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Sample records for actinidin increases tenderness

  1. Injection of marinade with actinidin increases tenderness of porcine M. biceps femoris and affects myofibrils and connective tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M.; Torngren, M. A.; Gunvig, A.;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Marination of beef muscles with brine solutions containing proteolytic enzymes from fruit extracts has been shown to tenderize meat. However, the effect of marination with actinidin on tenderness of pork muscles has not been investigated. Tenderness and eating quality of porcine M....... biceps femoris was investigated by Warner-Bratzler (WB) shear test and sensory evaluation after injection of brine containing up to 11 g L-1 actinidin-containing kiwi fruit powder and 2, 5 or 9 days of storage. RESULTS: actinidin decreased WB shear force, increased tenderness and did not affect flavour...... indicate that actinidin tenderizes pork M. biceps femoris by affecting both the myofibrils and connective tissue....

  2. Exogenous proteases for meat tenderization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhit, Alaa A; Hopkins, David L; Geesink, Geert; Bekhit, Adnan A; Franks, Philip

    2014-01-01

    The use of exogenous proteases to improve meat tenderness has attracted much interest recently, with a view to consistent production of tender meat and added value to lower grade meat cuts. This review discusses the sources, characteristics, and use of exogenous proteases in meat tenderization to highlight the specificity of the proteases toward meat proteins and their impact on meat quality. Plant enzymes (such as papain, bromelain, and ficin) have been extensively investigated as meat tenderizers. New plant proteases (actinidin and zingibain) and microbial enzyme preparations have been of recent interest due to controlled meat tenderization and other advantages. Successful use of these enzymes in fresh meat requires their enzymatic kinetics and characteristics to be determined, together with an understanding of the impact of the surrounding environmental conditions of the meat (pH, temperature) on enzyme function. This enables the optimal conditions for tenderizing fresh meat to be established, and the elimination or reduction of any negative impacts on other quality attributes. PMID:24499119

  3. Pain pressure threshold of a muscle tender spot increases following local and non-local rolling massage

    OpenAIRE

    Aboodarda, SJ; Spence, AJ; Button, Duane C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to determine the acute effect of rolling massage on pressure pain threshold (PPT) in individuals with tender spots in their plantar flexor muscles. Methods In a randomized control trial and single blinded study, tender spots were identified in 150 participants’ plantar flexor muscles (gastrocnemius or soleus). Then participants were randomly assigned to one of five intervention groups (n = 30): 1) heavy rolling massage on the calf that exhibited the...

  4. Increased collagen III in culled chicken meat after feeding dietary wood charcoal and vinegar contributes to palatability and tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Kohsyo; Manabe, Noboru; Matsumoto, Yoshiki; Takenoyama, Shin-ichi; Yamauchi, Koh-en

    2014-04-01

    We comprehensively evaluated meat quality in chickens fed a diet consisting of wood charcoal and vinegar (WCV) using food scientific and histological approaches. In culled hens, lipid and fatty acid in Musculus semimembranosus, cooking loss and sensory tests of whole thigh meat, and meat texture of breast meat were observed. In male broilers, cross section of M. semimembranosus was used for observations on muscle area, perimysium, non-collagen total protein and total collagen content, and anti-collagen I and III reactions. In frozen male broilers, conventional morphology of M. semimembranosus as well as chicken anti-collagen III reaction to selected muscles of thigh meat and breast meat were compared between the control and WCV-fed birds. Increased lipid and fatty acids, decreased cooking loss, high score in total evaluation for sensory test of thigh meat, and decreased meat texture values were observed for culled hens fed WCV. The higher values of muscle area, total collagen and collagen III were observed for broilers fed WCV. No perimysium collapse for M. semitendinosus or increased collagen III reactions of M. tensor fasciae latae, the flexor muscle group and M. pectoralis superficialis were observed for frozen muscles in the WCV group. These total results suggest that WCV produces palatable and tender meat by increasing collagen III. PMID:24450882

  5. Tenderizing Meat with Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavson, Paul K.; Lee, Richard J.; Chambers, George P.; Solomon, Morse B.; Berry, Brad W.

    2001-06-01

    Investigators at the Food Technology and Safety Laboratory have had success tenderizing meat by explosively shock loading samples submerged in water. This technique, referred to as the Hydrodynamic Pressure (HDP) Process, is being developed to improve the efficiency and reproducibility of the beef tenderization processing over conventional aging techniques. Once optimized, the process should overcome variability in tenderization currently plaguing the beef industry. Additional benefits include marketing lower quality grades of meat, which have not been commercially viable due to a low propensity to tenderization. The simplest and most successful arrangement of these tests has meat samples (50 to 75 mm thick) placed on a steel plate at the bottom of a plastic water vessel. Reported here are tests which were instrumented by Indian Head investigators. Carbon-composite resistor-gauges were used to quantify the shock profile delivered to the surface of the meat. PVDF and resistor gauges (used later in lieu of PVDF) provided data on the pressure-time history at the meat/steel interface. Resulting changes in tenderization were correlated with increasing shock duration, which were provided by various explosives.

  6. Reduced neck-shoulder muscle strength and aerobic power together with increased pericranial tenderness are associated with tension-type headache in girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornoe, Birte; Andersen, Lars L; Skotte, Jørgen H;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tension-type headaches (TTH) are common among children worldwide and mean a potential risk of disability and medication overuse headache. The associated mechanisms, however, remain unsolved. Our study investigated muscle strength in the neck-shoulder region, aerobic power.......3 (95% CI 1.0-1.6) and 5.2 (95% CI: 1.4-19.6) for each unit of decrease in VO2 max. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced neck-shoulder strength and aerobic power together with increased pericranial tenderness are associated with TTH in girls. Future interventions should be directed towards health promoting patient...

  7. Insight into contractors’ competitiveness at Most Economically Advantageous Tenders in the Dutch construction sector

    OpenAIRE

    De Vrind, S.M.H.

    2010-01-01

    Increased application of Most Economically Advantageous Tenders (MEAT) in the Dutch construction sector changes contractors’ tender processes. They are no longer requested to execute fully specified projects for the lowest price, but contractors are asked to come up with solutions themselves. This offers new opportunities to compete at tenders. Therefore the applicability of insights from three theories has been researched to increase the understanding of competitiveness at MEAT tenders: two ...

  8. E-Tendering Process Within Construction: A UK Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geoff Tindsley; Paul Stephenson

    2008-01-01

    E-tendering can be defined as the issue and receipt of tender documentation through electronic means which facilitates the procurement of construction work and the award of contracts. The current paper-based method of tendering has been commonplace within the industry for a significant number of years, but with recent technological advancements, this traditional process is rapidly becoming outdated. Several ma-jor projects within the UK are now being procured through the e-tendering process which includes the multi-billion pound development for the Olympic Games in London 2012. However, while these prestigious pro-jects are embracing e-tendering technology, it is not certain as to what extent e-tendering is used across the construction sector generally. This research is primarily concemed with establishing the current status, prac-ticalities and resource effectiveness of e-tendering within UK construction. Results are provided from an in-dustry survey which includes both quantitative and qualitative data. A case study implementation is also in-cluded which assesses the utilisation of e-tendering software in practice. The research findings indicated that e-tendering can provide substantial resource savings to a major part of the supply chain, with the key benefits being enhanced communication, time savings and reduced costs. However, a considerable propor-tion of the industry remains uncertain about embracing new technologies, with reluctance to change being perceived as the greatest barrier. The findings suggest that many professionals within the UK construction industry recognise a requirement for increased implementation of e-tendering, but feel that training, educa-tion and support from senior management are essential requirements for e-tendering to become widely ac-cepted in the future.

  9. μ-Calpain, calpastatin, and growth hormone receptor genetic effects on preweaning performance, carcass quality traits, and residual variance of tenderness in Angus cattle selected to increase minor haplotype and allele frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, R G; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; King, D A; Casas, E; Thallman, R M; Smith, T P L; Bennett, G L

    2014-02-01

    Genetic marker effects and interactions are estimated with poor precision when minor marker allele frequencies are low. An Angus population was subjected to marker assisted selection for multiple years to increase divergent haplotype and minor marker allele frequencies to 1) estimate effect size and mode of inheritance for previously reported SNP on targeted beef carcass quality traits; 2) estimate effects of previously reported SNP on nontarget performance traits; and 3) evaluate tenderness SNP specific residual variance models compared to a single residual variance model for tenderness. Divergent haplotypes within µ-calpain (CAPN1), and SNP within calpastatin (CAST) and growth hormone receptor (GHR) were successfully selected to increase their frequencies. Traits evaluated were birth BW, weaning BW, final BW, fat thickness, LM area, USDA marbling score, yield grade, slice shear force (SSF), and visible and near infrared predicted slice shear force. Both CAPN1 and CAST exhibited additive (P grade (P meat yield and less trimmable fat. There were no significant effects (P ≥ 0.23) for GHR on any of the traits evaluated in this study. Furthermore, CAST specific residual variance models were found to fit significantly better (P quality. PMID:24398843

  10. Tendering specification and contracting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lecture tendering, specification and contracting is prepared in two parts: This first part deals with technical aspects while part two features the commercial and legal situation in the partnership of two: the supplier of the fuel bundles and the utility. In this lecture a look is given on the way how a supplier can offer its fuel and some certain points are mentioned which are important to compare the bid of one competitor to the other. The major points are summarized which are or at least should be in an offer so as to find out which offer is the best. (orig./FW)

  11. An efficient method for purification of nonspecific lipid transfer protein-1 from rice seeds using kiwifruit actinidin proteolysis and ion exchange chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobadi, Sirous; Yousefi, Fakhroddin; Khademi, Fatemeh; Padidar, Samira; Mostafaie, Ali

    2012-11-01

    Plant nonspecific lipid transfer proteins are small basic proteins that transport phospholipids between membranes and are subdivided into two subfamilies, nsLTP(1) (9 kDa) and nsLTP(2) (7 kDa). LTPs have potential application in the defense reactions against pathogens and the drug delivery systems. Many efforts have been made for purification of different nsLTPs from various plants; however, most of them used successive purification procedures. We have developed a relatively simple and efficient method for the purification of rice nsLTP(1), based on the proteolytic activity of kiwifruit actinidin on the rice seed extract and one-step chromatographic procedure on a CM-Sepharose column. The purity of protein was determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The isolated LTP(1) migrated as a homogenous polypeptide with molecular mass of 9 kDa that confirms the efficiency of actinidin on the digestion of major contaminations present in the rice seed extract without any harmful effect on the LTP(1). The advantages of using proteolytic activity of actinidin in purifying rice LTP(1) includes the reduced separation time allowing the purification of LTP(1) in one-step chromatographic procedure, low costing, high efficiency, and the relative simplicity of the method. PMID:22987614

  12. Tender points are not sites of ongoing inflammation -in vivo evidence in patients with chronic tension-type headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashina, M; Stallknecht, Bente; Bendtsen, L;

    2003-01-01

    Increased muscle tenderness is the most prominent finding in patients with tension-type headache, and it has recently been shown that muscle blood flow is diminished in response to static exercise in tender points in these patients. Although tenderness has been ascribed to local inflammation and ...

  13. Relation of postmortem protease activity to tenderness in buffalo meat and Brahman beef

    OpenAIRE

    M. Hirabayashi; K. Chikuni; Muroya, S.; Fujihara, T.; Cruz, L. C.; J.R. V. Herrera; R.M. Lapitan; A.N. Del Barrio; K.E. Neath; Kanai, Y.

    2010-01-01

    We previously showed that meat from crossbred water buffalo had significantly higher tenderness than beef from crossbred Brahman cattle of the same age, gender, and diet. Extensive studies on meat tenderness have indicated that proteases degrade muscle fibre proteins during postmortem storage, leading to weakening of the myofibrillar structure and an increase in tenderness. Thus, we investigated the difference in protease activity immediately postmortem, in order to explain the difference in ...

  14. Valuing Fed Cattle Using Objective Tenderness Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beef tenderness is critical in consumer satisfaction with beef steak products. Current fed cattle valuation systems do not differentiate carcasses based upon tenderness variation. However, considerable research indicates consumers are willing to pay more for tender relative to tough beef steak. T...

  15. Insight into contractors’ competitiveness at Most Economically Advantageous Tenders in the Dutch construction sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vrind, S.M.H.

    2010-01-01

    Increased application of Most Economically Advantageous Tenders (MEAT) in the Dutch construction sector changes contractors’ tender processes. They are no longer requested to execute fully specified projects for the lowest price, but contractors are asked to come up with solutions themselves. This o

  16. Prerigor and postrigor changes in tenderness of ovine longissimus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, T L; Koohmaraie, M

    1994-05-01

    A novel approach was used to measure the tenderness of prerigor ovine longissimus thoracis et lumborum by avoiding the confounding effects of heat-induced shortening resulting from cooking prerigor meat. The objective was to determine the tenderness of the muscle at the time of slaughter and to monitor changes in tenderness during rigor development and postmortem aging. Nine Romanov and 12 Finnsheep rams were slaughtered at 49.3 kg live weight. Samples of longissimus thoracis et lumborum were removed at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 72, or 336 h after exsanguination. Five of the eight sample times were represented in each carcass and all carcasses were sampled at 0, 12, and 24 h. Prerigor muscle samples (0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 h) were clamped between two metal plates before excision to prevent shortening. The samples were frozen at -30 degrees C then stored at -5 degrees C for 10 d to allow glycolysis to proceed to completion, and thus ultimate pH and complete rigor mortis were attained. The longissimus thoracis et lumborum was then cut into chops and cooked and shear force was determined. Sarcomere length decreased through 24 h postmortem, then increased slightly through 336 h postmortem. Warner-Bratzler shear force values were 5.1 kg at 0 and 3 h, increased to 8.3 kg from 3 to 9 h, and then declined to 3.1 kg from 24 to 336 h postmortem. These data imply that longissimus thoracis et lumborum at slaughter is intermediate in tenderness, rigor shortening toughens the meat, and proteolysis tenderizes the meat, resulting in more tender meat after 14 d of aging than at slaughter.

  17. Cluster analysis application identifies muscle characteristics of importance for beef tenderness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chriki Sghaier

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important controversy in the relationship between beef tenderness and muscle characteristics including biochemical traits exists among meat researchers. The aim of this study is to explain variability in meat tenderness using muscle characteristics and biochemical traits available in the Integrated and Functional Biology of Beef (BIF-Beef database. The BIF-Beef data warehouse contains characteristic measurements from animal, muscle, carcass, and meat quality derived from numerous experiments. We created three classes for tenderness (high, medium, and low based on trained taste panel tenderness scores of all meat samples consumed (4,366 observations from 40 different experiments. For each tenderness class, the corresponding means for the mechanical characteristics, muscle fibre type, collagen content, and biochemical traits which may influence tenderness of the muscles were calculated. Results Our results indicated that lower shear force values were associated with more tender meat. In addition, muscles in the highest tenderness cluster had the lowest total and insoluble collagen contents, the highest mitochondrial enzyme activity (isocitrate dehydrogenase, the highest proportion of slow oxidative muscle fibres, the lowest proportion of fast-glycolytic muscle fibres, and the lowest average muscle fibre cross-sectional area. Results were confirmed by correlation analyses, and differences between muscle types in terms of biochemical characteristics and tenderness score were evidenced by Principal Component Analysis (PCA. When the cluster analysis was repeated using only muscle samples from m. Longissimus thoracis (LT, the results were similar; only contrasting previous results by maintaining a relatively constant fibre-type composition between all three tenderness classes. Conclusion Our results show that increased meat tenderness is related to lower shear forces, lower insoluble collagen and total collagen content, lower

  18. Tenderizing effect of blade tenderizer and pomegranate fruit products in goat meat

    OpenAIRE

    Narsaiah, K.; Jha, Shyam N.; Devatkal, Suresh K.; Borah, Anjan; Singh, Desh B.; Sahoo, Jhari

    2010-01-01

    Toughness of goat meat is a major problem with regard to consumer acceptance. Keeping this in view a blade tenderizer was developed for tenderization of goat meat. Pomegranate fruit products were also explored for tenderization effect on goat meat. Tenderization of goat meat with pomegranate seed powder improved the textural properties marginally with slight adverse colour change and taste. Samples treated with PRP got lower score for colour in sensory evaluation and there was adverse effect ...

  19. Whole Genome Analysis for Beef Tenderness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meat tenderness is the single most important trait affecting palatability and consumer satisfaction with beef products. Current breeding values for meat tenderness traits have low accuracy because progeny phenotypes are not generally recorded. Selection for this trait could be accelerated by DNA m...

  20. Genetic effects on beef tenderness in Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, S F; Tatum, J D; Wulf, D M; Green, R D; Smith, G C

    1997-07-01

    Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle, originating from diverse production environments, were used to quantify genetic variation in marbling, 24-h calpastatin activity, and beef tenderness and to identify strategies for prevention of beef tenderness problems in Bos indicus composite cattle. Comparisons among 3/8 Bos indicus breeds (Braford, Red Brangus, Simbrah) revealed significant differences in marbling and 24-h calpastatin activity, but not in tenderness. Compared with Bos taurus cattle, 3/ 8 Bos indicus cattle had similar marbling scores but higher 24-h calpastatin activities. Also, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus composites aged more slowly from 1 to 7 d and was less tender at 4, 7, 14, 21, and 35 d postmortem than beef from Bos taurus cattle. However, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was relatively tender if it was aged for a sufficient period of time (21 d). The delayed response to aging and greater toughness of beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was associated with Brahman breed effects and was not related to the Bos taurus germplasm source. Marbling was moderately heritable (.52 +/- .21) but exhibited positive genetic correlations with shear force at d 1 through 14 of aging, suggesting that, in these cattle, selection for increased marbling would have an unfavorable effect on beef tenderness. A low heritability estimate for 24-h calpastatin activity (.15 +/- .15), coupled with low genetic correlations between calpastatin activity and shear force at 7, 14, and 35 d, suggested that selection for low calpastatin activity would have little effect on aged beef tenderness. Panel tenderness and shear force at 7, 14, and 21 d were moderately heritable (.27 to .47), indicating that aged beef tenderness could be improved by direct selection (via progeny testing). Comparisons among Simbrah, Senegus x Simbrah, and Red Angus x Simmental steers showed that inclusion of a tropically adapted Bos taurus breed (Senepol) could be an effective strategy for preventing beef

  1. Genetic effects on beef tenderness in Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, S F; Tatum, J D; Wulf, D M; Green, R D; Smith, G C

    1997-07-01

    Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle, originating from diverse production environments, were used to quantify genetic variation in marbling, 24-h calpastatin activity, and beef tenderness and to identify strategies for prevention of beef tenderness problems in Bos indicus composite cattle. Comparisons among 3/8 Bos indicus breeds (Braford, Red Brangus, Simbrah) revealed significant differences in marbling and 24-h calpastatin activity, but not in tenderness. Compared with Bos taurus cattle, 3/ 8 Bos indicus cattle had similar marbling scores but higher 24-h calpastatin activities. Also, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus composites aged more slowly from 1 to 7 d and was less tender at 4, 7, 14, 21, and 35 d postmortem than beef from Bos taurus cattle. However, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was relatively tender if it was aged for a sufficient period of time (21 d). The delayed response to aging and greater toughness of beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was associated with Brahman breed effects and was not related to the Bos taurus germplasm source. Marbling was moderately heritable (.52 +/- .21) but exhibited positive genetic correlations with shear force at d 1 through 14 of aging, suggesting that, in these cattle, selection for increased marbling would have an unfavorable effect on beef tenderness. A low heritability estimate for 24-h calpastatin activity (.15 +/- .15), coupled with low genetic correlations between calpastatin activity and shear force at 7, 14, and 35 d, suggested that selection for low calpastatin activity would have little effect on aged beef tenderness. Panel tenderness and shear force at 7, 14, and 21 d were moderately heritable (.27 to .47), indicating that aged beef tenderness could be improved by direct selection (via progeny testing). Comparisons among Simbrah, Senegus x Simbrah, and Red Angus x Simmental steers showed that inclusion of a tropically adapted Bos taurus breed (Senepol) could be an effective strategy for preventing beef

  2. Ultrasonic image analysis for beef tenderness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bosoon; Thane, Brian R.; Whittaker, A. D.

    1993-05-01

    Objective measurement of meat tenderness has been a topic of concern for palatability evaluation. In this study, a real-time ultrasonic B-mode imaging method was used for measuring beef palatability attributes such as juiciness, muscle fiber tenderness, connective tissue amount, overall tenderness, flavor intensity, and percent total collagen noninvasively. A temporal averaging image enhancement method was used for image analysis. Ultrasonic image intensity, fractal dimension, attenuation, and statistical gray-tone spatial-dependence matrix image texture measurement were analyzed. The contrast of the textural feature was the most correlated parameter with palatability attributes. The longitudinal scanning method was better for juiciness, muscle fiber tenderness, flavor intensity, and percent soluble collagen, whereas, the cross-sectional method was better for connective tissue, overall tenderness. The multivariate linear regression models were developed as a function of textural features and image intensity parameters. The determinant coefficients of regression models were for juiciness (R2 equals .97), for percent total collagen (R2 equals .88), for flavor intensity (R2 equals .75), for muscle fiber tenderness (R2 equals .55), and for overall tenderness (R2 equals .49), respectively.

  3. Meat tenderization by proteolytic enzymes after osmotic dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerelt, B; Ikeuchi, Y; Suzuki, A

    2000-11-01

    The treatment of proteolytic enzymes is one of the popular methods for meat tenderization. In this case, it is very important how to introduce the enzymes into the meat cut. This paper describes meat tenderization by dipping the meat cut in a solution containing proteolytic enzymes after contact-osmotic dehydration. After the dehydration of each piece of meat from culled cow for 18 h by contact-dehydration sheet, each sample was dipped for 3 h in a solution containing papain or proteinases from Aspergillus traditionally used for soysauce production in Japan. It was stored at 3∼4°C for 24, 48 and 168 h, and subjected to texture measurement, sensory evaluations, biochemical analysis and histological observations. The penetration efficiency of the enzyme solution (of around 80%) after the contact-osmotic dehydration seemed to be sufficient. A marked decrease in hardness by texture measurements was observed in the meats treated with proteolytic enzymes and higher sensory scores for tenderness were observed in the meats treated with enzymes as compared with the untreated meat. The papain-treated meat received the highest score in tenderness, but the scores given to juiciness and taste were lower than that of the control. The rapid increases of the fragmentation of myofibrils from the enzyme-treated meat were observed at first 24 h of storage as compared with that of the control. Remarkable degradation of myosin molecule in the myofibrils from the enzyme-treated meats was observed on SDS-PAGE profiles. Considerable degradation of myofibrilar structure especially due to proteolytic removal of Z-lines, was observed among the myofibrils from enzyme-treated meats by electronmicroscopy. The remarkable deformation and disruption of honeycomb-like structure of endomysium were also observed in the meats treated with enzymes. From these results, it was shown that treatment after osmotic dehydration, was effective in tenderizing. PMID:22062083

  4. Prediction of breeding values for tenderness of market animals from measurements on bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkhouse, K L; Van Vleck, L D; Cundiff, L V; Koohmaraie, M; Lunstra, D D; Crouse, J D

    1996-11-01

    Data were tenderness measures on steaks from 237 bulls (Group II) slaughtered after producing freezable semen and on 1,431 related steers and heifers (market animals, Group I) from Angus, Hereford, Pinzgauer, Brahman, and Sahiwal crosses from the Germ Plasm Evaluation project at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center. Tenderness was assessed through Warner-Bratzler Shear Force (SF), taste panel tenderness (TPT), marbling score (MS), and myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI). For all traits, as fraction Bos indicus inheritance increased, implied tenderness decreased. Heritability estimates were generally not significantly different from zero. Genetic correlations generally indicated favorable associations among the traits. The range in predicted breeding values of bulls for market animal tenderness was small and from -.34 to .32 kg for market animal shear force. Because of low estimates of heritability for SF or TPT, results from this experiment indicate that selection based on tenderness of steaks sampled from intact or late castrate males slaughtered following collection of freezable quality semen would not be very effective in improving average tenderness of steaks from steers of heifer progeny. If a mean of heritability estimates reported in the literature of .27 for shear value was assumed for market steer and heifer progeny instead of .02 as found in the present study, then selection based on estimates of shear force in young bulls would be relatively more effective in improving shear force of market progeny. PMID:8923175

  5. 49 CFR 230.103 - Tender roller bearing journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender roller bearing journal boxes. 230.103... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.103 Tender roller bearing journal boxes. Tender roller bearing journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition....

  6. Antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) protein hydrolysates produced by the proteases AFP, HT, Pro-G, actinidin and zingibain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Sue-Siang; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Carne, Alan; Birch, John

    2016-07-15

    Hemp protein isolates (HPIs) were hydrolysed by proteases (AFP, HT, ProG, actinidin and zingibain). The enzymatic hydrolysis of HPIs was evaluated through the degree of hydrolysis and SDS-PAGE profiles. The bioactive properties of the resultant hydrolysates (HPHs) were accessed through ORAC, DPPḢ scavenging and ACE-inhibitory activities. The physical properties of the resultant HPHs were evaluated for their particle sizes, zeta potential and surface hydrophobicity. HT had the highest rate of caseinolytic activity at the lowest concentration (0.1 mg mL(-1)) compared to other proteases that required concentration of 100 mg mL(-1) to achieve their maximum rate of caseinolytic activity. This led to the highest degree of hydrolysis of HPIs by HT in the SDS-PAGE profiles. Among all proteases and substrates, HT resulted in the highest bioactivities (ORAC, DPPḢ scavenging and ACE-inhibitory activities) generated from alkali extracted HPI in the shortest time (2 h) compared to the other protease preparations.

  7. 78 FR 72597 - Descriptive Designation for Needle- or Blade-Tenderized (Mechanically Tenderized) Beef Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food Safety and Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 317 Descriptive Designation for...-tenderized (Mechanically Tenderized) Beef Products'' (78 FR 34589). The Agency proposed to require the use of... extended the original comment period until October 8, 2013 (78 FR 48631; Aug. 9, 2013). However, October...

  8. Functional Genomic Analysis of Variation on Beef Tenderness Induced by Acute Stress in Angus Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunping Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Beef is one of the leading sources of protein, B vitamins, iron, and zinc in human food. Beef palatability is based on three general criteria: tenderness, juiciness, and flavor, of which tenderness is thought to be the most important factor. In this study, we found that beef tenderness, measured by the Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF, was dramatically increased by acute stress. Microarray analysis and qPCR identified a variety of genes that were differentially expressed. Pathway analysis showed that these genes were involved in immune response and regulation of metabolism process as activators or repressors. Further analysis identified that these changes may be related with CpG methylation of several genes. Therefore, the results from this study provide an enhanced understanding of the mechanisms that genetic and epigenetic regulations control meat quality and beef tenderness.

  9. Tenderness charactherization of ostrich meat commercial cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Conte Hadlich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The ostrich meat has become an interesting source of protein as well as being an alternative to red meat, because of its healthy fatty acid profile, with a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and low content of intramuscular fat, which arouses the interest of people who want a low animal fat diet. Ostrich meat is also appreciated by the tenderness, since it is one of the larger impact characteristics on the acceptance of a meat product for consumers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tenderness of different ostrich meat commercial cuts and certificate that all studied cuts present tenderness acceptable by consumers. The laboratory tests were performed at the Laboratory of Biochemistry of Proteins (FMVZ, being measured shear force of seven commercial cuts of ostrich meat. The cuts were: internal thigh, external thigh, filet plan, filet out, filet small, rump and filet fan. The samples were boiled in water bath controlled by time and temperature. After chilling, fragments of 1.0 x 1.0 x 3.0 cm were removed from samples. Shear force measurements were performed using a mechanical Warner-Bratzler Shear Force equipment. The shear force means were: internal thigh (3.5 kg, external thigh (2.8 kg, filet plan (2.4 kg, filet out (1.6 kg, filet small (3.5 kg, rump (3.3 kg and filet fan (2.0 kg. All the commercial cuts evaluated had very low values of shear force, denoting meat extremely tender. The classification of meat tenderness is based on shear force values, being values below 4.6 kg considered meat with desirable tenderness. All ostrich meat commercial cuts analyzed had shear force values lower than 4.6 kg, being classified as meat of extreme tenderness. The results found in this work allow concluding that ostrich meat can be considered tender. These findings lead us to consider the ostrich meat as an interesting alternative to red meat, in relation to tenderness and healthy fatty acid profile, being favorable for people suffering from

  10. The callipyge phenomenon: tenderness intervention methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, M B

    1999-01-01

    Consumers continue to desire leaner meats. Lambs expressing the callipyge gene have been identified as having superior, leaner carcasses compared with normally muscled lambs. However, the longissimus muscle, a major merchandised muscle in lamb, has repeatedly been shown to be significantly less tender in callipyge lamb compared with normally muscled lambs. Preharvest factors, such as genetics, sex, and production/management practices, have thus far shown no promise at alleviating this tenderness problem. But a number of postharvest interventions have been introduced to alleviate it. Included among the strategies are postmortem aging, carcass electrical stimulation, the combination of freezing and thawing before aging, calcium chloride injection, and the Hydrodyne process. These strategies have exhibited various degrees of success. Postharvest strategies to improve callipyge longissimus tenderness are described in this article.

  11. Improving Tenderness of Spent Layer Hens Meat Using Papaya Leaves (Carica papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. O. Abdalla, N. N. A. Ali, F. S. Siddig and S. A. M. Ali*

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were performed to study the use of papaya leaves as a meat tenderizer. The first experiment was to evaluate the effect of papaya dry leaves added to hen’s diet before slaughter. Spent hens (n=48 were used, half of them were fed a concentrate ration containing10% dried papaya leaves powder (DPLP while others received layer ration (Control, for 10 days. The second experiment involved a comparison between papaya leaves juice (PLJ, fresh papaya leaves (FPL and vinegar solution (VS as marinades applied to meat for one or two hours before cooking. Spent layer hens (n=42 were used for tenderness evaluation method. After slaughtering and preparing the chickens two methods of cooking were used (oven and moist cooking. The cooked parts (breast, thigh and drumstick were subjected to a panel test evaluation according to a designed questionnaire. Addition of dried papaya leaves powder to spent layer hens ration significantly (P≤0.05 increased the level of meat tenderness. Moist cooking had significantly (P≤0.05 improved meat tenderization compared to oven cooking. Meat treated with fresh papaya leaves had significantly (P≤0.05 improved tenderness. It was concluded that wrapping the tough meat of spent layer hens with fresh papaya leaves for one hour and moist cooking improve tenderness of meat.

  12. Tenderizing effect of blade tenderizer and pomegranate fruit products in goat meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narsaiah, K; Jha, Shyam N; Devatkal, Suresh K; Borah, Anjan; Singh, Desh B; Sahoo, Jhari

    2011-02-01

    Toughness of goat meat is a major problem with regard to consumer acceptance. Keeping this in view a blade tenderizer was developed for tenderization of goat meat. Pomegranate fruit products were also explored for tenderization effect on goat meat. Tenderization of goat meat with pomegranate seed powder improved the textural properties marginally with slight adverse colour change and taste. Samples treated with PRP got lower score for colour in sensory evaluation and there was adverse effect on taste of treated meat. Blade tenderization and 4% PSP proved better for tenderization and were compared with control and 0.2% papain in goat meat chunks. The cooked samples treated with papain and blade incisions got better sensory scores and required lesser shear force compared to 4% PSP and control. Overall the papain treated meat was superior in terms sensory attributes followed by blade incision and PSP. The results suggested that the blade incisions can be used for tenderization of goat meat. Pomegranate seed powder maybe considered for mixing with other spices to marinate goat meat mainly for its beneficial effects. PMID:23572717

  13. Tender moments in the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, C.

    1991-04-01

    Described is tender-assisted drilling (TAD) on the UK North Sea Gannet field. The Gannet field is developed by Shell UK Exploration and Production (Shell Expro). In March 1990, Shell Expro awarded Sedco Forex the design and engineering contract to convert the semisubmersible drilling rig Sedco 704 into the Gannet TSV (Tender Support Vessel). The only semisubmersible TSV operation so far to have completed drilling in the North Sea has been in the Norwegian sector. The Odin field, operated by Esso Norge a/s, was developed using the converted drilling rig Treasure Hunter. 1 fig., 1 ill., 3 refs.

  14. Tenderization of beef with bacterial collagenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen Foegeding, E; Larick, D K

    1986-01-01

    The feasibility of using a purified collagenase produced by Clostridium histolyticum as a meat tenderizer was studied. Experiments were conducted with enzymes in model systems to compare collagenase with the currently used plant proteinases, papain, bromelain and ficin. Collagenase was shown to have a greater activity in hydrolyzing insoluble collagen than salt-soluble-protein (SSP) and highest activity between 40° and 60°C, with little to no activity above 60°C. Collagenase was added to raw steaks and steaks were placed in bags and cooked in a water bath to 6.5°C. Tenderness was evaluated by analyzing components of Warner-Bratzler shear-deformation curves. The results suggested that addition of NaCl or a combination of CaCl(2), NaCl and collagenase would cause equivalent tenderization. The lack of a significant tenderization due to collagenase could be related to a lack of sensitivity in the shear evaluation or an effect on the enzyme activity due to the meat environment.

  15. Tenderization of beef with bacterial collagenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen Foegeding, E; Larick, D K

    1986-01-01

    The feasibility of using a purified collagenase produced by Clostridium histolyticum as a meat tenderizer was studied. Experiments were conducted with enzymes in model systems to compare collagenase with the currently used plant proteinases, papain, bromelain and ficin. Collagenase was shown to have a greater activity in hydrolyzing insoluble collagen than salt-soluble-protein (SSP) and highest activity between 40° and 60°C, with little to no activity above 60°C. Collagenase was added to raw steaks and steaks were placed in bags and cooked in a water bath to 6.5°C. Tenderness was evaluated by analyzing components of Warner-Bratzler shear-deformation curves. The results suggested that addition of NaCl or a combination of CaCl(2), NaCl and collagenase would cause equivalent tenderization. The lack of a significant tenderization due to collagenase could be related to a lack of sensitivity in the shear evaluation or an effect on the enzyme activity due to the meat environment. PMID:22055648

  16. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and...

  17. Efficacy of reverse micellar extracted fruit bromelain in meat tenderization

    OpenAIRE

    Chaurasiya, Ram Saran; Sakhare, P. Z.; Bhaskar, N.; Hebbar, H. Umesh

    2014-01-01

    Reverse micellar extraction (RME) was used for the separation and purification of bromelain from pineapple core and efficacy of RME purified bromelain (RMEB) in tenderization of beef meat was compared with that of commercial stem bromelain (CSB). RME resulted in reasonably high bromelain activity recovery (85.0 %) and purification fold (4.0). Reduction in meat toughness was higher in RMEB treated meat (52.1 %) compared to raw (control) and CSB treated (26.7 %). Significant increase in water h...

  18. A secured e-tendering modeling using misuse case approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd, Haslina; Robie, Muhammad Afdhal Muhammad; Baharom, Fauziah; Darus, Norida Muhd; Saip, Mohamed Ali; Yasin, Azman

    2016-08-01

    Major risk factors relating to electronic transactions may lead to destructive impacts on trust and transparency in the process of tendering. Currently, electronic tendering (e-tendering) systems still remain uncertain in issues relating to legal and security compliance and most importantly it has an unclear security framework. Particularly, the available systems are lacking in addressing integrity, confidentiality, authentication, and non-repudiation in e-tendering requirements. Thus, one of the challenges in developing an e-tendering system is to ensure the system requirements include the function for secured and trusted environment. Therefore, this paper aims to model a secured e-tendering system using misuse case approach. The modeling process begins with identifying the e-tendering process, which is based on the Australian Standard Code of Tendering (AS 4120-1994). It is followed by identifying security threats and their countermeasure. Then, the e-tendering was modelled using misuse case approach. The model can contribute to e-tendering developers and also to other researchers or experts in the e-tendering domain.

  19. Disqualification For Non-Compliance With Public Tender Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phoebe Bolton

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available When government entities procure goods or services, they generally consider and award contracts only to bidders who complied with the specifications and conditions of tender as laid down in the tender invitation. Tenders received must in other words be conforming, compliant or responsive. This enables procuring entities to compare tenders on an equal footing and ensures equal treatment amongst bidders. In South Africa the extent to which bidders must comply with tender specifications and conditions is a thorny issue in practice. In 2008 the Supreme Court of Appeal in Millennium Waste Management (Pty Ltd v Chairperson, Tender Board: Limpopo Province confirmed the views of the courts in South Africa regarding compliance with tender conditions and the amendment of tenders before award. The recent 2013 decision of the Supreme Court of Appeal in Dr JS Moroka Municipality v The Chairperson of the Tender Evaluation Committee of the Dr JS Moroka Municipality, however, has moved public procurement regulation in South Africa to a point where procuring entities have very limited discretionary powers when evaluating compliance with tender specifications and conditions. This paper argues for an approach that allows procuring entities in South Africa more discretion when evaluating compliance with tender specifications and conditions. In doing so, reliance is placed on the treatment of "responsiveness" in international instruments as well as the views of the South African courts since first they were confronted with the issue.

  20. Tough and tender: embodied categorization of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepian, Michael L; Weisbuch, Max; Rule, Nicholas O; Ambady, Nalini

    2011-01-01

    Emerging evidence has shown that human thought can be embodied within physical sensations and actions. Indeed, abstract concepts such as morality, time, and interpersonal warmth can be based on metaphors that are grounded in bodily experiences (e.g., physical temperature can signal interpersonal warmth). We hypothesized that social-category knowledge is similarly embodied, and we tested this hypothesis by examining a sensory metaphor related to categorical judgments of gender. We chose the dimension of "toughness" (ranging from tough to tender), which is often used to characterize differences between males and females. Across two studies, the proprioceptive experience of toughness (vs. tenderness) was manipulated as participants categorized sex-ambiguous faces as male or female. Two different manipulations of proprioceptive toughness predictably biased the categorization of faces toward "male." These findings suggest that social-category knowledge is at least partially embodied. PMID:21106884

  1. Tough and tender: embodied categorization of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepian, Michael L; Weisbuch, Max; Rule, Nicholas O; Ambady, Nalini

    2011-01-01

    Emerging evidence has shown that human thought can be embodied within physical sensations and actions. Indeed, abstract concepts such as morality, time, and interpersonal warmth can be based on metaphors that are grounded in bodily experiences (e.g., physical temperature can signal interpersonal warmth). We hypothesized that social-category knowledge is similarly embodied, and we tested this hypothesis by examining a sensory metaphor related to categorical judgments of gender. We chose the dimension of "toughness" (ranging from tough to tender), which is often used to characterize differences between males and females. Across two studies, the proprioceptive experience of toughness (vs. tenderness) was manipulated as participants categorized sex-ambiguous faces as male or female. Two different manipulations of proprioceptive toughness predictably biased the categorization of faces toward "male." These findings suggest that social-category knowledge is at least partially embodied.

  2. Efficacy of reverse micellar extracted fruit bromelain in meat tenderization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasiya, Ram Saran; Sakhare, P Z; Bhaskar, N; Hebbar, H Umesh

    2015-06-01

    Reverse micellar extraction (RME) was used for the separation and purification of bromelain from pineapple core and efficacy of RME purified bromelain (RMEB) in tenderization of beef meat was compared with that of commercial stem bromelain (CSB). RME resulted in reasonably high bromelain activity recovery (85.0 %) and purification fold (4.0). Reduction in meat toughness was higher in RMEB treated meat (52.1 %) compared to raw (control) and CSB treated (26.7 %). Significant increase in water holding capacity (WHC) was observed in RMEB treated meat (91.1 %) as against CSB treated (55.6 %) and control (56.6 %). No change in cooking loss was observed in RMEB treated meat, whereas the loss increased by nearly 14.0 % in case of CSB treated. While the meat color was retained, trichloroacetic acid (TCA) soluble protein content increased due to hydrolysis of protein in RMEB treated meat. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed that RMEB treatment completely ruptures myofibril tissues, indicating a higher degree of tenderization. PMID:26028772

  3. Efficacy of reverse micellar extracted fruit bromelain in meat tenderization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasiya, Ram Saran; Sakhare, P Z; Bhaskar, N; Hebbar, H Umesh

    2015-06-01

    Reverse micellar extraction (RME) was used for the separation and purification of bromelain from pineapple core and efficacy of RME purified bromelain (RMEB) in tenderization of beef meat was compared with that of commercial stem bromelain (CSB). RME resulted in reasonably high bromelain activity recovery (85.0 %) and purification fold (4.0). Reduction in meat toughness was higher in RMEB treated meat (52.1 %) compared to raw (control) and CSB treated (26.7 %). Significant increase in water holding capacity (WHC) was observed in RMEB treated meat (91.1 %) as against CSB treated (55.6 %) and control (56.6 %). No change in cooking loss was observed in RMEB treated meat, whereas the loss increased by nearly 14.0 % in case of CSB treated. While the meat color was retained, trichloroacetic acid (TCA) soluble protein content increased due to hydrolysis of protein in RMEB treated meat. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed that RMEB treatment completely ruptures myofibril tissues, indicating a higher degree of tenderization.

  4. Relation of postmortem protease activity to tenderness in buffalo meat and Brahman beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hirabayashi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We previously showed that meat from crossbred water buffalo had significantly higher tenderness than beef from crossbred Brahman cattle of the same age, gender, and diet. Extensive studies on meat tenderness have indicated that proteases degrade muscle fibre proteins during postmortem storage, leading to weakening of the myofibrillar structure and an increase in tenderness. Thus, we investigated the difference in protease activity immediately postmortem, in order to explain the difference in tenderness between buffalo meat and beef. Five female crossbred water-buffalo (Philippine Carabao x Bulgarian Murrah and five female crossbred cattle (Brahman x Philippine Native were slaughtered at 30 months of age, and Longissimus thoracis muscle was sampled immediately post-slaughter. Protease activity at different pH levels and the effect of various inhibitors on protease activity were examined. Results showed that buffalo meat had significantly higher protease activity compared to beef, and calpain inhibitor 1 was the most effective inhibitor. As calpain inhibitor 1 is a specific inhibitor of calpain 1 and 2, the results suggest that higher calpain activity in buffalo meat was responsible for the higher tenderness of buffalo meat compared to Brahman beef.

  5. Time course of subjective pain ratings, and wound and leg tenderness after hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møiniche, S; Dahl, J B; Erichsen, C J;

    1997-01-01

    on the abdominal wall 0.05, 5, 10 and 15 cm perpendicular to the wound, and on the anterior surface of the left thigh and tuberositas tibia. Furthermore, pain was assessed on a visual analogue scale (VAS) at rest and during cough. RESULTS: PPT decreased significantly 0.5, 5, 10 and 15 cm from skin incision up.......0002). CONCLUSION: These results indicate that wound pressure algometry correlates to postoperative pain at rest and during movement and may be an alternative way of assessing wound pain and tenderness. Increased tenderness to mechanical stimulation remote from the surgical wound could not be demonstrated.......BACKGROUND: Little information is available on time course of wound tenderness and relationship to subjective pain ratings following surgery. Furthermore, it is not clarified whether surgical procedures may induce hyperalgesia to mechanical stimulation outside the area of the surgical incision. We...

  6. Decision Support Systems (DSS) in Construction Tendering Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Mohemad, Rosmayati; Othman, Zulaiha Ali; Noor, Noor Maizura Mohamad

    2010-01-01

    The successful execution of a construction project is heavily impacted by making the right decision during tendering processes. Managing tender procedures is very complex and uncertain involving coordination of many tasks and individuals with different priorities and objectives. Bias and inconsistent decision are inevitable if the decision-making process is totally depends on intuition, subjective judgement or emotion. In making transparent decision and healthy competition tendering, there exists a need for flexible guidance tool for decision support. Aim of this paper is to give a review on current practices of Decision Support Systems (DSS) technology in construction tendering processes. Current practices of general tendering processes as applied to the most countries in different regions such as United States, Europe, Middle East and Asia are comprehensively discussed. Applications of Web-based tendering processes is also summarised in terms of its properties. Besides that, a summary of Decision Support Sy...

  7. Tender and Bidding in Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Tejas C Patil

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Construction Industry plays a key role in the process of economic transformation and growth. Export of projects and services indicate a country's progress in technology and export performance. Most of the companies are versed only with engineering and technology. The decision to bid is a major financial decision because of two reasons. First, the contractor assumes substantial costs for the preparations of the estimates and the tender at the risk of not recovering them if he is not awarded the job. Second, andmost importantly, thecontractor commits himself to investment in the construction of the project if he wins the bid

  8. Gertrude Stein’s Tender Buttons (1911)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, Søren Hattesen

    2004-01-01

    , however, intends to read Tender Buttons somewhat differently by suggesting that the poems may be viewed as an example of a displaced Rabbinic hermeneutics in the sense given the term by Susan Handelman. Inasmuch as Stein refuses to name the many objects properly that the titles of the poems introduce and...... instead – to employ her own term – “abuses” their names by way of wordplay, punning, syntactical ambiguity, and semantic disruption, she impersonates a secular Reb Stein, who stays faithful to the Scripture by sacred contempt of representation and obedience to (the play of) the letter. Perhaps this is the...

  9. Decision Support Systems (DSS in Construction Tendering Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmayati Mohemad

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The successful execution of a construction project is heavily impacted by making the right decision during tendering processes. Managing tender procedures is very complex and uncertain involving coordination of many tasks and individuals with different priorities and objectives. Bias and inconsistent decision are inevitable if the decision-making process is totally depends on intuition, subjective judgement or emotion. In making transparent decision and healthy competition tendering, there exists a need for flexible guidance tool for decision support. Aim of this paper is to give a review on current practices of Decision Support Systems (DSS technology in construction tendering processes. Current practices of general tendering processes as applied to the most countries in different regions such as United States, Europe, Middle East and Asia are comprehensively discussed. Applications of Web-based tendering processes is also summarised in terms of its properties. Besides that, a summary of Decision Support System (DSS components is included in the next section. Furthermore, prior researches on implementation of DSS approaches in tendering processes are discussed in details. Current issues arise from both of paper-based and Web-based tendering processes are outlined. Finally, conclusion is included at the end of this paper.

  10. Effect of phenotypic expression of Brahman breeding on marbling and tenderness traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherbeck, J A; Tatum, J D; Field, T G; Morgan, J B; Smith, G C

    1996-02-01

    Steers with known proportions of Brahman and Hereford breeding (80 quarter-bloods, 25% Brahman x 75% Hereford and 79 half-bloods, 50% Brahman x 50% Hereford) were used to determine the effect of phenotype on marbling and beef tenderness characteristics. Three experienced evaluators independently classified each live steer according to estimated proportion of Brahman breeding based on phenotypic evidence of Brahman breed characteristics. The steers were slaughtered, their carcasses were graded, and a carcass. Samples of longissimus muscle were obtained for measurement of 24-h calpastatin activity, sensory panel evaluation, and Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) force measurements. Paired steaks were aged (6 and 18 d postmortem) and palatability determinations were completed. Estimates of live animal phenotype ranged from 0/16 to 9/16 for quarter-blood Brahman steers and from 1/14 to 13/16 for half-blood Brahman steers. Neither live animal phenotype nor carcass hump height was correlated with marbling score. Live animal phenotype was correlated (P carcass hump height exhibited low, negative correlations (P Brahman were tougher (P Brahman. Steaks from carcasses with hump height measurements of 7.60 cm or greater had lower panel tenderness ratings and higher WBS values (P Brahman steers that were similar in phenotype produced steaks that were similar in tenderness. Results of this study suggest that as phenotypic evidence of Brahman breeding increases the tenderness of cooked steaks from Brahman crossbred steers decreases.

  11. Induction of prolonged tenderness in patients with tension-type headache by means of a new experimental model of myofascial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mørk, H; Ashina, M; Bendtsen, L; Olesen, J; Jensen, R

    2003-05-01

    Tenderness is the most prominent abnormal finding in patients with tension-type headache (TTH). Recently we developed a model of myofascial tenderness using intramuscular infusion of a combination of bradykinin, serotonin, histamine and prostaglandin E2. We aimed to examine tenderness after this combination in patients with episodic TTH (ETTH). Fifteen patients and 15 healthy controls completed the study. Participants received the combination into the non-dominant trapezius muscle in a randomized, double-blinded and placebo-controlled design. Local tenderness and stimulus-response functions, mechanical pain thresholds (PPDT) in the temporal region and on the finger, and total tenderness score (TTS) were recorded. A local, prolonged, and mild to moderate tenderness was reported both in patients (P = 0.001) and in controls (P = 0.001) after the combination compared with the placebo. The response to the combination tended to be increased in patients. The stimulus-response function was leftward shifted after the combination, compared with baseline in both groups. No changes in PPDT or TTS were found after the infusions, whereas baseline PPDTs were decreased in ETTH compared with controls (PPDTfinger: P = 0.033; PPDTtemporal: P = 0.015). Intramuscular infusion of a combination of endogenous substances induced prolonged tenderness in both patients with episodic TTH and healthy subjects. The present results suggest an increased excitability of peripheral muscle afferents in TTH.

  12. Pre-rigor infusion with kiwifruit juice improves lamb tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J; Morton, J D; Bekhit, A E D; Sedcole, J R

    2009-07-01

    The ability of pre-rigor infusion of kiwifruit juice to improve the tenderness of lamb was investigated. Lamb carcasses were infused (10% body weight) with fresh kiwifruit juice (Ac), water (W) and a non-infusion control (C) treatment. Infusion treatment had no effect on lamb hot carcass weight, cold carcass weight and chilling evaporative losses. The infused treatment carcasses of Ac and W had lower (Ptender with significantly lower shear force (Pmeat tenderizer, which could contribute efficiently and effectively to the meat tenderization process. PMID:20416722

  13. Tenderization effect of cold-adapted collagenolytic protease MCP-01 on beef meat at low temperature and its mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guo-Yan; Zhou, Ming-Yang; Zhao, Hui-Lin; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Xie, Bin-Bin; Zhang, Xi-Ying; He, Hai-Lun; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2012-10-15

    The enzymes currently used to increase meat tenderness are all mesophilic or thermophilic proteases. This study provides insight into the tenderization effect and the mechanism of a cold-adapted collagenolytic enzyme MCP-01 on beef meat at low temperatures. MCP-01 (10 U of caseinolytic activity) reduced the meat shear force by 23% and increased the relative myofibrillar fragmentation index of the meat by 91.7% at 4 °C, and it also kept the fresh colour and moisture of the meat. Compared to the commercially used tenderizers papain and bromelain, MCP-01 showed a unique tenderization mechanism. MCP-01 had a strong selectivity for degrading collagen at 4 °C, showed a distinct digestion pattern on the myofibrillar proteins, and had a different disruption pattern on the muscle fibres under scanning electron micrograph. These results suggest that the cold-adapted collagenolytic protease MCP-01 may be promising for use as a meat tenderizer at low and moderate temperatures.

  14. Tenderization effect of cold-adapted collagenolytic protease MCP-01 on beef meat at low temperature and its mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guo-Yan; Zhou, Ming-Yang; Zhao, Hui-Lin; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Xie, Bin-Bin; Zhang, Xi-Ying; He, Hai-Lun; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2012-10-15

    The enzymes currently used to increase meat tenderness are all mesophilic or thermophilic proteases. This study provides insight into the tenderization effect and the mechanism of a cold-adapted collagenolytic enzyme MCP-01 on beef meat at low temperatures. MCP-01 (10 U of caseinolytic activity) reduced the meat shear force by 23% and increased the relative myofibrillar fragmentation index of the meat by 91.7% at 4 °C, and it also kept the fresh colour and moisture of the meat. Compared to the commercially used tenderizers papain and bromelain, MCP-01 showed a unique tenderization mechanism. MCP-01 had a strong selectivity for degrading collagen at 4 °C, showed a distinct digestion pattern on the myofibrillar proteins, and had a different disruption pattern on the muscle fibres under scanning electron micrograph. These results suggest that the cold-adapted collagenolytic protease MCP-01 may be promising for use as a meat tenderizer at low and moderate temperatures. PMID:23442615

  15. 49 CFR 230.100 - Defects in tender truck axles and journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defects in tender truck axles and journals. 230... Steam Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.100 Defects in tender truck axles and journals. (a... wheel seats that is more than 1/8 of an inch in depth. (b) Tender truck journal condemning...

  16. A Novel Database System Model Design for Tender Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Noraziah, A.; R. Norhayati; Abdalla, Ahmed N.; A. H. Roslina; M. A. Noorlin; O. M. Affendy

    2008-01-01

    This research focus on the software design and database system model for Tender Management System (TMS) in Kadastra. TMS in Kadastra is an automated system that can calculates tender payment claims for the land surveyor company. The calculation is based on the Vide Federal Government Gazette PU (A) 169 Thirteenth Schedule (Regulation 99) Scale of Fees for Title Surveys given by Land Surveyors Board in Malaysia. Based on the system, it provides data availability for read and writes operations ...

  17. Tenderness and taste qualification of red brangus beef in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Gaspar Manuel Parra-Bracamonte; Ana María Sifuentes-Rincón; Williams Arellano-Vera; Juan Gabriel Magaña-Monforte; José Alberto Ramírez-De León; Gonzalo Velázquez

    2014-01-01

    Beef tenderness is an important trait in consumer satisfaction and has been considered as the main trait for palatability, for which reason it is important to evaluate its variability in different cattle breeds. An experiment was designed to evaluate the Warner Bratzler Shear Force (WBSF) of Red Brangus cattle rib eye steaks and consumer acceptance. The tenderness of beef rib eye steaks was evaluated by the WBSF. A consumer preference evaluation test was carried out to quantitatively estimate...

  18. Tenderization of buffalo meat using plant proteases from Cucumis trigonus Roxb (Kachri) and Zingiber officinale roscoe (Ginger rhizome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveena, B M; Mendiratta, S K; Anjaneyulu, A S R

    2004-11-01

    This study was conducted to develop a method for improving tenderness and overall qualities of tough buffalo meat using plant proteolytic enzymes from Cucumis trigonus Roxb (Kachri) and Zingiber officinale roscoe (Ginger rhizome). Their tenderizing efficacy was compared with the most popular enzyme papain. 3×3×3 cm chunks from Biceps femoris muscles of spent Murrah buffaloes (4-5 years age) were marinated with distilled water (control), 2% (w/w) powdered cucumis extract, 5% (w/v) ginger extract or 0.2% (w/w) papain for 48 h at 4 °C and subjected to various physico-chemical, histological and sensory evaluations. An increase (pmeat samples received better scores for appearance, flavor, tenderness and overall acceptability. From these results, it is shown that ginger and cucumis can be used as an effective alternative to papain. PMID:22062404

  19. Combining two proven mechanical tenderness measurements in one steak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Z D; Belk, K E; Miller, R K; Morgan, J B; Lorenzen, C L

    2013-09-01

    This research was performed to determine the true efficacy of measuring both Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) and slice shear force (SSF) in the same steak. The objectives were to compare cooking methods commonly used in preparing steaks for WBSF and SSF procedures and compare them at different cooling times. United States Department of Agriculture select strip loins (n = 240) were aged for either 7 or 14 d to increase the variation in tenderness. Each strip loin was then frozen and cut into 2.54-cm steaks. Steaks were then cooked to an internal temperature of 71°C using a convection conveyor oven (conveyor), a convection oven, clamshell grill, or an open hearth grill. Steaks were allotted to 4 different cooling times to create the combinations of: WBSF 4 h/SSF 0 h, WBSF 4 h/SSF 4 h, WBSF 24 h/SSF 0 h, WBSF 24 h/SSF 24 h. Five 1.25-cm cores were used for WBSF and one 1- by 5-cm slice for SSF. The WBSF from steaks cooked with conveyor were tougher than convection oven cooked steaks [51.9 Newtons (N) vs. 46.1 N; P Correlations for WBSF and SSF performed in the same steak ranged from 0.51 to 0.88 (P correlation values but the magnitude of the relationship is dependent on the combination of cooking method and cooling time.

  20. THE CONCEPT AND FORMS OF TENDERS IN THE CIVIL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didenko A. A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In modern civil turnover the definition of a bidding contract is a well known way of making contracts. Despite this fact, the modern legal science has not formed a general idea about the tender. In particular, the problem of this phenomenon is in minor investigation of the principle of the conclusion of agreement and the deal itself in the civil law. It requires further legal analysis in investigation of the legal procedures of the contract at the auction. Legal regulation of the relations in the area of conclusion of the contract on bidding is quite extensive in reality and evidenced by the reflection in the legislation of a significant number of trades. A vivid example is the legislation on the auction, conducted for the purpose of placing the state order. This legislation is comprehensive and currently is under in the process of reform in development of a new contractual system of the state order. The particular interest increase in the conclusion of the contracts by means of the electronic trading platforms. Thus, the situation in the field of legislation on the auction, its practical application and theoretical research in this field requires the further investigation of the bid process as a whole law area that illustrates the relevance of this article

  1. Effect of phenotypic expression of Brahman breeding on marbling and tenderness traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherbeck, J A; Tatum, J D; Field, T G; Morgan, J B; Smith, G C

    1996-02-01

    Steers with known proportions of Brahman and Hereford breeding (80 quarter-bloods, 25% Brahman x 75% Hereford and 79 half-bloods, 50% Brahman x 50% Hereford) were used to determine the effect of phenotype on marbling and beef tenderness characteristics. Three experienced evaluators independently classified each live steer according to estimated proportion of Brahman breeding based on phenotypic evidence of Brahman breed characteristics. The steers were slaughtered, their carcasses were graded, and a carcass. Samples of longissimus muscle were obtained for measurement of 24-h calpastatin activity, sensory panel evaluation, and Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) force measurements. Paired steaks were aged (6 and 18 d postmortem) and palatability determinations were completed. Estimates of live animal phenotype ranged from 0/16 to 9/16 for quarter-blood Brahman steers and from 1/14 to 13/16 for half-blood Brahman steers. Neither live animal phenotype nor carcass hump height was correlated with marbling score. Live animal phenotype was correlated (P carcass hump height exhibited low, negative correlations (P Brahman were tougher (P Brahman. Steaks from carcasses with hump height measurements of 7.60 cm or greater had lower panel tenderness ratings and higher WBS values (P carcasses with hump heights less than 6.35 cm. Quarter-blood and half-blood Brahman steers that were similar in phenotype produced steaks that were similar in tenderness. Results of this study suggest that as phenotypic evidence of Brahman breeding increases the tenderness of cooked steaks from Brahman crossbred steers decreases.

  2. Proteolytic changes of myofibrillar proteins in Podolian meat during aging: focusing on tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, R; Della Malva, A; Albenzio, M

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the relationship between changes in postmortem degradation of myofibrillar proteins and tenderness development in 3 different muscles from 10 Podolian young bulls aged 1, 7, 14, and 21 d. Psoas major (PM), longissimus dorsi (LD), and semitendinosus muscle () were removed from each half carcass 24 h postmortem. Meat chemical composition, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), myofibril fragmentation index (MFI), total collagen content, and changes in myofibrillar proteins were estimated in triplicate at each aging time. A significant muscle effect was found on meat chemical composition. Semitendinosus muscle showed the lowest intramuscular fat percentage ( total collagen content ( image analyses results showed a significant increase of the total number of spots reaching the highest value in the LD muscle at 21 d of aging ( total variance. Data highlight that aging affects the meat tenderness and proteolysis with different intensities in each muscle. These results provide knowledge about the tenderness mechanism in different muscles from a rustic breed and could be useful for the development of muscle specific strategies for improving the quality and value in different commercial cuts. PMID:26020914

  3. Calls for Tender and Market Surveys Roles and Procedures

    CERN Document Server

    Annila, L

    2000-01-01

    ST division has implemented certain procedures to handle the calls for tender and market surveys. In January 1998, the division leader set up the 'call-for-tender co-ordination office' to check and approve each technical document leaving the division. The mandate of the call-for-tender co-ordination office is to check the quality of the documents, in order for these documents to be as clear as possible in terms of both content and structure. The role of this office is to contribute positively and give service to the people writing the documents, and not to give negative criticism. The aim of this paper is to present the mandate of the office, how papers are processed, and to draw up a first result summary.

  4. Semisubmersible rigs attractive for tender-assisted drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tranter, P. (Sedco Forex, Aberdeen (United Kingdom))

    1994-09-19

    Tender-assisted drilling (TAD) involves the use of tender support vessel (TSV) during the drilling phase of platform development to provide drilling utilities to the platform-mounted drilling package. The TSV provides facilities such as mud mixing, storage, pumping, bulk storage, hotel accommodations, and power. Thus, the platform topsides and jacket weight and size can be smaller and less expensive. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of TAD, then describes the TAD vessel, semisubmersible, platform cost savings, accommodations, drilling and workovers, and field experience.

  5. Palpation for muscular tenderness in the anterior chest wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Wulff; Vach, Werner; Manniche, Claus;

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To asses the interobserver and intraobserver reliability (in terms of day-to-day and hour-to-hour reliability) of palpation for muscular tenderness in the anterior chest wall. DESIGN: A repeated measures designs was used. SETTING: Department of Nuclear Medicine, Odense University...... Hospital, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Two experienced chiropractors examined 29 patients and 27 subjects in the interobserver part, and 1 of the 2 chiropractors examined 14 patients and 15 subjects in the intraobserver studies. INTERVENTION: Palpation for muscular tenderness was done in 14 predetermined areas...

  6. Relationships between sensory evaluations of beef tenderness, shear force measurements and consumer characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; De Smet, Stefaan; Ueland, Øydis; Verbeke, Wim

    2014-07-01

    The supply of tender beef is an important challenge for the beef industry. Knowledge about the profile of consumers who are more optimistic or more accurate in their tenderness evaluations is important for product development and beef marketing purposes. Central location tests of beef steaks were performed in Norway and Belgium (n=218). Instrumental and sensorial tenderness of three muscles from Belgian Blue and Norwegian Red cattle was reported. Consumers who are optimistically evaluating tenderness were found to be more often male, less food neophobic, more positive towards beef healthiness, and showed fewer concerns about beef safety. No clear profile emerged for consumers who assessed tenderness similar to shear force measurements, which suggests that tenderness is mainly evaluated subjectively. The results imply a window of opportunities in tenderness improvements, and allow targeting a market segment which is less critical towards beef tenderness. PMID:23962381

  7. Olanzapine-induced tender pitting pre-tibial edema

    OpenAIRE

    Kaliaperumal Mathan; Venkatesan Muthukrishnan; Vikas Menon

    2015-01-01

    Antipsychotic-induced edema is uncommonly encountered in clinical practice. We report a case of tender pitting pre-tibial edema with olanzapine in a woman with no medical comorbidities. The peculiar distribution of edema resulted in diagnostic confusion necessitating specific investigations. Eventually, the edema resolved following complete stoppage of the drug, but caused distress to the patient and the caregiver.

  8. Tendering and decision-making: a case on pharmaceutical products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Dankers; R. Vieira

    2012-01-01

    In order to contain expenditures for pharmaceuticals, the latest healthcare reforms have focused on decentralising German pharmaceutical market. Health insurance funds are now able to tender the products and subsequently conclude rebate contracts with one or more companies. Considering the enormous

  9. Tenderness and sensory attributes of the longissimus lumborum muscles with different quality grades from Chinese fattened yellow crossbred steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, R R; Zhu, H; Mao, Y W; Zhang, Y M; Zhu, L X; Cornforth, D; Wang, R H; Meng, X Y; Luo, X

    2016-02-01

    The objectives were to investigate intramuscular fat (IMF) content,Warner–Bratzler shear force(WBSF) and sensory attributes of Chinese fattened yellow crossbred steer beef with different quality grades, and to determine the relationship between WBSF and Chinese consumers' sensory tender. WBSF of grades A1 to A5 decreased from 50.6 N to 33.1 N with IMF % increased from4.26 to 24.55 (P b 0.05). Consumer panelists showed more likeability grades A4 and A5 with no difference between them. Grades A2 and A3 were slightly preferred (P b 0.05). Grade A1 was undesirable. A regression relationship between WBSF and sensory tender was found, which indicated that consumers disliked beef when WBSF N55.43 N and preferred those with WBSF b41.4 N. The range of 41.4 N to 55.43 N was intermediate. Hence, WBSF N55.43 & b41.4 N allow classification of tough and tender for beef tenderness for Chinese consumers, and grade A4 was recommended as suitable top grade. PMID:26519609

  10. 16 CFR 801.33 - Consummation of an acquisition by acceptance of tendered shares of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ACT OF 1976 COVERAGE RULES § 801.33 Consummation of an acquisition by acceptance of tendered shares of payment. The acceptance for payment of any shares tendered in a tender offer is the consummation of an... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consummation of an acquisition by...

  11. Grounds for dispensing with public tender procedures in Government Contracting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Bolton

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa1 provides that organs of state must comply with five principles when procuring goods or services: procurement procedures must be fair, equitable, transparent, competitive and cost-effective. In short, this means that organs of state should make use of competition when procuring goods or services. They should shop around and attract the maximum number of contractors who will participate in such competition. The aim should be the attainment of value for money, meaning, public money should be spent in an effective and efficient manner. Those who participate in competitions should also be treated fairly and without bias. In principle, no preferences should be afforded to different contractors; all contracting parties should have equal access to competition; some contractors should not be afforded more time for the preparation and submission of quotes or tenders than others; and the same information should be made available to all contracting parties. Government procurement procedures should further be transparent, meaning public or open. Thus, organs of state should not contract behind closed doors – government contracts should, as a rule, be advertised. Depending on the nature and value of a particular contract, the use of a public call for tenders is generally the best way to ensure compliance with the principles in the Constitution. By nature, a pubic call for tenders is open, it assists in the prevention of fraud and favouritism, and it ensures that the maximum number of contractors is approached to compete for a contract.Organs of state can also compare prices and quality and can contract with whoever offers the best deal. Most legislation therefore proceeds on the basis that procurement takes place by way of tendering. Generally, contracts above R200 000 are subject to public tender procedures. In certain instances, however, a public call for tenders may be inappropriate regardless of the high

  12. Efficiency of plant proteases bromelain and papain on turkey meat tenderness

    OpenAIRE

    Doneva M.; Miteva D.; Dyankova S.; Nacheva I.; Metodieva P.; Dimov K.

    2015-01-01

    The main subject of study is the effect the plant proteases bromelain and papain exert on turkey meat tenderness. Experiments are conducted with samples of raw meat in 3 different concentration levels of the enzyme solutions (50U/ml 100U/ml and 200 U/ml) and in 3 different time periods (duration) of treatment (24 h, 48 h, 72h). An increase in enzyme concentration and treatment duration results in a higher degree of protein hydrolysis in the turkey meat. The...

  13. Reindeer meat – is it always tender, tasty and healthy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Wiklund

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Meat with high pH values, so called DFD (Dark, Firm, Dry meat, is a persistent quality defect foundmin all meat species. DFD shortens shelf life, especially for vacuum-packed meat and affects meat colour, tenderness and water-holding properties. High pH values in reindeer meat have been related to pre-slaughter handling stress and poor nutritional status of the animals. There are numerous reports that variation in muscle pH and glycogen content give rise to considerable variations in meat tenderness in species such as beef and lamb. In contrast, reindeer meat has been found to be extremely tender regardless of ultimate pH. This phenomenon has been related to the speed of post mortem protein degradation and the small muscle fibre size in reindeer. Previous research has demonstrated that the fatty acid composition of meat changes in response to diets. Generally, a higher proportion of long, unsaturated fatty acids were found in meat from grazing animals compared with animals fed a grain-based diet. Reindeer meat has been found to contain moderate amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, especially so-called n-3 (or omega-3 PUFAs. The PUFAs are known to be susceptible to oxidation and may therefore be easily oxidized during processing by techniques like smoking and drying. A trained sensory panel concluded that meat from reindeer fed commercial feed scored higher for liverish and sweet flavours and lower for off-flavou (i.e. ‘grass’, ‘wild’ and ‘game’ compared with meat from grazing animals. Consumer preference tests on reindeer meat showed that 50 per cent of the consumers preferred meat from grazing reindeer and 50 per cent meat from pellet-fed animals. Recent reindeer meat research has included new feed mixtures using ingredients like linseed and fishmeal. Crushed linseed in the feed gave meat with a fat composition similar to that of natural pasture, which meant more PUFA than in meat from reindeer fed the normal grain

  14. The Choice of the Best Proposal in Tendering with AHP Method: Case of Procurement of IT Master Plan’s Realization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amadou Diabagaté

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The computer system has become one of the centerpieces in the functioning of organizations hence the importance of an IT (Information Technology master plan to manage its development. To find a provider for the IT master plan’s realization, organizations are increasingly using tendering as the mode of awarding contracts. This article focuses on the use of multi-criteria decision-making method AHP for analysis and evaluation of tenders during the awarding of contracts of IT master plan’s realization. To achieve this goal, a painstaking work was realized, on the one hand, for making an inventory of criteria and sub-criteria involved in the evaluation of bids and on the other hand for specifying the degrees of preference for each pair of criteria and each pair of sub-criteria. Finally, a test was performed by using fictitious tenders. The goals of this work are to make available to members of tenders committee a decision support tool for evaluating tenders of IT master plan’s realization submitted by bidders and endow the organizations with effective IT master plans in order to increase the performance of their information systems.

  15. Renewable Energy Auctions and Tenders: How good are they?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Toke

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the performance of two cases of renewable energy (RE auction/tender systems in an effort to contribute to the evaluation of RE auction/tender systems and to study best practice in their delivery of RE projects. This is done by comparing regimes in different settings, one concerned with Danish offshore wind development, the other concerned with renewable energy development in South Africa. It is found that regulatory factors which promote certainty in deployment, including measures to ensure that projects achieve grid connection, are important in assuring delivery of the programmes. However cost reductions that are associated with renewable energy auctions are not caused mainly by the auction systems themselves, but rather are associated with general declines in the costs of renewable energy technologies. Moreover, the effect of renewable energy auctions systems may be more concerned with limiting renewable energy deployment rather than reducing the costs of energy generated by renewable energy projects that are deployed.

  16. Resolution of a phytobezoar with Aldoph's Meat Tenderizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Erica L; Baker, William L; Cloney, David J

    2007-02-01

    A 58-year-old man went to his physician with complaints of midepigastric pain, flatulence, belching, and shortness of breath. During a physical examination, the patient was in no acute distress. The patient underwent an ultrasound examination, which revealed cholelithiasis, a laparoscopic cholecystectomy, which revealed chronic gallbladder disease, and esophagogastroduodenoscopy, which revealed gastritis, a hiatal hernia, and a phytobezoar. To treat the bezoar, the patient was given Adolph's Meat Tenderizer 1 teaspoonful in 8 oz of water before each meal for 7 days. This product contains papain, a proteolytic enzyme, that is thought to cleave protein linkages within bezoars. The patient's symptoms resolved with no adverse events reported, and follow-up endoscopy revealed resolution of the phytobezoar. Although a few other agents are used to treat phytobezoars, little clinical data exist on their safety and effectiveness. Adolph's Meat Tenderizer appears to be a safe and effective treatment for patients with a phytobezoar. PMID:17253920

  17. Tender Beginnings program: an educational continuum for the maternity patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Susan E H

    2006-01-01

    The Tender Beginnings program demonstrates a comprehensive educational plan for maternity patients that can be extended throughout pregnancy, the birth process, and into the postpartum period. In today's healthcare environment, where the maternity patient continues to experience a shortened stay structure, the hurried learning process that is absorbed over a 48-hour stay is often ineffectual. This program provides a strategy and framework for effective teaching that can be successfully implemented all through the peripartum period. Budgetary constraints have given way to an innovative approach and opportunity for the healthcare specialist to explore an entrepreneurial relationship within the structure of the program. The Tender Beginnings program has proven to be a true integration of community educational outreach, nurse entrepreneurship, hospital-based education, and postpartum/neonatal follow-up. PMID:16915052

  18. Pain sensitivity and pericranial tenderness in children with tension-type headache: a controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soee ABL

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ann-Britt L Soee,1 Liselotte Skov,1 Svend Kreiner,4 Birte Tornoe,1,2 Lise L Thomsen3 1Department of Paediatrics, Children's Headache Clinic, Copenhagen University Hospital Herlev, Copenhagen, Denmark; 2Department of Physiotherapy, Medical Department O, Copenhagen University Hospital Herlev, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Department of Neuropediatrics, Juliane Marie Centre, Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen Denmark; 4Department of Biostatistics, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Purpose: To compare tenderness and pain sensitivity in children (aged 7–17 years with tension-type headache (TTH and healthy controls using total tenderness score (TTS, pressure pain threshold (PPT, and pain perceived at suprapressure pain threshold (supraPPT. Patients and methods: Twenty-three children with frequent episodic TTH, 36 with chronic TTH, and 57 healthy controls were included. TTS was measured bilaterally at seven pericranial myofascial structures. PPT and supraPPT were assessed in the finger, m. temporalis, and m. trapezius by a Somedic® algometer. SupraPPT was defined as the pain perceived at a stimulus calculated as the individual site-specific PPT + 50%. Statistics: The effect of group, sex, age, headache frequency, intensity, and years on TTS, PPT, and supraPPT was analyzed by general linear models. Confirmatory factor analysis was analyzed for mutual relations between measurements. Results and conclusion: Tenderness increased uniformly in both frequent episodic TTH (median 14; interquartile range [IQR] 10–18; P < 0.001 and chronic TTH (median 13; IQR 9–20; P < 0.001 compared to controls (median 5, IQR 3–11. However, the children with frequent episodic TTH and chronic TTH did not show significantly increased sensitivity when measured by PPT or supraPPT. Factor analysis confirmed that the site-specific measurements depended on general latent variables. Consequently, the PPT and supraPPT tests can be assumed to measure

  19. Transcriptomic investigation of meat tenderness in two Italian cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiorni, S; Gruber, C E M; Bueno, S; Chillemi, G; Ferrè, F; Failla, S; Moioli, B; Valentini, A

    2016-06-01

    Our objectives for this study were to understand the biological basis of meat tenderness and to provide an overview of the gene expression profiles related to meat quality as a tool for selection. Through deep mRNA sequencing, we analyzed gene expression in muscle tissues of two Italian cattle breeds: Maremmana and Chianina. We uncovered several differentially expressed genes that encode for proteins belonging to a family of tripartite motif proteins, which are involved in growth, cell differentiation and apoptosis, such as TRIM45, or play an essential role in regulating skeletal muscle differentiation and the regeneration of adult skeletal muscle, such as TRIM32. Other differentially expressed genes (SCN2B, SLC9A7 and KCNK3) emphasize the involvement of potassium-sodium pumps in tender meat. By mapping splice junctions in RNA-Seq reads, we found significant differences in gene isoform expression levels. The PRKAG3 gene, which is involved in the regulation of energy metabolism, showed four isoforms that were differentially expressed. This distinct pattern of PRKAG3 gene expression could indicate impaired glycogen storage in skeletal muscle, and consequently, this gene very likely has a role in the tenderization process. Furthermore, with this deep RNA-sequencing, we captured a high number of expressed SNPs, for example, we found 1462 homozygous SNPs showing the alternative allele with a 100% frequency when comparing tender and tough meat. SNPs were then classified into categories by their position and also by their effect on gene coding (174 non-synonymous polymorphisms) based on the available UMD_3.1 annotations. PMID:26857751

  20. Superficial temporal artery pseudoaneurysm presenting as a growing, pulsatile, and tender mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seferi, Arsen; Alimehmeti, Ridvan; Pajaj, Ermira; Vyshka, Gentian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Superficial temporal artery (STA) pseudoaneurysms have been reported in the literature since the mid of seventeenth century from Bartholin, however, there is an increasing number of cases, suggesting a diversity of etiological factors. Among these, traumatic events, even of an iatrogenic nature, have been identified as causative factors for nonspontaneous STA pseudoaneurysms. Regional pain and tenderness, troublesome pulsations of the mass, cosmetic concerns as well as the risk of bleeding warrant a thorough evaluation and a definite interventional approach to the condition. Case Description: A 21-year-old Caucasian male searched medical advice for a growing, tender, and pulsatile mass on his right temple, with isolated and short episodes of lancinating sensations, after sustaining a blunt trauma following a hit with a stick half a year before the admission. Enhanced cranial computed tomography and angiography confirmed the diagnosis of an STA pseudoaneurysm. A direct percutaneous aspiration, as well as ultrasonography, was performed prior to the neurosurgical intervention, with the complete removal of the mass. Conclusions: STA pseudoaneurysms require a careful evaluation and a conclusive approach in order to avoid the risk of a growing mass and other nonremote complications such as bone erosions and bleeding. Different treatment options are available, including endovascular obliteration and embolization, however, surgical removal after ligation of the afferent and efferent segments of the vessel seem to be highly effective.

  1. Tenderness of Pork Muscles as Influenced by Chilling Rate and Altered Carcass Suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Elin; Møller, Anders Juel

    1987-01-01

    Evaluation of tenderness improvements in porcine muscles (longissimus dorsi, semimembranosus, biceps femoris) in 72 carcasses by using combinations of three different chilling rates and two different suspennnsion methods....

  2. Danish Public Construction Counselling Selection and Assignment Criteria in European Tendering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Kranker; Ussing, Lene Faber; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev

    2014-01-01

    One of the largest customers in the Danish construction industry is public agencies that own and develop projects. For some of the counselling services, they recur to be put out in European tendering. The aim is to find which selection and assignment criteria are used most in public tendering. How...... projects use selection and assignment criteria for counselling services and finally if there is significant use of selection and assignment methods in public counselling. The method is based on 74 public counselling tenders from the European Tenders Electronic Daily database from January 2010 to March 2013...... counselling services....

  3. Meat tenderizer in the acute treatment of imported fire ant stings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, E V; Badame, A J; Dale, S E

    1987-06-01

    Meat tenderizer containing the proteolytic enzyme papain was tested for therapeutic efficacy in the sting of the imported fire ant. The parameters of pain and itching were used to evaluate qualitatively the sting response in 22 healthy medical students, and the laser Doppler velocimeter was used to assess quantitatively the change in cutaneous blood flow. The results indicated that, during the acute-phase reaction, no clinically or statistically significant difference was found between stings treated with meat tenderizer and stings treated without tenderizer. Therefore we conclude that meat tenderizer is of no therapeutic value in the acute treatment of the imported fire ant sting. PMID:3597861

  4. Psychiatric disorders and muscle tenderness in episodic and chronic migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongini, Franco; Deregibus, Andrea; Rota, Eugenia

    2005-09-01

    This review first reports on the data concerning the relationship between migraine and personality traits and psychiatric disorders. The relationship between migraine and tenderness of the pericranial and cervical muscles is then discussed. In one study, a psychologic assessment was performed in 56 women with migraine, and the Minnesota Multiphase Personality Inventory (MMPI) and State Trait Anxiety Inventory were administered at baseline (T0) and after 6-7 years (T2). Frequency, severity and duration of migraine were recorded at T0, after treatment (T1) and at T2, and their relationship to the prevalence of depression, MMPI and State Trait Anxiety Inventory data were examined. Pain parameters improved in all patients in T0-1, but were higher at T2 in patients with depression at T0. The patients whose migraine improved at T2 had significantly lower MMPI and State Trait Anxiety Inventory scores at T0 and T2. Moreover, the prevalence of depression of the patients whose migraine improved at T2 was 37.5% at T0 and decreased to 12.5% at T2. The authors subsequently studied the function of the frontal lobe in 23 female patients previously treated for chronic migraine and 23 controls by applying three neuropsychologic tests (gambling task, tower of hanoi-3 and object alternation test). The patient group performed significantly worse on the tower of hanoi-3 and the object alternation test. In order to assess the extent to which muscle tenderness may relate to psychiatric disorders in patients with migraine and tension-type headache, diagnosed according International Headache Society criteria [2004], a psychologic assessment was performed and palpation tenderness scores calculated for the pericranial and cervical muscles in 459 patients. In total, 125 patients had frequent episodic migraine, 97 had chronic migraine, 82 had frequent episodic tension-type headache and chronic tension-type headache was present in 83. In a further 72 patients, both episodic migraine and

  5. THE CONCEPT AND FORMS OF TENDERS IN THE CIVIL LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Didenko A. A.; Artem A. V.

    2015-01-01

    In modern civil turnover the definition of a bidding contract is a well known way of making contracts. Despite this fact, the modern legal science has not formed a general idea about the tender. In particular, the problem of this phenomenon is in minor investigation of the principle of the conclusion of agreement and the deal itself in the civil law. It requires further legal analysis in investigation of the legal procedures of the contract at the auction. Legal regulation of the relations in...

  6. Effect of decreasing dietary cation anion difference on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and beef tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonmaker, J P; Korn, K T; Condron, K N; Shee, C N; Claeys, M C; Nennich, T D; Lemenager, R P

    2013-12-01

    The manipulation of acid-base balance has been extensively investigated as a means of manipulating Ca homeostasis and managing milk fever in dairy cows. A low dietary cation anion difference (DCAD) increases urinary Ca, blood-ionized Ca, and responsiveness to Ca-homeostatic hormones. Very little attention has been focused on the possibility of using a low dietary DCAD to increase muscle Ca availability, calpain activity, and meat tenderness of beef cattle. Thus, 90 Angus × Simmental crossbred steers were allotted by weight (590.1 ± 2.4 kg) and breed composition (% Simmental) to 3 treatments (6 pens/treatment, 5 steers/pen) to evaluate the effects of DCAD on beef tenderness. Treatments were initiated 2 wk before slaughter and consisted of 3 DCAD (mEq/100 g) treatments: -16, 0, and +16. Basal diets (DM basis) were 62 to 64% corn, 6 to 9% soybean meal, and 20% corn silage, and were formulated to contain similar concentrations of protein, energy (NEm; NEg), and minerals, with the exception of sodium and chlorine. A commercial chloride ion supplement (PASTURChlor, West Central, Ralston, IA) was added to diets to decrease DCAD and sodium bicarbonate was added to diets to increase DCAD. Performance before initiation of the study did not differ among treatments (P > 0.22). Urine pH did not differ at the initiation of the study (P > 0.57), but did increase at a decreasing rate on d 7 (6.37, 7.69, 8.13) and d 14 (5.68, 7.66, 8.03) of the study as DCAD increased from -16 to 0 to +16, respectively (quadratic, P carcass weight, dressing percent, fat thickness, LM area, yield grade, marbling score, quality grade distribution, 48 h muscle pH, and Ca content of muscle did not differ among treatments (P > 0.16). In addition, DCAD did not affect Warner-Bratzler shear force among treatments after 7 and 21 d of aging (P > 0.23). Although urine pH was decreased by feeding a -16 DCAD diet, Ca influx into the LM and beef tenderness were not affected by altering the DCAD in finishing

  7. Further investigations into the relationship between ultimate pH and tenderness for beef samples from bulls and steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purchas, R W; Aungsupakorn, R

    1993-01-01

    Samples of longissimus dorsi muscle from 150 cattle comprising Friesian bulls and steers and Charolais × Angus cross steers, were used to investigate the nature of the relationship between ultimate pH and beef tenderness under conditions where cold-shortening was avoided. A modified Warner-Bratzler (WB) shear machine with a square- rather than a vee-blade enabled several aspects of tenderness to be evaluated, including peak force (PF), initial yield force (IY), PF-IY, and an index of total work done. The two steer groups differed little in meat quality characteristics, but, in terms of six major hindquarter cuts, the Charolais cross group yielded 14·3% more meat per unit live weight, due to a combination of a superior dressing-out percent and a higher cutability. Relative to Friesian steers, the bulls produced beef with a higher ultimate pH (P < 0·001), and after adjustment to a common pH, the bull beef was tougher for all WB parameters except PF-IY. Cooking loss was higher for beef from bulls after adjustment for pH. Although reduced by pH adjustment, beef from bulls remained significantly darker than that from steers (P < 0·05) based on reflectance measurements. Maximum toughness in terms of PF, IY, and work index was at an ultimate pH of 6·0-6·1, but the peak was much less clear for PF-IY. The decline in tenderness with an increase in ultimate pH to 6·2 was associated with a decrease in sarcomere length. This result supports a previous suggestion that shortening explains, at least in part, the lower average tenderness at intermediate pH values. PMID:22060661

  8. Regulatory polymorphisms in the bovine Ankyrin 1 gene promoter are associated with tenderness and intra-muscular fat content

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Aslan, Ozlem

    2010-12-15

    Abstract Background Recent QTL and gene expression studies have highlighted ankyrins as positional and functional candidate genes for meat quality. Our objective was to characterise the promoter region of the bovine ankyrin 1 gene and to test polymorphisms for association with sensory and technological meat quality measures. Results Seven novel promoter SNPs were identified in a 1.11 kb region of the ankyrin 1 promoter in Angus, Charolais and Limousin bulls (n = 15 per breed) as well as 141 crossbred beef animals for which meat quality data was available. Eighteen haplotypes were inferred with significant breed variation in haplotype frequencies. The five most frequent SNPs and the four most frequent haplotypes were subsequently tested for association with sensory and technological measures of meat quality in the crossbred population. SNP1, SNP3 and SNP4 (which were subsequently designated regulatory SNPs) and SNP5 were associated with traits that contribute to sensorial and technological measurements of tenderness and texture; Haplotype 1 and haplotype 4 were oppositely correlated with traits contributing to tenderness (P < 0.05). While no single SNP was associated with intramuscular fat (IMF), a clear association with increased IMF and juiciness was observed for haplotype 2. Conclusion The conclusion from this study is that alleles defining haplotypes 2 and 4 could usefully contribute to marker SNP panels used to select individuals with improved IMF\\/juiciness or tenderness in a genome-assisted selection framework.

  9. Antibacterial effects of natural tenderizing enzymes on different strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes on beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshamah, Hanan; Han, Inyee; Naas, Hesham; Acton, James; Dawson, Paul

    2014-04-01

    This study determined the efficacy of actinidin and papain on reducing Listeria monocytogenes and three mixed strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 populations on beef. The average reduction of E. coli O157:H7 was greater than that of L. monocytogenes and higher concentrations of either protease yielded greater reduction in bacterial populations. For instance, actinidin at 700 mg/ml significantly (p≤0.05) reduced the population of L. monocytogenes by 1.49 log cfu/ml meat rinse after 3h at 25 & 35 °C, and by 1.45 log cfu/ml rinse after 24h at 5 °C, while the same actinidin concentration significantly reduced the populations of three mixed strains of E. coli O157:H7 by 1.81 log cfu/ml rinse after 3h at 25 & 35 °C, and 1.94 log cfu/ml rinse after 24h at 5 °C. These findings suggest that, in addition to improving the sensory attributes of beef, proteolytic enzymes can enhance meat safety when stored at suitable temperatures. PMID:24447905

  10. Relationships among calpastatin single nucleotide polymorphisms, calpastatin expression and tenderness in pork longissimus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genome scans in the pig have identified a region on chromosome 2 (SSC2) associated with tenderness. Calpastatin is a likely positional candidate gene in this region because of its inhibitory role in the calpain system that is involved in postmortem tenderization. Novel single nucleotide polymorphism...

  11. E-money as legal tender : Does the status really matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasiyanto, Safari; Kommers, Piet; Isaias, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The pro and contra over the importance of e-money being attributed the status of legal tender has been brought on the table since the early 90s. Is obtaining the status of legal tender really necessary for e-money to strengthen its position as a means of efficient payments in the economy? What do cu

  12. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy: A Tough-Minded Therapy for a Tender-Minded Profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrach, Stephen G.

    1995-01-01

    Objections to Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) may be based on the predominance of the personality type in the counseling profession dubbed "tender mindedness." The dichotomy between the "tough minded" and the "tender minded" may suggest the reasons for its acceptance among some and rejection by others. The author examines common…

  13. Tenderness of Pork Muscles as Influenced by Chilling Rate and Altered Carcass Suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Elin; Møller, Anders Juel

    1987-01-01

    Evaluation of tenderness improvements in porcine muscles (longissimus dorsi, semimembranosus, biceps femoris) in 72 carcasses by using combinations of three different chilling rates and two different suspennnsion methods.......Evaluation of tenderness improvements in porcine muscles (longissimus dorsi, semimembranosus, biceps femoris) in 72 carcasses by using combinations of three different chilling rates and two different suspennnsion methods....

  14. Tendering and relationships in strategic logistics service provider selection for global supply chain organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben

    of private enterprise purchase additionally relate to the acceptance of some level of dialogue before, during and after the tender due date. Tendering is viewed as an extreme case of relationship management, where newcomers and existing suppliers are put on an equal footing, decades of incorporated...

  15. A product modelling approach to competitive tendering in the building and construction industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolman, F.P.; Oszariyildiz, S.

    1998-01-01

    Competitive tendering is the activity of turnkey vendors and construction consortia in the Building and Construction industries that, to a large extend, determines the company's competitiveness. From the tender price it follows if a contract will be won or not, and, if the bid has been successful, t

  16. Criteria procedure development for tender in construction design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malykha Galina Gennad’evna

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problem of criteria optimization in order to objectively evaluate the experience of an applicant (a project organization and the quality of a design product (project documentation. The methodology to be developed is based on introduction of new evaluation criteria (sub-criteria that in conjunction with the applicable criteria specified by the Law on the Contract System will allow developing the optimal procedure to evaluate competitive bids of the participants in tenders and determining the most appropriate candidate, with whom the contract will be further concluded. The article analyzes the existing criteria and their interaction with each other and describes the specifics of tenders for design in the form of open competition. The list decreases to three criteria, such as "contract price", "quality, functional and environmental characteristics of a procurement facility", "qualification of procurement participants, including availability of financial resources, equipment and other material resources necessary for the execution of the contract material resources, the presence of goodwill, professionals and other employees of a certain experience level". However, in order to upgrade the quality of assurance procedures for the design works to be performed, it was decided to apply new evaluation criteria (sub-criteria components, such as "availability of positive findings of the state out-of-departmental examination that are similar to the subject of competition, on a participant in placement of order", "availability of the certificate on approval of architectural and urban planning decisions that are similar to the subject of competition, on a participant in placement of order", "availability of the permit for the commissioning of facilities that are similar to the subject of competition, on a participant in placement of order", "availability of the contract for designer's supervision with a participant in placement of

  17. U.S. Consumers' Willingness to Pay for Flavor and Tenderness in Steaks as Determined with an Experimental Auction

    OpenAIRE

    Feuz, Dillon M.; Umberger, Wendy J.; Calkins, Chris R.; Sitz, Bethany M.

    2004-01-01

    In a study of beef quality, consumers tasted steak samples and participated in an experimental auction to determine their willingness to pay. Steaks differed in marbling, tenderness, country of origin, and aging method. Marbling and tenderness had statistically significant impacts on consumers' palatability ratings for steaks. Tenderness significantly impacted consumers' willingness-to pay values. There appear to be threshold levels of marbling and tenderness, below which consumers discount s...

  18. 41 CFR 102-117.55 - What are the advantages and disadvantages of using a rate tender?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the advantages and disadvantages of using a rate tender? 102-117.55 Section 102-117.55 Public Contracts and Property... the advantages and disadvantages of using a rate tender? (a) Using a rate tender is an advantage...

  19. 基于质构仪的茶树新梢茎杆嫩度变化规律研究%Study of Developmental Pattern of Tea Shoot Tenderness on the Base of Texture Analyser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄艳; 韦康; 王丽鸳; 成浩; 贺巍; 周健

    2012-01-01

    使用质构仪测定了龙井43和中茶108新梢各节茎的剪切力,取最大剪切力表示新梢的嫩度,剪切力越小嫩度越高,建立了最大剪切力测定新梢嫩度的方法.结果表明,质构仪测新梢嫩度是可行的;在连续时间内采摘鲜叶新梢老化主要表现在第3~5节茎,第1~2节茎的嫩度变化相对较小;新梢嫩度与成熟度、空间位置、采摘时间、品种有一定的相关性;修剪处理显著提高第3~4节茎的嫩度.本研究初步证明了新梢不同茎位剪切力的变化存在规律性,为鉴定茶树品种的持嫩性提供了评价方法.%Texture analyser was utilized to study shoot tenderness in tea cultivar "Longjing 43" and "Zhongcha 108". The evaluation method was established by taking maximum shearing force to determine shoot tenderness. Low maximum shearing force represents high shoot tenderness. The results showed that it is feasible to use texture analyser to determine shoot tenderness. There was a sharp decrease of shoot tenderness from the third to fifth node. Furthermore, the tenderness of the first and second nodes was relatively high. The shoot tenderness was correlated with maturity, spatial location, plucking time and variety. Pruning significantly increased the tenderness of the third and fourth nodes. A consistently changing pattern of tea shoot tenderness was found by texture analyser in this study, which provided a useful method to evaluate shoot tenderness and its keeping ability in tea plant.

  20. Adapting Rational Unified Process (RUP) approach in designing a secure e-Tendering model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd, Haslina; Robie, Muhammad Afdhal Muhammad; Baharom, Fauziah; Darus, Norida Muhd; Saip, Mohamed Ali; Yasin, Azman

    2016-08-01

    e-Tendering is an electronic processing of the tender document via internet and allow tenderer to publish, communicate, access, receive and submit all tender related information and documentation via internet. This study aims to design the e-Tendering system using Rational Unified Process approach. RUP provides a disciplined approach on how to assign tasks and responsibilities within the software development process. RUP has four phases that can assist researchers to adjust the requirements of various projects with different scope, problem and the size of projects. RUP is characterized as a use case driven, architecture centered, iterative and incremental process model. However the scope of this study only focusing on Inception and Elaboration phases as step to develop the model and perform only three of nine workflows (business modeling, requirements, analysis and design). RUP has a strong focus on documents and the activities in the inception and elaboration phases mainly concern the creation of diagrams and writing of textual descriptions. The UML notation and the software program, Star UML are used to support the design of e-Tendering. The e-Tendering design based on the RUP approach can contribute to e-Tendering developers and researchers in e-Tendering domain. In addition, this study also shows that the RUP is one of the best system development methodology that can be used as one of the research methodology in Software Engineering domain related to secured design of any observed application. This methodology has been tested in various studies in certain domains, such as in Simulation-based Decision Support, Security Requirement Engineering, Business Modeling and Secure System Requirement, and so forth. As a conclusion, these studies showed that the RUP one of a good research methodology that can be adapted in any Software Engineering (SE) research domain that required a few artifacts to be generated such as use case modeling, misuse case modeling, activity

  1. La diaspora americana in Europa: il caso degli espatriati in Tender is the Night di F. Scott Fitzgerald

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa A. Pantaleo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available From 1921 to 1930, F. Scott Fitzgerald travelled to Europe four times, and he spent almost four years in France and one year in Switzerland. While living abroad in the multicultural environment of Paris and of the French Riviera, his attitude towards Europe underwent a major change. Tender is the Night marks a significant transition from the narrow nationalism of Fitzgerald’s first travel correspondence to an increased sensitivity towards European otherness. The cultural encounter with Europe – that in the novel is rendered through an hybridization of the language and the characters –helped the author to reinterpret his identity in a cosmopolitan perspective.

  2. Modified-atmosphere storage under subatmospheric pressure and beef quality: II. Color, drip, cooking loss, sarcomere length, and tenderness

    OpenAIRE

    Smulders, F. J.M.; Hiesberger, J.; Hofbauer, P.; Dogl, B.; Dransfield, E.

    2006-01-01

    Beef has a requirement for refrigerated storage up to 14 d to achieve adequate aging and a tender product. To achieve this aging with little spoilage and no surface drying, vacuum packaging is attractive, because it is inherently simple and offers a clear indication to the packer when the process has failed or there is risk of spoilage. However, there is increasing pressure on the meat industry to limit the use of packaging materials in view of their cost and the cost involved in their recove...

  3. Prevention of nipple tenderness and breast engorgement in the postpartal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storr, G B

    1988-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify an effective preparation method for breastfeeding and to develop measurement tools for nipple tenderness and breast engorgement for use in a clinical setting. Twenty-five subjects served as their own controls by preparing one nipple and massaging one breast, either the left or right, but not the other breast or nipple. Nipple tenderness and breast engorgement were recorded on five-point scales. Analysis of the data revealed that tenderness and engorgement were decreased in the prepared, massaged breast.

  4. Use of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and dietary calcium to improve tenderness of beef from the round of beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnagey, K M; Huff-Lonergan, E J; Lonergan, S M; Trenkle, A; Horst, R L; Beitz, D C

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this trial was to determine how 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) (25-OH D(3)) supplementation, altering supplemental dietary calcium, or their combination influence postmortem biochemical and tenderness changes in muscles from the round of mature cows. Twenty-seven Angus cows (3 to 7 yr old) were allotted randomly to 9 pens with 3 cows per pen. Treatments were arranged in a 3 x 3 factorial design with 3 dosages of 25-OH D(3) (0, 250, or 500 mg of 25-OH D(3) administered as a 1-time oral bolus 7 d before slaughter) and 3 percentages of supplemental limestone (0.5, 0.75, and 1.0%) replenished in the diet for 3 d before slaughter and after a 2-wk limestone withdrawal. Plasma samples were obtained during the feeding period. Upon slaughter, adductor, gracilus, pectineus, sartorius, semimembranosus, vastus intermedius, and vastus lateralis muscles were obtained and aged for 1, 3, or 7 d. Calcium concentrations were increased in plasma when 250 or 500 mg of 25-OH D(3) were administered (P meat and in plasma and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1,25-(OH)(2) D(3)] in plasma were increased when 25-OH D(3) was administered (P meat or in plasma. Calpastatin activity was affected by treatments only in the gracilus and vastus intermedius muscles (P tenderness, but improved tenderness was not observed.

  5. Modified-atmosphere storage under subatmospheric pressure and beef quality: II. Color, drip, cooking loss, sarcomere length, and tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smulders, F J M; Hiesberger, J; Hofbauer, P; Dögl, B; Dransfield, E

    2006-09-01

    Beef has a requirement for refrigerated storage up to 14 d to achieve adequate aging and a tender product. To achieve this aging with little spoilage and no surface drying, vacuum packaging is attractive, because it is inherently simple and offers a clear indication to the packer when the process has failed or there is risk of spoilage. However, there is increasing pressure on the meat industry to limit the use of packaging materials in view of their cost and the cost involved in their recovery and recycling. The purpose of this report was to evaluate an alternative storage system in containers using modified atmospheres at reduced pressure (approximately 25 kPa). The quality of the meat for both container- and vacuum-packed treatments was measured during chilled storage for up to 3 wk. Storage time had the most significant effect on quality characteristics, irrespective of the packaging method. Storage in containers under a 70%N2:30%CO2 gas mixture gave characteristics similar to beef stored under vacuum. Storage in containers under 100% CO2 produced less drip loss than under 70%N2:30%CO2, but generally container storage produced 3 times as much drip loss as vacuum packaging. Shear force of the LM was unaffected by the type of packaging, and at d 2 after slaughter (i.e., before the storage trial was begun), sarcomere lengths of muscles intended for container storage were similar to those destined for vacuum storage. During the packaging treatment, the comparison between the storage systems was always done within 1 animal using one carcass-half for container storage and the other half for vacuum packaging; all bulls were shackled from the left hindleg during bleeding. The majority of the muscles from the left sides had lower shear force values than those from the right sides at the earlier storage times (2 and 9 d after slaughter) but had similar values after longer storage (16 and 23 d after slaughter). This is the first report that shackling beef carcasses from

  6. 宰后肌肉蛋白质变化与嫩度的关系%The Relationship Between Tenderness and Protein Transformation in Postmortem Muscle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔薇

    2009-01-01

    The tenderness of meat is affected by many factors,but the mechanism is still poorly understood.This paper summarized the domestic and foreign researches in recent years on the meat tenderness and analyzed the relationship between meat tenderness and protein degradation,with a view to provide the reference to the study of meat tenderness and quality.

  7. Methods of improving meat tenderness and the mechanism of tenderization%肌肉嫩化方法及其机理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴盛夏; 周鸿媛; 夏杨毅; 尚永彪; 李洪军

    2012-01-01

    The tenderness is one of the important sensory characteristics of meat. There are various influence factors to meat tenderness, including the internal factors as the muscle fiber, collagen, endogenous enzyme, and the external factors as temperature, pH. This paper expounds the methods of physical (electrical stimulation, high-pressure processing and ultrasonic), biochemistry (salts, organic acids and biological enzyme) processing techniques and combined methods of tenderness processing techniques, then explains the different mechanism of the meat tenderizer methods. Besides, the research about the effects of meat tenderizer methods and the analysis of meat tenderizer mechanism are prospected.%嫩度是肌肉重要的食用肉品质特征之一,影响肌肉嫩度的因素多种多样,包括肌原纤维、胶原蛋白、内源酶在内的内部因素,和温度、pH值等外部因素。阐述了物理(电刺激、高压处理、超声波)、生物化学(盐类、有机酸和生物酶)处理技术以及多种嫩化方法结合技术改善肌肉嫩度的方法,分析了不同的嫩化机理,并就肌肉嫩化机理分析研究进行了展望。

  8. An analysis of project selection and assignment criteria of danish tenders in europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Kranker; Ussing, Lene Faber; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev

    2013-01-01

    Public construction agencies are one of the largest developers within the Danish construction industry, where such agencies own and develop new public construction projects. Most of these projects are put out in European tender. This study analyses the selection and assignment criteria employed...... by these agencies in different types of public sector projects. Some of the objectives pursued by the study include the determination of 1/ the selection and assignment criteria mostly used in Danish public tenders 2/ how different types of projects use selection and assignment criteria in the bidding process......, and 3/ any significant difference between the use of selection and assignment criteria in Danish public construction projects. The study uses a quantitative research approach where 157 Danish public tender cases were selected from the European Tenders Electronic Daily database between the period...

  9. 78 FR 41390 - Pershing County Water Conservation District; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing with the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Pershing County Water Conservation District; Notice of Application Tendered...: Pershing County Water Conservation District. e. Name of Project: Humboldt River Hydro Power Project....

  10. [Differences between myofascial trigger points and tender points].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mense, S

    2011-02-01

    The article describes and compares the characteristics of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) of the myofascial pain syndrome and the tender points (TePs) of the fibromyalgia syndrome. Many statements are hypothetical, because not all aspects of the disorders have been clarified in solid studies. Signs and symptoms of MTrPs: (1) palpable nodule, often located close to the muscle belly, (2) often single, (3) allodynia and hyperalgesia at the MTrP, (4) referral of the MTrP pain, (5) normal pain sensitivity outside the MTrPs, (6) local twitch response, (7) local contracture in biopsy material, (8) peripheral mechanism probable. Signs and symptoms of TePs: (1) no palpable nodule, (2) location often close to the muscle attachments, (3) multiple by definition, (4) allodynia and hyperalgesia also outside the TePs, (5) enhanced pain under psychic stress, (6) unspecific histological changes in biopsy material, (7) central nervous mechanism probable. The multitude of differences speak against a common aetiology and pathophysiology.

  11. Electrical stimulation affects metabolic enzyme phosphorylation, protease activation and meat tenderization in beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, C.B.; Li, J.; Zhou, G.H.;

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the response of sarcoplasmic proteins in bovine longissimus muscle to low-voltage electrical stimulation (ES, 80 V, 35 s) after dressing and its contribution to meat tenderization at early postmortem time. Proteome analysis showed that ES resulted......, as well as pH decline and more preferred pH/temperature decline mode. Finally, ES accelerated meat tenderization with lower (P

  12. Bovine gene polymorphisms related to fat deposition and meat tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Marina R S; Curi, Rogério A; Chardulo, Luis Artur L; Silveira, Antonio C; Assumpção, Mayra E O D; Visintin, José Antonio; de Oliveira, Henrique N

    2009-01-01

    Leptin, thyroglobulin and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase play important roles in fat metabolism. Fat deposition has an influence on meat quality and consumers' choice. The aim of this study was to determine allele and genotype frequencies of polymorphisms of the bovine genes, which encode leptin (LEP), thyroglobulin (TG) and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT1). A further objective was to establish the effects of these polymorphisms on meat characteristics. We genotyped 147 animals belonging to the Nelore (Bos indicus), Canchim (5/8 Bos taurus + 3/8 Bos indicus), Rubia Gallega X Nelore (1/2 Bos taurus + 1/2 Bos indicus), Brangus Three-way cross (9/16 Bos taurus + 7/16 Bos indicus) and Braunvieh Three-way cross (3/4 Bos taurus + 1/4 Bos indicus) breeds. Backfat thickness, total lipids, marbling score, ribeye area and shear force were fitted, using the General Linear Model (GLM) procedure of the SAS software. The least square means of genotypes and genetic groups were compared using Tukey's test. Allele frequencies vary among the genetic groups, depending on Bos indicus versus Bos taurus influence. The LEP polymorphism segregates in pure Bos indicus Nelore animals, which is a new finding. The T allele of TG is fixed in Nelore, and DGAT1 segregates in all groups, but the frequency of allele A is lower in Nelore animals. The results showed no association between the genotypes and traits studied, but a genetic group effect on these traits was found. So, the genetic background remains relevant for fat deposition and meat tenderness, but the gene markers developed for Bos taurus may be insufficient for Bos indicus.

  13. Bovine gene polymorphisms related to fat deposition and meat tenderness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina R.S. Fortes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptin, thyroglobulin and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase play important roles in fat metabolism. Fat deposition has an influence on meat quality and consumers' choice. The aim of this study was to determine allele and genotype frequencies of polymorphisms of the bovine genes, which encode leptin (LEP, thyroglobulin (TG and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT1. A further objective was to establish the effects of these polymorphisms on meat characteristics. We genotyped 147 animals belonging to the Nelore (Bos indicus, Canchim (5/8 Bos taurus + 3/8 Bos indicus, Rubia Gallega X Nelore (1/2 Bos taurus + 1/2 Bos indicus, Brangus Three-way cross (9/16 Bos taurus + 7/16 Bos indicus and Braunvieh Three-way cross (3/4 Bos taurus + 1/4 Bos indicus breeds. Backfat thickness, total lipids, marbling score, ribeye area and shear force were fitted, using the General Linear Model (GLM procedure of the SAS software. The least square means of genotypes and genetic groups were compared using Tukey's test. Allele frequencies vary among the genetic groups, depending on Bos indicus versus Bos taurus influence. The LEP polymorphism segregates in pure Bos indicus Nelore animals, which is a new finding. The T allele of TG is fixed in Nelore, and DGAT1 segregates in all groups, but the frequency of allele A is lower in Nelore animals. The results showed no association between the genotypes and traits studied, but a genetic group effect on these traits was found. So, the genetic background remains relevant for fat deposition and meat tenderness, but the gene markers developed for Bos taurus may be insufficient for Bos indicus.

  14. Bovine gene polymorphisms related to fat deposition and meat tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Marina R S; Curi, Rogério A; Chardulo, Luis Artur L; Silveira, Antonio C; Assumpção, Mayra E O D; Visintin, José Antonio; de Oliveira, Henrique N

    2009-01-01

    Leptin, thyroglobulin and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase play important roles in fat metabolism. Fat deposition has an influence on meat quality and consumers' choice. The aim of this study was to determine allele and genotype frequencies of polymorphisms of the bovine genes, which encode leptin (LEP), thyroglobulin (TG) and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT1). A further objective was to establish the effects of these polymorphisms on meat characteristics. We genotyped 147 animals belonging to the Nelore (Bos indicus), Canchim (5/8 Bos taurus + 3/8 Bos indicus), Rubia Gallega X Nelore (1/2 Bos taurus + 1/2 Bos indicus), Brangus Three-way cross (9/16 Bos taurus + 7/16 Bos indicus) and Braunvieh Three-way cross (3/4 Bos taurus + 1/4 Bos indicus) breeds. Backfat thickness, total lipids, marbling score, ribeye area and shear force were fitted, using the General Linear Model (GLM) procedure of the SAS software. The least square means of genotypes and genetic groups were compared using Tukey's test. Allele frequencies vary among the genetic groups, depending on Bos indicus versus Bos taurus influence. The LEP polymorphism segregates in pure Bos indicus Nelore animals, which is a new finding. The T allele of TG is fixed in Nelore, and DGAT1 segregates in all groups, but the frequency of allele A is lower in Nelore animals. The results showed no association between the genotypes and traits studied, but a genetic group effect on these traits was found. So, the genetic background remains relevant for fat deposition and meat tenderness, but the gene markers developed for Bos taurus may be insufficient for Bos indicus. PMID:21637649

  15. Tenderness of major muscles from three breed-types of cattle at different times-on-feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeith, F K; Savell, J W; Smith, G C; Dutson, T R; Carpenter, Z L

    1985-01-01

    Seventy-five steers (9 to 12 months of age) of Angus (n = 25), Brahman (n = 25) and Brahman × Angus (n = 25) breed-types of known history were fed a high-energy diet and five steers from each breed-type were slaughtered after 0, 56, 112, 168 and 224 days on test. At seven days post mortem, the left side of each carcass was fabricated and eight major primals or subprimals were obtained. Steaks were removed from the shoulder clod, strip loin, tenderloin, top sirloin, knuckle, top round, bottom round and eye of round for Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) determinations and from the strip loin and bottom round for sensory panel evaluations. Steaks from Angus and Brahman × Angus steers were generally more tender than steaks from Brahman steers. Tenderness of steaks from steers of the three breed-types responded to time-on-feed differently: (a) steaks from Brahman steers improved (P 0·05) as time-on-feed increased and (c) for the Brahman × Angus steers, five of the ten muscles studied improved (P Brahman, from 0 to 56 days for Angus and from 56 to 168 days for Brahman × Angus.

  16. Tenderness of major muscles from three breed-types of cattle at different times-on-feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeith, F K; Savell, J W; Smith, G C; Dutson, T R; Carpenter, Z L

    1985-01-01

    Seventy-five steers (9 to 12 months of age) of Angus (n = 25), Brahman (n = 25) and Brahman × Angus (n = 25) breed-types of known history were fed a high-energy diet and five steers from each breed-type were slaughtered after 0, 56, 112, 168 and 224 days on test. At seven days post mortem, the left side of each carcass was fabricated and eight major primals or subprimals were obtained. Steaks were removed from the shoulder clod, strip loin, tenderloin, top sirloin, knuckle, top round, bottom round and eye of round for Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) determinations and from the strip loin and bottom round for sensory panel evaluations. Steaks from Angus and Brahman × Angus steers were generally more tender than steaks from Brahman steers. Tenderness of steaks from steers of the three breed-types responded to time-on-feed differently: (a) steaks from Brahman steers improved (P 0·05) as time-on-feed increased and (c) for the Brahman × Angus steers, five of the ten muscles studied improved (P Brahman, from 0 to 56 days for Angus and from 56 to 168 days for Brahman × Angus. PMID:22055632

  17. Estimation of Sensory Pork Loin Tenderness Using Warner-Bratzler Shear Force and Texture Profile Analysis Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Choe, Jee-Hwan; Choi, Mi-Hee; Rhee, Min-Suk; Kim, Byoung-Chul

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the degree to which instrumental measurements explain the variation in pork loin tenderness as assessed by the sensory evaluation of trained panelists. Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS) had a significant relationship with the sensory tenderness variables, such as softness, initial tenderness, chewiness, and rate of breakdown. In a regression analysis, WBS could account variations in these sensory variables, though only to a limited proportion of variation. On the other...

  18. A New Insight into the Role of Calpains in Post-mortem Meat Tenderization in Domestic Animals: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Lian, Ting; Wang, Linjie; Liu, Yiping

    2013-01-01

    Tenderness is the most important meat quality trait, which is determined by intracellular environment and extracellular matrix. Particularly, specific protein degradation and protein modification can disrupt the architecture and integrity of muscle cells so that improves the meat tenderness. Endogenous proteolytic systems are responsible for modifying proteinases as well as the meat tenderization. Abundant evidence has testified that calpains (CAPNs) including calpain I (CAPN1) and calpastati...

  19. Is scar tenderness a reliable sign of scar complications in labor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isha Gutgutia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cesarean section has come a long way from being a risky & restrictive surgery to one that is safe and quick. Due to a rise in the rates of primary caesarean section globally, repeat cesarean section has also become very common. The chief concern during labor with scarred uteri is that of scar rupture which can have devastating fetal and maternal consequences, including mortality. Several studies monitoring for the features of scar rupture like abnormal cardiotocography (CTG, severe abdominal pain persisting between contractions, acute onset scar tenderness, hematuria or abnormal vaginal bleeding, maternal tachycardia or shock, cessation of uterine activity and loss of station of the presenting part exist with the exception of scar tenderness which has not been evaluated separately in any study. The present prospective observational study was undertaken in a tertiary care hospital to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of scar tenderness as a sign of scar complications in labor. Methods: 78 women with one previous cesarean delivery in spontaneous labor at term undergoing trial of scar were monitored for progress of labor and observed for vaginal bleeding, scar tenderness, maternal pulse and blood pressure every 30 minutes. Scar tenderness was elicited by pressing below and behind the pubic symphysis in between uterine contractions while engaging the woman in conversation and noting for a visible wince. Fetal heart rate auscultation was done as per protocol. Trial of scar was terminated for scar tenderness, unexplained maternal tachycardia, fresh vaginal bleeding, fetal heart rate abnormalities and non-progress of labor. Results: The sensitivity and specificity of scar tenderness as a predictor of scar complications was 92.3% and 3.8%, while accuracy was 33.3%. The likelihood ratio of a positive sign of scar tenderness being associated with scar complications in labour is 1.48. Maternal tachycardia was not a significant predictor

  20. To tender, re-negotiate or partner: Strategies for contracting service companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contracting of oilfield service companies by petroleum exploration and production operating companies is different than the contracting of civil engineering, construction or other project-oriented contractors. The relationship between operating companies and oilfield service companies has had a long and unique history which has evolved since the first oil wells were drilled over a century ago. The process of contracting service companies by operating companies for petroleum exploration and production work can be split into three distinct stages: (1) decide what it is that should be contracted out and what should be kept in house; (2) determine the method to use to select the contractor(s) to perform the work; and (3) agree to the contractual structure to best reflect the relationship the operating company and the service company with to initiate and maintain. As there are ongoing changes to the business structures and corporate thinking of both operating and service companies, there are also evolving changes to what are considered core businesses and the methods of selecting and contracting service companies by operating companies. Operating companies are recognizing the high costs of tendering for contractor services in terms of personnel time and administrative effort, and are relying more on negotiating and rolling-over existing contracts with their suitable, capable contractors. Partnering, in its many forms and levels, is increasingly being recognized as a useful method to get better work done at cheaper overall costs

  1. Enzymatic digestion of esophageal meat impaction. A study of Adolph's Meat Tenderizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldner, F; Danley, D

    1985-05-01

    While a solution of Adolph's Meat Tenderizer (AMT) is commonly used to treat esophageal meat impaction, few studies describe its clinical effects. We examined AMT with regard to (1) its papain activity; (2) its ability to digest meat cubes in vitro; and (3) its effect on rabbit esophageal mucosa. A standard papain assay was developed against which the activity of AMT was compared. Proteolytic activity was detected in AMT only when the papain activators, 0.02 M cysteine and 0.008 M EDTA, were added to the system. Meat cubes incubated in AMT solution exhibited no evidence of digestion as determined by protein release or change in sample weight. A solution of AMT had no adverse effect on normal esophageal mucosa in rabbits, but significantly increased esophagitis when infused onto previously inflamed mucosa. We conclude that AMT solution has no inherent capacity to digest or to reduce the size of an impacted meat bolus, and may, in fact, worsen existing esophagitis. PMID:3921329

  2. Box jellyfish (Carybdea alata) in Waikiki. The analgesic effect of sting-aid, Adolph's meat tenderizer and fresh water on their stings: a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, C S; Scott, S A; Galanis, D J; Goto, R S

    2001-08-01

    The study measured the analgesic effects of three popular Hawaii remedies for stings from the box jellyfish, Carybdea alata. Analysis of data showed that aerosol sprays of Sting-Aid (an aluminum sulfate solution), Aldolph's meat tenderizer dissolved in water, and fresh water neither increased nor decreased the pain of box jellyfish stings more than the control (seawater). PMID:11573317

  3. Supplemental vitamin D3 and zilpaterol hydrochloride. I. Effect on performance, carcass traits, tenderness, and vitamin D metabolites of feedlot steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, K T; Lemenager, R P; Claeys, M C; Engstrom, M; Schoonmaker, J P

    2013-07-01

    Angus × Simmental steers (n = 210; initial BW 314 ± 11 kg) were separated into heavy and light BW blocks and allotted evenly by BW to 6 treatments (3 heavy and 2 light pens per treatment) to determine the effect of supplemental vitamin D3: 0 IU (no D), 250,000 IU for 165 d (long-term D), or 5 × 10(6) IU for 10 d (short-term D) on performance, carcass traits, vitamin D metabolites, and meat tenderness in steers fed either 0 (NZ) or 8.38 mg/kg zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) daily for 21 d. Placebo or ZH was added to the diet 24 d, and short-term D was added 13 d before slaughter. Vitamin D3, ZH, and placebo were all removed from the diet 3 d before slaughter. Steers fed ZH tended to have improved overall G:F compared with steers not fed ZH (P Carcass traits were not impacted by long-term D without ZH (P > 0.13), but long-term D with ZH decreased percentage KPH (P carcass traits when ZH was fed (P carcass leanness and decreased tenderness, and vitamin D feeding increased vitamin D3 metabolites in LM, but did not improve tenderness in steers fed ZH. PMID:23798522

  4. [Mechanisms of muscle pain : significance of trigger points and tender points].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezinschek, H-P

    2008-12-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) belong to the group of chronic non-inflammatory pain syndromes affecting muscles and tendinous insertions. Important criteria in the diagnosis of both diseases are the presence of "tender points" and "trigger points". According to ACR criteria FMS is characterized by the presence of tender points whereas trigger points are typically found in MPS.The main difference is that until now tender points could only be defined in terms of their localization, whereas trigger points can be found upon palpation which may cause a specific referred pain pattern. In addition, analysis of trigger points by microdialysis demonstrated elevated levels of pro-inflammatory substances at these sites. Moreover, local treatment of trigger points either by manipulative therapy or injection appears to be most effective for prompt relief of symptoms.

  5. Protein expression and oxygen consumption rate of early postmortem mitochondria relate to meat tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabež, V; Kathri, M; Phung, V; Moe, K M; Slinde, E; Skaugen, M; Saarem, K; Egelandsdal, B

    2015-04-01

    Oxygen consumption rate (OCR) of muscle fibers from bovine semimembranosus muscle of 41 animals was investigated 3 to 4 h and 3 wk postmortem. Significant relations (P meat. Tender (22.92 ± 2.2 N/cm2) and tough (72.98 ± 7.2 N/cm2) meat samples (4 samples each), separated based on their OCR measurements, were selected for proteomic studies using mitochondria isolated approximately 2.5 h postmortem. Twenty-six differently expressed proteins (P meat and 19 in tough meat. In tender meat, the more prevalent antioxidant and chaperon enzymes may reduce reactive oxygen species and prolong oxygen removal by the electron transport system (ETS). Glycolytic, Krebs cycle, and ETS enzymes were also more abundant in tender meat

  6. Tender Papule Rising on the Digit: Pacinian Neuroma Should Be Considered in Differential Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Hee Cho, Jong Soo Hong, Se Young Park, Hyun Sun Park, Soyun Cho, Jong Hee Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pacinian corpuscles are sensory nerve-end organs located in the deep dermis and subcutaneous tissue of the palms or soles. Pacinian neuroma is an extremely rare feature, defined as hyperplasia or hypertrophy of Pacinian corpuscles. About half of Pacinian neuromas present with point tenderness. There have been a limited number of cases reported around the world.We observed a 45-year-old woman with an 8-month history of a tender whitish papule on her left thumb tip. Histopathologically, an enlarged hypertrophic Pacinian corpuscle in subcutaneous tissue, surrounded by numerous nerve fibers, was found. Herein, we report a case of Pacinian neuroma presenting as a tender papule on a fingertip that was clearly related to repetitive trauma at that site. This case shows that a meticulous history and histological examination can lead to an exact diagnosis and proper treatment.

  7. 生鲜牛肉嫩度的影响因素和嫩化技术%Analysis on factors affecting fresh beef tenderness and tenderization methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘泉

    2012-01-01

    主要论述了生鲜牛肉嫩度的影响因素,诸如性别和年龄、肌内脂肪和胶原蛋白含量等,同时嫩化技术得到了重点阐述、包括了排酸成熟、机械法、电刺激等。希望为冷鲜牛肉的生产、品质的改善提供理论依据和技术支持。%In this study, the factors affecting fresh beef tenderness was mainly analyzed, including age, sex, intramuscularly fat and collagen protein content. And tenderization methods of beef were mainly introduced, including maturation by excluding acids, mechanical method, and electrical stimulation, hoping to provide a theory basis and technique support for controlling chilled beef meat production and quality during slaughtering and processing.

  8. Possibilities concerning the procurement of a tender for a new nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describe the legal frame for the licensing of a new nuclear power plant in Switzerland. The possibilities for a company to perform the procurement of a tender are discussed with respect to the decision to assign the project to a single contractor or to a consortium. The requirements to the contractor may be grouped in the categories cost, time schedule, function, volume and quality. Another topic in the discussion covers risks with respect to the tender and the contract and the appropriate solution strategies.

  9. Effects of calpastatin and micro-calpain markers in beef cattle on tenderness traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; White, S N; Wheeler, T L; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M; Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Johnson, D D; Smith, T P L

    2006-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) developed at the calpastatin (CAST) and mu-calpain (CAPN1) genes with meat tenderness and palatability traits in populations with diverse genetic backgrounds. Three populations were used in the study. One population consisted of Bos taurus that included crossbred animals derived from Hereford, Angus, Red Angus, Limousin, Charolais, Gelbvieh, and Simmental (GPE7; n = 539). Another population consisted of Bos taurus with Bos indicus influence, including crossbred animals from Hereford, Angus, Brangus, Beefmaster, Bonsmara, and Romosinuano (GPE8; n = 580). The third population was Bos indicus and consisted of purebred Brahman (STARS; n = 444). Traits evaluated were meat tenderness measured as Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF; kg) at 14 d postmortem, and traits evaluated by trained sensory panels that included tenderness score, juiciness, and flavor intensity. A SNP at the CAST gene had a significant (P < 0.003) effect on WBSF and tenderness score in the GPE7 and GPE8 populations. Animals inheriting the TT genotype at CAST had meat that was more tender than those inheriting the CC genotype. The marker at the CAPN1 gene was significant (P < 0.03) for tenderness score in GPE7 and GPE8. Animals inheriting the CC genotype at CAPN1 had meat that was more tender than those inheriting the TT genotype. Markers at the CAST and CAPN1 genes were associated with flavor intensity in the GPE8 population. Animals inheriting the CC genotype at CAST and the TT genotype at CAPN1 produced steaks with an intense flavor when compared with the other genotypes. An interaction between CAST and CAPN1 was detected (P < 0.05) for WBSF on GPE8. The statistical significance of the interaction is questionable because of the limited number of observations in some cells. Markers developed at the CAST and CAPN1 genes are suitable for use in identifying animals with the genetic potential to produce meat

  10. INVIVO 31P MAGNETIC-RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY (MRS) OF TENDER POINTS IN PATIENTS WITH PRIMARY FIBROMYALGIA SYNDROME

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEBLECOURT, AC; WOLF, RF; VANRIJSWIJK, MH; KAMMAN, RL; KNIPPING, AA; MOOYAART, EL

    1991-01-01

    31P Magnetic Resonance-Spectroscopy was performed at the site of tender points in the trapezius muscle of patients with primary fibromyalgia syndrome. Earlier, in vitro studies have reported changes in the high energy phosphate-metabolism in biopsies taken from tender points of fibromyalgia patients

  11. Relationships between the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire, tender point count, and muscle strength in female patients with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Lund, Hans Peter; Christensen, Robin;

    2009-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that fibromyalgia (FM) patients with reduced lower extremity strength are more symptomatic and tender than FM patients with normal muscle strength.......To test the hypothesis that fibromyalgia (FM) patients with reduced lower extremity strength are more symptomatic and tender than FM patients with normal muscle strength....

  12. 41 CFR 102-117.35 - What are the advantages and disadvantages of using GSA's tender of service?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the advantages...-117.35 What are the advantages and disadvantages of using GSA's tender of service? (a) It is an advantage to use GSA's tender of service when you want to: (1) Use GSA's authority to negotiate on behalf...

  13. Pork tenderness estimation by taste panel, Warner-Bratzler shear force and on-line methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oeckel, M J; Warnants, N; Boucqué, C V

    1999-12-01

    The extent to which modification of Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) determinations, relating to storage and preparation of the meat, aperture of the V-shaped cutting blade and shearing velocity, improve the relationship with sensory tenderness perception of pork was studied. Additionally four on-line methods: pH1, FOP1 (light scattering), PQM1 (conductivity) and DDLT (Double Density Light Transmission), were evaluated for their ability to predict tenderness. Sensory tenderness evaluation was conducted on 120 frozen (at -18°C for several months) samples of m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum. After overnight thawing, the meat was grilled to an internal temperature of 74°C and scored on an eight-point scale, from extremely tough to extremely tender. The standard WBSF procedure (protocol A) consisted of heating fresh meat samples (stored for 48 h at 4°C post slaughter) at 75°C for 50 min, cooling in cold tap water for 40 min, taking cylindrical cores parallel to the fibre direction, and shearing at a velocity of 200 mm/min with a blade aperture of 60°. For the prediction of sensory tenderness, the WBSF standard procedure (protocol A) showed the lowest variance (R(2)=15%) and the highest standard error of the estimate (SEE=0.97 N) compared to the other WBSF protocols. A decrease in shearing velocity, from 200 to 100 mm/min and, a replacement of the cutting blade with an aperture of 60° by one with an aperture of 30° led to improvements of R(2) (respectively, 19% vs. 13% and 47% vs. 23%) and SEE (respectively, 0.93 N vs. 0.97 N and 0.80 N vs. 0.97 N) and thus were better predictors of tenderness. A blade aperture of 30° instead of 60° also led to considerably lower WBSF values (22.1 N vs. 30.0 N). Freezing, frozen storage and thawing of the meat, prior to WBSF measurement, resulted in higher shear force values (32.7 N vs. 28.7 N) and a better prediction of tenderness, R(2) (25% vs. 15%) and SEE (0.94 N vs. 1.00 N). Furthermore, preparing the frozen stored

  14. Pork tenderness estimation by taste panel, Warner-Bratzler shear force and on-line methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oeckel, M J; Warnants, N; Boucqué, C V

    1999-12-01

    The extent to which modification of Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) determinations, relating to storage and preparation of the meat, aperture of the V-shaped cutting blade and shearing velocity, improve the relationship with sensory tenderness perception of pork was studied. Additionally four on-line methods: pH1, FOP1 (light scattering), PQM1 (conductivity) and DDLT (Double Density Light Transmission), were evaluated for their ability to predict tenderness. Sensory tenderness evaluation was conducted on 120 frozen (at -18°C for several months) samples of m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum. After overnight thawing, the meat was grilled to an internal temperature of 74°C and scored on an eight-point scale, from extremely tough to extremely tender. The standard WBSF procedure (protocol A) consisted of heating fresh meat samples (stored for 48 h at 4°C post slaughter) at 75°C for 50 min, cooling in cold tap water for 40 min, taking cylindrical cores parallel to the fibre direction, and shearing at a velocity of 200 mm/min with a blade aperture of 60°. For the prediction of sensory tenderness, the WBSF standard procedure (protocol A) showed the lowest variance (R(2)=15%) and the highest standard error of the estimate (SEE=0.97 N) compared to the other WBSF protocols. A decrease in shearing velocity, from 200 to 100 mm/min and, a replacement of the cutting blade with an aperture of 60° by one with an aperture of 30° led to improvements of R(2) (respectively, 19% vs. 13% and 47% vs. 23%) and SEE (respectively, 0.93 N vs. 0.97 N and 0.80 N vs. 0.97 N) and thus were better predictors of tenderness. A blade aperture of 30° instead of 60° also led to considerably lower WBSF values (22.1 N vs. 30.0 N). Freezing, frozen storage and thawing of the meat, prior to WBSF measurement, resulted in higher shear force values (32.7 N vs. 28.7 N) and a better prediction of tenderness, R(2) (25% vs. 15%) and SEE (0.94 N vs. 1.00 N). Furthermore, preparing the frozen stored

  15. Reproducibility of tender point examination in chronic low back pain patients as measured by intrarater and inter-rater reliability and agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Kudsk; Callesen, Jacob; Nielsen, Merete Graakjaer;

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the reliability and agreement of digital tender point (TP) examination in chronic low back pain (LBP) patients.......To evaluate the reliability and agreement of digital tender point (TP) examination in chronic low back pain (LBP) patients....

  16. The predetermined sites of examination for tender points in fibromyalgia syndrome are frequently associated with myofascial trigger points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, Hongyou; Wang, Ying; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente;

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this present study is to test the hypotheses that the 18 predetermined sites of examination for tender points (TP sites) in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) are myofascial trigger points (MTrPs), and that the induced pain from active MTrPs at TP sites may mimic fibromyalgia pain. Each TP site......), but not latent MTrPs (r = -.001, P = .99), was positively correlated with spontaneous pain intensity in FMS. The current study provides first evidence that pain from active MTrPs at TP sites mimics fibromyalgia pain. MTrPs may relate to generalized increased sensitivity in FMS due to central sensitization....... PERSPECTIVE: This article underlies the importance of active MTrPs in FMS patients. Most of the TP sites in FMS are MTrPs. Active MTrPs may serve as a peripheral generator of fibromyalgia pain and inactivation of active MTrPs may thus be an alternative for the treatment of FMS....

  17. Manipulation of dietary calcium concentration to potentiate changes in tenderness of beef from heifers supplemented with zilpaterol hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bibber-Krueger, C L; Miller, K A; Drouillard, J S

    2015-04-01

    Dietary Ca concentrations were manipulated during supplementation of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) to evaluate impact on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and beef tenderness using 96 heifers (BW 392 kg ± 3.2). We hypothesized that temporary depletion followed by repletion of dietary Ca before harvest would increase intracellular Ca concentrations, thus stimulating postmortem activity of Ca-dependent proteases to effect changes in tenderness. Heifers were stratified by initial BW and randomly assigned, within strata (block), to treatments consisting of a finishing diet in which Ca was added in the form of limestone (+Ca) or removed (-Ca) during ZH supplementation. Cattle were fed a common diet, including limestone, before ZH supplementation, and 28 d before slaughter, ZH was added to the diet with and without supplemental Ca. Calcium content of the diets during ZH supplementation was 0.74% or 0.19% (diet DM) for +Ca and -Ca, respectively. Zilpaterol hydrochloride was fed for 25 d then removed from the diet 3 d before harvest. The final 3 d before harvest, all cattle were fed Ca at 0.74% of diet DM. Heifers were housed in concrete-surfaced pens with 8 animals/pen (6 pens/treatment). At the end of the finishing phase, animals were weighed and transported to an abattoir in Holcomb, KS. Severity of liver abscesses and HCW were collected the day of harvest, and after 48 h of refrigeration, USDA yield and quality grades, KPH, LM area, and 12th-rib subcutaneous fat thickness were determined. Boneless loin sections were also collected for Warner-Bratzler shear force determination. Removal of Ca did not affect Warner-Bratzler shear force values (P = 0.64). In addition, ADG, DMI, final BW, and feed efficiency were unaffected by treatment (P > 0.05). Carcass measurements also were unaffected by the temporary decrease in dietary Ca (P > 0.05). In conclusion, temporary depletion of dietary Ca during ZH supplementation did not alter beef tenderness, live animal

  18. 78 FR 929 - Georgia Power Company; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Georgia Power Company; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With...-foot-wide vertical lift trash gates, and four abandoned siphons in two spillway bays. The east side...

  19. 17 CFR 240.14d-4 - Dissemination of tender offers to security holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to security holders. 240.14d-4 Section 240.14d-4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... offers to security holders. As soon as practicable on the date of commencement of a tender offer, the bidder must publish, send or give the disclosure required by § 240.14d-6 to security holders of the...

  20. 17 CFR 240.14d-6 - Disclosure of tender offer information to security holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... information to security holders. 240.14d-6 Section 240.14d-6 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... information to security holders. (a) Information required on date of commencement—(1) Long-form publication. If a tender offer is published, sent or given to security holders on the date of commencement...

  1. Muscle fatigue in relation to forearm pain and tenderness among professional computer users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, GF; Johnson, PW; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff

    2007-01-01

    response was not explained by differences in the MVC or body mass index. CONCLUSION: Computer users with forearm pain and moderate to severe palpation tenderness had diminished forearm extensor muscle fatigue response. Additional studies are necessary to determine whether this result reflects an adaptive...... response to exposure without any pathophysiological significance, or represents a part of a causal pathway leading to pain....

  2. Tendering by municipalities of wind turbines; Aanbesteding door gemeenten van windmolens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    This manual provides municipalities answers to the questions of how the municipality must do the tendering for wind turbines and what choices they have [Dutch] Deze handleiding biedt gemeenten antwoorden op de vragen hoe de gemeente moet aanbesteden en welke keuzes zij daarin heeft.

  3. Analysis of variation factors of successful bid rate in public works tender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Yoshiaki; Kaneko, Yuichiro; Shimazaki, Toshikazu

    The aim of this study is to analyze the variation factors of successful bid rate in public works tender using data on MLIT (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism), Kanto Regional Development Bureau. It was revealed that number of bidder and level of minimum price affect variation of successful bid rate based on multiple linear regression analysis.

  4. 17 CFR 240.14d-2 - Commencement of a tender offer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... oral or written communication by the bidder, or any person authorized to act on the bidder's behalf... shares into the offer; and (2) All written communications relating to the tender offer, from and... under this section. 3. Each pre-commencement written communication must include a prominent legend...

  5. Testing the Effect of Meat Tenderizer on Human Hair: A Class Project for Nonscience Majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marjorie A.

    2003-01-01

    Uses a commercially available meat tenderizer for the source of an enzyme that can degrade meat protein and asks students to test the effects of incubating human hair in water with or without this enzyme. Teaches scientific methodology and the importance of experimental controls. (Author/YDS)

  6. The effects of degree of dark cutting on tenderness and sensory attributes of beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of degree of dark cutting (DC) on the tenderness, juiciness, and flavor attributes of beef. During carcass grading at a large U.S. commercial beef harvesting facility, DC carcasses (n = 160) and matching normal control (NC) carcasses (n = 160)...

  7. Quantitative analysis of vertical translocation and lateral cross-contamination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during mechanical tenderization of beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantitative vertical translocation and lateral cross-contamination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during mechanical tenderization of beef meat was investigated using a restaurant-style meat tenderizer, which was first used to tenderize a surface-inoculated sample, and then additional 4 uninoculated sa...

  8. Effect of supplementation of tender coconut water on blood pressure of primary hypertensive subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gullapalli HS, Avinash P Tekade, Namrata H Gullapalli

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is a major health problem worldwide. Increased vascular resistance, sodium retention & sympathetic over activity contributes to the blood pressure elevation. Plant foods may be beneficial in decreasing blood pressure (BP. Recently much attention has been focused on plant foods that may be beneficial in preventing Hypertension, metabolic syndrome and possibly reduce the risk of various diseases. This clinical study was conducted to test the effectiveness of a structured intervention on BP of primary hypertensive subjects. Aim: To study the effect of Tender Coconut Water (TCW on BP of Primary hypertensive subjects. Methods and Material: 70 subjects were selected randomly sample for 6 weeks of the intervention program. Among them 40 subjects were selected as the experimental group and 30 300ml/day for 6 weeks whereas the control group was instructed to follow the same routine without modifications. One initial, two mid intervention (after every 15 days and one final (post intervention BP recorded for both the groups. The obtained data was statistically analyzed. Results: The mean systolic BP of experimental group and control group were decreased from 145.8 mm Hg and 141mm of Hg to 135.3 mm of Hg and 140 mm of Hg respectively. The mean diastolic BP of experimental group and control group were decreased from 93.7 mm H g and 90.9 mmHg to 86.9 mm of Hg and 89.7 mm of Hg respectively. Conclusion: Irrespective of cause of hypertension TCW has beneficial effect on BP. TCW contains high amount of potassium which causes vasodilatation and also improve the endothelial function.

  9. Microbiological Safety of Commercial Prime Rib Preparation Methods: Thermal Inactivation of Salmonella in Mechanically Tenderized Rib Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Alexandra; Porto-Fett, Anna C S; Shoyer, Bradley A; Luchansky, John B; Thippareddi, Harshavardhan

    2015-12-01

    Boneless beef rib eye roasts were surface inoculated on the fat side with ca. 5.7 log CFU/g of a five-strain cocktail of Salmonella for subsequent searing, cooking, and warm holding using preparation methods practiced by restaurants surveyed in a medium-size Midwestern city. A portion of the inoculated roasts was then passed once through a mechanical blade tenderizer. For both intact and nonintact roasts, searing for 15 min at 260°C resulted in reductions in Salmonella populations of ca. 0.3 to 1.3 log CFU/g. For intact (nontenderized) rib eye roasts, cooking to internal temperatures of 37.8 or 48.9°C resulted in additional reductions of ca. 3.4 log CFU/g. For tenderized (nonintact) rib eye roasts, cooking to internal temperatures of 37.8 or 48.9°C resulted in additional reductions of ca. 3.1 or 3.4 log CFU/g, respectively. Pathogen populations remained relatively unchanged for intact roasts cooked to 37.8 or 48.9°C and for nonintact roasts cooked to 48.9°C when held at 60.0°C for up to 8 h. In contrast, pathogen populations increased ca. 2.0 log CFU/g in nonintact rib eye cooked to 37.8°C when held at 60.0°C for 8 h. Thus, cooking at low temperatures and extended holding at relatively low temperatures as evaluated herein may pose a food safety risk to consumers in terms of inadequate lethality and/or subsequent outgrowth of Salmonella, especially if nonintact rib eye is used in the preparation of prime rib, if on occasion appreciable populations of Salmonella are present in or on the meat, and/or if the meat is not cooked adequately throughout.

  10. Effect of two dietary concentrate levels on tenderness, calpain and calpastatin activities, and carcass merit in Waguli and Brahman steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, R M; Goll, D E; Marchello, J A; Duff, G C; Thompson, V F; Mares, S W; Ahmad, H A

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare carcass characteristics of a newly introduced breed, the Waguli (Wagyu x Tuli), with the carcass characteristics of the Brahman breed. Brahman cattle are used extensively in the Southwest of the United States because of their tolerance to adverse environmental conditions. However, Brahman carcasses are discounted according to the height of their humps because of meat tenderness issues. The Waguli was developed in an attempt to obtain a breed that retained the heat tolerance of the Brahman but had meat quality attributes similar to the Wagyu. Twenty-four animals were used. Six steers from each breed were fed a 94% concentrate diet and 6 steers from each breed were fed an 86% concentrate diet. Eight steers, 2 from each group, were harvested after 128 d, after 142 d, and after 156 d on feed. Waguli steers had larger LM, greater backfat thickness, greater marbling scores, and greater quality grades than the Brahman steers (P meat, and these traits are also present in the Waguli. The Waguli had significantly lower Warner-Bratzler shear force values than the Brahman steers after 7 and 10 d of postmortem aging (P Brahman had increased to acceptable levels. Toughness of the Brahman has been associated with high levels of calpastatin in Brahman muscle, and the Waguli LM had significantly less calpastatin activity (P = 0.02) at 0 h postmortem than the Brahman LM. At 0-h postmortem, the total LM calpain activity did not differ between the Brahman and Waguli (P = 0.57). Neither diet nor days on feed had any significant effect on the 0-h postmortem calpain or at 0-h postmortem calpastatin activity, nor an effect on Warner-Bratzler shear-force values. In conclusion, LM muscle from the Waguli steers had a high degree of marbling, lower shear force values, and low calpastatin activity, all of which are related to more tender meat. PMID:18310491

  11. Production and processing studies on calpain-system gene markers for beef tenderness: consumer assessments of eating quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D L; Cafe, L M; McIntyre, B L; Geesink, G H; Barendse, W; Pethick, D W; Thompson, J M; Polkinghorne, R; Greenwood, P L

    2012-08-01

    We investigated the effects of calpain-system genetic markers on consumer beef quality ratings, including interactions of marker effects with hormonal growth promotant (HGP) use and tenderstretch hanging. Brahman cattle in New South Wales (NSW; n = 164) and Western Australia (WA; n = 141) were selected at weaning from commercial and research herds to achieve balance and divergence in calpastatin (CAST) and calpain 3 (CAPN3) gene marker status. Genotypes for μ-calpain (CAPN1-4751 and CAPN1-316) were also determined. Angus cattle (49 in NSW, 17 in WA) with favorable CAST and CAPN3 alleles, balanced for CAPN1-316 status, were also studied. Half the cattle at each site had HGP (Revalor-H, containing 200 mg trenbolone acetate and 20 mg 17β-estradiol) implants during grain finishing. One side of each carcass was suspended from the Achilles tendon (AT) and the other from the pelvis [tenderstretch (TS)]. Meat Standards Australia consumer panels scored 7-d aged striploin steaks from both AT and TS sides, and 7-d aged rump and oyster blade steaks from the AT side of each carcass. Two favorable CAST alleles increased tenderness ratings of AT-striploin, TS-striploin, rump, and oyster blade steaks by, respectively, 6.1, 4.2, 4.2, and 3.1 units, and overall liking by 4.7, 2.8, 2.9, 3.7 (all P Brahman steaks from the same location with the same marker alleles had similar scores. In contrast, NSW Angus striploin steaks scored about 15 units greater for tenderness and overall liking (P quality, consistent with our previous findings for objective meat quality. PMID:22367069

  12. Effect of two dietary concentrate levels on tenderness, calpain and calpastatin activities, and carcass merit in Waguli and Brahman steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, R M; Goll, D E; Marchello, J A; Duff, G C; Thompson, V F; Mares, S W; Ahmad, H A

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare carcass characteristics of a newly introduced breed, the Waguli (Wagyu x Tuli), with the carcass characteristics of the Brahman breed. Brahman cattle are used extensively in the Southwest of the United States because of their tolerance to adverse environmental conditions. However, Brahman carcasses are discounted according to the height of their humps because of meat tenderness issues. The Waguli was developed in an attempt to obtain a breed that retained the heat tolerance of the Brahman but had meat quality attributes similar to the Wagyu. Twenty-four animals were used. Six steers from each breed were fed a 94% concentrate diet and 6 steers from each breed were fed an 86% concentrate diet. Eight steers, 2 from each group, were harvested after 128 d, after 142 d, and after 156 d on feed. Waguli steers had larger LM, greater backfat thickness, greater marbling scores, and greater quality grades than the Brahman steers (P Brahman steers after 7 and 10 d of postmortem aging (P Brahman had increased to acceptable levels. Toughness of the Brahman has been associated with high levels of calpastatin in Brahman muscle, and the Waguli LM had significantly less calpastatin activity (P = 0.02) at 0 h postmortem than the Brahman LM. At 0-h postmortem, the total LM calpain activity did not differ between the Brahman and Waguli (P = 0.57). Neither diet nor days on feed had any significant effect on the 0-h postmortem calpain or at 0-h postmortem calpastatin activity, nor an effect on Warner-Bratzler shear-force values. In conclusion, LM muscle from the Waguli steers had a high degree of marbling, lower shear force values, and low calpastatin activity, all of which are related to more tender meat.

  13. Production and processing studies on calpain-system gene markers for beef tenderness: consumer assessments of eating quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D L; Cafe, L M; McIntyre, B L; Geesink, G H; Barendse, W; Pethick, D W; Thompson, J M; Polkinghorne, R; Greenwood, P L

    2012-08-01

    We investigated the effects of calpain-system genetic markers on consumer beef quality ratings, including interactions of marker effects with hormonal growth promotant (HGP) use and tenderstretch hanging. Brahman cattle in New South Wales (NSW; n = 164) and Western Australia (WA; n = 141) were selected at weaning from commercial and research herds to achieve balance and divergence in calpastatin (CAST) and calpain 3 (CAPN3) gene marker status. Genotypes for μ-calpain (CAPN1-4751 and CAPN1-316) were also determined. Angus cattle (49 in NSW, 17 in WA) with favorable CAST and CAPN3 alleles, balanced for CAPN1-316 status, were also studied. Half the cattle at each site had HGP (Revalor-H, containing 200 mg trenbolone acetate and 20 mg 17β-estradiol) implants during grain finishing. One side of each carcass was suspended from the Achilles tendon (AT) and the other from the pelvis [tenderstretch (TS)]. Meat Standards Australia consumer panels scored 7-d aged striploin steaks from both AT and TS sides, and 7-d aged rump and oyster blade steaks from the AT side of each carcass. Two favorable CAST alleles increased tenderness ratings of AT-striploin, TS-striploin, rump, and oyster blade steaks by, respectively, 6.1, 4.2, 4.2, and 3.1 units, and overall liking by 4.7, 2.8, 2.9, 3.7 (all P Brahman steaks from the same location with the same marker alleles had similar scores. In contrast, NSW Angus striploin steaks scored about 15 units greater for tenderness and overall liking (P < 0.001) than cattle with the same marker alleles at the other 3 location × breed combinations, which had generally similar scores. Therefore, calpain-system gene markers have beneficial effects on eating quality, consistent with our previous findings for objective meat quality.

  14. Microbiological Safety of Commercial Prime Rib Preparation Methods: Thermal Inactivation of Salmonella in Mechanically Tenderized Rib Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Alexandra; Porto-Fett, Anna C S; Shoyer, Bradley A; Luchansky, John B; Thippareddi, Harshavardhan

    2015-12-01

    Boneless beef rib eye roasts were surface inoculated on the fat side with ca. 5.7 log CFU/g of a five-strain cocktail of Salmonella for subsequent searing, cooking, and warm holding using preparation methods practiced by restaurants surveyed in a medium-size Midwestern city. A portion of the inoculated roasts was then passed once through a mechanical blade tenderizer. For both intact and nonintact roasts, searing for 15 min at 260°C resulted in reductions in Salmonella populations of ca. 0.3 to 1.3 log CFU/g. For intact (nontenderized) rib eye roasts, cooking to internal temperatures of 37.8 or 48.9°C resulted in additional reductions of ca. 3.4 log CFU/g. For tenderized (nonintact) rib eye roasts, cooking to internal temperatures of 37.8 or 48.9°C resulted in additional reductions of ca. 3.1 or 3.4 log CFU/g, respectively. Pathogen populations remained relatively unchanged for intact roasts cooked to 37.8 or 48.9°C and for nonintact roasts cooked to 48.9°C when held at 60.0°C for up to 8 h. In contrast, pathogen populations increased ca. 2.0 log CFU/g in nonintact rib eye cooked to 37.8°C when held at 60.0°C for 8 h. Thus, cooking at low temperatures and extended holding at relatively low temperatures as evaluated herein may pose a food safety risk to consumers in terms of inadequate lethality and/or subsequent outgrowth of Salmonella, especially if nonintact rib eye is used in the preparation of prime rib, if on occasion appreciable populations of Salmonella are present in or on the meat, and/or if the meat is not cooked adequately throughout. PMID:26613906

  15. The Tenderness of Old Meat%谈如何嫩化老肉

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王广胜

    2016-01-01

    s:Development of vocational education is a strategic initiatives to implement the national modernization and training of qualiifed personnel vocational skills. This paper analyzed the current problems in the implementation of a real culinary talent cultivation encountered - old meat tenderizer, combined with personal years of teaching experience, some suggestions and countermeasures on solving old meat tenderizer.%发展职业教育,是国家推行现代化建设,培养高素质职业技能人才的战略性举措。通过深入分析当前在实施烹饪人才培养过程中遇到的一个现实问题—老肉嫩化,结合个人多年的教育教学经验,提出一些关于老肉嫩化的建议和对策。

  16. Proposal to negotiate, without competitive tendering, a contract for the supply of 6000 cryogenic temperature sensors

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This document concerns the supply of 6000 cryogenic temperature sensors for the Large Hadron Collider. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with LAKE SHORE CRYOTRONICS, INC. (USA), without competitive tendering, for the supply of 6000 cryogenic temperature sensors for a total amount of 694 860 US dollars (1 081 500 Swiss francs), not subject to revision. The above amount in Swiss francs has been calculated using the rate of exchange stipulated in the tender. LAKE SHORE CRYOTRONICS, INC. has declared the following origin of the equipment relating to this adjudication proposal: USA-100%. The expenditure for the cryogenic temperature sensors will be reimbursed to CERN by the Department of Energy of the Government of the United States of America within the framework of the Accelerator Protocol to the Co-operation Agreement with the USA concerning their contribution towards the LHC machine.

  17. PS-109 Barriers and facilitators to implementing drug changes caused by drug tenders and shortages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rishøj, Rikke Mie; Christrup, Lona Louring; Clemmensen, Marianne H

    2015-01-01

    Background Drug tenders and shortages result in drug changes. International studies found that drug changes can adversely affect patient safety and the working procedures of healthcare professionals.1,2 The challenges of drug changes in Danish public hospitals have not previously been studied....... Purpose To identify barriers and facilitators for implementing drug changes due to drug tenders and shortages in Danish public hospitals. Material and methods Six focus group interviews were conducted at three hospitals in different regions of the country. At each hospital two focus group interviews were...... for drug identification during drug shortages were proposed. Conclusion This study identified different barriers and facilitators for implementing drug changes. The barriers and facilitators included specific features related to drugs, health care technology as well as to financial and organisational...

  18. Tenderization of Bovine Longissimus Dorsi Muscle using Aqueous Extract from Sarcodon aspratus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho-Kyoung; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aqueous extract from Sarcodon aspratus on tenderization of the bovine longissimus dorsi muscles in comparison with commercial proteolytic enzymes. Furthermore, meat quality and muscle protein degradation were examined. We marinated meat with 2% Sarcodon aspratus extract, 2% kiwi extract, and 0.2% papain. Beef chunks (3×3×3 cm3) were marinated with distilled water (control), Sarcodon aspratus extract (T1), kiwi extract (T2) or papain (T3) for 48 h at 4℃. There were no significant differences in muscle pH and lightness between control and treated samples. T1 had the lowest redness (ptenderization. These results show that aqueous extract of Sarcodon aspratus extract actively affect the tenderness of the bovine longissimus dorsi muscle. PMID:26761876

  19. Evolution of open tender mechanism in public procurement in post-Soviet Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnikov Vladimir, V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the development of public procurement through open tender in Russia over the last 20 years. It is proved the necessity of the transition to a competitive public procurement system in the 1990s. Stages and terms of carrying out of this method for determining of the supplier also are shown. The structure and the comparative analysis of procedures of open tender, and also differentiation of the application of certain regulations are given. On the basis of the analysis of purchasing technologies we can make conclusion about the progressive evolution of the process of procurement. The movement in the direction of decreasing corruption capacity of procurement procedures tells us about expediency of transition to competition in an electronic form along with expansion of the sphere of its application.

  20. A 'wall of ideas': the taboo on tenderness in theory and culture

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Gavin

    2008-01-01

    The dominant psychoanalytic theories in the humanities promote a myth of origins in which the infant is originally asocial, and motivated only by selfish hedonism, or by a desire to return to a state of syncretic merger with its environment. Developmental psychology, however, has demonstrated that infants are social agents, rather than selfish narcissists. Psychoanalytic theory of culture must therefore recognise the masculine "taboo on tenderness" which underlies its own early formulations, ...

  1. Improving Tenderness of Spent Layer Hens Meat Using Papaya Leaves (Carica papaya)

    OpenAIRE

    H. O. Abdalla, N. N. A. Ali, F. S. Siddig and S. A. M. Ali*

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were performed to study the use of papaya leaves as a meat tenderizer. The first experiment was to evaluate the effect of papaya dry leaves added to hen’s diet before slaughter. Spent hens (n=48) were used, half of them were fed a concentrate ration containing10% dried papaya leaves powder (DPLP) while others received layer ration (Control), for 10 days. The second experiment involved a comparison between papaya leaves juice (PLJ), fresh papaya leaves (FPL) and vinegar soluti...

  2. Public-Private partnership procurement: Game-theoretic studies of the tender process.

    OpenAIRE

    De Clerck, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    A Public-private partnership (PPP) is a settlement between a public party and a contractor or private sector consortium to engage in a long-term contractual agreement for designing, building, operating and/or maintaining capital intensive projects, while trying to attain value for money. PPPs are globally gaining importance in the construction industry. The risk transfer from the contracting government towards the private entity has important repercussions on the tender. Contractors need to c...

  3. Effect of Brahman genetic influence on collagen enzymatic crosslinking gene expression and meat tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, J M; Johnson, D D; Elzo, M A; White, M C; Stelzleni, A M; Johnson, S E

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the effect of Brahman genetics on collagen enzymatic crosslinking gene expression and meat tenderness. Steers were randomly selected to represent a high percentage Brahman genetics (n = 13), Half-Blood genetics (n = 13), Brangus genetics (n = 13), and a high percentage Angus genetics (n = 13). Muscle samples from the Longissimus lumborum muscle were collected at weaning and harvest and reverse transcription quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis was conducted to measure the mRNA expression of lysyl oxidase (LOX), bone morphogenetic protein 1 (BMP1), and cystatin C (CYS). Steaks from subject animals were collected at harvest, aged for 14 d and subjected to collagen analysis, Warner-Bratzler Shear Force (WBS) and trained sensory panel analysis (tenderness, juiciness, and connective tissue). Data indicated that Half-Blood and Brahman steers had greater (PBrangus steers. Panelists tended to detect more connective tissue in Brahman and Half-Blood steaks when compared to Angus and Brangus steaks (P Brangus steers. At weaning and harvest, all genetic groups had similar mRNA expression of BMP1 (P > 0.10). At harvest, Brangus and Angus steers had greater LOX mRNA expression than Brahman cattle (P < 0.05). Pearson's correlation coefficients indicated that only weaning CYS mRNA expression was correlated to WBS, panel tenderness and connective tissue scores (P < 0.05). Expression of LOX was only correlated to these measures at harvest, and BMP1 was correlated to these traits at both time periods (P < 0.05). These results indicate that collagen crosslinking enzyme activity, as indicated by mRNA levels, early in an animal's life may account for some of the variation seen in steak tenderness due to Brahman genetic influence. PMID:24669867

  4. Tenderization of Bovine Longissimus Dorsi Muscle using Aqueous Extract from Sarcodon aspratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho-Kyoung; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Ryu, Youn-Chul

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aqueous extract from Sarcodon aspratus on tenderization of the bovine longissimus dorsi muscles in comparison with commercial proteolytic enzymes. Furthermore, meat quality and muscle protein degradation were examined. We marinated meat with 2% Sarcodon aspratus extract, 2% kiwi extract, and 0.2% papain. Beef chunks (3×3×3 cm(3)) were marinated with distilled water (control), Sarcodon aspratus extract (T1), kiwi extract (T2) or papain (T3) for 48 h at 4℃. There were no significant differences in muscle pH and lightness between control and treated samples. T1 had the lowest redness (p<0.01), and higher cooking loss and water holding capacity than control and T2 (p<0.05). T1 and T3 exhibited lower shear force values than control (p<0.05). Total protein solubility did not differ significantly between T1 and control, but T1 had less myofibrillar protein solubility than control and T2 (p<0.001). The degradation of myosin heavy chain in T1 and T3 was observed. This degradation of myofibrillar protein suggests that Sarcodon aspratus extract could influence tenderization. These results show that aqueous extract of Sarcodon aspratus extract actively affect the tenderness of the bovine longissimus dorsi muscle. PMID:26761876

  5. Effect of Flammulina velutipes on spent-hen breast meat tenderization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, G H; Kim, S H; Kim, J H; Kang, H K; Kim, D W; Seong, P N; Cho, S H; Park, B Y; Kim, D H

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of powdered vegetable dip sauces to improve the tenderness of spent-hen breast meat. Our overall purpose was to find lower-priced materials for the tenderization of spent-hen breast meat. The spent-hen breast meat was dipped into vegetable powder for 24 h at 4°C, and then the samples were analyzed. In the results for vegetable-powder treated samples, those treated with papain and pineapple had higher (P ≤ 0.05) myofibrillar fragmentation indices compared with those of the other samples. The kiwi-, pineapple-, and Flammulina velutipes-powder (winter mushroom) treated samples had new peptides of about 32 kDa and degradation to 30 kDa. Also, the Flammulina velutipes-powder treated samples showed new peptides of 15 kDa. These data imply that Flammulina velutipes is superior for common use than papain or pineapple for the tenderization of spent-hen meat. PMID:22184449

  6. Potentiation of anti-cholelithogenic influence of dietary tender cluster beans (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) by garlic (Allium sativum) in experimental mice

    OpenAIRE

    Raghavendra, Chikkanna K.; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Dietary fibre-rich tender cluster beans (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba; CB) are known to exert beneficial cholesterol lowering influence. We examined the influence of a combination of dietary tender CB and garlic (Allium sativum) in reducing the cholesterol gallstone formation in mice. Methods: Cholesterol gallstones were induced in Swiss mice by feeding a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) for 10 wk. Dietary interventions were made with 10 per cent CB and 1 per cent garlic includ...

  7. The gas turbine - a bundle of energy - requires tender care

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarinen, J.; Uronen, J.; Leisio, C. [ed.

    1997-11-01

    The ability of a power plant to generate energy economically depends to a great extent on the functioning of the turbine. These days, an increasingly large number of these power plant `motors` are gas turbines. IVO`s expertise in the operation, maintenance and repair of gas turbines is based on long practical experience and the company`s own research. And IVO is also no stranger to the design and construction of new gas turbine plants

  8. CaCl2、复合磷酸盐及木瓜蛋白酶对河鲈鱼肉的嫩化作用%Tenderization of Perch Meat with Compound Phosphate, Calcium Chloride and Papain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鉏晓艳; 李新; 廖涛; 耿胜荣; 汪兰; 乔宇; 王玮琼; 熊光权

    2015-01-01

    以河鲈鱼为研究对象,以剪切力为考察指标,研究CaCl2、复合磷酸盐、木瓜蛋白酶对鲈鱼半成品的嫩化效果。在单因素试验基础上,采用正交试验设计,对影响鱼肉剪切力的嫩化剂及其添加量进行三因素三水平的优化试验,最后利用扫描电镜,对未嫩化和复合嫩化剂嫩化后的鱼肉微观结构进行观察。结果表明:CaCl21.2 g/kg、复合磷酸盐1.2 g/kg、木瓜蛋白酶1.8 g/kg为最优嫩化剂组合,经该组合嫩化后,鱼肉剪切力最低可降至(8.40±0.13)N (注射方式)和(7.28±0.52)N(涂抹方式);用扫描电镜观察,鱼肉嫩化后肌纤维变宽、纤维密度降低、纤维间连接组织较少,致密结构变得蓬松。该嫩化剂组合对河鲈鱼肉嫩化效果良好。%The tenderization of perch meat with compound phosphate, calcium chloride and papain for the production of semi-finished fish products was investigated. Tenderness was evaluated by shear force. Through single factor and orthogonal array experiments with three factors at three levels, a combination of 1.2 g/kg calcium chloride, 1.2 g/kg compound phosphate and 1.8 g/kg papain was found to be optimal for fish tenderization. The shear force of fish meat was reduced to (8.40± 0.13) N and (7.28± 0.52) N after tenderization treatment by injection and smearing, respectively. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation showed that after tenderization, the diameter of myofibers was increased, the density was decreased, connective tissues were reduced and the compact structure became looser compared with controls, implicating that perch meat was well tenderized .

  9. Analysis of the Impact of Transparency, Corruption, Openness in Competition and Tender Procedures on Public Procurement in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Ochrana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the impact of transparency and openness to competition in public procurement in the Czech Republic. The problems of the Czech procurement market have been demonstrated on the analysis of a sample of contracts awarded by local government entities. From among a set of factors influencing the efficiency of public procurement, we closely analyse transparency, resilience against corruption, openness, effective administrative award procedure, and formulation of appropriate evaluation criteria for selecting the most suitable bid. Some assumptions were confirmed, including a positive effect of open procedures on the level of competition on the supply side as well as the dominant use of price criteria only. The latter case is probably often caused by low skills of workers at the contracting entities, as well as the lack of resources in public budgets. However, we have to reject the persistent legend of “undershooting” tender prices and subsequently increasing the final prices of public contracts. Increases of final prices are very limited. Based on the results of the analyses presented, we argue that the main problem of the Czech public procurement market lies in a rather low competence of administrators who are not able to use non-price criteria more often.

  10. Research on Effects of Fresh Onion Juice on Western-style Steak Tenderization Process%鲜洋葱汁对西餐牛扒嫩化工艺效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁辉; 魏跃胜

    2013-01-01

    以鲜洋葱汁和普通牛肉为原料,研究洋葱汁中蛋白酶对牛肉的嫩化和感官作用,通过与传统的牛扒嫩化工艺相比较,得到洋葱汁嫩化的工艺:洋葱汁浓度21%,温度4℃,腌制时间24 h后,牛肉剪切力可降低30%.洋葱汁、木瓜蛋白酶、啤酒嫩化产品与对照组风味、色泽、剪切力进行对比,结果表明:鲜洋葱汁对普通牛肉有嫩化作用,嫩化作用随洋葱汁浓度增加效果显著.浓度在21%时,嫩化效果与进口品牌牛肉相当,剪切力测定两者没有显著性差异(P<0.05).经洋葱汁腌制的牛内在感官评价上得分较高,能够达到或优于传统蛋白酶和啤酒处理的效果,特别是对牛肉的色泽和香味有较大的影响,增加了牛肉的香气.%Fresh onion juice and common beef are taken as raw materials to research the tenderization and sensation effects of protease in the onion sauce on beef.Compared with traditional steak tenderization process,an onion juice tenderization process is obtained,in which the concentration of onion juice is 21%,the temperature is 4 ℃,and the shear force of beef can be reduced by 30 % after curing for 24 hours.Flavors,colors and shearing forces of the tenderization products of onion juice,papain and beer are compared.The results show that:the fresh onion juice has tenderization effect on common beef,the tenderization effect increases substantially with the increase of concentration of onion juice; when the concentration is 21%,the tenderization effect is similar to that of imported beef; the shearing force has no significant differences (p<0.05); and cured beef has higher marks in sensory judgment,which can have same tenderization effect as traditional protease or beer; especially,the color and flavor of beef are influenced relatively largely,in which the flavor of beef increases.

  11. The efficacy of a vitamin D(3) metabolite for improving the myofibrillar tenderness of meat from Bos indicus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, R W; Doyle, J; Elliott, R; Loxton, I; McMeniman, J P; Norton, B W; Reid, D J; Tume, R W

    2006-01-01

    The influence of a once only administration of a metabolite of vitamin D(3) (HY·D(®)-25-hydroxy vitamin D(3)) on myofibrillar meat tenderness in Australian Brahman cattle was studied. Ninety-six Brahman steers of three phenotypes (Indo-Brazil, US and US/European) and with two previous hormonal growth promotant (HGP) histories (implanted or not implanted with Compudose(®)) were fed a standard feedlot ration for 70d. Treatment groups of 24 steers were offered daily 10g/head HY·D(®) (125mg 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3)) for 6, 4, or 2d before slaughter. One other group of 24 steers was given the basal diet without HY·D(®). Feed lot performance, blood and muscle samples and carcass quality data were collected at slaughter. Calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, iron and Vitamin D(3) metabolites were measured in plasma and longissimus dorsi muscle. Warner-Bratzler (WB) shear force (peak force, initial yield) and other objective meat quality measurements were made on the longissimus dorsi muscle of each steer after ageing for 1, 7 and 14d post-mortem at 0-2°C. There were no significant effects of HY·D(®) supplements on average daily gain (ADG, 1.28-1.45kg/d) over the experimental period. HY·D(®) supplements given 6d prior to slaughter resulted in significantly higher (Pmeat colour, ultimate pH, sarcomere length, cooking loss, instron compression or peak force. There was a significant treatment (HY·D(®)) by phenotype/HGP interaction for peak force (P=0.028), in which Indo-Brazil steers without previous HGP treatment responded positively (increased tenderness) to HY·D(®) supplements at 2d when compared with Indo-Brazil steers previously given HGP. There were no significant effects of treatment on other phenotypes. HY·D(®) supplements did not affect muscle or plasma concentrations of calcium, potassium or sodium, but did significantly decrease plasma magnesium and iron concentrations when given 2d before slaughter. There were no detectable amounts of 25

  12. The efficacy of a vitamin D(3) metabolite for improving the myofibrillar tenderness of meat from Bos indicus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, R W; Doyle, J; Elliott, R; Loxton, I; McMeniman, J P; Norton, B W; Reid, D J; Tume, R W

    2006-01-01

    The influence of a once only administration of a metabolite of vitamin D(3) (HY·D(®)-25-hydroxy vitamin D(3)) on myofibrillar meat tenderness in Australian Brahman cattle was studied. Ninety-six Brahman steers of three phenotypes (Indo-Brazil, US and US/European) and with two previous hormonal growth promotant (HGP) histories (implanted or not implanted with Compudose(®)) were fed a standard feedlot ration for 70d. Treatment groups of 24 steers were offered daily 10g/head HY·D(®) (125mg 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3)) for 6, 4, or 2d before slaughter. One other group of 24 steers was given the basal diet without HY·D(®). Feed lot performance, blood and muscle samples and carcass quality data were collected at slaughter. Calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, iron and Vitamin D(3) metabolites were measured in plasma and longissimus dorsi muscle. Warner-Bratzler (WB) shear force (peak force, initial yield) and other objective meat quality measurements were made on the longissimus dorsi muscle of each steer after ageing for 1, 7 and 14d post-mortem at 0-2°C. There were no significant effects of HY·D(®) supplements on average daily gain (ADG, 1.28-1.45kg/d) over the experimental period. HY·D(®) supplements given 6d prior to slaughter resulted in significantly higher (P<0.05) initial yield values compared to supplements given 2d prior to slaughter. Supplementation had no significant effect on meat colour, ultimate pH, sarcomere length, cooking loss, instron compression or peak force. There was a significant treatment (HY·D(®)) by phenotype/HGP interaction for peak force (P=0.028), in which Indo-Brazil steers without previous HGP treatment responded positively (increased tenderness) to HY·D(®) supplements at 2d when compared with Indo-Brazil steers previously given HGP. There were no significant effects of treatment on other phenotypes. HY·D(®) supplements did not affect muscle or plasma concentrations of calcium, potassium or sodium, but did significantly

  13. RELIABILITY ANALYSIS OF BIDDERS AND THEIR TENDER OFFERS CONCERNING EXECUTION OF CONSTRUCTION WORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galkina Elena Vladislavovna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the reliability analysis methods of bidders and their tenders offers for implementation of construction works are offered. The special attention is focused on the complexity of these processes and the necessity of participation of serious, professional and responsible executors. Application of the described methods leads to a conclusion on the decrease of risks related to selection of a participant of a construction pro-ject. In the article the main stages of the implementation procedure are defined. That allows considering the economic state of applicants, and both economic and technical indicators of tender offers’ reliability. The main characteristics to be considered on each stage are revealed. The author makes a conclusion that the reliability of bidders is determined by the comparison of their economic states with the capacities for implementation of the orders with the specified characteristics. According to the terminology of the article, the reliability of applicant’s of-fers is the ability to execute orders on the bidder’s own conditions. In addition the author states that determining the reliability is based on the comparison of tender offers and contender’s characteristics of objects. The rational methods to compare economic indicators are offered. Along with this, it was found out that at the current moment the method of comparing the technical indicators for the projects-analogues with the indicators of a bidder’s object is not formalized. It limits the application of this method. Finally, it was concluded that the development of the methods applied to technical indicators provided a coherent system for evaluating the reliability of the construction bidders and their offers. It allows creating the basis for the development of appropriate automated system that can be used both for selection of competitive organizations and for preparation of offers by the applicants.

  14. Effect of growth path on the tenderness of the semitendinosus muscle of Brahman-cross steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allingham, P G; Harper, G S; Hunter, R A

    1998-01-01

    The growth paths of 36, nine-month-old Brahman-cross steers were modified to determine the effect of their growth history on tenderness of the semitendinosus (ST) muscle. Steers were assigned to one of three treatment groups. One group of steers (uninterrupted group) was grazed on improved tropical pasture for 257 days and had an average weight gain of 0.6 kg day(-1). The other two groups were fed a restricted diet of low-quality grass hay and lost on average ~ 13% of their initial live weight over 100 days. These groups were then regrown for 157 days on either pasture (pasture finished) with the uninterrupted group, or on a grain-based feedlot diet (grain finished). Growth rates of the previously restricted groups during the regrowth phase were indicative of compensatory growth and were significantly different (p slaughter, the grain finished group had heavier carcases, higher dressing percentages and more fat coverage, than either the uninterrupted or pasture finished groups, the latter being significantly lighter than the uninterrupted group. Tenderness was assessed by shear, compression (C) and adhesion (ADH) measurements. Shear peak force (PF) values of cooked ST samples did not differ significantly between groups. However, PF values of pressure-heat treated ST samples from the grain finished group were significantly less (p < 0.05) than comparable values from the uninterrupted group suggesting a reduced contribution of connective tissue to toughness. The pasture finished group mean PF value was not significantly different from either the uninterrupted group or grain finished group means. C and ADH values were significantly less (p < 0.05) in the grain finished group compared to the pasture finished groups values, again indicating a reduced connective tissue contribution to toughness. We conclude that the physical properties of the connective tissue component of the ST muscle may be altered by rapid compensatory growth after a weight loss phase and reduce the

  15. Risk pre-warning of tender evaluation for civil projects:an outlier detection model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The marking scheme method removes the low scores of the contractor's attributes given by experts when the overall score is calculated, which may result in that a contractor with some latent risks will win the project. In order to remedy the above defect of the marking scheme method, an outlier detection model, which is one mission of knowledge discovery in data, is established on the basis of the sum of similar coefficients. Then, the model is applied to the historical score data of tender evaluation for ci...

  16. Hemorrhagic pulmonary edema associated with meat tenderizer treatment for esophageal meat impaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, M L; Huseby, J S

    1988-09-01

    We describe a case of acute hemorrhagic pulmonary edema caused by aspiration of Adolph's meat tenderizer, used in an attempt to relieve an esophageal meat impaction. We performed an animal experiment in which bronchial instillation of a similar solution reproduced the clinical findings in our patient. This is a previously unreported and potentially lethal complication of a therapy that has never been submitted to clinical trials. We recommend against the use of this therapy for patients with complete esophageal obstruction or in those otherwise at risk for aspiration. PMID:3409751

  17. Fibromyalgia, myofascial pain, tender points and trigger points: splitting or lumping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Robert M; Goldenberg, Don L

    2011-06-30

    Myofascial trigger points (MTPs) have long been a contentious issue in relation to fibromyalgia, and poorly defined pain complaints in general. Can MTPs be reproducibly identified? Do MTPs have valid objective findings, such as spontaneous electromyographic activity, muscle microdialysis evidence for an inflammatory milieu or visualization with newer ultrasound techniques? Is fibromyalgia a syndrome of multiple MTPs, or is focal muscle tenderness a manifestation of central sensitization? These issues are discussed with relevance to a recent paper reporting that manual palpation of active MTPs elicits the spontaneous pain experienced by fibromyalgia patients.

  18. Studies on tender wheatgrass: estimation of elemental content, bioaccessibility of essential elements and antioxidant activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tender wheatgrass is being consumed by human beings in juice form or as it is due to its antioxidant potential and medicinal value. Systematic studies were carried out to (i) estimate elemental profiles as a function of growth period and conditions, bioaccessibility of different elements and the antioxidant potential of the tender wheatgrass, (ii) determine the optimum growth period for obtaining maximum benefit and (iii) examine the possible correlation between antioxidant potential and mineral content. Wheatgrass was grown in four different conditions namely (i) tap water, (ii) tap water with nutrients, (iii) soil and tap water and (iv) soil with nutrient solution. The studies were carried out on the wheatgrass of 5-20 days old. For comparison with laboratory grown wheatgrass, a set of commercially available wheatgrass tablets and wheat seeds were also studied. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used for concentration determination of elements in the wheatgrass, wheat seeds and wheatgrass tablets. A total of 15 elements like Na, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Br, Fe and Zn were determined in the samples of shoots and roots of tender wheatgrass. A comparison with the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of different essential elements with that in tender wheatgrass revealed that wheatgrass is a good source of minerals for health benefits rather than a food supplement. Bioaccessible fractions of various elements were estimated by a chemical NAA method by subjecting the samples to in vitro gastric and gastro-intestinal digestion followed by NAA. The bioaccessibility concentrations by both the measurements were in the range of 9-60%. It was found that bioaccessibility of the elements studied was the highest from fresh wheatgrass and the lowest from wheat seeds. Accuracy of the NAA method was evaluated by analyzing two biological reference materials, SRM 1573a (Tomato leaves) from NIST, USA and ICHTJ CTA-vtl-2 (Tobacco leaves) from INCT, Poland. The antioxidant

  19. Estimation of Sensory Pork Loin Tenderness Using Warner-Bratzler Shear Force and Texture Profile Analysis Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Jee-Hwan; Choi, Mi-Hee; Rhee, Min-Suk; Kim, Byoung-Chul

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the degree to which instrumental measurements explain the variation in pork loin tenderness as assessed by the sensory evaluation of trained panelists. Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS) had a significant relationship with the sensory tenderness variables, such as softness, initial tenderness, chewiness, and rate of breakdown. In a regression analysis, WBS could account variations in these sensory variables, though only to a limited proportion of variation. On the other hand, three parameters from texture profile analysis (TPA)-hardness, gumminess, and chewiness-were significantly correlated with all sensory evaluation variables. In particular, from the result of stepwise regression analysis, TPA hardness alone explained over 15% of variation in all sensory evaluation variables, with the exception of perceptible residue. Based on these results, TPA analysis was found to be better than WBS measurement, with the TPA parameter hardness likely to prove particularly useful, in terms of predicting pork loin tenderness as rated by trained panelists. However, sensory evaluation should be conducted to investigate practical pork tenderness perceived by consumer, because both instrumental measurements could explain only a small portion (less than 20%) of the variability in sensory evaluation. PMID:26954174

  20. Research on Tender Beef Catering Technology%餐饮业牛肉嫩化技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚东

    2014-01-01

    With the continuous improvement of people's living standards, human food structure has undergone great changes, beef consumption increased year by year. At the same time, consumers of beef quality requirements have become more sophisticated, more and more popular in the meat soft and tender, juicy meat. Therefore, to continuously improve the quality and yield of beef, thereby enhancing economic efficiency of enterprises, which will further enhance our position in the international food and beverage industry plays an important role.%随着人民生活水平的不断提高,人类食品结构发生了很大变化,牛肉的消费量逐年上升。与此同时,消费者对牛肉的质量要求也越来越高,越来越青睐于肉质柔软细嫩、多汁的肉。因此,不断提高我国牛肉的质量和产量,从而提高企业的经济效益,将会进一步提升我国餐饮业在国际上的地位。

  1. Optimization of Reaction Conditions for Beef Tenderization with Crude Protease from Actinidia arguta Fruit and Tenderization Mechanism%软枣猕猴桃粗蛋白酶嫩化牛肉工艺优化及其嫩化机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海丽; 隋苗苗; 崔明勋; 姜成哲; 牟柏德; 李官浩

    2013-01-01

    the interstitium and the sarcomere length was increased.As a result,beef was tenderized.

  2. PENGEMPUKAN DAGING DENGAN ENZIM PROTEASE TANAMAN BIDURI (Calotropis gigantea [Meat Tenderization using Protease of Biduri Plant (Calotropis gigantea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erni Sofia Murtini1

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Tenderness is the main attribute quality of meat, which influences consumer acceptability. Protease enzyme (like papain, bromelin and ficin are known to be used for improving tenderness of meat trough degradation of the protein. Biduri plant (Calotropis gigantea contains protease enzyme in its latex or the young tissue (0-20 cm plant tip. After isolation of crude enzyme using ammonium sulphate, the enzyme was the applied to tenderise meat at concentrations 0 ; 0,25; 0,5; 0,75 and 1,0%. The result showed that concentration of protease enzyme affected to meat tenderness that determined by compression test and tensile strength. The enzyme (0.5% was enough to tenderise meat indicated by decreasing its compression test value to 201,160 N 9 from control of 228,582 N and tensile strength value to 4,618 N (from control 9,588N

  3. Relationships between the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire, tender point count, and muscle strength in female patients with fibromyalgia: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Lund, Hans; Christensen, Robin;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that fibromyalgia (FM) patients with reduced lower extremity strength are more symptomatic and tender than FM patients with normal muscle strength. METHODS: A total of 840 FM patients and 122 healthy subjects were evaluated between 1998 and 2005. All of the patie......OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that fibromyalgia (FM) patients with reduced lower extremity strength are more symptomatic and tender than FM patients with normal muscle strength. METHODS: A total of 840 FM patients and 122 healthy subjects were evaluated between 1998 and 2005. All...... of the patients completed version 1 of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and were assessed for tender points and knee muscle strength. All subjects underwent bilateral isokinetic knee muscle strength testing in flexion and extension. Normative knee muscle strength values were calculated from the healthy...

  4. The Discussion on the Tenderization Technology of Meat%浅谈肉类的嫩化技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧; 王东; 陈翠玲; 肖志刚; 王小军

    2012-01-01

    The tenderness evaluation of meat quality indicators can not be ignored, which impacted directly food quality and economic value of the meat. The tenderization technology of meat was an important technological step. The physical and chemical properties and some types of the tenderization technology of meat were introduced in this paper.%肉的嫩度是评价肉品质量不可忽视的指标,直接影响肉的食用品质和经济价值。肉类嫩化技术是肉类制品加工过程中的一个重要工艺步骤,文章主要介绍了肉的理化性质和几种肉类嫩化技术。

  5. Issues of provisions in the Specification of the Essential Terms of Contract (SIWZ in tenders for realization of forestry works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błuszkowska Urszula

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to analyse the provisions included in the Specifications of the Essential Terms of Contract in tenders for forestry works. The subject of the analysis was tender documentation of a selected Regional Directorate of State Forests. An attention was given to a number of inconsistencies, and non-specific and unjustified requirements. The presence of significant differences in the manner of defining requirements in the examined forest districts was emphasised. In opinion of the authors, the differences observed are unjustified and without any doubt impede the creation of tender documentation by representatives of forestry work companies. The summary of the analysis consists of, among others, a few guidelines on the manner of defining the requirements for forestry work companies and the need to unify the SIWZ provisions at the level of Regional Directorate of State Forests.

  6. Utilization of beef from different cattle phenotypes to produce a guaranteed tender beef product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, G G; Gentry, J G; Allen, D M; Miller, M F

    2004-04-01

    Cattle (n = 303) were visually selected from four feed yards to represent six phenotypes (English [EN; n = 50], 3/4 English-1/4 Brahman [ENB; n = 52], 1/2 English-1/2 Exotic [ENEX; n = 56], 1/2 English-1/4 Exotic-1/4 Brahman [ENEXB; n = 47], 3/4 Exotic-1/4 Brahman [EXB; n = 49], and 1/2 Exotic-1/4 English-1/4 Brahman [EXENB; n = 49]). Carcasses were processed at a commercial beef packing facility, and strip loins were collected after 48-h chilling. Strip loins were aged for 14 d at 2 degrees C and frozen at -20 degrees C for 3 to 5 d before three 2.5-cm-thick steaks were cut for Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) determinations and sensory evaluations. Phenotype EN had the highest (P yield grade, whereas carcasses originating from phenotype EXB had lower (P yield grades than all other phenotypes except ENEX. No differences (P > 0.05) were found among phenotypes for mean WBSF values or sensory panel ratings for initial and sustained tenderness, initial and sustained juiciness, beef flavor characteristics, and overall mouthfeel. More than 90% of steaks from carcasses of all phenotypes had WBSF values less than 3.6 kg when cooked to an internal cooked temperature of 70 degrees C. Results from this study indicated that all phenotypes represented in this study could be managed to produce tender beef.

  7. Studies on tenderization and preparation of enrobed pork chunks in microwave oven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Vasudev; Mendiratta, S K

    2006-12-01

    This study was conducted to develop technology for tenderization and production of enrobed pork chunks in a microwave oven. Meat chunks from shoulder cuts of pork were cured in a solution containing salt, sodium tripolyphosphate and sugar for 48h at 4±1°C, enrobed with cream based batter and cooked in a microwave oven at 900MHz. These enrobed chunks (control) were compared with tenderized (treated) enrobed chunks, for which 7.5% cucumis extract, 9% ginger extract and 0.50% papain powder were incorporated in the standard curing solution. Ginger and papain treatments caused significant (Ppapain treated samples. The magnitude of the storage changes were less and acceptability ranking was higher for the ginger treated samples compared with the others. The results indicated that microwaves could be used for the preparation of enrobed pork chunks. The overall acceptability and shelf life of microwave cooked enrobed pork chunk can be further improved using ginger extract in the curing solution. PMID:22063229

  8. Utilization of beef from different cattle phenotypes to produce a guaranteed tender beef product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, G G; Gentry, J G; Allen, D M; Miller, M F

    2004-04-01

    Cattle (n = 303) were visually selected from four feed yards to represent six phenotypes (English [EN; n = 50], 3/4 English-1/4 Brahman [ENB; n = 52], 1/2 English-1/2 Exotic [ENEX; n = 56], 1/2 English-1/4 Exotic-1/4 Brahman [ENEXB; n = 47], 3/4 Exotic-1/4 Brahman [EXB; n = 49], and 1/2 Exotic-1/4 English-1/4 Brahman [EXENB; n = 49]). Carcasses were processed at a commercial beef packing facility, and strip loins were collected after 48-h chilling. Strip loins were aged for 14 d at 2 degrees C and frozen at -20 degrees C for 3 to 5 d before three 2.5-cm-thick steaks were cut for Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) determinations and sensory evaluations. Phenotype EN had the highest (P yield grade, whereas carcasses originating from phenotype EXB had lower (P yield grades than all other phenotypes except ENEX. No differences (P > 0.05) were found among phenotypes for mean WBSF values or sensory panel ratings for initial and sustained tenderness, initial and sustained juiciness, beef flavor characteristics, and overall mouthfeel. More than 90% of steaks from carcasses of all phenotypes had WBSF values less than 3.6 kg when cooked to an internal cooked temperature of 70 degrees C. Results from this study indicated that all phenotypes represented in this study could be managed to produce tender beef. PMID:15080342

  9. Production and processing studies on calpain-system gene markers for tenderness in Brahman cattle: 1. Growth, efficiency, temperament, and carcass characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafe, L M; McIntyre, B L; Robinson, D L; Geesink, G H; Barendse, W; Greenwood, P L

    2010-09-01

    Experiments were conducted concurrently at 2 locations to quantify effects and interactions of calpain-system tenderness gene markers on growth, efficiency, temperament, and carcass traits of Brahman cattle. Cattle were selected at weaning from commercial and research herds based on their genotype for commercially available calpastatin (CAST) and calpain 3 (CAPN3) gene markers for beef tenderness. Genotypes for mu-calpain gene markers (CAPN1-4751 and CAPN1-316) were also determined and included in statistical analyses. The New South Wales (NSW) herd was composed of 82 heifers and 82 castrated male cattle with 0 or 2 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3. The Western Australia (WA) herd was composed of 173 castrated male cattle with 0, 1, or 2 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3. One-half of the cattle at each site were implanted with a hormonal growth promotant (HGP: Revalor-H) during grain finishing. Cattle were backgrounded at pasture for 6 to 8 mo and grain-fed for 117 d (NSW) or 80 d (WA) before slaughter. Individually, or in combination with each other and with CAPN1-4751 status, CAST and CAPN3 status had no significant (all P > 0.05) effects on BW, growth, feed efficiency, or temperament traits. The only significant effect of CAST or CAPN3 on carcass characteristics was a small increase in rib fat with increasing number of favorable CAST alleles (P = 0.042) in the WA herd. There were no significant interactions (all P > 0.05) between the markers, or between the markers and sex or HGP treatment apart from CAST x HGP for area of the M. longissimus lumborum (P = 0.024) in the NSW experiment. Favorable CAST or CAPN3 alleles appear unlikely to have detrimental effects on growth, efficiency, temperament, or carcass characteristics of Brahman cattle; however, some effects evident for CAPN1 status indicate the need for further production studies on effects of these markers. Overall, the findings of the present study indicate that calpain-system gene markers are

  10. Production and processing studies on calpain-system gene markers for tenderness in Brahman cattle: 1. Growth, efficiency, temperament, and carcass characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafe, L M; McIntyre, B L; Robinson, D L; Geesink, G H; Barendse, W; Greenwood, P L

    2010-09-01

    Experiments were conducted concurrently at 2 locations to quantify effects and interactions of calpain-system tenderness gene markers on growth, efficiency, temperament, and carcass traits of Brahman cattle. Cattle were selected at weaning from commercial and research herds based on their genotype for commercially available calpastatin (CAST) and calpain 3 (CAPN3) gene markers for beef tenderness. Genotypes for mu-calpain gene markers (CAPN1-4751 and CAPN1-316) were also determined and included in statistical analyses. The New South Wales (NSW) herd was composed of 82 heifers and 82 castrated male cattle with 0 or 2 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3. The Western Australia (WA) herd was composed of 173 castrated male cattle with 0, 1, or 2 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3. One-half of the cattle at each site were implanted with a hormonal growth promotant (HGP: Revalor-H) during grain finishing. Cattle were backgrounded at pasture for 6 to 8 mo and grain-fed for 117 d (NSW) or 80 d (WA) before slaughter. Individually, or in combination with each other and with CAPN1-4751 status, CAST and CAPN3 status had no significant (all P > 0.05) effects on BW, growth, feed efficiency, or temperament traits. The only significant effect of CAST or CAPN3 on carcass characteristics was a small increase in rib fat with increasing number of favorable CAST alleles (P = 0.042) in the WA herd. There were no significant interactions (all P > 0.05) between the markers, or between the markers and sex or HGP treatment apart from CAST x HGP for area of the M. longissimus lumborum (P = 0.024) in the NSW experiment. Favorable CAST or CAPN3 alleles appear unlikely to have detrimental effects on growth, efficiency, temperament, or carcass characteristics of Brahman cattle; however, some effects evident for CAPN1 status indicate the need for further production studies on effects of these markers. Overall, the findings of the present study indicate that calpain-system gene markers are

  11. Calpastatin and µ-calpain differ in their control of genotype specific residual variance of beef tenderness in Angus and MARC III steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genotype variant effects of calpastatin (CAST) and µ-calpain (CAPN1) on mean beef tenderness have been widely characterized. We have tested whether these genetic variants also control residual (non-genetic) variation, and subsequently total phenotypic variation, of tenderness. Observation of rare ...

  12. Deciding about Design Quality: Value judgements and decision making in the selection of architects by public clients under European tendering regulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volker, L.

    2010-01-01

    In the past few years the image of tender procedures in which Dutch public clients selected an architect has been dominated by distressing newspaper headlines. Architects fear that the current tender culture will harm the quality of our built environment due to a potential lack of diversity, creativ

  13. Accuracy of genomic breeding values for meat tenderness in Polled Nellore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnabosco, C U; Lopes, F B; Fragoso, R C; Eifert, E C; Valente, B D; Rosa, G J M; Sainz, R D

    2016-07-01

    Zebu () cattle, mostly of the Nellore breed, comprise more than 80% of the beef cattle in Brazil, given their tolerance of the tropical climate and high resistance to ectoparasites. Despite their advantages for production in tropical environments, zebu cattle tend to produce tougher meat than Bos taurus breeds. Traditional genetic selection to improve meat tenderness is constrained by the difficulty and cost of phenotypic evaluation for meat quality. Therefore, genomic selection may be the best strategy to improve meat quality traits. This study was performed to compare the accuracies of different Bayesian regression models in predicting molecular breeding values for meat tenderness in Polled Nellore cattle. The data set was composed of Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) of longissimus muscle from 205, 141, and 81 animals slaughtered in 2005, 2010, and 2012, respectively, which were selected and mated so as to create extreme segregation for WBSF. The animals were genotyped with either the Illumina BovineHD (HD; 777,000 from 90 samples) chip or the GeneSeek Genomic Profiler (GGP Indicus HD; 77,000 from 337 samples). The quality controls of SNP were Hard-Weinberg Proportion -value ≥ 0.1%, minor allele frequency > 1%, and call rate > 90%. The FImpute program was used for imputation from the GGP Indicus HD chip to the HD chip. The effect of each SNP was estimated using ridge regression, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), Bayes A, Bayes B, and Bayes Cπ methods. Different numbers of SNP were used, with 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, or 100% of the markers preselected based on their significance test (-value from genomewide association studies [GWAS]) or randomly sampled. The prediction accuracy was assessed by the correlation between genomic breeding value and the observed WBSF phenotype, using a leave-one-out cross-validation methodology. The prediction accuracies using all markers were all very similar for all models, ranging from 0

  14. Close Association between 4685 Loci on CAPN1 Gene and Meat Tenderness%CAPN1基因4685位点与肉质嫩度相关

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜成国; 全世元; 曹阳; 张国梁; 董宝池; 金海国; 张立春

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The paper was to explore the impact of 4685 loci on CAPN1 gene of Yanbian yellow cattle and red steppe cattle on meat tenderness. [Method] The 4685 loci in 14th intron region of CAPN1 gene of Yanbian yellow cattle and red steppe cattle was conducted analysis of gene polymorphism and meat tenderness by PCR-RFLP technology, and the effect of the loci on Jilin local cattle breeds was verified. [Result] The loci had close relationship with related detection indices of meat tenderness (cooking loss, muscle fibre diameter, shear force and drip loss), and the existence of T allele could significantly increase the tenderness level of in- dividuals, but the loci was not associated to pH value. 4685 loci was not associated to carcass traits (carcass weight, net meat weight and carcass yield ratio), which only had certain correlation with eye muscle area. [Conclusion] The 4685 loci on CAPN1 gene of Yanbian yellow cattle and red steppe cattle had close association with meat tenderness.%[目的]探索延边黄牛与草原红牛钙蛋白酶1(CAPN1)基因4685位点对肉质嫩度的影响。[方法]采用PCR—RFLP技术对草原红牛、延边黄牛CAPN1基因第14内含子区4685位点进行基因多态性与肉质嫩度进行分析,验证该位点在吉林省地方品种牛中的作用。[结果]该位点与肉质嫩度相关检测指标(蒸煮损失、肌纤维直径、剪切力、滴水损失等)密切相关,均表现为T等位基因的存在能够显著提高个体的嫩度水平,但该位点与pH无关。4685位点与屠宰性状(净肉重、胴体重、净肉率等)无关,仅与眼肌面积存在一定的相关性。[结论]延边黄牛与草原红牛CAPN1基因4685位点与肉质嫩度存在密切相关。

  15. CAPN1基因4685位点与肉质嫩度相关性研究%Close Association between 4685 Loci on CAPN1 Gene and Meat Tenderness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜成国; 全世元; 曹阳; 张国梁; 董宝池; 金海国; 张立春

    2013-01-01

    [目的]探索延边黄牛与草原红牛钙蛋白酶Ⅰ(CAPN1)基因4685位点对肉质嫩度的影响.[方法]采用PCR-RFLP技术对草原红牛、延边黄牛CAPN1基因第14内含子区4685位点进行基因多态性与肉质嫩度进行分析,验证该位点在吉林省地方品种牛中的作用.[结果]该位点与肉质嫩度相关检测指标(蒸煮损失、肌纤维直径、剪切力、滴水损失等)密切相关,均表现为T等位基因的存在能够显著提高个体的嫩度水平,但该位点与pH无关.4685位点与屠宰性状(净肉重、胴体重、净肉率等)无关,仅与眼肌面积存在一定的相关性.[结论]延边黄牛与草原红牛CAPN1基因4685位点与肉质嫩度存在密切相关.%[Objective]The paper was to explore the impact of 4685 loci on CAPN1 gene of Yanbian yellow cattle and red steppe cattle on meat tenderness. [Method] 4685 loci in 14th intron region of CAPN1 gene of Yanbian yellow cattle and red steppe cattle was conducted analysis of gene polymorphism and meat tenderness by PCR-RFLP technology, and the effect of the loci on Jilin local cattle breeds was verified. [ Result] The loci had close relationship with related detection indexes of meat tenderness (cooking loss, muscle fibre diameter, shear force and drip loss) , and the existence of T allele could significantly increase the tenderness Level of individuals, but the loci was not associated to pH value. 4685 loci was not associated to carcass traits (carcass weight, net meat weight and carcass yield ratio) , which only had certain correlation with eye muscle area. .[Conclusion] 4685 loci on CAPN1 gene of Yanbian yellow cattle and red steppe cattle had close association with meat tenderness.

  16. Renewable energies: the choice of invitation to tender candidates for the electric power plants supplied by biomass or biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To contribute to the french objectives of renewable energies development, the Ministry of Industry proposed an invitation to tender for the realization at the first of january 2007 of electric power plants (more than 12 MW) from biomass and biogas. This document presents the selected projects. (A.L.B.)

  17. 76 FR 27310 - Coleman Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Coleman Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the...: Coleman Hydro LLC. e. Name of Project: Coleman Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On Little Timber Creek... 20426. m. The application is not ready for environmental analysis at this time. n. The proposed...

  18. 77 FR 58119 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing... facilities consist of four cylinder gates with trash racks in a cylindrical tower. Each intake supplies...

  19. 77 FR 58369 - York Haven Power Company, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission York Haven Power Company, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing... the west bank of the river. A 14-foot-wide by 10.5-foot-tall trash sluice gate and associated...

  20. 77 FR 25158 - Loup River Public Power District; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Loup River Public Power District; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing....: 1256-031. c. Date Filed: April 16, 2012. d. Applicant: Loup River Public Power District (Loup Power District). e. Name of Project: Loup River Hydroelectric Project (Loup River Project). f. Location: On...

  1. 77 FR 25997 - Loup River Public Power District; Notice of Application Tendered For Filing With the Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Loup River Public Power District; Notice of Application Tendered For Filing....: 1256-031. c. Date Filed: April 16, 2012. d. Applicant: Loup River Public Power District (Loup Power District). e. Name of Project: Loup River Hydroelectric Project (Loup River Project). f. Location: On...

  2. 77 FR 34371 - Red River Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Red River Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the.... c. Date Filed: May 24, 2012. d. Applicant: Red River Hydro LLC (Red River), a wholly-owned...: The project would be located on the Red River in Rapides Parish, Louisiana at an existing lock and...

  3. 装备采购招标代理工作管理%Management of Equipment Procurement Tendering Surrogate Work

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周静; 李晓松; 刘杰

    2016-01-01

    The paper defines the concept of equipment procurement tendering surrogate and analyzes the necessity of introducing tendering surrogate into equipment procurement.Combined with the main prac-tices and existing problems,it puts forward the general ideas and specific measures on how to strengthen the management of equipment procurement tendering surrogate work,which provides reference for the sci-entific management of equipment procurement tendering surrogate organizations.%界定了装备采购招标代理的概念,分析了装备采购引入招标代理的必要性,结合目前装备采购招标代理的主要做法及存在问题,提出了加强装备采购招标代理工作管理的总体思路与具体举措,为实现装备采购招标代理机构的科学管理提供参考。

  4. Weed and Onion Response to multiple Applications of Goal Tender beginning at the 1-Leaf Stage of Onion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadleaf weed control in onion is difficult in part due to a lack of postemergence herbicide options at an early growth stage of onions. Onion tolerance to sequential applications of oxyfluorfen (Goal-Tender) alone and with bromoxynil (Buctril) beginning at the 1-lf stage of onions was evaluated n...

  5. 77 FR 37031 - Don W. Gilbert Hydro Power, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Don W. Gilbert Hydro Power, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing... W. Gilbert Hydro Power, LLC. e. Name of Project: Gilbert Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: The....] h. Applicant Contact: Don W. Gilbert and DeAnn G. Somonich, Don W. Gilbert Hydro Power, LLC,...

  6. The effect of breed of sire and age at feeding on muscle tenderness in the beef chuck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, K L; Johnson, D D; West, R L; Marshall, T T; Hargrove, D D

    1991-09-01

    Steers (n = 59) produced from the mating of Braford, Simbrah, Senepol, and Simmental bulls to Brahman- and Romana Red-sired cows and Brahman bulls to Angus cows were used in this study. Effects of sire breed and age at feeding on muscle tenderness in the major muscles of the chuck when steers were fed to 1.0 cm 12th rib fat were determined. There were no muscle tenderness effects due to sire breed group, with the exception of the serratus ventralis muscle, which was more tender in Brahman- and Braford-sired steers than in Simmental-sired steers. Additionally, the supraspinatus muscle from the yearlings was lower in shear value than that from the calves. The Brahman-sired steers had serratus ventralis muscles with higher percentages (P less than .05) of intramuscular fat than those of Braford-, Simbrah-, and Simmental-sired steers. Fat deposited within the muscle or between muscles in the chuck was not related to muscle tenderness as measured by Warner-Bratzler shear values. Also, percentages of intramuscular fat of the triceps brachii, serratus ventralis, or supraspinatus muscles were not influenced (P greater than .05) by age at feeding. PMID:1938650

  7. Modified-atmosphere storage under subatmospheric pressure and beef quality: II. Color, drip, cooking loss, sarcomere length, and tenderness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, F.J.M.; Hiesberger, J.; Hofbauer, P.; Dogl, B.; Dransfield, E.

    2006-01-01

    Beef has a requirement for refrigerated storage up to 14 d to achieve adequate aging and a tender product. To achieve this aging with little spoilage and no surface drying, vacuum packaging is attractive, because it is inherently simple and offers a clear indication to the packer when the process ha

  8. The effect of breed of sire and age at feeding on muscle tenderness in the beef chuck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, K L; Johnson, D D; West, R L; Marshall, T T; Hargrove, D D

    1991-09-01

    Steers (n = 59) produced from the mating of Braford, Simbrah, Senepol, and Simmental bulls to Brahman- and Romana Red-sired cows and Brahman bulls to Angus cows were used in this study. Effects of sire breed and age at feeding on muscle tenderness in the major muscles of the chuck when steers were fed to 1.0 cm 12th rib fat were determined. There were no muscle tenderness effects due to sire breed group, with the exception of the serratus ventralis muscle, which was more tender in Brahman- and Braford-sired steers than in Simmental-sired steers. Additionally, the supraspinatus muscle from the yearlings was lower in shear value than that from the calves. The Brahman-sired steers had serratus ventralis muscles with higher percentages (P less than .05) of intramuscular fat than those of Braford-, Simbrah-, and Simmental-sired steers. Fat deposited within the muscle or between muscles in the chuck was not related to muscle tenderness as measured by Warner-Bratzler shear values. Also, percentages of intramuscular fat of the triceps brachii, serratus ventralis, or supraspinatus muscles were not influenced (P greater than .05) by age at feeding.

  9. miRNA-dysregulation associated with tenderness variation induced by acute stress in Angus cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Chunping

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract miRNAs are a class of small, single-stranded, non-coding RNAs that perform post-transcriptional repression of target genes by binding to 3’ untranslated regions. Research has found that miRNAs involved in the regulation of many metabolic processes. Here we uncovered that the beef quality of Angus cattle sharply diversified after acute stress. By performing miRNA microarray analysis, 13 miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed in stressed group compared to control group. Using a bioinformatics method, 135 protein-coding genes were predicted as the targets of significant differentially expressed miRNAs. Gene Ontology (GO term and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA mined that these target genes involved in some important pathways, which may have impact on meat quality and beef tenderness.

  10. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in Brahman steers and their association with carcass and tenderness traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T; Thomas, M G; Bidner, T D; Paschal, J C; Franke, D E

    2009-01-01

    Data from purebred Brahman steers (N = 467) were used to study the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with carcass traits and measures of tenderness. Fall weaned calves were grazed and fed in a subtropical environment and then harvested for processing in a commercial facility. Carcass data were recorded 24 h postmortem. Muscle samples and primal ribs were obtained to measure calpastatin activity and shear force. DNA was used to determine genotypes of thyroglobulin (TG5), calpastatin (CAST) and mu-calpain (CAPN 316 and CAPN 4751) SNP. Minor allele frequencies for CAST, CAPN 316 and CAPN 4751 were 0.342, 0.031, and 0.051, respectively. CAST genotypes were associated with calpastatin enzyme activity (P carcass traits.

  11. Relationship between commercially available DNA analysis and phenotypic observations on beef quality and tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magolski, J D; Buchanan, D S; Maddock-Carlin, K R; Anderson, V L; Newman, D J; Berg, E P

    2013-11-01

    Warner-Bratzler shear force values from 560 mixed breed heifers and steers were used to determine estimates of genetic selection. Cattle were marketed from 2008 to 2011, and included five feedlot based research projects at the North Dakota State University-Carrington Research Extension Center. Samples were collected for IGENITY® analysis providing information that included selection indices and estimated breeding values for carcass traits. DNA-based test results were compared with actual carcass measurements. Marbling accounted for over 10% of the variation in WBSF while hot carcass weight was the second most influential carcass trait accounting for 4% (Pgrade, and fat thickness were low (R(2)=0.14, 0.02, 0.03, 0.03, and 0.02, respectively). Therefore selecting cattle for a higher degree of marbling and feeding a diet that meets or exceeds recommended nutrients for growth are the most important factors influencing beef tenderness and acceptability. PMID:23793083

  12. Carcass characteristics, the calpain proteinase system, and aged tenderness of Angus and Brahman crossbred steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, T D; Williams, S E; Lamb, B S; Johnson, D D; West, R L

    1997-11-01

    We used 69 steers of varying percentage Brahman (B) breeding (0% B, n = 11; 25% B, n = 13; 37% B, n = 10; 50% B, n = 12; 75% B, n = 12; 100% B, n = 11) to study the relationship between carcass traits, the calpain proteinase system, and aged meat tenderness in intermediate B crosses. Calpains and calpastatin activities were determined on fresh longissimus muscle samples using anion-exchange chromatography. The USDA yield and quality grade data (24 h) were collected for each carcass. Longissimus steaks were removed and aged for 5 or 14 d for determination of shear force and 5 d for sensory panel evaluation. Even though some yield grade factors were affected by the percentage of B breeding, USDA yield grades did not differ (P > .15) between breed types. Marbling score and USDA quality grade decreased linearly (P Brahman crosses. PMID:9374310

  13. Carcass characteristics, the calpain proteinase system, and aged tenderness of Angus and Brahman crossbred steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, T D; Williams, S E; Lamb, B S; Johnson, D D; West, R L

    1997-11-01

    We used 69 steers of varying percentage Brahman (B) breeding (0% B, n = 11; 25% B, n = 13; 37% B, n = 10; 50% B, n = 12; 75% B, n = 12; 100% B, n = 11) to study the relationship between carcass traits, the calpain proteinase system, and aged meat tenderness in intermediate B crosses. Calpains and calpastatin activities were determined on fresh longissimus muscle samples using anion-exchange chromatography. The USDA yield and quality grade data (24 h) were collected for each carcass. Longissimus steaks were removed and aged for 5 or 14 d for determination of shear force and 5 d for sensory panel evaluation. Even though some yield grade factors were affected by the percentage of B breeding, USDA yield grades did not differ (P > .15) between breed types. Marbling score and USDA quality grade decreased linearly (P Brahman crosses.

  14. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in Brahman steers and their association with carcass and tenderness traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T; Thomas, M G; Bidner, T D; Paschal, J C; Franke, D E

    2009-01-20

    Data from purebred Brahman steers (N = 467) were used to study the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with carcass traits and measures of tenderness. Fall weaned calves were grazed and fed in a subtropical environment and then harvested for processing in a commercial facility. Carcass data were recorded 24 h postmortem. Muscle samples and primal ribs were obtained to measure calpastatin activity and shear force. DNA was used to determine genotypes of thyroglobulin (TG5), calpastatin (CAST) and mu-calpain (CAPN 316 and CAPN 4751) SNP. Minor allele frequencies for CAST, CAPN 316 and CAPN 4751 were 0.342, 0.031, and 0.051, respectively. CAST genotypes were associated with calpastatin enzyme activity (P carcass traits.

  15. Calcium-activated tenderization of strip loin, top sirloin, and top round steaks in diverse genotypes of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, T D; Harrelson, J M; West, R L; Williams, S E; Johnson, D D

    1999-12-01

    Steers of known percentage Brahman (B) and Angus (A) breeding (100% A, n = 6; F1 B x A, n = 6; and 100% B, n = 6) were used to determine the effect of calcium chloride injection on the calpain proteinase system and meat tenderness. The steers were slaughtered in six replications (at either 9 or 14 mm of backfat, determined ultrasonically), with each breed type represented. Calpains and calpastatin activities were measured on fresh, prerigor longissimus muscle samples. Carcass data were collected after a 24-h chill, and the short loin (IMPS #180), top sirloin (IMPS #184), and top round (IMPS #168) were removed from both sides of each carcass. The cuts from the right side were then injected at 5% (wt/wt) with CaCl2 solution (2.2%). Longissimus muscle calpain and calpastatin activities were also measured at 48 h postmortem from the injected and control sides of each carcass. Warner-Bratzler shear force was measured on steaks from the three subprimals aged 1, 2, 5, 15, or 31 d. Marbling scores and USDA quality grades were higher (Pcarcasses. Calpastatin activity was higher (P.05) across breed type. Calcium injection improved strip loin and top sirloin steak tenderness, but it did not affect top round steak tenderness. Collectively, these data show that CaC12 injection can be used to improve meat tenderness, with similar responses shown in cattle containing 0, 50, and 100% B inheritance. However, even with CaCl2 injection, B steaks are less tender than their A and F1 B x A counterparts.

  16. Calcium-activated tenderization of strip loin, top sirloin, and top round steaks in diverse genotypes of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, T D; Harrelson, J M; West, R L; Williams, S E; Johnson, D D

    1999-12-01

    Steers of known percentage Brahman (B) and Angus (A) breeding (100% A, n = 6; F1 B x A, n = 6; and 100% B, n = 6) were used to determine the effect of calcium chloride injection on the calpain proteinase system and meat tenderness. The steers were slaughtered in six replications (at either 9 or 14 mm of backfat, determined ultrasonically), with each breed type represented. Calpains and calpastatin activities were measured on fresh, prerigor longissimus muscle samples. Carcass data were collected after a 24-h chill, and the short loin (IMPS #180), top sirloin (IMPS #184), and top round (IMPS #168) were removed from both sides of each carcass. The cuts from the right side were then injected at 5% (wt/wt) with CaCl2 solution (2.2%). Longissimus muscle calpain and calpastatin activities were also measured at 48 h postmortem from the injected and control sides of each carcass. Warner-Bratzler shear force was measured on steaks from the three subprimals aged 1, 2, 5, 15, or 31 d. Marbling scores and USDA quality grades were higher (P.05) across breed type. Calcium injection improved strip loin and top sirloin steak tenderness, but it did not affect top round steak tenderness. Collectively, these data show that CaC12 injection can be used to improve meat tenderness, with similar responses shown in cattle containing 0, 50, and 100% B inheritance. However, even with CaCl2 injection, B steaks are less tender than their A and F1 B x A counterparts.

  17. Joint involvement in patients affected by systemic lupus erythematosus: application of the swollen to tender joint count ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Cipriano

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Joint involvement is a common manifestation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. According to the SLE disease activity index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K, joint involvement is present in case of ≥2 joints with pain and signs of inflammation. However this definition could fail to catch all the various features of joint involvement. Alternatively the Swollen to Tender joint Ratio (STR could be used. This new index, which was originally proposed for rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients, is based on the count of 28 swollen and tender joints. Our study is, therefore, aimed to assess joint involvement in a SLE cohort using the STR. SLE patients with joint symptoms (≥1 tender joint were enrolled over a period of one month. Disease activity was assessed by SLEDAI-2K. We performed the swollen and tender joint count (0-28 and calculated the STR. Depending on the STR, SLE patients were grouped into three categories of disease activity: low (STR1.0. We also calculated the disease activity score based on a 28-joint count and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR. We enrolled 100 SLE patients [F/M 95/5, mean±standard deviation (SD age 46.3±10.6 years, mean±SD disease duration 147.1±103.8 months]. The median of tender and swollen joints was 4 (IQR 7 and 1 (IQR 2.5, respectively. The median STR value was 0.03 (IQR 0.6. According to the STR, disease activity was low in 70 patients, moderate in 23 and high in 7. A significant correlation was identified between STR values and DAS28 (r=0.33, p=0.001. The present study suggests a correlation between STR and DAS28, allowing an easier and faster assessment of joint involvement with the former index.

  18. Joint involvement in patients affected by systemic lupus erythematosus: application of the swollen to tender joint count ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriano, E; Ceccarelli, F; Massaro, L; Spinelli, F R; Alessandri, C; Perricone, C; Valesini, G; Conti, F

    2015-01-01

    Joint involvement is a common manifestation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). According to the SLE disease activity index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K), joint involvement is present in case of ≥2 joints with pain and signs of inflammation. However this definition could fail to catch all the various features of joint involvement. Alternatively the Swollen to Tender joint Ratio (STR) could be used. This new index, which was originally proposed for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, is based on the count of 28 swollen and tender joints. Our study is, therefore, aimed to assess joint involvement in a SLE cohort using the STR. SLE patients with joint symptoms (≥1 tender joint) were enrolled over a period of one month. Disease activity was assessed by SLEDAI-2K. We performed the swollen and tender joint count (0-28) and calculated the STR. Depending on the STR, SLE patients were grouped into three categories of disease activity: low (STR1.0). We also calculated the disease activity score based on a 28-joint count and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR). We enrolled 100 SLE patients [F/M 95/5, mean±standard deviation (SD) age 46.3±10.6 years, mean±SD disease duration 147.1±103.8 months]. The median of tender and swollen joints was 4 (IQR 7) and 1 (IQR 2.5), respectively. The median STR value was 0.03 (IQR 0.6). According to the STR, disease activity was low in 70 patients, moderate in 23 and high in 7. A significant correlation was identified between STR values and DAS28 (r=0.33, p=0.001). The present study suggests a correlation between STR and DAS28, allowing an easier and faster assessment of joint involvement with the former index. PMID:26492964

  19. Construction of electronic tendering and bidding system of China Coal Technology and Engineering Group%中国煤炭科工集团有限公司电子招投标系统建设探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海鹰

    2016-01-01

    通过对中国煤炭科工集团企业内部招标采购市场现状和电子招投标系统建设的需求分析,对集团建设企业采购电子招投标系统互联网平台的框架功能设置以及性能进行了探讨。指出,依据国家电子招投标政策的支持,在集团内建设电子招投标系统,可有效克服招投标过程中各种不规范行为,增加透明度,提高竞争力,减少干扰因素,为集团集约化招投标采购提供绿色、高效、安全、可行的管理方案,从而达到降低项目成本提高效益的目的。%Through the analysis on internal procurement market situation of China Coal Technology and Engineering Group, and the demand of electronic tendering and bidding system construction, the paper discusses the framework feature set and the performance of enterprise electronic tendering and bidding system internet platform, and points out, according to the national electronic tendering and bidding policy, the system can effectively overcome the irregularities in the bidding process, increase transparency, improve competitiveness, reduce interference factors, and provide green, efficient, safe and feasible management scheme for the intensive bidding procurement of the group, so as to reduce the project cost and increase the benefit.

  20. 冷鲜牛肉嫩度的影响因素和嫩化技术%Study on influencing factors of tenderness and tenderization methods of chilled beef

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘泉

    2012-01-01

    The influencing factors of beef tenderness were mainly analyzed in this study, including age, sex, intramuscular fat and collagen protein content. Tenderization methods, including conditioning, physical methods, electrical stimulation were stressed, in hope of providing a theory basis and technique support for controlling of chilled beef quality during processing.%主要论述了冷鲜牛肉嫩度的影响因素,诸如性别和年龄、肌内脂肪和胶原蛋白含量等,同时嫩化技术得到了重点阐述,其包括了排酸成熟、机械法、电刺激等。希望为冷鲜牛肉的生产、品质的改善提供理论依据和技术支持。

  1. Proposal for the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the maintenance of low-voltage switchgear

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the maintenance of low-voltage switchgear. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the maintenance of low-voltage switchgear with HAZEMEYER (FR) for a total amount of 385 000 euros (610 000 Swiss francs), covering an initial period of five years, subject to revision for inflation after 1 January 2007. The contract will include options for two one-year extensions beyond the initial five-year period. The amount in Swiss francs has been calculated using the present rate of exchange. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: FR - 100%.

  2. 谈投标施工组织设计编制%Discussion on the formulation of the tendering construction organization design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫建国

    2012-01-01

    Combining with working practice,the paper describes the formulation of tendering construction organization design,summarizes the construction organization design contents and formulation requirements,and illustrates the pre-tendering survey,tendering response,tendering invalid protection and management personnel quality and so on,which has significant meaning for guiding practice.%结合工作实践,对投标施工组织设计的编制进行了阐述,总结了施工组织设计的主要内容及编制要求,并对标前现场踏勘、招标文件的响应性、防止废标、经营人员素质等作了说明,对指导实际工作具有重要意义。

  3. Variation at the Calpain 3 gene is associated with meat tenderness in zebu and composite breeds of cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunch Rowan J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL affecting meat tenderness have been reported on Bovine chromosome 10. Here we examine variation at the Calpain 3 (CAPN3 gene in cattle, a gene located within the confidence interval of the QTL, and which is a positional candidate gene based on the biochemical activity of the protein. Results We identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in the genomic sequence of the CAPN3 gene and tested three of these in a sample of 2189 cattle. Of the three SNP genotyped, the CAPN3:c.1538+225G>T had the largest significant additive effect, with an allele substitution effect in the Brahman of α = -0.144 kg, SE = 0.060, P = 0.016, and the polymorphism explained 1.7% of the residual phenotypic variance in that sample of the breed. Significant haplotype substitution effects were found for all three breeds, the Brahman, the Belmont Red, and the Santa Gertrudis. For the common haplotype, the haplotype substitution effect in the Brahman was α = 0.169 kg, SE = 0.056, P = 0.003. The effect of this gene was compared to Calpastatin in the same sample. The SNP show negligible frequencies in taurine breeds and low to moderate minor allele frequencies in zebu or composite animals. Conclusion These associations confirm the location of a QTL for meat tenderness in this region of bovine chromosome 10. SNP in or near this gene may be responsible for part of the overall difference between taurine and zebu breeds in meat tenderness, and the greater variability in meat tenderness found in zebu and composite breeds. The evidence provided so far suggests that none of these tested SNP are causative mutations.

  4. 强制要约收购的概念解读%Concept Explanation on Compulsory Tender Offer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧闽

    2011-01-01

    要约收购作为当今国际社会流行的重要收购模式,也存在力不从心的地方,需要强制要约收购予以弥补。在上市公司收购过程中,实施强制要约收购的目的是保护中小股东的利益,在一定程度上减轻要约收购存在的局限性。本文从各国的立法例出发,归纳出其基本的法律特征,并且通过对强制要约收购各种概念进行比较分析,以期最终得出其概念的真正涵义。%Tender offer,which is considered as the most popular acquisition model in the international community.However,there also exists some defects to be complimented by compulsory tender offer.During the process of acquisition of listed corporations,the practice of compulsory tender offer is for the purpose of protecting the interests of shareholders and alleviating limitations of the tender offer to a certain extend.Taking the national legislation as an example,this paper sumerizes the basic law features,and through comparative analysis of the compulsory offer,the author tries to explain the true meaning of such concepts.

  5. Proposal to negotiate a contract, without competitive tendering, for the supply and installation of pipework for the new hostel

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    This document concerns the proposal to negotiate a contract for the supply and installation of new piping as preparatory work for the construction of a third on-site hostel. For the reasons explained in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to approve a contract with the SERVICES INDUSTRIELS DE GENEVE (SIG) (CH), without competitive tendering, for the supply and installation of new piping for an amount not exceeding 700 000 Swiss francs, not subject to revision.

  6. Joint involvement in patients affected by systemic lupus erythematosus: application of the swollen to tender joint count ratio

    OpenAIRE

    E. Cipriano; F. Ceccarelli; L. Massaro; F. R. Spinelli; C. Alessandri; C. Perricone; G. Valesini; Conti, F.

    2015-01-01

    Joint involvement is a common manifestation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). According to the SLE disease activity index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K), joint involvement is present in case of ≥2 joints with pain and signs of inflammation. However this definition could fail to catch all the various features of joint involvement. Alternatively the Swollen to Tender joint Ratio (STR) could be used. This new index, which was originally proposed for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, is based on the cou...

  7. Understanding tenderness variability and ageing changes in buffalo meat: biochemical, ultrastructural and proteome characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, M; Naveena, B M; Reddy, K S; Shahikumar, M; Reddy, V R; Kulkarni, V V; Rapole, S; More, T H

    2016-06-01

    Understanding of biological impact of proteome profile on meat quality is vital for developing different approaches to improve meat quality. Present study was conducted to unravel the differences in biochemical, ultrastructural and proteome profile of longissimus dorsi muscle between buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) of different age groups (young v. old). Higher (Pspace in young compared with old buffalo meat. Transmission electron microscopy results revealed longer sarcomeres in young buffalo meat relative to meat from old buffaloes. Proteomic characterization using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) found 93 differentially expressed proteins between old and young buffalo meat. Proteome analysis using 2DE revealed 191 and 95 differentially expressed protein spots after 6 days of ageing in young and old buffalo meat, respectively. The matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of flight/time-of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) analysis of selected gel spots helped in identifying molecular markers of tenderness mainly consisting of structural proteins. Protein biomarkers identified in the present study have the potential to differentiate meat from young and old buffaloes and pave the way for optimizing strategies for improved buffalo meat quality. PMID:27076348

  8. Therapeutic effects of tender coconut water on oxidative stress in fructose fed insulin resistant hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D Bhagya; L Prema; T Rajamohan

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To investigate whether tender coconut water(TCW)mitigates oxidative stress in fructose fed hypertensive rats.Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed with fructose rich diet and treated withTCW (4 mL/100 g of body weight) for3 subsequent weeks. Systolic blood pressure was measured every three days using the indirect tail cuff method. At the end of the experimental period, plasma glucose and insulin, serum triglycerides and free fatty acids, lipid peroxidation markers (MDA, hydroperoxides and conjugated dienes) and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were analyzed in all the groups.Results: Treatment withTCW significantly lowered the systolic blood pressure and reduced serum triglycerides and free fatty acids. Plasma glucose and insulin levels and lipid peroxidation markers such asMDA, hydroperoxides and conjugated dienes were significantly reduced in fructose fed rats treated withTCW. Activities of antioxidant enzymes are up regulated significantly inTCW treated rats. Histopathological analysis of liver showed thatTCW treatment reduced the lipid accumulation and inflammatory infiltration without any significant hepatocellular damage.Conclusions: The overall results suggest that, TCW treatment could prevent and reverse high blood pressure induced by high fructose diet probably by inhibition of lipid peroxidation, upregulation of antioxidant status and improved insulin sensitivity.

  9. Color stability and tenderness variations within the gluteus medius from beef top sirloin butts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, Jason K; Machete, James B; Stackhouse, Ryan J; Johnson, Tim M; Keys, Cari A; Yancey, Janeal W S

    2014-01-01

    Beef top sirloin butts (n=48) from USDA quality grade (QG; upper 2/3 US Choice vs. US Select) and yield grade categories (YG; 1 and 2 vs. 4 and 5) were aged 14 days, GM steaks were cut, with 2 steaks removed from the anterior (ANT), middle (MID) and posterior (POST) sections of the GM. One steak from each section was cut into lateral (LAT), central (CENT) and medial (MED) portions, packaged aerobically, and displayed for 7 days, whereas the second steaks were cooked to 71°C for WBSF. Top Choice-steaks were redder and more yellow (P<0.05) than Select steaks during display. Cooking losses were greatest (P<0.05) in the MED, and least (P<0.05) in the CENT, portions of GM steaks. Neither QG nor YG category affected WBSF, but differences within the GM were found for (P<0.05) WBSF. Results of this experiment indicate tenderness and color stability gradients exist within the GM. PMID:23896137

  10. Intravascular Glomus Tumor of the Forearm Causing Chronic Pain and Focal Tenderness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Ki Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. A glomus tumor is a benign vascular tumor derived from glomus cells and occurs mainly in the subcutaneous layer of the subungual or digital pulp. Extradigital glomus tumors have been reported within the palm, wrist, forearm, foot, bone, stomach, colon, cervix, and mesentery. Glomus tumors can originate from the intraosseous, intramuscular, periosteal, intravascular, and intraneural layers. However, a glomus tumor originating from the intravascular layer of the forearm is a rare condition. Case Report. A 44-year-old woman had a 7-year history of chronic pain and focal tenderness of the forearm. No hypersensitivity or sensory alterations were observed. Contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed a mass measuring 5 × 3 × 2 mm leading to a vein. Surgical excision was performed, and the tumor was completely resected. Finding of gross examination revealed a dark-red, well-defined soft tissue tumor, and histologic examination confirmed that the mass was a glomus tumor. The patient’s symptoms were completely resolved postoperatively. Conclusion. Intravascular glomus tumors rarely occur in the forearm; therefore, a thorough physical exam, comprehensive medical history, in-depth imaging, and early surgical excision upon clinical suspicion may be helpful to prevent a delayed or incorrect diagnosis.

  11. The Legal Practice of Corporate Takeover and Mandatory Tender Offer (MTO in the Indonesian Capital Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yozua Makes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The number of takeover transactions is relatively less compared to other corporate actions bypublicly-listed companies, (e.g. IPOs, rights issues, or material transactions. There is no researchthat explains or contextualizes this fact, but one may speculate that this may be due to (a the existenceof block-holders in Indonesia’s corporate structure profile (structural barrier or (b because itis costly to carry out a takeover in light of the existing Mandatory Tender Offer (MTO requirements(legal barrier. This article focuses on the latter problem, aiming to address the practical and legalissues pertaining to takeover transactions in Indonesia with respect to the existence of the MTO.Pursuant to the prevailing rule, in a takeover of publicly-listed companies that results in a change ofcontrol, a MTO/mandatory bid requirement must be followed with the potential acquirer making anoffer to purchase all of the remaining shares of the target company according to a certain minimumprice formula. Specifically the article discusses practical and creative strategies that prospectivecontrollers employ to avoid the mandatory bid/MTO requirement, and how these strategies impactthe principle of minority shareholders’ protection.

  12. Report on Evaluation of Tender for the Valentine Iron Ore Project in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report prepared by Dastur Engineering International GmbH (DEI)Consulting Engineers, Dusseldorf at the instance of United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) seeks to present an evaluation of the feasibility study presented by Republica Oriental del Uruguay, Ministerio de Industria y- Energia (Project Authority) by the Brazilian Consortium (comprising Tenenga, Coferraz, Cimetal and Interbras) along with a project BID including financing possibilities. In accordance with the contract requirements, this Draft Final Report is being submitted. Based on the comments to be received on the findings incorporated in this Draft Final Report from UNIDO and Project Authorities in Uruguay, the Final Report will be prepared and submitted to UNIDO in accordance with the time schedule stipulated in the contract between UNIDO and DEI. The aims of the Project are:a) The development objective is the utilisation of the country's natural resources by exploiting the iron ore deposits of Valentines, for iron and steel production. b)The immediate objective is to evaluate the tenders for the execution of a project to undertake the industrial exploitation of the iron or deposits in close co-operation and co-ordination with the Uruguayan authorities.

  13. Regulatory polymorphisms in the bovine Ankyrin 1 gene promoter are associated with tenderness and intramuscular fat content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweeney Torres

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent QTL and gene expression studies have highlighted ankyrins as positional and functional candidate genes for meat quality. Our objective was to characterise the promoter region of the bovine ankyrin 1 gene and to test polymorphisms for association with sensory and technological meat quality measures. Results Seven novel promoter SNPs were identified in a 1.11 kb region of the ankyrin 1 promoter in Angus, Charolais and Limousin bulls (n = 15 per breed as well as 141 crossbred beef animals for which meat quality data was available. Eighteen haplotypes were inferred with significant breed variation in haplotype frequencies. The five most frequent SNPs and the four most frequent haplotypes were subsequently tested for association with sensory and technological measures of meat quality in the crossbred population. SNP1, SNP3 and SNP4 (which were subsequently designated regulatory SNPs and SNP5 were associated with traits that contribute to sensorial and technological measurements of tenderness and texture; Haplotype 1 and haplotype 4 were oppositely correlated with traits contributing to tenderness (P Conclusion The conclusion from this study is that alleles defining haplotypes 2 and 4 could usefully contribute to marker SNP panels used to select individuals with improved IMF/juiciness or tenderness in a genome-assisted selection framework.

  14. Carcass quality and meat tenderness of Hawaii pasture-finished cattle and Hawaii-originated, mainland feedlot-finished cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Soo; Fukumoto, Glen Kazumi; Kim, Sunae

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the carcass quality and meat tenderness of Hawaii cattle finished on subtropical pasture with those of mainland US feedlot-finished cattle that were shipped from Hawaii after weaning. Rib-eye steak samples were collected from 30 feedlot-finished cattle harvested at a slaughter house in Washington State, USA and from 13 subtropical pasture-finished cattle harvested at a local slaughter house in Hawaii, then shipped to meat science laboratory at the University of Hawaii, Manoa. Samples were aged for 2 weeks at 4°C and frozen for later proximate analysis and meat tenderness measurement. Feedlot-finished cattle had significantly heavier carcass weight (353 vs 290 kg) and thicker backfat (13.5 vs 6.6 mm), but no significant difference was observed in rib-eye area between the two groups. Marbling score (Small) and United States Department of Agriculture quality grade (Choice) of the pasture-finished beef were not significantly (P < 0.05) different from those of feedlot-finished beef. The shear force value of pasture-finished beef (5.18 kg) was not statistically different (P < 0.05) from that of feedlot-finished beef (4.40 kg). In conclusion, results of this study suggest that Hawaii cattle finished on subtropical pasture produced as tender beef as mainland feedlot-finished cattle with less intramuscular fat. PMID:22274716

  15. In-vitro Enzyme Inhibition Studies for Antidiabetic Activity of Mature and Tender Leaves of Mangifera indica var. Totapuri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhuvaneshwari J

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder characterized by high blood glucose levels, whose critical management alleviates multiple complications. Ill-managed diabetes often precedes incidence of dyslipidaemia and cardiac diseases. Mangifera indica L (Anacardiaceae is a popular Indian horticultural tree also used medicinally. Hypoglycaemic and/or antidiabetic activity of leaf has been investigated in various models; however a comparative account of hypoglycaemic potential of mature and tender leaf is not reported; effect of leaves on carbohydrate digesting enzymes also is not reported. The present study is a preliminary report on comparative hypoglycaemic properties of aqueous methanolic extracts of mature and tender leaves of M indica L var. Totapuri in glucose loaded Wistar Albino rats and In-vitro glucosidase and  amylase inhibition bioassays. Significant hypoglycaemic activity was observed with both extracts in oral glucose tolerance test at 500mg/Kg b.wt. given orally one hour prior glucose loading. The extracts also showed inhibition of rat intestinal alpha glucosidase ,as well as porcine pancreatic alpha amylase with IC50: 21.03 and 35.73 for mature leaf and 27.16 and 22.01 for tender leaf extracts respectively. Thus the hypoglycaemic potential of mango leaves may be due to inhibition of carbohydrate digesting enzymes. Polyphenols, flavonoids and saponins identified in the extracts may be responsible for their hypoglycaemic activity.

  16. 梯度加热对羊肉嫩度的影响%Influence of Gradient Heating on Mutton Tenderness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    达迪拉·买买提; 李芳; 张文; 杨正宇; 孔令明

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to check whether either oven or water bath heat treatment affects the tenderness of mutton semitendinosusorlongissimus dorsimuscles as evaluated by color, water holding capacity, collagen solubility and shear force. Samples were heated directly or stepwise (the intermediate temperatures were maintained for 15 min) to 4 different internal temperatures. The results showed that during gradient heating process, the shear force of semitendinosus muscle significantly increased (P< 0.05), and the trend was more obvious in two-step heat treatment than in the three-step one. Compared with the routine control, gradient heat treatments had no evident effect on the color or water holding capacity of mutton, but showed a significant impact on collagen solubility (P < 0.05), thereby being a better heating method.%以色泽、系水力、胶原蛋白溶解性、剪切力为评价指标,研究在常规加热的基础上,水浴与烘烤2种加热处理在50~60℃温度范围内保温一段时间是否对羊半腱肌与背最长肌嫩度有影响。结果表明:梯度加热过程中,羊半腱肌剪切力值有显著上升的趋势(P<0.05),其中两段式加热的这一趋势较三段式加热更明显,与常规加热方式相比,梯度加热对肉色及系水率无明显影响,但对胶原蛋白溶解性影响显著(P<0.05),与常规加热相比,梯度加热过程是相对比较理想的加热方式。

  17. Effects of genetic variants for the bovine calpain gene on meat tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hoyoung; Shin, Sungchul; Chung, Euiryong

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the genetic variants of CAPN1 developed in several cattle populations can be applied for Hanwoo, regarding genetic effects on meat traits. The traits were examined for 286 purebred Hanwoo steers with genotypes classified by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. The nucleotide positions of primers and previously identified genetic variants were based on sequences of the calpain 1 (CAPN1) gene with GenBank accession numbers (AF252504, AF248054, and AY639597). The analysis of genetic distribution estimated levels of minor allele frequencies ranged from 0.165 to 0.392, showing no significant departures from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium for all markers. Overall averages of heterozygosites (He) and polymorphic information contents (PICs) for all markers were calculated to 0.503 and 0.429, respectively, and the g.4558G>A marker showed the lowest He (0.425) and PIC (0.367). Animals from 29 months of age were slaughtered to measure Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), cooking loss, water-holding capacity, pH, fat, and moisture. All the CAPN1 markers explained variations of WBSF, showing significant additive effects except g.5709G>A. A significant marginal mean difference in genotypes of g.6545C>T (P=0.046) was found in moisture with additive effects. From the result it may be possible to use three calpain markers (g.4558G>A, g.4685C>T, and g.6545C>T) classified by RFLP and SSCP analysis in marker assisted selection programs to improve WBSF as meat tenderness in Hanwoo.

  18. Genome-Wide Detection of CNVs and Their Association with Meat Tenderness in Nelore Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Vinicius Henrique; Regitano, Luciana Correia de Almeida; Geistlinger, Ludwig; Pértille, Fábio; Morosini, Natália Silva; Zimmer, Ralf; Coutinho, Luiz Lehmann

    2016-01-01

    Brazil is one of the largest beef producers and exporters in the world with the Nelore breed representing the vast majority of Brazilian cattle (Bos taurus indicus). Despite the great adaptability of the Nelore breed to tropical climate, meat tenderness (MT) remains to be improved. Several factors including genetic composition can influence MT. In this article, we report a genome-wide analysis of copy number variation (CNV) inferred from Illumina® High Density SNP-chip data for a Nelore population of 723 males. We detected >2,600 CNV regions (CNVRs) representing ≈6.5% of the genome. Comparing our results with previous studies revealed an overlap in ≈1400 CNVRs (>50%). A total of 1,155 CNVRs (43.6%) overlapped 2,750 genes. They were enriched for processes involving guanosine triphosphate (GTP), previously reported to influence skeletal muscle physiology and morphology. Nelore CNVRs also overlapped QTLs for MT reported in other breeds (8.9%, 236 CNVRs) and from a previous study with this population (4.1%, 109 CNVRs). Two CNVRs were also proximal to glutathione metabolism genes that were previously associated with MT. Genome-wide association study of CN state with estimated breeding values derived from meat shear force identified 6 regions, including a region on BTA3 that contains genes of the cAMP and cGMP pathway. Ten CNVRs that overlapped regions associated with MT were successfully validated by qPCR. Our results represent the first comprehensive CNV study in Bos taurus indicus cattle and identify regions in which copy number changes are potentially of importance for the MT phenotype. PMID:27348523

  19. Discussion on the Reasonable Establishment of Tender Control Price%合理设立招标控制价的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉

    2015-01-01

    随着工程量清单计价规范的不断完善及推广应用,建设单位越来越深刻认识招标控制价的编制质量对招投标结果及后续工程造价的合理控制产生的深远影响。工程实践过程中,工程量清单及招标控制价的编制质量参差不齐,建设单位也希望能找到有效的方法提高工程量清单及招标控制价的编制质量。本文从实践的角度分析招标控制价对中标价格的影响,并提出合理设置招标控制价的方法,供同业人事参考。%Along with the continuous improvement and application of pricing specification of bill of quantities, construc⁃tion units turn to more and more profoundly realize the far-reaching influence performed by tender control price's estab⁃lishment quality on the tender results and the reasonable control of the follow-up project cost. In engineering practice pro⁃cess, bill of quantities and the tender control price's establishment qualities are uneven, the construction units are also hoping to find effective ways to improve the quality of the compilation of bill of quantities and tender control price. From a practical point of view, the article analyzes the influence of tender control price on the tender price, and puts forward a method for reasonable setting of the tender control price for reference by personnel in the same industry.

  20. 浅谈合理低价中标法的投标报价策略%Discussed Shallowly the Reasonable Low Price is Selected Method Tender Offer Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许艳琼

    2009-01-01

    文章介绍了合理低价中标法的评标方法,阐述了对于这种评标方法投标人应采取的报价策略.%The article introduced the reasonable low price is selected method the evaluation of tenders method, elaborated should adopt the quoted price strategy regarding this kind of evaluation of tenders method tenderer.

  1. Biomarkers of meat tenderness: present knowledge and perspectives in regards to our current understanding of the mechanisms involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouali, Ahmed; Gagaoua, Mohammed; Boudida, Yasmine; Becila, Samira; Boudjellal, Abdelghani; Herrera-Mendez, Carlos H; Sentandreu, Miguel A

    2013-12-01

    Biomarkers of the meat quality are of prime importance for meat industry, which has to satisfy consumers' expectations and, for them, meat tenderness is and will remain the primary and most important quality attribute. The tenderization of meat starts immediately after animal death with the onset of apoptosis followed by a cooperative action of endogenous proteolytic systems. Before consideration of the biomarkers identified so far, we present here some new features on the apoptotic process. Among them, the most important is the recent discovery of a complex family of serpins capable to inhibit, in a pseudo-irreversible manner, caspases, the major enzymes responsible of cell dismantling during apoptosis. The biomarkers so far identified have been then sorted and grouped according to their common biological functions. All of them refer to a series of biological pathways including glycolytic and oxidative energy production, cell detoxification, protease inhibition and production of Heat Shock Proteins. Some unusual biomarkers are also presented: annexins, galectins and peroxiredoxins. On this basis, a detailed analysis of these metabolic pathways allowed us to identify some domains of interest for future investigations. It was thus emphasized that mitochondria, an important organelle in the production of energy from carbohydrates, lipids and proteins are a central element in the initiation and development of apoptosis. It was therefore stressed forward that, in fact, very little is known about the postmortem fate of these organelles and their multiple associated activities. Other topics discussed here would provide avenues for the future in the context of identifying reliable predictors of the ultimate meat tenderness.

  2. Association of CAPN1 and CAST gene polymorphisms with meat tenderness in Bos taurus beef cattle from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Corva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The activity of the calpains/calpastatin proteolytic system is closely related to the postmortem tenderization of meat. We investigated the association between beef tenderness and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers on the CAPN1 gene (SNP316, alleles C/G; SNP530 alleles A/G and the CAST gene 3' untranslated region (SNP2870, alleles A/G. We sampled nine slaughter groups comprising 313 steers which had been reared in beef production systems in Argentina between 2002 and 2004 from crosses between Angus, Hereford and Limousin cattle. Minor allele frequencies for the markers were 0.27 to 0.46 (C, 0.02 to 0.18 (A, and 0.24 to 0.53 (A, respectively. The presence of CAPN1 markers had significant effects on meat shear force but no detectable effects were demonstrated for the CAST marker. The shear force of meat from steers with the SNP316 CC genotype was 11% lower than for the SNP316 CG genotype and 17% lower than for the SNP316 GG genotype. There were very few steers with the SNP530 AA genotype and, contrary to previous studies, meat from steers with the SNP530 GG genotype showed an 11.5% higher shear force than that from steers with the SNP530 GA genotype. Final body weight, carcass weight and rib eye area were not affected by any of the markers. These results support the concept that CAPN1 variants are associated with tenderness across a wide range of beef production systems.

  3. SUNSTORE 3. Phase 1. Project design and tender. Final report; SUNSTORE 3. Fase 1. Projektering og udbud. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, P.A. (PlanEnergi, Skoerping (Denmark)); Moeller Nielsen, C. (Dronninglund Fjernvarme, Dronninglund (Denmark)); Baunwall, M. (NIRAS Aalborg (Denmark)); Munkholt, H. (GG-Construction, Aalborg (Denmark)); Paaske, B. (Teknologisk Institut, AArhus (Denmark)); Schmidt, T. (SOLITES, Stuttgart (Germany))

    2011-03-15

    The objective of the project has been to carry out detailed design and tendering for a heat production plant consisting of: - 35.000 m{sub 2} solar thermal collectors, - 60.000 m{sub 3} pit heat storage, - 3 MW{sub heat} heat pump, covering app. 50% of the heat production at Dronninglund district heating plant (Denmark). The final report for the project includes detailed design of the pit heat storage (a further development of a 10.000 m{sub 3} storage implemented in Marstal) and simulation of the total production system in the simulation software TRNSYS. (ln)

  4. Production and processing studies on calpain-system gene markers for tenderness in Brahman cattle: 2. Objective meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafe, L M; McIntyre, B L; Robinson, D L; Geesink, G H; Barendse, W; Pethick, D W; Thompson, J M; Greenwood, P L

    2010-09-01

    Effects and interactions of calpain-system tenderness gene markers on objective meat quality traits of Brahman (Bos indicus) cattle were quantified within 2 concurrent experiments at different locations. Cattle were selected for study from commercial and research herds at weaning based on their genotype for calpastatin (CAST) and calpain 3 (CAPN3) gene markers for beef tenderness. Gene marker status for mu-calpain (CAPN1-4751 and CAPN1-316) was also determined for inclusion in statistical analyses. Eighty-two heifer and 82 castrated male cattle with 0 or 2 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3 were studied in New South Wales (NSW), and 143 castrated male cattle with 0, 1, or 2 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3 were studied in Western Australia (WA). The cattle were backgrounded for 6 to 8 mo and grain-fed for 117 d (NSW) or 80 d (WA) before slaughter. One-half the cattle in each experiment were implanted with a hormonal growth promotant during feedlotting. One side of each carcass was suspended from the Achilles tendon (AT) and the other from the pelvis (tenderstretch). The M. longissimus lumborum from both sides and the M. semitendinosus from the AT side were collected; then samples of each were aged at 1 degrees C for 1 or 7 d. Favorable alleles for one or more markers reduced shear force, with little effect on other meat quality traits. The size of effects of individual markers varied with site, muscle, method of carcass suspension, and aging period. Individual marker effects were additive as evident in cattle with 4 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3 markers, which had shear force reductions of 12.2 N (P 0.05) of interactions between the gene markers, or between the hormonal growth promotant and gene markers for any meat quality traits. This study provides further evidence that selection based on the CAST or CAPN3 gene markers improves meat tenderness in Brahman cattle, with little if any detrimental effects on other meat quality traits. The CAPN1-4751 gene

  5. Production and processing studies on calpain-system gene markers for tenderness in Brahman cattle: 2. Objective meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafe, L M; McIntyre, B L; Robinson, D L; Geesink, G H; Barendse, W; Pethick, D W; Thompson, J M; Greenwood, P L

    2010-09-01

    Effects and interactions of calpain-system tenderness gene markers on objective meat quality traits of Brahman (Bos indicus) cattle were quantified within 2 concurrent experiments at different locations. Cattle were selected for study from commercial and research herds at weaning based on their genotype for calpastatin (CAST) and calpain 3 (CAPN3) gene markers for beef tenderness. Gene marker status for mu-calpain (CAPN1-4751 and CAPN1-316) was also determined for inclusion in statistical analyses. Eighty-two heifer and 82 castrated male cattle with 0 or 2 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3 were studied in New South Wales (NSW), and 143 castrated male cattle with 0, 1, or 2 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3 were studied in Western Australia (WA). The cattle were backgrounded for 6 to 8 mo and grain-fed for 117 d (NSW) or 80 d (WA) before slaughter. One-half the cattle in each experiment were implanted with a hormonal growth promotant during feedlotting. One side of each carcass was suspended from the Achilles tendon (AT) and the other from the pelvis (tenderstretch). The M. longissimus lumborum from both sides and the M. semitendinosus from the AT side were collected; then samples of each were aged at 1 degrees C for 1 or 7 d. Favorable alleles for one or more markers reduced shear force, with little effect on other meat quality traits. The size of effects of individual markers varied with site, muscle, method of carcass suspension, and aging period. Individual marker effects were additive as evident in cattle with 4 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3 markers, which had shear force reductions of 12.2 N (P 0.05) of interactions between the gene markers, or between the hormonal growth promotant and gene markers for any meat quality traits. This study provides further evidence that selection based on the CAST or CAPN3 gene markers improves meat tenderness in Brahman cattle, with little if any detrimental effects on other meat quality traits. The CAPN1-4751 gene

  6. 木薯嫩叶染色体的制片方法%Chromosome Observation Method for Cassava Tender Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凡杰; 安飞飞; 郑峰

    2012-01-01

    采用改良苯酚品红压片法,对华南124多倍体木薯品种的嫩叶染色体标本制备方法进行了探讨,比较了0.002mol·L-1的8-羟基喹啉3种温度3种时间的预处理效果、不同的解离方法以及取样部位对制片效果的影响。结果表明,于上午9:00.10:00摘取1.5~2cm长的嫩叶,用0.002mol·L“的8-羟基喹啉于4℃下预处理4h,再置于1mol·L-1盐酸溶液中,于25℃下解离1h,挑取嫩叶中部叶肉用改良苯酚品红染色,然后进行压片观察,能获得分散良好、清晰的染色体图像。%Modified phenol fuchsin squashing method was used to prepare chromosome specimens of tender leaves of polypoidy cassava SC 124. The tender leaves were pretreated with 0. 002 mol ·L-1 8 -hydroxyquinoline at three different temperatures for different time by using different solution methods and sampled from different parts of the plant. The tender leaves collected 1.5 -2 cm long in the morning at 9:00 am - 10:00 am were pretreated with 0. 002 mol · L-1 the 8 -hydroxyquinoline at 4 C for 4 h, and then put in 1 mol · L-1hydrochloric acid solution at 25 C for 1 h for maceration, and the mesophyll in the central part of the tender leaves were stained with modified phenol suchsin and then squashed for observatio n. This method produced a well dispersed, clear chromosome image.

  7. Application potency of engineered G159 mutants on P1 substrate pocket of subtilisin YaB as improved meat tenderizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chuan-Mei; Yang, Ming-Chuai; Tsai, Ying-Chieh

    2002-10-01

    A serine protease, subtilisin YaB, produced by alkalophilic Bacillus YaB, shows promises as a potent meat tenderizer, because its substrate specificity is for small amino acids, which are found at high levels in meat connective tissue proteins. Substrate specificity engineering of the substrate binding pockets was used to generate more suitable meat-tenderizing mutants, G124A, G124V, G159A, and G159S, derived from recombinant wild subtilisin YaB and expressed in Bacillus subtilis DB104. The characteristics of these recombinant enzymes were studied to evaluate their usefulness as improved meat tenderizers. The proteolytic activities of recombinant subtilisin YaB, engineered subtilisin YaBs, and commercially available papain, bromelain, collagenase, and elastase were compared using elastin, collagen, casein, and myofibrillar proteins as substrates. Hydrolysis of beef proteins was evaluated using the myofibrillar fragmentation index and collagen solubility. The results demonstrated that recombinant mutant G159A was the most improved meat tenderizer and can be used in the meat pH range of 5.5-6.0 and the temperature range of 10-50 degrees C. Contrary to the result obtained from artificial substrate, mutant enzymes engineered on G124 residues did not exhibit better tenderizing ability when elastin, collagen, or meat was used as substrate, suggesting the necessity of evaluation by real substrate before protein-engineered enzymes are applied commercially. PMID:12358502

  8. View on the perfection of landscape engineering inviting and submitting tenders management%园林绿化工程招投标管理的完善

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁志烽; 陆恒

    2014-01-01

    通过总结招投标制度在我国园林绿化工程领域实施过程中出现的问题及分析其成因,在此基础上编制做好园林绿化工程招投标工作的方法,并提出完善园林绿化工程招投标管理的对策。%This paper summarized the problems exited in the implementation of inviting and submitting tenders of landscaping project, and made a deep analysis of the causes. Then the methods about how to do the landscape engineering inviting and submitting tenders were compiled. Finally, this paper proposed the countermeasures to perfect the inviting and submitting tenders of landscaping project.

  9. Bioanalytical methods for the metalloproteomics study of bovine longissimus thoracis muscle tissue with different grades of meat tenderness in the Nellore breed (Bos indicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassini, Welder Angelo; Braga, Camila Pereira; Chardulo, Luis Artur Loyola; Vasconcelos Silva, Josineudson Augusto; Malheiros, Jessica Moraes; de Albuquerque, Lúcia Galvão; Fernandes, Talita Tanaka; Padilha, Pedro de Magalhães

    2015-02-15

    The work describes a metalloproteomics study of bovine muscle tissue with different grades of meat tenderness from animals of the Nellore breed (Bos indicus) based on protein separation by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the identification of calcium ions in protein spots by X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) and the characterisation of proteins by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. Forty (40) specimens were selected and divided into two experimental groups: animals with tough meat (TO) and animals with tender meat (TE). A third group (P) of Piedmontese breed animals (Bos taurus) was included to serve as a comparative model for the level of meat tenderness. The procedures were efficient and preserved the metal-protein structure, enabling calcium detection in protein spots by SR-XRF at a given molecular weight range of 14-97kDa. Two proteins (pyruvate kinase and albumin) were inferred to be related to the phenotypical differences in animals from the different groups.

  10. 园林工程投标文件中存在的问题及对策%Problems existing in garden engineering tender documents and countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金福

    2012-01-01

    In light of various problems existing in tender documents of garden greening construction enterprises in recent years,this paper analyzes problems existing in tender documents of garden greening engineering and countermeasures,so as to improve the accuracy of tender documents and further to improve the bidding rate.%针对近年来园林绿化施工企业的投标文件中存在的各种问题,通过对园林绿化工程投标文件中存在问题及对策的分析,以提高投标文件的准确性,进而提高项目中标率。

  11. Evaluation of biochemical parameters and genetic markers for association with meat tenderness in South African feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frylinck, L; van Wyk, G L; Smith, T P L; Strydom, P E; van Marle-Köster, E; Webb, E C; Koohmaraie, M; Smith, M F

    2009-12-01

    A large proportion of South African feedlot cattle are crossbreds of Brahman (BrX, Bos indicus), and Simmental (SiX, Bos taurus). A sample of 20 grain fed bulls from each of these crossbreeds was used to compare meat quality with that of the small frame indigenous Nguni (NgX, Sanga) by evaluating a variety of biochemical and genetic parameters previously shown to be associated with meat tenderness. Shear force values were generally high (5.6kg average at 14days post mortem), with SiX animals higher than BrX or NgX (P=0.051) despite higher calpastatin:calpain ratio in BrX (P<0.05). Calpain activity and cold shortening were both correlated with tenderness for all classes. The sample size was too small to accurately estimate genotypic effects of previously published markers in the CAST and CAPN1 genes, but the allele frequencies suggest that only modest progress would be possible in these South African crossbreds using these markers. PMID:20416642

  12. Expression of ADAMTS4 and ADAMTS5 in longissimus dorsi muscle related to meat tenderness in Nanyang cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X H; Qi, Y X; Gao, X; Li, J Y; Xu, S Z

    2013-10-18

    The ADAMTS4 and ADAMTS5 are secreted proteases, which can cleave aggrecan, brevican and versican to regulate rebuilding of the extracellular matrix. We analyzed the ADAMTS4 and ADAMTS5 gene expression patterns in longissimus dorsi muscle at intervals from 135 days fetal age to 30 months old by qRT-PCR in Nanyang cattle. Expression of ADAMTS4 was significantly higher in 135 and 185-day-old fetuses than at other stages, while expression of ADAMTS5 decreased during development. The promoter regions of ADAMTS4 and ADAMTS5 were cloned and the transcription factor binding sites were analyzed with bioinformatic methods. Twelve and six potential transcription factor binding sites were found in the promoter regions of ADAMTS4 and ADAMTS5 genes, respectively. Three transcription factors (MZF1, C/EBPb, and NF-kap) were selected to analyze the expression pattern during the development of the longissimus dorsi muscle. MZF1 was significantly co-expressed with ADAMTS4, while C/EBPb expression was significantly negatively associated with that of ADAMTS4. We concluded that the expression of ADAMTS4 is positively regulated by MZF1 and negatively regulated by C/EBPb. We examined the relationships of ADAMTS4 and ADAMTS5 expression with tenderness of longissimus dorsi muscle; ADAMTS4 was significantly and negatively correlated with meat tenderness. We conclude that ADAMTS4 participates in the regulation of muscle development in cattle.

  13. Proposal for the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the supply of dispersion-strengthened copper for the LHC collimators

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the supply of 18 tons of dispersion-strengthened copper (DSC) for 114 LHC collimators. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract, without competitive tendering, with NORTH AMERICAN HÃ-GANÃ?S HIGH ALLOYS (US) for the supply of dispersion-strengthened copper (DSC) for a total amount of 520 000 US dollars (635 284 Swiss francs), not subject to revision. The amount in Swiss francs has been calculated using the present rate of exchange.

  14. Conditions of call for tenders on the offshore wind power plants; Conditions de l'appel d'offres portant sur des centrales eolienne en mer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    In the framework of the renewable energies sources development, the french government decided to launch a call for tenders for the realization of offshore wind power plants in 2007. The call for tenders conditions concern: the energetic and technical characteristics of the installations as the primary energy, the production technic, the power; the industrial implementing delay; the exploitation and the operating time; the implementing sites; the weighting and the classification principles. The main conditions concerning the utilization of the maritime public land property outside of the harbors. (A.L.B.)

  15. Proposal for the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the supply of carbon fibre-reinforced carbon Collimator Jaws for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the supply of 103 carbon fibre-reinforced carbon (CFC) jaws for the LHC collimators. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract, without competitive tendering, with TATSUNO (JP) for the supply of 103 CFC collimator jaws for a total amount of 23 087 900 Japanese Yen (267 000 Swiss francs), not subject to revision. The amount in Swiss francs has been calculated using the present rate of exchange.

  16. An efficient plane-grating monochromator based on conical diffraction for continuous tuning in the entire soft X-ray range including tender X-rays (2-8 keV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jark, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Recently it was verified that the diffraction efficiency of reflection gratings with rectangular profile, when illuminated at grazing angles of incidence with the beam trajectory along the grooves and not perpendicular to them, remains very high for tender X-rays of several keV photon energy. This very efficient operation of a reflection grating in the extreme off-plane orientation, i.e. in conical diffraction, offers the possibility of designing a conical diffraction monochromator scheme that provides efficient continuous photon energy tuning over rather large tuning ranges. For example, the tuning could cover photon energies from below 1000 eV up to 8 keV. The expected transmission of the entire instrument is high as all components are always operated below the critical angle for total reflection. In the simplest version of the instrument a plane grating is preceded by a plane mirror rotating simultaneously with it. The photon energy selection will then be made using the combination of a focusing mirror and exit slit. As is common for grating monochromators for soft X-ray radiation, the minimum spectral bandwidth is source-size-limited, while the bandwidth can be adjusted freely to any larger value. As far as tender X-rays (2-8 keV) are concerned, the minimum bandwidth is at least one and up to two orders of magnitude larger than the bandwidth provided by Si(111) double-crystal monochromators in a collimated beam. Therefore the instrument will provide more flux, which can even be increased at the expense of a bandwidth increase. On the other hand, for softer X-rays with photon energies below 1 keV, competitive relative spectral resolving powers of the order of 10000 are possible.

  17. An efficient plane-grating monochromator based on conical diffraction for continuous tuning in the entire soft X-ray range including tender X-rays (2-8 keV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jark, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Recently it was verified that the diffraction efficiency of reflection gratings with rectangular profile, when illuminated at grazing angles of incidence with the beam trajectory along the grooves and not perpendicular to them, remains very high for tender X-rays of several keV photon energy. This very efficient operation of a reflection grating in the extreme off-plane orientation, i.e. in conical diffraction, offers the possibility of designing a conical diffraction monochromator scheme that provides efficient continuous photon energy tuning over rather large tuning ranges. For example, the tuning could cover photon energies from below 1000 eV up to 8 keV. The expected transmission of the entire instrument is high as all components are always operated below the critical angle for total reflection. In the simplest version of the instrument a plane grating is preceded by a plane mirror rotating simultaneously with it. The photon energy selection will then be made using the combination of a focusing mirror and exit slit. As is common for grating monochromators for soft X-ray radiation, the minimum spectral bandwidth is source-size-limited, while the bandwidth can be adjusted freely to any larger value. As far as tender X-rays (2-8 keV) are concerned, the minimum bandwidth is at least one and up to two orders of magnitude larger than the bandwidth provided by Si(111) double-crystal monochromators in a collimated beam. Therefore the instrument will provide more flux, which can even be increased at the expense of a bandwidth increase. On the other hand, for softer X-rays with photon energies below 1 keV, competitive relative spectral resolving powers of the order of 10000 are possible. PMID:26698063

  18. The use of blood lactate concentration as an indicator of temperament and its impact on growth rate and tenderness of steaks from Simmental × Angus steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, J A; Kohlbeck, K S; Meyers, M C; Perz, K A; Davis, K C; Thomson, J M

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of blood lactate concentration as an objective measure of beef cattle temperament and determine if the temperament of steers affected growth rate and tenderness of beef steaks. Angus×Simmental steers (n=154) were evaluated for blood lactate (BL), exit velocity (EV) and chute score (CS), and humanely harvested. Carcass characteristics were assessed and loin samples were obtained for tenderness evaluation. All measures of the temperament were significantly correlated to each other (r=0.14-0.47; P≤0.04). Steaks from steers in the medium BL classification were significantly more tender than steaks from steers from the high BL classification. The steers with faster EV tended to result in steaks with higher shear force values (P=0.07). The steers classified as fast growing resulted in steaks with lower shear force values (P=0.02) compared to steaks from steers classified as slow growing. Results suggest that the temperament contributes to variations in growth rate, blood lactate, and tenderness. PMID:25625941

  19. 17 CFR 240.14d-100 - Schedule TO. Tender offer statement under section 14(d)(1) or 13(e)(1) of the Securities Exchange...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... subsequent merger or other transaction in which remaining target securities are acquired and the acquisition... covered by the items in Schedule TO. Signature. After due inquiry and to the best of my knowledge and...-Party Tender Offer) General Instructions: A. File eight copies of the statement, including all...

  20. Thermal inactivation of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 (ECOH) and non-0157 Shiga toxin-producing E.coli (STEC)in mechanically tenderized veal

    Science.gov (United States)

    We quantified thermal destruction of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ECOH) and Shiga toxin-producing non-O157 E. coli (STEC) cells within mechanically tenderized veal cutlets following cooking on an electric skillet. For each of five trials, flattened veal cutlets (ca. 71.6 g; ca. 1/...

  1. Application of ginger in goose meat tenderization%姜汁在鹅肉嫩化中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨勇; 马云飞; 王存堂; 任健; 王文侠; 孔令珍; 李林松

    2011-01-01

    实验研究了生姜汁对鹅肉的嫩化效果,对姜汁浓度、pH值、处理温度进行了研究,并且进一步通过正交实验选择出最佳嫩化工艺。结果表明:生姜汁对鹅肉的嫩化效果十分显著,通过正交实验确定的生姜汁对鹅肉嫩化的最佳工艺条件是:姜汁浓度6%,pH值为6.0,处理温度为50℃。%The effects of ginger juice on goose meat tenderization were studied. The ginger juice concentration, pH value and processing tempreture were researched, and the best tenderization technique parameters were determined through orthogonal experiment. The results showed the goose meat was tenderized by ginger juice remarkably. Through the orthogonal experiment, the best conditions of tenderization of goose meat were the concentration of ginger juice 6% , pH 6.0, and processing temperature 50℃.

  2. 生姜汁在鹅腿肉嫩化中的应用研究%Study on application of ginger juice in goose leg meat tenderization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨勇; 任健; 王存堂; 刘鸿艳; 周娟花; 陶岩

    2012-01-01

    The tenderization of goose leg meat by ginger juice was studied. The single factor such as ginger juice concentration,pH,and treatment temperature were determined,and further chose the best tenderization craft parameters through orthogonal experiment. The result indicated the ginger juice could tenderize goose meat remarkably(P〈0.01 ). The best technological conditions of tenderization of goose by ginger juice were as follows concentration 6%, p H6.0, and treatment temperature 50℃.%以剪切力为指标研究生姜汁对鹅腿肉的嫩化效果,通过单因素实验对生姜汁浓度、pH、处理温度进行了研究,并且进一步通过正交实验选择出最佳嫩化工艺。结果表明:生姜汁对鹅腿肉的嫩化效果十分显著(P〈0.01),生姜汁对鹅腿肉嫩化的最佳工艺条件是:生姜汁浓度6%、pH6.0、处理温度为50℃。

  3. Application of ginger in goose meat tenderization%姜汁在鹅肉嫩化中的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨勇; 任健; 王存堂; 李丹; 姚佳; 孙碧媛

    2012-01-01

    The tenderization of goose by ginger juice was studied.The best tender craft parameters through orthogonal experiment were determined.The result shows,the ginger juice could tenderize goose meat remarkably.Through the orthogonal experiment,the best technological conditions of tenderization of goose by ginger juice were:density 6%,pH6.0,treatment temperature 50 ℃.%研究了生姜汁对鹅肉的嫩化效果,对姜汁浓度、pH、处理温度进行了研究,并且进一步通过正交实验选择出最佳嫩化工艺。结果表明,生姜汁对鹅肉的嫩化效果十分显著,通过正交实验确定的生姜汁对鹅肉嫩化的最佳工艺条件是:姜汁浓度6%,pH6.0,处理温度50℃。

  4. Is Swollen to Tender Joint Count Ratio aNew and Useful Clinical Marker for BiologicDrug Response in Rheumatoid Arthritis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lars Erik; Bliddal, Henning; Christensen, Robin;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the impact of swollen to tender joint count ratio (STR) and other baseline characteristics on treatment response to a first course of anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. METHODS: Patients with RA initiating their first course...

  5. Unraveling the redox behavior of a CoMoS hydrodesulfurization catalyst : A scanning transmission X-ray microscopy study in the tender X-ray range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Samarai, Mustafa; Meirer, Florian; Karunakaran, Chithra; Wang, Jian; Vogt, Eelco T C; Zandbergen, Henny W.; Weber, Thomas; Weckhuysen, Bert M.; De Groot, Frank M F

    2015-01-01

    We visualize the elemental zoning in an alumina-supported cobalt molybdenum sulfide (CoMoS) catalyst with scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). We use the Canadian Light Source beamline 10-ID's (SM) unique combination of soft X-ray and tender X-ray STXM to determine the spatial variation of

  6. Post-mortem kinetics of meat tenderness and the components of the calpain system in bull skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, B C; Dobbie, P M; Singh, K; Speck, P A

    1996-11-01

    Eight strip loins (M. longissimus dorsi) from pasture fed Friesian bulls were aged at 15 °C for a range of times from 1 to 120 h. pH declined from 6.29 (SE 0.119) one hour post slaughter to an ultimate pH of 5.48 (SE 0.013). The activities of the components of the calpain system (μ-calpain, m-calpain and calpastatin) were determined after separation on a DEAE-sephacel column. There was a dramatic decline in μ-calpain activity post slaughter with a complete disappearance within 48 h. The rates of decline in m-calpain and calpastatin activity were slower with 30% and 50% remaining 120 h post slaughter, respectively. The rapid decline in μ-calpain activity relative to the calpastatin activity is likely to reduce the degree of tenderisation and ultimate tenderness of the meat.

  7. The predetermined sites of examination for tender points in fibromyalgia syndrome are frequently associated with myofascial trigger points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, Hong You; Wang, Ying; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente;

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this present study is to test the hypotheses that the 18 predetermined sites of examination for tender points (TP sites) in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) are myofascial trigger points (MTrPs), and that the induced pain from active MTrPs at TP sites may mimic fibromyalgia pain. Each TP site...... was evaluated with manual palpation followed by intramuscular electromyographic (EMG) registration of spontaneous electrical activity to confirm or refute the existence of an MTrP in 30 FMS patients. Overall spontaneous pain intensity and pain pattern were recorded before manual identification of MTrPs. Local...... and referred pain pattern from active MTrPs were drawn following manual palpation at TP sites. RESULTS: Showed that most of the TP sites are MTrPs. Local and referred pain from active MTrPs reproduced partly the overall spontaneous pain pattern. The total number of active MTrPs (r = .78, P

  8. Proposal to negotiate, without competitive tendering, the renewal of an existing contract for the repair, reconditioning or replacement of klystrons

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This document concerns the repair and reconditioning of pulsed klystrons being used in both the LEP Injector Linac and the CLIC Test Facilities or their replacement by klystrons with identical performance specification in cases where neither of these actions is economically or technically viable. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation, without competitive tendering, of the renewal of a contract with THOMSON (FR) for the repair and reconditioning or the replacement of pulsed klystrons being used in both the LEP Injector Linac and the CLIC test facilities for an estimated total amount not exceeding 1 000 000 Swiss francs. This contract is expected to run for a period of five years to cover the expected lifetime of the installation concerned. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: FR?100%.

  9. An In-silico Study on Thymoma with Inhibitors from Petiole and Tender Coconut Water from Cocos nucifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisina K. V

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thymoma is a tumor originating from the epithelial cells of the thymus. Thymoma is an unusual tumor, best known for its association with the neuromuscular disorder myasthenia gravis. When diagnosed, thymomas may be removed surgically. In the rare case of a dangerous tumor, chemotherapy may be used. Health and medicinal applications of tender coconut product get research interest in recent years. The application of edible coconut part is due to the different natural components present in it. This research paper aimed to know the main reported components of coconut i.e., tender coconut water and coconut Petiole for its inhibitory activity against Thymoma. We have chosen target proteins for Thymoma viz RasP21 protein (PDB ID: 4FSS, AKT-1 (PDB ID: 3O96 and BCL-2 (PDB ID: 4AQ3 for our study, it was predicted to be expressed in Thymoma. Docking is frequently used to predict the binding orientation of small molecule drug candidates to their protein targets in order to in turn predict the affinity and activity of the small molecule. Docking study of the target protein was done with natural compounds derived from coconut. The coconut palm (also, cocoanut, Cocos nucifera, is a member of the family Arecaceae (palm family. It is the only accepted species in the genus Cocos. The term coconut can allude to the whole coconut palm, the seed, or the fruit, which, botanically, is a drupe, not a nut. Chemical constituents found in extracts of entire coconut palm. Phytochemicals screened for Glide HTVS docking showed good interaction with the target. The antitumor compound that yielded a fitness score of more than -5 and good toxicity value were further subjected to Molecular dynamics simulation (MDS. L-Histidine can be a good drug considering their binding affinity, glide energy, glide score and toxicity and that could be a potential target for Thymoma. The docking and ADME studies were performed using Schrödinger Suite.

  10. 牛肉的外源性蛋白酶嫩化技术研究进展%Recent Progress on Application of Exogenous Proteases for Beef Tenderization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂远洋; 李璐; 温文婷; 夏白雪; 孙群

    2013-01-01

    牛肉嫩度是一项肉质评定的重要指标,也是消费者评判肉质优劣的最常用指标.外源性蛋白酶嫩化技术具有方法简单,条件要求相对低,能显著提高牛肉的品质等优点,且处理后的牛肉具有柔软、适口、多汁和易于咀嚼等特点,多年来一直受到肉类加工行业的重视,并已得到了广泛的研究和应用.本文主要论述了外源性蛋白酶对牛肉的嫩化机理和近年来在利用各类外源性蛋白酶嫩化处理牛肉的研究上取得的进展,以期为牛肉嫩化的研究提供参考.%Beef tenderness is both an important indicator of meat quality assessment and the most commonly used indicator to evaluate consumer acceptance.Exogenous proteases have attracted considerable interest from the meat processing industry and have been widely used to tenderize beef due to simple operation,low requirements and high efficacy in improving beef quality as well as soft mouth feel,good palatability and high juiciness and high chewiness of tenderized beef.This paper focuses on the mechanism for the tenderization of beef by exogenous proteases and the recent progress on this application,which will provide guidelines for beef tenderization.

  11. Proposal to negotiate two blanket purchase contracts, without competitive tendering, for the supply of high-power RF grid-tubes for the CERN accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    This document concerns the award of two contracts, without competitive tendering, for the supply of different types of RF high-power grid-tubes (triodes and tetrodes) for the operation of CERN accelerators. For the reasons set out in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of two blanket purchase contracts, without competitive tendering, for the supply of different types of RF high-power grid-tubes (triodes and tetrodes) with: - THALES (FR) for a total amount of 6 800 000 euros (10 540 000 Swiss francs) for a period of five years, subject to revision for inflation from January 2006; - RICHARDSON (DE) for a total amount of 1 100 000 euros (1 705 000 Swiss francs) for a period of five years, subject to revision for inflation from January 2006.

  12. Proposal for the Award of a Contract, without competitive Tendering, for the Provision of the ORACLE Database Management System Software together with Tools for Application Development and System Exploitation

    CERN Document Server

    1995-01-01

    Proposal for the Award of a Contract, without competitive Tendering, for the Provision of the ORACLE Database Management System Software together with Tools for Application Development and System Exploitation

  13. Guideline for the tendering of the Europe-wide procurement of the electricity supply. 2. rev. ed.; Arbeitshilfe zur Durchfuehrung einer europaweiten Ausschreibung der Stromlieferung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchmueller, Christian [Schnutenhaus und Kollegen, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-05-02

    In order to describe the practical fundamentals for the procurement of electricity, the authors of this contribution present a guideline for the implementation of a Europe-wide tendering of the electricity supply. The main aspects of this contribution are the procedure and time schedule of the procurement procedure, preparation of the procurement procedure, design of the procurement procedure concerning to the contents as well as the implementation of the procurement procedure.

  14. A new single nucleotide polymorphism in CAPN1 extends the current tenderness marker test to include cattle of Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and crossbred descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S N; Casas, E; Wheeler, T L; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M; Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Johnson, D D; Keele, J W; Smith, T P L

    2005-09-01

    The three objectives of this study were to 1) test for the existence of beef tenderness markers in the CAPN1 gene segregating in Brahman cattle; 2) test existing CAPN1 tenderness markers in indicus-influenced crossbred cattle; and 3) produce a revised marker system for use in cattle of all subspecies backgrounds. Previously, two SNP in the CAPN1 gene have been described that could be used to guide selection in Bos taurus cattle (designated Markers 316 and 530), but neither marker segregates at high frequency in Brahman cattle. In this study, we examined three additional SNP in CAPN1 to determine whether variation in this gene could be associated with tenderness in a large, multisire American Brahman population. One marker (termed 4751) was associated with shear force on postmortem d 7 (P Brangus, Beefmaster, Bonsmara, Romosinuano, Hereford, and Angus referred to as the GPE Cycle 8 population). The highly significant association of Marker 4751 with shear force in this population (P < 0.001) confirms the usefulness of Marker 4751 in cattle of all subspecies backgrounds, including Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and crossbred descent. This wide applicability adds substantial value over previously released Markers 316 and 530. However, Marker 316, which had previously been shown to be associated with tenderness in the GPE Cycle 7 population, also was highly associated with shear force in the GPE Cycle 8 animals (P < 0.001). Thus, Marker 316 may continue to be useful in a variety of populations with a high percentage of Bos taurus backgrounds. An optimal marker strategy for CAPN1 in many cases will be to use both Markers 316 and 4751. PMID:16100054

  15. The influence of beef quality characteristics on the internalization and thermal susceptibility of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in blade-tenderized beef steaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corliss, B; Brooks, J C; Martin, J N; Echeverry, A; Parks, A R; Pokharel, S; Brashears, M M

    2015-12-01

    The risk of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) survival in blade-tenderized beef is a concern for beef processors. This study evaluated the internalization and post-cooking survival of individual STEC serogroups (O157:H7, O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) in blade-tenderized beef steaks with different quality traits. Strip loins representing four combinations of USDA Quality Grade (Choice or Select) and pH category (High pH or Normal pH) were inoculated (10(6)logCFU/cm(2) attachment) with individual STEC serogroups before storage (14 days), blade tenderization, and cooking (50, 60, 71, or 85°C). Serogroup populations on raw steak surfaces and internal cores were determined. Rapid-based methods were used to detect the internal presence of STEC in cooked steaks. Internalization and post-cooking survival varied among STECs. All serogroups, except O45 and O121, were detected in the internal cores of steaks cooked to 50°C, while O103, O111, and O145 STEC were detected in steaks cooked to 50, 60, and 71°C. PMID:26188361

  16. Effect of sire on mu- and m-calpain activity and rate of tenderization as indicated by myofibril fragmentation indices of steaks from Brahman cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Pringle, T D; West, R L; Johnson, D D; Olson, T A; Hammond, A C; Coleman, S W

    2003-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the influence of sire on mu- and m-calpain activities, to evaluate the relationships of activities of these enzymes to other traits related to beef palatability, and to assess the influence of sire on the rate of tenderization (as measured by myofibril fragmentation index [MFI]) in Brahman longissimus muscle. Brahman calves (n = 87), sired by nine bulls, were born, weaned, fed, and slaughtered in central Florida. Traits evaluated were mu- and m-calpain activities and MFI after 1, 7, 14, and 21 d of aging. Other traits were analyzed to determine their associations with mu- and m-calpain activity and MFI, including calpastatin activity, percentage of raw and cooked lipids, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values after 7, 14, and 21 d of aging, and sensory panel rating of tenderness, juiciness, and connective tissue amount after 14 d of aging. Data were analyzed using a model with sire, sex, year, and slaughter group (calves of the same sex slaughtered on the same date) as fixed effects, and adjusted to a constant adjusted 12th-rib fat thickness. Sire affected mu-calpain activity (P carcass sorting program represents an alternative consideration for tenderization improvement programs.

  17. 复合嫩化剂对鹅肉干的影响研究%Effects of compound tenderization agents on dried goose meat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈景鑫; 裴绍林; 郭玲玲; 张莹

    2015-01-01

    实验探讨了复合嫩化剂对鹅肉干品质的影响。以氯化钙、木瓜蛋白酶、复合磷酸盐(焦磷酸钠、亚硝酸钠、异抗坏血酸钠)为复合嫩化剂,通过感官评分及剪切力的综合指标,确定复合嫩化剂的配方为氯化钙含量1.0%、木瓜蛋白酶含量0.4%、复合磷酸盐含量为0.2%。%The effects of compound tenderization agents on dried goose were explored. Calcium chloride,papain and compound phosphate(sodium pyrophosphate,sodium nitrite and sodium ascorbate) were taken as tenderization agents. Through comprehensive indexes of sensory evaluation and shear force, the formula of compound tenderization agents was determined. The addition of Calcium chloride,papain, and compound phosphate were1. 0%,0. 4% and 0. 2% respectively.

  18. Call-for-tender documentation in the area of servers, personal computers and networks; Ausschreibungsunterlagen im Server-, PC- und Netzwerk-Bereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieder, T.; Huser, A.

    2003-07-01

    As a result of this work, sample texts, so-called performance sheets, have been drawn up for the invitation to tender for IT devices. As a supplement to the standard technical requirements, such as computer performance, memory capacity, etc., these texts cover the aspects of energy efficiency. The performance sheets can be enclosed with the invitations to tender as an appendix, or be used directly as text modules. They are supplemented by explanatory texts, which give information regarding technical terms, labels and possible technical realizations. Performance sheets and explanatory texts are included in the appendix to this report. The goal of these activities is to exert pressure on the market, which should ultimately lead to more efficient units. In addition, however, these texts should serve to make the offices placing the invitations to tender more aware of the energy efficiency aspect. Energy saving functions are fairly common for PCs and monitors nowadays. Reference to proved technical realisations can be made in the performance sheets. The situation is more difficult for servers. Although some technical solutions have been initiated, very little is known about practical applications. Further activities are necessary here. (author)

  19. Effect of sire on mu- and m-calpain activity and rate of tenderization as indicated by myofibril fragmentation indices of steaks from Brahman cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Pringle, T D; West, R L; Johnson, D D; Olson, T A; Hammond, A C; Coleman, S W

    2003-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the influence of sire on mu- and m-calpain activities, to evaluate the relationships of activities of these enzymes to other traits related to beef palatability, and to assess the influence of sire on the rate of tenderization (as measured by myofibril fragmentation index [MFI]) in Brahman longissimus muscle. Brahman calves (n = 87), sired by nine bulls, were born, weaned, fed, and slaughtered in central Florida. Traits evaluated were mu- and m-calpain activities and MFI after 1, 7, 14, and 21 d of aging. Other traits were analyzed to determine their associations with mu- and m-calpain activity and MFI, including calpastatin activity, percentage of raw and cooked lipids, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values after 7, 14, and 21 d of aging, and sensory panel rating of tenderness, juiciness, and connective tissue amount after 14 d of aging. Data were analyzed using a model with sire, sex, year, and slaughter group (calves of the same sex slaughtered on the same date) as fixed effects, and adjusted to a constant adjusted 12th-rib fat thickness. Sire affected mu-calpain activity (P carcass sorting program represents an alternative consideration for tenderization improvement programs. PMID:14552370

  20. Changes in protein abundance between tender and tough meat from bovine Longissimus thoracis muscle assessed by isobaric Tag for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnadóttir, S G; Hollung, K; Høy, M;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find potential biomarkers for meat tenderness in bovine Longissimus thoracis muscle and to compare results from isobaric Tag for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis. The experiment included 4 tender and 4......-DE analysis (P meat samples in the present study. These include proteins related to control of flux through the tricarboxylate cycle [2...

  1. Output-Based Aid in Bolivia : Balanced Tender Design for Sustainable Energy Access in Difficult Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Reiche, Killian; Rysankova, Dana; Goldmark, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This newsletter looks at how Bolivia is implementing an innovative public-private approach to increase rural electricity access to extremely remote areas via Solar Home Systems (SHS) and how Novel Medium-term Service Contracts (MSCs) balance the Government's wish for sustainable service and maximum control with providers' aim for minimal risk exposure. The newsletter also provides informat...

  2. Discussion on risk analysis and countermeasures of tendering procurement for university's purchase in China%高校招标采购风险分析及其对策探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑾琦; 侯文海

    2011-01-01

    The tendering procurement of colleges and universities is the most foundational work which can guarantee the teaching and the scientific research to carry on normally. It is also one important part of government procurement. With the development of tendering procurement, many problems urgently await to be solved.The article chooses the angle of tendering procurement risk. After giving a definition of tendering procurement risk, this article chooses two links of tendering procuremen to analyse. One is the establishing of tendering procurement document, another is the verification of bid business. This article provides corresponding countermeasures.%在基本界定招标采购风险含义的基础上,选择我国高校招标采购招标文件的编制和投标商资格审查两个环节,具体进行招标采购风险分析,并探讨相应的解决对策.

  3. Increased palpation tenderness and muscle strength deficit in the prediction of tendon hypertrophy in symptomatic unilateral shoulder tendinopathy: an ultrasonographic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, J.; Couppe, C.; Bjordal, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective In asymptomatic, normal tendons, the difference in tendon thickness between sides is less than 15%. In this Study, three tests were used to examine differences between symptomatic and asymptomatic shoulders. Design Cross-sectional study. The three tests were performed in sequence. The o...

  4. Effect of Papain on Tenderization of Beef Jerky%木瓜蛋白酶对牛肉干嫩化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金惠玉; 张筠; 王欢欢

    2013-01-01

    Papain is a kind of sulfhydryl protease and it has good protein hydrolysate ability.It iswidely used in food processing,such as meat tenderization,brewing,milk coagulation,modification of mixed dough,etc.China's beef jerky has been using the traditional process; the product is of tough taste and good hardness.In order to improve the tenderness and production rate of beef jerky,adopt single factor and orthogonal methods,take sensory evaluation and shear force value as the indexes to determine the effects of papain in different concentration,injection volume,processing time and processing temperature on tenderization degree of beef jerky.The results show that the tenderization effect is optimal when the concentration of papain is 0.5%,processing time is 3 h,injection volume is 3 % and temperature is 50 ℃.Papain concentration has a significant influence on tenderization of beef jerky.%木瓜蛋白酶是一种巯基蛋白酶,有较好的水解蛋白能力,在肉的嫩化、酿造、牛奶的凝固、混合面团的改性等食品加工中广泛使用.我国的牛肉干一直沿用传统的工艺,产品口感坚韧、硬度大.为了提高牛肉干的嫩度和出品率,课题采用单因素、正交的方法,以感官评价和剪切力值为指标,测定木瓜蛋白酶在不同浓度、注射量、处理时间和处理温度下对牛肉干嫩化程度的影响,结果表明:木瓜蛋白酶的使用浓度为0.5%,处理时间为3h,注射量为3%,温度为50℃时,对牛肉的嫩化效果最佳.其中,木瓜蛋白酶的浓度对牛肉干的嫩化影响最显著.

  5. Thermal inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and non-O157 shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli cells in mechanically tenderized veal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchansky, John B; Porto-Fett, Anna C S; Shoyer, Bradley A; Thippareddi, Harshavardhan; Amaya, Jesus R; Lemler, Michael

    2014-07-01

    Preflattened veal cutlets (ca. 71.5 g, ca. 0.32 cm thick) were surface inoculated with ca. 6.8 log CFU/g of a multistrain cocktail of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ECOH) or a cocktail made of single strains of serogroups O26, O45, O103, O104, O111, O121, and O145 of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) cells and then were mechanically tenderized by passing once through a "Sir Steak" tenderizer. For each cooking time, in each of at least three trials, three inoculated and tenderized cutlets, with and without breading, were individually cooked in 15 or 30 ml of canola oil for 0.0, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25, 1.5, 1.75, or 2.25 min per side on an electric skillet set at 191.5°C. The temperatures of the meat and of the skillet were monitored and recorded using a type J thermocouple. Regardless of the breading or volume of oil used to cook the meat, the longer the cooking times, the higher was the internal temperature of the meat, along with a greater reduction of both ECOH and STEC. The average final internal temperature of the meat at the approximate geometric center ranged from 56.8 to 93.1°C. Microbial reductions of ca. 2.0 to 6.7 log CFU/g and ca. 2.6 to 6.2 log CFU/g were achieved for ECOH and STEC, respectively. Our data also revealed no differences in thermal inactivation of ECOH relative to the volume of oil used to cook nonbreaded cutlets. However, when cooking breaded cutlets, the use of more (30 ml) compared with less (15 ml) cooking oil resulted in greater reductions in pathogen numbers. To deliver about a 5.0-log reduction of ECOH and STEC, and to achieve the recommended internal temperature of 71.1°C, it was necessary to cook mechanically tenderized veal cutlets for at least 1.5 min per side on a preheated electric skillet set at 191.5°C and containing 15 ml of cooking oil. These data also established that cooking times and temperatures effective for inactivating serotype O157:H7 strains of E. coli in tenderized veal are equally effective against the additional six

  6. Structural analysis of polymer thin films using GISAXS in the tender X-ray region: Concept and design of GISAXS experiments using the tender X-ray energy at BL-15A2 at the Photon Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, H.; Igarashi, N.; Mori, T.; Saijo, S.; Nagatani, Y.; Ohta, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Shimizu, N.

    2016-10-01

    If small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) utilizing the soft X-ray region is available, advanced and unique experiments, which differ from traditional SAXS methods, can be realized. For example, grazing-incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) using hard X-ray is a powerful tool for understanding the nanostructure in both vertical and lateral directions of thin films, while GISAXS utilizing the tender X-ray region (SX-GISAXS) enables depth-resolved analysis as well as a standard GISAXS analysis in thin films. Thus, at BL-15A2 at the Photon Factory, a dedicated diffractometer for SX-GISAXS (above 2.1 keV) was constructed. This diffractometer is composed of four vacuum chambers and can be converted into the vacuum state from the sample chamber in front of the detector surface. Diffractions are clearly observed until 12th peak when measuring collagen by SAXS with an X-ray energy of 2.40 keV and a camera length of 825 mm. Additionally, we conducted the model experiment using SX-GISAXS with an X-ray energy of 2.40 keV to confirm that a poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(n-butyl acrylate) block copolymer thin film has a microphase-separated structure in the thin film, which is composed of lamellae aligned both parallel and perpendicular to the substrate surface. Similarly, in a polystyrene-poly(methyl methacrylate) block copolymer thin film, SX-GISAXS with 3.60 keV and 5.73 keV revealed that hexagonally packed cylinders are aligned parallel to the substrate surface. The incident angle dependence of the first order peak position of the qz direction obtained from experiments at various incident X-ray energies agrees very well with the theoretical one calculated from the distorted wave Born approximation.

  7. Predictive model on tenderness of postmortem yak meat and its validation%牦牛肉宰后成熟嫩度预测模型与验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽; 孙宝忠; 余群力

    2013-01-01

    Tenderness is one of important sensorial properties for the quantitative evaluation of eating qualities influencing the consumption of beef, and the others are juiciness and flavor respectively. Poor tenderness is one of main causes for commercial unacceptability of yak meat. The variation of physiological and biochemical characteristics during tenderization at the initial phase of postmortem aging has an extraordinarily significant effect on the postmortem formation of the tenderness property of beef cuts, which is one of determinant factors for consumers to decide if the beef products should be purchased. Therefore, the improvement of research on the effect of physiological and biochemical characteristics on the tenderness of yak meat is beneficial to melioration of the theory of postmortem aging and tenderization of yak meat. In order to investigate the effect of the postmortem variation of physiological and biochemical characteristics on the formation of tenderness of yak meat, pH, glycogen content, calpain activity (CA), the myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI), sarcomere length, myofiber diameter, and shearing force of M. longissimus dorsi stored at 4℃ for 10d from 18 male yaks were determined. The estimated value of 6 characteristics at postmortem 1 h were obtained directly as alternative predictors of a predictive model of postmortem tenderness of yak meat. Meanwhile, the kinetic parameters of the rate and extent of variation of some physiological and biochemical characteristics including pH, CA, MFI and glycogen content obtained by kinetic data analysis within postmortem 72 h were also selected as alternative predictors. The ultimate predictors of a predictive model of postmortem tenderness of yak meat were determined through a“jackknife”method from all alternative predictors, including 6 variables at postmortem 1 h and 7 kinetic parameters within postmortem 72 h according to occurrences in optimal equations of 15 jackknife samples through multiple

  8. Effects of thermal treatment on characteristics of tender chicken thigh%加热对三黄鸡腿肉特性的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴兵; 张立彦

    2011-01-01

    考察了加热对三黄鸡腿肉物理化学特性及微观结构的影响.结果表明:鸡腿肉的蒸煮损失在75-85℃间随温度增加而显著增大;肉的红度a*值不断减小,而在55~75℃间亮度L*和黄度b*值不断增大;pH在75℃时达到最大;硬度随温度升高持续增大,而弹性、咀嚼性则分别在75℃和85℃达到最大值后又显著减小;盐溶性蛋白溶解度随温度升高逐渐减小,胶原蛋白溶解度却逐渐增加;在55~65℃间肌内膜、肌柬膜先发生热收缩,肌纤维直径减小,肌纤维间隙增大,在65~75℃间肌纤维间隙内出现明显的"颗粒化"现象,而后随温度的升高肌纤维间隙逐渐减小,肌纤维直径逐渐增大,相邻肌纤维彼此排列紧实、致密,剪切力显著增大.以上结果表明,温度在75℃左右对鸡腿肉的各种特性影响最为显著.%The effects of thermal treatment on physiochemical properties and microstructure of tender chicken thigh were investigated.The results demonstrated that the greatest increment in cooking loss was observed between 75℃ and 85℃.With increasing temperature,the redness a* value decreased continuously,while the value of L* and b * increased continuously between 55~75℃.pH reached its maximum at 75℃.The hardness of chicken thigh increased steadily,springiness and chewiness reached a maximum at 75℃ and 85℃, respectively, followed by a significantly decrease with temperature increasing.The solubility of salt-soluble protein decreased with temperature increasing while the solubility of heat-soluble collagen increased.SEM micrographs showed that from 55℃ to 65℃, thermal shrinkage of endomysium and perimysium occurred originally, muscle fiber diameter decreased and the gap between muscle fibers widened, followed by a obvious phenomenon of granulation at 65℃.After that, fiber diameter gradually increased and the gap narrowed, adjacent muscle fiber arrangement became more compact and firm, the shear force

  9. Meat tenderizing effect of injecting encapsulated Ca2+ in liposome into rabbit before slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Yun-Ji; Jeong, Jaehong; Kim, Cheon-Jae

    2006-10-01

    Encapsulated calcium in liposome (L-Ca) produced by using egg phosphatidyl choline in the laboratory was injected into rabbit to evaluate the effect of calcium injection on the ageing of meat. After injecting L-Ca into the blood vessels of rabbit to increase the Ca2+ concentration in the body for 24 h, the fragmentation rate of myofibrils was observed. The fragmentation rates in the loin from the control group and L-Ca injected group were 2.56% and 3.10% in 2 days, 12.27% and 16.18% in 6 days, and 33.56% and 49.60% in 10 days, respectively (pmeat without resulting in any physical shock or contamination. PMID:17031038

  10. Tender Endothelium Syndrome: Combination of Hypotension, Bradycardia, Contrast Induced Chest Pain, and Microvascular Angina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goberdhan, Shivesh; Chiew, Soon Kwang; Syed, Jaffer

    2016-01-01

    Hypotension, bradycardia, and contrast induced chest pain are potential complications of cardiac catheterization and coronary angiography. Catheter-induced coronary spasm has been occasionally demonstrated, but its relationship to spontaneous coronary spasm is unclear. We describe a 64-year-old female who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery in 1998 on the basis of an angiographic diagnosis of severe left main disease, who recently presented with increasingly frequent typical angina. Repeat coronary angiography was immediately complicated by severe chest pain, hypotension, and bradycardia but demonstrated only mild disease of the left main artery and entire coronary tree with complete occlusion of her prior grafts. This reaction was almost identical to that observed during her original coronary angiogram. We now believe her original angiogram was complicated by severe catheter-induced left main spasm, with the accompanying contrast reaction attributed to left main disease, and the occlusion of coronary grafts explained by the absence of significant left main disease. The combination of these symptoms has not been documented in the literature. In this instance, these manifestations erroneously led to coronary bypass surgery. It is unknown whether routine, systematic injection of intracoronary nitroglycerin prior to angiography might blunt the severity of such reactions. PMID:26981290

  11. Post-harvest quality and shelf-life of tender coconut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseena, M; Kasturi Bai, K V; Padmanabhan, Sugatha

    2010-12-01

    Seven to 8 months old (maturity stage) coconuts (Cocos nucifera L.) from local tall cultivar ('West Coast Tall') with husk and intact perianth were stored at room temperature (27 ± 2(°)C) and the minimally processed nuts (60% husk removed) were stored both at room temperature as well as refrigerated conditions (13 ± 2°C) to evaluate the changes in physical and chemical constituents of coconut water during storage. Observations on physiological loss in weight of the stored coconuts, volume and pH of coconut water, total sugars and amino acid, minerals (Na and K) and sensory tests were used to evaluate the quality. The observations were continued till the quality of the nut water deteriorated. It was observed that, to increase the shelf-life of the coconuts the nuts have to be harvested carefully with intact perianth and without any breakage of nuts. The quality of minimally processed nuts deteriorates earlier than non-dehusked nuts during storage.

  12. The Effect of Two-dimensional Tender Contract Design on Investment and Concession Term for BOT Projects%BOT项目投资与特许权期的二维招标合同设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴孝灵; 周晶; 王冀宁; 陈星光

    2012-01-01

    为让管理水平较高的私营集团获得BOT项目特许权,并实现项目社会福利最大,本文利用机制设计理论建立了一个关于BOT项目投资与特许权期的二维招标合同的直接机制模型.通过模型分析,获得了该招标机制的可行性条件,最优形式和相应配置方案,并由一个算例表明,得到的最优招标机制在实际中是有效的.所获结果为政府对BOT特许权招标提供了一种理论指导和实际方法.%Tendering and bidding are two important trading mechanisms. However, many Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) projects are having issues with the concession bid. For instance, private groups sometimes falsify bidding information in order to win a bid from Chinese government. Therefore, it is important to redesign tendering and bidding mechanisms in order to maximize the social welfare of a BOT project. There is a lack of study on concession tender issues for BOT projects. This paper investigates a two-dimensional tender problem associated with BOT project's investment and concession period. We also consider the effect of the concession period on the private investment in the tendering practice. A direct tendering mechanism model on BOT project's investment and concession period is proposed according to the mechanism design theory. The proposed model can help derive the feasible condition, optimal form, and corresponding distribution program for the implementation of tendering mechanism. Firstly, it is difficult for the government to know the private group's information, such as the management level in the tendering process. A direct tendering mechanism model on the BOT project's investment and concession term is proposed. The model enables us to obtain the optimal direct tender mechanism and test its feasibility. Secondly, to select the private group with the highest management level for the project implementation, the distribution program for the BOT project's concession tender is discussed based on

  13. Zilpaterol hydrochloride improves beef yield, changes palatability traits, and increases calpain-calpastatin gene expression in Nellore heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cônsolo, Nara Regina Brandão; Ferrari, Viviane Borba; Mesquita, Ligia Garcia; Goulart, Rodrigo Silva; Silva, Luis Felipe Prada E

    2016-11-01

    This research aimed to evaluate the effects of the beta-agonist zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on carcass traits, subprimal yield, meat quality, palatability traits, and gene expression in Nellore heifers. Zilpaterol increased Longissimus lumborum area and did not change back fat thickness, meat color, and cooking loss. Heifers fed ZH had greater hindquarter weight and carcass percentage. Muscles from hindquarter were heavier for animals fed ZH. Forequarter (% of carcass) decreased and brisket did not change with ZH supplementation. There were no differences between treatments for steak aroma, beef flavor, and off-flavor. However, tenderness and juiciness were reduced by ZH, depending on postmortem aging. Zilpaterol increased Calpain-1, Calpain-2, and calpastatin mRNA expression, with no effect of day of slaughter or ZH×Day interaction. In conclusion, ZH supplementation improved hypertrophy, meat production, and debone yield in Nellore heifers, which led to decreased tenderness and to increased mRNA expression in the calpain-calpastatin system. PMID:27427783

  14. 宰后牦牛肉成熟过程中钙激活酶与嫩度指标的相关性分析%Correlation Analysis between Calpains and Tenderness Indexes during Postmortem Aging of Yak Meat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师希雄; 余群力; 党欣

    2013-01-01

    Longissimus dorsi muscles of ten yaks from the south part of Gansu province were tested for myofibril fragmentation index (MFI),shear force,muscle fiber diameter and the activities of calpains (μ-calpain,m-calpain and calpastatin) during 8 d of postmortem aging.Furthermore,the calpain activities were analyzed for correlation with MFI,shear force and muscle fiber diameter.The results showed that each calpain activity was positively correlated with shear force and muscle fiber diameter,but negatively correlated with MFI; a significant correlation with MFI was observed for μ-calpain and calpastatin (P<0.05).Therefore,the changes in calpain activity may cause in the increase in MFI,weaken myofibrils and tenderize meat andμ-calpain seems to mainly contribute to tenderizing yak meat.%以10头甘南牦牛为研究对象,对宰后8d成熟期间肌原纤维小片化指数、剪切力、肌纤维直径、μ-钙蛋白酶(μ-calpain)、m-钙蛋白酶(m-calpain)、钙蛋白酶抑素(calpastatin)的活力进行了测定,同时研究了3种酶活力与肌原纤维小片化指数、剪切力、肌纤维直径3个嫩度指标之间的相关性.结果表明:μ-calpain、m-calpain、calpastatin 3种酶与剪切力值及肌纤维直径均呈正相关;3种酶与肌原纤维小片化指数呈负相关,其中μ-calpain与calpastatin呈显著负相关(P<0.05).因此,钙激活酶活力的变化可能导致了肌原纤维小片化指数的增加,肌原纤维的弱化和肉的嫩化,μ-calpain可能是牦牛肉嫩化的主要贡献者.

  15. Korea nuclear exports: Why did the Koreans win the UAE tender? Will Korea achieve its goal of exporting 80 nuclear reactors by 2030?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The success of Korea in winning, in December 2009, a USD 18.6 billion nuclear tender in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) has led to a growing interest in the organization and strengths of the Korean nuclear industry. In this paper, we present the main economic and political factors that explain the success of the Korean consortium. In particular, thanks to an active national program of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) construction, Korea has developed distinct competitive advantages in terms of low cost, high credibility and high performance. At the same time, due to the important barriers to enter into the nuclear export market in the UAE, Korea has had to sacrifice its profit margin and has benefited from a strong political support from its government through export financing. More importantly, Korea's success is also due to its alliance with Westinghouse and the support of the US diplomacy. Subsequently, we show that while Korea has recently experienced setbacks in nuclear tenders, it will most certainly try to win in the short run a second nuclear tender with another aggressive price. In the longer run, Korea could take a growing share of the international market for NPPs. However, the extent to which Korea can achieve its long term export target will depend upon its capacity to finance nuclear export through export credits and upon the development of its alliance with Westinghouse. It is important to note that this paper was written before the Fukushima nuclear disaster. The scale of the human and environmental consequences of this accident are still unknown, and will undoubtedly have short and long term consequences on nuclear safety requirements and public attitude toward nuclear energy, which will most certainly impact the outlooks for nuclear new-builds. (authors)

  16. 木瓜蛋白酶对骆驼肉嫩化效果的研究%Effects of Papain on Tenderness of Two-Humped Camel Meat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马欣欣; 双全; 李秀丽; 乌尼孟和; 陈泽明

    2012-01-01

    通过试验研究木瓜蛋白酶处理对骆驼肉嫩度及感官品质的影响。对木瓜蛋白酶用量、处理温度、处理时间进行试验,并且通过L9(33)正交试验,筛选出木瓜蛋白酶嫩化骆驼肉的最佳条件。结果表明:木瓜蛋白酶对骆驼肉的失水率、持水力及嫩度均有显著影响,且对骆驼肉感官品质没有影响。木瓜蛋白酶嫩化骆驼肉的最佳条件:酶用量为0.02%、处理温度4℃、恒温放置时间60min。因素的显著性次序为:木瓜蛋白酶用量〉处理温度〉处理时间。%The influences of papain solution on the tenderness of two-humped camel meat and its sensory qualities were determined in this study. With papain dosage, treatment temperature and time were variables, L9(33) orthogonal experiment was used to sift the optimal conditions of the tenderization. The results showed that papain could significantly affect water loss rate, water holding capacity and the tenderness of the camel meat, without the change of sensory qualities. The optimum conditions are papain dosage 0.02%, temperatuxe 4 ℃, treatment time 60 min. The sequence of the significance of these factors is as follows: papain dosage〉treatment temperature〉treatment time.

  17. Korea nuclear exports: Why did the Koreans win the UAE tender? Will Korea achieve its goal of exporting 80 nuclear reactors by 2030?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthelemy, Michel; Leveque, Francois

    2011-04-12

    The success of Korea in winning, in December 2009, a USD 18.6 billion nuclear tender in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) has led to a growing interest in the organization and strengths of the Korean nuclear industry. In this paper, we present the main economic and political factors that explain the success of the Korean consortium. In particular, thanks to an active national program of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) construction, Korea has developed distinct competitive advantages in terms of low cost, high credibility and high performance. At the same time, due to the important barriers to enter into the nuclear export market in the UAE, Korea has had to sacrifice its profit margin and has benefited from a strong political support from its government through export financing. More importantly, Korea's success is also due to its alliance with Westinghouse and the support of the US diplomacy. Subsequently, we show that while Korea has recently experienced setbacks in nuclear tenders, it will most certainly try to win in the short run a second nuclear tender with another aggressive price. In the longer run, Korea could take a growing share of the international market for NPPs. However, the extent to which Korea can achieve its long term export target will depend upon its capacity to finance nuclear export through export credits and upon the development of its alliance with Westinghouse. It is important to note that this paper was written before the Fukushima nuclear disaster. The scale of the human and environmental consequences of this accident are still unknown, and will undoubtedly have short and long term consequences on nuclear safety requirements and public attitude toward nuclear energy, which will most certainly impact the outlooks for nuclear new-builds. (authors)

  18. Studies on Tenderization of Spent Laying Duck Meat by Protease%淘汰蛋鸭肉质蛋白酶嫩化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦卫东; 马利华; 陈学红; 韦黎黎

    2011-01-01

    The tendering effects of spent laying duck breast muscle by papain and Flavourzyme were researched,changes of myofibril fragmentation index(MFI) and shear force value at proteolysis by two proteiases were compared,and dependence between MFI and shear force value were analyzed.The results indicated that proteolytic degree of spent laying duck breast muscle by papain was more stronger than Flavourzyme,the papain concentrations required to reach same tenderizing effect(i.e.to reach same MFI or shear force value) was about the half of Flavourzyme.There were significant dependence between MFI and shear force value after the duck tenderization.For papain and Flavourzyme,the dependence were-0.965 and-0.950,respectively.%对木瓜蛋白酶和风味蛋白酶嫩化淘汰蛋鸭肉的效果进行了探讨,比较了酶解条件下鸭胸肉的肌原纤维小片化指数和剪切力的变化,并分析了肌原纤维小片化指数与剪切力的相关性.结果表明:木瓜蛋白酶对鸭肉的酶解作用更强烈,达到相同的嫩化效果(即相同的肌原纤维小片化指数或剪切力值)所需的酶用量大约为风味蛋白酶的一半.嫩化后鸭肉的肌原纤维小片化指数和剪切力之间存在着显著的相关性,木瓜蛋白酶和风味蛋白酶的这种相关性分别为-0.965和-0.950.

  19. Proposal for the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the supply of radiation hard luminosity detectors for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the supply of four radiation-hard luminosity detectors for the LHC. For the reasons explained in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with CEA-LETI (FR) for the supply of four radiation-hard luminosity detectors for a total amount of 247 770 euros (385 456 Swiss francs), not subject to revision. The amount in Swiss francs has been calculated using the present rate of exchange.

  20. Proposal for the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the supply and upgrade of positioning sensors for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the supply of 60 new Hydrostatic Leveling Systems (HLS sensors) and 25 new Wire Positioning Systems (WPS sensors) and for the upgrade of 63 existing sensors. For the reasons explained in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with FOGALE NANOTECH (FR), for the supply and upgrade of HLS and WPS sensors for a total amount of 412 913 euros (631 757 Swiss francs), not subject to revision. The amount in Swiss francs has been calculated using the present rate of exchange.

  1. Test-retest repeatability of strength capacity, aerobic power and pericranial tenderness of neck and shoulder muscles in children - relevant for tension-type headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tornøe B

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Birte Tornøe,1,2,5,6 Lars L Andersen,3 Jørgen H Skotte,3 Rigmor Jensen,4 Gunvor Gard,1 Liselotte Skov,2 Inger Hallström1 1Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Scania, Sweden; 2Children's Headache Clinic, Department of Pediatrics, University of Copenhagen, Herlev Hospital, Herlev, Denmark; 3National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark; 4Danish Headache Center, Department of Neurology, University of Copenhagen, Glostrup Hospital, Glostrup, Denmark; 5Department of Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy, University of Copenhagen, Glostrup Hospital, Glostrup, Denmark; 6Department of Physiotherapy, Medical Department, University of Copenhagen, Herlev Hospital, Herlev, Denmark Background: Frequent or chronic tension-type headache in children is a prevalent and debilitating condition for the child, often leading to medication overuse. To explore the relationship between physical factors and tension-type headache in children, the quality of repeated measures was examined. The aim of the present study was to determine the test-retest repeatability of parameters determining isometric neck and shoulder strength and stability, aerobic power, and pericranial tenderness in children. Methods: Twenty-five healthy children, 9 to 18 years of age, participated in test-retest procedures within a 1-week interval. A computerized padded force transducer was used for testing. The tests included the isometric maximal voluntary contraction and force steadiness of neck flexion and extension, and the isometric maximal voluntary contraction and rate of force of the dominant shoulder. Pericranial tenderness was recorded by means of standardized manual palpation, and a submaximal cycle ergometer test predicted maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max. The measurements were evaluated in steps, using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC; changes in the mean between the two test occasions; the levels of agreement, visualized in Bland

  2. Tervishoid patsiendikeskseks / Teet Tender

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tender, Teet, 1972-

    2010-01-01

    Tervishoiuasutused ei pea võitlema mitte õiguse eest patsienti ravida, vaid seadma tähelepanu keskpunkti patsiendi vajadused. Artikkel põhineb PricewaterhouseCoopers'i rahvusvahelisel tervishoiusektori tulevikutrendide uuringul

  3. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced, as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  4. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  5. Analysis on the Features and Operation Modes of Bid and Tender in Urban and Rural Planning%城乡规划招投标特点及运行模式分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代瑞刚

    2015-01-01

    阐述了城乡规划组织编制现状及存在问题,论述了实施城乡规划招投标的重要意义,比较了城乡规划招投标特点,分析了城乡规划招投标运行模式。%ABSTRACT:This paper expounds the current situation of and existing problems in the organization and compilation of urban and rural planning, discusses the important significance of implementing the bid and tender in urban and rural planning, compares the features of the bid and tender in urban and rural planning, and analyzes the operation modes of the bid and tender in urban and rural planning.

  6. Discussion on Strengthening the Compiling Work of Construction Tender Control Price%关于加强工程招标控制价的编制工作探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡婷婷

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the main function of compiling work of construction tender control price, analyzes the advantages of the compiling work of construction tender control price and the relevant issues in the process of the preparation, and discusses how to improve the quality of the preparation of tender control price.%介绍了工程招标控制价编制的主要作用,分析了招标控制价的编制优点及其编制过程中需要注意的相关问题,并探讨了如何提高招标控制价编制的质量.

  7. Tenderization potential of Hanwoo beef muscles from carcasses with differed genders and loin intramuscular fat content levels during post mortem ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Beom Young; Seong, Pil Nam; Ba, Hoa Van; Park, Kyoung Mi; Cho, Soo Hyun; Moon, Sung Sil; Kang, Geun Ho

    2015-06-01

    Carcasses from Hanwoo steers (n = 15) and cows (n = 15) were classified into three groups: group 1 (G1), the carcasses had 10% to muscles; group 2 (G2), the carcasses had 13% to muscles; and group 3(G3), the carcasses had 17% to muscles. These were used to evaluate the effects of gender and carcass group on quality traits and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) of Psoas major (PM), Longissimus thoracis (LT), Longissimus lumborum (LL), Longus colli (LC), Supraspinatus (SS), Latissimus dorsi (LAD), Semimembranosus (SM), Quadriceps femoris (QF), Biceps femoris (BF) and Semitendinosus (ST) muscles. Our results showed that pH values of LT, LL, LC, BF and QF muscles were lower in steers than in cows (P muscles of steers (P muscles in G1, and QF muscle in G3; however, with additional ageing, the gender effect was observed for most of the muscles. Most muscles showed ageing responses; however, the rates of ageing response significantly varied depending on gender and carcass groups. The muscles of G1 and G2 had generally higher tenderization potentials than those of G3. Furthermore, most muscles in G3 had generally lower WBSF values than in G1 and G2. These results clearly indicate that ageing has a significant effect on quality and WBSF of beef muscles, and the classification by loin IMF level may be useful for prediction of the tenderness of other muscles.

  8. Tenderness, sensory, and color attributes of two muscles from the M. quadriceps femoris when fabricated using a modified hot-boning technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenschke, B E; Swedberg, B J; Calkins, C R

    2008-10-01

    The M. quadriceps femoris from USDA Choice (n = 12) and USDA Select (n = 12) carcasses were fabricated traditionally (COLD) or innovatively (HOT), in which the seams it shares with the top round and bottom round were separated prerigor to evaluate positional and locational effects on Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), sensory attributes, and objective color. At slaughter, paired USDA Choice and USDA Select carcasses were alternately assigned either the HOT or COLD treatment. At 48 h postslaughter, subprimals were removed, vacuum-packaged, and aged for an additional 5 d. After aging, the M. quadriceps femoris was cut into 2.54-cm-thick steaks and allowed to bloom 1 h. For the M. rectus femoris (REC) and M. vastus lateralis (VAL), L* values significantly (P moving from the proximal to distal position within the muscle. Similarly, a* and b* values decreased in the VAL when moving from the proximal to the distal aspect. After color measurement, steaks were vacuum-packaged and frozen (-26 degrees C) until shear and sensory data were collected. Significant position (proximal to distal) and location effects (cranial to caudal) were noted for both muscles. However, treatment did not affect WBSF of the VAL. Although intramuscular variation existed, WBSF and sensory panel tenderness ratings were acceptable for the REC. Although WBSF values were greater and tenderness ratings were less than the REC, the VAL were not extremely tough and therefore could be used in enhancement applications. PMID:18539844

  9. Increasing turbine vendor competition in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magee, J.T. [Emerging Energy Research, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    An overview of the wind turbine market in Canada was presented. Canada is now experiencing increased turbine vendor competition. Trends in wind turbine OEM market shares in Canada have increased from 10 per cent in 2000 to over 70 per cent in 2007. Several major companies in Canada have signed large-scale orders for delivery in 2010. It is expected that future wind turbine demands in all areas of Canada will increase. However, projections for Canadian wind growth demonstrate the difficulties provinces are now facing in trying to attract manufacturing investment away from the United States. Growth in wind turbine investment is in the process of creating a more robust North American wind turbine generator chain. However, the majority of new facilities are located in the United States. It is not known if Quebec's wind turbine generators will be viable outside of fulfilling Hydro-Quebec's tendering process. Canada's wind industry must consider equipment transport costs as well as a shortage of operating and maintenance service infrastructure. It was concluded that growth in the United States is expected to have a positive impact on Canadian wind energy customers. tabs., figs.

  10. 低盐嫩化牛干巴与传统牛干巴的品质比较%Comparison between quality of low-salt and tenderization dry-cured beef and traditional dry-cured beef

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱燕; 陈韬; 崔薇; 杨慧娟

    2011-01-01

    对采用中心组合设计优化的最佳实验组与传统牛干巴的品质进行比较,结果显示:最佳实验组肌原纤维小片化指数(MFI)、综合感官品分值高于传统组,剪切力、Na+浓度低于传统组(p〈0.05)。筛选的低盐和嫰化技术对降低传统牛干巴的盐含量,提高肉的嫩度是有效的。%Quality of low-salt and tenderization dry-cured beef which optimized by central composite design,was compared with traditional dry-cured beef.The results showed that MFI and general sensory quality of low-salt and tenderization dry-cured beef were higher than those of traditional dry-cured beef,while shear stress and Na ion content in low-salt and tenderization dry-cured beef were lower than those of traditional dry-cured beef,which indicated that new formula and technique was effective in lowing salt content and improving tenderness of traditional dry-cured beef.

  11. Self-reported somatosensory symptoms of neuropathic pain in fibromyalgia and chronic widespread pain correlate with tender point count and pressure-pain thresholds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amris, Kirstine; Jespersen, Anders; Bliddal, Henning

    2010-01-01

    Widespread pain and pain hypersensitivity are the hallmark of fibromyalgia, a complex pain condition linked to central sensitization. In this study the painDETECT questionnaire (PDQ), validated to identify neuropathic pain and based on pain quality items, was applied in a cross-sectional sample...... of patients with chronic widespread pain (CWP). The aims of the study were to assess the patient-reported sensory neuropathic symptoms by PDQ and to correlate these with tender point (TP) count and pressure-pain thresholds. Eighty-one patients (75 F, 6 M) with CWP (ACR-criteria) filled in the PDQ. Manual TP...... examination was conducted according to ACR guidelines. Computerized cuff pressure algometry was used for the assessment of pressure-pain detection thresholds (PDT, unit: kPa) and pressure-pain tolerance thresholds (PTT, unit: kPa). Mean TP count was 14.32 (range: 2-18), mean PDQ score 22.75 (range: 5...

  12. The interrelationship between sensory tenderness and shear force measured by the G2 Tenderometer and a Lloyd texture analyser fitted with a Warner-Bratzler head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, D L; Lamb, T A; Kerr, M J; van de Ven, R J

    2013-04-01

    A comparison of peak shear force results for a Lloyd texture analyser fitted with a Warner Bratzler type of shearing head and a G2 Tenderometer was undertaken using sheep meat. The G2 is a new version of the Tenderometer that uses an electric linear motor to compress the sample, but still retains the blunt wedge-shaped "tooth". Analysis of sheep meat samples (n=121) revealed that the average G2 Tenderometer shear force results were approximately 1.2 times those for the Lloyd based on the following model; Lloyd=1.561 Tenderometer(0.84). Both instruments explained low amounts of the variation (less than 20%) in the sensory traits tenderness and overall liking. The high values for the sensory traits indicate that a wider range of samples, including samples with lower sensory scores, is required to develop robust threshold estimates so that either instrument could be use as an auditing instrument for the processing industry. PMID:23305834

  13. Test-retest repeatability of strength capacity, aerobic power and pericranial tenderness of neck and shoulder muscles in children - relevant for tension-type headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornøe, Birte; Andersen, Lars L; Skotte, J H;

    2013-01-01

    Frequent or chronic tension-type headache in children is a prevalent and debilitating condition for the child, often leading to medication overuse. To explore the relationship between physical factors and tension-type headache in children, the quality of repeated measures was examined. The aim of...... of the present study was to determine the test-retest repeatability of parameters determining isometric neck and shoulder strength and stability, aerobic power, and pericranial tenderness in children.......Frequent or chronic tension-type headache in children is a prevalent and debilitating condition for the child, often leading to medication overuse. To explore the relationship between physical factors and tension-type headache in children, the quality of repeated measures was examined. The aim...

  14. Development of a commercial feasible application of a hydrostatic meat tenderizer and demonstration of its efficacy. Final report, June 24, 1980-March 1, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgasim, E.A.

    1983-05-01

    Prerigor pressurization procedure involves hot-bonding, vacuum packaging the boneless cuts and subjecting them to 15,000 psi of water pressure in a closed chamber for two minutes. The pressure treatment causes a massive linear contraction of the muscle fibers which disrupts the fine connective tissue and consequently weakens the muscle, which is synonymous with tenderizing. Treated muscles, when compared to untreated muscles from the same carcass have been found to have longer storage life, brighter color, longer case-life and to be equal if not superior in nutritional value. The study demonstrated beyond doubt the beneficial effect of prerigor pressurization. Meat processed in this manner will occupy less space in the cooler and during transportation, and needs no aging, thus it is likely to result in less energy consumption.

  15. Self-reported somatosensory symptoms of neuropathic pain in fibromyalgia and chronic widespread pain correlate with tender point count and pressure-pain thresholds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amris, Kirstine; Jespersen, Anders; Bliddal, Henning

    2010-01-01

    of patients with chronic widespread pain (CWP). The aims of the study were to assess the patient-reported sensory neuropathic symptoms by PDQ and to correlate these with tender point (TP) count and pressure-pain thresholds. Eighty-one patients (75 F, 6 M) with CWP (ACR-criteria) filled in the PDQ. Manual TP......-37). Mean PDT was 8.8 kPa (range: 2-36) and mean PTT 30.9 kPa (range: 4-85). Deep-tissue hyperalgesia was the predominant somatosensory symptom reported in 83%, but other neuropathic symptoms were also frequent, e.g. burning 51% and prickling 47%. Statistically significant correlations were found between...

  16. 嫩绿粘虫板对水稻稻飞虱成虫的诱集监测效果%Attractive effects of tender green sticky trap on adults of rice planthoppers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾伟; 蒋春先; 张超锋; 王居友

    2015-01-01

    本文采用嫩绿粘虫板和灯光诱集2种方法对水稻稻飞虱成虫进行同地对比诱集监测。结果表明,嫩绿粘虫板对3种飞虱总体、白背飞虱和褐飞虱诱集量与测报灯之间无显著差异,其诱虫趋势与测报灯诱虫趋势基本同步或趋于一致。嫩绿粘虫板对水稻生长前中期白背飞虱迁入峰的监测优于测报灯,表现为迁入高峰期诱虫量多和峰形明显。嫩绿粘虫板对灰飞虱诱虫量与测报灯诱虫量有明显差异,诱虫峰次少于测报灯,监测效果次于测报灯。气象因子、非靶标昆虫等对嫩绿粘虫板诱测无不利影响。运用嫩绿粘虫板可在非灯诱区监测点监测迁飞性白背飞虱。%The attractive effects of tender green sticky trap and light trap on rice planthoppers were studied.The results showed that the tender green sticky trap catches of planthopper,white-backed planthopper,Sogatella fur-cifera (Horváth)and small brown rice planthopper Nilaparvata lugens Stål had no significant differences from light trap catches.The dynamics of planthopper in sticky trap was the same as in light trap.The attractive effect of tender green sticky trap on immigration peaks of S .furcifera was better than light trap,manifested as more cat-ches of migration peaks and obvious peaks.The tender green sticky trap catches of Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén) had significant difference from light trap,and the peak times were fewer than those with light traps.There was no unfavorable influence of meteorological factors and non-target insects on the catching ability of tender green sticky trap.Catching planthopper by tender green sticky trap was easily carried out,and suitable for monitoring the population dynamics of S .furcifera in non-light trap monitoring sites.

  17. 内源性蛋白酶对宰后肌肉嫩化机制研究进展%Advances in Research on Postmortem Tenderization Mechanism of Endogenous Proteolytic Enzymes in Muscle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄明; 黄峰; 黄继超; 徐宝才; 周光宏; 徐幸莲

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism of postmortem tenderization of muscle has been the focus of meat science for years. It is generally accepted that improvement of meat tenderness during postmortem aging mainly results from limited degradation of myofibrillar proteins by endogenous proteolytic enzymes. Calpains are widely considered to be a major contributor, but not only ones to postmortem improvement of meat tenderness, which is the result of multi-enzymatic interaction. The roles of lysosomal cathepsins, proteasomes and calpains during postmortem tenderization of meat were briefly reviewed in the paper. The characteristics of apoptosis, activating pathways and caspases were introduced, meanwhile the potential contribution of caspases to postmortem tenderization was also discussed. In the last, the possibilities of interactions between caspases and calpains and contribution of both proteases together to meat tenderization were also analyzed in the review.%肌肉的宰后嫩化机制一直是国内外肉品科学研究的一个热点,目前认为肌肉宰后嫩度的改善主要归因于内源性水解酶作用所引起的肌原纤维蛋白的有限降解.钙激活酶虽然是宰后嫩度改善的一个主要贡献者,但不是惟一的,而是多种内源酶类协同作用的结果.本文综述了溶酶体组织蛋白酶、蛋白酶体、钙激活酶在宰后嫩化过程的作用;介绍了细胞凋亡的特点、通路及凋亡酶,并对细胞凋亡酶对宰后嫩度改善的潜在贡献进行了讨论;最后分析了细胞凋亡酶和钙激活酶在宰后成熟过程中的交互作用及共同贡献于肌肉宰后嫩化的可能性.

  18. 复合处理对煮熟瘦猪肉嫩化的影响%Effect of Combined Treatment on the Tenderness of Pork

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤亦悠; 张慜; 唐文林; 徐丰民

    2015-01-01

    通过化学试剂和外源酶的作用,根据感官评定、蒸煮损失和剪切力的测定结果,确定嫩化效果明显的一组试剂,再通过单因素实验和正交优化实验,确定最优的实验条件和最优作用时间。通过单因素实验得到木瓜蛋白酶的最佳作用温度为30℃,最佳作用时间为1.5 h,最佳作用质量浓度为0.5 g/L,碳酸钠的最佳质量浓度为m(Na2CO3):V(H2O)=6 g/dL,复合磷酸盐的添加量为肉质量的0.5%;复合磷酸盐的质量比为:m(多聚磷酸钠):m(焦磷酸钠):m(六偏磷酸钠)=2:2:1。并通过正交优化实验确定最适的添加量为木瓜蛋白酶0.7 g/L,温度30℃,碳酸钠质量浓度6 g/dL,聚磷酸钠、焦磷酸钠、偏磷酸钠的质量比为2∶2∶1,添加量为肉质量的0.5%,然后在此条件下确定最适作用时间为1.5 h,达到了猪肉煮熟嫩化的目的。%In order to tender the pork meat by the action of chemical agents and exogenous enzymes, sensory evaluation, cooking loss and chewiness force were evaluation to determine a group of agents which has the most significant tenderizing effect, and then determine the optimal experimental condition by the single factor experiment and the orthogonal experiment. Eventually, the best group was obtained. Then, on the basis of the single factor experiments, we designed the orthogonal experiment and obtained the optimal conditions. Finally, papain, sodium and compound phosphate were combined as the pork tenderness treatment. For papain, the optimum reaction temperature was 30 ℃, optimum reaction time was 1.5 hand the optimal concentration was 0.5 g/L For Na2CO3, the optimum added content(mNa2CO3∶vH2O)was 6%. The optimal content of phosphate compounds was 0.5%, and the ratio among these phosphate compounds was sodium polyphosphate:pyrophosphate:hexametaphosphate=2∶2∶1. Meanwhile according to the orthogonal experiment ,optimized conditions of papain

  19. Meta-Analysis of Tenderness QTL in Swine%猪肉嫩度相关QTL整合定位与基因关联分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘璐; 苏玉虹; 王军; 赵会仁; 袁志发

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted for the Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) related to tenderness to estimate the number and refine the positions of QTL with Meta-analysis. Tenderness QTL were collected and projected to the swine linkage map of USDA-MARC 2.0 to establish an integrated map. Meta-QTL (MQTL) was obtained by meta-analysis which reduced the the 95% confidence interval. Positions of candidate genes and meta-QTL obtained in this study were compared to reckon the precision of meta-QTL. With the software BioMercator 2.1, 99 tenderness QTL were collected from 23 published papers since 2001 and an integrated map was established. 16 meta-QTL as well as their corresponding markers were obtained. The 95% confidence intervals of meta-QTL, with 8 of which were shrunk more than 50% and 6 of which were less than 10 cM, ranged from 2.42 cM to 25.18 cM. The 95% confidence interval of MQTL1 and MQTL2 was only 2.42 cM and 3.22 cM, and was merged with 9 and 20 initial QTL, respectively. Projected to the integrated map, the position of FABP3, MYPN and ANK1 gene was in the confidence interval of MQTL5, MQTL12 and MQTL16. These results could lead to more precise QTL position estimates, and offered a basis for gene mining and molecular breeding in swine.%为了优化猪肉嫩度相关数量性状位点(quantitative trait loci,QTL),为基因的精细定位和克隆奠定基础,通过Meta分析,利用数学模型整合猪肉嫩度相关QTL,分析已知候选基因与MQTL的关联性.收集猪肉嫩度相关QTL,将其逐一映射到美国肉畜研究中心(USDA-MARC 2.0)公布的猪遗传连锁图谱,构建整合图谱.进行Meta分析,得到精确性更高的MQTL,并将已知候选基因映射到整合图谱,比较候选基因与各MQTL的关联性.研究表明:99个猪肉嫩度相关QTL映射到参考图谱,构建成新的整合图谱.通过Meta分析,定位了16个MQTL,图距2.42~25.18 cM,29.21%~93.18%.值得一提的是MQTL1和MQTL2,图距仅为2.42 cM和3.22 cM,且分别由9

  20. 《夜色温柔》中狄克的心理学视角剖析%A Psychological Approach to Dick in Tender Is the Night

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任玲; 翟慧丽

    2015-01-01

    美国作家菲茨杰拉尔德的《夜色温柔》自出版以来,一度被评论界冷落,被认为并不是作者的代表作品。原因在于当时的评论界把这部作品只看作是作者的一个自传。但对《夜色温柔》的文本作深层分析后,不难看出这部小说的创作受到了弗洛伊德和荣格的精神分析学的巨大影响。因此这部小说不应该从作者个人经历或是从社会意义的角度进行剖析,必须从人物的心理入手。依据荣格的“情结理论”和“人格面具理论”,对小说男主人公狄克的心理进行了细致的分析,从而表明《夜色温柔》这部作品具有高度的心理学价值,是对二十年代美国人灵魂深处的刻画,昭示了现代西方人深刻的精神危机。%Since the Tender Is the Night has been published ,it once desolated or neglected by commentary stratum for its unrepresentative features .The reason is that critics consider this works only as an autobiog‐raphy of the author .However ,after deeply analyzing the text in Tender Is the Night ,the theory of psy‐choanalysis of Frend and Jung Carl Gustav was found ,which has a giant effect on it .The psychology of the characters rather than narrate person experience or his social significance was analyzed ,This article has a detailed analysis on the hero‐Dick's psychology based on the Jung Carl Gustav's theory of "complex"and "personality theory"in order to indicate that the works is psychologically valuable .At the same time ,the author wants to prove that the works symbolize the modern westerners'spiritual crisis by describing the twenties Americans .

  1. 77 FR 60971 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... electronic filing, documents may also be paper-filed. To paper-file, mail an original and seven copies to... trash rack with 6-inch openings would be placed at the powerhouse intake to increase safety and...

  2. 对应用工程量清单计价进行招标的几点浅析%Analysis of the Application of Valuation with Bill Quantity for Tender

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯玉强; 赵玉亮

    2013-01-01

    The present tender pricing models include quota valuation and the valuation with bill quantity. Their fundamental difference is that the sole basis of the quota valuation is quota, and the main basis of valuation with bill quantity is enterprise quota. This paper analyzes the application of valuation with bill quantity for tenders.%  现行的招标计价模式包括定额计价模式和工程量清单计价模式。其根本区别是定额计价的唯一依据就是定额,而工程量清单计价的主要依据是企业定额。本文主要对应用工程量清单计价进行招标进行一些分析。

  3. Analysis on muscular histological traits and meat tenderness of Yunnan Wuding chicken%云南武定鸡肌肉组织学特性与嫩度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱仁俊; 黄启超; 唐臻睿; 刘兴勇; 石振兴; 王燕; 文忠

    2012-01-01

    从肌肉组织学特性的角度分析武定鸡肌纤维直径、密度与嫩度的变化规律,以期为武定鸡的养殖及深入研究提供重要参考依据。对230日龄武定鸡公鸡、母鸡及阉母鸡胸部和腿部的肌纤维直径、密度和嫩度进行测定分析。结果表明:(1)性别和部位影响武定鸡肉质;(2)阉割使武定鸡肉质更细嫩;(3)武定鸡肌纤维直径与剪切力呈显著正相关(P〈0.05),而肌纤维密度与剪切力呈显著负相关(P〈0.05)。%From the point of the muscular histological traits to explore the variation about muscle fiber diameters, densities and tenderness of Wuding chicken, so as to the farming and in-depth study of Wuding chicken provides an important reference. Determine the muscle fiber diameters, densities and tenderness on the breast and leg of 230-day-old Wuding cocks, hens and castrated hens. (1)Gender and part affected the meat quality of Wuding chicken. (2)The castration made the meat quality of Wuding chicken more delicate. (3)The muscle fiber diameter was positively related to the tenderness (P〈0.05) and the muscle fiber density was negatively correlated to the tenderness (P〈0.05).

  4. 超声波与氯化钙对鸭肉嫩化的协同作用%Synergism on tenderization of spent laying duck breast muscle by ultrasonic and/or calcium chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦卫东; 马利华; 陈学红; 韦黎黎

    2012-01-01

    以肌原纤维小片化指数和剪切力为考察指标,利用超声波与钙离子协同对淘汰蛋鸭肌肉进行嫩化研究,确定超声波与钙离子协同嫩化淘汰蛋鸭肌肉的最佳工艺条件,并分析肌原纤维小化片指数和剪切力之间的关系.结果表明:超声波与钙离子协同嫩化鸭肉的最适条件为超声波功率300 W、钙离子浓度200 mmol/L、超声波处理时间15 min、超声波处理温度40℃.超声波/钙离子协同嫩化鸭肉的肌原纤维小片化指数与剪切力之间存在着显著的相关性.%By myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI) and shear force as experimental index, the tendcrization of spent laying duck breast muscle were studied using the synergism ultrasonic and calcium ion, the optimum conditions of synergy to tenderize duck muscle between ultrasonic and calcium ion were determined, and relationship of MFI to shear force of the duck breast muscle tenderized by ultrasonic and calcium ion was analyzed. The results indicated that optimum conditions of synergy to tenderize duck muscle between ultrasonic and calcium ion were ultrasonic power 300 W, Ca2+ concentration 200 mmol/L, ultrasonic treatment times 15 min and ultrasonic treatment temperature 40 ℃. There was a significant relativity between MFI and the shear force of duck breast muscle tenderized by ultrasonic and calcium ion.

  5. Proposal to negotiate, without competitive tendering, a contract for the manufacture, testing and delivery of 320 cryogenic helium mass flowmeters for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    This document concerns the manufacture, testing and delivery of 320 cryogenic helium mass flowmeters for the LHC. Following a market survey (MS-2602/LHC/LHC) carried out amoung 37 firms in twelve Member States and six firms in two non-Member States, a price enquiry for qualifying prototypes was sent on 20 November 1998 to nine selected firms and the received prototypes were evaluated. As a result of this process a request for quotation was sent to one firm The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the firm EMERSON PROCESS MANAGEMENT/FISHER-ROSEMOUNT (CH), without competitive tendering, for the manufacture, testing and delivery of 320 cryogenic helium mass flowmeters for an amount of 1 804 840 Swiss francs, not subject to revision, with options for up to 10 additional cryogenic helium mass flowmeters and an extension of the guarantee period to five years for all units for an amount of 219 090 Swiss francs, not subject to revision, bringing the total amount to 2 023 930 Swi...

  6. Discussion on base bid price controlling strategies in engineering tendering%谈工程招标中的标底控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学兵

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of introducing the definition and functions of base bid price, the paper comprehensively explores base bid price control- ling strategies from aspects of determining engineering project, compiling basic principles of base bid price, common compiling base bid price methods, improving rationality of base bid price, and common methods and points of determining base bid price and so on, with a view to guar- antee smooth operation of bidding and tendering work.%在介绍了标底的定义和分析了标底作用的基础上,从工程项目确定和编制标底的基本原则、编制工程项目标底的常用方法、提高工程项目标底合理性、确定工程项目标底的常用方法和要点等几个方面,全面探讨了工程招标中的标底控制策略,以期保障招投标工作的顺利进行。

  7. Perbedaan Efek Terapi Penggunaan Dua Ukuran Jarum Dry Needling dengan Penurunan Nyeri dan Tenderness pada Sindrom Nyeri Miofasial Otot Upper Trapezius Tipe Aktif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Taofik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Myofascial pain syndrome is a collection of sensoric, motoric, and autonomic symptoms due to myofascial trigger points. This is commonly seen in young age and involves postural muscles; one of those is upper trapezius muscle. Invasive and non-invasive therapies have been used as modalities to treat myofascial pain syndrom. Invasive therapy is superior due to its mechanical mechanism in deactivating trigger points. Different sizes of needles are used in invasive therapy to decrease symptoms. A clinical trial has been conducted in the outpatient clinic of Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung in the period of April–May 2014 with consecutive sampling method. Subjects in group I were given dry needling therapy with 25G injection needle (0.50x25 mm and subjects in group II received the therapy using 1 cun accupuncture needle (0.25x25 mm. Seventy four subjects participated in this study. The comparison of numeric rating scale between the 25G injection needle therapy group and the 1 cun accupuncture needle therapy group was not significantly different (p=0.230. The comparison of algometer value between the 25G injection needle therapy group and the 1 cun accupuncture needle therapy group was also not significantly different (p=0.134. In conclusion, there is no difference in pain and tenderness decrease in dry needling therapy using 25G injection needle and 1 cun accupuncture needle for active type of myofascial pain syndrome of upper trapezius muscle therapies.

  8. Proposal for the award of a contract without competitive tendering for the supply of photomultiplier tubes for the ATLAS tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract without competitive tendering for the supply of photomultiplier tubes for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter. For the reasons set out in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to approve the proposal to award a contract to HAMAMATSU PHOTONICS FRANCE (CH) for the supply of 10 140 photomultiplier tubes for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter for a total amount of 242 346 000 Japanese yen, not subject to revision, and an option for an additional 1 000 photomultiplier tubes for a total amount of 23 900 000 Japanese yen, not subject to revision, bringing the overall total to an amount not exceeding 266 246 000 Japanese yen. At the current rate of exchange, the total amount of the contract is equivalent to approximately 3 475 000 Swiss francs. CERN?s contribution shall not exceed 840 000 Swiss francs. The firm has indicated that the work to be done will be distributed as follows: JP-95% and CH-5%.

  9. The Relationship between Mechanical Hyperalgesia Assessed by Manual Tender Point Examination and Disease Severity in Patients with Chronic Widespread Pain: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstine Amris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical utility of tender point (TP examination in patients reporting chronic widespread pain (CWP is the subject of contemporary debate. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between mechanical hyperalgesia assessed by manual TP examination and clinical disease severity. 271 women with CWP were recruited from a clinical setting. Data collection included patient-reported symptoms, health-related quality of life variables, and observation-based measures of functional ability, muscle strength, 6-minute walk, and pressure pain thresholds measured by cuff algometry. TP examination was conducted according to ACR-guidelines. Relationships between disease variables and TP count (TPC were analyzed with logistic regression in a continuum model, allowing the TPC to depend on the included disease variables and two regression models carried out for a TPC threshold level, varying between 1 and 17. The threshold analyses indicated a TPC threshold at 8, above which a large number of disease variables became consistently significant explanatory factors, whereas none of the disease variables reached a significance level in the continuum model. These results support the premise that the presence of mechanical hyperalgesia influences symptomatology in CWP and that the severity of clinical expression is related to a threshold of TPs, rather than being part of a continuum.

  10. 建筑工程招标中评价指标权重的研究--层次分析法(AHP)应用%Evaluation Index Weight in Construction Engineering Tender:Application of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红霞; 韩晓虎

    2014-01-01

    层次分析法是一种简单、实用的决策方法。文章主要讨论用层次分析法计算建筑招标中各评价指标的权重。通过使用层次分析法,得出了建筑招标评价指标权重的数学模型,为进一步应用模糊数学知识评价建筑招标奠定了良好的基础。%Analytic Hierarchy Process is a simple, practical decision-making method. The article discusses that using Analytic Hierarchy Process to calculate each index weights of construction tender. By using the Analytic Hierarchy Process, we obtained the mathematical model of construction tender evaluation index weights, and laid a good foundation for the further application of fuzzy mathematics to evaluate construction tender.

  11. On tendering and bidding system development under quantity pricing model%工程量清单计价模式下招投标制度发展的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇

    2009-01-01

    介绍了工程量清单计价的含义和工程量清单的分类,阐述了工程量清单计价模式下招投标活动遵循的原则及其对招投标机制的促进作用,并对工程量清单招标的相关问题进行了探讨并提出建议,以期完善工程量清单计价模式下招投标制度.%The paper introduces definition of quantity pricing and classification of quantity list, it states rules that must be follow under quantity pricing modal and it' s pushing effects to completion of tendering and bidding system, it also discusses about problems of tendering and bidding system development under quantity pricing model and proposes relative suggestion, so as to consummate tendering and bidding system under quantity pricing model.

  12. Application Effect of Tender Branch Cutting Technology of Juglans Linn in Bijie City%核桃属树木嫩枝扦插技术在毕节市的应用效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗永猛; 李永荷; 杨先义; 余刚国

    2015-01-01

    Through introducing the tender branch cutting technology of Juglans Linn which developed by Forestry Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Forestry Sciences,by dopting the moisturize and calescence measures of intelligent greenhouse,the tender branches cutting of good Juglans Linn tender branches individual selected in recent years were propagated.The survival rate was promoted from 11.3% to 84.0%,so the technology showed significance in keeping good characters of Juglans Linn and forming good clonal varieties in Bijie City.%通过引进中国林业科学研究:林业研究所研究成功的“核桃属树木嫩枝扦插繁殖方法”,使用智能温棚等增温保湿措施,对毕节市近年鉴选出的核桃优良单株进行嫩枝扦插扩繁,使扦插成活率由11.3%提高至84.0%,对保持毕节市优良核桃品种的优良性状、形成一批优良无性系品种具有重要意义。

  13. 木瓜蛋白酶嫩化秘鲁鱿鱼肉工艺条件的研究%Study on optimization for tenderization conditions of Dosidicus gigas meat by papain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑贤孟; 杨文鸽; 徐大伦

    2013-01-01

    Using the shearing force and concentration of soluble protein(CSP) as indexes,the tenderization of Dosidicus gigas meat by papain was studied,and the suitable tenderization conditions of Dosidicus gigas meat were optimizated through single factor and orthogonal experiment.The results indicated that the suitable technological conditions for tenderization of Dosidicus gigas meat were as follows:papain concentration 1%,soaking time 40min,temperature 50℃ and pH7.0.Under these conditions,the shearing force of Dosidicus gigas meat was up to 2060.141g.%以鱿鱼肉的剪切力和可溶性蛋白含量(CSP)为指标,通过单因素和正交实验优化木瓜蛋白酶嫩化秘鲁鱿鱼肉的工艺条件.结果显示秘鲁鱿鱼肉适宜的嫩化条件为:木瓜蛋白酶浓度1%、处理时间40min、温度50℃、pH7.0,在此条件下鱿鱼肉得到嫩化,其剪切力为2060.141g.

  14. 基于图像颜色信息的茶叶嫩叶识别方法研究%Research on Recognition of Tea Tender Leaf Based on Image Color Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴雪梅; 张富贵; 吕敬堂

    2013-01-01

    采集清明时期茶叶图像,获取茶叶的图像信息。论文首先分析了嫩芽与老叶的G和G-B分量的颜色信息,该颜色信息差异能够有效区分嫩芽和背景;然后根据分析结果设定初始阈值,利用改进的最大方差自动取阈法计算G和G-B分量的分割阈值;最后提出了茶叶嫩芽的识别算法。实验结果表明该算法能有效消除光线的影响,快速识别嫩芽;相机与茶树间的距离为10cm左右时,识别准确率为92%。本研究的方法和结果可为茶叶智能采摘机器的研发提供技术支持。%The images of tea leaf in Qingming period were taken by digital camera for extracting tea color information. Firstly, the color information of G and G-B component of tender leaf and old leaf based on RGB color model was analyzed. The color difference between tender leaf and old leaf was able to distinguish the tender leaf from background. Then the original threshold from color analysis was set and the segmentation thresholds for G and G-B component were calculated by improved Ostu (the algorithm of threshold automatically extracted according to the maximum deviation). Finally, the recognition algorithm of tea tender leaf was proposed. Experimental results showed that the algorithm is useful for eliminating the impact of light and rapid in identifying the tender leaf from background. The accuracy rate is more than 92%when the distance between camera and tea bush is about 10 cm. The research results were useful to provide recognition technical supports for an intelligent picking machine development.

  15. 纤维肌痛患者压痛点的推拿效用分析%The Analysis about Tenderness Point Massage of the Fibromyalgia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林强

    2013-01-01

      通过查询搜索推拿治疗纤维肌痛的中英文随机临床试验资料,总结了宣蛰人的软组织压痛点与Janet Travell激痛点的特点与区别,并在宣蛰人“去痛致松、以松治痛”的推拿治疗椎管外软组织损害的原理归纳的基础上,进一步分析了推拿治疗纤维肌痛压痛点的疗效机理。结果显示推拿对纤维肌痛有一定的效果,但对于推拿治疗纤维肌痛的研究质量及内容的充实方面均有待进一步加强。%Summarized the characteristic and difference between soft tissue tender point and Ja-netTravell trigger point which were founded by Zhe-RenXuan through referring and searching the Chinese and English randomized clinical trials data of massage treating fibromyalgia. Further ana-lyzed the efficacy mechanism of massage treating fibromyalgia on the basis of the theory induction about massage of“remove pain lead to loosen, use loosen to treat pain”to treat external vertebral canal soft tissue. The result showed that it had a certain efficacy about using massage to treat fibro-myalgia. But, the research quality and substantial content still need to be reinforced.

  16. Randomized Multicenter Clinical Trial of Myofascial Physical Therapy in Women with Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome (IC/PBS) and Pelvic Floor Tenderness

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, MP; Payne, CK; Lukacz, ES; Yang, CC; Peters, KM; Chai, TC; Nickel, JC; Hanno, PM; Kreder, KJ; Burks, DA; Mayer, R; Kotarinos, R; Fortman, C; Allen, TM; Fraser, L; Mason-Cover, M; Furey, C; Odabachian, L; Sanfield, A; Chu, J; Huestis, K; Tata, GE; Dugan, N; Sheth, H; Bewyer, K; Anaeme, A; Newton, K; Featherstone, W; Halle-Podell, R; Cen, L; Landis, JR; Propert, KJ; Foster, HE; Kusek, JW; Nyberg, *LM

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the efficacy and safety of pelvic floor Myofascial Physical Therapy (MPT) in women with newly-symptomatic IC/PBS, as compared to Global Therapeutic Massage (GTM). Materials and Methods A randomized controlled trial of 10 scheduled treatments of MPT vs. GTM was performed at 11 clinical centers located in North America. We recruited women with IC/PBS with demonstrable pelvic floor tenderness on physical examination and a limitation of no more than 3 years symptom duration. The primary outcome was the proportion of responders defined as ‘moderately improved’ or ‘markedly improved’ in overall symptoms compared to baseline on a 7-point scale Global Response Assessment (GRA). Secondary outcomes included ratings for pain, urgency, frequency; the O'Leary-Sant IC Symptom and Problem Index (ICSI/ICPI) and reports of adverse events. We compared response rates between treatment arms using the exact conditional version of the Mantel-Haenszel test to control for clustering by clinical center. For secondary efficacy outcomes, cross-sectional descriptive statistics and changes from baseline were calculated. Results Eighty-one women randomized to the two treatment groups had similar symptoms at baseline. The GRA response rate was 26% in the GTM group and 59% in the MPT group (p=0.0012). Pain, urgency, and frequency ratings and in ICSI/ICPI decreased in both groups during follow-up and were not significantly different between the groups. Pain was the most common adverse event, occurring at similar rates in both groups. There were no serious adverse events reported. Conclusions A significantly higher proportion of women with IC/PBS reponded to treatment with MPT than with GTM. MPT may be a beneficial therapy in women with this syndrome. PMID:22503015

  17. Comparing complementary alternative treatment for chronic shoulder pain of myofascial origin: Collateral meridian therapy versus local tender area-related meridians therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ru-Yu; Hsu, Yung-Chi; Wong, Chih-Shung; Lin, Shinn-Long; Li, Tsung-Ying; Cherng, Chen-Hwan; Ko, Shan-Chi; Yeh, Chun-Chang

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the short-term outcomes between 2 different treatments for unilateral chronic shoulder pain of myofascial origin, that is, local tender area related meridians (LTARMs) treatment and collateral meridian therapy (CMT), which were performed 6 times over a period of 4 weeks.Seventy patients with unilateral shoulder pain of chronic myofascial origin were enrolled. The patients were randomly assigned to 2 different treatment groups: 1 group received CMT (n = 35) and the other received LTARM (n = 35). Before and after the 2 treatment processes, all patients rated their overall pain intensity on a visual analogue scale (VAS) and a validated 13-question shoulder pain and disability index (SPADI) questionnaire was used to measure shoulder pain and functional impairment after therapy for 4 weeks.After CMT, the pain intensity was reduced after CMT. VAS score is reduced from 5.90 ± 2.07 (a mean of 5.90 and standard deviation of 2.07) to 3.39 ± 1.2. This was verified by the SPADI pain subscale scores (from 0.58 ± 0.193 to 0.33 ± 0.14). The pain-relief effect of CMT was significantly better than that of LTARM (VAS score from 5.78 ± 1.64 to 4.58 ± 1.40; P treatment, where 63% of patients felt no or mild pain, whereas the VAS scores for moderate pain were even higher in the LTARM group in 75% of patients (P treatment, where treatment with the former resulted in better functional recovery after 4 weeks than the latter. PMID:27583882

  18. 工程建设项目招投标中的博弈量化分析%Game Quantitative Analysis on Tendering and Bidding of Construction Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭梅; 蔡光程; 甄晓云

    2014-01-01

    工程建设项目施工招投标中的竞标者、评标者之间存在一定的关联度和博弈关系。本文在目前招投标评标办法的基础上提出一种基于博弈的多方量化方法,利用竞标者报价、评标者以性能参数作为影响因子作评标估计,获得多竞标者参与竞标的最佳价格性能下的最优竞标价,以使评标过程更科学。实证数据实验结果显示通过该方法有利于鼓励竞争和保护质优价廉的竞标单位。%There exists a correlation and game relationship between users and bidders on tendering and bid-ding of a construction project.This paper presents a novel quantitative algorithm based on game theory for the user and the bidding corporations.This method uses the performance parameter to make an estimation for the bidding price.Optimum bidding value is obtained by the best performance values for all competition corpora-tions.It has more scientific decision for the process of bidding evaluation.Experimental results show that this method can embolden and protect the bedding enterprise of super quality and competitive price.

  19. Comparing complementary alternative treatment for chronic shoulder pain of myofascial origin: Collateral meridian therapy versus local tender area-related meridians therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ru-Yu; Hsu, Yung-Chi; Wong, Chih-Shung; Lin, Shinn-Long; Li, Tsung-Ying; Cherng, Chen-Hwan; Ko, Shan-Chi; Yeh, Chun-Chang

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the short-term outcomes between 2 different treatments for unilateral chronic shoulder pain of myofascial origin, that is, local tender area related meridians (LTARMs) treatment and collateral meridian therapy (CMT), which were performed 6 times over a period of 4 weeks.Seventy patients with unilateral shoulder pain of chronic myofascial origin were enrolled. The patients were randomly assigned to 2 different treatment groups: 1 group received CMT (n = 35) and the other received LTARM (n = 35). Before and after the 2 treatment processes, all patients rated their overall pain intensity on a visual analogue scale (VAS) and a validated 13-question shoulder pain and disability index (SPADI) questionnaire was used to measure shoulder pain and functional impairment after therapy for 4 weeks.After CMT, the pain intensity was reduced after CMT. VAS score is reduced from 5.90 ± 2.07 (a mean of 5.90 and standard deviation of 2.07) to 3.39 ± 1.2. This was verified by the SPADI pain subscale scores (from 0.58 ± 0.193 to 0.33 ± 0.14). The pain-relief effect of CMT was significantly better than that of LTARM (VAS score from 5.78 ± 1.64 to 4.58 ± 1.40; P myofascial origin than the LTARM treatment, where treatment with the former resulted in better functional recovery after 4 weeks than the latter.

  20. 菠萝蛋白酶和超声波对羊肉嫩度的影响%Effects of bromelain and ultrasonic on mutton tenderness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶; 田莹俏; 张艳花

    2015-01-01

    Water-holding capacity, cooking loss and shear force of mutton were taken as evalua⁃tion indexes. The effects of different bromelain addition, ultrasonic time, treat temperature and water bath time on mutton tenderness were studied. Through responses surface test, the best condition was ob⁃tained. The results showed that the significance of factors was:bromelain addition > treating temperature> treating time>ultrasonic time. The optimal conditions was that the addition of bromelain was 20U/g, ultrasonic time was 30min, treating temperature was 54. 93℃ and treating time was 2h.%通过实验测定羊肉的系水力、蒸煮损失率和剪切力三个指标,研究了菠萝蛋白酶添加量、超声时间、处理温度和水浴时间的条件对羊肉嫩度的影响,并通过响应面试验优化出了最佳的嫩化条件。实验结果表明,各因素影响显著性依次是:菠萝蛋白酶添加量>处理温度>处理时间>超声时间。菠萝蛋白酶的最佳嫩化条件是:菠萝蛋白酶添加量20U/g,超声处理时间30min,处理温度54.93℃,处理时间2h。

  1. Efeitos do sexo, do grupo racial e da idade ao abate nas características de carcaça e maciez da carne de caprinos Carcass and meat tenderness of goats according to age, breed group and age at slaughter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakilane Jacque Leal de Menezes

    2009-09-01

    (2 sexes X 3 breed groups X 3 slaughter ages, in a complete randomized design. As age increased, so did carcass weight and characteristics, as well as the weight of edible carcass components and commercial yield. The Boer crossbreds showed higher leg compactness and less bone compared to the Alpines. No difference in meat tenderness was observed for breed group, age or sex.

  2. Case Analysis of Tendering Documents for an International PPP/BOT Port Project%国际某港口PPP/BOT 项目招标文件案例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张水波; 高颖; 孙唯晫

    2012-01-01

    Tfeis paper makes a content analysis of the Tender Documents of an international PPP/BOT Port Project to assist International PPP/BOT bidders in making proper bid decisions. The analysis includes the project background, bidding procedure, documents consisting of tender documents, requirements of bid proposals and risk allocations. Findings from the analysis suggest insufficient rime length allowed for preparing the hid, failure to provide such key information as project draft concession agreement in the tendering documents; vague and improper allocation of risks as between the host government and the concessionaire. This paper concludes that, only with sufficient time and information obtained from tendering documents or otherwise , and by taking an initiative strategy in specifying pre-conditions in their bids, would the bidders be able to make a successful PPP/BOT bid.%采用文本分析方法,对国际某港口项目招标文件进行分析,以帮助国际PPP/BOT项目投标人做出恰当的投标决策.分析内容包括:项目背景、招标程序、招标文件的组成、投标要求、风险分担.分析结果表明,该招标的时间安排比较仓促,不能满足投标人投标所需要的时间;招标文件的组成不够完善,没有提供投标人投标重要依据的项目特许权协议草案;项目投标要求的编制比较清晰,但涉及项目风险分担的规定比较笼统模糊,而且让特许权受让人承担法律、政策变更的风险不尽合理.认为,由于国际PPP/BOT项目具有前期沉没成本高的特点,投标者应在研究招标文件的基础上,采取“以我为主”的投标策略,设定投标的底线,并将其在投标书中体现出来,这样才能更好地实现投资国际PPP/BOT项目的目标.

  3. Three Proposals for Rewarding Novel Health Technologies Benefiting People Living in Poverty. A Comparative Analysis of Prize Funds, Health Impact Funds and a Cost-Effectiveness/Competitive Tender Treaty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunce, Thomas Alured; Nasu, Hitoshi

    2008-07-01

    This paper sets out to analyse three different academic proposals for addressing the needs of the poor in relation to new, rather than 'essential' medicines. It focuses particularly on (1) research and development (R&D) prize funds, (2) a health impact fund (HIF) system and (3) a multilateral treaty on health technology cost-effectiveness evaluation and competitive tender. It compares the extent to which each responds to the 'market fundamentalist' philosophy (that we maintain forms a loose theoretical background for the patent-driven approach to pharmaceutical R&D) and begins to analyse their respective strengths and weaknesses.

  4. Three Proposals for Rewarding Novel Health Technologies Benefiting People Living in Poverty. A Comparative Analysis of Prize Funds, Health Impact Funds and a Cost-Effectiveness/Competitive Tender Treaty

    OpenAIRE

    Faunce, Thomas Alured; Nasu, Hitoshi

    2008-01-01

    This paper sets out to analyse three different academic proposals for addressing the needs of the poor in relation to new, rather than ‘essential’ medicines. It focuses particularly on (1) research and development (R&D) prize funds, (2) a health impact fund (HIF) system and (3) a multilateral treaty on health technology cost-effectiveness evaluation and competitive tender. It compares the extent to which each responds to the ‘market fundamentalist’ philosophy (that we maintain forms a loose t...

  5. On amplitude beam splitting of tender X-rays (2-8 keV photon energy) using conical diffraction from reflection gratings with laminar profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jark, Werner; Eichert, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Conical diffraction is obtained when a radiation beam impinges onto a periodically ruled surface structure parallel or almost parallel to the ruling. In this condition the incident intensity is diffracted through an arc, away from the plane of incidence. The diffracted intensity thus lies on a cone, which leads to the name `conical diffraction'. In this configuration almost no part of the ruled structure will produce any shadowing effect for the incident or the diffracted beam. Then, compared with a grating in the classical orientation, relatively higher diffraction efficiencies will be observed for fewer diffraction orders. When the incident beam is perfectly parallel to the grooves of a rectangular grating profile, the symmetry of the setup causes diffraction of the intensity symmetrically around the plane of incidence. This situation was previously tested experimentally in the VUV spectral range for the amplitude beam splitting of a radiation beam with a photon energy of 25 eV. In this case the ideally expected beam splitting efficiency of about 80% for the diffraction into the two first orders was confirmed for the optimum combination of groove depth and angle of grazing incidence. The feasibility of the amplitude beam splitting for hard X-rays with 12 keV photon energy by use of the same concept was theoretically confirmed. However, no related experimental data are presented yet, not even for lower energy soft X-rays. The present study reports the first experimental data for the conical diffraction from a rectangular grating profile in the tender X-ray range for photon energies of 4 keV and 6 keV. The expected symmetries are observed. The maximum absolute efficiency for beam splitting was measured to be only about 30%. As the reflectivity of the grating coating at the corresponding angle of grazing incidence was found to be only of the order of 50%, the relative beam splitting efficiency was thus 60%. This is to be compared also here with an ideally

  6. Be Tender to Your Feet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋保平

    2005-01-01

    One of the most common mistakes many people make is to wear illfitting shoes. Women in particular tend to be embarrassed b), a Shoe sizethat seems large; in many cultures a small foot is thought to be a sign ofwomanliness.

  7. Increased trapezius pain sensitivity is not associated with increased tissue hardness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Helle; Ge, Hong-You; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars;

    2010-01-01

    thresholds and muscle hardness were examined by computer-controlled pressure algometry at baseline, immediately after static or dynamic exercise, and 20 minutes after static or dynamic exercise. Before recording of pressure pain thresholds, the trapezius muscle was examined for tender points by manual...

  8. Uniform Design for Optimizating Regeneration Shoots Directly from Tender Leaves and Plant Regeneration System of Rhododendron chrysanthum Pall.%基于均匀设计优化牛皮杜鹃嫩叶直接再生芽苗及植株再生体系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉梅; 姜云天; 孙智慧

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The experimental was aimed to screen the optimum regeneration shoot induction media and rooting media for tender leaves of Rhododendron chrysanthum Pall.[Method] The tender leaves of Rhododendron chrysanthum Pall were taken as explants to select the optimum bud induction media and rooting media through uniform design and the screening results were verified.[Result] The optimum media for regeneration shoot of Rhododendron chrysanthum Pall contained 1/4 MS,3.70 mg/L ZT, 0.02 mg/L IAA and 1.00 mg/L KT and its induction rate was 95.5% and the rooting media contained modified MS, 0.10 mg/L IAA and 0.07 mg/L NAA and its rooting rate was 98%. [Conclusion] Through this experiment, regeneration systems for regeneration shoot and regenerated plant from tender leaves of Rhododendron chrysanthum Pall were created successfully.

  9. Thinking on the Tender Response to the Divergences of Bidders in Bidding Process%招标人应对招投标过程中投标人异议问题的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高国民

    2016-01-01

    Through the analysis of the divergent problems in tendering and bidding of engineering materials procurement,the paper elaborates the thinking to resolve these divergences of bidders,including investigating the conformity of project performance,preventing the bid in the name of others,clearing the bid qualification, increasingthe judges of economic class. Then,proposes exploratory thoughts to improve the bidding work of engineering materials procurement. This research can be helpful and referential to the further standardization and scientificity of tendering work on infrastructure engineering materials procurement in the university system.%通过总结工程货物采购招投标过程中常见的异议问题,阐述应对相关问题的对策思考,包括审查业绩符合度、防范以他人名义投标、明晰投标资格设定、增加经济类评委。然后,提出改进工程货物采购招标工作的探索思路,为高校系统基建工程货物采购招标工作进一步规范化、科学化推进提供了借鉴。

  10. The Application of the CPM to Construction Management and Tendering%网络计划技术在施工管理及招投标中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于茜薇

    2001-01-01

    The advantages of CPM applied in construction management are analyzed.by practical examples,the CPM and the Gantt chart are compared,this proves that there are still some shortcomings in them and how they would be made up with each other.This paper also points out what must be taken notice of when the CPM was drawn up in documents of tendering.As an advanced method,the CPM should be combined with the Gantt chart in construction management,and it can be especially well used in tendering.%分析了网络计划技术应用于施工管理的优点,并通过具体实例将网络计划技术与横道图进行了对比,说明了二者各存在的问题及如何相互补充应用。还指出了在投标文件中编制网络计划所必须注意的问题。作为一种先进的方法,网络计划技术在施工管理中应与横道图结合使用,在招投标工作中更应很好地运用。

  11. Brazilian consumers' perception of tenderness of beef steaks classified by shear force and taste Percepção pelos consumidores brasileiros da maciez da carne classificada pela força de cisalhamento e sabor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Francisquine Delgado

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of consumer perception of meat tenderness and taste is essential to forecast a Brazilian quality value-based beef market. This study aimed to verify perception of tender (WBSF 4.8 kg strip loin steak or uncharacteristic (calcium-treated/Ca-IM and normal (non-calcium/NO-Ca meat taste by consumers according to gender, age, education and income levels. Steaks were previously classified by shear force measurements as tender or tough. Each consumer was served a paired sample of one tender and of one tough steak, which were either Ca-IM or NO-Ca treated before tenderness classification. Three hundred and eight consumers answered a nine-point intensity (tenderness and hedonic (taste scales evaluation questionnaire. Among consumers, 82.2% indicated beef as first choice meat products, 75.3% had beef at least four times a week; 39.3% considered taste as the most important meat attribute and 30.2% considered tenderness; 75.8% were males; 73.6% were 21 to 55 years old; 56.7% had college education; 76.6% had monthly income higher than US $ 435,00. Tender steaks were scored highest (P O conhecimento da percepção de maciez e sabor da carne bovina pelo consumidor é essencial para vislumbrar um mercado brasileiro que pague por qualidade. Este estudo avaliou a percepção diferenciada de contra-filé macio (WBSF 4.8 kg, ou ainda com sabor não característico (imersão em Ca/ Ca-IM ou normal (sem cálcio/ NO-Ca de acordo com sexo, faixa etária, e nível de escolaridade formal e renda dos consumidores. Os bifes foram pareados em amostras macia/dura e Ca-IM/NO-Ca, e servidos a 308 consumidores que responderam a um questionário apresentando escalas de intensidade (maciez e hedônica (sabor de nove pontos. O perfil dos consumidores mostrava que: 82,2% indicaram carne bovina como sua primeira escolha entre as carnes; 75,3% consumiam carne bovina pelo menos quatro vezes por semana; 39,3% consideravam sabor como o atributo mais importante durante o

  12. 浅议水利工程投标阶段的风险管理与预控%On Risk Management and Prevention of Water Conservancy Project Tender Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹建

    2014-01-01

    水利工程投标阶段主要风险包括经济风险、设备和材料采购风险、合同风险、自然与环境风险等,在工程投标过程中要有针对性地依据本企业自身情况及所投标项目的特点进行风险分析,采取相应的预控措施,为工程中标后的经营管理奠定良好的基础。本文对此加以介绍。%Main risks of water conservancy project tender stage include economic risk, equipment and material procurement risk,contract risk,natural and environmental risk,etc.Risks are analyzed in the project tender process in a targeted mode according to own enterprise condition and features of bidding project.Corresponding prevention measures are adopted,thereby laying good foundation for operation management after project bid winning.The condition is introduced in the paper.

  13. Distribution of beef tenderness grading based on texture features by hyperspectral image analysis%基于高光谱图像纹理特征的牛肉嫩度分布评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵娟; 彭彦昆

    2015-01-01

    传统牛肉品质的检测方法耗时长,效率低,破坏样品,已不能满足现代化生产的需要。为了实现对牛肉嫩度品质的快速无损检测和评价,该文利用高光谱成像系统,以西门塔尔牛多个胴体的背最长肌部位为研究对象,采集56个有效样本的高光谱立体图像,研究无损评价牛肉样品的嫩度分布。通过提取样本的反射光谱信息,并利用逐步回归算法结合遗传算法(GA,genetic algorithm)筛选出牛肉剪切力值(WBSF,warner-bratzler shear force)的特征波段。利用主成分分析(PCA,principle component analysis)提取样品的3个主成分。基于选出的特征波段图像和提取的主成分,通过计算图像灰度共生矩阵求取每幅图像8个主要纹理特征参数,分别建立了基于支持向量机(SVM,support vector machine)和线性判别(LDA,linear discriminant analysis)法的嫩度等级判别模型。经分析比较,基于主成分纹理特征优于基于特征波段图像建立的预测模型,并且,线性判别模型识别准确率相比支持向量机模型较高。基于主成分纹理特征建立的线性判别模型预测集判别精度为94.44%。研究结果证明,基于高光谱图像纹理特征分析,可以建立牛肉的嫩度判别模型,对牛肉嫩度快速无损检测技术研究提供理论参考。%Due to high protein, low fat, high vitamin and mineral content, beef is regarded as an important meat item which is consumed by human in regular basis. In addition, with the improvement of people's living standard, different quality parameters such as beef tenderness, water retention and other edible quality indicators have become important factors to consumers’ satisfaction. Sensory evaluation and shear force measurement are primarily two methods for measurement of beef tenderness, which are now considered as traditional methods. However, with improvement in technology, optical

  14. Compound Enzyme-Based Fast Tenderizing Technology for Beef from the Three Gorges Reservoir Area%三峡库区牛肉复合酶快速嫩化技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖夏; 李洪军; 贺稚非

    2015-01-01

    以三峡库区丰都县西门塔尔与蒙古牛杂交牛的牛肉为研究对象,在较低温度下采用复合酶快速嫩化牛肉.选用木瓜蛋白酶与菠萝蛋白酶1∶1复合,采用注射浸泡法嫩化牛肉.在不同酶添加量、嫩化时间、嫩化温度、pH下测定了牛肉的剪切力、质构特性、熟肉率等指标,并分析指标间相关性.通过正交试验获得最佳工艺条件为复合酶添加量0.03%,嫩化时间20 min ,嫩化温度20℃,pH中性.嫩化后样品剪切力降至3727.6 g ,弹性0.875,内聚性0.382,表明该条件下处理牛肉能显著提高肉品的嫩度,保持较好的弹性、内聚性及熟肉率,适于进行肉制品加工.%With the bovine muscle samples taken from Simmental x Mongo cattle hybrid in Fengdu County of the Three‐Gorges Reservoir Area as the experiment material ,the fast tenderizing technology of bovine muscles with a compound enzyme at relatively low temperature was studied .The compound enzyme was prepared with papain and bromelain in a proportion of 1 to 1 and used to treat the bovine muscles samples with injection and imbibition .The samples were subjected to shear force ,texture property and cooked meat percentage determination at different enzyme dosages ,treatment time and temperature and pH ,and correlation analyses were made .The optimal technology conditions identified with an orthogonal test were 0.03% compound enzyme + treatment time 20 min and temperature 20 ℃ + pH 7.0 .Under such condi‐tions ,the shear force was 3 727.6 g ,springiness was 0.875 and cohesiveness was 0.382 ,suggesting that the tenderizer could significantly improve the tenderness of the bovine muscles under the optimal condi‐tions w hile keeping satisfactory springiness ,cohesiveness and cooked meat percentage .

  15. Effect of Different Ages and Postmortem Aging on Tenderness of Cherry Valley Ducks Breast%不同日龄及宰后成熟对樱桃谷鸭嫩度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓方; 潘道东; 曹锦轩; 张小涛

    2013-01-01

    This research focused on the changes of tenderness of different ages cherry valley duck meat during postmortem aging.The effects of drip loss,cooking loss,shear force value,pH and calpain activity of duck breast meat were examined,and the degradation of Troponin-T and Desmin,which were heavily correlated with the tenderness of the protein,were also determined in the study.The result showed feed-day had a significant effect on the tenderness of duck meat (P<0.05),and the shear force value was positively correlated with postmortem time.pH and the shear force value of ducks muscle were positively correlation with postmortem time (P<0.05),while the cooking loss had a negative correlation with the shear force.The calpain activity were extremely significant (P<0.01) affected by shear force in the experiment.Meanwhile,the difference of the shear-force change was significant among the three day-age groups(P<0.01).%通过测定不同日龄樱桃谷鸭宰后不同时间的滴水损失、蒸煮损失、pH值、剪切力、钙蛋白酶活性等指标,同时结合SDS-PAGE和蛋白质印迹分析,研究骨骼肌中与肌肉嫩度高度相关的肌钙蛋白(Troponin-T)、肌间线蛋白(Desmin)的降解情况以及日龄对宰后鸭肉嫩度的影响.研究结果表明:随着日龄的增加,宰后肌肉剪切力显著增加(P<0.05);随着宰后成熟时间的延长,宰后肌肉剪切力减小.宰后成熟期间,pH值和肌肉剪切力呈显著正相关(P<0.05),蒸煮损失和肌肉剪切力呈显著负相关(P<0.05),钙蛋白酶酶活力和肌肉剪切力呈极显著正相关(P<0.01).增加日龄使得宰后肌肉剪切力增大,且日龄之间差异性极显著(P<0.01).

  16. 图书采购招标报价的影响因素及控制措施%Influence Factors and Control Measures of the Quotation of the Book Acquisition Tendering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王若琳

    2012-01-01

    图书采购招标已成为当前高校图书馆文献资源建设的重点工作之一,图书采购招标报价的合理程度将直接影响文献资源建设的质量。目前在图书采购招标报价过程中,保证金、书商承诺、书商与出版社的合作、采书方式、采书量分配等因素均会影响书商的招标报价和折扣。因此,图书馆应从标段的选择、保证金缴纳、合同违约条款制定、报价方法的选择及承诺兑现的监督和执行等方面对图书采购招标报价加以控制,以确保图书的采购质量。%Currently,the book acquisition tendering becomes the key point of the literature resource construction in university libraries.The reasonable quotation will have much to do with the quality of the literature resource construction.In the quotation process of the book acquisition tendering,there are some factors influencing the quotation and discount of the bidding,such as the margin,the commitment of booksellers,the cooperation between booksellers and publishers,the purchasing way,the allocation of purchasing quantity,and so on.Therefore,libraries should control the quotation of the book acquisition tendering in the selection of the bidding section,the payment of margin,the formulation of default clauses in the contract,the selection of quotation methods,the supervision and execution of the commitment,so as to ensure the purchasing quality.

  17. Subverting Sanity by Madness --A Psychoanalysis of the Central Figures in Tender is the Night%疯癫对文明的颠覆——对《夜色温柔》主人公的精神分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨澜

    2012-01-01

    In the novel Tender is the Night, the hero and the heroine exchange their roles of patient and doctor, in- sanity and culture. The interchange between madness and normality is the keynote of the book, as well as a meta- phor. From the perspective of psychoanalysis, the interchange also echoes the complex relations between ego and id, those of domination and counter-strike, of control and break-off.%《夜色温柔》中的男女主人公完成了各自从医生到“疯子”与从病人到正常人的角色互换。疯癫即是小说的主题,也是重要隐喻。从心理分析的角度看,二人的关系接近本能与自我互相制约、互相对抗的关系。

  18. Analysis on bidding parts preparation of curtain wall project tender documents%幕墙工程招标文件的投标报价部分编制分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑明娟

    2015-01-01

    This paper mainly analyzed the setting ways of comprehensive unit price analysis table in outer decorative curtain wall engineering ten-dering and bidding documents,and discussed in detail the shall be clearly quote part of other aspects bidding documents,in order to reasonably and effectively control the project cost.%主要分析了外装饰幕墙工程招标文件中综合单价分析表设置方式,并对招标文件中投标报价部分应明确的其他方面内容进行了详细说明,以合理有效的控制工程造价。

  19. 动物肌内脂肪沉积对肉嫩度影响的研究进展%The Advances of the Effects of Intramuscular Fat Depositionon the Meat Tenderness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗海明; 高爱武; 杨金丽; 黄雅娟

    2012-01-01

    为了探讨脂肪沉积与肉嫩度的关系.通过分析近几年肌内脂肪方面的研究,综述了脂肪含量、脂肪沉积对肉品质的影响,并对该领域的研究前景提出展望,可为提供高质量的肉品提出理论依据并作为参考.%The aim of this paper was to summarise the relationship between intramuscular fat (IMF) and meat tnederness. The review mainly showed the recent works about intramuscular fat deposition in livestock. The lipids content and intramuscular fat deposition were discussed and the factors may regulate IMF deposition were also reviewed. Future research should be focused on the improvement of meat tenderness by controlling fat deposition in muscle.

  20. F级燃机热电联产工程主机评标办法介绍%Introduction of Tender Methods for Class F Gas-steam Combined Cycle Generating Units

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    储叶武

    2014-01-01

    本文针对某厂F级燃机热电联产工程主机评标,通过多个设备厂家提供的报价及机组功率、热耗等进行了研究和计算,讨论了该项目的评标方法—全寿期盈利能力计算法的具体内容。%In this report,tender methods were studied for F class gas-steam combined cycle generating units by cal-culating the price and output-heat consumption. And it discussed the details of full-life profitability calculating method for this project .

  1. 菲茨杰拉德长篇小说中的多重主题--以《夜色温柔》为例%The Multiple Themes in Fitzgerald’ s Novels---The Case of Tender Is the Night

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭佳

    2014-01-01

    菲茨杰拉德留给后世的五部长篇小说,均取材于他所生活的年代,生动地展示了20世纪初期美国的生活。《夜色温柔》的独特之处在于它是一部具有自传性质的文学作品,作家将自己的亲身经历融进了小说内容,所以能更真实、更贴切地表达出那个时代的文学主题:悲剧命运、“美国梦”的破灭、现代主义特征、女性主义以及消费异化等。阅读菲氏的长篇小说,仿佛能被书中的文字带回到那个让人纸醉金迷的“爵士时代”。%The legacy of Fitzgerald ’ s five long novels is drawn from the time of his life and vividly shows life in the United States in the early 20th century.The unique of Tender Is the Night is that it is a literary works with characteristic of autobiography and the writer integrates his own experience into the novel .Thus Tender Is the Night could express the literary theme of that era more veritably and more relevantly:the tragic fate, the bursting of the American Dream, modernistic features, feminism, and con-sumption alienation etc .It seems that reading Fitzgerald ’ s novel could bring us back to the luxurious and dissipative Jazz Age .

  2. Contrastive research on tender tea recognition based on multiple threshold segmentation methods%基于阈值分割法的茶叶嫩芽识别研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐仙; 吴雪梅; 张富贵; 顾金梅

    2013-01-01

    嫩芽识别是实现名优茶智能采摘的前提,因此,利用数码相机采集了清明时期贵州大学和贵州农科院茶园茶叶图像,并以茶叶图像为对象,研究了茶叶嫩芽的识别方法。首先对RGB颜色模型的色差法(R-B)进行分析,然后以该算子为分割分量,对比研究了多种阈值分割法的优缺点和分割效果。试验结果表明,所研究的分割方法都能有效区分嫩芽和背景,其中ostu法和迭代阈值法的识别效果较好,嫩芽识别准确率为90%左右。%Identification of the tender tea shoots is the key step towards the intelligent tea harvesting. In this paper, tea images were screened by camera in Guizhou university and Guizhou Academy of tea, with the tea image as the object, identification methods of the tea buds was studied. Firstly tea gray images were analyzed with the color-difference method(R-B)in RGB color spaces. Second, using this method comparative stud-ied the advantages, disadvantages and segmentation results of multiple threshold methods. Finally, effective identification of tender tea shoots can be got. The results show that all methods can distinguish well buds and background, in which ostu and iterative algorithm are best, and the averaged recognition accuracy obtained from using this method is about 90%.

  3. Increases in Problem Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Increases in Problem Drinking Join the Fight Against Superbugs Featured Website: Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center ... Increases in Problem Drinking Join the Fight Against Superbugs Featured Website: Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center ...

  4. Effect of increased

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carreira , C.; Heldal, M.; Bratbak, G.

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has increased since the pre-industrial period and is predicted to continue to increase throughout the twenty-first century. The ocean is a sink for atmospheric CO2 and increased CO2 concentration will change the carbonate equilibrium of seawater and result in lower c

  5. Dietary Protein Level Affects the Tenderness and CaN-NFAT Signaling Pathway of Longissimus Dorsi in Finishing Pigs%饲粮蛋白质水平对肥育猪肌肉嫩度及背最长肌钙调磷酸酶-活化T细胞核因子信号途径的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇; 陶亮; 崔岩; 朱宇旌; 邓科; 孙璀; 邵彩梅

    2011-01-01

    were determined by real-time PCR. The results showed as follows: 1) High dietary protein level significantly increased the shear force (P < 0. 05) and mRNA expression levels of CaN and CAST of longissimus dorsi (P < 0. 01) . 2) The shear force was positively correlated with the mRNA expression levels of CAST (coefficient correlation =0. 713 , P <0. 01) ; the mRNA expression levels of NFAT (coefficient correlation = 0. 536, P < 0. 05) and CaM ( coefficient correlation = 0. 546, P < 0. 05) were positively correlated with that of CaN; the mRNA expression levels of CaM and NFAT were positively correlated (coefficient correlation = 0. 623, P <0. 05) to each other. The results indicate that high dietary protein level can significantly decrease the tenderness, but increase mRNA expression levels of CAST and CaN of longissimus dorsi; the tenderness of longissimus dorsi is positively correlated with CAST mRNA expression level, but is not correlated with the CaN-NFAT signaling pathway.

  6. Increasing SLEDed Linac Gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, Zoltan D

    2001-11-08

    This note will show how to increase the SLED [1] gradient by varying Q{sub e}, the external Q of the SLED cavity, by increasing its Q{sub 0} and by increasing the compression ratio. If varying the external Q is to be effective, then the copper losses should be small so that Q{sub 0} >> Q{sub e}. Methods of varying Q{sub e} will be indicated but no experimental data will be presented. If we increase the klystron pulse width from 3.5 to 5 {micro}S and increase Q{sub 0} from the present 100000 to 300000, then the gradient increases by 19% and the beam energy increases from 50 to 60 GeV. This note will also discuss SLED operation at 11424 MHz, the NLC frequency. Without Q{sub e} switching, using SLED at 11424 MHz increases the SLAC gradient from 21 MV/m to 34 MV/m, and at the same repetition rate, uses about 1/5 of rf average power. If we also double the compression ratio, we reach 47 MV/m and over 100 GeV beam energy.

  7. 基于高光谱图像纹理特征的牛肉嫩度分布评价%Distribution of beef tenderness grading based on texture features by hyperspectral image analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵娟; 彭彦昆

    2015-01-01

    传统牛肉品质的检测方法耗时长,效率低,破坏样品,已不能满足现代化生产的需要。为了实现对牛肉嫩度品质的快速无损检测和评价,该文利用高光谱成像系统,以西门塔尔牛多个胴体的背最长肌部位为研究对象,采集56个有效样本的高光谱立体图像,研究无损评价牛肉样品的嫩度分布。通过提取样本的反射光谱信息,并利用逐步回归算法结合遗传算法(GA,genetic algorithm)筛选出牛肉剪切力值(WBSF,warner-bratzler shear force)的特征波段。利用主成分分析(PCA,principle component analysis)提取样品的3个主成分。基于选出的特征波段图像和提取的主成分,通过计算图像灰度共生矩阵求取每幅图像8个主要纹理特征参数,分别建立了基于支持向量机(SVM,support vector machine)和线性判别(LDA,linear discriminant analysis)法的嫩度等级判别模型。经分析比较,基于主成分纹理特征优于基于特征波段图像建立的预测模型,并且,线性判别模型识别准确率相比支持向量机模型较高。基于主成分纹理特征建立的线性判别模型预测集判别精度为94.44%。研究结果证明,基于高光谱图像纹理特征分析,可以建立牛肉的嫩度判别模型,对牛肉嫩度快速无损检测技术研究提供理论参考。%Due to high protein, low fat, high vitamin and mineral content, beef is regarded as an important meat item which is consumed by human in regular basis. In addition, with the improvement of people's living standard, different quality parameters such as beef tenderness, water retention and other edible quality indicators have become important factors to consumers’ satisfaction. Sensory evaluation and shear force measurement are primarily two methods for measurement of beef tenderness, which are now considered as traditional methods. However, with improvement in technology, optical

  8. Evaluation method of beef tenderness based on texture properties and self-organizing neural network model%基于自组织神经网络模型与质构特性的牛肉嫩度评定方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王笑丹; 刘爱阳; 孙永海; 王莹; 韩云秀; 王洪美

    2015-01-01

    were: pre-test speed of 2 mm/s, test speed of 5 mm/s, posttest speed of 5 mm/s, trigger force of 10 g, distance of probe movement on the sample of 7 mm, and hold time after downward movement of the probe of 2 s. For those samples, viscous force, stickiness, elastic force, elastic length, cohesiveness, resilience, gumminess, chewiness and other texture properties were measured using the texture analyzer. The correlations were analyzed between the parameters and beef tenderness level. The main texture properties decreased with the increase of beef tenderness grade, and the texture properties value also showed a downward trend with chewing more times. Combined with the sensory evaluation method, the BP (back propagation) network model, the RBF (radical basis function) network model and the self-organizing competition network model were built, and all the training errors were 1×10-6. Another steak from the mid-region of each LD collected from each of 20 cattle was selected as verification sample. Then the 3 network models were compared, and the self-organizing competition network model was the most accurate model with an accuracy rate of 90%, which showed that this method can accurately assess the level of beef tenderness.%为了实现对牛肉嫩度品质的快速无损检测和评价。该文选取60头牛的眼肌部位作为试验样本,经在75~80℃的水浴中加热并煮至肉的内部温度达到70℃后取出,冷却至室温(20℃)。利用质构仪测得牛肉黏力、黏性、弹力、弹性长度、内聚性、弹性、胶着性和咀嚼性等质构特性参数,并分析各参数与牛肉嫩度等级之间的相关性,黏力和黏性与牛肉嫩度的相关性较低,相关系数为0.246和0.096;弹力、弹性长度、内聚性、弹性、胶着性和咀嚼性与牛肉嫩度相关性较大,且成负相关,说明上述流变学参数值会随着牛肉嫩度等级的增大而下降,相关系数为−0.92、−0.939、−0.771、−0.776

  9. Increasing productivity: Another approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, F.J.

    1996-06-10

    An engineering information (EI) and information technology (IT) organization that must improve its productivity should work to further its business goals. This paper explores a comprehensive model for increasing EI/IT productivity by supporting organizational objectives.

  10. Increasing hygiene productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Roger P

    2003-03-01

    Dentists have many opportunities to expand the role of dental hygienists and provide patients with better oral health care, while increasing production and profits. But the proper business systems and verbal skills need to be incorporated. You must train hygienists to do all they can do for every patient. Begin with one service and add others, as the hygienists becomes familiar with each one. Set a goal of a 15% increase in production per year for the hygiene department. Clinicians using these strategies have experienced as much as a 100% to 200% increase in hygiene revenue during the first year of incorporating these services. An added benefit is that these dentists often see a substantial increase in dental treatment diagnosis and case acceptance. An effective and efficient hygiene department will often identify and help secure more than 50% of a doctor's production.

  11. Increasing Public Library Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Howard

    1981-01-01

    Suggests ways of improving productivity for public libraries faced with increased accountability, dwindling revenues, and continuing inflation. Techniques described include work simplification, work analysis, improved management, and employee motivation. (RAA)

  12. Research on Tenderization Effect of Chaozhou Brine Duck by Compound Protease and Transglutaminase%复合蛋白酶和谷氨酰胺转氨酶对潮式卤鸭的嫩化效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宇; 郭卓钊; 郭美媛; 郭卓涵; 黄妙云; 黄苇; 李远志; 章斌

    2013-01-01

    Taking water holding capacity, water loss rate in cooking, color difference value and sensory score of duck meat as main index, effect of tenderization on duck meat by compound protease(papain and bro-melain) and transglutaminase was explored, meanwhile the L9(34) orthogonal test to optimize processing condi-tions was conducted in this paper. Results showed that enzyme activity of compound protease and transgluta-minase, treatment temperature, treatment time and pH value had a significant impact on water holding capacity and water loss rate. Optimal tenderization conditions for compound protease was enzyme dosage 0.02 g(90 U/mL of papain and 15 U/mL of pineapple proteinase), temperature 30℃, treatment time 40 min, pH 7.2, water holding capacity can reach 91.25% under this condition; and based on this processing, optimal tenderization conditions for TG was enzyme dosage 5 U/g, temperature 45℃,action time 80 min,pH 6.5, water holding ca-pacity can reach 90.51%.%以持水力、烹饪失水率及感官评分为指标,探讨复合蛋白酶(木瓜蛋白酶和菠萝蛋白酶)和谷氨酰胺转氨酶(TG)处理对鸭肉的嫩化效果,并通过L9(34)正交试验优化工艺条件.结果表明:复合蛋白酶和谷氨酰胺转氨酶液的酶活、处理温度、处理时间、pH值对鸭肉的持水力和烹饪失水率均有显著影响;复合蛋白酶的最佳嫩化条件为酶用量0.10 mg/mL(即木瓜蛋白酶用量90 U/mL和菠萝蛋白酶用量15 U/mL),作用温度30℃,作用时间40 min,pH 7.2,此条件下的持水力可达91.25%;在复合蛋白酶嫩化基础上,采用谷氨酰胺转氨酶作用的最优工艺条件为酶用量5 U/g原料,作用温度45℃,作用时间80 min,pH 6.5,此条件下的样品持水力达90.51%.

  13. Exploding Increase of Population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.H. [Sunmoon University, Chonan (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    Until 1650, the population of the world did not increase properly. According to studies of the demography, the annual increase rate of the world population during 2500 years, from 850 B.C. to 1650 A.D., was just 0.07%. Currently, however, the world population, which has exceptionally rapidly increased from 1900, is more than 6 billion as of 2000. After World War II, especially, the increase rate of the population has risen to about 1.8%, so we can use the word, explosion of the population. The explosion of the population accompanies the increase of energy consumption. The energy production of every year cannot sufficiently meet the energy demand, so we can face the grand energy crisis someday. The date might be a someday after 2020. According to the future forecasting of Shell, one of the majors, the peak of oil supply will be between 2015 and 2020. Unless the alternative energy is developed, the whole world will suffer the serious oil crisis.

  14. Seismic waves increase permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhoury, Jean E; Brodsky, Emily E; Agnew, Duncan C

    2006-06-29

    Earthquakes have been observed to affect hydrological systems in a variety of ways--water well levels can change dramatically, streams can become fuller and spring discharges can increase at the time of earthquakes. Distant earthquakes may even increase the permeability in faults. Most of these hydrological observations can be explained by some form of permeability increase. Here we use the response of water well levels to solid Earth tides to measure permeability over a 20-year period. At the time of each of seven earthquakes in Southern California, we observe transient changes of up to 24 degrees in the phase of the water level response to the dilatational volumetric strain of the semidiurnal tidal components of wells at the Piñon Flat Observatory in Southern California. After the earthquakes, the phase gradually returns to the background value at a rate of less than 0.1 degrees per day. We use a model of axisymmetric flow driven by an imposed head oscillation through a single, laterally extensive, confined, homogeneous and isotropic aquifer to relate the phase response to aquifer properties. We interpret the changes in phase response as due to changes in permeability. At the time of the earthquakes, the permeability at the site increases by a factor as high as three. The permeability increase depends roughly linearly on the amplitude of seismic-wave peak ground velocity in the range of 0.21-2.1 cm s(-1). Such permeability increases are of interest to hydrologists and oil reservoir engineers as they affect fluid flow and might determine long-term evolution of hydrological and oil-bearing systems. They may also be interesting to seismologists, as the resulting pore pressure changes can affect earthquakes by changing normal stresses on faults. PMID:16810253

  15. Lost Soul-An Analysis of Dick’s Extramarital Affair of Tender Is the Night%迷失的灵魂--浅析《夜色温柔》中迪克的婚外情

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明夫

    2015-01-01

    该文试图用弗洛伊德人格理论解析美国二十世纪著名小说家弗朗西斯·斯科特·菲茨杰拉德的《夜色温柔》中男主人公迪克与好莱坞女演员罗斯玛丽的婚外情,探寻迪克的心理变化以及这种变化对迪克人生悲剧的影响。《夜色温柔》是菲茨杰拉德的代表作之一,这部作品揭露了爵士乐时代人内心的脆弱迷茫和精神上的空虚。笔者希望该文对迪克婚外情的分析将有助于精神分析学对菲氏作品的研究。该文包括三大部分。第一部分是对作者菲茨杰拉德,《夜色温柔》以及弗洛伊德的人格分析理论的介绍。第二部分运用人格分析理论分析迪克对待婚外情的心理变化过程。第三部分为结论部分。%Tender Is the Night is a masterpiece written by Francis Scott Fitzgerald who is a famous American writer in the 20th cen⁃tury. This thesis tries to analyze Dick’s extramarital affair with Mary, a Hollywood actress, in the respective of Freudian theory of human psyche. The writer wants to explore Dick’s psychological changes and the influence to his tragic life. Tender Is the Night ex⁃poses persons’emotional confusion at the Jazz Age. The writer hopes this paper can help to study Fitzgerald’s works with psycho⁃analysis. It includes three parts, and the first part is introduction, the second part is analysis and the third part is conclusion.

  16. Process Optimization of Bromelain with Rolling Treatment on Horse Meat Tenderness%菠萝蛋白酶结合滚揉嫩化马肉工艺的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋小锋; 李芳; 任雯雯; 达迪拉·买买提; 张亚楠; 孔令明

    2016-01-01

    Water-holding capacity, cooking loss, shear force and sensory evaluation were used as the evaluation index, by injecting bromelain and rolling treatment, studied the effects of bromelain treatment on horse meat(semitendinosus) tenderness in different bromelain dose, treatment temperature, treatment time and pH. The orthogonal test was used to get the best conditions of bromelain. The results showed that:bromelain dose, processing temperature and processing time had more significant effects on tenderness. The best conditions of bromelain were bromalain dose 12 U/g, treatment temperature 60℃, treatment time 1.5 h, pH 7.0;or bromelain dose 16 U/g, treatment temperature 60℃, treatment time 2 h, pH 7.0.%以系水力、蒸煮损失率、剪切力和感官评定为评价指标,通过注射菠萝蛋白酶液,结合滚揉处理,研究菠萝蛋白酶在不同的添加量、处理温度、处理时间和pH条件下对马肉(半腱肌)嫩度的影响,采用L9(34)正交试验对嫩化条件进行优化。试验结果表明:蛋白酶添加量、处理温度和处理时间对马肉的嫩度有显著影响。菠萝蛋白酶的最佳嫩化条件是:菠萝蛋白酶添加量12 U/g,处理温度60℃,处理时间1.5 h,pH7.0;或者菠萝蛋白酶添加量16 U/g,处理温度60℃,处理时间2 h,pH7.0。

  17. Does salt increase thirst?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshem, Micah

    2015-02-01

    Our diet is believed to be overly rich in sodium, and it is commonly believed that sodium intake increases drinking. Hence the concern of a possible contribution of dietary sodium to beverage intake which in turn may contribute to obesity and ill health. Here we examine whether voluntary, acute intake of a sodium load, as occurs in routine eating and snacking, increases thirst and drinking. We find that after ingesting 3.5 or 4.4 g NaCl (men) and 1.9 or 3.7 g (women) on nuts during 15 minutes, there is no increase in thirst or drinking of freely available water in the following 2 h compared with eating similar amounts of sugared or unflavored nuts. This suggests that routine ingestion of boluses of salt (~30-40% of daily intake for men, ~ 20-40% for women) does not increase drinking. Methodological concerns such as about nuts as vehicle for sodium suggest further research to establish the generalizability of this unexpected result. PMID:25447020

  18. Increased urinary orosomucoid excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, M S; Iversen, K; Larsen, C T;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In a previous study, urinary orosomucoid excretion rate (UOER) independently predicted cardiovascular mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to determine whether increased UOER is associated with cardiovascular risk factors such as inflammation, im...

  19. Increasing income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Poulsen, Odile

    In recent decades most developed countries have experienced an increase in income inequality. In this paper, we use an equilibrium search framework to shed additional light on what is causing an income distribution to change. The major benefit of the model is that it can accommodate shocks...... to the skill composition in the market, employee bargaining power and productivity. Further, when our model is subjected to skill-upgrading and changes in employee bargaining power, it is capable of predicting the recent changes observed in the Danish income distribution. In addition, the model emphasizes...... that shocks to the employees' relative productivity, i.e., skill-biased technological change, are unlikely to have caused the increase in income inequality....

  20. Pemex increasing offshore activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beachy, D.

    1985-05-01

    Although austere by boom-year standards, Mexico's National Energy Program for 1984-1988 calls for forty wildcats and 90 to 144 development wells off the coast, primarily in the prolific Campeche Bay area. Platform additions will include nine drilling platforms, each for twelve wells, and eight eight platforms to drill injection wells. Additionally, 7 production, 6 accomodation, 6 linkage and 8 compression platforms and 13 tetrapods will be installed. The main objectives of the plan are energy self-sufficiency through the turn of the century, and energy diversification, savings and productivity. The most controversial portion of Mexico's energy program is that calling for nuclear energy development. The energy program lists three basic goals in hydrocarbon production: continuing research on better techniques of secondary recovery; increasing capacity for refining primary and secondary crude products and improving production of heavy crudes; and increasing storage capacity and installing pipelines capable of carrying a greater volume of crude.

  1. High population increase rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    In addition to its economic and ethnic difficulties, the USSR faces several pressing demographic problems, including high population increase rates in several of its constituent republics. It has now become clear that although the country's rigid centralized planning succeeded in covering the basic needs of people, it did not lead to welfare growth. Since the 1970s, the Soviet economy has remained sluggish, which as led to increase in the death and birth rates. Furthermore, the ideology that held that demography could be entirely controlled by the country's political and economic system is contradicted by current Soviet reality, which shows that religion and ethnicity also play a significant role in demographic dynamics. Currently, Soviet republics fall under 2 categories--areas with high or low natural population increase rates. Republics with low rates consist of Christian populations (Armenia, Moldavia, Georgia, Byelorussia, Russia, Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia, Ukraine), while republics with high rates are Muslim (Tadzhikistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kirgizia, Azerbaijan Kazakhstan). The later group has natural increase rates as high as 3.3%. Although the USSR as a whole is not considered a developing country, the later group of republics fit the description of the UNFPA's priority list. Another serious demographic issue facing the USSR is its extremely high rate of abortion. This is especially true in the republics of low birth rates, where up to 60% of all pregnancies are terminated by induced abortions. Up to 1/5 of the USSR's annual health care budget is spent on clinical abortions -- money which could be better spent on the production of contraceptives. Along with the recent political and economic changes, the USSR is now eager to deal with its demographic problems. PMID:12284289

  2. Increase in family allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    In July 1989 the family allowance structure in Australia was changed from a 4-rate to a 2-rate structure. The new rates were increased to $A9 a week for the 1st 3 children and $A12 for each additional child. The Family Allowance Supplment rate for children 13-15 years old was raised from $A31 to $A34.10/week. PMID:12344544

  3. Market Expects Demand Increase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In the recent releasing Textile Industry Invigorating Plan,"givingattention to both domestlc and overseas markets"is put into a keyposition.Under a series policies,such as increasing the tax rebaterate for textile and garment exports,and granting loan for SME,thefurther development of this industry is expectative.Otherwise,weshould know that it costs time for demand driving.This need ourpatients.The only questionis how much time we have to wait.

  4. Increasing student success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Gay; Stewart, John

    2013-03-01

    A more scientifically literate society benefits all STEM disciplines, as well as society as a whole. It is best realized by better serving all undergraduate STEM students. In better-serving all students, a physics department also benefits. The University of Arkansas, Fayetteville physics department has seen a drastic change in number of majors, the number of students active in research and the number of graduates pursuing graduate work, while also increasing the number of majors who decide to teach. Prior to our involvement with the Physics Teacher Education Coalition, graduation rates had increased by more than a factor of 4 in 4 years. After the increased efforts when we became a part of PhysTEC (http://PhysTEC.org) our graduation numbers doubled again. Specific attention to class policy to impact student learning in our introductory courses and strong preparation of the graduate teaching assistants, and quality advising were our primary areas of emphasis. What worked to build these numbers and strengthen these resources at Arkansas will be discussed. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation and through the Physics Teacher Education Coalition.

  5. Condom use increasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, W R

    1998-01-01

    Condom use is central to the prevention of AIDS among people at risk for contracting HIV. As such, condom use is increasing dramatically even though many men say that they do not like using them. Condom sales through social marketing campaigns have increased dramatically in some countries, where tens of millions of condoms are sold annually. For example, during the period 1991-96, annual social marketing sales increased about five-fold in Ethiopia to 21 million, and nine-fold in Brazil to 27 million. These sales reflect the success of condom social marketing campaigns in making condoms accessible and largely affordable. There is also a greater general awareness of AIDS than there used to be, and communication campaigns have shown that condoms are an effective solution. More condoms still need to be used in the ongoing struggle against HIV/AIDS. The author discusses the factors which affect the limited acceptance of condoms, condom use outside of marriage, social marketing, and family planning programs. PMID:12293530

  6. Alarming increase in refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Over the past decade and half there has been an alarming worldwide increase in refugees. The total rose form 2.8 million in 1976 to 8.2 million in 1980, to 17.3 million in 1990. Africa's refugees rose from 1.2 million in 1976 to 5.6 million in 1990. Asia's increase over this period was much more rapid--from a mere 180,000 to 8 million. In the Americas the numbers more than trebled, from 770,000 to 2.7 million. Europe was the smallest increase, from 570,000 to 894,000. International law defines a refugee as someone outside of their own country, who has a well-founded fear of persecution because of their political or religious beliefs or ethnic origin, and who cannot turn to their own country for protection. Most refugees are genuine by this definition. The increase reflects, in part, fallout from the cold war. Ethiopia, Mozambique and Angola accounted for almost 1/2 of Africa's refugees; Afghanistan alone for 3/4 of Asia's total. They fled, for the most part, from 1 poor country into another, where they added to shortages of land and fuelwood, and intensified environmental pressure. Malawi, 1 of the poorest countries in the world, is sheltering perhaps as many as 750,000 refugees from the war in Mozambique. But among these refugees--especially among those who turned to the rich countries for asylum--were an increasing number of people who were not suffering political persecution. Driven out of their homes by the collapse of their environment or economic despair, and ready to take any means to get across borders, they are a new category: economic and environmental refugees. The most spectacular attempts hit the television screens: the Vietnamese boat people, ships festooned with Albanians. Behind the headlines there was a growing tide of asylum seekers. The numbers rose 10-fold in Germany from 1983 to 1990. In Switzerland they multiplied by 4 times. In Europe, as a whole, they grew from 71,000 in 1983 to an estimated 550,000 in 1990. In 1990 the numbers threatened to

  7. On Dick's Tragedy in Tender Is the Night from the Psychological Facet of Focalization%从人物视角的心理层面看《夜色温柔》中迪克的悲剧成因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵瑜

    2010-01-01

    Dick is tempted by the upper class and destroyed by it in Tender Is the Night. Dick's love is so deep and Dick's heart is so kind. He wants to save Nicole and recovers his health with his sincere love, he even wants to treat the ill state of the upper class with a healthy life style. He is so childish, he the psychological Facet and try to find the root of his tragedy.%中迪克,受到上流社会的诱惑,希望通过他善良和纯真的爱来挽救富家小姐妮可并帮助她恢复健康.他甚至幻想通过自己健康的生活方式来挽救整个堕落的上流社会,但最终却被其毁灭.本文将从小说主人公迪克的视角的心理层面,分析迪克悲剧的成因.

  8. Discussion on how to control government investment project tender price audit%论如何做好政府投资项目招标控制价审核工作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊银

    2016-01-01

    The paper analyzes the importance of government investment project bidding price control audit work. Starting from aspects of BOQ computation accuracy, BOQ integrity and material equipment price truth, the paper illustrates bidding price auditing points, and puts forward suggestions of comprehensively improve audit quality, which has provided some guidance for doing well in government investment project tender control auditing work.%分析了政府投资项目招标控制价审核工作的重要性,从工程量计算的准确性、工程量清单的完整性、材料设备价格的真实性等方面,阐述了招标控制价审核的要点,并提出了全面提高审核质量的建议,为做好政府招标控制价审核工作提供了参考.

  9. Novel spectro-electrochemical cell for in situ/operando observation of common composite electrode with liquid electrolyte by X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the tender X-ray region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Koji; Kato, Daisuke; Arai, Hajime; Tanida, Hajime; Mori, Takuya; Orikasa, Yuki; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Ohta, Toshiaki; Ogumi, Zempachi

    2014-08-01

    A novel spectro-electochemical cell for X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the tender X-ray region (TX-XAS) was designed and fabricated to investigate the electrochemical behavior of common battery materials with liquid electrolytes under in situ/operando conditions. The cell has several unique features, such as high X-ray transmittance, high signal to noise ratio, and high vacuum tightness. These features enable us quick and reliable XAS measurements. Operando P K-edge XAS measurements of an olivine-type LiFePO4 composite positive electrode were carried out to clarify its phosphorus environment during the electrochemical charging process. Results of spectral analysis show that there is no significant change in the oxidation state of phosphorus and in the coordination of the phosphate anions in the charging process, but a closer look of the consecutive XAS spectra suggests the shrinkage of the PO4 cage during the charging process, and the structural changes in a biphasic manner. These results demonstrate the usefulness of the cell for in situ/operando TX-XAS observations of light elements in practical batteries. PMID:25173283

  10. Novel spectro-electrochemical cell for in situ/operando observation of common composite electrode with liquid electrolyte by X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the tender X-ray region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Koji; Kato, Daisuke; Arai, Hajime; Tanida, Hajime; Mori, Takuya; Orikasa, Yuki; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Ohta, Toshiaki; Ogumi, Zempachi

    2014-08-01

    A novel spectro-electochemical cell for X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the tender X-ray region (TX-XAS) was designed and fabricated to investigate the electrochemical behavior of common battery materials with liquid electrolytes under in situ/operando conditions. The cell has several unique features, such as high X-ray transmittance, high signal to noise ratio, and high vacuum tightness. These features enable us quick and reliable XAS measurements. Operando P K-edge XAS measurements of an olivine-type LiFePO4 composite positive electrode were carried out to clarify its phosphorus environment during the electrochemical charging process. Results of spectral analysis show that there is no significant change in the oxidation state of phosphorus and in the coordination of the phosphate anions in the charging process, but a closer look of the consecutive XAS spectra suggests the shrinkage of the PO4 cage during the charging process, and the structural changes in a biphasic manner. These results demonstrate the usefulness of the cell for in situ/operando TX-XAS observations of light elements in practical batteries.

  11. 关于公路工程投标中资格预审申请文件编制的探讨%Discussion on the Compilation of Prequalification Application Documents in Highway Engineering Tender

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李爽

    2014-01-01

    在公路工程中,资格预审是招标人组建审查委员会对申请人递交的资格预审申请进行审查。本文首先对申请文件编制程序进行了理解,然后分析了申请文件的有关内容,并对申请文件编制过程中需要注意的事项进行了论述。%In highway engineering, prequalification refers that the tender set up the Review Committee for the submission of the application provided by applicators. This paper first has carried on the understanding of the procedures for the docume-ntation, and then analyzes the relevant contents of the appli-cation documents, and discussed the mat ers needing at ention in the process of compiling the application documents.

  12. CHINA INCREASED PETROLEUM TAX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Xueping

    2005-01-01

    @@ After half a year's gestation and adjustment, the State Administration of Taxation finally set new tax rate of petroleum resources. Notification issued by the Ministry of Finance and the State Administration of Taxation said the petroleum resources tax standard would be lifted nationwide, after the tax rate adjustment, tax on crude oil would be increased to RMB 14-30 yuan per ton and that on natural gas to RMB 7-15 yuan per thousand cubic meters. The new tax rate has been effective nationwide since July 1.

  13. Increasing Childhood Influenza Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Lin, Chyongchiou J.; Hannibal, Kristin; Reis, Evelyn C.; Gallik, Gregory; Moehling, Krissy K.; Huang, Hsin-Hui; Allred, Norma J.; Wolfson, David H.; Zimmerman, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Since the 2008 inception of universal childhood influenza vaccination, national rates have risen more dramatically among younger children than older children and reported rates across racial/ethnic groups are inconsistent. Interventions may be needed to address age and racial disparities to achieve the recommended childhood influenza vaccination target of 70%. Purpose To evaluate an intervention to increase childhood influenza vaccination across age and racial groups. Methods In 2011–2012, 20 primary care practices treating children were randomly assigned to Intervention and Control arms of a cluster randomized controlled trial to increase childhood influenza vaccination uptake using a toolkit and other strategies including early delivery of donated vaccine, in-service staff meetings, and publicity. Results The average vaccination differences from pre-intervention to the intervention year were significantly larger in the Intervention arm (n=10 practices) than the Control arm (n=10 practices), for children aged 2–8 years (10.2 percentage points (pct pts) Intervention vs 3.6 pct pts Control) and 9–18 years (11.1 pct pts Intervention vs 4.3 pct pts Control, p<0.05), for non-white children (16.7 pct pts Intervention vs 4.6 pct pts Control, p<0.001), and overall (9.9 pct pts Intervention vs 4.2 pct pts Control, p<0.01). In multi-level modeling that accounted for person- and practice-level variables and the interactions among age, race and intervention, the likelihood of vaccination increased with younger age group (6–23 months), white race, commercial insurance, the practice’s pre-intervention vaccination rate, and being in the Intervention arm. Estimates of the interaction terms indicated that the intervention increased the likelihood of vaccination for non-white children in all age groups and white children aged 9–18 years. Conclusions A multi-strategy intervention that includes a practice improvement toolkit can significantly improve influenza

  14. Increasing Inflationary Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2008-01-01

    @@ China's CPI rose to 8.7 percent in February after hitting 7.1 percent in January,creating a 12-year high,the National Bureau of Statistics said.The figure exceeded market expectations,as the Bank of China,the country's secondlargest lender,had predicted a rise of only 8.3 percent.The Consumer Price Index (CPI)is the main gauge of inflation,andthe high CPI over the last two months has put pressure on the government to take action to curb the price increases,and added even more diffculty to the task of reining in this year's inflation rate.

  15. Core Noise - Increasing Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation is a technical summary of and outlook for NASA-internal and NASA-sponsored external research on core (combustor and turbine) noise funded by the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project. Sections of the presentation cover: the SFW system-level noise metrics for the 2015, 2020, and 2025 timeframes; turbofan design trends and their aeroacoustic implications; the emerging importance of core noise and its relevance to the SFW Reduced-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge; and the current research activities in the core-noise area, with additional details given about the development of a high-fidelity combustor-noise prediction capability as well as activities supporting the development of improved reduced-order, physics-based models for combustor-noise prediction. The need for benchmark data for validation of high-fidelity and modeling work and the value of a potential future diagnostic facility for testing of core-noise-reduction concepts are indicated. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The SFW Reduced-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge aims to develop concepts and technologies to dramatically reduce the perceived aircraft noise outside of airport boundaries. This reduction of aircraft noise is critical to enabling the anticipated large increase in future air traffic. Noise generated in the jet engine core, by sources such as the compressor, combustor, and turbine, can be a significant contribution to the overall noise signature at low-power conditions, typical of approach flight. At high engine power during takeoff, jet and fan noise have traditionally dominated over core noise. However, current design trends and expected technological advances in engine-cycle design as well as noise-reduction methods are likely to reduce non-core noise even at engine-power points higher than approach. In addition, future low-emission combustor

  16. Increasing Responsibility towards Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Comanescu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In the international climate of the early millennium, the need for reconciliation between economic and social development, on one hand, and the environment, on the other hand, is essential. Therefore, sustainable development must be promoted, because it integrates economic growth, improved quality of life, health, education, social development and environmental protection.Environmental issues are particularly complex as their causes are interdependent. This requires actions at all levels: local, national, regional as well as at the European Union level, each with its own role in increasing responsibility for the environmental protection.It is widely recognized that to obtain successful results an integrated approach has to be used to manage the environment, by adopting long-term strategies and action plans. It requires a detailed analysis of the links between different policies and responsibilities, including the links between different administrative levels.

  17. Increasing Responsibility towards Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela COMĂNESCU

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the international climate of the early millennium, the need for reconciliation between economic and social development, on one hand, and the environment, on the other hand, is essential. Therefore, sustainable development must be promoted, because it integrates economic growth, improves quality of life, health, education, social development and environmental protection. Environmental issues are particularly complex as their causes are interdependent. This requires actions at all levels: local, national, regional as well as at the European Union level, each with its own role in increasing responsibility for the environmental protection. It is widely recognized that to obtain successful results an integrated approach has to be used to manage the environment, by adopting long-term strategies and action plans. It requires a detailed analysis of the links between different policies and responsibilities, including the links between different administrative levels.

  18. Elenoside increases intestinal motility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E Navarro; SJ Alonso; R Navarro; J Trujillo; E Jorge

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of elenoside, an arylnaphthalene lignan from Justicia hyssopifolia, on gastrointestinal motility in vivo and in vitro in rats.METHODS: Routine in vivo experimental assessments were catharsis index, water percentage of boluses,intestinal transit, and codeine antagonism. The groups included were vehicle control (propylene glycol-ethanolplant oil-tween 80), elenoside (i.p. 25 and 50 mg/kg),cisapride (i.p. 10 mg/kg), and codeine phosphate (intragastric route, 50 mg/kg). In vitro approaches used isolated rat intestinal tissues (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum). The effects of elenoside at concentrations of 3.2× 10-4, 6.4 × 10-4 and 1.2 × 10-3 mol/L, and cisapride at 10-6 mol/L were investigated.RESULTS: Elenoside in vivo produced an increase in the catharsis index and water percentage of boluses and in the percentage of distance traveled by a suspension of activated charcoal. Codeine phosphate antagonized the effect of 25 mg/kg of elenoside. In vitro, elenoside in duodenum, jejunum and ileum produced an initial decrease in the contraction force followed by an increase.Elenoside resulted in decreased intestinal frequency in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. The in vitro and in vivo effects of elenoside were similar to those produced by cisapride.CONCLUSION: Elenoside is a lignan with an action similar to that of purgative and prokinetics drugs.Elenoside, could be an alternative to cisapride in treatment of gastrointestinal diseases as well as a preventive therapy for the undesirable gastrointestinal effects produced by opioids used for mild to moderate pain.

  19. Symptoms of notalgia paresthetica may be explained by increased dermal innervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springall, D R; Karanth, S S; Kirkham, N; Darley, C R; Polak, J M

    1991-09-01

    Notalgia paresthetica is a sensory neuropathy characterized by infrascapular pruritus, burning pain, hyperalgesia, or tenderness. To assess whether the symptoms may be caused by alterations in the cutaneous innervation, skin from the affected area of patients (n = 5) was compared with controls (n = 10) comprising the contralateral unaffected area from the same patients and site-matched biopsies of normals, using immunohistochemistry. Frozen sections were immunostained with antisera to the neuropeptides substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, and neuropeptide with tyrosine, and to the general neural marker PGP 9.5 and the glial marker S-100 to show the overall innervation and glial cells, respectively. No discernible change in the distribution of neuropeptide-immunoreactive axons was found, but all of the specimens from the affected areas had a significant increase in the number of intradermal PGP 9.5-immunoreactive nerve fibers compared with unaffected areas from the same patients and normal controls. Epidermal dendritic cells immunoreactive for S-100, possibly Langerhans cells, were substantially increased. It is concluded that there is an increase in the sensory epidermal innervation in the affected skin areas in notalgia paresthetica, which could contribute to the symptoms, and that neural immunohistochemistry of skin biopsies could be helpful in the diagnosis of the disease. PMID:1831466

  20. Dietary Protein Level Affects the Tenderness and P94-NFκB Signaling Pathway of Longissimus Dorsi in Finishing Pigs%饲粮蛋白质水平对肥育猪背最长肌嫩度及 骨骼肌特异性蛋白-核转录因子κB信号途径的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇; 崔岩; 陶亮; 朱宇旌; 邓科; 孙璀; 邵彩梅

    2011-01-01

    in the three treatments were fed diets with the same energy level and ideal protein levels at 12% , 16% and 20% , respectively. All pigs were slaughtered after 58 days experiment and then muscle samples were collected for the analysis of shear force, meanwhile, mRNA expression levels of P94, NFkB, IkB and CAST of longissimus dorsi in pigs were determined by real-time PCR. The results showed as follows: 1) there were significant effects of dietary protein level on shear force and the mRNA expression levels of P94, NFkB , IkB and CAST of longissimus dorsi (P <0.05); with the increasing of dietary protein level, the shear force and mRNA expression level of IkB and CAST were increased, but that of P94 and NFkB were decreased. 2) the shear force was positively correlated with the mRNA expression levels of IkB (coefficient correlation =0. 513, P <0. 05) and CAST (coefficient correlation =0.816, P <0.01). 3) The mRNA expression level of CAST was negatively correlated with that of P94 (coefficient correlation = -0.496, P <0.05), but positively correlated with that of IkB (coefficient correlation =0.710, P<0.01). 4) The mRNA expression level of P94 was positively correlated with that of NFkB (coefficient correlation =0.550, P <0.05), but negatively correlated with that of IkB (coefficient correlation = -0.518, P <0. 05); the mRNA expression levels of IkB and NFkB were negatively correlated (coefficient correlation = -0. 539, P <0. 05) to each other. The results indicate that high dietary protein level can increase the shear force and the mRNA expression levels of CAST and IkB , but decrease the tenderness and the mRNA expression level of P94; P94-NFkB signaling pathway plays a role in the process of regulating muscle tenderness, but it is not the main pathway. [ Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition, 2011, 23 (8) .1342-1350

  1. Physical, psychosocial, and individual risk factors for neck/shoulder pain with pressure tenderness in the muscles among workers performing monotonous, repetitive work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, JH; Kaergaard, A.; Frost, P.;

    2002-01-01

    force (2.3, 1.4-4.0). The strongest work-related psychosocial risk was high job demands (1.8, 1.2-2.7). Increased risk was also associated with neck/shoulder injury (2.6, 1.6-4.1), female gender (1.8, 1.2-2.8), and low pressure pain threshold (1.6, 1.1-2.3). Neck/shoulder pain was strongly associated...

  2. Increasing Possibilities of Nanosuspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Bishwajit Sutradhar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, a very large proportion of new drug candidates emerging from drug discovery programmes are water insoluble and thus poorly bioavailable. To avoid this problem, nanotechnology for drug delivery has gained much interest as a way to improve the solubility problems. Nano refers to particles size range of 1–1000 nm. The reduction of drug particles into the submicron range leads to a significant increase in the dissolution rate and therefore enhances bioavailability. Nanosuspensions are part of nanotechnology. This interacts with the body at subcellular (i.e., molecular scales with a high degree of specificity and can be potentially translated into targeted cellular and tissue-specific clinical applications designed to achieve maximal therapeutic efficacy with minimal side effects. Production of drugs as nanosuspensions can be developed for drug delivery systems as an oral formulation and nonoral administration. Here, this review describes the methods of pharmaceutical nanosuspension production including advantages and disadvantages, potential benefits, characterization tests, and pharmaceutical applications in drug delivery.

  3. Increasing orUnderselling ?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2011-01-01

    The downgrade of sovereignty credit rating of the United States causes new concerns on US treasury bonds.According to the report issued recently by Treasury Ministry of United States,China as the largest oversea holding country of US treasury bonds continues to buy US treasury bonds,with an increase of 5.7 billion US dollars in June,marking the third month in line.Till now,China has US treasury bonds up to a new record of 1,165.5 billion US dollars,which amounts to 26% of the oversea holding US treasury bonds,based on market estimation,followed by Japan (20%),UK (8%),Brazil (5%)and Russia (3%).However,in sharp contrast to China,other countries are underselling us treasury bonds,particularly Russia.Data shows that since October 2010,Russia has been selling US treasury bonds for eight months in line,up to 38% of their holdings.Now Russia only holds 111 billion US dollars of US treasury bond.Why the countries take totally different attitudes towards to US treasury bonds? Tne reporter interviewed the experts from China and Russia for more details.

  4. Correlação entre a contagem dos pontos dolorosos na fibromialgia com a intensidade dos sintomas e seu impacto na qualidade de vida Correlation between the number of tender points in fibromyalgia, the intensity of symptoms and its impact on quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Martinez

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estabelecer se há correlação entre o número de pontos dolorosos e a intensidade da percepção de aspectos centrais da síndrome (dor, fadiga, ansiedade, depressão e do seu impacto na capacidade funcional. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Avaliaram-se quarenta e um prontuários de pacientes que preenchem os Critérios de Classificação para Fibromialgia do Colégio Americano de Reumatologia, considerando as seguintes variáveis: percepção da intensidade de dor, fadiga, qualidade de vida global, depressão, ansiedade e contagem de pontos dolorosos. A avaliação da capacidade funcional foi realizada através do Questionário de Avaliação de Saúde simplificado (Health Assessment Questionnaire-HAQ. RESULTADOS: Observou-se correlação entre a contagem de pontos dolorosos e a intensidade da dor e a capacidade funcional. Não houve correlação com as notas atribuídas à fadiga (p = 0,358, ansiedade (p = 0,58, depressão (p = 0,50 e qualidade de vida (p = 0,538. A correlação entre o número de pontos dolorosos e a intensidade da dor foi mais forte que com o HAQ. CONCLUSÃO: Há correlação entre contagem dos pontos dolorosos e intensidade da dor e capacidade funcional. A correlação entre os pontos dolorosos e a intensidade da dor é mais importante do que com a capacidade funcional medida pelo HAQ. Não há correlação com as demais variáveis estudadas.OBJECTIVE: to study the correlation between the number of tender points and the intensity of the perception of key aspects of the fibromyalgia syndrome (pain, fatigue, anxiety, depression, and its impact in functional capacity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: forty-one records of patients who meet the Criteria for Classification of Fibromyalgia of the American College of Rheumatology were reviewed, focusing on the following variables: perception of the intensity of pain, fatigue, quality of sleep, depression, anxiety and the tender point count. The assessment of functional capacity was done by

  5. Effect of thermal treatment on meat tenderness and color of pork tenderloin%热处理对猪通脊嫩度及色泽的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚彪; 刘燕; 郭爱菊

    2012-01-01

    The changes on cooking loss,pH,shear value and color have important effects on their texture and sensory quality for meat during thermal treatment.In this experiment,the shear value and color of pork tenderloin was studied during thermal treatment under different temperature and time.The result showed that the cooking loss,pH,a^* value and b^* value of pork tenderloin increases significantly as the rising of temperature and prolonging of time of thermal treatment,but the L^* value decreases.The shear value increases at fist and then decreases with the time prolonging of thermal treatment.In the experiment,the higher the temperature of thermal treatment,the faster of the changes.%肉类在热处理过程中的蒸煮损失、pH值、剪切力和色泽变化对肉的质地和感官具有重要影响。以猪通脊肉为原料,研究了不同的热处理温度和处理时间对猪通脊肉嫩度和色泽等物性的影响。结果表明:随着热处理温度的升高和处理时间的延长,猪通脊肉的蒸煮损失、pH值、红度a^*和黄度b^*均有显著的升高,亮度L^*下降,而剪切力随着热处理时间的延长先升高后降低,且在整个过程中,温度越高,变化越迅速。

  6. 基于微信平台贺州温情公益协会公众号的设计%Design based on the public number of micro channel platform Hezhou tender Public Welfare Association

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红燕; 罗伟鹏; 黄波

    2016-01-01

    贺州温情公益协会是贺州的一个民间公益组织,其宗旨是:温暖贫困家庭,情系留守儿童。温情公益关注的范围:针对广西贺州市三县两区的贫困家庭的孩子进行长期的“一对一”助学。贺州温情公益协会需要一个公众平台向更多的人传递公益理念和爱心。基于微信平台的贺州温情公益协会公众号的设计,将微信公众平台应用于公益活动的信息传播和信息服务。具有迎合信息时代发展需求,微信公众平台逐渐发展成为用户的个性化定制资讯信息场和企业的在线服务平台。微信公众平台在各行各业的高效利用,能够达到理想的宣传性、开发性与可操作性。我们当代大学生也需要把自己的所学的知识对社会做出一些贡献,也是锻炼我们大学生的一个好的实践机会。%The Hezhou warmth Charity Association is Hezhou a non-profit organization,whose purpose is to:poor families in warm and emotional ties to the left behind children.Warmth of public concern:for the children of poor families in Guangxi City,Hezhou City,two districts and three counties to carry out long-term "one to one". Hezhou warmth charity needs a public platform to more people to pass the concept of public welfare and love.Based on the micro channel platform of Hezhou public tender tender number of the design, the micro channel public platform for information dissemination and information services.Has to meet the needs of the development of the information age,the micro channel public platform has gradually developed into a personalized information service platform for the user's personalized information and online service platform.Micro channel public platform in all walks of life and efficient use, to achieve the desired publicity,development and operability. Our contemporary university students also need to make some contribution to the society,but also a good practice opportunity to exercise

  7. 道德嬗变:《夜色温柔》的文学伦理学解读%Varying Morality: "Tender Is the Night" Literary Ethics Interpretation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢春梅; 王亚

    2012-01-01

    文学伦理学批评自聂珍钊教授提出以来,即受到理论界的积极关注。作品《夜色温柔》,被视为"心理小说",或是"婚姻小说",或是"花花公子"和"时髦女郎"的放荡生活小说,着眼于从否定的层面讨论战后"美国梦"的失落和主人公迪克个人的"无望救赎"。本文以文学伦理学批评的角度,解读主人公在与自己、与他人的关照中的伦理主体变化,管窥其个体的道德嬗变。%Ethical literary criticism since the Professor Nie Zhenzhao,put forward by the active interest in theoretical circles."Tender Is the Night" has been appreciated from many perspectives,such as "psychological novel" of Freudian theory,"marriage novel" or "dissipated novel" of playboys and flappers.Most essays comment on the deterioration of the so-called " American Dream" or self-indulgence of Dick Diver in a "blue mood".This paper employs ethical literary criticism to analyze relationship of men and themselves,men and men,thus have a bird's view on the varying morality of individuals.

  8. Causative get-constructions in the dialogued passages in F. Scott Fitzgerald’s novels The Beautiful and Damned and Tender Is the Night as gender-conditioned structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gołąbek Rafał

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It goes without saying that in modern sociolinguistics there is a consensus with regard to the fact that the language of males and females differs. The initial sections of the article briefly address the peculiarities of gendered speech as to provide a theoretical background for checking whether the causative get is used similarly or differently by men and women in the two of F. Scott Fitzgerald’s novels: The Beautiful and Damned and Tender Is the Night. The basic expectation formed is that the motifs for triggering the use of causative get are of social rather than structural nature. Before the analysis is carried out, the group of the English periphrastic causatives are sketchily characterized. Generally, what has been found is that there is a clear, socially-motivated pattern of how F. Scott Fitzgerald uses the causative get in the dialogued occurrences in his two novels. Get is a characteristic of men’s talk, but it is also the expected form while female characters address male ones - hence the verb is labelled as “masculine” get. Moreover, it has been discovered that there does not seem to be any particular pattern in either the speaker’s mood or the speaker’s attitude expressed that would trigger the use of the causative verb in question. Yet, what seems to be a well-defined tendency, when it comes to the speaker-hearer power relation, is that the speaker usually assumes a more superior position than the hearer when he or she uses the causative verb. The superiority in most cases is strongly associated with masculinity. Hence, what is postulated is that the causative get is labelled not only as “masculine" but also as “superior”.

  9. 河道采砂作业招标控制价研究%Bidding Control Price of Competitive Tender in River Bed Sand Excavating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧敏; 王卓甫; 周建春; 丁继勇

    2011-01-01

    为确保通航安全和生态环境不受破坏的条件下合理利用河道砂石资源,基于一级密封拍卖独立私人价值模型探讨了采砂作业招标中最高控制价设置模型,并对比了不设控制价、设置但不公开控制价、公开控制价三种情况对投标人报价、招标人支付的影响.结果表明,不设控制价时,投标人的报价和招标人支付均最高;招标人公开控制价不仅降低了投标人的报价,且降低了招标人的支付.当招标人数确定时,招标人的支付随控制价的增高而增高;当控制价确定时,投标人数的增加将减少招标人的支付.最后提出了基于个人成本系数的招标最低控制价设置方法.%The sand mined in river is valuable materials in civil construction. It is an important issue for river course management agency to make sure navigation safety and protect ecological environment while mining the sand. In this stud y, the announced and secret highest control prices for bidding are discussed based on independent private values model in first sealed bid auction. This study shows that if control price is not concerned in the model, the quoted prices of the bid ders and the payment of the buyers would be at the highest level; if the control price had been announced, the quoted prices of the bidders and the payment of the buyers would be reduced. When number of bidders is given, the payment of buyers would increase with control price. When the control price is give, the payment of buyers would reduce with num ber of bidders. Finally, the method of designing the lowest control price is proposed based on the cost index of individual bidders.

  10. 小分子热应激蛋白与肉嫩度的关系研究进展%Relationship between Small Heat Shock Proteins and Meat Tenderness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鑫; 邢通; 徐幸莲

    2016-01-01

    肉嫩度的形成与动物宰后肌肉成熟过程中发生的复杂生理生化变化密切相关。动物宰杀放血后,氧气和营养物质供应终止,细胞凋亡程序启动,因此,调控该过程的凋亡因子可能最终影响到肌肉品质。小分子热应激蛋白(small heat shock proteins,sHSPs)作为肌肉嫩度的潜在生物标记,在许多蛋白组学的研究中得到证实。sHSPs由于其抗细胞凋亡和分子伴侣功能特性,在保护肌原纤维蛋白、干扰凋亡通路信号、延缓内源性蛋白酶对其的降解、延长肉的成熟时间等方面起到重要作用,与肉嫩度密切相关。本文综述了sHSPs作为肌肉向食用肉转变过程中的分子伴侣和其抗凋亡作用对肉嫩度的影响及其作用机理。%The development of meat eating quality is closely related to complex biochemical processes during postmortem aging. Oxygen and nutrient withdrawal following exsanguination is known to induce apoptosis, so that muscle cells inevitably engage towards apoptotic cell death. Thus, factors that regulate the process of apoptotic cell death of muscle cells are believed to influence the ultimate meat quality. Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs), as biomarkers for meat quality attributes, have been confirmed by many proteomic studies. Due to the anti-apoptotic and molecular chaperone functions, sHSPs can protect myofibrillar proteins from degradation, interfere with cellular signal transduction pathways, delay myofibrillar protein degradation by endogenous enzymes and extend the process of meat aging. In this review, we discuss the mechanism of their possible chaperone and anti-apoptotic roles involved in meat tenderness during the conversion of muscle to meat.

  11. The semi-hardwood tender branch cutting technique of Alnus trabeculosa Hand. -Mazz. in the growth period%江南桤木半木质化嫩枝扦插技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巫建新; 史云光; 郑凯; 李文骅; 张荣根; 黄源; 蒋鹏

    2011-01-01

    The experiment on the growth regulators, substrates and roughness of cuttings which affect the rooting of the semi - hardwood tender branch cutting of Alnus trabeculosa Hand. - Mazz. in the growth period showed that there were obvious difference of rooting rate and root growth with different IBA densities, types and proportions of substrates, and roughness of cuttings. The survival rate of 45 d could reach above 92. 3% , when the 0. 7 -0. 8 cm roughness cutting woods were treated by 800 mg/L IBA for one minute and then cut into the composite base material which was comprised of sand, rice chaff ash, pearlite at the ratio of 1: 1: 1 (V: V: V) from June to August.%对影响江南桤木半木质化嫩枝扦插生根效果的植物生长调节剂、扦插基质、插穗粗度等凶子进行了试验研究。结果表明,在全光照自动间歇喷雾条件下,江南桤木插条生根率及根系生长等指标因植物生长调节剂IBA的质量浓度、基质的种类及配比组合和插穗的粗度的不同有明显差异。在生长旺盛夏季的6月至8月,选择0.7~0.8em粗度插条,使用800mg/LIBA浸泡处理1min后,扦插于泥炭土:砻糠灰:珍珠岩体积比为1:1:1的混合基质中,45d成活率可达92.3%。

  12. Uk-Didcot: aluminium products [Tenders

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "The CMS-ECAL-EE detector project for CERN require a firm to produce a number of small-machined components in Al Alloy. Mainly milling and drilling operations are required and would be most suited to a firm capable of small batch production. The general machining tolerance required is +/- 0,2mm, and the surface texture is 1,6 micrometers. All of the components are to be manufactured from Al Alloy."

  13. Euroopa keelemapi esimene Eesti mudel / Tõnu Tender

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tender, Tõnu, 1965-

    2008-01-01

    Väljaanne: Euroopa keelemapp : 12-16 aastastele õpilastele = European language portfolio : for learners aged 12 to 16 = Portfolio Européen des Langues : pour les élèves de 12 à 16 ans. [Tartu] : Haridus- ja Teadusministeerium ; [Tallinn] : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, [2007]. Euroopa keelemapp on vahend keeleõppe kavandamiseks, edusammude kirjeldamiseks ja tulemuste jäädvustamiseks. Keelemapi kirjeldus, Euroopa keelemapi Eesti variandi väljatöötamisest, Euroopa keelemapi tulevikuvõimalustest

  14. Gastric phytobezoar: treatment using meat tenderizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, A J; Chahin, F; Agrawal, S; Patel, J; Khalid, M; Lakra, Y

    2001-05-01

    In summary bezoars are rarely symptomatic. CT scan of the abdomen is rapidly becoming the first tool of diagnosis, while endoscopy still remains the best diagnostic test. Medical treatment is usually successful, as in this case and rarely do patients require surgery. PMID:11341642

  15. F-Paris: integrated electronic circuits [Tender

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Fourniture, montage et tests des circuits imprimes et modules multi composants pour le trajectographe central de CMS. Maximum de 12 000 circuits imprimes et modules multi-composants necessaires au trajectographe central de l'experience CMS aupres du Large Hadron Collider" (1 page).

  16. Mõtteid Euroopa keelemapi konverentsilt / Tõnu Tender

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tender, Tõnu, 1965-

    2010-01-01

    2009. aasta 12. detsembril toimus Eesti Rahvusraamatukogus Euroopa keelemapi konverents. Selle eesmärk oli tutvustada õpetajatele Euroopa keelemapi Eesti mudeli kasutamise kogemusi ning teisi sellega seotud teemasid

  17. Increasing instruction time in school does increase learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humlum, Maria; Nandrup, Anne Brink; Andersen, Simon Calmar

    2016-01-01

    Increasing instruction time in school is a central element in the attempts of many governments to improve student learning, but prior research—mainly based on observational data—disputes the effect of this approach and points out the potential negative effects on student behavior. Based on a large......-scale, cluster-randomized trial, we find that increasing instruction time increases student learning and that a general increase in instruction time is at least as efficient as an expert-developed, detailed teaching program that increases instruction with the same amount of time. These findings support the value...

  18. Meat from wild ungulates: ensuring quality and hygiene of an increasing resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Trabalza Marinucci

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Wild ungulate populations are increasing in Europe and Italy, with a consequent increase in culling rates and availability of their meats. Objectives of this review were to evaluate the trends of availability of meat from wild ungulates in Italy, to review the present knowledge on nutritional properties, sensorial characteristics, and hygiene problems of wild ungulate meat and to examine the critical steps that influence their hygiene and quality. Wild ungulate meat in Italy derives mainly from wild boar, roe deer and red deer and its availability has been increasing in the last decade. Total consumption of wild ungulate meat is low (0.1-0.3 kg per capita/year, but in some regions rises to significant levels, especially for hunters’ families (1.0-4.0 kg per capita/year. Wild ungulate meats generally have a low fat content, although with a certain variability associated with gender, hunting season, age and physiological conditions, and a favourable fatty acid composition. In general, they are darker, less tender and characterised by a more intense and peculiar flavour than meats from domestic ruminants. However, these properties also show a great inter- and intra-specific variability. Risks for the consumer associated with contaminants (heavy metals, radionuclides, organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls and zoonoses are considered to be low. Critical steps from shooting in the field to the final marketing should be considered to ensure hygiene and quality of meats. Future research should focus on the variability of hunting modes, accuracy of shooting, field dressing and carcass processing, in order to understand how these practices influence the final microbiological and sensorial quality of wild ungulate meats.

  19. Strong increase of solar panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The number of installed solar panels in 2011 has increased again. 40 megawatt of new panels have been installed. This increase is twice as high as the year before. The production of solar power increased to 90 million kWh in 2011 as a result of this expansion. However, the share of solar power in total energy use is still very limited.

  20. Increasing tobacco taxes : A cheap tool to increase public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baal, Pieter H. M.; Brouwer, Werner B. F.; Hoogenveen, Rudolf T.; Feenstra, Talitha L.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Several studies have estimated health effects resulting from tobacco tax increases. However, studies on the cost effectiveness of tobacco taxes are scarce. The aim of this study was to estimate the cost effectiveness of tobacco tax increases from a health care perspective, explicitly c

  1. Assessing and Increasing Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Hayes, Lynda B.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing physical activity is a crucial component of any comprehensive approach to combat the growing obesity epidemic. This review summarizes recent behavioral research on the measurement of physical activity and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and provides directions for future research.

  2. RESTAURANT NO. 2: PRICE INCREASES

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    'DSR', the concession holder of Restaurant no. 2 (bldg. 504 - Meyrin site), has submitted to the Restaurant Supervisory Committee a request to increase certain prices. After close examination, the Committee has established that the proposed increases are compatible with the relevant price indexing mechanisms and other contractual conditions. The new prices will apply as from Monday, June 30, 2003.

  3. RESTAURANT NO. 3: PRICE INCREASES

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    'AVENANCE', the concession holder of Restaurant no. 3 (bldg. 866 - Prévessin site), has submitted to the Restaurant Supervisory Committee a request to increase its prices. After close examination, the Committee has established that the proposed increases are compatible with the relevant price indexing mechanisms and other contractual conditions. The new prices will apply as from Monday, June 2, 2003.

  4. Strategies to Increase Physical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Tuso, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    One key intervention to prevent preventable diseases and to make health care more affordable is to increase the percentage of Americans who are physically active. No single intervention will increase activity rates, but a group of interventions working together in synergy may be the stimulus needed to get Americans moving.

  5. Demand for Phenol Increases Steadily

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Dramatic growth in output By the end of 2006 China's capacity to produce phenol had reached more than 600 thousand t/a. The total output was 523 thousand tons in 2006,an increase of 18.1% over 2005.

  6. Demand for SBR Increased Steadily

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Yiwen

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 Rapid consumption growth Consumption of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) in China was 747 thousand tons in 2006, an increase of 21% over 2005, with faster growth than the average rubber consumption growth.

  7. Increasing Learning from TV News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perloff, Richard M.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes an experiment that manipulated two variables, repetition and pausing for viewer "digestion" of information in a news telecast. Concludes that the use of repetition increased viewers' retention of information, but that pauses did not. (FL)

  8. RESTAURANT NO. 3 : PRICE INCREASES

    CERN Multimedia

    Restaurant Supervisory Committee

    2002-01-01

    'AVENANCE', the concession holder of Restaurant no. 3 (bldg. 866 - Prévessin site), has submitted to the Restaurant Supervisory Committee a request to increase its prices. After close examination, the Committee has established that the proposed increases are compatible with the relevant price indexing mechanisms and other contractual conditions. The new prices will apply as from Monday, June 3, 2002. Restaurant Supervisory Committee, tel. 77551

  9. INCREASING RETURN TO SMART CITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Lööf, Hans; Nabavi, Pardis

    2012-01-01

    Increased urbanization, global warming and sustainable growth belong to the major contemporary policy challenges. Today cities are home to more than 50% of the world population, the largest 600 urban centers generate about 60% of global GDP, and the agglomerated areas are responsible for 75% of world carbon emissions. The UN estimates that 70% of the world's growing population will live in cities by 2050. At the same time the world population is expected to increase from 7 billion people to 9...

  10. Research Evaluation to Increase Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Templeton, Deborah J.

    2003-01-01

    Research evaluation, undertaken throughout the life of the research activity, is an important tool for research managers. When correctly implemented, research evaluation can help to increase the success of existing and future research projects and programs, thereby increasing the social, economic and/or environmental impact of the research. The relationship between the life-cycle of the research project and the type of evaluation determines the appropriate type of evaluation to be undertaken....

  11. Meclofenamate increases ventilation in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, F A; Savich, R D; Clyman, R I; Kitterman, J A

    1989-01-01

    To investigate the effects of the prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor, meclofenamate, on postnatal ventilation, we studied 11 unanaesthetised, spontaneously-breathing lambs at an average age of 7.9 +/- 1.1 days (SEM; range 5-14 days) and an average weight of 4.9 +/- 0.5 kg (range 3.0-7.0 kg). After a 30-min control period we infused 4.23 mg/kg meclofenamate over 10 min and then gave 0.23 mg/h per kg for the remainder of the 4 h. Ventilation increased progressively from a control value of 515 +/- 72 ml/min per kg to a maximum of 753 +/- 100 ml/min per kg after 3h of infusion (P less than 0.05) due to an increased breathing rate; the effects were similar during both high- and low-voltage electrocortical activity. There were no significant changes in tidal volume, heart rate, blood pressure, arterial pH or PaCO2, the increased ventilation resulted from either an increase in dead space ventilation or an increase in CO2 production. This study indicates that meclofenamate causes an increase in ventilation in lambs but no changes in pH of PaCO2. The mechanism and site of action remain to be defined. PMID:2507622

  12. Análise e avaliação das especificações dos alimentos contidas em editais de chamadas públicas do PNAE | Analysis and Evaluation of the Food Specifications Contained in Public Calls for Tenders prepared by the PNAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanice de Azevedo Aguiar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A partir de 2009, especificamente após a promulgação da Lei nº 11.947/2009, os gestores do Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar – PNAE devem utilizar, no mínimo, 30% do total dos recursos financeiros recebidos do Governo Federal na aquisição de alimentos provenientes da agricultura e do empreendedor familiar rural. A compra dos alimentos deve ser realizada a partir de chamada pública, conforme a Lei nº 8.666/1993, requerendo que haja especificação do bem ou serviço a ser adquirido. O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi verificar o cumprimento da legislação vigente para o assunto pelos gestores do PNAE, quando da elaboração das chamadas públicas. A amostra foi composta por 201 editais de chamadas públicas, referentes ao período entre janeiro e julho de 2013, obtidos via eletrônica entre junho e julho de 2013. Os resultados indicaram não conformidades em todas as regiões pesquisadas, faltando informações básicas ao agricultor e empreendedor familiar rural sobre a qualificação dos alimentos nas chamadas públicas. Foi possível concluir que a maior parte dos gestores não tem observado a legislação vigente do PNAE, desconsideraram também, a questão da qualidade e segurança dos alimentos, situação constatada pelas deficiências verificadas nos editais de chamadas públicas, não sendo nesta pesquisa, perceptível a participação do nutricionista, apesar de 95% das EEx terem este profissional como responsável técnico. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- As of 2009, especially after the enactment of Law No. 11.947/2009, the managers of the National School Meal Program-PNAE must use at least 30% of the total funds received from the Federal Government, for purchasing food produced by agricultural and rural family entrepreneurs. The purchase of food must be subject to a public call for tenders, according to Law No. 8.666/1993, that must include

  13. Increasing work-time influence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Garde, Anne Helene; Aust, Birgit;

    2012-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study investigated how an intervention aiming at increasing eldercare workers' influence on their working hours affected the flexibility, variability, regularity and predictability of the working hours. We used baseline (n = 296) and follow-up (n = 274) questionnaire data......-operation with colleagues. In subgroup B and C, the participants ended up discussing the potential consequences of more work-time influence without actually implementing any changes. PRACTITIONER SUMMARY: Employee work-time influence may buffer the adverse effects of shift work. However, our intervention study suggested...... that while increasing the individual flexibility, increasing work-time influence may also result in decreased regularity of the working hours and less continuity in the care of clients and co-operation with colleagues....

  14. Increased burnup of fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specialists' group for fuel elements of the Kerntechnische Gesellschaft e.V. held a meeting on ''Increased Burnup of Fuel Elements'' on 9th and 10th of November 1982 at the GKSS Research Center Geesthacht. Most papers dealt with the problems of burnup increase of fuel elements for light water reactors with respect to fuel manufacturing, power plant operation and reprocessing. Review papers were given on the burnup limits for high temperature gas cooled reactors and sodium fast breeder reactors. The meeting ended with a presentation of the technical equipment of the hot laboratory of the GKSS and the programs which are in progress there. (orig.)

  15. 78 FR 34589 - Descriptive Designation for Needle- or Blade-Tenderized (Mechanically Tenderized) Beef Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... consumers. \\18\\ Yang et al (1999) show that 15% of consumers changed their behavior based on reading safe... behavior based on reading safe handling instructions. Consumer Concerns Motivating to Action, Emerging... labels on safe handling practices. Safe Handling Labels and Consumer Behavior in the Southern U.S....

  16. 78 FR 48631 - Descriptive Designation for Needle- or Blade-Tenderized (Mechanically Tenderized) Beef Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... published a proposed rule in the Federal Register (78 FR 34589), ``Descriptive Designation for Needle- or... through the FSIS Web page located at http://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/portal/fsis/topics/regulations/federal... http://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/portal/fsis/programs-and-services/email-subscription-service ....

  17. Increased Spreading Activation in Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Paul S.; Yung, Raegan C.; Branch, Kaylei K.; Stringer, Kristi; Ferguson, Brad J.; Sullivan, William; Drago, Valeria

    2011-01-01

    The dopaminergic system is implicated in depressive disorders and research has also shown that dopamine constricts lexical/semantic networks by reducing spreading activation. Hence, depression, which is linked to reductions of dopamine, may be associated with increased spreading activation. However, research has generally found no effects of…

  18. Electromigration early resistance increase measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niehof, J.; Flinn, P.A.; Maloney, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    An early resistance change measurement set-up, using an AC bridge technique, has been developed, and measurements have been performed. Large sample-to-sample variations occur. The characteristic time for the resistance change curve is shorter for resistance increase (under current stress) than for r

  19. How to increase living donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Connie L

    2011-04-01

    Living donation is the key to increasing access to successful solid organ transplantation worldwide. However, the means to expanding the number of living donors on a global scale are not known. Although there have been many suggestions for the best approach, cultural issues may limit the effectiveness of some strategies. Only a few ideas have been studied, and one in particular- outright payment to donors - may raise ethical issues that are difficult to surmount and might negatively alter altruistic behavior. With respect to the present environment, this article will describe some of the approaches that are being discussed to increase the number of living donors, with a particular focus on kidney transplantation. PMID:21210867

  20. Increasing Accuracy in Environmental Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacksier, Tracey; Fernandes, Adelino; Matthew, Matt; Lehmann, Horst

    2016-04-01

    Human activity is increasing the concentrations of green house gases (GHG) in the atmosphere which results in temperature increases. High precision is a key requirement of atmospheric measurements to study the global carbon cycle and its effect on climate change. Natural air containing stable isotopes are used in GHG monitoring to calibrate analytical equipment. This presentation will examine the natural air and isotopic mixture preparation process, for both molecular and isotopic concentrations, for a range of components and delta values. The role of precisely characterized source material will be presented. Analysis of individual cylinders within multiple batches will be presented to demonstrate the ability to dynamically fill multiple cylinders containing identical compositions without isotopic fractionation. Additional emphasis will focus on the ability to adjust isotope ratios to more closely bracket sample types without the reliance on combusting naturally occurring materials, thereby improving analytical accuracy.

  1. Price Increases from Online Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Michael R; Chen, Yu-Ching

    2001-01-01

    Consumers value keeping some information about them private from potential marketers. E-commerce dramatically increases the potential for marketers to accumulate otherwise private information about potential customers. Online marketers claim that this information enables them to better market their products. Policy makers are currently drafting rules to regulate the way in which these marketers can collect, store, and share this information. However, there is little evidence yet either of con...

  2. Production Increased with Price Rise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Shiliang

    2007-01-01

    @@ In April 2007, China's petroleum and chemical industry remained up trend in production. Among the 65 types of petrochemical products that have been tracked by CPCIA (China Petroleum and Chemical Industry Association), the output of 61 types increased compared with April 2006,accounting for 93.8% of the total, and the output of 15 types, in particular, grew by over 20%, accounting for 23.1%.

  3. NSF and NASA budgets increased

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Research budgets of several of the federal government agencies were increased significantly over the Reagan administration's requests in the House of Representative's appropriations bill H.R. 4034. These budgets had been removed from the Reagan administration's omnibus reconciliation bill, and thus there were worries expressed that certain research funding could be in jeopardy. The rationale was that because the requests were voted on individually on the floor of the House, many sections of the budgets would be subjected to extra scrutiny, which would lead to more cuts.The National Science Foundation (NSF) budget request had been cut and reordered by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) by making sharp reductions in programs of the social sciences and in programs of science and engineering education. There were fears that these programs would be reinstated to the original request level, at the expense of the budgets of other research activities. These fears materialized, but only momentarily. Efforts to cut the research activities by the House Appropriations Committee were soundly defeated. The budget was supported, with additional increases to provide for the education programs, by a high margin, which included most Republican and Democratic members of the House of Representatives. The overall NSF budget, as passed, has a total appropriation of $1103.5 million, compared with the Administration's request of $1033.5 million (the Fiscal Year 1981 appropriation for the NSF was $1022.4 million). The House approved budget included increases of $44.9 million in research and $25.1 million in science and engineering education. Included in the research budget increase were recommendations by the House Appropriations Committee for support of the social sciences and for the international affairs programs. Also included in the recommendations was support of interdisciplinary research programs that cut across the directorates of the NSF.

  4. Production Increased with Higher Prices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng shiling

    2007-01-01

    @@ In the first quarter of 2007, China's petroleum and chemical industry remained up trend in production.Among the 66 types of petrochemical products that have been tracked by CPCIA (China Petroleum and Chemical Industry Association), the output of 58, types increased compared with the same period of 2006, accounting for 87.9% of the total, and the output of 19 types, in particular, grew by over20%, accounting for 28.8%.

  5. How trade unions increase welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Donado, Alejandro; Klaus WALDE

    2010-01-01

    Historically, worker movements have played a crucial role in making workplaces safer. Firms traditionally oppose better health standards. According to our interpretation, workplace safety is costly for firms but increases the average health of workers and thereby the aggregate labour supply. A laissez-faire approach in which firms set safety standards is suboptimal as workers are not fully informed of health risks associated with jobs. Safety standards set by better-informed trade unions are ...

  6. High Heels Increase Women's Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, Nicolas

    2015-11-01

    Research has found that the appearance of women's apparel helps increase their attractiveness as rated by men and that men care more about physical features in potential opposite-sex mates. However, the effect of sartorial appearance has received little interest from scientists. In a series of studies, the length of women's shoe heels was examined. A woman confederate wearing black shoes with 0, 5, or 9 cm heels asked men for help in various circumstances. In Study 1, she asked men to respond to a short survey on gender equality. In Study 2, the confederate asked men and women to participate in a survey on local food habit consumption. In Study 3, men and women in the street were observed while walking in back of the female confederate who dropped a glove apparently unaware of her loss. It was found that men's helping behavior increased as soon as heel length increased. However, heel length had no effect on women's helping behavior. It was also found that men spontaneously approached women more quickly when they wore high-heeled shoes (Study 4). Change in gait, foot-size judgment, and misattribution of sexiness and sexual intent were used as possible explanations. PMID:25408499

  7. Increase Productivity Through Knowledge Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrikova, N. A.; Dolgih, I. N.; Dyrina, E. N.

    2016-04-01

    Increase in competition level requires companies to improve the efficiency of work force use characterized by labor productivity. Professional knowledge of staff and its experience play the key role in it. The results of Extrusion Line operator’s working time analysis are performed in this article. The analysis revealed that the reasons of working time ineffective use connected with inadequate information exchange and knowledge management in the company. Authors suggest the way to solve this problem: the main sources of knowledge in engineering enterprise have been defined, the conditions of success and the stages of knowledge management control have been stated.

  8. Do trade missions increase trade?

    OpenAIRE

    Head, Keith; Ries, John

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to stimulate trade, Canada has conducted regular trade missions starting in 1994, often led by the Prime Minister. According to the Canadian government, these missions generated tens of billions of dollars in new business deals. This paper uses bilateral trade data to assess this claim. We find that Canada exports and imports above-normal amounts to the countries to which it sent trade missions. However, the missions do not seem to have caused an increase in trade. In the preferr...

  9. Increasing Security in Cloud Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Naik, Priyanka; Sanyal, Sugata

    2013-01-01

    The concept of cloud computing was introduced to meet the increase in demand for new application for a project, and to provide a large storage facility whenever or wherever a user needs it. The cloud system facility helped many industries as well as individual users to get authentic software at a very low cost. But with this new system comes the major concern of security, as the connection to the cloud is through the web and the data and application availability need to be handled for each cl...

  10. [Ozone decline and UV increase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, P; Trepte, S

    2004-02-01

    The following results have been obtained from long-term observations on the ozone layer and UV at the Meteorological Observatory Hohenpeigenberg:The seasonally varying decline of the ozone layer determines the maximum exposure to UV. Since ozone decline shows the highest rates in the spring months the UV exposure has most strongly increased in this time of the year. This is especially important because in spring the human skin is not adapted to UV exposure. Weather changes from day to day can induce rapid ozone reductions in spring about -30% which in turn is followed by an increase in UV of about 40%. Clouds, especially the transparent cirrus clouds (high clouds consisting of ice particles) have increased in frequency during spring and fall while a decrease is observed in summer. This change in cloudiness reduces the daily UV dose in spring and fall while it is enhanced in summer. With increasing height above sea level UV rises by roughly 10% per 1000 m (rule of thumb). Snow reflects the UV-radiation by up to 80% enhancing the UV-doses at relevant conditions. Strong volcano eruptions destroy ozone in the stratosphere additionally during 1-2 years after the eruption. Therafter the ozone layer recovers. In April 1993, after the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo (1991), the UV burden was still 40% higher than average. Miniholes and streamers can appear unexpected on a short-time scale and cross over Central Europe within 1-2 days, thus enhancing UV irradiation. The human skin reacts to UV exposure depending on the type of skin. The campaign "Sonne(n) mit Verstand" of the Bavarian Ministries for Environment, for Health and for Education informs about the danger of UV radiation (see www.sonne-mit-ver-stand.de). The German Weather Service informs the public on present developments of the ozone layer and relevant topics byits ozone bulletin, which is also available via internet under (www.dwd.de/deFundE/Observator/MOHp/hp2/ozon/bulletin.htm). PMID:14770335

  11. Increasing situational awareness using smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddhu, Sanjay K.; Williams, Robert L.; Wasser, Edward; Kode, Niranjan

    2012-06-01

    In recent years, the United States Armed Services and various law enforcement agencies have shown increasing interest in evaluating the feasibility of using smartphones and hand-held devices as part of the standard gear for its personnel, who are actively engaged on battlefield or in crime-prone areas. The primary motive driving analysis efforts to employ smartphone-based technologies is the prospect of the increased "Situational Awareness" achievable thru a digitally connected network of armed personnel. Personnel would be equipped with customized smart applications that use the device's sensors (GPS, camera, compass, etc...) to sense the hostile environments as well as enabling them to perform collaborative tasks to effectively complete a given mission. In this vein, as part of the Summer At The Edge (SATE) program, a group of student interns under the guidance of mentors from Qbase and AFRL, have employed smartphones and built three smart applications to tackle three real-world scenarios: PinPoint, IStream, and Cooperative GPS. This paper provides implementation details for these prototype applications, along with the supporting visualization and sensor cloud platforms and discusses results obtained from field testing of the same. Further, the paper concludes by providing the implications of the present work and insights into future work.

  12. [Patients' increasing role in healthcare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Cinzia

    2016-03-01

    Since the late '90s citizens have been increasingly involved in healthcare, thanks to a shift in access to healthcare information, greater patients' and citizens' awareness about their rights and needs, and a change in physicians' attitudes and behavior. At the same time, to ensure the sustainability of the national health services, patients' needs are increasingly being examined in relation to the services and interventions needed, and to foster informed demand by patients and citizens, and appropriate prescriptions by physicians. Nowadays, patients already have a section in an authoritative medical journal. Working with clinicians, they set research priorities and the outcomes to be studied. Especially in UK and USA, they are invited to participate in the design and development of trials and in deciding which trials should be funded. The situation varies widely in different countries, though involving citizens in healthcare decisions is a common mantra. Even when they consult a clinician, the patients' role has evolved. People ask for information more often and want an active part in decisions about their health. Physicians start to pay more attention to the person and the social context, feelings and emotions, and person-centered care has become a reference in the doctor-patient relationship. This article offers an overview of the changing roles of patients and citizens in healthcare.

  13. Thunderstorms Increase Mercury Wet Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Christopher D; Krishnamurthy, Nishanth P; Caffrey, Jane M; Landing, William M; Edgerton, Eric S; Knapp, Kenneth R; Nair, Udaysankar S

    2016-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) wet deposition, transfer from the atmosphere to Earth's surface by precipitation, in the United States is highest in locations and seasons with frequent deep convective thunderstorms, but it has never been demonstrated whether the connection is causal or simple coincidence. We use rainwater samples from over 800 individual precipitation events to show that thunderstorms increase Hg concentrations by 50% relative to weak convective or stratiform events of equal precipitation depth. Radar and satellite observations reveal that strong convection reaching the upper troposphere (where high atmospheric concentrations of soluble, oxidized mercury species (Hg(II)) are known to reside) produces the highest Hg concentrations in rain. As a result, precipitation meteorology, especially thunderstorm frequency and total rainfall, explains differences in Hg deposition between study sites located in the eastern United States. Assessing the fate of atmospheric mercury thus requires bridging the scales of global transport and convective precipitation. PMID:27464305

  14. Increasing of Reliability of Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trebuňa, F.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The innovative activities in steel production invoke exploitation of new machines with the higher production capacity and productivity of labor. The paper deals with deformation and stress analysis of carrying parts of converter pedestal on the base of which the proposals and supporting measures were made that had the aim to increase reliability of the converter during steel production. This was achieved by lifespan prolongation of anchor and connecting bolts of converter pedestal, by change of stiffness of connected elements as well as by correction of nuts of bolted connections. The realization of structural changes decreased loading amplitudes and consequently the vibrations of pedestal. Solution was verified by numerical and experimental procedures of mechanics.

  15. Propofol directly increases tau phosphorylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Whittington

    Full Text Available In Alzheimer's disease (AD and other tauopathies, the microtubule-associated protein tau can undergo aberrant hyperphosphorylation potentially leading to the development of neurofibrillary pathology. Anesthetics have been previously shown to induce tau hyperphosphorylation through a mechanism involving hypothermia-induced inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A activity. However, the effects of propofol, a common clinically used intravenous anesthetic, on tau phosphorylation under normothermic conditions are unknown. We investigated the effects of a general anesthetic dose of propofol on levels of phosphorylated tau in the mouse hippocampus and cortex under normothermic conditions. Thirty min following the administration of propofol 250 mg/kg i.p., significant increases in tau phosphorylation were observed at the AT8, CP13, and PHF-1 phosphoepitopes in the hippocampus, as well as at AT8, PHF-1, MC6, pS262, and pS422 epitopes in the cortex. However, we did not detect somatodendritic relocalization of tau. In both brain regions, tau hyperphosphorylation persisted at the AT8 epitope 2 h following propofol, although the sedative effects of the drug were no longer evident at this time point. By 6 h following propofol, levels of phosphorylated tau at AT8 returned to control levels. An initial decrease in the activity and expression of PP2A were observed, suggesting that PP2A inhibition is at least partly responsible for the hyperphosphorylation of tau at multiple sites following 30 min of propofol exposure. We also examined tau phosphorylation in SH-SY5Y cells transfected to overexpress human tau. A 1 h exposure to a clinically relevant concentration of propofol in vitro was also associated with tau hyperphosphorylation. These findings suggest that propofol increases tau phosphorylation both in vivo and in vitro under normothermic conditions, and further studies are warranted to determine the impact of this anesthetic on the acceleration of

  16. Slow motion increases perceived intent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Eugene M; Burns, Zachary C; Converse, Benjamin A

    2016-08-16

    To determine the appropriate punishment for a harmful action, people must often make inferences about the transgressor's intent. In courtrooms and popular media, such inferences increasingly rely on video evidence, which is often played in "slow motion." Four experiments (n = 1,610) involving real surveillance footage from a murder or broadcast replays of violent contact in professional football demonstrate that viewing an action in slow motion, compared with regular speed, can cause viewers to perceive an action as more intentional. This slow motion intentionality bias occurred, in part, because slow motion video caused participants to feel like the actor had more time to act, even when they knew how much clock time had actually elapsed. Four additional experiments (n = 2,737) reveal that allowing viewers to see both regular speed and slow motion replay mitigates the bias, but does not eliminate it. We conclude that an empirical understanding of the effect of slow motion on mental state attribution should inform the life-or-death decisions that are currently based on tacit assumptions about the objectivity of human perception. PMID:27482091

  17. Vocal attractiveness increases by averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckert, Laetitia; Bestelmeyer, Patricia; Latinus, Marianne; Rouger, Julien; Charest, Ian; Rousselet, Guillaume A; Kawahara, Hideki; Belin, Pascal

    2010-01-26

    Vocal attractiveness has a profound influence on listeners-a bias known as the "what sounds beautiful is good" vocal attractiveness stereotype [1]-with tangible impact on a voice owner's success at mating, job applications, and/or elections. The prevailing view holds that attractive voices are those that signal desirable attributes in a potential mate [2-4]-e.g., lower pitch in male voices. However, this account does not explain our preferences in more general social contexts in which voices of both genders are evaluated. Here we show that averaging voices via auditory morphing [5] results in more attractive voices, irrespective of the speaker's or listener's gender. Moreover, we show that this phenomenon is largely explained by two independent by-products of averaging: a smoother voice texture (reduced aperiodicities) and a greater similarity in pitch and timbre with the average of all voices (reduced "distance to mean"). These results provide the first evidence for a phenomenon of vocal attractiveness increases by averaging, analogous to a well-established effect of facial averaging [6, 7]. They highlight prototype-based coding [8] as a central feature of voice perception, emphasizing the similarity in the mechanisms of face and voice perception.

  18. Vocal attractiveness increases by averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckert, Laetitia; Bestelmeyer, Patricia; Latinus, Marianne; Rouger, Julien; Charest, Ian; Rousselet, Guillaume A; Kawahara, Hideki; Belin, Pascal

    2010-01-26

    Vocal attractiveness has a profound influence on listeners-a bias known as the "what sounds beautiful is good" vocal attractiveness stereotype [1]-with tangible impact on a voice owner's success at mating, job applications, and/or elections. The prevailing view holds that attractive voices are those that signal desirable attributes in a potential mate [2-4]-e.g., lower pitch in male voices. However, this account does not explain our preferences in more general social contexts in which voices of both genders are evaluated. Here we show that averaging voices via auditory morphing [5] results in more attractive voices, irrespective of the speaker's or listener's gender. Moreover, we show that this phenomenon is largely explained by two independent by-products of averaging: a smoother voice texture (reduced aperiodicities) and a greater similarity in pitch and timbre with the average of all voices (reduced "distance to mean"). These results provide the first evidence for a phenomenon of vocal attractiveness increases by averaging, analogous to a well-established effect of facial averaging [6, 7]. They highlight prototype-based coding [8] as a central feature of voice perception, emphasizing the similarity in the mechanisms of face and voice perception. PMID:20129047

  19. 患肢畸形矫正术颈总动脉周围交感神经网剥离术治疗混合性脑瘫疗效比较%A study of deformity surgery and moving tenderness around the carotid dissection sympathectomy used in the surgical treatment of mixed type cerebral palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常青松; 詹金华

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨采用患肢畸形矫正术、颈总动脉周围交感神经网剥离术治疗混合性脑瘫的疗效.[方法]对86例混合性脑瘫病人随机分为A组50例、B组36例,A组采取患肢畸形矫正术,B组采取颈总动脉周围交感神经网剥离术.术后随访24个月,观察手术肢体痉挛、肌张力障碍及运动功能改善情况.[结果]术后两组病人肌张力障碍均有所改善,A组术后2周Fahn肌张力障碍评分与术前比较明显改善(P≤0.05),B组术后6个月Fahn肌张力障碍评分与术前比较明显改善(P≤0.05),两组之间Fahn肌张力障碍评分术后相比有显著性差异(P≤0.05).术后两组病人的Rusk康复研究所评分均明显缓解,A、B两组术后12、24个月Rusk康复研究所评分与术前比较明显改善(P≤0.05),两组之间Rusk康复研究所评分术后相比无统计学意义(P≥0.05).[结论]应用患肢畸形矫正术、颈总动脉周围交感神经网剥离术治疗混合性脑瘫疗效可靠.%[ Objective ] To investigate the efficacy of deformity surgery and moving tenderness around the carotid dissection sympathectomy in the surgical treatment of mixed type cerebral palsy. [ Methods] Eighty - six patients with mixed type cerebral were randomly divided into group A (50 cases) , group B (36 cases). Group A received limb deformity correction surgery, and group B received moving tenderness around the carotid dissection sympathectomy. Limb spasticity, dystonia and motor function were observed for 24 months by following - up. [ Results] The dystonia in two groups were improved. Fahn rating scale scores were lower after 2 weeks in group A (P≤. 05) ,and that in group B were lower after six month(P≤0.05). Fahn rating scale scores were significantly difference between two groups after operation (P≤ 0. 05). The Rusk Rehabilitation Institute scale scores in two groups improved after 12 months and 24 months (P≤0.05). There were not difference between two groups in The Rusk

  20. The increasing burden of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lépine J-P

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Pierre Lépine1, Mike Briley21Hôpital Lariboisière Fernand Widal, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris Unité INSERM 705 CNRS UMR 8206, Université Paris Diderot, Paris, France; 2NeuroBiz Consulting and Communication, Castres, FranceAbstract: Recent epidemiological surveys conducted in general populations have found that the lifetime prevalence of depression is in the range of 10% to 15%. Mood disorders, as defined by the World Mental Health and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, have a 12-month prevalence which varies from 3% in Japan to over 9% in the US. A recent American survey found the prevalence of current depression to be 9% and the rate of current major depression to be 3.4%. All studies of depressive disorders have stressed the importance of the mortality and morbidity associated with depression. The mortality risk for suicide in depressed patients is more than 20-fold greater than in the general population. Recent studies have also shown the importance of depression as a risk factor for cardiovascular death. The risk of cardiac mortality after an initial myocardial infarction is greater in patients with depression and related to the severity of the depressive episode. Greater severity of depressive symptoms has been found to be associated with significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality including cardiovascular death and stroke. In addition to mortality, functional impairment and disability associated with depression have been consistently reported. Depression increases the risk of decreased workplace productivity and absenteeism resulting in lowered income or unemployment. Absenteeism and presenteeism (being physically present at work but functioning suboptimally have been estimated to result in a loss of $36.6 billion per year in the US. Worldwide projections by the World Health Organization for the year 2030 identify unipolar major depression as the leading cause of disease burden

  1. 2013版清单计价规范下招标控制价中其他项目费编制研究%Study on the Compilation of the Other Items Cost in the Tender Sum Limit under the Code of Bills of Quantities and Valuation Issued in 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑晓虎

    2013-01-01

    How to accurately draw up other items cost under the code of bills of quantities and valuation issued in 2013 to reasonable determine tender sum limit is one important issue of construction pricing. In the framework of the code of bills of quantities and valuation issued in 2013, this paper made other items cost in the tender sum limit as the research object, systematically summarized the scope and calculation method of provisional sum, prime cost sum, dayworks and main contractor's attendance, and then comprehensively summarized and analyzed the main point of compilation in other items cost. At last, this paper described the scope and calculation method of other items cost in detail through combining with one case, so that this paper could give guidance for tenderee to draw up other items cost under the code of bills of quantities and valuation issued in 2013.%如何在2013版清单计价规范下准确编制其他项目费以合理确定招标控制价是困扰建设工程计价的重要问题之一。在2013版清单计价规范的框架下,以招标控制价中的其他项目费为研究对象,系统总结了暂列金额、暂估价、计日工及总承包服务费的适用范围及计算方法,对其他项目费的编制要点进行了总结及分析,并介绍了其他项目费的适用范围及计算方法在编制中的应用,从而为招标人在2013版清单计价规范下编制其他项目费提供借鉴。

  2. Composição centesimal, perdas de peso e maciez de lombo (longissimus dorsi suíno submetido a diferentes tratamentos de congelamento e descongelamento Proximate analysis, weight losses and tenderness of pork loin (longissimus dorsi submitted to different freezing and thawing treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivy Scorzi Cazelli PIRES

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas a composição centesimal, as perdas de peso e a maciez de porções de carne suína (Longissimus dorsi grelhadas, submetidas a dois períodos de estocagem (15 e 60 dias e descongeladas a 7ºC e 25ºC. Constatou-se que os bifes contendo teores mais elevados de umidade correspondem aos tratamentos com 15 dias de estocagem congelada e descongelamento a 7ºC (59,54% e com 60 dias de estocagem congelada combinada com descongelamento a 25ºC (60,51%. Amostras armazenadas durante 60 dias apresentaram maior teor de minerais (5,58% em relação àquelas estocadas por 15 dias (4,51% (análise realizada em amostras grelhadas e pré-salgadas. Os teores de proteína e lipídios e a maciez não foram afetados por quaisquer dos procedimentos. A utilização de 25ºC para o descongelamento ocasionou maiores perdas de peso (40,19% que 7ºC (33,17%. Os resultados do presente estudo sugerem a aplicação de períodos curtos de estocagem congelada e descongelamento sob resfriamento.This paper evaluated the proximate analysis, the weight losses and the tenderness of grilled pork loin (Longissimus dorsi chops, submitted to two periods of storage (15 and 60 days and thawed at 7ºC or 25ºC. The higher contents of moisture were found in the pork loin samples kept frozen for 15 days and thawed at 7ºC (59.54% and in the ones kept frozen for 60 days with thawing at 25ºC (60.51%. Samples stored for 60 days presented higher minerals contents (5.58% in relation to those stored for 15 days (4.51% (the analysis was carried out with grilled and pre-salted portions. The different treatments did not influence the lipids and protein contents and the tenderness of the pork loin chops. The use of 25ºC for the thawing caused greater weight losses (40.19% than 7ºC (33.17%. The results of the present study suggest the application of short periods of frozen storage and thawing in the refrigerator.

  3. Depression increases onset of tension-type headache following laboratory stress

    OpenAIRE

    Janke, E. Amy; Holroyd, Kenneth A.; Romanek, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the influence of depression on headache onset following laboratory stress and on psychophysiological variables associated with tension-type headaches (TTHs). Diagnostic interviews identified three groups: headache prone and depressed (HP/D, N = 13); headache prone not depressed (HP/ND, N = 22); and healthy controls (HC, N = 13). Ss completed a laboratory stress task. Blind evaluations of pericranial muscle tenderness (PMT) and pressure pain thresholds (PPT)...

  4. Evaluation of clinical and laboratory findings of pediatric and adult patients with oropharyngeal tularemia in Turkey: a combination of surgical drainage and antibiotic therapy increases treatment success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozel, Mustafa Gokhan; Engin, Aynur; Altuntas, Emine Elif; Salk, İsmail; Kaya, Ali; Celik, Cem; Dokmetas, Ilyas; Bakir, Mehmet; Elaldi, Nazif

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the clinical and laboratory findings of both pediatric and adult patients with oropharyngeal tularemia. We also compared the therapeutic outcomes of patients who underwent surgical drainage of lymph nodes early or late during antibiotic therapy. A total of 68 patients with oropharyngeal tularemia, including 26 children and 42 adults, were enrolled in this study. The average duration between symptom onset and hospital admission was 20.8 days (4-60 days) in the pediatric group and 32.6 days (4-90 days) in the adult group (P = 0.009). The most frequently observed clinical symptoms were sore throat (100% and 100%), fever (96.2% and 90.5%), tonsillitis (69.2% and 78.6%), and rash (15.4% and 11.9%) in the pediatric and adult groups, respectively. However, the frequencies of erythema, tenderness, and fluctuant of enlarged lymph nodes were significantly higher in the adult group than in the pediatric group (P = 0.005, P = 0.029, and P = 0.041, respectively). Treatment failure was observed in 2 (7.7%) pediatric patients and 4 (9.5%) adult patients, for a total of 6 (8.8%) treatment failures in the study group. Similar clinical findings and treatment outcomes were observed in both groups. We concluded that a combination of surgical drainage and antibiotic therapy increases treatment success for patients diagnosed with oropharyngeal tularemia.

  5. Increased VLDL in nephrotic patients results from a decreased catabolism while increased LDL results from increased synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Sain-van der Velden, M; Kaysen, GA; Barrett, HA; Stellaard, F; Gadellaa, MM; Voorbij, HA; Reijngoud, DJ; Rabelink, TJ

    1998-01-01

    Increased very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) in nephrotic patients results from a decreased catabolism while increased low density lipoprotein (LDL) results from increased synthesis. Hyperlipidemias a hallmark of nephrotic syndrome that has been associated with increased risk for ischemic heart dis

  6. Effects of Heating on Tenderness, Texture and Microstructure of Sanhuang Chicken Breast Meat%加热对三黄鸡胸肉嫩度、质构及微观结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立彦; 吴兵; 包丽坤

    2012-01-01

    By using some properties relevant to the meat quality as indexes, the effects of heating on those indexes and the corresponding variation trends were discussed. The results show that (1) the cooking loss of chicken breast meat significantly increases in a temperature range from 65 ℃ to 85 ℃ as well as in the initial 5 ~ l0min at 80℃ ; (2) a four-phase variation of the shear force value ( SFV) occurs with the increase of the heating temperature; ( 3) at 80℃ , the SFV begins to increase after the chicken breast meat has been heated for l0min and is up to the maximum after a heating for 40 min; (4 ) the variation trends of the TPA parameters of the chicken breast meat with the temperature and the duration are different from each other; (5 ) with the increase of temperature, the diameter of muscle fibres first decreases and reaches the minimum at 65 ℃ , and then increases gradually; ( 6 ) at 75 ℃ and above, the endomysium and perimysium rupture, and the gap between the muscle fibres gradually becomes narrow, and at 95℃ , the muscle fibres become compact; and (7) the variations of the above-mentioned properties become significant in a temperature range from 55 ℃to 85 ℃ , and the synthetic variations of the muscle fibres and connective tissue at different temperatures greatly affect the cooking loss, the SFV and TPA parameters of the heated chicken breast meat.%以与肉类品质密切相关的特性为指标,探讨了加热对三黄鸡胸肉中这些指标的影响,并对其变化趋势进行了讨论.结果表明:鸡胸肉蒸煮损失在65 ~ 85℃间及80℃加热5~10 min内显著增加;随温度升高,鸡胸肉剪切力值(SFV)呈4段式变化,80℃加热10 min后SFV开始增加,40 min后达到最大;肉的质构参数随温度和时间的变化趋势不同;随温度升高,肌纤维直径先减小,至65℃达到最小值后逐渐增大;在75℃及以上时,肌内膜和肌束膜逐渐崩溃,肌纤维间隙逐渐减小,95℃时肌

  7. Efeito do grupo genético sobre as características de carcaça e maciez da carne fresca e maturada de bovinos superprecoces Effect of genetic group on carcass traits and fresh and aged beef tenderness from young cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldmaryan Bianchini

    2007-12-01

    weaned at 8 months of age in system creep-feeding and later confined for 150 days until they reach the slaughter weight above 465 kg and slaughtered in commercial abattoir. The pH values and temperature during carcass cooling was similar for all of the genetic groups. In the same way, the variables cold carcass, forequarter and hindquarter, did not show any differences among the genetic groups. The beef cuts were quite homogeneous, excepting the strip loin and the tenderloin that were larger perceptually for Simmental. The Nellore and ½ Simmental breeds presented larger shear force (4.98 and 4.45 kgf than Simmental and Simbrasil (3.13 and 3.33 kgf. However, after the meat ageing for 7 days, no differences were verified among the groups for tenderness values. The losses by evaporation and leaking were higher for non aged Simmental and Simbrasil beef cuts; however, seven days of ageing those losses showed no differences. The system of production of young bulls bovines produces carcasses and cuts similar among the different breed studied. With seven days of maturation Nellore meat tenderness was similar to the other genetic groups used in this study.

  8. Measure combination optimization method in design for reducing void rate of behavior management institution——Projects tender institution as example%行为管理制度的失效率治理设计的措施优化组合方法——以工程招投标制度为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙绍荣

    2012-01-01

    Projects tender institution has high void rate very often. Taking it as an example, this paper provides a measure combination optimization method in design for reducing void rate of institution (MCOM in DRVRI), which includes the first optimizing problem and the second optimizing problem. Contrasted with those speculation methods, the method provided here has the advantage of calculability. Contrasted with those mathematic model methods, the method is structurelized and formlized, which makes it more practical in use. So the method can be widely used in various institution design.%工程招投标领域是行为管理制度失效的多发区,文章以招投标制度的设计为例,提出了一般性的行为管理制度失效率治理设计的措施优化组合技术,包括第一优化问题与第二优化问题的解决方法.与一般的思辨性研究相比,文章提出制度设计方法具有可计算性的优点,因此具有较强的科学性和工具性;与单纯的数学模型研究相比,文章提出的制度设计方法具有结构图化和表格化的特点,因此具有良好的可操作性.基于这两点,制度的失效率治理设计的措施优化组合技术具有广泛的适用性,便于推广,可以在各行业的制度创新与改革中产生实践效益.

  9. Increased skeletal muscle capillarization enhances insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Laub, Lasse; Vedel, Kenneth;

    2014-01-01

    Increased skeletal muscle capillarization is associated with improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. However, a possible causal relationship has not previously been identified. We therefore investigated whether increased skeletal muscle capillarization increases insulin sensitivity......-body insulin sensitivity increased by ~24% and insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle 2-deoxy-[(3)H]-Glucose disposal increased by ~30% concomitant with a ~20% increase in skeletal muscle capillarization. Adipose tissue insulin sensitivity was not affected by the treatment. Insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake...... the rats on any other parameters measured. We conclude that an increase in skeletal muscle capillarization is associated with increased insulin sensitivity. These data point towards the importance of increasing skeletal muscle capillarization for prevention or treatment of type 2 diabetes....

  10. 3 Ways to Increase Positive Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Friend Who Cuts? 3 Ways to Increase Positive Emotions KidsHealth > For Teens > 3 Ways to Increase Positive ... to give yourself a boost. Track Your Positive Emotions Name the positive emotions you're already familiar ...

  11. Increasing ideological tolerance in social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbar, Yoel; Lammers, Joris

    2015-01-01

    We argue that recognizing current ideological diversity in social psychology and promoting tolerance of minority views is just as important as increasing the number of non-liberal researchers. Increasing tolerance will allow individuals in the minority to express dissenting views, which will improve psychological science by reducing bias. We present four recommendations for increasing tolerance.

  12. Are diseases increasing in the ocean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Porter, James W.; Ford, Susan E.

    2004-01-01

    Many factors (climate warming, pollution, harvesting, introduced species) can contribute to disease outbreaks in marine life. Concomitant increases in each of these makes it difficult to attribute recent changes in disease occurrence or severity to any one factor. For example, the increase in disease of Caribbean coral is postulated to be a result of climate change and introduction of terrestrial pathogens. Indirect evidence exists that (a) warming increased disease in turtles; (b) protection, pollution, and terrestrial pathogens increased mammal disease; (c) aquaculture increased disease in mollusks; and (d) release from overfished predators increased sea urchin disease. In contrast, fishing and pollution may have reduced disease in fishes. In other taxa (e.g., sea grasses, crustaceans, sharks), there is little evidence that disease has changed over time. The diversity of patterns suggests there are many ways that environmental change can interact with disease in the ocean.

  13. Taurine increases hippocampal neurogenesis in aging mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Gebara

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with increased inflammation and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis, which may in turn contribute to cognitive impairment. Taurine is a free amino acid found in numerous diets, with anti-inflammatory properties. Although abundant in the young brain, the decrease in taurine concentration with age may underlie reduced neurogenesis. Here, we assessed the effect of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in middle-aged mice. We found that taurine increased cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus through the activation of quiescent stem cells, resulting in increased number of stem cells and intermediate neural progenitors. Taurine had a direct effect on stem/progenitor cells proliferation, as observed in vitro, and also reduced activated microglia. Furthermore, taurine increased the survival of newborn neurons, resulting in a net increase in adult neurogenesis. Together, these results show that taurine increases several steps of adult neurogenesis and support a beneficial role of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in the context of brain aging.

  14. Pension Age Increase: Pro et Contra

    OpenAIRE

    Maleva, T.; Sinyavskaya, O.

    2010-01-01

    Population ageing and growing deficit of Russian pension system place on the agenda an issue of increasing pension age. The article reviews international practices of regulating pension ages. Authors critically discuss the pros and cons of increasing pension ages in Russia from perspectives of demographic situation and trends, labor market, pension system and public attitudes toward this issue. They prove necessity of the effective pension age increasing in Russia and present their views on h...

  15. CO2 Increase: Questions Beyond Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Beckmann, G.; Klopries, B.

    1990-01-01

    The increase of the tropospheric C02 (carbon dioxide) concentration is considered by scientists all over the world to be an alarming signal, as becomes evident from the huge amount of literature on the subject. The so-called greenhouse-gas effect, or, more precisely, its anthropogenic component, is mainly caused by the C02 increase. However, other trace gases have also contributed their share. Far-reaching climatic changes, a temperature increase in the tropospheric air, especially in the po...

  16. Familial skin cancer syndromes: Increased melanoma risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransohoff, Katherine J; Jaju, Prajakta D; Jaju, Prajaka D; Tang, Jean Y; Carbone, Michele; Leachman, Sancy; Sarin, Kavita Y

    2016-03-01

    Phenotypic traits, such as red hair and freckling, increase melanoma risk by 2- to 3-fold. In addition, approximately 10% of melanomas are caused by inherited germline mutations that increase melanoma risk from 4- to >1000-fold. This review highlights the key genes responsible for inherited melanoma, with an emphasis on when a patient should undergo genetic testing. Many genetic syndromes associated with increased melanoma risk are also associated with an increased risk of other cancers. Identification of these high-risk patients is essential for preventive behavior reinforcement, genetic counseling, and ensuring other required cancer screenings.

  17. Does Twitter Increase Perceived Police Legitimacy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimmelikhuijsen, Stephan G; Meijer, Albert J

    2015-01-01

    Social media use has become increasingly popular among police forces. The literature suggests that social media use can increase perceived police legitimacy by enabling transparency and participation. Employing data from a large and representative survey of Dutch citizens (N = 4,492), this article t

  18. Exergames: Increasing Physical Activity through Effective Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudella, Jennifer L.; Butz, Jennifer V.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the growing obesity epidemic in the United States, educators must consider new ways to increase physical activity in an effort to address obesity. There are a variety of ways educators can increase physical activity in the classroom, and exergames--video games that require physical movement in order to play--are a modern-day approach to…

  19. Increasing turnover through time in tropical forests

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, O. L; Gentry, A.H.

    1994-01-01

    Tree turnover rates were assessed at 40 tropical forest sites. Averaged across inventoried forests, turnover, as measured by tree mortality and recruitment, has increased since the 1950's, with an apparent pantropical acceleration since 1980. Among 22 mature forest sites with two or more inventory periods, forest turnover also increased. The trend in forest dynamics may have profound effects on biological diversity.

  20. Wilson's disease; increased aluminum in liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, M; Yoshimasu, F; Yase, Y; Uebayashi, Y

    1979-01-01

    Interaction of trace metal metabolism was studied in a patient with Wilson's dease. Atomic absorption analysis showed markedly increased urinary excretion of copper and aluminum and an increased aluminum content was found in the biopsied liver by neutron activation analysis. These findings suggest a complicated pathogenetic mechanism involving other metals besides copper in the Wilson's disease.

  1. Worldwide Increasing Incidences of Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne E. Godar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM has been increasing at a steady rate in fair-skinned populations around the world for decades. Scientists are not certain why CMM has been steadily increasing, but strong, intermittent UVB (290–320 nm exposures, especially sunburn episodes, probably initiate, CMM, while UVA (321–400 nm passing through glass windows in offices and cars probably promotes it. The CMM incidence may be increasing at an exponential rate around the world, but it definitely decreases with increasing latitude up to ~50°N where it reverses and increases with the increasing latitude. The inversion in the incidence of CMM may occur because there is more UVA relative to UVB for most of the year at higher latitudes. If windows, allowing UVA to enter our indoor-working environment and cars, are at least partly responsible for the increasing incidence of CMM, then UV filters can be applied to reduce the rate of increase worldwide.

  2. Increased muscle glucose uptake during contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Thorkil; Galbo, H; Richter, E A

    1984-01-01

    We reinvestigated the prevailing concept that muscle contractions only elicit increased muscle glucose uptake in the presence of a so-called "permissive" concentration of insulin (Berger et al., Biochem. J. 146: 231-238, 1975; Vranic and Berger, Diabetes 28: 147-163, 1979). Hindquarters from rats...... in severe ketoacidosis were perfused with a perfusate containing insulin antiserum. After 60 min perfusion, electrical stimulation increased glucose uptake of the contracting muscles fivefold. Also, subsequent contractions increased glucose uptake in hindquarters from nondiabetic rats perfused for 1...... Berger et al., 3-O-methylglucose uptake increased during contractions and glucose uptake was negative at rest and zero during contractions. An increase in muscle transport and uptake of glucose during contractions does not require the presence of insulin. Furthermore, glucose transport in contracting...

  3. Why does human culture increase exponentially?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enquist, M; Ghirlanda, S; Jarrick, A; Wachtmeister, C-A

    2008-08-01

    Historical records show that culture can increase exponentially in time, e.g., in number of poems, musical works, scientific discoveries. We model how human capacities for creativity and cultural transmission may make such an increase possible, suggesting that: (1) creativity played a major role at the origin of human culture and for its accumulation throughout history, because cultural transmission cannot, on its own, generate exponentially increasing amounts of culture; (2) exponential increase in amount of culture can only occur if creativity is positively influenced by culture. The evolution of cultural transmission is often considered the main genetic bottleneck for the origin of culture, because natural selection cannot favor cultural transmission without any culture to transmit. Our models suggest that an increase in individual creativity may have been the first step toward human culture, because in a population of creative individuals there may be enough non-genetic information to favor the evolution of cultural transmission. PMID:18571686

  4. Are increases in cigarette taxation regressive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borren, P; Sutton, M

    1992-12-01

    Using the latest published data from Tobacco Advisory Council surveys, this paper re-evaluates the question of whether or not increases in cigarette taxation are regressive in the United Kingdom. The extended data set shows no evidence of increasing price-elasticity by social class as found in a major previous study. To the contrary, there appears to be no clear pattern in the price responsiveness of smoking behaviour across different social classes. Increases in cigarette taxation, while reducing smoking levels in all groups, fall most heavily on men and women in the lowest social class. Men and women in social class five can expect to pay eight and eleven times more of a tax increase respectively, than their social class one counterparts. Taken as a proportion of relative incomes, the regressive nature of increases in cigarette taxation is even more pronounced.

  5. Ready? Go! The Malaysian National E-Tendering Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Lou

    2007-01-01

    Are we ready? A question pondered many global leaders in Government, business and social organizations around the world to consider how best to harness the power of information and communication technology (ICT) for development. Malaysia is no exception.

  6. Eesti sai OIF-i vaatlejaliikmeks / Tõnu Tender, Tiina Jaksman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tender, Tõnu, 1965-

    2010-01-01

    Eesti võeti rahvusvahelise frankofoonia organisatsiooni (OIF) vaatlejaliikmeks. OIF ühendab riike ja piirkondi, mille ametlik keel või haridussüsteemis traditsiooniliselt õpetatav keel on prantsuse keel

  7. Tender offers in South America: Are abnormal returns really high?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcy Fuenzalida

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes estudios realizados en mercados de capital desarrollados han revelado tasas de retorno positivas inusuales de por lo menos 15% durante la fecha de anuncio de la oferta pública de adquisición de acciones. Aunque casi no se han llevado a cabo estudios sobre los mercados bursátiles en Sudamérica, algunos estudios han reportado tasas de retorno positivas inusuales en un rango del 25% al 50%, las cuales están relacionadas con el anuncio de la primera oferta de adquisición. En el presente estudio, se argumenta que las tasas de retorno positivas inusuales estimadas en los mercados emergentes son altas porque los estudios se han basado en un mercado de capitales totalmente segmentado aplicando el modelo de mercado y utilizando un índice del mercado bursátil local. Al considerar la integración parcial entre los cinco mercados emergentes en Sudamérica, se demuestra que efectivamente existen tasas de retorno positivas inusuales antes, durante y después de la fecha de anuncio de la primera oferta de adquisición. Sin embargo, el retorno positivo inusual asociado a la fecha del anuncio se encuentra en el orden del 8%. Utilizando un modelo de mercado que considere la integración parcial y el riesgo a la baja, se obtiene una tasa de retorno inusual ligeramente mayor. Estos resultados señalan una menor tasa de retorno positiva inusual en la muestra de las empresas sudamericanas incluidas en el estudio.

  8. Influential Factors in Estimating and Tendering for Construction Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon Toh Tien

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost estimation, bid/no bid decision, estimating accuracy, and cost overrun are the four main cost estimating issues (MCEI investigated by many previous researchers from different parts of the world for decades. Factors relating to client characteristics, consultant and design parameters, contractor attributes, project characteristics, contract procedures and procurement methods, and external market conditions [1] are examined for their influences on those four MCEI separately. However, very little attention is paid on the comparison of factors rankings across those four MCEI. Results from comparing those factors rankings improve the understandings on cost estimating issues. Thus, this study aims to compare the factors rankings across the four MCEI and evaluate the degree of agreement between the four sets of ranks for their influential factors. Four previous studies, each examining factors affecting each of the four MCEI are selected through literature survey for analysis. Influential factors from each previous study are assigned to their related categories: client, consultant, contractor, project, contract, and environment. Kendall’s coefficient of concordance is used to assess interjudge reliability. The computed correlation indicates a moderate degree of association between the four sets of ranks. It is found that the four MCEI are influenced by different factors with different ranks and hence should be treated as different MCEI and be managed differently.

  9. Love me tender: new entry in popular music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Mol; M.M. Chiu; N. Wijnberg

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate new entry as a process of organizational change against the background of the digital revolution in the music industry. The study analyzes questionnaire data gathered from 131 companies active in the Dutch music industry that collectively engaged in 215 ne

  10. Tenderness indicators in salted and dried meat: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Yuri Montenegro Ishihara; Marta Suely Madruga

    2014-01-01

    Salted and dried meats are known and appreciated worldly. Their consumption is often associated to certain groups of people or particular regions, and due to this, they can be called traditional. They usually have simple technology, passed on from generation to generation and for this reason, there is much variation in the quality of these products. In Brazil charque, jerked beef and sun-dried meat stand out. Biltong, cecina de León, kilishi, kaddid and bresaola are other examples of salted a...

  11. 肉类嫩化剂%The Meat Tenderizer Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红萍

    2010-01-01

    肉的嫩度是肉质量评定中最重要的指标,也是影响肉类口感最重要的因素之一.本文综述了为改善肉类嫩度所使用的各种嫩化剂,主要包括盐类,外源蛋白酶等,并简要阐述了这些嫩化剂的作用机理及应用.

  12. Love me tender – Transition vers où ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solofo Randrianja

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available RÉSUMÉDepuis le coup d’État de 2009, la transition menée par Andry Rajoelina, dure malgré l’absence de tout mandat électif. Même si l’inertie de cette situation est parfois relativisée par des pressions nationales ou extérieures, elle est légitimée par la passivité de la résistance et par des promesses récurrentes d’élections futures. Cependant, ces trois années nous permettent au moins de cerner la vision des autorités actuelles quant au développement de Madagascar. Les gouvernants de facto semblent baser ce développement sur l’exploitation des ressources minières; ils inscrivent ainsi le pays dans une politique menant à l’effondrement du reste de l’économie ainsi qu’à la dilapidation du capital environnemental et humain. Or, ce choix fait de Madagascar une victime facile de la « malédiction des matières premières » dont une minorité seulement profite et dont les conséquences à long terme sont désastreuses. L’ensemble de la société est alors amené à s’interroger sur les valeurs sur lesquelles elle entend bâtir les vertus civiques et sur la capacité de la « transition » à mener le pays sur les rails du développement durable basé sur une démocratie stable. ABSTRACTFollowing the March 2009 coup, the government led by former ‘disc jockey’ Andry Rajoelina, has managed to perpetuate in the absence of any elections. Several reasons explain this longevity, of which the lack of legitimacy of his undertaking which has led to passive resistance. The authorities however, do want to prepare elections to legitimize their power. Being in command of the State, these authorities benefit from the administrative privilege of organising elections. This would allow them to be elected, according to well-established mechanisms. The inte­gration of members of the opposition into the institutions of transition illustrates the relative failure of this strategy; failure due to internal pressure and the reticence of international donors. Nevertheless these three years allow us to determine the visions that the de facto leaders hold of development on the Grande Ile. To achieve their goals, they count in particular on making use of the ‘manna’ from mining, which will flow from several mining companies in a few months. Several warning signs serve to indicate that Madagascar is a victim of the ‘curse of raw materials’ and will be even more so in the future. While this strengthens the militarisation of political power, this curse emerges in a worrying fashion in at least three ways: i the collapse of the real and informal economies not linked to the mining sector; ii the squandering of natural capital with the hurried exportation of raw materials with little value added (the resources acquired thanks to the sale of mineral and more gen­eral natural resources are currently invested in sectors that do not provide social benefits in the long term. They serve, beyond the personal enrichment of the members of the ruling class, to foster populism through a system of rents and prebends. The goal is to remain in power at the expense of sustainable development; iii the squandering of human capital through de-scholarisation and the perpetuation of the collapse of the school and university systems, demonstrating that the training of youth is considered more of an obstacle than an asset to sustainable development. This transitional government pursues unambiguous objectives, which benefit only a minority. These objectives appear clearly in the behaviour of numerous leaders. One can therefore ask oneself on what values can society build civic virtues. This governance therefore calls into question the nature of ‘transition’ and its capacity to lead the country on the road to a sustainable development based on a stable democracy.

  13. Bovine gene polymorphisms related to fat deposition and meat tenderness

    OpenAIRE

    Fortes, Marina R. S.; Rogério A. Curi; Chardulo, Luis Artur L.; Antonio C. Silveira; Assumpção, Mayra E. O. D.; José Antonio Visintin; Oliveira, Henrique N.

    2009-01-01

    Leptin, thyroglobulin and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase play important roles in fat metabolism. Fat deposition has an influence on meat quality and consumers' choice. The aim of this study was to determine allele and genotype frequencies of polymorphisms of the bovine genes, which encode leptin (LEP), thyroglobulin (TG) and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT1). A further objective was to establish the effects of these polymorphisms on meat characteristics. We genotyped 147 animals belo...

  14. Mis värvi on maailm 2020? / Teet Tender

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tender, Teet, 1972-

    2009-01-01

    Spetsialistid usuvad, et kiired muutused ettevõtete struktuuri ja ärimudelite vallas jätkuvad, neid juhib tehnoloogiline areng, võitlus talentide värbamisel, vananev elanikkond ja suurenev tööjõu liikuvus

  15. U.S. spending increase planned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article summarizes a paper by Salomon Brothers which published its 14th annual survey and analysis of 1996 worldwide oil and gas exploration and production expenditures. The 28-page report analyzing the December 1995 survey of 275 oil and gas companies indicates the industry is planning a worldwide E and P spending increase of 7.7% this year, over 1995 levels. This is somewhat lower than the now-expected 9.0% increase in 1995 from 1994; however, it is the largest planned increase from a year-end survey since December 1990. Results indicate the recovery in international spending that began in 1995 will be sustained at a more-modest 8.6%, compared to the 14.4% increase last year. Deferrals from 1994 are believed to have contributed to strong 1995 international spending. US spending, conversely, is expected to increase a robust 11.8% in 1996, after a 4.7% advance in 1995. US majors are pacing this increase with a planned 13.4% increase, compared to 9.3% for independents. Canadian operators project a 6.4% decline, even greater than the 4.4% drop registered in 1995

  16. NSF to receive 10% funding increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Richard M.

    Work is almost complete on the fiscal year 1994 funding bill for the National Science Foundation. On October 1, Conference Committee Chairs Louis Stokes (D-Ohio) and Barbara Mikulski (D-Md.) and their colleagues completed work on the final version of HR2491, the VA, HUD, Independent Agencies Appropriations Bill. The House and Senate will soon give their final approval to the conference report for HR2491, after which it will lack only the president's signature. NSF's overall budget increase of 10%, raising total funding to %3,005.3 million, is the highest increase among all departments and agencies. Last year's increase in NSF funding was 6.3%.Funding for research and related activities will increase 7% to $1,986 million, a compromise between the 10% House increase and the 4% Senate figure. Last year's bill cut research funding. Education and human resources funding will increase 17% to $569.6 million. This is $13.5 million above the Clinton administration's request. Last year's increase for education and human resources was 4.7%.

  17. Increased skeletal muscle capillarization enhances insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerstrom, Thorbjorn; Laub, Lasse; Vedel, Kenneth; Brand, Christian Lehn; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Lindqvist, Anna Kaufmann; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P; Hellsten, Ylva

    2014-12-15

    Increased skeletal muscle capillarization is associated with improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. However, a possible causal relationship has not previously been identified. Therefore, we investigated whether increased skeletal muscle capillarization increases insulin sensitivity. Skeletal muscle-specific angiogenesis was induced by adding the α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist prazosin to the drinking water of Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 33), whereas 34 rats served as controls. Insulin sensitivity was measured ≥40 h after termination of the 3-wk prazosin treatment, which ensured that prazosin was cleared from the blood stream. Whole body insulin sensitivity was measured in conscious, unrestrained rats by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Tissue-specific insulin sensitivity was assessed by administration of 2-deoxy-[(3)H]glucose during the plateau phase of the clamp. Whole body insulin sensitivity increased by ∼24%, and insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle 2-deoxy-[(3)H]glucose disposal increased by ∼30% concomitant with an ∼20% increase in skeletal muscle capillarization. Adipose tissue insulin sensitivity was not affected by the treatment. Insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake was enhanced independent of improvements in skeletal muscle insulin signaling to glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis, suggesting that the improvement in insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake could be due to improved diffusion conditions for glucose in the muscle. The prazosin treatment did not affect the rats on any other parameters measured. We conclude that an increase in skeletal muscle capillarization is associated with increased insulin sensitivity. These data point toward the importance of increasing skeletal muscle capillarization for prevention or treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25352432

  18. Increasing trends of herpes zoster in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raina MacIntyre

    Full Text Available Increasing trends in incidence of herpes zoster (HZ have been reported in Australia and internationally. This may reflect the impact of childhood VZV vaccination programs introduced universally in Australia in late 2005. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in incidence of HZ and PHN in Australia over time, and associated healthcare resource utilisation.Australian data on general practice (GP encounters for HZ, specific antiviral prescribing data from the pharmaceutical benefits scheme, emergency department presentations from the states of NSW and Victoria and national hospitalisation data for HZ were analysed for time trends using regression models. Two time periods (2000-2006 and 2006-2013 were compared which correspond broadly with the pre- and post- universal VZV vaccination period.All data sources showed increasing rates of HZ with age and over time. The GP database showed a significant annual increase in encounters for HZ of 2.5 per 100,000 between 1998 and 2013, and the rates of prescriptions for HZ increased by 4.2% per year between 2002 and 2012. In the 60+ population HZ incidence was estimated to increase from 11.9 to 15.4 per 1,000 persons using GP data or from 12.8 to 14.2 per 1,000 persons using prescription data (p<0.05, between the two periods. Hospitalisation data did not show the same increasing trend over time, except for the age group ≥80 years. Most emergency visits for HZ were not admitted, and showed significant increases over time.The burden of HZ in Australia is substantial, and continues to increase over time. This increase is seen both pre- and post-universal VZV vaccination in 2005, and is most prominent in the older population. The substantial burden of HZ, along with ageing of the Australian population and the importance of healthy ageing, warrants consideration of HZ vaccination for the elderly.

  19. Tobacco use increases susceptibility to bacterial infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demuth Donald R

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Active smokers and those exposed to secondhand smoke are at increased risk of bacterial infection. Tobacco smoke exposure increases susceptibility to respiratory tract infections, including tuberculosis, pneumonia and Legionnaires disease; bacterial vaginosis and sexually transmitted diseases, such as chlamydia and gonorrhoea; Helicobacter pylori infection; periodontitis; meningitis; otitis media; and post-surgical and nosocomial infections. Tobacco smoke compromises the anti-bacterial function of leukocytes, including neutrophils, monocytes, T cells and B cells, providing a mechanistic explanation for increased infection risk. Further epidemiological, clinical and mechanistic research into this important area is warranted.

  20. Who Benefits from a Minimum Wage Increase?

    OpenAIRE

    John W. Lopresti; Mumford, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of how a minimum wage increase affects the wages of low-wage workers. Most studies assume that there is a simple mechanical increase in the wage for workers earning a wage between the old and the new minimum wage, with some studies allowing for spillovers to workers with wages just above this range. Rather than assume that the wages of these workers would have remained constant, this paper estimates how a minimum wage increase impacts a low-wage worker's wage...