-d]isoxazole (PM226), a compound derived from a series of chromeno-isoxazoles and -pyrazoles, which seems to have a promising profile related to the CB2 receptor. The compound binds selectively to this receptor with an affinity in the nanomolar range (Ki=12.8±2.4nM). It has negligible affinity for the CB1 receptor (Ki>40000nM) and no activity at the GPR55. PM226 was also evaluated in GTPγS binding assays specific to the CB2 receptor showing agonist activity (EC50=38.67±6.70nM). In silico analysis of PM226 indicated that it has a good pharmacokinetic profile and a predicted ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. Next, PM226 was investigated in an in vitro model to explore its anti-inflammatory/neuroprotective properties. Conditioned media were collected from LPS-stimulated cultures of BV2 microglial cell line in the absence or presence of different doses of PM226, and then media were added to cultured M213-2O neuronal cells to record their influence on cell viability evaluated using MTT assays. As expected, cell viability was significantly reduced by the exposure to these conditioned media, while the addition of PM226 attenuated this reduction in a dose-dependent manner. This effect was reversed by co-incubating with the CB2 antagonist SR144528, thus confirming the involvement of CB2 receptors, whereas the addition of PM226 to neuronal cultures

  7. 238U, 234U, 226Ra, 210Po concentrations of bottled mineral waters in Italy and their dose contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the importance of bottled mineral water in human diet with special regard to children in lactation period, a monitoring of natural radioactivity in some bottled mineral waters produced in Italy was performed. Gross alpha and beta activities and 226Ra, 238U, 234U, and 210Po concentrations were measured. Gross alpha and beta activities were determined by standards ISO 9696 and ISO 9697; for 226Ra determination liquid scintillation was used. The 238U and 234U concentrations were determined by alpha spectrometry after their separation from matrix by extraction chromatography and electroplating. 210Po was measured by alpha spectrometry. The results revealed that the concentrations (mBq L-1) of 226Ra, 238U, 234U, and 210Po ranged from -1; for infants (-1

  8. Concentration of natural radionuclides (40K, 228Ra and 226Ra) in vegetables and fruits collected around Kudankulam, South India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baseline activity concentration of the natural radio nuclides 40K, 228Ra and 226Ra in vegetables and fruits was determined around Kudankulam. In many of the samples, 228Ra and 226Ra was below minimum detection limit. 40K was found to be more in leafy vegetables followed by pods, tubers and fleshy fruits. The highest accumulator among the matrices was the leafy vegetables with the geometric mean of 189.47 Bq.kg-1 fresh for vegetables and fruits with the geometric mean of 128.95 Bq.kg-1 fresh. 228Ra activity in vegetables and fruits ranged from 0.074 to 1.153 and 0.074 to 0.131 Bq.kg-l fresh respectively. 226Ra in vegetables and fruits ranged from BDL to 0.07 and BDL-.044 Bq.kg-l fresh respectively. 40K in vegetables and fruits followed a log normal distribution. (author)

  9. An evaluation of 226Ra and 228Ra in drinking water in several counties in Texas, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) or Technology Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (TENORM) can be a potential health risk. It is now well known that the underlying geology in many parts of Texas has given rise to levels of 226Ra and 228Ra that often exceed the limits set by the US Environmental Protection Agency. A detailed literature search was undertaken to assess the levels of 226Ra and 228Ra in all of the Texas counties. Several statistical evaluations of the data were performed. The Hickory aquifer in the Llano Uplift region of Texas has consistently had the highest number of 226Ra and 228Ra concentrations above the legal limit. As well many of the affected rural communities may not have the financial resources to rectify the problem

  10. Simultaneous determination of gross alpha, gross beta and 226Ra in natural water by liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of gross alpha, gross beta and 226Ra activity in natural waters is useful in a wide range of environmental studies. Furthermore, gross alpha and gross beta parameters are included in international legislation on the quality of drinking water [Council Directive 98/83/EC]. In this work, a low-background liquid scintillation counter (Wallac, Quantulus 1220) was used to simultaneously determine gross alpha, gross beta and 226Ra activity in natural water samples. Sample preparation involved evaporation to remove 222Rn and its short-lived decay daughters. The evaporation process concentrated the sample ten-fold. Afterwards, a sample aliquot of 8 mL was mixed with 12 mL of Ultima Gold AB scintillation cocktail in low-diffusion vials. In this study, a theoretical mathematical model based on secular equilibrium conditions between 226Ra and its short-lived decay daughters is presented. The proposed model makes it possible to determine 226Ra activity from two measurements. These measurements also allow determining gross alpha and gross beta simultaneously. To validate the proposed model, spiked samples with different activity levels for each parameter were analysed. Additionally, to evaluate the model's applicability in natural water, eight natural water samples from different parts of Spain were analysed. The eight natural water samples were also characterised by alpha spectrometry for the naturally occurring isotopes of uranium (234U, 235U and 238U), radium (224Ra and 226Ra), 210Po and 232Th. The results for gross alpha and 226Ra activity were compared with alpha spectrometry characterization, and an acceptable concordance was obtained

  11. [CD226 monoclonal antibody induces variation of intracytosolic free calcium level in human umbilical vein endothelial cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Hua; Liu, Xue-Song; Liu, Fei; Jin, Bo-Quan

    2003-06-25

    In order to study the possible mechanism of CD226 monoclonal antibody (mAb)-mediated intracellular message transduction in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), the influence of CD226 mAb and its cross-linking by secondary antibody (II Ab) on the concentration changes in [Ca(2+)](i) in the HUVECs under different conditions were determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The main results are as follows. (1) When the culture medium was balanced by Hanks Buffer, [Ca(2+)](i) in HUVECs increased slowly after stimulation by CD226 mAb, whereas [Ca(2+)](i) increase was accompanied by [Ca(2+)](o) decrease after the mAb was cross-linked by goat anti-mouse IgG. Then [Ca(2+)](i) and [Ca(2+)](o) all returned to the normal level. (2) When the culture medium was balanced by D-Hanks buffer, [Ca(2+)](i) in HUVECs showed little variation when the cells were stimulated by CD226 mAb, but [Ca(2+)](i) decreased markedly after cross-linking. (3) When HUVECs were pretreated with EGTA, there was no variation in [Ca(2+)](i) of HUVECs after CD226 mAb stimulation alone or cross-linking of the mAb. Our results suggest that stimulation by CD226 mAb and cross-linking by goat anti-mouse IgG induce the variation of [Ca(2+)](i) in HUVECs under different conditions and the variation of [Ca(2+)](i) in HUVECs may play an important role in many physiological and pathological processes. PMID:12817306

  12. Measurement of the Natural Content of Th228, Ra226 and their Daughters in the Human Body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of these investigations was the determination of both the content and the distribution of the alpha emitters radium-226, thorium-228 and polonium-210 in the human body. The content of radium-226 in human bones and soft tissues was determined by the emanation method, the content of polonium-210 by chemical enrichment followed by measuring the activity in a methane flow counter. The thorium-228 content as well as the total alpha activity was measured by means of a specially- developed scintillation method, the so-called mixing method. The content of radium-226 in human bones and organs related to the patient's age is performed in order to get information on the incorporation of this nuclide at continuous administration of extremely low amounts. As to bones and soft tissues the specific activity of radium-226 in man showed to be constant from the fourth month of pregnancy up to an age as high as 80 yr. The content of polonium-210 and lead-210 in femur and tibia bones was measured in order to determine the ratio of polonium-210 and lead-210 in the human skeleton of the living organism. This ratio is 0.8 on the average. The ratio of thorium-228 and radium-226 in human bone ashes is about 0.4. The age of the examined persons ranged from 5 to 70 yr. As a result of these investigations the human radiation burden caused by the radium-226, thorium-228 and polonium-210 content was estimated. (author)

  13. Radioactivity of Natural Nuclides (40K, 238U, 232Th, 226Ra) in Coals from Eastern Yunnan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Xin Wang; Qiyan Feng; Ruoyu Sun; Guijian Liu

    2015-01-01

    The naturally occurring primordial radionuclides in coals might exhibit high radioactivity, and can be exported to the surrounding environment during coal combustion. In this study, nine coal samples were collected from eastern Yunnan coal deposits, China, aiming at characterizing the overall radioactivity of some typical nuclides (i.e., 40K, 238U, 232Th, 226Ra) and assessing their ecological impact. The mean activity concentrations of 238U, 232Th, 40K and 226Ra are 63.86 (17.70–92.30 Bq· kg-...

  14. The average concentrations of 226Ra and 210Pb in foodstuff cultivated in the Pocos de Caldas plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The average concentrations of 226Ra and 210Pb in vegetables cultivated in the Pocos de Caldas plateau, mainly potatoes, carrots, beans and corn and the estimation of the average transfer factors soil-foodstuff for both radionuclides, were performed. The total 226Ra and 210Pb content in the soil was determined by gamma spectrometry. The exchangeable fraction was obtained by the classical radon emanation procedure and the 210Pb was isolated by a radiochemical procedure and determined by radiometry of its daughter 210Bi beta emissions with a Geiger Muller Counter. (M.A.C.)

  15. Risk of 226 Ra ingestion due to water consumption from phosphatic regions of the Northeast of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geological survey performed in the coastal region of the Northeast of Brazil showed presence of uranium phosphate deposits in a land strip corresponding to the Pernambuco-Paraiba sedimentary basin. The local population uses the water that crosses phosphate area, with higher than normal concentration of uranium and its progeny. this work is aimed to determine the cancer risk, based on the rate of ingestion the 226 Ra due to water consumption. The results of the analyses showed increments of 7% for head sarcoma and 3% for osteosarcomas occurrences due to 226 Ra ingestion for the local population. (author)

  16. Magmatic Processes at Loihi Seamount Inferred From 226Ra-230Th-234U-238U Disequilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietruszka, A. J.; Hauri, E. H.; Garcia, M. O.

    2001-12-01

    We have conducted a detailed study of the U-series isotope geochemistry of young tholeiitic, transitional and alkalic Loihi basalts to examine the melt generation process during the preshield stage of a Hawaiian volcano. A previous study (Sims et al. 1999; GCA, v. 63) of two dredged lavas from the deep flanks of Loihi found a higher (230Th/238U) activity ratio in an alkalic basalt (1.07) compared to a tholeiitic basalt (1.04). This difference suggests that the tholeiitic basalt may have formed at a higher rate of mantle upwelling than the alkalic basalt. Our samples were collected from surface lava flows at Loihi's summit and along the volcano's south rift zone by submersible. Analyses were preformed using high-precision plasma ionization mass spectrometry. The samples display a relatively large range in the amount of excess 226Ra (0-13%) that extends to much lower values than observed at Kilauea Volcano (11-12%). The low (226Ra/230Th) ratios of Loihi lavas probably result from post-eruptive decay of 226Ra and imply eruption ages of 0-12 kyr. All of the Loihi samples (including the 1996 lava) have small amounts of excess 234U (0.2-0.8%). The most likely source for (234U/238U)>1 at Loihi is seawater, which has (234U/238U)=1.14. Since all of the samples were fresh, hand-picked glasses, these elevated (234U/238U) ratios may have resulted from the assimilation of a seawater-derived component within Loihi's magmatic plumbing system rather than post-eruptive U addition. The range of (230Th/238U) that we measured is 1.01-1.07, which is larger than the previous range known for Loihi. Mass balance calculations using the measured (234U/238U) ratios suggest that 1-6% of the U in the samples that we analyzed is ultimately derived from seawater. Correcting the 230Th-238U disequilibria of the Loihi lavas for this seawater-derived U results in a narrower range in the amount of excess 230Th (6-9%) with no significant differences between tholeiitic, transitional or alkalic basalts

  17. Soil to plant transfer of 226Ra in a marsh area; Modelling application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Odiel river forms an estuarine system which surrounds a large marsh area. A phosphate fertilizer processing complex releases its wastes into the estuary. The presence of 226Ra in soils and plants (Spartina Densiflora) from the marsh has been investigated. Concentrations up to 700 and 15 mBq g-1 have been detected in soil and plant samples, respectively. Soil to plant concentration ratios have been calculated and some activity ratios have also been investigated. A model which is able to simulate the dispersion of radionuclides in the marsh has been applied. The model includes the exchange of radionuclides between water and the solid phase (suspended matter and bottom sediments) and the transfer of radionuclides to the plants. Model results are, in general, in good agreement with measurements. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  18. A226V mutation in virus during the 2007 chikungunya outbreak in Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, N Pradeep; Joseph, Rajan; Kamaraj, T; Jambulingam, P

    2008-08-01

    Kerala State in India was gripped by a renewed and widespread outbreak of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection during 2007. Here, we report the A226V mutation in the glycoprotein envelope 1 (E1) gene of the virus among isolates collected from the three worst-affected districts of the state during this outbreak. This mutation had already been suggested to be directly responsible for a significant increase in CHIKV infectivity in Aedes albopictus. The badly affected districts in Kerala State during 2007 have abundant rubber plantations, which supported prolific breeding of Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. The abundance of Ae. albopictus in the region and molecular evolution of CHIKV may be contributing factors for the renewed epidemic of chikungunya fever during 2007. PMID:18632966

  19. Assessment of radium-226 in two cases of radium luminizers using whole-body counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two technicians from Kuwait working in dial painting were measured by the Egyptian A.E.E. whole-body counter in order to assess radium luminizers' activity and the corresponding dose delivered. In this case, the fraction of radon built up in the body had expired and the quoted values of radium were obtained by the measured content of 214Bi. Also, two normal persons from the same area having the same body build were measured to assess their levels of 137Cs and potassium to be taken as background for the incorporated persons. In spite of the decrease in radium-226 activity with time, there was an increase of the activity of its products which led to the increase of the assessed dose. The dose estimated has been calculated after 50 yr representing the life span of the individuals. (author)

  20. Laser trapping of 225Ra and 226Ra with repumping by room-temperature blackbody radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, J R; Scielzo, N D; Ahmad, I; Bailey, K; Greene, J P; Holt, R J; Lu, Z-T; O'Connor, T P; Potterveld, D H

    2007-03-01

    We have demonstrated Zeeman slowing and capture of neutral 225Ra and 226Ra atoms in a magneto-optical trap. The intercombination transition 1S0-->3P1 is the only quasicycling transition in radium and was used for laser-cooling and trapping. Repumping along the 3D1-->1P1 transition extended the lifetime of the trap from milliseconds to seconds. Room-temperature blackbody radiation was demonstrated to provide repumping from the metastable 3P0 level. We measured the isotope shift and hyperfine splittings on the 3D1-->1P1 transition with the laser-cooled atoms, and set a limit on the lifetime of the 3D1 level based on the measured blackbody repumping rate. Laser-cooled and trapped radium is an attractive system for studying fundamental symmetries. PMID:17359153

  1. Concentration of Ra-226 in Malaysian Drinking and Bottled Mineral Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Y. B. Mohd; Jemangin, M. H.; Mahat, R. H.

    2010-07-01

    The concentration of the radionuclide 226Ra was determined in the drinking water which was taken from various sources. It was found that the concentration varies from non-detectable (ND) to highest value of 0.30 Bq per liter. The concentration was found to be high in mineral water as compare with surface water such as domestic pipe water. Some of these values have exceeded the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) of America regulations. The activity concentrations obtained are compared with data from other countries. The estimated annual effective doses from drinking the water are determined. The values obtained range from 0.02 mSv to about 0.06 mSv per year.

  2. Laser-trapping of Ra-225 and Ra-226 with repumping by room temperature blackbody radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Guest, J R; Bailey, K; Greene, J P; Holt, R J; Lu, Z T; O'Connor, T P; Potterveld, D H; Scielzo, N D

    2007-01-01

    We have demonstrated Zeeman slowing and capture of neutral Ra-225 and Ra-226 atoms in a magneto-optical trap (MOT). The intercombination transition 1S0-3P1 is the only quasi-cycling transition in radium and was used for laser-cooling and trapping. Repumping along the 3D1-1P1 transition extended the lifetime of the trap from milliseconds to seconds. Room-temperature blackbody radiation was demonstrated to provide repumping from the metastable 3P0 level. We measured the isotope shift and hyperfine splittings on the 3D1-1P1 transition with the laser-cooled atoms, and set a limit on the lifetime of the 3D1 level based on the measured blackbody repumping rate. Laser-cooled and trapped radium is an attractive system for studying fundamental symmetries.

  3. Method for determination of radium-226 in water by liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical procedure involves the isolation or radium from the sample solution by co-precipitation with lead sulphate. The precipitate is dissolved in alkaline DTPA. The radium isotopes are separated from other radionuclides by co-precipitation with barium sulphate. The barium/radium precipitate is dissolved in alkaline EDTA, the solution is transfered to a liquid scintillation vial and the organic scintillant is added. After sealing, the sample is left until equilibrium between Ra-226 and Rn-222 is established or until a suitable ingrowth time has elapsed. The alpha activity of Rn-222 and its short-lived daughters, Po-218 and Po-214, are measured by the use of a commercial liquid scintillation counter. By using the following procedure and a low level LSC a lover limit of detection of 2 mBq/sample can be achieved

  4. Computer-controlled system for rapid soil analysis of 226Ra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer-controlled multichannel analysis system has been developed by the Radiological Survey Activities Group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the Department of Energy (DOE) in support of the DOE's remedial action programs. The purpose of this system is to provide a rapid estimate of the 226Ra concentration in soil samples using a 6 x 9-in. NaI(Tl) crystal containing a 3.25-in. deep by 3.5-in. diameter well. This gamma detection system is controlled by a mini-computer with a dual floppy disk storage medium. A two-chip interface was also designed at ORNL which handles all control signals generated from the computer keyboard. These computer-generated control signals are processed in machine language for rapid data transfer and BASIC language is used for data processing

  5. Prompt γ-rays emitted in fission of 226Ra by 12 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total energy associated with the emission of prompt γ-rays in fission of 226Ra induced by 12 MeV protons was measured in correlation with the fragment mass and kinetic energy. The dependence of the average total γ-ray energy on fragment mass and total kinetic energy resembles the corresponding dependence of the average number of neutrons. Using these results and the results for the average number of neutrons, the excitation energy of the fragments at the scission point was calculated. The results support the view that the scission-point configuration for the symmetric fission mode is more elongated than that for the asymmetric mode. (B.G.)

  6. Adopted levels and derived limits for Ra-226 and the decision making processes concerning TENORM releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fraction of a primary dose limit can be, in general, agreed upon as a dose related level to be adopted in decision-making processes. In the case of TENORM releases, fractions of primary dose levels for 226Ra, 228Ra, and 210Po may be of particular importance to establish adopted levels and derived limits to guide decision making processes. Thus, for example, a registration level for 226Ra could be adopted at the highest portion of the natural background variation. Above such level, intervention and remedial action levels could also be adopted. All those levels would be fractions of the primary level, but translated in terms of derived limits expressed in practical units. Derived limits would then be calculated by using environmental models. In such approach 'critical groups' would have to be carefully defined and identified. In addition, the size of a critical group would be chosen to be used in environmental modeling. Site specific environmental models and parameters are desirable, though unavailable, or very difficult to obtain, in most cases. Thus, mathematical models and parameters of more generic nature are often used. A sensitive parametric analysis can make a ranking of the parameters used in a model, allowing one to choose how important each parameter will be for the model output. The paper will point out that when using the adopted levels and derived limits, as suggested above, the uncertainties and importance of the parameters entering an environmental model can make the difference for decision makers to take the right or wrong decision, as far as radiological protection is concerned. (author)

  7. 50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the USGS publication and maps may be... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205...

  8. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon 3 Table 3 to... Part 226—Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River... Snake—Asotin 17060103 17060103 17060103 Upper Grande Ronde 17060104 Wallowa 17060105 Lower Grande...

  9. A theoretical model for the production of Ac-225 for cancer therapy by photon-induced transmutation of Ra-226.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, G; Fan Liu, Sau; Allen, B J

    2006-09-01

    Radium needles that were once implanted into tumours as a cancer treatment are now obsolete and constitute a radioactive waste problem, as their half-life is 1600 years. We are investigating the reduction of radium by transmutation on a small scale by bombarding Ra-226 with high-energy photons from a medical linear accelerator (linac) to produce Ra-225, which subsequently decays to Ac-225, which can be used as a generator to produce Bi-213 for use in 'targeted alpha therapy' for cancer. This paper examines the possibility of producing Ac-225 with a linac using an accurate theoretical model in which the bremsstrahlung photon spectrum at 18 MV linac electron energy is convoluted with the corresponding photonuclear cross sections of Ra-226. The total integrated yield can then be obtained and is compared with a computer simulation. This study shows that at 18 MV, the photonuclear reaction on Ra-226 can produce low activities of Ac-225 with a linac. However, a high power linac with high current, pulse length and frequency is needed to produce practical amounts of Ac-225 and a useful reduction of Ra-226.

  10. Geochemical Speciation of Soil 7Be,137Cs,226Ra and 228Ra as Tracers to Particle Trnsport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BALZHANGUO; WANGUOJIANG; 等

    1997-01-01

    A brunisolic soil collected from an erosive forest land(HF-1-1) and a yellow soil from and accumulative shallow basin(HF-6-1) in the watershed of Lake Hongfeng (HF) were used for activity measurements of 7Be,137Cs,226Ra and 228Ra in different geochemical speciation.More than 85% of 7Be,137Cs,226Ra and 228Ra in the soils were bound to organic Fe-Mn oxy-hydroxide and residual fractions.They could move with soil particlesw and be used as tracers for the erosion and /or accumulation of soil particles.7Be gohemical specition in the soils agreed with its trace for seasonal particle transport.137Cs geohemial speciaiton was suitable for tracing soil particle accumulation and for sediment aating.226Ra and 228Ra were ombined in crystalline skeleton of clay minerals and mainly remained as residues in the soils and little was bound to the soluble,exchangeable and carbonate fractions.The differentiation of 226 Ra/228Ra activity ratios in different geoheical fractions in the soils could be used as a parameter to trace accumulation and /or erosion of soil particles.

  11. 226Ra Concentration of Hungarian Bottled Mineral Waters and Estimation of the Dose Deriving from Their Consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The concentration of 226Ra was measured in most of the bottled mineral waters commercially available in Hungary. The 226Ra concentration exceeded the 100 mBqL-1 value in six cases out of the investigated 29 types of mineral waters. In most of the cases, 226Ra concentration does not reach the 100 mBqL-1 value. 100-800 mBqL-1 values were found in five cases and 3 BqL-1 was measured in one case. This concentration means 0.3 mSvyear-1 dose load in case of 1 Lday-1 consumption, but in case of children (12-17 years old populace) it can reach the 1.6 mSvyear-1. When measuring the 226Ra concentration in soft drinks made from this latter mineral water, 2.6 BqL-1 concentration was determined which means 1.4 mSvyear-1 dose load in the 12-17 years age-group when 1 Lday-1 is consumed from these drinks. (author)

  12. Elimination of natural uranium and {sup 226}Ra from contaminated waters by rhizofiltration using Helianthus annuus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera Tome, F. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)], E-mail: fvt@unex.es; Blanco Rodriguez, P. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Lozano, J.C. [Laboratorio de Radiactividad Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)

    2008-04-15

    The elimination of natural uranium and {sup 226}Ra from contaminated waters by rhizofiltration was tested using Helianthus annuus L. (sunflower) seedlings growing in a hydroponic medium. Different experiments were designed to determine the optimum age of the seedlings for the remediation process, and also to study the principal way in which the radionuclides are removed from the solution by the sunflower roots. In every trial a precipitate appeared which contained a major fraction of the natural uranium and {sup 226}Ra. The results indicated that the seedlings themselves induced the formation of this precipitate. When four-week-old seedlings were exposed to contaminated water, a period of only 2 days was sufficient to remove the natural uranium and {sup 226}Ra from the solution: about 50% of the natural uranium and 70% of the {sup 226}Ra were fixed in the roots, and essentially the rest was found in the precipitate, with only very small percentages fixed in the shoots and left in solution.

  13. DISTRIBUITION OF 226Ra AND 228Ra IN UNDERGROUND WATER INTO THE SOUTH REGION OF SAO PAULO STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARVALHO DE JESUS, Sueli; CHIRINOS, Hugo;

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Monitor of natural radionuclides in aquatic raw is very important to guaranty the normal control level inthe environmental medium and the human. In this report were available the concentration of 226Ra and 228Ra inCananeia’s underground water, Iguape and Comprida Island into the south region of Sao Paulo state, by grossalpha and beta counting method. The concentration of 226Ra was variety into the interval 0.80 to 23 mBqL-1 inApril/2009 (rain period and into the interval 0.63 to 12 mBqL -1in August/2009 (dried period. The concentrationof 228Ra was variety into the interval 18 to 39 mBqL-1 in April/2009 and into the interval 15 to 72 mBqL-1 inAugust/2009. The Activities ratio of 228Ra/226Ra was variety into the interval 3.3 to 31.7 at rain period and 1.1 to26.7 at dried period. To compare the yield values of 226Ra and 228Ra these show high activity of the 228Raisotope. The calculate dose no arising the reference of effective dose level available by WHO.

  14. Review of the distribution of 210Pb in the world oceans and 210Pb/226Ra ratio as scavenging tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was first shown by Rama et al. (1961) that 210Pb has a very short residence time and is remove quickly from the surface waters by suspended particulate matter. Since the first application of the daughter-parent pair in the 238U series (210Pb/226Ra) for deep-scavenging studies by Craig et al (1973), a number of vertical profiles from major ocean basins have been published to investigate the residence time and scavenging rates of 210Pb. The vertical distributions of 210Pb in the deep-ocean vary widely, depending on its supply rates (the atmospheric deposition rate of 210Pb and production from 226Ra) and the intensity of scavenging. The inventories of 210Pb in the 3 distinct zones of the deep ocean (epipelagic, mesopelagic and bathypelagic zones) will be assessed and compared to the total supply rates. The variations in the scavenging intensities in these three zones will be assessed and presented. The inventory of 210Pb in the euphotic zone will be compared to the global atmospheric fallout data and the relative contribution of advection, production from 226Ra and atmospheric depositional input to the 210Pb inventory will be discussed. Evaluation of the distinct differences between different ocean basins in the supply rates as well as the scavenging intensities of 210Pb is assessed and the results will be presented. Using the 210Pb/226Ra ratios in the water column the scavenging residence times obtained for different ocean basins will be compared. The utility of 210Pb-226Ra pair towards studying boundary scavenging, sediment focusing/erosion, and settling velocity of particles based on the water column profiles, sediment trap data and inventories of 210Pb in sediments will also be presented. The utility of 210Pb as a tracer for other lithogenic elements in the marine environment will be discussed and the results will be summarized. (author)

  15. Analysis of radium-226 in high salinity wastewater from unconventional gas extraction by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tieyuan; Bain, Daniel; Hammack, Richard; Vidic, Radisav D

    2015-03-01

    Elevated concentration of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in wastewater generated from Marcellus Shale gas extraction is of great concern due to potential environmental and public health impacts. Development of a rapid and robust method for analysis of Ra-226, which is the major NORM component in this water, is critical for the selection of appropriate management approaches to properly address regulatory and public concerns. Traditional methods for Ra-226 determination require long sample holding time or long detection time. A novel method combining Inductively Coupled Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) with solid-phase extraction (SPE) to separate and purify radium isotopes from the matrix elements in high salinity solutions is developed in this study. This method reduces analysis time while maintaining requisite precision and detection limit. Radium separation is accomplished using a combination of a strong-acid cation exchange resin to separate barium and radium from other ions in the solution and a strontium-specific resin to isolate radium from barium and obtain a sample suitable for analysis by ICP-MS. Method optimization achieved high radium recovery (101 ± 6% for standard mode and 97 ± 7% for collision mode) for synthetic Marcellus Shale wastewater (MSW) samples with total dissolved solids as high as 171,000 mg/L. Ra-226 concentration in actual MSW samples with TDS as high as 415,000 mg/L measured using ICP-MS matched very well with the results from gamma spectrometry. The Ra-226 analysis method developed in this study requires several hours for sample preparation and several minutes for analysis with the detection limit of 100 pCi/L with RSD of 45% (standard mode) and 67% (collision mode). The RSD decreased to below 15% when Ra-226 concentration increased over 500 pCi/L.

  16. Functional characterisation of the regulation of CAAT enhancer binding protein alpha by GSK-3 phosphorylation of Threonines 222/226

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hastie CJ

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK3 activity is repressed following insulin treatment of cells. Pharmacological inhibition of GSK3 mimics the effect of insulin on Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase (PEPCK, Glucose-6 Phosphatase (G6Pase and IGF binding protein-1 (IGFBP1 gene expression. CAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPα regulates these gene promoters in liver and is phosphorylated on two residues (T222/T226 by GSK3, although the functional outcome of the phosphorylation has not been established. We aimed to establish whether CEBPα is a link between GSK3 and these gene promoters. Results C/EBPα represses the IGFBP1 thymine-rich insulin response element (TIRE, but mutation of T222 or T226 of C/EBPα to non-phosphorylatable alanines has no effect on C/EBPα activity in liver cells (towards the TIRE or a consensus C/EBP binding sequence. Phosphorylation of T222/T226 is decreased by GSK3 inhibition, suggesting GSK3 does phosphorylate T222/226 in intact cells. However, phosphorylation was not altered by treatment of liver cells with insulin. Meanwhile C/EBPα activity in 3T3 L1 preadipocytes was enhanced by mutation of T222/T226 and/or S230 to alanine residues. Finally, we demonstrate that C/EBPα is a very poor substrate for GSK3 in vitro and in cells. Conclusion The work demonstrates an important role for this domain in the regulation of C/EBPα activity in adipocytes but not hepatocytes, however GSK3 phosphorylation of these residues does not mediate regulation of this C/EBP activity. In short, we find no evidence that C/EBPα activity is regulated by direct phosphorylation by GSK3.

  17. Analysis of radium-226 in high salinity wastewater from unconventional gas extraction by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tieyuan; Bain, Daniel; Hammack, Richard; Vidic, Radisav D

    2015-03-01

    Elevated concentration of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in wastewater generated from Marcellus Shale gas extraction is of great concern due to potential environmental and public health impacts. Development of a rapid and robust method for analysis of Ra-226, which is the major NORM component in this water, is critical for the selection of appropriate management approaches to properly address regulatory and public concerns. Traditional methods for Ra-226 determination require long sample holding time or long detection time. A novel method combining Inductively Coupled Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) with solid-phase extraction (SPE) to separate and purify radium isotopes from the matrix elements in high salinity solutions is developed in this study. This method reduces analysis time while maintaining requisite precision and detection limit. Radium separation is accomplished using a combination of a strong-acid cation exchange resin to separate barium and radium from other ions in the solution and a strontium-specific resin to isolate radium from barium and obtain a sample suitable for analysis by ICP-MS. Method optimization achieved high radium recovery (101 ± 6% for standard mode and 97 ± 7% for collision mode) for synthetic Marcellus Shale wastewater (MSW) samples with total dissolved solids as high as 171,000 mg/L. Ra-226 concentration in actual MSW samples with TDS as high as 415,000 mg/L measured using ICP-MS matched very well with the results from gamma spectrometry. The Ra-226 analysis method developed in this study requires several hours for sample preparation and several minutes for analysis with the detection limit of 100 pCi/L with RSD of 45% (standard mode) and 67% (collision mode). The RSD decreased to below 15% when Ra-226 concentration increased over 500 pCi/L. PMID:25642997

  18. 射气闪烁法测定水中226Ra 方法的改进%Improvement of mensuration method of 226Ra in water by emanation-scintillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹娟; 李晓凤; 吴贤海

    2015-01-01

    Background: According to the national standard of “Analytical Determination of Radium-226 in Water (GB/T 11212-1989)”, emanation-scintillation is widely used to monitor the content of 226Ra in water. Purpose: This study aims to optimize the analysis and mensuration conditions of emanation-scintillation method recommended in GB/T 11212-1989. Methods: The related parameters for mensuration of 226Ra, such as recovery rate, measuring moment and measuring instrument were investigated to identify the optimal working state by a series of experimental tests. Results: If the percent recovery indicated pretreatment loss was introduced, the mensuration result would be more accurate. The optimal measuring moment was 3−4 h after the complete collection of the Radon from the samples. The traditional FD-125 radon-thorium analyzer can be replaced by the portable AB-5R radon monitor which will be more convenient and flexible while keep the same performance. Conclusion: The relevant recommendations provide alternative solution for field measurement of 226Ra in water, and a design reference for the developing and updating of the GB/T 11212-1989 standard in future.%从回收率、测量时刻和仪器选择等方面对《水中镭-226的分析测定》(GB/T 11214-1989)中规定的水中226Ra 分析方法的改进进行了探讨。结果表明,在实验中,采用一个能反映前处理中样品损失的回收率可以提高分析结果的准确度;最佳测量时刻为氡气进气完毕后的3−4 h;测量分析了用便携式 AB-5R 型测氡仪替代标准中要求的 FD-125型室内氡钍分析仪的多种样品测试指标,验证了替代的可行性,为现场快速检测和标准的后续更新提供一定的技术参考。

  19. Concentrations of Ra-226 and Rn-222 in Thermal Groundwater Measured by Emanation-scintillation Method%射气闪烁法测定地下热水的镭-226和氡-222浓度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婷; 周训; 龙汨; 王晓翠; 陈婷; 李婧玮; 杨苗林

    2014-01-01

    High radioactive concentrations of 226 Ra and 222 Rn in thermal groundwater are of important significance in studying formation and circulation of thermal groundwater. The experimental apparatus,measurement principle and steps,pre-treatment of water samples and result calculations of the emanation-scintillation method to measure the radioactive concentrations of 226 Ra and 222 Rn in thermal groundwater in laboratory were described,and the determination of parameters used in the experimental devices and the measuring methods were discussed.The results show that the optimal threshold electric pressure for the radioactive FD-125 radonvthorium analyzer used in the experiment is 2 V,and the corresponding optimal working high electric pressure is 450 V;the collection factors for the three scintillation chambers used are 0.005 428,0.005 567 and 0.005 060,respectively;when 226 Ra is extracted from water sample in the pre-treatment,the pH values are controlled in the range of 2.5-3.0 in order to obtain the maximum method recovery rate.%地下热水中放射性浓度较高的226 Ra 和222 Rn 对于研究地下热水的形成和循环具有重要的意义.阐明了实验室测定地下热水226 Ra 和222 Rn 放射性浓度的射气闪烁法的仪器组成、测试原理、测试步骤、水样前处理和结果换算,讨论了在测试过程中各仪器和试验方法所需参数的选取及确定的具体操作.结果表明:在本试验中,所用放射性测试仪器 FD-125型氡钍分析仪的最佳阈电压为2 V,对应的最佳工作高压为450 V;所采用的3个闪烁室的校正因子分别为0.005428、0.005567和0.005060;进行前处理提取水样226 Ra时,pH 值应控制在2.5~3.0之间,可确保方法回收率最大.

  20. Di-22:6-bis(monoacylglycerol)phosphate: A clinical biomarker of drug-induced phospholipidosis for drug development and safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Nanjun; Tengstrand, Elizabeth A.; Chourb, Lisa; Hsieh, Frank Y., E-mail: frank.hsieh@nextcea.com

    2014-09-15

    The inability to routinely monitor drug-induced phospholipidosis (DIPL) presents a challenge in pharmaceutical drug development and in the clinic. Several nonclinical studies have shown di-docosahexaenoyl (22:6) bis(monoacylglycerol) phosphate (di-22:6-BMP) to be a reliable biomarker of tissue DIPL that can be monitored in the plasma/serum and urine. The aim of this study was to show the relevance of di-22:6-BMP as a DIPL biomarker for drug development and safety assessment in humans. DIPL shares many similarities with the inherited lysosomal storage disorder Niemann–Pick type C (NPC) disease. DIPL and NPC result in similar changes in lysosomal function and cholesterol status that lead to the accumulation of multi-lamellar bodies (myeloid bodies) in cells and tissues. To validate di-22:6-BMP as a biomarker of DIPL for clinical studies, NPC patients and healthy donors were classified by receiver operator curve analysis based on urinary di-22:6-BMP concentrations. By showing 96.7-specificity and 100-sensitivity to identify NPC disease, di-22:6-BMP can be used to assess DIPL in human studies. The mean concentration of di-22:6-BMP in the urine of NPC patients was 51.4-fold (p ≤ 0.05) above the healthy baseline range. Additionally, baseline levels of di-22:6-BMP were assessed in healthy non-medicated laboratory animals (rats, mice, dogs, and monkeys) and human subjects to define normal reference ranges for nonclinical/clinical studies. The baseline ranges of di-22:6-BMP in the plasma, serum, and urine of humans and laboratory animals were species dependent. The results of this study support the role of di-22:6-BMP as a biomarker of DIPL for pharmaceutical drug development and health care settings. - Highlights: • A reliable biomarker of drug-induced phospholipidosis (DIPL) is needed for humans. • Di-22:6-BMP is specific/sensitive for DIPL in animals as published in literatures. • The di-22:6-BMP biomarker can be validated for humans via NPC patients. • DIPL

  1. Di-22:6-bis(monoacylglycerol)phosphate: A clinical biomarker of drug-induced phospholipidosis for drug development and safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inability to routinely monitor drug-induced phospholipidosis (DIPL) presents a challenge in pharmaceutical drug development and in the clinic. Several nonclinical studies have shown di-docosahexaenoyl (22:6) bis(monoacylglycerol) phosphate (di-22:6-BMP) to be a reliable biomarker of tissue DIPL that can be monitored in the plasma/serum and urine. The aim of this study was to show the relevance of di-22:6-BMP as a DIPL biomarker for drug development and safety assessment in humans. DIPL shares many similarities with the inherited lysosomal storage disorder Niemann–Pick type C (NPC) disease. DIPL and NPC result in similar changes in lysosomal function and cholesterol status that lead to the accumulation of multi-lamellar bodies (myeloid bodies) in cells and tissues. To validate di-22:6-BMP as a biomarker of DIPL for clinical studies, NPC patients and healthy donors were classified by receiver operator curve analysis based on urinary di-22:6-BMP concentrations. By showing 96.7-specificity and 100-sensitivity to identify NPC disease, di-22:6-BMP can be used to assess DIPL in human studies. The mean concentration of di-22:6-BMP in the urine of NPC patients was 51.4-fold (p ≤ 0.05) above the healthy baseline range. Additionally, baseline levels of di-22:6-BMP were assessed in healthy non-medicated laboratory animals (rats, mice, dogs, and monkeys) and human subjects to define normal reference ranges for nonclinical/clinical studies. The baseline ranges of di-22:6-BMP in the plasma, serum, and urine of humans and laboratory animals were species dependent. The results of this study support the role of di-22:6-BMP as a biomarker of DIPL for pharmaceutical drug development and health care settings. - Highlights: • A reliable biomarker of drug-induced phospholipidosis (DIPL) is needed for humans. • Di-22:6-BMP is specific/sensitive for DIPL in animals as published in literatures. • The di-22:6-BMP biomarker can be validated for humans via NPC patients. • DIPL

  2. Radium-226 in vegetation and substrates at inactive uranium mill sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of a study of the content of radium-226 in plants growing on inactive uranium mill tailings sites in the Four Corners Region of the southwestern United States and in plants grown under greenhouse conditions with minimal surficial contamination are reported. Field plant samples and associated substrates were analyzed from two carbonate tailings sites in the Grants Mineral Belt of New Mexico. Radium activities in air-cleaned samples ranged from 5 to 368 pCi/g (dry weight) depending on species and location: activities in plants growing on local soils averaged 1.0 pCi/g. The talings and local soils contain 140 to 1400 pCi/g and 2.1 pCi/g, respectively. An evaluation of cleaning methods on selected samples showed that from 17 to 79% of the radium activity measured in air-cleaned samples was due to surficial contamination, which varied with species and location. A survey of 18 inactive uranium mill sites in the Four Corners Region was performed. Radium activity in plant tissues from nine species ranged from 2 to 210 pCi/g on bare tailings and from 0.3 to 30 pCi/g on covered tailings The radium content in most of the soil overburdens on the covered tailings piles was 10 to 17 pCi/g. An experiment was performed to measure radium-226 uptake by two species grown on tailings covered with a shallow (5 cm) soil layer. A grass, Sporobolus airoides (alkali sacaton) and a shrub, Atriplex canescens (four-wing saltbush), were studied. The tailings were a mixture of sands and slimes from a carbonate pile. The tailings treatments were plants grown in a soil cover over tailings; the controls were plants grown only in soil. Three soil types, dune sand, clay loam, and loam, were used. The radium activity of the plant tissue from the tailings treatment compared to that of the appropriate control was 1 to 19 times greater for the grass and 4 to 27 times greater for the shrub

  3. Radium-226 in vegetation and substrates at inactive uranium mill sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marple, M.L.

    1980-01-01

    Results of a study of the content of radium-226 in plants growing on inactive uranium mill tailings sites in the Four Corners Region of the southwestern United States and in plants grown under greenhouse conditions with minimal surficial contamination are reported. Field plant samples and associated substrates were analyzed from two carbonate tailings sites in the Grants Mineral Belt of New Mexico. Radium activities in air-cleaned samples ranged from 5 to 368 pCi/g (dry weight) depending on species and location: activities in plants growing on local soils averaged 1.0 pCi/g. The talings and local soils contain 140 to 1400 pCi/g and 2.1 pCi/g, respectively. An evaluation of cleaning methods on selected samples showed that from 17 to 79% of the radium activity measured in air-cleaned samples was due to surficial contamination, which varied with species and location. A survey of 18 inactive uranium mill sites in the Four Corners Region was performed. Radium activity in plant tissues from nine species ranged from 2 to 210 pCi/g on bare tailings and from 0.3 to 30 pCi/g on covered tailings The radium content in most of the soil overburdens on the covered tailings piles was 10 to 17 pCi/g. An experiment was performed to measure radium-226 uptake by two species grown on tailings covered with a shallow (5 cm) soil layer. A grass, Sporobolus airoides (alkali sacaton) and a shrub, Atriplex canescens (four-wing saltbush), were studied. The tailings were a mixture of sands and slimes from a carbonate pile. The tailings treatments were plants grown in a soil cover over tailings; the controls were plants grown only in soil. Three soil types, dune sand, clay loam, and loam, were used. The radium activity of the plant tissue from the tailings treatment compared to that of the appropriate control was 1 to 19 times greater for the grass and 4 to 27 times greater for the shrub.

  4. Anti-tumor effect in human breast cancer by TAE226, a dual inhibitor for FAK and IGF-IR in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurio, Naito [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, 700-8525 (Japan); Shimo, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: shimotsu@md.okayama-u.ac.jp [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, 700-8525 (Japan); Fukazawa, Takuya; Takaoka, Munenori [Department of General Surgery, Kawasaki Medical School, Okayama, 700-0821 (Japan); Okui, Tatsuo; Hassan, Nur Mohammad Monsur; Honami, Tatsuki [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, 700-8525 (Japan); Hatakeyama, Shinji [Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Basel (Switzerland); Ikeda, Masahiko [Department of Surgery, Fukuyama City Hospital, Fukuyama, 720-8511 (Japan); Naomoto, Yoshio [Department of General Surgery, Kawasaki Medical School, Okayama, 700-0821 (Japan); Sasaki, Akira [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, 700-8525 (Japan)

    2011-05-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a 125-kDa non-receptor type tyrosine kinase that localizes to focal adhesions. FAK overexpression is frequently found in invasive and metastatic cancers of the breast, colon, thyroid, and prostate, but its role in osteolytic metastasis is not well understood. In this study, we have analyzed anti-tumor effects of the novel FAK Tyr{sup 397} inhibitor TAE226 against bone metastasis in breast cancer by using TAE226. Oral administration of TAE226 in mice significantly decreased bone metastasis and osteoclasts involved which were induced by MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and increased the survival rate of the mouse models of bone metastasis. TAE226 also suppressed the growth of subcutaneous tumors in vivo and the proliferation and migration of MDA-MB-231 cells in vitro. Significantly, TAE226 inhibited the osteoclast formation in murine pre-osteoclastic RAW264.7 cells, and actin ring and pit formation in mature osteoclasts. Moreover, TAE226 inhibited the receptor activator for nuclear factor {kappa} B Ligand (RANKL) gene expression induced by parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) in bone stromal ST2 cells and blood free calcium concentration induced by PTHrP administration in vivo. These findings suggest that FAK was critically involved in osteolytic metastasis and activated in tumors, pre-osteoclasts, mature osteoclasts, and bone stromal cells and TAE226 can be effectively used for the treatment of cancer induced bone metastasis and other bone diseases.

  5. The role of the Ganges-Brahmaputra mixing zone in supplying barium and [sup 226]Ra to the Bay of Bengal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, J. (Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia (United States) Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks (United States)); Falkner, K.K. (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge (United States) CNES, Toulouse (France)); Brown, E.T. (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge (United States)); Moore, W.S. (Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia (United States))

    1993-07-01

    The Ganges-Brahmaputra river system is ranked fourth among world rivers as a source of freshwater to the oceans and is believed to supply more sediment to the ocean than any other; 1.5 [times] 10[sup 12] kg/yr (Milliman and Meade, 1983). Barium and [sup 226]Ra are typically enriched in waters where sediment-laden rivers enter the ocean. As such, the Ganges-Brahmaputra is likely to produce globally significant barium and [sup 226]Ra fluxes to the ocean. Water samples for barium and [sup 226]Ra were collected within four major channels of the Ganges-Brahmaputra mixing zone during a period of low sediment and freshwater discharge. The data suggest that in addition to suspended sediments supplied directly from rivers, river sediments deposited during high discharge in mangroves and on islands are desorbing barium and [sup 226]Ra to seawater. The release of barium and [sup 226]Ra from these sediment deposits is out-of-phase with the direct supply of sediments from the rivers. Estimates of the annual fluxes of barium and [sup 226]Ra from the Ganges-Brahmaputra mixing zone were also derived. The fluxes of barium and [sup 226]Ra are 5.3 [times] 10[sup 8] mol barium/yr and 9.5 [times] 10[sub 14] dpm radium/yr. The first silicate and phosphate mixing profiles for this system are reported. 29 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Determination of Pb-210 and Ra-226 in sediments from Acude de Apipucos - Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil; Determinacao de chumbo-210 e radio-226 em sedimentos do Acude de Apipucos - Recife - Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Vivianne Lucia Bormann de; Melo, Roberto Teodozio de; Figueiredo, Marcela Durao Cesar de; Rodrigues, Kelia Rejane Goncalves; Cunha, Manuela Silva da; Silva, Danubia B. da; Pedroza, Eryka de H., E-mail: vlsouza@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: rtmelo@cnen.gov.b [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Oliveira, Aristides [Hospital de Cancer de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This study aims to determine the age of sediment layers in Apipucos Reservoir, located in Recife, Brazil. Dating with {sup 210}Pb and {sup 226}Ra concentrations found in these sediments was used. A core with length of 70 cm and internal diameter of 5 cm was used for sediment sampling and each obtained profile was sectioned. Lead and radium were extracted from these samples by adding acids. {sup 210}Pb and {sup 226}Ra were determined in a gas flow proportional detector, based on the activities of their daughters. It was found that the CRS model (Constant Rate of Supply) to calculate the ages of sediment was more appropriate than CIC (Constant Initial Concentration). The chronology showed that the first sediment layers were 30 years old. (author)

  7. 新生儿226、1000Hz探测音镫骨肌声反射的研究%The Acoustic Stapedial Reflex with 226 Hz and 1 000 Hz Probe Tones in Newborns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梦茵; 郑芸; 李刚; 王恺

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate acoustic stapcdial rcficx(AR) using 226 and 1 000 Hz probe tones in newborns who passed hearing screening and its value in neonatal audioiogical evaluation and diagnosis. Methods The acoustic immittancc test were conducted using 226 Hz and 1 000 Hz probe tones in 174 newborns between 2 and 7 days with both cars passed the distortion product otoacoustic cmission(DPOAE) screening. The newborns showed no high risk register (HRR) factors associated with hearing loss. The tympanogram type and AR status were recorded. Results 174 newborns (340 cars) were tested. The AR present rates at 226 Hz and 1 000 Hz were 29. 71% and 65. 29% , respectively, showing statistically significant difference between them (P226 Hz were 26. 23% and 33. 76% , respectively with no statistically significant difference between thcm(P = 0. 130). For single-peaked and other tympanogram at 1 000 Hz were the AR prcscat rates 67. 49% and 23. 53%, respectively, with statistically significant differences between them (P226、1 000 Hz探测音镫骨肌声反射(acoustic stapedial reflex,AR)的引出情况及其在新生儿听力诊断中的临床价值.方法 对双耳通过畸变产物耳声发射(DPOAE)筛查、无听力损失高危因素的174例2~7天龄的新生儿进行226、1 000 Hz探测音声导抗测试,记录其鼓室导抗图分型及AR引出率.结果 174例(340耳)新生儿完成声导抗测试,226、1 000 Hz探测音AR引出率分别为29.71% 、65.29%,后者高于前者,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).226 Hz探测音单峰型和双峰型鼓室导抗图者AR引出率分别为26.23%、33.76%,二者间差异无统计学意义(P=0.130);1 000

  8. Simultaneous determination of Ra-226, natural uranium and natural thorium by gamma-ray spectrometry INa(Ti), in solid samples.; Determinacion de U (Natural), Th (Natural) y Ra-226 en diversos materiales, mediante espectrometria con INa (TI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvador, S.; Navarro, T.; Alvarez, A.

    1991-07-01

    A method has been developed to determine activities of Ra-226, natural uranium and natural thorium by gamma-ray spectrometry. The measurement system has been calibrated using standards specially prepared at the laboratory. It is necessary to assume secular equilibrium in the samples, between Ra-226 and Th-232 and its daughters nuclides, and between U-238 and its immediate daughter Th-234, as the photo peaks measured are those of the daughters. The results obtained indicate that this method can of ter replace the radiochemical techniques used to measure activities in this type of sample. The method has been successfully used to determine these natural isotopes in samples from uranium mills. (Author) 9 refs.

  9. Biomass selection for biosorption study of {sup 226} Ra and {sup 137} Cd radionuclides; Selecao de biomassas para o estudo da biossorcao dos radionuclideos {sup 226} Ra e {sup 137} Cs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Wilson Cervi da

    2003-07-01

    The main goal of this work was to verify the potentialities to apply the biosorption technique to synthetic and real solution containing {sup 226} Ra and {sup 137} Cs, utilizing the seaweed Sargassum sp. and the microorganisms Penicillium sp., Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Monoraphidium sp. Indeed, the screening of the most effective biomass to remove the radionuclides was also a central objective. {sup 226} Ra was selected due to its high radiotoxicity and the fact that it can be assimilated and incorporated by living organism through substitution og Mg{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+}, two essential nutrients. On the other hand, the selection of {sup 137} Cs, a radionuclide of medium toxicity, was due to its mobility in the environment, which increases the possibility to be assimilated by the organisms as the essential nutrients Na{sup +} and K{sup +}. (author)

  10. 238U sbnd 230Th sbnd 226Ra disequilibria in young Mount St. Helens rocks: time constraint for magma formation and crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Alan M.; Hammond, Paul E.

    1991-12-01

    We use 238U-series nuclides and 230Th/ 232Th ratios measured by mass spectrometry to constrain processes and time scales of calc-alkaline magma genesis at Mount St. Helens, Washington. Olivine basalt, pyroxene andesites and dacites that erupted 10-2 ka ago show 3-14% ( 230Th) sbnd ( 238U) and 6-54% 226Ra sbnd 230Th disequilibria. Mineral phases exhibit robust ( 226Ra) sbnd ( 230Th) fractionation. Plagioclase has large 65-280% ( 226Ra) excesses, and magnetite has large 65% ( 226Ra) deficits relative to ( 230Th). Calculated partition coefficients for Ba, Th, and U in mineral-groundmass pairs, except Ba in plagioclase, are low (⩽ 0.04). Correlation between ( 226Ra/ 230Th ) activity ratios and rm/BaTh element ratios in the minerals suggests that 226Ra partitions similar to Ba during crystallization. Internal ( 230Th) sbnd ( 238U) isochrons for 1982 summit and East Dome dacites and Goat Rocks and Kalama andesites show that closed Th sbnd U system fractionation occurred 2-6 ka ago. Apparent internal isochrons for Castle Creek basalt (34 ka) and andesite (27 ka) suggest longer magma chamber residence times and mixing of old crystals and young melt. Mineral ( 226Ra) sbnd ( 230Th) disequilibrium on Ba-normalized internal isochron diagrams suggests average magma chamber residence times of 500-3000 years. In addition, radioactive ( 226Ra/ 230Th ) heterogeneity between minerals and groundmass or whole rock is evidence for open-system Ra sbnd Th behavior. This heterogeneity suggests there has been recent, post-crystallization, changes in melt chemical composition that affected 226Ra more than 230Th. Clearly, magma fractionation, residence and transport of crystal-melt before eruption of chemically diverse lavas at Mount St. Helens occurs over geologically short periods.

  11. Modeling of 226Ra behavior in a Spanish estuary affected by the phosphate industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Odiel and Tinto rivers, southwest Spain, form a fully mixed estuary. An industrial area that includes a complex dedicated to the production of phosphate fertilizers is located by the Odiel River. This complex released phosphogypsum wastes directly to the Odiel River and also disposed them on open air piles located by the Tinto River. Due to new EU regulations, wastes are not directly released to the Odiel from 1998 on, although they are still disposed on the open air piles. The behavior of 226Ra in a system like this estuary is complex, since radionuclides are affected by tidal actions and interactions with sediments through adsorption/desorption reactions and erosion/deposition processes. A numerical 2D depth-averaged model of the estuary has been developed, including processes mentioned above. It has been applied to reproduce experimental data measured after a release from the industrial complex in the Odiel River and after an accidental release in the Tinto River from the gypsum piles. The model has also been applied to simulate the self-cleaning process observed in the estuary after the direct releases from the fertilizer complex were stopped. (author)

  12. Experience gained during remedial action at residential properties contaminated with Th-232 and Ra-226

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventeen residential properties contaminated with Th-232 and Ra-226 were decontaminated and restored by Bechtel National, Inc., during 1984 as part of the US Department of Energy's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. The extent of contamination varied from only a few cubic yards of material in the edge of one lawn to extensive contamination around foundations and under basement floors. Three unusual case histories will be described in detail. In the first case, a few cubic yards of contamination were expected, but more than 100 cubic yards were found. In Case 2, contamination was found under the floor of an addition to a house. Case 3 involved a home built on a lot where contaminated soils had been used as fill material to depths of up to 10 feet. The remedial action included the removal of the basement, including the floor slab and foundation. This paper will provide details about several lessons learned during remedial action at residential properties: (a) radiological characterization surveys must be thorough; (b) interviews with owners can provide helpful information about unusual or unexpected contamination problems; (c) radiological monitoring during construction is necessary for efficient and thorough remedial action; and (d) good public relations are an important element of residential remedial action projects. While these lessons may seem to be common sense items, the circumstances that require their use are often very subtle. As the case histories show, successful remedial action requires constant vigilance and careful attention to details

  13. Determination of 226Ra and 224Ra in sediments samples by liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental procedure has been developed for a rapid determination of the activity concentration of 226Ra and 224Ra in sediments by liquid scintillation counting. The importance of the method lies in its application to the measurement of sediments where the Ra-isotopes activity concentration has been increased due to an anthropomorphic enhancement based on releases of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). A sample pre-treatment, including a digestion with aqua regia and a precipitation of hydroxides, was applied to samples before the radium extraction, which was made by co-precipitation with barium. Measurements were done in a low background scintillation spectrometer Quantulus 1220, which can separate and detect simultaneously α and β particles. Additionally, some improvements are suggested for a better α and β interference correction of the results. The obtaining of radiochemical yields is also improved using 133Ba as tracer, which decays by emission of conversion electrons and γ-rays; the wide range of radiochemical yields obtained confirms the need of this analyses. The procedure has been applied to the measurement of riverbed sediments from an estuary in the south-west of Spain, affected in the past by direct and indirect phosphogypsum discharges

  14. Evaluation of radium-226 body burden by in vivo measurement of bismuth-214

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An indirect method of estimation of radium-226 body burden has been developed to overcome the difficulties of direct measurement of radium on account of low emission of 186 KeV gamma radiation that too in a region where the background count rate is high. The method is based on in vivo measurement of sup(214)Bi content of the body by a shadow shield whole body counter [102 mm (dia) x 76 mm (thick) NaI(Tl) detector]. sup(214)Bi emits gamma rays of 0.609, 1.120 and 1.764 MeV of which the last one is suitable for whole body counting because in that energy region there is no contribution from naturally occurring radioisotopes in the body (e.g. sup(40)K) and the response is independent of variation in body build. The ratio of the minimum detectable radium body burden for the whole body monitor at Jaduguda uranium mines using the indirect and direct methods for the same counting periods works out to be 0.85, indicating that the indirect method is somewhat superior to the direct method. (M.G.B.)

  15. Certified Reference Material IAEA-448: Soil from Oil Field Contaminated with Technically Enhanced Radium-226

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To ensure reliable evaluation of potential radiological hazards and proper decision making related to radiation protection measures, the IAEA, through the IAEA Environment Laboratories, supports Member State laboratories in their efforts to maintain readiness and to improve the quality of analytical results. It does so by producing reference materials, by developing standardized methods for sample collection and analysis, and by conducting interlaboratory comparisons and proficiency tests as tools for external quality control of analytical results. The problem of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) contamination is known to be widespread, occurring in oil and gas production facilities throughout the world. It has become a subject of attention in many IAEA Member States. In response to this radiological concern, facilities in many Member States have been characterizing the nature and extent of NORM in oil and gas installations and in the surrounding environment, evaluating the potential for exposure to workers and the public, and developing methods for properly managing these relatively high massic activity residues. Within this context, the IAEA Environment Laboratories, in cooperation with the Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, an IAEA Collaborating Centre, have prepared a new certified reference material of soil contaminated with NORM, identified as IAEA-448, certified for the massic activity of 226Ra. This report presents the methodologies used for the production and certification of IAEA-448

  16. Ra-224 and Ra-226: A New Method for Measuring Groundwater Seepage in Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, K. R.; Buyan, A. C.; Waples, J. T.

    2008-12-01

    Radium isotopes have been used to estimate groundwater discharge (GWD) in coastal marine waters for decades, but this technique has never before been used in the Laurentian Great Lakes. In this study, we used a RAD7 radon-in-air monitor to measure naturally-occurring radium isotopes Ra-224 (half-life= 3.64 d) and Ra-226 (half-life = 1600 a) in groundwater and three shallow water sites along Lake Michigan's Wisconsin coastline. Radium-224 activities in groundwater ranged from 1153 dpm m-3 in a deep aquifer (New Berlin well no.7) to 31 dpm m-3 in a shallow aquifer (Pryor well). Nearshore Lake Michigan measurements of Ra-224 were lowest at Red Arrow Beach (0.2 dpm m-3), higher in the Milwaukee harbor (GLWI slip, 1.1 dpm m-3) and highest at Harrington Beach (4.1 dpm m-3) and correspond well with groundwater seepage estimates made by Cherkauer et al. (1990) using alternate methods (i.e., where higher radium activity is indicative of higher GWD). These Ra-224 measurements are the first ever made in Lake Michigan (and presumably any of the Great Lakes) and we conclude that, by sampling offshore radium activity gradients, this RAD7 technique is a viable method for directly measuring GWD in Lake Michigan and other freshwater systems.

  17. Pattern of distribution of radium 226 in drinking water of Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of radium (Ra) as high as 65 pCi/L have been reported in some of the public water wells in Texas. Yet, the overall pattern of the geographic distribution of Ra or its decay products has not been determined or mapped. The present study is a step in this direction. The distribution of 226Ra in domestic water, public and individual, in selected regions of the state of Texas was investigated to identify areas where water may contain naturally occurring elevated concentrations of Ra and to provide much need information for well development and water quality management. Two regions with anomalously high Ra concentrations were identified, one in the gulf coast, with some concentrations over 20 pCi/L downdip from uranium deposits, and the other in west-central Texas, with some concentrations up to 65 pCi/L on the periphery of an igneous uplift. Otherwise, the concentrations of Ra were low,particularly in the west and northwest of the state

  18. Analysis of Coincidence Effect on Natural Radionuclides Radium-226 Measuring by γ Spectrometry%级联符合对天然放射性核素镭-226γ能谱测量的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周程; 刘晓平

    2012-01-01

    介绍了226Ra的γ能谱测量方法,通过对标准样品和环境样品的测量,分析说明了利用214 Pb的特征γ射线全能峰(351.93和295.22 keV)来测定母体226Ra的活度是准确可靠的,214Bi的特征γ射线全能峰609.32 keV存在严重的级联符合相加,也说明了在利用存在级联跃迁的特征γ射线进行活度计算时应对测量结果进行校正.%It introduces the γ-ray spectrometry method for Ra measurement. By measuring standard samples and environmental samples , analysis shows that the use of the γ characteristics peak (351.93 keV and 295. 22 keV) of 214Pb to determine the activity of the parent 226Ra is reliable, cascade coincidence summing is seriously around γ - ray characteristics peak (609.32 keV) of 214Bi , also illustrates results of activity should be corrected once using γ characteristics peaks exist cascade.

  19. Radiochemical analysis of 210Pb e 226Ra in samples of sludges and scales in petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exploration and production of oil can generate different types of waste, such as scales, which are formed in the internal surface of pipes and equipment, sludges that is deposited in water/oil separators, storage tanks and valves and water that is removed along with the oil, which bring to the surface some of the radionuclides present in the rock matrix. From a radiological point of view, the most important radionuclides, which appear in sludges and scales are 228Ra, 226Ra, 210Pb and 228Th, since the exposure to these radionuclides can represent a significant dose on workers. The analysis already performed using gamma spectrometry in samples of sludge and scales indicated the presence of high concentrations of radio isotopes, showing the need to enlarge the radiometric survey including other elements of the 238U series. This work focuses on radiochemical determination of 210Pb and 226Ra concentrations in samples of sludge and scales

  20. The dose exposure of the environmental population caused by natural Ra-226 and Pb-210 and released from uraniferous heaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of Ra-226 and Pb-210 in samples of air, soil, surface water, and foods from Wittichen agree well with the average environmental concentrations. Higher values are found in soil samples from old heaps, in surface waters being in contact with these heaps and in grass and mushrooms grown on such heaps. On the supposition that only locally produced foods are used for annual intake, an annual activity intake of 925 pCi Ra-226 and 2 772 pCi Pb-210 is determined. These annual intakes are higher by a factor of 2.1 compared with the maximum permissible intakes given by the Radiation Protection Ordinance. The transfer factors determined in other parts of the Black Forest are in accordance with these values. The Pb-210 concentrations in grass and leafy vegetables are pretty high; the contamination of this kind of samples is caused by the deposition of Pb-210 from ground level air. Using Pb-210 concentrations in air and plants, one achieves deposition velocities and effective half-lives, respectively, which agree very well with values already known. For depth profiles of Ra-226, Pb-210, and Po-210 in soil of a meadow and a heap, the interpretation of the results achieved is difficult, since the processes of contamination and decontamination are very complicated. Still after more than one and a half century the transport of Ra-226 from the uraniferous material to deeper soil layers is negligible. The transport of Pb-210 and Po-210 is much faster. (orig./HP)

  1. Structure properties of ${}^{226}$Th and ${}^{256,258,260}$Fm fission fragments: mean field analysis with the Gogny force

    OpenAIRE

    Dubray, N.; Goutte, H.; Delaroche, J.-P.

    2007-01-01

    The constrained Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov method is used with the Gogny interaction D1S to calculate potential energy surfaces of fissioning nuclei ${}^{226}$Th and ${}^{256,258,260}$Fm up to very large deformations. The constraints employed are the mass quadrupole and octupole moments. In this subspace of collective coordinates, many scission configurations are identified ranging from symmetric to highly asymmetric fragmentations. Corresponding fragment properties at scission are derived yield...

  2. Bioavailability of radionuclides 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb present in the brazilian phosphate fertilizers and phosphogypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphogypsum, also called gypsum, by-product of the phosphate fertilizer industry, can be used as soil conditioner since it provides improvements in the soil-plant system. However, this by-product concentrates radionuclides of the U and Th series, present in the phosphate rock used as raw material, which can impact the environment. In order to study the bioavailability of radionuclides, samples of phosphogypsum and phosphate fertilizers (monoammonium phosphate and triple superphosphate) were analyzed. The concentration of 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb were determined by gamma spectrometry. The samples were leached with a mild EDTA solution and the radionuclides present in the final solution were determined by total alpha and beta counting on a gas flow proportional counter. The percentage of extraction varied from 1.6% to 1.7% for 210Pb, from 0.5% to 1.4% for 226Ra and from 0.1% to 1.0% for the 228Ra in phosphogypsum samples. The low percentage of extraction obtained for the radionuclides can be partly explained by the low solubility of phosphogypsum, which ranged from 7.7% to 16%. For the monoammonium phosphate samples the percentage of extraction were less than 26% for 226Ra, less than 10% for '228Ra and less than 10% for 210Pb. In spite of the high solubility of 77% of monoammonium phosphate in the EDTA solution, low concentrations of radionuclides were observed in the leached solution. For the triple superphosphate samples, the percentage of extraction was 2.3% for 226Ra, 1.2% for 228Ra and 11.3% for 210Pb. In spite of the high solubility of 66% of triple superphosphate in the EDTA solution, low concentrations of radionuclides were observed in the leached solution. (author)

  3. Soil-to-root vegetable transfer factors for 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, and 88Y in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFs) are of fundamental importance in assessing the environmental impact due to the presence of radioactivity in soil and agricultural crops. Tapioca and sweet potato, both root crops, are popular foodstuffs for a significant fraction of the Malaysian population, and result in intake of radionuclides. For the natural field conditions experienced in production of these foodstuffs, TFs and the annual effective dose were evaluated for the natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, and for the anthropogenic radionuclide 88Y, the latter being a component of fallout. An experimental tapioca field was developed for study of the time dependence of plant uptake. For soil samples from all study locations other than the experimental field, it has been shown that these contain the artificial radionuclide 88Y, although the uptake of 88Y has only been observed in the roots of the plant Manihot esculenta (from which tapioca is derived) grown in mining soil. The estimated TFs for 226Ra and 232Th for tapioca and sweet potato are very much higher than that reported by the IAEA. For all study areas, the annual effective dose from ingestion of tapioca and sweet potato are estimated to be lower than the world average (290 μSv y−1). - Highlights: • Transfer factors of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, and 88Y radionuclides were estimated for widely consumed root vegetables in Malaysia. • An experimental tapioca field was developed for study of the time dependence of plant uptakes. • The estimated TF values of 226Ra and 232Th for tapioca and sweet potato are higher than the IAEA reported values. • These site-specific TFs are of importance for model derivations for tropical regions

  4. Investigation of $\\alpha$-decay rates of $^{221}$Fr, $^{224}$Ra and $^{226}$Ra in different environments

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    It has recently been suggested, and indicated experimentally, that $\\alpha$- decay half-lives are modified by solid state effects in the surrounding environment. We propose here to measure with high accuracy the $\\alpha$-decay half-life of $^{221}$Fr, $^{224}$Ra and $^{226}$Ra in insulators and metals. Furthermore we plan to investigate the temperature dependency of the half-life in these materials (room temperature, 4 K and 10 mK).

  5. RNA-Seq analysis of urea nutrition responsive transcriptome of Oryza sativa elite indica cultivar RP Bio 226.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Mettu Madhavi; Ulaganathan, Kandasamy

    2015-12-01

    Rice yield is greatly influenced by the nitrogen and rice varieties show variation in yield. For understanding the role of urea nutrition in the yield of elite indica rice cultivar RPBio-226, the urea responsive transcriptome was sequenced and analyzed. The raw reads and the Transcriptome Shotgun Assembly project has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession GDKM00000000. The version described in this paper is the first version, GDKM01000000. PMID:26697348

  6. Seasonal variation of 226Ra and 222Rn in mineral spring waters of Aguas da Prata-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentration levels of 226Ra and 222Rn have been analysed in most of the mineral spring waters available in the Aguas da Prata region, which is located in the Pocos de Caldas plateau, one of the biggest weathered alkaline intrusions of the world. In this plateau can be found many health resorts[based on springs of thermal and mineral waters. The Aguas da Prata spring waters show a large variety of composition. It has been observed bicarbonates, carbonates and sulphates salts in these mineral waters. The 226Ra was determined by gross alpha counting of a Ba(Ra)SO4 precipitate. The measurement was carried out in a low background gas flow proportional counter. The 222Rn concentrations were determined by liquid scintillation method. Water samples were randomly collected at 9 spring sites over a period of one year, in order to evaluate the seasonal variation of these radionuclides. Lower concentrations were found mostly in the rainy season (summer), which presents 80% of the annual rainfall of the region (1500 mm/year). Higher concentrations up to 2223 mBq/L for 226Ra and 131 Bq/L for 222Rn have been observed in waters with low level of soluble salts. Waters which present high levels of carbonate and sulphate salts showed maximum values of 316 mBq/L for 226Ra and 30 Bq/L for 222Rn. This behaviour is mainly due to the physicochemical properties of these radionuclides in water as well as to the lithologic structure of the aquifers. (authors). 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  7. Concentration factors for 226Ra in the mullet (Mugilidae) species Mugil cephalus from the South Adriatic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    226Ra activity concentration in the mullet (Mugilidae) species Mugil cephalus whole individuals, and some organs (gills, gastrointestinal system, fins, muscle and bones), was measured by the γ-coincidence spectrometer PRIPYAT-2M. 226Ra transfer parameters [concentration factors (CFs)] from seawater, sediment and mud with detritus to fish tissues, and annual intake by humans consuming this fish species, have been estimated. Minimum detected radium activity concentration in whole M. cephalus individuals was found to be 0.89 ± 0.42 to 3.09 ± 0.41 Bq kg-1, with arithmetic mean of 1.65 ± 0.39 Bq kg-1. An average concentration in muscles is found to be 2.28 ± 0.84 Bq kg-1, in gills - 5.02 ± 1.85 Bq kg-1, in gastrointestinal system - 12.88 ± 1.71 Bq kg-1, and in bones - 14.72 ± 3.75 Bq kg-1. No one fins showed radium activity above minimum detectable one. Annual intake of 226Ra by human consumers of this fish species is estimated to provide an effective dose of 0.006 mSv year-1. CFs for 226Ra indicating transfer from seawater to whole individuals ranged from 8.9 to 30.9, and those indicating transfer from the sediment and mud with detritus - from 0.11 to 0.39 and from 0.08 to 0.3, respectively. The seawater to bones CFs varied from 97.9 to 197.3, to gastrointestinal system - from 59 to 178.8, to gills - from 22.5 to 68.3, to muscles - from 17 to 30.8. (author)

  8. Sampling errors associated with soil composites used to estimate mean Ra-226 concentrations at an UMTRA remedial-action site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decision whether to take additional remedial action (removal of soil) from regions contaminated by uranium mill tailings involves collecting 20 plugs of soil from each 10-m by 10-m plot in the region and analyzing a 500-g portion of the mixed soil for 226Ra. A soil sampling study was conducted in the windblown mill-tailings flood plain area at Shiprock, New Mexico, to evaluate whether reducing the number of soil plugs to 9 would have any appreciable impact on remedial-action decisions. The results of the Shiprock study are described and used in this paper to develop a simple model of the standard deviation of 226Ra measurements on composite samples formed from 21 or fewer plugs. This model is used to predict as a function of the number of soil plugs per composite, the percent accuracy with which the mean 226Ra concentration in surface soil can be estimated, and the probability of making incorrect remedial action decisions on the basis of statistical tests. 8 refs., 15 figs., 9 tabs

  9. Comparative full genome analysis revealed E1: A226V shift in 2007 Indian Chikungunya virus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, S R; Dash, P K; Parida, M M; Khan, M; Tiwari, M; Lakshmana Rao, P V

    2008-07-01

    The resurgence of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in the form of unprecedented explosive epidemic after a gap of 32 years in India is a point of major public health concern. In 2007 again there was outbreak in Kerala, India, affecting more than 25,000 cases with many reported mortalities. To understand the molecular basis of this high virulence and its implication in large-scale epidemic, a detailed systematic serological, virological and molecular investigation was undertaken with the epidemic samples of Kerala-2007. The comparative analysis of full genome sequence of Chikungunya virus isolate of 2007 with 2006 revealed three unique substitutions in structural and non-structural genes of 2007 isolate [two in E1 region (V14A and A226V) and one in Nsp1 (M184T)]. Our finding further substantiates the association of A226V shift in E1 gene with evolutionary success possibly due to adaptation in the mosquito vector with progression of epidemic, as observed in Reunion Island. This A226V shift which was absent in all 2006 Indian isolates, is found to be present in the four 2007 isolates, analysed in this study. These unique molecular features of the 2007 isolates with the progression of the epidemic from 2005 to 2007 demonstrate their high evolutionary and epidemic potential and thereby suggesting possible implication in higher magnitude and virulence of this outbreak. PMID:18384900

  10. [About the contents of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in forest soils of the Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perevolotskiĭ, A N; Perevolotskaia, T V

    2014-01-01

    The specific activity of 40K, 232Th and 226Ra in forest soil ecotopes (A2-B2-C2-D2) has been investigated. When the fertility of the soil increases from A2 to D2, then the specific activity of 40K increases in the rooting zone of the soil from 275 ± 6.9 up to 499 ± 11 Bq/kg, 232Th--from 11.8 ± 0.5 to 17.1 ± 1.1 Bq/kg, 226Ra- from 19.2 γ 0.8 to 27.9 ± 1.5 Bq/kg. The calculated capacity of the absorbed dose of γ-radiation conditioned by 40K, 232Th and 226Ra increases from A2 to D2 from 27.5 ± 0.5 to 44.1 ± 1.1 nGy / h at the height of 1 m.

  11. Transfer of Radionuclides K-40, Th-232 and Ra-226 from Mining Soil to Sawi (Japanese Mustard)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariandra, M.; Amin, Y. M.

    2008-05-01

    The uptake of naturally occurring thorium, radium and potassium by sawi (Japanese Mustard) from disused tin mining was studied. Both soil and sawi sample were collected from a vegetable farm located 15 km from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia where the farm has been operating for 22 years on a disused tin mining. By using a gamma spectroscopy system, the transfers of radionuclides from soil to plants were investigated. The highest values of radionuclides in the soil was K-40 which is 52.8 Bq kg-1 and the lowest was Ra-226 which is 6.51 Bq kg-1. The activity of Th-232 is 18.5 Bq kg-1. The activity of radionuclides in the sawi sample shows higher values as compared to the soil sample. The highest values of radionuclides in the sawi were K-40 which is 446 Bq kg-1 and the lowest was Ra-226 which is 17.5 Bq kg-1. The activity of Th-232 is 65.2 Bq kg-1. The concentration of radionuclides in soils and plants can be used for the determination of soil-to-plant transfer factors. The soil to plant transfer factors (TF) were calculated and observed to be 2.68 for radium-226, 3.52 for thorium-232 and the highest which is 3.97 for potassium-40.

  12. Long-term effects of an intracavitary treatment with californium-252 on normal tissue. [Swine, /sup 226/Ra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, M.F.; Beamer, J.L.; Mahony, T.D.; Cross, F.T.; Lund, J.E.; Endres, G.W.R.

    1976-01-01

    About one hundred fifty swine were exposed to either radium-226 or californium-252 sources in the uterine cervix to determine an RBE for both acute and long-term effects. That value for early changes in the tissues at risk in the treatment of cervical cancer was between 6.2 and 6.8. The incidence of complications increased with time after exposure, especially among animals treated with /sup 252/Cf. Analysis of rectal injury showed that ulceration occurred frequently within a year postexposure at doses between 1600 and 2400 rad calculated at 2 cm lateral to the source midline. Fat necrosis and smooth muscle atrophy, resulting in a local rectal stricture, were delayed changes observed in some animals. The lower ureter was the site for a greater frequency of complications than the GI tract. Ureteral stricture often occurred at doses of 1200 rad from /sup 252/Cf and 7000 rad from /sup 226/Ra. Observation of delayed effects in the uterine-cervix in animals held up to 4 years postexposure indicate that the RBE for /sup 252/Cf may be increased to a value as high as 18, while repair may have even decreased it to about 5.6 in the rectum. Fifty swine are still being observed for long-term effects after doses above 800 rad from /sup 252/Cf and 5000 rad from /sup 226/Ra.

  13. Determination of 226Ra, 224Ra, 223Ra and 228Ra in mineral water samples of the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Slovak Republic is very rich in mineral water sources. In recent years, it has been discovered that a number of mineral waters in the Slovak Republic contain high levels of 226Ra and 228Ra. Moreover, there is a lack of information on 224Ra and 223Ra concentrations in mineral waters as well. The currently approved techniques for alpha emitting radium isotopes are based on radon emanation methods. Due to the long ingrowth periods required by these techniques, any 224Ra and 223Ra in the sample decay away and go undetected. For this reason, we have used an alpha spectrometric method for the simultaneous determination of 226Ra, 223Ra and 224Ra. Radium was concentrated by a lead sulphate co-precipitation. The precipitate was dissolved in EDTA and the radium isotopes were separated from possible interfering radionuclides using barium sulphate micro precipitation. The radium-barium precipitate was filtered and counted by alpha spectrometry. 133Ba was used to quantify the yield by gamma spectrometry. In our laboratory, gamma spectrometry was also used for the determination of 228Ra in mineral water samples. Radium was concentrated by a lead-barium sulphate co-precipitation. 133Ba was used to quantify the yield, found to be 97 % on the average, by gamma spectrometry. Furthermore, the committed effective doses for 226Ra, 224Ra, 223Ra, 228Ra intake via ingestion of mineral waters for the members of public were calculated. (author)

  14. The 226Ra isotope activities in ground water samples drawn of two wells from the Meridional Pluton, Morungaba Granitoids, eastern Sao Paulo State; Atividades do 226Ra em aguas subterraneas extraidas de dois pocos localizados no pluton meridional, granitoides de Morungaba, SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, Fabio de Oliveira; Silva Junior, Mario Goncalves da; Bertolla, Luciana; Ribeiro, Fernando Brenha [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas. Dept. de Geofisica]. E-mail: brenha@iag.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    The 226Ra activities, both in solution and associated with suspended solids, were measured in ground water samples drawn from two wells drilled in a fractured granitic aquifer from the Meridional Pluton, Morungaba Granitoids, eastern Sao Paulo State. The 226Ra isotope activities were measured in a sequence of samples collected about one month apart between March, 2003 and April 2004. The 226Ra activities were measured by radon gas emanometry. The mean dissolved 226Ra activity concentration activities observed in the two wells were (44.9 {+-} 7.1) mBq/L and (51.6 {+-} 8.8) mBq/L. The 226Ra activity of the suspend solids in a liter of these waters varied between (0,6 {+-} 0,1) mBq and (13 {+-} 1) mBq, respectively. (author)

  15. 天津市地表水中氡、钍射气与U-226Ra-Th浓度间相关性探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田义宗

    2012-01-01

    目的 为了探讨地表水中氡、钍射气与U-226 Ra-Th浓度之间的相关性.方法 利用专业设备对天津市的河道、水库的地表水中氡、钍射气进行监测,同时对地表水中的U-226Ra-Th进行分析.结果 在对26个水样品分析发现,地表水中氡与水中的U-226 Ra-Th之间不具有相关性.结论 在对地表水中氡、钍射气和U、226 Ra、Th等进行调查时,应当对关注的核素分别进行监测和分析.

  16. Distribution of uranium, Ra-226, Pb-210 and Po-21a in the ecological cycle in mountain regions of central Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distributions of U, 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po in the ecological cycle: soil-hay-domestic animals-meat-cheese-milk were investigated. The levels of radioactivity in soil were found to be normal. The highest result found for U in hay was 100 ug/kg. The amount of 226Ra was highest in beef bones, where the contamination reached 190 pCi/kg. The amount of 210Pb in bones never exceeded 30 pCi/kg and in meat, 5 pCi/kg. In most samples 210Po was below the detection level, but one bone sample reached 90 pCi/kg. U, 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po in milk all vary from 0 - 2.45 pCi/l. Only 210Pb in cheese was as high as 60 pCi/kg, 226Ra, 210Po and U were hardly detectable. (H.K.)

  17. Chromosome breakage in lymphocytes from humans with body burdens of 226Ra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peripheral lymphocytes from 10 controls and 40 patients with body burdens of 226Ra ranging from below the limit of detection to 8.6 μCi were scored for unstable chromosome aberrations. The patient population was divided into four groups: a group with body burdens below the limit of detection (less than 0.003 μCi, 12 patients); a low-burden group (0.003 to 0.099 μCi, 13 patients); a moderate-burden group (0.1 to 0.99 μCi, 11 patients); and a high-burden group (greater than 1.0 μCi, 4 patients). In none of these groups was the frequency of cells with unstable aberrations significantly elevated above that in the controls. The rate of occurrence of dicentric and ring chromosomes was above the control frequency in only the two patients with the highest burdens (3.55 and 8.6 μCi). Our results are consistent with the expectation derived from a recent calculation of alpha dose delivered to blood by bone-deposited radium and its decay products. Marshall and Hoegerman have estimated that the blood dose for an individual with a radium burden of 1.0 μCi is 0.09 +- 0.03 rad/year. The value is compared with the dose estimate used by Boyd et al. in their study of British radium-dial painters, and the relevance of the blood dose to the lymphocyte dose is discussed

  18. Optimized measurement of radium-226 concentration in liquid samples with radon-222 emanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrier, Frédéric; Aupiais, Jean; Girault, Frédéric; Przylibski, Tadeusz A; Bouquerel, Hélène

    2016-06-01

    Measuring radium-226 concentration in liquid samples using radon-222 emanation remains competitive with techniques such as liquid scintillation, alpha or mass spectrometry. Indeed, we show that high-precision can be obtained without air circulation, using an optimal air to liquid volume ratio and moderate heating. Cost-effective and efficient measurement of radon concentration is achieved by scintillation flasks and sufficiently long counting times for signal and background. More than 400 such measurements were performed, including 39 dilution experiments, a successful blind measurement of six reference test solutions, and more than 110 repeated measurements. Under optimal conditions, uncertainties reach 5% for an activity concentration of 100 mBq L(-1) and 10% for 10 mBq L(-1). While the theoretical detection limit predicted by Monte Carlo simulation is around 3 mBq L(-1), a conservative experimental estimate is rather 5 mBq L(-1), corresponding to 0.14 fg g(-1). The method was applied to 47 natural waters, 51 commercial waters, and 17 wine samples, illustrating that it could be an option for liquids that cannot be easily measured by other methods. Counting of scintillation flasks can be done in remote locations in absence of electricity supply, using a solar panel. Thus, this portable method, which has demonstrated sufficient accuracy for numerous natural liquids, could be useful in geological and environmental problems, with the additional benefit that it can be applied in isolated locations and in circumstances when samples cannot be transported. PMID:26998570

  19. Optimized measurement of radium-226 concentration in liquid samples with radon-222 emanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrier, Frédéric; Aupiais, Jean; Girault, Frédéric; Przylibski, Tadeusz A; Bouquerel, Hélène

    2016-06-01

    Measuring radium-226 concentration in liquid samples using radon-222 emanation remains competitive with techniques such as liquid scintillation, alpha or mass spectrometry. Indeed, we show that high-precision can be obtained without air circulation, using an optimal air to liquid volume ratio and moderate heating. Cost-effective and efficient measurement of radon concentration is achieved by scintillation flasks and sufficiently long counting times for signal and background. More than 400 such measurements were performed, including 39 dilution experiments, a successful blind measurement of six reference test solutions, and more than 110 repeated measurements. Under optimal conditions, uncertainties reach 5% for an activity concentration of 100 mBq L(-1) and 10% for 10 mBq L(-1). While the theoretical detection limit predicted by Monte Carlo simulation is around 3 mBq L(-1), a conservative experimental estimate is rather 5 mBq L(-1), corresponding to 0.14 fg g(-1). The method was applied to 47 natural waters, 51 commercial waters, and 17 wine samples, illustrating that it could be an option for liquids that cannot be easily measured by other methods. Counting of scintillation flasks can be done in remote locations in absence of electricity supply, using a solar panel. Thus, this portable method, which has demonstrated sufficient accuracy for numerous natural liquids, could be useful in geological and environmental problems, with the additional benefit that it can be applied in isolated locations and in circumstances when samples cannot be transported.

  20. U-isotopes and (226)Ra as tracers of hydrogeochemical processes in carbonated karst aquifers from arid areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, José Luis; Vallejos, Ángela; Cerón, Juan Carlos; Sánchez-Martos, Francisco; Pulido-Bosch, Antonio; Bolívar, Juan Pedro

    2016-07-01

    Sierra de Gádor is a karst macrosystem with a highly complex geometry, located in southeastern Spain. In this arid environment, the main economic activities, agriculture and tourism, are supported by water resources from the Sierra de Gádor aquifer system. The aim of this work was to study the levels and behaviour of some of the most significant natural radionuclides in order to improve the knowledge of the hydrogeochemical processes involved in this groundwater system. For this study, 28 groundwater and 7 surface water samples were collected, and the activity concentrations of the natural U-isotopes ((238)U, (235)U and (234)U) and (226)Ra by alpha spectrometry were determined. The activity concentration of (238)U presented a large variation from around 1.1 to 65 mBq L(-1). Elevated groundwater U concentrations were the result of oxidising conditions that likely promoted U dissolution. The PHREEQC modelling code showed that dissolved U mainly existed as uranyl carbonate complexes. The (234)U/(238)U activity ratios were higher than unity for all samples (1.1-3.8). Additionally, these ratios were in greater disequilibrium in groundwater than surface water samples, the likely result of greater water-rock contact time. (226)Ra presented a wide range of activity concentrations, (0.8 up to about 4 × 10(2) mBq L(-1)); greatest concentrations were detected in the thermal area of Alhama. Most of the samples showed (226)Ra/(234)U activity ratios lower than unity (median = 0.3), likely the result of the greater mobility of U than Ra in the aquifer system. The natural U-isotopes concentrations were strongly correlated with dissolution of sulphate evaporites (mainly gypsum). (226)Ra had a more complex behaviour, showing a strong correlation with water salinity, which was particularly evident in locations where thermal anomalies were detected. The most saline samples showed the lowest (234)U/(238)U activity ratios, probably due to fast uniform bulk mineral dissolution

  1. U-isotopes and (226)Ra as tracers of hydrogeochemical processes in carbonated karst aquifers from arid areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, José Luis; Vallejos, Ángela; Cerón, Juan Carlos; Sánchez-Martos, Francisco; Pulido-Bosch, Antonio; Bolívar, Juan Pedro

    2016-07-01

    Sierra de Gádor is a karst macrosystem with a highly complex geometry, located in southeastern Spain. In this arid environment, the main economic activities, agriculture and tourism, are supported by water resources from the Sierra de Gádor aquifer system. The aim of this work was to study the levels and behaviour of some of the most significant natural radionuclides in order to improve the knowledge of the hydrogeochemical processes involved in this groundwater system. For this study, 28 groundwater and 7 surface water samples were collected, and the activity concentrations of the natural U-isotopes ((238)U, (235)U and (234)U) and (226)Ra by alpha spectrometry were determined. The activity concentration of (238)U presented a large variation from around 1.1 to 65 mBq L(-1). Elevated groundwater U concentrations were the result of oxidising conditions that likely promoted U dissolution. The PHREEQC modelling code showed that dissolved U mainly existed as uranyl carbonate complexes. The (234)U/(238)U activity ratios were higher than unity for all samples (1.1-3.8). Additionally, these ratios were in greater disequilibrium in groundwater than surface water samples, the likely result of greater water-rock contact time. (226)Ra presented a wide range of activity concentrations, (0.8 up to about 4 × 10(2) mBq L(-1)); greatest concentrations were detected in the thermal area of Alhama. Most of the samples showed (226)Ra/(234)U activity ratios lower than unity (median = 0.3), likely the result of the greater mobility of U than Ra in the aquifer system. The natural U-isotopes concentrations were strongly correlated with dissolution of sulphate evaporites (mainly gypsum). (226)Ra had a more complex behaviour, showing a strong correlation with water salinity, which was particularly evident in locations where thermal anomalies were detected. The most saline samples showed the lowest (234)U/(238)U activity ratios, probably due to fast uniform bulk mineral dissolution

  2. 武汉市空气中~(238)U、~(226)Ra、~(232)Th放射性浓度估算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施锦华; 陈昌华

    1989-01-01

    本文报道武汉市空气中~(238)U、~(226)Ra、~(232)Th 放射性浓度的估算结果。空气中~(238)U、~(226)Ra、~(232)Th 的放射性浓度是根据地面空气中铀、镭、钍的主要天然来源是土壤粒子的再悬浮的假定,通过调查测量武汉市土壤中天然放射性核素含量和空气中含尘量,经计算后确定的。我们于1984年4—10月在武汉地区采集了60个土壤样品,调查测量了土壤中天然放射性核素含量,并根据在1981—1985年间采集的7346个空气粉尘样品测得的空气中含尘量,估算出武汉市空气中~(238)U、~(226)Ra 和~(232)Th 放射性浓度的五年平均值分别为24.0、18.9和28.7nBq/L。五年中以1983年的平均值最高,分别为30.4、23.9和36.2nBq/L。以1984和1985年的数据为例,空气中~(238)U、(226)Ra、~(232)Th 放射性浓度呈明显的季节性变化,两年中均以冬季为最高,夏季最低。在武汉市六个城区中,空气中~(238)U、~(226)Ra、~(232)Th 的放射性浓度,以青山区最高,武昌区最低。

  3. Annexin A1 N-terminal derived peptide Ac2-26 stimulates fibroblast migration in high glucose conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Bizzarro

    Full Text Available Deficient wound healing in diabetic patients is very frequent, but the cellular and molecular causes are poorly defined. In this study, we have evaluated whether Annexin A1 derived peptide Ac2-26 stimulates fibroblast migration in high glucose conditions. Using normal human skin fibroblasts WS1 in low glucose (LG or high glucose (HG we observed the enrichment of Annexin A1 protein at cell movement structures like lamellipodial extrusions and interestingly, a significant decrease in levels of the protein in HG conditions. The analysis of the translocation of Annexin A1 to cell membrane showed lower levels of Annexin A1 in both membrane pool and supernatants of WS1 cells treated with HG. Wound-healing assays using cell line transfected with Annexin A1 siRNAs indicated a slowing down in migration speed of cells suggesting that Annexin A1 has a role in the migration of WS1 cells. In order to analyze the role of extracellular Annexin A1 in cell migration, we have performed wound-healing assays using Ac2-26 showing that peptide was able to increase fibroblast cell migration in HG conditions. Experiments on the mobilization of intracellular calcium and analysis of p-ERK expression confirmed the activity of the FPR1 following stimulation with the peptide Ac2-26. A wound-healing assay on WS1 cells in the presence of the FPR agonist fMLP, of the FPR antagonist CsH and in the presence of Ac2-26 indicated that Annexin A1 influences fibroblast cell migration under HG conditions acting through FPR receptors whose expression was slightly increased in HG. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that (i Annexin A1 is involved in migration of WS1 cells, through interaction with FPRs; (ii N- terminal peptide of Annexin A1 Ac2-26 is able to stimulate direct migration of WS1 cells in high glucose treatment possibly due to the increased receptor expression observed in hyperglycemia conditions.

  4. Effects of Cx43 gene modification on the proliferation and migration of the human lung squamous carcinoma cell line NCI-H226.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, J-P; Wei, R

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the human lung squamous carcinoma cell line NCI-H226 was transfected with the recombinant plasmid pBudCE4.1_Cx43 to explore the role of the Cx43 gene in cell growth, cell cycle, and tumor migration. pBudCE4.1-Cx43 was transfected into human lung squamous carcinoma NCI-H226 cells using Lipofectamine TM2000. The mRNA and protein expressions of Cx43 in the transfected cells were detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. The cell-cell communication was detected using the scratch dye tracer method and the cell cycle was detected by flow cytometry. The CCK-8 proliferation, scratch healing, and cell invasion assays were performed to evaluate the effect of the Cx43 gene transfection on the proliferation, migration, and invasive abilities of NCI-H226 cells. Cx43 mRNA and protein expressions and the fluorescence intensity in the scratch healing test were significantly higher in the experimental group than those in the control and blank groups (P H226 cell proliferation (especially 72 h after incubation) and cell migration, respectively, in the experimental group, compared to the control and blank groups (P H226 cells in the experimental group (P H226, thereby inhibiting tumor cell proliferation. PMID:26535624

  5. Gross alpha activity as an estimator of radium-226 activity in soils and tailings at an inactive uranium mill tailings site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreesen, D.R.; Wienke, C.L.

    1978-10-01

    Gross alpha activity in surface tailings and surface soils from one inactive uranium mill site has been shown to be an accurate estimator of /sup 226/Ra activity. An exponential regression, /sup 226/Ra = 387(e/sup 0.00166..cap alpha../ - 1), where /sup 226/Ra activity is in picoCuries per gram and gross alpha activity is in counts per minute per sample, gave a good fit for samples ranging in gross alpha activity from 3 to 1082 cpm/sample. A linear regression, /sup 226/Ra = 1.05 ..cap alpha.. + 1.78, has been calculated, which shows gross alpha activity to be an excellent estimator of /sup 226/Ra activity in soils contaminated with tailings. The percentage of gross alpha activity attributable to /sup 226/Ra activity has been calculated to be 7.2, 17.6, 18.3, and 17.0 for uncontaminated soils, contaminated soils, tailings, and the total set of samples, respectively.

  6. Aluminum hydroxide associated to Schistosoma mansoni 22.6 kDa protein abrogates partial protection against experimental infection but not alter interleukin-10 production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila GG Pacífico

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The need to develop a vaccine against schistosomiasis led several researches and our group to investigate proteins from Schistosoma mansoni as vaccine candidates. Sm22.6 is a protein from S. mansoni that shows high identity with Sj22.6 and Sh22.6 (79 and 91%, respectively. These proteins are associated with high levels of IgE and protection to reinfection. Previously, we have shown that Sm22.6 induced a partial protection of 34.5% when used together with Freund's adjuvant and produced a Th0 type of immune response with interferon-g and interleukin-4. In this work, mice were immunized with Sm22.6 alone or with aluminum hydroxide adjuvant and high levels of IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a were measured. Unfortunately, no protection was detected. Since IL-10 is a modulating cytokine in schistosomiasis, we also observed a high level of this molecule in splenocytes of vaccinated mice. In conclusion, we did not observe the adjuvant effect of aluminum hydroxide associated with rSm22.6 in protective immunity.

  7. The removal of radioactive radium (Ra226) from chloride liquors by columnar ion exchange in the presence of calcium, magnesium and iron cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work was to study the feasibility of controlling the discharge of soluble Ra226, in the presence of Ca, Mg and Fe cations in synthetic chloride effluents, by adsorption on cation exchange resins to decrease Ra226-concentrations to federal environmental levels of 10 pCi Ra226/litre. Environmentally acceptable effluents were produced from synthetic chloride feed liquors containing 10 ppm Ca, 5 ppm Mg, 120 ppm Fe plus 20,000 pCi Ra226/litre. Environmentally acceptable effluents were not produced, by cation exchange, from a synthetic chloride liquor containing 490 ppm Ca, 97 ppm Mg, 720 ppm Fe in addition to 20,000 pCi Ra226/litre. The mass interference of the Ca + Mg + Fe cation concentrations in the feed liquor was in over-powering competition, for resin sites, with the Ra226-cations. To obtain realistic data, the adsorption process should be reexamined using a chloride liquor produced under optimal chloride leaching conditions of an Elliot Lake uranium ore. This would, in all probability, reveal other cations unavailable in the synthetic chloride liquors

  8. Radiochemical determination of {sup 210} Pb and {sup 226}Ra in petroleum sludges and scales; Determinacao radioquimica de {sup 210} Pb e {sup 226}Ra em borras e incrustacoes de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Andressa Arruda de

    2005-07-01

    The oil extraction and production, both onshore and offshore, can generate different types of residues, such as sludge, that is deposited in the water/oil separators, valves and storage tanks and scales, which form i the inner surface of ducts and equipment. Analyses already carried out through gamma spectrometry indicated the existence of high radioisotope concentration. However, radionuclides emitting low-energy gamma-rays, such as {sup 210} Pb, are hardly detected by that technique. Consequently, there is a need to test alternative techniques to determine this and other radionuclides from the {sup 238} U series. This work, therefore, focuses on the radiochemical determination of the concentration of {sup 210}Pb, and {sup 226} Ra in samples of sludge and scale from the oil processing stations of the UN-SEAL, a PETROBRAS unit responsible for the exploration and production of petroleum in Sergipe and Alagoas. The sludge and scale samples went through a preliminary process of extraction of oil, in order to separate the solid phase, where the largest fraction of the radioactivity is concentrated. After oil removal, the samples were digested using alkaline fusion as an option for dissolution. Finally, their activity concentration was determined for the samples of sludge and scales, using and alternative radiochemical method, which is based on ionic exchange. The activity concentration found for {sup 210}Pb varied from 1,14 to 507,3 kBq kg{sup -1}. The values for {sup 226}Ra were higher, varying from 4,36 to 3.445 kBq kg{sup -1}. The results for {sup 226}Ra were then compared with the ones found for the same samples of sludge and scales using gamma spectrometry. The results of the comparison confirm the efficiency of the methodology used int hi work, that is, radiochemical determination by means of ionic exchange. (author)

  9. A Procedure for the Rapid Determination of 226Ra and 228Ra in Drinking Water by Liquid Scintillation Counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 2004, the environment programme of the IAEA has included activities aimed at the development of a set of procedures for the determination of radionuclides in terrestrial environmental samples. Reliable, comparable and ‘fit for purpose’ results are essential requirements for any decision based on analytical measurements. For the analyst, tested and validated analytical procedures are extremely important tools for the production of such data. For maximum utility, such procedures should be comprehensive, clearly formulated and readily available to both the analyst and the customer. This publication describes a procedure for the rapid determination of 226Ra and 228Ra in drinking water. The determination of radium in drinking water is important for protecting human health, since the consumption of drinking water containing radium may lead to an accumulation in the body, contributing to the radiological dose. The method is based on the separation of 226Ra and 228Ra from interfering elements using PbSO4 and Ba(Ra)SO4 coprecipitation steps. The isotopes 226Ra and 228Ra are then determined by liquid scintillation counting. The procedure is expected to be of general use to a wide range of laboratories, including the laboratories of the Analytical Laboratories for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity (ALMERA) network, both in emergency situations and for routine environmental monitoring purposes. The method was established after an extensive review of papers from the scientific literature, and was tested and validated in terms of repeatability and trueness (relative bias) in accordance with International Organization for Standardization guidelines. Reproducibility tests were performed at expert laboratories. The calculation of massic activities, uncertainty budget, decision threshold and detection limit are also described

  10. Micro-extraction procedures for the determination of Ra-226 in well waters by SF-ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radium-226 (t1/2 = 1622 years) content of highly alkaline well water collected from the United Arab Emirates (UAE) was measured by double focusing sector-field inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (SF-ICP-MS) after separation of the radium from other alkaline earth elements using a newly developed procedure. The results were comparable with those obtained by α-spectrometry for samples with concentrations ranging from 6.75 to 459 pg/L (0.25 to 17 Bq/L). Instrumental sensitivity on matrix-free samples was compared for two sample introduction systems, i.e. an Apex-Q high sensitivity system and a concentric nebulizer. A 12-fold improvement in sensitivity (instrumental detection limit = 1.5 pg/L or 55 mBq/L) was found when the Apex-Q system was used. Two chromatographic methods were tested for the sequential separation of the alkaline earth elements contained in the well water samples in order to reduce matrix and polyatomic interference effects. Optimal elution parameters were determined and used for the separation and pre-concentration of Ra-226 in those samples. A method detection limit of 0.189 pg/L (7 mBq/L), which corresponds to a mass of 0.38 fg of Ra-226 in the sample, was achieved. Only 2 mL of sample is necessary when a combination of 50 W-X8 and Sr*Spec resin, which are reusable, are utilized for the separation. This new analytical protocol significantly reduces sample preparation time resulting in a throughput rate of approximately 20 samples in only 8 h; faster than the other published extraction procedures

  11. MSFIA-LOV system for (226)Ra isolation and pre-concentration from water samples previous radiometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Rogelio; Borràs, Antoni; Leal, Luz; Cerdà, Víctor; Ferrer, Laura

    2016-03-10

    An automatic system based on multisyringe flow injection analysis (MSFIA) and lab-on-valve (LOV) flow techniques for separation and pre-concentration of (226)Ra from drinking and natural water samples has been developed. The analytical protocol combines two different procedures: the Ra adsorption on MnO2 and the BaSO4 co-precipitation, achieving more selectivity especially in water samples with low radium levels. Radium is adsorbed on MnO2 deposited on macroporous of bead cellulose. Then, it is eluted with hydroxylamine to transform insoluble MnO2 to soluble Mn(II) thus freeing Ra, which is then coprecipitated with BaSO4. The (226)Ra can be directly detected in off-line mode using a low background proportional counter (LBPC) or through a liquid scintillation counter (LSC), after performing an on-line coprecipitate dissolution. Thus, the versatility of the proposed system allows the selection of the radiometric detection technique depending on the detector availability or the required response efficiency (sample number vs. response time and limit of detection). The MSFIA-LOV system improves the precision (1.7% RSD), and the extraction frequency (up to 3 h(-1)). Besides, it has been satisfactorily applied to different types of water matrices (tap, mineral, well and sea water). The (226)Ra minimum detectable activities (LSC: 0.004 Bq L(-1); LBPC: 0.02 Bq L(-1)) attained by this system allow to reach the guidance values proposed by the relevant international agencies e.g. WHO, EPA and EC. PMID:26893088

  12. Development and evaluation of a technique for the determination of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra by liquid scintillation in biological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Paulo Cesar P.; Sousa, Wanderson O.; Dantas, Bernardo M.; Juliao, Ligia M.Q.C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: pcesar@ird.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    Radium isotopes are dispersed in the environment according to their physicochemical characteristics. Considering their long half-lives and radiological effects, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra are very important issues to radiological protection. In Brazil, radium isotopes represent an exposure problem both in the nuclear fuel cycle installations and in high natural radiation background areas. The experimental part of this work includes the development of a technique for the determination of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra by liquid scintillation in biological samples. Radium was concentrated and then separated from the others constituents of the sample by coprecipitation/ precipitation with Ba(Ra)SO{sub 4}. The precipitate was filtered and weighted to calculate the chemical yield. The filter containing the precipitate of Ba(Ra)SO{sub 4} was transferred to a scintillation vial. Two methods were used to prepare the sources. The first one consisted gel suspension and the second one, phases method. The solutions obtained were counted in a low background scintillation spectrometry system (Quantulus) suitable for the detection and identification of both alpha and beta particles for the determination of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra. The activity values of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra calculated by the two methods are in good agreement with the reference value indicating that both methods are suitable for the determination of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra. The values of minimum detectable activity (MDA) for the gel suspension method were 2.5 mBq.L{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra and 53 mBq.L{sup -1} for {sup 228}Ra and for the method of phases were 2.6 mBq.L{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra and 66 mBq.L{sup -1} for {sup 228}Ra. (author)

  13. Development and evaluation of a technique for the determination of 226Ra and 228Ra by liquid scintillation in biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radium isotopes are dispersed in the environment according to their physicochemical characteristics. Considering their long half-lives and radiological effects, 226Ra and 228Ra are very important issues to radiological protection. In Brazil, radium isotopes represent an exposure problem both in the nuclear fuel cycle installations and in high natural radiation background areas. The experimental part of this work includes the development of a technique for the determination of 226Ra and 228Ra by liquid scintillation in biological samples. Radium was concentrated and then separated from the others constituents of the sample by coprecipitation/ precipitation with Ba(Ra)SO4. The precipitate was filtered and weighted to calculate the chemical yield. The filter containing the precipitate of Ba(Ra)SO4 was transferred to a scintillation vial. Two methods were used to prepare the sources. The first one consisted gel suspension and the second one, phases method. The solutions obtained were counted in a low background scintillation spectrometry system (Quantulus) suitable for the detection and identification of both alpha and beta particles for the determination of 226Ra and 228Ra. The activity values of 226Ra and 228Ra calculated by the two methods are in good agreement with the reference value indicating that both methods are suitable for the determination of 226Ra and 228Ra. The values of minimum detectable activity (MDA) for the gel suspension method were 2.5 mBq.L-1 for 226Ra and 53 mBq.L-1 for 228Ra and for the method of phases were 2.6 mBq.L-1 for 226Ra and 66 mBq.L-1 for 228Ra. (author)

  14. Determination of Ra-224, Ra-226 and Ra-228 by gamma-ray spectrometry with radon retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The purpose of this work is to improve the determination, through gamma-ray spectrometry, of radium isotopes 228Ra, 226Ra and 224Ra in water. This improvement has been developed after the participation in the IAEA Proficiency test: 'Determination of radium and Uranium radionuclides in water' in December 2002, and applied to the same samples of this proficiency test. The aim of this new procedure is the determination of 228Ra, 226Ra and 224Ra activities by measuring the gamma-ray emissions of their decay products 228Ac, 214Pb and 212Pb, respectively. In the search for these activities, radiochemical separation of radium and lead are required. A coprecipitation method with stable barium and lead was carried out to obtain two different precipitates, both of them as sulphate. However emanation of unknown quantities of 222Rn and 220Rn is produced from the fine precipitate of the radium sulphate obtained which leads to wrong determinations of 224Ra and 226Ra activities. To avoid this radon exhalation effect the mentioned deposit, once the chemical yield has been calculated, is dissolved with EDTA and the resulting liquid incorporated into charcoal, and then it is dried and introduced into a suitable container. Afterwards the container is sealed and stored in a freezer. Different configurations of charcoal sizes and types as well as containers have been analysed. To perform this analysis several samples of those mentioned above containing 226Ra were used in order to test its equilibrium with the progeny, 214Pb and 214Bi, through gamma-ray spectrometry. The following results for contaminated samples with less than 50 Bq of 226Ra and using 30 ∼ 50 g of charcoal have been obtained: 1) There is a slight tendency to obtain better results using metallic containers rather than plastic ones 2) In general, specific activated charcoals, prepared to retain radon or noble gases allow better results than unspecific charcoals, but cannot be considered as better in a clear

  15. A simple method for calibration of Lucas scintillation cell counting system for measurement of 226Ra and 222Rn

    OpenAIRE

    N.K. Sethy; V.N. Jha; P.M. Ravi; Tripathi, R. M.

    2014-01-01

    Known quantity of radium from high grade ore solution was chemically separated and carefully kept inside the cavity of a Lucas Cell (LC). The 222Rn gradually builds up and attain secular equilibrium with its parent 226Ra. This gives a steady count after a suitable buildup period (>25 days). This secondary source was used to calibrate the radon counting system. The method is validated in by comparison with identical measurement with AlphaGuard Aquakit. The radon counting system was used to eva...

  16. Evaluation of procedures for determination of Ra-226 in water by alpha-particle spectrometry with emphasis on the recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedik, L; Repinc, U; Strok, M

    2010-01-01

    Radium-226 is one of the best known long-lived alpha-emitters abundantly present in the environment. The determination of radium isotopes in environmental samples usually requires a demanding chemical separation before measurement and quantification. Each step in the chemical separation process can involve losses of the analyte, therefore it is of vital importance that the recovery of the whole radiochemical procedure is evaluated. The emphasis of the work presented was determination of the chemical recovery using the different yield tracers Ra-223, Ra-225 and Ba-133.

  17. Measurement by liquid scintillation of {sup 226} Ra coprecipitated in BaSO{sub 4}; Medicion por centelleo liquido de {sup 226} Ra coprecipitado en BaSO{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez del Rio, H.; Davila R, J.I.; Badillo A, V.E.; Mireles G, F.; Quirino T, L.; Lugo R, J.F.; Pinedo V, J.L.; Rios M, C. [UAEN-UAZ, A.P. 579C, Cipres 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)]. e-mail: idavila@cantera.reduaz.mx

    2003-07-01

    The {sup 226} Ra is one of the more radio toxic nuclides since when entering to the organism it continues metabolically to the calcium, accumulating mainly in the bone tissue where it becomes in an internal radiation source. For the analysis of radium in water the methods of radon emanation are generally applied and coprecipitation with barium sulfate. This last is quick and efficient, and the radium in the precipitate can be measured by alpha or gamma spectrometry, or liquid scintillation dissolving the precipitate one with EDTA. In this work it is proposed a procedure for the radium measurement in water based on the coprecipitation with barium sulfate and in the detection by liquid scintillation. The precipitate of Ba(Ra)SO{sub 4} it is carried with water and blended with the liquid scintillator OptiPhase Hi Safe 3, avoiding the dissolution with EDTA. A 92{+-} 1.4% of radium it was recovered and it was reached a minimum activity detectable of 4.2 {+-} 0.9 mBq{sup -1}. The procedure was essayed with natural mineral water with a knew activity in concentration of {sup 226} Ra. The analytic result it coincided with the reported value with a relative error of 9%. (Author)

  18. Soil to leaf transfer factor for the radionuclides 226Ra, 40K, 137Cs and 90Sr at Kaiga region, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transfer factors are the most important parameters required for mathematical modeling used for environmental impact assessment of radioactive contamination in the environment. In this paper soil to leaf transfer factor for the radionuclides 40K, 226Ra, 137Cs and 90Sr is estimated for Kaiga region in Karnataka state, India. Among the plants in which study is carried out, 226Ra, 40K, 137Cs and 90Sr activity in leaves of herbaceous plants is higher than that of tree leaves. Soil to leaf transfer factor for 226Ra, 40K, 137Cs and 90Sr was found to be in the range of 0.03-0.65, 0.32-8.04, 0.05-3.03 and 0.42-2.67 respectively. - Highlights: → Study region is Kaiga, Karnataka, India. → 226Ra, 40K, 137Cs and 90Sr activity in soil and leaf samples are reported. → 226Ra, 40K, 137Cs activity is higher in herbaceous plant leaves, than tree leaves. → In most of the plants transfer factor varies in the order K > Sr > Cs > Ra.

  19. Appearance of E1: A226V mutant Chikungunya virus in Coastal Karnataka, India during 2008 outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Mohasin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chikungunya has resurged in the form of unprecedented explosive epidemic in 2006 after a long gap in India affecting 1.39 million of persons. The disease continued for the next two consecutive years affecting 59,535 and 64,548 persons during 2007 and 2008 respectively. The 2008 outbreak being the second largest among these three years the information regarding the etiology and the mutations involved are useful for further control measures. Among the 2008 outbreaks the Coastal Karnataka accounts for the 46,510 persons. An in-depth investigation of Chikungunya epidemic of Coastal Karnataka, India, 2008 by serology, virus isolation, RT-PCR and genome sequencing revealed the presence and continued circulation of A226V mutant Chikungunya virus. The appearance of this mutant virus was found to be associated with higher prevalence of vector Aedes albopictus and the geographical proximity of coastal Karnataka with the adjoining Kerala state. This is the first report regarding the appearance of this mutation in Karnataka state of India. The present study identified the presence and association of A226V mutant virus with Chikungunya outbreak in India during 2008.

  20. Appearance of E1: A226V mutant Chikungunya virus in Coastal Karnataka, India during 2008 outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, S R; Dash, Paban Kumar; Parida, Manmohan; Khan, Mohasin; Rao, Putcha V L

    2009-01-01

    Chikungunya has resurged in the form of unprecedented explosive epidemic in 2006 after a long gap in India affecting 1.39 million of persons. The disease continued for the next two consecutive years affecting 59,535 and 64,548 persons during 2007 and 2008 respectively. The 2008 outbreak being the second largest among these three years the information regarding the etiology and the mutations involved are useful for further control measures. Among the 2008 outbreaks the Coastal Karnataka accounts for the 46,510 persons. An in-depth investigation of Chikungunya epidemic of Coastal Karnataka, India, 2008 by serology, virus isolation, RT-PCR and genome sequencing revealed the presence and continued circulation of A226V mutant Chikungunya virus. The appearance of this mutant virus was found to be associated with higher prevalence of vector Aedes albopictus and the geographical proximity of coastal Karnataka with the adjoining Kerala state. This is the first report regarding the appearance of this mutation in Karnataka state of India. The present study identified the presence and association of A226V mutant virus with Chikungunya outbreak in India during 2008. PMID:19857273

  1. Tl-208, Pb-212, Bi-212, Ra-226 and Ac-228 adsorption onto polyhydroxyethylmethacrylate-bentonite composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkaya, Recep [Cumhuriyet University, Chemistry Department, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Ulusoy, Ulvi, E-mail: ulusoy@cumhuriyet.edu.tr [Cumhuriyet University, Chemistry Department, 58140 Sivas (Turkey)

    2012-02-01

    The adsorption of naturally occurring radionuclides ({sup 208}Tl{sup +}, {sup 212}Pb{sup 2+}, {sup 226}Ra{sup 2+}, {sup 212}Bi{sup 3+} and {sup 228}Ac{sup 3+}) onto Polyhydroxyethylmethacrylate-bentonite (PHEMA-B) composite was investigated. Experimentally obtained isotherms were evaluated with reference to Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (DR) models. The adsorption isotherms were L type of Giles classification proving that PHEMA-B had a high affinity adsorbent for the studied radionuclides. The Langmuir adsorption capacities (X{sub L}) were in the order of {sup 226}Ra (2.8 MBq kg{sup -1})>{sup 212}Bi (0.4 MBq kg{sup -1})>{sup 212}Pb (0.3 MBq kg{sup -1})>{sup 228}Ac and {sup 208}Tl (0.2 MBq kg{sup -1}). The adsorption process was physical via complex formation after proton exchanger for which the adsorption energies obtained from DR model was evidence. The enthalpy and entropy changes were positive and the negative free enthalpy change was proof for the spontaneity of adsorption. The reusability tests for PHEMA-B for five uses demonstrated that the adsorbent could be reused after complete recovery of the loaded radionuclide ions by 1 M HCl. The chemical structure of the composite did not change after the reuses and storage foregoing.

  2. Soil features and indoor radon concentration prediction: radon in soil gas, pedology, permeability and 226Ra content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, E; Rocha, Z; Santos, T O; Rios, F J; Oliveira, A H

    2015-11-01

    This work aims at relating some physicochemical features of soils and their use as a tool for prediction of indoor radon concentrations of the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte (RMBH), Minas Gerais, Brazil. The measurements of soil gas radon concentrations were performed by using an AlphaGUARD monitor. The (226)Ra content analysis was performed by gamma spectrometry (high pure germanium) and permeabilities were performed by using the RADON-JOK permeameter. The GEORP indicator and soil radon index (RI) were also calculated. Approximately 53 % of the Perferric Red Latosols measurement site could be classified as 'high risk' (Swedish criteria). The Litholic Neosols presented the lowest radon concentration mean in soil gas. The Perferric Red Latosols presented significantly high radon concentration mean in soil gas (60.6 ± 8.7 kBq m(-3)), high indoor radon concentration, high RI, (226)Ra content and GEORP. The preliminary results may indicate an influence of iron formations present very close to the Perferric Red Latosols in the retention of uranium minerals. PMID:25920786

  3. Soil features and indoor radon concentration prediction: radon in soil gas, pedology, permeability and 226Ra content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, E; Rocha, Z; Santos, T O; Rios, F J; Oliveira, A H

    2015-11-01

    This work aims at relating some physicochemical features of soils and their use as a tool for prediction of indoor radon concentrations of the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte (RMBH), Minas Gerais, Brazil. The measurements of soil gas radon concentrations were performed by using an AlphaGUARD monitor. The (226)Ra content analysis was performed by gamma spectrometry (high pure germanium) and permeabilities were performed by using the RADON-JOK permeameter. The GEORP indicator and soil radon index (RI) were also calculated. Approximately 53 % of the Perferric Red Latosols measurement site could be classified as 'high risk' (Swedish criteria). The Litholic Neosols presented the lowest radon concentration mean in soil gas. The Perferric Red Latosols presented significantly high radon concentration mean in soil gas (60.6 ± 8.7 kBq m(-3)), high indoor radon concentration, high RI, (226)Ra content and GEORP. The preliminary results may indicate an influence of iron formations present very close to the Perferric Red Latosols in the retention of uranium minerals.

  4. Determination of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, and {sup 210}Pb in mushroom from a naturally high radioactive region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Mychelle M.L.; Custodio, Luis Gustavo; Cheberle, Luan T.V.; Taddei, Maria Helena T., E-mail: mychelle@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: lgcustodio@hotmail.com, E-mail: lt.cheberle@bol.com.br, E-mail: mhtaddei@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas; Maihara, Vera A., E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CNEN/IPEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Many studies have shown that mushrooms are organisms which efficiently accumulate radionuclides and can be used as indicators of environmental contamination and ecosystem quality. The Pocos de Caldas plateau, in Minas Gerais, is a region that has elevated natural radioactivity due to the presence of radiological anomalies of volcanic origin. Seventy areas of radioactive anomalies have been identified in this region. From the radiological point of view the determination of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, and {sup 210}Pb is relevant because they are decay products of the natural series of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th, mainly responsible for natural radioactive exposures of man. The present paper is part of a broader study conducted in the Pocos de Caldas plateau, in which the concentration activities of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, and {sup 210}Pb in mushroom samples were determined. The mushrooms were collected at different points of the plateau under the influence of radioactive anomalies and away from the influence of anomalies. From statistical studies a correlation between the accumulation of radionuclides in mushrooms and anomalies was established and it was possible to confirm the efficiency that the mushrooms present as environmental contamination indicators. (author)

  5. Radionuclide distribution dynamics in skeletons of beagles fed 90Sr: Correlation with injected 226Ra and 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data for the bone-by-bone redistribution of 90Sr in the beagle skeleton are reported for a period of 4000 d following a midgestation-to-540-d-exposure by ingestion. The partitioned clearance model (PCM) that was originally developed to describe bone-by-bone radionuclide redistribution of 226Ra after eight semimonthly injections at ages 435-535 d has been fitted to the 90Sr data. The parameter estimates for the PCM that describe the distribution and clearance of 226Ra after deposition on surfaces following injection and analogous parameter estimates for 90Sr after uniform deposition in the skeleton as a function of Ca mass are given. Fractional compact bone masses per bone group (mi,COM) are also predicted by the model and compared to measured values; a high degree of correlation (r = 0.84) is found. Bone groups for which the agreement between the model and experimental values of mi,COM was poor had tissue-to-calcium weight ratios about 1.5 times those for bones that agreed well. Metabolically defined surface in PCM is initial activity fraction per Ca fraction in a given skeletal component for intravenously injected alkaline earth (Sae) radionuclides; comparisons are made to similarly defined surface (Sact) values from 239Pu injection studies. The patterns of Sae and Sact distribution throughout the skeleton are similar

  6. Assessment of work environmental hazard and exposure of a worker utilizing 226Ra in an oncological center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our study presents dosimetric evaluation of activities associated with sealing in glass 72 sources of 226Ra prepared for utilization, and of the effect of an absorbed dose on a worker's select laboratory parameters. During 3 h exposure to 226Ra of activity 31 GBq, it was demonstrated that taking the sources from a bunker in portions only for the time of sealing them in glass, decreases the worker's exposure to the obtained dose from 91.5 mSv to 6 mSv, and additionally used 5 cm shield to 2 mSv. Nine days after the worker's absorption of the radiation dose, we observed in laboratory tests disorders expressed by decreased numbers of white blood cells and neutrophils, decreased activity of antioxidative enzymes in erythrocytes, concentrations of protein thiol groups, vascular endothelial growth factors in serum, and an increase of plasma total antioxidant status level, of insulin-like growth factor I level, and urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor level in blood serum. (authors)

  7. Tl-208, Pb-212, Bi-212, Ra-226 and Ac-228 adsorption onto polyhydroxyethylmethacrylate-bentonite composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkaya, Recep; Ulusoy, Ulvi

    2012-02-01

    The adsorption of naturally occurring radionuclides ( 208Tl +, 212Pb 2+, 226Ra 2+, 212Bi 3+ and 228Ac 3+) onto Polyhydroxyethylmethacrylate-bentonite (PHEMA-B) composite was investigated. Experimentally obtained isotherms were evaluated with reference to Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (DR) models. The adsorption isotherms were L type of Giles classification proving that PHEMA-B had a high affinity adsorbent for the studied radionuclides. The Langmuir adsorption capacities ( XL) were in the order of 226Ra (2.8 MBq kg -1)> 212Bi (0.4 MBq kg -1)> 212Pb (0.3 MBq kg -1)> 228Ac and 208Tl (0.2 MBq kg -1). The adsorption process was physical via complex formation after proton exchanger for which the adsorption energies obtained from DR model was evidence. The enthalpy and entropy changes were positive and the negative free enthalpy change was proof for the spontaneity of adsorption. The reusability tests for PHEMA-B for five uses demonstrated that the adsorbent could be reused after complete recovery of the loaded radionuclide ions by 1 M HCl. The chemical structure of the composite did not change after the reuses and storage foregoing.

  8. Tl-208, Pb-212, Bi-212, Ra-226 and Ac-228 adsorption onto polyhydroxyethylmethacrylate-bentonite composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adsorption of naturally occurring radionuclides (208Tl+, 212Pb2+, 226Ra2+, 212Bi3+ and 228Ac3+) onto Polyhydroxyethylmethacrylate-bentonite (PHEMA-B) composite was investigated. Experimentally obtained isotherms were evaluated with reference to Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (DR) models. The adsorption isotherms were L type of Giles classification proving that PHEMA-B had a high affinity adsorbent for the studied radionuclides. The Langmuir adsorption capacities (XL) were in the order of 226Ra (2.8 MBq kg-1)>212Bi (0.4 MBq kg-1)>212Pb (0.3 MBq kg-1)>228Ac and 208Tl (0.2 MBq kg-1). The adsorption process was physical via complex formation after proton exchanger for which the adsorption energies obtained from DR model was evidence. The enthalpy and entropy changes were positive and the negative free enthalpy change was proof for the spontaneity of adsorption. The reusability tests for PHEMA-B for five uses demonstrated that the adsorbent could be reused after complete recovery of the loaded radionuclide ions by 1 M HCl. The chemical structure of the composite did not change after the reuses and storage foregoing.

  9. Producing a problem? Effects of produced water contaminants (PAHs, radium-226, barium and scale inhibitor) on the copepod Calanus finmarchicus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Barents Sea region new petroleum fields are discovered yearly and the extraction of petroleum products are expected to increase in the upcoming years. Despite enhanced technology and stricter governmental legislation, establishing the petroleum industry in the Barents Sea will introduce a new source of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) to the area as some discharges of produced water will be allowed. Whether the presence of produced water poses a risk to the Arctic marine life remains to be examined. We examined effects on the copepod species Calanus finmarchicus after exposure to several compounds found in produced water. A mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkyl phenols commonly found in produced water was used as a proxy of the organic fraction of the produced water (hereafter termed APW (Artificial Produced Water)). In addition, exposures were done using radium-226 (proxy for NORM), barium (proxy for metals) and a scale inhibitor (SI -4470, M-I SWACO, Schlumberger Norge AS). Short-term screening tests on a range of concentrations of all compounds were run to assess the hatchability of the eggs and early survival of the nauplii. Long-term experiments were carried out with exposure concentrations at realistic levels found in the vicinity of known discharge points. The copepod C. finmarchicus is considered a keystone species in the Barents Sea ecosystem as it represents the major pathway of energy transfer from lower to higher trophic levels. We have examined sub-lethal effects on early life stages and on adult females. The hatchability of the eggs was not affected by concentrations well above realistic environmental levels. However, the instant mortality of the hatched larvae increased with higher concentrations of barium, scale inhibitor and APW, though not with higher radium-226 concentration. When examining the long-term growth of the nauplii, we found that the survival was poor in the APW treatment, and in the barium

  10. Producing a problem? Effects of produced water contaminants (PAHs, radium-226, barium and scale inhibitor) on the copepod Calanus finmarchicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiel Jensen, Louise [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Fram Centre, 9296 Tromsoe (Norway); Halvorsen, Elisabeth; Gammelsaeter Hallanger, Ingeborg [UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, P.O. box 6050 Langnes, 9037 Tromsoe (Norway); Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Brooks, Steven [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Gaustadalleen 21, 0349 Oslo (Norway); Hansen, Bjoern Henrik [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Marine Environmental Technology, Brattoerkaia 17B, 7010 Trondheim (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    In the Barents Sea region new petroleum fields are discovered yearly and the extraction of petroleum products are expected to increase in the upcoming years. Despite enhanced technology and stricter governmental legislation, establishing the petroleum industry in the Barents Sea will introduce a new source of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) to the area as some discharges of produced water will be allowed. Whether the presence of produced water poses a risk to the Arctic marine life remains to be examined. We examined effects on the copepod species Calanus finmarchicus after exposure to several compounds found in produced water. A mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkyl phenols commonly found in produced water was used as a proxy of the organic fraction of the produced water (hereafter termed APW (Artificial Produced Water)). In addition, exposures were done using radium-226 (proxy for NORM), barium (proxy for metals) and a scale inhibitor (SI -4470, M-I SWACO, Schlumberger Norge AS). Short-term screening tests on a range of concentrations of all compounds were run to assess the hatchability of the eggs and early survival of the nauplii. Long-term experiments were carried out with exposure concentrations at realistic levels found in the vicinity of known discharge points. The copepod C. finmarchicus is considered a keystone species in the Barents Sea ecosystem as it represents the major pathway of energy transfer from lower to higher trophic levels. We have examined sub-lethal effects on early life stages and on adult females. The hatchability of the eggs was not affected by concentrations well above realistic environmental levels. However, the instant mortality of the hatched larvae increased with higher concentrations of barium, scale inhibitor and APW, though not with higher radium-226 concentration. When examining the long-term growth of the nauplii, we found that the survival was poor in the APW treatment, and in the barium

  11. Root uptake of exogenous Ra226 by three edible vegetables grown in farm soils from the vicinity of the first Brasilian Uranium Mine and Mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the uptake of exogenous 226Ra by carrot, brow-bean and cabbage. Greenhouse experiments were carried out with farm soils collected near the first Brazilian Uranium Mine and Mill and contamin ted with 226Ra solution. After the maturity, the plants were harvested, ashed and this nuclide was analysed by gamma spectrometry. Among the edible parts, 226Ra content decreased in the following order: cabbage > brown-bean > carrot. Soil-to-plant transfer coeficients were of the order of 10-2, values of 10 to 100 times greater than those observed in the region. The results emphasize the importance of irrigation water as a contamination pathway of human groups in the area. (Author)

  12. Values of soil-plant transfer factor of 226Ra and 228Ra: agricultural areas versus areas of high natural radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, soil to plant transfer factor of 226Ra and 228Ra obtained in areas of traditional agricultural practices varied as a function of the considered cultivated species but little variation was observed as a function of the soil type. Beans and soybeans presented more important absorption than cereals (corn, rice and wheat). In our work legumes (bean and soybean) presented transfer factors up to one order of magnitude higher than average values for regions where natural radioactivity is high. On the other hand, the results for cereals did not presented such clear differences. It can be concluded that cultural inputs of 226Ra and 228Ra are occurring in agricultural areas, but few species can concentrate it. The transfer factor values obtained in this work for 226Ra and 228Ra can be applied in risk assessment models. (author)

  13. Daily intakes of 238U, 234U, 232Th, 230Th, 228Th and 226Ra in the adult population of central Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietrzak-Flis, Z.; Rosiak, L.; Suplinska, M.M.; Chrzanowski, E.; Dembinska, S. [Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection, Konwaliowa 7, 03-194 Warsaw (Poland)

    2001-06-12

    Activity concentration of the uranium and thorium series radionuclides was determined in foodstuffs and drinking water in central Poland. Annual and daily intake for the adult population was estimated from the concentrations determined and average annual consumption of food and water. The daily intakes (in mBq) were 22.1 (238U), 26.5 (234U), 2.38 (232Th), 4.06 (230Th), 11.2 (228Th) and 42.2 (226Ra). The intake of uranium isotopes occurred mainly with water; the main intake of thorium isotopes was with animal products, vegetables, cereals and potatoes, whereas 226Ra entered mainly with animal products, cereals and vegetables. From the intake and dose coefficients, the annual effective doses for the ingested radionuclides were calculated. The annual effective dose was 5.95 {mu}Sv, of which 72.4% originated from 226Ra.

  14. The Enhancement of 226Ra in a Tidal Estuary due to the Operation of Fertilizer Factories and Redissolution from Sediments: Experimental Results and a Modelling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periáñez, R.

    2002-05-01

    The presence of 226Ra in a tidal estuary formerly affected by direct discharges from a phosphate fertilizer complex has been investigated. In general, activity levels are lower than those detected when direct discharges were carried out. However, there is still a clear contamination that can be attributed, presumably, to the disposal of Ra-containing phosphogypsum to the river and to the redissolution of radionuclides from the contaminated sediments. A numerical model of the estuary has been developed to investigate these hypothesis. The hydrodynamics are first calibrated and standard tidal analysis is carried out. The dispersion model computes instantaneous currents from the so obtained tidal constants to speed up simulations. The exchanges of 226Ra between water and the bottom sediment have been described in terms of kinetic transfer coefficients. Model results are, in general, in agreement with observations. The simulation results support the previous idea of sediments acting as a source of 226Ra to the water column.

  15. Developing 226Ra and 227Ac age-dating techniques for nuclear forensics to gain insight from concordant and non-concordant radiochronometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The model age or 'date of purification' of a nuclear material is an important nuclear forensic signature. In this study, chemical separation and MC-ICP-MS measurement techniques were developed for 226 Ra and 227Ac: grand-daughter nuclides in the 238U and 235U decay chains respectively. The 230Th-234U, 226Ra-238U, 231Pa-235U, and 227Ac-235U radiochronometers were used to calculate model ages for CRM-U100 standard reference material and two highly-enriched pieces of uranium metal from the International Technical Working Group Round Robin 3 Exercise. In conclusion, the results demonstrate the accuracy of the 226Ra-238U and 227Ac-235U chronometers and provide information about nuclide migration during uranium processing

  16. Developing 226Ra and 227Ac age-dating techniques for nuclear forensics to gain insight from concordant and non-concordant radiochronometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The model age or 'date of purification' of a nuclear material is an important nuclear forensic signature. In this study, chemical separation and MC-ICP-MS measurement techniques were developed for 226Ra and 227Ac: grand-daughter nuclides in the 238U and 235U decay chains, respectively. The 230Th-234U, 226Ra-238U, 231Pa-235U, and 227Ac-235U radiochronometers were used to calculate model ages for CRM-U100 standard reference material and two highly-enriched pieces of uranium metal from the International Technical Working Group Round Robin 3 Exercise. Results demonstrate the accuracy of the 226Ra-238U and 227Ac-235U chronometers and provide information about nuclide migration during uranium processing. (author)

  17. Daily intakes of 238U, 234U, 232Th, 230Th, 228Th and 226Ra in the adult population of central Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activity concentration of the uranium and thorium series radionuclides was determined in foodstuffs and drinking water in central Poland. Annual and daily intake for the adult population was estimated from the concentrations determined and average annual consumption of food and water. The daily intakes (in mBq) were 22.1 (238U), 26.5 (234U), 2.38 (232Th), 4.06 (230Th), 11.2 (228Th) and 42.2 (226Ra). The intake of uranium isotopes occurred mainly with water; the main intake of thorium isotopes was with animal products, vegetables, cereals and potatoes, whereas 226Ra entered mainly with animal products, cereals and vegetables. From the intake and dose coefficients, the annual effective doses for the ingested radionuclides were calculated. The annual effective dose was 5.95 μSv, of which 72.4% originated from 226Ra

  18. On hygiene standardization of combined environmental factors (on the basis of data on rat death in three generations after injection of 226Ra+herbicide TMTD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The toxic effect of a binary mixture of 226Ra and TMTD herbicide has been determined by mathematical treatment of the results. The results of death in three generators of white rats of no breed, which had been subjected to chronical poisoning with the binary mixture of 226Ra and TMTD herbicide, were investigated. A coefficient of the combined effect was calculated. The advantage in determining the error of this coefficient was given to logarythmic calculations and not to differentiation. This permits a detection of antilogarythmic and coalitive changes in the generative functions of rats after a combined effect of 226Ra+TMTD mixture. The indices of rat generations, which have been affected by the combined effect of both substances introduced into the rats, are presented

  19. A sequential and fast method for low level of 226Ra , 228Ra, 210Pb e 210Po in mine effluents and uranium processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to biological risk and long half lives, the radionuclides 228Ra, 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po should be frequently monitored to check for any environmental contamination around mines and uranium plants. Currently, the methods used for the determination of these radionuclides take about thirty days to reach the radioactive equilibrium of the 210Pb and 226Ra daughter's. The evaluation of effluent discharges and leakage of deposits to water bodies in monitoring programs, require quick answers to implement corrective measures. Thereby fast determination methods must be implemented. This work presents a fast and sequential method to, in three days, determine accurately and sensitively, 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb, 210Po, in water and effluent samples

  20. 226Ra in waters of an estuarine system formerly affected by direct discharges of wastes from a phosphate fertilizer processing complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of 226Ra in an estuaryformerly affected by direct discharges of waste from a phosphate fertilizer complex has been investigated. Specific activities ranging from 3.6 to 45.2 mBq/l have been detected. In general, activity levels are lower than those detected when direct discharges were carried out. However, there is still a clear contamination due to the disposal of phosphogypsum in open air piles by the river. Moreover, it seems that 226Ra is being redissolved from the contaminated bed sediments, which also contributes to an enhancement in the activity levels of the estuary waters. (author)

  1. Monitoring analysis and the protection management of 226 nurses with occupational exposure%226名护士发生职业暴露的监测分析及防护管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立娟; 高岚; 宋丽红; 赵晓卫

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the occurrence, causes and prognosis of occupational exposure situation of nurses in infectious disease hospital, and put forward countermeasures for protection management and treatment measures after the exposure, and reduce the incidence of occupational exposure and their effects. Methods From April 2009 to December 2012, total of 226 nurses were collected in our study. The occupational exposure rate of nurses occupational exposure, exposure mode, the injured area, exposed places, exposure source types, damage the post-processing and follow-up outcome were analyzed, retrospectively. Results Among the 226 nurses with occupational exposure, there were 183 (81%) persontime with needle stick injuries, 37 (16.3%) persontime with patient’s body fluids entering and 6 (2.7%) persontime with patients bitten. The departments with highest frequency occupational exposure were Gynaecology, the First Department of Chinese and Western, ICU and Operating room. HBV is the most common expose source, followed by HCV and HIV. After occupational exposure, the wound were all treated correctly on time, all nurses had not been exposed to the infection. Conclusions By raising awareness, strengthen management, standardized operation and timely disposal, strict implementation of standard precautions, proper use of personal protective equipment, standardized wound treatment and after exposure reporting and follow-up system, could effectively prevent the occurrence of occupational exposure.%目的:探讨传染病医院护士职业暴露的发生情况、原因及预后,提出防护管理对策和暴露发生后的处理措施。以降低职业暴露的发生率及其影响。方法回顾性分析本院2009年4月至2012年12月226名护士职业暴露发生的情况,对护士职业暴露的科室分布、暴露方式、受伤部位、暴露地点,暴露源种类、暴露后处理情况及随访结局进行分析,所有资料均采用Excel

  2. Observation on Astemizole Tablet Treating 226 Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome%息斯敏治疗肠易激综合征226例疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周恒

    2000-01-01

    目的探讨肠易激综合征的治疗方法.方法将312例IBS患者随机分为对照组86例和治疗组226例.对照组采用乳酸菌素类和多酶片治疗,治疗组在对照组基础上加用息斯敏.结果治疗组203例(89.8%)患者症状完全缓解;17例(7.5%)显效,6例(2.7%)无效,与对照组相比有显著性差异.结论息斯敏可作为治疗肠易激综合征一种药物.

  3. Inventory of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb in marine sediments cores of Southwest Atlantic Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Alice M.R.; Oliveira, Joselene de, E-mail: alice.costa@usp.br, E-mail: jolivei@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Gerencia de Metrologia das Radiacoes. Lab. de Radiometria Ambiental; Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Mahiques, Michel M.; Sousa, Silvia H.M., E-mail: rfigueira@usp.br, E-mail: mahiques@usp.br, E-mail: smsousa@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto Oceanografico

    2015-07-01

    {sup 210}Pb (22.3 y) is a radioactive isotope successfully applied as tracer of sediment dating of the last 100-150 years. The application of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra as paleoceanographic tracers (half-lives of 1,600 y and 5.7 y, respectively) also gives some information of ocean's role in past climate change. In this work, it was analyzed 2 sediment cores collect at Southwest Atlantic Ocean. The sediments samples were freeze-dried and acid digested in microwave. It was carried out a radiochemical separation of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb and performed a gross alpha and gross beta measurement of both precipitates Ba(Ra)SO{sub 4} and PbCrO{sub 4} in a low background gas-flow proportional counter. Activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra ranged from 45 Bq kg{sup -1} to 70 Bq kg{sup -1} in NAP-62 and from 57 Bq kg{sup -1} to 82 Bq kg{sup -1} in NAP-63 samples. The concentration of {sup 228}Ra varied between 37 Bq kg{sup -1} and 150 Bq kg{sup -1} in NAP-62 and between 23 Bq kg{sup -1} and 111 Bq kg{sup -1} in NAP-63 samples. The concentration of total {sup 210}Pb ranged from 126 Bq kg{sup -1} to 256 Bq kg{sup -1} in NAP-62 and from 63 Bq kg{sup -1} to 945 Bq kg{sup -1} in NAP-63 samples. Results of {sup 210}Pb{sub uns} varied from 68 Bq kg{sup -1} to 192 Bq kg{sup -1} for NAP-62, while varied from <4.9 Bq kg{sup -1} to 870 Bq kg{sup -1} in NAP-63 profile. Increased values of {sup 210}Pb{sub uns} were found on the top of both NAP-62 and NAP- 63 sediment profile. (author)

  4. A garage sale bargain: A leaking 2.2 GBq Ra-226 source, Phase II - Internal dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiation Emergency Assistance Center and Training Site (REAC/TS) at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) in Oak Ridge was asked by the Department of Energy to assist the Tennessee Division of Radiological Health in assessing the potential health consequences of this incident. The purchaser of the radium source and his wife visited the REAMS facility on 8 May 1995, approximately 50 d after the purchase. Medical histories were taken and physical exams were performed by the REAC/TS physician, and blood samples were collected for complete blood counts (CBC), differentials, chemistry panels, and cytogenetic testing. The clinical results were normal, and a chromosome analysis of cultured peripheral lymphocytes showed no aberrations (rings or dicentrics) above background levels found in unexposed controls. A whole-body count was performed on the purchaser in the ORISE facility, but his wife declined because of discomfort with the enclosed space within the shield. In the energy band from 1.61 to 1.87 MeV, bracketing the 1.76-MeV peak from 214Bi, the subject had a net count rate of 0. 1 5 ± 0.04, counts per second, corresponding to a 214Bi body content of 400 ± 100 Bq. With the assumption that the 222Rn retention fraction was 0.37, this figure corresponded to a 226Ra content of 1.1 ± 0.3 kBq. With the further assumption that the primary intake route was Inhalation of 1.0-micron AMAD particles of class W 226Ra, the intake was computed to be 13 ± 3 kBq. The annual limit of intake by inhalation for class W 226Ra is based on the stochastic limit and is 20 kBq; therefore, the committed effective dose equivalent for this subject was 30 ± 7 mSv. A separate whole-body count of the subject's wife was performed with an unshielded detector at the REAC/TS facility, with negative results

  5. Mobile gamma-ray scanning system for detecting radiation anomalies associated with 226Ra-bearing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mobile gamma-ray scanning system has been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in the Department of Energy's remedial action survey programs. The unit consists of a NaI(T1) detection system housed in a specially-equipped van. The system is operator controlled through an on-board mini-computer, with data output provided on the computer video screen, strip chart recorders, and an on-line printer. Data storage is provided by a floppy disk system. Multichannel analysis capabilities are included for qualitative radionuclide identification. A 226Ra-specific algorithm is employed to identify locations containing residual radium-bearing materials. This report presents the details of the system description, software development, and scanning methods utilized with the ORNL system. Laboratory calibration and field testing have established the system sensitivity, field of view, and other performance characteristics, the results of which are also presented. Documentation of the instrumentation and computer programs are included

  6. Detection efficiencies of 226Ra and 232Th in different modes of counting of the PRIPYAT-2M spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antović Nevenka M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Detection efficiencies of 226Ra and 232Th decay products, as well as corresponding minimum detectable activities in different modes of counting of the PRIPYAT-2M spectrometer (integral, when all pulses - coincident and non-coincident, are counted; non-coincident, when only non-coincident pulses are counted; coincident, when coincident pulses of multiplicity from 2 to 6 are counted, in energy ranges of 200 keV to 2000 keV and 300 keV to 3000 keV are presented here. It has been shown that the mode of double coincidences is the optimum one for measuring radium and thorium activity. In this mode of counting, the sensitivity of the spectrometer is the highest.

  7. Rapid Determination of 226Ra and Uranium Isotopes in Solid Samples by Fusion with Lithium Metaborate and Alpha Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bojanowski

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and rapid method has been developed to determine 226Ra in rocks, soils, and sediments. Samples are decomposed by fusion with lithium metaborate and the melt is dissolved in a solution containing sulfates and citric acid. During the dissolution, a fine suspension of mixed barium and radium sulfates is formed. The microcrystals are collected on a membrane filter (pore size 0.1 μm and analysed in an alpha spectrometer. Application of a 133Ba tracer enables us to assess the loss of the analyte, which only rarely exceeds 10%. All analytical operations, beginning from sample decomposition to source preparation for alpha spectrometry, can be accomplished within 1 or 2 h.

  8. Distinguishing seawater from geologic brine in saline coastal groundwater using radium-226; an example from the Sabkha of the UAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Thomas F.; Wood, Warren W.; Sanford, Ward E.

    2014-01-01

    Sabkhat (Salt flats) are common geographic features of low-lying marine coastal areas that develop under hyper-arid climatic conditions. They are characterized by the presence of highly concentrated saline solutions and evaporitic minerals, and have been cited in the geologic literature as present-day representations of hyper-arid regional paleohydrogeology, paleoclimatology, coastal processes, and sedimentation in the geologic record. It is therefore important that a correct understanding of the origin and development of these features be achieved. Knowledge of the source of solutes is an important first step in understanding these features. Historically, two theories have been advanced as to the main source of solutes in sabkha brines: an early concept entailing seawater as the obvious source, and a more recent and dynamic theory involving ascending geologic brine forced upward into the base of the sabkha by a regional hydraulic gradient in the underlying formations. Ra-226 could uniquely distinguish between these sources under certain circumstances, as it is typically present at elevated activity of hundreds to thousands of Bq/m3 (Becquerels per cubic meter) in subsurface formation brines; at exceedingly low activities in open ocean and coastal water; and not significantly supplied to water from recently formed marine sedimentary framework material. The coastal marine sabkha of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi was used to test this hypothesis. The distribution of Ra-226 in 70 samples of sabkha brine (mean: 700 Bq/m3), 7 samples of underlying deeper formation brine (mean: 3416 Bq/m3), the estimated value of seawater (< 16 Bq/m3) and an estimate of supply from sabkha sedimentary framework grains (<~6 Bq/m3) provide the first direct evidence that ascending geologic brine contributes significantly to the solutes of this sabkha system.

  9. Studies on 226Ra and 222Rn concentration in drinking water of Mandya region, Karnataka State, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.C. Shivakumara

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Radium is naturally occurring radioactive element in the earth's crust. It is chemically similar to calcium and absorbed from soil by plants, passed up the food chain to humans. The occurrence and the distribution of radioactivity in water depend on the local geological characteristics of the source, soil, rock and other factors that control the occurrence and distribution of radionuclides in ground water and the hydro geological condition and the geochemistry of radionuclides. Activities of the naturally occurring radionuclides 226Ra and 222Rn were determined in natural ground water of the Mandya district, Karnataka State, India. The concentration of 222Rn in borewell water varies form 6.44 ± 0.20 to 44.83 ± 0.54 Bq l−1 with geometric mean 16.42 ± 0.31 Bq l−1. Higher radon concentrations were observed at Yettaganahalli and Mandya city. 226Ra concentration varies form 14.26 ± 0.32 to 81.06 ± 0.99 mBq l−1 with geometric mean 27.61 ± 0.43 mBq l−1. It is observed that the radon concentration is high in ground water around the granitic rock exposures and similarly observation of high values of radon is reported in sheared gneiss which covers major portion of the Mandya district to phyllites and schists. The total dose due to ingestion and inhalation varies from 26.31 to 178.53 μSv y−1 with a geometric mean of 65.94 μSv y−1, which is below the prescribed dose limit of 100 μSv y−1 by WHO.

  10. De dosis ten gevolge van eenheidslozingen 226Ra, 210Pb en 210Po in de Nieuwe Waterweg; een herberekening op basis van nieuwe inzichten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lembrechts J; LSO

    1998-01-01

    Lozingen door de fosfaatertsverwerkende industrieen van 1 TBq/a van de radionucliden 226Ra, 210Pb en 210Po in de Nieuwe Waterweg veroorzaken een potentiele individuele dosis van ten hoogste 0,53 mSv/a. Circa 96% van deze dosis wordt veroorzaakt door blootstelling aan 222Rn in woningen en 4% door

  11. 41 CFR 302-3.226 - Will the Government reimburse me if I am not eligible to return with my immediate family member(s...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reimburse me if I am not eligible to return with my immediate family member(s) to the U.S. and choose to... Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RELOCATION ALLOWANCES 3-RELOCATION ALLOWANCE BY SPECIFIC TYPE Types of Transfers Prior Return of Immediate Family Members § 302-3.226 Will the...

  12. Distribution of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in soils and sugar cane crops at Corumbatai river basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The common use of phosphate fertilizers NPK and amendments in sugar cane crops in Brazilian agriculture may increase the 226Ra, 232Th and 40K activity concentrations in soils and their availability for plants and human food chain. Thus, the main aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in soils and sugar cane crops in the Corumbatai river basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The gamma spectrometry was utilized to measure the 226Ra, 232Th and 40K activity concentration in all samples. The soil-to-sugar cane transfer factors (TF) were quantified using the ratio between the radionuclide activity concentration in sugar cane and its activity concentration in soil. The results show that, although radionuclides incorporated in phosphate fertilizers and amendments are annually added in the sugar cane crops, if utilized in accordance with the recommended rates, their use does not lead to hazards levels in soils. The soil-to-sugar cane transfer of radionuclides occurred in the following order 40K>226Ra>232Th. Therefore, under these conditions, radionuclides intake through consumption of sugar is not hazardous to human health.

  13. Assessment of U(nat) and 226Ra level in bore well water adjoining the newly constructed uranium mill tailings pond at Turamdih

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Processing of uranium ore leaves behind large quantity of low specific activity waste called tailings. In the absence of appropriate control measures such waste disposal may lead to contamination of adjoining ground water sources. Ten bore wells have been constructed across the earthen bund of the tailings pond to evaluate the migration characteristics of radionuclides and chemical toxicants. Present study is based on the monitoring results of significant radionuclides U(nat) and 226Ra of these bore well water during the last two years. The highest concentration of U(nat) and 226Ra was found 2.4 mg m-3 and 22.1 Bq m-3 respectively. These levels are comparable with the ground water sources situated in the vicinity of the tailings pond and adjacent areas within the same geological formation. The levels reflect the natural distribution of U(nat) and 226Ra in ground water sources of this region and impact of discharges at tailings pond has not been observed so far. The study reveal that the design features of tailings pond is able to restrict these radionuclides within the tailings pile. Moreover, the levels are well below the recommended standards of U(nat) and 226Ra for drinking water i.e. 60 mg m-3 and 300 Bq m-3. (author)

  14. Comment on `Update of 40K and 226Ra and 232Th series $\\gamma$-to-dose conversion factors for soil'

    CERN Document Server

    Malins, Alex; Saito, Kimiaki

    2015-01-01

    A letter to the editor of the Journal of Environmental Radioactivity on the article: E. Gasser, A. Nachab, A. Nourreddine, Ch. Roy, and A. Sellam, `Update of 40K and 226Ra and 232Th series $\\gamma$-to-dose conversion factors for soil', J. Environ. Radioactiv. 138, 68-71 (2014), DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvrad.2014.08.002.

  15. The activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra, 232Th, 238U and 7Be in moss from spas in eastern Serbia in the period 2000-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čučulović Ana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present the activity concentrations of natural radionuclides 40K, 226Ra, 232Th, 238U and 7Be in mosses. One hundred and sixty-seven moss samples were collected between 2001 and 2012 from the territory of the Sokobanja, Banja Jošanica and Gamzigradska Banja spas. They were classified into 23 species. The activity concentrations (Bq/kg in moss from Sokobanja spa were: 40K 25-427; 226Ra 0.3-36; 232Th 1.0-37; 238U 0.4-28 and 7Be 29-210; from Banja Jošanica spa they were: 40K 90-242; 226Ra 2.4-11.7; 232Th 2.0-12.7; 238U 1.6-11.3 and 7Be 142-212; Gamzigradska Banja spa: 40K 95-351; 226Ra 8.0-21; 232Th 5.1-19; 238U 6.7-18 and 7Be 20-144. The activity concentrations of dominant natural radionuclides (potassium, radium, thorium and uranium in the moss samples were within the usual ranges for the territory of Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43009

  16. 210Pb- 226Ra and 228Ra- 232Th systematics in young arc lavas: implications for magma degassing and ascent rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Simon; Black, Stuart; Berlo, Kim

    2004-10-01

    New data show that island arc rocks have ( 210Pb/ 226Ra) o ratios which range from as low as 0.24 up to 2.88. In contrast, ( 228Ra/ 232Th) appears always within error of 1 suggesting that the large 226Ra-excesses observed in arc rocks were generated more than 30 years ago. This places a maximum estimate on melt ascent velocities of around 4000 m/year and provides further confidence that the 226Ra excesses reflect deep (source) processes rather than shallow level alteration or seawater contamination. Conversely, partial melting must have occurred more than 30 years prior to eruption. The 210Pb deficits are most readily explained by protracted magma degassing. Using published numerical models, the data suggest that degassing occurred continuously for periods up to several decades just prior to eruption but no link with eruption periodicity was found. Longer periods are required if degassing is discontinuous, less than 100% efficient or if magma is recharged or stored after degassing. The long durations suggest much of this degassing occurs at depth with implications for the formation of hydrothermal and copper-porphyry systems. A suite of lavas erupted in 1985-1986 from Sangeang Api volcano in the Sunda arc are characterised by deficits of 210Pb relative to 226Ra from which 6-8 years of continuous 222Rn degassing would be inferred from recent numerical models. These data also form a linear ( 210Pb)/Pb-( 226Ra)/Pb array which might be interpreted as a 71-year isochron. However, the array passes through the origin suggesting displacement downwards from the equiline in response to degassing and so the slope of the array is inferred not to have any age significance. Simple modelling shows that the range of ( 226Ra)/Pb ratios requires thousands of years to develop consistent with differentiation occurring in response to cooling at the base of the crust. Thus, degassing post-dated, and was not responsible for magma differentiation. The formation, migration and extraction

  17. Activity concentrations of {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra in scales formed on pipes of industrial boilers in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poggi, Claudia M.B.; Farias, Emerson E.G. de, E-mail: claudiapoggi04@gmail.com, E-mail: emersonemiliano@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Franca, Elvis J.; Hazin, Clovis A., E-mail: chazin@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Gazineu, Maria H.P., E-mail: helena@unicap.br [Universidade Catolica de Pernambuco (UNICAP), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologia

    2015-07-01

    The procedures employed in the industry can generate significant amounts of solid, liquid and gaseous wastes that usually contain toxic or materials of difficulty degradation. One of the facts that contribute to the formation of such wastes is the generation of steam used in operating processes and industry segments. Currently, steam supplied by boilers is the most economical and practical mode of heat transfer in industrial processes. Due to the high temperature of water used in these processes, compounds which were previously soluble become insoluble, generating residues called scales. This material, which contains stable ions, can also present naturally occurring radionuclides such as {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra, which concentrate over time in piping and equipment surfaces. If not disposed correctly, this material also can contaminate the environment. The main origin of these radionuclides is the use of groundwater in industrial processes. Thus, in regions of naturally enriched in radionuclides such as the Region of Pernambuco, including the municipalities of Paulista and Goiana, there is a greater possibility of radioactive scale formation. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the activity concentrations of {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra present in the solid wastes generated by industries situated in Paulista and Goiana, in order to assess radionuclide disequilibrium. For the sake of comparison, scale samples collected from industries located in the municipality of Caruaru, far from the previous municipalities, were also analyzed. The determination of the activity concentrations for {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra was performed by High Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometry. Samples were collected, prepared, packed in plastic containers and set aside for a minimum time of 21 days, for the secular equilibrium to occur between {sup 226}Ra and its short lived descendants. The counting time was 80,000 seconds. Gamma energies used for determination of activity concentrations

  18. Occurrence of radium-224, radium-226, and radium-228 in water of the unconfined Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system, southern New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Zoltan; dePaul, Vincent T.; Kraemer, Thomas F.; Parsa, Bahman

    2005-01-01

    Water in the unconfined Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system in the New Jersey Coastal Plain contains elevated concentrations (above 3 pCi/L (picocuries per liter)) of the alpha-particle-emitting radionuclide radium-224. Previously, water from the aquifer system had been found to contain radium-226 and radium-228. This observation is of concern because the previously undetected presence of radium-224 may pose an additional, quantifiable health risk that currently is not accounted for by the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 5 pCi/L for combined radium (the sum of radium-226 plus radium-228 is termed 'combined radium') in drinking water. Water samples were collected from a regional network of 88 wells for determination of concentrations of radium-224, radium-226, and radium-228; gross alpha-particle activity; and concentrations of major ions and selected trace elements. Both gamma and alpha spectroscopic techniques were used to determine concentrations of radium-224, which ranged from activity of about 15 pCi/L (the MCL) 36 to 48 hours, respectively, after sample collection when ingrowth of radium-224 progeny radionuclides is considered, even with the unlikely assumption that no other alpha-particle-emitting radionuclide is present in the water. Concentrations of 3.4 to 3.7 pCi/L radium-224 result in a gross alpha-particle activity of 10 pCi/L 36 to 48 hours, respectively, after sample collection when ingrowth of Ra-224 progeny radionuclides is considered. In this latter case, it is possible that the summed alpha-particle activity from radium-226 present at a concentration less than or equal to 5 pCi/L (the MCL for combined radium) and from radium-224 present at a concentration about 3.4 pCi/L or greater may exceed the 15-pCi/L MCL for gross alpha-particle activity. In this study, gross alpha-particle activities were measured within 48 hours after sample collection and were found to exceed the MCL of 15 pCi/L in nearly half (43) of the 88 samples collected. The

  19. HIV-1感染对NK细胞及其活化性受体CD226表达的影响%Induced abnormal activation receptor CD226 expression on the peripheral blood natural killer cells in HIV-1 infected individuals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶晓卉; 尚红; 马东初; 张子宁; 贾卫; 姜拥军; 金伯泉

    2003-01-01

    目的评价HIV-1感染对NK细胞以及CD226/PTA1表达的影响. 方法采用流式细胞术分析了27例HIV-1感染者以及16例健康献血员NK细胞相关膜抗原,用HIV-1SF33株体外感染外周血单个核细胞(PBMC),进行NK细胞活化表达CD226的动态观察. 结果 27例HIV-1感染者均处于无症状感染期,CD16+CD3-、CD8+CD3-细胞亚群百分率和绝对数均低于健康对照 (P<0.05),CD16+CD3-和CD8+CD3-细胞中表达CD226的细胞比例显著高于对照 (P<0.05).HIV-1和PHA均可体外诱导CD226在CD16+NK细胞表面高水平表达. 结论 CD226分子可能参与HIV-1感染诱导的NK细胞活化机制.

  20. Radium-226 and head-210 in agriculture products produced on the environs of the uranium mine and mill at the Pocos de Caldas plateau in Minas Gerais

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radium-226 and Lead-210 in agriculture products produced on the environs of the uranium mine and mill at the Pocos de Caldas Plateau in Minas Gerais. As a complement to the pre-operational environmental monitoring program of the Brazilian first uranium mine and mill, a survey of 226Ra and 210Pb in agriculture products, and in the corresponding soils, were carried out in the Pocos de Caldas Plateu. The survey intended to determine site specific transfer factors, in order to better estimate radiation doses on the population, resulting from the plant operation. In local soils, 226Ra and 210Pb have similar concentrations. The average contents are comparable to the values found in areas of normal radioactivity, but the maximum values are higher by one order of magnitude. In the vegetables analyzed (beans, carrot, corn and potato), 226Ra concentrations are slightly higher than those of 210Pb, and the maximum values are also one order of magnitude greater than in normal regions. For both radionuclides, the average soil-to-plant transfer factors are of the order of 10-3 and 10-2 when related to total and to exchangeable content soil, respectively. These results led to the conclusion that 226Ra and 210Pb have similar importance, concerning the population exposure via the foodstuff ingestion pathway. Therefore, it was recommended to carry on routine monitoring program for both radionuclides in the main agriculture crops. However, the naturally elevated radionuclide concentrations, in some local vegetables, will decrease the sensivity for detecting for detecting small increments resulting from the plant operation. (Author)

  1. Concentration of Ra-226 in shallow well water and its relation with the evidence of oral and esophagus cancers in Namom District,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhongsuwan, T.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Altogether 150 water samples were collected from shallow wells widely distributed in Namom district, Songkhla province. Co-precipitation technique was used to absorb radium into co-precipitate Ra-BaSO4, which was measured for Ra-226 using a low background alpha spectrometer. The results showed that the Ra-226 concentration in well water in Namom district ranged 3.51-292.1 mBq/l, with a geometric mean 50.7 mBq/l. Ra-226 concentration in thirty one water samples or 29.31% exceeded 111 mBq/l, which was the maximum contaminant level of the US Environmental Protection Agency. Six villages having an arithmetic mean of Ra-226 concentration in well water exceeding the 111 mBq/l level included Ban Koktang Moo 2, Pijit sub-district; Ban Tungkho Moo 2, Namom sub-district; Ban Lancai Moo 2, Ban Tungpho Moo 3, Tung kamin sub-district; Ban Meapia Moo 3, Ban Tonpling Moo 5, Klongrang sub-district. Ban Tonpling Moo 5 had the highest concentration at 177.8 mBq/l. The high Ra-226 contaminated water wells are generallylocated in granitic basement with associated fault/fracture zones. The estimated annual dose averaged over Namom district was 15.3 μSv while people living in Ban Tonpling Moo 5 met the highest estimated annual dose of 36.3 μSv. However, the ratios between the number of water wells with and without associated oral and esophagus cancer cases in the area where the estimated dose is over and below 8 μSv did not differ significantly.

  2. Retrospective analysis of conservative surgery in 226 cases of early breast cancer%早期乳腺癌保乳手术226例回顾性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国强; 单明; 庞达

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the prognosis and cosmetic effect of conservative surgery for breast cancer, and approach the risk factors for the recurrence of conservative surgery. Methods Conservative surgery was performed in 226 patients with early breast cancer, from January 2000 to December 2007, postoperative chemotherapy and radiotherapy were administered. All patients were followed-up for 30 to 106 months. Results The 3 and 5-year total survival rates for all cases were 97.5% and 96.1% ,The 3 and 5-year disease free survival rates were 93.5% and 91.2%. Of all the cases postoperative relapse was found in 8 local recurrence and metastasis was seen in 16 cases.Single and multiple factor analysis showed that the size of tumour and the cutting edge from the solitary tumour were the risk factors for the recurrence of conservative surgery. Conclusion Prognosis for patients treated with conservative surgery for breast cancer is satisfactory, and the cosmetic effect is excellent. But for the sellection of indication, the size of tumour and the cutting edge must be considered.%目的 分析乳腺癌保乳手术后的疗效及美容效果,探讨影响其局部复发的高危因素.方法 选取我院2000年1月到2007年12月同意接受乳腺癌保乳手术的226例患者为研究对象.术后给予放、化疗,并进行长期随访.结果 全组3年和5年的总存活率分别为97.5%、96.1%,全组3年和5年的无病存活率分别为93.5%、91.2%;16例(7.1%)患者出现远处转移,8例(3.5%)患者出现同侧乳腺肿瘤局部复发;单因素及多因素分析表明,肿瘤大小和切缘远近为影响复发的高危因素.结论 乳腺癌的保乳手术从疗效和美容效果上均令人满意,在适应证的选择上,应多注意肿瘤的大小和切缘浸润的情况.

  3. 210Pb-226Ra chronology reveals rapid growth rate of Madrepora oculata and Lophelia pertusa on world's largest cold-water coral reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatier, P.; Reyss, J.-L.; Hall-Spencer, J. M.; Colin, C.; Frank, N.; Tisnérat-Laborde, N.; Bordier, L.; Douville, E.

    2012-03-01

    Here we show the use of the 210Pb-226Ra excess method to determine the growth rate of two corals from the world's largest known cold-water coral reef, Røst Reef, north of the Arctic circle off Norway. Colonies of each of the two species that build the reef, Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata, were collected alive at 350 m depth using a submersible. Pb and Ra isotopes were measured along the major growth axis of both specimens using low level alpha and gamma spectrometry and trace element compositions were studied. 210Pb and 226Ra differ in the way they are incorporated into coral skeletons. Hence, to assess growth rates, we considered the exponential decrease of initially incorporated 210Pb, as well as the increase in 210Pb from the decay of 226Ra and contamination with 210Pb associated with Mn-Fe coatings that we were unable to remove completely from the oldest parts of the skeletons. 226Ra activity was similar in both coral species, so, assuming constant uptake of 210Pb through time, we used the 210Pb-226Ra chronology to calculate growth rates. The 45.5 cm long branch of M. oculata was 31 yr with an average linear growth rate of 14.4 ± 1.1 mm yr-1 (2.6 polyps per year). Despite cleaning, a correction for Mn-Fe oxide contamination was required for the oldest part of the colony; this correction corroborated our radiocarbon date of 40 yr and a mean growth rate of 2 polyps yr-1. This rate is similar to the one obtained in aquarium experiments under optimal growth conditions. For the 80 cm-long L. pertusa colony, metal-oxide contamination remained in both the middle and basal part of the coral skeleton despite cleaning, inhibiting similar age and growth rate estimates. The youngest part of the colony was free of metal oxides and this 15 cm section had an estimated a growth rate of 8 mm yr-1, with high uncertainty (~1 polyp every two to three years). We are less certain of this 210Pb growth rate estimate which is within the lowermost ranges of previous growth

  4. Cx43基因修饰对人肺鳞癌NCI-H226细胞增殖和迁移能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    勾建强; 张秀义

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过重组质粒pBudCE4.1-Cx43转染人肺鳞癌NCI-H226细胞,探讨Cx43基因对细胞的生长、细胞周期及肿瘤迁移等的作用。方法用LipofectamineTM2000转染的方法将重组表达质粒pBudCE4.1-Cx43转染人肺鳞癌 NCI-H226细胞,通过 RT-PCR、Western 印迹检测 Cx43在转染后的mRNA和蛋白的表达情况,划痕染料示踪法检测细胞间通讯功能,流式细胞仪检测细胞周期并通过CCK-8增殖实验、划痕愈合实验、细胞侵袭实验评价转染Cx43基因对人肺鳞癌NCI-H226细胞增殖、迁移、侵袭能力的影响。结果实验组 Cx43 mRNA和蛋白表达较对照组和空白组显著升高(P<0.05);细胞传递的荧光强度较对照组和空白组显著升高(P<0.01),实验组细胞的生长速度明显减慢,细胞周期被阻滞在 G0/G1期,S期细胞数明显减少(P<0.05)。与对照组和空白组相比,实验组 NCI-H226细胞增殖受到明显抑制(P<0.001),尤以72 h 为著。实验组迁移能力、NCI-H226细胞的侵袭能力显著下降(P<0.05)。结论转染Cx43基可抑制人肺鳞癌NCI-H226细胞的迁移能力,并抑制肿瘤细胞增殖。

  5. 210Pb-226Ra chronology reveals rapid growth rate of Madrepora oculata and Lophelia pertusa on world's largest cold-water coral reef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tisnérat-Laborde

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Here we show the use of the 210Pb-226Ra excess method to determine the growth rate of two corals from the world's largest known cold-water coral reef, Røst Reef, north of the Arctic circle off Norway. Colonies of each of the two species that build the reef, Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata, were collected alive at 350 m depth using a submersible. Pb and Ra isotopes were measured along the major growth axis of both specimens using low level alpha and gamma spectrometry and trace element compositions were studied. 210Pb and 226Ra differ in the way they are incorporated into coral skeletons. Hence, to assess growth rates, we considered the exponential decrease of initially incorporated 210Pb, as well as the increase in 210Pb from the decay of 226Ra and contamination with 210Pb associated with Mn-Fe coatings that we were unable to remove completely from the oldest parts of the skeletons. 226Ra activity was similar in both coral species, so, assuming constant uptake of 210Pb through time, we used the 210Pb-226Ra chronology to calculate growth rates. The 45.5 cm long branch of M. oculata was 31 yr with an average linear growth rate of 14.4 ± 1.1 mm yr−1 (2.6 polyps per year. Despite cleaning, a correction for Mn-Fe oxide contamination was required for the oldest part of the colony; this correction corroborated our radiocarbon date of 40 yr and a mean growth rate of 2 polyps yr−1. This rate is similar to the one obtained in aquarium experiments under optimal growth conditions. For the 80 cm-long L. pertusa colony, metal-oxide contamination remained in both the middle and basal part of the coral skeleton despite cleaning, inhibiting similar age and growth rate estimates. The youngest part of the colony was free of metal oxides and this 15 cm section had an estimated a growth rate of 8 mm yr−1, with high uncertainty (~1 polyp every two to three years. We are less certain of this 210Pb growth rate estimate which is within the lowermost

  6. Comparison of Ahlstrom grade 226, Munktell TFN, and Whatman 903 filter papers for dried blood spot specimen collection and subsequent HIV-1 load and drug resistance genotyping analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottinghaus, Erin; Bile, Ebi; Modukanele, Mosetsanagape; Maruping, Maruping; Mine, Madisa; Nkengasong, John; Yang, Chunfu

    2013-01-01

    Dried blood spots (DBS) collected onto filter paper have eased the difficulty of blood collection in resource-limited settings. Currently, Whatman 903 (W-903) filter paper is the only filter paper that has been used for HIV load and HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) testing. We therefore evaluated two additional commercially available filter papers, Ahlstrom grade 226 (A-226) and Munktell TFN (M-TFN), for viral load (VL) testing and HIVDR genotyping using W-903 filter paper as a comparison group. DBS specimens were generated from 344 adult patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Botswana. The VL was measured with NucliSENS EasyQ HIV-1 v2.0, and genotyping was performed for those specimens with a detectable VL (≥ 2.90 log(10) copies/ml) using an in-house method. Bland-Altman analysis revealed a strong concordance in quantitative VL analysis between W-903 and A-226 (bias = -0.034 ± 0.246 log(10) copies/ml [mean difference ± standard deviation]) and W-903 and M-TFN (bias = -0.028 ± 0.186 log(10) copies/ml) filter papers, while qualitative VL analysis for virological failure determination, defined as a VL of ≥ 3.00 log(10) copies/ml, showed low sensitivities for A-266 (71.54%) and M-TFN (65.71%) filter papers compared to W-903 filter paper. DBS collected on M-TFN filter paper had the highest genotyping efficiency (100%) compared to W-903 and A-226 filter papers (91.7%) and appeared more sensitive in detecting major HIVDR mutations. DBS collected on A-226 and M-TFN filter papers performed similarly to DBS collected on W-903 filter paper for quantitative VL analysis and HIVDR detection. Together, the encouraging genotyping results and the variability observed in determining virological failure from this small pilot study warrant further investigation of A-226 and M-TFN filter papers as specimen collection devices for HIVDR monitoring surveys.

  7. Transfer of alkaline earth elements in mothers' milk and doses from 45Ca, 90Sr and 226Ra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An international programme of work is currently under way to develop methods for calculating doses to infants from ingestion of radionuclides present in mothers' milk. This paper considers the special case of the alkaline earth elements. Models have been developed for 45Ca, 90Sr and 226Ra and the sensitivity of results to various changes in parameter values is discussed. A complication when calculating doses from intakes of radium is that the International Commission on Radiological Protection has previously recommended that doses from decay products of radium should be calculated using element-specific biokinetic models (so-called independent biokinetics). An extension of this method to the models for breastfeeding is proposed. Preliminary estimates of the doses received by the infant for a number of maternal intake scenarios show that doses to the infant can exceed the corresponding adult dose, such as for 45Ca (ratio = 3.1) while, in other cases such as 90Sr, the infant dose can be a significant fraction of the adult dose. (author)

  8. {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb determination in surface water and groundwater by liquid scintillation counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Ligia S.; Moreira, Rubens M., E-mail: ligsfaria@gmail.com, E-mail: rubens@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The municipalities of Brumadinho and Nova Lima are located in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte city, in the State of Minas Gerais. These two sites are important due to being located inside an Environmental Protection Area inserted in the Iron Quadrangle. In addition to the mineral wealth, the region has geological features that include quartz conglomerates associated with uranium and a significant groundwater potential exhibiting quite peculiar and complex hydrogeological features, such as the quartzite aquifer itself. Nuclear techniques applied to hydrology, such as Liquid Scintillation Counting technique (LSC), make possible the evaluation of natural radioactivity in surface water and groundwater. The objectives of this study were the determination of the activities of the long half-life radionuclides of the uranium and thorium series, such as {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb, and provide an effective methodology to define if the direct consumption of these waters can cause risk to health due to its radioactivity. The results were compared with the recommendations of the Ministry of Health. (author)

  9. Laser-trapping of {sup 225}Ra and {sup 226}Ra with repumping by room-temperature blackbody radiation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guest, J. R.; Scielzo, N. D.; Ahmad, I.; Bailey, K.; Greene, J. P.; Holt, R. J.; Lu, Z.-T.; O' Connor, T. P.; Potterveld, D. H.; Physics; Enrico Fermi Inst.; Univ. of Chicago

    2007-02-27

    We have demonstrated Zeeman slowing and capture of neutral {sup 225}Ra and {sup 226}Ra atoms in a magneto-optical trap. The intercombination transition {sup 1}S{sub 0} {yields} {sup 3}P{sub 1} is the only quasicycling transition in radium and was used for laser-cooling and trapping. Repumping along the {sup 3}D{sub 1} {yields} {sup 1}P{sub 1} transition extended the lifetime of the trap from milliseconds to seconds. Room-temperature blackbody radiation was demonstrated to provide repumping from the metastable {sup 3}P{sub 0} level. We measured the isotope shift and hyperfine splittings on the {sup 3}D{sub 1} {yields} {sup 1}P{sub 1} transition with the laser-cooled atoms, and set a limit on the lifetime of the {sup 3}D{sub 1} level based on the measured blackbody repumping rate. Laser-cooled and trapped radium is an attractive system for studying fundamental symmetries.

  10. Bioavailability pf radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb present in Brazilian phosphogypsum and phosphate fertilizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Ana Carolina; Saueia, Catia H.R.; Mazzilli, Barbara P., E-mail: chsaueia@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares(IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is a by-product of phosphate fertilizers industries. The USEPA classified PG as a - Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (TENORM). Its worldwide production on 2006 was estimated in 150 million tons. Annually the three main phosphate industries in Brazil are responsible for 5.5x106 tons of phosphogypsum, which is stored in stacks. The level of radionuclides present in phosphogypsum is well-known and makes its disposal or reutilization an environmental concern. Part of this byproduct can be reused, for example, to improve fertility of agricultural soils. To assess the long term environmental impact of radioactive contamination of ecosystems, information on source term including radionuclide speciation, mobility and biological uptakes have high importance. This paper intends to evaluate the bioavailability of the radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb to the environment by following a procedure established by the EC (European Community), which includes a single EDTA-NH{sub 4} 0.05M extraction at pH 7.0 prior to the analyses. These results is compared with the total activity concentration of these radionuclides in Brazilian PG and the most used phosphate fertilizers (SSP, TSP, MAP and DAP). This procedure intends to represent on a more realistic way the leaching of radionuclides from PG and fertilizers to soil and agricultural products. (author)

  11. Current (1984) status of the study of 226Ra and 228Ra in humans at the Center for Human Radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Center for Human Radiobiology has identified 5784 persons by name and type of exposure to 226Ra and 228Ra. Included are 4863 dial painters (mostly women) and non-laboratory employees of the radium dial industry, 410 laboratory workers, 399 persons who received radium for supposed therapeutic effects, and 112 in other categories. Body contents of radium have been measured in 1916 of the dial workers and about one-half of the subjects in the other groups. Bone sarcomas, carcinomas of the paranasal sinuses and mastoids, and deterioration of skeletal tissue are still the only effects unequivocally attributable to internal radium. Excess leukemias have not been observed and other malignancies, if in excess, appear more likely to be related to external gamma radiation or radon than to internal radium. Positive correlations with radium burdens have been found for the incidence of benign exostoses among subjects exposed to radium before age 18 and for shortened latency of ocular cataracts. 27 references, 3 figures, 5 tables

  12. Bioavailability pf radionuclides 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb present in Brazilian phosphogypsum and phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is a by-product of phosphate fertilizers industries. The USEPA classified PG as a - Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (TENORM). Its worldwide production on 2006 was estimated in 150 million tons. Annually the three main phosphate industries in Brazil are responsible for 5.5x106 tons of phosphogypsum, which is stored in stacks. The level of radionuclides present in phosphogypsum is well-known and makes its disposal or reutilization an environmental concern. Part of this byproduct can be reused, for example, to improve fertility of agricultural soils. To assess the long term environmental impact of radioactive contamination of ecosystems, information on source term including radionuclide speciation, mobility and biological uptakes have high importance. This paper intends to evaluate the bioavailability of the radionuclides 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb to the environment by following a procedure established by the EC (European Community), which includes a single EDTA-NH4 0.05M extraction at pH 7.0 prior to the analyses. These results is compared with the total activity concentration of these radionuclides in Brazilian PG and the most used phosphate fertilizers (SSP, TSP, MAP and DAP). This procedure intends to represent on a more realistic way the leaching of radionuclides from PG and fertilizers to soil and agricultural products. (author)

  13. Direct measurement of prompt neutrons emitted in fission of 226Ra by 12 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prompt neutron energy distributions were measured at 0 deg and 90 deg with respect to the fission axis, in correlation with the mass-energy distribution of the fragments, for the fission of 226Ra induced by 12 MeV protons. The average number and average kinetic energy of prefission and postfission neutrons were obtained as a function of fragment mass and total kinetic energy. The average number of prefission neutrons emitted is 0.33+-0.15 n/fission (this includes also contributions from scission neutrons). By comparing this result with calculations of the average number of 'true' prefission neutrons, it was found that the number of 'true' prefission neutrons is zero. The average number of postfission neutrons emitted from both fragments is 3,20+-0.20 with an average kinetic energy of 1.33+-0.07 MeV. The dependence of the number of postfission neutrons on the fragment mass can be interpreted as a combination of a saw-tooth structure for the asymmetric mass division and a linearly increasing function for the symmetric mass division. (author)

  14. Current (1984) status of the study of 226Ra and 228Ra in humans at the Center for Human Radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Center for Human Radiobiology has identified 5784 persons by name and type of exposure to 226Ra and 228Ra. Included are 4863 dial painters (mostly women) and non-laboratory employees of the radium dial industry, 410 laboratory workers, 399 persons who received radium for supposed therapeutic effects, and 112 in other categories. Body contents of radium have been measured in 1916 of the dial workers and about one-half of the subjects in the other groups. Bone sarcomas, carcinomas of the paranasal sinuses and mastoids, and deterioration of skeletal tissue are still the only effects unequivocally attributable to internal radium. Excess leukemias have not been observed and other malignancies, if in excess, appear more likely to be related to external gamma radiation or radon than to internal radium. Positive correlations with radium burdens have been found for the incidence of benign exostoses among subjects exposed to radium before age 18 and for shortened latency of ocular cataracts. 26 references, 3 figures, 5 tables

  15. A simple method for calibration of Lucas scintillation cell counting system for measurement of 226Ra and 222Rn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.K. Sethy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Known quantity of radium from high grade ore solution was chemically separated and carefully kept inside the cavity of a Lucas Cell (LC. The 222Rn gradually builds up and attain secular equilibrium with its parent 226Ra. This gives a steady count after a suitable buildup period (>25 days. This secondary source was used to calibrate the radon counting system. The method is validated in by comparison with identical measurement with AlphaGuard Aquakit. The radon counting system was used to evaluate dissolved radon in ground water sample by gross alpha counting in LC. Radon counting system measures the collected radon after a delay of >180 min by gross alpha counting. Simultaneous measurement also carried out by AlphaGuard Aquakit in identical condition. AlphaGuard measures dissolved radon from water sample by constant aeration in a closed circuit without giving any delay. Both the methods are matching with a correlation coefficient of >0.9. This validates the calibration of Lucas scintillation cell counting system by designed encapsulated source. This study provides an alternative for calibration in absence of costly Radon source available in the market.

  16. 226Ra and 210Pb lixiviation sediments from the region of uranium mine and mill in Pocos de Caldas, contaminated in laboratory by river water and chemical agents, mobility and availability in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaching experiments of river bottom sediments, contaminated in the laboratory with 226Ra or 210Pb, by river waters or solutions of inorganic salts and mobility experiments of these radionuclides added to soil columns and leached by a volume of distilled or river water, equivalent to the average annual rain precipitation in the region, are performed. The determination of 226Ra and 210Pb exchangeable fractions in soils contaminated in the laboratory are studied too. The results, as a whole, lead to the conclusion that 226Ra should be considered, potentially, the radionuclide most able to increase the population radiation dose, through the ingestion of contaminated water and foodstuff. (M.A.C.)

  17. Multiwavelength observations revealing the outbursts of the soft X-ray transients XTE J1859+226 and XTE J1118+480

    CERN Document Server

    Chaty, S; Hynes, R I; Shrader, C R; Cui, W

    2000-01-01

    We report multiwavelength observations of the two soft X-ray transients (SXTs) XTE J1859+226 and XTE J1118+480, which we observed with HST, RXTE and UKIRT. The two sources exhibited very different behaviour. XTE J1859+226 showed a thermal-viscous disc instability outburst modified by irradiation. XTE J1118+480, which we also observed with EUVE since it is located at a very high galactic latitude and suffers from very low extinction, is much more unusual. It exhibits i) a low X-ray to optical flux ratio and ii) a strong non-thermal contribution throughout the spectrum, which is likely to be due to synchrotron emission. We concentrate here on their evolution in the course of their outbursts.

  18. Multiwavelength observations revealing the outbursts of the two soft X-ray transients XTE J1859+226 and XTE J1118+480

    CERN Document Server

    Chaty, S; Hynes, R I; Shrader, C R; Cui, W; Mauche, C W; Norton, A J; Solheim, J E; Ostensen, R; Geballe, T R; Ioannou, Z; King, A R

    2001-01-01

    We report here on multiwavelength observations of the two new soft X-ray transients (SXTs) XTE J1859+226 and XTE J1118+480, which we observed with HST/RXTE/UKIRT. For XTE J1118+480 we also used EUVE since it is located at a very high galactic latitude and suffers from very low extinction. The two sources exhibited very different behaviour. XTE J1859+226 seems quite normal and therefore a good object for testing the accretion mechanisms in place during the outbursts, XTE J1118+480 is much more unusual because it exhibits i) a low X-ray to optical ratio and ii) a strong non-thermal contribution in the radio to optical domain, which is likely to be due to synchrotron emission. We concentrate here on the near-infrared (NIR) and optical observations of these two systems.

  19. Simultaneous determination of Ra-226, natural uranium and natural thorium by gamma-ray spectrometry INa(Ti), in solid samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method has been developed to determine activities of Ra-226, natural uranium and natural thorium by gamma-ray spectrometry. The measurement system has been calibrated using standards specially prepared at the laboratory. It is necessary to assume secular equilibrium in the samples, between Ra-226 and Th-232 and its daughters nuclides, and between U-238 and its immediate daughter Th-234, as the photo peaks measured are those of the daughters. The results obtained indicate that this method can of ter replace the radiochemical techniques used to measure activities in this type of sample. The method has been successfully used to determine these natural isotopes in samples from uranium mills. (Author) 9 refs

  20. The dietary intake of 238U, 234U, 230Th, 232Th, 228Th and 226Ra from food and drinking water by inhabitants of the Walbrzych region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intake with food and water of the natural radionuclides of the uranium and thorium series was determined for adult population of the south-western region in Poland, where in the 1950-ies an exploration of uranium ore was conducted. Concentration of the radionuclides was determined in food products and drinking water and their annual intake was estimated on the basis of the average annual consumption. The intake of 238U, 234U and 230Th occurred mainly with water (33% to 68%), whereas the intake of 232Th, 228Th and 226Ra was mainly with vegetables, potatoes, milk and flour. From the intake and dose coefficients the annual effective doses from the ingested radionuclides were calculated. The total dose was 5.6μSv, of which 74% originated from 226Ra. (author)

  1. Temporal behavior of 222Radon, 226Radium and 238Uranium in deep water wells which provide Valle de Toluca with drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of radionuclides in underground waters may be an indication of its origin and also the sign of the hydraulic properties of the aquifers layers where circulate. Additionally, the ingestion by human beings of water with radioactive elements (Radon 222, Radium 226, Uranium 238) can give as a result the accumulation of such elements in several organs of the body producing then health damages. In this work, the concentrations of Radon 222, Radium 226 and Uranium 238, in waters coming from deep wells which provide with drinking water the Toluca Valley, were determined. For this purpose, during a year (june 1991 to August 1992) ten wells were sampled with a tracking of the radionuclides concentration as well as the physical-chemical components of water; it was established the relationship presented by the analyzed waters with the local geology and the local and regional systems. (Author)

  2. Clinic analysis of nosocomial infections in 226 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and prevention countermeasures%226例类风湿关节炎患者医院感染临床分析与预防对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪瑾; 何东仪

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To observe the clinical characteristics of nosocomial infections in the patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and take positive prevention measures. METHODS The patients with RA who were admitted to the hospital between Sep 2006 and Nov 2011 were retrospectively investigated. Their basic information was registered in detail, and the statistical analysis of the acquired date was performed. RESULTS Of totally 1113 RA patients investigated, there were 226 (238 case-times) patients who suffered from nosocomial infections with the infection rate of 20. 29% and the case-time infection rate of 21. 38%. The urinary tract and the lower respiratory tract were the predominant infection sites, accounting for 80. 69%. All of the 238 case-times of patients were performed for the etiology examination, among which 234 cases were cultured positive, and totally 298 strains of pathogens were isolated, including 134 (44. 97%) strains of gram-negative bacteria, 82 (27. 52%) strains of gram-positive bacteria, 13(4. 36%) strains of fungi, and 69(23. 15%) strains of Mycoplasma, the pathogens varied in being isolated from the infection sites. CONCLUSION The incidence of nosocomial infections in the patients with RA is higher than the patients complicated with other diseases, the gram-negative bacilli remain dominant in the pathogens causing nosocomial infections. For the patients with RA, it is necessary to attach great importance to the implementation of the prevention measures so as to reduce the incidence of nosocomial infections.%目的 分析类风湿关节炎(RA)医院感染的临床特点,正确做好预防与控制感染的措施.方法 回顾性调查2006年9月-2011年11月医院RA住院患者,将其信息进行详细登记,汇总分析所得数据.结果 1113例类风湿关节炎患者中,发生医院感染226例、238例次,感染率为20.29%、例次感染率21.38%;泌尿道和下呼吸道是主要的感染部位,占80.67%;238例次感

  3. Remediation of Occupied Commercial Property Subject to Widespread Radium-226 Contamination - Confidential Client in the South-West of England - 12570

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AMEC was contacted by a company that managed commercial office space in 2010. High Rn- 222 measurements had been observed throughout the facility and the landlord had been advised to commission a radiological survey of the site. The site had been purchased by the client in the 1990's. Initial desk studies found that the building had operated for around 50 years as a compass factory. Non-intrusive investigation identified widespread Ra-226 contamination. Ra-226 was found in the fabric of the building, in attic spaces, buried under floor boards and underlying car parks. Intrusive investigation was undertaken to estimate volume(s) of waste, waste categories, activity concentrations and the total inventory of radioactive materials on site. This work identified the presence of 180 GBq of Ra-226 on site. A programme of work is currently underway to remediate the site tackling areas posing the greatest risk to site occupants as a priority. We have worked closely with Regulators, our client, and tenants, to decontaminate the fabric of the building whilst areas of the building remain occupied. The radiological risk, from irradiation, ingestion and inhalation (of Ra-226 and Rn- 222) has been assessed before, during and after intervention to minimise the risks to site occupants. Tenants were moved from areas of unacceptable radiological risk to areas unaffected by the presence of radioactive materials. Rn-222 mitigation measures were installed during the remedial operations to minimise the hazard from Rn-222 that was liberated as a result of decontamination activities. Decontamination techniques were required to be sympathetic to the building as the ageing structure was in danger of collapse during several phases of work. The first phase of remediation is now complete and the decontaminated building is being returned for use as office space. The radiological risks have been significantly reduced and, in areas where decontamination was not possible (e.g. due to concerns over

  4. Development of a liquid scintillation method for in vitro determination of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228} Ra in bioassay samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Paulo Cesar P.; Sousa, Wanderson O.; Juliao, Ligia M.Q.C.; Dantas, Bernardo M., E-mail: pcesar@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Radium isotopes are dispersed in the environment according to their physicochemical characteristics. The intake of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra in humans can occur by inhalation and ingestion and the risk of internal exposure are related to their long half-lives, characteristics of the emission and biokinetics of the isotopes in the human body. The goal of this work is to develop a methodology for the analysis of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra in excreta samples (urine and feces), using liquid scintillation technique. Excreta samples were provided by non-exposed humans for the purpose of standardizing the methodology and the establishment of a background level of radium excretion. Radium isotopes were concentrated and separated from the constituents of the sample by co-precipitation with barium sulphate. The precipitate of Ba(Ra)SO{sub 4} was filtrated and weighted for the determination of the chemical yield. The filter containing the precipitate was transferred to a scintillation vial. In the scintillation vial, 8 mL of water, 8 mL of Instagel XF and 4 mL of UltimaGold were added, forming a gel suspension, after stirring the solution. The {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra activities were determined 21 days after the precipitation of samples. The samples were counted in a liquid scintillation spectrometer. The technique presented adequate sensitivity and reproducibility for the analysis of urine and feces. The activities of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra in excreta samples provide useful information for the identification of the main route of intake and for the assessment of the internal exposure of occupationally exposed workers and inhabitants of high background areas. (author)

  5. Evaluation of the activity concentration of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb in sediments from Antarctica in the Admiralty Bay region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora, Tamires de A.; Oliveira, Joselene de, E-mail: tamires.mora@usp.br, E-mail: jolivei@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Mahiques, Michel M.; Sousa, Silvia H.M., E-mail: rfigueira@usp.br, E-mail: mahiques@usp.br, E-mail: smsousa@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto Oceanografico

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we performed the radiochemical characterization of a sedimentary record (1B profile), collected in the vicinity of Admiralty Bay, King George Island in Antarctic Operation XXXI (January/2013). The activities of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb were determined by the counting of gross alpha and gross beta activities in the precipitates of Ba(Ra)SO{sub 4} and PbCrO{sub 4}. Those measurements were carried out in a low background gas flow proportional detector. The {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra were measured after 21 days of the final precipitation. The {sup 210}Pb activity was determined after 10 days of the precipitation date by gross beta counting of its {sup 210}Bi decay product. The activity concentration of {sup 226}Ra ranged from 11±1 (mBq g-1) to 54±3 (mBq g{sup -1}), and the {sup 228}Ra ranged from 48±5 (mBq g{sup -1}) to 155±16 (mBq g{sup -1}). The activity concentration of {sup 210}Pb varied from 8±1 (mBq g{sup -1}) to 458±46 (mBq g{sup -1}), while unsupported {sup 210}Pb ranged from 6±1 (mBq g{sup -1}) to 434±65 (mBq g{sup -1}). The {sup 210}Pb concentrations in sediments have often been used to dating events like deposition and accumulation in various marine environments. Taking into account the results of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 226}Ra activities obtained in testimony-1B it was estimated the unsupported {sup 210}Pb activity which was applied to the CIC geochronological dating model (Constant Initial Concentration). Based in these data, the sedimentation rate obtained was 0.63±0.02 cm year{sup -1}. (author)

  6. Extensive radioactive characterization of a phosphogypsum stack in SW Spain: {sup 226}Ra, {sup 238}U, {sup 210}Po concentrations and {sup 222}Rn exhalation rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abril, Jose-Maria, E-mail: jmabril@us.es [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada I, Universidad de Sevilla, EUITA, Ctra Utrera Km 1, 41013 Seville (Spain); Garcia-Tenorio, Rafael, E-mail: gtenorio@us.es [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla, ETSA, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Seville (Spain); Manjon, Guillermo, E-mail: manjon@us.es [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla, ETSA, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Seville (Spain)

    2009-05-30

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is a by-product of the phosphate fertilizer industries that contains relatively high concentrations of uranium series radionuclides. The US-EPA regulates the agriculture use of PG, attending to its {sup 226}Ra content and to the {sup 222}Rn exhalation rate from inactive stacks. Measurements of {sup 222}Rn exhalation rates in PG stacks typically show a large and still poorly understood spatial and temporal variability, and the published data are scarce. This work studies an inactive PG stack in SW Spain of about 0.5 km{sup 2} from where PG can be extracted for agriculture uses, and an agriculture soil 75 km apart, being representative of the farms to be amended with PG. Activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 238}U and {sup 210}Po have been measured in 30 PG samples (0-90 cm horizon) allowing for the construction of maps with spatial distributions in the PG stack and for the characterization of the associated PG inputs to agriculture soils. Averaged {sup 226}Ra concentrations for the stack were 730 {+-} 60 Bq kg{sup -1} (d.w.), over the US-EPA limit of 370 Bq kg{sup -1}. {sup 222}Rn exhalation rate has been measured by the charcoal canister method in 49 sampling points with 3 canisters per sampling point. Values in PG stack were under the US-EPA limit of 2600 Bq m{sup -2} h{sup -1}, but they were one order of magnitude higher than those found in the agriculture soil. Variability in radon emissions has been studied at different spatial scales. Radon exhalation rates were correlated with {sup 226}Ra concentrations and daily potential evapotranspiration (ETo). They increased with ETo in agriculture soils, but showed an opposite behaviour in the PG stack.

  7. Redissolution of 226Ra from sediments in a Spanish estuary affected by the phosphate industry: model comparisons in the framework of the IAEA EMRAS project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Huelva estuary (south-west Spain), a fully mixed tidal estuary, consists of two rivers: Odiel and Tinto. A phosphate fertilizer processing complex has been releasing NORM radionuclides directly into the Odiel river over several decades. As a consequence, high levels of 226Ra, U and Th isotopes and other radionuclides have been measured in water, suspended matter and bed sediments of the estuary. Nevertheless, direct releases stopped in 1998 due to new regulations from the EU and, since then, a self cleaning process has been observed. It consists of a continuous decrease in activity concentrations in water and bed sediments. The study by means of numerical models of the 226Ra self cleaning process observed in the estuary has been proposed as an EMRAS project task. A model has been proposed by each institute participating in the exercise. Models have different configurations and temporal and spatial resolutions. Some processes, for instance tides or uptake/release of radionuclides between water and sediments, are described in different ways. However, all are started from the same initial conditions, provided by the University of Seville model. The endpoint of the simulations is to give the temporal evolution of the total 226Ra inventory in the bed sediments of the estuary and to estimate from it the sediment halving time. A brief description of the main features of each model is provided and the results are compared and analysed. (author)

  8. Report on intercomparison IAEA/SOIL-6 of the determination of Cs-137, Pu-239, Ra-226, and Sr-90 in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents results of a laboratory intercomparison of the determination of the activity level of cesium-137, plutonium-239, radium-226 and strontium-90 in a provided soil sample organized by the IAEA's Analytical Quality Control Service. Twenty-seven laboratories from 16 countries returned results based on 77 laboratory means (295 individual determinations). The aim of the interlaboratory comparison was to offer to the laboratories engaged in soil investigation an opportunity to control their analytical performance and to establish the concentration level of some radionuclides in a batch of analyzed soil for certification purposes. All radionuclides were determined by typical commonly used methods: cesium-137 by direct gamma spectroscopy, plutonium-239 by alpha spectroscopy after separation and electrodeposition, radium-226 by direct determination without or with separation or by determination of radon, and strontium-90 by measurement of its daughter yttrium-90. In general, the results can be accepted as satisfactory at such low level of activity (pCi/kg). The relative confidence intervals of the medians of 137Cs and 239Pu are below +-10% and of 226Ra and 90Sr below +-20%

  9. Biological availability of (238)U, (234)U and (226)Ra for wild berries and meadow grasses in natural ecosystems of Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolik, G A; Ovsiannikova, S V; Voinikava, K V; Ivanova, T G; Papenia, M V

    2014-01-01

    This work is devoted to investigation of behavior of (234)U, (238)U and (226)Ra by determining the soil to plant transfer under different natural conditions such as forest or swamped areas and meadow lands with different soil types. The paper summarizes the data on investigation of uranium and radium uptake by wild berries and natural meadow grasses in the typical conditions of Belarus. Parameters characterizing the biological availability of (234)U, (238)U and (226)Ra for bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), lingonberry (Vaccinium viti-idaea), blueberry (Vaccinium iliginosum) and cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccus palustris) as well as for widely occurring mixed meadow vegetation, which belongs to the sedge-grass or grass-sedge associations and forbs, have been established. In the sites under investigation, the deposition levels of (238+239+240)Pu were less than 0.37 kBq m(-2) and (137)Cs deposition ranged between less than 0.37 and 37 kBq m(-2). It was found that activity concentrations of radionuclides in berries varied in the ranges of 0.037-0.11 for (234)U, 0.036-0.10 for (238)U and 0.11-0.43 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, but in the mixed meadow grasses they were 0.32-4.4, 0.24-3.9 and 0.14-6.9 Bq kg(-1) accordingly. The (234)U/(238)U activity ratios were 1.02 ± 0.01 for wild berries, 1.20 ± 0.09 for underground meadow grasses and 1.02 ± 0.02 for proper soils. The concentration ratios (CRs, dry weight basis) of (234)U and (238)U for mixed meadow grasses were 0.036-0.42 and 0.041-0.46 respectively. The correspondent geometric means (GM) were 0.13 and 0.15 with geometric standard deviations (GSD) of 2.4. The CRs of (226)Ra for meadow grasses were 0.031-1.0 with GM 0.20 and GSD 2.6. The CRs of (234)U, (238)U and (226)Ra for wild berries ranged within 0.0018-0.008 (GM is 0.0034, GSD is 1.8), 0.0018-0.008 (GM is 0.0035, GSD is 1.8) and 0.005-0.033 (GM is 0.016, GSD is 2.1) accordingly. The highest CR values of uranium for mixed meadow grasses were found in the

  10. Estimation of 226Ra concentration in ground water around Narwapahar uranium mine, Jharkhand, India and assessment of age dependent ingestion dose to the members of the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of natural mineralization and for various mining activities, enhanced level of natural radioactivity in various matrices around a uranium mine may be expected. In the present study the distribution of 226Ra concentration was measured in ground water samples, collected within a 10 km radius around the Narwapahar uranium mine in the Singhbhum thrust belt of Jharkhand, India in 2007-2008. The 226Ra content in the ground water samples in this region was found to vary from 5.2-38.1 mBql-1 with mean 13.73 ± 7.34 mBql-1. The total mean annual ingestion dose due to intake of 226Ra through drinking water pathway to male and female adults population was estimated to be 5.19 ± 2.78 μSv y-1 and 3.79 ± 2.03 μSv y-1, respectively, which comprises simply a small fraction of the reference dose level of 100 μSv y-1 as recommended by WHO. (author)

  11. Distribution of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in rice plant components and physico-chemical effects of soil on their transportation to grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Saad Alsaffar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Radioactivity distribution and transfer factor (TF in plants are crucial parameters used to assess radioactive contamination in the environment and its risks to humans. In this study, the activities of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K were successfully measured via gamma-ray spectrometry on rice plant components (root, straw, husk, and grain and on corresponding soil samples collected from paddy fields in Penang, Malaysia. Soil physico-chemical characteristics (pH, cation exchange capacity, electrical conductivity, organic matter, and soil texture were also analyzed for their estimated effects on soil–grain TF. A major fraction of the total 226Ra and 232Th activities measured as 47% and 57%, respectively, were concentrated in the roots, whereas only about 9% and 8% were distributed in the grains, correspondingly. 40K activity accumulation was about 59% in the straw and 7% in the grains. Rice soil–grain TFs were observed in the ranges of (0.06–0.36 × 10−1 for 226Ra, (0.04–0.14 × 10−1 for 232Th, and (0.74–4.72 × 10−1 for 40K. Results showed that the selected radionuclide distributions in rice are dependent on component type, and their grain concentrations are not linearly related to their soil concentrations. These findings indicated that uptake predominantly depends on soil physico-chemical characteristics.

  12. Analysis of the distribution characteristics of 226Ra and 228Ra and their sources in the western part of Qinghai Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fancui; Sha, Zhanjiang; Du, Jinzhou; Su, Weigang; Yu, Chenguang; Zhao, Shunli; Hu, Jufang; Ye, Mei

    2015-11-01

    The 226Ra and 228Ra activities of Qinghai Lake surface water, groundwater, river water, suspended particles, and bottom sediments were measured in a gamma-ray spectrometer. The sources of 226Ra and 228Ra were discussed according to their distribution characteristics. 226Ra and 228Ra activities (dpm/(100 L)) ranged from 14.13±0.22 to 19.22±0.42 and 17.72±0.66 to 30.96±1.47 in the surface water of the North Bay, respectively, and from 7.88±0.24 to 33.80±0.47 and 15.73±0.74 to 57.31±1.44, respectively, in the South Bay. The surface water near the estuary had a lower salinity and had a higher concentration of radium isotopes than the samples collected further away. The farther offshore the sample, the higher the salinity was, and the lower the radium isotope activity. The distribution of radium activities in the western part of Qinghai Lake is controlled by several factors, including Buha River runoff, desorption from suspended particles derived from the river, groundwater discharge, and a small amount of diffusion from the sediment.

  13. Effects of barium chlorine treatment of uranium ore on /sup 222/Rn emanation and /sup 226/Ra leachability from mill tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, S.A.; Church, S.L.; Whicker, F.W.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this laboratory study was to investigate the effectiveness of barium chloride treatment of uranium ore on /sup 222/Rn emanation from mill tailings, /sup 226/Ra level in waste-water, and the leachability of radium from tailings. It has been shown that barium sulfate is an excellent carrier for radium and that barium sulfate crystals have high retention capacity for radon gas produced by radium trapped within the lattice. Ground uranium ore from a mine in Wyoming was mixed with water to form a 1:1 ratio before barium and potassium chlorides were added at concentrations of 0, 10, 25, 50, and 100 mg per liter of slurry. The ore was then subjected to a simulated mill process using sulfuric acid leaching. The liquid representing tailings pond water was separated and analyzed for /sup 226/Ra and the solid fraction, representing mill tailings, was tested for radon emanation and the leachability of radium by deionized water. This study suggests that barium treatment of uranium ore prior to sulfuric acid leaching could be effective in reducing radon emanation from tailings and also in reducing the /sup 226/Ra concentration of waste-water. Leachability of radium from treated tailings was markedly reduced.

  14. Evaluation of Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 activities concentrations and radium equivalent index in several Brazilian economic wall paints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Leandro M.; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S., E-mail: lmfonseca@ipen.br, E-mail: brigitte@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The titanium dioxide used as the white pigment in paints is produced from the processing of ilmenite minerals. As monazite, the main ilmenite radioactive contaminant, contains 1 to 20% thorium dioxide and also some uranium traces, so, eventually, wall paints can contain radioactivity. Activity concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K were determined in 15 Brazilian economic wall paints samples, by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The activities concentrations in the studied samples ranged from 1.3 ± 0.2 Bq/kg to 23.4 ± 0.7 Bq/kg for {sup 226}Ra; from 2.5 ± 0.4 Bq/kg to 45.8 ± 1.5 Bq/kg for {sup 232}Th and from 5.8 ± 2.1 Bq/kg to 157 ± 22 Bq/kg for {sup 40}K. The radium equivalent index, calculated from the {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K concentrations, varied from 1.30 Bq/kg up to 95.9 Bq/kg, below the value of 370 Bq/kg recommended by OECD for a safety use in residential building applications. (author)

  15. Ra-228, Ra-226, Pb-210 and Po-210 variations in the water columns and the surface water plankton in the Luzon Strait and northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Y.; Lin, C.; Wang, P.; Su, Y.

    2006-12-01

    Profiles of Ra-228, Ra-226, Pb-210 and Po-210 were measured in the Luzon Strait (LS) and northern South China Sea (SCS) areas to delineate the exchanges between the western Philippine Sea (WPS) and the northern SCS waters across the LS. Plankton samples were also collected for Po-210 and Pb-210 measurements to assess the balance between the Po-210 excess over Pb-210 in the plankton and the deficit in the surface water. Profiles of Ra-228 and Ra-226 seem to indicate the out flow of the SCS water below the salinity minimum and above around 1500m depth, below which the WPS water flows into the SCS through the LS above a sill depth of about 2600m. This is consistent with previous studies conducted in the area. All the Pb-210 profiles show a strong subsurface maximum with higher activity in the LS area. This maximum is in large excess over its parent, Ra-226 due to atmospheric input. Po-210 profiles generally follow the associated Pb-210 profiles but with lower activities, showing Po-210 deficiency. Po-210 is strongly enriched over Pb-210 in the plankton samples with an activity ratio generally over 10 and up to 40. Both nuclides in the plankton are higher in the LS area, a trend similar to the surface water. The Po-210 excess in the plankton can account for at least 70 percent of the surface water deficit, part of which may be removed by sinking particles.

  16. Radiation Monitoring of the Novi Han Radioactive Waste Repository, Bulgaria (2003 - 2004): Determination of Tritium and Radium-226 in Water Samples using Liquid Scintillation Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data for the specific activity of 3H and 226Ra in natural water obtained through liquid scintillation spectrometry in 2003-2004 in the implementation of the Program for Radiation Monitoring of NHRWR is presented. At the comparatively stable flow rate of ground waters in the area of the site it has been established that the specific activity of Tritium varies within a wide range. The maximum recorded values are several times lower than the regulatory boundary concentration for Tritium in drinking water (20 kBq.l-1) established by BRPS-2000. The values for permanent water sources in the area under surveillance are correspondingly by three orders lower than the listed value. The specific activity of 226 Ra in water samples has been determined through analysis of the daughter 222Rn. The values obtained are comparable with the results for drinking water from the Sofia city water supply system. The obtained results for water samples from control points of the NHRWR permanent monitoring network show that there is no Tritium and Radium-226 in the repository environment in concentrations exceeding the regulatory limits. (authors)

  17. A preliminary study on 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs activity concentrations in vegetables and fruits frequently consumed by inhabitants of Elazig Region, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determining radioactivity levels in foodstuffs is of great importance for the protection of human health. In addition, the literature includes few studies related to this subject in Turkey. In this study, gamma spectroscopic system was used in order to measure 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs activity concentrations in vegetables and fruits produced in Elazig( Region. The average activity concentrations in vegetables was calculated as 0.64 ± 0.26 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra, 0.65 ± 0.14 Bq kg-1 for 232Th, 13.98 ± 1.22 Bq kg-1 for 40K, and 0.54 ± 0.04 Bq kg-1 for 137Cs. The average activity concentrations in fruits were 1.52 ± 0.34, 0.98 ± 0.23, 18.66 ± 1.13 and 0.59 ± 0.16 Bq kg-1, respectively for 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs. Total committed effective dose value was determined as 20 and 30.55 μSv y-1, respectively for vegetables and fruits. The findings were compared with previous data reported for Turkey and other regions of the world. (author)

  18. Assessment of annual effective dose from 238U and 226Ra due to consumption of foodstuffs by inhabitants of Tehran city (IR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of 238U and 226Ra were determined in different foodstuffs purchased from markets in Tehran. Determinations of the radionuclides have been carried out using alpha spectrometry technique, on samples of egg, lentil, potato, rice, soya, spinach, tea and wheat. Average concentrations of natural radionuclides and foodstuff consumption rate were used to assess annual intake and based on intake values, the annual effective ingestion dose has been estimated for Tehran city residents. The measurement results show that soya has the maximum concentration of 238U equal to 15.6 ± 2.6 mBq kg-1 and tea has the maximum concentration of 226Ra equal to 1153.3 ± 265.3 mBq kg-1. Besides, the maximum annual effective dose from 238U and 226Ra were assessed to be 2.88 x 10-2 ±7.20 x 10-3 and 2.15 ± 0.54 μSv, respectively, from wheat samples. (authors)

  19. Sm29, but not Sm22.6 retains its ability to induce a protective immune response in mice previously exposed to a Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice Carvalho Alves

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A vaccine against schistosomiasis would have a great impact in disease elimination. Sm29 and Sm22.6 are two parasite tegument proteins which represent promising antigens to compose a vaccine. These antigens have been associated with resistance to infection and reinfection in individuals living in endemic area for the disease and induced partial protection when evaluated in immunization trials using naïve mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPALS FINDINGS: In this study we evaluated rSm29 and rSm22.6 ability to induce protection in Balb/c mice that had been previously infected with S. mansoni and further treated with Praziquantel. Our results demonstrate that three doses of the vaccine containing rSm29 were necessary to elicit significant protection (26%-48%. Immunization of mice with rSm29 induced a significant production of IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-4; significant production of specific antibodies; increased percentage of CD4+ central memory cells in comparison with infected and treated saline group and increased percentage of CD4+ effector memory cells in comparison with naïve Balb/c mice immunized with rSm29. On the other hand, although immunization with Sm22.6 induced a robust immune response, it failed to induce protection. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that rSm29 retains its ability to induce protection in previously infected animals, reinforcing its potential as a vaccine candidate.

  20. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 226 (FGE.226): Consideration of genotoxicity data on one α,β-unsaturated aldehyde from chemical subgroup 1.1.1(b) of FGE.19 by EFSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate the genotoxic potential of one flavouring substance from subgroup 1.1.1(b) of FGE.19 in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 226. The Flavour Industry has provi...

  1. Determination of {sup 210}Pb e {sup 226}Ra in tobacco leaves cultivated in the states of Rio de Grande do Sul e Alagoas - Brazil; Determinacao de {sup 210}Pb e {sup 226}Ra em folhas de tabaco cultivadas nos estados do Rio de Grande do Sul e Alagoas - Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao, Y.B. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Valentim, E.; Hazin, C.A. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Antonio Filho, J. [Universidade Catolica de Pernambuco (UNICAP), Recife, PE (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    2005-07-01

    The literature has shown that tobacco use causes damage to the health of cigarette users, manifesting itself in diseases with high mortality. Among these diseases include respiratory failure, pulmonary emphysema and lung cancer, among others. On the other hand, smoking contributes significantly to increasing the dose of natural radiation received by man, due to the presence of uranium series radionuclides, such as {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po, in relatively high concentrations in fresh tobacco leaves. The determination of these radionuclides in this matrix is of great interest, once they can be incorporated not only by the active smoker, but also by the passive smoker. The results of this study confirmed the significant presence of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb in tobacco samples collected and analyzed. The average values of activity concentration found in samples from the State of Alagoas were of Bq.kg{sup -1} 0.8 to {sup 210}Pb and 183.5 Bq.kg{sup -1} to {sup 226}Ra. For samples coming from the State of Rio Grande do Sul, these values were 4,0 Bq.kg{sup -1} to {sup 210}Pb and 161.3 Bq.kg{sup -1} to {sup 226}Ra.

  2. Behaviour of {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 226}Ra in rock alterations: study of Morungaba granitoids, SP-Brazil and ground water in its fractures; Comportamento de {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 228}Ra e {sup 226}Ra na alteracao de rochas: estudo dos granitoides de Morungaba (SP) e aguas subterraneas de suas fraturas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Rosana N. dos [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica]. E-mail: rosana@pucsp.br; Marques, Leila S. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas. Dept. de Geofisica]. E-mail: leila@iag.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    This work presents the first results obtained on the investigation of the behavior of uranium and radium radioisotopes in the processes of weathering and rock-water interaction of Morungaba granitoids belonging to Meridional Pluton (Valinhos Town-SP-Brazil). Specific activities of {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 226}Ra were determined in non altered granitoids (Group A), as well as in those affected by different degrees of weathering (Groups B, C and D). The uranium specific activities were determined by alpha spectrometry method, whereas for the determination of radium isotopes high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry technique was employed. The data indicate that {sup 238}U and {sup 234}U are in radioactive equilibrium in the fresh analyzed granitoids, but show a slight depletion of {sup 234}U in relation to {sup 238}U in the weathered rocks. The ({sup 226}Ra/{sup 238}U) and ({sup 226}Ra/{sup 234}U) activity ratios of all investigated rocks are similar, showing a significant {sup 226}Ra depletion, which is probably caused by its preferential leaching. These results indicate that even samples macroscopically classified as fresh rocks, their systems have been opened for some geochemical changes. The high ({sup 234}U/{sup 238}U) activity ratios of groundwaters which are found in the fractures of these granitoids suggest their prolonged residence times in the aquifer and/or their percolation by other rocks presenting different geochemical properties. (author)

  3. High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for Non-Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma: A Retrospective Study of 226 Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy in patients with inoperable endobronchial carcinoma. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the records (April 1991-May 2004) of patients with non-small-cell carcinoma, with no extrabronchial spread on computed tomography scans, who underwent HDR brachytherapy because of contraindications to surgery and external beam radiation therapy. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were compared by the log-rank test. Prognostic factors were analyzed by multivariate analysis. Results: 226 patients (223 men, 3 women, mean age: 62.2 years (range, 40-84)) were included. Of those, 217 (97%) had squamous cell carcinoma (Tis/T1/T2/Tx: 60/153/9/4). Dose was prescribed at 1 cm from the radius (24-35 Gy in 4-6 fractions). Mean follow-up was 30.4 months (range, 9-116). Complete endoscopic response rate was 93.6% at 3 months. One hundred twenty-eight patients (56%) died of intercurrent disease (n = 45), local failure (n = 36), metastasis (n = 10), local failure and metastasis (n = 11), complications (n = 13), and other causes (n = 12). The 2-year and 5-year survival rates were, respectively, 57% and 29% (overall) (median, 28.6 months), 81% and 56% (cancer-specific), and 68% and 50% (local disease-free). Acute toxicity included pneumothorax (1.5%) and mucosal inflammation (10%). Late complications were hemoptysis (6.6% with 5% of fatalities), bronchitis (19.5%), and necrosis (3.5%). In multivariate analysis, a distal tumor location and the use of two catheters were associated with improved local disease-free survival (p = 0.003 and p = 0.007, respectively) and a distal tumor location with improved overall survival (p = 0.0001). Conclusions: This large retrospective study confirms that HDR brachytherapy is an efficient and safe treatment in patients with inoperable endobronchial carcinoma.

  4. Distribution of 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs in soils of Province of Camaguey, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey programme aimed at studying the environmental radioactivity in the Province of Camaguey in the eastern region of Cuba was undertaken. The average concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th, and 40 K in the surveyed soils were 26.4, 11.5 and 210 Bq.kg-1, respectively. The man-made radionuclide found was 137 Cs and its concentration was similar to those reported in regions affected only by global radioactive fallout, (7.9 Bq.kg-1). Radiological measurements carried out with a portable ionization chamber RSS-112 at the sampled sites revealed an average outdoor absorbed dose rate of 59.0 nGy.h-1 due to cosmic rays and terrestrial gamma radiation. Computed dose rates obtained through the UNSCEAR(1993) dose coefficients range from 4-182 nGy.h-1, with a mean value of 27.8 nGy.h-1, due to natural terrestrial gamma radiation. Ratio of Indoor to Outdoor absorbed dose rates in air was 1.75. The average value of absorbed dose rate in air for the ionizing component of cosmic rays was 31.8 nGy.h-1 at sea level. Because of the 95% of the Camaguey population lives at altitudes close to sea level (10-100 m), the absorbed dose rate in outdoor air from ionizing component of cosmic rays was estimated to be 32.3 nGy.h-1. An annual average effective dose equivalent of 510 μSv was estimated for Camaguey population due to the ionizing component of cosmic and gamma terrestrial radiation. This value is lower than the 760 μSv.year-1 estimated as a world average by UNSCEAR (1993). (author)

  5. Mg-perovskite/silicate melt partition coefficients in the CMS system at 2430 C and 226 Kbars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcfarlane, Elisabeth A.; Drake, Michael J.; Gasparik, Tibor

    1992-01-01

    The partitioning of elements among lower mantle phases and silicate melts is of interest in unraveling the early thermal history of the Earth. Because of the technical difficulty in carrying out such measurements, only one direct set of measurements has been reported, and these results as well as interpretations based on them have generated controversy. The first set of direct measurements on a synthetic system in the CaO-MgO-SiO2 (CMS) is reported. An experiment was conducted at Stony Brook, using the USSA-2000 split sphere anvil apparatus. An experiment in the CMS system doped with oxides of Al, Ti, Sc, and Sm and run at a nominal temperature of 2380 C and pressure of 226 kbars is reported. Nominal temperatures were measured with a W 3 percent Re/W 25 percent Re thermocouple. The hot spot temperature, where the liquidus is located, is estimated to be at 2430 C. A 10 mm MgO octahedron was used in concert with 4 mm truncation edge lengths on the WC cubes. The sample was contained in a Re capsule which was inserted into a LaCrO3 furnace. Pressure was calibrated at 2000 C. Run duration was approximately 3 minutes. The charge was mounted in epoxy and analyzed using a CAMECA SX-50 electron microprobe. Standard operating conditions were employed, although counting time for the less abundant elements was increased to improved counting statistics. The melt is unquenchable, and forms a dendritic intergrowth of quench crystals and residual melt. It was analyzed using a 30 micron raster. The structural identity of the Mg-perovskite phase was confirmed using x ray microdiffractometry. The results of the investigation are presented.

  6. Investigation of U,Th,~(226)Ra Levels in Environmental Water from Uranium Mine Areas of Northern Guangdong%粤北铀矿山环境水中天然铀、天然钍及~(226)Ra水平调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃连敬; 梁贵渊; 张衍津; 陈文涛; 吴桂标

    2012-01-01

    2011年,分丰水期和枯水期2次对粤北3个铀矿山所在地区环境水体进行了天然铀、天然钍、226Ra等放射性核素水平的调查测量。饮用水(非受纳水体)采样点11个,样品22个;溪水(受纳水体)采样点10个,样品20个。调查结果表明,饮用水(山泉水)中天然铀、天然钍和226Ra的平均浓度分别为0.74μg/L、0.53μg/L和17.0 mBq/L;溪水中分别为23.4μg/L、0.43μg/L和25.0 mBq/L。%Naturally occurring radionuclides,such as U,Th,226Ra,in environmental water from three uranium mining areas of northern Guangdong were measured,respectively,using samples taken in wet and dry seasons in 2011.22 drinking water samples(non receiving water) from 11 sampling points,and 20 creek water samples(receiving water) from 10 sampling points were collected.The results shows that the concentrations of U,Th and 226Ra in drinking water(mineral water) are,on average,0.74 μg/L,0.53 μg/L and 17.0 mBq/L,respectively;the concentrations of U,Th and 226Ra in creek water are,on average,23.4 μg/L,0.43 μg/L and 25.0 mBq/L.

  7. Analysis of 226Ra, 232Th 40К and 137Cs in samples of soil from some areas of Republic of Macedonia by using gamma spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorovik Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration the importance of the distribution and transfer of radio nuclides in soil, an attempt was made in this work to determine the concentration of 226Ra, 232Th 40К and 137Cs in the same. The concentrations of activity in the gamma-absorbed dose rates of the terrestrial naturally occurring radio nuclides, as follows, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were determined in samples of soil collected from some parts of Republic of Macedonia, i.e. from three major cities in the Republic of Macedonia. The samples are taken by means of a special dosage dispenser which enables sampling of samples at a depth of 0-5 cm, 5-10cm and 10-15cm, thus disabling the sampling above these layers of soil. An identification of radio nuclides and assessment of their activity has been performed by applying gamma spectrometry. The time of counting for each sample was 65000 s. in order to obtain statistically small mistake. The spectrums were analyzed by a commercially available software GENIE-2000 received from Canberra, Austria. The activity of soil had wide range of values: 20.3 to 82.9 Bq kg-1for 226Ra, 16.1 to 82.5 Bq kg-1 for 232Th, 325 to 799.0 Bq kg-1for 40К and 9.1 to 24.3 Bq kg-1for 137Cs, respectively. The concentrations of these radio nuclides have been compared with the available data from the other countries. Natural environmental radioactivity and the associated external exposure due to gamma radiation depend primarily on the geological and geographical conditions. Namely, the specific levels of terrestrial environmental radiation are related to the type of rocks from which the soils originate. The obtained data indicate that the average value of activity of 232Th is about higher than the one of 226Ra The concentration of activity of 40К in the soil has greater value than 32Th and 226Ra in all soils. The causes for the existence of 137Cs in these soils are the nuclear explosions, waste radioactive materials and other incidents. It reaches the

  8. Distribution of {sup 226}Ra-{sup 210}Pb-{sup 210}Po in marine biota and surface sediments of the Red Sea, Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirelkhatim, D.A. [Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, Environmental Monitoring, Khartoum, P.O. Box 3001 (Sudan)], E-mail: rifaatk@hotmail.com; Sam, A.K.; Hassona, R.K. [Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, Environmental Monitoring, Khartoum, P.O. Box 3001 (Sudan)

    2008-12-15

    Activity concentration levels and ratios of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po are presented in multicellular marine algae, molluscs, coral as well as in surface marine sediments collected from the shallower waters of the fringing reefs area extending towards north and south (Flamingo bay) of PortSudan harbour, Sudan. The analyses were performed adopting alpha-spectrometry, liquid scintillation and Cerenkov counting techniques. Surface sediments from this coastal region are poor in their radioactivity content in contrast to similar data reported from different coastal areas around the globe. There is surface enrichment of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po with respect to their progenitor {sup 226}Ra as it is evident from the activity ratios of {sup 210}Pb/{sup 226}Ra (3.03 {+-} 1.79) and {sup 210}Po/{sup 226}Ra (2.23 {+-} 1.56). Among marine plants and animals investigated, the green algae species, Halimeda, and coral species, Favites, show substantial concentration of radium at 8.2 Bq/kg and 21.9 Bq/kg dry weight, respectively. Similarly, the highest concentration of {sup 210}Po was met in Favites at 38.7 Bq/kg followed by brown algae, Cystoseria sp., at 32.6 Bq/kg. There is no variation seen among algal species for {sup 210}Pb uptake, however, converse to radium and polonium, Favites (coral) was found to contain the minimum concentration of lead (3.88 Bq/kg). In most species there is preferential accumulation of polonium over its parent radium as indicated by {sup 210}Po:{sup 226}Ra activity ratio with Cystoseria (brown algae) showing the highest value at 8.81. On the other hand, {sup 210}Po:{sup 210}Pb activity concentration ratio revealed that coral species Favites (9.97) and the brown algae Sargassum (1.85) have a greater tendency to accumulate {sup 210}Po over {sup 210}Pb, while in the rest of species; this ratio is less than unity.

  9. Crystal Structures of KPC-2[beta]-Lactamase in Complex with 3-Nitrophenyl Boronic Acid and the Penam Sulfone PSR-3-226

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Wei; Bethel, Christopher R.; Papp-Wallace, Krisztina M.; Pagadala, Sundar Ram Reddy; Nottingham, Micheal; Fernandez, Daniel; Buynak, John D.; Bonomo, Robert A.; van den Akker, Focco (Case Western); (Stokes); (SMU)

    2012-08-01

    Class A carbapenemases are a major threat to the potency of carbapenem antibiotics. A widespread carbapenemase, KPC-2, is not easily inhibited by {beta}-lactamase inhibitors (i.e., clavulanic acid, sulbactam, and tazobactam). To explore different mechanisms of inhibition of KPC-2, we determined the crystal structures of KPC-2 with two {beta}-lactamase inhibitors that follow different inactivation pathways and kinetics. The first complex is that of a small boronic acid compound, 3-nitrophenyl boronic acid (3-NPBA), bound to KPC-2 with 1.62-{angstrom} resolution. 3-NPBA demonstrated a Km value of 1.0 {+-} 0.1 {micro}M (mean {+-} standard error) for KPC-2 and blocks the active site by making a reversible covalent interaction with the catalytic S70 residue. The two boron hydroxyl atoms of 3-NPBA are positioned in the oxyanion hole and the deacylation water pocket, respectively. In addition, the aromatic ring of 3-NPBA provides an edge-to-face interaction with W105 in the active site. The structure of KPC-2 with the penam sulfone PSR-3-226 was determined at 1.26-{angstrom} resolution. PSR-3-226 displayed a K{sub m} value of 3.8 {+-} 0.4 {micro}M for KPC-2, and the inactivation rate constant (kinact) was 0.034 {+-} 0.003 s{sup -1}. When covalently bound to S70, PSR-3-226 forms a trans-enamine intermediate in the KPC-2 active site. The predominant active site interactions are generated via the carbonyl oxygen, which resides in the oxyanion hole, and the carboxyl moiety of PSR-3-226, which interacts with N132, N170, and E166. 3-NPBA and PSR-3-226 are the first {beta}-lactamase inhibitors to be trapped as an acyl-enzyme complex with KPC-2. The structural and inhibitory insights gained here could aid in the design of potent KPC-2 inhibitors.

  10. Development of sequential analytical method for the determination of U-238, U-234, Th-232, Th-230, Th-228, Ra-226 and Ra-228 and its application in mineral waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sequential analytical method for the determination of U-238, U-234, Th-232, Th-230, Th-228, Ra-226 and Ra-228 in environmental samples and applied to the analysis of mineral waters is studied. Thorium isotopes are coprecipitated with lanthanium fluoride before counting in alpha spectrometer, the uranium isotopes are determined by alpha spectrometry following extraction with TOPO onto a polymenic membrane. Radium-226 is determined with the radom emanation technique. (M.J.C.)

  11. Production of actinium-225 for alpha particle mediated radioimmunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, Rose A; Malkemus, Dairin; Mirzadeh, Saed

    2005-05-01

    The initial clinical trials for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia have demonstrated the effectiveness of the alpha emitter (213)Bi in killing cancer cells. Bismuth-213 is obtained from a radionuclide generator system from decay of 10-days (225)Ac parent. Recent pre-clinical studies have also shown the potential application of both (213)Bi, and the (225)Ac parent radionuclide in a variety of cancer systems and targeted radiotherapy. This paper describes our five years of experience in production of (225)Ac in partial support of the on-going clinical trials. A four-step chemical process, consisting of both anion and cation exchange chromatography, is utilized for routine separation of carrier-free (225)Ac from a mixture of (228)Th, (229)Th and (232)Th. The separation of Ra and Ac from Th is achieved using the marcoporous anion exchange resin MP1 in 8M HNO(3) media. Two sequential MP1/NO(3) columns provide a separation factor of approximately 10(6) for Ra and Ac from Th. The separation of Ac from Ra is accomplished on a low cross-linking cation exchange resin AG50-X4 using 1.2M HNO(3) as eluant. Two sequential AG50/NO(3) columns provide a separation factor of approximately 10(2) for Ac from Ra. A 60-day processing schedule has been adopted in order to reduce the processing cost and to provide the highest levels of (225)Ac possible. Over an 8-week campaign, a total of approximately 100 mCi of (225)Ac (approximately 80% of the theoretical yield) is shipped in 5-6 batches, with the first batch typically consisting of approximately 50 mCi. After the initial separation and purification of Ac, the Ra pool is re-processed on a bi-weekly schedule or as needed to provide smaller batches of (225)Ac. The averaged radioisotopic purity of the (225)Ac was 99.6 +/- 0.7% with a (225)Ra content of < or =0.6%, and an average (229)Th content of (4(-4)(+5)) x 10(-5)%.

  12. Effect of UbcH10 gene silencing on cell proliferation and cell cycle of lung cancer cell line NCI-H226%UbcH10基因沉默对肺癌NCI-H226细胞增殖及细胞周期的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵黎明; 孙光远; 娄丽蓉; 王良哲; 方正; 修清玉

    2012-01-01

    Objective To use liposomal siRNA for silencing UbcH10 gene in human lung squamous carcinoma cell line NCI-H226 and to observe the changes of cell proliferation and cell cycle after silencing. Methods Three siRNA sequences targeting different sites of UbcH10 CDS were designed, and the shRNA recombinant plasmids were constructed. The recombinant plasmids were transfected into NCI-H226 cells via hpofectaraine2000. UbcH10 mRNA and protein expression was examined by RT-PCR and Western blotting analysis 48 h after transfection, respectively. The viability of NCI-H226 cells was measured using CCK-8 at 24 and 48 h after transfection with the effective siRNA vector, and the cell cycle was detected by flow cytometry 48 h after transfection. Results The recombinant shRNA plasmids were successfully constructed and transfected into NC1-H226 cells. UbcH10 gene mRNA and protein were noticeably decreased in the three groups 48 h after transfection, with the inhibitory effect of No. 2 siRNA sequence ( pshRNA2 ) being the strongest one (86 % ). The proliferative activity of NCI-H226 cells was significantly decreased 24 and 48 h after the transfection with the pshRNA2 compared with the control group (P<0. 05). Compared with the control group, NC1-H226 cells were blocked in G2 phase 48 h after the transfection with pshRNA2 (P<0. 05). Conclusion UbcH10 gene silencing can significantly inhibit the proliferative activity of NCI-H226 cells and block the cells in G2 phase.%目的 通过脂质体转染siRNA方法沉默人肺鳞癌细胞NCI-H226中UbcH10基因,观察基因沉默后细胞增殖活性的变化及其对细胞周期的影响.方法 设计3条针对UbcH10基因CDS区不同位点的siRNA序列并构建shRNA重组质粒,脂质体法转染重组质粒至NCI-H226细胞.转染后48h,RT PCR和蛋白质免疫印迹法检测细胞内UbcH10 mRNA及蛋白含量.使用有效siRNA序列转染细胞,转染后24、48 h CCK 8检测细胞活性.使用有效siRNA序列转染细胞,转染后48 h

  13. TAE226, a Bis-Anilino Pyrimidine Compound, Inhibits the EGFR-Mutant Kinase Including T790M Mutant to Show Anti-Tumor Effect on EGFR-Mutant Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Otani

    Full Text Available TAE226, a bis-anilino pyrimidine compound, has been developed as an inhibitor of focal adhesion kinase (FAK and insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR. In this study, we investigated the effect of TAE226 on non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC, especially focusing on the EGFR mutational status. TAE226 was more effective against cells with mutant EGFR, including the T790M mutant, than against cells with wild-type one. TAE226 preferentially inhibited phospho-EGFR and its downstream signaling mediators in the cells with mutant EGFR than in those with wild-type one. Phosphorylation of FAK and IGF-IR was not inhibited at the concentration at which the proliferation of EGFR-mutant cells was inhibited. Results of the in vitro binding assay indicated significant differences in the affinity for TAE226 between the wild-type and L858R (or delE746_A750 mutant, and the reduced affinity of ATP to the L858R (or delE746_A750 mutant resulted in good responsiveness of the L858R (or delE746_A750 mutant cells to TAE226. Of interest, the L858R/T790M or delE746_A750/T790M mutant enhanced the binding affinity for TAE226 compared with the L858R or delE746_A750 mutant, resulting in the effectiveness of TAE226 against T790M mutant cells despite the T790M mutation restoring the ATP affinity for the mutant EGFR close to that for the wild-type. TAE226 also showed higher affinity of about 15-fold for the L858R/T790M mutant than for the wild-type one by kinetic interaction analysis. The anti-tumor effect against EGFR-mutant tumors including T790M mutation was confirmed in mouse models without any significant toxicity. In summary, we showed that TAE226 inhibited the activation of mutant EGFR and exhibited anti-proliferative activity against NSCLCs carrying EGFR mutations, including T790M mutation.

  14. Medidas de imitância acústica em lactentes com 226hz e 1000hz: correlação com as emissões otoacústicas e o exame otoscópico Accoustic immitance measures in infants with 226 and 1000 hz probes: correlation with otoacoustic emissions and otoscopy examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Vargas Garcia

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A avaliação audiológica do lactente deve ser composta pela verificação das condições de orelha média (medidas de imitância acústica e otoscopia e pela avaliação coclear (Emissões Otoacústicas. OBJETIVO: Verificar qual tom teste da timpanometria (226Hz ou 1000Hz tem maior correlação com o exame otoscópico e com o resultado das Emissões Otoacústicas por estímulo transiente. MÉTODO: Realizou-se emissões otoacústicas nos 60 lactentes da amostra, com idade entre de zero e quatro meses. Foram distribuídos em dois grupos, sendo o grupo I 30 lactentes com EOA presente e o grupo II 30 lactentes com EOA ausente. Foram submetidos à timpanometria de múltiplas freqüências, com tom teste de 226Hz e 1000Hz e avaliação otoscópica. RESULTADOS: Na timpanometria, o tom teste de 1000Hz apresentou mais sensibilidade para identificar as alterações de orelha média. Nas crianças com curva timpanométrica dentro da normalidade, ambos os tons-teste (226 e 1000Hz apresentaram alta especificidade. Todas as correlações foram significantes com o tom teste de 1000Hz. CONCLUSÃO: O tom teste de 1000Hz apresentou maior correlação estatisticamente significante com as EOA e com a avaliação otoscópica para lactentes de zero a quatro meses.Audiological evaluation in infants should include the middle ear (immitance measures and otoscopy and also a cochlear evaluation. AIM: To check which tympanometry tone test (226 Hz or 1000 Hz, transient otoacoustic emissions and otoscopy. METHODS: Transient otoacoustic emissions were taken from sixty infants ranging from zero to four months of age. The babies were assigned to two groups of 30 infants each, according to the presence or absence of otoacoustic emissions (OAE. All babies have undergone tympanometry with probe tones of 226 and 1000 Hz and ENT evaluation. RESULTS: Tests performed with 1000 Hz probe tone were more sensitive in identifying middle ear disorders. In children with normal

  15. 210Pb-226Ra chronology reveals rapid growth rate of Madrepora oculata and Lophelia pertusa on world's largest cold-water coral reef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tisnérat-Laborde

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we show the use of the 210Pb-226Ra excess method to determine the growth rate of corals from one of the world's largest known cold-water coral reef, the Røst Reef off Norway. Two large branching framework-forming cold-water coral specimens, one Lophelia pertusa and one Madrepora oculata were collected alive at 350 m water depth from the Røst Reef at ~67° N and ~9° E. Pb and Ra isotopes were measured along the major growth axis of both specimens using low level alpha and gamma spectrometry and the corals trace element compositions were studied using ICP-QMS. Due to the different chemical behaviors of Pb and Ra in the marine environment, 210Pb and 226Ra were not incorporated the same way into the aragonite skeleton of those two cold-water corals. Thus to assess of the growth rates of both specimens we have here taken in consideration the exponential decrease of initially incorporated 210Pb as well as the ingrowth of 210Pb from the decay of 226Ra. Moreover a~post-depositional 210Pb incorporation is found in relation to the Mn-Fe coatings that could not be entirely removed from the oldest parts of the skeletons. The 226Ra activities in both corals were fairly constant, then assuming constant uptake of 210Pb through time the 210Pb-226Ra chronology can be applied to calculate linear growth rate. The 45.5 cm long branch of M. oculata reveals an age of 31 yr and a~linear growth rate of 14.4 ± 1.1 mm yr−1, i.e. 2.6 polyps per year. However, a correction regarding a remaining post-depositional Mn-Fe oxide coating is needed for the base of the specimen. The corrected age tend to confirm the radiocarbon derived basal age of 40 yr (using 14C bomb peak with a mean growth rate of 2 polyps yr−1. This rate is similar to the one obtained in Aquaria experiments under optimal growth conditions. For the 80 cm-long specimen of L. pertusa a remaining contamination of metal-oxides is observed for the middle and basal part of the coral skeleton, inhibiting

  16. Radionuclides (210Pb, 226Ra, 210Po e 137Cs) in the Cananeia-Iguape coastal system: environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was developed in the Cananeia-lguape Coastal System, coast south of the State of Sao Paulo, with the aim of monitoring the levels of some natural radionuclides (210Pb, 210Po, 226Ra ) and artificial (137Cs) and to study the sedimentary dynamics of the area. For this, some studies and determinations were carried out, such as: sedimentation rates, concentration factors, bio-indicators and ingestion for the human population of some of these radionuclides. For the obtaining of the levels of these radionuclides, radiochemical and instrumental methodologies were developed and applied in reference samples of the International Agency of Atomic Energy (IAEA). After this, the methodologies were applied in samples of sediments, aquatic organisms and water of the channels collected in several points. In the sediments, the levels of (210Pb, 226Ra and 137Cs varied from 6.1 to 167.5 Bq.kg-1 from 4.1 to 28.5 Bq.kg-1 and from MDC (0.28) to 6.1 Bq.kg-1 respectively. More significant correlations were observed among the percentage of mud (silt-clay) in the sediments and the levels of these radionuclides. These data were used for sedimentation rate studies in the points of sampling in the System. The sedimentation rates obtained with the values of unsupported (210Pb and 137Cs for the Ponta do Arrozal (T1), Ponta do Frade (T2), Valo Grande (T3) and Carapara-BOCA River (T4) were of 5.02 and 5.00 mm.a-1, 2.30 and 3.82 mm.a-1, 14.59 and 15.74 mm.a-1, 3.41 and 5.00 mm.a-1 respectively. The sedimentation rates obtained with unsupported 210Pb and the 137Cs in the cores(T1, T2, T3 and T4) showed a good agreement. The sedimentation rates obtained along the System reflect the dynamics intern of the channels, that presents general tendency the one accentuated deposition process, with pronounced contribution of sediments of continental origin, for the drainages Mandira and Ribeira of Iguape Rivers, by the high biological production of the System as well as the pronounced erosion of the

  17. Comparative toxicity of strontium-90 and radium-226 in beagle dogs. Progress report of second year, December 16, 1990--December 15, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raabe, O.G.; Culbertson, M.R.; White, R.G.; Spangler, W.L.; Cain, G.R.; Parks, N.J.; Samuels, S.J.

    1991-12-01

    We are completing a 30-year study of the biological effects of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 226}Ra in the beagle in order to predict the possible long-term hazards to people from chronic exposure to low levels of irradiation. Animals received either radionuclide by several means of administration: (a) continual ingestion of {sup 90}Sr, (b) a single intravenous injection of {sup 90}Sr, or (c) a series of eight intravenous injections of {sup 226}Ra. Although administration of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 226}Ra ended at 540 days of age, the animals continued to receive chronic, low-level radiation doses from these bone-seeking radionuclides throughout life. This project is the largest single cohort study in beagles of internally deposited radionuclides. It is unique in use of the ingestion route for {sup 90}Sr and in exposure that began before birth and continued throughout development to adulthood with uniform labeling of the skeletons with {sup 90}Sr. The last of the dogs died in 1986 at age 18.5 years, but we are continuing to investigate the significance of these long-term exposures given at low dose rates with regard to cancer production, physiologic well-being, and shortening of life through the detailed records that were kept and by study of preserved materials. All the data have been successfully accumulated and entered into a main-frame computer data base management system. Current work is exclusively directed at preparing research papers summarizing the results and the associated biostatistical and survival analyses. 15 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  18. Comparative toxicity of strontium-90 and radium-226 in beagle dogs. Report of first year, December 16, 1989--December 15, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raabe, O.G.; Culbertson, M.R.; White, R.G.; Spangler, W.L.; Cain, G.R.; Parks, N.J.; Samuels, S.J.

    1990-12-31

    The authors are completing a 30-year study of the biologic effects of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 226}Ra in the beagle in order to predict the possible long-term hazards to people from chronic exposure to low levels of irradiation. Animals received either radionuclide by several means of administration: (a) continual ingestion of {sup 90}Sr, (b) a single intravenous injection of {sup 90}Sr, or (c) a series of eight intravenous injections of {sup 226}Ra. Although administration of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 226}Ra ended at 540 days of age, the animals continued to receive chronic, low-level radiation doses from these bone-seeking radionuclides throughout life. This project is the largest single cohort study in beagles of internally deposited radionuclides. It is unique in use of the ingestion route for {sup 90}Sr and in exposures that began before birth and continued throughout development to adulthood with uniform labeling of the skeletons with {sup 90}Sr. The last of the dogs died in 1986 at age 18.5, but the authors are continuing to investigate the significance of these long-term exposures given at low dose rates with regard to cancer production, physiologic well-being, and shortening of life through the detailed records that were kept and by study of preserved materials. All the data have been successfully accumulated and entered into a main-frame computer data base management system. Current work is exclusively directed at preparing research papers summarizing the results and the associated biostatistical and survival analyses.

  19. Comparative toxicity of strontium-90 and radium-226 in beagle dogs. Report of second year, December 16, 1990--December 15, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raabe, O.G.; Culbertson, M.R.; White, R.G.; Spangler, W.L.; Cain, G.R.; Parks, N.J.; Samuels, S.J.

    1991-12-31

    The authors are completing a 30-year study of the biological effects of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 226}Ra in the beagle in order to predict the possible long-term hazards to people from chronic exposure to low levels of irradiation. Animals received either radionuclide by several means of administration: (a) continual ingestion of {sup 90}Sr, (b) a single intravenous injection of {sup 90}Sr, or (c) a series of eight intravenous injections of {sup 226}Ra. Although administration of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 226}Ra ended at 540 days of age, the animals continued to receive chronic, low-level radiation doses from these bone-seeking radionuclides throughout life. This project is the largest single cohort study in beagles of internally deposited radionuclides. It is unique in use of the ingestion route for {sup 90}Sr and in exposures that began before birth and continued throughout development to adulthood with uniform labeling of the skeletons with {sup 90}Sr. The last of the dogs died in 1986 at age 18.5 years, but the authors are continuing to investigate the significance of these long-term exposures given at low dose rates with regard to cancer production, physiologic well-being, and shortening of life through the detailed records that were kept and by study of preserved materials. All the data have been successfully accumulated and entered into a main-frame computer data base management system. Current work is exclusively directed at preparing research papers summarizing the results and the associated biostatistical and survival analyses.

  20. Radon concentration in soil gas and its correlations with pedologies, permeabilities and 226Ra content in the soil of the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte - RMBH, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, E.; Rocha, Z.; Palmieri, H. E. L.; Santos, T. O.; Rios, F. J.; Oliveira, A. H.

    2015-11-01

    The radon concentration in soil gas is directly dependent on the geological characteristics of the area, such as lithology, pedology and on geochemicals, physicals and mineralogicals parameters of the soil. This paper looks for correlations between radon concentrations in soil gas and its soil permeability, 238U, 232Th and 226Ra contents in the soil groups classified by pedologies of Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte (RMBH), Minas Gerais, Brazil. The soil gas radon concentrations were determined by using an AlphaGUARD® monitor at about 150 measurement points. In soil samples of the same measurement points, the concentrations of 226Ra were determined by gamma spectrometry (HPGe), and 238U and 232Th by ICP-MS. The soil permeabilities were determined by using the RADON-JOK® permeameter. The mean concentrations of radon in soil gas ranged from 13.6±3.0 kBq m-3 for Litholic Neosols until 60.6±8.7 kBq m-3 for Perferric Red Latosols. The mean of 226Ra activity concentrations presented variation of 12.4±2.5 Bq kg-1 for Litholic Neosols until 50.3±13 Bq kg-1 for Perferric Red Latosols. Approximately 40% of the soils presented high permeability. The areas of different pedologies were classified by Soil Radon Index (SRI), determined by the soil gas radon concentration and permeability. Approximately 53% of the Perferric Red Latosols measurement site could be classified as "High Risk" (Swedish criteria). The preliminary results may indicate an influence of iron formations present very close to the Perferric Red Latosols in the retention of uranium minerals, and hence an increase in the concentration of radon and radium, whereas the series are in equilibrium in the environment.

  1. Evaluation of the activity concentration of 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb in sediments from Antarctica in the Admiralty bay region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural radionuclides from radioactive series of 238U, 235U and 232Th have been applied as tracers in environmental studies for understanding the dynamics that occur in both marine and terrestrial environment, as for example, in research of oceanic processes and management of the coastal region. In the marine environment, these radionuclides can be used to estimate biogeochemical fluxes of marine particles and nutrients that occur in the water column as well as in the sediment. Several research works applied the distribution and the respective disequilibrium degree of natural radionuclides in the environment, including geochronological models for obtaining historical information on samples of certain sediment profile. In this study we performed a radiochemical characterization of the distribution of 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb from a sedimentary column called 1B (248 cm long) collected in the Admiralty Bay, Antarctic Peninsula region. The methodology used included the acid leaching of sediment samples followed by the radiochemical sequential separation of 226Ra and 228Ra by co-precipitation with Ba(Ra)SO4 and 210Pb by co-precipitation with PbCrO4. All measurements were carried out by counting of gross alpha and gross beta measures in a low background gas flow proportional detector. The activity concentrations of 226Ra and 210Pb were used to estimate the unsupported 210Pb activities present in sediment profile 1 B. Based on unsupported 210Pb data and the application of the CIC model (Constant Initial Concentration), it was possible to determine the sedimentation rate of 0.59 ± 0.05 cm /year. (author)

  2. Monitoring of Ra-226 and Ra-228 in manioc (Manihot utilissima) and its flour in uranium mining in Caetite - Tropical area in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Tropical ecosystems have few developments from the radioecology point of view. In Brazil, radioecology studies had their development mainly in the 50's decade, but a little attention has been given to the radionuclides in food. The Uranium Concentrate Unit of 'Caetite' started operation in the 90's decade, and was preceded by the environmental pre-operational monitoring program, carried out during 15 years (1982-1999), according to established licensing procedures, using biological samples from the human and animal food chain. This work shows the results of last ten years of the pre-operational monitoring program of 'Caetite' in manioc (Manihot utilissima) and it's flour. The parameters studied are Ra-226 and Ra-228. Manioc (and it's flour) was chosen because of its role as the most important component of human food chain (82 kg/year for manioc and de same for manioc flour). This study was performed in 44 results of Ra-226 and 44 results of Ra-228 analyses, in 22 samples of manioc and 22 samples of manioc flour. For the analysis, initially, the Anderson-Darling goodness-of-fit test for the maximum likelihood to the gaussian distribution is executed. With the data adjusted to the gaussian curve, an Analysis of variance (ANOVA) test is executed. If there is difference between concentrations, t Student tests are then executed. The data have shown best goodness-of-fit to the log-normal distribution. After proper transformation (y=Ln(x+1)), data have shown best goodness-of-fit to the normal distribution. The ANOVA test applied to normalized data have pointed differences in concentrations, that were identified by t Student tests as the Ra-226 values in manioc and the Ra-228 values in manioc flour. All other values are statistically equal. (author)

  3. Validation of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb measurements in soil and sediment samples through high resolution gamma ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Danila Carrijo da Silva; Silva, Nivaldo Carlos da; Bonifacio, Rodrigo Leandro; Guerrero, Eder Tadeu Zenun [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas

    2013-07-01

    Radionuclides found in ore extraction waste materials are a great source of concern regarding public health and environmental safety. One technique to determine the concentration of substances is high resolution gamma ray spectrometry using HPGe. Validating a measurement technique is essential to warrant high levels of quality to any scientific work. The Laboratory of Pocos de Caldas of the Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy partakes into a Quality Management System project, seeking Accreditation under ISO/IEC 17025 through the validation of techniques of chemical and radiometric analysis of environmental samples from water, soil and sediment. The focus of the Radon Laboratory at LAPOC is validation of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Pb-210 concentration determinations in soil and sediment through a gamma spectrometer system. The stages of this validation process included sample reception and preparation, detector calibration and sample analyses. Dried samples were sealed in metallic containers and analyzed after radioactive equilibrium between Ra-226 and daughters Pb-214 and Bi-214. Gamma spectrometry was performed using CANBERRA HPGe detector and gamma spectrum software Genie 2000. The photo peaks used for Ra-226 determination were 609 keV and 1020 keV of Bi-214 and 351 keV of Pb-214. For the Ra-228 determination a photopeak of 911 keV was used from its short half-life daughter Ac-228 (T1/2 = 6.12 h). For Pb-210, the photopeak of 46.5 keV was used, which, due to the low energy, self-absorption correction was needed. Parameters such as precision, bias/accuracy, linearity, detection limit and uncertainty were evaluated for that purpose. The results have pointed to satisfying results. (author)

  4. Quantification of transfer of {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs in mosses of a semi-natural ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragovic, S., E-mail: sdragovic@inep.co.r [Institute for the Application of Nuclear Energy - INEP, University of Belgrade, Banatska 31b, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia); Mihailovic, N. [Institute for the Application of Nuclear Energy - INEP, University of Belgrade, Banatska 31b, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia); Gajic, B. [Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Land Management, Laboratory of Soil Physics, University of Belgrade, Nemanjina 6, 11081 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2010-02-15

    There is a lack of appropriate data on transfer of some radionuclides on many terrestrial biota groups. To expand the available data concentration ratios of {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs in mosses are presented in this paper. The relationship between concentration ratios of radionuclides and physicochemical characteristics of the underlying soil was also investigated. The data on concentration ratios obtained here will provide a useful addition to the currently used database of transfer parameters, particularly for natural radionuclides.

  5. Study on the radioactivity and soil-to-plant transfer factor of (226)Ra, (234)U and (238)U radionuclides in irrigated farms from the northwestern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamarneh, Ibrahim F; Alkhomashi, N; Almasoud, Fahad I

    2016-08-01

    The present study addresses the soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFs) of (226)Ra, (234)U and (238)U for 13 types of vegetables and agricultural crops planted under semi-arid environment in the northwestern part of Saudi Arabia. Crop plants along with plant-growing soils were collected from selected farms, which are irrigated from the non-renewable Saq aquifer, and investigated for their radioactivity content by means of alpha spectrometry after applying a radiochemical separation procedure. Hence, TF data for plant roots, green parts (stem and leaves) and fruits were calculated and contrasted to those reported in the literature. Substantial differences were observed in the TFs of Ra and U radioisotopes among plant species. In crop fruits, eggplant exhibited the highest uptake of (226)Ra (TF value of 0.11), while beans (0.16) have the highest TF for (234)U and (238)U. The geometric mean TF values indicated that the crop roots tend to accumulate Ra and U about four to six-folds higher than fruits. The relation between TF values and soil concentrations showed a weak correlation. Activity ratios between radionuclides in crop plants indicated the preferential translocation of U in fruits than Ra even though Ra is more available for root uptake. The fruit/root (F/R) ratios obtained for the investigated plants shown that pepper had the smallest F/R ratios (0.07 ± 0.01, 0.12 ± 0.02 and 0.11 ± 0.02 for (226)Ra, (234)U and (238)U, respectively), while the highest F/R ratios were observed in potatoes (0.71 ± 0.15, 0.44 ± 0.10 and 0.40 ± 0.08 for (226)Ra, (234)U and (238)U, respectively). The TF and F/R ratios data of natural radionuclides in the study region can hopefully improve the scientific knowledge for future studies. PMID:27108351

  6. Histidine-226 is part of the pH sensor of NhaA, a Na+/H+ antiporter in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Gerchman, Y.; Olami, Y; Rimon, A.; Taglicht, D; Schuldiner, S; Padan, E

    1993-01-01

    The nhaA gene of Escherichia coli, which encodes a pH-activated Na+/H+ antiporter, has been modified; six of its eight histidine codons were mutated to arginine codons by site-directed mutagenesis, yielding the mutations H254R-H257R (a double mutant), H226R, H39R, H244R, and H319R. In addition a deletion (delta nhaA1-14) lacking the remaining two histidines, His-3 and His-5, has been constructed. By comparing the phenotypes conferred by plasmids bearing the various mutations to the phenotype ...

  7. Daily intake of /sup 234,235,238/U, /sup 228,230,232/Th and /sup 226,228/Ra by New York City residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The daily intake of long-lived alpha-emitting members of the U, Th and Ac series by New York City residents has been estimated from measurements of diet, water and air samples. The total daily intakes from inhalation, food and water consumption in mBq are 18 (234U), 0.7 (235U), 16 (238U), 6 (230Th), 4 (232Th) and 52 (226Ra). From this, we infer that the total daily intakes of 228Th and 228Ra are 4 and 35 mBq, respectively

  8. Alpha-decay branching ratios to high-lying excited-states of the 242Cm→238pu→ 234U →230Th→226Rn decay chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jin-Juan; XU Chang; REN Zhong-Zhou

    2009-01-01

    We present a systematic calculation on the 0c-decay branching ratios to excited-states of an even-even α-decay chain 242Cm→238pu→234U →230Th→226Rn by the improved barrier penetration approach. The changes of the parities between the parent nuclei and the daughter nuclei are properly taken into account. The theoretical values are compared with the available experimental data and the deviation between them is within a factor of 5 in most cases.

  9. Activity concentrations of Rn-222, Ra-226, Ra-228, U-238 and Cs-137 in water samples of Styria/Austria; Aktivitaetskonzentrationen von Rn-222, Ra-226, Ra-228, U-238 und Cs-137 in Wasserproben aus der Steiermark/Oesterreich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichl, E. [Verein zur Foerderung der Strahlenforschung Oesterreich, Graz (Austria). Strahlenmesstechnik Graz; Rauch, P. [Land Steiermark (Austria). Abt. 15 - Energie, Wohnbau, Technik

    2015-07-01

    Activity concentrations of radon (Rn-222), radium (Ra-226, Ra-228), uranium (U-238), and radiocesium (Cs-137), were determined in 50 water samples from different geogenic regions of Styria/Austria. Samples were collected in the years 2010, 2011 and 2012, by experts of the Styrian government. For measuring activities of U-238 we used a low energy-semiconductor detector, and a high purity-semiconductor detector to analyze the activities of all the other radionuclides. More than 90% of the activity concentrations of Rn-222 in all water samples were lower than 50 Bq/l. All activity concentrations observed for radium and uranium were lower than the detection limits of the corresponding radionuclides (Ra-226: 0,02 Bq/l, Ra-228: 0,03 Bq/l, U-238: 0,06 Bq/l). None of the water samples were contaminated by Cs-137.

  10. Bioavailability of radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb present in the brazilian phosphate fertilizers and phosphogypsum; Avaliacao da biodisponibilidade dos radionuclideos {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra e {sup 210}Pb presentes nos fertilizantes fosfatados e no fosfogesso de procedencia nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Ana Carolina

    2013-08-01

    Phosphogypsum, also called gypsum, by-product of the phosphate fertilizer industry, can be used as soil conditioner since it provides improvements in the soil-plant system. However, this by-product concentrates radionuclides of the U and Th series, present in the phosphate rock used as raw material, which can impact the environment. In order to study the bioavailability of radionuclides, samples of phosphogypsum and phosphate fertilizers (monoammonium phosphate and triple superphosphate) were analyzed. The concentration of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb were determined by gamma spectrometry. The samples were leached with a mild EDTA solution and the radionuclides present in the final solution were determined by total alpha and beta counting on a gas flow proportional counter. The percentage of extraction varied from 1.6% to 1.7% for {sup 210}Pb, from 0.5% to 1.4% for {sup 226}Ra and from 0.1% to 1.0% for the {sup 228}Ra in phosphogypsum samples. The low percentage of extraction obtained for the radionuclides can be partly explained by the low solubility of phosphogypsum, which ranged from 7.7% to 16%. For the monoammonium phosphate samples the percentage of extraction were less than 26% for {sup 226}Ra, less than 10% for '2{sup 28}Ra and less than 10% for {sup 210}Pb. In spite of the high solubility of 77% of monoammonium phosphate in the EDTA solution, low concentrations of radionuclides were observed in the leached solution. For the triple superphosphate samples, the percentage of extraction was 2.3% for {sup 226}Ra, 1.2% for {sup 228}Ra and 11.3% for {sup 210}Pb. In spite of the high solubility of 66% of triple superphosphate in the EDTA solution, low concentrations of radionuclides were observed in the leached solution. (author)

  11. Transfer of {sup 238}U, {sup 230}Th, {sup 226}Ra, and {sup 210}Pb from soils to tree and shrub species in a Mediterranean area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco Rodriguez, P. [Natural Radioactivity Group, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. de Elvas s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Vera Tome, F. [Natural Radioactivity Group, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. de Elvas s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)], E-mail: fvt@unex.es; Lozano, J.C. [Natural Radioactivity Group, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. de Elvas s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Laboratorio de Radiaciones Ionizantes, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Perez Fernandez, M.A. [Natural Radioactivity Group, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. de Elvas s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Area de Ecologia, Universidad Pablo Olavide, Carretera de Utrera km. 1, 41013 Sevilla (Spain)

    2010-06-15

    The soil-to-plant transfer factors of natural uranium isotopes ({sup 238}U and {sup 234}U), {sup 230}Th, {sup 226}Ra, and {sup 210}Pb were studied in a disused uranium mine located in the Extremadura region in the south-west of Spain. The plant samples included trees (Quercus ilex, Quercus suber, and Eucalyptus cameldulensis) and one shrub (Cytisus multiflorus). All of them are characteristic of Mediterranean environments. The activity concentrations in leaves and fruit were determined for the tree species at different stages of growth. For the shrub, the total above-ground fraction was considered in three seasons. For old leaves and fruit, the highest activity concentrations were found in Eucalyptus cameldulensis for all the radionuclides studied, except in the case of {sup 230}Th that presented similar activity concentrations in all of the tree species studied. In every case, the transfer to fruit was less than the transfer to leaves. In the shrub, the results depended on the season of sampling, with the highest value obtained in spring and the lowest in autumn. Important correlations were obtained for {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra between the activity ratio in soils with that in leaves or fruit.

  12. Evaluation of 226Ra, 232Th, 137Cs and 40K “Agaricus Bisporus” Activity in Cultivated Edible Mushroom formed in Tehran Province- Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Changizi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Natural and man made radioactive sources exist in our environment they can enter into our food chains. One of these is the soil-mushroom-human chain. High level doses of natural radiation can cause hazards to humans. Materials and Methods Samples of Agaricus bisporus cultivated edible mushroom in Tehran province- Iran were collected from 7 farms. Specific activity of 226Ra, 228Ra, 137Cs, 40K and 235U of the samples were measured by two HPGe detectors. Results Specific activity of 226Ra, 228Ra, 137Cs and 40K in the edible mushroom samples were equal to 0.06 ± 0.03 - 0.7 ± 0.2 Bq kg-1 dry, 1.4 ± 0.7 Bq kg-1 dry, 0.1 ± 0.03- 0.3 ± 0.1 Bq kg-1dry and 920 ± 400 - 1370 ± 900 Bq kg-1dry , respectively. Conclusion As the measured concentrations of the radionuclides of interest are close or lower than MDA (Minimum Detectable Activity. Consumption of the mushrooms would impose no health consequences to the consumers.

  13. Estimation of dose contribution from 226Ra, 232Th and 40K radon exhalation rates in soil samples from Shivalik foot hills in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, R P; Chauhan, Pooja; Pundir, Anil; Kamboj, Sunil; Bansal, Vakul; Saini, R S

    2014-01-01

    The concentration of radium, thorium and potassium and radon exhalation rates in soil samples collected from Shivalik foot hills in the states of Haryana and Himachal Pradesh (India) were experimentally measured. A high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopic system was used for the measurement of natural radioactivity ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) at Inter-University Accelerator Center, New Delhi, using a coaxial n-type high-purity germanium detector (EG&G, ORTEC, Oak Ridge, USA). The mass exhalation rates (EM) of radon in soil samples from the study area measured by 'sealed canister technique' using LR-115 type II track detectors varied from 50±1 to 143±6 mBqkg(-1) h(-1). The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in various soil samples of the study area varied from 31±1.3 to 63±4.6, 53±1.8 to 78±2.6 and 472±4.8 to 630±7.0 Bq kg(-1) respectively. The results indicated some higher levels of radioactivity in Lal Dhang peak area of the hills compared with other locations under study. PMID:23893776

  14. Bioaccumulation of the artificial Cs-137 and the natural radionuclides Th-234, Ra-226, and K-40 in the fruit bodies of Basidiomycetes in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kioupi, Vasiliki; Florou, Heleny; Kapsanaki-Gotsi, Evangelia; Gonou-Zagou, Zacharoula

    2016-01-01

    The bioaccumulation of artificial Cs-137 and natural radionuclides Th-234, Ra-226, and K-40 by Basidiomycetes of several species is studied and evaluated in relation to their substratum soils. For this reason, 32 fungal samples, representing 30 species of Basidiomycetes, were collected along with their substratum soil samples, from six selected sampling areas in Greece. The fungal fruit bodies and the soil samples were properly treated and the activity concentrations of the studied radionuclides were measured by gamma spectroscopy. The measured radioactivity levels ranged as follows: Cs-137 from Ra-226 from <0.3 to 1.0 ± 0.5 Bq kg(-1) F.W., and K-40 from 56.4 ± 3.0 to 759.0 ± 28.3 Bq kg(-1) F.W. The analysis of the results supported that the bioaccumulation of the studied natural radionuclides and Cs-137 is dependent on the species and the functional group of the fungi. Fungi were found to accumulate Th-234 and not U-238. What is more, potential bioindicators for each radionuclide among the 32 species studied could be suggested for each habitat, based on their estimated concentration ratios (CRs). The calculation of the CRs' mean values for each radionuclide revealed a rank in decreasing order for all the species studied.

  15. 运河水系底质泥中~(226)Ra、~(232)Th、~(40)K 和~(137)Cs 含量的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程祺钧; 虎银秀; 巫柱中; 刘瑞源; 朱福敏

    1989-01-01

    通过对河水、底质泥、悬浮物以及生物样品中放射性核素含量的分析测量,可以了解水系放射性的主要来源以及放射性物质在环境介质中的迁移规律。1984年我们在长江水系放射性水平调查中,分别于1月份(枯水期)和7、8月份(丰水期)对运河水系8个站位的底质泥取样分析,用 Ge(Li)γ谱仪测定了底质泥中~(226)Ra (~(238)U)、~(232)Th、~(40)K 和~(137)Cs 含量,其中~(238)U 含量是按~(238)U-~(226)Ra 达放射性平衡推算的。

  16. High sensitivity measurement of 224Ra and 226Ra in water with an improved hydrous titanium oxide technique at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Aharmim, B; Dai, X; Doucas, G; Farine, J; Fergani, H; Ford, R; Hahn, R L; Hallman, E D; Jelley, N A; Lange, R; Majerus, S; Mifflin, C; Noble, A J; O'Keeffe, H M; Rodriguez-Jimenez, R; Sinclair, D; Yeh, M

    2008-01-01

    The existing hydrous titanium oxide (HTiO) technique for the measurement of 224Ra and 226Ra in the water at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) has been changed to make it faster and less sensitive to trace impurities in the HTiO eluate. Using HTiO-loaded filters followed by cation exchange adsorption and HTiO co-precipitation, Ra isotopes from 200-450 tonnes of heavy water can be extracted and concentrated into a single sample of a few millilitres with a total chemical efficiency of 50%. Combined with beta-alpha coincidence counting, this method is capable of measuring 2.0x10^3 uBq/kg of 224Ra and 3.7x10^3 uBq/kg of 226Ra from the 232Th and 238U decay chains, respectively, for a 275 tonne D2O assay, which are equivalent to 5x10^16 g Th/g and 3x10^16 g U/g in heavy water.

  17. 226Ra and 228Ra tracer study on material transport in the east coast of Hainan Island, China: a case of nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni SU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Material fluxes (e.g. nutrients from coast to offshore play an important role in controlling the water quality in the concerned adjacent sea not only by the increase of nutrient concentration but by the change of nutrient structure. In the present work, naturally occurring isotopes (226Ra and 228Ra had been measured by alpha spectrometry in Wenjiao/Wenchang and Wanquan river estuaries and adjacent sea water of the east coast of Hainan Island. The excess dissolved 226Ra and 228Ra activities were observed in comparison with the values expected from the conservative mixing of freshwater and seawater end-members in both estuaries. Using 1-Dimensional Diffusion model, the estimated horizontal eddy diffusion coefficients (Kh derived from 228Ra activities away from its sources was 3.16?105 cm2 s-1. Furthermore, the corresponding nutrient fluxes into the coastal area were assessed. The results can provide useful information for the processes of mixing and exchange of coastal water as well as the transportation of dissoluble pollutants in this sea area.

  18. Retention of aqueous 226Ra fluxes from a sub-aqueous mill tailings disposal at the Bois Noirs site (Loire, France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study focuses on a sub-aqueous mill tailings disposal site located in France (Bois Noirs) where 1.3 million tons of uranium mill sludge (fine tailings fraction < 50 μm) have been disposed since the 60's in a man-made pond below 4 meters of water maintained artificially by a rock-fill dam. A significant attenuation of aqueous 226Ra activity is observed in ground waters. This paper presents the preliminary modeling work performed for evaluating the role of water-rock interactions on aqueous 226Ra attenuation through the dam. This modeling attempt, assuming thermodynamic equilibrium, aims at checking the hydrochemical conceptual model developed in a previous study, in which Ra retention through the dam was assumed to most likely result from sorption onto metallic oxide-hydroxides. A 2D coupled reactive transport model was conceived to test this hypothesis over time and identify the measurements required to verify its consistency over the long term. (authors)

  19. Retention of aqueous {sup 226}Ra fluxes from a sub-aqueous mill tailings disposal at the Bois Noirs site (Loire, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courbet, Christelle; Simonucci, Caroline; Dauzeres, Alexandre; Matray, Jean-Michel [French Institute for Radiation protection and Nuclear Safety - IRSN, Radiation Protection Division - PRP, Nuclear Waste and Geosphere Department - DGE, SRTG/LETIS, B.P. 17, 92262 Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France); Bassot, Sylvain [French Institute for Radiation protection and Nuclear Safety - IRSN, Radiation Protection Division - PRP, Nuclear Waste and Geosphere Department - DGE, SRTG/LAME, B.P. 17, 92262 Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France); Mangeret, Arnaud [French Institute for Radiation protection and Nuclear Safety - IRSN, Radiation Protection Division - PRP, Nuclear Waste and Geosphere Department - DGE, SEDRAN/BRN, B.P. 17, 92262 Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France)

    2013-07-01

    This study focuses on a sub-aqueous mill tailings disposal site located in France (Bois Noirs) where 1.3 million tons of uranium mill sludge (fine tailings fraction < 50 μm) have been disposed since the 60's in a man-made pond below 4 meters of water maintained artificially by a rock-fill dam. A significant attenuation of aqueous {sup 226}Ra activity is observed in ground waters. This paper presents the preliminary modeling work performed for evaluating the role of water-rock interactions on aqueous {sup 226}Ra attenuation through the dam. This modeling attempt, assuming thermodynamic equilibrium, aims at checking the hydrochemical conceptual model developed in a previous study, in which Ra retention through the dam was assumed to most likely result from sorption onto metallic oxide-hydroxides. A 2D coupled reactive transport model was conceived to test this hypothesis over time and identify the measurements required to verify its consistency over the long term. (authors)

  20. Distribution of Natural (U-238, Th-232, Ra-226) and Technogenic (Sr-90, Cs-137) Radionuclides in Soil-Plants Complex Near Issyk-Kul Lake, Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, L.; Kaldybaev, B.; Djenbaev, B.; Tilenbaev, A.

    2012-04-01

    Researches on radionuclides distribution in the soil-plants complex provide essential information in understanding human exposure to natural and technogenic sources of radiation. It is necessary in establishing regulation relating to radiation protection. The aim of this study was the radiochemical analysis of the content natural radionuclides 238U, 232Th,226Ra and technogenic radionuclides content (90Sr, 137Cs) in soils near Issyk-Kul lake (Kyrgyzstan). Results of radiochemical analyses have shown, that the concentrations of thorium-232 are fluctuating in the limits (11.7-84.1)-10-4% in the soils. The greatest concentration of thorium-232 has been found in the light chestnut soils. The content of uranium-238 in the soils near Issyk-Kul lake is fluctuating from 2.8 up to 12.7-10-4%. Radium-226 has more migration ability in comparison with other heavy natural radionuclides. According to our research the concentrations of radium-226 are fluctuating in the limits (9.4-43.0)-10-11%. The greatest concentration of radium-226 (43,0±2,8)-10-11% has been determined in the light chestnut soil. In connection with global migration of contaminating substances, including radioactive, the special attention is given long-lived radionuclides strontium-90 and caesium-137 in food-chains, and agroecosystems. Results of radiochemical analyses have shown, that specific activity of strontium-90 is fluctuating in the range of 2.9 up to 11.1 Bq/kg, and caesium-137 from 3.7 up to 14,3 Bq/kg in the soil of agroecosystems in the region of Issyk-Kul. In soil samples down to 1 meter we have observed vertical migration of these radionuclides, they were found to accumulate on the surface of soil horizon (0-5 cm) and their specific activity sharply decreases with depth. In addition in high-mountain pastures characterized by horizontal migration of cattle in profiles of soil, it was discovered that specific activity of radionuclides are lower on the slope than at the foot of the mountain. The