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Sample records for actinium 220

  1. Discovery of the actinium, thorium, protactinium, and uranium isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, C

    2012-01-01

    Currently, 31 actinium, 31 thorium, 28 protactinium, and 23 uranium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  2. Spectroscopic and computational investigation of actinium coordination chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrier, Maryline G.; Batista, Enrique R.; Berg, John M.; Birnbaum, Eva R.; Cross, Justin N.; Engle, Jonathan W.; La Pierre, Henry S.; Kozimor, Stosh A.; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S.; Stein, Benjamin W.; Stieber, S. Chantal E.; Wilson, Justin J.

    2016-01-01

    Actinium-225 is a promising isotope for targeted-α therapy. Unfortunately, progress in developing chelators for medicinal applications has been hindered by a limited understanding of actinium chemistry. This knowledge gap is primarily associated with handling actinium, as it is highly radioactive and in short supply. Hence, AcIII reactivity is often inferred from the lanthanides and minor actinides (that is, Am, Cm), with limited success. Here we overcome these challenges and characterize actinium in HCl solutions using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and molecular dynamics density functional theory. The Ac–Cl and Ac–OH2O distances are measured to be 2.95(3) and 2.59(3) Å, respectively. The X-ray absorption spectroscopy comparisons between AcIII and AmIII in HCl solutions indicate AcIII coordinates more inner-sphere Cl1– ligands (3.2±1.1) than AmIII (0.8±0.3). These results imply diverse reactivity for the +3 actinides and highlight the unexpected and unique AcIII chemical behaviour. PMID:27531582

  3. Spectroscopic and computational investigation of actinium coordination chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrier, Maryline G.; Batista, Enrique R.; Berg, John M.; Birnbaum, Eva R.; Cross, Justin N.; Engle, Jonathan W.; La Pierre, Henry S.; Kozimor, Stosh A.; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S.; Stein, Benjamin W.; Stieber, S. Chantal E.; Wilson, Justin J.

    2016-08-01

    Actinium-225 is a promising isotope for targeted-α therapy. Unfortunately, progress in developing chelators for medicinal applications has been hindered by a limited understanding of actinium chemistry. This knowledge gap is primarily associated with handling actinium, as it is highly radioactive and in short supply. Hence, AcIII reactivity is often inferred from the lanthanides and minor actinides (that is, Am, Cm), with limited success. Here we overcome these challenges and characterize actinium in HCl solutions using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and molecular dynamics density functional theory. The Ac-Cl and Ac-OH2O distances are measured to be 2.95(3) and 2.59(3) Å, respectively. The X-ray absorption spectroscopy comparisons between AcIII and AmIII in HCl solutions indicate AcIII coordinates more inner-sphere Cl1- ligands (3.2+/-1.1) than AmIII (0.8+/-0.3). These results imply diverse reactivity for the +3 actinides and highlight the unexpected and unique AcIII chemical behaviour.

  4. Production of high-purity radium-223 from legacy actinium-beryllium neutron sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderquist, Chuck Z; McNamara, Bruce K; Fisher, Darrell R

    2012-07-01

    Radium-223 is a short-lived alpha-particle-emitting radionuclide with potential applications in cancer treatment. Research to develop new radiopharmaceuticals employing (223)Ra has been hindered by poor availability due to the small quantities of parent actinium-227 available world-wide. The purpose of this study was to develop innovative and cost-effective methods to obtain high-purity (223)Ra from (227)Ac. We obtained (227)Ac from two surplus actinium-beryllium neutron generators. We retrieved the actinium/beryllium buttons from the sources and dissolved them in a sulfuric-nitric acid solution. A crude actinium solid was recovered from the solution by coprecipitation with thorium fluoride, leaving beryllium in solution. The crude actinium was purified to provide about 40 milligrams of actinium nitrate using anion exchange in methanol-water-nitric acid solution. The purified actinium was then used to generate high-purity (223)Ra. We extracted (223)Ra using anion exchange in a methanol-water-nitric acid solution. After the radium was separated, actinium and thorium were then eluted from the column and dried for interim storage. This single-pass separation produces high purity, carrier-free (223)Ra product, and does not disturb the (227)Ac/(227)Th equilibrium. A high purity, carrier-free (227)Th was also obtained from the actinium using a similar anion exchange in nitric acid. These methods enable efficient production of (223)Ra for research and new alpha-emitter radiopharmaceutical development.

  5. ACC 220 Tutorials / acc220dotcom

    OpenAIRE

    modumteja

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.acc220.com   ACC 220 Week 1 Checkpoint Career Opportunities ACC 220 Week 1 DQ 1 & DQ 2 ACC 220 Week 2 Checkpoint Proprietorships, Partnerships, and Corporations ACC 220 Week 2 Assignment Financial Statements ACC 220 Week 3 Checkpoint Classified Balance Sheets ACC 220 Week 3 DQ 1 and DQ 2 ACC 220 Week 4 Checkpoint Cash Management Matrix Appendix B ACC 220 Week 4 Assignment Internal Cash Control ACC 220 Wee...

  6. BIS 220 Tutorials /bis220dotcom

    OpenAIRE

    ramya85

    2015-01-01

    BIS 220 Entire Course   For more course tutorials visit www.bis220.com   BIS 220 Week 1 Individual Assignment Information Technology Acts Paper BIS 220 Week 1 DQ 1 BIS 220 Week 1 DQ 2 BIS 220 Week 2 LT Reflection Summary BIS 220 Week 2 Individual Assignment Information Systems Proposal BIS 220 Week 2 DQ 1 BIS 220 Week 2 DQ 2 BIS 220 Week 3 Individual Assignment Types of Electronic Commerce Activity BIS 220 Week 3 LT Reflection Summ...

  7. BIS 220 Tutorials / bis220dotcom

    OpenAIRE

    rajitha82

    2015-01-01

    BIS 220 Entire Course   For more course tutorials visit www.bis220.com   BIS 220 Week 1 Individual Assignment Information Technology Acts Paper BIS 220 Week 1 DQ 1 BIS 220 Week 1 DQ 2 BIS 220 Week 2 LT Reflection Summary BIS 220 Week 2 Individual Assignment Information Systems Proposal BIS 220 Week 2 DQ 1 BIS 220 Week 2 DQ 2 BIS 220 Week 3 Individual Assignment Types of Electronic Commerce Activity BIS 220 Week 3 LT Reflection Summ...

  8. CJS 220 Tutorials / cjs220dotcom

    OpenAIRE

    sunshine38

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.cjs220.com   CJS 220 Week 1 DQ 1 and DQ 2 CJS 220 Week 2 Checkpoint Structure of the Courts CJS 220 Week 2 Individual Law Opinion Paper CJS 220 Week 3 Checkpoint Due Process CJS 220 Week 3 Checkpoint Legal Defenses CJS 220 Week 3 DQ 1 and DQ 2 CJS 220 Week 4 Checkpoint Attorney Client Confidentiality   CJS 220 Week 4 Individual Assignment Prosecution Versus Defense Paper CJS 220 Week 5 Checkpoint Path to...

  9. Relativistic small-core pseudopotentials for actinium, thorium, and protactinium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, Anna; Cao, Xiaoyan; Hangele, Tim; Dolg, Michael

    2014-04-03

    Small-core pseudopotentials for actinium, thorium, and protactinium have been energy-adjusted to multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock reference data based on the Dirac-Coulomb-Breit Hamiltonian and the Fermi nucleus model. Corresponding optimized valence basis sets of polarized valence quadruple-ζ quality are presented. Atomic test calculations for the first four ionization potentials show satisfactory results at both the Hartree-Fock and the multireference averaged coupled-pair functional level. Highly correlated Fock-space coupled cluster calculations demonstrate that the new pseudopotentials yield ionization potentials, which are in excellent agreement with corresponding all-electron results and experimental data. The pseudopotentials and basis sets supplement a similar set previously published for uranium.

  10. GLG 220 Uop Material-glg220dotcom

    OpenAIRE

    CarterOlivia4

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.glg220.com   GLG 220 Week 1 DQ 1 GLG 220 Week 1 DQ 2 GLG 220 Week 1 Summary Questions GLG 220 Week 1 Mineral Identification Worksheet GLG 220 Week 2 DQ 1 GLG 220 Week 2 DQ 2 GLG 220 Week 2 Plate Tectonics Paper GLG 220 Week 2 Lab Earthquake Report GLG 220 Week 3 DQ 1 GLG 220 Week 3 DQ 2 GLG 220 Week 3 Groundwater Lab Report GLG 220 Week 3 Sculpturing the Earth’s Surface GLG 220 Week 4 Oc...

  11. Production of Actinium-225 via High Energy Proton Induced Spallation of Thorium-232

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, James T.; Nolen, Jerry; Vandergrift, George; Gomes, Itacil; Kroc, Tom; Horwitz, Phil; McAlister, Dan; Bowers, Del; Sullivan, Vivian; Greene, John

    2011-12-30

    The science of cancer research is currently expanding its use of alpha particle emitting radioisotopes. Coupled with the discovery and proliferation of molecular species that seek out and attach to tumors, new therapy and diagnostics are being developed to enhance the treatment of cancer and other diseases. This latest technology is commonly referred to as Alpha Immunotherapy (AIT). Actinium-225/Bismuth-213 is a parent/daughter alpha-emitting radioisotope pair that is highly sought after because of the potential for treating numerous diseases and its ability to be chemically compatible with many known and widely used carrier molecules (such as monoclonal antibodies and proteins/peptides). Unfortunately, the worldwide supply of actinium-225 is limited to about 1,000mCi annually and most of that is currently spoken for, thus limiting the ability of this radioisotope pair to enter into research and subsequently clinical trials. The route proposed herein utilizes high energy protons to produce actinium-225 via spallation of a thorium-232 target. As part of previous R and D efforts carried out at Argonne National Laboratory recently in support of the proposed US FRIB facility, it was shown that a very effective production mechanism for actinium-225 is spallation of thorium-232 by high energy proton beams. The base-line simulation for the production rate of actinium-225 by this reaction mechanism is 8E12 atoms per second at 200 MeV proton beam energy with 50 g/cm2 thorium target and 100 kW beam power. An irradiation of one actinium-225 half-life (10 days) produces {approx}100 Ci of actinium-225. For a given beam current the reaction cross section increases slightly with energy to about 400 MeV and then decreases slightly for beam energies in the several GeV regime. The object of this effort is to refine the simulations at proton beam energies of 400 MeV and above up to about 8 GeV. Once completed, the simulations will be experimentally verified using 400 MeV and 8 Ge

  12. BIS 220 Uop Material-bis220dotcom

    OpenAIRE

    greenappled

    2015-01-01

    BIS 220 Entire Course For more course tutorials visit www.bis220.com BIS 220 Week 1 Individual Assignment Information Technology Acts Paper BIS 220 Week 1 DQ 1 BIS 220 Week 1 DQ 2 BIS 220 Week 2 LT Reflection Summary BIS 220 Week 2 Individual Assignment Information Systems Proposal BIS 220 Week 2 DQ 1 BIS 220 Week 2 DQ 2 BIS 220 Week 3 Individual Assignment Types of Electronic Commerce Activity BIS 220 Week 3 LT Reflection Summary BIS 220 Week 3...

  13. HSM220 phoenix Material-hsm220dotcom

    OpenAIRE

    sandy

    2015-01-01

    HSM 220 Entire Course For more course tutorials visit www.hsm220.com   HSM 220 Week 1 CheckPoint Characteristics of a Knowledge and Value-Centered HSM 220 Week 1 Discussion Question 1 and 2 HSM 220 Week 2 CheckPoint Environmental Factors HSM 220 Week 2 Assignment Mission Statement Internet Search HSM 220 Week 3 Discussion Question 1 and 2 HSM 220 Week 3 CheckPoint Management Structures HSM 220 Week 4 Assignment Designing a Reward System HSM 220...

  14. Analysis of the gamma spectra of the uranium, actinium, and thorium decay series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momeni, M.H.

    1981-09-01

    This report describes the identification of radionuclides in the uranium, actinium, and thorium series by analysis of gamma spectra in the energy range of 40 to 1400 keV. Energies and absolute efficiencies for each gamma line were measured by means of a high-resolution germanium detector and compared with those in the literature. A gamma spectroscopy method, which utilizes an on-line computer for deconvolution of spectra, search and identification of each line, and estimation of activity for each radionuclide, was used to analyze soil and uranium tailings, and ore.

  15. 220 林学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    04020983 220·10林业基础学科中国林业政策对减排温室气体的贡献=The Contribution of China's Forestry Policy to Offset Green House Gas Emission,04020984 220·10沙棘一杨树混交林生物量、林地土壤特性及其根系分布特征研究=Biomass,soil and root system distribution characteristics of Seabuckthorn Poplar mixed forest,……

  16. Application of ion exchange and extraction chromatography to the separation of actinium from proton-irradiated thorium metal for analytical purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchenko, V; Engle, J W; Wilson, J J; Maassen, J R; Nortier, F M; Taylor, W A; Birnbaum, E R; Hudston, L A; John, K D; Fassbender, M E

    2015-02-06

    Actinium-225 (t1/2=9.92d) is an α-emitting radionuclide with nuclear properties well-suited for use in targeted alpha therapy (TAT), a powerful treatment method for malignant tumors. Actinium-225 can also be utilized as a generator for (213)Bi (t1/2 45.6 min), which is another valuable candidate for TAT. Actinium-225 can be produced via proton irradiation of thorium metal; however, long-lived (227)Ac (t1/2=21.8a, 99% β(-), 1% α) is co-produced during this process and will impact the quality of the final product. Thus, accurate assays are needed to determine the (225)Ac/(227)Ac ratio, which is dependent on beam energy, irradiation time and target design. Accurate actinium assays, in turn, require efficient separation of actinium isotopes from both the Th matrix and highly radioactive activation by-products, especially radiolanthanides formed from proton-induced fission. In this study, we introduce a novel, selective chromatographic technique for the recovery and purification of actinium isotopes from irradiated Th matrices. A two-step sequence of cation exchange and extraction chromatography was implemented. Radiolanthanides were quantitatively removed from Ac, and no non-Ac radionuclidic impurities were detected in the final Ac fraction. An (225)Ac spike added prior to separation was recovered at ≥ 98%, and Ac decontamination from Th was found to be ≥ 10(6). The purified actinium fraction allowed for highly accurate (227)Ac determination at analytical scales, i.e., at (227)Ac activities of 1-100 kBq (27 nCi to 2.7 μCi).

  17. Thorium and actinium polyphosphonate compounds as bone-seeking alpha particle-emitting agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Gjermund; Bruland, Oyvind S; Larsen, Roy H

    2004-01-01

    The present study explores the use of alpha-particle-emitting, bone-seeking agents as candidates for targeted radiotherapy. Actinium and thorium 1,4,7,10 tetraazacyclododecane N,N',N'',N''' 1,4,7,10-tetra(methylene) phosphonic acid (DOTMP) and thorium-diethylene triamine N,N',N'' penta(methylene) phosphonic acid (DTMP) were prepared and their biodistribution evaluated in conventional Balb/C mice at four hours after injection. All three bone-seeking agents showed a high uptake in bone and a low uptake in soft tissues. Among the soft tissue organs, only kidney had a relatively high uptake. The femur/kidney ratios for 227Th-DTMP, 228-Ac-DOTMP and 227Th-DOTMP were 14.2, 7.6 and 6.0, respectively. A higher liver uptake of 228Ac-DOTMP was seen than for 227Th-DTMP and 227Th-DOTMP. This suggests that some demetallation of the 228Ac-DOTMP complex had occurred. The results indicate that 225Ac-DOTMP, 227Th-DOTMP and 227Th-DTMP have promising properties as potential therapeutic bone-seeking agents.

  18. Developments towards in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy studies of actinium isotopes at LISOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeder, S., E-mail: s.raeder@gsi.de [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, 55128 Mainz (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Bastin, B. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, B.P. 55027, 14076 Caen (France); Block, M. [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, 55128 Mainz (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Institut für Kernchemie, Johannes Gutenberg Universität, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Creemers, P. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Delahaye, P. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, B.P. 55027, 14076 Caen (France); Ferrer, R. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Fléchard, X. [LPC Caen, ENSICAEN, Université de Caen, CNRS/IN2P3, Caen (France); Franchoo, S. [Institute de Physique Nucléaire (IPN) d’Orsay, 91406 Orsay, Cedex (France); Ghys, L. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); SCK-CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Center, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Gaffney, L.P.; Granados, C. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Heinke, R. [Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg Universität, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Hijazi, L. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, B.P. 55027, 14076 Caen (France); and others

    2016-06-01

    To study exotic nuclides at the borders of stability with laser ionization and spectroscopy techniques, highest efficiencies in combination with a high spectral resolution are required. These usually opposing requirements are reconciled by applying the in-gas-laser ionization and spectroscopy (IGLIS) technique in the supersonic gas jet produced by a de Laval nozzle installed at the exit of the stopping gas cell. Carrying out laser ionization in the low-temperature and low density supersonic gas jet eliminates pressure broadening, which will significantly improve the spectral resolution. This article presents the required modifications at the Leuven Isotope Separator On-Line (LISOL) facility that are needed for the first on-line studies of in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy. Different geometries for the gas outlet and extraction ion guides have been tested for their performance regarding the acceptance of laser ionized species as well as for their differential pumping capacities. The specifications and performance of the temporarily installed high repetition rate laser system, including a narrow bandwidth injection-locked Ti:sapphire laser, are discussed and first preliminary results on neutron-deficient actinium isotopes are presented indicating the high capability of this novel technique.

  19. 24 CFR 891.220 - Prohibited facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibited facilities. 891.220 Section 891.220 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... Housing for the Elderly § 891.220 Prohibited facilities. Projects may not include facilities...

  20. 21 CFR 189.220 - Flectol H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Flectol H. 189.220 Section 189.220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Addition to Human Food Through Food-Contact Surfaces § 189.220 Flectol H. (a) Flectol H is the chemical...

  1. 49 CFR 220.7 - Penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., or has caused death or injury, a penalty not to exceed $100,000 per violation may be assessed; and... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Penalty. 220.7 Section 220.7 Transportation Other... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS General § 220.7 Penalty. Any person (including but not limited to...

  2. 49 CFR 179.220-10 - Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding. 179.220-10 Section 179.220-10... Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.220-10 Welding. (a) All joints... of this subchapter). Welding procedures, welders, and fabricators shall be approved. (b)...

  3. 7 CFR 220.3 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 220.3 Section 220.3 Agriculture... CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SCHOOL BREAKFAST PROGRAM § 220.3 Administration. (a) Within the Department, FNS shall act on behalf of the Department in the administration of the Program covered by this part....

  4. 38 CFR 52.220 - Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transportation. 52.220... FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 52.220 Transportation. Transportation... management must provide or contract for transportation to enable participants, including persons...

  5. 30 CFR 220.032 - Inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inventories. 220.032 Section 220.032 Mineral... Inventories. (a) The lessee is responsible for NPSL materiel and shall make proper and timely cost and credit... operations. The accumulation of surplus stocks shall be avoided by proper materiel control, inventory...

  6. 24 CFR 220.253 - Substitute mortgagors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Contract Rights and Obligations-Homes § 220.253 Substitute mortgagors. (a) Selling mortgagor. The mortgagee... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitute mortgagors. 220.253... the Commissioner's approval of a substitute mortgagor, as provided by this section. (b)...

  7. 40 CFR 94.220 - Service accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Service accumulation. 94.220 Section 94.220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... than recommended lubrication and filter changes or maintenance otherwise allowed by this part, may...

  8. 24 CFR 91.220 - Action plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Action plan. 91.220 Section 91.220 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development..., evaluate and reduce lead-based paint hazards, reduce the number of poverty-level families,...

  9. 40 CFR 86.220-94 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 86.220-94 Section 86.220-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF... Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty...

  10. Dicty_cDB: SSH220 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSH220 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16394-1 SSH220E (Link... to Original site) - - - - - - SSH220E 277 Show SSH220 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSH220 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SS/SSH2-A/SSH220Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SSH22...0E (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SSH220 (SSH220Q) /CSM/SS/SSH2-A/SSH220Q.Seq.d/ ATTTA...Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value SSH220 (SSH220Q) /CSM/SS/SSH2-A/SSH

  11. Dicty_cDB: AFM220 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AF (Link to library) AFM220 (Link to dictyBase) - - - - AFM220P (Link to Original site) AFM220F 634 AFM...220Z 697 AFM220P 1311 - - Show AFM220 Library AF (Link to library) Clone ID AFM220 (Link... to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig - Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/AF/AFM...2-A/AFM220Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID AFM220P (Link to... Original site) Representative DNA sequence >AFM220 (AFM220Q) /CSM/AF/AFM2-A/AFM220Q.Seq.d/ ATTATTTTTTATTTTA

  12. Dicty_cDB: SHF220 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SH (Link to library) SHF220 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16433-1 - (Link to Original site) - - SHF...220Z 547 - - - - Show SHF220 Library SH (Link to library) Clone ID SHF220 (Link to dicty...iol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SH/SHF2-A/SHF220Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID - (Link to ...Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SHF220 (SHF220Q) /CSM/SH/SHF2-A/SHF220Q.Seq.d/ XXXXXXXXXXAAAAGAA...klkpmvvinlkslslvqlkiixxf s Frame C: ---rsr*lcyqshfrw*qrqwfpkdcyr*tspir*tllc*r*rfsqsi**cps*ihyfrr *h*rccsyrww

  13. 12 CFR 303.220 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the FDI Act (Consent to Service of Persons Convicted of Certain Criminal Offenses) § 303.220 Scope. This subpart covers applications under section 19 of the FDI Act (12 U.S.C. 1829). Pursuant to...

  14. 46 CFR 401.220 - Registration of pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... affecting § 401.220, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Registration of pilots. 401.220 Section 401.220 Shipping... Registration of Pilots § 401.220 Registration of pilots. (a) The Director shall determine the number of...

  15. 7 CFR 58.220 - Drying systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....220 Drying systems. (a) Spray dryers. Spray dryers shall be of a continuous discharge type and all... Milk Products Spray Drying Systems. The filtering system shall be cleaned or component parts replaced... shall comply with the requirements of the 3-A Accepted Practices for Milk and Milk Products Spray...

  16. Reference: 220 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 220 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u4ria224u15923325i Ramonell Katrina...-36 15923325 2005 Jun Plant physiology Berrocal-Lobo Marta|Edwards Herb|Koh Serry|Ramonell Katrina|Somerville Shauna|Stacey Gary|Wan Jinrong

  17. Etiological and clinical analysis on 220 children with cerebrovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-hong TANG

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Etiological and clinical analyses of 220 children with cerebrovascular diseases were retrospectively analyzed. One hundred and forty-nine cases (67.73% were male, and 71 cases (32.27% were female. There were 186 cases (84.55% of patients to be found with clear causes, most of which were arteriovenous malformation (80/220, 36.36%, traumatic brain injury (38/220, 17.27%, intracranial infection (15/220, 6.82% , intracranial aneurysm (13/220, 5.91% , delayed vitamin K deficiency (12/220, 5.45% , congenital heart disease (9/220, 4.09% and cavernous malformation (7/220, 3.18%. The etiological and clinical features of children cerebrovascular diseases are distinct, and timely diagnosis and treatment will help to improve patients' prognosis. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.03.017

  18. 42 CFR 403.220 - Supplemental Health Insurance Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplemental Health Insurance Panel. 403.220 Section 403.220 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Programs § 403.220 Supplemental Health Insurance Panel. (a) Membership. The Supplemental Health...

  19. 41 CFR 101-29.220 - Market research and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PRODUCT DESCRIPTIONS 29.2-Definitions § 101-29.220 Market research and analysis. Market research and... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Market research and analysis. 101-29.220 Section 101-29.220 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...

  20. 20 CFR 220.36 - Period of disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Period of disability. 220.36 Section 220.36... DISABILITY Disability Determinations Governed by the Regulations of the Social Security Administration § 220.36 Period of disability. (a) General. In order to receive an annuity based upon a disability,...

  1. 7 CFR 65.220 - Processed food item.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processed food item. 65.220 Section 65.220 Agriculture..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.220 Processed food item. Processed food item... other covered commodity or other substantive food component (e.g., chocolate, breading, tomato...

  2. 42 CFR 93.220 - Public Health Service or PHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Definitions § 93.220 Public Health Service or PHS. Public Health Service or PHS means... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public Health Service or PHS. 93.220 Section 93.220 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS...

  3. 49 CFR 220.35 - Ending a radio transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ending a radio transmission. 220.35 Section 220.35 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.35 Ending a radio transmission....

  4. 49 CFR 179.220-9 - Compartment tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartment tanks. 179.220-9 Section 179.220-9... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.220-9 Compartment tanks....

  5. 49 CFR 179.220-14 - Openings in the tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Openings in the tanks. 179.220-14 Section 179.220... TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.220-14 Openings in the tanks. Openings in the inner container and the outer shell must be reinforced in...

  6. 49 CFR 179.220-23 - Test of tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Test of tanks. 179.220-23 Section 179.220-23... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.220-23 Test of tanks. (a)...

  7. The Arp 220 merger on kpc scales

    CERN Document Server

    König, S; Eckart, A; Downes, D; Scharwächter, J

    2012-01-01

    For the first time we study the Eastern nucleus in greater detail and search for the more extended emission in the molecular gas in different CO line transitions of the famous ULIRG Arp 220. Furthermore we present a model of the merger in Arp 220 on large scales with the help of the CO data and an optical and near-infrared composite HST image of the prototypical ULIRG. Using the Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI) we obtained CO(2-1) and (1-0) data at wavelengths of 1 and 3 mm in 1994, 1996, 1997 and 2006 at different beam sizes and spatial resolutions. The simulations of the merger in Arp 220 were performed with the Identikit modeling tool. The model parameters that describe the galaxy merger best give a mass ratio of 1:2 and result in a merger of ~6x10^8 yrs. The low resolution CO(1-0) PdBI observations suggest that there are indications for emission ~10" towards the south, as well as to the north and to the west of the two nuclei.

  8. THE Arp 220 MERGER ON kpc SCALES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, S. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Garcia-Marin, M.; Eckart, A. [I. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Strasse 77, D-50937 Koeln (Germany); Downes, D. [Institut de Radioastronomie Millimetrique, Domaine Universitaire, F-38406 St. Martin d' Heres (France); Scharwaechter, J., E-mail: skoenig@dark-cosmology.dk [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2012-07-20

    For the first time, we study the eastern nucleus in greater detail and search for the more extended emission in the molecular gas in different CO line transitions of the famous ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) Arp 220. Furthermore, we present a model of the merger in Arp 220 on large scales with the help of the CO data and an optical and near-infrared composite Hubble Space Telescope image of the prototypical ULIRG. Using the Plateau de Bure interferometer (PdBI), we obtained CO (2-1) and (1-0) data at wavelengths of 1 and 3 mm in 1994, 1996, 1997, and 2006 at different beam sizes and spatial resolutions. The simulations of the merger in Arp 220 were performed with the Identikit modeling tool. The model parameters that describe the galaxy merger best give a mass ratio of 1:2 and result in a merger of {approx}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} yr. The low-resolution CO (1-0) PdBI observations suggest that there are indications for emission {approx}10'' toward the south, as well as to the north and to the west of the two nuclei.

  9. CompTIA A+ complete study guide exams 220-801 and 220-802

    CERN Document Server

    Docter, Quentin; Skandier, Toby

    2012-01-01

    CompTIA Authorized, fully updated Study Guide for the leading IT certification: CompTIA A+ CompTIA A+ is the de facto certification for IT technicians. Some vendors even require employees to achieve certification as part of their job training. This book prepares you for both required exams: 220-801 and 220-802. Totally updated to cover the 2012 exams, this popular prep guide covers all the exam objectives. Readers will also have access to additional study tools, including the Sybex Test Engine with bonus practice exams, electronic flashcards, and a glossary of important terms in searchable PD

  10. 49 CFR 179.220-16 - Expansion capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Expansion capacity. 179.220-16 Section 179.220-16... Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.220-16 Expansion capacity. Expansion capacity must be provided in the shell of the inner container as prescribed in § 179.221-1....

  11. An upper limit to polarized submillimetre emission in Arp 220

    CERN Document Server

    Seiffert, M; Scott, D; Halpern, M; Seiffert, Michael; Borys, Colin; Scott, Douglas; Halpern, Mark

    2006-01-01

    We report the results of pointed observations of the prototypical ultra-luminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) Arp 220 at 850 microns using the polarimeter on the SCUBA instrument on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. We find a Bayesian 99 per cent confidence upper limit on the polarized emission for Arp 220 of 1.54 per cent, averaged over the 15 arcsec beam-size. Arp 220 can serve as a proxy for other, more distant such galaxies. This upper limit constrains the magnetic field geometry in Arp 220 and also provides evidence that polarized ULIRGs will not be a major contaminant for next-generation cosmic microwave background polarization measurements.

  12. The unbearable opaqueness of Arp220

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, S.; Aalto, S.; Sakamoto, K.; González-Alfonso, E.; Muller, S.; Henkel, C.; García-Burillo, S.; Aladro, R.; Costagliola, F.; Harada, N.; Krips, M.; Martín-Pintado, J.; Mühle, S.; van der Werf, P.; Viti, S.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The origin of the enormous luminosities of the two opaque nuclei of Arp 220, the prototypical ultra-luminous infrared galaxy, remains a mystery because we lack observational tools to explore the innermost regions around the nuclei. Aims: We explore the potential of imaging vibrationally excited molecular emission at high angular resolution to better understand the morphology and physical structure of the dense gas in Arp 220 and to gain insight into the nature of the nuclear powering sources. Methods: The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) provided simultaneous observations of HCN, HCO+, and vibrationally excited HCN v2 = 1f emission. Their J = 4-3 and 3-2 transitions were observed at a matching resolution of ~0.5'', which allows us to isolate the emission from the two nuclei. Results: The HCN and HCO+ lines within the ground-vibrational state poorly describe the central ~100 pc region around the nuclei because there are strong effects of cool absorbing gas in the foreground and severe line blending that is due to the prolific molecular emission of Arp 220. Vibrationally excited emission of HCN is detected in both nuclei with a very high ratio relative to the total LFIR, higher than in any other observed galaxy and well above what is observed in Galactic hot cores. HCN v2 = 1f is observed to be marginally resolved in ~60 × 50 pc regions inside the dusty ~100 pc sized nuclear cores. Its emission is centered on our derived individual nuclear velocities based on HCO+ emission (VWN = 5342 ± 4 and VEN = 5454 ± 8 km s-1, for the western and eastern nucleus, respectively). With virial masses within r ~ 25-30 pc based on the HCN v2 = 1f line widths, we estimate gas surface densities (gas fraction fg = 0.1) of 3 ± 0.3 × 104 M⊙ pc-2 (WN) and 1.1 ± 0.1 × 104 M⊙ pc-2 (EN). The 4-3/3-2 flux density ratio could be consistent with optically thick emission, which would further constrain the size of the emitting region to >15 pc (EN) and >22 pc

  13. 20 CFR 220.142 - General information about work activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General information about work activity. 220... RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Substantial Gainful Activity § 220.142 General information about work activity. (a) The nature of the claimant's work. If the claimant's duties require use of the...

  14. 10 CFR 600.220 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standards for financial management systems. 600.220... Post-Award Requirements § 600.220 Standards for financial management systems. (a) A State must expend... prohibitions of applicable statutes. (b) The financial management systems of other grantees and...

  15. 7 CFR 220.13 - Special responsibilities of State agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 220.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SCHOOL BREAKFAST PROGRAM § 220.13 Special... School Food Authority of a school participating in the School Breakfast Program to develop and file...

  16. 13 CFR 134.220 - Prohibition against ex parte communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibition against ex parte communications. 134.220 Section 134.220 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RULES OF... concerning any fact, question of law, or SBA policy relevant to the merits of a case before that Judge...

  17. 27 CFR 41.220 - Change in individual name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in individual name. 41.220 Section 41.220 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Change in individual name. Where there is a change in the name of an individual operating as an...

  18. 20 CFR 220.45 - Providing evidence of disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Providing evidence of disability. 220.45... DETERMINING DISABILITY Evidence of Disability § 220.45 Providing evidence of disability. (a) General. The claimant for a disability annuity is responsible for providing evidence of the claimed disability and...

  19. 49 CFR 220.45 - Radio communication shall be complete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio communication shall be complete. 220.45... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.45 Radio communication shall be complete. Any radio communication which is not fully understood...

  20. 49 CFR 220.51 - Radio communications and signal indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio communications and signal indications. 220... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.51 Radio communications and signal indications. (a) No information may be...

  1. 46 CFR 8.220 - Recognition of a classification society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recognition of a classification society. 8.220 Section 8... INSPECTION ALTERNATIVES Recognition of a Classification Society § 8.220 Recognition of a classification society. (a) A classification society must be recognized by the Commandant before it may receive...

  2. 34 CFR 300.220 - Exception for prior local plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... effective date of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004, the applicable... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exception for prior local plans. 300.220 Section 300.220 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF...

  3. 20 CFR 220.114 - Evaluation of symptoms, including pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... a determination as to the intensity, persistence, or functionally limiting effects of the claimant's... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evaluation of symptoms, including pain. 220.114 Section 220.114 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE...

  4. 20 CFR 404.220 - Average-monthly-wage method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Average-monthly-wage method. 404.220 Section... INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Average-Monthly-Wage Method of Computing Primary Insurance Amounts § 404.220 Average-monthly-wage method. (a) Who is eligible for this method. You...

  5. 20 CFR 220.113 - Symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings. 220... RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Medical Considerations § 220.113 Symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings. Medical findings consist of symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings: (a) Symptoms are...

  6. The unbearable opaqueness of Arp 220

    CERN Document Server

    Martín, S; Sakamoto, K; González-Alfonso, E; Muller, S; Henkel, C; García-Burillo, S; Aladro, R; Costagliola, F; Harada, N; Krips, M; Martín-Pintado, J; Mühle, S; van der Werf, P; Viti, S

    2016-01-01

    We explore the potential of imaging vibrationally excited molecular emission at high angular resolution to better understand the morphology and physical structure of the dense gas in Arp~220 and to gain insight into the nature of the nuclear powering sources. Vibrationally excited emission of HCN is detected in both nuclei with a very high ratio relative to the total $L_{FIR}$, higher than in any other observed galaxy and well above what is observed in Galactic hot cores. HCN $v_2=1f$ is observed to be marginally resolved in $\\sim60\\times50$~pc regions inside the dusty $\\sim100$~pc sized nuclear cores. Its emission is centered on our derived individual nuclear velocities based on HCO$^+$ emission ($V_{WN}=5342\\pm4$ and $V_{EN}=5454\\pm8$~\\kms, for the western and eastern nucleus, respectively). With virial masses within $r\\sim25-30$~pc based on the HCN~$v_2=1f$ line widths, we estimate gas surface densities (gas fraction $f_g=0.1$) of $3\\pm0.3\\times10^4~M_\\odot~\\rm pc^{-2}$ (WN) and $1.1\\pm0.1\\times10^4~M_\\odo...

  7. Behavior of {sup 220}Rn progeny in diffusion chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikezic, D. [Faculty of Science, University of Kragujevac, R. Domanovic 12, 34000 Kragujevac (Serbia)]. E-mail: nikezic@kg.ac.yu; Stevanovic, N. [Faculty of Science, University of Kragujevac, R. Domanovic 12, 34000 Kragujevac (Serbia)

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of {sup 220}Rn (thoron) within the cylindrical diffusion chamber decreases exponentially with the distance from the entry filter. The first {sup 220}Rn progeny {sup 216}Po follows its parent due to its very short half life. Other {sup 220}Rn progeny are almost completely deposited, but the deposition is not uniform. Deposition occurs on all internal surfaces of cylinder including vertical wall as well as its bases. Deposition on the upper and lower base is enhanced in the middle and drops toward to the end while the deposition on 'vertical' wall is larger closer to the entry membrane.

  8. 1997 County Pesticide Use Estimates for 220 Compounds

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset includes information for 220 pesticides on the average amount (pounds) applied to 87 agricultural crops and the acres of crops treated for counties...

  9. {sup 220}Rn and its progeny in dwellings of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang-Kyu [International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency' s Laboratories, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: chang.kyu.kim@iaea.org; Kim, Young-Jae; Lee, Hwa-Yong; Chang, Byung-Uck [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, P.O. Box 114, Yusong, Daejeon 305-338 (Korea, Republic of); Tokonami, Shinji [Radon Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Japan)

    2007-09-15

    Concentrations of {sup 220}Rn and its progeny were measured in 450 dwellings from 2002 to 2004 using two kinds of simple passive {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn monitors, Radopot{sup TM} and {sup 220}Rn progeny monitor. The annual arithmetic mean (AM) and geometric mean (GM) of {sup 220}Rn concentrations were 40.4 and 10.7Bqm{sup -3}, respectively. The annual arithmetic mean (AM) of EEC{sub Tn} concentration was 0.89{+-}0.70Bqm{sup -3}, and the annual geometric mean (GM) was 0.60Bqm{sup -3} (95% confidence interval: 0.43-0.78Bqm{sup -3}). The concentrations of {sup 220}Rn in Korean-style houses built with mud block were about two times higher than those in apartments. The average annual effective dose due to inhalation exposure to {sup 220}Rn and its progeny in dwellings was 0.25mSvy{sup -1}.

  10. 220 GHz Sub-Harmonic Mixer%220GHz分谐波混频器研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张波; 陈哲; 樊勇

    2012-01-01

    频率在0.1~10THz范围内的太赫兹电磁波,因其所具有的特殊性质近年来受到了广泛的关注.该文介绍了一种太赫兹频段内220 GHz基于肖特基势垒二极管的分谐波混频器设计.利用CAD技术对反向并联二极管对的阻抗频率特性进行分祈,并在该基础上通过HFSS和ADS软件的联合仿真,对混频器性能进行优化.最后,对该混频器进行加工和测试,结果表明,在210~230 GHz频带范围内,变频损耗小于10dB.%Terahertz electromagnetic radiation (from 0.1 THz to 10 THz) that lies in the boundary region between light and radio waves has attracted much attention in recent years due to its some extraordinary properties. This paper presents the design of a 220 GHz sub-harmonic mixer in terahertz band based on GaAs Schottky barrier diodes. The impedance-frequency characteristics of the anti-parallel diodes pair were analyzed using computer aided design (CAD) technology. The mixer was then optimized and designed by the co-simulation of the commercial software Agilent's advanced design system (ADS) and Ansoft's high frequency structure simulator (HFSS). The mixer was also fabricated and measured. The measured results show that the conversion loss of the mixer is below 10 dB in the band from 210 GHz to 230 GHz.

  11. Parsec-scale magnetic fields in Arp 220

    CERN Document Server

    McBride, James; Heiles, Carl; Bower, Geoffrey C; Sarma, Anuj P

    2014-01-01

    We present the first very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) detections of Zeeman splitting in another galaxy. We used Arecibo Observatory, the Green Bank Telescope, and the Very Long Baseline Array to perform dual-polarization observations of OH maser lines in the merging galaxy Arp 220. We measured magnetic fields of $\\sim$1-5 mG associated with three roughly parsec-sized clouds in the nuclear regions of Arp 220. Our measured magnetic fields have comparable strengths and the same direction as features at the same velocity identified in previous Zeeman observations with Arecibo alone. The agreement between single dish and VLBI results provides critical validation of previous Zeeman splitting observations of OH megamasers that used a single large dish. The measured magnetic field strengths indicate that magnetic energy densities are comparable to gravitational energy in OH maser clouds. We also compare our total intensity results to previously published VLBI observations of OH megamasers in Arp 220. We find ...

  12. VLBI Images of 49 Radio Supernovae in Arp 220

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Colin J.; Diamond, Philip J.; Thrall, Hannah; Smith, Harding E.; Lonsdale, Carol J.

    2006-08-01

    We have used a very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) array at 18 cm wavelength to image the nucleus of the luminous IR galaxy Arp 220 at ~1 pc linear resolution, with very high sensitivity. The resulting map has an rms of 5.5 μJy beam-1, and careful image analysis results in 49 confirmed point sources ranging in flux density from 1.2 mJy down to ~60 μJy. Comparison with high-sensitivity data from 12 months earlier reveals at least four new sources. The favored interpretation of these sources is that they are radio supernovae, and if all new supernovae are detectable at this sensitivity, a resulting estimate of the supernova rate in the Arp 220 system is 4+/-2 per year. The implied star formation rate is sufficient to power the entire observed far-infrared luminosity of the galaxy. The two nuclei of Arp 220 exhibit striking similarities in their radio properties, although the western nucleus is more compact, and appears to be ~3 times more luminous than the eastern nucleus. There are also some puzzling differences, and differential free-free absorption, synchrotron aging, and expansion losses may all be playing a role. Comparison with the nearby starburst galaxy M82 supports the hypothesis that the activity in Arp 220 is essentially a scaled-up version of that in M82.

  13. Using 220Rn to calibrate liquid noble gas detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, M; Takeda, A; Kishimoto, K; Moriyama, S

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe 220Rn calibration source that was developed for liquid noble gas detectors. The key advantage of this source is that it can provide 212Bi-212Po consecutive events, which enables us to evaluate the vertex resolution of a detector at low energy by comparing low-energy events of 212Bi and corresponding higher-energy alpha-rays from 212Po. Since 220Rn is a noble gas, a hot metal getter can be used when introduced using xenon as the carrier gas. In addition, no long-life radioactive isotopes are left behind in the detector after the calibration is complete; this has clear advantage over the use of 222Rn which leaves long- life radioactivity, i.e., 210Pb. Using a small liquid xenon test chamber, we developed a system to introduce 220Rn via the xenon carrier gas; we demonstrated the successful introduction of 6 times 10^2 220Rn atoms in our test environment.

  14. 7 CFR 220.12 - Competitive food services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... shall prohibit the sale of foods of minimal nutritional value, as listed in appendix B of this part, in... minimal nutritional value listed in appendix B. In the case of artificially sweetened foods, the petition... Foods of minimal nutritional value in § 220.2 that the food provides per serving and the...

  15. 7 CFR 220.7 - Requirements for participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... may be used to support a nonprofit nutrition program for the elderly, including a program funded under... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SCHOOL BREAKFAST PROGRAM § 220.7 Requirements for participation. Link...

  16. 40 CFR 61.220 - Designation of facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Emissions From the Disposal of Uranium Mill Tailings § 61.220 Designation of facilities. (a) The provisions..., commonly referred to as uranium mills and their associated tailings, that are listed in, or designated by the Secretary of Energy under title I of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of...

  17. 20 CFR 220.120 - The claimant's residual functional capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The claimant's residual functional capacity... RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Residual Functional Capacity § 220.120 The claimant's residual functional capacity. (a) General. The claimant's impairment(s), and any related symptoms, such as pain,...

  18. 33 CFR 209.220 - Flood control regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.220 Flood control regulations. (a) Local protection... probable date of transfer. (b) Use of storage allocated for flood control or navigation at...

  19. 33 CFR 157.220 - Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dedicated clean ballast tanks... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Design and Equipment § 157.220 Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Standards. (a) Cargo tanks that are designated as dedicated clean ballast...

  20. 49 CFR 179.220-11 - Postweld heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Postweld heat treatment. 179.220-11 Section 179... Postweld heat treatment. (a) Postweld heat treatment of the inner container is not a specification requirement. (b) Postweld heat treatment of the cylindrical portions of the outer shell to which the...

  1. 20 CFR 725.220 - Determination of relationship; child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of relationship; child. 725.220... Determination of relationship; child. For purposes of determining whether an individual may qualify for benefits as the child of a deceased miner, the provisions of § 725.208 shall be applicable. As used in...

  2. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 220 - Recommended Phonetic Alphabet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...—JULIET K—KILO L—LIMA M—MIKE N—NOVEMBER O—OSCAR P—PAPA Q—QUEBEC R—ROMEO S—SIERRA T—TANGO U—UNIFORM V... appendix A of part 220 does not exist in 49 CFR parts 200 to 399, revised as of Oct. 1, 1997....

  3. 43 CFR 17.220 - Preschool, elementary, and secondary education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Handicap § 17.220 Preschool, elementary, and secondary education. This section applies to preschool, elementary, secondary, and adult education programs or activities that receive Federal financial assistance... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preschool, elementary, and...

  4. 24 CFR 1006.220 - Crime prevention and safety activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crime prevention and safety... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Eligible Activities § 1006.220 Crime... enforcement measures and activities appropriate to protect residents of affordable housing from...

  5. Inner structure and global kinematics: arp 220 revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, S; Garcia-Marin, M; Eckart, A [University of Cologne, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany); Dowries, D [Institut de Radioastronomie Millimetrique, Domaine Universitaire, 38406 St. Martin d' HEres (France)], E-mail: skoenig@phl.uni-koeln.de

    2008-10-15

    With an infrared luminosity of 10{sup 12.2}L{sub o-dot}, Arp 220 is one of the prototypical Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies. It's high IR luminosity, the presence of tidal tails detected in the optical, the double infrared and radio nuclei, and the perturbed optical ionized gas kinematics measured at large scales support the fact that Arp 220 is the late phase of an on-going merger. This, along with the most accepted evolutionary theories for ULIRGs, indicate that Arp 220 may evolve into an intermediate mass elliptical galaxy. Nonetheless, there are several questions that still remain open, such as the exact location and number of nuclei, their relation with the X-ray emission, and the kinematic behavior of the galaxy at different scales. Here we give an overview of what we know about Arp 220 up-to-date, regarding the NIR and radio regime, and report on new insights in kinematics and the structure on larger spatial scales of the merger making use of IRAM PdBI observations.

  6. 33 CFR 334.220 - Chesapeake Bay, south of Tangier Island, Va.; naval firing range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Island, Va.; naval firing range. 334.220 Section 334.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....220 Chesapeake Bay, south of Tangier Island, Va.; naval firing range. (a) The danger zone. Beginning... the range will be conducted intermittently by one or more vessels, depending on weather and...

  7. 32 CFR 37.220 - How involved should the Government program official be in the project?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... official be in the project? 37.220 Section 37.220 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Appropriate Use of Technology Investment Agreements § 37.220 How involved should the Government program official be in...

  8. 49 CFR 179.220-20 - Reinforcements, when used, and appurtenances not otherwise specified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reinforcements, when used, and appurtenances not otherwise specified. 179.220-20 Section 179.220-20 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.220-20 Reinforcements, when used, and appurtenances not otherwise...

  9. 50 CFR 665.220 - Hawaii coral reef ecosystem fisheries. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hawaii coral reef ecosystem fisheries. 665.220 Section 665.220 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Fisheries § 665.220 Hawaii coral reef ecosystem fisheries....

  10. 20 CFR 1010.220 - How are recipients required to implement priority of service?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are recipients required to implement priority of service? 1010.220 Section 1010.220 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR... COVERED PERSONS Understanding Priority of Service § 1010.220 How are recipients required to...

  11. 40 CFR 415.220 - Applicability; description of the titanium dioxide production subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... titanium dioxide production subcategory. 415.220 Section 415.220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Dioxide Production Subcategory § 415.220 Applicability; description of the titanium dioxide production subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United...

  12. 25 CFR 1000.220 - What regulations apply to self-governance Tribes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What regulations apply to self-governance Tribes? 1000.220 Section 1000.220 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Waiver of Regulations § 1000.220 What regulations apply to...

  13. 20 CFR 220.58 - Objections to the designated physician or psychologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Objections to the designated physician or psychologist. 220.58 Section 220.58 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Consultative Examinations § 220.58 Objections to the designated physician or psychologist. A...

  14. 1,1 kilomeetri eest 220 miljonit krooni / Martti Kass

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kass, Martti

    2006-01-01

    Tartu maantee 1,1 kilomeetrise lõigu rekonstrueerimine Liivalaia ja Masina tänava vahel läheb varemnimetatud 100 miljoni krooni asemel maksma hoopis 220 miljonit krooni. Tallinna abilinnapea Olga Sõtnik põhjendab hinnatõusu tee-ehitusmaterjalide hindade tõusuga, Tallinna volikogu revisjonikomisjoni esimees Remo Holsmer aga kahtlustab tee-ehitajate omavahelist kokkulepet. Lisa: Üks kilomeeter maksab 200 miljonit krooni

  15. VLBI Images of 49 Radio Supernovae in Arp 220

    CERN Document Server

    Lonsdale, C J; Lonsdale, C J; Smith, H E; Thrall, H; Diamond, Philip J.; Lonsdale, Carol J.; Lonsdale, Colin J.; Smith, Harding E.; Thrall, Hannah

    2006-01-01

    We have used a Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) array at 18cm wavelength to image the nucleus of the luminous IR galaxy Arp 220 at ~1 pc linear resolution, and with very high sensitivity. The resulting map has an rms of 5.5 microJy/beam, and careful image analysis results in 49 confirmed point sources ranging in flux density from 1.2 mJy down to ~60 microJy. Comparison with high sensitivity data from 12 months earlier reveals at least four new sources. The favored interpretation of these sources is that they are radio supernovae, and if all new supernovae are detectable at this sensitivity, a resulting estimate of the supernova rate in the Arp 220 system is 4 +/- 2 per year. The implied star formation rate is sufficient to power the entire observed far-infrared luminosity of the galaxy. The two nuclei of Arp 220 exhibit striking similarities in their radio properties, though the western nucleus is more compact, and appears to be ~3 times more luminous than the eastern nucleus. There are also some puzz...

  16. Two Populations of Young Massive Star Clusters in Arp 220

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, C D; Longden, R; Scoville, N Z; Wilson, Christine D.; Harris, William E.; Longden, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    We present new optical observations of young massive star clusters in Arp 220, the nearest ultraluminous infrared galaxy, taken in UBVI with the Hubble Space Telescope ACS/HRC camera. We find a total of 206 probable clusters whose spatial distribution is centrally concentrated toward the nucleus of Arp 220. We use model star cluster tracks to determine ages, luminosities, and masses for 14 clusters with complete UBVI indices or previously published near-infrared data. We estimate rough masses for 24 additional clusters with I < 24 mag from BVI indices alone. The clusters with useful ages fall into two distinct groups: a ``young'' population (< 10 Myr) and an intermediate-age population (~300 Myr). There are many clusters with masses clearly above 10^6 Msun and possibly even above 10^7 Msun in the most extreme instances. These masses are high enough that the clusters being formed in the Arp 220 starburst can be considered as genuine young globular clusters. In addition, this study allows us to extend the...

  17. 220kV Substation Reconstruction Project%220kV变电站改造方案简述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨莉娜

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid growth of electricity demand, a lot of 220kV substation need for rehabilitation construction, it needs to make the transition scheme. This paper introduces several schemes in practical engineering, such as load transfer, temporary transformer, removing the bus bar, the overall transformation, the overhaul during the transformation, as a reference to other works.%随着用电需求的快速增长,很多220kV变电站需要进行增容改造建设,这就需要做好过渡方案,本文简述了实际工程中的几种方案,如转移负荷、临建主变、拆除母线、整体改造、利用大修期间改造等,以供其他工程参考。

  18. OPEC大规模减产220万桶

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    石油输出国组织(OPEC)17日宣布将每日石油生产配额减少220万桶,为该组织历史上最大规模的一次性减产措施。鉴于目前油价已经比历史最高的接近每桶150美元缩水了70%以上,欧佩克因此希望通过减产措施来提高油价。

  19. Clinical tomographic correlations of 220 patients with neurocisticercosis, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio de Souza Andrade-Filho

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis (NCC is a common parasitic disease in our region, presenting diversity of neurological symptoms and signs. The present study has as primary objective an evaluation of the NCC's clinical and epidemiological profile within Bahia State, by means of a prospective study of 220 patients diagnosed from March 1988 to March 1999, with a follow-up of six months. Exams, such as Computed Cranial Tomography Scan (CT, Cerebral Spine Fluid (CSF and Electroencephalogram (EEG, were accomplished in three distinct moments of these patients' evolution: at starting or diagnostic point (zero time, at after-intervention period (one month after treatment, and at control period (six months after treatment.

  20. Clinical tomographic correlations of 220 patients with neurocisticercosis, Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Filho, Antônio de Souza; Figuerôa, Luiz Frederico da Silva; Andrade-Souza, Victor Mascarenhas

    2007-02-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a common parasitic disease in our region, presenting diversity of neurological symptoms and signs. The present study has as primary objective an evaluation of the NCC's clinical and epidemiological profile within Bahia State, by means of a prospective study of 220 patients diagnosed from March 1988 to March 1999, with a follow-up of six months. Exams, such as Computed Cranial Tomography Scan (CT), Cerebral Spine Fluid (CSF) and Electroencephalogram (EEG), were accomplished in three distinct moments of these patients' evolution: at starting or diagnostic point (zero time), at after-intervention period (one month after treatment), and at control period (six months after treatment).

  1. Shell model approach for nuclei with mass around 220

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiura, Yukiko; Yoshinaga, Naotaka; Higashiyama, Koji

    2014-09-01

    Ra and Th isotopes with mass around 220 belonging to a transitional region between spherical and deformed regions have fascinated our interest from the past. In particular, since a large number of negative parity states are observed in low-lying states, collective octupole correlations are supposed to be important. In this talk we report the nuclear structure of Po, Rn, Ra and Th isotopes in terms of the pair truncated shell model, the basic ingredients of which consist of nuclear collective models. The 208Pb is considered as the doubly-magic core. The conventional pairing plus quadrupole interaction is employed. Energy levels and electric transitions are compared between theory and experiment.

  2. Novel Kidins220/ARMS Splice Isoforms: Potential Specific Regulators of Neuronal and Cardiovascular Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Schmieg

    Full Text Available Kidins220/ARMS is a transmembrane protein playing a crucial role in neuronal and cardiovascular development. Kidins220/ARMS is a downstream target of neurotrophin receptors and interacts with several signalling and trafficking factors. Through computational modelling, we found two potential sites for alternative splicing of Kidins220/ARMS. The first is located between exon 24 and exon 29, while the second site replaces exon 32 by a short alternative terminal exon 33. Here we describe the conserved occurrence of several Kidins220/ARMS splice isoforms at RNA and protein levels. Kidins220/ARMS splice isoforms display spatio-temporal regulation during development with distinct patterns in different neuronal populations. Neurotrophin receptor stimulation in cortical and hippocampal neurons and neuroendocrine cells induces specific Kidins220/ARMS splice isoforms and alters the appearance kinetics of the full-length transcript. Remarkably, alternative terminal exon splicing generates Kidins220/ARMS variants with distinct cellular localisation: Kidins220/ARMS containing exon 32 is targeted to the plasma membrane and neurite tips, whereas Kidins220/ARMS without exon 33 mainly clusters the full-length protein in a perinuclear intracellular compartment in PC12 cells and primary neurons, leading to a change in neurotrophin receptor expression. Overall, this study demonstrates the existence of novel Kidins220/ARMS splice isoforms with unique properties, revealing additional complexity in the functional regulation of neurotrophin receptors, and potentially other signalling pathways involved in neuronal and cardiovascular development.

  3. Extreme dust disks in Arp 220 as revealed by ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, C D; Glenn, J; Maloney, P R; Spinoglio, L; Pereira-Santaella, M

    2014-01-01

    We present new images of Arp 220 from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array with the highest combination of frequency (691 GHz) and resolution ($0.36 \\times 0.20^{\\prime\\prime}$) ever obtained for this prototypical ultraluminous infrared galaxy. The western nucleus is revealed to contain warm (200 K) dust that is optically thick ($\\tau_{434\\mu m} = 5.3$), while the eastern nucleus is cooler (80 K) and somewhat less opaque ($\\tau_{434\\mu m} = 1.7$). We derive full-width half-maximum diameters of $ 76 \\times \\le 70$ pc and $123 \\times 79$ pc for the western and eastern nucleus, respectively. The two nuclei combined account for ($83 ^{+65}_{-38}$ (calibration) $^{+0}_{-34}$ (systematic))% of the total infrared luminosity of Arp 220. The luminosity surface density of the western nucleus ($ \\log(\\sigma T^4) = 14.3\\pm 0.2 ^{+0}_{-0.7}$ in units of L$_\\odot$ kpc$^{-2}$) appears sufficiently high to require the presence of an AGN or a "hot starburst", although the exact value depends sensitively on the bri...

  4. A primary standard for activity concentration of {sup 220}Rn (thoron) in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roettger, Annette, E-mail: Annette.roettger@ptb.d [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Honig, Anja; Dersch, Rainer; Ott, Oliver; Arnold, Dirk [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    Due to the short half-life of Rn-220, a primary standard for activity concentration of Rn-220 (thoron) in air (i.e. a homogeneous reference atmosphere consisting of a certified activity in a certified volume) has been considered unachievable in the past. Traceability of Rn-222 reference atmospheres is achievable using radon gas activity standards (; ) and standard volumes, and is an established method. For the short-lived radionuclide Rn-220 this procedure is not feasible, since no Rn-220 gas activity standard with a reasonable activity can be produced. This leads to a lack of traceability for measurements of Rn-220 activity concentration: only atmospheres monitored by reference instruments (i.e. secondary standards) are available. The new primary standard for the activity concentration of {sup 220}Rn developed by PTB now closes this gap in radon metrology.

  5. A simple and versatile {sup 222}Rn/{sup 220}Rn exposure chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, K.N. E-mail: peter.yu@cityu.edu.hk; Koo, V.S.Y.; Guan, Z.J

    2002-04-01

    A simple {sup 222}Rn/{sup 220}Rn exposure chamber is described. The chamber is made of acrylic and has a volume of 0.41 m{sup 3}. The {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn sources can be operated independently or simultaneously. The concentrations of {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn were monitored by a continuous alpha spectrometer called RAD7. The capability of alpha spectrometry has removed the mutual interference between {sup 220}Rn and {sup 222}Rn, which is a major problem in measuring {sup 220}Rn. Furthermore, the capability can also provide fast response to changes in the {sup 222}Rn level and {sup 220}Rn level in the exposure chamber, with temporal resolutions of about 20 and 2 min, respectively.

  6. Autumn at Titan's South Pole: The 220 cm-1 Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, D. E.; Cottini, V.; Achterberg, R. K.; Anderson, C. M.; Flasar, F. M.; de Kok, R. J.; Teanby, N. A.; Coustenis, A.; Vinatier, S.

    2015-10-01

    Beginning in 2012 an atmospheric cloud known by its far-infrared emission has formed rapidly at Tit an's South Pole [1, 2]. The build-up of this condensate is a result of deepening temperatures and a gathering of gases as Winter approaches. Emission from the cloud in the south has been doubling each year since 2012, in contrast to the north where it has halved every 3.8 years since 2004. The morphology of the cloud in the south is quite different from that in the north. In the north, the cloud has extended over the whole polar region beyond 55 N, whereas in the south the cloud has been confined to within about 10 degrees of the pole. The cloud in the north has had the form of a uniform hood, whereas the southern cloud has been much more complex. A map from December 2014,recorded by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on Cassini, showed the 220 cm-1 emission coming from a distinct ring with a maximum at about 80 S. In contrast, emissions from the gases HC3N, C4H2 and C6H6 peaked near the pole and had a ring at 70 S. The 220 cm-1 ring at 80 S coincided with the minimum in the gas emission pattern. The80 S condensate ring encompassed the vortex cloud seen by the Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) and Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS)[3, 4]. Both the 220 cm-1 ring and the gas "bull's-eye" pattern were centered on a point that was shifted from the geographic South Pole by 4 degrees in the direction of the Sun. This corresponds to the overall tilt of Titan's atmosphere discovered from temperature maps early in the Cassini mission by Achterberg et al. [5]. The tilt may be reinforced by the presumably twice-yearly (north and south) spin-up of the atmosphere at the autumnal pole. The bull's-eye pattern of the gas emissions can be explained by the retrieved abundance distributions, which are maximum near the pole and decrease sharply toward lower latitudes, together with temperatures that are minimum at the pole and increase toward lower latitudes

  7. 75 FR 80886 - Ninth Meeting-RTCA Special Committee 220: Automatic Flight Guidance and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Ninth Meeting--RTCA Special Committee 220: Automatic Flight Guidance and Control AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 220... and Control meeting. The agenda will include: Welcome/Agenda Overview. Presentation of progress WG...

  8. 76 FR 50809 - Eleventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 220: Automatic Flight Guidance and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Eleventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 220: Automatic Flight Guidance and Control AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Correction of Notice of RTCA... plenary meeting RTCA paper no. 011-11/SC220-024 Presentation of progress of Working Group-2...

  9. 7 CFR Appendix C to Part 220 - Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program C Appendix C to Part 220 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SCHOOL BREAKFAST PROGRAM Pt. 220, App....

  10. 49 CFR 179.220-24 - Tests of pressure relief valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tests of pressure relief valves. 179.220-24 Section 179.220-24 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS...-24 Tests of pressure relief valves. Each safety relief valve must be tested by air or gas...

  11. 22 CFR 1006.220 - Are any procurement contracts included as covered transactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... covered transactions? 1006.220 Section 1006.220 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE... the consent of a(n) Inter-American Foundation official. In that case, the contract, regardless of the... appendix to this part. (3) The contract is for federally-required audit services....

  12. 40 CFR 436.220 - Applicability; description of the bentonite subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the bentonite subcategory. 436.220 Section 436.220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  13. 46 CFR 130.220 - Design of equipment for cooking and heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design of equipment for cooking and heating. 130.220 Section 130.220 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS... Design of equipment for cooking and heating. (a) Doors on each cooking appliance must be provided...

  14. 21 CFR 1404.220 - Are any procurement contracts included as covered transactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are any procurement contracts included as covered transactions? 1404.220 Section 1404.220 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE... the consent of a(n) Office of National Drug Control Policy official. In that case, the...

  15. 7 CFR Appendix B to Part 220 - Categories of Foods of Minimal Nutritional Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Categories of Foods of Minimal Nutritional Value B Appendix B to Part 220 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND.... B Appendix B to Part 220—Categories of Foods of Minimal Nutritional Value (1) Soda Water—A class...

  16. 33 CFR 104.220 - Company or vessel personnel with security duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Company or vessel personnel with security duties. 104.220 Section 104.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Company or vessel personnel with security duties. Company and vessel personnel responsible for...

  17. 45 CFR 400.220 - Counting time-eligibility of refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Counting time-eligibility of refugees. 400.220 Section 400.220 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT...

  18. First bounds on the very high energy gamma-ray emission from Arp 220

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, J

    2006-01-01

    Using the Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov Telescope (MAGIC), we have observed the nearest ultra-luminous infrared galaxy Arp 220 for about 15 hours. No significant signal was detected within the dedicated amount of observation time. The first upper limits to the very high energy $\\gamma$-ray flux of Arp 220 are herein reported and compared with theoretical expectations.

  19. ALMA Resolves the Nuclear Disks of Arp 220

    CERN Document Server

    Scoville, Nick; Walter, Fabian; Vlahakis, Catherine; Koda, Jin; Bout, Paul Vanden; Barnes, Joshua; Hernquist, Lars; Sheth, Kartik; Yun, Min; Sanders, David; Armus, Lee; Cox, Pierre; Thompson, Todd; Robertson, Brant; Zschaechner, Laura; Tacconi, Linda; Torrey, Paul; Hayward, Christopher C; Genzel, Reinhard; Hopkins, Phil; van der Werf, Paul; Decarli, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    We present 90 mas (37 pc) resolution ALMA imaging of Arp 220 in the CO (1-0) line and continuum at $\\lambda = 2.6$ mm. The internal gas distribution and kinematics of both galactic nuclei are well-resolved for the first time.In the more luminous West nucleus, the major gas and dust emission extends to 0.2\\arcsec radius (80 pc); the central resolution element shows a strong peak in the dust emission but a factor 3 dip in the CO line emission. In this nucleus, the dust is apparently optically thick ($\\tau_{\\rm 2.6mm} \\sim1$) at $\\lambda = 2.6$ mm with a dust emission brightness temperature $\\sim120$ K. The column of ISM at this nucleus is $\\rm N_{H2} \\geq 2\\times10^{26}$ cm$^{-2}$, corresponding to A$_V = 10^6$ mag and 1000 gr cm$^{-2}$. The East nucleus is somewhat more elongated with radial extent 0.3\\arcsec or $\\sim120$ pc. The derived kinematics of the nuclear disks provide a good fit to the line profiles sampled every 50 mas, yielding the emissivity distributions, the rotation curves and velocity dispersio...

  20. Octupole collectivity in $^{220}$Rn and $^{224}$Ra

    CERN Document Server

    Gaffney, Liam Paul

    Collective properties of the radioactive nuclei $^{220}$Rn and $^{224}$Ra have been studied via Coulomb excitation of a 2.8$\\,$A.MeV radioactive ion beam (RIB) incident upon $^{60}$Ni, $^{112,114}$Cd and $^{120}$Sn targets. The experiments took place at the REX-ISOLDE RIB facility, CERN. De-excitation $\\gamma$-ray yields following multiple-step Coulomb excitation were detected in coincidence with recoiling target nuclei in the Miniball spectrometer. For the first time, B(E3;3$^+ \\rightarrow 0^+$) values have been directly measured with a radioactive ion beam. In the process, $^{224}$Ra becomes the heaviest post-accelerated RIB to date at ISOLDE (with the possible exception of the quasi-stable $^{238}$U). The measurements presented in this thesis represent a tripling of the number of nuclei around Z$\\simeq88$ and N$\\simeq134$, for which direct measurements of the octupole collectivity have been performed. The only previous measurements being for the relatively long-lived $^{226}$Ra. The $\\gamma$-ray yields, in...

  1. A 220 GHz reflection-type phased array concept study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedden, Abigail S.; Dietlein, Charles R.; Wikner, David A.

    2011-05-01

    The goal of this project is to enable light-weight, durable, and portable systems capable of performing standoff detection of person-borne improvised explosive devices (PB-IEDs) through the development of millimeter-wave reflection-type phased arrays. Electronic beam steering eliminates the need for complex mechanical scanners that are commonly implemented with millimeter-wave imaging systems and would reduce overall system size and weight. We present a concept study of a 220 GHz reflection-type phased array for the purpose of performing beam scanning of a confocal reflector system. Requirements for effective imaging of the desired target region are established, including spatial resolution, total scan angle, and number of image pixels achievable. We examine the effects of array architecture on beam characteristics as it is scanned off broadside, including Gaussicity and encircled energy. Benchmark requirements are determined and compared with the capabilities of several potential phase shifter technologies, including MEMS-based variable capacitor phase shifters, switches, and varactor diode-based phase shifters.

  2. The far-infrared spectrum of Arp 220

    CERN Document Server

    González-Alfonso, E; Fischer, J; Cernicharo, J

    2004-01-01

    ISO/LWS grating observations of the ultraluminous infrared galaxy Arp 220 shows absorption in molecular lines of OH, H$_2$O, CH, NH, and NH$_3$, as well as in the [O I] 63 $\\mu$m line and emission in the [C II] 158 $\\mu$m line. We have modeled the continuum and the emission/absorption of all observed features by means of a non-local radiative transfer code. The continuum from 25 to 1300 $\\mu$m is modeled as a warm (106 K) nuclear region that is optically thick in the far-infrared, attenuated by an extended region (size 2$''$) that is heated mainly through absorption of nuclear infrared radiation. The molecular absorption in the nuclear region is characterized by high excitation due to the high infrared radiation density. The OH column densities are high toward the nucleus and the extended region. The H$_2$O column density is also high toward the nucleus and lower in the extended region. The column densities in a halo are similar to what are found in the diffuse clouds toward Sgr B2 near the Galactic Center. M...

  3. On the solar origin of the 220.7 signal

    CERN Document Server

    Jiménez, A

    2008-01-01

    Gravity modes in the Sun have been long searched during the past decades. Using their asymptotic properties Garcia et al. (2007) found the signature of the dipole g modes analyzing an spectral window between 25 and 140 muHz of velocity power spectrum obtained from the GOLF/SoHO instrument. Using this result it has been possible to check some properties of the structure of the solar interior (Garcia, Mathur & Ballot 2008) as well as some indications on the dynamics of the core. However, the individual detection of such modes remains evasive and they are needed to really improve our knowledge of the deepest layers in the Sun (Mathur et al. 2008). In this work we study the signal at 220.7 muHz which is present in most of the helioseismic instruments during the last 10 years. This signal has been previously identified as part of a g-mode candidate in the GOLF data (Turck-Chieze et al. 2004; Mathur et al. 2007) and in SPM/VIRGO (Garcia et al. 2008) with more than 90% confidence level. It could be labelled as t...

  4. Two Compton-Thick Active Nuclei in Arp 220?

    CERN Document Server

    Paggi, Alessandro; Risaliti, Guido; Wang, Junfeng; Elvis, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Narrow-band spectral imaging with sub-pixel resolution of the Chandra-ACIS archival observation of the ULIRG merger Arp 220 strongly suggests two Compton thick nuclei, spatially coincident with the infrared and radio emitting nuclear clusters, and separated by 1" (~ 365 pc at a distance of 76 Mpc). These previously undetected highly obscured AGNs - West (W) and East (E) - are imaged, and separated from neighboring sources, in the 6-7 keV band, where the Fe-K lines dominate the emission. The western nucleus is also detected at energies above 7 keV. We estimate Fe-K equivalent width ~ 1 keV or possibly greater for both sources, and observed 2-10 keV luminosities L_X < 3.2 x 10^40 erg/s (W) and <1.3 x 10^40 erg/s (E). From the observed Fe-K lines luminosities{, and assuming on the basis of the XMM-Newton spectrum that 40% of this may be from the 6.4 keV component, we evaluate 2-10 keV intrinsic luminosities L_X ~ 1 x 10^42 erg/s (W) and L_X ~ 0.4 x 10^42 erg/s (E). The inferred X-ray luminosity is at least...

  5. Black hole in the West Nucleus of Arp 220

    CERN Document Server

    Downes, D

    2007-01-01

    We present new observations with the IRAM Interferometer, in its longest-baseline configuration, of the CO(2-1) line and the 1.3mm dust radiation from the Arp 220 nuclear region. The dust source in the West nucleus has a size of 0.19 x 0.13 arcsec and a 1.3mm brightness temperature of 90K. This implies that the dust ring in the West nucleus has a high opacity, with tau = 1 at 1.1mm. Not only is the dust ring itself optically thick in the submm and far-IR, but it is surrounded by the previously-known, rapidly rotating molecular disk of size 0.5 arcsec that is also optically thick in the mid-IR. The molecular ring is cooler than the hot dust disk because the CO(2-1) line is seen in absorption against the dust disk. The dust ring is massive (1E9 solar masses), compact (radius 35pc), and hot (true dust temperature 170K). It resembles rather strikingly the dust ring detected around the quasar APM 08279+52, and is most unlike the warm, extended dust sources in starburst galaxies. Because there is a strong temperatu...

  6. Nationwide indoor {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn map for India: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramachandan, T.V. [Ex-Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai-450 085 (India); Sathish, L.A., E-mail: lasgayit@yahoo.com [Post Graduate Department of Physics, Government Science College, Nrupathunga Road, Bangalore 560 001 (India)

    2011-11-15

    Considering the role of radon in epidemiology, an attempt was made to make a nation-wide map of indoor {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn for India. More than 5000 measurements have been carried out in 1500 dwellings across the country comprising urban and nonurban locations. The solid state nuclear track detectors based twin cup {sup 222}Rn/{sup 220}Rn discrimination dosimeters were deployed for the measurement of indoor {sup 222}Rn, {sup 220}Rn and their progeny levels. The geometric means of estimated annual inhalation dose rate due to indoor {sup 222}Rn, {sup 220}Rn and their progeny in the dwellings was 0.94 mSvy{sup -1} (geometric standard deviation 2.5). It was observed that the major contribution to the indoor inhalation dose was due to indoor {sup 222}Rn and its progeny. However, the contribution due to indoor {sup 220}Rn and its progeny was not trivial as it was found to be about 20% of the total indoor inhalation dose rates. The indoor {sup 222}Rn levels in dwellings was significantly different depending on the nature of walls and floorings. - Highlights: > A countrywide survey on {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn levels for India was carried out in dwellings. > The regional values are obtained from the data on a few houses in that area. > Calibration factors for the measurements were derived experimentally as well as theoretically. > The {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn levels are represented on the maps.

  7. 20 CFR 411.220 - What if my ticket is no longer assigned to an EN or State VR agency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EN or State VR agency? 411.220 Section 411.220 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE... Who Are Using a Ticket The Extension Period § 411.220 What if my ticket is no longer assigned to an EN or State VR agency? (a) If your ticket was once assigned to an EN or State VR agency acting as an...

  8. 20 CFR 220.61 - Informing the examining physician or psychologist of examination scheduling, report content and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... examination is one which involves all the elements of a standard examination in the applicable medical... psychologist of examination scheduling, report content and signature requirements. 220.61 Section 220.61... DISABILITY Consultative Examinations § 220.61 Informing the examining physician or psychologist...

  9. 32 CFR 220.11 - Special rules for automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special rules for automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance. 220.11 Section 220.11 National Defense Department of Defense... OF REASONABLE CHARGES FOR HEALTHCARE SERVICES § 220.11 Special rules for automobile...

  10. 41 CFR 301-10.220 - What requirements must I meet to operate a Government automobile for official travel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... meet to operate a Government automobile for official travel? 301-10.220 Section 301-10.220 Public... ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 10-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Government Vehicle Government Automobiles § 301-10.220 What requirements must I meet to operate a Government automobile for official travel? You must...

  11. 20 CFR 220.59 - Requesting examination by a specific physician, psychologist or institution-hearings officer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requesting examination by a specific physician, psychologist or institution-hearings officer hearing level. 220.59 Section 220.59 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Consultative Examinations § 220.59...

  12. Arp 220 - IC 4553/4: understanding the system and diagnosing the ISM

    CERN Document Server

    Baan, W A

    2007-01-01

    Arp220 is a nearby system in final stages of galaxy merger with powerful ongoing star-formation at and surrounding the two nuclei. Arp 220 was detected in HI absorption and OH Megamaser emission and later recognized as the nearest ultra-luminous infrared galaxy also showing powerful molecular and X-ray emissions. In this paper we review the available radio and mm-wave observational data of Arp 220 in order to obtain an integrated picture of the dense interstellar medium that forms the location of the powerful star-formation at the two nuclei.

  13. ALMA Resolves the Nuclear Disks of Arp 220

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoville, Nick; Murchikova, Lena; Walter, Fabian; Vlahakis, Catherine; Koda, Jin; Vanden Bout, Paul; Barnes, Joshua; Hernquist, Lars; Sheth, Kartik; Yun, Min; Sanders, David; Armus, Lee; Cox, Pierre; Thompson, Todd; Robertson, Brant; Zschaechner, Laura; Tacconi, Linda; Torrey, Paul; Hayward, Christopher C.; Genzel, Reinhard; Hopkins, Phil; van der Werf, Paul; Decarli, Roberto

    2017-02-01

    We present 90 mas (37 pc) resolution ALMA imaging of Arp 220 in the CO (1-0) line and continuum at λ =2.6 {mm}. The internal gas distribution and kinematics of both galactic nuclei are well resolved for the first time. In the west nucleus, the major gas and dust emission extends out to 0.″2 radius (74 pc); the central resolution element shows a strong peak in the dust emission but a factor of 3 dip in the CO line emission. In this nucleus, the dust is apparently optically thick ({τ }2.6{mm}∼ 1) at λ =2.6 {mm} with a dust brightness temperature of ∼147 K. The column of interstellar matter at this nucleus is {N}{{H}2}≥slant 2× {10}26 cm‑2, corresponding to ∼900 gr cm‑2. The east nucleus is more elongated with radial extent 0.″3 or ∼111 pc. The derived kinematics of the nuclear disks provide a good fit to the line profiles, yielding the emissivity distributions, the rotation curves, and velocity dispersions. In the west nucleus, there is evidence of a central Keplerian component requiring a central mass of 8 × 108 {M}ȯ . The intrinsic widths of the emission lines are {{Δ }}v({FWHM})=250 (west) and 120 (east) km s‑1. Given the very short dissipation timescales for turbulence (≲105 years), we suggest that the line widths may be due to semicoherent motions within the nuclear disks. The symmetry of the nuclear disk structures is impressive, implying the merger timescale is significantly longer than the rotation period of the disks.

  14. Construction of Prokaryotic Expression Vector for pbv220/NT4-ADNF-9

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Guo-xi; ZHU Kang; JING Yang; WEI Jun-rong; ZHU Hong-liang

    2008-01-01

    Objective To construct a prokaryotic expression vector bearing fusion gene NT4-ADNF-9 for future studies on genetic therapies for sensorineural deafness. Methods Double strand ADNF-9 Edna was synthesized using asymmetrical primer/templates and ligated to the 3' terminal of signal and leader peptides of neurotrophin 4 (NT4). The fusion gene NT4-ADNF-9, was subeloned into prokaryotic expression vector Pbv220, and named Pbv220/NT4-ADNF-9. DNA sequence of the fusion gene was analyzed. The fusion protein was isolated by SDS-PAGE and its bioactivity was evaluated using primary culture of day 8 chicken embryonic DRGcells. Results The correct sequence of fusion gene NT4-ADNF-9 was successfully subcloned into the Pbv220 vector. The expressed ADNF-9 protein showed its effects in promoting cell survival and neurite growth. Conclusion Prokaryotic expression vector Pbv220/NT4-ADNF-9 was constructed successfully and the expressed fusion protein demonstrated satisfactory bioactivity.

  15. Electron micrography and x-ray study of dip-lacquered LiF (220)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmari, J.; Rasigni, M.; Rasigni, G.;

    1991-01-01

    It has been proposed to use the 220 reflection of LiF with a multilayer deposited upon the top for simultaneous spectroscopy near Fe-k and O-k and below the C-k absorption edge (284 eV) in x-ray astronomy. We demonstrate that a substantial reduction of surface roughness is obtained by dip...... lacquering state-of-the-art polished LiF(220) surfaces. Using a microdensitometer analysis of electron micrographs of surface replicas and x-ray reflection, we have measured ∼ 10-Å rms roughness of Au-coated dip-lacquered LiF(220) crystals, as opposed to ∼ 60 Å measured on the bare LiF(220) crystal surface....

  16. AKAP220 manages apical actin networks that coordinate aquaporin-2 location and renal water reabsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Jennifer L; Ogier, Leah; Forbush, Katherine A; Bucko, Paula; Gopalan, Janani; Seternes, Ole-Morten; Langeberg, Lorene K; Scott, John D

    2016-07-26

    Filtration through the kidney eliminates toxins, manages electrolyte balance, and controls water homeostasis. Reabsorption of water from the luminal fluid of the nephron occurs through aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water pores in principal cells that line the kidney-collecting duct. This vital process is impeded by formation of an "actin barrier" that obstructs the passive transit of AQP2 to the plasma membrane. Bidirectional control of AQP2 trafficking is managed by hormones and signaling enzymes. We have discovered that vasopressin-independent facets of this homeostatic mechanism are under the control of A-Kinase Anchoring Protein 220 (AKAP220; product of the Akap11 gene). CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing and imaging approaches show that loss of AKAP220 disrupts apical actin networks in organoid cultures. Similar defects are evident in tissue sections from AKAP220-KO mice. Biochemical analysis of AKAP220-null kidney extracts detected reduced levels of active RhoA GTPase, a well-known modulator of the actin cytoskeleton. Fluorescent imaging of kidney sections from these genetically modified mice revealed that RhoA and AQP2 accumulate at the apical surface of the collecting duct. Consequently, these animals are unable to appropriately dilute urine in response to overhydration. We propose that membrane-proximal signaling complexes constrained by AKAP220 impact the actin barrier dynamics and AQP2 trafficking to ensure water homeostasis.

  17. (220)Rn/(222)Rn isotope pair as a natural proxy for soil gas transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxol, Stephan; Brennwald, Matthias S; Henneberger, Ruth; Kipfer, Rolf

    2013-12-17

    Radon (Rn) is a naturally occurring radioactive noble gas, which is ubiquitous in soil gas. Especially, its long-lived isotope (222)Rn (half-life: 3.82 d) gained widespread acceptance as a tracer for gas transport in soils, while the short-lived (220)Rn (half-life: 55.6 s) found less interest in environmental studies. However, in some cases, the application of (222)Rn as a tracer in soil gas is complex as its concentrations can be influenced by changes of the transport conditions or of the (222)Rn production of the soil material. Due to the different half-lives of (220)Rn and (222)Rn, the distances that can be traveled by the respective isotopes before decay differ significantly, with (220)Rn migrating over much shorter distances than (222)Rn. Therefore, the soil gas concentrations of (220)Rn and (222)Rn are influenced by processes on different length scales. In laboratory experiments in a sandbox, we studied the different transport behaviors of (220)Rn and (222)Rn resulting from changing the boundary conditions for diffusive transport and from inducing advective gas movements. From the results gained in the laboratory experiments, we propose the combined analysis of (220)Rn and (222)Rn to determine gas transport processes in soils. In a field study on soil gases in the cover soil of a capped landfill we applied the combined analysis of (220)Rn and (222)Rn in soil gas for the first time and showed the feasibility of this approach to characterize soil gas transport processes.

  18. {sup 222}Rn, {sup 220}Rn and their progeny concentrations in offices in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, K.N. E-mail: appetery@city.edu.hk; Cheung, T.; Guan, Z.J.; Mui, B.W.N.; Ng, Y.T

    2000-04-01

    An active sampling system using charcoal canisters and an HPGe {gamma}-spectrometer was employed to survey {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn concentrations in 65 offices in Hong Kong, and a traditional method was used to record simultaneously the potential {alpha}-energy concentrations (PAEC) of {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn progeny at the same sites. The mean values of gas concentration, PAEC and equilibrium factor for {sup 222}Rn were 48{+-}32 Bq m{sup -3}, 5.2{+-}5.1 mWL and 0.38{+-}0.13, respectively, and the corresponding values for {sup 220}Rn were 14{+-}7 Bq m{sup -3}, 2.7{+-}2.1 mWL and 0.050{+-}0.016. These values were in general higher than those in dwellings in Hong Kong, which was due to the poorer fresh air exchange in offices. Factors affecting the concentrations of {sup 222}Rn, {sup 220}Rn and their progeny were also studied. The type of air conditioners and the indoor and outdoor temperature difference show some effects on {sup 222}Rn, {sup 220}Rn and progeny concentrations, while rainfall and relative humidity affect only the progeny concentrations.

  19. Design, calibration, and operation of 220Rn stack effluent monitoring systems at Argonne National Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyon, W J; Kretz, N D; Marchetti, F P

    1994-09-01

    A group of stack effluent monitoring systems have been developed to monitor discharges of 220Rn from a hot cell facility at Argonne National Laboratory. The stack monitors use flow-through scintillation cells and are completely microprocessor-based systems. A method for calibrating the stack monitors in the laboratory and in the field is described. A nominal calibration factor for the stack monitoring systems in use is 15.0 cts min-1 per kBq m-3 (0.56 cts min-1 per pCi L-1) +/- 26% at the 95% confidence level. The plate-out fraction of decay products in the stack monitor scintillation cells, without any pre-filtering, was found to be nominally 25% under normal operating conditions. When the sample was pre-filtered upstream of the scintillation cell, the observed cell plate-out fraction ranged from 16-22%, depending on the specific sampling conditions. The instantaneous 220Rn stack concentration can be underestimated or overestimated when the steady state condition established between 220Rn and its decay products in the scintillation cell is disrupted by sudden changes in the monitored 220Rn concentration. For long-term measurements, however, the time-averaged response of the monitor represents the steady state condition and leads to a reasonable estimate of the average 220Rn concentration during the monitoring period.

  20. Application of membrane type economizer in 220 t/h boiler%膜式省煤器在220 t/h锅炉中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      膜式省煤器在电厂锅炉得到了普遍应用,文章根据其在220 t/h锅炉上的实际应用情况,对膜式省煤器和光管式省煤器的优劣进行比较,并得出具有实际意义的结论,为今后的锅炉对流受热面的改造提供指导。%Compared the membrane economizer with properties of bare tube economizer,the former has more advantages.For 220t/h boiler tube economizer's severe wear and frequent tube explosion,the No. 1 and No. 2 boiler of low temperature economizer were trans-formed. In fact,it not only improves the boiler efficiency but also ensures no tube explosion.

  1. 220A型流通式BOD快速测定仪实验研究%The Experimental Research of 220A Type Circulating BOD Speedy Testing Instrument

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴雷; 张玉惠

    2001-01-01

    本实验研究采用了国际上先进的流通式快速测定BOD(水中生化需氧量)的仪器,对标准样品、地表水、生活污水、工业废水进行了精密度、准确度的实验,与标准BOD 5天法实验进行了对照分析.并且将流通式220A型BOD快速测定仪与原研制的220型加入法式的BOD快速测定仪进行了比较,对实验中的一些问题进行了分析研究.为该仪器在环保等领域的广泛应用提供了技术依据.

  2. 220MW汽轮机通流改造经济性分析%The Economic Analysis of 220MW Steam Turbine Flow Rehabilitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓飞; 巴特德力格

    2013-01-01

      以马头电厂220MW机组(8号)为研究对象,在额定工况和定、滑压工况下对其汽轮机通流部分改造后的经济性进行了分析,提出了节能降耗的建议及技术措施。%Taking Ma Tau power plant 220MW unit (8) as example, the economics of retrofitting of flow passage of stream turbine is analyzed under the nominal condition ,constant pressure and variable pressure conditions. Specific measures of energy saving and consumption in this field were also given.

  3. Decolorization and biodegradation of reactive blue 220 textile dye by Lentinus crinitus extracellular extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebisch, Carolina Heyse; Malinowski, Alexandre Knoll; Schadeck, Ruth; Mitchell, David A; Kava-Cordeiro, Vanessa; Paba, Jaime

    2010-08-15

    Studies were carried on the decolorization of the textile dye reactive blue 220 (RB220) by a novel isolate of Lentinus crinitus fungi. The optimal conditions for the production of destaining activity were obtained in media containing intermediate concentrations of ammonium oxalate and glucose (10 g L(-1)) as nitrogen and carbon sources, respectively, at 28 degrees C and pH 5.5. Maximum decolorization efficiency against RB220 achieved in this study was around 95%. Ultra-violet and visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometric analyses, before and after decolorization, suggest that decolorization was due to biodegradation. This effect was associated with a putative low molecular weight laccase (41 kDa) displaying good tolerance to a wide range of pH values, salt concentrations and temperatures, suggesting a potential role for this organism in the remediation of real dye containing effluents.

  4. Measurement of the \\{220\\} lattice-plane spacing of a $^{28}$Si crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Massa, Enrico; Kuetgens, Ulrich; Ferroglio, Luca

    2010-01-01

    The spacing of the \\{220\\} lattice planes of a $^{28}$Si crystal was measured by combined x-ray and optical interferometry to a $3.5\\times 10^{-9}$ relative accuracy. The result is $d_{220}=(192014712.67 \\pm 0.67)$ am, at 20.0 $^\\circ$C and 0 Pa. This value is greater by $(1.9464 \\pm 0.0067)\\times 10^{-9} d_{220}$ than the spacing in natural Si, a difference which confirms quantum mechanics calculations. Subsequently, this crystal has been used to determine the Avogadro constant by counting the Si atoms, a key step towards a realization of the mass unit based on a conventional value of the Planck or the Avogadro constants.

  5. Suggestions for Improvement of 220kV MOA Field Leakage Test%220kV MOA现场泄漏试验改进建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑瑞红

    2002-01-01

    介绍了220kV氧化锌避雷器现场直流lmA电压(U_(lmA))及0.75U_(lmA)下的泄漏电流试验的两种接线方法;指出微安表接在高压侧的弊端,并提出改在低压端接线的建议。

  6. An extensive indoor {sup 222}Rn/{sup 220}Rn monitoring in North-East India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwivedi, K.K. [Department of Science and Technology, Embassy of India, 2536 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20008 (United States)]. E-mail: kkdwivedi@yahoo.com; Mishra, R. [Italian National Agency for Environmental Protection and Technical Services (APAT), Via. V. Brancati 48, Rome 00144 (Italy); Tripathy, S.P. [Italian National Agency for Environmental Protection and Technical Services (APAT), Via. V. Brancati 48, Rome 00144 (Italy)

    2005-11-15

    The behaviour of ubiquitous radon (Rn222), thoron (Rn220) and their progeny in the indoor atmosphere generally reflect a complex interplay between a number of processes, the most important of which are radioactive {alpha}-decay, ventilation, attachment to aerosols and deposition on the surfaces. The present work involved a long-term (1997-2000) passive monitoring of Rn222 and Rn220 in the indoor environment of the North-Eastern region of India. This region being a zone of high seismicity, the indoor radon and thoron measurement of the region will provide a better insight and a valuable database for any study related to radon and thoron anomalies.

  7. Analysis and Treatment of Abnormal Chromatographic Result Fault in 220kV Main Transformer%一台220kV主变色谱异常故障的分析及处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔祥凤; 李进

    2012-01-01

    The abnormal chromatographic result in 220kV main transformer is analyzed. The fault position is diagnosed based on electric test results.%对220kV主变色谱异常结果进行了分析,结合电气试验对故障的位置进行了判断。

  8. Clincical Observation Effects of YGCu220 IUD Intrauterine Device(IUD)%活性元宫药铜220宫内节育器临床观察效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗莉

    2010-01-01

    目的:系统评价元宫药铜220宫内节育器的安全性、有效性.方法:选择自愿放置IUD 1350例,随机分成4组:元宫药铜220 IUD、TCu220 IUD、宫药铜200 IUD、MLCu375 IUD,并进行24个月随访.结果:活性元宫药铜220型IUD妊娠率12个月以前与对照组接近,置器24个月内优于对照组,元宫药铜220 IUD和宫药铜200 IUD副反应小,因症取出率低,较其他两种TCu220 IUD和MLCu375 IUD差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),累积续用率元宫药铜220型IUD 24个月达到98.14%,明显高于对照组(P<0.05).结论:元宫药铜220型IUD是一种副反应小、续用率高、避孕效果好的节育器,可在体内长期放置,值得临床推广使用.

  9. 30 CFR 220.015 - Pricing of materiel purchases, transfers, and dispositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pricing of materiel purchases, transfers, and... CONTINENTAL SHELF OIL AND GAS LEASES § 220.015 Pricing of materiel purchases, transfers, and dispositions. (a... shall be priced under the provisions for tubular goods pricing in paragraph (a)(2)(i)(A) of this...

  10. 24 CFR 220.806 - Pro rata refund of insurance premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata refund of insurance... AREAS Contract Rights and Obligations-Projects Insured Project Improvement Loans § 220.806 Pro rata... equal to the pro rata portion of the current annual loan insurance premium theretofore paid which...

  11. 47 CFR 25.220 - Non-conforming transmit/receive earth station operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-conforming transmit/receive earth station... CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.220 Non-conforming transmit/receive... operator acknowledging that the proposed operation of the subject non-conforming earth station with...

  12. 76 FR 79754 - Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 220, Automatic Flight Guidance and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 220, Automatic Flight Guidance and Control AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION... Return to general plenary meeting Review of WG 2 status--progress, issues and plan Review of WG 3...

  13. Driver D220.12 DRIVER-test-bed: Architecture, Integration and Orchestration

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, T.W. van den

    2015-01-01

    This deliverable describes the recommended architecture of the DRIVER Test Bed. The architecture description is developed in two iterations identified by the deliverable numbers D22.11 D220.12, and this deliverable concerns the second iteration, with initial and preliminary information on test bed services.

  14. Driver D220.12 DRIVER-test-bed: Architecture, Integration and Orchestration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, T.W. van den

    2015-01-01

    This deliverable describes the recommended architecture of the DRIVER Test Bed. The architecture description is developed in two iterations identified by the deliverable numbers D22.11 D220.12, and this deliverable concerns the second iteration, with initial and preliminary information on test bed s

  15. ALMA Imaging of HCN, CS and dust in Arp 220 and NGC 6240

    CERN Document Server

    Scoville, Nick; Walter, Fabian; Manohar, Swarnima; Zschaechner, Laura; Yun, Min; Koda, Jin; Sanders, David; Murchikova, Lena; Thompson, Todd; Robertson, Brant; Genzel, Reinhard; Hernquist, Lars; Tacconi, Linda; Brown, Robert; Narayanan, Desika; Hayward, Christopher C; Barnes, Joshua; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan; Davies, Richard; van der Werf, Paul; Fomalont, Edward

    2014-01-01

    We report ALMA Band 7 (350 GHz) imaging at 0.4 - 0.6arcsec resolution and Band 9 (696 GHz) at ~0.25arcsec resolution of the luminous IR galaxies Arp 220 and NGC 6240. The long wavelength dust continuum is used to estimate ISM masses for Arp 220 East, West and NGC 6240 of 1.9, 4.2 and 1.6x10^9 msun within radii of 69, 65 and 190 pc. The HCN emission was modeled to derive the emissivity distribution as a function of radius and the kinematics of each nuclear disk, yielding dynamical masses consistent with the masses and sizes derived from the dust emission. In Arp 220, the major dust and gas concentrations are at radii less than 50 pc in both counter-rotating nuclear disks. The thickness of the disks in Arp 220estimated from the velocity dispersion and rotation velocities are 10-20 pc and the mean gas densities are n_H2 ~10^5 cm^-3 at R < 50 pc. We develop an analytic treatment for the molecular excitation (including photon trapping), yielding volume densities for both the HCN and CS emission with n_H2 ~2x10^...

  16. 7 CFR Appendix A to Part 220 - Alternate Foods for Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alternate Foods for Meals A Appendix A to Part 220 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Foods for Meals I. Formulated Grain-Fruit Products 1. Schools may utilize the formulated...

  17. 5 CFR 591.220 - How does OPM calculate energy utility cost indexes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How does OPM calculate energy utility... Areas Cost-Of-Living Allowances § 591.220 How does OPM calculate energy utility cost indexes? (a) OPM calculates energy utility cost indexes based on the relative cost of maintaining a standard size dwelling...

  18. 75 FR 4805 - Electricity Market Transparency Provisions of Section 220 of the Federal Power Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission 61,039] Electricity Market Transparency Provisions of Section 220 of the...,000 MWh of electricity per year) from the Commission's jurisdiction.\\3\\ However, section 201(b)(2... collect ``information about the availability and prices'' of natural gas and electricity sold at...

  19. 49 CFR 220.43 - Radio communications consistent with federal regulations and railroad operating rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio communications consistent with federal... Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.43 Radio communications consistent with federal regulations and railroad operating rules. Radio communication shall not be used in connection with a...

  20. 49 CFR 220.29 - Statement of letters and numbers in radio communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.29 Statement of letters and numbers in radio communications. (a) If necessary for... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statement of letters and numbers in...

  1. 49 CFR 220.49 - Radio communication used in shoving, backing or pushing movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio communication used in shoving, backing or... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.49 Radio communication used in shoving, backing or...

  2. 49 CFR 220.21 - Railroad operating rules; radio communications; recordkeeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Railroad operating rules; radio communications...) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.21 Railroad operating rules; radio communications; recordkeeping. (a)...

  3. 49 CFR 220.37 - Testing radio and wireless communication equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Testing radio and wireless communication equipment... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.37 Testing radio and wireless communication equipment. (a) Each radio, and...

  4. 21 CFR 107.220 - Scope and effect of infant formula recalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. 107... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.220 Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. (a) The requirements of this subpart apply: (1) When the Food and...

  5. Thermophysiological Responses of Human Volunteers to Whole Body RF Exposure at 220 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-19

    spinal cord. Left panel: Shows FDTD model of 70 kg seated man exposed dorsally at 220 MHz; right panel: shows comparable anatomical struc- tures [ Netter ...Holland. pp 163-186. Netter FH. 1962. The CIBA collection of medical illustrations, Hensel H. 1981. Thermoreception and temperature regulation. New

  6. 30 CFR 220.011 - Schedule of allowable direct and allocable joint costs and credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... operations, or specific engineering design problems related to equipment or facilities required for NPSL..., as are contract services calling for feasibility studies not directly related to specific engineering... to NPSL operations in accordance with § 220.014. (l) Ecological and environmental. Costs incurred...

  7. 49 CFR 176.220 - Smoking or open flame and posting of warning signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Smoking or open flame and posting of warning signs... CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 2 (Compressed Gas) Materials § 176.220 Smoking or open flame and posting of warning signs. (a) Smoking or the use of open flame is prohibited in any hold...

  8. 3C 220.3: A Radio Galaxy Lensing a Submillimeter Galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, Martin; Leipski, Christian; Barthel, Peter; Wilkes, Belinda J.; Vegetti, Simona; Bussmann, R. Shane; Willner, S. P.; Westhues, Christian; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Chini, Rolf; Clements, David L.; Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Horesh, Assaf; Klaas, Ulrich; Koopmans, Léon V. E.; Kuraszkiewicz, Joanna; Lagattuta, David J.; Meisenheimer, Klaus; Stern, Daniel; Wylezalek, Dominika

    2014-01-01

    Herschel Space Observatory photometry and extensive multiwavelength follow-up have revealed that the powerful radio galaxy (PRG) 3C 220.3 at z = 0.685 acts as a gravitational lens for a background submillimeter galaxy (SMG) at z = 2.221. At an observed wavelength of 1 mm, the SMG is lensed into thre

  9. POST-STARBURST TIDAL TAILS IN THE ARCHETYPICAL ULTRA LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXY Arp 220

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, Y.; Matsubayashi, K.; Kajisawa, M.; Shioya, Y.; Ideue, Y. [Research Center for Space and Cosmic Evolution, Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Ohyama, Y. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, R.O.C (China); Nagao, T. [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwakecho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Murayama, T. [Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, Aramaki, Aoba, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Koda, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, SUNY Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    We present our new deep optical imaging and long-slit spectroscopy for Arp 220, the archetypical ultra luminous infrared galaxy in the local universe. Our sensitive H{alpha} imaging has newly revealed large-scale H{alpha} absorption, i.e., post-starburst regions in this merger. One is found in the eastern superbubble and the other is in the two tidal tails that are clearly revealed in our deep optical imaging. The size of the H{alpha} absorption region in the eastern bubble is 5 kpc Multiplication-Sign 7.5 kpc, and the observed H{alpha} equivalent widths are {approx}2 Angstrom-Sign {+-} 0.2 Angstrom-Sign . The sizes of the northern and southern H{alpha}-absorption tidal tails are {approx}5 kpc Multiplication-Sign 10 kpc and {approx}6 kpc Multiplication-Sign 20 kpc, respectively. The observed H{alpha} equivalent widths range from 4 Angstrom-Sign to 7 Angstrom-Sign . In order to explain the presence of the two post-starburst tails, we suggest a possible multiple-merger scenario for Arp 220 in which two post-starburst disk-like structures merged into one, causing the two tails. This favors Arp 220 as a multiple merging system composed of four or more galaxies arising from a compact group of galaxies. Taking our new results into account, we discuss a star formation history in the last 1 Gyr in Arp 220.

  10. ISO-SWS spectroscopy of Arp 220 : A highly obscured starburst galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, E; Lutz, D; Genzel, R; Sternberg, A; Egami, E; Kunze, D; Rigopoulou, D; Bauer, OH; Feuchtgruber, H; Moorwood, AFM; deGraauw, T

    1996-01-01

    We report the first 2.4 - 45 mu m spectroscopic study of Arp 220 obtained with the Short Wavelength Spectrometer onboard ISO. Observations of mid infrared lines penetrate deep into the highly obscured regions where the luminosity originates and give direct clues to their sources of excitation. From

  11. 20 CFR 661.220 - What are the requirements for the submission of the State Workforce Investment Plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the workforce investment system. (b) The State Plan must be submitted in accordance with planning... of the State Workforce Investment Plan? 661.220 Section 661.220 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEWIDE AND LOCAL GOVERNANCE OF THE WORKFORCE...

  12. 49 CFR 381.220 - How long will it take the agency to respond to my request for a waiver?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How long will it take the agency to respond to my request for a waiver? 381.220 Section 381.220 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... How long will it take the agency to respond to my request for a waiver? You should receive a...

  13. 20 CFR 627.220 - Coordination with programs under title IV of the Higher Education Act including the Pell grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the Higher Education Act including the Pell grant program. 627.220 Section 627.220 Employees' Benefits... of the Higher Education Act including the Pell grant program. (a) Coordination. Financial assistance programs under title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended (HEA) (the Pell Grant program,...

  14. 20 CFR 220.187 - If the annuitant's medical recovery was expected and the annuitant returned to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... expected and the annuitant returned to work. 220.187 Section 220.187 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD... recovery was expected and the annuitant returned to work. If the annuitant's impairment was expected to improve and the annuitant returned to full-time work with no significant medical limitations...

  15. 47 CFR 90.719 - Individual channels available for assignment in the 220-222 MHz band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual channels available for assignment in... Licensing and Use of Frequencies in the 220-222 MHz Band § 90.719 Individual channels available for assignment in the 220-222 MHz band. (a) Channels 171 through 200 are available to both Government and...

  16. 18 CFR 2.20 - Good faith requests for transmission services and good faith responses by transmitting utilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Good faith requests for transmission services and good faith responses by transmitting utilities. 2.20 Section 2.20 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL...

  17. Measurements of 222Rn and 220Rn with a Large Size Collector of Radon Progeny

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Qifan; Jia Wenyi; Fang Fang; Wang Jun; Cheng Jianping; Liu Guilin; Zhu Li

    2003-01-01

    Radon concentrations in high background radiation areas in the south are higher than those of others in China, especially 220Rn concentration is significantly high. Therefore, measurements of 222Rn and 220 Rn concentrations should be carried out there. This paper introduces a large size collector of radon progeny and its applications. The collector is a sheet of polyvinyl chloride fiber with electrostatics of (-500 V) - ( -700 V). Its size (60 mm in diameter) is larger than those of others (26 mm in diameter) that work with the same principle. The collector is more effective to adsorb radon progeny than most of others. The equipment of ZnS(Ag) Scintillation Counting System is available for large size collectors to detect radon progeny. Therefore, its sensitivity of measurement is higher than that of others.According to the different half lives of radon progeny, and based on both theory and experiments, a formula for discrimination and calculation of 222 Rn and 220Rn concentrations is deduced. The 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations were surveyed with electrostatic collectors of radon progeny on the campus of com-mercial school and some other areas in Hainan, southern China. Neither 222Rn nor 220Rn concentration was found significantly high. However, several faults underground were delineated. The collector is also used to study radon transportation. Results indicate that radon changes regularly with date when it has transported for a certain distance. Velocities of radon migration in the four media are quite different.Radon migrates more quickly in vertical tube than in the horizontal tube.

  18. GongXi与TCu220C宫内节育环临床效果比较观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麦健容; 邓晓燕

    2008-01-01

    目的:比较宫喜(GongXi)活性官腔形宫内节育环(IUD)和TCu220C IUD的临床使用效果.方法:选择自愿放置IUD的已婚育龄妇女400例,随机分成两组(200例),分别放置宫喜IUD和TCu220C IUD,并进行12个月随访观察.结果:宫喜IUD的因症取出率显著低于TCu220c IUD(P<0.05),妊娠率、脱落率、宫喜IUD与TCu220C IUD比较差异有显著性(P<0.05).结论:宫喜IUD是避孕效果优于TCu220C IUD,可在临床上推广使用.

  19. Molecular characterization of the virulent infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV strain 220-90

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaPatra Scott E

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV is the type species of the genus Novirhabdovirus, within the family Rhabdoviridae, infecting several species of wild and hatchery reared salmonids. Similar to other rhabdoviruses, IHNV has a linear single-stranded, negative-sense RNA genome of approximately 11,000 nucleotides. The IHNV genome encodes six genes; the nucleocapsid, phosphoprotein, matrix protein, glycoprotein, non-virion protein and polymerase protein genes, respectively. This study describes molecular characterization of the virulent IHNV strain 220-90, belonging to the M genogroup, and its phylogenetic relationships with available sequences of IHNV isolates worldwide. Results The complete genomic sequence of IHNV strain 220-90 was determined from the DNA of six overlapping clones obtained by RT-PCR amplification of genomic RNA. The complete genome sequence of 220-90 comprises 11,133 nucleotides (GenBank GQ413939 with the gene order of 3'-N-P-M-G-NV-L-5'. These genes are separated by conserved gene junctions, with di-nucleotide gene spacers. An additional uracil nucleotide was found at the end of the 5'-trailer region, which was not reported before in other IHNV strains. The first 15 of the 16 nucleotides at the 3'- and 5'-termini of the genome are complementary, and the first 4 nucleotides at 3'-ends of the IHNV are identical to other novirhadoviruses. Sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis of the glycoprotein genes show that 220-90 strain is 97% identical to most of the IHNV strains. Comparison of the virulent 220-90 genomic sequences with less virulent WRAC isolate shows more than 300 nucleotides changes in the genome, which doesn't allow one to speculate putative residues involved in the virulence of IHNV. Conclusion We have molecularly characterized one of the well studied IHNV isolates, 220-90 of genogroup M, which is virulent for rainbow trout, and compared phylogenetic relationship with North American

  20. MCu IUD与TCu220C IUD的临床效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵培玲; 赵传富

    2011-01-01

    目的观察MCu IUD和TCu220C IUD的临床效果。方法选择2008年3月至5月在我站自愿要求放置IUD避孕而无禁忌症的已婚育龄妇女680例,随机分为2组,每组340例,分别放置MCu IUD和TCu220C IUD,于置器后1、3、6和12个月进行随访,以生命表法统计2种IUD的使用情况。结果2种IUD使用12个月的妊娠率、脱落率、因症取出率和续用率分别为:MCu IUD 0,1.47%,2.06%,96.47%;TCu220C 0.88%,8.53%,6.47%,84.12%,经统计学处理。2种IUD妊娠率比较,差异无统计学意义(P〉0.05);MCu IUD的脱落率明显低于TCu220C,差异有统计学意义(P〈0.01);因症取出率MCuIUD低于TCu220C IUD,差异有统计学意义(P〈0.05);续用率MCu IUD明显高于TCu220C IUD,差异有统计学意义(P〈0.01)。结论MCu IUD具有脱落率低,因症取出率低,续用率高的优点,值得在临床推广应用。

  1. Simulation Research of Interval Analysis Method for Measuring 220 Rn%多时间分析方法测量220Rn的仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜拥军; 付德顺; 曹真伟; 易凌帆

    2014-01-01

    The kind of multiple time analysis method was used to measure and track the bas-ic principle of radon activity and the corresponding calculation formula .According to ran-dom nuclear signal in time a poison distribution ,it produces the data of decay pulse serials of radon and its daughters by using matlab and using time interval method analyzed .the re-sults show that the time interval analysis method was effectiveness for measuring the low activity radon events in the high background .%采用多时间分析方法测量和追踪氡活度,以M atlab软件仿真方式,对产生220 Rn及其子体的核脉冲随机序列数据进行多时间分析,结果表明,该方法能够在天然本底和其他本底环境(如222 Rn)的干扰(氡混合场中)情况下有效测量低活度220 Rn的平均浓度。

  2. Effect of Y220C mutation on p53 and its rescue mechanism: a computer chemistry approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauf, Shah Md Abdur; Endou, Akira; Takaba, Hiromitsu; Miyamoto, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Mutation causes inactivation of 'p53' tumor suppressor protein in almost fifty percent of cancers in humans. Outside the DNA-binding surface of p53, Y220C is the most common cancerous mutation. Previous studies have shown that a surface cavity is created by this mutation which destabilizes p53. PhiKan083, a carbazole derivative capable of binding with that cavity, and slows down its thermal denaturation rate. We investigated, theoretically, on mechanisms of structural stability loss due to Y220C mutation and mechanisms of stability restoration by PhiKan083 at the atomic level. From this study it is found that in Tp53C, Tyr220 has five electrostatic interactions with residues Val 147, Prol51, Pro153 and Pro223 located on S3/S4 loop and S7/S8 loop. The S7/S8 loop is stabilized by these electrostatic interactions. Due to the Y220C mutation all these electrostatic interactions are lost. As a result the structural fluctuation occurs at S7/S8 loop, and the loop is displaced from its original position after 6 ns MD simulation. When PhiKan083 is present (inserted) at the mutation site it provides five electrostatic interactions with Pro155, Glu221 and Thr230, and two hydrogen bonds with Leu145 and Asp228, respectively. These interactions provided by Pkikan083 stabilized the S7/S8 loop, and as a result it couldn't be displaced. Our results showed that due to Y220C mutation p53 became destabilized through structural fluctuations surrounding the mutation site. When PhiKan083 is present at the Y220C mutation site (in 2vuk), it provides electrostatic and hydrogen bonding interactions among residue-220, its neighboring residues and PhiKan08. These interactions give additional stability to Y220C mutant p53, thus Y220C mutant p53 doesn't destabilize.

  3. Results from a Calibration of XENON100 Using a Source of Dissolved Radon-220

    CERN Document Server

    Aprile, E; Agostini, F; Alfonsi, M; Amaro, F D; Anthony, M; Arneodo, F; Barrow, P; Baudis, L; Bauermeister, B; Benabderrahmane, M L; Berger, T; Breur, P A; Brown, A; Brown, E; Bruenner, S; Bruno, G; Budnik, R; Butikofer, L; Calven, J; Cardoso, J M R; Cervantes, M; Cichon, D; Coderre, D; Colijn, A P; Conrad, J; Cussonneau, J P; Decowski, M P; dePerio, P; DiGangi, P; DiGiovanni, A; Diglio, S; Duchovni, E; Eurin, G; Fei, J; Ferella, A D; Fieguth, A; Franco, D; Fulgione, W; Rosso, A Gallo; Galloway, M; Gao, F; Garbini, M; Geis, C; Goetzke, L W; Grandi, L; Greene, Z; Grignon, C; Hasterok, C; Hogenbirk, E; Itay, R; Kaminsky, B; Kessler, G; Kish, A; Landsman, H; Lang, R F; Lellouch, D; Levinson, L; LeCalloch, M; Lin, Q; Lindemann, S; Lindner, M; Lopes, J A M; Manfredini, A; Maris, I; Undagoitia, T Marrodan; Masbou, J; Massoli, F V; Masson, D; Mayani, D; Meng, Y; Messina, M; Micheneau, K; Miguez, B; Molinario, A; Murra, M; Naganoma, J; Ni, K; Oberlack, U; Orrigo, S E A; Pakarha, P; Pelssers, B; Persiani, R; Piastra, F; Pienaar, J; Piro, M -C; lante, G P; Priel, N; Rauch, L; Reichard, S; Reuter, C; Rizzo, A; Rosendahl, S; Rupp, N; Saldanha, R; dosSantos, J M F; Sartorelli, G; Scheibelhut, M; Schindler, S; Schreiner, J; Schumann, M; Lavina, L Scotto; Selvi, M; Shagin, P; Shockley, E; Silva, M; Simgen, H; Sivers, M v; Stein, A; Thers, D; Tiseni, A; Trinchero, G; Tunnell, C; Upole, N; Wang, H; Wei, Y; Weinheimer, C; Wulf, J; Ye, J; Zhang, Y

    2016-01-01

    A Rn-220 source is deployed on the XENON100 dark matter detector in order to address the challenges in calibration of tonne-scale liquid noble element detectors. We show that the Pb-212 beta emission can be used for low-energy electronic recoil calibration in searches for dark matter. The isotope spreads throughout the entire active region of the detector, and its activity naturally decays below background level within a week after the source is closed. We find no increase in the activity of the troublesome Rn-222 background after calibration. Alpha emitters are also distributed throughout the detector and facilitate calibration of its response to Rn-222. Using the delayed coincidence of Rn-220/Po-216, we map for the first time the convective motion of particles in the XENON100 detector. Additionally, we make a competitive measurement of the half-life of Po-212, t = 293.9+-(1.0)+-(0.6) ns.

  4. Rheological effects of commercial waxes and polyphosphoric acid in bitumen 160/220 low temperature performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ylva Edwards; Yuksel Tasdemir; Ulf Isacsson [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm (Sweden). Division of Highway Engineering

    2006-05-15

    Effects of adding three commercial waxes and a polyphosphoric acid to three bitumens of 160/220 penetration grade were studied using different types of laboratory equipment, such as dynamic shear rheometer (DSR), bending beam rheometer (BBR), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), force ductilometer (FD) as well as equipment for determining conventional parameters like penetration, softening point and Fraass breaking point. The paper deals with low-temperature effects, which could influence the thermal cracking resistance of asphalt concrete pavements. The results show that magnitude and type of effect on bitumen rheology depend on the bitumen itself as well as type and amount of additive used. Bitumen composition was found to be of decisive importance. Adding polyethylene wax or polyphosphoric acid, especially to non-waxy 160/220-penetration grade bitumen, showed positive effects on the rheological behaviour at low temperatures. 24 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. THREE-DIMENSIONAL FLOW AROUND TWO TANDEM CIRCULAR CYLINDERS WITH VARIOUS SPACING AT Re=220

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The flow around two tandem circular cylinders was studied by a three-dimensional numerical simulation of the Navier-Stokes equations at Re=220. The improved virtual boundary method was applied to model the no-slip boundary condition of the cylinders. The results show that as the spacing ratio L/D ≥4, the three dimensionality occurs in the wake. When L/D≤3.5 the wake keeps a two-dimensional state at the Reynolds number Re=220. The critical spacing for the appearance of three-dimensional instability obtained is at the range 3.5<L/D<4, similar to the critical spacing found in two-dimensional case. Two sources of instability from upstream and downstream cylinder generate a complicated vortex structures in the wake, investigated by streamlines topology analysis in the streamwise plane. Many other interesting problems were also addressed in this paper.

  6. Comparison of outdoor activity size distributions of {sup 220}Rn and {sup 222}Rn progeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, El-Minia University (Egypt)]. E-mail: amermohamed6@hotmail.com; El-Hussein, A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, El-Minia University (Egypt)

    2005-06-01

    Inhalation of {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn progeny from the domestic environment contributes the greatest fraction of the natural radiation exposure to the public. Dosimetric models are most often used in the assessment of human lung doses due to inhaled radioactivity because of the difficulty in making direct measurements. These models require information about the parameters of activity size distributions of thoron and radon progeny. The present study presents measured data on the attached and unattached activity size distributions of thoron and radon progeny in outdoor air in El-Minia, Egypt. The attached fraction was collected using a low-pressure Berner cascade impactor technique. A screen diffusion battery was used for collecting the unattached fraction. Most of the attached activities for {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn progeny were associated with aerosol particles of the accumulation mode. The activity size distribution of thoron progeny was found to be shifted to slightly smaller particle size compared to radon progeny.

  7. 智能手机 摩托罗拉MP x220

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙猫

    2005-01-01

    MPx220是摩托罗拉第一款正式进人中国市场的使用Smartphone操作系统的智能手机处理器为204MHZ的德州仪器OMAP161,带有64MB RAM和32MB ROM,操作系统版本为Windows Mobile 2003 SE。Smartphone的大卖点便是与Windows良好的兼容性,

  8. ALMA IMAGING OF HCN, CS, AND DUST IN ARP 220 AND NGC 6240

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scoville, Nick; Manohar, Swarnima; Murchikova, Lena [California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sheth, Kartik [North American ALMA Science Center, National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22901 (United States); Walter, Fabian; Zschaechner, Laura [Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Yun, Min [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Koda, Jin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Sanders, David; Barnes, Joshua [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, HI 96822 (United States); Thompson, Todd [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Robertson, Brant; Tacconi, Linda; Narayanan, Desika [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson AZ 85721 (United States); Genzel, Reinhard; Davies, Richard [Max-Planck-Institut fur extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Hernquist, Lars [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Brown, Robert [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22901 (United States); Hayward, Christopher C. [TAPIR 350-17, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kartaltepe, Jeyhan [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); and others

    2015-02-10

    We report ALMA Band 7 (350 GHz) imaging at 0.''4-0.''6 resolution and Band 9 (696 GHz) at ∼0.''25 resolution of the luminous IR galaxies Arp 220 and NGC 6240. The long wavelength dust continuum is used to estimate interstellar medium masses for Arp 220 east and west and NGC 6240 of 1.9, 4.2, and 1.6 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}within radii of 69, 65, and 190 pc. The HCN emission was modeled to derive the emissivity distribution as a function of radius and the kinematics of each nuclear disk, yielding dynamical masses consistent with the masses and sizes derived from the dust emission. In Arp 220, the major dust and gas concentrations are at radii less than 50 pc in both counter-rotating nuclear disks. The thickness of the disks in Arp 220 estimated from the velocity dispersion and rotation velocities are 10-20 pc and the mean gas densities are n{sub H{sub 2}}∼10{sup 5} cm{sup –3} at R <50 pc. We develop an analytic treatment for the molecular excitation (including photon trapping), yielding volume densities for both the HCN and CS emission with n {sub H2} ∼ 2 × 10{sup 5} cm{sup –3}. The agreement of the mean density from the total mass and size with that required for excitation suggests that the volume is essentially filled with dense gas, i.e., it is not cloudy or like swiss cheese.

  9. Release behavior of cupric ions for TCu380A and TCu220C IUDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Bianmei; Zheng Yudong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing (China); Xi Tingfei [National Institute for the Control of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products, Beijing (China)], E-mail: xitingfei@tom.com

    2008-12-15

    We immersed copper T380A and T220C IUDs in simulated uterine solution (SUS) and also in simulated body fluid (SBF). The release rate and corrosion products of copper ions after soaking in SUS and SBF for different time spans were studied by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis (SEM/EDX) and x-ray diffraction. The highest corrosion rate of the TCu380A IUD was obtained on the first day, while the highest corrosion rate of the TCu220C IUD was obtained on the third day. The copper corrosion rate of the TCu380A IUD was much faster than that of the TCu220C IUD in the first few days. The corrosion extent of copper wire was higher than that of a copper tube when first immersed in solution. For the same IUD in the same solution, the corrosion extent in SBF was higher than in SUS. The main compounds identified were cuprite (Cu{sub 2}O). Copper wire and copper tubes were implanted in the uteruses of rats. In vivo experiments were also done. The corrosion rate in vivo was higher than that in vitro.

  10. Post-starburst Tidal Tails in the Archetypical Ultra Luminous Infrared Galaxy Arp 220

    CERN Document Server

    Taniguchi, Y; Kajisawa, M; Shioya, Y; Ohyama, Y; Nagao, T; Ideue, Y; Murayama, T; Koda, J

    2012-01-01

    We present our new deep optical imaging and long-slit spectroscopy for Arp 220 that is the archetypical ULIRG in the local universe. Our sensitive Ha imaging has newly revealed large-scale, Ha absorption, i.e., post-starburst regions in this merger; one is found in the eastern superbubble and the other is in the two tidal tails that are clearly reveled in our deep optical imaging. The size of Ha absorption region in the eastern bubble is 5 kpc x 7.5 kpc and the observed Ha equivalent widths are ~2 A +- 0.2 A. The sizes of the northern and southern Ha-absorption tidal tails are ~5 kpc x 10 kpc and ~6 kpc x 20 kpc, respectively. The observed Ha equivalent widths range from 4 A to 7 A. In order to explain the presence of the two post-starburst tails, we suggest a possible multiple-merger scenario for Arp 220 in which two post-starburst disk-like structures merged into one, and then caused the two tails. This favors that Arp 220 is a multiple merging system composed of four or more galaxies, arising from a compac...

  11. Excited OH+, H2O+, and H3O+ in NGC 4418 and Arp 220

    CERN Document Server

    González-Alfonso, E; Bruderer, S; Müller, H S P; Graciá-Carpio, J; Sturm, E; Lutz, D; Poglitsch, A; Feuchtgruber, H; Veilleux, S; Contursi, A; Sternberg, A; Hailey-Dunsheath, S; Verma, A; Christopher, N; Davies, R; Genzel, R; Tacconi, L

    2012-01-01

    We report on Herschel/PACS observations of absorption lines of OH+, H2O+ and H3O+ in NGC 4418 and Arp 220. Excited lines of OH+ and H2O+ with E_lower of at least 285 and \\sim200 K, respectively, are detected in both sources, indicating radiative pumping and location in the high radiation density environment of the nuclear regions. Abundance ratios OH+/H2O+ of 1-2.5 are estimated in the nuclei of both sources. The inferred OH+ column and abundance relative to H nuclei are (0.5-1)x10^{16} cm-2 and \\sim2x10^{-8}, respectively. Additionally, in Arp 220, an extended low excitation component around the nuclear region is found to have OH+/H2O+\\sim5-10. H3O+ is detected in both sources with N(H3O+)\\sim(0.5-2)x10^{16} cm-2, and in Arp 220 the pure inversion, metastable lines indicate a high rotational temperature of ~500 K, indicative of formation pumping and/or hot gas. Simple chemical models favor an ionization sequence dominated by H+ - O+ - OH+ - H2O+ - H3O+, and we also argue that the H+ production is most likely...

  12. The residual stress instrument with optimized Si(220) monochromator and position-sensitive detector at HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang-Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yusung, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Myung-Kook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yusung, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: moonmk@kaeri.re.kr; Em, Vyacheslav T. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yusung, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Young-Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yusung, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Cheon, Jong-Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yusung, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Uk-Won [Korea Astronomy Observatory, Yusung, Daejon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Kong, Kyung-Nam [Korea Astronomy Observatory, Yusung, Daejon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-06-11

    An upgraded residual stress instrument at the HANARO reactor of the KAERI is described. A horizontally focusing bent perfect crystal Si(220) monochromator (instead of a mosaic vertical focusing Ge monochromator) is installed in a drum with a tunable (2{theta}{sub M}=0-60{sup o}) take-off angle/wavelength. A specially designed position-sensitive detector (60% efficiency for {lambda}=1.8A) with 200mm (instead of 100mm) high-active area is used. There are no Soller type collimators in the instrument. The minimum possible monochromator to sample distance, L{sub MS}=2m, and sample to detector distance, L{sub SD}=1.2m, were found to be optimal. The new PSD and bent Si(220) monochromator combined with the possibility of selecting an appropriate wavelength resulted in about a ten-fold gain in data collection rate. The optimal reflections of austenitic and ferritic steels, aluminum and nickel for stress measurements with a Si(220) monochromator were chosen experimentally. The ability of the instrument to make strain measurements deep inside the austenitic and ferritic steels has been tested. For the chosen reflections and wavelengths, no shift of peak position (apparent strain) was observed up to 56mm length of path.

  13. Clinical Observation on the Efficacy of GyneFixTM IN IUD and TCu220C IUD%GyneFix IN与TCu220C宫内节育器临床使用效果比较观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓艳

    2006-01-01

    目的:比较吉妮固定式宫内节育器(IUD)和TCu220C IUD的临床使用效果.方法:选择自愿放置IUD的已婚育龄妇女600例,随机分成两组(各300例),分别放置吉妮IUD和TCu220C IUD,并进行24个月随访观察.结果:吉妮IUD的脱落率显著低于TCu20C IUD(P<0.05),妊娠率、因症取出率及终止率,吉妮IUD与TCu220C IUD比较,有显著性差异(P<0.05).结论:吉妮IUD是避孕效果优于TCu220C IUD,可在临床上推广使用.

  14. BOD-220型快速测定仪在水质分析中的对比研究%Comparative research on water quality analysis of BOD-220 rapid tester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晋红

    2012-01-01

    By taking the experimental research, the study undertakes the comparative analysis of the water quality inspection with BOD-220 rapid tester in different water quality and various pre-treatment temperatures, analyzes the experimental results, and concludes the eonditions of inspecting complicated water samples with BOD-220 rapid tester.%通过实验研究,进行了不同水质、不同预处理温度下BOD-220型快速测定仪监测水质的对比分析,并对实验结果作了剖析.得到了用BOD-220型快速测定仪监测复杂水样的条件。

  15. 浅谈220 kV交联聚乙烯电缆绝缘收缩率%Analysis on Insulation Shrinkage of 220 kV XLPE Cable

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查传忠

    2013-01-01

    阐述了高压交联聚乙烯(XLPE)绝缘收缩的原因,以悬链式生产线为例列举降低220 kV XLPE绝缘收缩的相应技术措施,通过实际工艺验证220 kV XLPE绝缘收缩率能够达到不大于4%的指标.

  16. 220 kV同塔四回线路带电作业的探讨%Discussion of Live Work on 220 kV Same-tower-four-circuit Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡伟; 李广帅

    2013-01-01

    With 220 kV same-tower-four-circuit HV transmission lines continuously put into operation in Hangzhou, the problems line maintenance by outage faces become increasingly visible. By investigation on safety distance for live work on 220 kV same-tower-four-circuit transmission lines, ways to enter into strong electric field,analysis on safety of live work, dangerous point and precautions,the paper discusses feasibility of live work on 220 kV same-tower-four-circuit transmission lines.%随着杭州地区220 kV同塔四回高压输电线路的不断投入运行,线路停电检修工作面临问题日益凸显。通过研究220 kV同塔架设四回输电线路带电作业的安全距离、进入强电场方法、带电作业安全性分析、危险点及预控措施分析等一系列关键问题,探讨了220 kV同塔架设四回输电线路带电作业的可行性。

  17. A Splenic Marginal Zone-Like Peripheral Blood CD27+B220− B Cell Population Is Preferentially Depleted in HIV Type 1-Infected Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Morrow, Matthew; Valentin, Antonio; Little, Richard; Yarchoan, Robert; Pavlakis, George N.

    2008-01-01

    Peripheral blood CD27+ B cells are reduced in HIV-1-infected individuals. In healthy individuals, the human peripheral blood CD27+ B cell pool consists of two subsets defined by the expression, or lack thereof, of the CD45 isoform B220. We investigated the presence of circulating B220+ and B220− memory B cells in HIV+ individuals and found that the reduction in CD27+ memory B cells occurs primarily among CD27+B220− B cells. Studies conducted using healthy controls indicate that CD27+B220− B c...

  18. Analysis of HPV examination in 220 female Mongolian outpatients%蒙古族门诊体检女性220例HPV检测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭兰英; 孟和; 张明

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究内蒙古地区的蒙古族女性人乳头瘤病毒(HPV)检测的优势亚型,为宫颈癌疫苗的研发和本地区投放应用提供依据.方法 通过凯普导流杂交HPV-DNA检测法(HybriMax),对220例门诊体检的蒙古族女性进行HPV21种亚型的检测并分析.结果 检测的220例标本中,HPV阳性标本为37例,阳性率为16.8%.HPV感染率由高到低的前6位HPV亚型依次为HPV16(35.4%),58(18.9%),33 (8.1%)、52(5.4%)、56(5.4%)、6(5.4%).高危型HPV在人群中所占的比率合计占91.9%,而低危亚型仅占8.1%,二组相比,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 本次研究的蒙古族女性中HPV感染的亚型分布以16、58、33、6型为主,尤其以16亚型所占比率最高.在年龄分组中,30~40岁组中的HPV感染率明显高于其他组.有必要对该地区的重点人群进行HPV疫苗的科普宣传,提高认知程度.%Objective To investigate the predominant subtype of human papillomavirus ( HPV ) in Inner Mongolia region in order to provide the information for cervical cancer vaccine research and application. Methods Twenty - one HPV genotypes were examined with DNA flow -through hybridization technique ( HybriMax ) in 220 female Inner Mongolian outpatients. The results were analyzed. Results Of 220 women, 37 were HPV - positive( 17% ). HPV subtypes found in descending order of frequency were HPV 16 ( 35. 4% ), 58( 18.9% ) , 33( 8. 1% ), and 6 (5.4% ). The total of the high -risk HPV types in the proportion of the population accounted for 91. 9% , while only 8. 1% of low - risk types. Conclusion The study indicates HPV subtypes 16 , 58, 33 , and 6 are predominant especially the highest proportion of HPV 16 infection in Mongolian women. It is necessary to strengthen the health education for HPV vaccine.

  19. A RANDOMIZED COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MENSTRUAL PATTERNS IN MEGESTROL ACETATE IUD AND TCu220c IUD USERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANJun-Hong; PANJia-Xiang; ZHANGYa-Qin; KANGJin-Fang; LINGXiu-Ying

    1989-01-01

    This is a randomized comparative study of menstrual patterns between 30 cases of megestrol acetate IUD users and 30 cases using TCu220c IUD before and at the Ist, 3rd, 6th and 12th cycles after insertion.

  20. Efficient cleavage of p220 by poliovirus 2Apro expression in mammalian cells: effects on vaccinia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldabe, R; Feduchi, E; Novoa, I; Carrasco, L

    1995-10-24

    Poliovirus protease 2A cleaves p220, a component of initiation factor eIF-4F. Polyclonal antibodies that recognize p220 and the cleaved products from different species have been raised. Transfection of several cell lines with poliovirus 2Apro cloned in different plasmids leads to efficient cleavage of p220 upon infection with VT7, a recombinant vaccinia virus that expresses the T7 RNA polymerase. Under these conditions vaccinia virus protein synthesis is severely inhibited, while expression of poliovirus protein 2C from a similar plasmid has no effect. These results show by the first time the effects of p220 cleavage on vaccinia virus translation in the infected cells.

  1. Estelle Specification of MIL-STD 188-220 Datalink Layer Interoperability Standard for Digital Message Transfer Device Subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-11-01

    ESTELLE SPECIFICATION OF MIL- STD 188-220 DATALINK LAYER* INTEROPERABILITY STANDARD FOR DIGITAL MESSAGE TRANSFER DEVICE SUBSYSTEMS Hao Li Paul...Estelle specification. 1. Introduction The military standard "Interoperability Standard for Digital Message Transfer Device Subsystems" (MIL- STD -188- 220...5,6] represents the army’s focused efforts to digitize the battlefield. The army is hoping that by 2001, all systems will either use MIL- STD -188

  2. 110-220kV XLPE电缆绝缘在线检测技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芷合

    2013-01-01

    with the development of power grid in China, accelerating the pace of, 110 220kV XLPE cable as an important part of power system, the online detection has been attached great importance to the power sector. However, the current situation on the on-line insulation monitoring for 110 220kV XLPE cable, but there are stil some problems to be solved. Therefore, the system research to the on-line insulation detection technology of 110-220kV of XLPE cable.%随着我国电网发展脚步的不断加快,110-220kV XLPE电缆作为电力系统中的重要组成部分,对其进行在线检测也得到了电力部门的高度重视。然而就目前关于110-220kV XLPE电缆绝缘在线检测的现状来看,却仍然存在一些有待解决的问题。因此,本文针对110-220kV XLPE电缆的绝缘在线检测技术进行了系统的研究。

  3. Monte Carlo calculations of LR115 detector response to {sup 222}Rn in the presence of {sup 220}Rn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikezic, D.; Yu, K.N.

    2000-04-01

    The sensitivities (in m) of bare LR115 detectors and detectors in diffusion chambers to {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn chains are calculated by the Monte Carlo method. The partial sensitivities of bare detectors to the {sup 222}Rn chain are larger than those to the {sup 220}Rn chain, which is due to the higher energies of alpha particles in the {sup 220}Rn chain and the upper energy limit for detection for the LR115 detector. However, the total sensitivities are approximately equal because {sup 220}Rn is always in equilibrium with its first progeny, which is not the case for the {sup 222}Rn chain. The total sensitivity of bare LR115 detectors to {sup 222}Rn chain depends linearly on the equilibrium factor. The overestimation in {sup 222}Rn measurements with bare detectors caused by {sup 220}Rn in air can reach 10% in normal environmental conditions. An analytical relationship between the equilibrium factor and the ratio between track densities on the bare detector and the detector enclosed in chamber is given in the last part of the paper. This ratio is also affected by {sup 220}Rn, which can disturb the determination of the equilibrium factor.

  4. {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn concentrations in soil gas of Karkonosze-Izera Block (Sudetes, Poland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malczewski, Dariusz [Faculty of Earth Sciences, University of Silesia, Bedzinska 60, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Silesia (Poland)]. E-mail: malczews@us.edu.pl; Zaba, Jerzy [Faculty of Earth Sciences, University of Silesia, Bedzinska 60, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Silesia (Poland)]. E-mail: jzaba@interia.pl

    2007-07-01

    Soil gas {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn concentrations were measured at 18 locations in the Karkonosze-Izera Block area in southwestern Poland. Measurements were carried out in surface air and at sampling depths of 10, 40 and 80 cm. Surface air {sup 222}Rn concentrations ranged from 4 to 2160 Bq m{sup -3} and {sup 220}Rn ranged from 4 to 228 Bq m{sup -3}. The concentrations for 10 and 40 cm varied from 142 Bq m{sup -3} to 801 kBq m{sup -3} and 102 Bq m{sup -3} to 64 kBq m{sup -3} for {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn, respectively. At 80 cm {sup 222}Rn concentrations ranged from 94 Bq m{sup -3} to >1 MBq m{sup -3}. The {sup 220}Rn concentrations at 80 cm varied from 45 Bq m{sup -3} to 48 kBq m{sup -3}. The concentration versus depth profiles for {sup 222}Rn differed for soils developed on fault zones, uranium deposits or both. Atmospheric air temperature and soil gas {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn were negatively correlated. At sampling sites with steep slopes, {sup 220}Rn concentrations decreased with depth.

  5. Study on clinical application effect of copper T220 intrauterine devices and activeγ-IUD Ⅱintrauterine devices%TGU220IUD和安舒型IUD临床应用效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁洁芳

    2013-01-01

    目的 评价TGU220 IUD和安舒型IUD的临床应用效果,为推广新型IUD提供依据.方法 随机抽取2011年1月-2012年1月放置TGU220 IUD和安舒型IUD已婚育龄妇女各400例,随访1年,观察2种IUD使用效果及不良反应发生情况.结果随访1年,失访37例,TGU220 IUD组随访378例,安舒型IUD组随访385例.2组12个月带器妊娠率和非因症取出率比较差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05);安舒型IUD组12个月累计脱落率、因症取出率和总终止率低于TGU220 IUD组,12个月总续用率明显高于TGU220 IUD组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05,P<0.01).安舒型IUD组不良反应发生率为7.0%低于TGU220 IUD组的20.1%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 2种IUD避孕效果可靠,但安舒型IUD在脱落率、因症取出率及不良反应发生率方面均低于TGU220 IUD组.

  6. 纳米铜IUD和TCu220C IUD细胞毒性研究%Comparison of In Vitro Cytotoxicity of Nano-copper and TCu220C IUD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊; 朱长虹; 胡利霞

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the cytotoxicity of nano-copper IUDand TCu220C IUD with mouse fibroblast cells. Methods Leaching liquors of nano-copper IUD and TCu220C IUD were prepared with Cell culture fluid. The proliferation of L-929 cells was measured by tetrazolium colorimetric assay (MTT), and the morphology of the cells were observed by inverted microscope. Results The cytotoxicity of nano-copper IUD group was 1~2, but the TCu220C group was2~4. Conclusion Nano-copper IUD present more cytocompatibility.%目的评价纳米铜IUD和TCu220C IUD的体外细胞毒性。方法采用纳米铜材料IUD和TCu220C IUD,用细胞完全培养液做浸提介质分别浸提24 h、72 h制备相应浸提液,与L929细胞接触培养,通过采取MTT(四唑盐)比色法测定细胞毒性和倒置显微镜观察细胞形态来进行毒性评价。结果纳米铜IUD细胞毒性分级为1~2级,TCu220C IUD细胞毒性分级为2~4级。结论纳米铜IUD较TCu220C IUD对细胞生长情况影响小,细胞相容性更好。

  7. EXTREME DUST DISKS IN Arp 220 AS REVEALED BY ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, C. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada); Rangwala, N.; Glenn, J.; Maloney, P. R. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, 389-UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Spinoglio, L.; Pereira-Santaella, M. [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, INAF-IAPS, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy)

    2014-07-10

    We present new images of Arp 220 from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array with the highest combination of frequency (691 GHz) and resolution (0.''36 × 0.''20) ever obtained for this prototypical ultraluminous infrared galaxy. The western nucleus is revealed to contain warm (200 K) dust that is optically thick (τ{sub 434} {sub μm} = 5.3), while the eastern nucleus is cooler (80 K) and somewhat less opaque (τ{sub 434} {sub μm} = 1.7). We derive full width at half-maximum diameters of 76 × ≤ 70 pc and 123 × 79 pc for the western and eastern nucleus, respectively. The two nuclei combined account for (83{sub −38}{sup +65} (calibration) {sub −34}{sup +0} (systematic))% of the total infrared luminosity of Arp 220. The luminosity surface density of the western nucleus (log (σT{sup 4})=14.3±0.2{sub −0.7}{sup +0} in units of L {sub ☉} kpc{sup –2}) appears sufficiently high to require the presence of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) or a ''hot starburst'', although the exact value depends sensitively on the brightness distribution adopted for the source. Although the role of any central AGN remains open, the inferred mean gas column densities of (0.6-1.8) × 10{sup 25} cm{sup –2} mean that any AGN in Arp 220 must be Compton-thick.

  8. Multiple reflection-asymmetric type band structures in $^{220}Th$ and dinuclear model

    CERN Document Server

    Shneidman, T M; Antonenko, N V; Jolos, R V; Scheid, W

    2010-01-01

    The negative parity bands in $^{220}$Th are analyzed within the dinuclear system model which was previously used for describing the alternating-parity bands in deformed actinides. The model is based on the assumption that cluster type shapes are produced by the motion of nuclear system in the mass-asymmetry coordinate. To describe the reflection-asymmetric collective modes characterized by nonzero values of $K$, the intrinsic excitations of clusters are taken into account. The angular momentum dependence of the parity splitting and the staggering behavior of the $B(E1)/B(E2)$ ratios as functions of angular momentum are explained.

  9. Grid integration study of a wind farm in a 220 kV grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, E.; Alvarez-Ortega, C. [Energy to Quality, S.L., Madrid (Spain)

    2012-07-01

    An electrical feasibility study of a wind farm project in a 220 kV grid is presented. Present and future high voltage grid is studied. The comparison of the main electrical parameters between the electrical grid with and without the addition of a 120 MW wind farm is performed in order to demonstrate that the wind farm is performed in order to demonstrate that the wind farm has no negative effects over the transmission system. The obtained results allow concluding that the wind farm under study will not cause significant perturbations on the power grid. (orig.)

  10. 基于α能谱法220Rn子体连续测量方法研究%Study on Continuous Measurement Method of 220 Rn Progeny Concentration Based on αSpectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴喜军; 肖德涛; 单健; 李志强; 丘寿康; 何正忠; 李超

    2014-01-01

    本文基于α能谱法建立了无需频繁更换滤膜的220 Rn子体连续测量方法,并在南华大学氡实验室开展了与标准220 Rn子体参考水平定值方法的220 Rn子体水平测量的对比研究。结果表明:在高220 Rn子体水平测量环境中,ThB和ThC 8个测量周期的测量结果与参考方法的测量结果相差5.0%与7.0%左右。在低220 Rn子体水平测量环境中,T hB 4个测量周期的测量结果与参考方法的测量结果相差控制在4.5%以内,T hC的控制在10.0%左右。在220 Rn子体水平为100 Bq/m3左右的测量环境中,T hB和T hC的总不确定度均控制在5%左右;采样过程中沉积在滤膜上的气溶胶对滤膜自吸收的影响可忽略。该方法的建立将为222 Rn/220 Rn子体的准确、快速、连续测量提供技术手段。%A new method of continuous measurement of the concentration of 220 Rn prog‐eny without replacing membrane frequently was established based on αspectroscopy .A comparison study between the new method and the standard method for determination 220 Rn progeny reference levels was carried out in the radon laboratory of the University of South China .T he results show that under the high level measurement environment of 220 Rn progeny ,the relative difference of the two method is 5.0% for ThB and 7.0% for ThC during eight measurement periods .Under the low level measurement environment of 220 Rn progeny ,ThB relative difference of the two methods is controlled within 4.5%and that of ThC is controlled at about 10.0% during four measurement periods .The total uncertainty of ThB and ThC is controlled at about 5% for measurement 220 Rn progeny’s level of 100 Bq/m3 in the environment ,respectively .The effect of aerosols deposited on the membrane surface on membrane self‐absorption can be ignored in the process of sampling .The new method provides accuracy ,quick and continuous meas‐urement for 222 Rn/220 Rn progeny .

  11. Laser driven single shock compression of fluid deuterium from 45 to 220 GPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, D; Boehly, T; Celliers, P; Eggert, J; Moon, S; Meyerhofer, D; Collins, G

    2008-03-23

    The compression {eta} of liquid deuterium between 45 and 220 GPa under laser-driven shock loading has been measured using impedance matching to an aluminum (Al) standard. An Al impedance match model derived from a best fit to absolute Hugoniot data has been used to quantify and minimize the systematic errors caused by uncertainties in the high-pressure Al equation of state. In deuterium below 100 GPa results show that {eta} {approx_equal} 4.2, in agreement with previous impedance match data from magnetically-driven flyer and convergent-explosive shock wave experiments; between 100 and 220 GPa {eta} reaches a maximum of {approx}5.0, less than the 6-fold compression observed on the earliest laser-shock experiments but greater than expected from simple extrapolations of lower pressure data. Previous laser-driven double-shock results are found to be in good agreement with these single-shock measurements over the entire range under study. Both sets of laser-shock data indicate that deuterium undergoes an abrupt increase in compression at around 110 GPa.

  12. A Rn-220 source for the calibration of low-background experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Rafael F; Brown, Ethan; Cervantes, Mayra; Macmullin, Sean; Masson, Darryl; Schreiner, Jochen; Simgen, Hardy

    2016-01-01

    We characterize two 40 kBq sources of electrodeposited Th-228 for use in low-background experiments. The sources efficiently emanate Rn-220, a noble gas that can diffuse in a detector volume. Rn-220 and its daughter isotopes produce alpha, beta, and gamma-radiation, which may used to calibrate a variety of detector responses and features, before decaying completely in only a few days. We perform various tests to place limits on the release of other long-lived isotopes. In particular, we find an emanation of <0.008 atoms/min/kBq (90% CL) for Th-228 and 1.53 atoms/min/kBq for Ra-224. The sources lend themselves in particular to the calibration of detectors employing liquid noble elements such as argon and xenon. With the source mounted in a noble gas system, we demonstrate that filters are highly efficient in reducing the activity of these longer-lived isotopes further. We thus confirm the suitability of these sources even for use in next-generation experiments, such as XENON1T/XENONnT, LZ, and nEXO.

  13. 3C 220.3: a radio galaxy lensing a submillimeter galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Haas, Martin; Barthel, Peter; Wilkes, Belinda J; Vegetti, Simona; Bussmann, R Shane; Willner, S P; Westhues, Christian; Ashby, Matthew L N; Chini, Rolf; Clements, David L; Fassnacht, Christopher D; Horesh, Assaf; Klaas, Ulrich; Koopmans, Leon V E; Kuraszkiewicz, Joanna; Lagattuta, David J; Meisenheimer, Klaus; Stern, Daniel; Wylezalek, Dominika

    2014-01-01

    Herschel Space Observatory photometry and extensive multiwavelength followup have revealed that the powerful radio galaxy 3C 220.3 at z=0.685 acts as a gravitational lens for a background submillimeter galaxy (SMG) at z=2.221. At an observed wavelength of 1mm, the SMG is lensed into three distinct images. In the observed near infrared, these images are connected by an arc of 1.8" radius forming an Einstein half-ring centered near the radio galaxy. In visible light, only the arc is apparent. 3C 220.3 is the only known instance of strong galaxy-scale lensing by a powerful radio galaxy not located in a galaxy cluster and therefore it offers the potential to probe the dark matter content of the radio galaxy host. Lens modeling rejects a single lens, but two lenses centered on the radio galaxy host A and a companion B, separated by 1.5", provide a fit consistent with all data and reveal faint candidates for the predicted fourth and fifth images. The model does not require an extended common dark matter halo, consi...

  14. Cosmic Rays, Gamma-Rays, & Neutrinos in the Starburst Nuclei of Arp 220

    CERN Document Server

    Yoast-Hull, Tova M; Zweibel, Ellen G

    2015-01-01

    The cores of Arp 220, the closest ultra-luminous infrared starburst galaxy, provide an opportunity to study interactions of cosmic rays under extreme conditions. In this paper, we model the populations of cosmic rays produced by supernovae in the central molecular zones of both starburst nuclei. We find that ~65 - 100% of cosmic rays are absorbed in these regions due to their huge molecular gas contents, and thus, the nuclei of Arp 220 nearly complete proton calorimeters. As the cosmic ray protons collide with the interstellar medium, they produce secondary electrons that are also contained within the system and radiate synchrotron emission. Using results from chi-squared tests between the model and the observed radio spectral energy distribution, we predict the emergent gamma-ray and high-energy neutrino spectra and find the magnetic field to be at milligauss levels. Because of the extremely intense far-infrared radiation fields, the gamma-ray spectrum steepens significantly at TeV energies due to gamma-gamm...

  15. Chemically Distinct Nuclei and Outflowing Shocked Molecular Gas in Arp 220

    CERN Document Server

    Tunnard, R; Garcia-Burillo, S; Carpio, J Graciá; Fischer, J; Fuente, A; González-Alfonso, E; Hailey-Dunsheath, S; Neri, R; Sturm, E; Usero, A; Planesas, P

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of interferometric spectral line observations of Arp 220 at 3.5mm and 1.2mm from the Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI), imaging the two nuclear disks in H$^{13}$CN$(1 - 0)$ and $(3 - 2)$, H$^{13}$CO$^+(1 - 0)$ and $(3 - 2)$, and HN$^{13}$C$(3 - 2)$ as well as SiO$(2 - 1)$ and $(6 - 5)$, HC$^{15}$N$(3 - 2)$, and SO$(6_6 - 5_5)$. The gas traced by SiO$(6 - 5)$ has a complex and extended kinematic signature including a prominent P Cygni profile, almost identical to previous observations of HCO$^+(3 - 2)$. Spatial offsets $0.1''$ north and south of the continuum centre in the emission and absorption of the SiO$(6 - 5)$ P Cygni profile in the western nucleus (WN) imply a bipolar outflow, delineating the northern and southern edges of its disk and suggesting a disk radius of $\\sim40$ pc, consistent with that found by ALMA observations of Arp 220. We address the blending of SiO$(6 - 5)$ and H$^{13}$CO$^+(3 - 2)$ by considering two limiting cases with regards to the H$^{13}$CO$^+$ emission ...

  16. VLA H53alpha radio recombination line observations of the ultraluminous infrared galaxy Arp~220

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez-Rico, C A; Viallefond, F; Zhao, J H; Gómez, Y; Anantharamaiah, K R

    2005-01-01

    We present high angular resolution (0.7'') observations made with the Very Large Array (VLA) of the radio recombination line (RRL) H53alpha and radio continuum emission at 43 GHz from the ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) Arp 220. The 43 GHz continuum emission shows a compact structure (~2'') with two peaks separated by ~1'', the East (E) and West (W) components, that correspond to each galactic nucleus of the merger. The spectral indices for both the E and W components, using radio continuum images at 8.3 and 43 GHz are typical of synchrotron emission (alpha ~ -1.0). Our 43 GHz continuum and H53alpha line observations confirm the flux densities predicted by the models proposed by Anantharamaiah et al. This agreement with the models implies the presence of high-density (~ 100,000 cm^-3) compact HII regions (~ 0.1 pc) in Arp~220. The integrated H53alpha line emission is stronger toward the non-thermal radio continuum peaks, which are also coincident with the peaks of molecular emission of the H2CO. The coi...

  17. Static and dynamic analysis of 1 220 mm steel last stage blade for steam turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubín Z.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The 3 000 rpm 1 220 mm blade for a steam turbine was developed with application of new design features. The last stage moving blade is designed with an integral cover, a mid-span tie-boss connection and a fir-tree dovetail. With this configuration the blades are continuously coupled by the blade untwist due to the centrifugal force when the blades rotate at high speed, so that vibration control and increased structural damping are provided. Blade was tuned in order to eigen-frequencies were safely far from possible excitation. Because of connection members, the number of the resonant vibration modes can be reduced by virtue of the vibration characteristics of the circumferentially continuous blades. The last stage airfoil was optimalized from view of minimalization of its centrifugal force. In order to develop the 3 000 rpm 1 220 mm blade, the advanced analysis methods to predict dynamics behavior of the bladed structure were applied. Coupled rotor-blade analysis was also aim of the attention. To validate calculated results the verification measurement such as rotational vibration tests was carried out in the high-speed test rig. Relation of the friction damping of the bladed structure on amount of excitation level was also monitored and evaluated.

  18. 山推TSY220H环卫型推土机%SNANTUI model TSY220H bulldoger for sanitary fill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁兴华

    2002-01-01

    @@ 山推工程机械股份有限公司是我国生产大功率推土机等工程机械及其零部件产品的国家大型一类企业、全国500家大型机械工业企业之一.为了适应城市环保市场需要,山推加大科研开发力度,逐步调整产品结构,在形成70~320马力推土机系列的基础上,由沙漠型、湿地型、超湿地型、森林伐木型逐步研制开发出具有高效低耗、节能环保的新型工程机械产品.TSY220H环卫型推土机(图1)的设计即跟踪了国际先进的节能降耗、注重环保的设计思想.

  19. GeneFiex IN与TCu220C IUD宫内节育器避孕效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林淑清

    2006-01-01

    目的 比较GeneFiex IN IUD(吉妮致美IUD)和TCu220C IUD的临床使用效果.方法 选择自愿放置IUD的已婚育龄妇女600例,随机分成两组(各300例),分别放置吉妮致美IUD和TCu220C IUD,并进行24个月随访观察.结果 吉妮致美IUD的脱落率显著低于TCu220C IUD (P<0.05),妊娠率、因症取出率及终止率,吉妮致美IUD与TCu220C IUD比较,有显著性差异(P<0.05).结论 吉妮致美IUD的避孕效果优于TCu220C IUD,可在临床上推广使用.

  20. 220kV分区电网与互联电网供电能力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马彬; 姜明月; 王天华

    2008-01-01

    文中以如下3条为原则:根据目前设备的制造能力,新建变电站远景短路电流水平,500kV母线按63kA控制,220kV母线按50kA控制;考虑220kV地方电厂的接入对500kV变电站短路电流的影响;变电站单台变压器的最大容量和并列运行的变压器台数应使220kV母线短路容量不超过允许值。解决了220kV分区电网中允许并列运行的500kV联变的容量和台数、500kV联变容量和分区电网内发电机组容量的配合以及两个220kV分区互联后供电能力的变化问题。

  1. 低压闪烁室对220Rn浓度参考水平定值的方法%Method for Determination of 220Rn Concentration Reference Value by Low-pressure Scintillation Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭延亮; 位楠楠; 单健; 肖德涛; 袁红志

    2013-01-01

    The accurate measurement of 220Rn is important for dosimetry evaluation of natural radiation exposure.The detection efficiencies of normal scintillation cell to different energy α particles decayed from 222Rn,220Rn and their daughters are different for the large volume of normal scintillation cell.It was proposed that the range of α particles with minimum energy decayed from 222Rn could be longer than the longest distance between any two points in the scintillation cell by reducing the air pressure of scintillation cell.Thus,the detection efficiencies of the low-pressure scintillation cell to α particles decayed from 222Rn,220Rn and their daughters are same.The detection efficiency of low-pressure scintillation cell to α particles can be obtained by standard radon chamber,and then the 220Rn concentration reference value can be determined by low-pressure scintillation cell.%220Rn的准确测量是天然辐射照射剂量评价体系中的重要研究内容之一.普通闪烁室体积较大,对222Rn、220Rn及其子体衰变产生的不同能量的高能α粒子具有不同的探测效率.本文提出调低标准闪烁室内气压,使222 Rn衰变产生的能量最小的α粒子在闪烁室内的射程大于闪烁室内任意两点间最长距离,这样,低压闪烁室对222Rn、220Rn及其子体衰变产生的α粒子探测效率相同.利用标准氡室可得到低压闪烁室对α粒子探测效率,进而可使用低压闪烁室对220Rn浓度参考水平定值.

  2. 放置吉妮致美IUD与Tcu 220c IUD的临床效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任玉洁

    2010-01-01

    目的 比较吉妮致美IUD与Tcu220c IUD的临床使用效果.方法 选择自愿放置新型IUD的已婚育龄妇女442例,随机分为两组,分别放置吉妮致美IUD和Tcu220c IUD,并进行12个月随访观察.结果 吉妮致美IuD组带器妊娠率、脱落率,因症取出率,终止使用率均低于Tcu220C组,两者比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 吉妮致美IUD是安全、高效、不良反应低的新型IUD,更具有可接受性.

  3. Effects of air conditioning, dehumidification and natural ventilation on indoor concentrations of {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Thomas K.C.; Yu, K.N. E-mail: peter.yu@cityu.edu.hk

    2000-01-01

    A bedroom was selected for detailed measurements on {sup 220}Rn and {sup 222}Rn concentrations and environmental parameters including CO{sub 2} concentration, temperature and relative humidity. To simulate different sealing conditions, five conditions were artificially created in the sampling period of 25 consecutive days. It was concluded that natural ventilation is the most efficient way to lower the {sup 222}Rn levels, while air conditioning is the next. Dehumidification provides only a marginal reduction of {sup 222}Rn levels. The {sup 220}Rn concentrations are not affected by natural ventilation, air conditioner or dehumidification, and were all around 10 Bq m{sup -3}. There are no significant correlations between the {sup 220}Rn and {sup 222}Rn concentrations and environmental conditions such as CO{sub 2} concentrations, temperature, relative humidity and pressure.

  4. The influence of the region between residues 220 and 344 and beyond in Phrixotrix railroad worm luciferases green and red bioluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viviani, Vadim R; Joaquim da Silva Neto, Antonio; Ohmiya, Yoshihiro

    2004-02-01

    To find the regions having a major influence on the bioluminescence spectra of railroad worm luciferases, we constructed new chimeric luciferases switching the fragments from residues 1-219 and from 220-545 between Phrixotrix viviani (PxvGR; lambda(max) = 548 nm) green light-emitting luciferase and Phrixothrix hirtus (PxhRE; lambda(max) = 623 nm) red light-emitting luciferases. The emission spectrum (lambda(max) = 571 nm) and K(M) for luciferin in the chimera PxRE220GR (1-219, PxhRE; 220-545, PxvGR) suggested that the region above residue 220 of PxvGR had a major effect on the active site. However, switching the sequence between the residues 220-344 from PxvGR luciferase into PxhRE (PxREGRRE) luciferase resulted in red light emission (lambda(max) = 603 nm), indicating that the region 220-344 by itself does not determine the emission spectrum. Furthermore, the sequence before residue 220 of the green-emitting luciferase is incompatible for light emission with the sequence above residue 220 of PxhRE. These results suggest that the fragments before and after residue 220, which correspond to distinct subdomains, may fold differently in the green- and red-emitting luciferases, affecting the active site conformation.

  5. 3 220例丙型肝炎检测报告的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑艳

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 材料与方法 1.1 对象:从2005年7月10日到2006年7月10日,在我院门诊和住院部就诊的3 220例丙型肝炎检测者,对其检测报告进行综合分析. 1.2 方法和试剂:①试剂来源:上海实业科华生物技术有限公司生产的HCV抗体诊断试剂盒.②仪器:KHB ST-360酶标仪.③检测方法:ELA法检测丙型肝炎抗体.

  6. Research of sine waveguide slow-wave structure for a 220-GHz backward wave oscillator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Xiong; Wei Yan-Yu; Shen Fei; Huang Min-Zhi; Tang Tao; Duan Zhao-Yun; Gong Yu-Bin

    2012-01-01

    A watt-class backward wave oscillator is proposed,using the concise sine waveguide slow-wave structure combined with a pencil electron beam to operate at 220 GHz.Firstly,the dispersion curve of the sine waveguide is calculated,then,the oscillation frequency and operating voltage of the device are predicted and the circuit transmission loss is calculated.Finally,the particle-in-cell simulation method is used to forecast its radiation performance.The results show that this novel backward wave oscillator can produce over 1-W continuous wave power output in a frequency range from 210 GHz to 230 GHz.Therefore,it will be considered as a very promising high-power millimeter-wave to terahertz-wave radiation source.

  7. 'Cold' crystallization in nanostructurized 80GeSe2-20Ga2Se3 glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klym, Halyna; Ingram, Adam; Shpotyuk, Oleh; Calvez, Laurent; Petracovschi, Elena; Kulyk, Bohdan; Serkiz, Roman; Szatanik, Roman

    2015-01-01

    'Cold' crystallization in 80GeSe2-20Ga2Se3 chalcogenide glass nanostructurized due to thermal annealing at 380°C for 10, 25, 50, 80, and 100 h are probed with X-ray diffraction, atomic force, and scanning electron microscopy, as well as positron annihilation spectroscopy performed in positron annihilation lifetime and Doppler broadening of annihilation line modes. It is shown that changes in defect-related component in the fit of experimental positron lifetime spectra for nanocrystallized glasses testify in favor of structural fragmentation of larger free-volume entities into smaller ones. Nanocrystallites of Ga2Se3 and/or GeGa4Se8 phases and prevalent GeSe2 phase extracted mainly at the surface of thermally treated samples with preceding nucleation and void agglomeration in the initial stage of annealing are characteristic features of cold crystallization.

  8. 220GHz wideband 3D imaging radar for concealed object detection technology development and phenomenology studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Duncan A.; Macfarlane, David G.; Bryllert, Tomas

    2016-05-01

    We present a 220 GHz 3D imaging `Pathfinder' radar developed within the EU FP7 project CONSORTIS (Concealed Object Stand-Off Real-Time Imaging for Security) which has been built to address two objectives: (i) to de-risk the radar hardware development and (ii) to enable the collection of phenomenology data with ~1 cm3 volumetric resolution. The radar combines a DDS-based chirp generator and self-mixing multiplier technology to achieve a 30 GHz bandwidth chirp with such high linearity that the raw point response is close to ideal and only requires minor nonlinearity compensation. The single transceiver is focused with a 30 cm lens mounted on a gimbal to acquire 3D volumetric images of static test targets and materials.

  9. Reaction cross sections for protons in the energy range 220-570 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Renberg, P U; Measday, D F; Pepin, M; Serre, Claude; Schwaller, P

    1972-01-01

    Proton reaction cross sections have been measured for targets of natural isotopic abundance of the following elements and compounds: He, Be, C, Al, Fe, Cu, Ge, Sn, Pb, H/sub 2/O, B/sub 4/C and NaI. Data for proton energies between 220 and 570 MeV have been obtained with two types of transmission-counter assembly. The total errors are of the order of +or-3%. A slight increase of the reaction cross sections with energy is observed for most of the elements studied. The results interpreted in terms of the semi-classical theory of reaction cross section as function of energy clearly demonstrate the onset of pion- production above 250 MeV. (32 refs).

  10. Multiple reflection-asymmetric-type band structures in {sup 220}Th and dinuclear model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shneidman, T.M.; Adamian, G.G.; Antonenko, N.V.; Jolos, R.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Scheid, W. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik der Justus-Liebig-Universitaet, Giessen (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    The negative-parity bands with different values of K in {sup 220}Th are analysed within the dinuclear system model which was previously used for describing the ground-state alternating-parity bands with K = 0 in deformed actinides. The model is based on the assumption that the cluster type shapes are produced by the collective motion in the mass-asymmetry coordinate. To describe the reflection-asymmetric collective modes characterized by the nonzero values of K, the intrinsic excitations of clusters are taken into account. The observed excitation spectrum, angular-momentum dependence of the parity splitting and the staggering behaviour of the B(E1)/B(E2) ratios are explained. (orig.)

  11. Solar irradiance models and measurements: a comparison in the 220 nm to 240 nm wavelength band

    CERN Document Server

    Unruh, Yvonne C; Krivova, Natalie A

    2011-01-01

    Solar irradiance models that assume solar irradiance variations to be due to changes in the solar surface magnetic flux have been successfully used to reconstruct total solar irradiance on rotational as well as cyclical and secular time scales. Modelling spectral solar irradiance is not yet as advanced, and also suffers from a lack of comparison data, in particular on solar-cycle time scales. Here we compare solar irradiance in the 220 nm to 240 nm band as modelled with SATIRE-S and measured by different instruments on the UARS and SORCE satellites. We find good agreement between the model and measurements on rotational time scales. The long-term trends, however, show significant differences. Both SORCE instruments, in particular, show a much steeper gradient over the decaying part of cycle 23 than the modelled irradiance or that measured by UARS/SUSIM.

  12. P-Cygni Profiles of Molecular Lines toward Arp 220 Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Sakamoto, Kazushi; Wilner, David J; Black, John H; Conway, John E; Costagliola, Francesco; Peck, Alison B; Spaans, Marco; Wang, Junzhi; Wiedner, Martina C

    2009-01-01

    We report ~100 pc (0.3") resolution observations of (sub)millimeter HCO+ and CO lines in the ultraluminous infrared galaxy Arp 220. The lines peak at two merger nuclei, with HCO+ being more spatially concentrated than CO. Asymmetric line profiles with blueshifted absorption and redshifted emission are discovered in HCO+(3-2) and (4-3) toward the two nuclei and in CO(3-2) toward one nucleus. We suggest that these P-Cygni profiles are due to ~100 km/s outward motion of molecular gas from the nuclei. This gas is most likely outflowing from the inner regions of the two nuclear disks rotating around individual nuclei, clearing the shroud around the luminosity sources there.

  13. HST/WFC3 Observations of an Off-Nuclear Superbubble in Arp 220

    CERN Document Server

    Lockhart, Kelly E; Lu, Jessica R; Allen, Mark G; Rupke, David; Calzetti, Daniela; Davies, Richard I; Dopita, Michael A; Engel, Hauke; Heckman, Timothy M; Leitherer, Claus; Sanders, David B

    2015-01-01

    We present a high spatial resolution optical and infrared study of the circumnuclear region in Arp 220, a late-stage galaxy merger. Narrowband imaging using HST/WFC3 has resolved the previously observed peak in H$\\alpha$+[NII] emission into a bubble-shaped feature. This feature measures 1.6" in diameter, or 600 pc, and is only 1" northwest of the western nucleus. The bubble is aligned with the western nucleus and the large-scale outflow axis seen in X-rays. We explore several possibilities for the bubble origin, including a jet or outflow from a hidden active galactic nucleus (AGN), outflows from high levels of star formation within the few hundred pc nuclear gas disk, or an ultraluminous X-ray source. An obscured AGN or high levels of star formation within the inner $\\sim$100 pc of the nuclei are favored based on the alignment of the bubble and energetics arguments.

  14. QUIET-TIME INTERPLANETARY {approx}2-20 keV SUPERHALO ELECTRONS AT SOLAR MINIMUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Linghua [Department of Geophysics, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); Lin, Robert P.; Salem, Chadi; Pulupa, Marc; Larson, Davin E.; Luhmann, Janet G. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Yoon, Peter H., E-mail: wanglhwang@gmail.com [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    We present a statistical survey of {approx}2-20 keV superhalo electrons in the solar wind measured by the SupraThermal Electron instrument on board the two STEREO spacecraft during quiet-time periods from 2007 March through 2009 March at solar minimum. The observed superhalo electrons have a nearly isotropic angular distribution and a power-law spectrum, f{proportional_to}v{sup -{gamma}}, with {gamma} ranging from 5 to 8.7, with nearly half between 6.5 and 7.5, and an average index of 6.69 {+-} 0.90. The observed power-law spectrum varies significantly on a spatial scale of {approx}>0.1 AU and a temporal scale of {approx}>several days. The integrated density of quiet-time superhalo electrons at 2-20 keV ranges from {approx}10{sup -8} cm{sup -3} to 10{sup -6} cm{sup -3}, about 10{sup -9}-10{sup -6} of the solar wind density, and, as well as the power-law spectrum, shows no correlation with solar wind proton density, velocity, or temperature. The density of superhalo electrons appears to show a solar-cycle variation at solar minimum, while the power-law spectral index {gamma} has no solar-cycle variation. These quiet-time superhalo electrons are present even in the absence of any solar activity-e.g., active regions, flares or microflares, type III radio bursts, etc.-suggesting that they may be accelerated by processes such as resonant wave-particle interactions in the interplanetary medium, or possibly by nonthermal processes related to the acceleration of the solar wind such as nanoflares, or by acceleration at the CIR forward shocks.

  15. Non-conventional Indoor GIS Layout Design of 220kV Distribution Equipment in Guangzhou Xintang Power Plant%广州新塘电厂220 kV屋内GIS非常规布置的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐柳燕

    2014-01-01

    ∶针对广州新塘电厂2×330MW机组工程厂区布置的特殊性及局限性,文章详细分析论述了220kV配电装置采用屋内GIS型式非常规布置的设计过程及其特点,提出合适的布置方案,解决了220kV配电装置占地及出线问题,为类似工程提供借鉴。%The design and the characteristics of the non-conventional indoor GIS layout of 220kV distribution equip-ment were discussed and analyzed in the paper based on the particularity and limitation of plant layout of Guangzhou Xintang power plant, and a reasonable layout was proposed which solves the land occupation and outgoing line prob-lems of the 220kV distribution equipment and can be well referenced by similar projects.

  16. 220kV智能变电站过程层网络设计研究%220 kV Smart Substation Process Layer Network Scheme Design Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志鹏; 常风然; 朱萍

    2014-01-01

    Based on the features of the 220 kV smart substa-tion process layer network general design schemes ,intro-duces the optimization scheme of process layer network and switch configuration ,analyses the characteristics and infor-mation exchange requirements of 220 kV and 110 kV sys-tem ,demonstrates the branch process layer switch and cen-ter process layer switch configuration scheme ,puts forward the principle that should be observed when multiple center sw itchs are cascaded .%根据220 kV智能变电站过程层网络通用设计方案的特点,介绍过程层组网和交换机配置的优化方案,分析变电站220 kV、110 kV系统的特点和信息交换需求,论证过程层子交换机和中心交换机的配置方案,提出多台中心交换机级联时应遵守的原则。

  17. Automatic Switch-On Function Logic Analysis of 220 kV Standby Power Supply%220 kV备用电源自投功能逻辑分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢迪勇

    2013-01-01

      介绍了220 kV备自投功能的逻辑,结合现场使用,以主供线路、备投线路、备投母联分析了开关状态设置,以线路备投、母联备投阐述充放电条件的原因。分析了备自投启动逻辑,结合逻辑顺序模拟备自投启动,分步列出动作结果,为220 kV备自投装置验收及运行提供了依据。%Introduction was made to the logic of automatic switch-on function of 220 kV standby power supply. Combined with onsite usage condition, this paper analyzed switch status setting for main supply lines, standby supply automatic switch-on lines, standby sup-ply automatic switch-on busbar connection. Causes of charging and discharging conditions were described according to lines standby automatic switch-on and busbar connection standby switch-on. This paper analyzed standby automatic switch-on starting logic and combined logic sequence to simulate standby automatic switch-on starting and to list action result step by step, which provides basis for acceptance of 220 kV standby power supply automatic switch-on device.

  18. Observation on the Effect of Placement of Active γ Intrauterine Device and TCu220C IUD%放置活性γ型IUD与TCu220C IUD临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘润兰

    2007-01-01

    目的:观察活性γ型宫内节育器(IUD)与TCu220C IUD的临床避孕效果.方法:选择2002年8月~2005年8月间1 100例放置活性γ型IUD和TCu220C IUD的育龄妇女,随机分为两组,每组各550例,于置器后6、12、24个月进行对比性观察.结果:活性γ型IUD 24个月的脱落率、妊娠率、因症取出率明显低于TCu220C IUD,有显著性差异(P<0.05);活性γ型IUD 24个月的累积续用率高于TCu220C IUD,有非常显著性差异(P<0.01).结论:活性γ型IUD脱落率低、不良反应少、续用率高,值得临床推广应用.

  19. FIRST OBSERVATION IN THE SOUTH OF TITAN'S FAR-INFRARED 220 cm{sup -1} CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, Donald E.; Anderson, C. M.; Samuelson, R. E.; Flasar, F. M.; Nixon, C. A.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Romani, P. N.; Achterberg, R. K.; Cottini, V.; Hesman, B. E.; Kunde, V. G.; Carlson, R. C. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); De Kok, R. [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands); Coustenis, A.; Vinatier, S.; Bampasidis, G. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, 92195 Meudon Cedex (France); Teanby, N. A. [School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1RJ (United Kingdom); Calcutt, S. B., E-mail: donald.e.jennings@nasa.gov [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-10

    An emission feature at 220 cm{sup -1} which has been attributed to a cloud of condensed material in Titan's winter stratosphere has been seen for the first time in the south. This feature had previously been found only at high northern latitudes during northern winter and spring. The material emitting at 220 cm{sup -1}, as yet unidentified, may be volatiles associated with nitrile gases that accumulate in the absence of ultraviolet sunlight. Not detected as recently as 2012 February, the 220 cm{sup -1} feature clearly appeared at the south pole in Cassini spectra recorded on 2012 July 24, indicating a rapid onset of the emission. This is the first indication of the winter buildup of condensation in the southern stratosphere that has been expected as the south pole moves deeper into shadow. In the north the 220 cm{sup -1} feature continued to decrease in intensity with a half-life of 3 years.

  20. 42 CFR 413.220 - Methodology for calculating the per-treatment base rate under the ESRD prospective payment system...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE... Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.220 Methodology for calculating the per... factor to account for the most recent estimate of increases in the prices of an appropriate market...

  1. Excitation Potentials and Shell Corrections for the Elements Z2=20 to Z2=30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.H.; Sørensen, H.; Vadja, P.

    1969-01-01

    Excitation potentials and shell corrections for the elements Z 2=20 to Z2=30 are evaluated from experimental stopping-power data for 5-12-MeV protons and deuterons. Use is made of Walske's K- and L-shell corrections and shell corrections calculated by Bonderup (1967) on the basis of the Thomas-Fe...

  2. Yingtan Hi-tech Zone 220,000 t/a Copper Product Processing Project Finished AgreementSigning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The day March 27 witnessed the agreement signing ceremony of 220,000 t/a copper product processing project between Yingtan Hi-tech Zone and Shenghua Group.As a top 500 enterprise in China’s manufacture industry,Shenghua Group is one of the biggest manufacturers in China’s wire and cable

  3. 27 CFR 555.220 - Table of separation distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting agents. 555.220 Section 555... ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting agents. Table: Department of Defense... Blasting agent Minimum thickness of artificial barricades (in.) 100 3 11 12 100 300 4 14 12 300 600 5 18...

  4. 77 FR 68768 - Electricity Market Transparency Provisions of Section 220 of the Federal Power Act; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Electricity Market Transparency Provisions of Section 220 of the Federal... Commission Meeting Room at 888 First Street NE., Washington, DC 20426. \\1\\ Electricity Market...

  5. 20 CFR 220.39 - Disability determination for a surviving divorced spouse or remarried widow(er).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disability determination for a surviving... Regulations of the Social Security Administration § 220.39 Disability determination for a surviving divorced spouse or remarried widow(er). A surviving divorced spouse or a remarried widow(er) must be...

  6. Upper limits on the VHE $\\gamma$-ray flux from the ULIRG Arp 220 and other galaxies with VERITAS

    CERN Document Server

    Fleischhack, Henrike

    2015-01-01

    The cores of ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) are very dense environments, with a high rate of star formation and supernova explosions. They are thought to be sites of cosmic-ray acceleration, and are predicted to emit $\\gamma$-rays in the GeV to TeV range. So far, no ULIRG has been detected in $\\gamma$-rays. Arp 220, the closest ULIRG to Earth, has been well studied, and detailed models of $\\gamma$-ray production in this galaxy are available. They predict a rather hard $\\gamma$-ray spectrum up to several TeV. Due to its large rate of star formation, high gas density, and its close proximity to Earth, Arp 220 is thought to be a very good candidate for observations in very-high-energy (VHE; 100 GeV - 100 TeV) $\\gamma$-rays. Arp 220 was observed by the VERITAS telescopes for more than 30 hours with no significant excess over the cosmic-ray background. The upper limits on the VHE $\\gamma$-ray flux of Arp 220 derived from these observations are the most sensitive limits presented so far and are starting ...

  7. 75 FR 25291 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Mid-Atlantic Proposed Oil and Gas Lease Sale 220

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Minerals Management Service Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Mid-Atlantic Proposed Oil and Gas Lease Sale 220 AGENCY: Minerals Management Service (MMS), Interior. ACTION: Notice of indefinite postponement of...

  8. 12 CFR 250.220 - Whether member bank acting as trustee is prohibited by section 20 of the Banking Act of 1933 from...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Whether member bank acting as trustee is prohibited by section 20 of the Banking Act of 1933 from acquiring majority of shares of mutual fund. 250.220 Section 250.220 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE...

  9. A splenic marginal zone-like peripheral blood CD27+B220- B cell population is preferentially depleted in HIV type 1-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Matthew; Valentin, Antonio; Little, Richard; Yarchoan, Robert; Pavlakis, George N

    2008-04-01

    Peripheral blood CD27(+) B cells are reduced in HIV-1-infected individuals. In healthy individuals, the human peripheral blood CD27(+) B cell pool consists of two subsets defined by the expression, or lack thereof, of the CD45 isoform B220. We investigated the presence of circulating B220(+) and B220(-) memory B cells in HIV(+) individuals and found that the reduction in CD27(+) memory B cells occurs primarily among CD27(+)B220(-) B cells. Studies conducted using healthy controls indicate that CD27(+)B220(-) B cells have a splenic marginal zone like the immunophenotype IgM(hi)IgD(lo)CD21(+)CD23(-), express TLR9, and proliferate and secrete IgG and IgM in response to B cell-specific ODN. CD27(+)B220(+) B cells have the immunophenotype IgM(lo)IgD(hi)CD21(+)CD23(+), express activation-induced cytidine deaminase, and proliferate in response to SAC but do not secrete immunoglobulin. The AICD expression, along with CD86 expression, by CD27(+)B220(+) suggests these cells are of germinal center origin. The preferential depletion of CD27(+)B220(-) B cells mirrors alterations in spleen morphology and resident B cell populations due to HIV infection reported by other investigators and may play an important role in the defective B cell immunity against T-independent pathogens such as pneumococcus observed in HIV-1-infected individuals.

  10. Diverse IgG serum response to novel glycopeptide epitopes detected within immunodominant stretches of Epstein-Barr virus glycoprotein 350/220

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Arrigo, Isotta; Cló, Emiliano; Bergström, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    /220 and demonstrate a remarkable variability between individual samples with respect to their reactivity patterns to peptides and glycopeptides. The study provides additional insights into the complex B-cell response towards the EBV gp350/220 envelope protein, which may have implications for diagnostic and vaccine...

  11. Measurements of {sup 222}Rn and{sup 220}Rn with a large size collector of radon progeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qifan; Cheng, Jianping; Liu, Guilin; Zhu, Li [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Ja, Wenyi; Fang, Fang [Chengdu Univ. of Technology, Chengdu (China)

    2002-07-01

    People have paid more attention to radon since 1980s. Radon concentrations in high background radiation areas in the south are higher than others in China, especially {sup 220} Rn concentration is significantly high. Therefore, measurement of {sup 222} Rn and {sup 220} Rn concentration should be carried out there. I will introduce a large size collector of radon progeny and its applications in this paper. The collector is a sheet of polyvinyl chloride fibre with electrostatics of -500V {approx} -700V. Its size (60mm in diameter) is larger than others (26mm in diameter) that work as the same principle. The collector is more effective to adsorb radon progeny than most of others. The equipment of ZnS(Ag) Scintillation Counting System is available for large size collectors to detect radon progeny. Therefore its sensitivity of measurement is high than others. According to the different half life of radon progeny and based on both theory and experiment, a formula for discrimination and calculation of {sup 222} Rn and {sup 220} Rn concentrations was deduced. The {sup 222} Rn and {sup 220} Rn concentrations were surveyed with electrostatic collectors of radon progeny on the campus of commercial school and some other areas in Hainan, southern China. Neither {sup 222} Rn nor {sup 220} Rn concentrations were found significant high. However several faults underground were delineated. The collector is also used to study radon transportation. Results indicate that radon changes regularly with date when it has transported for a certain distance. Velocities of radon migration in the four media are quite different. Radon migrates more quickly in vertical tube than in the horizontal tube.

  12. GyneFix IN与TCu220C宫内节育器临床使用效果随访1年观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兆明

    2009-01-01

    目的:比较吉妮固定式宫内节育器(IUD)和TCu220C IUD临床使用效果.方法:选择自愿放置IUD的已婚育龄妇女422例,随机分成2组,分别放置吉妮(IUD)和TCu220C IUD,并进行12个月随访观察.结果:吉妮IUD的脱落率显著低于TCu220C IUD(P<0.01),因症取出率及终止率,吉妮IUD与TCu220C IUD比较,有显著性差异(P<0.05).结论:吉妮IUD是避孕效果优于TCu220C IUD,可在临床上推广使用.

  13. AMMONIA AS A TEMPERATURE TRACER IN THE ULTRALUMINOUS GALAXY MERGER Arp 220

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, Juergen [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Henkel, Christian; Weiss, Axel [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Braatz, James A., E-mail: jott@nrao.edu, E-mail: chenkel@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de, E-mail: aweiss@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de, E-mail: jbraatz@nrao.edu [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)

    2011-12-01

    We present Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) and Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) observations of ammonia (NH{sub 3}) and the 1.2 cm radio continuum toward the ultraluminous infrared galaxy merger Arp 220. We detect the NH{sub 3}(1,1), (2,2), (3,3), (4,4), (5,5), and (6,6) inversion lines in absorption against the unresolved, (62 {+-} 9) mJy continuum source at 1.2 cm. The peak apparent optical depths of the ammonia lines range from {approx}0.05 to 0.18. The absorption lines are well described by single-component Gaussians with central velocities in between the velocities of the eastern and western cores of Arp 220. Therefore, the ammonia likely traces gas that encompasses both cores. The absorption depth of the NH{sub 3}(1,1) line is significantly shallower than expected based on the depths of the other transitions. The shallow (1,1) profile may be caused by contamination from emission by a hypothetical, cold ({approx}< 20 K) gas layer with an estimated column density of {approx}< 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}. This layer would have to be located behind or away from the radio continuum sources to produce the contaminating emission. The widths of the ammonia absorption lines are {approx}120-430 km s{sup -1}, in agreement with those of other molecular tracers. We cannot confirm the extremely large line widths of up to {approx}1800 km s{sup -1} previously reported for this galaxy. Using all of the ATCA detections except for the shallow (1,1) line, we determine a rotational temperature of (124 {+-} 19) K, corresponding to a kinetic temperature of T{sub kin} = (186 {+-} 55) K. Ammonia column densities depend on the excitation temperature. For excitation temperatures of 10 K and 50 K, we estimate N(NH{sub 3}) = (1.7 {+-} 0.1) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} and (8.4 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2}, respectively. The relation scales linearly for possible higher excitation temperatures. Our observations are

  14. CHEMICALLY DISTINCT NUCLEI AND OUTFLOWING SHOCKED MOLECULAR GAS IN Arp 220

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunnard, R.; Greve, T. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Garcia-Burillo, S.; Fuente, A.; Usero, A.; Planesas, P. [Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, Observatorio de Madrid, Alfonso XII, 3, E-28014 Madrid (Spain); Carpio, J. Graciá; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Sturm, E. [Max-Planck-Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE), Giessenbachstraße 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Fischer, J. [Naval Research Laboratory, Remote Sensing Division, 4555 Overlook Ave SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); González-Alfonso, E.; Neri, R., E-mail: richard.tunnard.13@ucl.ac.uk [Universidad de Alcalá de Henares, Departamento de Física y Matemáticas, Campus Universitario, E-28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-02-10

    We present the results of interferometric spectral line observations of Arp 220 at 3.5 mm and 1.2 mm from the Plateau de Bure Interferometer, imaging the two nuclear disks in H{sup 13}CN(1-0) and (3-2), H{sup 13}CO{sup +}(1-0) and (3-2), and HN{sup 13}C(3-2) as well as SiO(2-1) and (6-5), HC{sup 15}N(3-2), and SO(6{sub 6}-5{sub 5}). The gas traced by SiO(6-5) has a complex and extended kinematic signature including a prominent P Cygni profile, almost identical to previous observations of HCO{sup +}(3-2). Spatial offsets 0.''1 north and south of the continuum center in the emission and absorption of the SiO(6-5) P Cygni profile in the western nucleus (WN) imply a bipolar outflow, delineating the northern and southern edges of its disk and suggesting a disk radius of ∼40 pc, consistent with that found by ALMA observations of Arp 220. We address the blending of SiO(6-5) and H{sup 13}CO{sup +}(3-2) by considering two limiting cases with regards to the H{sup 13}CO{sup +} emission throughout our analysis. Large velocity gradient modeling is used to constrain the physical conditions of the gas and to infer abundance ratios in the two nuclei. Our most conservative lower limit on the [H{sup 13}CN]/[H{sup 13}CO{sup +}] abundance ratio is 11 in the WN, compared with 0.10 in the eastern nucleus (EN). Comparing these ratios to the literature we argue on chemical grounds for an energetically significant active galactic nucleus in the WN driving either X-ray or shock chemistry, and a dominant starburst in the EN.

  15. 3C 220.3: A radio galaxy lensing a submillimeter galaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Martin; Westhues, Christian; Chini, Rolf [Astronomisches Institut, Ruhr Universität, Bochum (Germany); Leipski, Christian; Klaas, Ulrich; Meisenheimer, Klaus [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg (Germany); Barthel, Peter; Koopmans, Léon V. E. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen (Netherlands); Wilkes, Belinda J.; Bussmann, R. Shane; Willner, S. P.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Kuraszkiewicz, Joanna [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Vegetti, Simona [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Garching (Germany); Clements, David L. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Fassnacht, Christopher D. [University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Horesh, Assaf [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Lagattuta, David J. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn (Australia); Stern, Daniel; Wylezalek, Dominika, E-mail: haas@astro.rub.de [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2014-07-20

    Herschel Space Observatory photometry and extensive multiwavelength follow-up have revealed that the powerful radio galaxy (PRG) 3C 220.3 at z = 0.685 acts as a gravitational lens for a background submillimeter galaxy (SMG) at z = 2.221. At an observed wavelength of 1 mm, the SMG is lensed into three distinct images. In the observed near infrared, these images are connected by an arc of ∼1''.8 radius forming an Einstein half-ring centered near the radio galaxy. In visible light, only the arc is apparent. 3C 220.3 is the only known instance of strong galaxy-scale lensing by a PRG not located in a galaxy cluster and therefore it offers the potential to probe the dark matter content of the radio galaxy host. Lens modeling rejects a single lens, but two lenses centered on the radio galaxy host A and a companion B, separated by 1''.5, provide a fit consistent with all data and reveal faint candidates for the predicted fourth and fifth images. The model does not require an extended common dark matter halo, consistent with the absence of extended bright X-ray emission on our Chandra image. The projected dark matter fractions within the Einstein radii of A (1''.02) and B (0''.61) are about 0.4 ± 0.3 and 0.55 ± 0.3. The mass to i-band light ratios of A and B, M/L{sub i}∼8±4 M{sub ⊙} L{sub ⊙}{sup −1}, appear comparable to those of radio-quiet lensing galaxies at the same redshift in the CfA-Arizona Space Telescope LEns Survey, Lenses Structure and Dynamics, and Strong Lenses in the Legacy Survey samples. The lensed SMG is extremely bright with observed f(250 μm) = 440 mJy owing to a magnification factor μ ∼ 10. The SMG spectrum shows luminous, narrow C IV λ1549 Å emission, revealing that the SMG houses a hidden quasar in addition to a violent starburst. Multicolor image reconstruction of the SMG indicates a bipolar morphology of the emitted ultraviolet (UV) light suggestive of cones through which UV light escapes a

  16. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Maternal and Perinatal Outcomes in 220 Saudi Women 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turki Gasim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available  Objectives: To assess the maternal and fetal complications of pregnancy in mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM compared with non-diabetic patients who delivered in the hospital during the study period.Methods: The outcome of pregnancy in 220 Saudi patients with GDM identified from the delivery register/hospital database and matched for age, parity and body mass index with 220 non-diabetic controls were studied retrospectively from their case files. Patients with multiple pregnancies and abnormal presentation of the fetus were excluded from the study.Results: The GDM patients were treated with either diet alone or with additional insulin in some patients who required better control of their blood sugar levels. Patients with GDM had a significantly higher incidence of pre-eclampsia (p<0.0001; preterm delivery (p=0.0226; induction of labor (p<0.0001; cesarean section (p=0.0019; higher mean birth weight (p<0.0001 of babies; large for gestational age infants (p=0.0011; macrosomia (p=0.0186; and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (p=0.0003, compared with the control group. However, the rates of Apgarscore <7 at 5 minutes, respiratory distress syndrome, neonatal hypoglycemia, hyperbilirubinemia and the need for phototherapy were similar in both groups of patients. Congenital anomalies and perinatal mortality rates were not significantly different in the two groups.Conclusion: GDM is recognized to be associated with increased rates of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes, which are supported by the findings of this study. Even the mild form of GDM seems to have significant consequences for women and their offspring and is recommended to be aggressively treated. Evidence suggests that early diagnosis and strict control of blood sugar levels throughout the pregnancy can significantly reduce maternal and fetal complications. A multicenter, randomized controlled trial, based on universally accepted criteria for GDM screening test

  17. RELIABILITY ASSESSMENT OF TRANSMISSION TOWER OF 220 KV M/C “MA” VERTICAL MEMBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V.R.SATYANARAYANA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Transmission line towers are used to support conductors carrying extra high voltage (EHV electric transmission lines and one or two ground wires at suitable distance. These also carry vary heavy currents, to the tune of several hundred amperes. This has necessitated the use of tall towers to support the transmission line conductors carrying EHV. The cost of transmission line tower is 30% to 40% of total cost of transmission line. The problem of efficiently designing structural system involves reliability constraints imposed at both serviceability and ultimate limit state. Methods are developed using structural reliability principle to evaluate time dependent reliability of structure. These methods enable the impact on safety and serviceability of uncertainties in loading conditions, structural degradation due to aggressive environment to be assessed qualitatively. The prediction of service life of damaged or deteriorated steel structures remains at the stage of parametric studies, inspite of intensive research on corrosion in steel structures for the past three decades. Service live of steel structures is limited by the susceptibility of the member to corrosion. Oxidation of iron leads to the formulation of various products (such as ferrous and ferric oxides, some of which occupy much greater volume than the original iron that gets consumed by the corrosion process. At this stage the member loses its ability to resist the forces. This project is a study on reliability assessment of 220 kV transmission towers. In this the 220 kV tower consists of 33.935 m height arranged in 12 height Panels and it contain 225 members. The wind load on tower for zone –II condition is calculated according to IS Code IS: 802 (part – 1/Section – 1: 1995. The tower is analyzed as space truss for full load condition using STAAD Pro 2007. In this work the variation of reliability index of members with decrease in area of cross section are studied. The compression

  18. A preliminary Investigation of 222Rn and 220Rn levels in non-uranium mines in China%我国非铀矿山222Rn和220Rn水平初步调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚兵; 崔宏星; 武云云; 张庆召; 苏旭

    2008-01-01

    Objective To measure levels of 222Rn and 220Rn in typical non-uranium mines, China, and to estimate dose from the occupational radon exposure in the miners. Methods Using typical sampling scheme,44 mines were selectcd in 12 provinces, which can be classified into 4 categories and 17 types of mines. The radon-thoron discriminative detectors were used to measure 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations in mines. Result The concentration of 222Rn or 220Rn was log-normally distributed. The arithmetic mean (AM) concentration and geometric mean (GM) concentration of 222Rn and 220Rn in 25 metal mines (n=147) were estimated to be (1211±2359) Bq/m3(AM) and (311±5.5) Bq/m3(GM), and (269±700) Bq/m3(AM) and (71±4.4)Bq/m3(GM), respectively. The mean concentrations of 222Rn and 220Rn in 18 non-metal mines (n=118) were (98±207) Bq/m3(AM) and(55±2.5) Bq/m3(GM), and (60±76) Bq/m3(AM) and (38±2.4)Bq/m3(GM),respectively. In total, we measured 222 Rn concentration in 44 underground mines, 6 of them, accounted for 15%, with the mean radon concentration exceeding 1000 Bqm-3 (limit of workplace in China). Approximately 7% of radon concentration in mines measured were higher than 3700 Bq/m3(current limit in uranium mine in China), some points even exceeded 10 000 Bq/m3. Based on this typical measurements, the equilibrium factor for 222Rn was estimated to be 0.33±0.15 in underground mines and 0.47±0.18 in nearby houses. Equilibrium factor for 222Rn ranged from 0.001 to 0.032. Using the data obtained in this typical survey, the average annual effective dose of underground miners exposed to radon and thoron was estimated to be 8.15 mSv/a. Conclusions High levels of 222Rn exists in metal mines, such as copper, tin, lead and zinc, gold, and aluminum mines among others. More study and administrative measures are needed to address the radiation protection of workers occupationally exposed to high radon in mines.%目的 测量非铀矿山222Rn、220Rn水平,了解我国矿山氡超标比

  19. Ammonia as a Temperature Tracer in the Ultraluminous Galaxy Merger Arp220

    CERN Document Server

    Ott, Juergen; Braatz, James A; Weiss, Axel

    2011-01-01

    (abridged) We present ATCA and GBT observations of ammonia (NH3) toward the ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) merger Arp220. We detect the NH3 (1,1), (2,2), (3,3), (4,4), (5,5), and (6,6) inversion lines in absorption against the unresolved, (62+/-9)mJy continuum source at 1.2cm. The peak apparent optical depths of the NH3 lines range from ~0.05 to 0.18. The absorption depth of the NH3 (1,1) line is significantly shallower than expected based on the depths of the other transitions, which might be caused by contamination from emission by a hypothetical, cold (<~20K) gas layer with an estimated column density of <~ 2x10^14 cm^-2. The widths of the NH3 absorption lines are ~120-430 km s^-1, in agreement with those of other molecular tracers. We cannot confirm the extremely large linewidths of up to ~1800km s^-1 previously reported. We determine a rotational temperature of (124+/-19)K, corresponding to a kinetic temperature of T_kin=(186+/-55)K. NH3 column densities depend on the excitation temperature....

  20. Monte Carlo simulation of semiconductor detector response to (222)Rn and (220)Rn environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irlinger, J; Trinkl, S; Wielunksi, M; Tschiersch, J; Rühm, W

    2016-07-01

    A new electronic radon/thoron monitor employing semiconductor detectors based on a passive diffusion chamber design has been recently developed at the Helmholtz Zentrum München (HMGU). This device allows for acquisition of alpha particle energy spectra, in order to distinguish alpha particles originating from radon and radon progeny decays, as well as those originating from thoron and its progeny decays. A Monte-Carlo application is described which uses the Geant4 toolkit to simulate these alpha particle spectra. Reasonable agreement between measured and simulated spectra were obtained for both (220)Rn and (222)Rn, in the energy range between 1 and 10 MeV. Measured calibration factors could be reproduced by the simulation, given the uncertainties involved in the measurement and simulation. The simulated alpha particle spectra can now be used to interpret spectra measured in mixed radon/thoron atmospheres. The results agreed well with measurements performed in both radon and thoron gas environments. It is concluded that the developed simulation allows for an accurate prediction of calibration factors and alpha particle energy spectra.

  1. The Submillimeter Array 1.3 mm line survey of Arp 220

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, S; Martin-Pintado, J; Aalto, S; Zhao, J -H; Peck, A B; Petitpas, G R; Greve, T; Monje, R; Greve, T R; An, T

    2010-01-01

    We present the first aperture synthesis unbiased spectral line survey toward an extragalactic object. The survey covered the 40 GHz frequency range between 202 and 242 GHz of the 1.3 mm atmospheric window. We find that 80% of the observed band shows molecular emission, with 73 features identified from 15 molecular species and 6 isotopologues. The 13C isotopic substitutions of HC3N and transitions from H2(18)O, 29SiO, and CH2CO are detected for the first time outside the Galaxy. Within the broad observed band, we estimate that 28% of the total measured flux is due to the molecular line contribution, with CO only contributing 9% to the overall flux. We present maps of the CO emission at a resolution of 2.9"x1.9" which, though not enough to resolve the two nuclei, recover all the single-dish flux. The 40 GHz spectral scan has been modelled assuming LTE conditions and abundances are derived for all identified species. The chemical composition of Arp 220 shows no clear evidence of an AGN impact on the molecular em...

  2. High-Resolution Radio Continuum Measurements of the Nuclear Disks of Arp 220

    CERN Document Server

    Barcos-Muñoz, Loreto; Evans, Aaron S; Privon, George C; Armus, Lee; Condon, Jim; Mazzarella, Joseph M; Meier, David S; Momjian, Emmanuel; Murphy, Eric J; Ott, Juerguen; Reichardt, Ashely; Sakamoto, Kazushi; Sanders, David B; Schinnerer, Eva; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Surace, Jason A; Thompson, Todd A; Walter, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    We present new Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array radio continuum images of the nuclei of Arp 220, the nearest ultra-luminous infrared galaxy. These images have both the angular resolution to study detailed morphologies of the two nuclei that power the system and sensitivity to a wide range of spatial scales. At 33 GHz, and with a resolution of 0".081 x 0".063 (29.9 x 23.3 pc), we resolve the emission surrounding both nuclei and conclude that is mostly synchrotron in nature. The spatial distributions of radio emission in both nuclei are well described by exponential profiles. These have deconvolved half-light radii of 51 and 35 pc for the eastern and western nuclei, and they match the number density profile of radio supernovae observed with very long baseline interferometry. This similarity might be due to the fast cooling of cosmic rays electrons caused by the presence of a strong (~ mG) magnetic field in this system. We estimate high luminosity surface densities of $\\mathrm{\\Sigma_{IR} \\sim 4.2^{+1.6}_{-0.7} \\...

  3. [Anatomoradiologic correlations in prostate benign hypertrophy. Report of a series of 220 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbagh, A; Dahami, Z; Fekak, H; Joual, A; Bennani, S; Elmrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    2002-05-01

    In our daily practice, the reliability of ultrasonography (US) and digital rectal examination (DRE) is limited by many factors. The aim of our study is to correlate between the prostatic volume assessed by the DRE, the pre operative US results and the actual weight of the enucleated or endoscopic resection benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We report a serie of 220 patients with BPH treated by endoscopic resection or by open surgery. The mean age is 65 years (40-90 years old). Ultrasonography was performed in 92% of the cases, and transrectal ultrasound only in 8%. All our patients either underwent endoscopic resection (49.6%) or adenomectomy (50.4%). We found a high correlation between the prostatic volume assessed by DRE and by ultrasonography (r = 0.79; P < 0.0001) and the weight of the piece of surgical adenomectomy (r = 0.701, P < 0.0001). However, the volume of benign prostatic hyperplasia assessed by US did not correlate with the piece of endoscopic resection (r = 0.214, P < 0.05). This study and a review of recent literature enabled us to notice the various anatomical and radiological factors implicated in this correlation.

  4. Design of 220 GHz electronically scanned reflectarrays for confocal imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedden, Abigail S.; Dietlein, Charles R.; Wikner, David A.

    2012-09-01

    The authors analyze properties of a 220 GHz imaging system that uses a scanned reflectarray to perform electronic beam scanning of a confocal imager for applications including imaging meter-sized fields of view at 50 m standoff. Designs incorporating reflectarrays with confocal imagers have not been examined previously at these frequencies. We examine tradeoffs between array size, overall system size, and number of achievable image pixels resulting in a realistic architecture capable of meeting the needs of our application. Impacts to imaging performance are assessed through encircled energy calculations, beam pointing accuracy, and examining the number and intensity of quantization lobes that appear over the scan ranges of interest. Over the desired scan range, arrays with 1 and 2-bit phase quantization showed similar array main beam energy efficiencies. Two-bit phase quantization is advantageous in terms of pointing angle error, resulting in errors of at most 15% of the diffraction-limited beam size. However, both phase quantization cases considered resulted in spurious returns over the scan range of interest and other array layouts should be examined to eliminate potential imaging artifacts.

  5. Poly β-hydroxybutyrate production by Bacillus subtilis NG220 using sugar industry waste water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gulab; Kumari, Anish; Mittal, Arpana; Yadav, Anita; Aggarwal, Neeraj K

    2013-01-01

    The production of poly β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) by Bacillus subtilis NG220 was observed utilizing the sugar industry waste water supplemented with various carbon and nitrogen sources. At a growth rate of 0.14 g h(-1) L(-1), using sugar industry waste water was supplemented with maltose (1% w/v) and ammonium sulphate (1% w/v); the isolate produced 5.297 g/L of poly β-hydroxybutyrate accumulating 51.8% (w/w) of biomass. The chemical nature of the polymer was confirmed with nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared, and GC-MS spectroscopy whereas thermal properties were monitored with differential scanning calorimetry. In biodegradability study, when PHB film of the polymer (made by traditional solvent casting technique) was subjected to degradation in various natural habitats like soil, compost, and industrial sludge, it was completely degraded after 30 days in the compost having 25% (w/w) moisture. So, the present study gives insight into dual benefits of conversion of a waste material into value added product, PHB, and waste management.

  6. The merger Seyfert galaxy Arp 220. Line and continuum absorption and emission

    CERN Document Server

    Contini, M

    2012-01-01

    The line and continuum spectra of the merger galaxy Arp 220 are analysed with the aim of investigating the ionizing and heating sources. We refer to radio, optical, infrared and X-ray spectra. The results show that in agreement with other merger galaxies, the optical lines are emitted from gas photoionised by the AGN and heated by the shocks in the extended NLR. The infrared lines are better explained by the emission from gas close to the starburst. The starburst dominates the infrared emission. [OI] and [CI] lines in the far-infrared are formed in the internal region of extended clouds and are therefore absorbed, while [CII] lines are emitted from the external edges of outflowing clouds. The O/H relative abundances are about solar and N/H are higher than solar by a factor of 1.5, throughout the starburst region, while in the AGN extended NLR the O/H ratio is half solar. A relatively high dust-to-gas ratio is indicated by modelling the dust reprocessed radiation peak consistently with bremsstrahlung emitted f...

  7. Southern California Edison (SCE) 220 kWe Pressurized SOFC Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vora, Shailesh D. [Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation Science and Technology Center, 1310 Beulah Road, Pittsburgh, PA 15235 (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Siemens Westinghouse has designed, built, and factory tested a 220 kWe integrated power generation system consisting of a pressurized solid oxide fuel cell (PSOFC) module and a micro-turbine generator (MTG). This proof-of concept project is the world's first hybrid PSOFC/MTG power system. The system completed its Factory Acceptance Test (FAT) on April 7, 2000 at the Siemens Westinghouse facility in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The system will be installed at the National Fuel Cell Research Center at the University of California, Irvine. This proof-of-concept test is scheduled to begin in May, 2000. This system is sponsored by Edison International and the California Energy Commission. The MTG was fabricated by Ingersoll-Rand Energy Systems, Portsmouth, New Hampshire. Development of the tubular solid oxide fuel cell technology by the Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory. In this paper the attributes of this system are described as well as the results of the FAT, and the path to commercialization of Siemens Westinghouse SOFC power systems. (author)

  8. Direct measurement of attachment of {sup 220}Rn progeny on aerosols by atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, J.K.C. E-mail: jkcleung@hku.hk; Tso, M.Y.W.; Lam, J.H.C.; Zhau, Q.F

    2003-08-11

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is becoming a powerful tool for the study of nuclear tracks in materials such as CR-39. Coupled with its capability of observing near nm aerosol particles, we have utilized the AFM to observe the radon progeny-loaded aerosol particles deposited on surfaces of CR-39 and to observe the corresponding etch pits produced by the {alpha}-particles emitted from the radon progenies. A special platform was built so that after the aerosol particles on the CR-39 have been scanned and recorded, the CR-39 can be etched and then scanned for the etch pits at the same location. Both {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn progenies were used in the study. The progenies were generated by the appropriate radon sources and mixed with aerosol particles generated by aerosol generators. The aerosol size distributions were analyzed by a scanning mobility particle sizer. Some of the limitations and difficulties of the technique will be described. The results enable us to examine the attachment process including multiple attachments of radon progenies on aerosols.

  9. Studies on the electrical characteristics of thoron ({sup 220}Rn) progeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maniyan, C.G.; Louiz, J.; Pillai, P.M.B.; Khan, A.H

    2003-07-01

    Electrical characteristics of thoron ({sup 220}Rn) progeny under various low ampere (<1 mA) DC voltages applied to a calibration facility (CF) has been studied. About 30 y old thorium hydroxide was used as the source for the generation of thoron and its decay products. The study has revealed that under a low ventilation rate (about 1 air change per hour) and at high equilibrium equivalent concentration (EER) of thoron, above 275 Bq m{sup -3} (>1 WL), a considerable fraction of {sup 212}Pb nuclides are negatively charged. It was also concluded that {sup 212}Pb has lesser charge (per ion) than {sup 212}Bi and is more susceptible to an electric field. There is a linear relationship between the activity collected and the voltage applied and the activity collected is proportional to the area of the collecting surface. Under the experimental conditions, when a voltage of {+-}2500 V is simultaneously applied, the activity concentration can be reduced by a factor of 100. (author)

  10. Reliability analysis for the 220 kV Libyan high voltage communication system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, O.S.A.; AlAthram, A.Y. [General Electric Company of Libya (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya). Development Dept.

    2007-07-01

    Electric utilities are expanding their networks to include fiber-optic communications, which offer high capacity with reliable performance at low cost. Fiber-optic networks offer a feasible technical solution for leasing excess capacity. They can be readily deployed under a wide range of network configurations and can be upgraded rapidly. This study evaluated the reliability index for the communication network of Libya's 220 kV high voltage subsystem operated by the General Electric Company of Libya (GECOL). The schematic diagrams of the communication networks were presented for both power line carriers and fiber optics networks. A reliability analysis for the two communication networks was performed through the existing communication equipment. The reliability values revealed that the fiber optics system has several advantages such as a large bandwidth for high quality data transmission; immunity to electromagnetic interference; low attenuation which allows for extended cable transmission; ability to be used in dangerous environments; a higher degree of security; and, a high capacity through existing conduits due to its light weight and small diameter. However, it was noted that although fiber optic communications may be more reliable and provide the clearest signal, the powerline communication (PLC) system has more redundancy, particularly in the case of outdoor components where the PLC has more power line to carry the signals, while the fiber optic communications depend only on the earthing wire of the high voltage transmission line. 4 refs., 8 tabs., 6 figs.

  11. Evaluation of transmission methodology and attenuation correction for the microPET Focus 220 animal scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehnert, Wencke [School of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, PO Box 170, Lidcombe NSW 1825 (Australia); Meikle, Steven R [School of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, PO Box 170, Lidcombe NSW 1825 (Australia); Siegel, Stefan [Siemens Preclinical Solutions, 810 Innovation Drive, Knoxville, TN 37932 (United States); Newport, Danny [Siemens Preclinical Solutions, 810 Innovation Drive, Knoxville, TN 37932 (United States); Banati, Richard B [School of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, PO Box 170, Lidcombe NSW 1825 (Australia); Rosenfeld, Anatoly B [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong NSW 2522 (Australia)

    2006-08-21

    An accurate, low noise estimate of photon attenuation in the subject is required for quantitative microPET studies of molecular tracer distributions in vivo. In this work, several transmission-based measurement techniques were compared, including coincidence mode with and without rod windowing, singles mode with two different energy sources ({sup 68}Ge and {sup 57}Co), and postinjection transmission scanning. In addition, the effectiveness of transmission segmentation and the propagation of transmission bias and noise into the emission images were examined. The {sup 57}Co singles measurements provided the most accurate attenuation coefficients and superior signal-to-noise ratio, while {sup 68}Ge singles measurements were degraded due to scattering from the object. Scatter correction of {sup 68}Ge transmission data improved the accuracy for a 10 cm phantom but over-corrected for a mouse phantom. {sup 57}Co scanning also resulted in low bias and noise in postinjection transmission scans for emission activities up to 20 MBq. Segmentation worked most reliably for transmission data acquired with {sup 57}Co but the minor improvement in accuracy of attenuation coefficients and signal-to-noise may not justify its use, particularly for small subjects. We conclude that {sup 57}Co singles transmission scanning is the most suitable method for measured attenuation correction on the microPET Focus 220 animal scanner.

  12. 220kV有载调压高阻抗变压器的设计%Design of 220kV High Impedance On-Load Tap-Changing Transformers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武力

    2001-01-01

    The design characteristics of 220kV three-phase three-winding high impedance on-load tap-changing transformers are introduced. The main parameters of the transformers are listed. The calculating method of special high impedance is presented. The high impedance transformers are compared with the ordinary transformers.%介绍了220kV三相三绕组有载调压高阻抗变压器的设计特点,列出了该类产品的主要性能参数,给出了特殊高阻抗的计算方法,并将该类高阻抗产品与常规普通阻抗产品进行了对比分析。

  13. EBZ-220型掘进机回油冷却器的改造设计%Retrofit Design of Oil Return Cooler in EBZ-220 Tunnel-Boring Machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫品

    2015-01-01

    Through the transformation design of the cooler of EBZ-220 type tunnel-boring machines, the cooling effect of the tunnel-boring machines is greatly improved, the efficiency of boring machine is increased, the failure rate of the tunnel-boring machines is reduced, longer service life is obtained.%通过对EBZ-220型掘进机冷却器的改造设计,大大改善了掘进机的冷却效果,提高了掘进机的使用效率,降低了掘进机故障率,使其效率更高,寿命更长。

  14. 220MW机组电动给水泵变频改造及节能分析%Frequency Conversion Transformation of Electric Feed Pump in 220 MW Unit and Analysis of Energy Saving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马洪波

    2014-01-01

    某热电公司220 MW汽轮机电动给水泵进行变频改造,通过对改造方案和改造前后的节能潜力进行分析,指出了变频改造的经济性.充分肯定220 MW汽轮机电动给水泵进行变频改造较高的经济效益.并进一步建议推广应用这一技术到300 MW和600 MW汽轮机组电动给水泵变频改造中.

  15. 220 kV变电站并联电抗器故障原因分析及防范措施%Cause Analysis and Preventive Measures for Shunt Reactor Failure of 220 kV Substation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈庆杰

    2014-01-01

    For the causes of frequent blown out failure of turn regulation ring in the air core shunt reactor of 35 kV SVC at Wugang's 220 kV substation,the article carries out analysis on three aspects of insulation protection class, construction design and winding process for reactor,raises corrective measures and puts them into operation,which re-ceives a good result.%针对舞钢220 kV变电站35 kV SVC空芯并联电抗器调匝环频繁烧毁的原因,主要从电抗器绝缘耐热等级、结构设计及绕制工艺等三个方面加以分析,提出了预防措施并加以实施,取得了显著的效果。

  16. OPGW型光缆从500kV转接至220 kV线路%Design and Discussion of OPGW from 500 kV Change 220 kV Power Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍凤田

    2006-01-01

    主要介绍了OPGW型光缆从500 kV线路转接至220 kV线路,设计需要考虑安全性能、绝缘要求和光缆的热容量等因素,通过计算OPGW在不同电压等级线路之间转接是可行的.

  17. 220kV氧化锌避雷器损坏事故教训及反措建议%Lessons and Suggestion of 220 kV Metal Oxide Surge Arresters Accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄松泉; 郭学文

    2002-01-01

    分析了郎家畈变电站220 kV氧化锌避雷器损坏事故发生的原因,指出了氧化锌避雷器在研制、生产过程中存在部分参数选择不当等方面的问题,提出了避免类似事故重复发生的改进措施.

  18. Distinction of [220] and [204] textures of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} film and their growth behaviors depending on substrate nature and Na incorporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Dae-Hyung, E-mail: dhcho@etri.re.kr [IT Components and Materials Industry Technology Research Department, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), 218 Gajeongno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeha [Department of Solar & Energy Engineering, Cheongju University, 298 Daeseongro, Sangdang-gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk 360-764 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Yong-Duck [IT Components and Materials Industry Technology Research Department, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), 218 Gajeongno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Korea University of Science and Technology (UST), 217 Gajeongno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-31

    For better understanding of the structural property of polycrystalline tetragonal Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) thin films grown on soda-lime glass, it is necessary to characterize the [220]- and [204]-oriented textures clearly that are related to the different physical properties. However, the distinction between the [220]- and [204]-oriented textures is very difficult because of their nearly identical plane spacings and atomic arrangements. Using X-ray diffraction techniques of high resolution θ–2θ scanning and reciprocal space mapping, we distinguished the [220]- and [204]-oriented textures of CIGS films and observed that the behaviors of [220] and [204] textures independently depended on both substrate nature and Na presence. We report the Na- and substrate-related dependence of the physical properties of the CIGS film was attributed to the independent growth behaviors of the [220] and [204] textures in the CIGS. - Highlights: • We investigated [220]- and [204]-oriented textures of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) films. • X-ray diffraction methods distinguished two textures. • The growth behaviors were influenced by underlying substrate and Na. • The [220] and [204] textures in CIGS should be differentially observed.

  19. 42 CFR 137.220 - Do section 314 of Public Law 101-512 [25 U.S.C. 450f note] and section 102(d) of the Act [25 U.S...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Do section 314 of Public Law 101-512 and section...-GOVERNANCE Operational Provisions Federal Tort Claims Act (ftca) § 137.220 Do section 314 of Public Law 101... construction project agreements? 137.220 Section 137.220 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  20. Do nuclei go pear-shaped? Coulomb excitation of 220Rn and 224Ra at REX-ISOLDE (CERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheck M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The IS475 collaboration conducted Coulomb-excitation experiments with post-accelerated radioactive 220Rn and 224Ra beams at the REX-ISOLDE facility. The beam particles (Ebeam: 2.83 MeV/u were Coulomb excited using 60Ni, 114Cd, and 120Sn scattering targets. De-excitation γ-rays were detected employing the Miniball array and scattered particles were detected in a silicon detector. Exploiting the Coulomb-excitation code GOSIA for each nucleus several matrix elements could be obtained from the measured γ-ray yields. The extracted ‹3−||E3||0+› matrix element allows for the conclusion that, while 220Rn represents an octupole vibrational system, 224Ra has already substantial octupole correlations in its ground state. This finding has implications for the search of CP-violating Schiff moments in the atomic systems of the adjacent odd-mass nuclei.

  1. Method of Calculation of Current of the Ground Faults in the Parallel Overhead Transmission Lines 110-220 Kv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ukraintsev Alexandr V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The mutual induction between the phase wires of the different overhead lines which situate close to each other cause unbalanced redistribution of currents in the line wires. This leads to emergence of the outof-balance zero sequence current which affects negatively on the sensitivity of the zero-sequence current protection. It is impossible to estimate such out-ofbalance current by the means of the typical calculation programs for short circuit currents. This paper describes the method of “virtual” lines for an extra correction of the values of zero-sequence currents during the current ground faults happening in the overhead lines 110-220 kV. There is an example of using this method for three parallel overhead lines 220 kV passing close to each other.

  2. Mass yields and kinetic energy of fragments from fission of highly-excited nuclei with A≲220

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisov, V. Yu.; Margitych, T. O.; Sedykh, I. Yu.

    2017-02-01

    It is shown that the potential energy surface of the two separated fragments has the saddle point, which takes place at small distance between the surfaces of well-deformed fragments. The height of this two-body saddle point is larger than the height of one-body fission barrier for nuclei with A ≲ 220. The mass yields of the fission fragments, which are appearing at the fission of nuclei with A ≲ 220, are related to the number of states of the two-fragment systems at the two-body saddle points. The characteristics of kinetic energy of fragments are described by using the trajectory motion equations with the dissipation terms. The Gaussian distribution of the final kinetic energy around the classical value of this energy induced by the stochastic fluctuations is taken into account at an evaluation of the total kinetic energy distributions of the fission fragments.

  3. 220 kV 内桥主接线开关失灵危害与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭又华

    2013-01-01

    分析了作为终端变电站的220 kV内桥接线变电站进线开关、桥开关失灵可能带来的危害,得出了必须配置开关失灵保护的建议。提出了包括失灵保护配置、二次接线在内的解决方案,给出了失灵逻辑图,并对其进行了分析。%The damages of line breaker and bridge breaker failures in 220 kV substation with inner bridge connection which serves as a terminal one are analyzed .The proposal is offered that the breaker failure protection device should be installed .A solution scheme is proposed including failure protection configure and secondary wiring .The failure diagram is also provided and analyzed .

  4. Superconductivity in GeH{sub 4}(H{sub 2}){sub 2} above 220 GPa high-pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong Guohua, E-mail: gh.zhong@siat.ac.cn [Center for Photovoltaics and Solar Energy, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Zhang Chao [Department of Physics, Yantai University, Yantai 264003 (China); Wu Guangfen; Song Jianjun; Liu Zhuang [Center for Photovoltaics and Solar Energy, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Yang Chunlei, E-mail: cl.yang@siat.ac.cn [Center for Photovoltaics and Solar Energy, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen 518055 (China)

    2013-02-01

    Hydrogen-rich materials have fascinating physical and chemical properties such as various structures and superconductivity under high-pressure. They are believed as an alternative approach to realize the hydrogen superconducting. In the previous report ([17] Zhong et al., J. Phys. Chem. C 116 (2012) 5225), we had presented structural phase-transitions and bonding interaction variations induced by pressure, and predicted a stable and superconductive phase above 220 GPa, P2{sub 1}/c. In this study, we focus on the change of superconducting transition temperature induced by pressure above 220 GPa for GeH{sub 4}(H{sub 2}){sub 2}. The variations of bond lengths, electronic structures, phonon spectra, and electron-phonon interaction with the increases of pressure are investigated. We find that the superconducting transition temperature monotonously decreases with the increase of pressure from 230 to 350 GPa. The origin is mainly the stiff of phonon frequency induced by pressurization.

  5. Neodymium glass laser with a pulse energy of 220 J and a pulse repetition rate of 0.02 Hz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmin, A A; Kulagin, O V; Khazanov, Efim A; Shaykin, A A [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnii Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-31

    A compact neodymium glass laser with a pulse energy of 220 J and a record-high pulse repetition rate of 0.02 Hz (pulse duration 30 ns) is developed. Thermally induced phase distortions are compensated using wave phase conjugation. The integral depolarisation of radiation is decreased to 0.4% by using linear compensation schemes. The second harmonic of laser radiation can be used for pumping Ti : sapphire multipetawatt complexes. (letters)

  6. Processing and characterization of a MEDIPIX2-compatible silicon sensor with 220 {mu}m pixel size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froejdh, Anna; Froejdh, Erik; Thungstroem, Goeran; Froejdh, Christer [Department of Information Technology and Media, Mid-Sweden University, SE-85170 Sundsvall (Sweden); Norlin, Boerje, E-mail: Borje.Norlin@miun.se [Department of Information Technology and Media, Mid-Sweden University, SE-85170 Sundsvall (Sweden)

    2011-05-15

    Pixellated silicon detectors with a pixel size of 220 {mu}m have been fabricated at Mid-Sweden University. The purpose was to make a detector compatible with the MEDIPIX2 readout chip with pixels large enough to avoid charge sharing to do spectral imaging. Two different guard ring structures have been tested to investigate leakage current and interpixel isolation in a sensor made on high resistivity silicon.

  7. First detection of GeV emission from an ultraluminous infrared galaxy Arp 220 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Fang-Kun; Liu, Ruo-Yu; Tang, Qing-Wen; Wang, Jun-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Cosmic rays (CRs) in starburst galaxies produce high energy gamma-rays by colliding with the dense interstellar medium. Arp 220 is the nearest ultra luminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) that has star-formation at extreme levels, so it has long been predicted to emit high-energy gamma-rays. However, no evidence of gamma-ray emission was found despite intense efforts of search. Here we report the discovery of high-energy gamma-ray emission above 200 MeV from Arp 220 at a confidence level of $\\sim 6.3 \\sigma $ using 7.5 years of \\textsl {Fermi} Large Area Telescope observation. The gamma-ray emission shows no significant variability over the observation period and it obeys the quasi-linear scaling relation between the gamma-ray luminosity and total infrared luminosity for star-forming galaxies, suggesting that these gamma-rays arise from CR interactions. As the high density gas makes Arp 220 an ideal CR calorimeter, the gamma-ray luminosity can be used to measure the efficiency of powering CRs by supernova remnants ...

  8. Sensitivity of LR115 detector in diffusion chamber to {sup 222}Rn in the presence of {sup 220}Rn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, V.S.Y.; Yip, C.W.Y.; Ho, J.P.Y.; Nikezic, D.; Yu, K.N. E-mail: peter.yu@cityu.edu.hk

    2002-06-01

    Determination has been made of the sensitivity of LR115 type 2-track detectors (in units of m) to {sup 222}Rn, measured in the presence of {sup 220}Rn. Measurements have been made by means of a widely used diffusion chamber while Monte Carlo simulations have also been conducted. The experimentally derived sensitivities for {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn were found to be 0.470{+-}0.022 and 0.486{+-}0.042 m, respectively. For Monte Carlo simulations, the sensitivities to {sup 222}Rn gas were found to range from 0.618x10{sup -2} m (assuming that all {sup 218}Po progeny decay before deposition onto the internal walls of the diffusion chamber) to 0.405x10{sup -2} m (assuming that all {sup 218}Po progeny are deposited on the internal walls of the same containment vessel before decaying). The sensitivity to {sup 220}Rn gas of 0.465x10{sup -2} m found from Monte Carlo simulations agrees to within uncertainty with experimental findings. The experimentally derived sensitivity value for {sup 222}Rn indicates that 30% of the {sup 218}Po progeny decay before deposition onto the internal walls of the diffusion chamber.

  9. HIGH-RESOLUTION RADIO CONTINUUM MEASUREMENTS OF THE NUCLEAR DISKS OF Arp 220

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcos-Muñoz, L.; Evans, A. S.; Privon, G. C.; Stierwalt, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Leroy, A. K.; Condon, J.; Reichardt, A. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Armus, L. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 220-6, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mazzarella, J. M.; Murphy, E. J. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Meier, D. S. [New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Momjian, E.; Ott, J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Sakamoto, K. [Academia Sinica, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Sanders, D. B. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96816 (United States); Schinnerer, E.; Walter, F. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Surace, J. A. [Spitzer Science Center, MS 314-6, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Thompson, T. A., E-mail: ldb7et@virginia.edu [Department of Astronomy and Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2015-01-20

    We present new Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array radio continuum images of the nuclei of Arp 220, the nearest ultra-luminous infrared galaxy. These new images have both the angular resolution to study the detailed morphologies of the two nuclei that power the galaxy merger and sensitivity to a wide range of spatial scales. At 33 GHz, we achieve a resolution of 0.''081 × 0.''063 (29.9 × 23.3 pc) and resolve the radio emission surrounding both nuclei. We conclude from the decomposition of the radio spectral energy distribution that a majority of the 33 GHz emission is synchrotron radiation. The spatial distributions of radio emission in both nuclei are well described by exponential profiles. These have deconvolved half-light radii (R {sub 50d}) of 51 and 35 pc for the eastern and western nuclei, respectively, and they match the number density profile of radio supernovae observed with very long baseline interferometry. This similarity might be due to the fast cooling of cosmic rays electrons caused by the presence of a strong (∼mG) magnetic field in this system. We estimate extremely high molecular gas surface densities of 2.2{sub −1.0}{sup +2.1}×10{sup 5} (east) and 4.5{sub −1.9}{sup +4.5}×10{sup 5} (west) M {sub ☉} pc{sup –2}, corresponding to total hydrogen column densities of N {sub H} = 2.7{sub −1.2}{sup +2.7}×10{sup 25} (east) and 5.6{sub −2.4}{sup +5.5}×10{sup 25} cm{sup –2} (west). The implied gas volume densities are similarly high, n{sub H{sub {sub 2}}}∼3.8{sub −1.6}{sup +3.8}×10{sup 4} (east) and ∼11{sub −4.5}{sup +12}×10{sup 4} cm{sup –3} (west). We also estimate very high luminosity surface densities of Σ{sub IR}∼4.2{sub −0.7}{sup +1.6}×10{sup 13} (east) and Σ{sub IR}∼9.7{sub −2.4}{sup +3.7}×10{sup 13} (west) L{sub ⊙} kpc{sup −2}, and star formation rate surface densities of Σ{sub SFR} ∼ 10{sup 3.7} {sup ±} {sup 0.1} (east) and Σ{sub SFR} ∼ 10{sup 4.1} {sup ±} {sup 0.1}(west) M

  10. STUDY ON PERFORMANCE OF 220 kV M/C MA TOWER DUE TO WIND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. LAKSHMI,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Electric Power is today playing an increasingly important role in the life of the community. In the electric power system the production and transmission of power are two predominant factors. For the purpose of transmission of electricity towers are the main medium with some wires at required distances and altitudes. The remotehydroelectric power plants have given rise to the need for extra high voltage. Prior to 1950, 150 kV electric transmission lines were considered and still higher voltages are being considered these days. Hence it has given rise to the need for relative tall structures such as towers. Thus the study of designing and erection of steel towers has become a challenging task. Transmission line tower normally omprise of several hundred - angle members eccentrically connected. Structural analysis of this type of structure requires extensive data generation. Conventional process of data generation in describing the topology, geometry, load and support conditions are very tedious, time consuming and susceptible to error. In general, most towers may be idealized as statically determinate and analyzed for forces. However, the computations are very lengthy and there are many chances of making errors in such cases. Further if a member is to be redesigned then the entire wind load computations have to be repeated. The computational problem in tower is more acute and tedious as the load depends on the member sizes. A rational and economical design can be made with the help of software’s like STADD Pro 2003, SAP-2000.In this dissertation an attempt is made to develop a software for load calculations on transmission line towers of capacity 220 kV, only as per new code i.e., IS – 802 (Part- I / Sec-1:1995 by considering reliability, security, safety and anti-cascading conditions. In MS-office the EXCEL is used to develop program for wind load calculations on the tower and other loads like wind load on conductor, conductor weights are

  11. Radon exposure in homes: is the contribution of {sup 220}Rn (thoron) to dose always negligible?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschiersch, J.; Muesch, M. [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Inst. of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    {sup 222}Rn (half-life 3.8 d) which emanates from the soil or building material into the indoor air has enough time for diffusion into the room and to become well mixed in the room atmosphere. In contrast, {sup 222}Rn (thoron) which has the short half-life of only 56 s has a lower emanation from soil and may be prevented by simple diffusion barriers on top of the building material to enter the room atmosphere. In general, the effective dose resulting from thoron is estimated to be only about 10% of that of radon (UNSCEAR 2000) and is therefore often not considered in the dose estimates at all. But there are circumstances in which the contribution of thoron to the inhalation dose is much higher. Such a case was investigated at the Loess plateau of Gansu, China, in a pilot study. The dwellings in that area are cut directly into the porous loess or built of adobe on the loess ground. The enhanced emanation from the porous building material and the large emanating surface caused considerably concentrations of thoron and thoron decay products. In 6 different dwellings measurements were performed for 1 day. The mean thoron concentrations ranged 40 - 490 Bq/m{sup 3} (thoron gas) and 0.9 - 13 Bq/m{sup 3} (thoron EEC), whereas the mean radon concentrations ranged 44 - 220 Bq/m{sup 3} (radon gas) and 26 - 190 Bq/m{sup 3} (radon EEC). If we compare the decay product concentration of thoron and radon on the dose relevant basis of the potential alpha-energy concentration (PAEC) (which is expressed in J/m{sup 3}) we have to take into account that the thoron/radon PAEC ratio is higher by a factor of 13.7 than the thoron/radon EEC ratio. This means for our case that the contribution of thoron to the inhalation dose has the same order of magnitude as the contribution of radon. Therefore, thoron should not be neglected in inhalation dose assessments for dwellings with the same exhalation characteristics as the dwellings in this study. (orig.)

  12. 220kV变压器中性点经小电抗接地方式%Neutral Grounding via Small Reactance for 220 kV Power Transformers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于化鹏; 陈水明; 杨鹏程; 印华; 崔婷

    2011-01-01

    为了限制短路电流和满足继电保护整定的需要,我国220kV电力系统采崩的是部分变压器中性点接地方式.这种接地方式会使不接地变压器的中性点产生过电压,若失地后发生单相接地故障更可能使中性点过电压上升到相电压,虽然可以用避雷器和间隙对此进行保护,但间隙放电分散性很大,很可能误动,且可能会与避雷器绝缘配合失调.为此建立了一个重庆地区的220kV电网,使用PSCAD/EMTDC 软件计算了中性点加装小电抗后的中性点过电压及短路电流.计算结果表明:中性点串接小电抗后,中性点的过电压会大幅下降,不再会出现失地现象,中性点电压也不会再出现高达相电压的过电压,中性点不必再安装间隙,只安装避雷器限制雷电过电压即可,免去了绝缘配合失调的可能性;并且,中性点加装小电抗后,变压器绕组流过的单相短路电流会下降,可以防止变压器绕组上流过的电流过大,损坏变压器.最后分析了中性点加装小电抗对继电保护的影响.%To suppress short-circuit and meet the demand of the setting of protective relaying, only part of neutral points of power transformers of 220 kV power systems in China are grounded, and this grounding mode leads to overvoltage appeared at the neutral points of non-grounded power trensformers. In 220 kV power system adopting such a neutral grounding mode, the neutral overvoltage may rise to phase voltage when single-phase earth fault occurs while the grounding is in failure. Although arrestors and gap can be used to suppress neutral overvoltage, however due to the dispersity of gap discharging the malfunction of the gap may occur and the insulation coordination of gaps with arrestors may disorder.For this reason a model of 220 kV power system in Chongqing area is built and neutral overvoltage and short-circuit current are computed by PSCAD/EMTDC software when the neutral of 220 kV power transformer is

  13. 220 kV变电站GIS断路器短路典型事故分析%Analysis on Typical GIS Breaker Short-circuit Fault in 220 kV Substation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓刚

    2014-01-01

    介绍了某220 kV变电站气体绝缘金属封闭开关设备(gas insulated metal enclose switchgear,GIS)断路器短路事故经过。通过对220 kVGIS短路事故后的故障录波、气体成分、断路器解体及出厂原始数据的综合分析,认为在出厂时的雷电冲击试验中的击穿、放电造成的断路器极间绝缘筒的缺陷是事故发生的主要原因。并通过事故过程的还原从另一角度验证了事故原因分析的正确性,并提出了相应的建议,同时为类似 GIS 故障的处理分析提供借鉴与参考。%This paper introduces one GIS breaker short-circuit accident in some 220 kV substation.By comprehensively analy-zing fault recording,gas components,breaker disintegration and factory original data after the short-circuit fault,the main reason for the accident was considered to be defect of breaker interelectrode insulating cylinder caused by breakdown and discharge in factory lightning impulse test.Meanwhile,by review on the accident,correctness of accident reason analysis was verified from another angle and relevant suggestions were proposed for providing references on similar GIS fault handling a-nalysis.

  14. 220kV地下变电站消防技术优化研究%Optimization Research on Fire Prevention Technologies and Strategies for 220kV Underground Substation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晓华; 朱亚平

    2011-01-01

    以上海220 kV济南站为例,对220 kV全地下变电站火灾危险性进行分析,结合规范确定消防灭火系统的技术原则和策略,介绍了室内外消火栓、预作用自动喷水灭火、主变水喷雾灭火、烟烙尽全淹没气体灭火、移动式灭火、火灾探测报警和消防排水等系统;以及济南站消防系统设计的方法、经验,并对消防系统的优化提出建议。%Taking the 220 kV Jinan underground substation as example,this article points out the fire hazard of underground substation and analyses the technical principles and strategies of its fire fighting system by combining relevant norms.The substation fire-fighting system includes the internal and external fire hydrants system,pre-action sprinkler system,water spray fire extinguishing system for main transformer,the gas fire extinguishing system,portable fire extinguishing system,the automatic fire alarm system and the drainage system for fire-fighting.After introducing the designing methods and practical experience of the fire-fighting system for Jinan underground substation,this article puts forward the suggestions on the optimization of fire-fighting system.

  15. Research on Measurement of 220 Rn and Its Progeny by Double Membrane Activated Charcoal and Their Applications%双滤膜活性炭盒法测量220 Rn 及其子体技术研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洋; 尹国辉; 成智威; 徐明; 李安; 申茂泉; 冯天成

    2013-01-01

    The double membrane activated charcoal method measuring 220 Rn and its progeny concentrations in ambient air simultaneously was established .According to the temporary equilibrium theory ,the theoretical for-mula of 220 Rn and its progeny in the air was derived in this method .Aiming at the half-life characteristics of 220 Rn and its progeny, classical theory model was modified and simplified , and several key time points was i-dentified.For 220 Rn progeny collection, the waiting time should be greater than 21.4 minutes after sampling, and the sum of waiting time and measuring time should be less than 7.41 hours.For 220 Rn gas adsorption, the waiting time should be greater than 6.17 minutes.The radioactivity levels of 220 Rn and its progeny in a laborato-ry and in a tunnel was studied by the method .It is provided a new technical support for 220 Rn and its progeny dose assessment by the active membrane activated charcoal method .%研究了可同时测量环境空气中220 Rn及其子体放射性水平的双滤膜活性炭盒法。根据暂时平衡理论,推导了该方法测量空气中220 Rn及其子体的理论公式,明确了取样和测量过程中需要注意的关键参数:对于滤膜过滤收集220 Rn子体,应当使等待时间大于21.4 min,同时等待和测量时间之和小于7.41 h;对于活性炭盒吸附富集220 Rn,应当使等待时间大于6.17 min。使用该方法测定了实验室和某花岗岩坑道内220 Rn及其子体的放射性水平。主动式双滤膜活性炭盒法为环境空气中220 Rn及其子体剂量评价提供了新的技术支持。

  16. Dimensional verification and location of the reactive static compensator in 220 kV; Verificacion del dimensionamiento y ubicacion del compensador estatico de reactivos en 220 kV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Krekeler, Ubaldo [Administracion Nacional de Electricidad (ANDE), Asuncion (Paraguay)]. E-mail: ufernandez@ieee.org; Cardozo Sanchez, Freddy [Mirant Americas (United States)

    2001-07-01

    This work presents a determination verification of the compensation range and the location of reactive static compensator (RSC) in 220 kV. The verification is accomplished by analyses of the RSC effects in relation to the losses, loading and system voltage stability. The needed compensation range is investigated in full details, whereas that the required conversion level is directly related to this range. It is concluded that the RSC installation, foreseen for 2002, might be postponed for 2005/10 still without reinforcements in 500 kV. The Limpio substation seems to be the more suitable location in relation to the most analysed cases.

  17. 血浆净化治疗220例高脂血症患者的心理护理体会%Psychological Care Experience in the Treatment of 220 Patients with Hyperlipidemia by Plasma Purification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐秋兰

    2011-01-01

    为了确保高脂血症患者的心理因素不影响治疗效果,对220例高脂血症患者采取了全程的心理护理措施.调动了患者的自我调节能力,使患者在治疗过程中情绪稳定,保证了治疗的顺利进行.因此,心理护理对高脂血症患者具有极其重要的治疗作用.

  18. Determination of the dose rate to the center of the irradiation chamber of the Gamma cell 220 AECL; Determinacion de la razon de dosis al centro de la camara de irradiacion del Gammacell 220 AECL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuazua G, M.P

    1991-11-15

    To determine the dose rate at the center of the irradiation chamber of the Gamma cell 220 AECL, two different spectrophotometers for to measure the absorbency of the irradiated dosemeters were used. In the first one dosimetry, the absorbency of the irradiated Fricke solution was read in the Varian-UV-visible spectrophotometer Series 634 of the Applied Research Management. For the second dosimetry it was used the Shimadzu UV-visible spectrophotometer belonging to the Special Projects Department. The obtained results in this study are presented. (Author)

  19. 220~500kV变电所主接线新方案的探讨%Discussion on New Schemes 0f 220~550kV Substation Wiring Diagram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨济川

    2003-01-01

    @@ 220~500kV变电所一般多处于电网枢纽点,因此对其可靠性及灵活性均有极高要求,尤其对330kV及500kV超高压变电所,规程规定了变压器及线路等总数6回以上时宜采用一个半断路器或双母线分段带旁路母线的接线.

  20. Analysis of 220V AC intrude DC control circuit caused generating units tripping%220V工频交流窜入直流控制回路造成机组跳闸分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莉; 南泽瑞

    2013-01-01

    介绍了一起由于电弧引起的工频交流窜人直流控制回路造成机组跳闸的故障情况。通过试验检查、分析找出了问题的原因,并采取相应的处理及防范措施。%Abnormal condition of a 220V AC intrude DC current fault caused by electric-arc is introduced in this paper. This caused generating units tripping. The reason is concluded and the corresponding measures are proposed with the experiment, inspection, analysis.

  1. Rotor optimization design for crosshead friction pair of model BWY-220/9 mud pump%BWY-220/9型泥浆泵十字头摩擦副优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董洪波; 杜小山; 姚亚峰

    2013-01-01

      In order to solve the crosshead friction pair problem of poor wear resistance in Model BWY-220/9 mud pump, this paper analyzed the affluence of different materials and gap sizes to friction loss of crosshead friction pair by using finite element software. According to the analysis results, this paper proposed an optimization design for crosshead friction pair and manufactured a new friction pair. The experiment shows that the new crosshead friction pair has less friction loss and the no apparent oil contaminated. Furthermore, the friction heat is reduced and the overall property of Model BWY-220/9 mud pump is promoted. Therefore, the affectivity and reliability of finite element analysis is also verified. The method proposed in this paper can be applied to optimization design for crosshead friction pair of other mud pumps.%  为解决BWY-220/9型泥浆泵十字头摩擦副耐磨性差的问题,通过有限元软件,分析了不同材质和间隙尺寸对BWY-220/9型泥浆泵十字头摩擦副磨损的影响,并根据分析结果对十字头摩擦副进行了材质与间隙尺寸优化设计,试制加工了新的十字头摩擦副。室内型式试验表明:新十字头摩擦副磨损较小,油液未见明显污浊现象,有效地减少了摩擦热的产生,泥浆泵的整体性能得到了提升,有限元分析结果的有效性和可靠性也得到了验证。利用作者提出的方法对泥浆泵十字头摩擦副的优选具有一定的指导意义。

  2. Analysis and Optimization on Configuration Scheme of New High Efficient 220 MW Subcritical Turbine%高效新型220MW亚临界汽轮机优化选型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘浩

    2015-01-01

    Based on the demand of EPC contract for MAO KHE 2 ×220 MW thermal power plant project in VIETNAM, after analy-zing the technology and economy in detail, comparing with the different characters between 200 MW superhigh pressure turbine and 300 MW subcritical turbine, the subcritical parameters were introduced in the 220 MW turbine.By Optimizing blade type, reducing seal leakage and improving the efficiency of the turbine cylinder, the heat consumption rate decreased to 8 026 kJ/kWh.After the tur-bine operating successfully, each unit can save standard coal equivalent 10 161.5 ton per year.Therefore, it will improve the econo-my of power plant and create a greater economic benefits.Furthermore, it can provide a good reference for choosing high efficient turbine in the same class power unit.%以越南某2×220 MW火力发电厂工程的设计、采购、施工( EPC )合同要求为出发点,从技术、能耗方面进行分析,根据国内200 MW等级超高压汽轮机和300 MW等级亚临界汽轮机的特点,通过分析比较两者的差别,提出了220 MW等级汽轮机可采用亚临界参数方案,通过优化叶片型式,减少轴封漏气,提高汽轮机汽缸效率,汽轮机热耗降低至8026 kJ/kWh,并最终在工程中顺利实施。机组投运后,每年可节约10161.5 t标煤,提高了机组的经济性,创造了较大的经济效益,可为后续同类项目的汽轮机选型提供参考。

  3. Isolation of Actinium from Neutron-irradiated Thorium-I

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Isolation of Actinium from Neutron-irradiated Thorium-I¥YangWeifan;YuanShuanggui;MuWantong;ZhangXueqian;LiZhongweiandZhaoLili...

  4. Production of actinium-225 for alpha particle mediated radioimmunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, Rose A; Malkemus, Dairin; Mirzadeh, Saed

    2005-05-01

    The initial clinical trials for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia have demonstrated the effectiveness of the alpha emitter (213)Bi in killing cancer cells. Bismuth-213 is obtained from a radionuclide generator system from decay of 10-days (225)Ac parent. Recent pre-clinical studies have also shown the potential application of both (213)Bi, and the (225)Ac parent radionuclide in a variety of cancer systems and targeted radiotherapy. This paper describes our five years of experience in production of (225)Ac in partial support of the on-going clinical trials. A four-step chemical process, consisting of both anion and cation exchange chromatography, is utilized for routine separation of carrier-free (225)Ac from a mixture of (228)Th, (229)Th and (232)Th. The separation of Ra and Ac from Th is achieved using the marcoporous anion exchange resin MP1 in 8M HNO(3) media. Two sequential MP1/NO(3) columns provide a separation factor of approximately 10(6) for Ra and Ac from Th. The separation of Ac from Ra is accomplished on a low cross-linking cation exchange resin AG50-X4 using 1.2M HNO(3) as eluant. Two sequential AG50/NO(3) columns provide a separation factor of approximately 10(2) for Ac from Ra. A 60-day processing schedule has been adopted in order to reduce the processing cost and to provide the highest levels of (225)Ac possible. Over an 8-week campaign, a total of approximately 100 mCi of (225)Ac (approximately 80% of the theoretical yield) is shipped in 5-6 batches, with the first batch typically consisting of approximately 50 mCi. After the initial separation and purification of Ac, the Ra pool is re-processed on a bi-weekly schedule or as needed to provide smaller batches of (225)Ac. The averaged radioisotopic purity of the (225)Ac was 99.6 +/- 0.7% with a (225)Ra content of < or =0.6%, and an average (229)Th content of (4(-4)(+5)) x 10(-5)%.

  5. 研华ARK-DS220OPS数字标牌获2012年台湾精品奖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    研华科技近日推出了兼容OPS(开放式可插拔规范)的数字标牌ARK-DS220,并荣获了2012年台湾精品奖的殊荣。今年,此项奖项共426家厂商、1145件产品报名角逐,而研华脱颖而出获此殊荣,充分彰显了其在设计、制造、卓越创新方面的领导力。ARK-DS220符合Intel OPS标准,从而简化了设备安装。同时,将Intel凌动TM处理器和NVIDIAGT218(ION2)显示模块整合在一起,实现了低功耗、高性能的特性。强大的冷却功能保证了系统的稳定性,对细节的完美把握也满足了客户的需求。凭借着这些卓越的特性,研华ARK-DS220代表了台湾本地科技创新的卓越水平,为尖端产品的设计和制造创造了附加价值。

  6. Clinical axillary recurrence after sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer: a follow-up study of 220 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjuan, A. [University of Barcelona, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Breast Pathology Unit (Spain); Hospital Clinic Provincial, Barcelona (Spain); Vidal-Sicart, S.; Pons, F. [University of Barcelona, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital Clinic (Spain); Zanon, G.; Pahisa, J.; Vanrell, J.A. [University of Barcelona, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Breast Pathology Unit (Spain); Velasco, M.; Santamaria, G. [University of Barcelona, Department of Radiology, Breast Pathology Unit, Hospital Clinic (Spain); Fernandez, P.L. [University of Barcelona, Department of Pathology, Breast Pathology Unit, Hospital Clinic (Spain); Farrus, B. [University of Barcelona, Department of Radiation Oncology, Breast Pathology Unit, Hospital Clinic (Spain); Munoz, M.; Albanell, J. [University of Barcelona, Department of Medical Oncology, Breast Pathology Unit, Hospital Clinic (Spain)

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of false-negative (FN) sentinel node procedures in patients with breast cancer and the subsequent clinical outcome in such patients. A total of 325 breast cancer patients underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy at our institution between June 1998 and May 2004. A 2-day protocol was used to localise the sentinel node with the injection of{sup 99m}Tc-nanocolloid. There were two phases in the study: the learning phase (105 patients) and the application phase (220 patients). In the learning phase, a complete lymphadenectomy was always performed. In the application phase, sentinel nodes were studied intraoperatively and lymphadenectomy was performed when considered warranted by the pathological intraoperative results. The median follow-up duration in the 220 patients studied during the application phase was 21.2 months (range 4-45 months). In this phase a total of 427 sentinel nodes were obtained (range 1-5 per patient, median 1.99), with 66 positive sentinel nodes in 56 patients (26%). The lymphadenectomies performed were also positive in 25% of cases (14 patients). We observed a total of two false-negative sentinel lymph node results (3.45%). One of them was found during the surgical excision of non-sentinel nodes, and the other presented as an axillary recurrence 17 months postoperatively (1.72% clinical false-negative rate). The latter patient died 1 year after the first recurrence. After a median follow-up of 21.2 months we observed only one clinical recurrence among 220 patients. Our results indicate that adequate local control is achieved by application of the sentinel node protocol. (orig.)

  7. Measurements of octupole collectivity in $^{220,222}$Rn and $^{222,224}$Ra using Coulomb excitation

    CERN Multimedia

    Kruecken, R; Larsen, A; Hurst, A M; Voulot, D; Grahn, T; Clement, E; Wadsworth, R; Gernhaeuser, R A; Siem, S; Huyse, M L; Iwanicki, J S

    2008-01-01

    We propose to exploit the unique capability of ISOLDE to provide post-accelerated $^{220,222}$Rn and $^{222,224}$Ra ion beams from the REX facility to enable the Coulomb excitation of the first 3$^{-}$ states in these nuclei. By measuring the $\\gamma$-ray yields of the E1 decays from the 3$^{-}$ state using the MINIBALL array we can obtain the transition matrix elements. This will give quantitative information about octupole correlations in these nuclei. We require 22 shifts to fulfil the aims of the experiment.

  8. A new distorted body-centred cubic phase of titanium (delta-Ti) at pressures up to 220 GPa

    CERN Document Server

    Akahama, Y; Bihan, T L

    2002-01-01

    Structural phase transitions of titanium (Ti) have been investigated at pressures up to 220 GPa at room temperature using a monochromatic synchrotron x-ray diffraction technique. At 140 GPa, the hexagonal phase (omega-Ti) was transformed into an orthorhombic phase (delta-Ti) with a distorted bcc structure via an intermediate phase (gamma-Ti), which has recently been proposed. The delta-Ti and gamma-Ti phases had a unique zigzag-chain-like structure, which resulted from an orthorhombic distortion.

  9. Impact of SSSC on Measured Impedance in Single Phase to Ground Fault Condition on 220 kV Transmission Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed ZELLAGUI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and compares the impact of SSSC on measured impedance for single phase to ground fault condition. The presence of Static Synchronous SSSC on a transmission line has a great influence on the ZRelay in distance protection. The protection of the high voltage 220 kV single circuit transmission line in eastern Algerian electrical transmission networks is affected in the case with resistance fault RF. The paper investigate the effect of Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC on the measured impedance (Relay taking into account the distance fault point (n and fault resistance (RF. The resultants simulation is performed in MATLAB software environment.

  10. Comprehensive software for the assessment of {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn decay products based on air sampling measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sima, Octavian [Physics Department, University of Bucharest, Bucharest-Magurele, P.O. Box MG-11, RO-077125 (Romania)], E-mail: octavian.sima@ik.fzk.de

    2009-05-15

    A computational tool dedicated to the measurement of {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn decay products by air sampling is presented. {alpha}- or {gamma}-spectrometry measurements, gross {alpha} or {beta} counting, as well as a combination of them are considered. Special attention is given to the evaluation of the uncertainty budget of the results. Besides typical applications in the analysis of experimental data, the software can be used for assessing the expected quality of a measurement protocol and for optimizing it, by generating and analyzing sets of realistic synthetic data.

  11. A new distorted body-centred cubic phase of titanium ({delta}-Ti) at pressures up to 220 GPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akahama, Yuichi [Faculty of Science, Himeji Institute of Technology, 3-2-1, Kouto, Kamigohri, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); Kawamura, Haruki [Faculty of Science, Himeji Institute of Technology, 3-2-1, Kouto, Kamigohri, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); Bihan, Tristan Le [Faculty of Science, Himeji Institute of Technology, 3-2-1, Kouto, Kamigohri, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan)

    2002-11-11

    Structural phase transitions of titanium (Ti) have been investigated at pressures up to 220 GPa at room temperature using a monochromatic synchrotron x-ray diffraction technique. At 140 GPa, the hexagonal phase ({omega}-Ti) was transformed into an orthorhombic phase ({delta}-Ti) with a distorted bcc structure via an intermediate phase ({gamma}-Ti), which has recently been proposed. The {delta}-Ti and {gamma}-Ti phases had a unique zigzag-chain-like structure, which resulted from an orthorhombic distortion.

  12. Upper limits on the VHE $\\gamma$-ray flux fromthe ULIRG Arp 220 and other galaxies with VERITAS

    OpenAIRE

    Fleischhack, Henrike; VERITAS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The cores of ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) are very dense environments, with a high rate of star formation and supernova explosions. They are thought to be sites of cosmic-ray acceleration, and are predicted to emit $\\gamma$-rays in the GeV to TeV range. So far, no ULIRG has been detected in$\\gamma$-rays. Arp 220, the closest ULIRG to Earth, has been well studied, and detailed models of $\\gamma$-ray production in this galaxy are available. They predict a rather hard...

  13. 免气腹针Trocar直入法造气腹腹腔镜手术220例应用体会%Experience of 220 cases of laparoscopic surgery by putting trocar to finish pneumoperitoneal without veress needle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任玉环; 马生秀

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨免气腹针Trocar直入法造气腹腹腔镜手术的临床应用价值.方法 对2003年2月~2006年8月的220例妇科腹腔镜手术,采用免气腹针Trocar直入法造气腹作为研究组,随机选同期200例腹腔镜手术,使用气腹针穿刺造气腹作为对照组.结果 该组220例均成功穿刺并制造气腹,无1例发生脏器穿孔、腹膜后大血管损伤等严重并发症.结论 免气腹针Trocar直入法在腹腔镜手术中应用具有可行性和安全性,值得推广.

  14. 220kV崇明联网工程伸缩缝电缆吸收装置选型研究%Offset Type Selection for 220kV Chongming Power Grid Interconnection Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永隆; 朱爱钧; 沈彬; 梁浩; 金永祥; 吴正松

    2011-01-01

    Based on the 220 kV Shanghai-Chongming Power Grid Connection Project, this paper specializes in the research on Offset (Expansion Joint Absorbing Devices for Cable) applied in EHV cables across large municipal bridges, from the perspectives of bridge deformation analysis, Offset type selection, design principles, structural calculation, Offset design, etc. Meanwhile, different types of Offset devices have been designed in accordance with different bridge conditions, providing technical support for the smooth operation of the project. This research aims to fill in the gap in the domestic field of Offset designing technology.%结合220kV沪崇苏联网工程,从桥梁变形分析、伸缩缝电缆吸收装置(Offset)的选型、设计原理、结构检算、offset装置设计等方面论述了超高压电缆沿大型市政桥梁需采用的Offset伸缩装置的专题研究,同时根据桥梁的不同情况设计了各种不同型式的offset伸缩装置,为工程顺利进行提供了技术保障。填补了国内无相关offset装置设计技术的空白点。

  15. Investigation on guyed portal tower collapse of 220 kV transmission lines%220 kV 输电线路拉门塔倒塌事故分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    The collapses of three transmission towers was caused by intense storm at a local domain.According to the safety accidents, field investigation, material test and finite element simulation and cause analysis of tower collapse are carried out . Analysis shows that heavy tension of collapsed guyed portal tower caused the collapse of three towers of 220 kV transmission line.The main reason of guyed portal tower collapse is design defect of main column base, and stay cable relaxation and bolt looseness are the indirect causes.Combined with engineering practice, corresponding countermeasures are put forward.%  某输电线路在局部短时大风下,三基输电杆塔连环倒塌。针对该安全事故,开展现场勘查、材质试验、有限元仿真计算和倒塔原因分析。分析表明该220 kV输电线路耐张段三基杆塔连环倒塌原因是拉门塔倒塌后托拽所致。主柱基础的设计缺陷是拉门塔倒塌的主要原因,拉线松弛和螺栓松动是倒塔的间接原因。结合工程实际,提出对应的整改措施。

  16. 贵州电网220kV及500kV线路绝缘子运行简析%Analysis of Guizhou Power Grid 220 kV -500 kV line insulator running

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虢韬

    2012-01-01

    The reliability service of transmission line directly affected the power network safe operation. As an integral part of transmission line, insulators long exposed to natural environment and easy to erosion and destruction, made natural deterioration rate rise and damage rate increase. This paper analyzed the operation of insulators of Guizhou power grid 220 kV - 500 kV lines, put forward measures and suggestions which suit for the insulators maintenance and operation on HV transmission lines in Guizhou mountainous area, efficaciously improved the grid security and stability in some way.%输电线路的可靠运行直接关系到电网安全运行,绝缘子作为输电线路不可或缺的部分,长期暴露在自然环境中,易受到外界环境的直接侵蚀和破坏,自然劣化率加速、其受损几率较大。本文分析贵州电网220kV及500kV线路绝缘子运行状况,提出了适合贵州山区高压输电线路绝缘子维护和运行的措施及建议,一定程度上能有效提升电网安全稳定。

  17. 220kV高压输电线路检修的危险点分析%220 kv High-voltage Transmission Line Maintenance of Dangerous Point Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭海涛

    2015-01-01

    在作业过程中危险可能存在的具体地点、具体方位及具体场所和具体动作称危险点。针对220kV高压输电线路中存在的危险点,对自然灾害、天气环境情况、线路自身缺陷、线路维修不善、输电线路铺设设计不合理等常见情况进行了科学分析,并提出了相应的预防控制办法。%In the process of operation risk the exact location of the possible,specific position and specific place and specific movement to call the danger point.In 220kv high-voltage transmission lines that exist in the dangerous points,to natural disasters,weather conditions,poor bird,line itself defects,line maintenance,violate compasses operation,artificial damage, transmission line laying design unreasonable,and other common situation has carried on the scientific analysis,and put forward the corresponding prevention and control measures.

  18. Development and calibration of system for measuring of {sup 220} Rn in exhaled air; Desenvolvimento e calibracao de um sistema para medidas de {sup 220} RN no ar exalado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucena, Eder Augusto de; Lipisztein, Joyce L. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1999-11-01

    Th{sup 233} is the parent of one of the natural radioactive series. This series contains {sup 220} Rn which is a noble gas. The study of this radionuclide is very important to estimate the intake via inhalation, due to the suspension of {sup 220} Rn decay products in situations where occupational exposure may occur. These situations include mining, milling and the use of minerals containing {sup 232} Th. This work contains a detailed description of the development of a device to measure thoron and its decay products in the human breath. This document also contains information about the calibration procedures using a {sup 228} Th standard liquid source. The detection system consists of a Zn S(Ag)-mylar disc coupled to a photomultiplier tube, which allows direct measurement of the activity in exhaled air. The calibration factor, determined through the measurements of the {sup 228} Th standard liquid source during 1 h and 30 minutes, was found to be (61 +/-3) Bq/cpm.(author) 3 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Analysis and Treatment of a Burnout Accident of 220 kV Main Transformer%一起220 kV 主变压器烧毁事故的分析与处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安向勇; 齐慧文; 王东红

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes that low voltage side of 220 kV transformer suffered a short-circuit fault. Through experiments,the reasons was analysed and measures were put forward to prevent burnout caused by short-circuit,which is of significance for strengthening the operation management of transformer and preventing the similar damage.%阐述了某220 kV 主变压器(“主变”)遭受低压侧35 kV 线路近区短路故障情况,通过试验分析出主变内部短路烧毁原因,提出了防止主变压器近区短路烧毁的措施,对加强主变压器运行管理、防止主变压器损坏事故具有一定指导意义。

  20. Tensile properties and fracture toughness of Zr–2.5Nb alloy pressure tubes of IPHWR220

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khandelwal, H.K. [Mechanical Metallurgy Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Singh, R.N., E-mail: rnsingh@barc.gov.in [Mechanical Metallurgy Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Bind, A.K.; Sunil, S.; Chakravartty, J.K. [Mechanical Metallurgy Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Ghosh, A.; Dhandharia, P.; Bhachawat, D. [Engineering Directorate, Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd., NUB, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Shekhar, R.; Kumar, Sunil Jai [National Centre for Compositional Characterisation of Materials, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, ECIL (PO), Hyderabad 500 062 (India)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Evaluated tensile properties & fracture toughness of Zr–2.5Nb pressure tube alloy. • Studied the effect of test temperature, sample location and ingot melting. • Quadruple melting improves fracture toughness despite variation in fabrication route. • Fracture toughness of IPHWR220 pressure tubes compared with CANDU material. - Abstract: The pressure tubes of Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (IPHWR) of 220 MWe are made of Zr–2.5Nb alloy manufactured either from Double Melted (DM) or from Quadruple Melted (QM) ingots. These pressure tubes are manufactured by hot extrusion, two stages of cold pilgering with intermediate annealing and autoclaving. To achieve good in-reactor performance, it is required to have minimum variability in the mechanical properties of the pressure tube across its length and between tube to tube. In this work, tensile properties and fracture toughness parameters (J{sub max}, dJ/da and CCL determined as per ASTM E1820-11 standard) of unirradiated Zr–2.5Nb alloy pressure tubes manufactured from DM and QM ingots using samples obtained from front and back end of the tubes is presented. The mechanical properties were evaluated in temperature range of 25–450 °C and compared with the corresponding data reported in literature for CANDU pressure tubes.

  1. A niche construction approach on the central Netherlands covering the last 220,000 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Biggelaar, Don F A M; Kluiving, Sjoerd J

    This paper shows what a niche construction theory (NCT) approach can contribute to the long-term social and environmental history of an area when applied to both sedentary and non-sedentary communities. To understand how communities create and respond to environmental change, hominin presence of the central Netherlands within the last 220,000 years is used as a case study. For this case study we studied the interrelationship between hominins, water and landscape gradients for four periods of interest within this long-term hominin presence. During each of these periods the study area had a specific environmental setting and (possible) traces of hominin presence. These periods cover the (1) Middle to Late Saalian (~220-170 ka), (2) Late Glacial (~14.7-11.7 ka, (3) Mid-Holocene (6000-5400 BP) and (4) Late Holocene (1200-8 BP). This review shows that traces of niche construction behaviour related to water and landscape gradients in the central Netherlands can be shown for both sedentary and non-sedentary communities. Furthermore, in this review it is shown that the transition from inceptive to counteractive change in ecosystem management style in the central Netherlands took place between the Mid- and Late Holocene periods.

  2. The radio spectra of the compact sources in Arp 220: A mixed population of supernovae and supernova remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Parra, R; Diamond, P J; Thrall, H; Lonsdale, C J; Smith, H E; Parra, Rodrigo; Conway, John E.; Diamond, Philip J.; Thrall, Hannah; Lonsdale, Colin J.; Lonsdale, Carol J.; Smith, Harding E.

    2006-01-01

    We report the first detection at multiple radio wavelengths (13, 6 and 3.6 cm) of the compact sources within both nuclei of the Ultra Luminous Infra-Red Galaxy Arp 220. We present the radio spectra of the 18 detected sources. In just over half of the sources we find that these spectra and other properties are consistent with the standard model of powerful Type IIn supernovae interacting with their pre-explosion stellar wind. The rate of appearance of new radio sources identified with these supernova events suggests that an unusually large fraction of core collapse supernovae in Arp 220 are highly luminous; possibly implying a radically different stellar initial mass function or stellar evolution compared to galactic disks. Another possible explanation invokes very short (~3 x 10^5 year) intense (~10^3 M_Sol year^-1) star formation episodes with a duty cycle of ~10%. A second group of our detected sources, consisting of the brightest and longest monitored sources at 18 cm do not easily fit the radio supernova ...

  3. High Resolution Observations of Molecular Lines in Arp 220: Kinematics, Morphology, and Limits on the Applicability of the Ammonia Thermometer

    CERN Document Server

    Zschaechner, Laura K; Walter, Fabian; Meyer, David S; Momjian, Emmanuel; Scoville, Nick

    2016-01-01

    We observe Arp 220, the nearest Ultra-Luminous Infrared Galaxy (ULIRG), over 4 GHz in the K and Ka bands. We provide constraints for the kinematics,morphology, and identify molecular species on scales resolving both nuclei (0.6" or 230 pc). We detect multiple molecular species, including hydroxyl in both cores. We tentatively detect H2O at 21.84 GHz in both nuclei, indicating the likely presence of maser emission. The observed frequency range also contains metastable ammonia transitions from (J,K) = (1,1) to (5,5), as well as the (9,9) inversion line, which, together are a well-known thermometer of dense molecular gas. Furthermore, the non-metastable (4,2) and (10,9) and possibly the (3,1) lines are also detected. We apply a standard temperature analysis to Arp 220. However, the analysis is complicated in that standard LTE assumptions do not hold. There are indications that a substantial fraction of ammonia could be in the non-metastable transitions as opposed to only the metastable ones. Thus, the non-metast...

  4. Constraining Gamma-Ray Emission from Luminous Infrared Galaxies with Fermi-LAT; Tentative Detection of Arp 220

    CERN Document Server

    Griffin, Rhiannon D; Thompson, Todd A

    2016-01-01

    Star-forming galaxies produce gamma-rays primarily via pion production, resulting from inelastic collisions between cosmic ray protons and the interstellar medium (ISM). The dense ISM and high star formation rates of luminous and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs) imply that they should be strong gamma-ray emitters, but so far only NGC 1068 has been detected. Theoretical models for their emission depend on the unknown fraction of cosmic ray protons that escape these galaxies before interacting. We analyze Fermi Large Area Telescope data for 82 of the brightest IRAS LIRGs and ULIRGs on the sky. We examine each system individually and carry out a stacking analysis to constrain their gamma-ray fluxes. We report the detection of the nearest ULIRG Arp 220 (3.44sigma above background), with a gamma-ray flux (0.8-100 GeV) of 3.2e-10 phot cm^-2 s^-1 (1.5e42 ergs s^-1 at 77 Mpc). We also derive upper limits for the stacked LIRGs and ULIRGs. The gamma-ray luminosity of Arp 220 and the stacked upper lim...

  5. Changing profile of infective endocarditis: a clinicopathologic study of 220 patients in a single medical center from 1998 through 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Wang, Hongyue; Wang, Linlin; Pu, Jielin; Zhao, Hong

    2014-10-01

    The epidemiologic profile of infective endocarditis has changed substantially over the past few years, especially in industrialized countries. Our study evaluates the clinical and pathologic characteristics of infective endocarditis patients treated by cardiac surgery in China during a 12-year period. We retrospectively evaluated 220 surgically treated infective endocarditis patients and analyzed their changes from the beginning of 1998 through 2009. The mean age of the patients increased from 36.9 to 42.7 years during those 12 years (P=0.036). The chief predisposing disease was congenital heart disease (32.8%), rather than rheumatic heart disease (13.2%); this rate did not change significantly during the 12 years. The prevalent congenital lesion was bicuspid aortic valve, the rate of which (55.6%) increased significantly over the 3 time intervals studied (P=0.016). The frequency of infective endocarditis after non-dental surgical and nonsurgical intervention was significantly greater (23.3%) during 1998 through 2001, compared with the 2 intervals that followed (9%; P=0.019). Streptococcus viridans was the most frequent causative agent overall (25.6%). Forty-seven of the 220 patients (21.4%) carried the clinical diagnosis of some other form of heart disease before surgery, but at surgery they were found to have infective endocarditis as the fundamental disease process. Of 47 patients, 33 (70.2%) had either very small or no vegetations but had focal necrosis and inflammation of valve tissue that supported the diagnosis of infective endocarditis.

  6. Effectiveness of the Top-Down Nanotechnology in the Production of Ultrafine Cement (~220 nm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Wan Jo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation is dealing with the communition of the cement particle to the ultrafine level (~220 nm utilizing the bead milling process, which is considered as a top-down nanotechnology. During the grinding of the cement particle, the effect of various parameters such as grinding time (1–6 h and grinding agent (methanol and ethanol on the production of the ultrafine cement has also been investigated. Performance of newly produced ultrafine cement is elucidated by the chemical composition, particle size distribution, and SEM and XRD analyses. Based on the particle size distribution of the newly produced ultrafine cement, it was assessed that the size of the cement particle decreases efficiently with increase in grinding time. Additionally, it is optimized that the bead milling process is able to produce 90% of the cement particle <350 nm and 50% of the cement particle < 220 nm, respectively, after 6.3 h milling without affecting the chemical phases. Production of the ultrafine cement utilizing this method will promote the construction industries towards the development of smart and sustainable construction materials.

  7. CO J=6--5 in Arp 220: strong effects of dust on high-J CO lines

    CERN Document Server

    Papadopoulos, Padeli P; van der Werf, Paul

    2010-01-01

    We report new single dish CO J=6--5 line observations for the archetypal Ultra Luminous Infrared Galaxy (ULIRG) Arp 220 with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope atop Mauna Kea in Hawaii. The J=6--5 line is found to be faint, with brightness temperature ratios (6--5)/(1--0), (6--5)/(3--2) of R_{65/10} = 0.080+/-0.017 and R_{65/32} = 0.082+/-0.019, suggesting very low excitation conditions that cannot be reconciled with the warm and very dense molecular gas present in one of the most extreme starbursts in the local Universe. We find that an optically thick dust continuum, with tau(f>350 GHz)>=1 for the bulk of the warm dust and gas in Arp 220, submerges this line to an almost black body curve, reducing its flux, and {\\it affecting its CO Spectral Line Energy Distribution (SLED) at high frequencies}. This also resolves the CII line deficiency in this object, first observed by {\\it ISO}: the near absence of that line is a dust optical depth effect, not a dense Photodissociation Region (PDR) phenomenon. Finally we b...

  8. A model to explain simultaneously the {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn emanation from thin electrodeposited sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, M.J.M. Jurado. E-mail: mjv@unex.es

    2000-06-11

    In thin radioactive sources, loss of radon by emanation is a very common phenomenon, especially in sources made by electrodeposition. A quantification of this effect in radium sources can be easily developed by using a simple model that assumes a radon diffusion term in the ingrowth equations. By measuring the corresponding Rn/Ra activity ratio, a constant diffusion factor can be determined which represents the Rn emanation from the whole source. However, this simple model cannot explain simultaneously the {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn diffusion produced in a thin source, because it gives diffusion factors that are different by many orders of magnitude for these two isotopes, while these values must be fairly close. In this paper, a new model of diffusion is proposed, which includes a linear dependence of the diffusion factor on the depth of Rn nuclides in the source. This new model has been applied to radium electrodeposited sources and allows us to explain satisfactorily both the {sup 220}Rn/{sup 224}Ra and {sup 222}Rn/{sup 226}Ra activity ratios observed in thin sources.

  9. An automatic static chamber for continuous {sup 220}Rn and {sup 222}Rn flux measurements from soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, B.E. E-mail: lehmann@climate.unibe.ch; Ihly, B.; Salzmann, S.; Onen, F.; Simon, E

    2004-02-01

    A closed-circuit analytical system for the (quasi)-continuous measurement f radon fluxes from soil consisting of a static accumulation chamber and two radon detectors operated in series is described. The first detector measures he ({sup 220}Rn+{sup 222}Rn) activity, the second one the remaining {sup 222}Rn activity after the {sup 220}Rn atoms (half-life 56 s) have decayed when the air asses a delay volume between the two detectors. A step-motor driven cover loses the chamber at the beginning of a flux measurement interval of e.g. 3 . In between measurements the chamber remains open to maintain soil and vegetation inside the chamber as closely as possible to the conditions outside. A mathematical description of the temporal evolution of Rn activities in the analytical system is presented from which procedures are derived to calculate Rn fluxes (Bq m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) from the measured activities n the two detectors. Examples from field tests illustrate the performance of he experimental set-up and possible complications due to technical and/or environmental difficulties.

  10. Target size analysis by radiation inactivation: a large capacity tube rack for irradiation in a Gammacell 220.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauregard, G; Giroux, S; Potier, M

    1983-07-15

    Target size analysis by radiation inactivation is now a well-established method to study structure-function relationships in biologically active macromolecules without prior purification or even solubilization. Recently, it was reported that a relatively low-dose-rate but commonly available gamma source such as the Gammacell 220 (Atomic Energy of Canada, Ltd.) can be used to carry out radiation inactivation experiments providing it is appropriately calibrated with enzymes of known radiation sensitivities (G. Beauregard and M. Potier (1982) Anal. Biochem. 122, 379-384). In this report, a tube rack designed to fit into the irradiation chamber of the Gammacell 220 which allows five experiments (at 30 tubes per experiment) to be carried out simultaneously with both standard and unknown samples is described. The dose rates delivered at different positions in the rack were determined by irradiating rat liver cytosolic neuraminidase, an enzyme of known radiation sensitivity. A better than 2.7% agreement was obtained between experimental dose rate and computed values from isodose curves previously published by other authors (O. A. Curzio and H. O. Quaranta (1982) Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 33, 1-3).

  11. Measurements of Rn-222, Rn-220 and their decay products in the environmental air of the high background radiation areas in Yangjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Y; Morishima, H; Shen, T; Koga, T; Wei, L; Sugahara, T

    2000-10-01

    For the renewal of dose estimation from internal irradiation in the high background radiation areas (HBRA) of Yangjiang, the measurements of radon, thoron and their decay products in the environmental air were conducted, including: (1) integrating measurements of Rn-222 and Rn-220 concentrations; (2) eqilibrium factor F for Rn-222 and alpha-potential energy value of Rn-220; (3) external gamma radiation in places where radon measurements were undertaken; (4) cumulative exposure to indoor radon for each family in a case-control study on lung cancer. The Rn-Tn cup monitor method was used for the integrating measurement of Rn-222 and Rn-220 concentration. An alpha track detector was used for the integration measurement of Rn-222 concentration in the case-control study on lung cancer. The results of measurements show that although the investigated areas are located between the Equator and the Tropic of Cancer, and that people live in well-ventilated dwellings, the concentrations of radon, especially of Rn-220 are significantly higher in the indoor air of HBRA than those in the control area. The value of equilibrium factors for Rn-222, the alpha potential energy of decay products from Rn-222 and Rn-220 are determined.

  12. Measurements of Rn-222, Rn-220 and their decay products in the environmental air of the high background radiation areas in Yangjiang, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Yongling; Shen Tong [Labor Hygiene Inst. of Human Province, Changsha (China); Morishima, Hiroshige; Koga, Taeko; Wei Luxin; Sugahara, Tsutomu

    2000-10-01

    For the renewal of dose estimation from internal irradiation in the high background radiation areas (HBRA) of Yangjiang, the measurements of radon, thoron and their decay products in the environmental air were conducted, including: integrating measurements of Rn-222 and Rn-220 concentrations; equilibrium factor F for Rn-222 and alpha-potential energy value of Rn-220; external gamma radiation in places where radon measurements were undertaken; cumulative exposure to indoor radon for each family in a case-control study on lung cancer. The Rn-Tn cup monitor method was used for the integrating measurement of Rn-222 and Rn-220 concentration. An alpha track detector was used for the integration measurement of Rn-222 concentration in the case-control study on lung cancer. The results of measurements show that although the investigated areas are located between the Equator and the Tropic of Cancer, and that people live in well-ventilated dwellings, the concentrations of radon, especially of Rn-220 are significantly higher in the indoor air of HBRA than those in the control area. The value of equilibrium factors for Rn-222, the alpha potential energy of decay products from Rn-222 and Rn-220 are determined. (author)

  13. 一起励磁涌流引起220 kV线路高频距离保护误动分析及对策%Analysis on the Inrush Current Caused by High Frequency 220kV Line Distance Protection Malfunction and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林幼萍

    2014-01-01

    文章就一起大容量变压器空充引起的励磁涌流造成220 kV线路保护误动进行分析,探讨了励磁涌流的各电气量特点,对220 kV高频距离保护方向判别进行分析,并提出相应的对策。%In this paper, together with the large-capacity transformer inrush current space charge field induced protection malfunction caused 220kV line were analyzed to explore the amount of inrush current of each electrical characteristics of high frequency distance protection 220kV direction discriminant analysis, and propose appropriate countermeasures.

  14. Características e desempenho agronômico no Paraná da cultivar de trigo BRS 220 Characteristics and agronomic performance in Paraná State of wheat cultivar BRS 220

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Carlos Bassoi

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A cultivar BRS 220, indicada para todas as regiões tritícolas do Paraná, apresenta elevado potencial de rendimento, ampla adaptação e é dotada de força de glúten que a inclui na classe de trigo pão. É resistente às ferrugens e moderadamente resistente às manchas foliares, à brusone e ao vírus-do-mosaico. É moderadamente suscetível à giberela e ao oídio. Apresenta ciclo de precoce a médio, altura média de planta, boa resistência ao acamamento e moderada tolerância ao alumínio tóxico. É moderadamente tolerante à debulha e suscetível à germinação pré-colheita. Apresentou, nos cinco anos de experimentação, média de rendimento de grãos da ordem de 4.853 kg ha-1, na região 6, 3.794 kg ha-1, na região 7, e 4.039 kg ha-1, na região 8, superando a média das cultivares testemunhas em 5%, 13% e 8%, respectivamente.The cultivar BRS 220, recommended for all wheat growing regions in the Paraná State, has shown a high yield potential, wide adaptation and resistance to the main diseases, presenting a gluten suitable for baking. The cultivar belongs to medium maturity group and presents medium height, high resistance to lodging, moderate tolerance to toxic aluminium, moderate tolerance to natural dehiscence but it is susceptible to preharvest sprouting (PHS. In the experimentation over five years, BRS 220 presented a grain yield average of 4,853 kg ha-1 in the region 6, 3,794 kg ha-1 in the region 7 and 4,039 kg ha-1 in the region 8, surpassing 5%, 13% and 8% the average of the local cultivars, respectively.

  15. 抗菌肽HP(2-20)与POPE脂膜相互作用的分子学模拟%Molecular Dynamic Simulation on Interaction of Antimicrobial Peptide HP(2-20) and POPE Lipid Membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建华; 刘黎; 方颖; 黄庆生

    2012-01-01

    作为传统抗生素有力的候选者,抗菌肽是先天免疫体系中的重要组成成分.抗菌肽从起初的接触至随后稳定地吸附到细菌CC的质膜之上,是抗菌肽发挥其抗菌功能的关键初始事件.为揭示这一尚未明了的过程,文中使用分子动力学模拟方法,通过构建抗菌肽HP(2-20)与POPE脂双层的体系,模拟了HP(2-20)与POPE脂膜间的非特异相互作用.结果表明:抗菌肽的N端最先与脂膜接触,随后抗菌肽将维持一种倾斜的姿态,经历一个旋动插入脂膜的过程;同时,抗菌肽将束缚膜上与其邻近的磷脂分子的运动,导致膜的不均匀性,增强脂膜磷脂分子的无序波动,为其它自由的抗菌肽分子更深的插入提供了机会.%As one of the most likely substitutes for conventional antibiotics, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are ancient players in innate immunity. In the antimicrobial action of AMPs, an initial key event is that AMPs firstly contact with and then closely adhere to the bacterial membrane. In order to reveal this unknown process, a molecular dynamic (MD) simulation is performed to examine the nonspecific interaction of AMP HP(2-20) with the cell membrane, which is modeled by a POPE bilayer. The results show that the N-terminal of the peptide firstly contacts with the membrane, and then, companying with a rotation movement, the peptide slowly inclines toward and slightly inserts into the membrane; at the same time, the AMP limits the movements of the lipids adjacent to the peptide, which induces the membrane to become non-uniform and enhances the irregular fluctuation of the lipids, so that other peptides may find their chances of deeply inserting into the membrane.

  16. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 220 Revision 3 (FGE.220Rev3): Consideration of genotoxic potential for α,β-unsaturated 3(2H)-Furanones from subgroup 4.4 of FGE.19

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Nørby, Karin Kristiane

    for genotoxicity could not be ruled out, therefore the Panel requested a repetition of the submitted micronucleus study in the presence of S9-mix, or a combined in vivo micronucleus and Comet assay, including analysis of the liver. The Flavour Industry has tested again 4-acetyl-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H)-one [FL......-no: 13.175] in an in vitro micronucleus assay as was requested by the Panel. This new study is evaluated in FGE.220, Revision 3, where the Panel concluded that [FL-no: 13.175] does not give rise to concern with respect to genotoxicity and can be evaluated using the Procedure. This is also applicable...

  17. Analysis of Clinicopathological Characteristics in 220 Breast Cancer Cases in Huaihua City%怀化市220例乳腺癌临床病理资料分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾丽平; 舒筱灿; 李彦兮; 胡海燕

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨近5年来乳腺癌的临床病理特征,提高临床诊治水平。方法收集2009年~2013年间怀化市第三人民医院收治的220例乳腺癌根治术患者的详细临床病理资料,进行回顾性分析。结果220例乳腺癌患者中,平均年龄52岁,50~59岁段所占百分比最高,占34.5%。组织学类型以浸润性导管癌最多,占67.3%。就诊时肿瘤大小为2~5cm者占66.4%。就诊时Ⅱ期者占58.1%。无淋巴结转移者占41.8%。最主要的临床症状为乳腺肿块,占64.5%。浸润性导管癌与浸润性小叶癌两组间年龄差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。肿瘤大小比较,差异有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论乳腺癌发病率逐年上升。加强宣传和普及预防乳腺癌的知识显得尤为重要。女性应注意自我检查,定期体检,以早期发现、早期诊断乳腺癌。%Objective To analyze the past 5years, the clinicopathological characteristics of breast cancer in order to improve diagnosis and treatment level. Methods The clinical data of 220 breast cancer patients in the Third People's Hospital of Huaihua city from 2009 to 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Results The mean age of 220 breast cancers was 52. The highest frequency of malignancies was observed in the 50-59 age group (34.5%). The major pathological type was infiltrating ductal carcinoma (67.3%). 66.4 percent of patients had turmors between 2~5cm in diameter. 58.1 percent of patients had turmors in stageII. 41.8 percent of patients were detected without lymph node metastasis. The main clinical symptoms of breast mass, accounting for 64.5%. There were no significant dif erences in age, lymph node metastasis rate between infiltrating ductal carcinoma and infiltrating lobular carcinoma ( >0.05). Compared with the tumor size, tumor staging, which dif erence was significant ( <0.05). Conclusion The incidence of breast cancer had increased year by year. Strengthen the prevention of breast cancer awareness and

  18. 500kV变电站220kV线路断路器延时分闸故障分析%Fault Analysis of Delay Opening of 220 kV Circuit Breaker in 500 kV Substation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄玮; 胡宏宇; 陈开群; 彭军海

    2012-01-01

    In view of the importance of close-open time, taking the delay opening failure of a 220 kV circuit breaker for an example, the reason of circuit breaker B phase delay opening is tested and a comprehensive analysis is given. The test results show that there exists conversion delay of the circuit breaker B phase auxiliary switch to cause the mismatch of open-close time of circuit breaker and operation time of relay protection equipment, which affected the opening time of the circuit breaker. Therefore, it is recommended to enhance the periodic test of the close-open time in power system test pro cedure to reduce the line fault.%鉴于断路器合-分时间参数的重要性,以一起220 kV线路断路器延时分闸故障为例,对断路器B相延时分闸的原因进行了现场测试,并进行了全面分析.测试结果表明,断路器B相辅助开关转换存在延时,造成断路器合—分时间与继电保护装置动作时间配合不当,影响了断路器的分闸时间,建议在电力系统相关试验规程中加强合—分时间的周期性测试,以减少线路故障.

  19. Quantum efficiency of cesium iodide photocathodes in the 120-220 nm spectral range traceable to a primary detector standard

    CERN Document Server

    Rabus, H; Richter, M; Ulm, G; Friese, J; Gernhäuser, R; Kastenmüller, A; Maier-Komor, P; Zeitelhack, K

    1999-01-01

    Differently prepared CsI samples have been investigated in the 120-220 nm spectral range for their quantum efficiency, spatial uniformity and the effect of radiation aging. The experiments were performed at the PTB radiometry laboratory at the Berlin synchrotron radiation facility BESSY. A calibrated GaAsP Schottky photodiode was used as transfer detector standard to establish traceability to the primary detector standard, because this type of photodiode - unlike silicon p-on-n photodiodes - proved to be of sufficiently stable response when exposed to vacuum ultraviolet radiation. The paper reviews the experimental procedures that were employed to characterize and calibrate the GaAsP photodiode and reports the results that were obtained on the investigated CsI photocathodes.

  20. Indolediketopiperazine Alkaloids from Eurotium cristatum EN-220, an Endophytic Fungus Isolated from the Marine Alga Sargassum thunbergii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Feng-Yu; Li, Xin; Li, Xiao-Ming; Zhu, Li-Wei; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2017-01-01

    Four new indolediketopiperazine derivatives (1–4), along with nine known congeners (5–13), were isolated and identified from the culture extract of Eurotium cristatum EN-220, an endophytic fungus obtained from the marine alga Sargassum thunbergii. The structures of thesecompounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis and the absolute configurations of compounds 1–4 were established by NOESY experiments and by chiral HPLC analyses of their acid hydrolysates. The absolute configuration of C-8 (a quaternary carbon substituted with a hydroxyl group) in 5 of preechinulin class was firstly determined by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. All these compounds were evaluatedfor brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality and nematicidal activity as well as antioxidativeand antimicrobial potency. PMID:28125012

  1. Measurement of the Density of Base Fluids at Pressures 0.422 to 2.20 Gpa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Jacobson, B. O.; Bergstroem, S. I.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of pressure on the density of six base fluids is experimentally studied for a range of pressures from 0.422 to 2.20 GPa. An important parameter used to describe the results is the change in relative volume with change in pressure dv sub r/dp. For pressures less than the solidification pressure (p ps) a small change in pressure results in a large change in dv sub r/ps. For pressures greater than the solidification pressure (p ps) there is no change in dv sub r/dp with changing pressure. The solidification pressures of the base fluids varies considerably, as do the slopes that the experimental data assumes for p ps. A new formula is developed that describes the effect of pressure on density in terms of four constants. These constants vary for the different base fluids tested.

  2. Resonance raman spectroscopic study of alumina-supported vanadium oxide catalysts with 220 and 287 nm excitation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H. S.; Stair, P. C.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Northwestern Univ.

    2009-01-01

    We present detailed resonance Raman spectroscopic results excited at 220 and 287 nm for alumina-supported VO{sub x} catalysts. The anharmonic constant, harmonic wavenumber, anharmonic force constant, bond dissociation energy, and bond length change in the excited state for double bonded V{double_bond}O and single bonded V-O were obtained from fundamental and overtone frequencies. Totally symmetric and nontotally symmetric modes could be discerned and assigned on the basis of the overtone and combination progressions found in the resonance Raman spectra. Selective resonance enhancement of two different vibrational modes with two different excitation wavelengths was observed. This allowed us to establish a linear relationship between charge transfer energy and VO bond length and, consequently, to assign the higher-energy charge transfer band centered around 210?250 nm in the UV?vis spectra to the V{double_bond}O transition.

  3. First electrons from the new 220 TW Frascati Laser for Acceleration and Multidisciplinary Experiments (FLAME) at Frascati National Laboratories (LNF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levato, T., E-mail: tadzio.levato@lnf.infn.it [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (LNF), INFN (Italy); Calvetti, M. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (LNF), INFN (Italy); University of Florence, Department of Physics (Italy); Anelli, F. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (LNF), INFN (Italy); Batani, D.; Benocci, R. [University of Milano Bicocca, Department of Physics (Italy); Cacciotti, L. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (LNF), INFN (Italy); Cecchetti, C.A. [Intense Laser Irradiation Lab. (ILIL), Istituto Nazionale di Ottica (INO) - CNR, Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sect. of Pisa (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (LNF), INFN (Italy); Cerafogli, O.; Chimenti, P.; Clozza, A. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (LNF), INFN (Italy); Drenska, N. [University of Roma La Sapienza (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (LNF), INFN (Italy); Esposito, A. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (LNF), INFN (Italy); Faccini, R. [University of Roma La Sapienza (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (LNF), INFN (Italy); Fioravanti, S. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (LNF), INFN (Italy); Gamucci, A. [Intense Laser Irradiation Lab. (ILIL), Istituto Nazionale di Ottica (INO) - CNR, Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sect. of Pisa (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (LNF), INFN (Italy); Gatti, C. [University of Roma La Sapienza (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (LNF), INFN (Italy); Giulietti, A. [Intense Laser Irradiation Lab. (ILIL), Istituto Nazionale di Ottica (INO) - CNR, Pisa (Italy); Giulietti, D. [University of Pisa, Department of Physics (Italy); Intense Laser Irradiation Lab. (ILIL), Istituto Nazionale di Ottica (INO) - CNR, Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sect. of Pisa (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (LNF), INFN (Italy); Labate, L. [Intense Laser Irradiation Lab. (ILIL), Istituto Nazionale di Ottica (INO) - CNR, Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sect. of Pisa (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (LNF), INFN (Italy); Lollo, V. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (LNF), INFN (Italy); and others

    2013-08-21

    A new era of laser based plasma accelerators is emerging following the commissioning of many high power laser facilities around the world. Extremely short (tens of fs) laser pulses with energy of multi-joules level are available at these newly built facilities. Here we describe the new 220 TW FLAME facility. In particular we discuss the laser system general layout, the main measurements on the laser pulse parameters, the underground target area. Finally we give an overview of the first results of the Self-Injection Test Experiment (SITE), obtained at a low laser energy. This initial low laser energy experimental campaign was necessary for the validation of the radio-protection shielding (Esposito, 2011 [1]) we discuss here. With respect to our preliminary configuration, with a pulse duration of 30 fs and a focusing optic of F/15, we discuss here the minimum laser energy requirements for electron acceleration and the forward transmitted optical radiation.

  4. Mercury speciation and its emissions from a 220 MW pulverized coal-fired boiler power plant in flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, X.H.; Zhuo, Y.Q.; Duan, Y.F.; Chen, L.; Yang, L.G.; Zhang, L.A.; Jiang, Y.M.; Xu, X.C. [Southeast University, Nanjing (China). Thermoenergy Engineering Research Institute

    2007-07-15

    Distributions of mercury speciation of Hg{sup 0}, Hg{sup 2+} and Hg{sup P} in flue gas and fly ash were sampled by using the Ontario Hydro Method in a 220 MW pulverized coal-fired boiler power plant in China. The mercury speciation was varied greatly when flue gas going through the electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The mercury adsorbed on fly ashes was found strongly dependent on unburnt carbon content in fly ash and slightly on the particle sizes, which implies that the physical and chemical features of some elemental substances enriched to fly ash surface also have a non-ignored effect on the mercury adsorption. The concentration of chlorine in coal, oxygen and NOx in flue gas has a positive correlation with the formation of the oxidized mercury, but the sulfur in coal has a positive influence on the formation of elemental mercury.

  5. Spectral response of a silicon detector with 220 {mu}m pixel size bonded to MEDIPIX2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froejdh, Erik, E-mail: erik.frojdh@miun.se [Department of Information Technology and Media, Mid-Sweden University, SE-85170 Sundsvall (Sweden); Froejdh, Anna; Norlin, Boerje; Froejdh, Christer [Department of Information Technology and Media, Mid-Sweden University, SE-85170 Sundsvall (Sweden)

    2011-05-15

    Pixellated radiation detectors with single photon processing can be used for spectral X-ray imaging. A problem using such detectors with small pixels is that the spectral information is distorted by charge sharing. In order to get images with good spectral resolution a number of silicon sensors with a pixel size of 220 {mu}m were fabricated and bonded to a MEDIPIX2 readout chip using only a limited number of pixels on the readout chip. The device was then used in an X-ray microscopy setup to obtain good spatial resolution as well. It is shown that spectral imaging can provide good contrast images of embedded structures by selecting an appropriate energy window.

  6. Efficient silicon heterojunction solar cells based on p- and n-type substrates processed at temperatures < 220 deg C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maydell, K.v.; Conrad, E.; Schmidt, M. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Berlin (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    We present the optimization and characterization of heterojunction solar cells consisting of an amorphous silicon emitter, a single crystalline absorber and an amorphous silicon rear side which causes the formation of a back surface field (a-Si:H/c-Si/a-Si:H). The solar cells were processed at temperatures <220 deg C. An optimum of the gas phase doping concentration of the a-Si:H layers was found. For high gas phase doping concentrations, recombination via defects located at or nearby the interface leads to a decrease in solar cell efficiency. We achieved efficiencies >17% on p-type c-Si absorbers and >17.5% on n-type absorbers. In contrast to the approach of Sanyo, no additional intrinsic a-Si:H layers between the substrate and the doped a-Si:H layers were inserted. (Author)

  7. Application of egs4 computer code for determination of gamma ray spectrum and dose rate distribution in gammacell 220

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raisali, G. R.; Sohrabpour, M.

    1993-10-01

    The EGS4 a Monte Carlo electron-photon transport simulation package together with a locally developed computer program "GCELL" has been used to simulate the transport of the gamma rays in Gammacell 220. An additional lead attenuator has been inserted in the chamber, has been included for those cases where lower dose rates were required. For three cases of 0, 1.35 and 4.0 cm thickness of added lead attenuators, the gamma spectrum, and dose rate distribution inside the chamber have been determined. For the case of no attenuator present, the main shield around the source cage has been included in the simulation program and its albedo effects have been investigated. The calculated dose rate distribution in the Gammacell chamber has been compared against measurements carried out with Fricke, PMMA and Gafchromic film dosimeters.

  8. 220kV普光变电站35kV系统接地研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张世文

    2011-01-01

    普光气田是我国最大的高含H2S气田,产能为10 5×108m3/年天然气,220kV普光变电站是保障普光气田的正常运行以及职工的正常生活用电的“心脏”.该站为四川电网内第一个主变压器35kV线圈采用三角形接线,第一个35kV中性点经中电阻接地、单相接地故障直接跳闸的配网系统.经过近3年的运行,系统运行良好,电网运行平稳,该系统的成功应用,对今后类似工程的设计将起到较好的借鉴作用.%Puguang gas field is the largest high gas field containing H2S, capacity for 105 x 108 m3 / year natural gas, 220 kV substations puguang puguang gas field is to ensure the normal operation of the normal Life of the worker and the "heart" of electricity. For sichuan power station in main transformer first 35 kV coil using triangle wiring, the first 35 kV neutral in the resistance grcunding, one-phase ground fault feeder of the distribution network system directly. After nearly three years of operation, the system is running well, power grid smooth operation, and successful application of the system, the design of similar projects in the future will play a good reference.

  9. Estimating Maximal Heart Rate with the ‘220-Age’ Formula in Adolescent Female Volleyball Players: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaidis Pantelis Theodoros

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Although maximal heart rate (HRmax is used widely to assess exercise intensity in training, there are limited data with regards to the validity of age-based prediction equations of HRmax in volleyball players. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare the measured-HRmax of two prediction equations (Fox-HRmax = 220 − age and Tanaka-HRmax = 208 − 0.7 × age in young female volleyball players. Methods. The study involved 47 volleyball players (age 13.39 ± 2.01 years, body mass 54.0 ± 10.8 kg, height 162.7 ± 10.2 cm who performed a graded exercise field test (20 m shuttle run endurance test to assess HRmax. Measured-HRmax values were compared with the Fox and Tanaka prediction equations. Results. The results showed that mean scores for HRmax significantly differed between measured and predicted values (p < 0.001, ŋ2 = 0.49. Post-hoc tests revealed that Fox-HRmax overestimated measured-HRmax (mean difference 5.7 bpm; 95% CI [3.0, 8.5], whereas Tanaka-HRmax was similar to measured-HRmax (-2.2 bpm; 95% CI [-4.9, 0.4]. HRmax did not correlate with age (r = 0.16, p = 0.291. Conclusions. The results of this study failed to validate the widely used ‘220−age’ formula in volleyball players. Coaches and fitness trainers should take into account that the overestimation of HRmax by the Fox equation might lead to prescribing exercise at a higher intensity than what is targeted. Therefore, the Tanaka equation appears to offer a more accurate prediction equation of HRmax than the Fox equation in young female volleyball players.

  10. Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain LCT-PA220, Which Was Selected after Space Flight by Using Biolog's Powerful Carbon Source Utilization Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guogang; Hu, Juan; Fang, Xiangqun; Zhang, Xuelin; Wang, Junfeng; Guo, Yinghua; Li, Tianzhi; Chen, Zhenghong; Dai, Wenkui; Liu, Changting

    2014-03-13

    To explore the changes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in space flight, we present the draft genome sequence of P. aeruginosa strain LCT-PA220, which originated from a P. aeruginosa strain, ATCC 27853, that traveled on the Shenzhou-VIII spacecraft.

  11. Herschel/PACS spectroscopy of NGC 4418 and Arp 220: H2O, H2^{18}O, OH, ^{18}OH, O^0, HCN and NH3

    CERN Document Server

    González-Alfonso, E; Graciá-Carpio, J; Sturm, E; Hailey-Dunsheath, S; Lutz, D; Poglitsch, A; Contursi, A; Feuchtgruber, H; Veilleux, S; Spoon, H W W; Verma, A; Christopher, N; Davies, R; Sternberg, A; Genzel, R; Tacconi, L

    2011-01-01

    Herschel/PACS spectroscopy of the (ultra)luminous infrared galaxies NGC 4418 and Arp 220 reveals high excitation in H2O, OH, HCN, and NH3. In NGC 4418, absorption lines were detected with E_lower>800 K (H2O), 600 K (OH), 1075 K (HCN), and 600 K (NH3), while in Arp 220 the excitation is somewhat lower. While clear outflow signatures are seen in Arp 220 as has been seen in previous studies, in NGC 4418 the lines tracing its outer regions are redshifted relative to the nucleus, suggesting an inflow with Mdot~100 K) nuclear continuum components, together with a more extended and colder component that is much more prominent and massive in Arp 220. A chemical dichotomy is found in both sources: on the one hand, the nuclear regions have high H2O abundances, ~0.5x10^{-5}, and high HCN/H2O and HCN/NH3 column density ratios of 0.2-0.7 and 6-9, respectively, indicating a chemistry typical of evolved hot cores where grain mantle evaporation has occurred. On the other hand, the high OH abundance, with OH/H2O ratios of ~0....

  12. Inhalation exposures due to radon and thoron ((222)Rn and (220)Rn): Do they differ in high and normal background radiation areas in India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rosaline; Sapra, B K; Prajith, R; Rout, R P; Jalaluddin, S; Mayya, Y S

    2015-09-01

    In India, High Background Radiation Areas (HBRAs) due to enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides in soil (thorium and, to a lesser extent, uranium), are located along some parts of the coastal tracts viz. the coastal belt of Kerala, Tamilnadu and Odisha. It is conjectured that these deposits will result in higher emissions of radon isotopes ((222)Rn and (220)Rn) and their daughter products as compared to Normal Background Radiation Areas (NBRAs). While the annual external dose rates contributed by gamma radiations in these areas are about 5-10 times higher, the extent of increase in the inhalation dose rates attributable to (222)Rn and (220)Rn and their decay products is not well quantified. Towards this, systematic indoor surveys were conducted wherein simultaneous measurements of time integrated (222)Rn and (220)Rn gas and their decay product concentrations was carried out in around 800 houses in the HBRAs of Kerala and Odisha to estimate the inhalation doses. All gas measurements were carried out using pin-hole cup dosimeters while the progeny measurements were with samplers and systems based on the Direct radon/thoron Progeny sensors (DRPS/DTPS). To corroborate these passive measurements of decay products concentrations, active sampling was also carried out in a few houses. The results of the surveys provide a strong evidence to conclude that the inhalation doses due to (222)Rn and (220)Rn gas and their decay products in these HBRAs are in the same range as observed in the NBRAs in India.

  13. 75 FR 32773 - Auction of 218-219 MHz Service and Phase II 220 MHz Service Licenses Scheduled for December 7...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ... format documents, sign language interpreters, CART, etc.) by e-mail: FCC504@fcc.gov or phone: 202-418... Commission has authorized certain site-based, low power operations on a secondary basis in the 216-220 MHz..., the service rules permit a variety of fixed, mobile, and paging services, though the opportunities...

  14. 12 CFR 220.128 - Treatment of simultaneous long and short positions in the same margin account when put or call...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... positions in the same margin account when put or call options or combinations thereof on such stock are also...) Interpretations § 220.128 Treatment of simultaneous long and short positions in the same margin account when put... the deposit of margin ordinarily required in connection with the guarantee by a creditor of a put...

  15. Validation of PET-SORTEO Monte Carlo simulations for the geometries of the MicroPET R4 and Focus 220 PET scanners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lartizien, C [CREATIS Laboratory, UMR CNRS 5220, Inserm U630, INSA-Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, F69621 Villeurbanne (France); Kuntner, C [Department of Radiopharmaceuticals, Austrian Research Center GmbH-ARC, Seibersdorf (Austria); Goertzen, A L [McConnell Brain Imaging Centre, Montreal (Canada); Evans, A C [McConnell Brain Imaging Centre, Montreal (Canada); Reilhac, A [CERMEP, Bron (France)

    2007-08-21

    PET-SORTEO is a Monte Carlo-based simulator that enables the fast generation of realistic PET data for the geometry of the ECAT EXACT HR+ scanner. In order to address the increasing need for simulation models of animal PET imaging systems, our aim is to adapt and configure this simulation tool for small animal PET scanners, especially for the widely distributed microPET R4 and Focus 220 systems manufactured by Siemens Preclinical Solutions. We propose a simulation model that can produce realistic rodent images in order to evaluate and optimize acquisition and reconstruction protocols. The first part of this study presents the validation of SORTEO against the geometries of the R4 and the Focus 220 systems. This validation is carried out against actual measurements performed on the R4 scanner at the Montreal Neurological Institute in Canada and on the Focus 220 system of Department of radiopharmaceuticals of the Austrian Research Center in Seibersdorf. The comparison of simulated and experimental performance measurements includes spatial resolution, energy spectra, scatter fraction and count rates. In the second part of the study, we demonstrate the ability to rapidly generate realistic whole-body radioactive distributions using the MOBY phantom and give comparative example case studies of the same rodent model simulated with PET-SORTEO for the R4 and Focus 220 systems.

  16. THE FIRST DETECTION OF GeV EMISSION FROM AN ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXY: Arp 220 AS SEEN WITH THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Fang-Kun; Wang, Xiang-Yu [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Liu, Ruo-Yu [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Tang, Qing-Wen [School of Science, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Wang, Jun-Feng, E-mail: xywang@nju.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

    2016-04-20

    Cosmic rays (CRs) in starburst galaxies produce high-energy gamma-rays by colliding with the dense interstellar medium. Arp 220 is the nearest ultraluminous infrared galaxy that has star formation at extreme levels, so it has long been predicted to emit high-energy gamma-rays. However, no evidence of gamma-ray emission was found despite intense search efforts. Here we report the discovery of high-energy gamma-ray emission above 200 MeV from Arp 220 at a confidence level of ∼6.3σ using 7.5 years of Fermi Large Area Telescope observations. The gamma-ray emission shows no significant variability over the observation period and it is consistent with the quasi-linear scaling relation between the gamma-ray luminosity and total infrared luminosity for star-forming galaxies, suggesting that these gamma-rays arise from CR interactions. As the high-density medium of Arp 220 makes it an ideal CR calorimeter, the gamma-ray luminosity can be used to measure the efficiency of powering CRs by supernova (SN) remnants given a known supernova rate in Arp 220. We find that this efficiency is about 4.2 ± 2.6% for CRs above 1 GeV.

  17. 湖南电网220kV线路直流融冰问题研究%Study on problem of DC ice-melting of the Hunan 220 kV power grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮启运; 顾雪平; 陆佳政; 张红先

    2011-01-01

    分析了线路融冰顺序、电源点选择以及短路点选择三个融冰线路问题,根据其解决方法和模拟现场参数利用Matlab搭建仿真模型计算线路融冰电流,并选择性加入谐波抑制电抗控制谐波畸变率.利用VFP开发了一套存储查询线路电气参数以及计算融冰时间的防冻融冰管理系统,并根据其计算结果分析了融冰时间与覆冰厚度、融冰电流、风速、气温之间的关系.在娄底220 kV田上线上,采用移动式直流融冰装置,搭建仿真模型计算融冰电流和分析其谐波影响,并通过管理系统计算融冰时间,计算结果与现场融冰的结果基本吻合.%The paper analyzes three line ice-melting problems, including the line sequence of melting ice, power point selection, and short-circuit point selection.According to the solving methods and the simulated parameters, the simulation models to calculate the ice-melting current are built on Matlab, and harmonic suppression reactance is added selectively to contol harmonic distortion.VFP is used to develop a management system of anti-freezing and ice-melting, which can store and inquire line electrical parameters and calculate ice-melting time.Based on the calculating results, the relations between the ice-melting time and the ice thickness, ice-melting current, the wind speed, and the temperature are analyzed.The moving DC ice-melting device is used on 220 kV Tian-Shang line in Loudi.By building simulation models, the ice-melting current is obtained and the harmonics' influence is analyzed, then the ice-melting time is computed by the management system.It's shown that the calculation results basically accord with the results on the spot.

  18. ~(222)Rn/~(220)Rn子体测量方法与仪器比较%Comparison of Methods and Instruments for ~(222)Rn/~(220)Rn Progeny Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳阳; 尚兵; 周青芝; 武云云

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,comparisons were made among three methods of measurement(grab measurement,continuous measurement and integrating measurement) and also measurements of different instruments for a radon/thoron mixed chamber.Taking the optimized five-segment method as a comparison criterion,for the equilibrium-equivalent concentration of 222 Rn,measured results of BWLM and 24 h integrating detectors are 31% and 29% higher than the criterion,the results of Wlx, however,is 20% lower;and for 220 Rn progeny,the results of FJ414-142,KF-602D,BWLM and 24 h integrating detector are 86%,18%,28% and 36% higher than the criterion respectively,except that of WLx,which is 5% lower.For the differences shown,further research is needed.%在小型氡混合室对抓取测量、连续测量和累积测量三种方法及仪器测量结果进行了比较。与优化五段法相比,对于222Rn平衡当量浓度,BWLM连续测量仪和24 h累积探测器测量结果分别高出其31%和29%,Wlx仪偏低20%左右;对于220Rn平衡当量浓度,FJ414-142低本底闪烁探测器和KF-602D氡子体测量仪的测量结果分别偏高86%和18%,BWLM连续测量仪和24 h累积探测器测量结果分别偏高28%和36%,Wlx仪偏低5%左右。对于这几种方法和仪器测量数据之间的差异,须进一步研究。

  19. 肱骨外上髁炎痛点封闭治疗220例护理观察%Local corticosteroid injection for lateral humeral epicondylitis: Observation of 220 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴俊; 徐建达; 胡素琴; 程秀红

    2011-01-01

    目的 肱骨外上髁炎是肘部软组织损伤常见的疾病,治疗上多以保守治疗为主,且方法多样,文中旨在观察肱骨外上髁炎痛点封闭治疗的临床疗效及护理指导.方法 从2009年12月至2010年3月期间对220例肱骨外上髁炎病例进行局部痛点封闭注射醋酸泼尼松,观察临床疗效.结果 96%患者获得回访并取得了满意疗效,优良率为96.0%,半年后复发者4例,1年后复发者2例,复发率为3%.结论 局部痛点封闭治疗肱骨外上髁炎疗效确切,可作为保守治疗肱骨外上髁炎的首选方法.%Objective Lateral humeral epicondylitis is a common disease of soft tissue injuries of the elbow, and generally treated by corticosteroid injection. The authors investigated the clinical effectiveness of local corticosteroid injection in the treatment of lateral humeral epicondylitis. Methods A total of 220 patients with lateral humeral epicondylitis were injected with prednisone acetate deep into the myofascial tissue of the tender spot of the lateral humeral epicondyle, and the clinical effectiveness was observed. Results Satisfactory results were achieved in 201 of the patients, with an excellence rate of 96.0%. Occurrence was found in 4 cases 6 months later and in 2 cases 12 months later, with an occurrence rate of 3.0%. Conclusion Local corticosteroid injection is a pre ferable option for the treatment of lateral humeral epicondylitis.

  20. 220 kV 升压站 SF6断路器改造和应用%Transformation and Application of SF6 Circuit Breaker in 220 kV Substation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚舜

    2015-01-01

    Previously the SF6 circuit breakers of ELFSP4-1 type were applied to 220 kV substation in Guangzhou Zhujiang Power Plant, which were imported from the Swiss ABB Company.Now, they are replaced by outdoor, an-tifouling three-phase mechanical linkage or three-phase electrical linkage SF6 circuit breakers which are produced by the Siemens high voltage switch Co.Ltd.in Hangzhou.The breaker’s functions and application after transfor-mation are described in detail from four kinds of circuit breaker, i.e.,the main transformer circuit breaker, the line circuit breaker, the contact circuit breaker and start /spare transformer circuit breaker.Finally, the discovery and the existing problems in the reform and operation are explained briefly.And some matters needing attention in the future are put forward in the operation and maintenance.The SF6 circuit breakers are running well in field.%广州珠江电厂220 kV升压站SF6断路器为瑞士ABB公司ELFSP4-1型产品换型改造的杭州西门子高压开关有限公司生产的户外、防污型三相机械联动型或三相电气联动型产品。从主变出口断路器、线路出口断路器、母联分段断路器和启动/备用变出口断路器四类不同断路器分别描述了断路器改造后的功能和现场应用情况,最后就改造和运行中发现和存在的问题进行了简要说明,并提出了今后维护运行中的注意事项。新改造的西门子公司SF6断路器现场运行良好。

  1. Analysis on One Typical Span Jumper Connection Mode of 220 kV Overhead Lines%一例典型的220 kV 架空线路档中跳接方式分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊勇; 徐迎

    2016-01-01

    In allusion to one typical span jumper connection of 220 kV overhead lines,tension tower jumper connection is used for quickening engineering construction progress and saving cost. Calculation on mechanics,electrical engineering and lightning protection is conducted for this kind of jumper connection mode,and results indicate that the jumper connection conductor would not damage conductors and towers of original running lines,connection of amour clamps may satisfy re-quirement for current transmission of lines and the jumper connection line lies in the range of lightning protection. It is pointed out that measures such as using all aluminium conductor (AAC)or releasing conductor tension may effectively pro-tect original conductors,and it is able to improve lightning protection effect by using two lightning conductors combining with lightning protection mode. Temperature monitoring is carried out after lines running one month and results show lines are innormal states.%针对一例典型的220 kV 架空线路档中跳接工程,为加快工程建设进度和节约成本,采用非耐张塔跳接方式。对这种跳接方式进行力学、电气和防雷计算,结果表明:跳接导线不会损坏原运行线路的导线和杆塔,连接金具可满足线路输送电流的要求,跳接线路处于避雷保护范围。指出施工中采用铝绞线、放松导线张力等措施可有效保护原导线,采用2根避雷线联合避雷方式可提高防雷效果。线路运行1个月后进行温度监测,结果显示线路处于正常运行状态。

  2. 220例无功能垂体腺瘤临床、病理分析及命名探索%Clinical and pathological features of nonfunctional pituitary adenomas: Analysis of 220 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘赫; 旷劲松; 曹翠平; 黎庶; 刘国良

    2013-01-01

    A retrospective analysis was carried out in 220 cases of nonfunctional pituitary adenoma (NFA).The diagnosis was based on negative immunohistochemical staining,no elevation of plasma hormone level,and no symptom caused by increased hormone level.Incidence of NFA was the highest(33.13%) among the pituitary tumors.It was more common in males than in females (132 ∶ 88).The highest prevalence resided in the elder group.N FA often caused pituitary apoplexy,and mainly presented as compression symptoms including visual field abnormalities (85.00%),headache (80%),hypopsia (68.66%),and other symptoms of hypopituitarism (44.04%).Imaging features showed tumor size usually within 2-4 cm (71.82%),and aggregated degree Ⅲ or Ⅳ (83.64%).%回顾性分析220例无功能细胞瘤.病例确诊依赖于“三无”:免疫组化阴性染色;无血浆激素水平升高;无激素升高引起的相应症状.发生率占同期垂体瘤的首位(33.13%),男:女为132∶88,老年前期发生率最高(50% ~65.91%).临床特征为(1)卒中发生率高(38.18%),(2)主要压迫症状包括视野异常(85.00%),头痛(80%),视力下降(68.66%)及垂体功能低下症状(44.04%)等.影像特点有(1)2 ~4 cm者占71.82%,(2)侵袭Ⅲ、Ⅳ级者达83.64%.

  3. 220℃高温钻井液体系的室内研究%Interior Reseaxch of Resistance to High 220 Degrees Heat Resistance Drilling Fluid System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵芙蕾; 孙玉学

    2011-01-01

    Focusing on high temperature rheological stability and filtration control of high temperature resistant drilling fluid system, a further research is made of on mud formula and the formula of high temperature resistant drilling fluid system is optimized, Finally, a kind of organosilicon drilling system with high 220 degrees heat resistance and good performances is developed, and moreover evaluate the overall performance of the drilling system. In virtue of using high temperature stabilizing agent, the system provides excellent shale inhibition, lubrication and tough hole stabilization. The filtrate value is low, the mud cake is thin and tough, which are good for bit bailing prevention; the cuttings transportation is strong, the theological property is easy to control. At high salinity, the fluid works well at 6% NaCl or 0.5% CaCl2 presenting in water phase. The materials used in this fluid are non-toxicity, non-fluorescence, which is fitful for deep drilling.%以抗高温钻井液体系高温流变稳定性和滤失量控制为重点,进一步确定体系配方并对抗高温钻井液体系配方进行优化.最终研制出一种能抗220℃高温,性能优良的有机硅钻井液抗高温体系;并对该体系性能进行了评价.该有机硅抗高温钻井液具有好的页岩抑制性、润滑性和井眼稳定性;滤失量小,滤饼薄且致密,可有效防止钻头泥包;携砂能力强,流变性容易控制;在高矿化度下,钻井液性能稳定,能抗6%NaCl和0.5%CaC12的污染,而且体系所用材料无毒、无荧光,适用于深井钻探.

  4. A +220 GATA motif mediates basal but not endotoxin-repressible expression of the von Willebrand factor promoter in Hprt-targeted transgenic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIU, J.; KANKI, Y.; OKADA, Y.; JIN, E.; YANO, K.; SHIH, S.-C.; MINAMI, T.; AIRD, W. C.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The von Willebrand factor (VWF) gene is a marker for spatial and temporal heterogeneity of the endothelium. A GATA motif at +220 has been implicated in basal VWF expression in vitro. Other studies have shown that GATA3 and VWF are transcriptionally downregulated in response to inflammatory mediators. Objectives Our goal was to determine the importance of the +220 GATA motif in mediating expression of VWF promoter in vivo, and to elucidate whether the GATA element plays a role in spatial and/or temporal regulation of VWF expression. Methods ChIP and electrophoretic mobility shift assays were carried out in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Reporter gene constructs containing 3.6 kb of the human VWF promoter with and without amutation of the +220 GATA element were transfected into cultured endothelial cells or targeted to the Hprt locus of mice. The Hprt-targeted mice were subjected to endotoxemia. Results In protein-DNA binding assays, the +220 GATA motif bound GATA-2, -3 and -6. Mutation of the GATA site resulted in reduced basal promoter activity in HUVEC. When targeted to the Hprt locus of mice, the GATA mutation resulted in a significant, proportionate reduction of promoter activity in LacZ expressing vascular beds. Systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) resulted in a widespread reduction in VWF mRNA expression and promoter activity. LPS-mediated repression of the VWF promoter was unaffected by the GATA mutation. Conclusions A region of the VWF promoter between −2182 and the end of the first intron contains information for LPS-mediated gene repression. The +220 GATA motif is important for basal, but not LPS-repressible expression of the VWF gene. PMID:19496923

  5. Different impacts of intestinal lymphatic transport on the oral bioavailability of structurally similar synthetic lipophilic cannabinoids: dexanabinol and PRS-211,220.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershkovich, Pavel; Qadri, Bashir; Yacovan, Avihai; Amselem, Shimon; Hoffman, Amnon

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this article was to investigate the role of intestinal lymphatic transport in the oral bioavailability of two structurally similar synthetic lipophilic cannabinoids: dexanabinol and PRS-211,220. For this purpose, the long chain triglyceride (LCT) solubility and affinity to chylomicrons ex vivo of both cannabinoids were evaluated. Their oral bioavailability was assessed in rats following administration in a lipid-free and a LCT-based formulation. The intestinal lymphatic transport of these two molecules was also directly measured in a freely moving rat model. LCT solubility of dexanabinol and PRS-211,220 was 7.9+/-0.2 and 95.8+/-5.3mg/g, respectively. The uptake by chylomicrons was moderate (31.6+/-5.2%) and high (66.1+/-2.4%), respectively. The bioavailability of dexanabinol (37%) was not affected by LCT solution, whereas administration of PRS-211,220 in LCT improved the absolute oral bioavailability three-fold (from 13 to 35%) in comparison to the lipid-free formulation. The intestinal lymphatic transport of dexanabinol and PRS-211,220 was 7.5+/-0.8 and 60.7+/-6.8% of the absorbed dose, respectively. In conclusion, despite structural similarity and similar lipophilicity, dexanabinol and PRS-211,220 exhibited a very diverse pattern of oral absorption, and the lymphatic system played quite a different role in the oral bioavailability of these molecules. The low lymphatic transport of dexanabinol is likely driven by relatively lower affinity to chylomicrons and lower LCT solubility.

  6. Design of Real-Time Monitoring and Control sytem of 222Rn/220 Rn sampling for Radon chamber%氡室222 Rn/220 Rn采样的实时监测与控制系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴荣燕; 赵修良; 张美琴; 俞红

    2008-01-01

    提出了以Intel 51系列单片机为控制核心的.222Rn/220Rn采样监测与控制系统设计方案.硬件部分对传感器、A/D转换器件、USB芯片、键盘和数码显示芯片、光耦隔离与直流泵驱动芯片的选择和使用进行了详细介绍,并给出了电路设计简图;软件部分包括上下位机软件,分别通过Visual Basic语言和汇编语言实现数据采集转换及直流泵流量控制,并采用PID控制算法对泵流量稳定性进行改善,给出了程序流程图.

  7. 220 kV金属氧化物避雷器不拆线试验方法及误差分析%Test on 220 kV Metal Oxide Arrester without Removing Connecting Lead and Its Error Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万四维; 李顺尧

    2006-01-01

    介绍了220 kV金属氧化物避雷器不拆除一次高压引线的试验方法,并对试验方法进行了误差分析,与常规试验方法进行了比较.结果表明,直流发生器的输出电流应选择大于3 mA;试验前应对避雷器表面进行清洁,空气湿度大时,还应对避雷器表面进行屏蔽试验;试验时,应尽可能缩短高压引线的长度,并考虑引线与被试品的角度等;MOA底座绝缘电阻值应尽量大,可减少测量误差,得出不拆线试验方法是可行的.

  8. Experimental Study on the Peaks Overlap Factor in the Continuous Measurement of 222 Rn/220 Rn Progeny GatheringαEnergy Spectrum%222Rn/220Rn子体连续测量仪采集α能谱的峰重叠因子研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴喜军; 肖德涛; 李志强; 周青芝; 金畅; 黄成

    2015-01-01

    In order to smoothly develop the αspectroscopy -based continuous measurement instrument of 222 Rn/220 Rn progeny, the reseach of peak overlap factor ofαspectroscopy achieved by the continuous measure-ment instrument was performed.The 222 Rn chamber( national standard) , 220 Rn chamber were used as measure-ment environment of pure 222 Rn, 220 Rn progeny respectively, and the peaks overlap factors have been calculated byαenergy spectrums of 222 Rn( or 222 Rn) progeny, which was gathered from the measurement environment by the continuous measurement instrument of 222 Rn/220 Rn progeny in the radon laboratory of university of south chi-na.The results showed that:Under the non vacuum condition, the probability of 8.78 MeVαparticle emitted by 220Rn progeny ThC′(212Po) slowing down to the 7.69 MeVαparticle counts region, and the 7.69 MeV al-pha particleemittedby 222Rn progeny RrC′(214Po) slowing down to the 6.00 MeVαparticle counts region can not be ignored.But the probability of 8.78 MeVαparticle slowing down to the 6.00 MeVαparticle counts re-gion is very small;A membrane filter reuse don’ t result in peaks overlap factorsθ1 ,θ2 andθ3 significant chan-ges, and can take 0.0335, 0.1791 and zero as typical values respectively;The contribution to the instrument measurement error from membrane changing is limited, since the different membrane peaks overlap factor differ-ences within 2%.%为配合222 Rn/220 Rn子体连续测量仪的研制,开展了用222 Rn/220 Rn子体测量仪采集α能谱的峰重叠因子研究。本研究以国家标准222 Rn室与220 Rn室分别作为纯222 Rn子体与220 Rn子体测量环境,用222 Rn/220 Rn子体连续测量仪采集222 Rn子体与220 Rn子体α能谱,求得各α能峰的重叠因子。研究结果表明:非真空条件下220 Rn子体发射的8.78MeVα粒子慢化到7.69MeVα能谱峰计数区,以及222 Rn子体发射的7.69MeVα粒子慢化到6.00MeVα能谱峰计

  9. 扩建智能变电站220 kV母差保护不停电接入的实践%Practice of 220 kV Busbar Differential Protection Connection without Power Cut in Extension of Intelligent Substation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴世强; 吴靖; 吴文联; 林森

    2015-01-01

    The intuitive secondary circuits of relay protection have been changed into abstract network data streams in intelligent substation. During the extension, influence of new interval on the operation interval must be taken into account and reasonable and appropriate safety measures must be adopted. On the basis of ana-lyzing maintenance mechanism for intelligent substation, safety measures and extension strategy of 220 kV busbar differential protection without power cut have been proposed;furthermore, correctness of the extension strategy and reliability of safety measures have been proved by the interval extension project of 220 kV outgo-ing lines in 220 kV Wenjin intelligent substation.%智能变电站的继电保护二次回路由直观的二次接线转变为不直观的网络数据流,扩建过程中必须考虑新间隔对运行间隔的影响,应采取合理恰当的安全措施。在分析了智能变电站检修机制的基础上,提出了220 kV母差保护不停电扩建的安全措施和扩建策略,并通过220 kV文津变电站220 kV出线间隔扩建工程,验证了扩建策略的正确性和安全措施的可靠性。

  10. Mutational analysis of the Sonic Hedgehog gene in 220 newborns with oral clefts in a South American (ECLAMC) population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orioli, Iêda M; Vieira, Alexandre R; Castilla, Eduardo E; Ming, Jeffrey E; Muenke, Maximilian

    2002-02-15

    Oral clefts generally have a multifactorial etiology. A number of genes contribute to the formation of the face and palate. Cleft lip and/or palate can occur in pedigrees with autosomal dominant holoprosencephaly due to mutations in Sonic Hedgehog (SHH). In addition, animal models have shown that SHH is involved in face development. We thus examined the human SHH gene in 220 newborn infants with nonsyndromic oral clefts registered by the Estudio Colaborativo Latinoamericano de Malformaciones Congenitas: ECLAMC (Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations). We found 15 variant bands in 13 patients with oral clefts, representing five different base changes, all of which were found by sequencing to represent silent polymorphisms. Four occurred in introns. The alteration occurring in an exon, Ser190Ser, may create a consensus sequence for the 3'splice site 6 bp downstream of the original consensus sequence. Thus, we did not identify any clearly disease-causing mutation in SHH in these patients, and conclude that SHH mutations are not a frequent cause of isolated oral clefts in humans.

  11. Synthesis and quality control of fluorodeoxyglucose and performance assessment of Siemens MicroFocus 220 small animal PET scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaterpekar, Siddhesh Nitin

    The scope of this article is to cover the synthesis and quality control procedures involved in production of Fludeoxyglucose (18F--FDG). The article also describes the cyclotron production of 18F radioisotope and gives a brief overview on operations and working of a fixed energy medical cyclotron. The quality control procedures for FDG involve radiochemical and radionuclidic purity tests, pH tests, chemical purity tests, sterility tests, endotoxin tests. Each of these procedures were carried out for multiple batches of FDG with a passing rate of 95% among 20 batches. The article also covers the quality assurance steps for the Siemens MicroPET Focus 220 Scanner using a Jaszczak phantom. We have carried out spatial resolution tests on the scanner, with an average transaxial resolution of 1.775mm with 2-3mm offset. Tests involved detector efficiency, blank scan sinograms and transmission sinograms. A series of radioactivity distribution tests are also carried out on a uniform phantom, denoting the variations in radioactivity and uniformity by using cylindrical ROIs in the transverse region of the final image. The purpose of these quality control tests is to make sure the manufactured FDG is biocompatible with the human body. Quality assurance tests are carried on PET scanners for efficient performance, and to make sure the quality of images acquired is according to the radioactivity distribution in the subject of interest.

  12. State Medicaid programs missed $220 million in uncaptured savings as generic fluoxetine came to market, 2001-05.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelton, Christina M L; Chang, Lenisa V; Kreling, David H

    2013-07-01

    Patent expiration of brand-name pharmaceuticals creates opportunities for large savings for state Medicaid programs because generic versions of medications frequently represent a lower-cost alternative. State Medicaid programs that quickly recognize the availability of generics and adjust their drug payments in response to falling market prices can obtain the greatest benefit. We examined one such case: the movement to generic fluoxetine following patent expiration for Prozac, a widely prescribed antidepressant and an expensive drug for Medicaid. We found large differences in states' responses to generic availability. States took between two and ten calendar quarters to reach 90 percent use of generic rather than brand-name fluoxetine and four to eight quarters to achieve a 50 percent decrease in reimbursement per pill. We estimated that states failed to realize $220 million in uncaptured savings during 2001-05. By coordinating their efforts, perhaps with federal help, states could gain access in a more timely way to market prices for generic drugs and, hence, take greater advantage of the savings that those drugs offer.

  13. SMA CO(J=6-5) and 435 micron interferometric imaging of the nuclear region of Arp 220

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Satoki; Petitpas, Glen R; Chou, Richard C -Y; Gurwell, Mark A; Hunter, Todd R; Lim, Jeremy; Muller, Sebastien; Peck, Alison B; Sakamoto, Kazushi; Sawada-Satoh, Satoko; Wiedner, Martina C; Wilner, David J; Wilson, Christine D

    2008-01-01

    We have used the Submillimeter Array (SMA) to make the first interferometric observations (beam size ~1") of the 12CO J=6-5 line and 435 micron (690 GHz) continuum emission toward the central region of the nearby ULIRG Arp 220. These observations resolve the eastern and western nuclei from each other, in both the molecular line and dust continuum emission. At 435 micron, the peak intensity of the western nucleus is stronger than the eastern nucleus, and the difference in peak intensities is less than at longer wavelengths. Fitting a simple model to the dust emission observed between 1.3 mm and 435 micron suggests that dust emissivity power law index in the western nucleus is near unity and steeper in the eastern nucleus, about 2, and that the dust emission is optically thick at the shorter wavelength. Comparison with single dish measurements indicate that the interferometer observations are missing ~60% of the dust emission, most likely from a spatially extended component to which these observations are not s...

  14. Measurement of charged particle yields from PMMA irradiated by a 220 MeV/u 12C beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piersanti, L.; Bellini, F.; Bini, F.; Collamati, F.; De Lucia, E.; Durante, M.; Faccini, R.; Ferroni, F.; Fiore, S.; Iarocci, E.; La Tessa, C.; Marafini, M.; Mattei, I.; Patera, V.; Ortega, P. G.; Sarti, A.; Schuy, C.; Sciubba, A.; Vanstalle, M.; Voena, C.

    2014-04-01

    The radiation used in hadrontherapy treatments interacts with the patient body producing secondary particles, either neutral or charged, that can be used for dose and Bragg peak monitoring and to provide a fast feedback on the treatment plans. Recent results obtained from the authors on simplified setups (mono-energetic primary beams interacting with homogeneous tissue-like target) have already indicated the correlation that exists between the flux of these secondaries coming from the target (e.g. protons and photons) and the position of the primary beam Bragg peak. In this paper, the measurements of charged particle fluxes produced by the interaction of a 220 MeV/u carbon ion beam at GSI, Darmstadt, with a polymethyl methacrylate target are reported. The emission region of protons (p), deuterons (d) and tritons (t) has been characterized using a drift chamber while the particle time-of-flight, used to compute the kinetic energy spectra, was measured with a LYSO scintillator. The energy released in the LYSO crystal was used for particle identification purposes. The measurements were repeated with the setup at 60° and 90° with respect to the primary beam direction. The accuracy on the fragments emission profile reconstruction and its relationship with the Bragg peak position have been studied. Based on the acquired experimental evidence, a method to monitor the dose profile and the position of the Bragg peak inside the target is proposed.

  15. Measurement of charged particle yields from PMMA irradiated by a 220 MeV/u (12)C beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piersanti, L; Bellini, F; Bini, F; Collamati, F; De Lucia, E; Durante, M; Faccini, R; Ferroni, F; Fiore, S; Iarocci, E; La Tessa, C; Marafini, M; Mattei, I; Patera, V; Ortega, P G; Sarti, A; Schuy, C; Sciubba, A; Vanstalle, M; Voena, C

    2014-04-07

    The radiation used in hadrontherapy treatments interacts with the patient body producing secondary particles, either neutral or charged, that can be used for dose and Bragg peak monitoring and to provide a fast feedback on the treatment plans. Recent results obtained from the authors on simplified setups (mono-energetic primary beams interacting with homogeneous tissue-like target) have already indicated the correlation that exists between the flux of these secondaries coming from the target (e.g. protons and photons) and the position of the primary beam Bragg peak. In this paper, the measurements of charged particle fluxes produced by the interaction of a 220 MeV/u carbon ion beam at GSI, Darmstadt, with a polymethyl methacrylate target are reported. The emission region of protons (p), deuterons (d) and tritons (t) has been characterized using a drift chamber while the particle time-of-flight, used to compute the kinetic energy spectra, was measured with a LYSO scintillator. The energy released in the LYSO crystal was used for particle identification purposes. The measurements were repeated with the setup at 60° and 90° with respect to the primary beam direction. The accuracy on the fragments emission profile reconstruction and its relationship with the Bragg peak position have been studied. Based on the acquired experimental evidence, a method to monitor the dose profile and the position of the Bragg peak inside the target is proposed.

  16. Measurement of charged particle yields from PMMA irradiated by a 220 MeV/u12Cbeam

    CERN Document Server

    Piersanti, L; Bini, FU. Rome La Sapienza (main); Collamati, F; De Lucia, E; Durante, M; Faccini, R; Ferroni, F; Fiore, S; Iarocci, E; La Tessa, C; Marafini, M; Mattei, I; Patera, V; Ortega, P G; Sarti, A; Schuy, C; Sciubba, A; Vanstalle, M; Voena, C

    2014-01-01

    The radiation used in hadrontherapy treatments interacts with the patient body producing secondary particles, either neutral or charged, that can be used for dose and Bragg peak monitoring and to provide a fast feedback on the treatment plans. Recent results obtained from the authors on simplified setups (mono-energetic primary beams interacting with homogeneous tissue like target) have already indicated the correlation that exists between the flux of these secondaries coming from the target (e.g. protons and photons) and the position of the primary beam Bragg peak. In this paper, the measurements of charged particle fluxes produced by the interaction of a 220 MeV/u carbon ion beam at GSI, Darmstadt, with a polymethyl methacrylate target are reported. The emission region of protons (p), deuterons (d) and tritons (t) has been characterized using a drift chamber while the particle time-of-flight, used to compute the kinetic energy spectra, was measured with a LYSO scintillator.The energy released in the LYSO cr...

  17. The study on vertical variability of PM 10 and the possible sources on a 220 m tower, in Tianjin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Fen; Xu, Hong; Tian, Ying-Ze; Shi, Guo-Liang; Zeng, Fang; Wu, Jian-Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Li, Xiang; Zhu, Tan; Feng, Yin-Chang

    2011-11-01

    In this study, PM 10 samples were collected at a meteorological tower in Tianjin, China. Four height levels (10 m, 40 m, 120 m and 220 m) were selected as the sampling sites. During the measurement campaign, the highest PM 10 and species concentrations were obtained at 10 m, while lower concentrations were obtained at higher sampling sites. According to the vertical variability analysis of species concentrations and fractions (%), significant differences between different heights were found for certain species, such as Al, Si, Ca, OC and EC, while such differences for NO3- and SO42- were insignificant. In addition, the source contributions at each sampling site were calculated by a chemical mass balance (CMB) model. In all sampling sites, secondary sulfate accounted for the largest contributions (24.11-30.96%). The other estimated contributions were secondary nitrate (16.19-20.95%), crustal dust (10.74-11.37%), coal combustion (12.47-14.39%), vehicle exhaust (13.92-14.78%) and cement dust (4.60-9.89%). Finally, the conditional probability function (CPF) plots and potential source contribution function (PSCF) maps show that the ambient samples might be from local potential sources at lower sampling heights as well as regional potential sources at higher sampling heights during this measurement campaign.

  18. Morphology and Kinematics of Warm Molecular Gas in the Nuclear Region of Arp 220 as Revealed by ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Rangwala, Naseem; Wilson, Christine; Glenn, Jason; Kamenetzky, Julia; Spinoglio, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) Cycle-0 observations of the CO J = 6-5 line in the advanced galaxy merger Arp 220. This line traces warm molecular gas, which dominates the total CO luminosity. The CO emission from the two nuclei is well resolved by the 0.39" x 0.22" beam and the exceptional sensitivity and spatial/spectral resolution reveal new complex features in the morphology and kinematics of the warm gas. The line profiles are asymmetric between the red and blue sides of the nuclear disks and the peak of the line emission is offset from the peak of the continuum emission in both nuclei by about 100 pc in the same direction. CO self-absorption is detected at the centers of both nuclei but it is much deeper in the eastern nucleus. We also clearly detect strong, highly redshifted CO absorption located near the southwest side of each nucleus. For the eastern nucleus, we reproduce the major line profile features with a simple kinematic model of a highly turbulent, rotating disk with a substan...

  19. Entrance channel effects on the evaporation residue yields in reactions leading to the $^{220}$Th compound nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kyungil; Mandaglio, Giuseppe; Giardina, Giorgio; Kim, Youngman

    2014-01-01

    The evaporation residue yields from compound nuclei $^{220}$Th formed in the $^{16}$O+$^{204}$Pb, $^{40}$Ar+$^{180}$Hf, $^{82}$Se+$^{138}$Ba, $^{124}$Sn+$^{96}$Zr reactions are analyzed to study the entrance channel effects by comparison of the capture, fusion and evaporation residue cross sections calculated by the combined dinuclear system (DNS) and advanced statistical models. The difference between evaporation residue (ER) cross sections can be related to the stages of compound nucleus formation or/and at its surviving against fission. The sensitivity of the both stages in the evolution of DNS up to the evaporation residue formation to the angular momentum of DNS is studied. The difference between fusion excitation functions are explained by the hindrance to complete fusion due to the larger intrinsic fusion barrier $B^*_{\\rm fus}$ for the transformation of the DNS into a compound nucleus and the increase of the quasifission contribution due to the decreasing of quasifission barrier $B_{\\rm qf}$ as a func...

  20. CCPR-S1 Supplementary comparison for spectral radiance in the range of 220 nm to 2500 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlevnoy, Boris; Sapritsky, Victor; Rougie, Bernard; Gibson, Charles; Yoon, Howard; Gaertner, Arnold; Taubert, Dieter; Hartmann, Juergen

    2009-08-01

    In 1997, the Consultative Committee for Photometry and Radiometry (CCPR) initiated a supplementary comparison of spectral radiance in the wavelength range from 220 nm to 2500 nm (CCPR-S1) using tungsten strip-filament lamps as transfer standards. Five national metrology institutes (NMIs) took part in the comparison: BNM/INM (France), NIST (USA), NRC (Canada), PTB (Germany) and VNIIOFI (Russia), with VNIIOFI as the pilot laboratory. Each NMI provided the transfer lamps that were used to transfer their measurements to the pilot laboratory. The intercomparison sequence began with the participant measurements, then the pilot measurements, followed by a second set of measurements by the participant laboratory. The measurements were carried out from 1998 to 2002, with the final report completed in 2008. This paper presents the descriptions of measurement facilities and uncertainties of the participants, as well as the comparison results that were analysed in accordance with the Guidelines for CCPR Comparisons Report Preparation, and a re-evaluation of the results taking into account the instability of some of the transfer lamps. Excluding a few wavelengths, all participants agree with each other within ±1.5%. The disagreement decreases to approximately ±1.0% when the anomalous data are excluded from the analysis.

  1. Derivation of V function for LR 115 SSNTD from its sensitivity to {sup 220}Rn in a diffusion chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, S.Y.Y. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Nikezic, D. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Leung, J.K.C. [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Yu, K.N. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: peter.yu@cityu.edu.hk

    2007-03-15

    The sensitivity of the LR 115 detector inside a diffusion chamber to {sup 220}Rn gas concentration is dependent on the removed active layer thickness during chemical etching. This dependence is related to the V function for the LR 115 detector (where V is the ratio between the track etch velocity V{sub t} and the bulk etch velocity V{sub b}) and the geometry of the diffusion chamber. The present paper presents the experimentally determined relationship between the sensitivity of the LR 115 detector inside a Karlsruhe diffusion chamber (determined from the number of etched tracks completely penetrating the active cellulose nitrate layer) and the removed active layer thickness. These data were used to derive the V function for the LR 115 detector, which took the functional form of the Durrani-Green's function, i.e., V=1+(a{sub 1}e{sup -a}{sup 2}{sup R}+a{sub 3}e{sup -a}{sup 4}{sup R})(1-e{sup -a}{sup 5}{sup R}), with the best-fitted constants as a{sub 1}=14.50, a{sub 2}=0.50, a{sub 3}=3.9 and a{sub 4}=0.066.

  2. Observation of {sup 222}Rn progeny-and {sup 220}Rn progeny-loaded aerosols by atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, J.K.C.; Tso, M.Y.W.; Lam, J.H.C. [The Univ., of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Zhau, Q.F. [Ministry of Health, Beijing (China)

    2002-07-01

    Atomic force microscopy is becoming a powerful tool for the study of nuclear tracks in materials such as CR-39. Coupled with its capability of observing near nm aerosol particles, we have utilized the AFM to observe the radon progeny-loaded aerosol particles deposited on surfaces of CR-39 and to observe the corresponding etch pits produced by the {alpha} -particles emitted from the radon progenies. A special platform was built so that after the aerosol particles on the CR-39 have been scanned and recorded, the CR-39 can be etched and then scanned for the etch pits at the same location. Both {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn progenies were used in the study. The progenies were generated by the appropriate radon sources and mixed with aerosol particles generated by aerosol generators. The aerosol size distributions were analyzed by a scanning mobility particle sizer. Some of the limitations and difficulties of the technique will be described. The results enable us to examine the attachment process including multiple attachments of radon progenies on aerosols.

  3. Dynamics, deterministic nature and correlations of outdoor {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn progeny concentrations measured at Bacau, Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuculeanu, Vasile, E-mail: cuculeanu@gmail.com [Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest, Magurele, RO-077125 Bucharest (Romania); Simion, Florin [Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest, Magurele, RO-077125 Bucharest (Romania); National Environmental Protection Agency, Radioactivity Laboratory, Splaiul Independentei 294, RO-060031 Bucharest (Romania); Simion, Elena [National Environmental Protection Agency, Radioactivity Laboratory, Splaiul Independentei 294, RO-060031 Bucharest (Romania); Geicu, Anton [National Administration of Meteorology, Bucharest (Romania)

    2011-07-15

    The long-term variation, nature and correlations of outdoor {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn progeny concentrations measured during the period 1994-2009 were investigated. The time series of data were obtained within the framework of the monitoring program performed by the Environmental Radioactivity Monitoring Station (ERMS) Bacau, a component part of the National Environmental Radioactivity Survey Network (NERSN), coordinated by National Environmental Protection Agency (NEPA). The measuring method is based on the total beta measurements of atmospheric aerosol filters, using a low background total beta counter and ({sup 90}Sr/Y) reference standard. Analysis of the time series of progeny concentrations in the low atmosphere makes evident different patterns of variation of these concentrations: diurnal, seasonal and annual. A possible relationship of progeny concentration increase with global warming is emphasized. In order to find the dominant frequency of the physical processes determining progeny concentration variability the power spectrum has been used. The deterministic nature of the time series of concentrations has been studied making use of the autocorrelation function and stationarity of the original data and of their phase randomized time series. Also, the correlations with meteorological parameters have been investigated using Pearson's correlation coefficient with corresponding level of significance. - Highlights: > Radon and thoron progeny concentrations measured on a period of 16 years. > 5 h, daily, monthly and annual patterns are pointed out. > Autocorrelation functions prove non-randomness of concentrations. > Deterministic nature of time series of concentrations is demonstrated. > Correlations with meteorological data are studied.

  4. The dose distribution inside the irradiation chamber of the gamma cell 220 at KACST using MCNP4B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hefne, Jameel [King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2000-03-01

    In the irradiation chamber of gamma cell-220 at KACST the dose distribution must be determined. The determination of this dose distribution gives an idea about the amount of the dose in any place inside the irradiation chamber which helps also to find the average dose given to any object that needs to be irradiated. The Monte Carlo N Particle code (MCNP4B) was used to estimate the dose distribution inside the irradiation chamber. Point detectors were used in this simulation. The code was run for sufficient numbers of history which shows a symmetrical distribution around the axis of the irradiation chamber, and the errors is less than 5%. The dose map shows that the dose increases as it is calculated from the center of the chamber to the chamber perimeter edge, and it decreases as moving to the top or the bottom of the chamber. The calculation was compared with a measurement, which was done by Dr. Abdelrehim. A good agreement between the calculation and the measurement was obtained. (author)

  5. Monomeric 55-kDa guanidinobenzoatase switches to a serine proteinase activity upon tetramerization. Tetrameric proteinase SP 220 K appears as the native form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poustis-Delpont, C; Thaon, S; Auberger, P; Gerardi-Laffin, C; Sudaka, P; Rossi, B

    1994-05-20

    Guanidinobenzoatases are cell surface enzymes present in cells capable of migration or remodeling. The guanidinobenzoatase purified to homogeneity from human renal carcinoma did not display gelatinase activity under the 55-kDa form (Poustis-Delpont, C., Descomps, R., Auberger, P., Delque-Bayer, P., Sudaka, P., and Rossi, B. (1992) Cancer Res. 52, 3622-3628). We bring new insights into the structure-activity relationships of this enzyme using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, [3H]diisopropyl fluorophosphate labeling, gelatin zymography, and immunodetection using a polyclonal antibody raised against the 55-kDa entity. Upon aggregation into a 220-kDa form, the enzyme exhibited [3H]diisopropyl fluorophosphate labeling and diisopropyl fluorophosphate-inhibitable gelatinase activity whereas its capability to cleave p-nitrophenyl p'-guanidinobenzoate as a substrate was abolished. Thus, the guanidinobenzoatase property appears as a feature of a 55-kDa inactive form of a serine proteinase subunit. After boiling in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (3% w/v), the 220-kDa entity subjected to SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis could be dissociated into a 55-kDa protein as shown by silver staining. The resulting 55-kDa band remained [3H]diisopropyl fluorophosphate-labeled and reacted with anti-55-kDa guanidinobenzoatase antibodies, strongly suggesting that the 220-kDa proteinase was a noncovalently associated tetramer. Interestingly, Triton X-100 extracts of renal carcinoma plasma membranes exhibited a 220-kDa serine proteinase activity, as expressed in gelatin zymography, which was barely detectable in the non-tumoral counterpart. It is noteworthy that an anti-55-kDa guanidinobenzoatase reactive 220-kDa species was also observed in renal carcinoma plasma membranes extracts as assessed by Western blot, whereas it was hardly visible in the non-tumoral counterpart. No signal was immunodetected at M(r) 55,000 in renal carcinoma and kidney cortex

  6. Subarcsecond international LOFAR radio images of Arp 220 at 150 MHz. A kpc-scale star forming disk surrounding nuclei with shocked outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varenius, E.; Conway, J. E.; Martí-Vidal, I.; Aalto, S.; Barcos-Muñoz, L.; König, S.; Pérez-Torres, M. A.; Deller, A. T.; Moldón, J.; Gallagher, J. S.; Yoast-Hull, T. M.; Horellou, C.; Morabito, L. K.; Alberdi, A.; Jackson, N.; Beswick, R.; Carozzi, T. D.; Wucknitz, O.; Ramírez-Olivencia, N.

    2016-09-01

    Context. Arp 220 is the prototypical ultra luminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG). Despite extensive studies, the structure at MHz-frequencies has remained unknown because of limits in spatial resolution. Aims: This work aims to constrain the flux and shape of radio emission from Arp 220 at MHz frequencies. Methods: We analyse new observations with the International Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) telescope, and archival data from the Multi-Element Radio Linked Interferometer Network (MERLIN) and the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). We model the spatially resolved radio spectrum of Arp 220 from 150 MHz to 33 GHz. Results: We present an image of Arp 220 at 150 MHz with resolution 0.̋65 × 0.̋35, sensitivity 0.15 mJy beam-1, and integrated flux density 394 ± 59 mJy. More than 80% of the detected flux comes from extended (6''≈ 2.2 kpc) steep spectrum (α = -0.7) emission, likely from star formation in the molecular disk surrounding the two nuclei. We find elongated features extending 0.3'' (110 pc) and 0.9'' (330 pc) from the eastern and western nucleus respectively, which we interpret as evidence for outflows. The extent of radio emission requires acceleration of cosmic rays far outside the nuclei. We find that a simple three component model can explain most of the observed radio spectrum of the galaxy. When accounting for absorption at 1.4 GHz, Arp 220 follows the FIR/radio correlation with q = 2.36, and we estimate a star formation rate of 220 M⊙ yr-1. We derive thermal fractions at 1 GHz of less than 1% for the nuclei, which indicates that a major part of the UV-photons are absorbed by dust. Conclusions: International LOFAR observations shows great promise to detect steep spectrum outflows and probe regions of thermal absorption. However, in LIRGs the emission detected at 150 MHz does not necessarily come from the main regions of star formation. This implies that high spatial resolution is crucial for accurate estimates of star formation rates for such galaxies

  7. Analysis of 220 Cases of Adult Non Traumatic Abdominal Pain in Primary Hospital Emergency Surgery%基层医院急诊外科成人非外伤性腹痛220例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兆生

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the characteristics and diagnosis thinking of treating patients of acute non traumatic abdominal pain in emergency surgery department of primary hospital. Methods Retrospectively analyze the clinical data of 220 cases of acute non traumatic abdominal pain diagnosed in our hospital from October 1, 2013 to February 1, 2015 in emergency surgery department. Results The patients according subject were divided into 162 cases (73.6%) of surgical abdominal pain, 30 cases (13.6%) of internal medicine abdominal pain, 15 cases (6.8%) of gynecologic abdominal pain and 13 cases (6%) of other types of abdominal pain . According to the cause of disease, the front four high incidence rate of abdominal pain was acute appendicitis, urinary calculus, biliary diseases and acute gastroenteritis, respectively 62 cases, 49 cases, 35 cases, 18 cases, accounting for 74.5%of the total numbers. 2 cases were misdiagnosed, misdiagnosis rate was 0.9%. There were 0 deaths. The common auxiliary examination included blood examination, routine urine examination, stool routine examination, biochemical examination and blood coagulation function examination, abdominal ultrasound, X-ray examination, electrocardiogram, abdominal CT examination. Conclusion Primary surgeon must have rigorous thought in diagnosis of diseases and solid treatment technology, be good at changing the traditional thinking way of pain for evidence-based thinking, make the serious patients with acute abdominal pain prejudged early and timely and immediately give a reasonable treatment to avoid delay an il ness.%目的探讨基层医院急诊外科成人急性非外伤性腹痛构成特点及诊治思维。方法回顾性分析我院2013年10月1日~2015年2月1日急诊外科接诊的220例成人急性非外伤性腹痛患者的临床资料。结果院我院急诊外科腹痛种类按科别分为外科腹痛162例(73.6%),内科腹痛30例(13.6%),妇科腹痛15例(6.8%)及其他类型腹痛13例(6.0%)。

  8. Quality of life and influencing factors for patients with silicosis: an analysis of 220 cases%220例矽肺病患者的生存质量及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文红

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the quality of life and influencing factors for patients with silicosis and to provide a basis for treatment of silicosis.Methods Two hundred and twenty stone workers with silicosis from June 1999 to June 2014 were enrolled into observation group,while healthy stone workers within the same period were used as controls.The quality of life was evaluated using the Chinese version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment (WHOQOL-100),and the influencing factors were determined using stepwise multivariate regression analysis.Results The scores for psychological function,physiological,independence,spiritual realm,the overall quality of life,and physical condition in the observation group were significantly lower than those in the control group (t=7.1168,P<0.05; t=3.8165,P<0.05; t=5.9230,P<0.05; t=2.7764,P<0.05; t=3.0761,P<0.05).The scores for 11 items including pain,discomfort,energy,fatigue,sleep,and rest in the observation group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05).Negative emotions,silicosis stage,recreation,age,reliance on health care,pain,discomfort,and spiritual beliefs were all influencing factors for the quality of life,which resulted in 68.3% of variation in the quality of life.Conclusion Besides clinical treatment,health and psychological education and recreation are important for patients with silicosis to improve their quality of life.%目的 通过对220例矽肺病患者的生存质量及其影响因素进行分析,为尘肺病患者的治疗与康复提供参考.方法 收集1999年6月至2014年6月确诊的220例石雕工人矽肺病患者为观察组,同时选取同期石雕工人健康者为对照组;采用世界卫生组织生存质量测定量表简表中文版(WHOQOL-100)评价其生存质量,采用多元逐步回归分析法对有关影响因素进行分析.结果 观察组生理功能、心理、独立性及精神领域和总的生活质量及健康状况分数

  9. {sup 220}Rn measurements and implications for earlier surveys of {sup 222}Rn; Meting van {sup 220}Rn en consequenties voor eerdere {sup 222}Rn-surveys. VERA-onderzoek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaauboer, R.O.

    2010-08-15

    The concentration of radioactive radon gas (Rn-222) encountered in newly constructed dwellings was lower than that expected from earlier surveys. An investigation into the response of the radon detectors used in these earlier surveys revealed that these were also sensitive to radioactive thoron (Rn-220), of which more appears to be present than originally assumed. This is the primary outcome of a detailed examination of the detectors that resulted from a national study on radiation exposure in Dutch dwellings constructed between 1994 and 2003. Detectors used in international radon comparison studies have only been set to test for radon, not thoron. Consequently, in practice it is not immediately evident that some detectors actually measure thoron as well, which is also reported as radon. The increasing interest shown by the Netherlands for thoron, provoked by survey results that appear to have been strongly affected by this radioactive isotope of radon, is mirrored by many other countries. The thoron found in dwellings seems to originate from a (frequently used) building material, possibly a finishing material, which has a relatively high thoron exhalation rate. It has more recently been determined that for many years a type of plaster was used in the Netherlands that contained phosphogypsum, a material known for its high radon content. However, it is possible that other materials incorporated into finishing layers also contribute to higher indoor thoron levels. A large portion of the total indoor exposure of occupants to radiation is from inhalation of radioactive decay products of radon and thoron. Radon and thoron are formed in the soil and earth-based building materials by radioactive decay and, because they are gaseous, they are able to diffuse into homes and other buildings. Exposure to ionizing radiation in the home accounts for approximately half of the average annual radiation dose received by a Dutch citizen. [Dutch] Er komt minder radioactief radongas

  10. 3D Object Visual Tracking for the 220 kV/330 kV High-Voltage Live-Line Insulator Cleaning Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian; YANG Ru-qing

    2009-01-01

    The 3D object visual tracking problem is studied for the robot vision system of the 220 kV/330 kV high-voltage live-line insulator cleaning robot. The SUSAN Edge based Scale Invariant Feature (SESIF) algorithm based 3D objects visual tracking is achieved in three stages: the first frame stage, tracking stage, and recovering stage. An SESIF based objects recognition algorithm is proposed to fred initial location at both the first frame stage and recovering stage. An SESIF and Lie group based visual tracking algorithm is used to track 3D object. Experiments verify the algorithm's robustness. This algorithm will be used in the second generation of the 220 kV/330 kV high-voltage five-line insulator cleaning robot.

  11. Surface chemistry of the preferred (111) and (220) crystal oriented microcrystalline Si films by radio-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohba, Daisuke; Koshino, Hideto; Tang, Zeguo; Shirai, Hajime [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, Sakura (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    The surface chemistry of the preferentially (111) and (220) crystal orientated chlorinated hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon ({mu}c-Si:H:Cl) films was studied using a rf PE-CVD of a dichlorosilane (SiH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) and H{sub 2} mixture. The growing surface for the preferentially (220) crystal oriented {mu}c-Si:H:Cl films included much voids and dangling bonds, whereas the growing surface with the preferential (111) crystal orientation was chemically stable relatively. These findings suggest that the sticking process of deposition precursors and/or the reconstruction of Si clusters within the sub-surface determine the preferential crystal orientation. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. The Parameter Setting Method of PTB220 Type Barometers%自动站气压传感器通用性参数设置方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭瑞宝

    2010-01-01

    通过对自动气象站PTB220气压传感器输出信号方式的分析,利用超级终端技术及参数设置命令,实现了气压传感器数据输出格式的设置,解决了气压传感器不能通用的问题.

  13. Cupric ion release and cytotoxicity for Yuangong Cu-IUDs and the release behavior of indomethacin for medicated 220 Cu-IUD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO BianMei; XI TingFei; ZHENG YuDong; YANG LiFeng; ZHENG Qi

    2009-01-01

    These years Yuangong copper-bearing intrauterine devices (Cu-IUDs) have been used because of less side effects in use. The corrosion of copper is essential to the success of contraception,and the release behavior of indomethacin from medicated Cu-IUD is related to its therapeutic effect. In this study,analytical methods were established to investigate the release behavior of cupric ion of three kinds of Yuangong Cu-IUDs and indomethacin of medicated Yuangong 220 Cu-IUD. Cu-IUDs were incubated in simulated uterine solution (SUS). The concentrations of cupric ion and indomethacin were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS) for 60 days and UV/vis-3310 spectrophotometer for 60 days,respectively. The morphology of copper after corrosion was characterized by SEM. In addition,we detected cytotoxicity by MTT of L929 mouse fibroblasts cells caused by extracts of the three Yuangong Cu-IUDs. The release behavior of cupric ion for three kinds of Yuangong Cu-IUDs was biphasic,which consisted of the initial burst release and then slow and constant release. In vitro release experiment confirmed a biphasic release of indomethacin from Yuangong 220. The copper wire of Yuangong Cu-IUDs showed uneven corrosion. The RGR value of Yuangong 365 Cu-IUD was smaller than that of medicated Yuangong 220 Cu-IUD and RGR value of medicated Yuangong 220 Cu-IUD was smaller than that of Yuangong 300 Cu-IUD. The cupric ion release and indomethacin release showed biphasic. Indomethacin increased the cupric ion release rate and might diminish the adverse effects caused by burst release of cupric ion. The toxicity grade of these three Yuangong Cu-IUDs was 4. We should canvass the adverse events of Cu-IUDs based on practical experiments,and try our best to reduce the toxicity of Cu-IUDs.

  14. 47 CFR 95.220 - (R/C Rules 20) What must I do if the FCC tells me that my R/C station is causing interference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false (R/C Rules 20) What must I do if the FCC tells.../C) Radio Service Other Things You Need to Know § 95.220 (R/C Rules 20) What must I do if the FCC tells me that my R/C station is causing interference? (a) If the FCC tells you that your R/C station...

  15. 220 fs Er-Yb:glass laser mode-locked by a broadband low-loss Si/Ge saturable absorber

    CERN Document Server

    Grawert, F J; Ilday, F O; Liu, J; Gopinath, J T; Shen, H M; Wada, K; Ippen, E P; Kimerling, L C; Kaertner, Franz X

    2004-01-01

    We demonstrate femtosecond performance of an ultra-broadband high-index-contrast saturable Bragg reflector consisting of a silicon/silicon-dioxide/germanium structure that is fully compatible with CMOS processing. This device offers a reflectivity bandwidth of over 700 nm and sub-picosecond recovery time of the saturable loss. It is used to achieve mode-locking of an Er-Yb:glass laser centered at 1540 nm, generating 220 fs pulses, with the broadest output spectrum to date.

  16. Maximum Heart Rate during exercise: Reliability of the 220-age and Tanaka formulas in healthy young people at a moderate elevation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Cruz-Martínez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. The formulas to predict maximum heart rate have been used for many years in different populations. Objective. To verify the significance and the association of formulas of Tanaka and 220-age when compared to real maximum heart rate. Materials and methods. 30 subjects -22 men, 8 women- between 18 and 30 years of age were evaluated on a cycle ergometer and their real MHR values were statistically compared with the values of formulas currently used to predict MHR. Results. The results demonstrate that both Tanaka p=0.0026 and 220-age p=0.000003 do not predict real MHR, nor does a linear association exist between them. Conclusions. Due to the overestimation with respect to real MHR value that these formulas make, we suggest a correction of 6 bpm to the final result. This value represents the median of the difference between the Tanaka value and the real MHR. Both Tanaka (r=0.272 and 220-age (r=0.276 are not adequate predictors of MHR during exercise at the elevation of Bogotá in subjects of 18 to 30 years of age, although more study with a larger sample size is suggested.

  17. Isolation, development and identification of salt-tolerant bacterial consortium from crude-oil-contaminated soil for degradation of di-azo dye Reactive Blue 220.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vipul R; Bhatt, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was development and characterization of a halophilic bacterial consortium for rapid decolorization and degradation of a wide range of dyes and their mixtures. The 16S rRNA gene analysis of developed halophilic consortium VN.1 showed that the bacterial consortium contained six bacterial strains, which were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens HM480360, Enterobacter aerogenes HM480361, Shewanella sp. HM589853, Arthrobacter nicotianae HM480363, Bacillus beijingensis HM480362 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa JQ659549. Halophilic consortium VN.1 was able to decolorize up to 2,500 mg/L RB220 with >85% chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction under static condition at 30 °C and pH 8.0 in the presence of 7% NaCl. VN.1 also exhibited more than 85% COD reduction with >25 mg/(L h) rate of decolorization in the case of different reactive dye mixtures. We propose the symmetric cleavage of RB220 using Fourier transform infrared, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, and confirmed the formation of sodium-4-aminobenzenesulfonate, sodium-6-aminonepthalenesulfonate, and sodiumbenzene/nepthalenesulfonate. Toxicity studies confirm that the biodegraded products of RB220 effluent stimulate the growth of plants as well as the bacterial community responsible for soil fertility.

  18. Solitary fibrous tumor of the central nervous system: a 15-year literature survey of 220 cases (August 1996-July 2011).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bisceglia, Michele

    2011-09-01

    We reviewed the world literature on solitary fibrous tumors of the central nervous system from August 1996 to July 2011, focusing on both clinicopathological features and diagnostic findings. The anatomical distribution of the 220 cases reported so far reveals that most are intracranial and just over one-fifth are intraspinal. In decreasing frequency, intracranial tumors involve the supratentorial and infratentorial compartments, the pontocerebellar angle, the sellar and parasellar regions, and the cranial nerves. Intraspinal tumors are mainly located in the thoracic and cervical segments. Although most solitary fibrous tumors of the central nervous system are dural based, a small subset presents as subpial, intraparenchymal, intraventricular, or as tumors involving the nerve rootlets with no dural connection. Preoperative imaging and intraoperative findings suggest meningioma, schwannoma or neurofibroma, hemangiopericytoma, or pituitary tumors. Immunohistochemistry is critical to establish a definitive histopathological diagnosis. Vimentin, CD34, BCL2, and CD99 are the most consistently positive markers. The usual histologic type generally behaves in a benign manner if complete removal is achieved. Recurrence is anticipated when resection is subtotal or when the tumor exhibits atypical histology. The proliferative index as assessed by MIB1 labeling is of prognostic significance. Occasionally, tumors featuring conventional morphology may recur, perhaps because of minimal residual disease left behind during surgical extirpation. Rare extracranial metastases and tumor-related deaths are on record. Surgery is the treatment of choice. Stereotactic and external beam radiation therapy may be indicated for postsurgical tumor remnants and for unresectable recurrences. Long-term active surveillance of the patients is mandatory.

  19. Evaluation of Contraceptive Effects of Inserting New Type Intrauterine Devices Including Gynefix, MCu and TCu220 Immediately after Induced Abortion%人工流产术后即时放置GyneFix IUD、MCu IUD和TCu220 IUD避孕效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楼芝英; 乐园罗

    2007-01-01

    目的:评价新型宫内节育器(IUD)GyneFix IUD和MCu IUD及传统节育器TCu220 IUD的避孕效果.方法:以人工流产术后志愿放置IUD的690例为对象,随机分为3组,分别于人工流产术后即时放置Gyne Fix IUD、MCu IUD和TCu220 IUD. 结果:GyneFix IUD,MCu IUD和TCu220 IUD使用12个月带器妊娠率分别为0.48%、0.85%、3.75%,脱落率分别为0.93%、0.85%、2.92%,因症取出率分别为2.80%、3.81%、6.25%,续用率分别为95.80%,94.49%,87.08%,放置IUD后月经异常发生率分别为8.88 % 、5.93% 、12.5 %. 结论:GyneFix IUD、MCu IUD和TCu220 IUD避孕效果均较理想,但TCu220 IUD可能是放置型号不易掌握,带器妊娠、脱落、月经异常发生率较两种新型IUD高.

  20. Linear and nonlinear transmission of Fe{sup 2+}-doped ZnSe crystals at a wavelength of 2940 nm in the temperature range 20–220 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Il' ichev, N N; Pashinin, P P; Gulyamova, E S; Bufetova, G A [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shapkin, P V; Nasibov, A S [P N Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-03-28

    The linear and nonlinear transmission of Fe{sup 2+}:ZnSe crystals is measured at a wavelength of 2940 nm in the temperature range 20 – 220 °C. It is found that, with increasing temperature from 20 °C to 150 – 220 °C, the transmission of Fe{sup 2+}:ZnSe crystals decreases in the case of incident radiation with an intensity of ∼5.5 MW cm{sup -2} and increases in the case of radiation with an intensity of 28 kW cm{sup -2}. At a temperature of 220 °C, the linear transmission almost coincides with the nonlinear transmission. The transmission spectra of Fe{sup 2+}:ZnSe crystals at temperatures of 22 and 220 °C in the wavelength range 500 – 7000 nm are presented. (active media)

  1. Experimental measurement of the solubility of bismuth phases in water vapor from 220 deg. C to 300 deg. C: Implications for ore formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruszewski, Jason M. [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-3022 (United States); Wood, Scott A., E-mail: swood@uidaho.edu [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-3022 (United States)

    2009-04-15

    Preliminary measurements were carried out of the solubility of the O{sub 2-}buffering assemblage bismuth + bismite (Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in aqueous liquid-vapor and vapor-only systems at temperatures of 220, 250 and 300 deg. C. All experiments were carried out in Ti reaction vessels and were designed such that the Bi solids were contained in a silica tube that prevented contact with liquid water at any time during the experiment. Two blank (no Bi solids present) liquid-vapor experiments at 220 deg. C yielded Bi concentrations ({+-}1{sigma}) in the condensed liquid of 0.22 {+-} 0.02 mg/L, whereas the solubility measurements at this temperature yielded an average value of approximately 6 {+-} 9 mg/L, with replicate experiments ranging from 0.3 to 26 mg/L. Although the 6 mg/L value is associated with a considerable degree of uncertainty, the experiments do indicate transport of Bi through the vapor phase. Measured Bi concentrations in the condensed liquid at 250 deg. C were in the same range as those at 220 deg. C, whereas those at 300 deg. C were significantly lower (i.e., all below the blank value). Vapor-only experiments necessarily contained much smaller initial volumes of water, thereby making the results more susceptible to contamination. Single blank runs at 220 and 300 deg. C yielded Bi concentrations of 82 and 16 mg/L, respectively. Measured concentrations ({+-}1{sigma}) of Bi in the vapor-only solubility experiments at 220 deg. C were 235 {+-} 78 mg/L for an initial water volume of 0.5 mL, and at 300 deg. C were 56 {+-} 30 mg/L and 33 {+-} 21 for initial water volumes of 1 and 2 mL, respectively, suggesting strong preferential partitioning of Bi into the vapor. The results indicate a negative dependence of Bi solubility on temperature, but are inconclusive with respect to the dependence of Bi solubility on water density or fugacity. The experiments reported here suggest that significant Bi transport is possible in the vapor phase. Comparison of the liquid

  2. DNA strand breaks and crosslinks induced by transient anions in the range 2-20 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Xinglan; Zheng, Yi, E-mail: Yizheng@fzu.edu.cn [Research Institute of Photocatalysis, State Key Laboratory of Photocatalysis on Energy and Environment, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Sanche, Léon [Group in the Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec J1H 5N4 (Canada)

    2014-04-21

    The energy dependence of the yields of single and double strand breaks (SSB and DSB) and crosslinks induced by electron impact on plasmid DNA films is measured in the 2-20 eV range. The yield functions exhibit two strong maxima, which are interpreted to result from the formation of core-excited resonances (i.e., transient anions) of the bases, and their decay into the autoionization channel, resulting in π → π{sup *} electronic transitions of the bases followed by electron transfer to the C–O σ{sup *} bond in the phosphate group. Occupancy of the σ{sup *} orbital ruptures the C–O bond of the backbone via dissociative electron attachment, producing a SSB. From a comparison of our results with those of other works, including theoretical calculations and electron-energy-loss spectra of the bases, the 4.6 eV peak in the SSB yield function is attributed to the resonance decay into the lowest electronically excited states of the bases; in particular, those resulting from the transitions 1{sup 3}A{sup ′} (π{sub 2} → π{sub 3}{sup *}) and 1{sup 3}A{sup ″} (n{sub 2} → π{sub 3}{sup *}) of thymine and 1{sup 3}A{sup ′} (π → π{sup *}) of cytosine. The strongest peak at 9.6 eV in the SSB yield function is also associated with electron captured by excited states of the bases, resulting mostly from a multitude of higher-energy π → π{sup *} transitions. The DSB yield function exhibits strong maxima at 6.1 and 9.6 eV. The peak at 9.6 eV is probably related to the same resonance manifold as that leading to SSB, but the other at 6.1 eV may be more restricted to decay into the electronic state 1{sup 3}A{sup ′} (π → π{sup *}) of cytosine via autoionization. The yield function of crosslinks is dominated by a broad peak extending over the 3.6-11.6 eV range with a sharper one at 17.6 eV. The different line shape of the latter function, compared to that of SSB and DSB, appears to be due to the formation of reactive radical sites in the initial supercoiled

  3. (112) and (220)/(204)-oriented CuInSe{sub 2} thin films grown by co-evaporation under vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffenach, Sandra; Robin, Yoann; Moret, Matthieu, E-mail: matthieu.moret@univ-montp2.fr; Aulombard, Roger-Louis; Briot, Olivier

    2013-05-01

    CuInSe{sub 2} (CIS) layers were grown by co-evaporation in a molecular beam epitaxy system onto soda lime glass substrates by using both two-step and three step processes. The physical properties of the layers were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical spectroscopy. The sample atomic composition was assessed by energy dispersive analysis of X-rays. Cu-rich or In-rich CIS thin films were obtained exhibiting strong preferential (112) and (220)/(204) orientations in both cases. We performed thermal annealing at 450 °C under nitrogen, keeping Se overpressure to avoid Se desorption from the layer. The annealed layers all exhibit improved crystalline quality, with reduced stoichiometric discrepancy. The secondary phases like Cu{sub x}Se{sub 1−x} or In{sub x}Se{sub 1−x} are no more observable by XRD measurements. Regarding the preferential orientation, thermal annealing of Cu-rich CIS layers favours the (112) orientation leading to a more (112) textured layer after annealing, whatever the initial preferential growth orientation was. In opposite, thermal annealing of In-rich samples increases the (220)/(204) texture of the sample. - Highlights: ► We have studied the thermal annealing effect of Cu-rich and In-rich CuInSe{sub 2}. ► Thermal annealing improves the optical and crystalline quality. ► Secondary phase turned to CuInSe{sub 2} through a recrystallization process or evaporated. ► Thermal annealing of Cu-rich layers leads to an increase of the (112) texture. ► Thermal annealing of In-rich layers leads to an increase of the (220)/(204) texture.

  4. 佳能CP-330、CP-220照片打印机 升华“即拍即打”的乐趣

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    佳能最新推出了两款CP系列的最新热升华照片打印机.具有PictBrige功能.可以连接支持PictBrige标准的数码相机、摄像机直接打印照片。虽然新款CP-330和CP-220的外观和以前的产品变化不大.但是它们的性能表现更加出色。

  5. Generation of 220 mJ nanosecond pulses at a 10 Hz repetition rate with excellent beam quality in a diode-pumped Yb:YAG MOPA system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandt, Christoph; Klingebiel, Sandro; Siebold, Mathias; Major, Zsuzsanna; Hein, Joachim; Krausz, Ferenc; Karsch, Stefan

    2008-05-15

    A novel all-diode-pumped master oscillator power amplifier system based on Yb:YAG crystal rods has been developed. It consists of a Q-switched oscillator delivering 3 mJ, 6.4 ns pulses at a 10 Hz repetition rate and an additional four-pass amplifier, which boosts the output energy to 220 mJ, while a close to TEM(00) beam quality could be observed. Additionally a simulation of the amplification was written that allows for further scaling considerations.

  6. Humidity sensing properties of La~(3+)/Ce~(3+)-doped TiO_2-20 wt.% SnO_2 thin films derived from sol-gel method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红霞; 史志铭; 刘红伟

    2010-01-01

    The humidity sensing properties of La3+/Ce3+-doped TiO2-20 wt.%SnO2 thin films were studied.Sol-gel method was employed to prepare the films on alumina substrates.By constructing a humidity-impedance measuring system,the sensing behaviors were inspected for the films sintered at different temperatures.Experimental results showed that,0.5 wt.% of La2O3 or Ce2O3 doped films sintered at 500 °C for 2 h had the best humidity sensing properties,the impedance decreasing from 109 ? to below 104 ? in the humidity ra...

  7. 基于IEC-61850的220kV变电站监控系统建模与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈正邦

    2011-01-01

    本文介绍了IEC~61850标准体系结构和特点,提出了基于IEC-61850的变电站监控系统建模原则,并以220kV榕东变电站为例介绍了基于IEC-61850的变电站自动化监控系统结构和基本功能,从实例的角度总结了IEC-61850特点及优势,并提出了未米发展方向。

  8. METHODICAL APPROACHES TO THE CHOICE OF THE NEW GENERATION OF HIGH-VOLTAGE POWER TRANSMISSION LINE 220 kV OPTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POSTOLATI V.M.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The Transmission Power Lines of new generation are described in the article (single- compact, double-circuit compact, double-circuit Controlled Self-compensating High Voltage Transmission Power Lines (CSHVL. Basic principles of creation, design elements and comparative characteristics of the transmission lines of the new generation are described, the advantages of its are showed. Methodical approaches to the choosing of a new generation of transmission lines and facilities management FACTS are formulated. Methodical approaches to the choice of options for transmission lines 220 kV and facilities management are shown.

  9. Descoloração e degradação do azo corante Vermelho GRLX-220 por ozonização

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Kelly dos Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The discoloration and degradation of the textile dye RED GRLX-220 using the electrochemically generated ozone was investigated. Total discoloration was rapidly achieved in both acid and basic conditions. A pseudo-first order kinetics was observed for discoloration, influenced by pH and ozonation time. A considerable degree of mineralization (60% was obtained after 30 min of ozonation in alkaline medium. The feasibility of organic matter oxidation during the ozonation process increased in both acidic and alkaline media. The toxicity decreased after the ozonation process, suggesting that the byproducts are less toxic than the parental compound.

  10. Reconstruction and Energetics of the Polar (112) and ( 1 1 2 ) Versus the Non-Polar (220) Surfaces of CuInSe2: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S. B.; Wei, S. H.

    2001-10-01

    Presented at the 2001 NCPV Program Review Meeting: First-principles total-energy study of CIS reveals a number of (112) and (-1-1-2) surface structures stable at different atomic chemical potentials. First-principles total-energy study for CuInSe2 reveals a number of (112) and ({ovr 112}) surface structures stable at different atomic chemical potentials. This structure richness raises the possibility for engineering CIS/CIGS properties by surface control during the growth. The experimentally observed spontaneous decomposition of the (220)/(204) surfaces into (112) and ({ovr 112}) is also confirmed by calculating the absolute surface energies.

  11. A Naturally Occurring Mutation K220T in the Pleiotropic Activator PrfA of Listeria Monocytogenes Results in a Loss of Virulence Due to Decreasing DNA-Binding Affinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velge,P.; Herler, M.; Johansson, J.; Roches, S.; Temoin, S.; Fedorov, A.; Gracieux, P.; Almo, S.; Goebel, W.; Cossart, P.

    2007-01-01

    The sequencing of prfA, encoding the transcriptional regulator of virulence genes, in 26 low-virulence field Listeria monocytogenes strains showed that eight strains exhibited the same single amino-acid substitution: PrfAK220T. These strains exhibited no expression of PrfA-regulated proteins and thus no virulence. This substitution inactivated PrfA, since expression of the PrfAK220T mutant gene in an EGD{Delta}prfA strain did not restore the haemolytic and phosphatidylcholine phospholipase C activities, in contrast to the wild-type prfA gene. The substitution of the lysine at position 220 occurred in the helix H. However, the data showed that the PrfAK220T protein is dimerized just as well as its wild-type counterpart, but does not bind to PrfA-boxes. PrfAK220T did not form a PrfA-DNA complex in electrophoretic mobility shift assays, but low concentrations of CI complexes (PrfAK220T-RNA polymerase-DNA complex) were formed by adding RNA polymerase, suggesting that PrfA interacted with RNA polymerase in solution in the absence of DNA. Formation of some transcriptionally active complexes was confirmed by in vitro runoff transcription assays and quantitative RT-PCR. Crystallographic analyses described the structure of native PrfA and highlighted the key role of allosteric changes in the activity of PrfA and especially the role of the Lys220 in the conformation of the helix-turn-helix (HTH) motif.

  12. Water, methanol and dense gas tracers in the local ULIRG Arp 220: Results from the new SEPIA Band 5 Science Verification campaign

    CERN Document Server

    Galametz, M; Immer, K; Humphreys, E; Aladro, R; De Breuck, C; Ginsburg, A; Madden, S C; Møller, P; Arumugam, V

    2016-01-01

    We present a line survey of the ultra-luminous infrared galaxy Arp 220, taken with the newly installed SEPIA Band 5 instrument on APEX. We illustrate the capacity of SEPIA to detect the 183.3 GHz H2O 31,3-22,0 line against the atmospheric H2O absorption feature. We confirm the previous detection of the HCN(2-1) line, and detect new transitions of standard dense gas tracers such as HNC(2-1), HCO+(2-1), CS(4-3), C34S(4-3), HC3N(20-19). We also detect HCN(2-1) v2=1 and the 193.5 GHz methanol (4-3) group for the first time. The absence of time variations in the megamaser water line compared to previous observations seems to rule out an AGN nuclear origin for the line. It could, on the contrary, favor a thermal origin instead, but also possibly be a sign that the megamaser emission is associated with star-forming cores washed-out in the beam. We finally discuss how the new transitions of HCN, HNC, HCO+ refine our knowledge of the ISM physical conditions in Arp 220.

  13. Effect of 220Rn gas concentration distribution on its transmission from a delay chamber: evolving a CFD-based uniformity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, T K; Joshi, M; Sahoo, B K; Kanse, S D; Sapra, B K

    2016-03-01

    (220)Rn mitigation can be achieved by delay chamber technique, which relies on the advantage of its short half-life. However, flow rate as well as inlet-outlet position for the delay chamber can have a significant impact on (220)Rn concentration distribution patterns and hence transmission factor. In the present study, computational fluid dynamics simulations to estimate the concentration distribution has been carried out in a chamber of 0.5 m(3) for the combination of six different inlet-outlet positions and five different flow rates. Subsequently, the transmission factor (TF) for the chamber was evaluated and found to be highly dependent on the flow rate and inlet-outlet positions. For ease of scale up, the dependency of TF on the flow rate and the inlet-outlet positions is best summarised by relative transmission factor (RTF), which is the ratio of the TFs for the case of inlet and outlet on different faces to that on the same face.

  14. Subarcsecond international LOFAR radio images of Arp 220 at 150 MHz: A kpc-scale star forming disk surrounding nuclei with shocked outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Varenius, E; Martí-Vidal, I; Aalto, S; Barcos-Muñoz, L; König, S; Pérez-Torres, M A; Deller, A T; Moldón, J; Gallagher, J S; Yoast-Hull, T M; Horellou, C; Morabito, L K; Alberdi, A; Jackson, N; Beswick, R; Carozzi, T D; Wucknitz, O; Ramírez-Olivencia, N

    2016-01-01

    We analyse new observations with the International Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) telescope, and archival data from the Multi-Element Radio Linked Interferometer Network (MERLIN) and the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). We model the spatially resolved radio spectrum of Arp 220 from 150 MHz to 33 GHz. We present an image of Arp 220 at 150 MHz with resolution $0.65''\\times0.35''$, sensitivity 0.15 mJy beam$^{-1}$, and integrated flux density $394\\pm59$ mJy. More than 80% of the detected flux comes from extended ($6''\\approx$2.2 kpc) steep spectrum ($\\alpha=-0.7$) emission, likely from star formation in the molecular disk surrounding the two nuclei. We find elongated features extending $0.3''$ (110 pc) and $0.9''$ (330 pc) from the eastern and western nucleus respectively, which we interpret as evidence for outflows. The extent of radio emission requires acceleration of cosmic rays far outside the nuclei. We find that a simple three component model can explain most of the observed radio spectrum of the galaxy...

  15. The Arecibo Arp 220 Spectral Census I: Discovery of the Pre-Biotic Molecule Methanimine and New Cm-wavelength Transitions of Other Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Salter, C J; Catinella, B; Lebron, M; Lerner, M S; Minchin, R; Momjian, E

    2008-01-01

    An on-going Arecibo line search between 1.1 and 10 GHz of the prototypical starburst/megamaser galaxy, Arp 220, has revealed a spectrum rich in molecular transitions. These include the ``pre-biotic'' molecules: methanimine (CH$_{2}$NH) in emission, three $v_{2}=1$ direct l-type absorption lines of HCN, and an absorption feature likely to be from either $^{18}$OH or formic acid (HCOOH). In addition, we report the detection of two, possibly three, transitions of $\\lambda$4-cm excited OH not previously detected in Arp~220 which are seen in absorption, and a possible absorption feature from the 6.668-GHz line of methanol. This marks the first distant extragalactic detection of methanimine, a pre-biotic molecule. Also, if confirmed, the possible methanol absorption line presented here would represent the first extragalactic detection of methanol at a distance further than 10 Mpc. In addition, the strong, previously undetected, cm-wave HCN $v_{2}=1$ direct l-type lines will aid the study of dense molecular gas and ...

  16. Water, methanol and dense gas tracers in the local ULIRG Arp 220: results from the new SEPIA Band 5 Science Verification campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galametz, M.; Zhang, Z.-Y.; Immer, K.; Humphreys, E.; Aladro, R.; De Breuck, C.; Ginsburg, A.; Madden, S. C.; Møller, P.; Arumugam, V.

    2016-10-01

    We present a line survey of the ultraluminous infrared galaxy Arp 220, taken with the newly installed SEPIA (Swedish-European Southern Observatory PI receiver for APEX) Band 5 instrument on APEX (Atacama Pathfinder Experiment). We illustrate the capacity of SEPIA to detect the 183.3 GHz H2O 31,3-22,0 line against the atmospheric H2O absorption feature. We confirm the previous detection of the HCN(2-1) line, and detect new transitions of standard dense gas tracers such as HNC(2-1), HCO+(2-1), CS(4-3), C34S(4-3) and HC3N(20-19). We also detect HCN(2-1) v2 = 1 and the 193.5 GHz methanol (4-3) group for the first time. The absence of time variations in the megamaser water line compared to previous observations seems to rule out an AGN nuclear origin for the line. It could, on the contrary, favour a thermal origin instead, but also possibly be a sign that the megamaser emission is associated with star-forming cores washed out in the beam. We finally discuss how the new transitions of HCN, HNC and HCO+ refine our knowledge of the interstellar medium physical conditions in Arp 220.

  17. Low-Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA) of changed Brain Function Provoked by Pro-Dopamine Regulator (KB220z) in one Adult ADHD case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Bruce; Blum, Kenneth; McLaughlin, Thomas; Lubar, Joel; Febo, Marcelo; Braverman, Eric R.; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D

    2016-01-01

    Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often continues into adulthood. Recent neuroimaging studies found lowered baseline dopamine tone in the brains of affected individuals that may place them at risk for Substance Use Disorder (SUD). This is an observational case study of the potential for novel management of Adult ADHD with a non-addictive glutaminergic-dopaminergic optimization complex KB200z. Low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) was used to evaluate the effects of KB220z on a 72-year-old male with ADHD, at baseline and one hour following administration. The resultant z-scores, averaged across Eyes Closed, Eyes Open and Working Memory conditions, increased for each frequency band, in the anterior, dorsal and posterior cingulate regions, as well as the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during Working Memory, with KB220z. These scores are consistent with other human and animal neuroimaging studies that demonstrated increased connectivity volumes in reward circuitry and may offer a new approach to ADHD treatment. However, larger randomized trials to confirm these results are required. PMID:27610420

  18. Modified atomic scattering amplitudes and size effects on the 002 and 220 electron structure factors of multiple Ga1-xInxAs/GaAs quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titantah, J. T.; Lamoen, D.; Schowalter, M.; Rosenauer, A.

    2009-04-01

    The modified atomic scattering amplitudes (MASAs) of mixed Ga1-xInxAs, GaAs1-xNx, and InAs1-xNx are calculated using the density functional theory approach and the results are compared with those of the binary counterparts. The MASAs of N, Ga, As, and In for various scattering vectors in various chemical environments and in the zinc-blende structure are compared with the frequently used Doyle and Turner values. Deviation from the Doyle and Turner results is found for small scattering vectors (s MASAs are found to be sensitive to the orientation of the scattering vector and on the chemical environment. The chemical environment sensitive MASAs are used within zero pressure classical Metropolis Monte Carlo, finite temperature calculations to investigate the effect of well size on the electron 002 and 220 structure factors (SFs). The implications of the use of the 002 (200) spot for the quantification of nanostructured Ga1-xInxAs systems are examined while the 220 SF across the well is evaluated and is found to be very sensitive to the in-plane static displacements.

  19. ASTE Simultaneous HCN(4-3) and HCO+(4-3) Observations of the Two Luminous Infrared Galaxies NGC 4418 and Arp 220

    CERN Document Server

    Imanishi, Masatoshi; Yamada, Masako; Tamura, Yoichi; Kohno, Kotaro

    2010-01-01

    We report the results of HCN(J=4-3) and HCO+(J=4-3) observations of two luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs), NGC 4418 and Arp 220, made using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE). The ASTE wide-band correlator provided simultaneous observations of HCN(4-3) and HCO+(4-3) lines, and a precise determination of their flux ratios. Both galaxies showed high HCN(4-3) to HCO+(4-3) flux ratios of >2, possibly due to AGN-related phenomena. The J = 4-3 to J = 1-0 transition flux ratios for HCN (HCO+) are similar to those expected for fully thermalized (sub-thermally excited) gas in both sources, in spite of HCN's higher critical density. If we assume collisional excitation and neglect an infrared radiative pumping process, our non-LTE analysis suggests that HCN traces gas with significantly higher density than HCO+. In Arp 220, we separated the double-peaked HCN(4-3) emission into the eastern and western nuclei, based on velocity information. We confirmed that the eastern nucleus showed a higher HCN(4-3)...

  20. Continuous on-line calibration of diffusive soil-atmosphere trace gas transport using vertical {sup 220}Rn- and {sup 222}Rn-activity profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, B.E. [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Physics Inst.; Neftel, A. [Inst. of Environmental Protection and Agriculture, Bern (Switzerland); Tarakanov, S.V. [Inst. of Silicate Chemistry, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    Continuous monitoring of {sup 220}Rn- and {sup 222}Rn-activities above and below the soil surface combined with sporadic direct {sup 222}Rn-flux measurements is used to quantify diffusive trace gas transport in the air-filled pore space of soil, through the soil-atmosphere interface and in the lowest layers of the atmosphere. In a calm night, {sup 222}Rn-activities above the surface first build-up near the ground (z < 10 cm) and subsequently with a delay of 2-3 hours at higher altitudes (z < 5 m). Knowing (1) the {sup 222}Rn-flux from activity profiles measured in soil gas, (2) from direct flux determinations and (3) using information about atmospheric diffusion parameters from {sup 220}Rn-activities measured near the surface it is possible to model the temporal evolution of the vertical {sup 222}Rn-profiles in a night with stable weather and constant soil conditions. The system operates automatically for extended periods of time in the field enabling a better understanding of transport processes in response to changing environmental conditions (wind, rain, soil humidity). (orig.)

  1. A study to evaluate the accuracy of ultrasound in the diagnosis of parotid lumps and to review the sonographic features of parotid lesions - results in 220 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sriskandan, N., E-mail: neshe_s@hotmail.co [Department of Radiology, Eastbourne District General Hospital, Eastbourne, East Sussex (United Kingdom); Hannah, A.; Howlett, D.C. [Department of Radiology, Eastbourne District General Hospital, Eastbourne, East Sussex (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    Aim: To assess the accuracy of ultrasound in characterizing benign and malignant parotid lesions and to review their sonographic features. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of 220 ultrasound examinations was undertaken in 220 patients who presented with palpable parotid lesions over an 11-year period and correlated with the clinico-histopathological findings. The original sonographic diagnosis was compared to the final histopathology and lesions characterized using previously established sonographic criteria. Results: Histopathology results were available for all patients. Two hundred and one patients had focal lesions: 29 carcinomas, 21 lymphomata and 151 benign lesions (including 69 pleomorphic adenomas and 54 Warthin's tumours); 19 patients did not have focal lesions. The initial ultrasound report was indeterminate in 25/201 focal lesions. In the remaining 176 lesions, the sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy for malignancy of ultrasound was 91, 93, and 93%, respectively. There were four false-negatives and nine false-positives with a crossover of apparently benign and malignant features. Pleomorphic adenomas and Warthin's tumours were poorly differentiated using ultrasound. Additional impalpable parotid lesions or adenopathy were detected in 44 patients using ultrasound. Conclusion: Ultrasound is a valuable adjunct to clinical examination, accurately differentiating benign from malignant lesions and diagnosing non-focal disease. There is an overlap in features of pleomorphic adenomas and Warthin's tumours and of some benign and malignant lesions. Diagnostic ultrasound should be combined with needle biopsy in most patients to maximize diagnostic yield.

  2. Analysis on transient stability characteristic of power network before and after 330/220 kV electromagnetic loop network looping-off%330/220 kV电磁环网解环前后暂态稳定特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾雨嘉; 项丽; 田蓓; 周秀

    2015-01-01

    In order to guarantee the safe and stable operation of power grid after 330/220 kV electromagnetic loop network looping-off for Ningxia power grid,using Power System Analysis Software Package (PSASP),makes transient stability calculation under various fault forms relating to three levels stability standard for power grid before and after 330/220 kV electromagnetic loop network looping-off,and compares and analyzes the system voltage and frequency fluctuation and the changes of power-angle damping ratio before and after looping-off. The calculation result shows that 330/220 kV electromagnetic loop network looping-off has little influence on transient stability characteristic of Ningxia power grid,after looping-off,the transient instability risk would not increase,when looping-off conditions are just right,should implement in time.%为保证宁夏电网330/220 kV电磁环网解环后电网的安全稳定运行,运用电力系统分析综合程序(Power System Analysis Software Package,PSASP),对电磁环网解环前后电网在三级稳定标准涉及的各种故障形式下进行暂态稳定计算,对比分析解环前后系统电压与频率波动以及功角阻尼比的变化。计算结果表明:330/220kV电磁环网解环对于宁夏电网的暂态稳定特性影响不大,解环后不会增加暂态失稳事故风险,解环条件一旦具备,应该及时实施解环。

  3. 22O例医院感染病例分析%Analysis of 220 cases of nosocomial infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟红岩; 李小宝; 白玉红; 蒋静; 艾建红; 左大鹏

    2011-01-01

    目的 对2010年1-10月医院感染病例进行统计分析.研究发生医院感染的特点,以便采取控制措施.方法 采取前瞻性和回顾性相结合的调查方法,将科室、感染部位、细菌分离状况等作为相关因素进行比较分析,特别关注了层流病房、急诊ICU和呼吸ICU病原菌的特点.结果 医院感染的高发科室是层流病房、血液内科和呼吸重症监护病房,构成比分别为45.45%、13.18%和12.73%,排在前5位的医院感染依次是医院获得性肺炎、感染性发热、败血症、泌尿道感染和口腔感染,构成比分别为43.82%、11.98%、10.49%、7.87%和7.87%;引发医院感染的前5位的病原体构成比,依次是铜绿假单胞菌14.54%、鲍氏不动杆菌10.57%、酿脓链球菌8.81%、金黄色葡萄球菌7.49%、白色假丝酵母菌和大肠埃希菌均6.61%.结论 解放军307医院以收治血液肿瘤患者为主,骨髓移植是其特点,层流病房、血液内科和重症监护病房是医院感染的高发科室,医院获得性肺炎、感染性发烧、败血症为医院感染的主要疾病;因此,如何加强感染患者的管理,特别是当患者出现粒细胞减少时,如何积极采取预防感染的措施是非常重要的.%OBJECTIVE To analyze the characteristics and patterns of 220 cases of hospital infections from Jan to Oct, 2010, so as to take control measures for the hospital infection. METHODS The prospective and retrospective investigations were used in the study, the correlative factors including the department, the site of infection,bacterial isolates and other data were analyzed, especially compared to the characteristics of the pathogens in laminar flow unit, emergency ICU and respiratory ICU. RESULTS The incidence rates of nosocomial infection were high in Laminar flow unit, blood ward, intensive care unit, the constituent ratios, which were 45.45%,13.18% and 12. 73%, respectively. The top five ratios of constituent in the sites of

  4. KB220Z™ a Pro-Dopamine Regulator Associated with the Protracted, Alleviation of Terrifying Lucid Dreams. Can We Infer Neuroplasticity-induced Changes in the Reward Circuit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Thomas; Febo, Marcelo; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D.; Barh, Debmalya; Dushaj, Kristina; Braverman, Eric R.; Li, Mona; Madigan, Margaret A.; Blum, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    Background Recent reports by our laboratory have indicated that lucid dreams may be linked to psychiatric conditions, including Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and other Reward Deficiency Syndrome-related diagnoses. In the latter case, it has been our observation that such lucid dreams can be unpleasant and frequently terrifying. Case presentations We present four cases of a dramatic and persistent alleviation of terrifying, lucid dreams in patients diagnosed with ADHD/PTSD and/or opiate/opioid addiction. The amelioration of such dreams could well be permanent, since the patients had stopped taking the nutraceutical for between 10 to 12 months, without their recollection or recurrence. In the first case, the patient is a 47-year-old, married male who required continued Buprenorphine/ Naloxone (Suboxone) treatment. The second case involved a 32-year-old female with the sole diagnosis of ADHD. The third case involves a 38-year-old male who carried the diagnoses of Substance Use Dependence and ADHD. The fourth case involved a 50-year-old female with the diagnoses of Alcohol Abuse, ADHD and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Results In order to attempt to understand the possibility of neuroplasticity, we evaluated the effect of KB220Z in non-opioid-addicted rats utilizing functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging methodology. While we cannot make a definitive claim because rat brain functional connectivity may not be exactly the same as humans, it does provide some interesting clues. We did find following seeding of the dorsal hippocampus, enhanced connectivity volume across several Regions of Interest (ROI), with the exception of the pre- frontal cortex. Interestingly, the latter region is only infrequently activated in lucid human dreaming, when the dreamer reports that he/she had the thought that they were dreaming during the lucid dream. Conclusions The four patients initially reported a gradual but, then, complete amelioration of their long

  5. Development of an integrated sampler based on direct {sup 222}Rn/{sup 220}Rn progeny sensors in flow-mode for estimating unattached/attached progeny concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Rosaline, E-mail: rosaline@barc.gov.i [Radiological Physics and Advisory Division, Health, Safety and Environment Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Sapra, B.K.; Mayya, Y.S. [Radiological Physics and Advisory Division, Health, Safety and Environment Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2009-11-15

    A flow-mode integrated sampler consisting of a wire-mesh and filter-paper array along with passive solid state nuclear track detectors has been developed for estimating unattached and attached fraction of {sup 222}Rn/{sup 220}Rn progeny concentration. The essential element of this sampler is the direct {sup 222}Rn/{sup 220}Rn progeny sensor (DRPS/DTPS), which is an absorber-mounted-LR115 type nuclear track detector that selectively registers the alpha particles emitted from the progeny deposited on its surface. During sampling at a specified flow-rate, the unattached progeny is captured on the wire-mesh; while the attached progeny gets transmitted and is captured on the filter-paper. The alpha particles emitted by the deposited progeny atoms are registered on the sensors placed at a specified distance facing the wire-mesh and the filter-paper, respectively. The various steps involved in the development of this flow-mode direct progeny sampler such as the optimization of the sampling rate and the distance between the sensor and the deposition substrate are discussed. The sensitivity factor of the DTPS-loaded sampler for {sup 220}Rn progeny deposited on the wire-mesh and filter-paper is found to be 23.77 +- 0.64 (track cm{sup -2} h{sup -1}) (Bq m{sup -3}){sup -1} and 22.30 +- 0.18 (track cm{sup -2} h{sup -1}) (Bq m{sup -3}){sup -1}, respectively; while that of DRPS-loaded sampler for {sup 222}Rn progeny deposition, is 3.03 +- 0.14 (track cm{sup -2} h{sup -1}) (Bq m{sup -3}){sup -1} and 2.08 +- 0.07 (track cm{sup -2} h{sup -1}) (Bq m{sup -3}){sup -1}, respectively. The highlight of this flow-mode sampler is its high sensitivity and that it utilizes the passive technique for estimating the unattached and attached progeny concentration, thus doing away with the alpha counting procedures.

  6. Studies on the Equilibrium of {sup 220}Rn (Thoron) and its Daughters in the Atmosphere of a Monazite Plant and its Environs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillai, P.M.B.; Paul, A.C

    1999-07-01

    Studies carried out at the Monazite processing plant of Indian Rare Earths Ltd, at Udyogamandal, Kerala have shown that the mean ratio of the airborne concentrations of {sup 212}Bi to {sup 212}Pb were 0.20 {+-} 0.08 and 0.55 {+-} 0.21 for the process plant atmosphere and outside atmosphere respectively. The mean equilibrium factor, F, for {sup 220}Rn and daughters in the plant is found to be 0.003 {+-} 0.002. This value is 6 times lower than the F value for the outside atmosphere which is 0.02 {+-} 0.01. The equilibrium factors determined facilitate internal dose estimation in monazite and thorium processing plants. (author)

  7. Changes in radiation defects caused by annealing at 220 /sup 0/K of germanium irradiated with fast electrons at 77 /sup 0/K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerasimov, A.B.; Gogotishvili, M.K.; Dolidze, N.D.; Konovalenko, B.M.

    1978-07-01

    The present paper reports the results of a study of annealing of n-type germanium doped with P, As, Sb, and Bi in concentrations from 2 x 10/sup 14/ to 2 x 10/sup 16/ cm/sup -3/ and irradiated with fast electrons (2.5 and 4.5 MeV) at 77 /sup 0/K. The annealing stage stage near 220 /sup 0/K and the fraction of the carrier density reovered at this stage are independent of the nature and concentration of the donor impurity, indicating that the defects annealed at this stage do not include such impurities. These defects are of nonpoint nature and of pure radiation origin, and they represent one quarter of all the defects created in germanium by irradiation at T=77 /sup 0/K.

  8. Study of Gamow-Teller transitions from 132Sn via the (p,n reaction at 220 MeV/u in inverse kinematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasano M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The charge-exchange (p,n reaction at 220 MeV has been measured to extract the strength distribution of Gamow-Teller transitions from the doubly magic unstable nucleus 132Sn. A recently developed experimental technique of measuring the (p,n reaction in inverse kinematics has been applied to the study of unstable nuclei in the mass region around A∼100 for the first time. We have combined the low-energy neutron detector WINDS and the SAMURAI spectrometer at the RIKEN radioactive isotope beam factory (RIBF. The particle identification plot for the reaction residues obtained by the spectrometer provides the clear separation of the CE reaction channel from other background events, enabling us to identify kinematic curves corresponding the (p, n reaction. Further analysis to reconstruct the excitation energy spectrum is ongoing.

  9. UV spectroscopy of Titan's atmosphere, planetary organic chemistry and prebiological synthesis. II - Interpretation of new IUE observations in the 220-335 nm range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtin, Regis; Wagener, Richard; Mckay, Christopher P.; Caldwell, John; Fricke, Karl-Heinrich

    1991-01-01

    The theoretical model developed by McKay et al. (1989) to characterize the size distribution, thermal structure, and chemical composition of the stratospheric haze of Titan is applied to new 220-335-nm albedo measurements obtained with the long-wavelength prime camera of the IUE during August 1987. Data and model predictions are presented in extensive graphs and discussed in detail. It is shown that a simple model with particles of one size at a given altitude does not accurately reproduce the observed features in all spectral regions, but that good general agreement is obtained using a model with a uniformly mixed layer at 150-600 km and a bimodal distribution of small 'polymer' haze particles (radius less than 20 nm) and larger haze particles (radius 100-500 nm). The number densities implied by this model require, however, a mechanism such as electrostatic charging or reaction kinetics to inhibit coagulation of the smaller particles.

  10. DFT-D Investigation of the Interaction Between Ir(III) Based Photosensitizers and Small Silver Clusters Ag$_n$ ($n$=2-20, 92)

    CERN Document Server

    Bokareva, Olga S

    2013-01-01

    A dispersion-corrected density functional theory study of the photosensitizer [Ir(ppy)$_2$(bpy)]$^+$ and its derivatives bound to silver clusters Ag$_n$ ($n$=2-20, 92) is performed. The goal is to provide a new system-specific set of $C_{\\rm 6}^{}$ interaction parameters for Ag and Ir atoms. To this end a QM:QM scheme is employed using the PBE functional and RPA as well as MP2 calculation as a reference. The obtained $C_{\\rm 6}^{}$ coefficients were applied to calculate dissociation curves of selected IrPS-Ag$_n$ complexes and binding energies of derivatives containing oxygen and sulphur as heteroatoms in the ligands. Comparing different $C_{\\rm 6}^{}$ parameters it is concluded that RPA-based dispersion correction produces binding energies close to standard D2 and D3 models, whereas MP2-derived parameters overestimate these energies.

  11. A 455 nW 220 fJ/conversion-step 12 bits 2 kS/s SAR ADC for portable biopotential acquisition systems*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hui; Qin Yajie; Yang Siyu; Hong Zhiliang

    2011-01-01

    An ultra-low power 12 bits 2 kS/s successive approximation register analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is presented. For power optimization, the voltage supply of the digital part is lowered, and the offset voltage of the latch is self-calibrated. Targeted for better linearity and lower noise, an improved digital-to-analog converter capacitor array layout strategy is presented, and a low kick-back noise latch is proposed. The chip was fabricated by using 0.18 μm 1P6M CMOS technology. The ADC achieves 61.8 dB SNDR and dissipates 455 nW only, resulting in a figure of merit of 220 fJ/conversion-step. The ADC core occupies an active area of only 674 × 639 μm2.

  12. 宫喜环与Cu300、TCu220C宫内节育器临床效果比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱春芬

    2016-01-01

    目的:比较宫喜环与Cu300、TCu220C宫内节育器临床效果;方法选择2011年10月-2013年10月到我站自愿要求放置IUD的育龄妇女360例为研究对象,按放置宫内节育器的类型分为3组:宫喜环组、Cu300组、TCu220C组,每组120例。随访1年,观察临床效果和不良反应。结果宫喜环组、Cu300组、TCu220C组的带器妊娠检出率分别为0.87%、2.65%、1.79%,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);经量增加检出率分别为0.87%、6.19%、3.57%,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);经期延长检出率分别为2.61%、6.19%、4.46%,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);不规则出血检出率分别为0.87%、5.31%、4.46%,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);结论宫喜环具有带器妊娠率低,经量增加、经期延长、不规则出血等不良反应小等优点。%Objective:To compare the clinical effects of three types of intrauterine devices(IUDs).Methods:A total of 360 women underwent the insertion of Gongxi IUD,Cu300 and TCu220C IUDs in Family planning Scientific and Technical Guidance Centers of Yongjing county in Gansu Pronvince,.between Oct,2011 and Oct,2013,and followed up for one year.The effectiveness and side effects were evaluated.Results:The pregnancy rates for those with Gongxi IUD,Cu300 and TCu220C IUDs insertion were 0.87%、2.65%、1.79%(P<0.05);The increased menstrual flow rates were 0.87%、6.19%、3.57%(P<0.05);The menstrual extension rates were 2.61%、6.19%、4.46%(P<0.05);The irregular bleeding rates were 0.87%、5.31%、4.46%(P<0.05).Conclusion:Gongxi IUD has the advantages of low pregnancy rats,it also has a low incidence in adverse reactions, such as the increased menstrual flow rates,the menstrual extension rates,the irregular bleeding rates.

  13. OBSERVATIONS OF Arp 220 USING HERSCHEL-SPIRE: AN UNPRECEDENTED VIEW OF THE MOLECULAR GAS IN AN EXTREME STAR FORMATION ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangwala, Naseem; Maloney, Philip R.; Glenn, Jason; Kamenetzky, Julia [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 1255 38th street, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Wilson, Christine D.; Mentuch, Erin; Schirm, Maximilien R. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4M1 (Canada); Rykala, Adam [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queens Buildings The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Isaak, Kate [ESA Astrophysics Missions Division, ESTEC, PO Box 299, 2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Baes, Maarten [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Bendo, George J. [UK ALMA Regional Centre Node, Jordell Bank Center for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Boselli, Alessandro [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, UMR6110 CNRS, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille (France); Bradford, Charles M. [JPL, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Clements, D. L. [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Cooray, Asantha [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Fulton, Trevor; Imhof, Peter [Blue Sky Spectroscopy Inc, Suite 9-740 4th Avenue South, Lethbridge, Alberta T1J 0N9 (Canada); Madden, Suzanne C.; Sauvage, Marc [CEA, Laboratoire AIM, Irfu/SAp, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Sacchi, Nicola [Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario, INAF, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); and others

    2011-12-10

    We present Herschel Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver Fourier Transform Spectrometer (Herschel SPIRE-FTS) observations of Arp 220, a nearby ultra-luminous infrared galaxy. The FTS provides continuous spectral coverage from 190 to 670 {mu}m, a wavelength region that is either very difficult to observe or completely inaccessible from the ground. The spectrum provides a good measurement of the continuum and detection of several molecular and atomic species. We detect luminous CO (J = 4-3 to 13-12) and water rotational transitions with comparable total luminosity {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} L{sub Sun }; very high-J transitions of HCN (J = 12-11 to 17-16) in absorption; strong absorption features of rare species such as OH{sup +}, H{sub 2}O{sup +}, and HF; and atomic lines of [C I] and [N II]. The modeling of the continuum shows that the dust is warm, with T = 66 K, and has an unusually large optical depth, with {tau}{sub dust} {approx} 5 at 100 {mu}m. The total far-infrared luminosity of Arp 220 is L{sub FIR} {approx} 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} L{sub Sun }. Non-LTE modeling of the extinction corrected CO rotational transitions shows that the spectral line energy distribution of CO is fit well by two temperature components: cold molecular gas at T {approx} 50 K and warm molecular gas at T {approx} 1350{sup +280}{sub -100} K (the inferred temperatures are much lower if CO line fluxes are not corrected for dust extinction). These two components are not in pressure equilibrium. The mass of the warm gas is 10% of the cold gas, but it dominates the CO luminosity. The ratio of total CO luminosity to the total FIR luminosity is L{sub CO}/L{sub FIR} {approx} 10{sup -4} (the most luminous lines, such as J = 6-5, have L{sub CO,J=6-5}/L{sub FIR} {approx} 10{sup -5}). The temperature of the warm gas is in excellent agreement with the observations of H{sub 2} rotational lines. At 1350 K, H{sub 2} dominates the cooling ({approx}20 L{sub Sun} M{sup -1}{sub

  14. The luminescence dating chronology of a deep core from Bosten Lake (NW China) in arid central Asia reveals lake evolution over the last 220 ka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Guoqiang; Duan, Yanwu; Huang, Xiaozhong

    2016-01-01

    in the southern Tianshan Mountains in central ACA. A 51.6-m-deep lacustrine succession was retrieved from the lake and 30 samples from the succession were used for luminescence dating to establish a chronology based on multi-grain quartz OSL and K-feldspar post-IR IRSL (pIRIR290) dating. Quartz OSL ages were only....... A stable deep lake occurred at c. 220, 210–180, c. 165, 70–60, 40–30 and 20–5 ka, while shallow levels occurred at c. 215, 180–165, 100–70, 60–40 and 30–20 ka. Bosten Lake levels decreased by at least ~29 m and possibly the lake even dried up between c. 160 and c. 100 ka. We suggest that the water...

  15. Limits on Low-Mass WIMP Dark Matter with an Ultra-Low-Energy Germanium Detector at 220 eV Threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Shin-Ted

    2008-01-01

    An energy threshold of (220$\\pm$10) eV was achieved at an efficiency of 50% with a four-channel ultra-low-energy germanium detector each with an active mass of 5 g\\cite{wimppaper}. This provides a unique probe to WIMP dark matter with mass below 10 GeV. With low background data taken at the Kuo-Sheng Laboratory, constraints on WIMPs in the galactic halo were derived. Both spin-independent WIMP-nucleon and spin-dependent WIMP-neutron bounds improve over previous results for WIMP mass between 3$-$6 GeV. These results, together with those on spin-dependent couplings, will be presented. Sensitivities for full-scale experiments were projected. This detector technique makes the unexplored sub-keV energy window accessible for new neutrino and dark matter experiments.

  16. Observation of strong virtual scattering under three-beam (220, 371) X-ray diffraction in TeO{sub 2} single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blagov, A. E.; Kovalchuk, M. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Kohn, V. G. [Kurchatov Institute, Russian Research Centre (Russian Federation); Pisarevskii, Yu. V.; Prosekov, P. A., E-mail: aopt@ns.crys.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2010-01-15

    A strong effect of virtual scattering has been experimentally observed when studying the nearly coplanar three-beam (220, 371) X-ray diffraction in a paratellurite single crystal under high-resolution double-crystal X-ray diffraction using MoK{sub {alpha}1} radiation. One characteristic feature of this effect is that the angular dependence of the first (strong) reflection intensity and its shape barely change in the three-beam range of parameters, whereas very strong changes are observed for the second (weak) reflection not only in the three-beam range but also far beyond it, which is related to the variation in the two-beam diffraction parameter due to virtual scattering. The changes observed are asymmetric and make it possible to determine the triplet combination of structure-factor phases.

  17. A 455 nW 220 fJ/conversion-step 12 bits 2 kS/s SAR ADC for portable biopotential acquisition systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Hui; Qin Yajie; Yang Siyu; Hong Zhiliang, E-mail: yajieqin@fudan.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2011-01-15

    An ultra-low power 12 bits 2 kS/s successive approximation register analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is presented. For power optimization, the voltage supply of the digital part is lowered, and the offset voltage of the latch is self-calibrated. Targeted for better linearity and lower noise, an improved digital-to-analog converter capacitor array layout strategy is presented, and a low kick-back noise latch is proposed. The chip was fabricated by using 0.18 {mu}m 1P6M CMOS technology. The ADC achieves 61.8 dB SNDR and dissipates 455 nW only, resulting in a figure of merit of 220 fJ/conversion-step. The ADC core occupies an active area of only 674 x 639 {mu}m{sup 2}. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  18. Analysis of the efficacy and safety of dabigatran 220 mg vs.Enoxaparin for prevention of thromboembolism after hip or knee replacement%达比加群220mg与依诺肝素对膝、髋关节置换术后静脉血栓预防的疗效及安全性比较评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨帆; 张黎军; 蒋小波

    2013-01-01

    Objective To conduct a systematic review of efficacy and safety of dabigatran 220 mg vs. enoxaparin for prevention of thromboembolism after hip or knee replacement. Methods CNKI, VIP, and Wanfang data Cochrane Library, Embase, Pubmed and Medline Databases, were searched from the 1990 to 2012. The references of these studies were also searched. Two independent researchers evaluated the included studies by using GRADE, the Meta-analysis was performed by Review Manager 5. 1 software. Results A total of 4 trials were reached the criteria, which included 10 265 patients. The efficacy of dabigatran 220 mg vs. enoxaparin has no significant difference for prevention of thromboembolism and the bleeding risk after hip or knee replacement, the results reveals that total VTE and all-cause mortality [ OR = 1. 01, 95% CI ( 0. 81 ~ 1.26)], proximal DVT [OR =0.76, 95% CI ( 0.55 ~ 1.07 )], major VTE and VTE related mortality [ OR =0.79,95% CI ( 0. 59 ~ 1. 06 ) ], major bleeding [ OR = 1. 11, 95% CI ( 0.75 ~ 1. 65 ) ], clinically relevant bleeding [ OR = 1. 18 , 95% CI ( 0. 92 ~ 1. 51 ) ]. Conclusion The efficacy of dabigatran 220 mg vs. enoxaparin has no significant difference for prevention of thromboembolism and the bleeding risk after hip or knee replacement.%目的 系统评价达比加群220 mg相比于依诺肝素对膝、髋关节置换术后静脉血栓预防的疗效及安全性.方法 计算机检索中国知网(CNKI)、维普数据库(VlP)、万方数据库(Wanfang Data)、Cochrane Library、Embase、Pubmed and Medline Databases,同时追溯纳入文献的参考文献,时间为1990-2012年.2位研究员根据GRADE 系统推荐分级方法,对纳入研究的文献质量进行严格评价和资料提取,对符合质量标准的 RCT采用Rview Manager 5.1进行 Meta 分析.结果共纳入4篇文献,包括10 265例患者.结果显示达比加群220 mg相比于依诺肝素不增加膝、髋关节置换术后静脉血栓形成和出血的风险,其结果分别为总静

  19. Determination of natural radioactivity, 222Rn and 220Rn exhalation rates and radiation hazards of fly ash and fly ash brick used in Baotou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuxin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural radioactivity levels, 222Rn and 220Rn exhalation rates and radiation hazards of fly ash and fly ash brick used in Baotou, China were determined. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in fly ash samples ranged from 38.81 to 93.73, 40.34 to 135.17, and 66.92 to 290.86 Bq/kg with an average of 76.52, 109.95, and 170.72 Bq/kg, respectively; while in fly ash brick samples, these radionuclides ranged from 42.43 to 71.60, 76.65 to 208.37, and 94.32 to 489.42 Bq/kg with an average of 53.83, 101.93, and 266.48 Bq/kg, respectively. The exhalation rates of 222Rn and 220Rn in all determined samples were in the range of 1.13-20.50 and 15.60-113.00 mBq/m2s, respectively. The calculated results of the radium equivalent activity, external hazard index, internal hazard index, indoor annual effective dose and outdoor annual effective dose indicated that fly ashes and fly ash bricks collected from some brick factories of Baotou would pose excessive radiation risks to inhabitants and that they are not suitable for use in building construction. The natural radioactivity level of fly ash and fly ash brick needs to be constantly monitored considering the radiation safety of the local residents.

  20. Investigation on radon concentration and dose estimation at some areas in Zhejiang Province%浙江部分地区室内222Rn和220Rn水平及剂量估算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宣志强; 王子友; 尚兵; 王春红; 崔宏星; 武云云; 赵尧贤; 吴寿明; 俞顺飞; 郑双来

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the concentrations of indoor radon (222Rn) and its daughter products as well as indoor thoron (220Rn) in selected houses in Yuhang district and Sanmen county,Zhejiang province,and estimate their annual effective doses to the population.Methods Solid state nuclear track detectors were used in selected dwellings in Yuhang district and Sanmen county,and the detectors were placed in bedrooms or living rooms.Without changing the ventilation habits of residents,These detectors were continuously placed from March to September in 2009.Results Indoor 222 Rn and 220Rn concentrations in low-rise buildings were the highest among all types of houses.The indoor concentration of 222 Rn had no relation with the building age (F = 0.53,P > 0.05),but that of 220 Rn was dependent on the building age (F = 3.56,P < 0.05).Moreover,the investigation demonstrated indoor 220 Rn concentrations in houses with no decoration were higher than in the houses decorated (t = 2.33,P <0.05).The average indoor concentrations of 222Rn and 220Rn in Yuhang district were 32.5 Bq/m3 and 314.3 Bq/m3,respectively,and the annual effective doses were 0.88 mSy and 0.42 mSv respectively.The average indoor concentrations of 222Rn and 220Rn in Sanmen county were 26.8 Bq/m3 and 399.5 Bq/m3,and the annual effective doses were 0.72 mSy and 0.53 mSv respectively.Conclusion The concentrations of indoor 222 Rn in some areas of Zhejiang province are at natural background level,and the concentrations of indoor 220Rn in rural areas are relatively higher.The total annual effective dose from 220Rn and its progeny was larger than that from 222Rn and its progeny by 50 percents.%目的 调查浙江省余杭区和三门县居室内222Rn、220Rn及其子体水平,明确其所致公众有效剂量.方法 采用固体径迹探测器测量余杭区和三门县两地居室中222Rn和220Rn浓度,探测器均放置于卧室或客厅,在不改变居民日常通风习惯情况下连续暴露6个月.结果

  1. Quantitative Structure Method for 500 kV/220 kV Power Grid Based on Fractal Dimension%基于分形维数的500 kV/220 kV 电网结构量化方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏仲; 吕风磊; 范宏

    2015-01-01

    现有的500 kV/220 kV 分区规划大多通过开断个别线路进行分区,未对整体性网架结构进行量化研究。基于此背景,提出了一种通过求取地理接线图的分形维数预测区域短路电流的方法。首先,结合电网的地理接线图,利用 MATLAB 编写的盒维数计算程序对实际电网结构进行了分形维数的量化研究;其次,通过对电网结构分形维数与短路电流基本模型的研究,建立了电网结构分形维数与短路电流的数学关系,达到了预测短路电流的目的。算例结果验证了该思路的可行性。%In view of the background that most of the existing 500 kV/220 kV power grid partition methods are achieved by disconnecting certain circuits with little,if any,quantitative research on 500 kV/220 kV grid partition structure as a whole reported.A method of changing the power structure to predict the short-circuit current by solving the fractal dimension of the geographical wiring diagram is proposed.A quantitative research on the fractal dimension of a 500 kV/220 kV power grid structure is presented using the box dimension programmed by MATLAB calculations program while the short-circuit current basic model is studied,based on which the mathematical relation between power structure and short-circuit current is developed and the prediction of short-circuit current is achieved.Finally,an application example is given to prove the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. LW2C-220型开关直动密封部位SF6气体超标泄漏质量缺陷分析%Quality Defect Analysis of SF6 Gas Leakage Exceeding Standard on LW2C- 220 Type Switch Translation Sealed Part

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白银川

    2004-01-01

    通过对一组LW2C-220型SF6开关进行检漏试验,发现其直动密封部位SF6气体超标泄漏.文章针对此事故和测试的过程进行了分析说明,并提出了动态检漏的新观念,对今后SF6电器检漏试验工作具有指导意义.

  3. 高速铁路牵引变电所220 kV干式电流互感器介质损耗值在线监测研究%Researchon high speed railway traction substation 220kVdry type current transformer dielectric loss valueon-line monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓建峰

    2016-01-01

    In order to solve some problemsofthe off-line preventive test monitoringof Beijing-Guangzhou high-speed rail traction substation 220kVdry type current transformer,andon the basis of the insulation dielectric loss of physical model,this paperuses the zero monitoring comparison method and designs a set of 220 kVdry type current transformer real-time online monitoring device. In the design process, it carefully analyzesinfluence onthe tan delta value measurement precisioncaused bycurrent sensor, high order harmonic, zero-crossing comparator offset voltage, zero drift, environmental temperature and humidity, etc. According to the different factors influencing the accuracy, the correspondingtechnical improvement measures are put forward. Field operation shows that the tan delta value resultsofreal-time online monitoring accord withthat ofoffline measurements,it hasstable running andreliable work,and canmeet the requirements of field operation.%为了解决离线预防性试验监测京广高铁牵引变电所220 kV干式电流互感器存在的诸多问题,依据绝缘介损的物理模型,采用过零监测比较法,设计一套220 kV干式电流互感器实时在线监测装置。在设计过程中,认真分析了电流传感器、高次谐波、过零比较器失调电压和零漂以及环境温湿度等因素对tanδ值测量精度的影响。并针对影响精度的不同因素,提出了相应的技术改进措施。现场运行情况表明,装置实时在线监测tanδ值结果与设备离线实测结果完全吻合,且运行稳定,工作可靠,满足现场运行的要求。

  4. 连续测量法同时测定空气中222Rn子体与220Rn子体浓度%Simultaneous and consecutive measurements of radon decay products and thoron decay products in air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王津; MEISENBERG Oliver; 刘娟; TSCHIERSCH Jochen; 陈永亨; CHALUPNIK Stanislaw

    2013-01-01

    222 Rn子体浓度可通过测定母体222Rn浓度,根据平衡因子进行大致估算.由于220 Rn及其子体之间并不存在相对稳定的平衡因子,因此,若要准确获得220 Rn子体浓度,需借助仪器通过累积、连续测量进行测定.文章应用我国不常见的工作水平监测仪(working level monitor),同时实现空气中222 Rn子体与220Rn子体的累积连续测量,从而计算得到两者浓度.通过借助液体闪烁仪的参照比较,验证了此法同时测量空气中222Rn子体与220Rn子体的准确性与可靠性.

  5. Simultaneous Measurement of Radon and Thoron Using a Scintillation Cell%一种同时测量222 Rn、220 Rn的单闪烁室两段法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周青芝; 肖德涛; 赵桂芝; 肖拥军; 单健

    2013-01-01

    本文介绍了一种同时测量混合222 Rn、220 Rn空气的单闪烁室方法,该方法利用一个闪烁室测量采样结束后两个不同时间段的计数,再联立一个二元方程组来求解222 Rn、220 Rn浓度,因此也叫单闪烁室两段法,该方法无需任何延时即可快速准确测定混合环境下222 Rn、220 Rn浓度。%A method has been developed for the simultaneous measurement of radon ( 222 Rn) and thoron( 220 Rn) in a mixed environment using a scintillation cell in this paper. The method uses counts from two arbitrary counting intervals from zero time with respect to sampling,establishes two equations with two unknown variables to solve concentrations of radon and thoron,hence,called two-count method( TCM) . The method can be used to esti-mate the radon and thoron concentrations in a mixed environment accurately and quickly, as there is no need to delay the counting to achieve complete decay of thoron.

  6. A new hemoglobin variant: Hb Meylan [β73(E17)Asp → Phe; HBB: c.220G>T; c.221A>T] with a double base mutation at the same codon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renoux, Céline; Feray, Cécile; Joly, Philippe; Zanella-Cleon, Isabelle; Garcia, Caroline; Lacan, Philippe; Couprie, Nicole; Francina, Alain

    2015-01-01

    We report a new β-globin chain variant: Hb Meylan [β73(E17)Asp → Phe; HBB: c.220G>T; c.221A>T]. The new variant results from a double nucleotide mutation at the same codon. The possible molecular mechanisms are discussed.

  7. Application of on - line GIS partial discharge monitoring technique in the 220kV substion of Gnizhou power grid%基于HFCT与UHF法局放在线监测在贵州首个220kVGIS站的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘华麟; 吕黔苏

    2011-01-01

    To improve the power supply reliability of Guizhou power grid and safe running level of electrical equipments, we have applied the cable and GIS partial discharge on- line monitoring device in the Zhaosi transformer station, the first 220kV GIS station in Guizhou province, to monitor the partial discharge of GIS on line and get the insulation performance information timely. By assessing the monitoring effect of this station, this on - line GIS partial discharge monitoring technique will be generalized and applied in other GIS transformer station in Guizhou power grid.%为了提高贵州电网供电可靠性及设备安全运行水平,我们对贵州首座220kV变电站——赵斯变。进行电缆与GIS局部放电在线监测设备的安装,对其局部放电进行在线监测,实时掌握其绝缘性能情况,并以该站监测效果作为试点,将其GIS局放在线监测技术推广应用到贵州电网其它GIS变电站。

  8. A contribution to the study of the behaviour of {sup 220}Rn, {sup 222}Rn and their daughters in the atmosphere; Contribution a l'etude du comportement du radon-220, du radon-222 et de leurs descendants dans l'atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, T.; Yunoki, E.; Michihiro, K.; Sugiyama, H.; Shimizu, M.; Mori, T. [Okayama Prefectural Institute for Environmental Science and Public Health, Uchio, Okayama (Japan); Tsukamoto, O.; Sahashi, K. [Okayama Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science; Maitani, T. [Okayama Univ. (Japan). Inst. for Bioresources

    1999-06-01

    We simultaneously measured the concentrations of {sup 212}Pb (a {sup 220}Rn daughter) and short-lived {sup 222}Rn daughters, and some meteorological elements at three sites 2-3 km apart in Kamisaibara Village (Okayama Prefecture, Japan). The resulting data shows that variations of the concentrations of {sup 212}Pb and {sup 222}Rn daughters and of the ratio Pb/Rn-daughters at these three sites are correlated, but that their levels are considerably influenced by emanations of {sup 220}Rn and {sup 222}Rn from the soil near the observation sites. The results of further treatment make it clear that the addition of Pb/Rn (the ratio of the concentrations of {sup 212}Pb and {sup 222}Rn) or of Pb/Rn-daughters as an indicator to one of the concentrations of {sup 212}Pb, {sup 222}Rn and {sup 222}Rn daughters enables us to get information about the state of the lower atmosphere. Considering the above, the ratio Pb/Rn or Pb/Rn-daughters will be useful as a tracer for elucidation of the behaviour of air pollutants in urban and industrial areas, as well as the concentrations of {sup 212}Pb, {sup 222}Rn and {sup 222}Rn daughters. (author)

  9. The evolution of the Dead Sea brine during the last 220 ky as revealed by porewater Cl-, Na+ and δ18O in ICDP deep core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Boaz; Levy, Elan J.; Sivan, Orit; Yechieli, Joseph; Antler, Gilad; Gavrieli, Ittai; Stein, Mordechai

    2016-04-01

    The chemical composition of pore brines extracted from 456 m long core drilled by the ICDP during 2011 in the deep basin (water depth of 300 m) of the Dead Sea provides a history of the evolution of the Dead Sea brine during the last 220 ky. The vertical profiles of chloride (Cl-) sodium (Na+) and oxygen isotopes (δ18O) in the core show that during that period the bottom water mass (hypolimnion) of the lake was always hyper-saline and its salinity did not dropped below ~70 % of that of the modern Dead Sea. The lake underwent three major hyper-arid periods that lasted altogether about 30 ky and deposited ~150 m of halite and gypsum. These periods were the last two interglacials and the postglacial till present. During the last glacial and particularly during MIS2 (~31-17 ka BP) the salinity of the lake dropped substantially due to excess input of freshwater as indicated by the decrease in Cl- and Na+ of the hypolimnion. The δ18O at the same period increased to maximum of ~7‰ (3‰ higher than today). The variations in Na+ and Cl- during the "freshening" period suggest that halite dissolution, probably due to the rise of mount Sedom diapir, "buffered" the brine from further drop in salinity. The dilution of the brine was slow and lasted more than 10 ky probably due to continuous turbulent mixing of the hypolimnion with the less saline high δ18O epilimnetic brine that underwent "normal" evaporation. The low δ18O during high salinity -halite deposition- periods is attributed to "reversed" behavior of δ18O during evaporation of high salinity brine. Massive precipitation of halite during the last 10 ky decreased sharply the Na+/Cl- ratio of the Dead Sea from ~0.7 to its present value of ~0.2. A similar low value was reached during the last interglacial, at ~120 ky. Both periods mark the most mature evaporative state of the lake during the last 220 ky.

  10. Clinical features of otitis media in neonate%新生儿中耳炎220例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王译; 杜逸亭; 陈凌梅; 徐若梅

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析新生儿中耳炎的临床特点,提高医师对此病的早期认识和诊治水平.方法 对成都市妇女儿童中心医院新生儿科220例新生儿中耳炎患者的临床特点进行分析.结果 新生儿中耳炎临床表现很不典型,耳痛在新生儿期基本上观察不到,有外耳溢液的仅有3.6%,有发热的也只有28.2%,而非特异性表现(黄疸)多达66.3%;且易合并其它呼吸道感染(如上呼吸道感染、肺炎),甚至严重感染(如败血症、化脓性脑膜炎).结论 新生儿科医生应加强对中耳炎的早期认识,尤其是在患儿有原因不明的黄疸、发热及其它呼吸道感染时,应及时想到该病,加强新生儿科医生和耳鼻喉科医生合作显得尤其重要.%Objective To research the clinical features of otitis media in neonate. Methods Analyzing the clinical features of 220 neonatal otitis media patients in Chengdu women and children's medical center. Results The clinical features of neonatal otitis media are atypical, major signs includes jaundice (66. 3% ) and fever(28. 2% ) .neonatal otitis media often accompanies with respiratory infection, however, effusion and pain are seldom observed. Conclusion Clinical features of otitis media in neonate are variable and atypical, the cooperation with otologists is helpful for early diagnosis.

  11. Lightning Insulating Co-ordination Between Insulator String and Parallel Gap Device of 220 kV Transmission Line at high altitude area%高海拔220kV输电线路绝缘子串与并联间隙雷电冲击绝缘配合研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司马文霞; 叶轩; 谭威; 杨庆; 罗兵; 李立浧; 高超

    2012-01-01

    The operating experience shows that the parallel gap device (PGD) can effectively reduce the insulator damage caused by the lightning strike. However, the insulating co-ordination research between the insulator and the parallel gap device at high altitude areas is still inadequate. For this reason, the standard negative lightning flashover characteristics and voltage-time (V-t) characteristics experiments on a 220 kV composite insulator, a 220kV porcelain insulator string and their parallel gap devices were carried out in the National Engineering Laboratory (Kunming) for UHV Engineering Technology. Based on the test results, the flashover and V-t characteristics effect of PGDs on different insulators were analyzed. By combining the insulating co-ordination regulation with arc paths, the optimal distances for PGDs protection of the insulator strings were obtained. The result indicates that, the electric-field distribution of insulator affects the lightning flashover characteristics of PGDs; the recommended PGDs have excellent protective function to insulator strings.%运行经验表明,并联间隙(parallelgapdevice,PGDl能有效地降低由雷击引起的输电线路绝缘子损坏故障率,但目前高海拔地区的绝缘子串与并联间隙的绝缘配合研究还很薄弱。因此,在特高压工程技术(昆明)国家工程实验室进行了负极性标准雷电冲击电压下220kV瓷、复合绝缘子串及不同间距的并联间隙雷电冲击闪络及伏秒特性试验研究。分析了不同绝缘子串对其并联间隙的雷击闪络特性和伏秒特性的影响;并结合并联间隙与绝缘子串的绝缘配合原则和电弧路径,确定了并联间隙保护绝缘子串的最优间距。结果表明:绝缘子串电场分布会影响并联间隙雷电冲击闪络特性;推荐的并联间隙对绝缘子串具有良好的保护作用。

  12. Fifty Years in the Development of a Glutaminergic-Dopaminergic Optimization Complex (KB220) to Balance Brain Reward Circuitry in Reward Deficiency Syndrome: A Pictorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, K; Febo, M; Badgaiyan, RD

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine along with other chemical messengers like serotonin, cannabinoids, endorphins and glutamine, play significant roles in brain reward processing. There is a devastating opiate/opioid epidemicin the United States. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), at least 127 people, young and old, are dying every day due to narcotic overdose and alarmingly heroin overdose is on the rise. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved some Medication-Assisted Treatments (MATs) for alcoholism, opiate and nicotine dependence, but nothing for psychostimulant and cannabis abuse. While these pharmaceuticals are essential for the short-term induction of “psychological extinction,” in the long-term caution is necessary because their use favors blocking dopaminergic function indispensable for achieving normal satisfaction in life. The two institutions devoted to alcoholism and drug dependence (NIAAA & NIDA) realize that MATs are not optimal and continue to seek better treatment options. We review, herein, the history of the development of a glutaminergic-dopaminergic optimization complex called KB220 to provide for the possible eventual balancing of the brain reward system and the induction of “dopamine homeostasis.” This complex may provide substantial clinical benefit to the victims of Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) and assist in recovery from iatrogenically induced addiction to unwanted opiates/opioids and other addictive behaviors. PMID:27840857

  13. Novel PSEN1 mutations (H214N and R220P) associated with familial Alzheimer's disease identified by targeted exome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoli, Elena; Rossi, Giacomina; Rossi, Tommaso; Pelliccioni, Giuseppe; D'Amato, Ilaria; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Di Fede, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    Autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease (AD) is caused by mutations in amyloid precursor protein, presenilin 1 (PSEN1), and presenilin 2 genes and is mostly associated with early-onset form of AD (EOAD), whereas very few mutations were also found in late-onset AD (LOAD) cases. Because of the clinical overlapping between AD and other degenerative dementias such as frontotemporal dementias, a wide-spectrum genetic analysis should be envisaged in the differential diagnosis of this group of disorders. We used next-generation sequencing techniques to analyze 10 genes involved in dementia on a cohort of 20 EOAD and 20 LOAD cases. We found 5 rare coding variants (frequency <1%). PSEN1 H214N mutation, identified in a case of familial EOAD and PSEN1 R220P, found in a case of familial LOAD, are predicted to be pathogenic. These findings confirm the contribution of PSEN1 genetic variants also to LOAD, underlining the need of extending the genetic screening of presenilin mutations to LOAD patients. Two variants in microtubule-associated protein tau and 1 in progranulin appeared to be benign polymorphisms, showing no major contribution of these genes to AD.

  14. Rediscovery of the 220-year-old holotype of the Banded Iguana, Brachylophus fasciatus (Brongniart, 1800) in the Paris Natural History Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ineich, Ivan; Fisher, Robert N.

    2016-01-01

    The Paris Natural History Museum herpetological collection (MNHN-RA) has seven historical specimens of Brachylophus spp. collected late in the 18th and early in the 19th centuries. Brachylophus fasciatus was described in 1800 by Brongniart but its type was subsequently considered as lost and never present in MNHN-RA collections. We found that 220 year old holotype among existing collections, registered without any data, and we show that it was donated to MNHN-RA from Brongniart’s private collection after his death in 1847. It was registered in the catalogue of 1851 but without any data or reference to its type status. According to the coloration (uncommon midbody saddle-like dorsal banding pattern) and morphometric data given in its original description and in the subsequent examination of the type in 1802 by Daudin and in 1805 by Brongniart we found that lost holotype in the collections. Another MNHN-RA specimen has Horn Islands (Wallis and Futuna) as the collection location but we show that most of the collections given to MNHN-RA by its collector, Louis Arnoux, have mixed localities in the MNHN-RA catalogues. We thus conclude that the locality is wrong and that the species never inhabited those islands located west of Western Samoa and north-east of Fiji.

  15. A 220-1100 MHz low phase-noise frequency synthesizer with wide-band VCO and selectable I/Q divider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Chen; Renjie, Gong; Xu, Cheng; Yulin, Zhang; Zhong, Gao; Guiliang, Guo; Yuepeng, Yan

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a low phase-noise fractional-N frequency synthesizer which provides an in-phase/quadrature-phase (I/Q) signal over a frequency range of 220-1100 MHz for wireless networks of industrial automation (WIA) applications. Two techniques are proposed to achieve the wide range. First, a 1.4-2.2 GHz ultralow gain voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) is adopted by using 128 tuning curves. Second, a selectable I/Q divider is employed to divide the VCO frequency by 2 or 3 or 4 or 6. Besides, a phase-switching prescaler is proposed to lower PLL phase noise, a self-calibrated charge pump is used to suppress spur, and a detect-boosting phase frequency detector is adopted to shorten settling time. With a 200 kHz loop bandwidth, lowest measured phase noise is -106 dBc/Hz at a 10 kHz offset and -131 dBc/Hz at a 1 MHz offset. Fabricated in the TSMC 0.18 μm CMOS process, the synthesizer occupies a chip area of 1.2 mm2, consumes only 15 mW from the 1.8 V power supply, and settles within 13.2 μs. The synthesizer is optimized for the WIA applications, but can also be used for other short-range wireless communications, such as 433, 868, 916 MHz ISM band applications.

  16. TNF-alpha increases ubiquitin-conjugating activity in skeletal muscle by up-regulating UbcH2/E220k

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Ping; Lecker, Stewart H.; Chen, Yuling; Waddell, Ian D.; Goldberg, Alfred L.; Reid, Michael B.

    2003-01-01

    In some inflammatory diseases, TNF-alpha is thought to stimulate muscle catabolism via an NF-kappaB-dependent process that increases ubiquitin conjugation to muscle proteins. The transcriptional mechanism of this response has not been determined. Here we studied the potential role of UbcH2, a ubiquitin carrier protein and homologue of murine E220k. We find that UbcH2 is constitutively expressed by human skeletal and cardiac muscles, murine limb muscle, and cultured myotubes. TNF-alpha stimulates UbcH2 expression in mouse limb muscles in vivo and in cultured myotubes. The UbcH2 promoter region contains a functional NF-kappaB binding site; NF-kappaB binding to this sequence is increased by TNF-alpha stimulation. A dominant negative inhibitor of NF-kappaB activation blocks both UbcH2 up-regulation and the increase in ubiquitin-conjugating activity stimulated by TNF-alpha. In extracts from TNF-alpha-treated myotubes, ubiquitin-conjugating activity is limited by UbcH2 availability; activity is inhibited by an antiserum to UbcH2 or a dominant negative mutant of UbcH2 and is enhanced by wild-type UbcH2. Thus, UbcH2 up-regulation is a novel response to TNF-alpha/NF-kappaB signaling in skeletal muscle that appears to be essential for the increased ubiquitin conjugation induced by this cytokine.

  17. Observations of Arp 220 using Herschel-SPIRE: An Unprecedented View of the Molecular Gas in an Extreme Star Formation Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Rangwala, Naseem; Glenn, Jason; Wilson, Christine D; Rykala, Adam; Isaak, Kate; Baes, Maarten; Bendo, George J; Boselli, Alessandro; Bradford, Charles M; Clements, D L; Cooray, Asantha; Fulton, Trevor; Imhof, Peter; Kamenetzky, Julia; Madden, Suzanne C; Mentuch, Erin; Sacchi, Nicola; Sauvage, Marc; Schirm, Maximilien R P; Smith, M W L; Spinoglio, Luigi; Wolfire, Mark

    2011-01-01

    We present Herschel SPIRE-FTS observations of Arp~220, a nearby ULIRG. The FTS continuously covers 190 -- 670 microns, providing a good measurement of the continuum and detection of several molecular and atomic species. We detect luminous CO (J = 4-3 to 13-12) and water ladders with comparable total luminosity; very high-J HCN absorption; OH+, H2O+, and HF in absorption; and CI and NII. Modeling of the continuum yields warm dust, with T = 66 K, and an unusually large optical depth of ~5 at 100 microns. Non-LTE modeling of the CO shows two temperature components: cold molecular gas at T ~ 50 K and warm molecular gas at T ~1350 K. The mass of the warm gas is 10% of the cold gas, but dominates the luminosity of the CO ladder. The temperature of the warm gas is in excellent agreement with H2 rotational lines. At 1350 K, H2 dominates the cooling (~20 L_sun/M_sun) in the ISM compared to CO (~0.4 L_sun/M_sun). We found that only a non-ionizing source such as the mechanical energy from supernovae and stellar winds ca...

  18. Optical absorption of carbon and hydrocarbon species from shock heated acetylene and methane in the 135-220 nm wavelength range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Absorption spectroscopy of carbon and hydrocarbon species has been performed in a shock tube at an incident shock condition for a wavelength range of 135-220 nm, in order to obtain information needed for calculating radiation blockage ahead of a planetary probe. Instrumentation consisted of high frequency response pressure transducers, thin-film heat transfer gages, or photomultipliers coupled by light pipes. Two test-gas mixtures, one with acetylene and the other with methane, both diluted with argon, were used to provide a reliable variation of C3 and C2H concentration ratio. Comparison of tests results of the two mixtures, in the temperature range of 3750 + or - 100 K, showed the main absorbing species to be C3. The wavelength for maximum absorption agrees well with the theoretical values of 7.68 eV and 8.03 eV for the vertical excitation energy, and a value of 0.90 for the electronic oscillator strength, obtained from the measured absorption band, is also in good agreement with the predicted value of 0.92.

  19. Assessment of industrial operation at low coke rate and coal injection in excess of 220 kg/tHM. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sert, D.; Godijn, R. [IRSID, Maizieres-les-Metz (France)

    2002-07-01

    High coal injection rates have been achieved on several blast furnaces, but only for limited periods. The aim of this project was to establish the required conditions for achieving very low coke rates (greater than 300 kg/tHM) and coal rate in excess of 220 kg/tHM, under long-term industrial conditions. But despite some improvement in the coke and coal ratio ratios, the search for safe operation, on the one hand, and some technological problems, on the other, did not enable the initial objectives to be reached. Despite this result, various studies undertaken during the course of the project produced some interesting conclusions related to the search for high coal rate operation. These studies dealt with: the comparison of the burden at both plants; the way to promote coal combustion; evaluation of the thermo-chemical conditions of the shaft at coal rates around 18 kg/tHM; monitoring the evolution in time of the hearth ocnditions at high coal injection practice; the blast furnace process at high coal injection rate.

  20. Highly-ordered TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays up to 220 {mu}m in length: use in water photoelectrolysis and dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankar, Karthik [Department of Electrical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Mor, Gopal K [Materials Research Institute, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Prakasam, Haripriya E [Department of Electrical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Yoriya, Sorachon [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Paulose, Maggie [Materials Research Institute, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Varghese, Oomman K [Materials Research Institute, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Grimes, Craig A [Department of Electrical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2007-02-14

    The fabrication of highly-ordered TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays up to 134 {mu}m in length by anodization of Ti foil has recently been reported (Paulose et al 2006 J. Phys. Chem. B 110 16179). This work reports an extension of the fabrication technique to achieve TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays up to 220 {mu}m in length, with a length-to-outer diameter aspect ratio of {approx}1400, as well as their initial application in dye-sensitized solar cells and hydrogen production by water photoelectrolysis. The highly-ordered TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays are fabricated by potentiostatic anodization of Ti foil in fluoride ion containing baths in combination with non-aqueous organic polar electrolytes including N-methylformamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, formamide, or ethylene glycol. Depending upon the anodization voltage, the inner pore diameters of the resulting nanotube arrays range from 20 to 150 nm. As confirmed by glancing angle x-ray diffraction and HRTEM studies, the as-prepared nanotubes are amorphous but crystallize with annealing at elevated temperatures.

  1. SMA Imaging of CO(3-2) Line and 860 micron Continuum of Arp 220 : Tracing the Spatial Distribution of Luminosity

    CERN Document Server

    Sakamoto, Kazushi; Wiedner, Martina C; Wang, Zhong; Peck, Alison B; Zhang, Qizhou; Petitpas, Glen R; Ho, Paul T P; Wilner, David J

    2008-01-01

    We used the Submillimeter Array (SMA) to image 860 micron continuum and CO(3-2) line emission in the ultraluminous merging galaxy Arp 220, achieving a resolution of 0.23" (80 pc) for the continuum and 0.33" (120 pc) for the line. The CO emission peaks around the two merger nuclei with a velocity signature of gas rotation around each nucleus, and is also detected in a kpc-size disk encompassing the binary nucleus. The dust continuum, in contrast, is mostly from the two nuclei. The beam-averaged brightness temperature of both line and continuum emission exceeds 50 K at and around the nuclei, revealing the presence of warm molecular gas and dust. The dust emission morphologically agrees with the distribution of radio supernova features in the east nucleus, as expected when a starburst heats the nucleus. In the brighter west nucleus, however, the submillimeter dust emission is more compact than the supernova distribution. The 860 micron core, after deconvolution, has a size of 50-80 pc, consistent with recent 1.3...

  2. Numerical analysis of loads effect on combustion performance and NO{sub x} emissions of a 220 MW pulverized coal boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jun; Yang, Weihong; Blasiak, Wlodzimierz [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Energy and Furnace Technology; Jankowski, Radoslaw; Kotecki, Michal; Szewczyk, Dariusz [Industrial Combustion Systems (ICS) Company, Poznan (Poland); Brzdekiewicz, Artur [Remak-Rozruch SA, Opole (Poland)

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents numerical study on the combustion performance and NO{sub x} emissions of a 220 MW pulverized coal boiler. Three different loads have been simulated with combusting coal, 200, 170 and 140 MW, respectively. In order to get as precise as possible numerical analysis results, two-step simulation method has been adopted in this work, namely, air supply system simulation and furnace simulation. After air supply system simulation, the results have been taken as the initial and boundary conditions for furnace simulation. The comparison between the measured values and predicted results from 200 MW case shows much better agreement. According to the simulation results, the adopted two-step simulation method is reasonable and suitable for predicting the characters of the flow and combustion process. It is concluded that the distributions of temperature, O{sub 2} and CO concentration inside furnace with different loads shows good similarly. The total NOx emissions decreased with the boiler load reducing, and fuel NO{sub x} has the same trend as total NO{sub x}, and fuel NO{sub x} account for about 66% in total NO{sub x} in all the three cases. More important, thermal NO{sub x} slowly decreased with the rise of boiler load. More detailed results presented in this paper enhance the understanding of combustion processes and complex flow patterns of front-wall pulverized coal boilers.

  3. Theoretical modelling of the diffuse emission of gamma-rays from extreme regions of star formation: The case of Arp 220

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, D F

    2004-01-01

    Our current understanding of ultraluminous infrared galaxies suggest that they are recent galaxy mergers in which much of the gas in the former spiral disks, particularly that located at distances less than 5 kpc from each of the pre-merger nuclei, has fallen into a common center, triggering a huge starburst phenomenon. This large nuclear concentration of molecular gas has been detected by many groups, and estimates of molecular mass and density have been made. Not surprisingly, these estimates were found to be orders of magnitude larger than the corresponding values found in our Galaxy. In this paper, a self-consistent model of the high energy emission of the super-starburst galaxy Arp 220 is presented. The model also provides an estimate of the radio emission from each of the components of the central region of the galaxy (western and eastern extreme starbursts, and molecular disk). The predicted radio spectrum is found as a result of the synchrotron and free-free emission, and absorption, of the primary an...

  4. The Massive Protostellar Cluster NGC6334I at 220 AU Resolution: Discovery of Further Multiplicity, Diversity and a Hot Multi-Core

    CERN Document Server

    Brogan, C L; Cyganowski, C J; Chandler, C J; Friesen, R; Indebetouw, R

    2016-01-01

    We present VLA and ALMA imaging of the deeply-embedded protostellar cluster NGC6334I from 5 cm to 1.3 mm at angular resolutions as fine as 0.17 (220 AU). The dominant hot core MM1 is resolved into seven components at 1.3 mm, clustered within a radius of 1000 AU. Four of the components have brightness temperatures >200 K, radii ~300 AU, minimum luminosities ~10000 Lsun, and must be centrally heated. We term this new phenomenon a "hot multi-core". Two of these objects also exhibit compact free-free emission at longer wavelengths, consistent with a hypercompact HII region (MM1B) and a jet (MM1D). The spatial kinematics of the water maser emission centered on MM1D are consistent with it being the origin of the high-velocity bipolar molecular outflow seen in CO. The close proximity of MM1B and MM1D (440~AU) suggests a proto-binary or a transient bound system. Several components of MM1 exhibit steep millimeter SEDs indicative of either unusual dust spectral properties or time variability. In addition to resolving M...

  5. On the solar origin of the signal at 220.7microHz: A possible component of a g mode?

    CERN Document Server

    Jiménez, A

    2009-01-01

    Gravity modes in the Sun have been the object of a long and difficult search in recent decades. Thanks to the data accumulated with the last generation of instruments (BiSON, GONG and three helioseismic instruments aboard SoHO), scientists have been able to find signatures of their presence. However, the individual detection of such modes remains evasive. In this article, we study the signal at 220.7 microHz which is a peak that is present in most of the helioseismic data of the last 10 years. This signal has already been identified as being one component of a g-mode candidate detected in the GOLF Doppler velocity signal. The nature of this peak is studied in particular using the VIRGO/SPM instrument aboard SoHO. First we analyse all the available instrumental data of VIRGO and SoHO (housekeeping) to reject any possible instrumental origin. No relation was found, implying that the signal has a solar origin. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we find, with more than 99% confidence level, that the signal found in V...

  6. Research on Lightning Protection of 220 kV Power Supply Lines of Double-circuit Railway Traction Station on the Same Tower and Improvement Strategy%220 kV 同塔双回铁路牵引站供电线路防雷问题及改进策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周华敏; 王锐; 周原; 彭向阳; 顾温国

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at the problem of frequent lightning tripping of 220 kV power supply lines of double-circuit railway trac-tion station on the same tower,reason for tripping was summarized and analyzed and pertinent improvement was made com-bining existing lightning protection measures.Idle conductors were transformed into coupling grounding wires and electro-magnetic transient simulation software ATP/EMTP was used for working out lightning back-flashover level of the tower so as to determine optimal way to transform the upper phase conductor.Differentiation lightning protection strategy was used, configuration way of line arresters was optimized and simultaneous tripping ability to prevent lightning of double-circuit lines were improved.Air gap distance between jumper wires and tower cross arm was adjusted to meet operational demand and jumper wire strings or windage protection insulators were increased considering of wind protection requirement.Grounding resistance of lines was generally surveyed and grounding devices of the tower in those areas with high earth resistivity and high ground flash density were preferentially transformed for reducing resistance.By means of using above comprehensive transformation measures for lightning protection and differentiation lightning protection,performance of lightning protec-tion of 220 kV power supply lines of double-circuit railway traction station on the same tower might be greatly improved.%针对220 kV 同塔双回铁路牵引站供电线路自投运以来频繁发生雷击跳闸问题,总结分析跳闸原因,结合线路已有防雷措施,进行有针对性的改进。将闲置导线改造为耦合地线,并利用电磁暂态仿真软件 ATP/EMTP计算杆塔反击耐雷水平,确定对上相导线进行改造的最佳方式;采取差异化防雷策略,优化线路避雷器配置方式,提高双回线路防雷击同时跳闸能力;调整跳线与铁塔横担空气间隙距离以满足运行要求,同时结合防风需要,

  7. MgH2+20%(w)MgTiO3复合材料的吸/放氢性能%Hydriding/Dehydriding Properties of an MgH2+20%(w) MgTiO3 Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王家盛; 韩树民; 李媛; 沈娜; 张伟

    2014-01-01

    为了降低MgH2的吸放氢温度,提高其吸放氢动力学性能,本文通过球磨方法制备了MgH2+20%(w) MgTiO3复合储氢材料,并研究了其储氢性能. X射线衍射(XRD)结果表明, MgTiO3在与MgH2球磨过程中生成Mg2TiO4和TiO2,并且Mg2TiO4和TiO2在体系的吸放氢过程中保持稳定,能够对MgH2的吸放氢过程产生催化作用.程序升温脱附和吸/放氢动力学测试结果表明,添加MgTiO3后MgH2的初始放氢温度从389°C降至249°C.150°C下的吸氢量从0.977%(w)提高到2.902%(w),350°C下的放氢量从2.319%(w)提高到3.653%(w).同时, MgH2放氢反应的活化能从116 kJ∙mol-1降至95.7 kJ∙mol-1.与MgH2相比, MgH2+20%(w) MgTiO3复合材料的热力学与动力学性能均有显著提高,这主要是由于球磨和放氢过程中原位生成的TiO2和Mg2TiO4具有良好的催化活性.%With the aim of decreasing the dehydriding temperature and improving the hydriding/dehydriding kinetic properties of MgH2, we prepared MgH2+20%(w) MgTiO3 composite via bal-mil ing, and investigated the hydrogen storage properties of the composite. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that the MgTiO3 decomposed into Mg2TiO4 and TiO2 during the bal-mil ing. These two resulting compounds remained stable during the hydriding/dehydriding processes, working as catalysts for the hydriding/dehydriding. Temperature-programmed-desorption (TPD) and hydriding/dehydriding kinetics tests showed that doping MgH2 with MgTiO3 lowered the onset dehydrogenation temperature of MgH2 from 389 to 249 °C, as wel as increasing the hydrogen absorption amount from 0.977%(w) to 2.902%(w) at 150 °C, and increasing the desorption amount from 2.319%(w) to 3.653%(w) at 350 °C. The MgTiO3 additive decreased the dehydriding activation energy of MgH2 from 116 to 95.7 kJ∙mol-1. The thermodynamic and kinetic performance of the MgH2+20%(w) MgTiO3 composite was significantly improved compared with pristine MgH2, which was attributed to the high catalytic

  8. A Study on the Hazards of the Inappropriate Dual Configuration of the Operational Relay Cabinet of the 220 kV Line%220 kV线路双重化及操作机构箱配置不当的危害

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗彬; 赵歆; 彭怡; 陈锐

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces the hazards in the dual protection configuration during the upgrading of the protective device of the 220kV line and the breaker.Besides,it also introduces the hazards caused by the co-existence of the leap-preventive circuits of the operational relay cabinet and the breaker.The inappropriate dual configuration will cause the operation-refusal of the breaker and further bring about the failure protection of the bus differential which will make the related unit stop running and cause the tripping operation of the line.The co-existence of the leap-preventive circuits will make the jam fault happen during the breaking of the breaker and cause the arc discharge,which will cause serious damage to the breaker.%针对220 kV线路保护装置或断路器改造中,进行保护双重化配置,以及操作继电器箱中防跃回路与断路器本体防跃回路共存时,引发的隐患问题进行介绍。同时阐述了双重化不合理配置将带来断路器拒动,进而起动母差失灵保护,造成母线所在机组停运、线路跳闸以及防跃回路共存将引起断路器在分断时卡涩进而引起拉弧,严重损坏断路器等一系列重大问题。

  9. Application of Life Cycle Design Concept in the Civil Works Design for a 220 kV Substation%某220kV变电站土建设计全寿命周期设计理念的具体应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明石; 曾梅

    2011-01-01

    220kv变电站处于规划的工业园区内,自然地形起伏大,与规划中的公路高差大,从总平面布置、竖向设计、建筑设计、地基处理、进站道路、所区边坡设计等方面,采用优化设计理念,综合考虑近期与远期的周边环境变化,深入执行资源节约型、环境友好型、工业化的“两型一化”建设原则。提出了边坡及进站公路近期用地可为园区其他远期项目再利用的设计思路。%A certain 220 kV substation is located on an industrial park under planning, which has complicated topographic conditions and a large elevation difference from a planned road. In the design of the substation, we carefully followed the resource-saving, environment-friendly and industrialized construction principles, and applied the optimization concept in the design of the general layout, vertical design, architectural design, ground treatment, access roads and the design of slopes around the substation, with the recent and long-term changes in the surrounding environment taken into consideration. In the design, the slopes and the access roads of the substation can be re-used for the future projects in the park.

  10. Quality and Capacity planning 2010-2016. Part 2A. Overview of the 380 kV and 220 kV grid, calculated capacity problems, and anticipated measures; Kwaliteits- en Capaciteitsplan 2010-2016. Deel 2A. Overzicht 380 kV- en 220 kV-net, berekende knelpunten en voorziene maatregelen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-11-15

    The number of plans for the construction of new power stations in both the Netherlands and neighbouring European countries is continuing to increase. If these developments persist, they will lead to a dramatic increase in the level of competition on the European electricity market. Because of this, the Dutch high-voltage grid - which is currently being substantially expanded - will also take on an increasingly international role over the coming years. For the consumer, this means that the security of electricity supplies will remain consistently high and prices will continue to be stable. This is apparent from the latest Quality and Capacity Plan, a publication issued by TenneT once every two years which looks ahead towards developments in the electricity market. In this part (2a) an overview is given of the 380 kV and 220 kV grid, the calculated capacity problems, and anticipated measures. [Dutch] Het aantal plannen voor nieuwe elektriciteitscentrales in zowel Nederland als omringende Europese landen blijft toenemen. Als deze ontwikkeling zich doorzet, leidt dat tot een sterk toenemende concurrentie op de Europese elektriciteitsmarkt. Het Nederlandse hoogspanningsnet, dat momenteel fors wordt uitgebreid, krijgt mede hierdoor de komende jaren steeds meer een internationale functie. Voor de consument betekent dit dat een blijvende hoge leveringszekerheid van elektriciteit en stabiele prijzen. Dit blijkt uit het nieuwste Kwaliteits- en Capaciteitsplan, dat elektriciteitstransporteur TenneT iedere twee jaar uitgeeft en waarin wordt vooruitgekeken naar ontwikkelingen in de elektriciteitsmarkt. In dit deel (2a) wordt een overzicht gegeven van het 380 kV- en 220 kV-net, de berekende knelpunten en voorziene maatregelen.

  11. GyneFix330和TCu220C、TCu380A宫内节育器比较的系统评估%Comparison of GyneFix330 intrauterine device with TCu220C and TCu380A intrauterine devices: A systematic review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊; 张妍; 李敏; 毛燕燕; 车焱; 周维谨

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effectiveness, side effects, and the continuation rates of GyneFix330 and TCu220C and TCu380A intrauterine devices (IUDs). Methods: Electronic and hand searches were used to identify relevant literature published in Chinese and English between January 1990 and November 2009. Relevant papers were evaluated and selected according to the criteria of evidence-based medicine. Results: A total of twenty-six randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) were included in this review. Compared with TCu220C IUD, GyneFix330 IUD had lower expulsion and pregnancy rates with IUD in situ at 12 months and 24 months of use; while it was less likely to introduce prolonged menstrual bleeding, heavy menstrual bleeding, irregular vaginal bleeding and low back -abdominal pain during 6, 12 and 24 months of the observation, and lower rate of discontinuation due to medical reasons and higher continuation rate at 12 months of use. The one -year, two -year, three -year and nine -year pregnancy rates with IUD in situ of both GyneFix330 and TCu380A IUDs were lower than 2.50 per hundred women. The likelihood of increasing duration of menstrual bleeding, heavy menstrual bleeding and irregular vaginal bleeding was similar between GyneFix330 and TCu380A IUDs. The removal rate due to medical reasons of GyneFix330 IUD was similar to that of TCu380A IUD. However, the continuation rate of GyneFix330 IUD was slightly higher than its counterpart. Conclusion: The effectiveness, side effects and continuation rate of GyneFix330 IUD were similar to those of TCu380A IUD. These measurements were demonstrated to be better for Gynefix330 IUD than for TCu220C IUD. However, more large-scale RCTs with high quality of research need to be done to confirm this conclusion.%目的:评价GyneFix330与TCu220C、TCu380A宫内节育器(IUD)的有效性、副反应和续用情况.方法:电子和手工检索1990年1月~2009年11月中英文发表的相关文献,按循证医学方法对

  12. Relationship between open-circuit voltage in Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cell and peak position of (220/204) preferred orientation near its absorber surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chantana, J., E-mail: jakapan@fc.ritsumei.ac.jp; Minemoto, T. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Watanabe, T.; Teraji, S.; Kawamura, K. [Environment and Energy Research Center, Nitto Denko Corporation, 2-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2013-11-25

    Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) absorbers with various Ga/III, Ga/(In+Ga), profiles are prepared by the so-called “multi-layer precursor method” using multi-layer co-evaporation of material sources. It is revealed that open-circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) of CIGS solar cell is primarily dependent on averaged Ga/III near the surface of its absorber. This averaged Ga/III is well predicted by peak position of (220/204) preferred orientation of CIGS film near its surface investigated by glancing-incidence X-ray diffraction with 0.1° incident angle. Finally, the peak position of (220/204) preferred orientation is proposed as a measure of V{sub OC} before solar cell fabrication.

  13. Radium-228 analysis of natural waters by Cherenkov counting of Actinium-228

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleissa, Khalid A.; Almasoud, Fahad I.; Islam, Mohammed S. [Atomic Energy Research Institute, King Abdul Aziz City for Science and Technology, P.O. Box 6086, Riyadh 11442 (Saudi Arabia); L' Annunziata, Michael F. [IAEA Expert, Montague Group, P.O. Box 5033, Oceanside, CA 92052-5033 (United States)], E-mail: mlannunziata@cox.net

    2008-12-15

    The activities of {sup 228}Ra in natural waters were determined by the Cherenkov counting of the daughter nuclide {sup 228}Ac. The radium was pre-concentrated on MnO{sub 2} and the radium purified via ion exchange and, after a 2-day period of incubation to allow for secular equilibrium between the parent-daughter {sup 228}Ra({sup 228}Ac), the daughter nuclide {sup 228}Ac was isolated by ion exchange according to the method of Nour et al. [2004. Radium-228 determination of natural waters via concentration on manganese dioxide and separation using Diphonix ion exchange resin. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 61, 1173-1178]. The Cherenkov photons produced by {sup 228}Ac were counted directly without the addition of any scintillation reagents. The optimum Cherenkov counting window, sample volume, and vial type were determined experimentally to achieve optimum Cherenkov photon detection efficiency and lowest background count rates. An optimum detection efficiency of 10.9{+-}0.1% was measured for {sup 228}Ac by Cherenkov counting with a very low Cherenkov photon background of 0.317{+-}0.013 cpm. The addition of sodium salicylate into the sample counting vial at a concentration of 0.1 g/mL yielded a more than 3-fold increase in the Cherenkov detection efficiency of {sup 228}Ac to 38%. Tests of the Cherenkov counting technique were conducted with several water standards of known activity and the results obtained compared closely with a conventional liquid scintillation counting technique. The advantages and disadvantages of Cherenkov counting compared to liquid scintillation counting methods are discussed. Advantages include much lower Cherenkov background count rates and consequently lower minimal detectable activities for {sup 228}Ra and no need for expensive environmentally unfriendly liquid scintillation cocktails. The disadvantages of the Cherenkov counting method include the need to measure {sup 228}Ac Cherenkov photon detection efficiency and optimum Cherenkov counting volume, which are not at all required when liquid scintillation analysis is used.

  14. Radium-228 analysis of natural waters by Cherenkov counting of Actinium-228.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleissa, Khalid A; Almasoud, Fahad I; Islam, Mohammed S; L'Annunziata, Michael F

    2008-12-01

    The activities of (228)Ra in natural waters were determined by the Cherenkov counting of the daughter nuclide (228)Ac. The radium was pre-concentrated on MnO(2) and the radium purified via ion exchange and, after a 2-day period of incubation to allow for secular equilibrium between the parent-daughter (228)Ra((228)Ac), the daughter nuclide (228)Ac was isolated by ion exchange according to the method of Nour et al. [2004. Radium-228 determination of natural waters via concentration on manganese dioxide and separation using Diphonix ion exchange resin. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 61, 1173-1178]. The Cherenkov photons produced by (228)Ac were counted directly without the addition of any scintillation reagents. The optimum Cherenkov counting window, sample volume, and vial type were determined experimentally to achieve optimum Cherenkov photon detection efficiency and lowest background count rates. An optimum detection efficiency of 10.9+/-0.1% was measured for (228)Ac by Cherenkov counting with a very low Cherenkov photon background of 0.317+/-0.013cpm. The addition of sodium salicylate into the sample counting vial at a concentration of 0.1g/mL yielded a more than 3-fold increase in the Cherenkov detection efficiency of (228)Ac to 38%. Tests of the Cherenkov counting technique were conducted with several water standards of known activity and the results obtained compared closely with a conventional liquid scintillation counting technique. The advantages and disadvantages of Cherenkov counting compared to liquid scintillation counting methods are discussed. Advantages include much lower Cherenkov background count rates and consequently lower minimal detectable activities for (228)Ra and no need for expensive environmentally unfriendly liquid scintillation cocktails. The disadvantages of the Cherenkov counting method include the need to measure (228)Ac Cherenkov photon detection efficiency and optimum Cherenkov counting volume, which are not at all required when liquid scintillation analysis is used.

  15. Purification of selenium from thorium, uranium, radium, actinium and potassium impurities for low background measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakhimov, A.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Tashkent (Uzbekistan). Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INP AS RUz); Warot, G. [CEA-CNRS, Modane (France). Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane (LSM); Karaivanov, D.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE), Sofia (Bulgaria); Kochetov, O.I.; Lebedev, N.A.; Filosofov, D.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Mukhamedshina, N.M.; Sadikov, I.I. [Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Tashkent (Uzbekistan). Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INP AS RUz)

    2013-07-01

    A technique of selenium purification from {sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U, {sup 226,228}Ra, {sup 227}Ac and {sup 40}K was developed. This technique is simple to perform and employs a minimum number of highly pure reagents (bidistilled water, nitric acid). Operations carried out during purification (elution, evaporation) practically exclude losses of the target product (chemical yields of Se > 99%). A test purification of 100 g of selenium was carried out using this technique. The efficiency of this technique was confirmed by low background gamma spectrometry of the purified selenium sample. Distribution coefficients of Th, U, Ra and Ac on DOWEX 50W- x 8 cation-exchange resin at different concentrations of selenium and nitric acid were experimentally determinated. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of bidistilled water, deionized water and nitric acid was performed. (orig.)

  16. Theoretical Modelling of the Diffuse Emission of (gamma)-rays From Extreme Regions of Star Formation: The Case of Arp 220

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, D F

    2004-07-09

    Our current understanding of ultraluminous infrared galaxies suggest that they are recent galaxy mergers in which much of the gas in the former spiral disks, particularly that located at distances less than 5 kpc from each of the pre-merger nuclei, has fallen into a common center, triggering a huge starburst phenomenon. This large nuclear concentration of molecular gas has been detected by many groups, and estimates of molecular mass and density have been made. Not surprisingly, these estimates were found to be orders of magnitude larger than the corresponding values found in our Galaxy. In this paper, a self-consistent model of the high energy emission of the super-starburst galaxy Arp 220 is presented. The model also provides an estimate of the radio emission from each of the components of the central region of the galaxy (western and eastern extreme starbursts, and molecular disk). The predicted radio spectrum is found as a result of the synchrotron and free-free emission, and absorption, of the primary and secondary steady population of electrons and positrons. The latter is output of charged pion decay and knock-on leptonic production, subject to a full set of losses in the interstellar medium. The resulting radio spectrum is in agreement with sub-arcsec radio observations, what allows to estimate the magnetic field. In addition, the FIR emission is modeled with dust emissivity, and the computed FIR photon density is used as a target for inverse Compton process as well as to give account of losses in the {gamma}-ray scape. Bremsstrahlung emission and neutral pion decay are also computed, and the {gamma}-ray spectrum is finally predicted. Future possible observations with GLAST, and the ground based Cherenkov telescopes are discussed.

  17. Crustal thickening prior to 220 Ma in the East Kunlun Orogenic Belt: Insights from the Late Triassic granitoids in the Xiao-Nuomuhong pluton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Rui; Wang, Changming; Deng, Jun; Carranza, Emmanuel John M.; Li, Wenliang; Qing, Min

    2014-10-01

    The East Kunlun Orogenic Belt (EKOB) played an important role in plate tectonics, magma generation, and crustal evolution. Late Triassic granodiorites and their mafic micro-granular enclaves (MMEs) from Xiao-Nuomuhong in the EKOB were studied for geochemistry and geochronology to constrain their petrogenesis. Zircon LA-ICP-MS dating indicates that the Xiao-Nuomuhong granodiorites are coeval with their MMEs (∼222 Ma). The granodiorites are high-K calc-alkaline rocks that are enriched in Rb, Th, U and LREE, and depleted in Cr, Ni and HFSE, with high Sr/Y ratios (82.2-85.3) and geochemically resemble the lower crust-derived adakites. The MMEs are also high-K calc-alkaline rocks, with high Al2O3 (16.8-18.8 wt.%), low Mg# (30-40), Nb, Zr and Hf, with weak negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu# = 0.8-0.9). We suggest the MMEs are mafic magmatic globules that were injected into the felsic host magma. The adakitic rocks from the Xiao-Nuomuhong pluton were generated by partial melting of thickened crust, while the primitive compositions of the MMEs were most likely from the lithospheric mantle beneath the EKOB. The Late Triassic Xiao-Nuomuhong pluton is important evidence that crustal thickening in the EKOB occurred prior to 220 Ma. The pluton is interpreted as the result of mixing between thickened lower crust-derived melts and lithospheric mantle-derived mafic melts and the protracted magmatic response to the break-off of the Paleo-Tethys oceanic slab at ∼232 Ma.

  18. Dynamical decay process of {sup 219,} {sup 220}Ra{sup *} formed in {sup 10,} {sup 11}B+{sup 209}Bi reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawhney, G.; Sharma, M.K. [Thapar University, School of Physics and Materials Science, Punjab (India)

    2012-05-15

    The excitation functions for both the evaporation residue and fission have been calculated for {sup 10}B +{sup 209}Bi and {sup 11}B+{sup 209}Bi reactions forming compound systems {sup 219,220}Ra{sup *}, using the dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM) with effects of deformations and orientations of the nuclei included in it. In addition to this, the excitation functions for complete fusion (CF) are obtained by summing the fission cross-sections, neutron evaporation and charged particle evaporation residue cross-sections produced through the {alpha}xn and pxn (x = 2, 3, 4) emission channels for the {sup 219}Ra system at various incident centre-of-mass energies. Experimentally the CF cross-sections are suppressed and the observed suppression is attributed to the low binding energy of {sup 10,11}B which breaks up into charged fragments. The reported complete fusion (CF) and incomplete fusion (ICF) excitation functions for the {sup 219}Ra system are found to be nicely fitted by the calculations performed in the framework of DCM, without invoking a significant contribution from quasi-fission. Although DCM has been applied for a number of compound nucleus decay studies in the recent past, the same is being used here in reference to ICF and subsequent decay processes along with the CF process. Interestingly the main contribution to complete fusion cross-section comes from the fission cross-section at higher incident energies, which in DCM is found to consist of an asymmetric fission window, shown to arise due to the deformation and orientation effects of formation and decay fragments. (orig.)

  19. Integrated 220 GHz Source Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-27

    effective approach was applied for the third magnet, where the two rings and the two conical end sections were all independently rotated. This...causes resonances that result in reflected power, a complex RF output spectrum, and possible spurious oscillations. The best way to avoid this problem is

  20. IEC及GB规范在安哥拉220 kV输电线路导线风荷载计算中的对比分析%Application of IEC norm and GB code in wire wind load calculation for a 220kV power transmission line in Angola and comparison of difference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘凯元

    2016-01-01

    Taking a 220 kV power transmission line in Republic of Angola as example, the Code for designing of 110~750kV overhead transmission line(GB50545-2010)of China was compared with the Design criteria of over⁃head transmission lines(IEC 60826-2003). Their difference in wire wind load calculation was analyzed. The re⁃sults of calculation demonstrate that their principles of defining basic wind velocity are identical;but different reoc⁃currence periods were adopted for different voltage levels in accordance with GB code. For the wire wind load calcu⁃lation of 2C-SZ41-24 type tower, the standard wind pressure and horizontal wire wind load of IEC norm are about 1.81and 1.3 times as much as that of GB code respectively.%以安哥拉220 kV输电线路为例,将国内《110~750 kV架空输电线路设计规范》(GB 50545-2010)与国际电工委员会《Design criteria of overhead transmission lines》(IEC 60826-2003)做对比,分析两者在导线风荷载计算中的差异性。通过计算得知:IEC与GB在基本风速的确定原则一致,但是GB根据不同的电压等级采用不同的重现期;对导线风荷载,IEC计算风压标准值约为国标的1.81倍,IEC计算导线水平风荷载约为国标的1.30倍(以2C-SZ41-24型杆塔为例)。

  1. Analysis on Belleville Spring Fracture of Controlling Gear of Gas Insulated Switchgear in 220 kV Substation%220 kV 变电站气体绝缘金属封闭开关设备操作机构碟形弹簧断裂分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文胜; 董重里; 胡平; 王伟; 林介东

    2016-01-01

    通过宏观检查、金相试验、光谱分析、洛氏硬度试验、扫描电镜观察和能谱分析等试验,对一起220 kV变电站气体绝缘金属封闭开关设备(gas insulated switchgear,GIS)操作机构碟形弹簧断裂的原因进行分析。结果表明,碟形弹簧断裂的原因可以推断是弹簧下表面外径边缘至 U 形凹槽的区域在制造过程中形成原始缺陷,此处存在应力集中现象,在使用过程中,裂纹扩展并最终导致弹簧断裂。此外,碟形弹簧的显微组织保留了明显的马氏体针状形态,还出现了少量的羽毛状回火贝氏体,这些特征表明弹簧在使用过程中较易发生脆性断裂。%This paper analyzes reasons for Belleville spring fracture of controlling gear of gas insulated switchgear in 220 kV substation by experiments of microscopic test,metallographic test,spectral analysis,Rockwell hardness test,scanning elec-tron microscope observation,energy spectrum analysis,and so on. Results indicate that reasons for Belleville spring fracture may be deduced for original defect of the area along the edge of external diameter of the lower surface of the spring to the U-shaped groove in manufacturing process where exists stress concentration,and in use procedure,cracks extend and finally cause spring fracture. In addition,microscopic structure of the Belleville spring keeps obvious martensitic acicular form and there is a little featheriness tempered bainite,which indicates that brittle fracture is easy to occur on the spring in use procedure.

  2. FDI对环境的影响存在门槛效应吗——基于中国220个城市的检验%Are There Threshold Effects of FDI on Environment? --Evidence from 220 Cites in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李子豪; 刘辉煌

    2012-01-01

    基于2003—2009年中国220个城市的数据,利用门槛面板回归方法,从收入门槛和人力资本门槛两个角度,本文检验了FDI对环境影响的门槛效应。结果表明,FDI对中国环境的影响存在显著的门槛效应。收入门槛的检验表明,在高收入和低收入阶段,FDI对环境产生了较为显著的正面影响,而中等收入阶段,FDI则带来了环境质量的恶化;人力资本门槛的检验表明,在高人力资本阶段,FDI能够显著地降低环境污染,低人力资本阶段则相反。受到大部分城市收入和人力资本水平限制,FDI将给中国带来较大的环境压力。因此,加快地方经济发展,提升人力资本水平,促进产业结构升级,转变经济增长方式是应对外资环境挑战的主要举措。%Based on data of 220 cities of China during 2003- 2009, using threshold panel regression estimation, and from income threshold and human capital threshold perspectives, this article examines the threshold effects of foreign direct investment(FDI) on environment. Results show that, there are significant threshold effects of FDI on Chinese environment. Tests from income threshold show that, in high-income and low-income stage, FDI bring significant positive effects on local environment but in middle-income stage, FDI will generate degradation of local environment quality. Tests from human capital threshold show that, in high human capital stage, FDI can dramatically reduce pollution level in investment region~ but in low human capital stage, such positive effects will disappear. Subject to restriction of income level and human capital level in most of Chinese cities, FDI will bring more pressure on Chinese environment. Hence, in order to deal with this challenge, Chinese government should take measures to accelerate the development of local economy, enhance the human capital level, encourage the upgrading of industrial structure, and achieve the

  3. 220 Case of Effect Obseration of Children's Femoral Venous Blood Collection by Scalp Acupunture Diagonal Pricking with Direct Vision Compared with Traditional Direct Pricking%小儿股静脉直视斜刺采血与传统直刺采血220例效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱红艳

    2010-01-01

    目的 通过对小儿股静脉直视取点头皮针斜刺采血与传统股静脉直刺采血的效果比较,探索一种安全、快捷、有效的静脉采血方法.方法 对220例患儿随机行股静脉直视取点头皮针斜刺采血与传统方法直刺采血,比较一针穿刺成功率、采血时间、压迫止血时间、局部瘀斑血肿发生率.结果 直视斜刺组一针穿刺成功率、采血平均时间、采血后平均压迫止血时间均优于直刺组,局部瘀斑血肿发生率明显低于直刺组.结论 小儿股静脉直视取点头皮针斜刺采血方法一针穿刺成功率高,操作时间短,局部瘀斑发生率低,是一种安全可靠的静脉采血方法.

  4. 急性呼吸道感染患者220例非细菌性病原体流行特征分析%Analysis on epidemiological characteristics of non-bacterial pathogens in 220 cases of acute respiratory infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董晓根; 罗明; 王世斌; 秦萌; 封会茹; 张玲

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]To understand the non-bacterial pathogen distribution and epidemiological characteristic of acute respiratory infection in Fengtai district of Beijing from March 2011 to February 2012, provide the experimental basis for prevention and control of respiratory infection, as well as clinical diagnosis and treatment. [Methods] 220 throat swab samples were randomly collected from patients with cute respiratory infection in fever clinic of sentinel hospitals. Nine viral pathogens, including influenza (Flu) virus, parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, enterovirus, Boka virus, metapneumovirus, coronavirus, rhinovirus and ade-novirus, and mycoplasma were detected by multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction ( RT-PCR) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results were analyzed statistically. [Results] 125 of 220 throat swab samples were positive, the positive rate was 56. 82% , and 6 samples were double infection. The positive of influenza virus was the highest (65/131, 49.62% ) , followed by mycoplasma (26/131, 19. 85% ) and parainfluenza (26/131, 19. 85% ). The detection rates of other pathogens were less than 5%. The detection rates of different pathogens were different in seasonal distribution. The detection rate of influenza virus in winner was the highest, that of mycoplasma in autumn was the highest, and the peak season of parainfluenza virus infection was summer. The detection rates of pathogens showed the characteristic of higher in winter ( December to February) and lower in summer. There was no significant difference in detection rates of pathogens between males and females. The detection rate of influenza virus in samples collected within the first three days after the onset was higher than that after three days of the onset, while the detection rate of mycoplasma was reverse. [ Conclusion]The main non-bacterial pathogens of acute respiratory infection in Fengtai district of Beijing are influenza virus, parainfluenza virus and

  5. Helicobacter pylori HP(2-20) induces eosinophil activation and accumulation in superficial gastric mucosa and stimulates VEGF-alpha and TGF-beta release by interacting with formyl-peptide receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevete, N; Rossi, F W; Rivellese, F; Lamacchia, D; Pelosi, C; Lobasso, A; Necchi, V; Solcia, E; Fiocca, R; Ceppa, P; Staibano, S; Mascolo, M; D'Argenio, G; Romano, M; Ricci, V; Marone, G; De Paulis, A

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophils participate in the immune response against Helicobacter pylori, but little is known about their role in the gastritis associated to the infection. We recently demonstrated that the Hp(2-20) peptide derived from H. pylori accelerates wound healing of gastric mucosa by interacting with N-formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) expressed on gastric epithelial cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether eosinophils play a role in the repair of gastric mucosa tissue during H. pylori infection. Immuno-histochemistry and transmission electron microscopy were used to detect eosinophils in gastric mucosal biopsies. Eosinophil re-distribution occurred in the gastric mucosa of H. pylori-infected patients: their density did not change in the deep mucosal layer, whereas it increased in the superficial lamina propria just below the foveolar epithelium; eosinophils entered the epithelium itself as well as the lumen of foveolae located close to the area harboring bacteria, which in turn were also engulfed by eosinophils. The H. pylori-derived peptide Hp(2-20) stimulated eosinophil migration through the engagement of FPR2 and FPR3, and also induced production of VEGF-A and TGF-beta, two key mediators of tissue remodelling. We also demonstrate that Hp(2-20) in vivo induced eosinophil infiltration in rat gastric mucosa after injury brought about by indomethacin. This study suggests that eosinophil infiltrate could modulate the capacity of gastric mucosa to maintain or recover its integrity thereby shedding light on the role of eosinophils in H. pylori infection.

  6. Optimized Generation of Functional Neutrophils and Macrophages from Patient-Specific Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Ex Vivo Models of X(0)-Linked, AR22(0)- and AR47(0)- Chronic Granulomatous Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brault, Julie; Goutagny, Erwan; Telugu, Narasimha; Shao, Kaifeng; Baquié, Mathurin; Satre, Véronique; Coutton, Charles; Grunwald, Didier; Brion, Jean-Paul; Barlogis, Vincent; Stephan, Jean-Louis; Plantaz, Dominique; Hescheler, Jürgen; Krause, Karl-Heinz; Sarić, Tomo; Stasia, Marie José

    2014-12-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited orphan disorder caused by mutations in one of the five genes encoding reduced nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-phosphate oxidase subunits, which subsequently lead to impairment in the production of microbicidal reactive oxygen species (ROS). In order to offer several cell line models of CGD and therefore support research on pathophysiology and new therapeutic approaches, we optimized protocols to differentiate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from wild-type, X(0)-, AR22(0)- and AR47(0)-CGD patient's fibroblasts into neutrophils and into macrophages. Aberrant genetic clones were discarded after chromosome karyotyping and array-comparative genomic hybridization analysis. All remaining iPSC lines showed human embryonic stem cell-like morphology, expressed all tested pluripotency markers and formed embryoid bodies that contained cells originating from all three primary germ layers. Furthermore, each CGD patient-specific iPSC line retained the gp91 (phox) , p47 (phox) , and p22 (phox) mutations found in the corresponding patient's neutrophils. The average production of CD34(+) progenitors was of 1.5×10(6) cells after 10 days of differentiation of 10×10(6) iPSCs. They were terminally differentiated into about 3×10(5) neutrophils or into 3×10(7) macrophages. Based on morphological, phenotypical, and functional criteria both phagocyte types were mature and indistinguishable from the native human neutrophils and macrophages. However, neutrophils and macrophages derived from X(0)-, AR22(0)-, and AR47(0)-CGD patient-specific iPSC lines lacked ROS production and the corresponding mutated proteins. To simplify the phagocytes' production upon request, progenitors can be cryopreserved. In conclusion, we describe a reproducible, simple, and efficient way to generate neutrophils and macrophages from iPSCs and provide a new cellular model for the AR22(0)-CGD genetic form that has not been described before.

  7. Influence of AC Electrical Field on 220 kV Composite Insulators Icing and Flashover Characteristics%交流电场对220 kV复合绝缘子覆冰及其闪络特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁伟; 舒立春; 蒋兴良; 胡琴; 汪诗经

    2013-01-01

    To further research the energized icing of high voltage vacuum composite insulators,taking a composite insulator FXBW-220/100 as the sample,we experimentally investigated both charged and no-charged icing in a multifunctional artificial climate chamber.According to the test results,the influence of electric field on composite insulators' icing and flashover characteristics was analyzed,and reasonable explanations for the phenomenon in the experiments were also proposed.The results show that the main influence of the electric field on the ice covering is the heating effect brought by the polarization and several conventional kinds of discharge.However,the electric field strength and the uniformity of the field lines also show deep influences on the icing.Several other conclusions for the composite insulator under charge are as follows:1) The high-voltage terminal of a composite insulator in the presence of a grading ring does not easily bridge.2) Most of the ice cover structures on the umbrella shapes of a composite insulator are smooth,dense,and transparent.3) The icicle density of glaze icing in the presence of charge is less than that in the absence of charge,and it decreases with increasing external voltage.4) The density of icicles hanging on the grading ring increases with external voltage.5) The weight of the ice covered on the insulator shows a tendency of ascending at first and then descending when the external voltage increases.6)The 50% flashover voltage of insulator shows a tendency of descending at first and then ascending when the external voltage increases.%为补充完善高电压等级复合绝缘子带电覆冰的研究,以复合绝缘子FXBW-220/100为试品,在大型人工气候实验室对其进行了带电与不带电人工覆冰试验.利用试验结果分析了电场对复合绝缘子覆冰及闪络特性的影响,并针对试验现象给出了合理的解释.结果表明:电场对覆冰绝缘子覆冰的影响主要为电场的极化作

  8. Induction of Mitochondrial Changes Associated with Oxidative Stress on Very Long Chain Fatty Acids (C22:0, C24:0, or C26:0-Treated Human Neuronal Cells (SK-NB-E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Zarrouk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Alzheimer's disease, lipid alterations point towards peroxisomal dysfunctions. Indeed, a cortical accumulation of saturated very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs: C22:0, C24:0, C26:0, substrates for peroxisomal β-oxidation, has been found in Alzheimer patients. This study was realized to investigate the effects of VLCFAs at the mitochondrial level since mitochondrial dysfunctions play crucial roles in neurodegeneration. On human neuronal SK-NB-E cells treated with C22:0, C24:0, or C26:0 (0.1–20 μM; 48 h, an inhibition of cell growth and mitochondrial dysfunctions were observed by cell counting with trypan blue, MTT assay, and measurement of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψm with DiOC6(3. A stimulation of oxidative stress was observed with DHE and MitoSOX used to quantify superoxide anion production on whole cells and at the mitochondrial level, respectively. With C24:0 and C26:0, by Western blotting, lower levels of mitochondrial complexes III and IV were detected. After staining with MitoTracker and by transmission electron microscopy used to study mitochondrial topography, mass and morphology, major changes were detected in VLCFAs treated-cells: modification of the cytoplasmic distribution of mitochondria, presence of large mitochondria, enhancement of the mitochondrial mass. Thus, VLCFAs can be potential risk factors contributing to neurodegeneration by inducing neuronal damages via mitochondrial dysfunctions.

  9. A Massive Molecular Gas Reservoir in the z=2.221 Type-2 Quasar Host Galaxy SMM J0939+8315 Lensed by the Radio Galaxy 3C220.3

    CERN Document Server

    Leung, T K Daisy

    2016-01-01

    We report the detection of CO(J=3-2) line emission in the strongly-lensed submillimeter galaxy (SMG) SMM J0939+8315 at z=2.221, using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. SMM J0939+8315 hosts a type-2 quasar, and is gravitationally lensed by the radio galaxy 3C220.3 and its companion galaxy at z=0.685. The 104 GHz continuum emission underlying the CO line is detected toward 3C220.3 with an integrated flux density of S_cont = 7.4 +/- 1.4 mJy. Using the CO(J=3-2) line intensity of I_(CO(3-2)) = (12.6 +/- 2.0) Jy km s^-1, we derive a lensing- and excitation-corrected CO line luminosity of L'(CO(3-2)) = (3.4 +/- 0.7) x 10^10 (10.1/mu_L) K km s^-1 pc^2 for the SMG, where mu_L is the lensing magnification factor inferred from our lens modeling. This translates to a molecular gas mass of M_gas = (2.7 +/- 0.6) x 10^10 (10.1/mu_L) Msun. Fitting spectral energy distribution models to the (sub)-millimeter data of this SMG yields a dust temperature of T = 63.1^{+1.1}_{-1.3} K, a dust mass of M_du...

  10. Magnetron-sputter epitaxy of {beta}-FeSi{sub 2}(220)/Si(111) and {beta}-FeSi{sub 2}(431)/Si(001) thin films at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Hongfei; Tan Chengcheh; Chi Dongzhi [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering (IMRE), A-STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore)

    2012-07-15

    {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} thin films have been grown on Si(111) and Si(001) substrates by magnetron-sputter epitaxy at 700 Degree-Sign C. On Si(111), the growth is consistent with the commonly observed orientation of [001]{beta}-FeSi{sub 2}(220)//[1-10]Si(111) having three variants, in-plane rotated 120 Degree-Sign with respect to one another. However, on Si(001), under the same growth conditions, the growth is dominated by [-111]{beta}-FeSi{sub 2}(431)//[110]Si(001) with four variants, which is hitherto unknown for growing {beta}-FeSi{sub 2}. Photoelectron spectra reveal negligible differences in the valance-band and Fe2p core-level between {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} grown on Si(111) and Si(001) but an apparent increased Si-oxidization on the surface of {beta}-FeSi{sub 2}/Si(001). This phenomenon is discussed and attributed to the Si-surface termination effect, which also suggests that the Si/Fe ratio on the surface of {beta}-FeSi{sub 2}(431)/Si(001) is larger than that on the surface of {beta}-FeSi{sub 2}(220)/Si(111).

  11. Seasonal variation in concentration of radon and thoron at non-uranium mines in China%我国非铀矿山~(222)Rn、~(220)Rn浓度季节变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔宏星; 武云云; 张庆召; 尚兵

    2009-01-01

    目的 研究非铀矿山中~(222)Rn、~(220)Rn浓度的季节变化规律.方法 选取云南、山东、新疆、黑龙江、湖南和贵州6个省份的铜、金、铝、锰、锑、钨、铜镍和煤矿共8类9个矿山,采用LD-P型~(222)Rn.~(220)Rn分辨探测器对井下不同季节~(222)Rn和~(220)Rn浓度进行了测量.结果 井下~(222)Rn浓度存在明显的季节变化,夏季~(222)Rn浓度为35.5~4841 Bq/m~3,其中4个矿~(222)Pm浓度均值超过1000 Bq/m~3.冬季~(222)Rn浓度均值为5~1917 Bq/m~3,只有1个矿超过1000 Bq/m~3.夏季与冬季的比值在2-12之间.各矿间~(222)Rn浓度差异很大,通风是影响其变化的重要因素.~(220)Rn浓度的季节变化略呈夏高冬低的趋势,由于受到布放位置的影响,其规律性有待进一步确认.结论 井下~(222)Rn、~(220)Hn浓度随季节而变化,在估算矿工受照剂量时应考虑季节变化的影响;在矿山氡测量中应避免采用瞬时测量方法;采用累积测量方法时,也应考虑季节变化的影响,合理的暴露时间应为半年,同时要注意季节的选择;对于季度性(3个月)的测量结果应该进行季节修正.%Objective To study the seasonal variation in concentrations of radon and thoron in non-uranium mine. Methods Eight kinds of mineral types from 9 non-uranium mines were selected, including copper, gold, aluminium, manganese, antimonium, tungsten,copper-nickel and coal mines in 6 provinces, such as Yunnan, Shandong, Xinjiang, Heilongjiang, Hunan and Guizhou. LD-P R-T discriminative detectors were used to measure radon and thoron concentrations in underground mines during four seasons in one year. Results Radon concentrations in underground mines showed a significantly seasonal variation. Radon concentration ranged from 35.5 to 4841 Bq/m~3 in summer, and the average value in four mines exceeded 1000 Bq/m~3 of the control limit for workplace (GB 18871-2002) . In winter, radon concentration ranged from 5 to 1917 Bq/m~3 , only one of

  12. Numerical Calculations and Cold Tests for Flow Fields of a 220t/h Retrofitted Oil-Boiler%220t/h燃油锅炉掺烧油焦后炉内流场的冷态模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱世钧; 程永元; 蔡崧; 肖军

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, cold simulation experiments and numerical calculations are conducted to predict 3-D flow field aerodynamics for an oil furnace after being retrofitted due to its fuel variation. K-ε model and SIMPLE program under body-fit-coordination (BFC) system, in which TTM non-orthogonal method is used to control the irregular geometric boundary, are adopted to solve the control equations. Model tests are conducted to check the calculation results, showing that they are in agreement with each other. Three different alternatives with different side window locations are also calculated to optimize the designs. The field retrofitting results show that the combination of cold tests with numerical calculations has prosperous application in retrofitting or renewing medium and small boilers.%对一台220t/h燃油锅炉掺烧油焦后的炉膛内三维流场进行了冷模实验和数值模拟,以预测由于掺烧而对锅炉进行改造后的炉膛内流场的空气动力特性.采用K-ε模型,运用TTM的非正交贴体网格来处理炉膛的不规则边界,在贴体坐标系下用SIMPLE算法对控制方程进行求解.为了验证解的正确性,将原型锅炉制成模型,在额定工况下进行实验,实验结果与计算结果相吻合.在此基础上,结合该锅炉三种改造方案计算出较佳结构尺寸.现场改造结果显示,运用数值计算和模化实验相结合的方法对锅炉进行改造,具有广阔的应用前景.

  13. The behavior of ZrO{sub 2}/20%Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings deposited on aluminum alloys at high temperature regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pintilei, G.L., E-mail: laura_rares082008@yahoo.com [Pitesti University, Faculty of Mechanics and Technology, Str. Targu din Vale nr.1, 110040 Pitesti, Arges (Romania); Technical University “Gheorghe Asachi” of Iasi, Faculty of Mechanics, Bld D. Mangeron nr. 61, 700050 Iasi (Romania); Crismaru, V.I. [Technical University “Gheorghe Asachi” of Iasi, Faculty of Mechanics, Bld D. Mangeron nr. 61, 700050 Iasi (Romania); Abrudeanu, M. [Pitesti University, Faculty of Mechanics and Technology, Str. Targu din Vale nr.1, 110040 Pitesti, Arges (Romania); Munteanu, C. [Technical University “Gheorghe Asachi” of Iasi, Faculty of Mechanics, Bld D. Mangeron nr. 61, 700050 Iasi (Romania); Baciu, E.R. [University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Gr.T.Popa”, Department Implantology, Removable Restorations, Technology, Str. Universitatii nr. 16, 700115 Iasi (Romania); Istrate, B.; Basescu, N. [Technical University “Gheorghe Asachi” of Iasi, Faculty of Mechanics, Bld D. Mangeron nr. 61, 700050 Iasi (Romania)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • In both the ZrO{sub 2}/20%Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings the high temperature caused a decrease of pores volume and a lower thickness of the interface between successive splats. • The NiCr bond layer in the sample with a ZrO{sub 2}/20%Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} suffered a fragmentation due to high temperature exposure and thermal expansion which can lead to coating exfoliation. • The NiCr bond layer in the sample with an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating showed an increase of pore volume due to high temperature. - Abstract: Aluminum alloy present numerous advantages like lightness, high specific strength and diversity which recommend them to a high number of applications from different fields. In extreme environments the protection of aluminum alloys is difficult and requires a high number of requirements like high temperature resistance, thermal fatigue resistance, corrosion fatigue resistance and galvanic corrosion resistance. To obtain these characteristics coatings can be applied to the surfaces so they can enhance the mechanical and chemical properties of the parts. In this paper two coatings were considered for deposition on an AA2024 aluminum alloy, ZrO{sub 2}/20%Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. To obtain a better adherence of the coating to the base material an additional bond layer of NiCr is used. Both the coatings and bond layer were deposited by atmospheric plasma spraying on the samples. The samples were subjected to a temperature of 500 °C and after that slowly cooled to room temperature. The samples were analyzed by electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction to determine the morphological and phase changes that occurred during the temperature exposure. To determine the stress level in the parts due to thermal expansion a finite element analysis was performed in the same conditions as the tests.

  14. Internal Tandem Duplication in FLT3 Attenuates Proliferation and Regulates Resistance to the FLT3 Inhibitor AC220 by Modulating p21Cdkn1a and Pbx1 in Hematopoietic Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko Abe

    Full Text Available Internal tandem duplication (ITD mutations in the Fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3 gene (FLT3-ITD are associated with poor prognosis in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML. Due to the development of drug resistance, few FLT3-ITD inhibitors are effective against FLT3-ITD+ AML. In this study, we show that FLT3-ITD activates a novel pathway involving p21Cdkn1a (p21 and pre-B cell leukemia transcription factor 1 (Pbx1 that attenuates FLT3-ITD cell proliferation and is involved in the development of drug resistance. FLT3-ITD up-regulated p21 expression in both mouse bone marrow c-kit+-Sca-1+-Lin- (KSL cells and Ba/F3 cells. The loss of p21 expression enhanced growth factor-independent proliferation and sensitivity to cytarabine as a consequence of concomitantly enriching the S+G2/M phase population and significantly increasing the expression of Pbx1, but not Evi-1, in FLT3-ITD+ cells. This enhanced cell proliferation following the loss of p21 was partially abrogated when Pbx1 expression was silenced in FLT3-ITD+ primary bone marrow colony-forming cells and Ba/F3 cells. When FLT3-ITD was antagonized with AC220, a selective inhibitor of FLT3-ITD, p21 expression was decreased coincident with Pbx1 mRNA up-regulation and a rapid decline in the number of viable FLT3-ITD+ Ba/F3 cells; however, the cells eventually became refractory to AC220. Overexpressing p21 in FLT3-ITD+ Ba/F3 cells delayed the emergence of cells that were refractory to AC220, whereas p21 silencing accelerated their development. These data indicate that FLT3-ITD is capable of inhibiting FLT3-ITD+ cell proliferation through the p21/Pbx1 axis and that treatments that antagonize FLT3-ITD contribute to the subsequent development of cells that are refractory to a FLT3-ITD inhibitor by disrupting p21 expression.

  15. Measurements of 222Rn, 220Rn, and CO2 Emissions in Natural CO2 Fields in Wyoming: MVA Techniques for Determining Gas Transport and Caprock Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaszuba, John; Sims, Kenneth

    2014-09-30

    An integrated field-laboratory program evaluated the use of radon and CO2 flux measurements to constrain source and timescale of CO2 fluxes in environments proximate to CO2 storage reservoirs. By understanding the type and depth of the gas source, the integrity of a CO2 storage reservoir can be assessed and monitored. The concept is based on correlations of radon and CO2 fluxes observed in volcanic systems. This fundamental research is designed to advance the science of Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting (MVA) and to address the Carbon Storage Program goal of developing and validating technologies to ensure 99 percent storage performance. Graduate and undergraduate students conducted the research under the guidance of the Principal Investigators; in doing so they were provided with training opportunities in skills required for implementing and deploying CCS technologies. Although a final method or “tool” was not developed, significant progress was made. The field program identified issues with measuring radon in environments rich in CO2. Laboratory experiments determined a correction factor to apply to radon measurements made in CO2-bearing environments. The field program also identified issues with radon and CO2-flux measurements in soil gases at a natural CO2 analog. A systematic survey of radon and CO2 flux in soil gases at the LaBarge CO2 Field in Southwest Wyoming indicates that measurements of 222Rn (radon), 220Rn (thoron), and CO2 flux may not be a robust method for monitoring the integrity of a CO2 storage reservoir. The field program was also not able to correlate radon and CO2 flux in the CO2-charged springs of the Thermopolis hydrothermal system. However, this part of the program helped to motivate the aforementioned laboratory experiments that determined

  16. Thermal Stability and Infrared-To Upconversion Emissions of Er3+/Yb3+ Co-Doped 70GeO2-20PbO-10K2O Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Samah M.; Shaltout, I.; Badr, Y.

    2011-06-01

    Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped potassium-lead-germanate (70GeO2-20PbO-10K2O) glasses with a fixed concentration of Er3+ ions (0.5 mol. %) and different concentrations of Yb3+ ions (0, 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 mol. %), have been synthesized by the conventional melting and quenching method. The structure and vibrational modes of the glass network were investigated by the infrared absorption and Raman spectroscopy. The thermal behavior of all glass samples was investigated by the differential thermal analysis. Infrared-to-visible frequency upconversion process was investigated in all glasses. Intense green and red upconversion emission bands centered at around 532, 546, and 655 nm were observed, underallglasses.Intense excitation at 980 nm of diode laser at room temperature. The dependence of these emissions on the excitation power was investigated.

  17. Concentrations of 222Rn, 220Rn and their decay products measured in outdoor air in various rural zones (Morocco) by using solid-state nuclear track detectors and resulting radiation dose to the rural populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misdaq, M A; Amrane, M; Ouguidi, J

    2010-03-01

    Alpha and beta activities per unit volume of air due to radon ((222)Rn), thoron ((220)Rn) and their progenies were measured in the outdoor air at different locations in Morocco by using both CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). In addition, the radon concentration was continuously measured in one location by using the methods with SSNTDs and AlphaGuard counter. The influence of the geological and meteorological conditions as well as phosphate and building material dust on the radon concentration in the outdoor air of the areas studied was investigated. The committed equivalent doses due to (218)Po and (214)Po radon short-lived progeny were evaluated in different tissues of the respiratory tract of the members of the public from the inhalation of outdoor air. The annual effective dose due to radon short-lived progeny from the inhalation of outdoor air by the members of the rural population was estimated.

  18. LR-115 detector response to {sup 222}Rn, {sup 220}Rn and their progenies, exposed to hemispherical surfaces in free air, and design of a system to calculate their concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios, D. [Universidad Simon Bolivar, P.O. 89000, Caracas (Venezuela)], E-mail: palacios@usb.ve; Palacios, F. [Universidad de Oriente, Santiago de Cuba (Cuba); Sajo-Bohus, L.; Barros, H.; Greaves, E.D. [Universidad Simon Bolivar, P.O. 89000, Caracas (Venezuela)

    2008-08-15

    The sensitivities of LR-115 detectors to {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn chains in front of hemispherical surfaces of different radii are calculated by the Monte Carlo method. The optimum radii of hemispherical caps are determined, as a result contributions of the different {alpha}-emitter nuclei to the track density are differentiated and non-uniform track distribution is avoided. It is demonstrated that if eight detectors are exposed separately in front of the same number of hemispherical surfaces of different radii, the concentrations of each {alpha} emitter in airborne and deposited states can be determined. A passive integrating system to calculate the concentrations of radon, thoron and their progenies in free air is given.

  19. No relationship between biopsy sites near the main testicular vessels or rete testis and successful sperm retrieval using conventional or microdissection biopsies in 220 non-obstructive azoospermic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzer, J Ullrich; Steinfatt, Heiko; Schleyer, Manfred; Köhn, Frank M; Fiedler, Klaus; von Hertwig, Irene; Krüsmann, Gottfried; Würfel, Wolfgang

    2013-11-01

    In 220 consecutive patients with non-obstructive azoospermia, sperm retrieval was attempted by a combination of conventional and microdissection testicular sperm extraction (TESE). For sperm retrieval, 2-3 conventional biopsies were performed followed by a microdissection TESE in cases of negative conventional biopsies. During the surgery, the vasculature of the testis was assessed using the operative microscope, and the location of positive biopsies was registered in relation to the blood supply. The overall sperm retrieval rate was 58.2%. From the initial conventional biopsies, sperm could be retrieved in 46.8% of the patients. With microdissection TESE, sperm could be retrieved from an additional 11.4% of the patients. The further use of microdissection TESE improved the sperm retrieval rate significantly (P=0.017). No significant accumulation of positive biopsies was found towards the rete testis or the main testicular vessels.

  20. Measurement for the Influential Factors of Service Enterprise's Global Marketing Strategy ——An Empirical Study Based on 220 Multinational Service Companies%服务企业全球营销战略影响因素的量表开发及实证检验——基于220家服务性跨国公司的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓云; 卓国雄

    2009-01-01

    服务性跨国公司的全球营销战略必须与其外部产业环境条件和内部资源基础条件相匹配才能获得成功.本研究在承袭以往学者相关研究精华的基础上.结合深度访谈及调研,开发出服务企业全球营销战略内外部影响因素的测度量表,并通过所获取的220家服务性跨国公司调研数据进行了实证检验.