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Sample records for actinidin increases tenderness

  1. Injection of marinade with actinidin increases tenderness of porcine M. biceps femoris and affects myofibrils and connective tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M.; Torngren, M. A.; Gunvig, A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Marination of beef muscles with brine solutions containing proteolytic enzymes from fruit extracts has been shown to tenderize meat. However, the effect of marination with actinidin on tenderness of pork muscles has not been investigated. Tenderness and eating quality of porcine M. bi...... indicate that actinidin tenderizes pork M. biceps femoris by affecting both the myofibrils and connective tissue....

  2. Methods to increase tenderness of individual muscles from beef rounds when cooked with dry or moist heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolle, B K; McKenna, D R; Savell, J W

    2004-09-01

    Muscles (n=9) from beef rounds (n=40) were subjected to one of the four tenderization strategies: control, blade tenderization, enzymatic tenderization or salt/phosphate injection. Treated muscles were aged, cut into steaks, cooked using one of the two cooking methods (dry-heat or moist-heat), and Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) force values were determined. For dry-heat cookery, injection with a salt and phosphate solution resulted in the lowest WBS values, however, WBS values for blade tenderization and enzymatic tenderization were comparable in the M. adductor, M. vastus lateralis, M. rectus femoris, and M. semimembranosus (cranial and caudal aspects). The M. gluteobiceps (cranial and caudal aspects, and ischiatic head) and M. semitendinosus showed little improvement in WBS values with any of the tenderization treatments. For moist-heat cookery, only the M. rectus femoris and M. semimembranosus, caudal aspect, showed significant decreases in WBS values, and those improvements were only associated with salt and phosphate injection and enzymatic tenderization. Within each cooking method and tenderization treatment, the M. rectus femoris, M. semimembranosus, cranial aspect had the lowest WBS values, whereas the M. gluteobiceps, ischiatic head and M. semimembranosus typically had the highest WBS values. All tenderization strategies increased the frequency of muscles being rated as "very tender" (WBSdry- and moist-heat cookery.

  3. Isolation and Primary Culture of Rat Hepatocytes Using Kiwifruit Actinidin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Shirvani Farsani

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Isolation of cells from different tissues rely on proteolytic enzymes mainly collagenases that selectively digest collagen fibers of extra-cellular matrix. It is important to find new and proper collagenases from plant sources. In the present research actinidin, a cysteine protease abundant in Kiwifruit, was used to isolate and culture of rat hepatocytes. Materials & Methods: Different concentrations of actinidin was used to isolate rat hepatocytes by one or two-step perfusion method. The viability of the separated cells was examined by the trypan blue test. The isolated rat hepatocytes were cultured on collagen coated plates in William´s E medium. The morphology of hepatocytes was examined microscopically after staining with the Papanicolaou method.Results: Actinidin in the concentration of 0.4 mg/ml in two-step perfusion method properly isolated hepatocytes from rat liver. The viability of isolated hepatocytes that successfully cultured in collagen coated plates was 90-95 percent.Conclusion: These results showed that actinidin is a proper protease for isolation of hepatocytes. In addition, purification of this enzyme is simpler than the collagenases.

  4. Proteolytic activities of kiwifruit actinidin (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward) on different fibrous and globular proteins: a comparative study of actinidin with papain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalabi, Maryam; Khademi, Fatemeh; Yarani, Reza; Mostafaie, Ali

    2014-04-01

    Actinidin, a member of the papain-like family of cysteine proteases, is abundant in kiwifruit. To date, a few studies have been provided to investigate the proteolytic activity and substrate specificity of actinidin on native proteins. Herein, the proteolytic activity of actinidin was compared to papain on several different fibrous and globular proteins under neutral, acidic and basic conditions. The digested samples were subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and densitometry to assess the proteolytic effect. Furthermore, the levels of free amino nitrogen (FAN) of the treated samples were determined using the ninhydrin colorimetric method. The findings showed that actinidin has no or limited proteolytic effect on globular proteins such as immunoglobulins including sheep IgG, rabbit IgG, chicken IgY and fish IgM, bovine serum albumin (BSA), lipid transfer protein (LTP), and whey proteins (α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin) compared to papain. In contrast to globular proteins, actinidin could hydrolyze collagen and fibrinogen perfectly at neutral and mild basic pHs. Moreover, this enzyme could digest pure α-casein and major subunits of micellar casein especially in acidic pHs. Taken together, the data indicated that actinidin has narrow substrate specificity with the highest enzymatic activity for the collagen and fibrinogen substrates. The results describe the actinidin as a mild plant protease useful for many special applications such as cell isolation from different tissues and some food industries as a mixture formula with other relevant proteases.

  5. Kiwifruit cysteine protease actinidin compromises the intestinal barrier by disrupting tight junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grozdanovic, Milica M; Čavić, Milena; Nešić, Andrijana; Andjelković, Uroš; Akbari, Peyman; Smit, Joost J; Gavrović-Jankulović, Marija

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The intestinal epithelium forms a barrier that food allergens must cross in order to induce sensitization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the plant-derived food cysteine protease--actinidin (Act d1) on the integrity of intestinal epithelium tight junctions (TJs). MET

  6. Reduced neck-shoulder muscle strength and aerobic power together with increased pericranial tenderness are associated with tension-type headache in girls: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornoe, Birte; Andersen, Lars L; Skotte, Jørgen H; Jensen, Rigmor; Gard, Gunvor; Skov, Liselotte; Hallström, Inger

    2014-06-01

    Tension-type headaches (TTH) are common among children worldwide and mean a potential risk of disability and medication overuse headache. The associated mechanisms, however, remain unsolved. Our study investigated muscle strength in the neck-shoulder region, aerobic power and pericranial tenderness in girls with TTH compared with healthy controls. A blinded case-control study comprising 41 girls with TTH and 41 age-matched healthy controls. Standardised testing of isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and force steadiness of neck flexion and extension, as well as MVC and rate-of-force development of dominant shoulder, was conducted. VO2 max was recorded by a submaximal ergometer test and pericranial tenderness by standardised manual palpation. Logistic regression analyses were applied. Girls with TTH demonstrated significantly higher pericranial tenderness than controls, in correlation with headache frequency (r = 0.66, p VO2 max. Reduced neck-shoulder strength and aerobic power together with increased pericranial tenderness are associated with TTH in girls. Future interventions should be directed towards health promoting patient educational programmes on enhanced physical exercising. Much more exact and detailed research in young girls and boys are needed. © International Headache Society 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  7. Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium: manipulating meat tenderness by increasing the turnover of intramuscular connective tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purslow, P P; Archile-Contreras, A C; Cha, M C

    2012-03-01

    Controlled reduction of the connective tissue contribution to cooked meat toughness is an objective that would have considerable financial impact in terms of added product value. The amount of intramuscular connective tissue in a muscle appears connected to its in vivo function, so reduction of the overall connective tissue content is not thought to be a viable target. However, manipulation of the state of maturity of the collagenous component is a biologically viable target; by increasing connective tissue turnover, less mature structures can be produced that are functional in vivo but more easily broken down on cooking at temperatures above 60°C, thus improving cooked meat tenderness. Recent work using cell culture models of fibroblasts derived from muscle and myoblasts has identified a range of factors that alter the activity of the principal enzymes responsible for connective tissue turnover, the matrix metalloproteinases (MMP). Fibroblasts cultured from 3 different skeletal muscles from the same animal show different cell proliferation and MMP activity, which may relate to the different connective tissue content and architecture in functionally different muscles. Expression of MMP by fibroblasts is increased by vitamins that can counter the negative effects of oxidative stress on new collagen synthesis. Preliminary work using in situ zymography of myotubes in culture also indicates increased MMP activity in the presence of epinephrine and reactive oxidative species. Comparison of the relative changes in MMP expression from muscle cells vs. fibroblasts shows that myoblasts are more responsive to a range of stimuli. Muscle cells are likely to produce more of the total MMP in muscle tissue as a whole, and the expression of latent forms of the enzymes (i.e., pro-MMP) may vary between oxidative and glycolytic muscle fibers within the same muscle. The implication is that the different muscle fiber composition of different muscles eaten as meat may influence the

  8. Point tenderness - abdomen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003273.htm Point tenderness - abdomen To use the sharing features on this page, ... over a certain part of the belly area (abdomen). Considerations The abdomen is an area of the ...

  9. Reduced neck-shoulder muscle strength and aerobic power together with increased pericranial tenderness are associated with tension-type headache in girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornoe, Birte; Andersen, Lars L; Skotte, Jørgen H

    2013-01-01

    as MVC and rate-of-force development of dominant shoulder, was conducted. VO2 max was recorded by a submaximal ergometer test and pericranial tenderness by standardised manual palpation. Logistic regression analyses were applied. RESULTS: Girls with TTH demonstrated significantly higher pericranial......BACKGROUND: Tension-type headaches (TTH) are common among children worldwide and mean a potential risk of disability and medication overuse headache. The associated mechanisms, however, remain unsolved. Our study investigated muscle strength in the neck-shoulder region, aerobic power...... and pericranial tenderness in girls with TTH compared with healthy controls. METHODS: A blinded case-control study comprising 41 girls with TTH and 41 age-matched healthy controls. Standardised testing of isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and force steadiness of neck flexion and extension, as well...

  10. Effects of gastrointestinal digestion and heating on the allergenicity of the kiwi allergens Act d 1, actinidin, and Act d 2, a thaumatin-like protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bublin, Merima; Radauer, Christian; Knulst, Andre; Wagner, Stefan; Scheiner, Otto; Mackie, Alan R.; Mills, E. N. Clare; Breiteneder, Heimo

    2008-01-01

    Kiwifruit is a significant elicitor of allergy both in children and adults. Digestibility of two kiwifruit allergens, actinidin (Act d 1) and thaumatin-like protein (Act d 2), was assessed using an in vitro digestion system that approximates physiological conditions with respect to the passage of fo

  11. E-Tendering Process Within Construction: A UK Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geoff Tindsley; Paul Stephenson

    2008-01-01

    E-tendering can be defined as the issue and receipt of tender documentation through electronic means which facilitates the procurement of construction work and the award of contracts. The current paper-based method of tendering has been commonplace within the industry for a significant number of years, but with recent technological advancements, this traditional process is rapidly becoming outdated. Several ma-jor projects within the UK are now being procured through the e-tendering process which includes the multi-billion pound development for the Olympic Games in London 2012. However, while these prestigious pro-jects are embracing e-tendering technology, it is not certain as to what extent e-tendering is used across the construction sector generally. This research is primarily concemed with establishing the current status, prac-ticalities and resource effectiveness of e-tendering within UK construction. Results are provided from an in-dustry survey which includes both quantitative and qualitative data. A case study implementation is also in-cluded which assesses the utilisation of e-tendering software in practice. The research findings indicated that e-tendering can provide substantial resource savings to a major part of the supply chain, with the key benefits being enhanced communication, time savings and reduced costs. However, a considerable propor-tion of the industry remains uncertain about embracing new technologies, with reluctance to change being perceived as the greatest barrier. The findings suggest that many professionals within the UK construction industry recognise a requirement for increased implementation of e-tendering, but feel that training, educa-tion and support from senior management are essential requirements for e-tendering to become widely ac-cepted in the future.

  12. Structural analysis of actinidin and a comparison of cadmium and sulfur anomalous signals from actinidin crystals measured using in-house copper- and chromium-anode X-ray sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogavel, Manickam; Nithya, Nirmal; Suzuki, Atsuo; Sugiyama, Yasuo; Yamane, Takashi; Velmurugan, Devadasan; Sharma, Amit

    2010-12-01

    The structure of the 24 kDa cysteine protease saru-actinidin from the fruit of Actinidia arguta Planch. (sarunashi) was determined by the cadmium/sulfur-SAD method with X-ray diffraction data collected using in-house Cu Kα and Cr Kα radiation. The anomalous scatterers included nine sulfurs and several cadmium ions from the crystallization solution. The high quality of the diffraction data, the use of chromium-anode X-ray radiation and the substantial anomalous signal allowed structure determination and automated model building despite both a low solvent content (analysis and comparison of the sulfur/cadmium anomalous signals at the Cu Kα and Cr Kα wavelengths was carried out. It is proposed that the inclusion of cadmium salts in crystallization solutions coupled with chromium-anode radiation can provide a convenient route for structure determination.

  13. 78 FR 72597 - Descriptive Designation for Needle- or Blade-Tenderized (Mechanically Tenderized) Beef Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... Needle- or Blade-Tenderized (Mechanically Tenderized) Beef Products AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection... needle- or blade-tenderized (mechanically tenderized) beef products that appeared in the Federal Register...-tenderized (Mechanically Tenderized) Beef Products'' (78 FR 34589). The Agency proposed to require the use...

  14. 31 CFR 309.11 - Tenders; payment of accepted tenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT ISSUE AND SALE OF TREASURY BILLS... the Public Debt in cash or other immediately available funds on or before the date specified, except... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tenders; payment of accepted...

  15. Prerigor and postrigor changes in tenderness of ovine longissimus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, T L; Koohmaraie, M

    1994-05-01

    A novel approach was used to measure the tenderness of prerigor ovine longissimus thoracis et lumborum by avoiding the confounding effects of heat-induced shortening resulting from cooking prerigor meat. The objective was to determine the tenderness of the muscle at the time of slaughter and to monitor changes in tenderness during rigor development and postmortem aging. Nine Romanov and 12 Finnsheep rams were slaughtered at 49.3 kg live weight. Samples of longissimus thoracis et lumborum were removed at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 72, or 336 h after exsanguination. Five of the eight sample times were represented in each carcass and all carcasses were sampled at 0, 12, and 24 h. Prerigor muscle samples (0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 h) were clamped between two metal plates before excision to prevent shortening. The samples were frozen at -30 degrees C then stored at -5 degrees C for 10 d to allow glycolysis to proceed to completion, and thus ultimate pH and complete rigor mortis were attained. The longissimus thoracis et lumborum was then cut into chops and cooked and shear force was determined. Sarcomere length decreased through 24 h postmortem, then increased slightly through 336 h postmortem. Warner-Bratzler shear force values were 5.1 kg at 0 and 3 h, increased to 8.3 kg from 3 to 9 h, and then declined to 3.1 kg from 24 to 336 h postmortem. These data imply that longissimus thoracis et lumborum at slaughter is intermediate in tenderness, rigor shortening toughens the meat, and proteolysis tenderizes the meat, resulting in more tender meat after 14 d of aging than at slaughter.

  16. Insight into contractors’ competitiveness at Most Economically Advantageous Tenders in the Dutch construction sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vrind, S.M.H.

    2010-01-01

    Increased application of Most Economically Advantageous Tenders (MEAT) in the Dutch construction sector changes contractors’ tender processes. They are no longer requested to execute fully specified projects for the lowest price, but contractors are asked to come up with solutions themselves. This

  17. Insight into contractors’ competitiveness at Most Economically Advantageous Tenders in the Dutch construction sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vrind, S.M.H.

    2010-01-01

    Increased application of Most Economically Advantageous Tenders (MEAT) in the Dutch construction sector changes contractors’ tender processes. They are no longer requested to execute fully specified projects for the lowest price, but contractors are asked to come up with solutions themselves. This o

  18. 49 CFR 230.107 - Tender frame and body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender frame and body. 230.107 Section 230.107... Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.107 Tender frame and body. (a) Maintenance. Tender... repaired: (1) Portions of the tender frame or body (except wheels) that have less than a 21/2...

  19. Cluster analysis application identifies muscle characteristics of importance for beef tenderness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chriki Sghaier

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important controversy in the relationship between beef tenderness and muscle characteristics including biochemical traits exists among meat researchers. The aim of this study is to explain variability in meat tenderness using muscle characteristics and biochemical traits available in the Integrated and Functional Biology of Beef (BIF-Beef database. The BIF-Beef data warehouse contains characteristic measurements from animal, muscle, carcass, and meat quality derived from numerous experiments. We created three classes for tenderness (high, medium, and low based on trained taste panel tenderness scores of all meat samples consumed (4,366 observations from 40 different experiments. For each tenderness class, the corresponding means for the mechanical characteristics, muscle fibre type, collagen content, and biochemical traits which may influence tenderness of the muscles were calculated. Results Our results indicated that lower shear force values were associated with more tender meat. In addition, muscles in the highest tenderness cluster had the lowest total and insoluble collagen contents, the highest mitochondrial enzyme activity (isocitrate dehydrogenase, the highest proportion of slow oxidative muscle fibres, the lowest proportion of fast-glycolytic muscle fibres, and the lowest average muscle fibre cross-sectional area. Results were confirmed by correlation analyses, and differences between muscle types in terms of biochemical characteristics and tenderness score were evidenced by Principal Component Analysis (PCA. When the cluster analysis was repeated using only muscle samples from m. Longissimus thoracis (LT, the results were similar; only contrasting previous results by maintaining a relatively constant fibre-type composition between all three tenderness classes. Conclusion Our results show that increased meat tenderness is related to lower shear forces, lower insoluble collagen and total collagen content, lower

  20. Genetic effects on beef tenderness in Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, S F; Tatum, J D; Wulf, D M; Green, R D; Smith, G C

    1997-07-01

    Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle, originating from diverse production environments, were used to quantify genetic variation in marbling, 24-h calpastatin activity, and beef tenderness and to identify strategies for prevention of beef tenderness problems in Bos indicus composite cattle. Comparisons among 3/8 Bos indicus breeds (Braford, Red Brangus, Simbrah) revealed significant differences in marbling and 24-h calpastatin activity, but not in tenderness. Compared with Bos taurus cattle, 3/ 8 Bos indicus cattle had similar marbling scores but higher 24-h calpastatin activities. Also, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus composites aged more slowly from 1 to 7 d and was less tender at 4, 7, 14, 21, and 35 d postmortem than beef from Bos taurus cattle. However, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was relatively tender if it was aged for a sufficient period of time (21 d). The delayed response to aging and greater toughness of beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was associated with Brahman breed effects and was not related to the Bos taurus germplasm source. Marbling was moderately heritable (.52 +/- .21) but exhibited positive genetic correlations with shear force at d 1 through 14 of aging, suggesting that, in these cattle, selection for increased marbling would have an unfavorable effect on beef tenderness. A low heritability estimate for 24-h calpastatin activity (.15 +/- .15), coupled with low genetic correlations between calpastatin activity and shear force at 7, 14, and 35 d, suggested that selection for low calpastatin activity would have little effect on aged beef tenderness. Panel tenderness and shear force at 7, 14, and 21 d were moderately heritable (.27 to .47), indicating that aged beef tenderness could be improved by direct selection (via progeny testing). Comparisons among Simbrah, Senegus x Simbrah, and Red Angus x Simmental steers showed that inclusion of a tropically adapted Bos taurus breed (Senepol) could be an effective strategy for preventing beef

  1. 49 CFR 230.103 - Tender roller bearing journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender roller bearing journal boxes. 230.103... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.103 Tender roller bearing journal boxes. Tender roller bearing journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition....

  2. Tenderness charactherization of ostrich meat commercial cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Conte Hadlich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The ostrich meat has become an interesting source of protein as well as being an alternative to red meat, because of its healthy fatty acid profile, with a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and low content of intramuscular fat, which arouses the interest of people who want a low animal fat diet. Ostrich meat is also appreciated by the tenderness, since it is one of the larger impact characteristics on the acceptance of a meat product for consumers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tenderness of different ostrich meat commercial cuts and certificate that all studied cuts present tenderness acceptable by consumers. The laboratory tests were performed at the Laboratory of Biochemistry of Proteins (FMVZ, being measured shear force of seven commercial cuts of ostrich meat. The cuts were: internal thigh, external thigh, filet plan, filet out, filet small, rump and filet fan. The samples were boiled in water bath controlled by time and temperature. After chilling, fragments of 1.0 x 1.0 x 3.0 cm were removed from samples. Shear force measurements were performed using a mechanical Warner-Bratzler Shear Force equipment. The shear force means were: internal thigh (3.5 kg, external thigh (2.8 kg, filet plan (2.4 kg, filet out (1.6 kg, filet small (3.5 kg, rump (3.3 kg and filet fan (2.0 kg. All the commercial cuts evaluated had very low values of shear force, denoting meat extremely tender. The classification of meat tenderness is based on shear force values, being values below 4.6 kg considered meat with desirable tenderness. All ostrich meat commercial cuts analyzed had shear force values lower than 4.6 kg, being classified as meat of extreme tenderness. The results found in this work allow concluding that ostrich meat can be considered tender. These findings lead us to consider the ostrich meat as an interesting alternative to red meat, in relation to tenderness and healthy fatty acid profile, being favorable for people suffering from

  3. Construction Tender Subcontract Selection using Case-based Reasoning

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    Due Luu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Obtaining competitive quotations from suitably qualified subcontractors at tender tim n significantly increase the chance of w1nmng a construction project. Amidst an increasingly growing trend to subcontracting in Australia, selecting appropriate subcontractors for a construction project can be a daunting task requiring the analysis of complex and dynamic criteria such as past performance, suitable experience, track record of competitive pricing, financial stability and so on. Subcontractor selection is plagued with uncertainty and vagueness and these conditions are difficul_t o represent in generalised sets of rules. DeciSIOns pertaining to the selection of subcontr:act?s tender time are usually based on the mtu1t1onand past experience of construction estimators. Case-based reasoning (CBR may be an appropriate method of addressing the chal_lenges of selecting subcontractors because CBR 1s able to harness the experiential knowledge of practitioners. This paper reviews the practicality and suitability of a CBR approach for subcontractor tender selection through the development of a prototype CBR procurement advisory system. In this system, subcontractor selection cases are represented by a set of attributes elicited from experienced construction estimators. The results indicate that CBR can enhance the appropriateness of the selection of subcontractors for construction projects.

  4. Functional Genomic Analysis of Variation on Beef Tenderness Induced by Acute Stress in Angus Cattle

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    Chunping Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Beef is one of the leading sources of protein, B vitamins, iron, and zinc in human food. Beef palatability is based on three general criteria: tenderness, juiciness, and flavor, of which tenderness is thought to be the most important factor. In this study, we found that beef tenderness, measured by the Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF, was dramatically increased by acute stress. Microarray analysis and qPCR identified a variety of genes that were differentially expressed. Pathway analysis showed that these genes were involved in immune response and regulation of metabolism process as activators or repressors. Further analysis identified that these changes may be related with CpG methylation of several genes. Therefore, the results from this study provide an enhanced understanding of the mechanisms that genetic and epigenetic regulations control meat quality and beef tenderness.

  5. The callipyge phenomenon: tenderness intervention methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, M B

    1999-01-01

    Consumers continue to desire leaner meats. Lambs expressing the callipyge gene have been identified as having superior, leaner carcasses compared with normally muscled lambs. However, the longissimus muscle, a major merchandised muscle in lamb, has repeatedly been shown to be significantly less tender in callipyge lamb compared with normally muscled lambs. Preharvest factors, such as genetics, sex, and production/management practices, have thus far shown no promise at alleviating this tenderness problem. But a number of postharvest interventions have been introduced to alleviate it. Included among the strategies are postmortem aging, carcass electrical stimulation, the combination of freezing and thawing before aging, calcium chloride injection, and the Hydrodyne process. These strategies have exhibited various degrees of success. Postharvest strategies to improve callipyge longissimus tenderness are described in this article.

  6. Antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) protein hydrolysates produced by the proteases AFP, HT, Pro-G, actinidin and zingibain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Sue-Siang; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Carne, Alan; Birch, John

    2016-07-15

    Hemp protein isolates (HPIs) were hydrolysed by proteases (AFP, HT, ProG, actinidin and zingibain). The enzymatic hydrolysis of HPIs was evaluated through the degree of hydrolysis and SDS-PAGE profiles. The bioactive properties of the resultant hydrolysates (HPHs) were accessed through ORAC, DPPḢ scavenging and ACE-inhibitory activities. The physical properties of the resultant HPHs were evaluated for their particle sizes, zeta potential and surface hydrophobicity. HT had the highest rate of caseinolytic activity at the lowest concentration (0.1 mg mL(-1)) compared to other proteases that required concentration of 100 mg mL(-1) to achieve their maximum rate of caseinolytic activity. This led to the highest degree of hydrolysis of HPIs by HT in the SDS-PAGE profiles. Among all proteases and substrates, HT resulted in the highest bioactivities (ORAC, DPPḢ scavenging and ACE-inhibitory activities) generated from alkali extracted HPI in the shortest time (2 h) compared to the other protease preparations.

  7. Tenderness indicators in salted and dried meat: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Montenegro Ishihara

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Salted and dried meats are known and appreciated worldly. Their consumption is often associated to certain groups of people or particular regions, and due to this, they can be called traditional. They usually have simple technology, passed on from generation to generation and for this reason, there is much variation in the quality of these products. In Brazil charque, jerked beef and sun-dried meat stand out. Biltong, cecina de León, kilishi, kaddid and bresaola are other examples of salted and dried meats. Despite the importance of these meat products, there are no specific studies on their tenderness. Since tenderness is one of the attributes most reported by consumers, research may help the acceptance of meat products, increasing their demand. In this context, this review presents the characteristics of traditional salted and dried meat products related to processing aspects and suggested tenderness indicators - shear force, myofibrillar fragmentation index, sarcomere length, collagen quantification – to assess the softness of meat products, since they are easy to apply and include the study of the main responsible for meat softness, myofibrillar and connective tissue proteins.

  8. Tender moments in the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, C.

    1991-04-01

    Described is tender-assisted drilling (TAD) on the UK North Sea Gannet field. The Gannet field is developed by Shell UK Exploration and Production (Shell Expro). In March 1990, Shell Expro awarded Sedco Forex the design and engineering contract to convert the semisubmersible drilling rig Sedco 704 into the Gannet TSV (Tender Support Vessel). The only semisubmersible TSV operation so far to have completed drilling in the North Sea has been in the Norwegian sector. The Odin field, operated by Esso Norge a/s, was developed using the converted drilling rig Treasure Hunter. 1 fig., 1 ill., 3 refs.

  9. Gertrude Stein’s Tender Buttons (1911)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, Søren Hattesen

    2004-01-01

    Gertrude Stein’s book of prose poems Tender Buttons has been characterized as a modernist literary work by most of its critics. As a distinctive feature of its modernist poetics critics in particular emphasize Stein’s denial of representation through verbal abstraction and autotelism. This paper......, however, intends to read Tender Buttons somewhat differently by suggesting that the poems may be viewed as an example of a displaced Rabbinic hermeneutics in the sense given the term by Susan Handelman. Inasmuch as Stein refuses to name the many objects properly that the titles of the poems introduce...

  10. Improving Tenderness of Spent Layer Hens Meat Using Papaya Leaves (Carica papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. O. Abdalla, N. N. A. Ali, F. S. Siddig and S. A. M. Ali*

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were performed to study the use of papaya leaves as a meat tenderizer. The first experiment was to evaluate the effect of papaya dry leaves added to hen’s diet before slaughter. Spent hens (n=48 were used, half of them were fed a concentrate ration containing10% dried papaya leaves powder (DPLP while others received layer ration (Control, for 10 days. The second experiment involved a comparison between papaya leaves juice (PLJ, fresh papaya leaves (FPL and vinegar solution (VS as marinades applied to meat for one or two hours before cooking. Spent layer hens (n=42 were used for tenderness evaluation method. After slaughtering and preparing the chickens two methods of cooking were used (oven and moist cooking. The cooked parts (breast, thigh and drumstick were subjected to a panel test evaluation according to a designed questionnaire. Addition of dried papaya leaves powder to spent layer hens ration significantly (P≤0.05 increased the level of meat tenderness. Moist cooking had significantly (P≤0.05 improved meat tenderization compared to oven cooking. Meat treated with fresh papaya leaves had significantly (P≤0.05 improved tenderness. It was concluded that wrapping the tough meat of spent layer hens with fresh papaya leaves for one hour and moist cooking improve tenderness of meat.

  11. The tendering process: flaws and all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, Peter; Hicks, Carolyn

    2003-08-01

    The tendering process has become the dominant and now traditional approach to the allocation of research and consultancy projects. This is largely built around the notion that it ensures accountability and probity within the allocative procedure, and that high quality of work and 'value for money' are the outcomes. It appears to have become an institutionalized and unchallengeable process. Yet it is rarely costed in terms of the true resource implications for all the organizations involved, nor is quality assessed in terms of alternative processes that might be employed. This paper explores the tendering process in terms of factors that may suggest that the quality of work produced via the tendering process is not always as good as it might be. Also in a hypothetical example involving the university sector and the National Health Service, data are presented indicating that the overall cost to the public sector is often actually greater than the value of the contract being allocated. An alternative preferred provider relationship-based allocative process is advocated as an improvement to the current established tendering procedure.

  12. Visual evaluation of beef tenderness by using surface structural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kedibone KY. Modika

    2015-08-01

    Aug 1, 2015 ... There is potential for an experienced eye to ... Keywords: Meat colour and tenderness, tenderness prediction, trained .... defined colours (1 = brown-orange, 2 = greyish-brown, 3 = pink-brown, 4 = pale pink, 5 = pink, 6 = light.

  13. Tender points are not sites of ongoing inflammation -in vivo evidence in patients with chronic tension-type headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashina, M; Stallknecht, Bente; Bendtsen, L

    2003-01-01

    Increased muscle tenderness is the most prominent finding in patients with tension-type headache, and it has recently been shown that muscle blood flow is diminished in response to static exercise in tender points in these patients. Although tenderness has been ascribed to local inflammation...... (ATP), glutamate, bradykinin and other metabolites in a tender point of patients with chronic tension-type headache, in the resting state as well as in response to static exercise, and to compare findings with measurements in a matched non-tender point of healthy controls. We recruited 16 patients...... with chronic tension-type headache and 17 healthy control subjects. Two microdialysis catheters were inserted into the trapezius muscle and dialysates were collected at rest, 15 and 30 min after start of static exercise (10% of maximal force) and 15 and 30 min after end of exercise. All samples were coded...

  14. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and...

  15. Tough and tender: embodied categorization of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepian, Michael L; Weisbuch, Max; Rule, Nicholas O; Ambady, Nalini

    2011-01-01

    Emerging evidence has shown that human thought can be embodied within physical sensations and actions. Indeed, abstract concepts such as morality, time, and interpersonal warmth can be based on metaphors that are grounded in bodily experiences (e.g., physical temperature can signal interpersonal warmth). We hypothesized that social-category knowledge is similarly embodied, and we tested this hypothesis by examining a sensory metaphor related to categorical judgments of gender. We chose the dimension of "toughness" (ranging from tough to tender), which is often used to characterize differences between males and females. Across two studies, the proprioceptive experience of toughness (vs. tenderness) was manipulated as participants categorized sex-ambiguous faces as male or female. Two different manipulations of proprioceptive toughness predictably biased the categorization of faces toward "male." These findings suggest that social-category knowledge is at least partially embodied.

  16. A secured e-tendering modeling using misuse case approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd, Haslina; Robie, Muhammad Afdhal Muhammad; Baharom, Fauziah; Darus, Norida Muhd; Saip, Mohamed Ali; Yasin, Azman

    2016-08-01

    Major risk factors relating to electronic transactions may lead to destructive impacts on trust and transparency in the process of tendering. Currently, electronic tendering (e-tendering) systems still remain uncertain in issues relating to legal and security compliance and most importantly it has an unclear security framework. Particularly, the available systems are lacking in addressing integrity, confidentiality, authentication, and non-repudiation in e-tendering requirements. Thus, one of the challenges in developing an e-tendering system is to ensure the system requirements include the function for secured and trusted environment. Therefore, this paper aims to model a secured e-tendering system using misuse case approach. The modeling process begins with identifying the e-tendering process, which is based on the Australian Standard Code of Tendering (AS 4120-1994). It is followed by identifying security threats and their countermeasure. Then, the e-tendering was modelled using misuse case approach. The model can contribute to e-tendering developers and also to other researchers or experts in the e-tendering domain.

  17. Decision Support Systems (DSS) in Construction Tendering Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Mohemad, Rosmayati; Othman, Zulaiha Ali; Noor, Noor Maizura Mohamad

    2010-01-01

    The successful execution of a construction project is heavily impacted by making the right decision during tendering processes. Managing tender procedures is very complex and uncertain involving coordination of many tasks and individuals with different priorities and objectives. Bias and inconsistent decision are inevitable if the decision-making process is totally depends on intuition, subjective judgement or emotion. In making transparent decision and healthy competition tendering, there exists a need for flexible guidance tool for decision support. Aim of this paper is to give a review on current practices of Decision Support Systems (DSS) technology in construction tendering processes. Current practices of general tendering processes as applied to the most countries in different regions such as United States, Europe, Middle East and Asia are comprehensively discussed. Applications of Web-based tendering processes is also summarised in terms of its properties. Besides that, a summary of Decision Support Sy...

  18. µ-Calpain, calpastatin, and growth hormone receptor genetic effects on preweaning performance, carcass quality traits, and residual variance of tenderness in Angus cattle selected to increase minor haplotype ... frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic marker effects and interactions are estimated with poor precision when minor marker allele frequencies are low. An Angus population was subjected to marker assisted selection for multiple years to increase divergent haplotype and minor marker allele frequencies to 1) estimate effect size an...

  19. Decision Support Systems (DSS in Construction Tendering Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmayati Mohemad

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The successful execution of a construction project is heavily impacted by making the right decision during tendering processes. Managing tender procedures is very complex and uncertain involving coordination of many tasks and individuals with different priorities and objectives. Bias and inconsistent decision are inevitable if the decision-making process is totally depends on intuition, subjective judgement or emotion. In making transparent decision and healthy competition tendering, there exists a need for flexible guidance tool for decision support. Aim of this paper is to give a review on current practices of Decision Support Systems (DSS technology in construction tendering processes. Current practices of general tendering processes as applied to the most countries in different regions such as United States, Europe, Middle East and Asia are comprehensively discussed. Applications of Web-based tendering processes is also summarised in terms of its properties. Besides that, a summary of Decision Support System (DSS components is included in the next section. Furthermore, prior researches on implementation of DSS approaches in tendering processes are discussed in details. Current issues arise from both of paper-based and Web-based tendering processes are outlined. Finally, conclusion is included at the end of this paper.

  20. Palpation for muscular tenderness in the anterior chest wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, H.W.; Vach, W.; Manniche, C.

    2003-01-01

    palpating for intercostal tenderness or tenderness in the minor and major pectoral muscles in a population of patients with and without chest pain. This may hamper the ability of clinicians to diagnose and classify the musculoskeletal component of chest pain if based exclusively on palpation of the anterior...

  1. Effect of phenotypic expression of Brahman breeding on marbling and tenderness traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherbeck, J A; Tatum, J D; Field, T G; Morgan, J B; Smith, G C

    1996-02-01

    Steers with known proportions of Brahman and Hereford breeding (80 quarter-bloods, 25% Brahman x 75% Hereford and 79 half-bloods, 50% Brahman x 50% Hereford) were used to determine the effect of phenotype on marbling and beef tenderness characteristics. Three experienced evaluators independently classified each live steer according to estimated proportion of Brahman breeding based on phenotypic evidence of Brahman breed characteristics. The steers were slaughtered, their carcasses were graded, and a carcass. Samples of longissimus muscle were obtained for measurement of 24-h calpastatin activity, sensory panel evaluation, and Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) force measurements. Paired steaks were aged (6 and 18 d postmortem) and palatability determinations were completed. Estimates of live animal phenotype ranged from 0/16 to 9/16 for quarter-blood Brahman steers and from 1/14 to 13/16 for half-blood Brahman steers. Neither live animal phenotype nor carcass hump height was correlated with marbling score. Live animal phenotype was correlated (P carcass hump height exhibited low, negative correlations (P Brahman were tougher (P Brahman. Steaks from carcasses with hump height measurements of 7.60 cm or greater had lower panel tenderness ratings and higher WBS values (P Brahman steers that were similar in phenotype produced steaks that were similar in tenderness. Results of this study suggest that as phenotypic evidence of Brahman breeding increases the tenderness of cooked steaks from Brahman crossbred steers decreases.

  2. Effects of packaging atmospheres on beef instrumental tenderness, fresh color stability, and internal cooked color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobbel, J P; Dikeman, M E; Hunt, M C; Milliken, G A

    2008-05-01

    Fresh meat color is a major factor influencing the purchase of meat products by consumers, whereas tenderness is the primary trait determining overall eating satisfaction of consumers. The objectives of this research were to determine the effects of packaging atmosphere on fresh beef color stability, cooked color, and tenderness. Longissimus lumborum muscles (n = 14 pairs) from USDA Select, A-maturity carcasses were assigned to either 14-d tenderness measurement or to display and then to 18-d [80% O(2), 20% CO(2) (HiO(2)) modified atmosphere packaging (MAP)] or 28-d [vacuum package (VP) and ultra low (ULO(2)) plus CO MAP blends] tenderness measurement. Loins were then fabricated on d 7 postmortem into 2.54-cm-thick steaks. Steaks 8 to 10 caudal to the first 7 steaks were bisected, assigned to a packaging treatment, and used for internal cooked color. One full steak was used for initial tenderness. Packaging treatments were as follows: vacuum-packaging (VP); 80% O(2), 20% CO(2) (HiO(2)); 0.4% CO, 35% CO(2), 64.6%N(2) (ULO(2)CO); 0.4% CO, 99.6% CO(2) (ULO(2)COCO(2)); 0.4% CO, 99.6% N(2) (ULO(2)CON(2)); or 0.4% CO, 99.6% Ar (ULO(2)COAr). Steaks packaged in HiO(2) MAP were in dark storage (2 degrees C) for 4 d, and all other steaks were in dark storage for 14 d. Steaks were displayed under fluorescent lighting (2,153 lx; 3,000 K) for 7 d, with instrumental color measured on d 0 and 7 of display. Trained color panelists (n = 10) assigned color scores. Steaks for Warner-Bratzler shear force and cooked color were cooked to 70 degrees C. Steaks packaged in the 4 ULO(2) MAP blends with CO had no change (P > 0.05) or increased (P HiO(2) MAP discolored faster (P 0.05) in Warner-Bratzler shear force on d 14 postmortem. Steaks packaged in HiO(2) MAP were less tender (P HiO(2) had the lowest (P HiO(2) MAP and equal or better tenderness. Packaging atmospheres altered the internal cooked color, with steaks packaged in HiO(2) MAP exhibiting premature browning.

  3. Proteomics approach as a new way to predict tenderness as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ARC-Irene

    2015-07-29

    Jul 29, 2015 ... 1 Animal Production Institute, Agricultural Research Council, Private Bag X2, ... a representable sample of meat products in the retail sector (Strydom, 2013). ... This paper describes protein expression related to tenderness ...

  4. Induction of prolonged tenderness in patients with tension-type headache by means of a new experimental model of myofascial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mørk, H; Ashina, M; Bendtsen, L; Olesen, J; Jensen, R

    2003-05-01

    Tenderness is the most prominent abnormal finding in patients with tension-type headache (TTH). Recently we developed a model of myofascial tenderness using intramuscular infusion of a combination of bradykinin, serotonin, histamine and prostaglandin E2. We aimed to examine tenderness after this combination in patients with episodic TTH (ETTH). Fifteen patients and 15 healthy controls completed the study. Participants received the combination into the non-dominant trapezius muscle in a randomized, double-blinded and placebo-controlled design. Local tenderness and stimulus-response functions, mechanical pain thresholds (PPDT) in the temporal region and on the finger, and total tenderness score (TTS) were recorded. A local, prolonged, and mild to moderate tenderness was reported both in patients (P = 0.001) and in controls (P = 0.001) after the combination compared with the placebo. The response to the combination tended to be increased in patients. The stimulus-response function was leftward shifted after the combination, compared with baseline in both groups. No changes in PPDT or TTS were found after the infusions, whereas baseline PPDTs were decreased in ETTH compared with controls (PPDTfinger: P = 0.033; PPDTtemporal: P = 0.015). Intramuscular infusion of a combination of endogenous substances induced prolonged tenderness in both patients with episodic TTH and healthy subjects. The present results suggest an increased excitability of peripheral muscle afferents in TTH.

  5. 49 CFR 230.100 - Defects in tender truck axles and journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defects in tender truck axles and journals. 230... Steam Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.100 Defects in tender truck axles and journals. (a... wheel seats that is more than 1/8 of an inch in depth. (b) Tender truck journal condemning...

  6. Feeding performance, carcass characteristics, and tenderness attributes of steers sorted by the Igenity tenderness panel and fed zilpaterol hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvers, T J; Nichols, W T; Hutcheson, J P; Edmonds, M D; Lawrence, T E

    2012-11-01

    Steers (n = 560; initial BW = 420 ± 26 kg) were selected from a pool of 1,040, using the IGENITY Profile DNA test for tenderness, sorted into 1 of 4 tenderness genotype (TG) groups [140 tough (TUF), 140 intermediate (INT), 140 tender (TEND), or 140 mixed (MXD)], and subsequently allocated into 56 pens at random, of which one-half (28 pens, 7 pens from each TG) were supplemented the β-adrenergic agonist zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) and the balance fed a control ration. No TG × ZH interaction (P ≥ 0.15) occurred for any measured trait. Cattle from INT TG had less (P 0.06) in YG distributions were detected among TG, yet TEND cattle were represented by a greater (P 3.0 kg (guaranteed tender) across all aging periods; however, no difference in the frequency of steaks with WBSF values marketing value for the beef system.

  7. Pain sensitivity and pericranial tenderness in children with tension-type headache: a controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soee, Ann-Britt L; Skov, Liselotte; Kreiner, Svend; Tornoe, Birte; Thomsen, Lise L

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To compare tenderness and pain sensitivity in children (aged 7–17 years) with tension-type headache (TTH) and healthy controls using total tenderness score (TTS), pressure pain threshold (PPT), and pain perceived at suprapressure pain threshold (supraPPT). Patients and methods Twenty-three children with frequent episodic TTH, 36 with chronic TTH, and 57 healthy controls were included. TTS was measured bilaterally at seven pericranial myofascial structures. PPT and supraPPT were assessed in the finger, m. temporalis, and m. trapezius by a Somedic® algometer. SupraPPT was defined as the pain perceived at a stimulus calculated as the individual site-specific PPT + 50%. Statistics The effect of group, sex, age, headache frequency, intensity, and years on TTS, PPT, and supraPPT was analyzed by general linear models. Confirmatory factor analysis was analyzed for mutual relations between measurements. Results and conclusion Tenderness increased uniformly in both frequent episodic TTH (median 14; interquartile range [IQR] 10–18; P children with frequent episodic TTH and chronic TTH did not show significantly increased sensitivity when measured by PPT or supraPPT. Factor analysis confirmed that the site-specific measurements depended on general latent variables. Consequently, the PPT and supraPPT tests can be assumed to measure central pain-processing levels. PMID:23785242

  8. Combining two proven mechanical tenderness measurements in one steak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Z D; Belk, K E; Miller, R K; Morgan, J B; Lorenzen, C L

    2013-09-01

    This research was performed to determine the true efficacy of measuring both Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) and slice shear force (SSF) in the same steak. The objectives were to compare cooking methods commonly used in preparing steaks for WBSF and SSF procedures and compare them at different cooling times. United States Department of Agriculture select strip loins (n = 240) were aged for either 7 or 14 d to increase the variation in tenderness. Each strip loin was then frozen and cut into 2.54-cm steaks. Steaks were then cooked to an internal temperature of 71°C using a convection conveyor oven (conveyor), a convection oven, clamshell grill, or an open hearth grill. Steaks were allotted to 4 different cooling times to create the combinations of: WBSF 4 h/SSF 0 h, WBSF 4 h/SSF 4 h, WBSF 24 h/SSF 0 h, WBSF 24 h/SSF 24 h. Five 1.25-cm cores were used for WBSF and one 1- by 5-cm slice for SSF. The WBSF from steaks cooked with conveyor were tougher than convection oven cooked steaks [51.9 Newtons (N) vs. 46.1 N; P Correlations for WBSF and SSF performed in the same steak ranged from 0.51 to 0.88 (P correlation values but the magnitude of the relationship is dependent on the combination of cooking method and cooling time.

  9. Semisubmersible rigs attractive for tender-assisted drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tranter, P. (Sedco Forex, Aberdeen (United Kingdom))

    1994-09-19

    Tender-assisted drilling (TAD) involves the use of tender support vessel (TSV) during the drilling phase of platform development to provide drilling utilities to the platform-mounted drilling package. The TSV provides facilities such as mud mixing, storage, pumping, bulk storage, hotel accommodations, and power. Thus, the platform topsides and jacket weight and size can be smaller and less expensive. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of TAD, then describes the TAD vessel, semisubmersible, platform cost savings, accommodations, drilling and workovers, and field experience.

  10. Exudate protein composition and meat tenderness of broiler breast fillets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between meat tenderness and the protein composition of muscle exudates collected from broiler breast fillets deboned at different postmortem times was investigated. A total of 85 broilers were processed and breast fillets from each carcass were deboned at either 2 h (early-deboned,...

  11. Tendering and decision-making: a case on pharmaceutical products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Dankers; R. Vieira

    2012-01-01

    In order to contain expenditures for pharmaceuticals, the latest healthcare reforms have focused on decentralising German pharmaceutical market. Health insurance funds are now able to tender the products and subsequently conclude rebate contracts with one or more companies. Considering the enormous

  12. Comparison of collagen profile and tenderness of muscles from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-11-28

    Nov 28, 2014 ... dairy cows to beef bulls could be used as single-calf cows in order ..... (1, extremely bland, atypical; 9, extremely intense, typical); colour (1, uneven, red, inappropriate; ..... Production in Poland according to the “From Fork to Farm” strategy ... ASTM F 2925-11 Standard specification for tenderness marketing ...

  13. Utilization of sparker induced pressure waves to tenderize meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the feasibility of tenderizing meat using high pressure waves generated from a sparker source. Beef strip loins were cut into steaks from the anterior end and one to two steaks from each strip loin were randomly selected to serve as non-treated controls and the remaining ste...

  14. Assessment of Computer Software Usage for Estimating and Tender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this research is to evaluate the level of computer software ... Surveyors in using computer software for estimating and tender analysis. The survey design methodology was adopted for this research. Data were obtained through the use of questionnaires and oral interview of practicing Quantity Surveyors.

  15. Evidence against the non-enzymatic calcium theory of tenderization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geesink, G.H.; Taylor, R.G.; Bekhit, A.E.D.; Bickerstaffe, R.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine whether variation in the tenderization of lamb longissimus could be attributed to variations in the rise in free calcium postmortem and sarcomere lengthening post rigor. The longissimus muscle of 10 crossbred lambs (RomneyxCoopworth) was sampled at

  16. Olanzapine-induced tender pitting pre-tibial edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliaperumal Mathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Antipsychotic-induced edema is uncommonly encountered in clinical practice. We report a case of tender pitting pre-tibial edema with olanzapine in a woman with no medical comorbidities. The peculiar distribution of edema resulted in diagnostic confusion necessitating specific investigations. Eventually, the edema resolved following complete stoppage of the drug, but caused distress to the patient and the caregiver.

  17. Response of tender cactus pads to Salmonella strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tender cactus pads (cladodes) or nopalitos (Opuntia ficus-indica L) are an important vegetable in Mexico. They are often pre-trimmed, cut and packaged, and while usually consumed cooked, they may also be eaten raw in salads. Salmonella is an enteropathogenic bacterium that can adapt to adverse envir...

  18. Relationships between sensory evaluations of beef tenderness, shear force measurements and consumer characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; De Smet, Stefaan; Ueland, Øydis; Verbeke, Wim

    2014-07-01

    The supply of tender beef is an important challenge for the beef industry. Knowledge about the profile of consumers who are more optimistic or more accurate in their tenderness evaluations is important for product development and beef marketing purposes. Central location tests of beef steaks were performed in Norway and Belgium (n=218). Instrumental and sensorial tenderness of three muscles from Belgian Blue and Norwegian Red cattle was reported. Consumers who are optimistically evaluating tenderness were found to be more often male, less food neophobic, more positive towards beef healthiness, and showed fewer concerns about beef safety. No clear profile emerged for consumers who assessed tenderness similar to shear force measurements, which suggests that tenderness is mainly evaluated subjectively. The results imply a window of opportunities in tenderness improvements, and allow targeting a market segment which is less critical towards beef tenderness.

  19. Grounds for dispensing with public tender procedures in Government Contracting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Bolton

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa1 provides that organs of state must comply with five principles when procuring goods or services: procurement procedures must be fair, equitable, transparent, competitive and cost-effective. In short, this means that organs of state should make use of competition when procuring goods or services. They should shop around and attract the maximum number of contractors who will participate in such competition. The aim should be the attainment of value for money, meaning, public money should be spent in an effective and efficient manner. Those who participate in competitions should also be treated fairly and without bias. In principle, no preferences should be afforded to different contractors; all contracting parties should have equal access to competition; some contractors should not be afforded more time for the preparation and submission of quotes or tenders than others; and the same information should be made available to all contracting parties. Government procurement procedures should further be transparent, meaning public or open. Thus, organs of state should not contract behind closed doors – government contracts should, as a rule, be advertised. Depending on the nature and value of a particular contract, the use of a public call for tenders is generally the best way to ensure compliance with the principles in the Constitution. By nature, a pubic call for tenders is open, it assists in the prevention of fraud and favouritism, and it ensures that the maximum number of contractors is approached to compete for a contract.Organs of state can also compare prices and quality and can contract with whoever offers the best deal. Most legislation therefore proceeds on the basis that procurement takes place by way of tendering. Generally, contracts above R200 000 are subject to public tender procedures. In certain instances, however, a public call for tenders may be inappropriate regardless of the high

  20. Intramuscular tenderness variation within four muscles of the beef chuck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searls, G A; Maddock, R J; Wulf, D M

    2005-12-01

    The i.m. tenderness variation was examined within four beef chuck muscles, the infraspinatus (IF), supraspinatus (SS), triceps brachii (TB), and serratus ventralis (SV). The IF, SS, TB, and SV muscles were cut into 2.5 cm thick steaks perpendicular to the long axis of the muscle. An identification tag was placed on each steak, consisting of a muscle identification number, steak number, and orientation of the steak. Steaks were vacuum-packaged and stored at -22 degrees C until subsequent analysis. Steaks were thawed at 1 degrees C and cooked on electric broilers to an internal temperature of 71 degrees C. One core was removed from each 2.5-cm x 2.5-cm section parallel to the muscle fiber and sheared once to determine Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). The SS had an overall WBSF mean of 5.43 kg (SD = 2.20 kg) with no tenderness difference (P = 0.43) among steak locations. The IF had an overall WBSF mean of 3.16 kg (SD = 1.01 kg) with no tenderness difference (P = 0.51) among steak locations. The SV had a mean WBSF value of 4.37 kg (SD = 1.27 kg) with tenderness variation (P variations were not dispersed in a discernible pattern. The TB had a mean WBSF value of 4.12 kg (SD = 1.26 kg) with lower (P muscles, and this information could be used to add value to the beef chuck by cutting and marketing consistently tender regions.

  1. Pain sensitivity and pericranial tenderness in children with tension-type headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soee, Ann-Britt L; Skov, Liselotte; Kreiner, Svend

    2013-01-01

    To compare tenderness and pain sensitivity in children (aged 7-17 years) with tension-type headache (TTH) and healthy controls using total tenderness score (TTS), pressure pain threshold (PPT), and pain perceived at suprapressure pain threshold (supraPPT).......To compare tenderness and pain sensitivity in children (aged 7-17 years) with tension-type headache (TTH) and healthy controls using total tenderness score (TTS), pressure pain threshold (PPT), and pain perceived at suprapressure pain threshold (supraPPT)....

  2. Determination of protein markers for beef tenderness in U. S. select beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives: Beef tenderness is a primary quality feature that defines the consumer’s perception of the product quality. Therefore definition of chemical characteristics that contribute to variation in tenderness within a specific USDA grade can help refine our understanding of meat tenderness. The o...

  3. A basis for modelling the costs of supplier selection: the economic tender quantity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, L.; van Dijkhuizen, G.C.; Telgen, Jan

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the decision a purchaser must make regarding the number of suppliers that should be invited to submit a tender for a certain purchase. On the one hand, the costs of sending invitations to tender, the costs of evaluating the tenders received, and the costs of communicating

  4. Renewable Energy Auctions and Tenders: How good are they?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Toke

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the performance of two cases of renewable energy (RE auction/tender systems in an effort to contribute to the evaluation of RE auction/tender systems and to study best practice in their delivery of RE projects. This is done by comparing regimes in different settings, one concerned with Danish offshore wind development, the other concerned with renewable energy development in South Africa. It is found that regulatory factors which promote certainty in deployment, including measures to ensure that projects achieve grid connection, are important in assuring delivery of the programmes. However cost reductions that are associated with renewable energy auctions are not caused mainly by the auction systems themselves, but rather are associated with general declines in the costs of renewable energy technologies. Moreover, the effect of renewable energy auctions systems may be more concerned with limiting renewable energy deployment rather than reducing the costs of energy generated by renewable energy projects that are deployed.

  5. The Role of Quality in the Adjudication of Public Tenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geo Quinot

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The quality of the goods or services that government procures is obviously a very important consideration in deciding which supplier should be awarded a particular public tender. It follows that in the regulation of public procurement, particular attention should be given to the role of quality (also called functionality in the adjudication of public tenders and the final award decision. In South African public procurement law, the role of functionality in public tender adjudication has been a fairly controversial issue that has resulted in a continuing interaction between courts and law-makers on how and when quality should be assessed and should impact on the final award decision within the framework for public procurement found in section 217 of the Constitution. This contribution tracks the development of the role of functionality in public tender adjudication as prescribed by public procurement regulation since the enactment of the Preferential Procurement Policy Framework Act 5 of 2000, which spearheaded the development of contemporary public procurement regulation in South Africa. The analysis shows how the role of functionality has constantly changed since the enactment of the PPPFA and remains uncertain. This uncertainty relates to different interpretations of the constitutional requirements for public procurement primarily contained in section 217(1 of the Constitution. Whether functionality is used as a qualification criterion, an award criterion or both holds particular practical implications for both suppliers and contracting authorities. It is accordingly important to have certainty on this question. However, it cannot be said that the Constitution and section 217 in particular dictates one approach rather than another. The issue should thus be resolved with reference to the statutory scheme adopted under the PPPFA.

  6. Pain sensitivity and pericranial tenderness in children with tension-type headache: a controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soee ABL

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ann-Britt L Soee,1 Liselotte Skov,1 Svend Kreiner,4 Birte Tornoe,1,2 Lise L Thomsen3 1Department of Paediatrics, Children's Headache Clinic, Copenhagen University Hospital Herlev, Copenhagen, Denmark; 2Department of Physiotherapy, Medical Department O, Copenhagen University Hospital Herlev, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Department of Neuropediatrics, Juliane Marie Centre, Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen Denmark; 4Department of Biostatistics, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Purpose: To compare tenderness and pain sensitivity in children (aged 7–17 years with tension-type headache (TTH and healthy controls using total tenderness score (TTS, pressure pain threshold (PPT, and pain perceived at suprapressure pain threshold (supraPPT. Patients and methods: Twenty-three children with frequent episodic TTH, 36 with chronic TTH, and 57 healthy controls were included. TTS was measured bilaterally at seven pericranial myofascial structures. PPT and supraPPT were assessed in the finger, m. temporalis, and m. trapezius by a Somedic® algometer. SupraPPT was defined as the pain perceived at a stimulus calculated as the individual site-specific PPT + 50%. Statistics: The effect of group, sex, age, headache frequency, intensity, and years on TTS, PPT, and supraPPT was analyzed by general linear models. Confirmatory factor analysis was analyzed for mutual relations between measurements. Results and conclusion: Tenderness increased uniformly in both frequent episodic TTH (median 14; interquartile range [IQR] 10–18; P < 0.001 and chronic TTH (median 13; IQR 9–20; P < 0.001 compared to controls (median 5, IQR 3–11. However, the children with frequent episodic TTH and chronic TTH did not show significantly increased sensitivity when measured by PPT or supraPPT. Factor analysis confirmed that the site-specific measurements depended on general latent variables. Consequently, the PPT and supraPPT tests can be assumed to measure

  7. Reindeer meat – is it always tender, tasty and healthy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Wiklund

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Meat with high pH values, so called DFD (Dark, Firm, Dry meat, is a persistent quality defect foundmin all meat species. DFD shortens shelf life, especially for vacuum-packed meat and affects meat colour, tenderness and water-holding properties. High pH values in reindeer meat have been related to pre-slaughter handling stress and poor nutritional status of the animals. There are numerous reports that variation in muscle pH and glycogen content give rise to considerable variations in meat tenderness in species such as beef and lamb. In contrast, reindeer meat has been found to be extremely tender regardless of ultimate pH. This phenomenon has been related to the speed of post mortem protein degradation and the small muscle fibre size in reindeer. Previous research has demonstrated that the fatty acid composition of meat changes in response to diets. Generally, a higher proportion of long, unsaturated fatty acids were found in meat from grazing animals compared with animals fed a grain-based diet. Reindeer meat has been found to contain moderate amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, especially so-called n-3 (or omega-3 PUFAs. The PUFAs are known to be susceptible to oxidation and may therefore be easily oxidized during processing by techniques like smoking and drying. A trained sensory panel concluded that meat from reindeer fed commercial feed scored higher for liverish and sweet flavours and lower for off-flavou (i.e. ‘grass’, ‘wild’ and ‘game’ compared with meat from grazing animals. Consumer preference tests on reindeer meat showed that 50 per cent of the consumers preferred meat from grazing reindeer and 50 per cent meat from pellet-fed animals. Recent reindeer meat research has included new feed mixtures using ingredients like linseed and fishmeal. Crushed linseed in the feed gave meat with a fat composition similar to that of natural pasture, which meant more PUFA than in meat from reindeer fed the normal grain

  8. Association between Neck/Shoulder Pain and Trapezius Muscle Tenderness in Office Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Mikkel; Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D.

    2014-01-01

    workers. Methods. 653 employees from two large office workplaces in Copenhagen, Denmark, replied to a questionnaire on health and working conditions (mean: age 43 years, body mass index 24 kg⋅m−2, computer use 90% of work time, 73% women). Respondents rated intensity of neck/shoulder pain during...... for age, gender, and chronic disease. Results.The prevalence of “no,” “some,” and “severe” tenderness of the trapeziusmuscle was 18%, 59%, and 23% in women and 51%, 42%, and 7%inmen, respectively (chi-square, P ..., respectively, rated their neck/shoulder pain intensity to 1.5 (SD 1.6), 3.8 (SD 2.0), and 5.7 (SD 1.9) for women and 1.4 (SD 1.4), 3.1 (SD 2.2), and 5.1 (SD 1.7) for men. For every unit increase in neck/shoulder pain intensity, the OR for one unit increase in trapezius tenderness was 1.86 (95% confidence...

  9. Psychiatric disorders and muscle tenderness in episodic and chronic migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongini, Franco; Deregibus, Andrea; Rota, Eugenia

    2005-09-01

    This review first reports on the data concerning the relationship between migraine and personality traits and psychiatric disorders. The relationship between migraine and tenderness of the pericranial and cervical muscles is then discussed. In one study, a psychologic assessment was performed in 56 women with migraine, and the Minnesota Multiphase Personality Inventory (MMPI) and State Trait Anxiety Inventory were administered at baseline (T0) and after 6-7 years (T2). Frequency, severity and duration of migraine were recorded at T0, after treatment (T1) and at T2, and their relationship to the prevalence of depression, MMPI and State Trait Anxiety Inventory data were examined. Pain parameters improved in all patients in T0-1, but were higher at T2 in patients with depression at T0. The patients whose migraine improved at T2 had significantly lower MMPI and State Trait Anxiety Inventory scores at T0 and T2. Moreover, the prevalence of depression of the patients whose migraine improved at T2 was 37.5% at T0 and decreased to 12.5% at T2. The authors subsequently studied the function of the frontal lobe in 23 female patients previously treated for chronic migraine and 23 controls by applying three neuropsychologic tests (gambling task, tower of hanoi-3 and object alternation test). The patient group performed significantly worse on the tower of hanoi-3 and the object alternation test. In order to assess the extent to which muscle tenderness may relate to psychiatric disorders in patients with migraine and tension-type headache, diagnosed according International Headache Society criteria [2004], a psychologic assessment was performed and palpation tenderness scores calculated for the pericranial and cervical muscles in 459 patients. In total, 125 patients had frequent episodic migraine, 97 had chronic migraine, 82 had frequent episodic tension-type headache and chronic tension-type headache was present in 83. In a further 72 patients, both episodic migraine and

  10. Danish Public Construction Counselling Selection and Assignment Criteria in European Tendering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Kranker; Ussing, Lene Faber; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev

    2014-01-01

    One of the largest customers in the Danish construction industry is public agencies that own and develop projects. For some of the counselling services, they recur to be put out in European tendering. The aim is to find which selection and assignment criteria are used most in public tendering. How...... projects use selection and assignment criteria for counselling services and finally if there is significant use of selection and assignment methods in public counselling. The method is based on 74 public counselling tenders from the European Tenders Electronic Daily database from January 2010 to March 2013...

  11. Injection-site lesions: incidence, tissue histology, collagen concentration, and muscle tenderness in beef rounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    George, M. H; Morgan, J. B; Glock, R. D; Tatum, J. D; Schmidt, G. R; Sofos, J. N; Cowman, G. L; Smith, G. C

    1995-01-01

    .... Two additional experiments were conducted to examine the subsequent effects of pharmaceutical administration on tissue histology, soluble and insoluble collagen concentration, and muscle tenderness...

  12. Tenderness of Pork Muscles as Influenced by Chilling Rate and Altered Carcass Suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Elin; Møller, Anders Juel

    1987-01-01

    Evaluation of tenderness improvements in porcine muscles (longissimus dorsi, semimembranosus, biceps femoris) in 72 carcasses by using combinations of three different chilling rates and two different suspennnsion methods....

  13. Synchronising Tender Drawings and Documents as an Aid for Discrepancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Iznny

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper recommends an aid to control discrepancies between drawings and documents in a project. The synchronisation may assist to better project’s preparation and documentations. The causes of discrepancies that found out during the contract stage may lead to ineffectiveness of construction cost. The controlling process initiated from the tendering stage as to minimize the causal by any of the consultants which some items may left behind or possibly not describe fully without the thorough affiliation of coordination. The method to reduce discrepancies between drawings and documents is identified through Case Study based on ‘hands on’ project. The case study is focused on the preparation of architectural detailing. Therefore, the relationship of 2-Dimensional (2-D Tender Drawings and bills of quantities is compared with the Elements of Building Works by Malaysian Standard Method of Measurement of Building Works Second Edition (SMM. The relationship study will simplify and supersede any unnecessary detailing. Thus, the application of the synchronisation method will result effectiveness of documentation during the contract stage by reducing discrepancies.

  14. Supply Chain Planning for a Timber Harvesting Plus Sale Tender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Holoubek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2010, the Czech State Forest Enterprise has been inviting timber-harvesting tenders while insisting on the forestry company purchasing the timber from the felled trees as well. To win, a tender must offer the greatest difference between the price of the timber purchased and the cost of the operations. Thus, the forest companies are now facing new problem: apart from minimizing the logging costs they are searching for a cross-cutting and mill-distribution strategy that maximizes the selling price of the harvested timber. The optimization model devised by the present paper provides support for finding an optimal timber selling strategy and, as an important contribution, include a detailed plan for cross-cutting the logs and assign them to the particular customers. We keep the support accessible via common office software and the cross-cutting and customer-assigning problem is formulated as a linear programming model for EXCEL, a particular real-world problem is solved and, using expert comparison, the model appears to provide very good results.

  15. Regulatory polymorphisms in the bovine Ankyrin 1 gene promoter are associated with tenderness and intra-muscular fat content

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Aslan, Ozlem

    2010-12-15

    Abstract Background Recent QTL and gene expression studies have highlighted ankyrins as positional and functional candidate genes for meat quality. Our objective was to characterise the promoter region of the bovine ankyrin 1 gene and to test polymorphisms for association with sensory and technological meat quality measures. Results Seven novel promoter SNPs were identified in a 1.11 kb region of the ankyrin 1 promoter in Angus, Charolais and Limousin bulls (n = 15 per breed) as well as 141 crossbred beef animals for which meat quality data was available. Eighteen haplotypes were inferred with significant breed variation in haplotype frequencies. The five most frequent SNPs and the four most frequent haplotypes were subsequently tested for association with sensory and technological measures of meat quality in the crossbred population. SNP1, SNP3 and SNP4 (which were subsequently designated regulatory SNPs) and SNP5 were associated with traits that contribute to sensorial and technological measurements of tenderness and texture; Haplotype 1 and haplotype 4 were oppositely correlated with traits contributing to tenderness (P < 0.05). While no single SNP was associated with intramuscular fat (IMF), a clear association with increased IMF and juiciness was observed for haplotype 2. Conclusion The conclusion from this study is that alleles defining haplotypes 2 and 4 could usefully contribute to marker SNP panels used to select individuals with improved IMF\\/juiciness or tenderness in a genome-assisted selection framework.

  16. Criteria procedure development for tender in construction design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malykha Galina Gennad’evna

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problem of criteria optimization in order to objectively evaluate the experience of an applicant (a project organization and the quality of a design product (project documentation. The methodology to be developed is based on introduction of new evaluation criteria (sub-criteria that in conjunction with the applicable criteria specified by the Law on the Contract System will allow developing the optimal procedure to evaluate competitive bids of the participants in tenders and determining the most appropriate candidate, with whom the contract will be further concluded. The article analyzes the existing criteria and their interaction with each other and describes the specifics of tenders for design in the form of open competition. The list decreases to three criteria, such as "contract price", "quality, functional and environmental characteristics of a procurement facility", "qualification of procurement participants, including availability of financial resources, equipment and other material resources necessary for the execution of the contract material resources, the presence of goodwill, professionals and other employees of a certain experience level". However, in order to upgrade the quality of assurance procedures for the design works to be performed, it was decided to apply new evaluation criteria (sub-criteria components, such as "availability of positive findings of the state out-of-departmental examination that are similar to the subject of competition, on a participant in placement of order", "availability of the certificate on approval of architectural and urban planning decisions that are similar to the subject of competition, on a participant in placement of order", "availability of the permit for the commissioning of facilities that are similar to the subject of competition, on a participant in placement of order", "availability of the contract for designer's supervision with a participant in placement of

  17. An analysis of project selection and assignment criteria of danish tenders in europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Kranker; Ussing, Lene Faber; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev

    2013-01-01

    , and 3/ any significant difference between the use of selection and assignment criteria in Danish public construction projects. The study uses a quantitative research approach where 157 Danish public tender cases were selected from the European Tenders Electronic Daily database between the period...

  18. Tendering and relationships in strategic logistics service provider selection for global supply chain organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben

    of private enterprise purchase additionally relate to the acceptance of some level of dialogue before, during and after the tender due date. Tendering is viewed as an extreme case of relationship management, where newcomers and existing suppliers are put on an equal footing, decades of incorporated...

  19. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy: A Tough-Minded Therapy for a Tender-Minded Profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrach, Stephen G.

    1995-01-01

    Objections to Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) may be based on the predominance of the personality type in the counseling profession dubbed "tender mindedness." The dichotomy between the "tough minded" and the "tender minded" may suggest the reasons for its acceptance among some and rejection by others. The author examines common…

  20. E-money as legal tender : Does the status really matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasiyanto, Safari; Kommers, Piet; Isaias, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The pro and contra over the importance of e-money being attributed the status of legal tender has been brought on the table since the early 90s. Is obtaining the status of legal tender really necessary for e-money to strengthen its position as a means of efficient payments in the economy? What do cu

  1. Tenderness of Pork Muscles as Influenced by Chilling Rate and Altered Carcass Suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Elin; Møller, Anders Juel

    1987-01-01

    Evaluation of tenderness improvements in porcine muscles (longissimus dorsi, semimembranosus, biceps femoris) in 72 carcasses by using combinations of three different chilling rates and two different suspennnsion methods.......Evaluation of tenderness improvements in porcine muscles (longissimus dorsi, semimembranosus, biceps femoris) in 72 carcasses by using combinations of three different chilling rates and two different suspennnsion methods....

  2. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy: A Tough-Minded Therapy for a Tender-Minded Profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrach, Stephen G.

    1995-01-01

    Objections to Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) may be based on the predominance of the personality type in the counseling profession dubbed "tender mindedness." The dichotomy between the "tough minded" and the "tender minded" may suggest the reasons for its acceptance among some and rejection by others. The…

  3. 17 CFR 240.13e-4 - Tender offers by issuers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... advertisement must not include a transmittal letter that would permit security holders to tender securities... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tender offers by issuers. 240.13e-4 Section 240.13e-4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE...

  4. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy: A Tough-Minded Therapy for a Tender-Minded Profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrach, Stephen G.

    1995-01-01

    Objections to Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) may be based on the predominance of the personality type in the counseling profession dubbed "tender mindedness." The dichotomy between the "tough minded" and the "tender minded" may suggest the reasons for its acceptance among some and rejection by others. The…

  5. Prevalence and anatomical location of muscle tenderness in adults with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortensen Ole S

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many adults experience bothersome neck/shoulder pain. While research and treatment strategies often focus on the upper trapezius, other neck/shoulder muscles may be affected as well. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence and anatomical location of muscle tenderness in adults with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain. Methods Clinical neck/shoulder examination at two large office workplaces in Copenhagen, Denmark. 174 women and 24 men (aged 25-65 years with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain for a duration of at least 30 days during the previous year and a pain intensity of at least 2 on a modified VAS-scale of 0-10 participated. Exclusion criteria were traumatic injuries or other serious chronic disease. Using a standardized finger pressure of 2 kg, palpable tenderness were performed of eight anatomical neck/shoulder locations in the left and right side on a scale of 'no tenderness', 'some tenderness' and 'severe tenderness'. Results In women, the levator scapulae, neck extensors and infraspinatus showed the highest prevalence of severe tenderness (18-30%. In comparison, the prevalence of severe tenderness in the upper trapezius, occipital border and supraspinatus was 13-19%. Severe tenderness of the medial deltoid was least prevalent (0-1%. In men, the prevalence of severe tenderness in the levator scapulae was 13-21%, and ranged between 0-8% in the remainder of the examined anatomical locations. Conclusions A high prevalence of tenderness exists in several anatomical locations of the neck/shoulder complex among adults with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain. Future research should focus on several neck/shoulder muscles, including the levator scapulae, neck extensors and infraspinatus, and not only the upper trapezius. Trial Registration ISRCTN60264809

  6. Eighth Project book TIEC, Tenders Industrial Energy Conservation: Accepted Projects 1997; Achtste Projectenboek TIEB, Tenders Industriele Energiebesparing: Gehonoreerde projecten 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The aim of the title subsidy regulation is to stimulate industrial companies to invest in taking energy conservation measures. This brochure gives insight into newly applied techniques or developments in the industry. An overview is given of studies, demonstration projects and market introduction projects regarding energy conservation. Also, overall and indicative figures of the different projects are presented. The industries in which projects were carried out concern the food industry, paper industry, chemical industry, rubber and synthetic materials processing industry, petroleum and coal processing industry, ceramics industry, graphics industry, electrotechnical industry, furniture industry, transportation sector and the metal industry. The eighth Call for Tenders resulted in 83 subsidy agreements, worth 21.5 million Dutch guilders of commitments. The subsidies applied, not only concern energy conservation projects, but also knowledge transfer

  7. Ninth Project book TIEC, Tenders Industrial Energy Conservation. Accepted Projects 1998; Negende Projectenboek TIEB, Tenders Industriele Energiebesparing. Gehonoreerde projecten 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The aim of the title subsidy regulation is to stimulate industrial companies to invest in taking energy conservation measures. This brochure gives insight into newly applied techniques or developments in the industry. An overview is given of studies, demonstration projects and market introduction projects regarding energy conservation. Also, overall and indicative figures of the different projects are presented. The industries in which projects were carried out concern the food industry, paper industry, chemical industry, rubber and synthetic materials processing industry, petroleum and coal processing industry, ceramics industry, graphics industry, electrotechnical industry, furniture industry, transportation sector and the metal industry. The ninth Call for Tenders resulted in 78 subsidy agreements, worth 15.6 million Dutch guilders of commitments. The subsidies applied, not only concern energy conservation projects, but also knowledge transfer.

  8. 17 CFR 240.14e-2 - Position of subject company with respect to a tender offer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... disclosing that the subject company: (1) Recommends acceptance or rejection of the bidder's tender offer; (2... accordance with such laws, regulations and policies. (d) Exemption for cross-border tender offers. The... with respect to a tender offer. 240.14e-2 Section 240.14e-2 Commodity and Securities...

  9. Effects of cooked temperature on pork tenderness and relationships among muscle physiology and pork quality traits in loins from Landrace and Berkshire swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, S M; Moeller, S J; Zerby, H N; Irvin, K M; Kuber, P S; Velleman, S G; Leeds, T D

    2010-04-01

    The effect of, and associations between, loin muscle morphology and pork quality indicator traits were assessed at three cooked temperatures in loin chops from 38 purebred Berkshire and 52 purebred Landrace swine. Three loin chops from each pig were randomly assigned to cooked temperature treatments of 62, 71, or 79 degrees C and loin tenderness was assessed as Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). Cooked temperature (PLandrace pigs had greater WBSF at each cooked temperature compared with chops from Berkshire pigs. Chops from Landrace pigs became less tender with increasing cooked temperature, whereas chops from Berkshire pigs became less tender only when cooked to 79 degrees C. In loins from Landrace pigs, Minolta a* at 62 degrees C (R(2)=0.07), and average muscle fiber diameter at 71 degrees C and 79 degrees C (R(2)=0.07 and 0.24, respectively), contributed to WBSF variation. In contrast, for loins from Berkshire pigs, loin ultimate pH and intramuscular fat percentage accounted for 27% and 30% of the variation in WBSF at 62 degrees C and 71 degrees C, respectively, and loin ultimate pH accounted for 7% of variation in WBSF at 79 degrees C. Results suggest that loins from Berkshire pigs have properties that resist toughening at greater cooked temperatures and that associations between quality measures and loin tenderness differ between Landrace and Berkshire pigs.

  10. Comparison between Allo-Kramer and Warner-Bratzler devices to assess rabbit meat tenderness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cavani

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare Allo-Kramer (AK and Warner-Bratzler (WB devices to evaluate rabbit meat texture and to assess their correlations with sensory tenderness. Meat samples characterized by a wide range of tenderness were prepared by boning longissimus lumborum muscles from 90 carcasses at different post mortem times (1, 3, 24h. The right loin of each carcass was used for WB and AK tests, whereas the left loin to assess sensory tenderness and juiciness. The sensory test indicated a higher tenderness and juiciness of rabbit meat obtained from carcasses boned at 24h post mortem in comparison with 1 and 3h post mortem. Both AK and WB methods were able to detect these differences. The AK shear force as well as the WB shear force and area were significantly correlated to meat sensory tenderness (r=-0.58, -0.43 and -0.56, respectively; P<0.001 and juiciness, whereas no correlation was found between sensory tenderness and WB firmness. These results indicate that both WB and AK methods can be used to evaluate the rabbit meat tenderness and give similar levels of correlation with sensory scores. However, AK method is characterized by a sample preparation procedure easier to standardize and less time consuming than WB method.

  11. Adapting Rational Unified Process (RUP) approach in designing a secure e-Tendering model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd, Haslina; Robie, Muhammad Afdhal Muhammad; Baharom, Fauziah; Darus, Norida Muhd; Saip, Mohamed Ali; Yasin, Azman

    2016-08-01

    e-Tendering is an electronic processing of the tender document via internet and allow tenderer to publish, communicate, access, receive and submit all tender related information and documentation via internet. This study aims to design the e-Tendering system using Rational Unified Process approach. RUP provides a disciplined approach on how to assign tasks and responsibilities within the software development process. RUP has four phases that can assist researchers to adjust the requirements of various projects with different scope, problem and the size of projects. RUP is characterized as a use case driven, architecture centered, iterative and incremental process model. However the scope of this study only focusing on Inception and Elaboration phases as step to develop the model and perform only three of nine workflows (business modeling, requirements, analysis and design). RUP has a strong focus on documents and the activities in the inception and elaboration phases mainly concern the creation of diagrams and writing of textual descriptions. The UML notation and the software program, Star UML are used to support the design of e-Tendering. The e-Tendering design based on the RUP approach can contribute to e-Tendering developers and researchers in e-Tendering domain. In addition, this study also shows that the RUP is one of the best system development methodology that can be used as one of the research methodology in Software Engineering domain related to secured design of any observed application. This methodology has been tested in various studies in certain domains, such as in Simulation-based Decision Support, Security Requirement Engineering, Business Modeling and Secure System Requirement, and so forth. As a conclusion, these studies showed that the RUP one of a good research methodology that can be adapted in any Software Engineering (SE) research domain that required a few artifacts to be generated such as use case modeling, misuse case modeling, activity

  12. Prevention of nipple tenderness and breast engorgement in the postpartal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storr, G B

    1988-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify an effective preparation method for breastfeeding and to develop measurement tools for nipple tenderness and breast engorgement for use in a clinical setting. Twenty-five subjects served as their own controls by preparing one nipple and massaging one breast, either the left or right, but not the other breast or nipple. Nipple tenderness and breast engorgement were recorded on five-point scales. Analysis of the data revealed that tenderness and engorgement were decreased in the prepared, massaged breast.

  13. [Differences between myofascial trigger points and tender points].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mense, S

    2011-02-01

    The article describes and compares the characteristics of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) of the myofascial pain syndrome and the tender points (TePs) of the fibromyalgia syndrome. Many statements are hypothetical, because not all aspects of the disorders have been clarified in solid studies. Signs and symptoms of MTrPs: (1) palpable nodule, often located close to the muscle belly, (2) often single, (3) allodynia and hyperalgesia at the MTrP, (4) referral of the MTrP pain, (5) normal pain sensitivity outside the MTrPs, (6) local twitch response, (7) local contracture in biopsy material, (8) peripheral mechanism probable. Signs and symptoms of TePs: (1) no palpable nodule, (2) location often close to the muscle attachments, (3) multiple by definition, (4) allodynia and hyperalgesia also outside the TePs, (5) enhanced pain under psychic stress, (6) unspecific histological changes in biopsy material, (7) central nervous mechanism probable. The multitude of differences speak against a common aetiology and pathophysiology.

  14. La diaspora americana in Europa: il caso degli espatriati in Tender is the Night di F. Scott Fitzgerald

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa A. Pantaleo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available From 1921 to 1930, F. Scott Fitzgerald travelled to Europe four times, and he spent almost four years in France and one year in Switzerland. While living abroad in the multicultural environment of Paris and of the French Riviera, his attitude towards Europe underwent a major change. Tender is the Night marks a significant transition from the narrow nationalism of Fitzgerald’s first travel correspondence to an increased sensitivity towards European otherness. The cultural encounter with Europe – that in the novel is rendered through an hybridization of the language and the characters –helped the author to reinterpret his identity in a cosmopolitan perspective.

  15. Use of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and dietary calcium to improve tenderness of beef from the round of beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnagey, K M; Huff-Lonergan, E J; Lonergan, S M; Trenkle, A; Horst, R L; Beitz, D C

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this trial was to determine how 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) (25-OH D(3)) supplementation, altering supplemental dietary calcium, or their combination influence postmortem biochemical and tenderness changes in muscles from the round of mature cows. Twenty-seven Angus cows (3 to 7 yr old) were allotted randomly to 9 pens with 3 cows per pen. Treatments were arranged in a 3 x 3 factorial design with 3 dosages of 25-OH D(3) (0, 250, or 500 mg of 25-OH D(3) administered as a 1-time oral bolus 7 d before slaughter) and 3 percentages of supplemental limestone (0.5, 0.75, and 1.0%) replenished in the diet for 3 d before slaughter and after a 2-wk limestone withdrawal. Plasma samples were obtained during the feeding period. Upon slaughter, adductor, gracilus, pectineus, sartorius, semimembranosus, vastus intermedius, and vastus lateralis muscles were obtained and aged for 1, 3, or 7 d. Calcium concentrations were increased in plasma when 250 or 500 mg of 25-OH D(3) were administered (P meat and in plasma and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1,25-(OH)(2) D(3)] in plasma were increased when 25-OH D(3) was administered (P meat or in plasma. Calpastatin activity was affected by treatments only in the gracilus and vastus intermedius muscles (P tenderness, but improved tenderness was not observed.

  16. Modified-atmosphere storage under subatmospheric pressure and beef quality: II. Color, drip, cooking loss, sarcomere length, and tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smulders, F J M; Hiesberger, J; Hofbauer, P; Dögl, B; Dransfield, E

    2006-09-01

    Beef has a requirement for refrigerated storage up to 14 d to achieve adequate aging and a tender product. To achieve this aging with little spoilage and no surface drying, vacuum packaging is attractive, because it is inherently simple and offers a clear indication to the packer when the process has failed or there is risk of spoilage. However, there is increasing pressure on the meat industry to limit the use of packaging materials in view of their cost and the cost involved in their recovery and recycling. The purpose of this report was to evaluate an alternative storage system in containers using modified atmospheres at reduced pressure (approximately 25 kPa). The quality of the meat for both container- and vacuum-packed treatments was measured during chilled storage for up to 3 wk. Storage time had the most significant effect on quality characteristics, irrespective of the packaging method. Storage in containers under a 70%N2:30%CO2 gas mixture gave characteristics similar to beef stored under vacuum. Storage in containers under 100% CO2 produced less drip loss than under 70%N2:30%CO2, but generally container storage produced 3 times as much drip loss as vacuum packaging. Shear force of the LM was unaffected by the type of packaging, and at d 2 after slaughter (i.e., before the storage trial was begun), sarcomere lengths of muscles intended for container storage were similar to those destined for vacuum storage. During the packaging treatment, the comparison between the storage systems was always done within 1 animal using one carcass-half for container storage and the other half for vacuum packaging; all bulls were shackled from the left hindleg during bleeding. The majority of the muscles from the left sides had lower shear force values than those from the right sides at the earlier storage times (2 and 9 d after slaughter) but had similar values after longer storage (16 and 23 d after slaughter). This is the first report that shackling beef carcasses from

  17. An audit of retail beef loin steak tenderness conducted in eight U.S. cities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    George, M. H; Tatum, J. D; Belk, K. E; Smith, G. C

    1999-01-01

    .... An audit of supermarkets in eight U.S. cities was conducted to characterize retail beef loin steaks with respect to grade, postfabrication aging, and tenderness and to provide an interim measure of progress in industry efforts to improve...

  18. An audit of retail beef loin steak tenderness conducted in tight U.S. cities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M H George; J D Tatum; K E Belk; G C Smith

    1999-01-01

      An audit of supermarkets in eight U.S. cities was conducted to characterize retail beef loin steaks with respect to grade, postfabrication aging, and tenderness and to provide an interim measure of progress in industry efforts to improve...

  19. Effects of tender point acupuncture on delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS – a pragmatic trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitakoji Hiroshi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acupuncture is used to reduce inflammation and decrease pain in delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS. This study investigates the efficacy of acupuncture on the symptoms of DOMS. Methods Thirty subjects were assigned randomly to there groups, namely the control, non-tender point and tender point groups. Measurement of pain with full elbow flexion was used as indices of efficacy. Measurements were taken before and after exercise, immediately after treatment and seven days after treatment. Results Significant differences in visual analog scores for pain were found between the control group and tender point group immediately after treatment and three days after exercise (P Conclusion The results show that tender point acupuncture relieves muscle pain of DOMS.

  20. Effects of tender point acupuncture on delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) – a pragmatic trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Kazunori; Ochi, Hideki; Kitakoji, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Background Acupuncture is used to reduce inflammation and decrease pain in delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). This study investigates the efficacy of acupuncture on the symptoms of DOMS. Methods Thirty subjects were assigned randomly to there groups, namely the control, non-tender point and tender point groups. Measurement of pain with full elbow flexion was used as indices of efficacy. Measurements were taken before and after exercise, immediately after treatment and seven days after treatment. Results Significant differences in visual analog scores for pain were found between the control group and tender point group immediately after treatment and three days after exercise (P < 0.05, Dunnetts multiple test). Conclusion The results show that tender point acupuncture relieves muscle pain of DOMS. PMID:19032777

  1. Freezing and thawing or freezing, thawing, and aging effects on beef tenderness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grayson, A L; King, D A; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M; Wheeler, T L

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of freezing and thawing or freezing and thawing with an additional aging period after frozen storage on the tenderness of longissimus lumborum (LL...

  2. Freezing and thawing or freezing, thawing, and aging effects on beef tenderness1,2,3

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A L Grayson; D A King; S D Shackelford; M Koohmaraie; T L Wheeler

    2014-01-01

      The objective of this study was to determine the effect of freezing and thawing or freezing and thawing with an additional aging period after frozen storage on the tenderness of longissimus lumborum (LL...

  3. Variation in proteolysis, sarcomere length, collagen content, and tenderness among major pork muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, T L; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M

    2000-04-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to determine the extent of variation in proteolysis, sarcomere length, and collagen content among pork muscles and the association of those factors with tenderness variation among muscles at 1 d postmortem. Twenty-three white composite barrows were slaughtered and carcasses (66 kg) were chilled at 0 degrees C for 24 h. At 1 d postmortem, the longissimus lumborum, biceps femoris, semimembranosus, semitendinosus, and triceps brachii, long head were dissected from one side of each carcass and frozen. Trained sensory panelists evaluated tenderness, amount of connective tissue, juiciness, and pork flavor intensity of grilled (70 degrees C) chops on 8-point scales. Raw chops were used for total collagen content, sarcomere length, and the extent of desmin proteolysis. Tenderness ratings were highest (P muscles were .54 (semimembranosus), .34 (semitendinosus), .36 (triceps branchii), and .17 (biceps femorus). Total collagen was highest (P muscle), followed by triceps branchii (6.0 mg/g) and semitendinosus (5.3 mg/g), and lowest for semimembranosus (4.5 mg/g) and longissimus lumborum (4.1 mg/g). Sarcomere length was longest (P variation in tenderness rating among all samples. Piecewise linear regression was used to account for the interaction of sarcomere length with proteolysis and collagen. This analysis accounted for 72% of the variation in tenderness rating. Variation in collagen, proteolysis, and sarcomere length and the degree of their interaction with one another determine the tenderness of individual muscles.

  4. An analysis of project selection and assignment criteria of Danish tenders in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper Kranker Larsen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Public construction agencies are one of the largest developers within the Danish construction industry, where such agencies own and develop new public construction projects. Most of these projects are put out in European tender. This study analyses the selection and assignment criteria employed by these agencies in different types of public sector projects. Some of the objectives pursued by the study include the determination of 1/ the selection and assignment criteria mostly used in Danish public tenders 2/ how different types of projects use selection and assignment criteria in the bidding process, and 3/ any significant difference between the use of selection and assignment criteria in Danish public construction projects. The study uses a quantitative research approach where 157 Danish public tender cases were selected from the European Tenders Electronic Daily database between the period: January 2010 to March 2013. Fisher's Exact Test was conducted to determine if there was any significant use of some selection and assignment criteria. The findings of the study showed that invited tenders with pre-qualification and lowest price in 69.8% of the tenders are the most used selection and assignment criteria, with little regard to project type.

  5. Bovine gene polymorphisms related to fat deposition and meat tenderness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina R.S. Fortes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptin, thyroglobulin and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase play important roles in fat metabolism. Fat deposition has an influence on meat quality and consumers' choice. The aim of this study was to determine allele and genotype frequencies of polymorphisms of the bovine genes, which encode leptin (LEP, thyroglobulin (TG and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT1. A further objective was to establish the effects of these polymorphisms on meat characteristics. We genotyped 147 animals belonging to the Nelore (Bos indicus, Canchim (5/8 Bos taurus + 3/8 Bos indicus, Rubia Gallega X Nelore (1/2 Bos taurus + 1/2 Bos indicus, Brangus Three-way cross (9/16 Bos taurus + 7/16 Bos indicus and Braunvieh Three-way cross (3/4 Bos taurus + 1/4 Bos indicus breeds. Backfat thickness, total lipids, marbling score, ribeye area and shear force were fitted, using the General Linear Model (GLM procedure of the SAS software. The least square means of genotypes and genetic groups were compared using Tukey's test. Allele frequencies vary among the genetic groups, depending on Bos indicus versus Bos taurus influence. The LEP polymorphism segregates in pure Bos indicus Nelore animals, which is a new finding. The T allele of TG is fixed in Nelore, and DGAT1 segregates in all groups, but the frequency of allele A is lower in Nelore animals. The results showed no association between the genotypes and traits studied, but a genetic group effect on these traits was found. So, the genetic background remains relevant for fat deposition and meat tenderness, but the gene markers developed for Bos taurus may be insufficient for Bos indicus.

  6. Cement: Administrative tender specifications and standards in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soria Santamaría, Francisco

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes, in chronological order, the different competent Authorities in Spain and the documents issued by them regarding Cement Regulations and Standards. The origin of the early cement quality Rules is referred to, the issuing of Regulations by the Public Bodies and finally the adoption of National Standards on the one hand, as well as the first initiatives to establish International Standards, especially motivated by the export boom after the Second World War, on the other. The second part of the paper offers a brief synthesis of the terms and conditions for cement in Administrative Tender Specifications from 1919 to date regarding definitions, classifications and specifications. Finally the present state of the art is outlined in a series of Tables describing the cement standards in force in Spain.

    Se empieza exponiendo, en orden cronológico, los organismos españoles y documentos elaborados por los mismos relativos a Reglamentos y Normas sobre cementos. Se justifica el origen de las primeras reglas para establecer la calidad de los cementos, la aparición de reglamentos por parte de las Administraciones públicas y la elaboración de normas a nivel nacional, en primer término, y los inicios de normas internacionales con motivo del auge de las exportaciones acabada la 2ª Guerra Mundial, en segundo lugar. A continuación se hace un breve resumen de la evolución de los Pliegos de Cemento en España desde 1919 hasta nuestros días, en lo que se refiere a Definiciones, Clasificación, Nomenclatura y Especificaciones. Finalmente, se incluye en forma tabulada la situación actual de las normas sobre cementos en España.

  7. A New Insight into the Role of Calpains in Post-mortem Meat Tenderization in Domestic Animals: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Ting; Wang, Linjie; Liu, Yiping

    2013-03-01

    Tenderness is the most important meat quality trait, which is determined by intracellular environment and extracellular matrix. Particularly, specific protein degradation and protein modification can disrupt the architecture and integrity of muscle cells so that improves the meat tenderness. Endogenous proteolytic systems are responsible for modifying proteinases as well as the meat tenderization. Abundant evidence has testified that calpains (CAPNs) including calpain I (CAPN1) and calpastatin (CAST) have the closest relationship with tenderness in livestock. They are involved in a wide range of physiological processes including muscle growth and differentiation, pathological conditions and post-mortem meat aging. Whereas, Calpain3 (CAPN3) has been established as an important activating enzyme specifically expressed in livestock's skeletal muscle, but its role in domestic animals meat tenderization remains controversial. In this review, we summarize the role of CAPN1, calpain II (CAPN2) and CAST in post-mortem meat tenderization, and analyse the relationship between CAPN3 and tenderness in domestic animals. Besides, the possible mechanism affecting post-mortem meat aging and improving meat tenderization, and current possible causes responsible for divergence (whether CAPN3 contributes to animal meat tenderization or not) are inferred. Only the possible mechanism of CAPN3 in meat tenderization has been confirmed, while its exact role still needs to be studied further.

  8. Effect of pulsed electric field treatment on hot-boned muscles of different potential tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwandy, Via; Carne, Alan; van de Ven, Remy; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Hopkins, David L

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the effect of pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment and ageing on the quality of beef M. longissimus lumborum (LL) and M. semimembranosus (SM) muscles was evaluated, including the tenderness, water loss and post-mortem proteolysis. Muscles were obtained from 12 steers (6 steers for each muscle), removed from the carcasses 4 hour postmortem and were treated with pulsed electric field within 2h. Six different pulsed electric field intensities (voltages of 5 and 10 kV × frequencies of 20, 50 and 90 Hz) plus a control were applied to each muscle to determine the optimum treatment conditions. Beef LL was found to get tougher with increasing treatment frequency whereas beef SM muscle was found to have up to 21.6% reduction in the shear force with pulsed electric field treatment. Post-mortem proteolysis showed an increase in both troponin and desmin degradation in beef LL treated with low intensity PEF treatment (20 Hz) compared to non-treated control samples.

  9. Tenderness of major muscles from three breed-types of cattle at different times-on-feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeith, F K; Savell, J W; Smith, G C; Dutson, T R; Carpenter, Z L

    1985-01-01

    Seventy-five steers (9 to 12 months of age) of Angus (n = 25), Brahman (n = 25) and Brahman × Angus (n = 25) breed-types of known history were fed a high-energy diet and five steers from each breed-type were slaughtered after 0, 56, 112, 168 and 224 days on test. At seven days post mortem, the left side of each carcass was fabricated and eight major primals or subprimals were obtained. Steaks were removed from the shoulder clod, strip loin, tenderloin, top sirloin, knuckle, top round, bottom round and eye of round for Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) determinations and from the strip loin and bottom round for sensory panel evaluations. Steaks from Angus and Brahman × Angus steers were generally more tender than steaks from Brahman steers. Tenderness of steaks from steers of the three breed-types responded to time-on-feed differently: (a) steaks from Brahman steers improved (P 0·05) as time-on-feed increased and (c) for the Brahman × Angus steers, five of the ten muscles studied improved (P Brahman, from 0 to 56 days for Angus and from 56 to 168 days for Brahman × Angus.

  10. Is scar tenderness a reliable sign of scar complications in labor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isha Gutgutia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cesarean section has come a long way from being a risky & restrictive surgery to one that is safe and quick. Due to a rise in the rates of primary caesarean section globally, repeat cesarean section has also become very common. The chief concern during labor with scarred uteri is that of scar rupture which can have devastating fetal and maternal consequences, including mortality. Several studies monitoring for the features of scar rupture like abnormal cardiotocography (CTG, severe abdominal pain persisting between contractions, acute onset scar tenderness, hematuria or abnormal vaginal bleeding, maternal tachycardia or shock, cessation of uterine activity and loss of station of the presenting part exist with the exception of scar tenderness which has not been evaluated separately in any study. The present prospective observational study was undertaken in a tertiary care hospital to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of scar tenderness as a sign of scar complications in labor. Methods: 78 women with one previous cesarean delivery in spontaneous labor at term undergoing trial of scar were monitored for progress of labor and observed for vaginal bleeding, scar tenderness, maternal pulse and blood pressure every 30 minutes. Scar tenderness was elicited by pressing below and behind the pubic symphysis in between uterine contractions while engaging the woman in conversation and noting for a visible wince. Fetal heart rate auscultation was done as per protocol. Trial of scar was terminated for scar tenderness, unexplained maternal tachycardia, fresh vaginal bleeding, fetal heart rate abnormalities and non-progress of labor. Results: The sensitivity and specificity of scar tenderness as a predictor of scar complications was 92.3% and 3.8%, while accuracy was 33.3%. The likelihood ratio of a positive sign of scar tenderness being associated with scar complications in labour is 1.48. Maternal tachycardia was not a significant predictor

  11. Analysis of the genetic effects of CAPN1 gene polymorphisms on chicken meat tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, J T; Zhang, M; Shan, Y J; Xu, W J; Chen, K W; Li, H F

    2015-02-13

    The micromolar calcium-activated neutral protease gene (CAPN1) is a physiological candidate gene for meat tenderness. Four previously identified single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers located within the CAPN1 gene were evaluated for their associations with variation in the meat tenderness of a Chinese indigenous chicken breed, a higher meat quality breed (i.e., Qingyuan partridge chicken), and the commercial Recessive White chicken breed. Warner-Bratzler shear force measurements were used to determine tenderness phenotypes for all animals; intramuscular fat (IMF) content and rate of water loss in the breast muscles were also measured. Genotyping was performed by the polymerase chain reaction-ligase detection reaction method. Polymorphisms were identified for all markers, except CAPN1 2546. The frequency of allele T was zero, and allele C was fixed for CAPN1 2546 in the studied populations. The SNP CAPN1 3535 in the CAPN1 gene was significantly associated with tenderness and other meat quality traits, where animals inheriting the AA genotype had smaller shear force values, lower water loss rates, and higher IMF contents. Moreover, H1 (AAA) was the most advantageous haplotype for meat tenderness. The results of this study confirm some previously documented associations. Furthermore, novel associations have been identified that, following validation in other populations, could be incorporated into breeding programs to improve meat quality.

  12. TRANSCUTANEOUS ELECTRIC NERVE STIMULATION IN MODULATION OF PAIN OF TENDER POINTS IN SYNDROME FIBROMYALGIA: CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Mara Magalhães Rori

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The Fibromyalgia is a syndrome of pain and chronic diffuse, characterized by the presence of at least 11 of 18 points called anatomically specific tender points, painful on palpation. As the pain diffuse the main symptom of fibromyalgia. The current treatment is focused mainly to the reduction of symptoms. Physiotherapy has animportant role in improving the control of pain. This study aimed to verify the effectiveness of the main TENS of low frequency and high intensity in modulating pain of tender points of patients with fibromyalgia. For this was a case study of patient R. S. S., 38-yearold female carrier of the syndrome of fibromyalgia attended school in the clinic of the Faculty of Integrated Ceará (FISIOFIC. The patient was treated with the TENS-pain Acupuncture points in a total of twelve care and pain assessed before starting treatment and after three attendants. There was a significant reduction in pain intensity at 77.7% of the tender points in the second evaluation and 88.8% of the points in the other assessments. It was concluded that there was a reduction in the pain of tender points of the patient showing the analgesia promoted by TENS, so it should be used as a complementary treatment programs associated with other treatments and also served as a good technique to locate the tender points.

  13. [Research and identification of the concept and terminology of "tender-point"and "Ashi-point"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing-Sheng

    2010-10-01

    It is generally acknowledged that "tender-point is taken as the acupoint" (tender-point) and "Ashi-point" belong to the same one concept. Through a series of research and analysis, it was found that these two nomenclatures contain both identical and different points in connotation, and reflect different experience in the treatment of abundant clinical conditions. "Tender-point" is involved in the general experience, for which the affected site is punctured directly by using an acupuncture needle or stimulated by using a moxa-stick or moxa-cone. "Ashi-point" is referred to the regional reactive site, i.e., the sensitive point for acupuncture and moxibustion, which is involved in the specific experience for taking the reactive point of clinical problems as the therapeutic site. The so-called "Tianying-point" and "Buding-point" in classical books on acu-moxibustion as Qian-jin Fang (Prescriptions Worth a Thousand Gold for Emergencies), Yulong Ge (Lyrics of Jade Dragon), etc., are the same to "Tender-point" but different to "Ashi-point". Currently, explanations and clinical application about "Tender-point" have been generalized and mixed up with "Ashi-point". The author of the present paper makes an analysis on their causes.

  14. Effect of alternative salt use on broiler breast meat yields, tenderness, flavor, and sodium concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadway, P R; Behrends, J M; Schilling, M W

    2011-12-01

    Fresh chicken breast fillets were marinated with gourmet-style salts: Himalayan pink salt, Sonoma gourmet salt, sel gus de Guerande, and Bolivian rose salt to evaluate their effects on marination and cook loss yields, tenderness, sensory attributes, and sodium concentration. Fresh chicken breast fillets (48-h postmortem) were vacuum tumbled (137 kPa at 20 rpm for 17 min) in a solution of water, salt, and sodium tripolyphosphate at a level of 20% of the meat weights. Instrumental analyses showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) in meat quality with respect to marination yield, cook yield, or shear-force value. There were also no significant differences (P > 0.05) in sensory descriptors between salt treatments. However, Sonoma gourmet salt showed a tendency (P = 0.0693) to score increased savory note values from panelists, whereas Bolivian rose salt received the lowest score. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in sodium concentrations between salt treatments, but numerically, sel gus de Guerande had the lowest sodium concentration, which could be important in producing reduced sodium products. Understanding different salts and sodium concentrations allows the poultry industry to use gourmet salts in products and maintain overall meat quality and flavor.

  15. [Mechanisms of muscle pain : significance of trigger points and tender points].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezinschek, H-P

    2008-12-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) belong to the group of chronic non-inflammatory pain syndromes affecting muscles and tendinous insertions. Important criteria in the diagnosis of both diseases are the presence of "tender points" and "trigger points". According to ACR criteria FMS is characterized by the presence of tender points whereas trigger points are typically found in MPS.The main difference is that until now tender points could only be defined in terms of their localization, whereas trigger points can be found upon palpation which may cause a specific referred pain pattern. In addition, analysis of trigger points by microdialysis demonstrated elevated levels of pro-inflammatory substances at these sites. Moreover, local treatment of trigger points either by manipulative therapy or injection appears to be most effective for prompt relief of symptoms.

  16. Protein expression and oxygen consumption rate of early postmortem mitochondria relate to meat tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabež, V; Kathri, M; Phung, V; Moe, K M; Slinde, E; Skaugen, M; Saarem, K; Egelandsdal, B

    2015-04-01

    Oxygen consumption rate (OCR) of muscle fibers from bovine semimembranosus muscle of 41 animals was investigated 3 to 4 h and 3 wk postmortem. Significant relations (P meat. Tender (22.92 ± 2.2 N/cm2) and tough (72.98 ± 7.2 N/cm2) meat samples (4 samples each), separated based on their OCR measurements, were selected for proteomic studies using mitochondria isolated approximately 2.5 h postmortem. Twenty-six differently expressed proteins (P meat and 19 in tough meat. In tender meat, the more prevalent antioxidant and chaperon enzymes may reduce reactive oxygen species and prolong oxygen removal by the electron transport system (ETS). Glycolytic, Krebs cycle, and ETS enzymes were also more abundant in tender meat

  17. Tender Papule Rising on the Digit: Pacinian Neuroma Should Be Considered in Differential Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Hee Cho, Jong Soo Hong, Se Young Park, Hyun Sun Park, Soyun Cho, Jong Hee Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pacinian corpuscles are sensory nerve-end organs located in the deep dermis and subcutaneous tissue of the palms or soles. Pacinian neuroma is an extremely rare feature, defined as hyperplasia or hypertrophy of Pacinian corpuscles. About half of Pacinian neuromas present with point tenderness. There have been a limited number of cases reported around the world.We observed a 45-year-old woman with an 8-month history of a tender whitish papule on her left thumb tip. Histopathologically, an enlarged hypertrophic Pacinian corpuscle in subcutaneous tissue, surrounded by numerous nerve fibers, was found. Herein, we report a case of Pacinian neuroma presenting as a tender papule on a fingertip that was clearly related to repetitive trauma at that site. This case shows that a meticulous history and histological examination can lead to an exact diagnosis and proper treatment.

  18. Exploring Factors of Successful Tendering Practices using Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA): The Study of Organizational Repetitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekdik, Baris; Thuesen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    combinations of factors leading to particular results of tendering practices. Empirical material collected through data mining in previously completed project records (quantitative data) is supported by data obtained from project managers of a general contractor company (qualitative data) in order...... to holistically describe the combination of conditions resulting in particular tender results. As a result of the analysis, a solution set is found explaining the path leading to project contract winning; previous work experience between client and general contractor together with either previous work experience...

  19. Pork tenderness estimation by taste panel, Warner-Bratzler shear force and on-line methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oeckel, M J; Warnants, N; Boucqué, C V

    1999-12-01

    The extent to which modification of Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) determinations, relating to storage and preparation of the meat, aperture of the V-shaped cutting blade and shearing velocity, improve the relationship with sensory tenderness perception of pork was studied. Additionally four on-line methods: pH1, FOP1 (light scattering), PQM1 (conductivity) and DDLT (Double Density Light Transmission), were evaluated for their ability to predict tenderness. Sensory tenderness evaluation was conducted on 120 frozen (at -18°C for several months) samples of m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum. After overnight thawing, the meat was grilled to an internal temperature of 74°C and scored on an eight-point scale, from extremely tough to extremely tender. The standard WBSF procedure (protocol A) consisted of heating fresh meat samples (stored for 48 h at 4°C post slaughter) at 75°C for 50 min, cooling in cold tap water for 40 min, taking cylindrical cores parallel to the fibre direction, and shearing at a velocity of 200 mm/min with a blade aperture of 60°. For the prediction of sensory tenderness, the WBSF standard procedure (protocol A) showed the lowest variance (R(2)=15%) and the highest standard error of the estimate (SEE=0.97 N) compared to the other WBSF protocols. A decrease in shearing velocity, from 200 to 100 mm/min and, a replacement of the cutting blade with an aperture of 60° by one with an aperture of 30° led to improvements of R(2) (respectively, 19% vs. 13% and 47% vs. 23%) and SEE (respectively, 0.93 N vs. 0.97 N and 0.80 N vs. 0.97 N) and thus were better predictors of tenderness. A blade aperture of 30° instead of 60° also led to considerably lower WBSF values (22.1 N vs. 30.0 N). Freezing, frozen storage and thawing of the meat, prior to WBSF measurement, resulted in higher shear force values (32.7 N vs. 28.7 N) and a better prediction of tenderness, R(2) (25% vs. 15%) and SEE (0.94 N vs. 1.00 N). Furthermore, preparing the frozen stored

  20. Protein degradation and post-deboning tenderization in broiler breast meat with different degrees of muscle shortening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deboning broiler breast fillets prior to rigor mortis negatively influences tenderness due to sarcomere shortening. The effects of sarcomere shortening on muscle protein degradation and breast meat tenderization during post-deboning aging are not well understood. The objective of this study was to m...

  1. Evaluation of tendered prices of natural mineral water, juice and non-alcoholic beer (public procurement research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Pomazalová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to evaluate tender prices of chosen beverages according to public procurement based on secondary data analysis. The empirical results of analysis (t-test and F-test show that average annual prices of these beverages are different and collected data are not included in the same sample. Tender prices are different in each year of observed years, although are based on public tender. Important evidence is that for the public tenders in the abroad is obligatory use of the Czech public procurement law. According to this act the base evaluation criterion is the lowest offered price. Data were collected during the years 2005–2009. This study deals with empirical approach, variability of prices of chosen beverages based on public tenders between the Czech Republic (Ministry of Defence and local suppliers in Kosovo. Results show low variability of prices, which are based on public tender and legal approach, regulated public procurement. The research conclusion is the fact, that tender prices for piece of non-alcoholic beverage are less than 10 % from annual mean (pcs./CZK of tendered prices.

  2. INVIVO 31P MAGNETIC-RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY (MRS) OF TENDER POINTS IN PATIENTS WITH PRIMARY FIBROMYALGIA SYNDROME

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEBLECOURT, AC; WOLF, RF; VANRIJSWIJK, MH; KAMMAN, RL; KNIPPING, AA; MOOYAART, EL

    1991-01-01

    31P Magnetic Resonance-Spectroscopy was performed at the site of tender points in the trapezius muscle of patients with primary fibromyalgia syndrome. Earlier, in vitro studies have reported changes in the high energy phosphate-metabolism in biopsies taken from tender points of fibromyalgia patients

  3. Relationships between the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire, tender point count, and muscle strength in female patients with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Lund, Hans Peter; Christensen, Robin

    2009-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that fibromyalgia (FM) patients with reduced lower extremity strength are more symptomatic and tender than FM patients with normal muscle strength.......To test the hypothesis that fibromyalgia (FM) patients with reduced lower extremity strength are more symptomatic and tender than FM patients with normal muscle strength....

  4. 78 FR 41390 - Pershing County Water Conservation District; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing with the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ..., nearby the Town of Lovelock, Pershing County, Nevada. The project would occupy 0.25 acre of Reclamation... Energy Regulatory Commission Pershing County Water Conservation District; Notice of Application Tendered...: Pershing County Water Conservation District. e. Name of Project: Humboldt River Hydro Power Project....

  5. Tendering by municipalities of wind turbines; Aanbesteding door gemeenten van windmolens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    This manual provides municipalities answers to the questions of how the municipality must do the tendering for wind turbines and what choices they have [Dutch] Deze handleiding biedt gemeenten antwoorden op de vragen hoe de gemeente moet aanbesteden en welke keuzes zij daarin heeft.

  6. Prevalence and anatomical location of muscle tenderness in adults with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Hansen, Klaus; Mortensen, Ole S

    2011-01-01

    Many adults experience bothersome neck/shoulder pain. While research and treatment strategies often focus on the upper trapezius, other neck/shoulder muscles may be affected as well. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence and anatomical location of muscle tenderness in adults...... with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain....

  7. 31 CFR 309.10 - Tenders; reservation of right to reject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tenders; reservation of right to reject. 309.10 Section 309.10 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT ISSUE AND SALE OF...

  8. 31 CFR 309.8 - Tenders; when cash deposit is required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT ISSUE AND SALE OF TREASURY... Bank, or Branch or to the Bureau of the Public Debt, Washington, DC 20226. If a special envelope is not... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tenders; when cash deposit...

  9. 31 CFR 309.9 - Tenders; acceptance by the Secretary of the Treasury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT ISSUE AND SALE OF... by the Bureau of the Public Debt will be opened. The Secretary of the Treasury will determine the... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tenders; acceptance by the...

  10. The predetermined sites of examination for tender points in fibromyalgia syndrome are frequently associated with myofascial trigger points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, Hongyou; Wang, Ying; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente;

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this present study is to test the hypotheses that the 18 predetermined sites of examination for tender points (TP sites) in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) are myofascial trigger points (MTrPs), and that the induced pain from active MTrPs at TP sites may mimic fibromyalgia pain. Each TP site......), but not latent MTrPs (r = -.001, P = .99), was positively correlated with spontaneous pain intensity in FMS. The current study provides first evidence that pain from active MTrPs at TP sites mimics fibromyalgia pain. MTrPs may relate to generalized increased sensitivity in FMS due to central sensitization....... PERSPECTIVE: This article underlies the importance of active MTrPs in FMS patients. Most of the TP sites in FMS are MTrPs. Active MTrPs may serve as a peripheral generator of fibromyalgia pain and inactivation of active MTrPs may thus be an alternative for the treatment of FMS....

  11. Reproducibility of tender point examination in chronic low back pain patients as measured by intrarater and inter-rater reliability and agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Kudsk; Callesen, Jacob; Nielsen, Merete Graakjaer;

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the reliability and agreement of digital tender point (TP) examination in chronic low back pain (LBP) patients.......To evaluate the reliability and agreement of digital tender point (TP) examination in chronic low back pain (LBP) patients....

  12. Multi-breed and multi-trait co-association analysis of meat tenderness and other meat quality traits in three French beef cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramayo-Caldas, Yuliaxis; Renand, Gilles; Ballester, Maria; Saintilan, Romain; Rocha, Dominique

    2016-04-23

    associations of correlated traits increase statistical power to identify candidate genes beyond the one-dimensional approach. Further studies on the 206 common genes, their pathways, regulators and interactions will expand our knowledge on the molecular basis of meat tenderness and could lead to the discovery of functional mutations useful for genomic selection in a multi-breed beef cattle context.

  13. Effect of supplementation of tender coconut water on blood pressure of primary hypertensive subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gullapalli HS, Avinash P Tekade, Namrata H Gullapalli

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is a major health problem worldwide. Increased vascular resistance, sodium retention & sympathetic over activity contributes to the blood pressure elevation. Plant foods may be beneficial in decreasing blood pressure (BP. Recently much attention has been focused on plant foods that may be beneficial in preventing Hypertension, metabolic syndrome and possibly reduce the risk of various diseases. This clinical study was conducted to test the effectiveness of a structured intervention on BP of primary hypertensive subjects. Aim: To study the effect of Tender Coconut Water (TCW on BP of Primary hypertensive subjects. Methods and Material: 70 subjects were selected randomly sample for 6 weeks of the intervention program. Among them 40 subjects were selected as the experimental group and 30 300ml/day for 6 weeks whereas the control group was instructed to follow the same routine without modifications. One initial, two mid intervention (after every 15 days and one final (post intervention BP recorded for both the groups. The obtained data was statistically analyzed. Results: The mean systolic BP of experimental group and control group were decreased from 145.8 mm Hg and 141mm of Hg to 135.3 mm of Hg and 140 mm of Hg respectively. The mean diastolic BP of experimental group and control group were decreased from 93.7 mm H g and 90.9 mmHg to 86.9 mm of Hg and 89.7 mm of Hg respectively. Conclusion: Irrespective of cause of hypertension TCW has beneficial effect on BP. TCW contains high amount of potassium which causes vasodilatation and also improve the endothelial function.

  14. Quantitative analysis of vertical translocation and lateral cross-contamination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during mechanical tenderization of beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantitative vertical translocation and lateral cross-contamination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during mechanical tenderization of beef meat was investigated using a restaurant-style meat tenderizer, which was first used to tenderize a surface-inoculated sample, and then additional 4 uninoculated sa...

  15. Effect of tender coconut water on systolic and diastolic blood pressure in prehypertensive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farapti Farapti

    2014-02-01

    . Dietary intakes of high potassium will decrease blood pressure (BP. Tender coconut water (TCW is a typical drink high in potassium. This study aimed to investigate the effect of TCW on BP in female teachers and employees prehypertension. Methods: The research was a parallel single blind randomized clinical trial. A total of 32 female prehypertension subjects aged 25-44 years. The subjects were selected using certain criteria and randomly allocated to one of two groups using block randomized, 16 subjects each. The treatment group received TCW 300 ml twice daily for 14 days and nutritional counseling, and the control group received water 300 ml twice daily for 14 days and nutritional counseling. Assessment of BP was done on day 0, day 8, and day 15. Statistical analysis were done using t-test and Mann-Whitney test. Results: Mean dietary intakes of potassium were 1420.28±405.54 mg/day or 30.22±8.63% compared to Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA. During treatment period, potassium intake increased significantly in the treatment group. There were decreased BP in both groups, which were greater in the treatment group, but not statistically significant different (P > 0.05. The mean decrease of systolic BP was significant in treatment group (P = 0.031, meanwhile the mean decrease of diastolic BP was not significant (P=0.134. Conclusion: Tender coconut water 300 ml twice daily for 14 consecutive days has tendency to decrease systolic BP, but not diastolic blood pressure. (Health Science Indones 2013;2: 64-8Key words: coconut water, systolic and diastolic blood pressure

  16. Effect of tender coconut water on systolic and diastolic blood pressure in prehypertensive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farapti Farapti

    2014-02-01

    . Dietary intakes of high potassium will decrease blood pressure (BP. Tender coconut water (TCW is a typical drink high in potassium. This study aimed to investigate the effect of TCW on BP in female teachers and employees prehypertension. Methods: The research was a parallel single blind randomized clinical trial. A total of 32 female prehypertension subjects aged 25-44 years. The subjects were selected using certain criteria and randomly allocated to one of two groups using block randomized, 16 subjects each. The treatment group received TCW 300 ml twice daily for 14 days and nutritional counseling, and the control group received water 300 ml twice daily for 14 days and nutritional counseling. Assessment of BP was done on day 0, day 8, and day 15. Statistical analysis were done using t-test and Mann-Whitney test. Results: Mean dietary intakes of potassium were 1420.28±405.54 mg/day or 30.22±8.63% compared to Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA. During treatment period, potassium intake increased significantly in the treatment group. There were decreased BP in both groups, which were greater in the treatment group, but not statistically significant different (P > 0.05. The mean decrease of systolic BP was significant in treatment group (P = 0.031, meanwhile the mean decrease of diastolic BP was not significant (P=0.134. Conclusion: Tender coconut water 300 ml twice daily for 14 consecutive days has tendency to decrease systolic BP, but not diastolic blood pressure. (Health Science Indones 2013;2: 64-8Key words: coconut water, systolic and diastolic blood pressure

  17. Effect of two dietary concentrate levels on tenderness, calpain and calpastatin activities, and carcass merit in Waguli and Brahman steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, R M; Goll, D E; Marchello, J A; Duff, G C; Thompson, V F; Mares, S W; Ahmad, H A

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare carcass characteristics of a newly introduced breed, the Waguli (Wagyu x Tuli), with the carcass characteristics of the Brahman breed. Brahman cattle are used extensively in the Southwest of the United States because of their tolerance to adverse environmental conditions. However, Brahman carcasses are discounted according to the height of their humps because of meat tenderness issues. The Waguli was developed in an attempt to obtain a breed that retained the heat tolerance of the Brahman but had meat quality attributes similar to the Wagyu. Twenty-four animals were used. Six steers from each breed were fed a 94% concentrate diet and 6 steers from each breed were fed an 86% concentrate diet. Eight steers, 2 from each group, were harvested after 128 d, after 142 d, and after 156 d on feed. Waguli steers had larger LM, greater backfat thickness, greater marbling scores, and greater quality grades than the Brahman steers (P Brahman steers after 7 and 10 d of postmortem aging (P Brahman had increased to acceptable levels. Toughness of the Brahman has been associated with high levels of calpastatin in Brahman muscle, and the Waguli LM had significantly less calpastatin activity (P = 0.02) at 0 h postmortem than the Brahman LM. At 0-h postmortem, the total LM calpain activity did not differ between the Brahman and Waguli (P = 0.57). Neither diet nor days on feed had any significant effect on the 0-h postmortem calpain or at 0-h postmortem calpastatin activity, nor an effect on Warner-Bratzler shear-force values. In conclusion, LM muscle from the Waguli steers had a high degree of marbling, lower shear force values, and low calpastatin activity, all of which are related to more tender meat.

  18. Microbiological Safety of Commercial Prime Rib Preparation Methods: Thermal Inactivation of Salmonella in Mechanically Tenderized Rib Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Alexandra; Porto-Fett, Anna C S; Shoyer, Bradley A; Luchansky, John B; Thippareddi, Harshavardhan

    2015-12-01

    Boneless beef rib eye roasts were surface inoculated on the fat side with ca. 5.7 log CFU/g of a five-strain cocktail of Salmonella for subsequent searing, cooking, and warm holding using preparation methods practiced by restaurants surveyed in a medium-size Midwestern city. A portion of the inoculated roasts was then passed once through a mechanical blade tenderizer. For both intact and nonintact roasts, searing for 15 min at 260°C resulted in reductions in Salmonella populations of ca. 0.3 to 1.3 log CFU/g. For intact (nontenderized) rib eye roasts, cooking to internal temperatures of 37.8 or 48.9°C resulted in additional reductions of ca. 3.4 log CFU/g. For tenderized (nonintact) rib eye roasts, cooking to internal temperatures of 37.8 or 48.9°C resulted in additional reductions of ca. 3.1 or 3.4 log CFU/g, respectively. Pathogen populations remained relatively unchanged for intact roasts cooked to 37.8 or 48.9°C and for nonintact roasts cooked to 48.9°C when held at 60.0°C for up to 8 h. In contrast, pathogen populations increased ca. 2.0 log CFU/g in nonintact rib eye cooked to 37.8°C when held at 60.0°C for 8 h. Thus, cooking at low temperatures and extended holding at relatively low temperatures as evaluated herein may pose a food safety risk to consumers in terms of inadequate lethality and/or subsequent outgrowth of Salmonella, especially if nonintact rib eye is used in the preparation of prime rib, if on occasion appreciable populations of Salmonella are present in or on the meat, and/or if the meat is not cooked adequately throughout.

  19. Production and processing studies on calpain-system gene markers for beef tenderness: consumer assessments of eating quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D L; Cafe, L M; McIntyre, B L; Geesink, G H; Barendse, W; Pethick, D W; Thompson, J M; Polkinghorne, R; Greenwood, P L

    2012-08-01

    We investigated the effects of calpain-system genetic markers on consumer beef quality ratings, including interactions of marker effects with hormonal growth promotant (HGP) use and tenderstretch hanging. Brahman cattle in New South Wales (NSW; n = 164) and Western Australia (WA; n = 141) were selected at weaning from commercial and research herds to achieve balance and divergence in calpastatin (CAST) and calpain 3 (CAPN3) gene marker status. Genotypes for μ-calpain (CAPN1-4751 and CAPN1-316) were also determined. Angus cattle (49 in NSW, 17 in WA) with favorable CAST and CAPN3 alleles, balanced for CAPN1-316 status, were also studied. Half the cattle at each site had HGP (Revalor-H, containing 200 mg trenbolone acetate and 20 mg 17β-estradiol) implants during grain finishing. One side of each carcass was suspended from the Achilles tendon (AT) and the other from the pelvis [tenderstretch (TS)]. Meat Standards Australia consumer panels scored 7-d aged striploin steaks from both AT and TS sides, and 7-d aged rump and oyster blade steaks from the AT side of each carcass. Two favorable CAST alleles increased tenderness ratings of AT-striploin, TS-striploin, rump, and oyster blade steaks by, respectively, 6.1, 4.2, 4.2, and 3.1 units, and overall liking by 4.7, 2.8, 2.9, 3.7 (all P Brahman steaks from the same location with the same marker alleles had similar scores. In contrast, NSW Angus striploin steaks scored about 15 units greater for tenderness and overall liking (P < 0.001) than cattle with the same marker alleles at the other 3 location × breed combinations, which had generally similar scores. Therefore, calpain-system gene markers have beneficial effects on eating quality, consistent with our previous findings for objective meat quality.

  20. Competitive tendering for technical solutions in construction. Biokeskus 3; Teknisten ratkaisujen urakkakilpailu. Koekohteena Biokeskus 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pernu, P.; Lohikoski, R.

    1999-07-01

    The aim of this study was to develop alternative models for the construction contract with technical solutions, and to create, on a general level, a model for competitive tendering on the basis of technical solutions. These results were then adapted to the competitive tendering for technical solutions of Biokeskus 3. The results of this study are also tested in the contract competition of Biokeskus 3. A construction contract with technical solutions is a contract form where the owner is responsible for architectural design and the contractor for the planning and constructing of the technical solutions in question. Technical solutions are plans in which the production technology, structural, HVAC and plumbing systems are defined. These plans are based on the architectual design. This study shows that in cases where the architectual design is achieved using an architectual competition, time has to be allocated after the competition for additional development before the initiation of competitive tendering for technical solutions is done. The competitive tendering for technical solutions was defined so that the tender which was based on the architectural design could be done using any structural, HVAC and plumbing solutions. The argument in the selection of the winner is based on either the tender price or the life cycle costs. The compatibility of the architectual and the technical plans is confirmed in negotiations between the owner, the architect and the bidder before the signing. This study shows that, as in the case of traditional contract forms, the contract form of a construction contract with technical solutions can be divided into a single construction contract, a single construction contract with nominated sub-contractors, and project management methods. The competitive tendering on the basis of technical solutions resembles the American bridging and English novation methods. This study also shows that the scope of the contract can differ from the traditional

  1. Evolution of open tender mechanism in public procurement in post-Soviet Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnikov Vladimir, V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the development of public procurement through open tender in Russia over the last 20 years. It is proved the necessity of the transition to a competitive public procurement system in the 1990s. Stages and terms of carrying out of this method for determining of the supplier also are shown. The structure and the comparative analysis of procedures of open tender, and also differentiation of the application of certain regulations are given. On the basis of the analysis of purchasing technologies we can make conclusion about the progressive evolution of the process of procurement. The movement in the direction of decreasing corruption capacity of procurement procedures tells us about expediency of transition to competition in an electronic form along with expansion of the sphere of its application.

  2. The Tenderness of Old Meat%谈如何嫩化老肉

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王广胜

    2016-01-01

    s:Development of vocational education is a strategic initiatives to implement the national modernization and training of qualiifed personnel vocational skills. This paper analyzed the current problems in the implementation of a real culinary talent cultivation encountered - old meat tenderizer, combined with personal years of teaching experience, some suggestions and countermeasures on solving old meat tenderizer.%发展职业教育,是国家推行现代化建设,培养高素质职业技能人才的战略性举措。通过深入分析当前在实施烹饪人才培养过程中遇到的一个现实问题—老肉嫩化,结合个人多年的教育教学经验,提出一些关于老肉嫩化的建议和对策。

  3. Electrical stimulation affects metabolic enzyme phosphorylation, protease activation and meat tenderization in beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, C.B.; Li, J.; Zhou, G.H.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the response of sarcoplasmic proteins in bovine longissimus muscle to low-voltage electrical stimulation (ES, 80 V, 35 s) after dressing and its contribution to meat tenderization at early postmortem time. Proteome analysis showed that ES resulted...... muscles up to 24 h. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy further indicated that lysosomal enzymes were released at early postmortem time. ES also induced ultrastructural disruption of sarcomeres. In addition, ES accelerated (P

  4. Mapping of intramuscular tenderness and muscle fiber orientation of muscles in the beef round.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senaratne, L S; Calkins, C R; de Mello, A S; Pokharel, S; Hinkle, J B

    2010-09-01

    Intramuscular tenderness variation and muscle fiber orientation of beef M. adductor femoris (AF), M. biceps femoris (BF), M. gracilis (GL), M. pectineus (PT), M. sartorius (SR), M. semimembranosus (SM), M. semitendinosus (SO), M. vastus intermedius (VI), M. vastus medialis (VM), and M. vastus lateralis (VL) were investigated. The USDA Choice boxed beef subprimals were purchased and aged for 14 d from boxed date. The AF, BF, GL, PT, SR, SM, SO, VI, VM, and VL (n = 10 each) were fabricated from subprimals. Crust-frozen AF, BF, SO, SM, and VL were cut into 2.54-cm steaks perpendicular to the long axis and grilled (71 degrees C). The PT, SR, VI, and VM were grilled (71 degrees C) as whole muscles, whereas the GL was grilled after cutting into anterior and posterior regions. Grilled muscles were cut into equal size sections perpendicular to long axis of muscles. Location-specific cores were prepared from each steak/section, and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) was measured. The muscle fiber orientations of BF, PT, and VI were bipennate, SR and SO were fusiform, and AD, SM, VL, GL, and VM were unipennate. The overall mean WBSF values for BF, SO, AF, SM, PT, SR, GL, VI, VM, and VL were 5.62, 4.86, 4.18, 4.90, 3.76, 4.44, 4.75, 4.78, 4.24, and 6.53 kg, respectively. Based on WBSF values, PT was tender, BF and VL were tough, and VM, VI, SM, GL SR, AF, and SO were intermediate. The first 2 proximal steaks of long head BF were more tender than the rest (P Dry or moist heat oven roasting, as compared with grilling, significantly tenderized SO (P = 0.002) and VL (P beef round.

  5. Prevalence and anatomical location of muscle tenderness in adults with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Many adults experience bothersome neck/shoulder pain. While research and treatment strategies often focus on the upper trapezius, other neck/shoulder muscles may be affected as well. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence and anatomical location of muscle tenderness in adults with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain. Methods Clinical neck/shoulder examination at two large office workplaces in Copenhagen, Denmark. 174 women and 24 men (aged 25-65 years) with ...

  6. Market Abuse Directive and Insider Trading: Evidence from Italian Tender Offers

    OpenAIRE

    Ferretti, Riccardo; Pattitoni, Pierpaolo; Patuelli, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the effectiveness of the Market Abuse Directive (MAD) in reducing possible profits from insider trading during voluntary tender offers with the purpose of delisting initiated by controlling shareholders. Exploiting the quasi-experimental setting provided by the introduction of the MAD, our event-study analysis on the Italian market suggests that the new regulation did not produce appreciable effects on the magnitude of abnormal returns and volumes noted before the announce...

  7. The gas turbine - a bundle of energy - requires tender care

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarinen, J.; Uronen, J.; Leisio, C. [ed.

    1997-11-01

    The ability of a power plant to generate energy economically depends to a great extent on the functioning of the turbine. These days, an increasingly large number of these power plant `motors` are gas turbines. IVO`s expertise in the operation, maintenance and repair of gas turbines is based on long practical experience and the company`s own research. And IVO is also no stranger to the design and construction of new gas turbine plants

  8. Genotypic and allelic frequencies of gene polymorphisms associated with meat tenderness in Nellore beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, M E; Eler, J P; Bonin, M N; Rezende, F M; Biase, F H; Meirelles, F V; Regitano, L C A; Coutinho, L L; Balieiro, J C C; Ferraz, J B S

    2017-02-16

    The objectives of this study were to characterize the allelic and genotypic frequencies of polymorphisms in the µ-calpain and calpastatin genes, and to assess their association with meat tenderness and animal growth in Nellore cattle. We evaluated 605 Nellore animals at 24 months of age, on average, at slaughter. The polymorphisms were determined for the molecular markers CAPN316, CAPN530, CAPN4751, CAPN4753, and UOGACAST1. Analyses of meat tenderness at 7, 14, and 21 days of maturation were performed in samples of longissimus thoracis obtained between the 12th and 13th rib and sheared using a Warner Bratzler Shear Force. Significant effects were observed for meat tenderness at days 7, 14, and 21 of maturation for the marker CAPN4751, at day 21 for the marker CAPN4753, and at days 14 and 21 for the marker UOGCAST1. For genotypic combinations of markers, the results were significant for the combination CAPN4751/UOGCAST1 in the three maturation periods and CAPN4753/UOGCAST1 at days 14 and 21 of maturation.

  9. Correlation of clinical and radiographic findings with outcomes in acute cervical discoligamentous trauma manifesting as persistent midline cervical tenderness.

    OpenAIRE

    Ackland, Helen Margaret

    2017-01-01

    According to current international practice, the presence of midline cervical tenderness following trauma mandates cervical spine imaging. Whilst this aspect of trauma management is unambiguous, difficulties arise when midline tenderness is persistent, and computed tomography (CT) imaging is negative for acute injury. The extent to which this clinical sign is an indication of occult discoligamentous injury, undetectable on CT imaging, is unclear. The identification of such inju...

  10. Fatty acid profile, cholesterol content and tenderness of ostrich meat as influenced by age at slaughter and muscle type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolami, A; Marsico, I; D'Andrea, G; Braghieri, A; Napolitano, F; Cifuni, G F

    2003-07-01

    Ten Blue Neck ostriches were used to study the effect of age at slaughter (10-11 and 14-15 months) and muscle on fatty acid profile, cholesterol content and texture of meat. Fatty acid profile of ostrich meat was significantly affected by age at slaughter (Pmuscles (Piliofibularis (Pmuscle location. No effect of age on shear values was observed, whereas sensory panellists scored meat from younger birds as more tender (Piliofibularis was more tender (P<0.001).

  11. Tender for cleaning up business. New techniques and tender to reduce the emission of buses; Aanbesteding schoon busvervoer. Nieuwe technieken en aanbesteding bieden kansen voor emissiereductie bij bussen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorel, F.G.; Van den Broek, C.B.W.; Jansen, L. [Provincie Zuid-Holland, The Hague (Netherlands)

    2000-03-01

    Air pollution in urban areas in the Netherlands still causes health-problems, and the present air quality does not meet the new standards in the European Union. Every part of society (industry, traffic etc.) therefore has to contribute in reducing emissions. Regarding buses there are several options. New buses can be build with an engine suitable for LPG, or new and existing diesel buses can be equipped with so called 'Continuous Regenerating Traps' (CRT-filters). This article focuses on the new possibility of provinces and municipalities in the Netherlands to facilitate the introduction of these new techniques. For the first time, these governments are planning to call for tenders of bus companies publicly. In order to be granted permission to provide public transport in a certain area, a bus company has to agree upon reducing its present average bus emissions to a certain (fixed) extent. 10 refs.

  12. Influence of supplementing vitamin C to yearling steers fed a high sulfur diet during the finishing period on meat color, tenderness and protein degradation, and fatty acid profile of the longissimus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogge, Danielle J; Lonergan, Steven M; Hansen, Stephanie L

    2014-08-01

    The objective was to determine the influence of vitamin C (VC) supplemented for approximately 102 d during the finishing period on color, tenderness, and fatty acid profile of longissimus thoracis (LT; n=136) from steers fed a 0.55% sulfur diet. Treatments included 4 supplemental VC concentrations: 1) 0 (CON), 2) 5 (5VC), 3) 10 (10VC), or 4) 20 (20VC) gVC·h(-1)∙d(-1) in a common diet. Increasing supplemental VC decreased (Pacid profiles. A quadratic effect (P≤0.03) was observed for cholesterol and CLA content of LT. Under the conditions of our study, supplementing VC to steers fed a 0.55% sulfur diet late in the finishing period did not influence color or tenderness, but increased the vitamin E content. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of the Impact of Transparency, Corruption, Openness in Competition and Tender Procedures on Public Procurement in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Ochrana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the impact of transparency and openness to competition in public procurement in the Czech Republic. The problems of the Czech procurement market have been demonstrated on the analysis of a sample of contracts awarded by local government entities. From among a set of factors influencing the efficiency of public procurement, we closely analyse transparency, resilience against corruption, openness, effective administrative award procedure, and formulation of appropriate evaluation criteria for selecting the most suitable bid. Some assumptions were confirmed, including a positive effect of open procedures on the level of competition on the supply side as well as the dominant use of price criteria only. The latter case is probably often caused by low skills of workers at the contracting entities, as well as the lack of resources in public budgets. However, we have to reject the persistent legend of “undershooting” tender prices and subsequently increasing the final prices of public contracts. Increases of final prices are very limited. Based on the results of the analyses presented, we argue that the main problem of the Czech public procurement market lies in a rather low competence of administrators who are not able to use non-price criteria more often.

  14. Effects of animal class and genotype on beef muscle nanostructure, pHu, colour and tenderness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Y. Chulayo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the effects of animal class and genotype of cattle on Muscularis longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL nanostructure, ultimate pH (pHu, colour and tenderness of beef. We found significant positive relationships between distance travelled (DT and meat temperature (Tm (p"less than"0.01; lairage duration (LDhr and lightness of colour (L* (p"less than"0.01; ambient temperature (Ta and L* (p"less than"0.05 and LDhr and yellowness (b* (p"less than"0.05 of beef from Bonsmara cattle. Positive linear relationships were observed between DT and Tm (p"less than"0.05 and DT and L* (p"less than"0.01 of the non-descript cattle. There were no significant relationships between pre-slaughter stress and other beef quality parameters (pHu, Warner– Bratzler shear force [WBSF], redness [a*] and b* of Bonsmara, Nguni and non-descript cattle. Muscle fibres differed among class and genotype and had an effect on meat quality. The Bonsmara, non-descript and Nguni cows and heifers had visible skeletal muscle fibres which were thin and long, promising improved tenderness of beef. Genotype and class had significant effects on meat quality parameters (Tm, pHu, L*, a*, b* and WBSF. The first important principal components as they appeared from the analysis were pHu, Tm, L*, a*, b* and WBSF. Therefore, animal class did not affect the nanostructure of beef; instead, meat tenderness was enhanced by the longer and visible muscle fibres. Nguni cattle produced meat of superior quality to that of the Bonsmara and the non-descript cattle.

  15. Effect of Wagyu- versus Angus-sired calves on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radunz, A E; Loerch, S C; Lowe, G D; Fluharty, F L; Zerby, H N

    2009-09-01

    Wagyu-sired (n = 20) and Angus-sired (n = 19) steers and heifers were used to compare the effects of sire breed on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and meat tenderness. Calves were weaned at 138 +/- 5 d of age and individually fed a finishing diet consisting of 65% whole corn, 20% protein/vitamin/mineral supplement, and 15% corn silage on a DM basis. Heifers and steers were slaughtered at 535 and 560 kg of BW, respectively. Carcasses were ribbed between the 12th and 13th (USDA grading system) and the 6th and 7th ribs (Japanese grading system) to measure fat thickness, LM area (LMA), and intramuscular fat (IMF). Two steaks were removed from the 12th rib location and aged for 72 h and 14 d to determine Warner-Bratzler shear force and cooking loss. Sire breed x sex interactions were not significant (P > 0.05). Angus-sired calves had greater (P Angus. Sire breed did not affect (P > 0.20) HCW, 12th-rib fat, or USDA yield grade. Carcasses of Wagyu had greater (P = 0.0001) marbling scores at the 12th rib than those of Angus (770.9 vs. 597.3 +/- 41.01, respectively). Carcasses of Wagyu also had greater (P Angus, resulting in a greater proportion of carcasses grading Prime (65.0 vs. 21.1%; P = 0.006). Carcasses from Wagyu tended (P = 0.08) to have greater LMA at the 12th rib, whereas Angus carcasses had greater (P Angus and Wagyu had similar (P > 0.50) tenderness at aging times of 72 h and 14 d. Cooking loss was greater (P Angus than Wagyu steaks at 72 h and 14 d. Using Wagyu sires vs. Angus sires on British-based commercial cows combined with early weaning management strategies has the potential to produce a product with greater marbling, but is unlikely to significantly enhance tenderness.

  16. RELIABILITY ANALYSIS OF BIDDERS AND THEIR TENDER OFFERS CONCERNING EXECUTION OF CONSTRUCTION WORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galkina Elena Vladislavovna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the reliability analysis methods of bidders and their tenders offers for implementation of construction works are offered. The special attention is focused on the complexity of these processes and the necessity of participation of serious, professional and responsible executors. Application of the described methods leads to a conclusion on the decrease of risks related to selection of a participant of a construction pro-ject. In the article the main stages of the implementation procedure are defined. That allows considering the economic state of applicants, and both economic and technical indicators of tender offers’ reliability. The main characteristics to be considered on each stage are revealed. The author makes a conclusion that the reliability of bidders is determined by the comparison of their economic states with the capacities for implementation of the orders with the specified characteristics. According to the terminology of the article, the reliability of applicant’s of-fers is the ability to execute orders on the bidder’s own conditions. In addition the author states that determining the reliability is based on the comparison of tender offers and contender’s characteristics of objects. The rational methods to compare economic indicators are offered. Along with this, it was found out that at the current moment the method of comparing the technical indicators for the projects-analogues with the indicators of a bidder’s object is not formalized. It limits the application of this method. Finally, it was concluded that the development of the methods applied to technical indicators provided a coherent system for evaluating the reliability of the construction bidders and their offers. It allows creating the basis for the development of appropriate automated system that can be used both for selection of competitive organizations and for preparation of offers by the applicants.

  17. The efficacy of a vitamin D(3) metabolite for improving the myofibrillar tenderness of meat from Bos indicus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, R W; Doyle, J; Elliott, R; Loxton, I; McMeniman, J P; Norton, B W; Reid, D J; Tume, R W

    2006-01-01

    The influence of a once only administration of a metabolite of vitamin D(3) (HY·D(®)-25-hydroxy vitamin D(3)) on myofibrillar meat tenderness in Australian Brahman cattle was studied. Ninety-six Brahman steers of three phenotypes (Indo-Brazil, US and US/European) and with two previous hormonal growth promotant (HGP) histories (implanted or not implanted with Compudose(®)) were fed a standard feedlot ration for 70d. Treatment groups of 24 steers were offered daily 10g/head HY·D(®) (125mg 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3)) for 6, 4, or 2d before slaughter. One other group of 24 steers was given the basal diet without HY·D(®). Feed lot performance, blood and muscle samples and carcass quality data were collected at slaughter. Calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, iron and Vitamin D(3) metabolites were measured in plasma and longissimus dorsi muscle. Warner-Bratzler (WB) shear force (peak force, initial yield) and other objective meat quality measurements were made on the longissimus dorsi muscle of each steer after ageing for 1, 7 and 14d post-mortem at 0-2°C. There were no significant effects of HY·D(®) supplements on average daily gain (ADG, 1.28-1.45kg/d) over the experimental period. HY·D(®) supplements given 6d prior to slaughter resulted in significantly higher (P<0.05) initial yield values compared to supplements given 2d prior to slaughter. Supplementation had no significant effect on meat colour, ultimate pH, sarcomere length, cooking loss, instron compression or peak force. There was a significant treatment (HY·D(®)) by phenotype/HGP interaction for peak force (P=0.028), in which Indo-Brazil steers without previous HGP treatment responded positively (increased tenderness) to HY·D(®) supplements at 2d when compared with Indo-Brazil steers previously given HGP. There were no significant effects of treatment on other phenotypes. HY·D(®) supplements did not affect muscle or plasma concentrations of calcium, potassium or sodium, but did significantly

  18. FARMER CHEESE IN NUTRITION OF TENDER AGE CHILDREN: TRADITIONS AND MODERN OPPORTUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. А. Samorodnova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Farmer cheese is a food source of the milk protein, easily acquired milk fat, vitamins, folic and nicotinic acid, macro- and microelements, methionine — irreplaceable amino acid with lipotropic action. Recommendations on farmer cheese inclusion to a food ration of a tender age child are provided. The data on the range and advantages of the children farmer cheese made by ultrafiltration method allowing to receive a product with the optimum organoleptic properties, enriched with serumal proteins with necessary amount of calcium and phosphorus, with high degree of microbiological purity are submitted.

  19. Risk pre-warning of tender evaluation for civil projects:an outlier detection model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The marking scheme method removes the low scores of the contractor's attributes given by experts when the overall score is calculated, which may result in that a contractor with some latent risks will win the project. In order to remedy the above defect of the marking scheme method, an outlier detection model, which is one mission of knowledge discovery in data, is established on the basis of the sum of similar coefficients. Then, the model is applied to the historical score data of tender evaluation for ci...

  20. As a mother tenderly: exploring parish ministry through the metaphor and analogy of mothering

    OpenAIRE

    Percy, Emma

    2012-01-01

    As a mother tenderly: using mothering as a metaphor and analogy for parish ministry. The thesis sets out to use maternal imagery as a way of articulating the practice of parish ministry in the Church of England. The aim is to find a language which can affirm and encourage many aspects of good practice that are in danger of being over looked because they are neither well articulated nor valued. The ministry of a parish priest is a relational activity: characterised by care. It is becaus...

  1. Tender Is the Night: romantic tragedy or the tragedy of boundary violations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlding, Sybil

    2009-04-01

    In the author's reading, Fitzgerald's Tender Is the Night (1934) is a sustained investigation of the incest taboo and of the psychological pressures that can lead to its collapse in the clinical situation. This novel allows the reader privileged entry into the "case" of a clinical boundary violation in a way that no scientific paper can permit. Drawing on Chasseguet-Smirgel's (1976) concept of the illness of ideality, the author uses this novel to demonstrate why none of us is safe from the possibility of erotic involvement with a patient.

  2. Fibromyalgia, myofascial pain, tender points and trigger points: splitting or lumping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Robert M; Goldenberg, Don L

    2011-06-30

    Myofascial trigger points (MTPs) have long been a contentious issue in relation to fibromyalgia, and poorly defined pain complaints in general. Can MTPs be reproducibly identified? Do MTPs have valid objective findings, such as spontaneous electromyographic activity, muscle microdialysis evidence for an inflammatory milieu or visualization with newer ultrasound techniques? Is fibromyalgia a syndrome of multiple MTPs, or is focal muscle tenderness a manifestation of central sensitization? These issues are discussed with relevance to a recent paper reporting that manual palpation of active MTPs elicits the spontaneous pain experienced by fibromyalgia patients.

  3. Pain and tenderness in human temporal muscle induced by bradykinin and 5-hydroxytryptamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kai; Tuxen, C; Pedersen-Bjergaard, U

    1990-01-01

    Pain was induced in 19 healthy individuals by double-blind injections into the temporal muscle of 0.2 ml of physiological saline with or without active substances added. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (2 nmol) caused pain similar to saline, bradykinin (2 nmol) only insignificantly more pain (0.05 less than p...... less than 0.1), while a mixture of the two substances in half dosage (1 nmol + 1 nmol) caused pain significantly above saline (p less than 0.01). Variations in the response to saline did not permit a conclusion to be made on the question of induced tenderness. However, the mixture of the two substances...

  4. Fibromyalgia, myofascial pain, tender points and trigger points: splitting or lumping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Myofascial trigger points (MTPs) have long been a contentious issue in relation to fibromyalgia, and poorly defined pain complaints in general. Can MTPs be reproducibly identified? Do MTPs have valid objective findings, such as spontaneous electromyographic activity, muscle microdialysis evidence for an inflammatory milieu or visualization with newer ultrasound techniques? Is fibromyalgia a syndrome of multiple MTPs, or is focal muscle tenderness a manifestation of central sensitization? These issues are discussed with relevance to a recent paper reporting that manual palpation of active MTPs elicits the spontaneous pain experienced by fibromyalgia patients. PMID:21722339

  5. Muscle fatigue in relation to forearm pain and tenderness among professional computer users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, GF; Johnson, PW; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff

    2007-01-01

    and twenty gender and age matched referents without such complaints were enrolled from the Danish NUDATA study of neck and upper extremity disorders among technical assistants and machine technicians. Fatigue of the right forearm extensor muscles was assessed by muscle twitch forces in response to low...... response was not explained by differences in the MVC or body mass index. CONCLUSION: Computer users with forearm pain and moderate to severe palpation tenderness had diminished forearm extensor muscle fatigue response. Additional studies are necessary to determine whether this result reflects an adaptive...... response to exposure without any pathophysiological significance, or represents a part of a causal pathway leading to pain....

  6. The effect of the packaging system and storage time on myofibrillar protein degradation and oxidation process in relation to beef tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moczkowska, Małgorzata; Półtorak, Andrzej; Montowska, Magdalena; Pospiech, Edward; Wierzbicka, Agnieszka

    2017-03-18

    This study investigated the impact of packaging systems on the degradation and oxidation of beef proteins regarding beef tenderness of longissimus lumborum (LL) and biceps femoris (BF) muscles stored in vacuum skin packaging (VSP), a modified atmosphere with high oxygen concentration (MAP), and combined of these two methods (VSP+MAP). A significant decrease in the Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) in VSP at D14 and D28 for LL was observed compared to BF. A significant effect of packaging system on troponin-T (Tn-T) and desmin degradation was shown (p≤0.001). A high concentration of oxygen in MAP and VSP+MAP affected protein oxidation, which was reflected in myosin oxidative cross-linking. An increase of WBSF values detected in steaks packed in VSP and VSP+MAP systems could be caused by the intensification of protein oxidation. Furthermore, BF was more susceptible to oxidation compared to LL. The VSP+MAP packaging system has resulted in the maintenance of a bright, red color, however has not improved the beef tenderness.

  7. Estimation of Sensory Pork Loin Tenderness Using Warner-Bratzler Shear Force and Texture Profile Analysis Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Jee-Hwan; Choi, Mi-Hee; Rhee, Min-Suk; Kim, Byoung-Chul

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the degree to which instrumental measurements explain the variation in pork loin tenderness as assessed by the sensory evaluation of trained panelists. Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS) had a significant relationship with the sensory tenderness variables, such as softness, initial tenderness, chewiness, and rate of breakdown. In a regression analysis, WBS could account variations in these sensory variables, though only to a limited proportion of variation. On the other hand, three parameters from texture profile analysis (TPA)-hardness, gumminess, and chewiness-were significantly correlated with all sensory evaluation variables. In particular, from the result of stepwise regression analysis, TPA hardness alone explained over 15% of variation in all sensory evaluation variables, with the exception of perceptible residue. Based on these results, TPA analysis was found to be better than WBS measurement, with the TPA parameter hardness likely to prove particularly useful, in terms of predicting pork loin tenderness as rated by trained panelists. However, sensory evaluation should be conducted to investigate practical pork tenderness perceived by consumer, because both instrumental measurements could explain only a small portion (less than 20%) of the variability in sensory evaluation.

  8. A combination of extended fuzzy AHP and fuzzy GRA for government E-tendering in hybrid fuzzy environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Xi, Chengyu; Zhang, Shuai; Yu, Dejian; Zhang, Wenyu; Li, Yong

    2014-01-01

    The recent government tendering process being conducted in an electronic way is becoming an inevitable affair for numerous governmental agencies to further exploit the superiorities of conventional tendering. Thus, developing an effective web-based bid evaluation methodology so as to realize an efficient and effective government E-tendering (GeT) system is imperative. This paper firstly investigates the potentiality of employing fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP) along with fuzzy gray relational analysis (GRA) for optimal selection of candidate tenderers in GeT process with consideration of a hybrid fuzzy environment with incomplete weight information. We proposed a novel hybrid fuzzy AHP-GRA (HFAHP-GRA) method that combines an extended fuzzy AHP with a modified fuzzy GRA. The extended fuzzy AHP which combines typical AHP with interval AHP is proposed to obtain the exact weight information, and the modified fuzzy GRA is applied to aggregate different types of evaluation information so as to identify the optimal candidate tenderers. Finally, a prototype system is built and validated with an illustrative example for GeT to confirm the feasibility of our approach.

  9. The influence of biochemical differences on the variation in tenderness of M. longissimus dorsi of Belgian Blue steers managed homogenously pre and post-slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, S C; Mullen, A M; Buckley, D J; Kerry, J P; Moloney, A P

    2005-02-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the contribution of some biochemical processes of postmortem muscle to the variation in tenderness of beef from Belgian Blue bull cross Holstein-Friesian steers (n=10). These animals were managed optimally from conception to consumption with the aim of reducing tenderness variation. The M. longissimus dorsi (LD) from the left hand side (LHS) and the right hand side (RHS) were analysed for variation in tenderness using Bartletts test. The quality measurements included pH, temperature, Warner Bratzler shear force, sensory tenderness, chemical composition and sarcomere length. Biochemical measurements included myofibrilar proteolysis, glycolytic potential, adenine/inosine ratio and collagen content. No difference for variances or means were observed between LHS and RHS for chemical, quality or biochemical attributes. Biochemical variation was greater than the variation observed in most of the quality attributes measured. Proteolysis was the main biochemical contributor to the variation in shear force tenderness after 2 and 7 as postmortem, but not sensory tenderness. Glycolysis levels and adenine/inosine ratio explained much of the variation in sensory tenderness, but not WBSF. Collagen content in the LD muscles did not explain variation in shear force or sensory tenderness. This would suggest biochemical variation is one of the main contributors to variation in tenderness of beef managed optimally pre- and post-slaughter.

  10. Effects of supplemental vitamin D3 on feed intake, carcass characteristics, tenderness, and muscle properties of beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karges, K; Brooks, J C; Gill, D R; Breazile, J E; Owens, F N; Morgan, J B

    2001-11-01

    Research was conducted to determine the effects of supplemental dietary vitamin D3 on DMI, carcass traits, Warner Bratzler shear (WBS) force, calpastatin activity, plasma minerals, pH (0, 3, 12, and 24 h after slaughter), water-holding capacity (WHC), and sensory characteristics of three muscles. Pre-slaughter vitamin D3 treatments included no supplemental vitamin D3, 6 x 106 IU (MIU) of vitamin D3 for 4 d, or 6 MIU of vitamin D3 for 6 d. Cattle were slaughtered and carcasses were chilled for 48 h before removal of steaks from the longissimus, gluteus medius, and biceps femoris muscles. Steaks were aged at 2 degrees C for 7, 14, or 21 d before cooking to a final internal temperature of 70 degrees C for WBS and sensory panel analysis. Dry matter intake was lower for steers supplemented with vitamin D3 for 4 or 6 d. Live and carcass weights were lower (P or = 3.86 kg for all steaks. Feeding vitamin D3 had no effect on palatability traits evaluated by trained panelists. Blood Ca concentrations were greater (P 0.02) after 0 h, 24 h, and 21 d postmortem when vitamin D3 was fed and was greater at 0 and 24 h if vitamin D3 was fed for 6 d rather than 4 d. These data suggest that supplementing 6 MIU of vitamin D3 will decrease DMI and improve beef tenderness through increased blood plasma Ca concentrations and WHC.

  11. Research on Tender Beef Catering Technology%餐饮业牛肉嫩化技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚东

    2014-01-01

    With the continuous improvement of people's living standards, human food structure has undergone great changes, beef consumption increased year by year. At the same time, consumers of beef quality requirements have become more sophisticated, more and more popular in the meat soft and tender, juicy meat. Therefore, to continuously improve the quality and yield of beef, thereby enhancing economic efficiency of enterprises, which will further enhance our position in the international food and beverage industry plays an important role.%随着人民生活水平的不断提高,人类食品结构发生了很大变化,牛肉的消费量逐年上升。与此同时,消费者对牛肉的质量要求也越来越高,越来越青睐于肉质柔软细嫩、多汁的肉。因此,不断提高我国牛肉的质量和产量,从而提高企业的经济效益,将会进一步提升我国餐饮业在国际上的地位。

  12. Effect of Brahman genetic influence on collagen enzymatic crosslinking gene expression and meat tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, J M; Johnson, D D; Elzo, M A; White, M C; Stelzleni, A M; Johnson, S E

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the effect of Brahman genetics on collagen enzymatic crosslinking gene expression and meat tenderness. Steers were randomly selected to represent a high percentage Brahman genetics (n = 13), Half-Blood genetics (n = 13), Brangus genetics (n = 13), and a high percentage Angus genetics (n = 13). Muscle samples from the Longissimus lumborum muscle were collected at weaning and harvest and reverse transcription quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis was conducted to measure the mRNA expression of lysyl oxidase (LOX), bone morphogenetic protein 1 (BMP1), and cystatin C (CYS). Steaks from subject animals were collected at harvest, aged for 14 d and subjected to collagen analysis, Warner-Bratzler Shear Force (WBS) and trained sensory panel analysis (tenderness, juiciness, and connective tissue). Data indicated that Half-Blood and Brahman steers had greater (PBrahman and Half-Blood steaks when compared to Angus and Brangus steaks (P 0.10). At harvest, Brangus and Angus steers had greater LOX mRNA expression than Brahman cattle (P Brahman genetic influence.

  13. Relationships between the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire, tender point count, and muscle strength in female patients with fibromyalgia: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Lund, Hans; Christensen, Robin;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that fibromyalgia (FM) patients with reduced lower extremity strength are more symptomatic and tender than FM patients with normal muscle strength. METHODS: A total of 840 FM patients and 122 healthy subjects were evaluated between 1998 and 2005. All of the patie......OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that fibromyalgia (FM) patients with reduced lower extremity strength are more symptomatic and tender than FM patients with normal muscle strength. METHODS: A total of 840 FM patients and 122 healthy subjects were evaluated between 1998 and 2005. All...... of the patients completed version 1 of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and were assessed for tender points and knee muscle strength. All subjects underwent bilateral isokinetic knee muscle strength testing in flexion and extension. Normative knee muscle strength values were calculated from the healthy...

  14. PENGEMPUKAN DAGING DENGAN ENZIM PROTEASE TANAMAN BIDURI (Calotropis gigantea [Meat Tenderization using Protease of Biduri Plant (Calotropis gigantea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erni Sofia Murtini1

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Tenderness is the main attribute quality of meat, which influences consumer acceptability. Protease enzyme (like papain, bromelin and ficin are known to be used for improving tenderness of meat trough degradation of the protein. Biduri plant (Calotropis gigantea contains protease enzyme in its latex or the young tissue (0-20 cm plant tip. After isolation of crude enzyme using ammonium sulphate, the enzyme was the applied to tenderise meat at concentrations 0 ; 0,25; 0,5; 0,75 and 1,0%. The result showed that concentration of protease enzyme affected to meat tenderness that determined by compression test and tensile strength. The enzyme (0.5% was enough to tenderise meat indicated by decreasing its compression test value to 201,160 N 9 from control of 228,582 N and tensile strength value to 4,618 N (from control 9,588N

  15. Issues of provisions in the Specification of the Essential Terms of Contract (SIWZ in tenders for realization of forestry works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błuszkowska Urszula

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to analyse the provisions included in the Specifications of the Essential Terms of Contract in tenders for forestry works. The subject of the analysis was tender documentation of a selected Regional Directorate of State Forests. An attention was given to a number of inconsistencies, and non-specific and unjustified requirements. The presence of significant differences in the manner of defining requirements in the examined forest districts was emphasised. In opinion of the authors, the differences observed are unjustified and without any doubt impede the creation of tender documentation by representatives of forestry work companies. The summary of the analysis consists of, among others, a few guidelines on the manner of defining the requirements for forestry work companies and the need to unify the SIWZ provisions at the level of Regional Directorate of State Forests.

  16. Production and processing studies on calpain-system gene markers for tenderness in Brahman cattle: 1. Growth, efficiency, temperament, and carcass characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafe, L M; McIntyre, B L; Robinson, D L; Geesink, G H; Barendse, W; Greenwood, P L

    2010-09-01

    Experiments were conducted concurrently at 2 locations to quantify effects and interactions of calpain-system tenderness gene markers on growth, efficiency, temperament, and carcass traits of Brahman cattle. Cattle were selected at weaning from commercial and research herds based on their genotype for commercially available calpastatin (CAST) and calpain 3 (CAPN3) gene markers for beef tenderness. Genotypes for mu-calpain gene markers (CAPN1-4751 and CAPN1-316) were also determined and included in statistical analyses. The New South Wales (NSW) herd was composed of 82 heifers and 82 castrated male cattle with 0 or 2 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3. The Western Australia (WA) herd was composed of 173 castrated male cattle with 0, 1, or 2 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3. One-half of the cattle at each site were implanted with a hormonal growth promotant (HGP: Revalor-H) during grain finishing. Cattle were backgrounded at pasture for 6 to 8 mo and grain-fed for 117 d (NSW) or 80 d (WA) before slaughter. Individually, or in combination with each other and with CAPN1-4751 status, CAST and CAPN3 status had no significant (all P > 0.05) effects on BW, growth, feed efficiency, or temperament traits. The only significant effect of CAST or CAPN3 on carcass characteristics was a small increase in rib fat with increasing number of favorable CAST alleles (P = 0.042) in the WA herd. There were no significant interactions (all P > 0.05) between the markers, or between the markers and sex or HGP treatment apart from CAST x HGP for area of the M. longissimus lumborum (P = 0.024) in the NSW experiment. Favorable CAST or CAPN3 alleles appear unlikely to have detrimental effects on growth, efficiency, temperament, or carcass characteristics of Brahman cattle; however, some effects evident for CAPN1 status indicate the need for further production studies on effects of these markers. Overall, the findings of the present study indicate that calpain-system gene markers are

  17. Deciding about Design Quality: Value judgements and decision making in the selection of architects by public clients under European tendering regulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volker, L.

    2010-01-01

    In the past few years the image of tender procedures in which Dutch public clients selected an architect has been dominated by distressing newspaper headlines. Architects fear that the current tender culture will harm the quality of our built environment due to a potential lack of diversity, creativ

  18. Proposal for the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the supply of chain clamps for the LHC beam vacuum system

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the supply of 810 chain clamps for the LHC beam vacuum system. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract, without competitive tendering, with MKT (AT) for the supply of 810 chain clamps for a total amount of 480 000 Swiss francs, not subject to revision.

  19. 31 CFR 309.7 - Tenders; submission through Federal Reserve Banks and branches and to the Bureau of the Public Debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Reserve Banks and branches and to the Bureau of the Public Debt. 309.7 Section 309.7 Money and Finance... BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT ISSUE AND SALE OF TREASURY BILLS § 309.7 Tenders; submission through Federal Reserve Banks and branches and to the Bureau of the Public Debt. Tenders in response to any such...

  20. Time course of subjective pain ratings, and wound and leg tenderness after hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møiniche, S; Dahl, J B; Erichsen, C J;

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little information is available on time course of wound tenderness and relationship to subjective pain ratings following surgery. Furthermore, it is not clarified whether surgical procedures may induce hyperalgesia to mechanical stimulation outside the area of the surgical incision. We...... have therefore assessed postoperative pain and pressure pain thresholds (PPT) adjacent to and remote from the surgical incision in 16 patients undergoing hysterectomy. METHODS: Pressure pain threshold was assessed with pressure algometry preoperatively, 4 and 6 and 1, 4 and 8 d after surgery...... on the abdominal wall 0.05, 5, 10 and 15 cm perpendicular to the wound, and on the anterior surface of the left thigh and tuberositas tibia. Furthermore, pain was assessed on a visual analogue scale (VAS) at rest and during cough. RESULTS: PPT decreased significantly 0.5, 5, 10 and 15 cm from skin incision up...

  1. PS-109 Barriers and facilitators to implementing drug changes caused by drug tenders and shortages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rishøj, Rikke Mie; Christrup, Lona Louring; Clemmensen, Marianne H

    2015-01-01

    Background Drug tenders and shortages result in drug changes. International studies found that drug changes can adversely affect patient safety and the working procedures of healthcare professionals.1,2 The challenges of drug changes in Danish public hospitals have not previously been studied...... for drug identification during drug shortages were proposed. Conclusion This study identified different barriers and facilitators for implementing drug changes. The barriers and facilitators included specific features related to drugs, health care technology as well as to financial and organisational...... aspects. Future studies should focus on removal of barriers and development and implementation of appropriate facilitators which may indeed improve patient safety and the working procedures of healthcare professionals during drug changes....

  2. Carcass characteristics, the calpain proteinase system, and aged tenderness of Angus and Brahman crossbred steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, T D; Williams, S E; Lamb, B S; Johnson, D D; West, R L

    1997-11-01

    We used 69 steers of varying percentage Brahman (B) breeding (0% B, n = 11; 25% B, n = 13; 37% B, n = 10; 50% B, n = 12; 75% B, n = 12; 100% B, n = 11) to study the relationship between carcass traits, the calpain proteinase system, and aged meat tenderness in intermediate B crosses. Calpains and calpastatin activities were determined on fresh longissimus muscle samples using anion-exchange chromatography. The USDA yield and quality grade data (24 h) were collected for each carcass. Longissimus steaks were removed and aged for 5 or 14 d for determination of shear force and 5 d for sensory panel evaluation. Even though some yield grade factors were affected by the percentage of B breeding, USDA yield grades did not differ (P > .15) between breed types. Marbling score and USDA quality grade decreased linearly (P Brahman crosses.

  3. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in Brahman steers and their association with carcass and tenderness traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T; Thomas, M G; Bidner, T D; Paschal, J C; Franke, D E

    2009-01-20

    Data from purebred Brahman steers (N = 467) were used to study the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with carcass traits and measures of tenderness. Fall weaned calves were grazed and fed in a subtropical environment and then harvested for processing in a commercial facility. Carcass data were recorded 24 h postmortem. Muscle samples and primal ribs were obtained to measure calpastatin activity and shear force. DNA was used to determine genotypes of thyroglobulin (TG5), calpastatin (CAST) and mu-calpain (CAPN 316 and CAPN 4751) SNP. Minor allele frequencies for CAST, CAPN 316 and CAPN 4751 were 0.342, 0.031, and 0.051, respectively. CAST genotypes were associated with calpastatin enzyme activity (P carcass traits.

  4. Tender rules and trust influence on cooperation in the building industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ussing, Lene Faber; Wandahl, Søren

    2012-01-01

    The building industry has for many years been criticized for not having as efficient and effective co-operation as other industries. Some parties in the building sector try to use a new form of collaboration as i.a. partnering. In a big part of those partnering projects a good working relationship...... exists, the building owner is satisfied, the involved companies earn money and the project finish in time. A lot of projects do not use partnering or other new forms of collaboration. In these projects the general impression is that the parties in the building sector are fighting instead of co......-operating. A questionnaire survey including building owners, contractors, suppliers, architects, engineers and client design advisor has been accomplished. The survey shows that the problem with co-operation among others is the way the tendering rules normally are used, where the normal assignment criterion is the lowest...

  5. Do sarcomere length, collagen content, pH, intramuscular fat and desmin degradation explain variation in the tenderness of three ovine muscles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Colin P; Geesink, Geert H; Collins, Damian; Hutton Oddy, V; Hopkins, David L

    2016-03-01

    The longissimus (n=118) (LL), semimembranosus (n=104) (SM) and biceps femoris (n=134) (BF) muscles were collected from lamb and sheep carcases and aged for 5days (LL and SM) and 14days (BF) to study the impact of muscle characteristics on tenderness as assessed by shear force (SF) and sensory evaluation. The impact of gender, animal age, collagen content, sarcomere length (SL), desmin degradation, ultimate pH and intramuscular fat (IMF) on tenderness was examined. The main factors which influenced SF of the LL were IMF, SL and desmin degradation, but for sensory tenderness, IMF, ultimate pH and gender were the main factors. The SF and sensory tenderness of the SM was best predicted by the degree of desmin degradation. For the BF soluble collagen and animal age both influenced SF. Different factors affect tenderness across muscles and not one prediction model applied across all muscles equally well. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mapping intramuscular tenderness variation in four major muscles of the beef round.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, B J; Wulf, D M; Maddock, R J

    2002-10-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify intramuscular tenderness variation within four muscles from the beef round: biceps femoris (BF), semitendinosus (ST), semimembranosus (SM), and adductor (AD). At 48 h postmortem, the BF, ST, SM, and AD were dissected from either the left or right side of ten carcasses, vacuum packaged, and aged for an additional 8 d. Each muscle was then frozen and cut into 2.54-cm-thick steaks perpendicular to the long axis of the muscle. Steaks were broiled on electric broilers to an internal temperature of 71 degrees C. Location-specific cores were obtained from each cooked steak, and Warner-Bratzler shear force was evaluated. Definable intramuscular shear force variation (SD = 0.56 kg) was almost twice as large as between-animal shear force variation (SD = 0.29 kg) and 2.8 times as large as between-muscle variation (SD = 0.20 kg). The ranking of muscles from greatest to least definable intramuscular shear force variation was BF, SM, ST, and AD (SD = 1.09, 0.72, 0.29, and 0.15 kg, respectively). The BF had its lowest shear force values at the origin (sirloin end), intermediate shear force values at the insertion, and its highest shear force values in a middle region 7 to 10 cm posterior to the sirloin-round break point (P 0.05). These data indicate that definable intramuscular tenderness variation is substantial and could be used to develop alternative fabrication and(or) merchandising methods for beef round muscles.

  7. Modified-atmosphere storage under subatmospheric pressure and beef quality: II. Color, drip, cooking loss, sarcomere length, and tenderness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, F.J.M.; Hiesberger, J.; Hofbauer, P.; Dogl, B.; Dransfield, E.

    2006-01-01

    Beef has a requirement for refrigerated storage up to 14 d to achieve adequate aging and a tender product. To achieve this aging with little spoilage and no surface drying, vacuum packaging is attractive, because it is inherently simple and offers a clear indication to the packer when the process ha

  8. 78 FR 43188 - Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P.; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P.; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing... Hydropower, L.P. e. Name of Project: Chasm Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On the Salmon River, in Franklin County, New York. No federal lands are occupied by the project works or located within the project...

  9. 77 FR 37031 - Don W. Gilbert Hydro Power, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ...-001] Don W. Gilbert Hydro Power, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission... Minor License. b. Project No.: 14367-001. c. Date filed: May 30, 2012. d. Applicant: Don W. Gilbert... W. Gilbert and DeAnn G. Somonich, Don W. Gilbert Hydro Power, LLC, 1805 Grace Power Plant...

  10. 17 CFR 240.14e-7 - Unlawful tender offer practices in connection with roll-ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Finite-life entities that are not limited partnerships; (ii) Partnerships whose investors will receive....C. 78k-1); or (iii) Partnerships whose investors' securities are reported under a transaction... holder list or mail communications related to a tender offer that is in furtherance of the...

  11. 77 FR 73636 - Rock River Beach, Inc.; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ...] Rock River Beach, Inc.; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and Soliciting... No.: P-14345-001. c. Date filed: November 23, 2012. d. Applicant: Rock River Beach, Inc. e. Name of Project: Rock River Beach Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On the Rock River, in the Town of...

  12. 77 FR 2966 - Rock River Beach, Inc.; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Rock River Beach, Inc.; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the...: Exemption from Licensing. b. Project No.: 14345-000. c. Filing Date: January 5, 2012. d. Applicant: Rock River Beach, Inc. e. Name of Project: Rock River Beach Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On the...

  13. 76 FR 27310 - Coleman Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Coleman Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the...: Coleman Hydro LLC. e. Name of Project: Coleman Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On Little Timber Creek... 20426. m. The application is not ready for environmental analysis at this time. n. The proposed...

  14. 装备采购招标代理工作管理%Management of Equipment Procurement Tendering Surrogate Work

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周静; 李晓松; 刘杰

    2016-01-01

    The paper defines the concept of equipment procurement tendering surrogate and analyzes the necessity of introducing tendering surrogate into equipment procurement.Combined with the main prac-tices and existing problems,it puts forward the general ideas and specific measures on how to strengthen the management of equipment procurement tendering surrogate work,which provides reference for the sci-entific management of equipment procurement tendering surrogate organizations.%界定了装备采购招标代理的概念,分析了装备采购引入招标代理的必要性,结合目前装备采购招标代理的主要做法及存在问题,提出了加强装备采购招标代理工作管理的总体思路与具体举措,为实现装备采购招标代理机构的科学管理提供参考。

  15. 75 FR 45106 - Great River Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Great River Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With...: Great River Hydropower, LLC. e. Name of Project: Upper Mississippi River Lock & Dam No. 21 Hydroelectric...' Lock & Dam No. 21, and would consist of the following facilities: (1) A new hydropower structure...

  16. The effect of breed of sire and age at feeding on muscle tenderness in the beef chuck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, K L; Johnson, D D; West, R L; Marshall, T T; Hargrove, D D

    1991-09-01

    Steers (n = 59) produced from the mating of Braford, Simbrah, Senepol, and Simmental bulls to Brahman- and Romana Red-sired cows and Brahman bulls to Angus cows were used in this study. Effects of sire breed and age at feeding on muscle tenderness in the major muscles of the chuck when steers were fed to 1.0 cm 12th rib fat were determined. There were no muscle tenderness effects due to sire breed group, with the exception of the serratus ventralis muscle, which was more tender in Brahman- and Braford-sired steers than in Simmental-sired steers. Additionally, the supraspinatus muscle from the yearlings was lower in shear value than that from the calves. The Brahman-sired steers had serratus ventralis muscles with higher percentages (P less than .05) of intramuscular fat than those of Braford-, Simbrah-, and Simmental-sired steers. Fat deposited within the muscle or between muscles in the chuck was not related to muscle tenderness as measured by Warner-Bratzler shear values. Also, percentages of intramuscular fat of the triceps brachii, serratus ventralis, or supraspinatus muscles were not influenced (P greater than .05) by age at feeding.

  17. Microbiological safety of commercial prime rib preparation methods: thermal inactivation of Salmonella spp. in mechanically tenderized beef roasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    A survey of food service operations in a medium-size Midwestern city was conducted to evaluate the microbiological safety of prime rib preparation methods relative to survival of Salmonella spp. in both intact and tenderized (non-intact) product. All six restaurants visited seared rib eye roasts (ai...

  18. Tender Topics: Exploring Sensitive Issues with Pre-K through First Grade Children through Read-Alouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankiw, Sue; Strasser, Janis

    2013-01-01

    The topics including bullying, family diversity, homelessness, disabilities, and incarceration are often referred to as "tender topics." They can be difficult for teachers to explain to or discuss with children. In their work with children, families, and teachers, the authors have seen that it is not necessarily the topic that makes conversations…

  19. Physical, psychosocial, and individual risk factors for neck/shoulder pain with pressure tenderness in the muscles among workers performing monotonous, repetitive work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, JH; Kaergaard, A.; Frost, P.

    2002-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of individual characteristics and physical and psychosocial workplace factors on neck/shoulder pain with pressure tenderness in the muscles. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Controversy prevails about the importance of workplace...... factors versus individual factors in the etiology of pain in the neck and/or shoulders. METHODS: Study participants were 3123 workers from 19 plants. Physical risk factors were evaluated via video observations, and psychosocial risk factors were assessed with the job content questionnaire. Other...... force (2.3, 1.4-4.0). The strongest work-related psychosocial risk was high job demands (1.8, 1.2-2.7). Increased risk was also associated with neck/shoulder injury (2.6, 1.6-4.1), female gender (1.8, 1.2-2.8), and low pressure pain threshold (1.6, 1.1-2.3). Neck/shoulder pain was strongly associated...

  20. Tender evaluation and selection of condition security system for gas turbine (and boiler-) control; Offerte-evaluatie en selectie van conditiebewakingssyteem voor gasturbine- (en ketel-) bewaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Ruijter, J.A.F. [KEMA Procesautomatisering en Informatietechnologie, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    1994-12-31

    Condition control systems for gas turbines and boilers in electric power generating plants can play an important part in improving the efficiency, in increasing the availability and in realizing state-dependent maintenance. On the basis of a specification document, tenders for condition control systems for gas turbines are invited at different suppliers, focusing on thermodynamic performance control. Also attention was paid to possibilities to extend the control with mechanical control for the gas turbines and with control modules for the other sections of the power generating units (boiler and steam turbines). One condition control system, based on the DATM4-system of Boyce Engineering International has been chosen and will be demonstrated in unit 10 of the power plant Bergum of the Dutch electric utility EPON

  1. CAPN1基因4685位点与肉质嫩度相关性研究%Close Association between 4685 Loci on CAPN1 Gene and Meat Tenderness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜成国; 全世元; 曹阳; 张国梁; 董宝池; 金海国; 张立春

    2013-01-01

    [目的]探索延边黄牛与草原红牛钙蛋白酶Ⅰ(CAPN1)基因4685位点对肉质嫩度的影响.[方法]采用PCR-RFLP技术对草原红牛、延边黄牛CAPN1基因第14内含子区4685位点进行基因多态性与肉质嫩度进行分析,验证该位点在吉林省地方品种牛中的作用.[结果]该位点与肉质嫩度相关检测指标(蒸煮损失、肌纤维直径、剪切力、滴水损失等)密切相关,均表现为T等位基因的存在能够显著提高个体的嫩度水平,但该位点与pH无关.4685位点与屠宰性状(净肉重、胴体重、净肉率等)无关,仅与眼肌面积存在一定的相关性.[结论]延边黄牛与草原红牛CAPN1基因4685位点与肉质嫩度存在密切相关.%[Objective]The paper was to explore the impact of 4685 loci on CAPN1 gene of Yanbian yellow cattle and red steppe cattle on meat tenderness. [Method] 4685 loci in 14th intron region of CAPN1 gene of Yanbian yellow cattle and red steppe cattle was conducted analysis of gene polymorphism and meat tenderness by PCR-RFLP technology, and the effect of the loci on Jilin local cattle breeds was verified. [ Result] The loci had close relationship with related detection indexes of meat tenderness (cooking loss, muscle fibre diameter, shear force and drip loss) , and the existence of T allele could significantly increase the tenderness Level of individuals, but the loci was not associated to pH value. 4685 loci was not associated to carcass traits (carcass weight, net meat weight and carcass yield ratio) , which only had certain correlation with eye muscle area. .[Conclusion] 4685 loci on CAPN1 gene of Yanbian yellow cattle and red steppe cattle had close association with meat tenderness.

  2. Close Association between 4685 Loci on CAPN1 Gene and Meat Tenderness%CAPN1基因4685位点与肉质嫩度相关

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜成国; 全世元; 曹阳; 张国梁; 董宝池; 金海国; 张立春

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The paper was to explore the impact of 4685 loci on CAPN1 gene of Yanbian yellow cattle and red steppe cattle on meat tenderness. [Method] The 4685 loci in 14th intron region of CAPN1 gene of Yanbian yellow cattle and red steppe cattle was conducted analysis of gene polymorphism and meat tenderness by PCR-RFLP technology, and the effect of the loci on Jilin local cattle breeds was verified. [Result] The loci had close relationship with related detection indices of meat tenderness (cooking loss, muscle fibre diameter, shear force and drip loss), and the existence of T allele could significantly increase the tenderness level of in- dividuals, but the loci was not associated to pH value. 4685 loci was not associated to carcass traits (carcass weight, net meat weight and carcass yield ratio), which only had certain correlation with eye muscle area. [Conclusion] The 4685 loci on CAPN1 gene of Yanbian yellow cattle and red steppe cattle had close association with meat tenderness.%[目的]探索延边黄牛与草原红牛钙蛋白酶1(CAPN1)基因4685位点对肉质嫩度的影响。[方法]采用PCR—RFLP技术对草原红牛、延边黄牛CAPN1基因第14内含子区4685位点进行基因多态性与肉质嫩度进行分析,验证该位点在吉林省地方品种牛中的作用。[结果]该位点与肉质嫩度相关检测指标(蒸煮损失、肌纤维直径、剪切力、滴水损失等)密切相关,均表现为T等位基因的存在能够显著提高个体的嫩度水平,但该位点与pH无关。4685位点与屠宰性状(净肉重、胴体重、净肉率等)无关,仅与眼肌面积存在一定的相关性。[结论]延边黄牛与草原红牛CAPN1基因4685位点与肉质嫩度存在密切相关。

  3. Chest pain in children and adolescents: epigastric tenderness as a guide to reduce unnecessary work-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, M R; Ghavanini, A A; Haghighat, M; Imanieh, M H

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate and highlight the significance of epigastric tenderness in children and adolescents with chest pain. In a 26-months period, patients who were referred for pediatri cardiology evaluation at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences with chief complaint of chest pain were studied. Patients with epigastric tenderness were evaluated endoscopically by gastroenterologist. Patients who had positive findings on endoscopy were appropriately treated. Since there were no serious findings on cardiac evaluation, no other treatment was necessary. The patients were re-evaluated 4 weeks later. Response to therapy was defined as relief of the initial symptoms as well as epigastric tenderness. One hundred thirty-two patients were referred for evaluation of chest pain during this period. Epigastric tenderness was found in 44 (33.3%) of these patients and endoscopy was performed. Endoscopy showed positive findings in 41 (93.2%). Thirty (75%) of these patients had varying degrees of gastritis. Duodenitis was found in six (13.6%) and gasteroduodenitis in five (11.4%). Esophagitis, which was always associated with gastritis, was seen in five (11.4%). Only three (6.8%) had normal endoscopy. Urease test was positive in three (7.3%) of the specimens. Two of the patients did not return for follow up. From the remaining 39 patients who received gastroenterology treatment, resolution of symptoms was seen in 38 (97.4%). Careful history and physical examination must guide the assessment of children and adolescents referred for evaluation of chest pain. Epigastric tenderness must be used as a reliable sign to initiate a gastrointestinal evaluation.

  4. Study on Tenderization of Dosidicus gigas Skin%秘鲁鱿鱼皮嫩化工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡艺; 邓尚贵

    2016-01-01

    对秘鲁鱿鱼皮进行嫩化处理,改善鱿鱼皮口感,提升其嫩度,为后续加工生产提供技术支持。以经过脱酸处理的秘鲁鱿鱼皮为原料,以剪切力为指标,通过单因素和响应面试验优选木瓜蛋白酶嫩化秘鲁鱿鱼皮的工艺条件。研究表明:适宜的嫩化条件为木瓜蛋白酶浓度0.1%、处理时间40 min、温度35℃,在此条件下,鱿鱼皮得到嫩化,其剪切力为1.79 N,可溶性蛋白含量(CSP)为49 mg/g。%Tenderize Dosidicus gigas skin to improve the texture,enhance the tenderness,and provide the technical support for subsequent processing.Take the deacidified Dosidicus gigas skin as raw material,shearing force as indexes,Dosidicus gigas skin tenderized by papain is studied,the suitable tenderization conditions of Dosidicus gigas skin are optimized through single factor and orthogonal experiments.The result indicates that the suitable technological conditions for tenderization of Dosidicus gigas skin are as follows:papain concentration of 0.1%,soaking time of 40 min and temperature of 35 ℃.Under these conditions,the shearing force of Dosidicus gigas skin is up to 1.79 N and the concentration of soluble protein (CSP)is 49 mg/g.

  5. Chemical composition and tenderness of longissimus dorsi muscle from non- castrated Murrah buffaloes slaughtered at different weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. de Amorim Ramos

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo meat production has been arising interest breeder and emerges as alternative to consumer, more and more demanding of the quality products. Thus, this research was conducted to study the chemical composition and tenderness of Longissimus dorsi muscle from 10 non-castrated Murrah buffaloes slaughtered at different weights. The research was carried in feedlot of School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science of the Sao Paulo State University, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil. Animals were divided in two groups, received diet ad libitum and slaughtered when reached 450 and 500 kg of live weight. The experiment design was completely randomized, with five repetitions to each treatment. Meat sample from Longissimus dorsi muscle, taken between 12th and 13th ribs, were carried analysis of moisture, crude protein, fat, ash, Longissimus muscle area (LMA, fat thickness (FT, marbling, calorie and tenderness. It did not have significant difference between the groups. Average values at of 76.0; 20.7; 2.1 and 1.2 of moisture, crude protein, fat and ash respectively, were obtained. Calorie, tenderness, LMA, FT and marbling were obtained at average values of 132 kcal/100g; 3.94 kgf; 34.2 cm²; 5.9 mm and 2 points, respectively. Values obtained for tenderness are similar in the literature and has been proving that buffalo meat is tender (< 5kgf. Positive correlation was observed between the protein percentage and the shear force of the meat. The buffalo meat is excellent alternative source of red protein of high biological value to feeding of Brazilian consumers.

  6. Joint involvement in patients affected by systemic lupus erythematosus: application of the swollen to tender joint count ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Cipriano

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Joint involvement is a common manifestation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. According to the SLE disease activity index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K, joint involvement is present in case of ≥2 joints with pain and signs of inflammation. However this definition could fail to catch all the various features of joint involvement. Alternatively the Swollen to Tender joint Ratio (STR could be used. This new index, which was originally proposed for rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients, is based on the count of 28 swollen and tender joints. Our study is, therefore, aimed to assess joint involvement in a SLE cohort using the STR. SLE patients with joint symptoms (≥1 tender joint were enrolled over a period of one month. Disease activity was assessed by SLEDAI-2K. We performed the swollen and tender joint count (0-28 and calculated the STR. Depending on the STR, SLE patients were grouped into three categories of disease activity: low (STR1.0. We also calculated the disease activity score based on a 28-joint count and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR. We enrolled 100 SLE patients [F/M 95/5, mean±standard deviation (SD age 46.3±10.6 years, mean±SD disease duration 147.1±103.8 months]. The median of tender and swollen joints was 4 (IQR 7 and 1 (IQR 2.5, respectively. The median STR value was 0.03 (IQR 0.6. According to the STR, disease activity was low in 70 patients, moderate in 23 and high in 7. A significant correlation was identified between STR values and DAS28 (r=0.33, p=0.001. The present study suggests a correlation between STR and DAS28, allowing an easier and faster assessment of joint involvement with the former index.

  7. Calcium-activated tenderization of strip loin, top sirloin, and top round steaks in diverse genotypes of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, T D; Harrelson, J M; West, R L; Williams, S E; Johnson, D D

    1999-12-01

    Steers of known percentage Brahman (B) and Angus (A) breeding (100% A, n = 6; F1 B x A, n = 6; and 100% B, n = 6) were used to determine the effect of calcium chloride injection on the calpain proteinase system and meat tenderness. The steers were slaughtered in six replications (at either 9 or 14 mm of backfat, determined ultrasonically), with each breed type represented. Calpains and calpastatin activities were measured on fresh, prerigor longissimus muscle samples. Carcass data were collected after a 24-h chill, and the short loin (IMPS #180), top sirloin (IMPS #184), and top round (IMPS #168) were removed from both sides of each carcass. The cuts from the right side were then injected at 5% (wt/wt) with CaCl2 solution (2.2%). Longissimus muscle calpain and calpastatin activities were also measured at 48 h postmortem from the injected and control sides of each carcass. Warner-Bratzler shear force was measured on steaks from the three subprimals aged 1, 2, 5, 15, or 31 d. Marbling scores and USDA quality grades were higher (P.05) across breed type. Calcium injection improved strip loin and top sirloin steak tenderness, but it did not affect top round steak tenderness. Collectively, these data show that CaC12 injection can be used to improve meat tenderness, with similar responses shown in cattle containing 0, 50, and 100% B inheritance. However, even with CaCl2 injection, B steaks are less tender than their A and F1 B x A counterparts.

  8. Observation of tenderness parts of cervical spondylotic radiculopathy and analysis relevant tenderness parts and spinal nerve%神经根型颈椎病压痛部位分布及其与神经节段的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于杰; 王乾; 魏戌; 甄朋超; 朱立国; 房敏; 林定坤; 李俊杰; 洪毅; 王平; 高景华; 王尚全

    2011-01-01

    Objective To ohserve tenderness parts of cervical spondylotic radiculopathy and analysis relevant tenderness parts and spinal nerve. Methods Tenderness parts of neck and shoulder of the 480 patients ( 3 patients removed) with cervical spondylotic radiculopathy were check with thumb and recoved reference to the main tenderness parts of neck and shoulder. Results Nerve root type cervical spondylosis The main spine nerve root of cervical spondylotic radiculopathy were C6 ( 53. 04% ) . C5 ( 24. 53% ) C7 ( 18. 87% ). The common tenderness points were located at the side of processus spinosus.medial angle of scapula、neck and shoulder transmigration of cowl-muscle、margo medialis scapulae. Conclusion The examination and analysis of tenderness points is important to the diagnosis and treatment ofcervical spondylotic radiculopathy.%目的 观察神经根型颈椎病压痛部位分布特征及其与神经节段的关系.方法 本组神经根型颈椎病患者480例(剔除3例),研究者以拇指逐次按压患者颈肩部进行压痛的体格检查,并参照主要颈肩压痛点记录压痛点.采用关联规则的研究方法作神经根节段与压痛部位作相关性分析.结果 神经根型颈椎病患者主要发病的神经根为C6(53.04%)、C5(24.53%)、C7(18.87%).神经根节段与压痛部位的关联分析显示压痛部位集中于受累神经根节段棘突旁、斜方肌颈肩移行部即肩井穴、斜方肌颈肩移行部即肩井穴)、肩胛骨上角即肩胛提肌止点等部位.结论 压痛点的检查与分析对于神经根型颈椎病的诊断和治疗具有重要意义.

  9. Effect of packaging and storage time on survival of Listeria monocytogenes on kippered beef steak and turkey tenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Kamaldeep K; Getty, Kelly J K; Boyle, Elizabeth A E; Harper, Nigel M; Lobaton-Sulabo, April Shayne S; Barry, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The objective of our study was to determine effect of packaging method and storage time on reducing Listeria monocytogenes in shelf-stable meat snacks. Commercially available kippered beef steak strips and turkey tenders were dipped into a 5-strain L. monocytogenes cocktail, and dried at 23 °C until a water activity of 0.80 was achieved. Inoculated samples were packaged with 4 treatments: (1) vacuum, (2) nitrogen flushed with oxygen scavenger, (3) heat sealed with oxygen scavenger, and (4) heat sealed without oxygen scavenger. Samples were stored at 23 °C and evaluated for L. monocytogenes levels at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h. Initial levels (time 0) of L. monocytogenes were approximately 5.7 log CFU/cm² for steak and tenders. After 24 h of storage time, a 1 log CFU/cm² reduction of L. monocytogenes was observed for turkey tenders for all packaging treatments. After 48 h, turkey tenders showed >1 log CFU/cm² reduction of L. monocytogenes for all packaging treatments except for vacuum, where only 0.9 log CFU/cm² reduction was observed. After 72 h, reductions for all packaging treatments for turkey tenders ranged from 1.5 to 2.4 log CFU/cm². For kippered beef steak, there was no interaction between the packaging treatments and all storage times (P > 0.05) whereas, time was different (P packaging treatments and a 2.1 log CFU/ cm² L. monocytogenes reduction at 72 h of storage time. Processors of kippered beef steak and turkey tenders could use a combination of vacuum or nitrogen-flushing or heat sealed with an oxygen scavenger packaging methods and a holding time of 24 h prior to shipping to reduce potential L. monocytogenes numbers by ≥1 log. However, processors should be encouraged to hold packaged product a minimum of 72 h to enhance the margin of safety for L. monocytogenes control. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Tenderness, pH and Water Activity (Aw of Spices Dried Meat on Various Concentrate of Ginger Extract (Zingiber Officinale Roscoe and Different Soaking Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhadiyah Afrila

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of current research were to find out the concentrate of Ginger extract (Zingiber officinale Roscoe and different soaking time of to tenderness, pH, and water activity (Aw, microbial count and sensory evaluation of spices dried meat. The result showed that higher the ginger extract (Zingiber officinale Roscoe concentrate and longer the soaking time, it would give more tenderness, pH, and water activity (Aw to spices dried meat with 15% ginger extract (Zingiber officinale Roscoe extract and 20 minutes length of soaking time. Key Words : Dendeng, ginger, soaking time, tenderness, pH and Aw

  11. The Legal Practice of Corporate Takeover and Mandatory Tender Offer (MTO in the Indonesian Capital Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yozua Makes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The number of takeover transactions is relatively less compared to other corporate actions bypublicly-listed companies, (e.g. IPOs, rights issues, or material transactions. There is no researchthat explains or contextualizes this fact, but one may speculate that this may be due to (a the existenceof block-holders in Indonesia’s corporate structure profile (structural barrier or (b because itis costly to carry out a takeover in light of the existing Mandatory Tender Offer (MTO requirements(legal barrier. This article focuses on the latter problem, aiming to address the practical and legalissues pertaining to takeover transactions in Indonesia with respect to the existence of the MTO.Pursuant to the prevailing rule, in a takeover of publicly-listed companies that results in a change ofcontrol, a MTO/mandatory bid requirement must be followed with the potential acquirer making anoffer to purchase all of the remaining shares of the target company according to a certain minimumprice formula. Specifically the article discusses practical and creative strategies that prospectivecontrollers employ to avoid the mandatory bid/MTO requirement, and how these strategies impactthe principle of minority shareholders’ protection.

  12. Therapeutic effects of tender coconut water on oxidative stress in fructose fed insulin resistant hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D Bhagya; L Prema; T Rajamohan

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To investigate whether tender coconut water(TCW)mitigates oxidative stress in fructose fed hypertensive rats.Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed with fructose rich diet and treated withTCW (4 mL/100 g of body weight) for3 subsequent weeks. Systolic blood pressure was measured every three days using the indirect tail cuff method. At the end of the experimental period, plasma glucose and insulin, serum triglycerides and free fatty acids, lipid peroxidation markers (MDA, hydroperoxides and conjugated dienes) and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were analyzed in all the groups.Results: Treatment withTCW significantly lowered the systolic blood pressure and reduced serum triglycerides and free fatty acids. Plasma glucose and insulin levels and lipid peroxidation markers such asMDA, hydroperoxides and conjugated dienes were significantly reduced in fructose fed rats treated withTCW. Activities of antioxidant enzymes are up regulated significantly inTCW treated rats. Histopathological analysis of liver showed thatTCW treatment reduced the lipid accumulation and inflammatory infiltration without any significant hepatocellular damage.Conclusions: The overall results suggest that, TCW treatment could prevent and reverse high blood pressure induced by high fructose diet probably by inhibition of lipid peroxidation, upregulation of antioxidant status and improved insulin sensitivity.

  13. Proposal for the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the maintenance of low-voltage switchgear

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the maintenance of low-voltage switchgear. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the maintenance of low-voltage switchgear with HAZEMEYER (FR) for a total amount of 385 000 euros (610 000 Swiss francs), covering an initial period of five years, subject to revision for inflation after 1 January 2007. The contract will include options for two one-year extensions beyond the initial five-year period. The amount in Swiss francs has been calculated using the present rate of exchange. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: FR - 100%.

  14. Proposal for the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the maintenance of uninterruptable power supply systems

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the maintenance of uninterruptable power supply systems. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the maintenance of uninterruptable power supply systems with MGE (FR) for a total amount of 575 000 euros (911 000 Swiss francs), covering an initial period of five years, subject to revision for inflation after 1 January 2007. The contract will include options for two one-year extensions beyond the initial five-year period. The amount in Swiss francs has been calculated using the present rate of exchange. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: FR - 100%.

  15. Pelvic tenderness is not limited to the prostate in chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS type IIIA and IIIB: comparison of men with and without CP/CPPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger Richard E

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We wished to determine if there were differences in pelvic and non-pelvic tenderness between men with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS Type III and men without pelvic pain. Methods We performed the Manual Tender Point Survey (MTPS as described by the American College of Rheumatology on 62 men with CP/CPPS Type IIIA and IIIB and 98 men without pelvic pain. We also assessed tenderness of 10 external pelvic tender points (EPTP and of 7 internal pelvic tender points (IPTP. All study participants completed the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Inventory (NIH CPSI. Results We found that men with CPPS were significantly more tender in the MTPS, the EPTPS and the IPTPS. CPSI scores correlated with EPTP scale but not with IPTP scale or prostate tenderness. Prostatic tenderness was present in 75% of men with CPPS and in 50% of men without CPPS. Expressed prostatic fluid leukocytosis was not associated with prostatic tenderness. Conclusion Men with CP/CPPS have more tenderness compared to men without CPPS. Tenderness in men with CPPS is distributed throughout the pelvis and not specific to the prostate.

  16. Proposal to negotiate a contract, without competitive tendering, for the supply and installation of pipework for the new hostel

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    This document concerns the proposal to negotiate a contract for the supply and installation of new piping as preparatory work for the construction of a third on-site hostel. For the reasons explained in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to approve a contract with the SERVICES INDUSTRIELS DE GENEVE (SIG) (CH), without competitive tendering, for the supply and installation of new piping for an amount not exceeding 700 000 Swiss francs, not subject to revision.

  17. Effects of different packaging atmospheres and injection-enhancement on beef tenderness, sensory attributes, desmin degradation, and display color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobbel, J P; Dikeman, M E; Hunt, M C; Milliken, G A

    2008-10-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of packaging atmosphere and injection-enhancement on tenderness, sensory traits, desmin degradation, and display color of different beef muscles. Longissimus lumborum (LL; n = 12 pairs), semitendinosus (ST; n = 12 pairs), and triceps brachii (TB; n = 24 pairs; 12 from the same carcasses as the LL and ST and 12 additional pairs) were obtained from the same USDA Select, A-maturity carcasses. On d 7 postmortem, each muscle from one side of the carcass was injection-enhanced, and each muscle from the other side was nonenhanced. Steaks 2.54-cm thick were cut from the muscles and packaged in vacuum packaging (VP), ultra-low oxygen with CO (ULO(2)CO; 0.4% CO/35% CO(2)/69.6% N(2)) modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), or high-oxygen MAP (HiO(2); 80% O(2)/20% CO(2)) and assigned to 14-d tenderness or display followed by 18- or 28-d tenderness measurement. Steaks packaged in HiO(2) MAP were in dark storage (2 degrees C) for 4 d and all other steaks for 14 d. Steaks for Warner-Bratzler shear force, sensory panel (n = 8 trained panelists), and desmin degradation were cooked to 70 degrees C. Steaks were displayed under fluorescent lighting (2,153 lx, 3,000 K) for 7 d. Trained color panelists (n = 10) assigned display color scores. Enhanced steaks had lower (P HiO(2) MAP. The LL and TB were more tender (P HiO(2) MAP were oxidative or rancid. Enhanced steaks had more (P 0.05) by packaging or enhancement. Enhanced steaks were darker (P HiO(2) MAP discolored faster (P HiO(2) MAP.

  18. Variation at the Calpain 3 gene is associated with meat tenderness in zebu and composite breeds of cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunch Rowan J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL affecting meat tenderness have been reported on Bovine chromosome 10. Here we examine variation at the Calpain 3 (CAPN3 gene in cattle, a gene located within the confidence interval of the QTL, and which is a positional candidate gene based on the biochemical activity of the protein. Results We identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in the genomic sequence of the CAPN3 gene and tested three of these in a sample of 2189 cattle. Of the three SNP genotyped, the CAPN3:c.1538+225G>T had the largest significant additive effect, with an allele substitution effect in the Brahman of α = -0.144 kg, SE = 0.060, P = 0.016, and the polymorphism explained 1.7% of the residual phenotypic variance in that sample of the breed. Significant haplotype substitution effects were found for all three breeds, the Brahman, the Belmont Red, and the Santa Gertrudis. For the common haplotype, the haplotype substitution effect in the Brahman was α = 0.169 kg, SE = 0.056, P = 0.003. The effect of this gene was compared to Calpastatin in the same sample. The SNP show negligible frequencies in taurine breeds and low to moderate minor allele frequencies in zebu or composite animals. Conclusion These associations confirm the location of a QTL for meat tenderness in this region of bovine chromosome 10. SNP in or near this gene may be responsible for part of the overall difference between taurine and zebu breeds in meat tenderness, and the greater variability in meat tenderness found in zebu and composite breeds. The evidence provided so far suggests that none of these tested SNP are causative mutations.

  19. Evaluating the Impact of Risk on Contractor’s Tender Figure in Public Buildings Projects in Northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. O. Oyewobi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It has become almost impossible to have projects completed within the initial cost and time in Nigeria; this is as a result of many factors the construction industry is being plagued with ranging from estimating risk to time and cost overruns. The construction industry is widely associated with a high degree of risk and uncertainty due to the nature of its operating heterogeneous environment. The paper aimed at evaluating the impact of estimating risk on contractor’s tender sum with a view of ensuring efficient delivery of projects in the Northern part of Nigeria. A survey was conducted using questionnaire and a total of four headings of risk factors were identified. Research findings showed defects in design, inflation, contractor’s competence and political uncertainty as well as changes in government had greatest impact on contractor’s tender figure whereas likely trend in wages rates over the period, excessive approval procedure in administration government department, unavailability of sufficient amount of unskilled labor and technical manpower and resources of the company were the most significant factors to be considered by contractors when estimating the pricing risk. The paper recommends that construction professionals should identify and adequately quantify project estimating risk factors. Adding a risk premium to quotation and time estimation has to be supported by governmental owner organizations and other agencies in the local construction sector. Competent contractors should be allowed to tender so as to see the incidence of these estimating risks as an important aspect that requires attention while evaluating contractor’s tender sum.

  20. SmartStretch™ technology. I. Improving the tenderness of sheep topsides (m. semimembranosus) using a meat stretching device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toohey, E S; van de Ven, R; Thompson, J M; Geesink, G H; Hopkins, D L

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated the effect of stretching hot-boned sheep topsides using a pre-production prototype device (SmartStretch™). To test this effect, 40 sheep from 3 consignments were assessed. Left and right topsides were collected pre-rigour and randomly allocated to one of four treatments; 0 days ageing+SmartStretch™, 0 days ageing+no stretch, 5 days ageing+SmartStretch™ and 5 days ageing+no stretch. Meat from the 0 days aged+no stretch treatment was the least tender and the 5 days ageing+SmartStretch™ treatment resulted in the most tender meat. The m. semimembranosus from topsides stretched using the SmartStretch™ prototype device had a lower cooking loss percentage (P<0.001) and longer sarcomeres (P<0.001) than non-stretched m. semimembranosus. There was no effect of SmartStretch™ on myofibrillar degradation measured using particle size analysis (PSA), but there was an ageing effect (P<0.001). The tenderness of stretched m. semimembranosus showed significant improvement over non-stretched m. semimembranosus.

  1. Heat shock and structural proteins associated with meat tenderness in Nellore beef cattle, a Bos indicus breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Minos Esperândio; Gasparin, Gustavo; Poleti, Mirele Daiana; Rosa, Alessandra Fernandes; Balieiro, Júlio Cesar Carvalho; Labate, Carlos Alberto; Nassu, Renata Tieko; Tullio, Rymer Ramiz; Regitano, Luciana Correia de Almeida; Mourão, Gerson Barreto; Coutinho, Luiz Lehmann

    2014-03-01

    Nellore beef cattle, a Bos indicus (Zebu) breed, is well adapted to tropical conditions and has allowed Brazil to become one of the largest producers of red meat. Nevertheless, B. indicus breeds are reported to have less tender meat than Bos taurus. This study was designed to identify genes associated with meat tenderness and thus provides important information for breeding programs. A group of 138 animals was evaluated for longissimus thoracis muscle shear force (SF). Animals with the highest and lowest SF values (six animals each) were then selected for protein abundance studies. Samples were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by peptide sequencing through mass spectrometry (MS) to identify differentially expressed proteins associated with SF values. Seventeen differentially expressed spots were observed (p<0.05) between the two groups. The 13 proteins identified included structural proteins (alpha actin-1, MLC1, MLC3, MLC2F and tropomyosin), related to cell organization (HSPB1 and HSP70), metabolism (beta-LG, ACBD6 and Complex III subunit I) and some uncharacterized proteins. Results confirm the existence of differentially expressed proteins associated with SF, which can lead to a better understanding of mechanisms involved in meat tenderness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Variation in myogenic differentiation 1 mRNA abundance is associated with beef tenderness in Nelore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizioto, P C; Coutinho, L L; Mourão, G B; Gasparin, G; Malagó-Jr, W; Bressani, F A; Tullio, R R; Nassu, R T; Taylor, J F; Regitano, L C A

    2016-08-01

    The myogenic differentiation 1 gene (MYOD1) has a key role in skeletal muscle differentiation and composition through its regulation of the expression of several muscle-specific genes. We first used a general linear mixed model approach to evaluate the association of MYOD1 expression levels on individual beef tenderness phenotypes. MYOD1mRNA levels measured by quantitative polymerase chain reactions in 136 Nelore steers were significantly associated (P ≤ 0.01) with Warner-Bratzler shear force, measured on the longissimus dorsi muscle after 7 and 14 days of beef aging. Transcript abundance for the muscle regulatory gene MYOD1 was lower in animals with more tender beef. We also performed a co-expression network analysis using whole transcriptome sequence data generated from 30 samples of longissimus muscle tissue to identify genes that are potentially regulated by MYOD1. The effect of MYOD1 gene expression on beef tenderness may emerge from its function as an activator of muscle-specific gene transcription such as for the serum response factor (C-fos serum response element-binding transcription factor) gene (SRF), which determines muscle tissue development, composition, growth and maturation. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  3. 谈投标施工组织设计编制%Discussion on the formulation of the tendering construction organization design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫建国

    2012-01-01

    Combining with working practice,the paper describes the formulation of tendering construction organization design,summarizes the construction organization design contents and formulation requirements,and illustrates the pre-tendering survey,tendering response,tendering invalid protection and management personnel quality and so on,which has significant meaning for guiding practice.%结合工作实践,对投标施工组织设计的编制进行了阐述,总结了施工组织设计的主要内容及编制要求,并对标前现场踏勘、招标文件的响应性、防止废标、经营人员素质等作了说明,对指导实际工作具有重要意义。

  4. Inquiry on tender offer issues of metallurgical construction project%关于冶金工业建设工程投标报价的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The paper specifically introduces the specialty of tender offer phase of metallurgical construction project,describes current tender offer techniques of metallurgical construction project,and explores tender offer methods of metallurgical construction project by combining with tender and bidding experience of Taiyuan Iron and Steel Co. Ltd in recent years.%对冶金建设工程招投标阶段的特殊性进行了详细介绍,阐述了当前冶金建设工程招投标阶段投标报价的一些技巧,并结合太钢近几年在招投标工作中的实践经验,对冶金建设工程项目投标报价的方法进行了探讨。

  5. Proposal to Negotiate, without Competitive Tendering, a Contract for the Supply of Beryllium Ultra-High-Vacuum Chambers for the ALICE, ATLAS and CMS Vacuum Systems

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    This document concerns a contract to be placed, without competitive tendering, for the supply of UHV (ultra-high-vacuum) chambers for the ALICE, ATLAS and CMS vacuum systems. Following a market survey carried out among 12 firms in five Member States and two non-Member States, a call for tenders (IT-2926/LHC/LHC) was sent on 14 August 2002 to one firm, in a non-Member State. By the closing date, CERN had received one tender. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with BRUSH WELLMAN (US) for the supply of UHV chambers for the ALICE, ATLAS and CMS vacuum systems for an amount of 1 074 220 US dollars, (1 613 428 Swiss francs), not subject to revision. The rate of exchange used is that stipulated in the tender. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: US - 100%.

  6. Validation of lactic acid bacteria, lactic acid, and acidified sodium chlorite as decontaminating interventions to control Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 in mechanically tenderized and brine-enhanced (nonintact) beef at the purveyor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverry, Alejandro; Brooks, J Chance; Miller, Markus F; Collins, Jesse A; Loneragan, Guy H; Brashears, Mindy M

    2010-12-01

    After three different outbreaks were linked to the consumption of nonintact meat products contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, the U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service published notice requiring establishments producing mechanically tenderized and moisture-enhanced beef products to reassess their respective hazard analysis and critical control point systems, due to potential risk to the consumers. The objective of this study was to validate the use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), acidified sodium chlorite (ASC), and lactic acid (LA) sprays when applied under a simulated purveyor setting as effective interventions to control and reduce E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 in inoculated U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Choice strip loins (longissimus lumborum muscles) pieces intended for either mechanical blade tenderization or injection enhancement with a brine solution after an aging period of 14 or 21 days at 4.4°C under vacuum. After the mechanical process, translocation of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 from the surface into the internal muscles occurred at levels between 1.00 and 5.72 log CFU/g, compared with controls. LAB and LA reduced internal E. coli O157:H7 loads up to 3.0 log, while ASC reduced the pathogen 1.4 to 2.3 log more than the control (P < 0.05), respectively. Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 was also reduced internally 1.3 to 2.8, 1.0 to 2.3, and 1.4 to 1.8 log after application of LAB, LA, and ASC, respectively. The application of antimicrobials by purveyors prior to mechanical tenderization or enhancement of steaks should increase the safety of these types of products.

  7. Genome-Wide Detection of CNVs and Their Association with Meat Tenderness in Nelore Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Vinicius Henrique; Regitano, Luciana Correia de Almeida; Geistlinger, Ludwig; Pértille, Fábio; Morosini, Natália Silva; Zimmer, Ralf; Coutinho, Luiz Lehmann

    2016-01-01

    Brazil is one of the largest beef producers and exporters in the world with the Nelore breed representing the vast majority of Brazilian cattle (Bos taurus indicus). Despite the great adaptability of the Nelore breed to tropical climate, meat tenderness (MT) remains to be improved. Several factors including genetic composition can influence MT. In this article, we report a genome-wide analysis of copy number variation (CNV) inferred from Illumina® High Density SNP-chip data for a Nelore population of 723 males. We detected >2,600 CNV regions (CNVRs) representing ≈6.5% of the genome. Comparing our results with previous studies revealed an overlap in ≈1400 CNVRs (>50%). A total of 1,155 CNVRs (43.6%) overlapped 2,750 genes. They were enriched for processes involving guanosine triphosphate (GTP), previously reported to influence skeletal muscle physiology and morphology. Nelore CNVRs also overlapped QTLs for MT reported in other breeds (8.9%, 236 CNVRs) and from a previous study with this population (4.1%, 109 CNVRs). Two CNVRs were also proximal to glutathione metabolism genes that were previously associated with MT. Genome-wide association study of CN state with estimated breeding values derived from meat shear force identified 6 regions, including a region on BTA3 that contains genes of the cAMP and cGMP pathway. Ten CNVRs that overlapped regions associated with MT were successfully validated by qPCR. Our results represent the first comprehensive CNV study in Bos taurus indicus cattle and identify regions in which copy number changes are potentially of importance for the MT phenotype. PMID:27348523

  8. Effects of genetic variants for the bovine calpain gene on meat tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hoyoung; Shin, Sungchul; Chung, Euiryong

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the genetic variants of CAPN1 developed in several cattle populations can be applied for Hanwoo, regarding genetic effects on meat traits. The traits were examined for 286 purebred Hanwoo steers with genotypes classified by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. The nucleotide positions of primers and previously identified genetic variants were based on sequences of the calpain 1 (CAPN1) gene with GenBank accession numbers (AF252504, AF248054, and AY639597). The analysis of genetic distribution estimated levels of minor allele frequencies ranged from 0.165 to 0.392, showing no significant departures from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium for all markers. Overall averages of heterozygosites (He) and polymorphic information contents (PICs) for all markers were calculated to 0.503 and 0.429, respectively, and the g.4558G>A marker showed the lowest He (0.425) and PIC (0.367). Animals from 29 months of age were slaughtered to measure Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), cooking loss, water-holding capacity, pH, fat, and moisture. All the CAPN1 markers explained variations of WBSF, showing significant additive effects except g.5709G>A. A significant marginal mean difference in genotypes of g.6545C>T (P=0.046) was found in moisture with additive effects. From the result it may be possible to use three calpain markers (g.4558G>A, g.4685C>T, and g.6545C>T) classified by RFLP and SSCP analysis in marker assisted selection programs to improve WBSF as meat tenderness in Hanwoo.

  9. Discussion on the Reasonable Establishment of Tender Control Price%合理设立招标控制价的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉

    2015-01-01

    随着工程量清单计价规范的不断完善及推广应用,建设单位越来越深刻认识招标控制价的编制质量对招投标结果及后续工程造价的合理控制产生的深远影响。工程实践过程中,工程量清单及招标控制价的编制质量参差不齐,建设单位也希望能找到有效的方法提高工程量清单及招标控制价的编制质量。本文从实践的角度分析招标控制价对中标价格的影响,并提出合理设置招标控制价的方法,供同业人事参考。%Along with the continuous improvement and application of pricing specification of bill of quantities, construc⁃tion units turn to more and more profoundly realize the far-reaching influence performed by tender control price's estab⁃lishment quality on the tender results and the reasonable control of the follow-up project cost. In engineering practice pro⁃cess, bill of quantities and the tender control price's establishment qualities are uneven, the construction units are also hoping to find effective ways to improve the quality of the compilation of bill of quantities and tender control price. From a practical point of view, the article analyzes the influence of tender control price on the tender price, and puts forward a method for reasonable setting of the tender control price for reference by personnel in the same industry.

  10. Biomarkers of meat tenderness: present knowledge and perspectives in regards to our current understanding of the mechanisms involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouali, Ahmed; Gagaoua, Mohammed; Boudida, Yasmine; Becila, Samira; Boudjellal, Abdelghani; Herrera-Mendez, Carlos H; Sentandreu, Miguel A

    2013-12-01

    Biomarkers of the meat quality are of prime importance for meat industry, which has to satisfy consumers' expectations and, for them, meat tenderness is and will remain the primary and most important quality attribute. The tenderization of meat starts immediately after animal death with the onset of apoptosis followed by a cooperative action of endogenous proteolytic systems. Before consideration of the biomarkers identified so far, we present here some new features on the apoptotic process. Among them, the most important is the recent discovery of a complex family of serpins capable to inhibit, in a pseudo-irreversible manner, caspases, the major enzymes responsible of cell dismantling during apoptosis. The biomarkers so far identified have been then sorted and grouped according to their common biological functions. All of them refer to a series of biological pathways including glycolytic and oxidative energy production, cell detoxification, protease inhibition and production of Heat Shock Proteins. Some unusual biomarkers are also presented: annexins, galectins and peroxiredoxins. On this basis, a detailed analysis of these metabolic pathways allowed us to identify some domains of interest for future investigations. It was thus emphasized that mitochondria, an important organelle in the production of energy from carbohydrates, lipids and proteins are a central element in the initiation and development of apoptosis. It was therefore stressed forward that, in fact, very little is known about the postmortem fate of these organelles and their multiple associated activities. Other topics discussed here would provide avenues for the future in the context of identifying reliable predictors of the ultimate meat tenderness.

  11. Association of CAPN1 and CAST gene polymorphisms with meat tenderness in Bos taurus beef cattle from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Corva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The activity of the calpains/calpastatin proteolytic system is closely related to the postmortem tenderization of meat. We investigated the association between beef tenderness and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers on the CAPN1 gene (SNP316, alleles C/G; SNP530 alleles A/G and the CAST gene 3' untranslated region (SNP2870, alleles A/G. We sampled nine slaughter groups comprising 313 steers which had been reared in beef production systems in Argentina between 2002 and 2004 from crosses between Angus, Hereford and Limousin cattle. Minor allele frequencies for the markers were 0.27 to 0.46 (C, 0.02 to 0.18 (A, and 0.24 to 0.53 (A, respectively. The presence of CAPN1 markers had significant effects on meat shear force but no detectable effects were demonstrated for the CAST marker. The shear force of meat from steers with the SNP316 CC genotype was 11% lower than for the SNP316 CG genotype and 17% lower than for the SNP316 GG genotype. There were very few steers with the SNP530 AA genotype and, contrary to previous studies, meat from steers with the SNP530 GG genotype showed an 11.5% higher shear force than that from steers with the SNP530 GA genotype. Final body weight, carcass weight and rib eye area were not affected by any of the markers. These results support the concept that CAPN1 variants are associated with tenderness across a wide range of beef production systems.

  12. Production and processing studies on calpain-system gene markers for tenderness in Brahman cattle: 2. Objective meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafe, L M; McIntyre, B L; Robinson, D L; Geesink, G H; Barendse, W; Pethick, D W; Thompson, J M; Greenwood, P L

    2010-09-01

    Effects and interactions of calpain-system tenderness gene markers on objective meat quality traits of Brahman (Bos indicus) cattle were quantified within 2 concurrent experiments at different locations. Cattle were selected for study from commercial and research herds at weaning based on their genotype for calpastatin (CAST) and calpain 3 (CAPN3) gene markers for beef tenderness. Gene marker status for mu-calpain (CAPN1-4751 and CAPN1-316) was also determined for inclusion in statistical analyses. Eighty-two heifer and 82 castrated male cattle with 0 or 2 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3 were studied in New South Wales (NSW), and 143 castrated male cattle with 0, 1, or 2 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3 were studied in Western Australia (WA). The cattle were backgrounded for 6 to 8 mo and grain-fed for 117 d (NSW) or 80 d (WA) before slaughter. One-half the cattle in each experiment were implanted with a hormonal growth promotant during feedlotting. One side of each carcass was suspended from the Achilles tendon (AT) and the other from the pelvis (tenderstretch). The M. longissimus lumborum from both sides and the M. semitendinosus from the AT side were collected; then samples of each were aged at 1 degrees C for 1 or 7 d. Favorable alleles for one or more markers reduced shear force, with little effect on other meat quality traits. The size of effects of individual markers varied with site, muscle, method of carcass suspension, and aging period. Individual marker effects were additive as evident in cattle with 4 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3 markers, which had shear force reductions of 12.2 N (P 0.05) of interactions between the gene markers, or between the hormonal growth promotant and gene markers for any meat quality traits. This study provides further evidence that selection based on the CAST or CAPN3 gene markers improves meat tenderness in Brahman cattle, with little if any detrimental effects on other meat quality traits. The CAPN1-4751 gene

  13. Model for Bidding and Tendering with Bill of Quantities Based on Bid-Winning Estimate at Reasonable Low Price

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Jirong; Zhong Sheng; Guo Yaohuang

    2006-01-01

    The possibility and rationality of introducing an bid-winning estimate based on a reasonable low price into construction bidding mode with bill of quantities were analyzed by setting up a model for bidding and tendering, and the functions of the estimate of reasonable low price in the bidding were revealed. On this basis, a new bidding mode of the project with bill of quantities was proposed. The application of the new mode will be advantageous to the promotion of the bill of quantities in China.

  14. SUNSTORE 3. Phase 1. Project design and tender. Final report; SUNSTORE 3. Fase 1. Projektering og udbud. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, P.A. (PlanEnergi, Skoerping (Denmark)); Moeller Nielsen, C. (Dronninglund Fjernvarme, Dronninglund (Denmark)); Baunwall, M. (NIRAS Aalborg (Denmark)); Munkholt, H. (GG-Construction, Aalborg (Denmark)); Paaske, B. (Teknologisk Institut, AArhus (Denmark)); Schmidt, T. (SOLITES, Stuttgart (Germany))

    2011-03-15

    The objective of the project has been to carry out detailed design and tendering for a heat production plant consisting of: - 35.000 m{sub 2} solar thermal collectors, - 60.000 m{sub 3} pit heat storage, - 3 MW{sub heat} heat pump, covering app. 50% of the heat production at Dronninglund district heating plant (Denmark). The final report for the project includes detailed design of the pit heat storage (a further development of a 10.000 m{sub 3} storage implemented in Marstal) and simulation of the total production system in the simulation software TRNSYS. (ln)

  15. Proposal to negotiate, without competitive tendering, a contract for the maintenance of three 420 kV circuit breakers

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the maintenance, by the manufacturer, of three 420 kV circuit breakers. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract, without competitive tendering, with SCHNEIDER ITALY (IT) (formerly NUOVA MAGRINI GALILEO), the manufacturer of the equipment, for the maintenance of three 420 kV circuit breakers for a total amount of 490 000 Swiss francs, not subject to revision. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: IT?100%.

  16. 木薯嫩叶染色体的制片方法%Chromosome Observation Method for Cassava Tender Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凡杰; 安飞飞; 郑峰

    2012-01-01

    采用改良苯酚品红压片法,对华南124多倍体木薯品种的嫩叶染色体标本制备方法进行了探讨,比较了0.002mol·L-1的8-羟基喹啉3种温度3种时间的预处理效果、不同的解离方法以及取样部位对制片效果的影响。结果表明,于上午9:00.10:00摘取1.5~2cm长的嫩叶,用0.002mol·L“的8-羟基喹啉于4℃下预处理4h,再置于1mol·L-1盐酸溶液中,于25℃下解离1h,挑取嫩叶中部叶肉用改良苯酚品红染色,然后进行压片观察,能获得分散良好、清晰的染色体图像。%Modified phenol fuchsin squashing method was used to prepare chromosome specimens of tender leaves of polypoidy cassava SC 124. The tender leaves were pretreated with 0. 002 mol ·L-1 8 -hydroxyquinoline at three different temperatures for different time by using different solution methods and sampled from different parts of the plant. The tender leaves collected 1.5 -2 cm long in the morning at 9:00 am - 10:00 am were pretreated with 0. 002 mol · L-1 the 8 -hydroxyquinoline at 4 C for 4 h, and then put in 1 mol · L-1hydrochloric acid solution at 25 C for 1 h for maceration, and the mesophyll in the central part of the tender leaves were stained with modified phenol suchsin and then squashed for observatio n. This method produced a well dispersed, clear chromosome image.

  17. 浅谈合理低价中标法的投标报价策略%Discussed Shallowly the Reasonable Low Price is Selected Method Tender Offer Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许艳琼

    2009-01-01

    文章介绍了合理低价中标法的评标方法,阐述了对于这种评标方法投标人应采取的报价策略.%The article introduced the reasonable low price is selected method the evaluation of tenders method, elaborated should adopt the quoted price strategy regarding this kind of evaluation of tenders method tenderer.

  18. Therapeutic effect of patients with soft tissue pain treated by tenderness points massage and tenderness points massage adding hot magnetic therapy-A clinical observation on 20 case%压痛点推拿与热磁治疗软组织疼痛20例临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯京山; 郑志新; 王飞; 蒋崇博; 马玲; 王军

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the therapeutic effect of soft tissue pain treated by tenderness points massage and tenderness points massage adding hot magnetic therapy.Methods 40 patients with soft tissue pain were randomly divided into tenderness points massage group ( n = 20) and tenderness points massage adding hot magnetic therapy group ( n = 20).Pain intensity of patients was evaluated with VAS prior therapy and post-therapy.Results Post-therapy VAS of both tenderness points massage group and tenderness points massage adding hot magnetic therapy group were different from that of prior therapy significantly ( P < 0.01 ).The difference of post-therapy VAS between two groups have statistical significance ( P < 0.01 ).Conclusion The therapeutic effect of patients with soft tissue pain with tenderness points massage adding hot magnetic therapy is better than that with tenderness points massage.%目的 对比压痛点推拿与压痛点推拿加温热磁治疗软组织痛的疗效.方法 40例软组织痛患者按随机数学分为治疗压痛点推拿组20例与压痛点推拿加温热磁组20例,采用目测类比定法(VAS)评定治疗前后软组织痛的疼痛强度.结果 压痛点推拿组与压痛点推拿加温热磁治疗组治疗后与治疗前VAS评分差异均有显著统计学意义(P<0.01),两组治疗后VAS评分相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 压痛点推拿加温热磁比单纯压痛点推拿疗效显著.

  19. Expression of ADAMTS4 and ADAMTS5 in longissimus dorsi muscle related to meat tenderness in Nanyang cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X H; Qi, Y X; Gao, X; Li, J Y; Xu, S Z

    2013-10-18

    The ADAMTS4 and ADAMTS5 are secreted proteases, which can cleave aggrecan, brevican and versican to regulate rebuilding of the extracellular matrix. We analyzed the ADAMTS4 and ADAMTS5 gene expression patterns in longissimus dorsi muscle at intervals from 135 days fetal age to 30 months old by qRT-PCR in Nanyang cattle. Expression of ADAMTS4 was significantly higher in 135 and 185-day-old fetuses than at other stages, while expression of ADAMTS5 decreased during development. The promoter regions of ADAMTS4 and ADAMTS5 were cloned and the transcription factor binding sites were analyzed with bioinformatic methods. Twelve and six potential transcription factor binding sites were found in the promoter regions of ADAMTS4 and ADAMTS5 genes, respectively. Three transcription factors (MZF1, C/EBPb, and NF-kap) were selected to analyze the expression pattern during the development of the longissimus dorsi muscle. MZF1 was significantly co-expressed with ADAMTS4, while C/EBPb expression was significantly negatively associated with that of ADAMTS4. We concluded that the expression of ADAMTS4 is positively regulated by MZF1 and negatively regulated by C/EBPb. We examined the relationships of ADAMTS4 and ADAMTS5 expression with tenderness of longissimus dorsi muscle; ADAMTS4 was significantly and negatively correlated with meat tenderness. We conclude that ADAMTS4 participates in the regulation of muscle development in cattle.

  20. SmartStretch™ technology. II. Improving the tenderness of leg meat from sheep using a meat stretching device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toohey, E S; van de Ven, R; Thompson, J M; Geesink, G H; Hopkins, D L

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated the effect of stretching hot-boned sheep hindlegs from 40 sheep carcases, classified as mutton, using a prototype device (SmartStretch™). Left and right legs were collected pre-rigor and randomly allocated to one of four treatments; 0days ageing+SmartStretch™, 0days ageing+no stretch, 5days ageing+SmartStretch™ and 5days ageing+no stretch. There was a significant interaction between stretch treatment and ageing (P<0.05) for shear force of the m. biceps femoris such that stretched and aged samples were the most tender. By contrast stretched m. semimembranosus (SM) had a significantly (P<0.05) lower shear force only at 0days of ageing. Stretching produced longer sarcomeres (P<0.001) for both the SM and m. semitendinosus muscles. Myofibrillar degradation indicated by particle size analysis or histology was not affected by stretching, but there was an ageing effect (P<0.001). SmartStretch™ provided significant improvements in tenderness of the individual muscles.

  1. Bioanalytical methods for the metalloproteomics study of bovine longissimus thoracis muscle tissue with different grades of meat tenderness in the Nellore breed (Bos indicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassini, Welder Angelo; Braga, Camila Pereira; Chardulo, Luis Artur Loyola; Vasconcelos Silva, Josineudson Augusto; Malheiros, Jessica Moraes; de Albuquerque, Lúcia Galvão; Fernandes, Talita Tanaka; Padilha, Pedro de Magalhães

    2015-02-15

    The work describes a metalloproteomics study of bovine muscle tissue with different grades of meat tenderness from animals of the Nellore breed (Bos indicus) based on protein separation by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the identification of calcium ions in protein spots by X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) and the characterisation of proteins by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. Forty (40) specimens were selected and divided into two experimental groups: animals with tough meat (TO) and animals with tender meat (TE). A third group (P) of Piedmontese breed animals (Bos taurus) was included to serve as a comparative model for the level of meat tenderness. The procedures were efficient and preserved the metal-protein structure, enabling calcium detection in protein spots by SR-XRF at a given molecular weight range of 14-97kDa. Two proteins (pyruvate kinase and albumin) were inferred to be related to the phenotypical differences in animals from the different groups.

  2. A Survey of Tender Is the Night from the Perspective of New Historicism%《夜色温柔》的新历史主义解读*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾颖; 费雪

    2013-01-01

    Tender Is the Night is one of Fitzgerald’s most important novels. The theory of Hew Historicism is applied to interpret Tender Is the Night from the aspects of“the historicity of text”and“the textuality of history”and thus the interrelationship between the history in Jazz Age and the text of Tender Is the Night is revealed.%《夜色温柔》是菲兹杰拉德最重要的长篇小说之一。通过运用新历史主义理论从“文本的历史性”及“历史的文本性”两大方面解读《夜色温柔》,揭示出爵士乐时代的历史和《夜色温柔》小说文本的相互影响作用。

  3. 农村生活污水治理工程招标模式研究%Research on Tendering Mode of Rural Sewage Treatment Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁清波

    2015-01-01

    At present, the tendering relevant to rural sewage treatment project becomes a problem and focus of local governments. For the problems of rural sewage treatment project tendering, this paper compares and studies the world bank lending model of Ningbo and the third-party model of Deqing County, and proposes measures and suggestions for tendering mode innovation.%当前,有关农村生活污水治理工程的招标成为地方政府的难题和焦点。本文针对农村生活污水治理工程招标中存在的种种问题,重点比较研究了宁波市世界银行贷款模式、德清县第三方模式,提出了招标模式创新的对策建议。

  4. Conditions of call for tenders on the offshore wind power plants; Conditions de l'appel d'offres portant sur des centrales eolienne en mer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    In the framework of the renewable energies sources development, the french government decided to launch a call for tenders for the realization of offshore wind power plants in 2007. The call for tenders conditions concern: the energetic and technical characteristics of the installations as the primary energy, the production technic, the power; the industrial implementing delay; the exploitation and the operating time; the implementing sites; the weighting and the classification principles. The main conditions concerning the utilization of the maritime public land property outside of the harbors. (A.L.B.)

  5. Proposal for the award of a blanket purchase contract, without competitive tendering, for the supply of radiation-resistant single-mode optical fibres for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the supply of radiation-resistant single-mode optical fibres for the LHC. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract, without competitive tendering, with FUJIKURA (JP), for the supply of radiation-resistant single-mode optical fibres for the LHC for a total amount of 660 000 US dollars (824 000 Swiss francs), not subject to revision. The rate of exchange used is the rate of 20 November 2006.

  6. Scientifically and Reasonably Determining Tender Offer%如何科学合理编制工程投标报价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴明辉

    2012-01-01

    投标报价是关系到工程能否中标的关键.此文从投标准备工作、投标报价编制、工程成本分析、合理确定投标报价等几个方面论述了如何科学、合理的编制工程投标报价.%The tender offer is the key of the project bidding. This article discusses how to scientifically and reasonably determine the tender offer from the bidding preparation, bid price quotation preparation, engineering cost analysis, reasonably determining the bid price quotations.

  7. Fort Rodd Hill N.H.S.C.: Workflow and Benefits in the Use of Photogrammetric and LIDAR Documentation for the Production of Construction Tender Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretz, C. S.

    2017-08-01

    This case study examines the workflow, benefits, disadvantages and limitations of photogrammetry and laser scanning for the production of contract tender documents. This includes the use of the outputs of the aforementioned methodologies for direct inclusion in the construction tender drawing package. This study will also delve into evolving data capture and post production techniques, specifically the utilization of UAV's to further refine, supplement and provide greater efficiency in the field for the acquisition of photogrammetric data. Future phases of this project will leverage emerging technologies to further improve and expand upon the success of the current phase of the project.

  8. Papel do sistema calpaína-calpastatina sobre a proteólise muscular e sua relação com a maciez da carne em bovinos de corte - Calpain-calpastatin role on muscle proteolysis and its relationship with beef tenderness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lage, Josiane Fonseca

    2009-12-01

    factors and mechanisms of different origin are responsible for post-mortem beef tenderization, which includes physical and chemical factors, enzymes without peptidase activity and peptidases. Although the exact mechanism of action still not completely understood,it has been proposed that myofibrillar protein degradation by endogenous proteins would be the main mechanism involved with post-mortem beef tenderization. During the post-mortem period the tenderization process depends on some factors like animal species, muscle fiber type, post-mortem management, and other factors.Tenderization occurs due to changes on some structural components of the muscle that take place in response to the action of enzymes during and after rigor mortis. The calcium dependent proteases (calpains and calpastatin are known to be the main factor responsible for beef tenderization. There are two calpain isoformes,called µ-calpain and m-calpain, which are responsible for post-mortem muscle degradation. The enzyme calpastatin also regulates the tenderization by inhibiting the activity of the calpains. Beef tenderization is a process that deserves a lot of attention, especially since consumer demand for products with higher quality havegreatly increased. The objective of this review is to understand the biochemical process of activation of the proteolytic enzymes and degradation of myofibrillar proteins.

  9. Post-mortem kinetics of meat tenderness and the components of the calpain system in bull skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, B C; Dobbie, P M; Singh, K; Speck, P A

    1996-11-01

    Eight strip loins (M. longissimus dorsi) from pasture fed Friesian bulls were aged at 15 °C for a range of times from 1 to 120 h. pH declined from 6.29 (SE 0.119) one hour post slaughter to an ultimate pH of 5.48 (SE 0.013). The activities of the components of the calpain system (μ-calpain, m-calpain and calpastatin) were determined after separation on a DEAE-sephacel column. There was a dramatic decline in μ-calpain activity post slaughter with a complete disappearance within 48 h. The rates of decline in m-calpain and calpastatin activity were slower with 30% and 50% remaining 120 h post slaughter, respectively. The rapid decline in μ-calpain activity relative to the calpastatin activity is likely to reduce the degree of tenderisation and ultimate tenderness of the meat.

  10. The predetermined sites of examination for tender points in fibromyalgia syndrome are frequently associated with myofascial trigger points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, Hong You; Wang, Ying; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente;

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this present study is to test the hypotheses that the 18 predetermined sites of examination for tender points (TP sites) in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) are myofascial trigger points (MTrPs), and that the induced pain from active MTrPs at TP sites may mimic fibromyalgia pain. Each TP site...... was evaluated with manual palpation followed by intramuscular electromyographic (EMG) registration of spontaneous electrical activity to confirm or refute the existence of an MTrP in 30 FMS patients. Overall spontaneous pain intensity and pain pattern were recorded before manual identification of MTrPs. Local...... and referred pain pattern from active MTrPs were drawn following manual palpation at TP sites. RESULTS: Showed that most of the TP sites are MTrPs. Local and referred pain from active MTrPs reproduced partly the overall spontaneous pain pattern. The total number of active MTrPs (r = .78, P

  11. Proposal to Negotiate, without Competitive Tendering, a Blanket Order for High-Voltage Thyratrons for the CERN Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    This document concerns the supply of thyratrons to be used as high-voltage and high-current switches for the fast-pulsed magnet systems of the CERN accelerators and for the protection of the klystrons of RF systems. Following a market survey (MS-3136/SL/LHC) carried out among 18 firms in ten Member States, CERN entered into negotiations with one firm in one Member State. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation, without competitive tendering, of a new blanket order with E2V TECHNOLOGIES (GB) for up to 800 000 pounds sterling to cover the supply of thyratrons for the years 2003, 2004 and 2005, subject to price revision for inflation for deliveries after 31 December 2003. At the present rate of exchange, this amount is equivalent to 1 855 000 Swiss francs. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the order value covered by this adjudication proposal: GB - 100%.

  12. Estimating the impact of various pathway parameters on tenderness, flavour and juiciness of pork using Monte Carlo simulation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channon, H A; Hamilton, A J; D'Souza, D N; Dunshea, F R

    2016-06-01

    Monte Carlo simulation was investigated as a potential methodology to estimate sensory tenderness, flavour and juiciness scores of pork following the implementation of key pathway interventions known to influence eating quality. Correction factors were established using mean data from published studies investigating key production, processing and cooking parameters. Probability distributions of correction factors were developed for single pathway parameters only, due to lack of interaction data. Except for moisture infusion, ageing period, aitchbone hanging and cooking pork to an internal temperature of >74°C, only small shifts in the mean of the probability distributions of correction factors were observed for the majority of pathway parameters investigated in this study. Output distributions of sensory scores, generated from Monte Carlo simulations of input distributions of correction factors and for individual pigs, indicated that this methodology may be useful in estimating both the shift and variability in pork eating traits when different pathway interventions are applied.

  13. Proposal to negotiate, without competitive tendering, the renewal of an existing contract for the repair, reconditioning or replacement of klystrons

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This document concerns the repair and reconditioning of pulsed klystrons being used in both the LEP Injector Linac and the CLIC Test Facilities or their replacement by klystrons with identical performance specification in cases where neither of these actions is economically or technically viable. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation, without competitive tendering, of the renewal of a contract with THOMSON (FR) for the repair and reconditioning or the replacement of pulsed klystrons being used in both the LEP Injector Linac and the CLIC test facilities for an estimated total amount not exceeding 1 000 000 Swiss francs. This contract is expected to run for a period of five years to cover the expected lifetime of the installation concerned. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: FR?100%.

  14. Towards tender X-rays with Zernike phase-contrast imaging of biological samples at 50 nm resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartiainen, Ismo; Warmer, Martin; Goeries, Dennis; Herker, Eva; Reimer, Rudolph; David, Christian; Meents, Alke

    2014-07-01

    X-ray microscopy is a commonly used method especially in material science application, where the large penetration depth of X-rays is necessary for three-dimensional structural studies of thick specimens with high-Z elements. In this paper it is shown that full-field X-ray microscopy at 6.2 keV can be utilized for imaging of biological specimens with high resolution. A full-field Zernike phase-contrast microscope based on diffractive optics is used to study lipid droplet formation in hepatoma cells. It is shown that the contrast of the images is comparable with that of electron microscopy, and even better contrast at tender X-ray energies between 2.5 keV and 4 keV is expected.

  15. Proposal to negotiate, without competitive tendering, Two blanket orders for the supply of programmable logic controllers and fieldbus equipment

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    This document concerns the supply of programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and fieldbus equipment for the CERN accelerators, technical services and experiments. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of two blanket contracts with SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC INDUSTRIE (FR) and SIEMENS SUISSE S.A. (CH), without competitive tendering, for the supply of PLCs and fieldbus equipment for an estimated total annual amount covering both contracts not exceeding 2 000 000 Swiss francs for three years. SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC INDUSTRIE (FR) has declared the following origin of the equipment relating to this adjudication proposal: FR-100%. SIEMENS SUISSE S.A. (CH) has declared the following origin of the equipment relating to this adjudication proposal: DE-100%.

  16. Is Swollen to Tender Joint Count Ratio aNew and Useful Clinical Marker for BiologicDrug Response in Rheumatoid Arthritis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lars Erik; Bliddal, Henning; Christensen, Robin;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the impact of swollen to tender joint count ratio (STR) and other baseline characteristics on treatment response to a first course of anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. METHODS: Patients with RA initiating their first course...

  17. Analysis of Budget and Offer Tips of Construction Tender%浅析工程施工投标的预算和报价技巧

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫丽君

    2011-01-01

    投标单位要在激烈的市场竞争中占有市场,一定要掌握企业实际的投标预算、精通投标报价的技巧和方法,提高招标项目的投标报价水平,投标人只有采用不同的投标策略,才能对投标报价正确分析,进而果断作出决策,使企业处于不败之地,从而保证低投标高效益,真正为企业的生存发展和壮大创造先决条件.%If the tender units want to occupy the market in fierce market competition, they must grasp the bid budget of actual business, be proficient in the skills and methods of tender offer, and raise the level of bid tender.Only using different bidding strategies, can the bidder correctly analyze the tender offer, and then make decisions decisively, so that make enterprises be in a position to guarantee high efficiency with low bids, which can create prerequisites for survival, development and growth of the enterprise.

  18. Physical, psychosocial, and individual risk factors for neck/shoulder pain with pressure tenderness in the muscles among workers performing monotonous, repetitive work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, JH; Kaergaard, A.; Frost, P.

    2002-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of individual characteristics and physical and psychosocial workplace factors on neck/shoulder pain with pressure tenderness in the muscles. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Controversy prevails about the importance of workplace f...

  19. Unraveling the redox behavior of a CoMoS hydrodesulfurization catalyst : A scanning transmission X-ray microscopy study in the tender X-ray range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Samarai, Mustafa; Meirer, Florian; Karunakaran, Chithra; Wang, Jian; Vogt, Eelco T C; Zandbergen, Henny W.; Weber, Thomas; Weckhuysen, Bert M.; De Groot, Frank M F

    2015-01-01

    We visualize the elemental zoning in an alumina-supported cobalt molybdenum sulfide (CoMoS) catalyst with scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). We use the Canadian Light Source beamline 10-ID's (SM) unique combination of soft X-ray and tender X-ray STXM to determine the spatial variation of

  20. An efficient plane-grating monochromator based on conical diffraction for continuous tuning in the entire soft X-ray range including tender X-rays (2-8 keV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jark, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Recently it was verified that the diffraction efficiency of reflection gratings with rectangular profile, when illuminated at grazing angles of incidence with the beam trajectory along the grooves and not perpendicular to them, remains very high for tender X-rays of several keV photon energy. This very efficient operation of a reflection grating in the extreme off-plane orientation, i.e. in conical diffraction, offers the possibility of designing a conical diffraction monochromator scheme that provides efficient continuous photon energy tuning over rather large tuning ranges. For example, the tuning could cover photon energies from below 1000 eV up to 8 keV. The expected transmission of the entire instrument is high as all components are always operated below the critical angle for total reflection. In the simplest version of the instrument a plane grating is preceded by a plane mirror rotating simultaneously with it. The photon energy selection will then be made using the combination of a focusing mirror and exit slit. As is common for grating monochromators for soft X-ray radiation, the minimum spectral bandwidth is source-size-limited, while the bandwidth can be adjusted freely to any larger value. As far as tender X-rays (2-8 keV) are concerned, the minimum bandwidth is at least one and up to two orders of magnitude larger than the bandwidth provided by Si(111) double-crystal monochromators in a collimated beam. Therefore the instrument will provide more flux, which can even be increased at the expense of a bandwidth increase. On the other hand, for softer X-rays with photon energies below 1 keV, competitive relative spectral resolving powers of the order of 10000 are possible.

  1. 如何合理确定公路工程投标报价%How to Determine Highway Engineering Submit a Tender Quote in Reason

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石永芹

    2012-01-01

      投标报价工作对于承包商来讲非常重要,不但关系到承包商能否中标,同时也关系到承包商在中标之后能否在工程中获得合理的利润。在目前的公路工程建设中,普遍实行了工程投标报价制度。在这一制度下,承包商要积极做好报价分析,既要保证工程投标报价能够应对工程建设所面对的财务经营风险,又要保证工程投标报价能够具有一定的竞争力优势。承包商要想顺利中标并取得预期利润,就要认真研究招标文件,做好投标报价分析工作。%  Tender offer work is very important for contractors . It not only related to wether the contractor win the bidding, but also related to whether the project contractor get a reasonable profit after win the bidding. .In present highway construction, it carries out the universal engineering bidding system.Under this system, the contractor should do offer analysis actively, which is necessary to ensure the project tender offer is able to cope with the financial operating risks faced by the project construction, but also to ensure that the project tender offer with a certain competitive advantage.In order to bid success-ful y and achieved the expected profits, the contractor must seriously study the tender documents and do tender offer analysis wel .

  2. 仙人掌外敷治疗产后乳房胀痛效果观察%The cactus topical treatment of postpartum breast tenderness effect observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦美丽

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the cactus external treatment effect for the treatment of postpartum breast tenderness.Methods 50 cases of maternal postpartum breast tenderness, wash clean, apply adequate amount of fresh cactus thorn take skin pound becomes slimy state, after baking hot (not very hot as appropriate) ring cover on the breast, thickness determined according to the degree of breast tenderness and induration, areola and nipple part is not covered, topical 20 min - 30 min, and then remove the cactus, with hot towel to clean the breast, then massage and breast milk, 3 to 4 times daily.Results After the intervention of maternal breast tenderness degree and induration was significantly reduced.Conclusion The cactus external treatment can obviously relieve maternal breast tenderness, reduce breast hardness, to breast milk.%目的:探讨仙人掌外敷治疗产后乳房胀痛的效果。方法对产后乳房胀痛的产妇50例,取适量新鲜仙人掌洗干净,去刺带皮捣烂成泥状,焙热(以不烫为宜)后环型覆盖于乳房上,厚度根据乳房胀痛及硬结程度决定,乳晕及乳头部分不覆盖,外敷20min-30min,然后除去仙人掌,用热毛巾清洁乳房,再按摩乳房及挤奶,每日3-4次。结果干预后产妇乳房胀痛程度及硬结得到明显缓解。结论仙人掌外敷可明显缓解产妇乳房胀痛,减轻乳房硬度,利于乳汁排出。

  3. 牛肉的外源性蛋白酶嫩化技术研究进展%Recent Progress on Application of Exogenous Proteases for Beef Tenderization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂远洋; 李璐; 温文婷; 夏白雪; 孙群

    2013-01-01

    牛肉嫩度是一项肉质评定的重要指标,也是消费者评判肉质优劣的最常用指标.外源性蛋白酶嫩化技术具有方法简单,条件要求相对低,能显著提高牛肉的品质等优点,且处理后的牛肉具有柔软、适口、多汁和易于咀嚼等特点,多年来一直受到肉类加工行业的重视,并已得到了广泛的研究和应用.本文主要论述了外源性蛋白酶对牛肉的嫩化机理和近年来在利用各类外源性蛋白酶嫩化处理牛肉的研究上取得的进展,以期为牛肉嫩化的研究提供参考.%Beef tenderness is both an important indicator of meat quality assessment and the most commonly used indicator to evaluate consumer acceptance.Exogenous proteases have attracted considerable interest from the meat processing industry and have been widely used to tenderize beef due to simple operation,low requirements and high efficacy in improving beef quality as well as soft mouth feel,good palatability and high juiciness and high chewiness of tenderized beef.This paper focuses on the mechanism for the tenderization of beef by exogenous proteases and the recent progress on this application,which will provide guidelines for beef tenderization.

  4. Efficacy and Effectiveness of Exercise on Tender Points in Adults with Fibromyalgia: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A. Kelley

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia is a major public health problem affecting an estimated 200 to 400 million people worldwide. The purpose of this study was to use the meta-analytic approach to determine the efficacy and effectiveness of randomized controlled exercise intervention trials (aerobic, strength training, or both on tender points (TPs in adults with fibromyalgia. Using random effects models and 95% confidence intervals (CI, a statistically significant reduction in TPs was observed based on per-protocol analyses (8 studies representing 322 participants but not intention-to-treat analyses (5 studies representing 338 participants (per-protocol, , −0.68, 95% CI, −1.16, −0.20; intention-to-treat, , −0.24, 95% CI, −0.62, 0.15. Changes were equivalent to relative reductions of 10.9% and 6.9%, respectively, for per-protocol and intention-to-treat analyses. It was concluded that exercise is efficacious for reducing TPs in women with FM. However, a need exists for additional well-designed and reported studies on this topic.

  5. An evaluation of the proposed ITS system for the city of São Paulo based on the 2015 tender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consulo Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Secretary of Transportation of the city of São Paulo recently released a public consultation for the city’s Urban Mobility plan. This consultation is quite broad in scope, addressing many different areas of the bus public transportation modal in the city, including the operation itself, control and bus terminal administration. The proposal contains guidelines to reorganize the actual services using the infrastructure already deployed. This article will bring to light the development stages of the ITS in the United States, Europe, and Japan while focusing on the technology portion of the São Paulo tender such as: (i planning and scheduling systems, (ii operational control center and its technologies to monitor and control the operation, (iii the on-board technologies, and (iv the integration to the existing track and location (T&L, control and reporting system called SIM – Sistema Integrado de Monitoramento (Integrated Monitoring System. The main goal of this article is to map the proposed ITS system for the city of São Paulo and compare it to the world class systems operating in the major cities in the world highlighting the areas of excellence and the ones with room for improvement.

  6. Proposal to negotiate two blanket purchase contracts, without competitive tendering, for the supply of high-power RF grid-tubes for the CERN accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    This document concerns the award of two contracts, without competitive tendering, for the supply of different types of RF high-power grid-tubes (triodes and tetrodes) for the operation of CERN accelerators. For the reasons set out in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of two blanket purchase contracts, without competitive tendering, for the supply of different types of RF high-power grid-tubes (triodes and tetrodes) with: - THALES (FR) for a total amount of 6 800 000 euros (10 540 000 Swiss francs) for a period of five years, subject to revision for inflation from January 2006; - RICHARDSON (DE) for a total amount of 1 100 000 euros (1 705 000 Swiss francs) for a period of five years, subject to revision for inflation from January 2006.

  7. 小型建筑企业的企业定额与投标报价%On enterprise quota and tender offer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔鹏军

    2014-01-01

    从企业定额着手,总结分析了小型建筑企业的现状、企业定额的编制及管理模式,并在此基础上提出了编制投标报价的步骤和方法,以期对小型建筑企业的投标报价提供一些借鉴。%From the enterprise quota,the paper summarizes the status of those small architectural enterprises,as well as their compilation and management of the enterprise quota,and points out the steps and methods for compiling tender offer based on the previous aspects,so as to pro-vide some reference for the tender offer of other small architectural enterprises.

  8. Petrochemical Enterprise Equipment Tendering Evaluation Methods Are Discussed%石化企业设备招标评标方法探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长剑

    2011-01-01

    Petrochemical enterprise equipment tendering the bid assessment methods, is using the bid assessment standards reviews, compare the concrete method of the bidding scheme actor. Petrochemical enterprise equipment tendering evaluation methods to implement the scientific equal competition, fair and reasonable choice ZhongBiaoZhe is extremely important. This paper discusses its bid assessment method.%石化企业设备招标评标的方法,是运用评标标准评审、比较投标方案优劣的具体方法。石化企业设备招标评标方法的科学性对于实施平等的竞争、公正合理地选择中标者是极其重要的。本文探讨了其评标方法。

  9. Proposal for the award of a blanket contract, without competitive tendering, for the packaging of custom application-specific integrated circuits for the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a blanket contract, without competitive tendering, for the packaging of custom application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) for the CMS experiment. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a blanket contract, without competitive tendering, with ASAT (HK) for the packaging of custom ASICs for use in the CMS experiment, over a period of two years for a total estimated amount not exceeding 700 000 US dollars. At the present rate of exchange this is equivalent to approximately 910 000 Swiss francs of which CERN will contribute a total amount not exceeding 683 000 Swiss francs. The remaining amount will be financed by the other participating institutes of the CMS experiment. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: HK - 100%.

  10. Proposal for the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the supply of five numerically-controlled machining centres to BINP using money from the Russian fund

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    For the reasons set out in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to approve the negotiation of a contract, without competitive tendering, using money from the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP) in the Russian Fund RF-LHC I, for the purchase of five numerically-controlled machining centres and the corresponding tooling from the firm MIKRON (CH) for an amount not exceeding 2 000 000 Swiss francs (DDU Novosibirsk).

  11. Test-retest repeatability of strength capacity, aerobic power and pericranial tenderness of neck and shoulder muscles in children - relevant for tension-type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornøe, Birte; Andersen, Lars L; Skotte, Jørgen H; Jensen, Rigmor; Gard, Gunvor; Skov, Liselotte; Hallström, Inger

    2013-01-01

    Frequent or chronic tension-type headache in children is a prevalent and debilitating condition for the child, often leading to medication overuse. To explore the relationship between physical factors and tension-type headache in children, the quality of repeated measures was examined. The aim of the present study was to determine the test-retest repeatability of parameters determining isometric neck and shoulder strength and stability, aerobic power, and pericranial tenderness in children. Twenty-five healthy children, 9 to 18 years of age, participated in test-retest procedures within a 1-week interval. A computerized padded force transducer was used for testing. The tests included the isometric maximal voluntary contraction and force steadiness of neck flexion and extension, and the isometric maximal voluntary contraction and rate of force of the dominant shoulder. Pericranial tenderness was recorded by means of standardized manual palpation, and a submaximal cycle ergometer test predicted maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max). The measurements were evaluated in steps, using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC); changes in the mean between the two test occasions; the levels of agreement, visualized in Bland-Altman Plots; and by quantifying the variability. The results showed an acceptable test-retest repeatability of isometric maximal voluntary contraction (ICC 0.90-0.97). The force steadiness measurements revealed a trend of systematic changes in the direction of neck flexion and need further examination in both healthy and ill children. The rate of force development, Total Tenderness Score, and prediction of VO2 max showed repeatability, with ICC 0.80-0.87. The measurements of strength capacity, aerobic power, and tenderness provide acceptable repeatability, suitable for research in children.

  12. Test-retest repeatability of strength capacity, aerobic power and pericranial tenderness of neck and shoulder muscles in children - relevant for tension-type headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornøe, Birte; Andersen, Lars L; Skotte, J H

    2013-01-01

    Frequent or chronic tension-type headache in children is a prevalent and debilitating condition for the child, often leading to medication overuse. To explore the relationship between physical factors and tension-type headache in children, the quality of repeated measures was examined. The aim...... of the present study was to determine the test-retest repeatability of parameters determining isometric neck and shoulder strength and stability, aerobic power, and pericranial tenderness in children....

  13. Guideline for the tendering of the Europe-wide procurement of the electricity supply. 2. rev. ed.; Arbeitshilfe zur Durchfuehrung einer europaweiten Ausschreibung der Stromlieferung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchmueller, Christian [Schnutenhaus und Kollegen, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-05-02

    In order to describe the practical fundamentals for the procurement of electricity, the authors of this contribution present a guideline for the implementation of a Europe-wide tendering of the electricity supply. The main aspects of this contribution are the procedure and time schedule of the procurement procedure, preparation of the procurement procedure, design of the procurement procedure concerning to the contents as well as the implementation of the procurement procedure.

  14. Proposal for the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the purchase of 200 scintillator sheets for the CMS hadron calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    The Finance Committee is invited to authorize CERN to negotiate on behalf of the Participating Institutes of the CMS Collaboration a contract, without competitive tendering, for the procurement of 200 scintillator sheets for the Outer Barrel of the CMS Hadron Detector from BICRON (USA) for a total cost of 285 000 US dollars, not subject to revision. At the present rate of exchange, this amount is equivalent to approximately 439 000 Swiss francs.

  15. Call-for-tender documentation in the area of servers, personal computers and networks; Ausschreibungsunterlagen im Server-, PC- und Netzwerk-Bereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieder, T.; Huser, A.

    2003-07-01

    As a result of this work, sample texts, so-called performance sheets, have been drawn up for the invitation to tender for IT devices. As a supplement to the standard technical requirements, such as computer performance, memory capacity, etc., these texts cover the aspects of energy efficiency. The performance sheets can be enclosed with the invitations to tender as an appendix, or be used directly as text modules. They are supplemented by explanatory texts, which give information regarding technical terms, labels and possible technical realizations. Performance sheets and explanatory texts are included in the appendix to this report. The goal of these activities is to exert pressure on the market, which should ultimately lead to more efficient units. In addition, however, these texts should serve to make the offices placing the invitations to tender more aware of the energy efficiency aspect. Energy saving functions are fairly common for PCs and monitors nowadays. Reference to proved technical realisations can be made in the performance sheets. The situation is more difficult for servers. Although some technical solutions have been initiated, very little is known about practical applications. Further activities are necessary here. (author)

  16. Scanning electron microscopy combined with image processing technique: Analysis of microstructure, texture and tenderness in Semitendinous and Gluteus Medius bovine muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieniazek, Facundo; Messina, Valeria

    2016-11-01

    In this study the effect of freeze drying on the microstructure, texture, and tenderness of Semitendinous and Gluteus Medius bovine muscles were analyzed applying Scanning Electron Microscopy combined with image analysis. Samples were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy at different magnifications (250, 500, and 1,000×). Texture parameters were analyzed by Texture analyzer and by image analysis. Tenderness by Warner-Bratzler shear force. Significant differences (p image and instrumental texture features. A linear trend with a linear correlation was applied for instrumental and image features. Image texture features calculated from Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (homogeneity, contrast, entropy, correlation and energy) at 1,000× in both muscles had high correlations with instrumental features (chewiness, hardness, cohesiveness, and springiness). Tenderness showed a positive correlation in both muscles with image features (energy and homogeneity). Combing Scanning Electron Microscopy with image analysis can be a useful tool to analyze quality parameters in meat.Summary SCANNING 38:727-734, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Effect of sire on mu- and m-calpain activity and rate of tenderization as indicated by myofibril fragmentation indices of steaks from Brahman cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Pringle, T D; West, R L; Johnson, D D; Olson, T A; Hammond, A C; Coleman, S W

    2003-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the influence of sire on mu- and m-calpain activities, to evaluate the relationships of activities of these enzymes to other traits related to beef palatability, and to assess the influence of sire on the rate of tenderization (as measured by myofibril fragmentation index [MFI]) in Brahman longissimus muscle. Brahman calves (n = 87), sired by nine bulls, were born, weaned, fed, and slaughtered in central Florida. Traits evaluated were mu- and m-calpain activities and MFI after 1, 7, 14, and 21 d of aging. Other traits were analyzed to determine their associations with mu- and m-calpain activity and MFI, including calpastatin activity, percentage of raw and cooked lipids, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values after 7, 14, and 21 d of aging, and sensory panel rating of tenderness, juiciness, and connective tissue amount after 14 d of aging. Data were analyzed using a model with sire, sex, year, and slaughter group (calves of the same sex slaughtered on the same date) as fixed effects, and adjusted to a constant adjusted 12th-rib fat thickness. Sire affected mu-calpain activity (P carcass sorting program represents an alternative consideration for tenderization improvement programs.

  18. Application and optimization of the tenderization of pig Longissimus dorsi muscle by adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) using the response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shaoying; Wang, Daoying; Zhang, Muhan; Geng, Zhiming; Sun, Chong; Bian, Huan; Xu, Weimin; Zhu, Yongzhi; Liu, Fang; Wu, Haihong

    2016-03-01

    Based on single factor experiments, NaCl concentration, adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) concentration and temperature were selected as independent variables for a three-level Box-Behnken experimental design, and the shear force and cooking loss were response values for regression analysis. According to the statistical models, it showed that all independent variables had significant effects on shear force and cooking loss, and optimal values were at the NaCl concentration of 4.15%, AMP concentration of 22.27 mmol/L and temperature of 16.70°C, which was determined with three-dimensional response surface diagrams and contour plots. Under this condition, the observed shear force and cooking loss were 0.625 kg and 8.07%, respectively, exhibiting a good agreement with their predicted values, showing the good applicability and feasibility of response surface methodology (RSM) for improving pork tenderness. Compared with control pig muscles, AMP combined with NaCl treatment demonstrated significant effects on improvement of meat tenderness and reduction of cooking loss. Therefore, AMP could be regarded as an effective tenderization agent for pork.

  19. Information on the Conversion of the Rental Contract of the Siemens 7.880 System into a Purchase Contract and Request for Approval to Purchase, without a Call for Tenders, Peripheral Equipment compatible with this system

    CERN Document Server

    1982-01-01

    Information on the Conversion of the Rental Contract of the Siemens 7.880 System into a Purchase Contract and Request for Approval to Purchase, without a Call for Tenders, Peripheral Equipment compatible with this system

  20. Proposal for the conclusion of a partnership agreement, without competitive tendering, for the management of medical emergencies on the CERN site and the training of CERN's medical staff and firefighters in emergency situations

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Proposal for the conclusion of a partnership agreement, without competitive tendering, for the management of medical emergencies on the CERN site and the training of CERN's medical staff and firefighters in emergency situations

  1. Structural analysis of polymer thin films using GISAXS in the tender X-ray region: Concept and design of GISAXS experiments using the tender X-ray energy at BL-15A2 at the Photon Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takagi, H., E-mail: takagih@post.kek.jp; Igarashi, N.; Mori, T.; Saijo, S.; Nagatani, Y.; Shimizu, N. [Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Ohta, H. [Mitsubishi Electric System & Service Co., Ltd, Accelerator Engineering Center, 2-8- 8 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0045 (Japan); Yamamoto, K. [Graduate School of Engineering, Department of Materials Science & Technology, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

    2016-10-14

    If small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) utilizing the soft X-ray region is available, advanced and unique experiments, which differ from traditional SAXS methods, can be realized. For example, grazing-incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) using hard X-ray is a powerful tool for understanding the nanostructure in both vertical and lateral directions of thin films, while GISAXS utilizing the tender X-ray region (SX-GISAXS) enables depth-resolved analysis as well as a standard GISAXS analysis in thin films. Thus, at BL-15A2 at the Photon Factory, a dedicated diffractometer for SX-GISAXS (above 2.1 keV) was constructed. This diffractometer is composed of four vacuum chambers and can be converted into the vacuum state from the sample chamber in front of the detector surface. Diffractions are clearly observed until 12th peak when measuring collagen by SAXS with an X-ray energy of 2.40 keV and a camera length of 825 mm. Additionally, we conducted the model experiment using SX-GISAXS with an X-ray energy of 2.40 keV to confirm that a poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(n-butyl acrylate) block copolymer thin film has a microphase-separated structure in the thin film, which is composed of lamellae aligned both parallel and perpendicular to the substrate surface. Similarly, in a polystyrene-poly(methyl methacrylate) block copolymer thin film, SX-GISAXS with 3.60 keV and 5.73 keV revealed that hexagonally packed cylinders are aligned parallel to the substrate surface. The incident angle dependence of the first order peak position of the q{sub z} direction obtained from experiments at various incident X-ray energies agrees very well with the theoretical one calculated from the distorted wave Born approximation.

  2. Structural analysis of polymer thin films using GISAXS in the tender X-ray region: Concept and design of GISAXS experiments using the tender X-ray energy at BL-15A2 at the Photon Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, H.; Igarashi, N.; Mori, T.; Saijo, S.; Nagatani, Y.; Ohta, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Shimizu, N.

    2016-10-01

    If small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) utilizing the soft X-ray region is available, advanced and unique experiments, which differ from traditional SAXS methods, can be realized. For example, grazing-incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) using hard X-ray is a powerful tool for understanding the nanostructure in both vertical and lateral directions of thin films, while GISAXS utilizing the tender X-ray region (SX-GISAXS) enables depth-resolved analysis as well as a standard GISAXS analysis in thin films. Thus, at BL-15A2 at the Photon Factory, a dedicated diffractometer for SX-GISAXS (above 2.1 keV) was constructed. This diffractometer is composed of four vacuum chambers and can be converted into the vacuum state from the sample chamber in front of the detector surface. Diffractions are clearly observed until 12th peak when measuring collagen by SAXS with an X-ray energy of 2.40 keV and a camera length of 825 mm. Additionally, we conducted the model experiment using SX-GISAXS with an X-ray energy of 2.40 keV to confirm that a poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(n-butyl acrylate) block copolymer thin film has a microphase-separated structure in the thin film, which is composed of lamellae aligned both parallel and perpendicular to the substrate surface. Similarly, in a polystyrene-poly(methyl methacrylate) block copolymer thin film, SX-GISAXS with 3.60 keV and 5.73 keV revealed that hexagonally packed cylinders are aligned parallel to the substrate surface. The incident angle dependence of the first order peak position of the qz direction obtained from experiments at various incident X-ray energies agrees very well with the theoretical one calculated from the distorted wave Born approximation.

  3. Effect of Papain on Tenderization of Beef Jerky%木瓜蛋白酶对牛肉干嫩化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金惠玉; 张筠; 王欢欢

    2013-01-01

    Papain is a kind of sulfhydryl protease and it has good protein hydrolysate ability.It iswidely used in food processing,such as meat tenderization,brewing,milk coagulation,modification of mixed dough,etc.China's beef jerky has been using the traditional process; the product is of tough taste and good hardness.In order to improve the tenderness and production rate of beef jerky,adopt single factor and orthogonal methods,take sensory evaluation and shear force value as the indexes to determine the effects of papain in different concentration,injection volume,processing time and processing temperature on tenderization degree of beef jerky.The results show that the tenderization effect is optimal when the concentration of papain is 0.5%,processing time is 3 h,injection volume is 3 % and temperature is 50 ℃.Papain concentration has a significant influence on tenderization of beef jerky.%木瓜蛋白酶是一种巯基蛋白酶,有较好的水解蛋白能力,在肉的嫩化、酿造、牛奶的凝固、混合面团的改性等食品加工中广泛使用.我国的牛肉干一直沿用传统的工艺,产品口感坚韧、硬度大.为了提高牛肉干的嫩度和出品率,课题采用单因素、正交的方法,以感官评价和剪切力值为指标,测定木瓜蛋白酶在不同浓度、注射量、处理时间和处理温度下对牛肉干嫩化程度的影响,结果表明:木瓜蛋白酶的使用浓度为0.5%,处理时间为3h,注射量为3%,温度为50℃时,对牛肉的嫩化效果最佳.其中,木瓜蛋白酶的浓度对牛肉干的嫩化影响最显著.

  4. Discussion on risk analysis and countermeasures of tendering procurement for university's purchase in China%高校招标采购风险分析及其对策探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑾琦; 侯文海

    2011-01-01

    The tendering procurement of colleges and universities is the most foundational work which can guarantee the teaching and the scientific research to carry on normally. It is also one important part of government procurement. With the development of tendering procurement, many problems urgently await to be solved.The article chooses the angle of tendering procurement risk. After giving a definition of tendering procurement risk, this article chooses two links of tendering procuremen to analyse. One is the establishing of tendering procurement document, another is the verification of bid business. This article provides corresponding countermeasures.%在基本界定招标采购风险含义的基础上,选择我国高校招标采购招标文件的编制和投标商资格审查两个环节,具体进行招标采购风险分析,并探讨相应的解决对策.

  5. Evaluation of the pain and local tenderness in bone metastasis treated with magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namba, Hirofumi; Kawasaki, Motohiro; Kato, Tomonari; Tani, Toshikazu; Ushida, Takahiro; Koizumi, Norihiro

    2017-03-01

    It has been reported that MRgFUS has pain palliative effects on the local pain in patients with bone metastasis. In general, a severity of pain has been evaluated using only subjective method with numerical rating scale (NRS) or visual analogue scale (VAS). It is important to evaluate local pain-palliative effects of MRgFUS treatment with objective and quantitative method. The aim of this study is to investigate changes in the severity of local pain of bone metastasis before and after MRgFUS treatments, measuring pressure pain threshold (PPT) using pressure algometer, and pain intensity using electrical stimulation device (the Pain Vision system) at most painful site of bone metastasis. We have conducted MRgFUS for pain palliation of bone metastasis for 8 patients, and evaluated the local tenderness quantitatively for 8 patients, and evaluated local pain intensity for 7 patients. Before the treatments, PPTs were 106.3kPa [40.0-431.5] at metastatic site and 344.8 kPa [206.0-667.0] at normal control site, which showed a significant difference. The PPTs at metastatic site shows a significant increase from 106.3 kPa [40.0-431.5] at the baseline to 270.5 kPa [93.5-533.5] at 3 months after the treatment. The NRS score shows a significant decrease from 6.0 [4-8] at baseline to 1 [0-3] at 3 months after the treatment. Similarly, the pain intensity shows a significant decrease 245 [96.3-888.7] at baseline to 55.9 [2.8-292] at 3 months after the treatment. The results of our study illustrate the pain-relieving effects of MRgFUS for the treatment of painful bone metastasis. PPT might be a useful parameter not only for assessing a treatment's effect, but also for the decision of the painful area to treat with MRgFUS. Pain Vision seems to be useful for quantitative and objective evaluation of local pain of painful bone metastasis.

  6. Predictive model on tenderness of postmortem yak meat and its validation%牦牛肉宰后成熟嫩度预测模型与验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽; 孙宝忠; 余群力

    2013-01-01

    Tenderness is one of important sensorial properties for the quantitative evaluation of eating qualities influencing the consumption of beef, and the others are juiciness and flavor respectively. Poor tenderness is one of main causes for commercial unacceptability of yak meat. The variation of physiological and biochemical characteristics during tenderization at the initial phase of postmortem aging has an extraordinarily significant effect on the postmortem formation of the tenderness property of beef cuts, which is one of determinant factors for consumers to decide if the beef products should be purchased. Therefore, the improvement of research on the effect of physiological and biochemical characteristics on the tenderness of yak meat is beneficial to melioration of the theory of postmortem aging and tenderization of yak meat. In order to investigate the effect of the postmortem variation of physiological and biochemical characteristics on the formation of tenderness of yak meat, pH, glycogen content, calpain activity (CA), the myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI), sarcomere length, myofiber diameter, and shearing force of M. longissimus dorsi stored at 4℃ for 10d from 18 male yaks were determined. The estimated value of 6 characteristics at postmortem 1 h were obtained directly as alternative predictors of a predictive model of postmortem tenderness of yak meat. Meanwhile, the kinetic parameters of the rate and extent of variation of some physiological and biochemical characteristics including pH, CA, MFI and glycogen content obtained by kinetic data analysis within postmortem 72 h were also selected as alternative predictors. The ultimate predictors of a predictive model of postmortem tenderness of yak meat were determined through a“jackknife”method from all alternative predictors, including 6 variables at postmortem 1 h and 7 kinetic parameters within postmortem 72 h according to occurrences in optimal equations of 15 jackknife samples through multiple

  7. Rheological Flow Behavior of Structural Polysaccharides from Edible Tender Cladodes of Wild, Semidomesticated and Cultivated 'Nopal' (Opuntia) of Mexican Highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Palacios, C; Peña-Valdivia, C B; Rodríguez-Hernández, A I; Reyes-Agüero, J A

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the content of polysaccharides of edible tender cladodes (nopalitos) of three species of Opuntia and to evaluate the rheological flow behavior of isolated polysaccharides. A completely randomized experimental design was used to characterize a wild (O. streptacantha), a semidomesticated (O. megacantha) and a domesticated (O. ficus-indica) species. Mucilage content was higher (4.93 to 12.43 g 100 g(-1) dry matter), tightly bound hemicelluloses were lower (3.32 to 1.81 g 100 g(-1) dry matter) and pectins and loosely bound hemicelluloses were not different in wild than in domesticated species. Aqueous solution/suspensions of mucilage, pectins, hemicellulose and cellulose of all species showed non-Newtonian behavior under simple shear flow. The flow behavior of the structural polysaccharides was well described by the Ostwald de-Waele model. Pectins and mucilages exhibited the highest consistency indexes (K values ranged from 0.075 to 0.177 Pas(n)) with a moderated shear-thinning behavior (n values ranged from 0.53 to 0.67). Cellulose dispersions exhibited the most shear-thinning behavior (n values ranged from 0.17 to 0.41) and hemicelluloses showed a tendency to Newtonian flow (n values ranged from 0.82 to 0.97). The rheological flow properties of these polysaccharides may be useful to improve the textural and sensory qualities of some foods and pharmaceutical materials. Moreover, they can emerge as functional ingredients mainly due to the nutraceutical properties that have been attributed to nopalitos.

  8. Increased palpation tenderness and muscle strength deficit in the prediction of tendon hypertrophy in symptomatic unilateral shoulder tendinopathy: an ultrasonographic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, J.; Couppe, C.; Bjordal, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective In asymptomatic, normal tendons, the difference in tendon thickness between sides is less than 15%. In this Study, three tests were used to examine differences between symptomatic and asymptomatic shoulders. Design Cross-sectional study. The three tests were performed in sequence. The o...

  9. Otters Increasing - Threats Increasing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kranz

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available In some parts of Central Europe populations of otters are apparently increasing. Until recently, no research was being conducted on the ecology of otters in mainly artificial habitats like fish farms. Otters are not only a new source of conflict requiring species management, but appear once again threatened by illegal hunting. Austria is dealing with this problem using compensation for otter damage, electric fencing and translocation of problem otters. Despite a rise in illegal killing, Austria does not formally recognise this as a threat.

  10. The Effect of Two-dimensional Tender Contract Design on Investment and Concession Term for BOT Projects%BOT项目投资与特许权期的二维招标合同设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴孝灵; 周晶; 王冀宁; 陈星光

    2012-01-01

    为让管理水平较高的私营集团获得BOT项目特许权,并实现项目社会福利最大,本文利用机制设计理论建立了一个关于BOT项目投资与特许权期的二维招标合同的直接机制模型.通过模型分析,获得了该招标机制的可行性条件,最优形式和相应配置方案,并由一个算例表明,得到的最优招标机制在实际中是有效的.所获结果为政府对BOT特许权招标提供了一种理论指导和实际方法.%Tendering and bidding are two important trading mechanisms. However, many Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) projects are having issues with the concession bid. For instance, private groups sometimes falsify bidding information in order to win a bid from Chinese government. Therefore, it is important to redesign tendering and bidding mechanisms in order to maximize the social welfare of a BOT project. There is a lack of study on concession tender issues for BOT projects. This paper investigates a two-dimensional tender problem associated with BOT project's investment and concession period. We also consider the effect of the concession period on the private investment in the tendering practice. A direct tendering mechanism model on BOT project's investment and concession period is proposed according to the mechanism design theory. The proposed model can help derive the feasible condition, optimal form, and corresponding distribution program for the implementation of tendering mechanism. Firstly, it is difficult for the government to know the private group's information, such as the management level in the tendering process. A direct tendering mechanism model on the BOT project's investment and concession term is proposed. The model enables us to obtain the optimal direct tender mechanism and test its feasibility. Secondly, to select the private group with the highest management level for the project implementation, the distribution program for the BOT project's concession tender is discussed based on

  11. Detective quantum efficiency for photon-counting hybrid pixel detectors in the tender X-ray domain: application to Medipix3RX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinkel, Jean; Magalhães, Debora; Wagner, Franz; Meneau, Florian; Cesar Vicentin, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    Synchrotron-radiation-based X-ray imaging techniques using tender X-rays are facing a growing demand, in particular to probe the K absorption edges of low-Z elements. Here, a mathematical model has been developed for estimating the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) at zero spatial frequency in the tender X-ray energy range for photon-counting detectors by taking into account the influence of electronic noise. The experiments were carried out with a Medipix3RX ASIC bump-bonded to a 300 µm silicon sensor at the Soft X-ray Spectroscopy beamline (D04A-SXS) of the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS, Campinas, Brazil). The results show that Medipix3RX can be used to develop new imaging modalities in the tender X-ray range for energies down to 2 keV. The efficiency and optimal DQE depend on the energy and flux of the photons. The optimal DQE values were found in the 7.9-8.6 keV photon energy range. The DQE deterioration for higher energies due to the lower absorption efficiency of the sensor and for lower energies due to the electronic noise has been quantified. The DQE for 3 keV photons and 1 × 10(4) photons pixel(-1) s(-1) is similar to that obtained with 19 keV photons. Based on our model, the use of Medipix3RX could be extended down to 2 keV which is crucial for coming applications in imaging techniques at modern synchrotron sources.

  12. Korea nuclear exports: Why did the Koreans win the UAE tender? Will Korea achieve its goal of exporting 80 nuclear reactors by 2030?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthelemy, Michel; Leveque, Francois

    2011-04-12

    The success of Korea in winning, in December 2009, a USD 18.6 billion nuclear tender in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) has led to a growing interest in the organization and strengths of the Korean nuclear industry. In this paper, we present the main economic and political factors that explain the success of the Korean consortium. In particular, thanks to an active national program of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) construction, Korea has developed distinct competitive advantages in terms of low cost, high credibility and high performance. At the same time, due to the important barriers to enter into the nuclear export market in the UAE, Korea has had to sacrifice its profit margin and has benefited from a strong political support from its government through export financing. More importantly, Korea's success is also due to its alliance with Westinghouse and the support of the US diplomacy. Subsequently, we show that while Korea has recently experienced setbacks in nuclear tenders, it will most certainly try to win in the short run a second nuclear tender with another aggressive price. In the longer run, Korea could take a growing share of the international market for NPPs. However, the extent to which Korea can achieve its long term export target will depend upon its capacity to finance nuclear export through export credits and upon the development of its alliance with Westinghouse. It is important to note that this paper was written before the Fukushima nuclear disaster. The scale of the human and environmental consequences of this accident are still unknown, and will undoubtedly have short and long term consequences on nuclear safety requirements and public attitude toward nuclear energy, which will most certainly impact the outlooks for nuclear new-builds. (authors)

  13. 谈水利工程施工投标报价的技巧%Techniques of Tender Offering in Water Conservancy Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝瑞丽; 张学伟; 郝瑞娜

    2011-01-01

    为了解工程概况,研究项目施工技术和工程量清单,做好投标总价的讨论和研究,提高中标率,必须制定一系列的投标方法和战略.施工企业要做好投标准备工作和拓宽信息渠道,并组织专业人员成立投标小组,要重视资料的收集和提高投标人员综合素质,同时要注意投标事项及投标策略的应用.投标报价是水利建筑投标工作中的基本步骤和关键性工作,是一种与市场经济相适应的工程计价方式,也是施工企业实现利润目标基础.%Quantities of project are overviewed in this paper,and some suggestions are also given.Construction enterprises need to develop a series of bidding methods and strategies in order to adapt to the highly competitive construction market,trying to do the preparatory work well,to broaden the information channels,to pay attention to data collection and to improve the overall quality of the tender,keeping tender bidding strategies in mind.The tender offering is the key and fundamental step in water conservancy engineering bidding,which is a proper method to price project and achieve profit in market economy.

  14. 木瓜蛋白酶对骆驼肉嫩化效果的研究%Effects of Papain on Tenderness of Two-Humped Camel Meat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马欣欣; 双全; 李秀丽; 乌尼孟和; 陈泽明

    2012-01-01

    通过试验研究木瓜蛋白酶处理对骆驼肉嫩度及感官品质的影响。对木瓜蛋白酶用量、处理温度、处理时间进行试验,并且通过L9(33)正交试验,筛选出木瓜蛋白酶嫩化骆驼肉的最佳条件。结果表明:木瓜蛋白酶对骆驼肉的失水率、持水力及嫩度均有显著影响,且对骆驼肉感官品质没有影响。木瓜蛋白酶嫩化骆驼肉的最佳条件:酶用量为0.02%、处理温度4℃、恒温放置时间60min。因素的显著性次序为:木瓜蛋白酶用量〉处理温度〉处理时间。%The influences of papain solution on the tenderness of two-humped camel meat and its sensory qualities were determined in this study. With papain dosage, treatment temperature and time were variables, L9(33) orthogonal experiment was used to sift the optimal conditions of the tenderization. The results showed that papain could significantly affect water loss rate, water holding capacity and the tenderness of the camel meat, without the change of sensory qualities. The optimum conditions are papain dosage 0.02%, temperatuxe 4 ℃, treatment time 60 min. The sequence of the significance of these factors is as follows: papain dosage〉treatment temperature〉treatment time.

  15. 宰后牦牛肉成熟过程中钙激活酶与嫩度指标的相关性分析%Correlation Analysis between Calpains and Tenderness Indexes during Postmortem Aging of Yak Meat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师希雄; 余群力; 党欣

    2013-01-01

    Longissimus dorsi muscles of ten yaks from the south part of Gansu province were tested for myofibril fragmentation index (MFI),shear force,muscle fiber diameter and the activities of calpains (μ-calpain,m-calpain and calpastatin) during 8 d of postmortem aging.Furthermore,the calpain activities were analyzed for correlation with MFI,shear force and muscle fiber diameter.The results showed that each calpain activity was positively correlated with shear force and muscle fiber diameter,but negatively correlated with MFI; a significant correlation with MFI was observed for μ-calpain and calpastatin (P<0.05).Therefore,the changes in calpain activity may cause in the increase in MFI,weaken myofibrils and tenderize meat andμ-calpain seems to mainly contribute to tenderizing yak meat.%以10头甘南牦牛为研究对象,对宰后8d成熟期间肌原纤维小片化指数、剪切力、肌纤维直径、μ-钙蛋白酶(μ-calpain)、m-钙蛋白酶(m-calpain)、钙蛋白酶抑素(calpastatin)的活力进行了测定,同时研究了3种酶活力与肌原纤维小片化指数、剪切力、肌纤维直径3个嫩度指标之间的相关性.结果表明:μ-calpain、m-calpain、calpastatin 3种酶与剪切力值及肌纤维直径均呈正相关;3种酶与肌原纤维小片化指数呈负相关,其中μ-calpain与calpastatin呈显著负相关(P<0.05).因此,钙激活酶活力的变化可能导致了肌原纤维小片化指数的增加,肌原纤维的弱化和肉的嫩化,μ-calpain可能是牦牛肉嫩化的主要贡献者.

  16. On the Efficient Competitive Tender of Coal Mine Engineering Cost%煤矿工程造价竞标的高效研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康铁钢

    2015-01-01

    本文在分析和研究煤矿工程造价的基础上,介绍了其含义与职能,并进一步探讨了煤矿工程造价竞标的意义和作用。%This paper analyzes and researches coal mine engineering cost, introduces the meaning and functions of it and further expounds the significance and effect of the competitive tender of coal mine engineering cost.

  17. The Tender Offer of Enterprise in Engineering Quantity List Mode%试析工程量清单模式下企业的投标报价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐怀送

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the construction units bidding in the mode of quantities bil , points out the characteristics of the project quantity list valuation, expounds the application of the tender offer in of quantities pricing list mode, for reference.%  文章主要分析了工程量清单模式下施工单位投标报价,先点出工程量清单计价的特点,阐述工程量清单计价模式在投标报价中的应用,以供参考。

  18. Proposal for the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the supply and upgrade of positioning sensors for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the supply of 60 new Hydrostatic Leveling Systems (HLS sensors) and 25 new Wire Positioning Systems (WPS sensors) and for the upgrade of 63 existing sensors. For the reasons explained in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with FOGALE NANOTECH (FR), for the supply and upgrade of HLS and WPS sensors for a total amount of 412 913 euros (631 757 Swiss francs), not subject to revision. The amount in Swiss francs has been calculated using the present rate of exchange.

  19. Study on Chinese Date and Tender Corn Beverage Fermented by Lactic Acid Bacteria%大枣嫩玉米乳饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲

    2013-01-01

      大枣嫩玉米乳饮料是以大枣汁、嫩玉米汁和新鲜牛乳为主要原料,以蔗糖为甜味剂,接入乳酸菌进行发酵,生产出有大枣和玉米香味并具有营养和保健功能发酵型乳饮料。通过 L9(34)正交试验确定了大枣汁、玉米汁与鲜牛奶的添加量以及接种量对产品质量的影响。试验表明,大枣嫩玉米乳饮料的最佳配方为:玉米汁添加量为35%,大枣汁添加量为15%,鲜牛奶添加量为40%,酸奶添加量为10%。试验确定的复合稳定剂为0.2%蔗糖酯和0.1%黄原胶。%  To produce Chinese date and tender corn beverage fermented by lactic acid bacteria,Chinese date,tender corn and milk were used as main materials. Sucrose was used as sweeter and lactic acid bacteria were added for fermentation. Novel fermented milk beverage with combined flavor of Chinese date and tender corn was produced. The adding amount of Chinese date juice,tender corn juice and fresh milk as well as the influence of inoculation amount on product quality was determined through orthogonal experiments of L9(34). The best recipe of this product resulted from experiments was 35% corn juice,15% Chinese date juice,40%fresh milk and 10% yogurt. The combined stabilizer confirmed by experiments was 0.2% sucrose ester and 0.1% Xanthan.

  20. Proposal for the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for a design study for a 30 GHz, high peak power gyro-klystron

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for a design study for a 30 GHz, high peak power gyro-klystron. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract, without competitive tendering, with COMMUNICATIONS & POWER INDUSTRIES (USA), for a design study for a 30 GHz, high peak power gyro-klystron for a total amount of 198 505 USD (328 278 Swiss francs), not subject to revision. COMMUNICATIONS & POWER INDUSTRIES is the only firm which has experience with such devices. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: USA - 100%.

  1. Management Status and Exploration of Tender Evaluation of Power Generation Enterprise%发电企业招标评标管理现状和探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒙江逸

    2013-01-01

    The bidding is a procurement method which can full play the role of market mechanisms, make the participants obtain fair competition, improve the social and economic benefits and maximize the protection of the public interests of the state and society. In order to introduce competition, reduce costs and control quality, the technological transformation, overhaul and maintenance project and procurement of electric power company is completed through tender. To improve the institutionalized, scientific, standardized development of management of enterprises tender evaluation, the author introduces the materials, engineering, service tender evaluation work status of power generation corporate from the practical work experience, analyzes the problems and difficulties encountered in practice, learns advanced bidding management experience, and puts forward the improvement suggestions combined with the his own experience, to improve the quality of tender evaluation management of power generation companies. This paper has a certain reference role.%  招投标是一种充分发挥市场机制作用的采购方式,能使参与方获得公平竞争,提高社会经济效益,最大限度保护国家和社会公共利益。为了引入竞争,降低成本,控制质量,目前电力企业技术改造、检修和维护项目采购主要通过招标方式完成。为提高企业招标评标管理工作的制度化、科学化、规范化,笔者从实际工作经验出发,介绍了发电企业物资、工程、服务类招标评标工作现状,剖析实际操作中遇到的问题和难点,吸取先进招标管理经验结合作者自身的体会,提出改进招标管理和评标方法的建议,为提高发电企业招标评标管理工作质量,具有一定借鉴意义。

  2. Proposal for the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the supply of radiation hard luminosity detectors for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the supply of four radiation-hard luminosity detectors for the LHC. For the reasons explained in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with CEA-LETI (FR) for the supply of four radiation-hard luminosity detectors for a total amount of 247 770 euros (385 456 Swiss francs), not subject to revision. The amount in Swiss francs has been calculated using the present rate of exchange.

  3. Test-retest repeatability of strength capacity, aerobic power and pericranial tenderness of neck and shoulder muscles in children - relevant for tension-type headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tornøe B

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Birte Tornøe,1,2,5,6 Lars L Andersen,3 Jørgen H Skotte,3 Rigmor Jensen,4 Gunvor Gard,1 Liselotte Skov,2 Inger Hallström1 1Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Scania, Sweden; 2Children's Headache Clinic, Department of Pediatrics, University of Copenhagen, Herlev Hospital, Herlev, Denmark; 3National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark; 4Danish Headache Center, Department of Neurology, University of Copenhagen, Glostrup Hospital, Glostrup, Denmark; 5Department of Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy, University of Copenhagen, Glostrup Hospital, Glostrup, Denmark; 6Department of Physiotherapy, Medical Department, University of Copenhagen, Herlev Hospital, Herlev, Denmark Background: Frequent or chronic tension-type headache in children is a prevalent and debilitating condition for the child, often leading to medication overuse. To explore the relationship between physical factors and tension-type headache in children, the quality of repeated measures was examined. The aim of the present study was to determine the test-retest repeatability of parameters determining isometric neck and shoulder strength and stability, aerobic power, and pericranial tenderness in children. Methods: Twenty-five healthy children, 9 to 18 years of age, participated in test-retest procedures within a 1-week interval. A computerized padded force transducer was used for testing. The tests included the isometric maximal voluntary contraction and force steadiness of neck flexion and extension, and the isometric maximal voluntary contraction and rate of force of the dominant shoulder. Pericranial tenderness was recorded by means of standardized manual palpation, and a submaximal cycle ergometer test predicted maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max. The measurements were evaluated in steps, using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC; changes in the mean between the two test occasions; the levels of agreement, visualized in Bland

  4. Using "Tender" X-ray Ambient Pressure X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy as A Direct Probe of Solid-Liquid Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axnanda, Stephanus; Crumlin, Ethan J; Mao, Baohua; Rani, Sana; Chang, Rui; Karlsson, Patrik G; Edwards, Mårten O M; Lundqvist, Måns; Moberg, Robert; Ross, Phil; Hussain, Zahid; Liu, Zhi

    2015-05-07

    We report a new method to probe the solid-liquid interface through the use of a thin liquid layer on a solid surface. An ambient pressure XPS (AP-XPS) endstation that is capable of detecting high kinetic energy photoelectrons (7 keV) at a pressure up to 110 Torr has been constructed and commissioned. Additionally, we have deployed a "dip &pull" method to create a stable nanometers-thick aqueous electrolyte on platinum working electrode surface. Combining the newly constructed AP-XPS system, "dip &pull" approach, with a "tender" X-ray synchrotron source (2 keV-7 keV), we are able to access the interface between liquid and solid dense phases with photoelectrons and directly probe important phenomena occurring at the narrow solid-liquid interface region in an electrochemical system. Using this approach, we have performed electrochemical oxidation of the Pt electrode at an oxygen evolution reaction (OER) potential. Under this potential, we observe the formation of both Pt(2+) and Pt(4+) interfacial species on the Pt working electrode in situ. We believe this thin-film approach and the use of "tender" AP-XPS highlighted in this study is an innovative new approach to probe this key solid-liquid interface region of electrochemistry.

  5. Tenderization potential of Hanwoo beef muscles from carcasses with differed genders and loin intramuscular fat content levels during post mortem ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Beom Young; Seong, Pil Nam; Ba, Hoa Van; Park, Kyoung Mi; Cho, Soo Hyun; Moon, Sung Sil; Kang, Geun Ho

    2015-06-01

    Carcasses from Hanwoo steers (n = 15) and cows (n = 15) were classified into three groups: group 1 (G1), the carcasses had 10% to muscles; group 2 (G2), the carcasses had 13% to muscles; and group 3(G3), the carcasses had 17% to muscles. These were used to evaluate the effects of gender and carcass group on quality traits and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) of Psoas major (PM), Longissimus thoracis (LT), Longissimus lumborum (LL), Longus colli (LC), Supraspinatus (SS), Latissimus dorsi (LAD), Semimembranosus (SM), Quadriceps femoris (QF), Biceps femoris (BF) and Semitendinosus (ST) muscles. Our results showed that pH values of LT, LL, LC, BF and QF muscles were lower in steers than in cows (P muscles of steers (P muscles in G1, and QF muscle in G3; however, with additional ageing, the gender effect was observed for most of the muscles. Most muscles showed ageing responses; however, the rates of ageing response significantly varied depending on gender and carcass groups. The muscles of G1 and G2 had generally higher tenderization potentials than those of G3. Furthermore, most muscles in G3 had generally lower WBSF values than in G1 and G2. These results clearly indicate that ageing has a significant effect on quality and WBSF of beef muscles, and the classification by loin IMF level may be useful for prediction of the tenderness of other muscles.

  6. Consideration on the tender offer of overseas cement general contract project%海外水泥总承包工程投标报价的思考浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘轶

    2015-01-01

    In tender offer of overseas projects, how to obtain competitive advantage under the premise of conrolling and avoiding risk is the key to profit. Combined with practical experiences, from the aspects of biding doucuments reading, field reconnaissance and prepa?ration of tender documents, matters needing attention of tender offer in overseas cement general contract project are introduced in detail.%在海外工程投标报价中,如何在取得竞争优势的同时,又能控制和规避风险,这是项目获利的关键之一.结合具体实践经验,从招标文件的研读和现场踏勘及投标文件的准备方面详细介绍了海外水泥总包工程投标报价的注意事项.

  7. Discussion on Strengthening the Compiling Work of Construction Tender Control Price%关于加强工程招标控制价的编制工作探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡婷婷

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the main function of compiling work of construction tender control price, analyzes the advantages of the compiling work of construction tender control price and the relevant issues in the process of the preparation, and discusses how to improve the quality of the preparation of tender control price.%介绍了工程招标控制价编制的主要作用,分析了招标控制价的编制优点及其编制过程中需要注意的相关问题,并探讨了如何提高招标控制价编制的质量.

  8. Changes in protein abundance between tender and tough meat from bovine Longissimus thoracis muscle assessed by isobaric Tag for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnadóttir, S G; Hollung, K; Høy, M

    2012-01-01

    -DE analysis (P flux through the tricarboxylate cycle [2......The aim of this study was to find potential biomarkers for meat tenderness in bovine Longissimus thoracis muscle and to compare results from isobaric Tag for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis. The experiment included 4 tender and 4......-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex component E2 (OGDC-E2)], apoptosis (galectin-1) and regulatory role in the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores (annexin A6). Even though the overlap in significantly changing proteins was relatively low between iTRAQ and 2-DE analysis, certain proteins predicted to have...

  9. IPL光子嫩肤术在皮肤美容中的应用%Application of IPL Photon Tender Skin in Skin Beauty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邝靖; 郭丹凤; 张冠军; 娄焕民; 张谊; 邱晓东; 宫昔愿; 孙学武

    2013-01-01

    目的:分析IPL光子嫩肤术在皮肤美容中的应用效果。方法:选取我院于2012年1月~2013年3月收治皮肤老化、面部色斑、面部色素沉着及毛孔粗大等皮肤疾病患者55例,均给予IPL光子嫩肤术进行治疗。结果:毛孔粗大10例总有效率为100%;皮肤老化12例总有效率为100%;面部色斑20例总有效率为95%;13例面部色素沉着总有效率为92.3%。结论:IPL光子嫩肤术可有效改善皮肤老化,消除面部色斑、紧缩毛孔,安全有效,不会损害正常皮肤,值得临床推广。%Objective To analyze the effect of effect of IPL photon tender skin in skin beauty. Methods 55 patients with skin diseases such as skin aging,facial spots,facial pigmentation and bulky pore in the hospital from January 2012 to March 2013,were given the IPL photon tender skin suture treatment. Results Total effective rate of 10 patients with bulky pore was 100%;the total effective rate of 12 cases with skin aging was 100%;the total effective rate of 20 cases with facial spots was 95%;The total effective rate of 13 cases with facial pigmentation was 92.3%. Conclusion IPL photon tender skin surgery can effectively improve aging skin,eliminate facial pigmentation,and contract bulky pore. It is safe and effective,and does no harm on normal skin. So it is worth promotion.

  10. Development of a commercial feasible application of a hydrostatic meat tenderizer and demonstration of its efficacy. Final report, June 24, 1980-March 1, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgasim, E.A.

    1983-05-01

    Prerigor pressurization procedure involves hot-bonding, vacuum packaging the boneless cuts and subjecting them to 15,000 psi of water pressure in a closed chamber for two minutes. The pressure treatment causes a massive linear contraction of the muscle fibers which disrupts the fine connective tissue and consequently weakens the muscle, which is synonymous with tenderizing. Treated muscles, when compared to untreated muscles from the same carcass have been found to have longer storage life, brighter color, longer case-life and to be equal if not superior in nutritional value. The study demonstrated beyond doubt the beneficial effect of prerigor pressurization. Meat processed in this manner will occupy less space in the cooler and during transportation, and needs no aging, thus it is likely to result in less energy consumption.

  11. Self-reported somatosensory symptoms of neuropathic pain in fibromyalgia and chronic widespread pain correlate with tender point count and pressure-pain thresholds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amris, Kirstine; Jespersen, Anders; Bliddal, Henning

    2010-01-01

    of patients with chronic widespread pain (CWP). The aims of the study were to assess the patient-reported sensory neuropathic symptoms by PDQ and to correlate these with tender point (TP) count and pressure-pain thresholds. Eighty-one patients (75 F, 6 M) with CWP (ACR-criteria) filled in the PDQ. Manual TP......-37). Mean PDT was 8.8 kPa (range: 2-36) and mean PTT 30.9 kPa (range: 4-85). Deep-tissue hyperalgesia was the predominant somatosensory symptom reported in 83%, but other neuropathic symptoms were also frequent, e.g. burning 51% and prickling 47%. Statistically significant correlations were found between...

  12. 2-Furaldehyde diethyl acetal from tender coconut water (Cocos nucifera) attenuates biofilm formation and quorum sensing-mediated virulence of Chromobacterium violaceum and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethupathy, Sivasamy; Nithya, Chari; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-biofilm and quorum sensing inhibitory (QSI) potential of tender coconut water (TCW) against Chromobacterium violaceum and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. TCW significantly inhibited the QS regulated violacein, virulence factors and biofilm production without affecting their growth. qRT-PCR analysis revealed the down-regulation of autoinducer synthase, transcriptional regulator and virulence genes. Mass-spectrometric analysis of a petroleum ether extract of the TCW hydrolyte revealed that 2-furaldehyde diethyl acetal (2FDA) and palmitic acid (PA) are the major compounds. In vitro bioassays confirmed the ability of 2FDA to inhibit the biofilm formation and virulence factors. In addition, the combination of PA with 2FDA resulted in potent inhibition of biofilm formation and virulence factors. The results obtained strongly suggest that TCW can be exploited as a base for designing a novel antipathogenic drug formulation to treat biofilm mediated infections caused by P. aeruginosa.

  13. Proposal for the Award, without Competitive Tendering, of a Blanket Contract for the Supply of WorldFIP Fieldbus Electronic Components and Associated Software

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a blanket contract for the supply of WorldFIP Fieldbus electronic components and associated software. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation, without competitive tendering, of a contract with ALSTOM (FR) for the supply of WorldFIP Fieldbus electronic components and associated software for a total amount not exceeding 900 000 euros (1 360 000 Swiss francs) for a period of three years, not subject to revision. The amount in Swiss francs has been calculated using the present rate of exchange. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: NL - 20%; FR - 65%; KR - 15%.

  14. Self-reported somatosensory symptoms of neuropathic pain in fibromyalgia and chronic widespread pain correlate with tender point count and pressure-pain thresholds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amris, Kirstine; Jespersen, Anders; Bliddal, Henning

    2010-01-01

    Widespread pain and pain hypersensitivity are the hallmark of fibromyalgia, a complex pain condition linked to central sensitization. In this study the painDETECT questionnaire (PDQ), validated to identify neuropathic pain and based on pain quality items, was applied in a cross-sectional sample...... of patients with chronic widespread pain (CWP). The aims of the study were to assess the patient-reported sensory neuropathic symptoms by PDQ and to correlate these with tender point (TP) count and pressure-pain thresholds. Eighty-one patients (75 F, 6 M) with CWP (ACR-criteria) filled in the PDQ. Manual TP...... examination was conducted according to ACR guidelines. Computerized cuff pressure algometry was used for the assessment of pressure-pain detection thresholds (PDT, unit: kPa) and pressure-pain tolerance thresholds (PTT, unit: kPa). Mean TP count was 14.32 (range: 2-18), mean PDQ score 22.75 (range: 5...

  15. Discussion on the Selection of Tender Mode of Temporary Valuation Project%浅谈暂估价项目招标模式的选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李星

    2016-01-01

    In the current project valuation work, temporary valuation has become a main mode widely applied to the engineering practice, and has played the huge role in the engineering cost control. In this paper, it is to take a research on the selection of tender mode of temporary valuation project.%在现今项目计价工作中,暂估价已经成为了一种主要模式广泛的应用到了工程实践当中,并在工程造价的控制方面发挥了巨大的作用。在本文中,将就暂估价项目招标模式的选择进行一定的研究。

  16. Proposal to negotiate, without competitive tendering, the renewal of two blanket purchase contracts for the supply of programmable logic controllers and fieldbus equipment

    CERN Document Server

    European Organization for Nuclear Research

    2002-01-01

    This document concerns the renewal of two blanket purchase contracts for the supply of programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and fieldbus equipment for the CERN accelerators, technical services and experiments. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of the renewal of two blanket purchase contracts with SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC (FR) and SIEMENS SUISSE (CH), without competitive tendering, for the supply of PLCs and fieldbus equipment for an estimated total amount covering both contracts not exceeding 2 000 000 Swiss francs per year for a period of three years. The firms have indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: - SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC: FR-100%, - SIEMENS SUISSE: DE-100%.

  17. 温柔敦厚:作文主体的理想人格形态%Tender and Sincerity-Ideal Personalities of the Thesis Subject

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    权雅宁

    2013-01-01

    Tender and sincerity are not only requirements for the content and form of the literary text itself,but also ideal personalities of the thesis subj ect.The fundamental reason lies in that thesis subj ect has been determined by the multiple identities of literati and scholar officials.And thus the thesis subj ect is more than a writer who reveals unprofessional political opinions in literature through their passion and affections,whose self-realization is not j ust a free exploration of literary mystique without any reservation.The solutions to multiple conflicts such as those between political practice and literary pursuit are to develop the ideal personalities of the thesis subj ect-tender and sincerity.%“温柔敦厚”既是对文学文本自身内容形式的要求,更是作文主体的理想人格形态。其根本原因在于,文人、士大夫的多重身份决定了作文主体不仅仅是以一个文学家的激情和多情在文学中流露出非专业性的政治意见,他们的所谓“自我实现”也不仅仅是无所挂碍地自由探索文学之奥妙。解决政治践履与文学追求等多重冲突的方式就是教化出作文主体“温柔敦厚”的理想人格形态。

  18. 低盐嫩化牛干巴与传统牛干巴的品质比较%Comparison between quality of low-salt and tenderization dry-cured beef and traditional dry-cured beef

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱燕; 陈韬; 崔薇; 杨慧娟

    2011-01-01

    对采用中心组合设计优化的最佳实验组与传统牛干巴的品质进行比较,结果显示:最佳实验组肌原纤维小片化指数(MFI)、综合感官品分值高于传统组,剪切力、Na+浓度低于传统组(p〈0.05)。筛选的低盐和嫰化技术对降低传统牛干巴的盐含量,提高肉的嫩度是有效的。%Quality of low-salt and tenderization dry-cured beef which optimized by central composite design,was compared with traditional dry-cured beef.The results showed that MFI and general sensory quality of low-salt and tenderization dry-cured beef were higher than those of traditional dry-cured beef,while shear stress and Na ion content in low-salt and tenderization dry-cured beef were lower than those of traditional dry-cured beef,which indicated that new formula and technique was effective in lowing salt content and improving tenderness of traditional dry-cured beef.

  19. 房地产项目最低价中标法的投标报价合理性研究%On Rationality of the Tender Offer in the Lowest Bid Price Method in Real Estate Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨琳琳

    2012-01-01

    最低价中标法是国际上通用的建筑工程招投标方法,投标报价是招标文件中最精密的部分,对建设工程至关重要。目前我国建筑市场主要采用最低价中标法。本文通过研究招标文件中关键指标即工程量清单计价标底,招标控制价、投标单位履约能力,以更好的促进房地产项目投标合理报价。%The lowest bid price method, as internationally practiced architecture engineering bidding method, requires an essential and sophisticated part in the tender documents: the tender offer. This article probes into the rationality of tender offer in the bid documents by analyzing following aspects : BOQ basic bidding price, bidding price control, bidder~ performance capabilities, so that rational tender offers can be delivered in real estate pro- jects.

  20. 基于合作博弈视角的工程项目围标现象分析%An Analysis of Project Collusive Tendering Problem Based on Cooperative Game

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易欣

    2012-01-01

    结合工程项目招投标过程中围标现象的含义及其特点,阐述了其对建筑市场的公平竞争的危害性。首先介绍了合作博弈的理论,然后分析了围标现象的合作博弈关系特点,并以合作博弈论作为分析工具,建立了招投标过程中围标现象能够存在所必须满足的数学模型,结合目前我国工程实际现状对此模型进行了分析和讨论,并针对性地提出了相应的措施和建议,强调尽快完善相关制度以制止围标现象。%By analyzing the connotation and the characteristics of collusive tendering in the process of project collusive tendering,this paper expounds the great harm it brings to the justice competition in the construction market.Firstly,the cooperative game theory is introduced,and then the characteristics of collusive tendering problem are analyzed based on the cooperative game.The mathematics model which collusive tendering has to rely on is set up.This paper,based on the current situation of our Chinese engineering practice,makes a discussion and an analysis of the model,proposes some countermeasures and suggestions accordingly,and makes emphatic proposal that the relative regulations should be improved and perfected to prevent the collusive tendering practice.

  1. 《夜色温柔》中狄克的心理学视角剖析%A Psychological Approach to Dick in Tender Is the Night

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任玲; 翟慧丽

    2015-01-01

    美国作家菲茨杰拉尔德的《夜色温柔》自出版以来,一度被评论界冷落,被认为并不是作者的代表作品。原因在于当时的评论界把这部作品只看作是作者的一个自传。但对《夜色温柔》的文本作深层分析后,不难看出这部小说的创作受到了弗洛伊德和荣格的精神分析学的巨大影响。因此这部小说不应该从作者个人经历或是从社会意义的角度进行剖析,必须从人物的心理入手。依据荣格的“情结理论”和“人格面具理论”,对小说男主人公狄克的心理进行了细致的分析,从而表明《夜色温柔》这部作品具有高度的心理学价值,是对二十年代美国人灵魂深处的刻画,昭示了现代西方人深刻的精神危机。%Since the Tender Is the Night has been published ,it once desolated or neglected by commentary stratum for its unrepresentative features .The reason is that critics consider this works only as an autobiog‐raphy of the author .However ,after deeply analyzing the text in Tender Is the Night ,the theory of psy‐choanalysis of Frend and Jung Carl Gustav was found ,which has a giant effect on it .The psychology of the characters rather than narrate person experience or his social significance was analyzed ,This article has a detailed analysis on the hero‐Dick's psychology based on the Jung Carl Gustav's theory of "complex"and "personality theory"in order to indicate that the works is psychologically valuable .At the same time ,the author wants to prove that the works symbolize the modern westerners'spiritual crisis by describing the twenties Americans .

  2. Proposal to negotiate, without competitive tendering, a contract for the manufacture, testing and delivery of 320 cryogenic helium mass flowmeters for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    This document concerns the manufacture, testing and delivery of 320 cryogenic helium mass flowmeters for the LHC. Following a market survey (MS-2602/LHC/LHC) carried out amoung 37 firms in twelve Member States and six firms in two non-Member States, a price enquiry for qualifying prototypes was sent on 20 November 1998 to nine selected firms and the received prototypes were evaluated. As a result of this process a request for quotation was sent to one firm The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the firm EMERSON PROCESS MANAGEMENT/FISHER-ROSEMOUNT (CH), without competitive tendering, for the manufacture, testing and delivery of 320 cryogenic helium mass flowmeters for an amount of 1 804 840 Swiss francs, not subject to revision, with options for up to 10 additional cryogenic helium mass flowmeters and an extension of the guarantee period to five years for all units for an amount of 219 090 Swiss francs, not subject to revision, bringing the total amount to 2 023 930 Swi...

  3. Perbedaan Efek Terapi Penggunaan Dua Ukuran Jarum Dry Needling dengan Penurunan Nyeri dan Tenderness pada Sindrom Nyeri Miofasial Otot Upper Trapezius Tipe Aktif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Taofik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Myofascial pain syndrome is a collection of sensoric, motoric, and autonomic symptoms due to myofascial trigger points. This is commonly seen in young age and involves postural muscles; one of those is upper trapezius muscle. Invasive and non-invasive therapies have been used as modalities to treat myofascial pain syndrom. Invasive therapy is superior due to its mechanical mechanism in deactivating trigger points. Different sizes of needles are used in invasive therapy to decrease symptoms. A clinical trial has been conducted in the outpatient clinic of Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung in the period of April–May 2014 with consecutive sampling method. Subjects in group I were given dry needling therapy with 25G injection needle (0.50x25 mm and subjects in group II received the therapy using 1 cun accupuncture needle (0.25x25 mm. Seventy four subjects participated in this study. The comparison of numeric rating scale between the 25G injection needle therapy group and the 1 cun accupuncture needle therapy group was not significantly different (p=0.230. The comparison of algometer value between the 25G injection needle therapy group and the 1 cun accupuncture needle therapy group was also not significantly different (p=0.134. In conclusion, there is no difference in pain and tenderness decrease in dry needling therapy using 25G injection needle and 1 cun accupuncture needle for active type of myofascial pain syndrome of upper trapezius muscle therapies.

  4. Discussion on base bid price controlling strategies in engineering tendering%谈工程招标中的标底控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学兵

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of introducing the definition and functions of base bid price, the paper comprehensively explores base bid price control- ling strategies from aspects of determining engineering project, compiling basic principles of base bid price, common compiling base bid price methods, improving rationality of base bid price, and common methods and points of determining base bid price and so on, with a view to guar- antee smooth operation of bidding and tendering work.%在介绍了标底的定义和分析了标底作用的基础上,从工程项目确定和编制标底的基本原则、编制工程项目标底的常用方法、提高工程项目标底合理性、确定工程项目标底的常用方法和要点等几个方面,全面探讨了工程招标中的标底控制策略,以期保障招投标工作的顺利进行。

  5. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced, as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  6. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  7. Analysis on Preventing Collusion in Project Bidding and Tendering Based on Prisoner's Dilemma Game%基于“囚徒困境”博弈的防范工程招投标合谋研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王先甲; 肖露

    2013-01-01

    提出一种防范工程招投标中招标代理与投标人合谋的新策略,即同时派出两个招标代理审查投标人,使两个招标代理陷入“囚徒困境”博弈中以保证其报告真实.进而针对该策略成本太高的缺点,通过使两者处于不对称信息环境下,进一步改进了该“囚徒困境”博弈.据此,只要招标人设定适当的奖励和惩罚机制,就能在一定程度上阻止招标代理与投标人合谋.%This paper proposes a new strategy to prevent the collusion between the bidding agent and the tenderer in project bidding and tendering,namely sends two bidding agents to review the tenderer at the same time,and lets them fall into prisoner's dilemma game in order to make sure that they report truly.Furthermore,according to the disadvantage of high cost of this strategy,it improves this prisoner's dilemma game through making them be in asymmetric information environment.In this case,as long as the bidder sets proper reward and punishment mechanism,the problem of the collusion between the bidding agent and the tenderer to a certain extent could be solved.

  8. 延迟冷却对牛背最长肌中μ-calpain活性及嫩度的影响%Effect of Delay Chilling on μ-calpain Activities and the Tenderness of Bovine M.Iongissimus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡鹏; 丁玉; 梁荣蓉; 罗欣

    2010-01-01

    μ-calpain activities and shear force values of bovine M.Iongissimus from Chinese Yellow crossbred bulls were analyzed,and the effect of delay chilling on μ-calpain activities and the tenderness of beef during postmortem aging were studied.The results showed that delay chilling significantly improved μ-calpain activities (P<0.05) and enhanced the tenderness of bovine M.Iongissimus during earlier aging periods compared with conventional chilling.But in later aging periods,delay chilling weakened the effect on the tenderness of beef because of premature consumption of μ-calpain.The experiment results confirmed that delay chilling improved the rate of postmortem aging of beef and remarkably enhanced the tenderness of beef through the effect of delay chilling on μ-calpain activities.%[目的]研究延迟冷却对牛背最长肌中μ-calpain活性及嫩度的影响,为进一步改善牛肉食用品质提供依据.[方法]测定中国杂交黄牛(鲁西黄牛x西门塔尔)牛背最长肌中μ-calpain活性及剪切力值,分析延迟冷却对牛背最长肌宰后成熟过程中μ-calpain活性及牛肉嫩度的影响.[结果]在宰后成熟早期,延迟冷却显著提高了μ-calpain的活性,提高了牛背最长肌的嫩度;成熟后期,由于μ-calpain被过早消耗,对牛肉的嫩化作用减弱.[结论]延迟冷却通过对μ-calpain活性的影响,改变了肉的成熟速度,显著改善了牛肉的嫩度.

  9. Increasing turbine vendor competition in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magee, J.T. [Emerging Energy Research, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    An overview of the wind turbine market in Canada was presented. Canada is now experiencing increased turbine vendor competition. Trends in wind turbine OEM market shares in Canada have increased from 10 per cent in 2000 to over 70 per cent in 2007. Several major companies in Canada have signed large-scale orders for delivery in 2010. It is expected that future wind turbine demands in all areas of Canada will increase. However, projections for Canadian wind growth demonstrate the difficulties provinces are now facing in trying to attract manufacturing investment away from the United States. Growth in wind turbine investment is in the process of creating a more robust North American wind turbine generator chain. However, the majority of new facilities are located in the United States. It is not known if Quebec's wind turbine generators will be viable outside of fulfilling Hydro-Quebec's tendering process. Canada's wind industry must consider equipment transport costs as well as a shortage of operating and maintenance service infrastructure. It was concluded that growth in the United States is expected to have a positive impact on Canadian wind energy customers. tabs., figs.

  10. On tendering and bidding system development under quantity pricing model%工程量清单计价模式下招投标制度发展的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇

    2009-01-01

    介绍了工程量清单计价的含义和工程量清单的分类,阐述了工程量清单计价模式下招投标活动遵循的原则及其对招投标机制的促进作用,并对工程量清单招标的相关问题进行了探讨并提出建议,以期完善工程量清单计价模式下招投标制度.%The paper introduces definition of quantity pricing and classification of quantity list, it states rules that must be follow under quantity pricing modal and it' s pushing effects to completion of tendering and bidding system, it also discusses about problems of tendering and bidding system development under quantity pricing model and proposes relative suggestion, so as to consummate tendering and bidding system under quantity pricing model.

  11. 木瓜蛋白酶嫩化秘鲁鱿鱼肉工艺条件的研究%Study on optimization for tenderization conditions of Dosidicus gigas meat by papain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑贤孟; 杨文鸽; 徐大伦

    2013-01-01

    Using the shearing force and concentration of soluble protein(CSP) as indexes,the tenderization of Dosidicus gigas meat by papain was studied,and the suitable tenderization conditions of Dosidicus gigas meat were optimizated through single factor and orthogonal experiment.The results indicated that the suitable technological conditions for tenderization of Dosidicus gigas meat were as follows:papain concentration 1%,soaking time 40min,temperature 50℃ and pH7.0.Under these conditions,the shearing force of Dosidicus gigas meat was up to 2060.141g.%以鱿鱼肉的剪切力和可溶性蛋白含量(CSP)为指标,通过单因素和正交实验优化木瓜蛋白酶嫩化秘鲁鱿鱼肉的工艺条件.结果显示秘鲁鱿鱼肉适宜的嫩化条件为:木瓜蛋白酶浓度1%、处理时间40min、温度50℃、pH7.0,在此条件下鱿鱼肉得到嫩化,其剪切力为2060.141g.

  12. Application Effect of Tender Branch Cutting Technology of Juglans Linn in Bijie City%核桃属树木嫩枝扦插技术在毕节市的应用效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗永猛; 李永荷; 杨先义; 余刚国

    2015-01-01

    Through introducing the tender branch cutting technology of Juglans Linn which developed by Forestry Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Forestry Sciences,by dopting the moisturize and calescence measures of intelligent greenhouse,the tender branches cutting of good Juglans Linn tender branches individual selected in recent years were propagated.The survival rate was promoted from 11.3% to 84.0%,so the technology showed significance in keeping good characters of Juglans Linn and forming good clonal varieties in Bijie City.%通过引进中国林业科学研究:林业研究所研究成功的“核桃属树木嫩枝扦插繁殖方法”,使用智能温棚等增温保湿措施,对毕节市近年鉴选出的核桃优良单株进行嫩枝扦插扩繁,使扦插成活率由11.3%提高至84.0%,对保持毕节市优良核桃品种的优良性状、形成一批优良无性系品种具有重要意义。

  13. Effect of housing environment on laying hen meat quality: Assessing Pectoralis major pH, colour and tenderness in three strains of 80-81 week-old layers housed in conventional and furnished cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frizzell, K M; Lynch, E; Rathgeber, B M; Dixon, W T; Putman, C T; Jendral, M J

    2017-02-01

    1. Meat quality is affected by factors such as stress, genetic strain and activity and is determined in part by measures of pH, colour and tenderness. In conventional laying hen cages (CC), lack of physical space and inability to perform highly motivated behaviours leads to stress and inactivity. Furnished cages (FCs) permit expression of highly motivated behaviours, but typically house larger group sizes than CC, thereby contributing to social stress. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of CC and FC laying hen housing environments and strain differences on meat quality of 80-81-week-old birds. 2. Pectoralis major meat quality was assessed for two flocks of Shaver White (SH), Lohmann Lite (LL) and Lohmann Brown (LB) hens housed in either 5-hen CC or 40-hen FC. Between 80 and 81 weeks, muscle samples were collected from randomly selected hens and analysed for muscle pH, colour and shear force (SF) using established methods. 3. In both flocks, the combined treatment body weights (BWs) were higher for CC than FC hens and the combined strain BWs were higher for LB than LL and SH hens. Flock 1 LB had lower initial and ultimate pH than SH and LL, and greater pH decline than SH. Muscle redness (a*) was higher for CC SH than FC SH in both flocks. Muscle a* was higher for LL than SH and LB in Flock 1, and higher than SH in Flock 2. Housing differences in muscle SF were absent. In CC, SF was higher for SH than LL and LB in Flock 1, and higher than LB in Flock 2. 4. Lack of housing differences suggests that environmental stressors present in both housing systems similarly affected meat quality. Strain differences for muscle pH, a* and SF indicate increased stress experienced by SH and LL hens. The absence of Flock 2 strain differences is consistent with the cannibalism outbreak that occurred in this flock and most severely impacted LB hens.

  14. Randomized multicenter clinical trial of myofascial physical therapy in women with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome and pelvic floor tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, M P; Payne, C K; Lukacz, E S; Yang, C C; Peters, K M; Chai, T C; Nickel, J C; Hanno, P M; Kreder, K J; Burks, D A; Mayer, R; Kotarinos, R; Fortman, C; Allen, T M; Fraser, L; Mason-Cover, M; Furey, C; Odabachian, L; Sanfield, A; Chu, J; Huestis, K; Tata, G E; Dugan, N; Sheth, H; Bewyer, K; Anaeme, A; Newton, K; Featherstone, W; Halle-Podell, R; Cen, L; Landis, J R; Propert, K J; Foster, H E; Kusek, J W; Nyberg, L M

    2012-06-01

    We determined the efficacy and safety of pelvic floor myofascial physical therapy compared to global therapeutic massage in women with newly symptomatic interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome. A randomized controlled trial of 10 scheduled treatments of myofascial physical therapy vs global therapeutic massage was performed at 11 clinical centers in North America. We recruited women with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome with demonstrable pelvic floor tenderness on physical examination and a limitation of no more than 3 years' symptom duration. The primary outcome was the proportion of responders defined as moderately improved or markedly improved in overall symptoms compared to baseline on a 7-point global response assessment scale. Secondary outcomes included ratings for pain, urgency and frequency, the O'Leary-Sant IC Symptom and Problem Index, and reports of adverse events. We compared response rates between treatment arms using the exact conditional version of the Mantel-Haenszel test to control for clustering by clinical center. For secondary efficacy outcomes cross-sectional descriptive statistics and changes from baseline were calculated. A total of 81 women randomized to the 2 treatment groups had similar symptoms at baseline. The global response assessment response rate was 26% in the global therapeutic massage group and 59% in the myofascial physical therapy group (p=0.0012). Pain, urgency and frequency ratings, and O'Leary-Sant IC Symptom and Problem Index decreased in both groups during followup, and were not significantly different between the groups. Pain was the most common adverse event, occurring at similar rates in both groups. No serious adverse events were reported. A significantly higher proportion of women with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome responded to treatment with myofascial physical therapy than to global therapeutic massage. Myofascial physical therapy may be a beneficial therapy in women with this

  15. Randomized Multicenter Clinical Trial of Myofascial Physical Therapy in Women with Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome (IC/PBS) and Pelvic Floor Tenderness

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, MP; Payne, CK; Lukacz, ES; Yang, CC; Peters, KM; Chai, TC; Nickel, JC; Hanno, PM; Kreder, KJ; Burks, DA; Mayer, R; Kotarinos, R; Fortman, C; Allen, TM; Fraser, L; Mason-Cover, M; Furey, C; Odabachian, L; Sanfield, A; Chu, J; Huestis, K; Tata, GE; Dugan, N; Sheth, H; Bewyer, K; Anaeme, A; Newton, K; Featherstone, W; Halle-Podell, R; Cen, L; Landis, JR; Propert, KJ; Foster, HE; Kusek, JW; Nyberg, *LM

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the efficacy and safety of pelvic floor Myofascial Physical Therapy (MPT) in women with newly-symptomatic IC/PBS, as compared to Global Therapeutic Massage (GTM). Materials and Methods A randomized controlled trial of 10 scheduled treatments of MPT vs. GTM was performed at 11 clinical centers located in North America. We recruited women with IC/PBS with demonstrable pelvic floor tenderness on physical examination and a limitation of no more than 3 years symptom duration. The primary outcome was the proportion of responders defined as ‘moderately improved’ or ‘markedly improved’ in overall symptoms compared to baseline on a 7-point scale Global Response Assessment (GRA). Secondary outcomes included ratings for pain, urgency, frequency; the O'Leary-Sant IC Symptom and Problem Index (ICSI/ICPI) and reports of adverse events. We compared response rates between treatment arms using the exact conditional version of the Mantel-Haenszel test to control for clustering by clinical center. For secondary efficacy outcomes, cross-sectional descriptive statistics and changes from baseline were calculated. Results Eighty-one women randomized to the two treatment groups had similar symptoms at baseline. The GRA response rate was 26% in the GTM group and 59% in the MPT group (p=0.0012). Pain, urgency, and frequency ratings and in ICSI/ICPI decreased in both groups during follow-up and were not significantly different between the groups. Pain was the most common adverse event, occurring at similar rates in both groups. There were no serious adverse events reported. Conclusions A significantly higher proportion of women with IC/PBS reponded to treatment with MPT than with GTM. MPT may be a beneficial therapy in women with this syndrome. PMID:22503015

  16. 纤维肌痛患者压痛点的推拿效用分析%The Analysis about Tenderness Point Massage of the Fibromyalgia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林强

    2013-01-01

      通过查询搜索推拿治疗纤维肌痛的中英文随机临床试验资料,总结了宣蛰人的软组织压痛点与Janet Travell激痛点的特点与区别,并在宣蛰人“去痛致松、以松治痛”的推拿治疗椎管外软组织损害的原理归纳的基础上,进一步分析了推拿治疗纤维肌痛压痛点的疗效机理。结果显示推拿对纤维肌痛有一定的效果,但对于推拿治疗纤维肌痛的研究质量及内容的充实方面均有待进一步加强。%Summarized the characteristic and difference between soft tissue tender point and Ja-netTravell trigger point which were founded by Zhe-RenXuan through referring and searching the Chinese and English randomized clinical trials data of massage treating fibromyalgia. Further ana-lyzed the efficacy mechanism of massage treating fibromyalgia on the basis of the theory induction about massage of“remove pain lead to loosen, use loosen to treat pain”to treat external vertebral canal soft tissue. The result showed that it had a certain efficacy about using massage to treat fibro-myalgia. But, the research quality and substantial content still need to be reinforced.

  17. Comparing complementary alternative treatment for chronic shoulder pain of myofascial origin: Collateral meridian therapy versus local tender area-related meridians therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ru-Yu; Hsu, Yung-Chi; Wong, Chih-Shung; Lin, Shinn-Long; Li, Tsung-Ying; Cherng, Chen-Hwan; Ko, Shan-Chi; Yeh, Chun-Chang

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the short-term outcomes between 2 different treatments for unilateral chronic shoulder pain of myofascial origin, that is, local tender area related meridians (LTARMs) treatment and collateral meridian therapy (CMT), which were performed 6 times over a period of 4 weeks.Seventy patients with unilateral shoulder pain of chronic myofascial origin were enrolled. The patients were randomly assigned to 2 different treatment groups: 1 group received CMT (n = 35) and the other received LTARM (n = 35). Before and after the 2 treatment processes, all patients rated their overall pain intensity on a visual analogue scale (VAS) and a validated 13-question shoulder pain and disability index (SPADI) questionnaire was used to measure shoulder pain and functional impairment after therapy for 4 weeks.After CMT, the pain intensity was reduced after CMT. VAS score is reduced from 5.90 ± 2.07 (a mean of 5.90 and standard deviation of 2.07) to 3.39 ± 1.2. This was verified by the SPADI pain subscale scores (from 0.58 ± 0.193 to 0.33 ± 0.14). The pain-relief effect of CMT was significantly better than that of LTARM (VAS score from 5.78 ± 1.64 to 4.58 ± 1.40; P myofascial origin than the LTARM treatment, where treatment with the former resulted in better functional recovery after 4 weeks than the latter.

  18. Be Tender to Your Feet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋保平

    2005-01-01

    One of the most common mistakes many people make is to wear illfitting shoes. Women in particular tend to be embarrassed b), a Shoe sizethat seems large; in many cultures a small foot is thought to be a sign ofwomanliness.

  19. On amplitude beam splitting of tender X-rays (2-8 keV photon energy) using conical diffraction from reflection gratings with laminar profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jark, Werner; Eichert, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Conical diffraction is obtained when a radiation beam impinges onto a periodically ruled surface structure parallel or almost parallel to the ruling. In this condition the incident intensity is diffracted through an arc, away from the plane of incidence. The diffracted intensity thus lies on a cone, which leads to the name `conical diffraction'. In this configuration almost no part of the ruled structure will produce any shadowing effect for the incident or the diffracted beam. Then, compared with a grating in the classical orientation, relatively higher diffraction efficiencies will be observed for fewer diffraction orders. When the incident beam is perfectly parallel to the grooves of a rectangular grating profile, the symmetry of the setup causes diffraction of the intensity symmetrically around the plane of incidence. This situation was previously tested experimentally in the VUV spectral range for the amplitude beam splitting of a radiation beam with a photon energy of 25 eV. In this case the ideally expected beam splitting efficiency of about 80% for the diffraction into the two first orders was confirmed for the optimum combination of groove depth and angle of grazing incidence. The feasibility of the amplitude beam splitting for hard X-rays with 12 keV photon energy by use of the same concept was theoretically confirmed. However, no related experimental data are presented yet, not even for lower energy soft X-rays. The present study reports the first experimental data for the conical diffraction from a rectangular grating profile in the tender X-ray range for photon energies of 4 keV and 6 keV. The expected symmetries are observed. The maximum absolute efficiency for beam splitting was measured to be only about 30%. As the reflectivity of the grating coating at the corresponding angle of grazing incidence was found to be only of the order of 50%, the relative beam splitting efficiency was thus 60%. This is to be compared also here with an ideally

  20. Effectjveness of radial extracorporeal shock wave to treat tenderness in soft tissue on the lateral of elbow%放射式体外冲击波治疗肘外侧软组织疼痛疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙建峰; 李红娟

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察放射式体外冲击渡对肘外侧软组织疼痛的治疗效果.方法 对26例患者应用统一的冲击波治疗方案进行压痛点治疗,观察治疗前后及随访半年的肘关节活动度、VAS及ADL评分情况.结果 23例完成治疗方案,参照自定治疗标准,治愈11例,显效6例,有效3例,无效3例,总显效率73.9%.结论 放射式体外冲击波治疗肘外侧软组织疼痛具有非侵入性、方法简单、安全有效、并发症少、患者痛苦小等优点,值得临床推广应用.%Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of radial extracoiporeal shock wave therapy(RESWT) for the management of tenderness in soft tissue on the lateral of elbow. Methods Twenty-six patients were given standard of RESWT in the tenderness. They were evaluated with rang of motion of elbow,visual analogue scale (VAS) and activities of daily living (ADL) before and after treatment and at a 6-month follow-up. Results Twenty-three patients were accomplished the therapy, 1 leases cured,6 cases apparent recovered,3 cases with effective recovered,3 cases with invalid treatment,the total apparent rate were 73.9%. Conclusion RESWT in the treatment of tenderness in soft tissue on the lateral of elbow is safe effective; the method is simple,less complications. It is worth to be clinical application.

  1. Ways and effects of purchasing drugs through tender as implemented in our hospital%我院实行药品招标采购的做法和效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪成; 尹继云; 丁建强

    2001-01-01

    为降低药品购买价,防止药品在医院流通过程中出现的不正之风,减轻病人经济负担,从1997年3月开始对药品采购进行公开招标。具体做法:①成立药品采购领导小组和药品采购小组;②制订和认真执行公开招标采购药品制度,把好“五关”;③规范医院常规用药范围;④坚持新药引进药事管理委员会审批制度。实行招标采购制度后,药品进价平均下降14.7%;单病种药品费用降低。%In order to lower the purchasing prices of drugs, prevent unhealthy tendencies that might arise in the process of drug circulation in the hospital, and reduce the financial burdens of patients, our hospital started from March 1997 the practice of purchasing drugs through open tender. The measures adopted include: ①establishment of a leading group in charge of drug purchases and a drug purchasing group; ②formulation and earnest implementation of the system of purchasing drugs through open tender, making “five checks”; ③standardization of the scope of routine drugs used in the hospital; and ④adherence to the system of examination and approval by the Drug Management Committee when introduction of new drugs is being considered. Since the adoption of the system of purchasing drugs through tender, the purc hasing prices of drugs have on the average dropped 14.7% and the drug expenses for single entity diseases have been lowered.

  2. Case Analysis of Tendering Documents for an International PPP/BOT Port Project%国际某港口PPP/BOT 项目招标文件案例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张水波; 高颖; 孙唯晫

    2012-01-01

    Tfeis paper makes a content analysis of the Tender Documents of an international PPP/BOT Port Project to assist International PPP/BOT bidders in making proper bid decisions. The analysis includes the project background, bidding procedure, documents consisting of tender documents, requirements of bid proposals and risk allocations. Findings from the analysis suggest insufficient rime length allowed for preparing the hid, failure to provide such key information as project draft concession agreement in the tendering documents; vague and improper allocation of risks as between the host government and the concessionaire. This paper concludes that, only with sufficient time and information obtained from tendering documents or otherwise , and by taking an initiative strategy in specifying pre-conditions in their bids, would the bidders be able to make a successful PPP/BOT bid.%采用文本分析方法,对国际某港口项目招标文件进行分析,以帮助国际PPP/BOT项目投标人做出恰当的投标决策.分析内容包括:项目背景、招标程序、招标文件的组成、投标要求、风险分担.分析结果表明,该招标的时间安排比较仓促,不能满足投标人投标所需要的时间;招标文件的组成不够完善,没有提供投标人投标重要依据的项目特许权协议草案;项目投标要求的编制比较清晰,但涉及项目风险分担的规定比较笼统模糊,而且让特许权受让人承担法律、政策变更的风险不尽合理.认为,由于国际PPP/BOT项目具有前期沉没成本高的特点,投标者应在研究招标文件的基础上,采取“以我为主”的投标策略,设定投标的底线,并将其在投标书中体现出来,这样才能更好地实现投资国际PPP/BOT项目的目标.

  3. Proposal to negotiate, without competitive tendering, the renewal of a blanket purchase contract for the supply and maintenance of VME single-board computers for the LHC and its injectors

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    This document concerns the renewal of a blanket purchase contract for the supply and maintenance of VME single-board computers for the LHC and its injectors. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of the renewal of a blanket purchase contract with CREATIVE ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS (CH), without competitive tendering, for the supply and maintenance of VME single-board computers for an estimated total amount not exceeding 2 500 000 Swiss francs for the period 2004-2006. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: CH-80%, US-20%.

  4. Brazilian consumers' perception of tenderness of beef steaks classified by shear force and taste Percepção pelos consumidores brasileiros da maciez da carne classificada pela força de cisalhamento e sabor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Francisquine Delgado

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of consumer perception of meat tenderness and taste is essential to forecast a Brazilian quality value-based beef market. This study aimed to verify perception of tender (WBSF 4.8 kg strip loin steak or uncharacteristic (calcium-treated/Ca-IM and normal (non-calcium/NO-Ca meat taste by consumers according to gender, age, education and income levels. Steaks were previously classified by shear force measurements as tender or tough. Each consumer was served a paired sample of one tender and of one tough steak, which were either Ca-IM or NO-Ca treated before tenderness classification. Three hundred and eight consumers answered a nine-point intensity (tenderness and hedonic (taste scales evaluation questionnaire. Among consumers, 82.2% indicated beef as first choice meat products, 75.3% had beef at least four times a week; 39.3% considered taste as the most important meat attribute and 30.2% considered tenderness; 75.8% were males; 73.6% were 21 to 55 years old; 56.7% had college education; 76.6% had monthly income higher than US $ 435,00. Tender steaks were scored highest (P O conhecimento da percepção de maciez e sabor da carne bovina pelo consumidor é essencial para vislumbrar um mercado brasileiro que pague por qualidade. Este estudo avaliou a percepção diferenciada de contra-filé macio (WBSF 4.8 kg, ou ainda com sabor não característico (imersão em Ca/ Ca-IM ou normal (sem cálcio/ NO-Ca de acordo com sexo, faixa etária, e nível de escolaridade formal e renda dos consumidores. Os bifes foram pareados em amostras macia/dura e Ca-IM/NO-Ca, e servidos a 308 consumidores que responderam a um questionário apresentando escalas de intensidade (maciez e hedônica (sabor de nove pontos. O perfil dos consumidores mostrava que: 82,2% indicaram carne bovina como sua primeira escolha entre as carnes; 75,3% consumiam carne bovina pelo menos quatro vezes por semana; 39,3% consideravam sabor como o atributo mais importante durante o

  5. How to strengthen the agency's management of the tender under the new situation%在新形势下如何加强招标代理公司的管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄洪

    2014-01-01

    文章分析了国内招标代理工作当中现存的代理机构的分布及发展不平衡、很难对招标代理机构进行定性和独立审核、不正当竞争导致的乱象以及从业者业务素质和职业道德不高等主要问题,提出严把资质条件关,严防一个技术人员多头挂靠;严把资质条件关,严防一个技术人员多头挂靠;加强对招标代理公司内从业者的培训等对措来加强招标代理公司的管理。%This article analyzes the distribution and development of domestic tendering agency work among existing agencies imbalance, it is difficult to bidding agency for qualitative and independent audit, the chaos caused by unfair competition and business practitioners are not high quality and professional ethics major problem. Proposed strict qualifications level, anchored to prevent a technician bulls, strict qualifications level and anchored to prevent a technician bulls. Strengthen the management of the tender agent practitioner training on measures to strengthen the agency's bidding.

  6. Thinking on the Tender Response to the Divergences of Bidders in Bidding Process%招标人应对招投标过程中投标人异议问题的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高国民

    2016-01-01

    Through the analysis of the divergent problems in tendering and bidding of engineering materials procurement,the paper elaborates the thinking to resolve these divergences of bidders,including investigating the conformity of project performance,preventing the bid in the name of others,clearing the bid qualification, increasingthe judges of economic class. Then,proposes exploratory thoughts to improve the bidding work of engineering materials procurement. This research can be helpful and referential to the further standardization and scientificity of tendering work on infrastructure engineering materials procurement in the university system.%通过总结工程货物采购招投标过程中常见的异议问题,阐述应对相关问题的对策思考,包括审查业绩符合度、防范以他人名义投标、明晰投标资格设定、增加经济类评委。然后,提出改进工程货物采购招标工作的探索思路,为高校系统基建工程货物采购招标工作进一步规范化、科学化推进提供了借鉴。

  7. The Application of the CPM to Construction Management and Tendering%网络计划技术在施工管理及招投标中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于茜薇

    2001-01-01

    The advantages of CPM applied in construction management are analyzed.by practical examples,the CPM and the Gantt chart are compared,this proves that there are still some shortcomings in them and how they would be made up with each other.This paper also points out what must be taken notice of when the CPM was drawn up in documents of tendering.As an advanced method,the CPM should be combined with the Gantt chart in construction management,and it can be especially well used in tendering.%分析了网络计划技术应用于施工管理的优点,并通过具体实例将网络计划技术与横道图进行了对比,说明了二者各存在的问题及如何相互补充应用。还指出了在投标文件中编制网络计划所必须注意的问题。作为一种先进的方法,网络计划技术在施工管理中应与横道图结合使用,在招投标工作中更应很好地运用。

  8. 浅议水利工程投标阶段的风险管理与预控%On Risk Management and Prevention of Water Conservancy Project Tender Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹建

    2014-01-01

    水利工程投标阶段主要风险包括经济风险、设备和材料采购风险、合同风险、自然与环境风险等,在工程投标过程中要有针对性地依据本企业自身情况及所投标项目的特点进行风险分析,采取相应的预控措施,为工程中标后的经营管理奠定良好的基础。本文对此加以介绍。%Main risks of water conservancy project tender stage include economic risk, equipment and material procurement risk,contract risk,natural and environmental risk,etc.Risks are analyzed in the project tender process in a targeted mode according to own enterprise condition and features of bidding project.Corresponding prevention measures are adopted,thereby laying good foundation for operation management after project bid winning.The condition is introduced in the paper.

  9. Medições instrumentais e sensoriais de dureza e suculência na carne caprina Instrumental and sensorial assessment of tenderness and juiciness in goat meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela da Silva Borges

    2006-12-01

    semimembranosus and biceps femoris muscles were tenderer than those from longissimus dorsi muscle. Meat from the semimembranosus muscle decreased in firmness during aging. Shear force values in meat showed positive correlation with firmness and negative correlation with juiciness as evaluated by the panelists. A negative correlation between firmness and juiciness was observed. Aging of the meat over seven days decreased firmness in goat meat from muscles, but did not affect cooking losses.

  10. Uniform Design for Optimizating Regeneration Shoots Directly from Tender Leaves and Plant Regeneration System of Rhododendron chrysanthum Pall.%基于均匀设计优化牛皮杜鹃嫩叶直接再生芽苗及植株再生体系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉梅; 姜云天; 孙智慧

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The experimental was aimed to screen the optimum regeneration shoot induction media and rooting media for tender leaves of Rhododendron chrysanthum Pall.[Method] The tender leaves of Rhododendron chrysanthum Pall were taken as explants to select the optimum bud induction media and rooting media through uniform design and the screening results were verified.[Result] The optimum media for regeneration shoot of Rhododendron chrysanthum Pall contained 1/4 MS,3.70 mg/L ZT, 0.02 mg/L IAA and 1.00 mg/L KT and its induction rate was 95.5% and the rooting media contained modified MS, 0.10 mg/L IAA and 0.07 mg/L NAA and its rooting rate was 98%. [Conclusion] Through this experiment, regeneration systems for regeneration shoot and regenerated plant from tender leaves of Rhododendron chrysanthum Pall were created successfully.

  11. 评选医疗器械产品系列的招标尝试分析研究%Brief discussion on tender attempt of selecting medical apparatus product series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙成兆

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨"低价基准,组件一一赋分;全部累计,平均计算"的医疗器械系列或组套招标的价格评审办法。方法:根据产品关联性打包编制目录,同名组件之间根据低价优先法进行价格比较,各自组件的比值相加,除以单件个数和,得品牌系列总值,总值低则价格相对合理。结果:09年温州市属医疗机构骨科项目招标进行尝试,在价格、产品关联性方面,都收到理想效果。结论:"低价基准,组件一一赋分;全部累计,平均计算"的产品系列总分计算法可以解决系列或组套医疗器械招标的价格评审问题。%Objective:To discuss the "low benchmarks,give the mark to each component;accumulate all and calculate on average" medical apparatus series or sets of the method for evaluating the tender price.Methods:According to the product association package and compiling directory,based on low price priority principle to compare the price of same name component,added the ratio of their components and divided by the numbers of each piece,getting the total value of each brand series.The price is relatively reasonable if the total value is low.Results:In 2009,Wenzhou municipal medical institutions orthopedic project tried to use the tender way,which received ideal effect price and product relevance.Conclusion:The total points numeration of "low benchmarks,give the mark to each component;accumulate all and calculate on average" apparatus series can solve the price evaluation problem of the series or sets medical apparatus tender.

  12. Compound Enzyme-Based Fast Tenderizing Technology for Beef from the Three Gorges Reservoir Area%三峡库区牛肉复合酶快速嫩化技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖夏; 李洪军; 贺稚非

    2015-01-01

    以三峡库区丰都县西门塔尔与蒙古牛杂交牛的牛肉为研究对象,在较低温度下采用复合酶快速嫩化牛肉.选用木瓜蛋白酶与菠萝蛋白酶1∶1复合,采用注射浸泡法嫩化牛肉.在不同酶添加量、嫩化时间、嫩化温度、pH下测定了牛肉的剪切力、质构特性、熟肉率等指标,并分析指标间相关性.通过正交试验获得最佳工艺条件为复合酶添加量0.03%,嫩化时间20 min ,嫩化温度20℃,pH中性.嫩化后样品剪切力降至3727.6 g ,弹性0.875,内聚性0.382,表明该条件下处理牛肉能显著提高肉品的嫩度,保持较好的弹性、内聚性及熟肉率,适于进行肉制品加工.%With the bovine muscle samples taken from Simmental x Mongo cattle hybrid in Fengdu County of the Three‐Gorges Reservoir Area as the experiment material ,the fast tenderizing technology of bovine muscles with a compound enzyme at relatively low temperature was studied .The compound enzyme was prepared with papain and bromelain in a proportion of 1 to 1 and used to treat the bovine muscles samples with injection and imbibition .The samples were subjected to shear force ,texture property and cooked meat percentage determination at different enzyme dosages ,treatment time and temperature and pH ,and correlation analyses were made .The optimal technology conditions identified with an orthogonal test were 0.03% compound enzyme + treatment time 20 min and temperature 20 ℃ + pH 7.0 .Under such condi‐tions ,the shear force was 3 727.6 g ,springiness was 0.875 and cohesiveness was 0.382 ,suggesting that the tenderizer could significantly improve the tenderness of the bovine muscles under the optimal condi‐tions w hile keeping satisfactory springiness ,cohesiveness and cooked meat percentage .

  13. Effect of Different Ages and Postmortem Aging on Tenderness of Cherry Valley Ducks Breast%不同日龄及宰后成熟对樱桃谷鸭嫩度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓方; 潘道东; 曹锦轩; 张小涛

    2013-01-01

    This research focused on the changes of tenderness of different ages cherry valley duck meat during postmortem aging.The effects of drip loss,cooking loss,shear force value,pH and calpain activity of duck breast meat were examined,and the degradation of Troponin-T and Desmin,which were heavily correlated with the tenderness of the protein,were also determined in the study.The result showed feed-day had a significant effect on the tenderness of duck meat (P<0.05),and the shear force value was positively correlated with postmortem time.pH and the shear force value of ducks muscle were positively correlation with postmortem time (P<0.05),while the cooking loss had a negative correlation with the shear force.The calpain activity were extremely significant (P<0.01) affected by shear force in the experiment.Meanwhile,the difference of the shear-force change was significant among the three day-age groups(P<0.01).%通过测定不同日龄樱桃谷鸭宰后不同时间的滴水损失、蒸煮损失、pH值、剪切力、钙蛋白酶活性等指标,同时结合SDS-PAGE和蛋白质印迹分析,研究骨骼肌中与肌肉嫩度高度相关的肌钙蛋白(Troponin-T)、肌间线蛋白(Desmin)的降解情况以及日龄对宰后鸭肉嫩度的影响.研究结果表明:随着日龄的增加,宰后肌肉剪切力显著增加(P<0.05);随着宰后成熟时间的延长,宰后肌肉剪切力减小.宰后成熟期间,pH值和肌肉剪切力呈显著正相关(P<0.05),蒸煮损失和肌肉剪切力呈显著负相关(P<0.05),钙蛋白酶酶活力和肌肉剪切力呈极显著正相关(P<0.01).增加日龄使得宰后肌肉剪切力增大,且日龄之间差异性极显著(P<0.01).

  14. Proposal for the award of a contract, based on competitive tendering by CCLRC-RUTHERFORD APPLETON LABORATORY, for the supply of the Front-End Driver Boards for the Tracker detector of the CMS experime

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract, based on competitive tendering by CCLRC-RUTHERFORD APPLETON LABORATORY, for the supply of the Front-End Driver (FED) boards for the Tracker detector of the CMS experiment. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to a contract for the CERN share towards the cost of the supply of 500 FED boards for the Tracker detector of the CMS experiment with CCLRC-RUTHERFORD APPLETON LABORATORY (UK) for a total amount of 1 676 000 Pounds sterling (3 788 000 Swiss francs), not subject to revision. CERN's contribution to the contract will not exceed 575 000 Pounds sterling (1 300 000 Swiss francs). The remaining 1 101 000 Pounds sterling (2 488 000 Swiss francs) will be financed by several other participating institutes of the CMS Collaboration.

  15. Subverting Sanity by Madness --A Psychoanalysis of the Central Figures in Tender is the Night%疯癫对文明的颠覆——对《夜色温柔》主人公的精神分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨澜

    2012-01-01

    In the novel Tender is the Night, the hero and the heroine exchange their roles of patient and doctor, in- sanity and culture. The interchange between madness and normality is the keynote of the book, as well as a meta- phor. From the perspective of psychoanalysis, the interchange also echoes the complex relations between ego and id, those of domination and counter-strike, of control and break-off.%《夜色温柔》中的男女主人公完成了各自从医生到“疯子”与从病人到正常人的角色互换。疯癫即是小说的主题,也是重要隐喻。从心理分析的角度看,二人的关系接近本能与自我互相制约、互相对抗的关系。

  16. MATLAB和TOPSIS算法在企业物流招标评估中的应用研究%Application of MATLAB and TOPSIS in Enterprise Logistics Service Tender Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高洪波; 马素萍

    2012-01-01

    在分析企业物流招标对企业发展的重要意义及介绍TOPSIS算法的基本思路的基础上,研究了基于MATLAB的TOPSIS算法在物流招标评估方法的实现步骤,并对具体算例进行了实证分析,对企业物流招标评估实践有一定的参考意义.%In this paper, we studied the procedure for the realization of the TOPSIS algorithm based on M ATLAB in logistics service tender evaluation and carried out an empirical analysis in connection with a specifical numerical example.

  17. Analysis on bidding parts preparation of curtain wall project tender documents%幕墙工程招标文件的投标报价部分编制分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑明娟

    2015-01-01

    This paper mainly analyzed the setting ways of comprehensive unit price analysis table in outer decorative curtain wall engineering ten-dering and bidding documents,and discussed in detail the shall be clearly quote part of other aspects bidding documents,in order to reasonably and effectively control the project cost.%主要分析了外装饰幕墙工程招标文件中综合单价分析表设置方式,并对招标文件中投标报价部分应明确的其他方面内容进行了详细说明,以合理有效的控制工程造价。

  18. The Multiple Themes in Fitzgerald’ s Novels---The Case of Tender Is the Night%菲茨杰拉德长篇小说中的多重主题--以《夜色温柔》为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭佳

    2014-01-01

    菲茨杰拉德留给后世的五部长篇小说,均取材于他所生活的年代,生动地展示了20世纪初期美国的生活。《夜色温柔》的独特之处在于它是一部具有自传性质的文学作品,作家将自己的亲身经历融进了小说内容,所以能更真实、更贴切地表达出那个时代的文学主题:悲剧命运、“美国梦”的破灭、现代主义特征、女性主义以及消费异化等。阅读菲氏的长篇小说,仿佛能被书中的文字带回到那个让人纸醉金迷的“爵士时代”。%The legacy of Fitzgerald ’ s five long novels is drawn from the time of his life and vividly shows life in the United States in the early 20th century.The unique of Tender Is the Night is that it is a literary works with characteristic of autobiography and the writer integrates his own experience into the novel .Thus Tender Is the Night could express the literary theme of that era more veritably and more relevantly:the tragic fate, the bursting of the American Dream, modernistic features, feminism, and con-sumption alienation etc .It seems that reading Fitzgerald ’ s novel could bring us back to the luxurious and dissipative Jazz Age .

  19. 基于高光谱图像纹理特征的牛肉嫩度分布评价%Distribution of beef tenderness grading based on texture features by hyperspectral image analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵娟; 彭彦昆

    2015-01-01

    传统牛肉品质的检测方法耗时长,效率低,破坏样品,已不能满足现代化生产的需要。为了实现对牛肉嫩度品质的快速无损检测和评价,该文利用高光谱成像系统,以西门塔尔牛多个胴体的背最长肌部位为研究对象,采集56个有效样本的高光谱立体图像,研究无损评价牛肉样品的嫩度分布。通过提取样本的反射光谱信息,并利用逐步回归算法结合遗传算法(GA,genetic algorithm)筛选出牛肉剪切力值(WBSF,warner-bratzler shear force)的特征波段。利用主成分分析(PCA,principle component analysis)提取样品的3个主成分。基于选出的特征波段图像和提取的主成分,通过计算图像灰度共生矩阵求取每幅图像8个主要纹理特征参数,分别建立了基于支持向量机(SVM,support vector machine)和线性判别(LDA,linear discriminant analysis)法的嫩度等级判别模型。经分析比较,基于主成分纹理特征优于基于特征波段图像建立的预测模型,并且,线性判别模型识别准确率相比支持向量机模型较高。基于主成分纹理特征建立的线性判别模型预测集判别精度为94.44%。研究结果证明,基于高光谱图像纹理特征分析,可以建立牛肉的嫩度判别模型,对牛肉嫩度快速无损检测技术研究提供理论参考。%Due to high protein, low fat, high vitamin and mineral content, beef is regarded as an important meat item which is consumed by human in regular basis. In addition, with the improvement of people's living standard, different quality parameters such as beef tenderness, water retention and other edible quality indicators have become important factors to consumers’ satisfaction. Sensory evaluation and shear force measurement are primarily two methods for measurement of beef tenderness, which are now considered as traditional methods. However, with improvement in technology, optical

  20. Evaluation method of beef tenderness based on texture properties and self-organizing neural network model%基于自组织神经网络模型与质构特性的牛肉嫩度评定方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王笑丹; 刘爱阳; 孙永海; 王莹; 韩云秀; 王洪美

    2015-01-01

    were: pre-test speed of 2 mm/s, test speed of 5 mm/s, posttest speed of 5 mm/s, trigger force of 10 g, distance of probe movement on the sample of 7 mm, and hold time after downward movement of the probe of 2 s. For those samples, viscous force, stickiness, elastic force, elastic length, cohesiveness, resilience, gumminess, chewiness and other texture properties were measured using the texture analyzer. The correlations were analyzed between the parameters and beef tenderness level. The main texture properties decreased with the increase of beef tenderness grade, and the texture properties value also showed a downward trend with chewing more times. Combined with the sensory evaluation method, the BP (back propagation) network model, the RBF (radical basis function) network model and the self-organizing competition network model were built, and all the training errors were 1×10-6. Another steak from the mid-region of each LD collected from each of 20 cattle was selected as verification sample. Then the 3 network models were compared, and the self-organizing competition network model was the most accurate model with an accuracy rate of 90%, which showed that this method can accurately assess the level of beef tenderness.%为了实现对牛肉嫩度品质的快速无损检测和评价。该文选取60头牛的眼肌部位作为试验样本,经在75~80℃的水浴中加热并煮至肉的内部温度达到70℃后取出,冷却至室温(20℃)。利用质构仪测得牛肉黏力、黏性、弹力、弹性长度、内聚性、弹性、胶着性和咀嚼性等质构特性参数,并分析各参数与牛肉嫩度等级之间的相关性,黏力和黏性与牛肉嫩度的相关性较低,相关系数为0.246和0.096;弹力、弹性长度、内聚性、弹性、胶着性和咀嚼性与牛肉嫩度相关性较大,且成负相关,说明上述流变学参数值会随着牛肉嫩度等级的增大而下降,相关系数为−0.92、−0.939、−0.771、−0.776

  1. Lost Soul-An Analysis of Dick’s Extramarital Affair of Tender Is the Night%迷失的灵魂--浅析《夜色温柔》中迪克的婚外情

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明夫

    2015-01-01

    该文试图用弗洛伊德人格理论解析美国二十世纪著名小说家弗朗西斯·斯科特·菲茨杰拉德的《夜色温柔》中男主人公迪克与好莱坞女演员罗斯玛丽的婚外情,探寻迪克的心理变化以及这种变化对迪克人生悲剧的影响。《夜色温柔》是菲茨杰拉德的代表作之一,这部作品揭露了爵士乐时代人内心的脆弱迷茫和精神上的空虚。笔者希望该文对迪克婚外情的分析将有助于精神分析学对菲氏作品的研究。该文包括三大部分。第一部分是对作者菲茨杰拉德,《夜色温柔》以及弗洛伊德的人格分析理论的介绍。第二部分运用人格分析理论分析迪克对待婚外情的心理变化过程。第三部分为结论部分。%Tender Is the Night is a masterpiece written by Francis Scott Fitzgerald who is a famous American writer in the 20th cen⁃tury. This thesis tries to analyze Dick’s extramarital affair with Mary, a Hollywood actress, in the respective of Freudian theory of human psyche. The writer wants to explore Dick’s psychological changes and the influence to his tragic life. Tender Is the Night ex⁃poses persons’emotional confusion at the Jazz Age. The writer hopes this paper can help to study Fitzgerald’s works with psycho⁃analysis. It includes three parts, and the first part is introduction, the second part is analysis and the third part is conclusion.

  2. Efeito do colágeno na maciez da carne de bovinos de distintos grupos genéticos = Collagen effects in meat tenderness of bovines of different genetic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cristina Morales

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a influência do colágeno na maciez da carne de animais de diferentes grupos genéticos produzidos no sistema de produção do novilho superprecoce. Foram utilizados bezerros machos inteiros da raça Nelore, mestiços ½ Nelore x ½ Aberdeen Angus e mestiços ½ Nelore x ½ Simental. Após abate e resfriamento por 24 horas, foram retiradas amostras do músculo Longissimus dorsi, na região entre a 11a e a 13a costela, sendo que uma amostra foi congelada e as demais maturadas por 7 e 14 dias. Nãohouve diferença significativa (P>0,01 entre os grupos genéticos para a quantidade e a solubilidade de colágeno e a força de cisalhamento. A quantidade e a solubilidade do colágeno não comprometeram a maciez da carne, indiferentemente do grupo genético utilizado e do tempo postmortem, tornando vantajosa a opção de se abaterem animais jovens.The aim of work was to analyze the collagen effect in meat tenderness of animals of different genetic groups produced by very young bullock production system. Male calves Nellore purebred, ½ Nellore x ½ Aberdeen Angus and ½ Nellore x ½ Simmental crossbred were used.After slaughter and cooling for 24 hours Longissimus dorsi samples were removed, between 11th and 13th ribs, one sample was frozen and the others ageing for 7 and 14 days. There was no difference (P>0,01 between genetic groups for amount and heat soluble collagen andshear force values. The amount and solubility collagen don’t compromised the meat tenderness, indifferent of the genetic group used and postmortem period, becoming the early slaughter an advantageous option for meat production with desirable characteristics.

  3. Discussion on how to control government investment project tender price audit%论如何做好政府投资项目招标控制价审核工作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊银

    2016-01-01

    The paper analyzes the importance of government investment project bidding price control audit work. Starting from aspects of BOQ computation accuracy, BOQ integrity and material equipment price truth, the paper illustrates bidding price auditing points, and puts forward suggestions of comprehensively improve audit quality, which has provided some guidance for doing well in government investment project tender control auditing work.%分析了政府投资项目招标控制价审核工作的重要性,从工程量计算的准确性、工程量清单的完整性、材料设备价格的真实性等方面,阐述了招标控制价审核的要点,并提出了全面提高审核质量的建议,为做好政府招标控制价审核工作提供了参考.

  4. On Dick's Tragedy in Tender Is the Night from the Psychological Facet of Focalization%从人物视角的心理层面看《夜色温柔》中迪克的悲剧成因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵瑜

    2010-01-01

    Dick is tempted by the upper class and destroyed by it in Tender Is the Night. Dick's love is so deep and Dick's heart is so kind. He wants to save Nicole and recovers his health with his sincere love, he even wants to treat the ill state of the upper class with a healthy life style. He is so childish, he the psychological Facet and try to find the root of his tragedy.%中迪克,受到上流社会的诱惑,希望通过他善良和纯真的爱来挽救富家小姐妮可并帮助她恢复健康.他甚至幻想通过自己健康的生活方式来挽救整个堕落的上流社会,但最终却被其毁灭.本文将从小说主人公迪克的视角的心理层面,分析迪克悲剧的成因.

  5. 关于公路工程投标中资格预审申请文件编制的探讨%Discussion on the Compilation of Prequalification Application Documents in Highway Engineering Tender

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李爽

    2014-01-01

    在公路工程中,资格预审是招标人组建审查委员会对申请人递交的资格预审申请进行审查。本文首先对申请文件编制程序进行了理解,然后分析了申请文件的有关内容,并对申请文件编制过程中需要注意的事项进行了论述。%In highway engineering, prequalification refers that the tender set up the Review Committee for the submission of the application provided by applicators. This paper first has carried on the understanding of the procedures for the docume-ntation, and then analyzes the relevant contents of the appli-cation documents, and discussed the mat ers needing at ention in the process of compiling the application documents.

  6. Regulating Tender-invitation in the Purchasing of Books for Library and Strengthening the Control of Bidding Procedures%规范图书招标采购行为 加强招标采购程序控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹迅

    2012-01-01

    In order to further regulate the tender-invitation process in the purchasing of books for library, the control of the bidding procedures should be strengthened. In this paper, various types of tender-invitation in the purchasing of books for library were introduced and the bidding and purchasing procedures of library were also analyzed.%为进一步规范图书馆文献采购招标行为,必须加强文献招标采购过程中的程序控制。介绍了我国各类型图书馆文献招标采购的招标方式,同时对图书馆文献招标采购程序进行了分析和研究。

  7. Dietary linseed oil supplemented with organic selenium improved the fatty acid nutritional profile, muscular selenium deposition, water retention, and tenderness of fresh pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiang; Tang, Xinyue; Xue, Yan; Lin, Gang; Xiong, Youling L

    2017-09-01

    Cross-bred pigs were fed a control diet (with 0.3ppm sodium selenite and 1.5% soybean oil) or organic selenium diets (0.3ppm Se-Yeast with 1.5% soybean or linseed oil) to investigate nutrient supplement effects on meat quality and oxidative stability. The organic selenium diets increased muscular selenium content up to 54%, and linseed oil increased n-3 fatty acids two-fold while lowering the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio from 13.9 to 5.9 over the selenite control diet (POrganic selenium yeast treatments with linseed oil reduced pork drip loss by 58-74% when compared with diets with soybean oil. Lightness of fresh pork was slightly less for organic selenium groups than inorganic (P0.05) between diets, in agreement with the lack of notable difference in endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity between these meat groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of thermal treatment on meat tenderness and color of pork tenderloin%热处理对猪通脊嫩度及色泽的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚彪; 刘燕; 郭爱菊

    2012-01-01

    The changes on cooking loss,pH,shear value and color have important effects on their texture and sensory quality for meat during thermal treatment.In this experiment,the shear value and color of pork tenderloin was studied during thermal treatment under different temperature and time.The result showed that the cooking loss,pH,a^* value and b^* value of pork tenderloin increases significantly as the rising of temperature and prolonging of time of thermal treatment,but the L^* value decreases.The shear value increases at fist and then decreases with the time prolonging of thermal treatment.In the experiment,the higher the temperature of thermal treatment,the faster of the changes.%肉类在热处理过程中的蒸煮损失、pH值、剪切力和色泽变化对肉的质地和感官具有重要影响。以猪通脊肉为原料,研究了不同的热处理温度和处理时间对猪通脊肉嫩度和色泽等物性的影响。结果表明:随着热处理温度的升高和处理时间的延长,猪通脊肉的蒸煮损失、pH值、红度a^*和黄度b^*均有显著的升高,亮度L^*下降,而剪切力随着热处理时间的延长先升高后降低,且在整个过程中,温度越高,变化越迅速。

  9. Correlação entre a contagem dos pontos dolorosos na fibromialgia com a intensidade dos sintomas e seu impacto na qualidade de vida Correlation between the number of tender points in fibromyalgia, the intensity of symptoms and its impact on quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Martinez

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estabelecer se há correlação entre o número de pontos dolorosos e a intensidade da percepção de aspectos centrais da síndrome (dor, fadiga, ansiedade, depressão e do seu impacto na capacidade funcional. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Avaliaram-se quarenta e um prontuários de pacientes que preenchem os Critérios de Classificação para Fibromialgia do Colégio Americano de Reumatologia, considerando as seguintes variáveis: percepção da intensidade de dor, fadiga, qualidade de vida global, depressão, ansiedade e contagem de pontos dolorosos. A avaliação da capacidade funcional foi realizada através do Questionário de Avaliação de Saúde simplificado (Health Assessment Questionnaire-HAQ. RESULTADOS: Observou-se correlação entre a contagem de pontos dolorosos e a intensidade da dor e a capacidade funcional. Não houve correlação com as notas atribuídas à fadiga (p = 0,358, ansiedade (p = 0,58, depressão (p = 0,50 e qualidade de vida (p = 0,538. A correlação entre o número de pontos dolorosos e a intensidade da dor foi mais forte que com o HAQ. CONCLUSÃO: Há correlação entre contagem dos pontos dolorosos e intensidade da dor e capacidade funcional. A correlação entre os pontos dolorosos e a intensidade da dor é mais importante do que com a capacidade funcional medida pelo HAQ. Não há correlação com as demais variáveis estudadas.OBJECTIVE: to study the correlation between the number of tender points and the intensity of the perception of key aspects of the fibromyalgia syndrome (pain, fatigue, anxiety, depression, and its impact in functional capacity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: forty-one records of patients who meet the Criteria for Classification of Fibromyalgia of the American College of Rheumatology were reviewed, focusing on the following variables: perception of the intensity of pain, fatigue, quality of sleep, depression, anxiety and the tender point count. The assessment of functional capacity was done by

  10. Causative get-constructions in the dialogued passages in F. Scott Fitzgerald’s novels The Beautiful and Damned and Tender Is the Night as gender-conditioned structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gołąbek Rafał

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It goes without saying that in modern sociolinguistics there is a consensus with regard to the fact that the language of males and females differs. The initial sections of the article briefly address the peculiarities of gendered speech as to provide a theoretical background for checking whether the causative get is used similarly or differently by men and women in the two of F. Scott Fitzgerald’s novels: The Beautiful and Damned and Tender Is the Night. The basic expectation formed is that the motifs for triggering the use of causative get are of social rather than structural nature. Before the analysis is carried out, the group of the English periphrastic causatives are sketchily characterized. Generally, what has been found is that there is a clear, socially-motivated pattern of how F. Scott Fitzgerald uses the causative get in the dialogued occurrences in his two novels. Get is a characteristic of men’s talk, but it is also the expected form while female characters address male ones - hence the verb is labelled as “masculine” get. Moreover, it has been discovered that there does not seem to be any particular pattern in either the speaker’s mood or the speaker’s attitude expressed that would trigger the use of the causative verb in question. Yet, what seems to be a well-defined tendency, when it comes to the speaker-hearer power relation, is that the speaker usually assumes a more superior position than the hearer when he or she uses the causative verb. The superiority in most cases is strongly associated with masculinity. Hence, what is postulated is that the causative get is labelled not only as “masculine" but also as “superior”.

  11. 道德嬗变:《夜色温柔》的文学伦理学解读%Varying Morality: "Tender Is the Night" Literary Ethics Interpretation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢春梅; 王亚

    2012-01-01

    文学伦理学批评自聂珍钊教授提出以来,即受到理论界的积极关注。作品《夜色温柔》,被视为"心理小说",或是"婚姻小说",或是"花花公子"和"时髦女郎"的放荡生活小说,着眼于从否定的层面讨论战后"美国梦"的失落和主人公迪克个人的"无望救赎"。本文以文学伦理学批评的角度,解读主人公在与自己、与他人的关照中的伦理主体变化,管窥其个体的道德嬗变。%Ethical literary criticism since the Professor Nie Zhenzhao,put forward by the active interest in theoretical circles."Tender Is the Night" has been appreciated from many perspectives,such as "psychological novel" of Freudian theory,"marriage novel" or "dissipated novel" of playboys and flappers.Most essays comment on the deterioration of the so-called " American Dream" or self-indulgence of Dick Diver in a "blue mood".This paper employs ethical literary criticism to analyze relationship of men and themselves,men and men,thus have a bird's view on the varying morality of individuals.

  12. Thinking of the tender offer of international EPC project%国际EPC工程项目投标报价的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王继源; 苗捷; 王乾; 马冲

    2016-01-01

    EPC项目是国际通行的集设计、采购、施工为一体的“交钥匙”工程。随着“一带一路”战略的推进以及国际产能和装备合作的深入开展,国内企业走出去步伐大大加快,EPC项目总承包工程的数量不断增加。在新形势下,加强对EPC项目报价的研究和思考,总结成功经验和失败教训,对未来我国企业走出去大有裨益。为此,将论述我国企业对国际EPC项目报价中重点要考虑的因素、目前报价中存在的问题以及应采取的措施。%The EPC project is a set of design,international procurement,construction as one of the "key" project. With the "The Belt and Road" strategy and the promotion of international cooperation and production equipment,domestic enterprises going out pace,the number of EPC project general contracting project in the new increasing. Under the situation,strengthen the research and Reflection on the EPC project bidding,summarizes the experiences and lessons for the future of China's enterprises to go. This will be of great advantage, discusses the factors of China's enterprises to offer international EPC project focus to consider the price,problems and measures should be taken.

  13. Effect of increased

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carreira , C.; Heldal, M.; Bratbak, G.

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has increased since the pre-industrial period and is predicted to continue to increase throughout the twenty-first century. The ocean is a sink for atmospheric CO2 and increased CO2 concentration will change the carbonate equilibrium of seawater and result in lower c

  14. Increasing Mobility Confidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español In Your Area NPF Shop Increasing Mobility Confidence To increase your confidence moving, you have to move! Make Text Smaller ... It might seem counterintuitive, but to increase your confidence moving, you have to move! Build physical activity ...

  15. Increased intramuscular fat improves both 'chewiness' and 'hardness' as defined in ISO5492:1992 of beef Longissimus muscle of Holstein × Japanese black F1 steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Keisuke; Motoyama, Michiyo; Narita, Takumi

    2012-04-01

    It is considered that high-fat beef is more 'tender' than low-fat beef in Japanese consumers. However, 'tenderness' which has been an important beef characteristic, has not been commonly defined. ISO5492:1992 provides internationally established items for sensory texture analysis with simple definitions, and the items classified under 'chewiness' and 'hardness' as defined in the international standard are characterized as useful texture descriptors for beef. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of intramuscular fat on beef texture using the ISO5492 texture vocabulary. Longissimus muscles were harvested from Holstein × Japanese black F1 beef steers with different intramuscular fat levels and were subjected to sensory tests by a trained panel using ISO5492:1992 texture terms. Correspondence analysis indicated that the intramuscular fat level was related to both 'chewiness' and 'hardness' and the intensities of these characteristics decreased as intramuscular fat increased. These findings suggest that intramuscular fat improves both 'chewiness' and 'hardness' as defined in ISO5492:1992. © 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. Increasing attention is being paid to the quality of meat as living ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    quality tests carried out with regard to fat and moisture content, colour, tenderness. muscle fibre diameter, intensity and acceptability of. "avour ... Department of Nature Conservation. ... cooking oil at 125°C. Points (out of 10) were independent-.

  17. Euroopa keelemapi esimene Eesti mudel / Tõnu Tender

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tender, Tõnu, 1965-

    2008-01-01

    Väljaanne: Euroopa keelemapp : 12-16 aastastele õpilastele = European language portfolio : for learners aged 12 to 16 = Portfolio Européen des Langues : pour les élèves de 12 à 16 ans. [Tartu] : Haridus- ja Teadusministeerium ; [Tallinn] : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, [2007]. Euroopa keelemapp on vahend keeleõppe kavandamiseks, edusammude kirjeldamiseks ja tulemuste jäädvustamiseks. Keelemapi kirjeldus, Euroopa keelemapi Eesti variandi väljatöötamisest, Euroopa keelemapi tulevikuvõimalustest

  18. Euroopa keelemapi esimene Eesti mudel / Tõnu Tender

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tender, Tõnu, 1965-

    2008-01-01

    Väljaanne: Euroopa keelemapp : 12-16 aastastele õpilastele = European language portfolio : for learners aged 12 to 16 = Portfolio Européen des Langues : pour les élèves de 12 à 16 ans. [Tartu] : Haridus- ja Teadusministeerium ; [Tallinn] : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, [2007]. Euroopa keelemapp on vahend keeleõppe kavandamiseks, edusammude kirjeldamiseks ja tulemuste jäädvustamiseks. Keelemapi kirjeldus, Euroopa keelemapi Eesti variandi väljatöötamisest, Euroopa keelemapi tulevikuvõimalustest

  19. Uk-Didcot: aluminium products [Tenders

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "The CMS-ECAL-EE detector project for CERN require a firm to produce a number of small-machined components in Al Alloy. Mainly milling and drilling operations are required and would be most suited to a firm capable of small batch production. The general machining tolerance required is +/- 0,2mm, and the surface texture is 1,6 micrometers. All of the components are to be manufactured from Al Alloy."

  20. F-Paris: integrated electronic circuits [Tender

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Fourniture, montage et tests des circuits imprimes et modules multi composants pour le trajectographe central de CMS. Maximum de 12 000 circuits imprimes et modules multi-composants necessaires au trajectographe central de l'experience CMS aupres du Large Hadron Collider" (1 page).

  1. Increasingly minimal bias routing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataineh, Abdulla; Court, Thomas; Roweth, Duncan

    2017-02-21

    A system and algorithm configured to generate diversity at the traffic source so that packets are uniformly distributed over all of the available paths, but to increase the likelihood of taking a minimal path with each hop the packet takes. This is achieved by configuring routing biases so as to prefer non-minimal paths at the injection point, but increasingly prefer minimal paths as the packet proceeds, referred to herein as Increasing Minimal Bias (IMB).

  2. Increasing SLEDed Linac Gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, Zoltan D

    2001-11-08

    This note will show how to increase the SLED [1] gradient by varying Q{sub e}, the external Q of the SLED cavity, by increasing its Q{sub 0} and by increasing the compression ratio. If varying the external Q is to be effective, then the copper losses should be small so that Q{sub 0} >> Q{sub e}. Methods of varying Q{sub e} will be indicated but no experimental data will be presented. If we increase the klystron pulse width from 3.5 to 5 {micro}S and increase Q{sub 0} from the present 100000 to 300000, then the gradient increases by 19% and the beam energy increases from 50 to 60 GeV. This note will also discuss SLED operation at 11424 MHz, the NLC frequency. Without Q{sub e} switching, using SLED at 11424 MHz increases the SLAC gradient from 21 MV/m to 34 MV/m, and at the same repetition rate, uses about 1/5 of rf average power. If we also double the compression ratio, we reach 47 MV/m and over 100 GeV beam energy.

  3. Effect of Different Tendering Measures onCunninghamia lanceolata%不同抚育措施对杉木大径材培育效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘跃钧; 马海泉; 陈天华; 冯博杰; 傅兵; 鄢振武

    2015-01-01

    于2011年在浙江省庆元县和龙泉市的杉木人工林设立了3个小班进行试验,每木调查,2012年3月前完成间伐,然后采取“间后施肥”、“间后不施”、“不间不施”3种不同抚育措施,研究其对杉木胸径生长量和经济收入的影响。结果表明:以“间后施肥”的效果最好,两年杉木大径材平均胸径生长量比间伐前增加了4 cm,蓄积增长量比间伐前增加了66.75 m3/hm2,平均胸径增长量分别比“间后不施”和“不间不施”增加1.03 cm和3.43 cm,平均蓄积增长量分别比“间后不施”和“不间不施”增加15.45 m3/hm2和42.90 m3/hm2。%Three subcompartments were established in 2011 for test of different tending measures inCunninghamia lanceolata plantation of Qingyuan and Longquan of Zhejiang province. Complete enumeration was conducted in 2011 at permanent sample plots in each treatment of each subcompartment. Thinning was finished before March 2012, followed by three different tendering measures, such as fertilization after thinning, no fertilization after thinning, no fertilization no thinning. The result demonstrated that fertilization after thinning had the best effect on DBH and standing stock increment, with 4cm and 66.75 m3/ha more two years later. Mean DBH and standing stock increment of treatment of fertilization after thinning was 1.03cm and 3.43cm, 15.45 m3/ha and 42.90 m3/ha more than that of no fertilization after thinning, no fertilization no thinning.

  4. 小分子热应激蛋白与肉嫩度的关系研究进展%Relationship between Small Heat Shock Proteins and Meat Tenderness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鑫; 邢通; 徐幸莲

    2016-01-01

    肉嫩度的形成与动物宰后肌肉成熟过程中发生的复杂生理生化变化密切相关。动物宰杀放血后,氧气和营养物质供应终止,细胞凋亡程序启动,因此,调控该过程的凋亡因子可能最终影响到肌肉品质。小分子热应激蛋白(small heat shock proteins,sHSPs)作为肌肉嫩度的潜在生物标记,在许多蛋白组学的研究中得到证实。sHSPs由于其抗细胞凋亡和分子伴侣功能特性,在保护肌原纤维蛋白、干扰凋亡通路信号、延缓内源性蛋白酶对其的降解、延长肉的成熟时间等方面起到重要作用,与肉嫩度密切相关。本文综述了sHSPs作为肌肉向食用肉转变过程中的分子伴侣和其抗凋亡作用对肉嫩度的影响及其作用机理。%The development of meat eating quality is closely related to complex biochemical processes during postmortem aging. Oxygen and nutrient withdrawal following exsanguination is known to induce apoptosis, so that muscle cells inevitably engage towards apoptotic cell death. Thus, factors that regulate the process of apoptotic cell death of muscle cells are believed to influence the ultimate meat quality. Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs), as biomarkers for meat quality attributes, have been confirmed by many proteomic studies. Due to the anti-apoptotic and molecular chaperone functions, sHSPs can protect myofibrillar proteins from degradation, interfere with cellular signal transduction pathways, delay myofibrillar protein degradation by endogenous enzymes and extend the process of meat aging. In this review, we discuss the mechanism of their possible chaperone and anti-apoptotic roles involved in meat tenderness during the conversion of muscle to meat.

  5. 藻酸盐印模材料在缓冲义齿压痛中的效果评价%The effect evaluation on buffering tenderness from dentures by alginate impression material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳; 黄旭; 古力巴哈·买买提力

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨藻酸盐印模材在缓冲义齿压痛中对义齿满意度的影响。方法:选取就诊的牙列缺损、牙列缺失患者146例,共146副全口、半口及可摘局部义齿,分为试验组和对照组,各73例,试验组:使用藻酸盐印模材料寻找压迫部位,对照组采用常规龙胆紫寻找压迫部位,调磨后调查患者对义齿修复的满意度。结果:试验组在咀嚼、舒适性和复诊次数方面较对照组均有所提高,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05),在稳固和语音方面比较,差异无统计学差异(P >0.05)。结论:藻酸盐印模材料在寻找义齿压迫部位方面可行,能减少患者复诊次数、减轻痛苦,提高患者满意度,值得在临床推广。%Objective To discuss the effect of alginate impression material after buffering tenderness from den-ture.Method 146 subjects were selected.A total of 146 complete dentures、semi -dentures and removable partial dentures.They were divided into experimental and control groups (each 73 patients).The experimental groups were using alginate impression mate-rial to find oppression site.Control group were using conventional gentian violet to find oppression site.To survey the patients′satis-faction after buffering the dentures.Results Compared with the control group,the satisfaction of mastication、comfort and number of subsequent visit was significantly improved in experimental group.The difference was statistically significant (P 0.05).Conclusion Alginate impression material is feasible in terms of looking dentures oppression site.It can reduce the number of subsequent visit,relieve pain,improve patient sat-isfaction,worthy of promotion.

  6. Temporomandibular disorders in scuba divers-an increased risk during diving certification training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, Ozmen; Tek, Mustafa; Seven, Hüseyin

    2012-11-01

    The design of a diving regulator's mouthpiece increases the risk of a temporomandibular disorder (TMD) in scuba divers. The total weight of a diving regulator is reflected directly on the temporomandibular joint, causing articular and periarticular disorders. In the current study, the prevalence of TMD in scuba divers triggered during diving certification training is investigated. We also aimed to determine the factors that lead to TMD during diving training and clarify the observation that there is an increased incidence of TMD in inexperienced divers. The study was held between 2006 and 2011. Ninety-seven divers were referred with the complaint of pain around temporomandibular area. The divers were classified according to their diving experience. Symptoms and signs of TMD were graded. Fourteen divers were diagnosed with TMD. Temporomandibular disorder was seen more frequently in inexperienced divers than in experienced divers (P = 0.0434). The most prevalent symptom was an increased effort for mouthpiece gripping. Temporomandibular joint tenderness and trigger point activation were the mostly seen physical signs. Thirteen divers had an improvement with therapy. The increased effort for stabilizing the mouthpiece is a recognized factor in TMD development. Attention must be paid to an association of scuba diving with TMDs, especially in inexperienced divers having a scuba certification training.

  7. Increasing Public Expenditure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ammar Ben Zaed

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to analyze and interpret the phenomenon of increased public expenditures and test explanatory theories as well as to analyze Abstract the relationship between public spending and GDP...

  8. Increasing Public Library Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Howard

    1981-01-01

    Suggests ways of improving productivity for public libraries faced with increased accountability, dwindling revenues, and continuing inflation. Techniques described include work simplification, work analysis, improved management, and employee motivation. (RAA)

  9. Increased intracranial pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patient's bedside in an emergency room or hospital. Primary care doctors may sometimes spot early symptoms of increased intracranial pressure such as headache, seizures, or other nervous system problems. An MRI ...

  10. Meeting increased demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Andrew

    2004-07-01

    New Zealand is a little country with a little economy but with a population that's rapidly aging. New Zealand's population is only 4.3 million people. It's GDP is only $US58.6 billion (2002). New Zealand's expenditure on health as a percentage of GDP is not out of line with that of other countries. As a nation we have been increasing expenditure on health over recent years. In 1990 we spent 7% of GDP on health. In 1995 that increased to 7.65% and is now 8.3%. However, in per capita terms our expenditure on health does not compare so well with like countries. The size of New Zealand's economy is restricting what our country spends on health. Health is already the second highest demand on the New Zealand tax dollar. The tolerance of New Zealanders would be challenged if a Government attempted to increase taxes further to meet the growing demands for expenditure on health, but at the same time the population's expectations are increasing. This is the challenging situation we face today. What lies ahead? Like all industrialized countries New Zealand is facing an aging population. The population below age 40 is decreasing, but it is increasing significantly over that age. 16% of the population is currently aged over 60. By 2051 this proportion will almost double to just over 31%. Coupled with the aging population is increased awareness and expectations, as access to options for treatment and technology becomes readily accessible to the population through such media as the internet. The extent of the impact of the aging population can be clearly represented by focusing on one specialty such as orthopaedics. The New Zealand Orthopaecic Association undertook a study in July 2003 which concluded (among other things) that as a result of the projected aging of the population, over the next 50 years: Musculo-skeletal operations will increase by over 30%. The number of hip replacements will nearly double. The incidence of osteoporosis will increase by a massive 201%. The number

  11. Exploding Increase of Population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.H. [Sunmoon University, Chonan (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    Until 1650, the population of the world did not increase properly. According to studies of the demography, the annual increase rate of the world population during 2500 years, from 850 B.C. to 1650 A.D., was just 0.07%. Currently, however, the world population, which has exceptionally rapidly increased from 1900, is more than 6 billion as of 2000. After World War II, especially, the increase rate of the population has risen to about 1.8%, so we can use the word, explosion of the population. The explosion of the population accompanies the increase of energy consumption. The energy production of every year cannot sufficiently meet the energy demand, so we can face the grand energy crisis someday. The date might be a someday after 2020. According to the future forecasting of Shell, one of the majors, the peak of oil supply will be between 2015 and 2020. Unless the alternative energy is developed, the whole world will suffer the serious oil crisis.

  12. Increased urinary orosomucoid excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, M S; Iversen, K; Larsen, C T

    2009-01-01

    , impaired left ventricular function and endothelial dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of 41 patients with type 2 diabetes (17 patients with normal UOER and 24 with increased UOER) with no history of cardiovascular disease and 21 healthy...... controls. Urinary orosomucoid was measured using a particle-enhanced immunoturbidimetric assay. Plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM) were measured using ELISA. Endothelial function measured as vasodilatory capacity...... of the brachial artery and echocardiography were done in all participants. RESULTS: Patients with diabetes and increased UOER had subclinically increased serum orosomucoid (pprotein (CRP) (p

  13. Increasing mobile radiography productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Edward; Lung, Ngan Tsz; Ng, Kris; Jeor, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Mobile radiography using computed radiography (CR) cassettes is a common equipment combination with a workflow bottleneck limited by location of CR readers. Advent of direct digital radiography (DDR) mobile x-ray machines removes this limitation by immediate image review and quality control. Through the use of key performance indicators (KPIs), the increase in efficiency can be quantified.

  14. Increasing income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Poulsen, Odile

    In recent decades most developed countries have experienced an increase in income inequality. In this paper, we use an equilibrium search framework to shed additional light on what is causing an income distribution to change. The major benefit of the model is that it can accommodate shocks...... to the skill composition in the market, employee bargaining power and productivity. Further, when our model is subjected to skill-upgrading and changes in employee bargaining power, it is capable of predicting the recent changes observed in the Danish income distribution. In addition, the model emphasizes...... that shocks to the employees' relative productivity, i.e., skill-biased technological change, are unlikely to have caused the increase in income inequality....

  15. Pemex increasing offshore activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beachy, D.

    1985-05-01

    Although austere by boom-year standards, Mexico's National Energy Program for 1984-1988 calls for forty wildcats and 90 to 144 development wells off the coast, primarily in the prolific Campeche Bay area. Platform additions will include nine drilling platforms, each for twelve wells, and eight eight platforms to drill injection wells. Additionally, 7 production, 6 accomodation, 6 linkage and 8 compression platforms and 13 tetrapods will be installed. The main objectives of the plan are energy self-sufficiency through the turn of the century, and energy diversification, savings and productivity. The most controversial portion of Mexico's energy program is that calling for nuclear energy development. The energy program lists three basic goals in hydrocarbon production: continuing research on better techniques of secondary recovery; increasing capacity for refining primary and secondary crude products and improving production of heavy crudes; and increasing storage capacity and installing pipelines capable of carrying a greater volume of crude.

  16. Market Expects Demand Increase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In the recent releasing Textile Industry Invigorating Plan,"givingattention to both domestlc and overseas markets"is put into a keyposition.Under a series policies,such as increasing the tax rebaterate for textile and garment exports,and granting loan for SME,thefurther development of this industry is expectative.Otherwise,weshould know that it costs time for demand driving.This need ourpatients.The only questionis how much time we have to wait.

  17. Caracterização do processo de rigor mortis em músculos de eqüinos e maciez da carne Caracterization of rigor mortis process of muscle horse and meat tenderness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Pacheco Rodrigues

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa utilizou 12 eqüinos de diferentes idades, abatidos em um matadouro-frigorífico (SIF 1803 em Araguari-MG, e estudou a temperatura, pH, comprimento de sarcômero em diferentes intervalos de tempo após abate (1h, 5h, 8h, 10h, 12h, 15h e 24h e força de cisalhamento (maciez dos músculos Longissimus dorsi e Semitendinosus, com intuito de caracterizar o desenvolvimento do processo de rigor mortis de eqüídeos durante o processamento industrial. A temperatura da câmara fria variou de 10,2°C a 4,0°C e a temperatura média inicial das carcaças foi de 35,32°C e a final de 4,15°C. O pH inicial médio do músculo Longissimus dorsi foi 6,49 e o final 5,63, e para o músculo Semitendinosus o pH inicial médio foi 6,44 e o final 5,70. A menor medida de sarcômero observada em ambos os músculos foi na 15ª hora após abate, ou seja, 1,44µm e 1,41µm, respectivamente. A carne dos eqüídeos adultos foi mais dura (pThis work studied 12 horses at different ages butchered in a slaughterhouse in Minas Gerais State, Brazil (SIF 1803 and evaluated temperature, pH, sarcomere length in different periods after slaughter (1h, 5h, 8h, 10h, 12h, 15h, and 24 hours as well as the shear force (meat tenderness of the Longissimus dorsi and Semitendinosus muscles, aiming at characterizing the rigor mortis onset in the meat during industrial processing. The chilly room temperature varied from 10.2°C to 4.0°C, and the mean initial carcass temperature was 35.32°C and the final one was 4.15°C. The mean initial pH of Longissimus dorsi was 6.49 and the final one was 5.63; the mean initial pH of Semitendinosus was 6.44 and the final one was 5.70. The smallest sarcomere size obtained in both muscles occurred at 15 hours postmortem, and the sarcomere lengths were 1.44 µm and 1.41 µm, respectively. The meat from adult horses was tougher than that from young ones (p<0.05, and the Semitendinosus muscle was tougher than Longissimus dorsi muscle.

  18. Alarming increase in refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Over the past decade and half there has been an alarming worldwide increase in refugees. The total rose form 2.8 million in 1976 to 8.2 million in 1980, to 17.3 million in 1990. Africa's refugees rose from 1.2 million in 1976 to 5.6 million in 1990. Asia's increase over this period was much more rapid--from a mere 180,000 to 8 million. In the Americas the numbers more than trebled, from 770,000 to 2.7 million. Europe was the smallest increase, from 570,000 to 894,000. International law defines a refugee as someone outside of their own country, who has a well-founded fear of persecution because of their political or religious beliefs or ethnic origin, and who cannot turn to their own country for protection. Most refugees are genuine by this definition. The increase reflects, in part, fallout from the cold war. Ethiopia, Mozambique and Angola accounted for almost 1/2 of Africa's refugees; Afghanistan alone for 3/4 of Asia's total. They fled, for the most part, from 1 poor country into another, where they added to shortages of land and fuelwood, and intensified environmental pressure. Malawi, 1 of the poorest countries in the world, is sheltering perhaps as many as 750,000 refugees from the war in Mozambique. But among these refugees--especially among those who turned to the rich countries for asylum--were an increasing number of people who were not suffering political persecution. Driven out of their homes by the collapse of their environment or economic despair, and ready to take any means to get across borders, they are a new category: economic and environmental refugees. The most spectacular attempts hit the television screens: the Vietnamese boat people, ships festooned with Albanians. Behind the headlines there was a growing tide of asylum seekers. The numbers rose 10-fold in Germany from 1983 to 1990. In Switzerland they multiplied by 4 times. In Europe, as a whole, they grew from 71,000 in 1983 to an estimated 550,000 in 1990. In 1990 the numbers threatened to

  19. Increasing Childhood Influenza Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Lin, Chyongchiou J.; Hannibal, Kristin; Reis, Evelyn C.; Gallik, Gregory; Moehling, Krissy K.; Huang, Hsin-Hui; Allred, Norma J.; Wolfson, David H.; Zimmerman, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Since the 2008 inception of universal childhood influenza vaccination, national rates have risen more dramatically among younger children than older children and reported rates across racial/ethnic groups are inconsistent. Interventions may be needed to address age and racial disparities to achieve the recommended childhood influenza vaccination target of 70%. Purpose To evaluate an intervention to increase childhood influenza vaccination across age and racial groups. Methods In 2011–2012, 20 primary care practices treating children were randomly assigned to Intervention and Control arms of a cluster randomized controlled trial to increase childhood influenza vaccination uptake using a toolkit and other strategies including early delivery of donated vaccine, in-service staff meetings, and publicity. Results The average vaccination differences from pre-intervention to the intervention year were significantly larger in the Intervention arm (n=10 practices) than the Control arm (n=10 practices), for children aged 2–8 years (10.2 percentage points (pct pts) Intervention vs 3.6 pct pts Control) and 9–18 years (11.1 pct pts Intervention vs 4.3 pct pts Control, p<0.05), for non-white children (16.7 pct pts Intervention vs 4.6 pct pts Control, p<0.001), and overall (9.9 pct pts Intervention vs 4.2 pct pts Control, p<0.01). In multi-level modeling that accounted for person- and practice-level variables and the interactions among age, race and intervention, the likelihood of vaccination increased with younger age group (6–23 months), white race, commercial insurance, the practice’s pre-intervention vaccination rate, and being in the Intervention arm. Estimates of the interaction terms indicated that the intervention increased the likelihood of vaccination for non-white children in all age groups and white children aged 9–18 years. Conclusions A multi-strategy intervention that includes a practice improvement toolkit can significantly improve influenza

  20. CHINA INCREASED PETROLEUM TAX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Xueping

    2005-01-01

    @@ After half a year's gestation and adjustment, the State Administration of Taxation finally set new tax rate of petroleum resources. Notification issued by the Ministry of Finance and the State Administration of Taxation said the petroleum resources tax standard would be lifted nationwide, after the tax rate adjustment, tax on crude oil would be increased to RMB 14-30 yuan per ton and that on natural gas to RMB 7-15 yuan per thousand cubic meters. The new tax rate has been effective nationwide since July 1.

  1. Increasing Inflationary Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2008-01-01

    @@ China's CPI rose to 8.7 percent in February after hitting 7.1 percent in January,creating a 12-year high,the National Bureau of Statistics said.The figure exceeded market expectations,as the Bank of China,the country's secondlargest lender,had predicted a rise of only 8.3 percent.The Consumer Price Index (CPI)is the main gauge of inflation,andthe high CPI over the last two months has put pressure on the government to take action to curb the price increases,and added even more diffculty to the task of reining in this year's inflation rate.

  2. Increased capsaicin receptor TRPV1 in skin nerve fibres and related vanilloid receptors TRPV3 and TRPV4 in keratinocytes in human breast pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Facer Paul

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast pain and tenderness affects 70% of women at some time. These symptoms have been attributed to stretching of the nerves with increase in breast size, but tissue mechanisms are poorly understood. Methods Eighteen patients (n = 12 breast reduction and n = 6 breast reconstruction were recruited and assessed for breast pain by clinical questionnaire. Breast skin biopsies from each patient were examined using immunohistological methods with specific antibodies to the capsaicin receptor TRPV1, related vanilloid thermoreceptors TRPV3 and TRPV4, and nerve growth factor (NGF. Results TRPV1-positive intra-epidermal nerve fibres were significantly increased in patients with breast pain and tenderness (TRPV1 fibres / mm epidermis, median [range] – no pain group, n = 8, 0.69 [0–1.27]; pain group, n = 10, 2.15 [0.77–4.38]; p = 0.0009. Nerve Growth Factor, which up-regulates TRPV1 and induces nerve sprouting, was present basal keratinocytes: some breast pain specimens also showed NGF staining in supra-basal keratinocytes. TRPV4-immunoreactive fibres were present in sub-epidermis but not significantly changed in painful breast tissue. Both TRPV3 and TRPV4 were significantly increased in keratinocytes in breast pain tissues; TRPV3, median [range] – no pain group, n = 6, 0.75 [0–2]; pain group, n = 11, 2 123, p = 0.008; TRPV4, median [range] – no pain group, n = 6, [0–1]; pain group, n = 11, 1 [0.5–2], p = 0.014. Conclusion Increased TRPV1 intra-epidermal nerve fibres could represent collateral sprouts, or re-innervation following nerve stretch and damage by polymodal nociceptors. Selective TRPV1-blockers may provide new therapy in breast pain. The role of TRPV3 and TRPV4 changes in keratinocytes deserve further study.

  3. Elenoside increases intestinal motility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E Navarro; SJ Alonso; R Navarro; J Trujillo; E Jorge

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of elenoside, an arylnaphthalene lignan from Justicia hyssopifolia, on gastrointestinal motility in vivo and in vitro in rats.METHODS: Routine in vivo experimental assessments were catharsis index, water percentage of boluses,intestinal transit, and codeine antagonism. The groups included were vehicle control (propylene glycol-ethanolplant oil-tween 80), elenoside (i.p. 25 and 50 mg/kg),cisapride (i.p. 10 mg/kg), and codeine phosphate (intragastric route, 50 mg/kg). In vitro approaches used isolated rat intestinal tissues (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum). The effects of elenoside at concentrations of 3.2× 10-4, 6.4 × 10-4 and 1.2 × 10-3 mol/L, and cisapride at 10-6 mol/L were investigated.RESULTS: Elenoside in vivo produced an increase in the catharsis index and water percentage of boluses and in the percentage of distance traveled by a suspension of activated charcoal. Codeine phosphate antagonized the effect of 25 mg/kg of elenoside. In vitro, elenoside in duodenum, jejunum and ileum produced an initial decrease in the contraction force followed by an increase.Elenoside resulted in decreased intestinal frequency in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. The in vitro and in vivo effects of elenoside were similar to those produced by cisapride.CONCLUSION: Elenoside is a lignan with an action similar to that of purgative and prokinetics drugs.Elenoside, could be an alternative to cisapride in treatment of gastrointestinal diseases as well as a preventive therapy for the undesirable gastrointestinal effects produced by opioids used for mild to moderate pain.

  4. Increasing orUnderselling ?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2011-01-01

    The downgrade of sovereignty credit rating of the United States causes new concerns on US treasury bonds.According to the report issued recently by Treasury Ministry of United States,China as the largest oversea holding country of US treasury bonds continues to buy US treasury bonds,with an increase of 5.7 billion US dollars in June,marking the third month in line.Till now,China has US treasury bonds up to a new record of 1,165.5 billion US dollars,which amounts to 26% of the oversea holding US treasury bonds,based on market estimation,followed by Japan (20%),UK (8%),Brazil (5%)and Russia (3%).However,in sharp contrast to China,other countries are underselling us treasury bonds,particularly Russia.Data shows that since October 2010,Russia has been selling US treasury bonds for eight months in line,up to 38% of their holdings.Now Russia only holds 111 billion US dollars of US treasury bond.Why the countries take totally different attitudes towards to US treasury bonds? Tne reporter interviewed the experts from China and Russia for more details.

  5. Stress increases periodontal inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    RIVERA, CÉSAR; MONSALVE, FRANCISCO; SUAZO, IVÁN; BECERRA, JAVIERA

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of chronic restraint stress (RS) on the severity of experimental periodontal disease in rats. A total of 32 male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were divided into four groups: i) Rats receiving two treatment regimens, chronic stress induced by movement restriction in acrylic cylinders for 1–1.5 h daily and induction of experimental periodontal disease, using a nylon ligature which was placed around the first left mandibular molars (n=8); ii) induction of periodontal disease, without RS (n=8); iii) RS (n=8) and iv) control (n=8). After 15 days, blood samples were obtained, and blood glucose levels and the corticosterone concentration were measured as stress markers. The severity of periodontal disease was analyzed according to the level of gingival and bone inflammation, leading to compromise of the teeth involved. Chronic stress was induced with movement restriction (P≤0.05, Mann-Whitney U-test) and increased the severity (P≤0.05, Mann-Whitney U-test) of experimental perio dontal disease in rats, according to the level of gingival and bone inflammation around the first left mandibular molars. The results of the present study showed that RS modulates periodontal inflammation and that the rat model described herein is suitable for investigating the association between stress and periodontal disease. PMID:23226743

  6. Increasing Possibilities of Nanosuspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Bishwajit Sutradhar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, a very large proportion of new drug candidates emerging from drug discovery programmes are water insoluble and thus poorly bioavailable. To avoid this problem, nanotechnology for drug delivery has gained much interest as a way to improve the solubility problems. Nano refers to particles size range of 1–1000 nm. The reduction of drug particles into the submicron range leads to a significant increase in the dissolution rate and therefore enhances bioavailability. Nanosuspensions are part of nanotechnology. This interacts with the body at subcellular (i.e., molecular scales with a high degree of specificity and can be potentially translated into targeted cellular and tissue-specific clinical applications designed to achieve maximal therapeutic efficacy with minimal side effects. Production of drugs as nanosuspensions can be developed for drug delivery systems as an oral formulation and nonoral administration. Here, this review describes the methods of pharmaceutical nanosuspension production including advantages and disadvantages, potential benefits, characterization tests, and pharmaceutical applications in drug delivery.

  7. Increased mortality in narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohayon, Maurice M; Black, Jed; Lai, Chinglin; Eller, Mark; Guinta, Diane; Bhattacharyya, Arun

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the mortality rate in patients with narcolepsy. Data were derived from a large database representative of the US population, which contains anonymized patient-linked longitudinal claims for 173 million individuals. Symphony Health Solutions (SHS) Source Lx, an anonymized longitudinal patient dataset. All records of patients registered in the SHS database between 2008 and 2010. None. Identification of patients with narcolepsy was based on ≥ 1 medical claim with the diagnosis of narcolepsy (ICD-9 347.xx) from 2002 to 2012. Dates of death were acquired from the Social Security Administration via a third party; the third party information was encrypted in the same manner as the claims data such that anonymity is ensured prior to receipt by SHS. Annual all-cause mortality rates for 2008, 2009, and 2010 were calculated retrospectively for patients with narcolepsy and patients without narcolepsy in the database, and standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated. Mortality rates were also compared with the general US population (Centers for Disease Control data). SMRs of the narcolepsy population were consistent over the 3-year period and showed an approximate 1.5-fold excess mortality relative to those without narcolepsy. The narcolepsy population had consistently higher mortality rates relative to those without narcolepsy across all age groups, stratified by age decile, from 25-34 years to 75+ years of age. The SMR for females with narcolepsy was lower than for males with narcolepsy. Narcolepsy was associated with approximately 1.5-fold excess mortality relative to those without narcolepsy. While the cause of this increased mortality is unknown, these findings warrant further investigation.

  8. 78 FR 48631 - Descriptive Designation for Needle- or Blade-Tenderized (Mechanically Tenderized) Beef Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Rachel Edelstein, Assistant Administrator, Office of Policy and Program Development... race, color, national origin, gender, religion, age, disability, political beliefs, sexual...

  9. 78 FR 34589 - Descriptive Designation for Needle- or Blade-Tenderized (Mechanically Tenderized) Beef Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... consumers. \\18\\ Yang et al (1999) show that 15% of consumers changed their behavior based on reading safe... behavior based on reading safe handling instructions. Consumer Concerns Motivating to Action, Emerging... labels on safe handling practices. Safe Handling Labels and Consumer Behavior in the Southern U.S. \\21...

  10. Análise e avaliação das especificações dos alimentos contidas em editais de chamadas públicas do PNAE | Analysis and Evaluation of the Food Specifications Contained in Public Calls for Tenders prepared by the PNAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanice de Azevedo Aguiar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A partir de 2009, especificamente após a promulgação da Lei nº 11.947/2009, os gestores do Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar – PNAE devem utilizar, no mínimo, 30% do total dos recursos financeiros recebidos do Governo Federal na aquisição de alimentos provenientes da agricultura e do empreendedor familiar rural. A compra dos alimentos deve ser realizada a partir de chamada pública, conforme a Lei nº 8.666/1993, requerendo que haja especificação do bem ou serviço a ser adquirido. O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi verificar o cumprimento da legislação vigente para o assunto pelos gestores do PNAE, quando da elaboração das chamadas públicas. A amostra foi composta por 201 editais de chamadas públicas, referentes ao período entre janeiro e julho de 2013, obtidos via eletrônica entre junho e julho de 2013. Os resultados indicaram não conformidades em todas as regiões pesquisadas, faltando informações básicas ao agricultor e empreendedor familiar rural sobre a qualificação dos alimentos nas chamadas públicas. Foi possível concluir que a maior parte dos gestores não tem observado a legislação vigente do PNAE, desconsideraram também, a questão da qualidade e segurança dos alimentos, situação constatada pelas deficiências verificadas nos editais de chamadas públicas, não sendo nesta pesquisa, perceptível a participação do nutricionista, apesar de 95% das EEx terem este profissional como responsável técnico. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- As of 2009, especially after the enactment of Law No. 11.947/2009, the managers of the National School Meal Program-PNAE must use at least 30% of the total funds received from the Federal Government, for purchasing food produced by agricultural and rural family entrepreneurs. The purchase of food must be subject to a public call for tenders, according to Law No. 8.666/1993, that must include

  11. Meat from wild ungulates: ensuring quality and hygiene of an increasing resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Trabalza Marinucci

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Wild ungulate populations are increasing in Europe and Italy, with a consequent increase in culling rates and availability of their meats. Objectives of this review were to evaluate the trends of availability of meat from wild ungulates in Italy, to review the present knowledge on nutritional properties, sensorial characteristics, and hygiene problems of wild ungulate meat and to examine the critical steps that influence their hygiene and quality. Wild ungulate meat in Italy derives mainly from wild boar, roe deer and red deer and its availability has been increasing in the last decade. Total consumption of wild ungulate meat is low (0.1-0.3 kg per capita/year, but in some regions rises to significant levels, especially for hunters’ families (1.0-4.0 kg per capita/year. Wild ungulate meats generally have a low fat content, although with a certain variability associated with gender, hunting season, age and physiological conditions, and a favourable fatty acid composition. In general, they are darker, less tender and characterised by a more intense and peculiar flavour than meats from domestic ruminants. However, these properties also show a great inter- and intra-specific variability. Risks for the consumer associated with contaminants (heavy metals, radionuclides, organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls and zoonoses are considered to be low. Critical steps from shooting in the field to the final marketing should be considered to ensure hygiene and quality of meats. Future research should focus on the variability of hunting modes, accuracy of shooting, field dressing and carcass processing, in order to understand how these practices influence the final microbiological and sensorial quality of wild ungulate meats.

  12. High Blood Pressure Increasing Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162977.html High Blood Pressure Increasing Worldwide And health risks may appear even ... of people around the world with elevated or high blood pressure increases, so do the number of deaths linked ...

  13. Does residual force enhancement increase with increasing stretch magnitudes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisey, Brandon; Leonard, Tim R; Herzog, Walter

    2009-07-22

    It is generally accepted that force enhancement in skeletal muscles increases with increasing stretch magnitudes. However, this property has not been tested across supra-physiological stretch magnitudes and different muscle lengths, thus it is not known whether this is a generic property of skeletal muscle, or merely a property that holds for small stretch magnitudes within the physiological range. Six cat soleus muscles were actively stretched with magnitudes varying from 3 to 24 mm at three different parts of the force-length relationship to test the hypothesis that force enhancement increases with increasing stretch magnitude, independent of muscle length. Residual force enhancement increased consistently with stretch amplitudes on the descending limb of the force-length relationship up to a threshold value, after which it reached a plateau. Force enhancement did not increase with stretch amplitude on the ascending limb of the force-length relationship. Passive force enhancement was observed for all test conditions, and paralleled the behavior of the residual force enhancement. Force enhancement increased with stretch magnitude when stretching occurred at lengths where there was natural passive force within the muscle. These results suggest that force enhancement does not increase unconditionally with increasing stretch magnitude, as is generally accepted, and that increasing force enhancement with stretch appears to be tightly linked to that part of the force-length relationship where there is naturally occurring passive force.

  14. Composição centesimal, perdas de peso e maciez de lombo (longissimus dorsi suíno submetido a diferentes tratamentos de congelamento e descongelamento Proximate analysis, weight losses and tenderness of pork loin (longissimus dorsi submitted to different freezing and thawing treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivy Scorzi Cazelli PIRES

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas a composição centesimal, as perdas de peso e a maciez de porções de carne suína (Longissimus dorsi grelhadas, submetidas a dois períodos de estocagem (15 e 60 dias e descongeladas a 7ºC e 25ºC. Constatou-se que os bifes contendo teores mais elevados de umidade correspondem aos tratamentos com 15 dias de estocagem congelada e descongelamento a 7ºC (59,54% e com 60 dias de estocagem congelada combinada com descongelamento a 25ºC (60,51%. Amostras armazenadas durante 60 dias apresentaram maior teor de minerais (5,58% em relação àquelas estocadas por 15 dias (4,51% (análise realizada em amostras grelhadas e pré-salgadas. Os teores de proteína e lipídios e a maciez não foram afetados por quaisquer dos procedimentos. A utilização de 25ºC para o descongelamento ocasionou maiores perdas de peso (40,19% que 7ºC (33,17%. Os resultados do presente estudo sugerem a aplicação de períodos curtos de estocagem congelada e descongelamento sob resfriamento.This paper evaluated the proximate analysis, the weight losses and the tenderness of grilled pork loin (Longissimus dorsi chops, submitted to two periods of storage (15 and 60 days and thawed at 7ºC or 25ºC. The higher contents of moisture were found in the pork loin samples kept frozen for 15 days and thawed at 7ºC (59.54% and in the ones kept frozen for 60 days with thawing at 25ºC (60.51%. Samples stored for 60 days presented higher minerals contents (5.58% in relation to those stored for 15 days (4.51% (the analysis was carried out with grilled and pre-salted portions. The different treatments did not influence the lipids and protein contents and the tenderness of the pork loin chops. The use of 25ºC for the thawing caused greater weight losses (40.19% than 7ºC (33.17%. The results of the present study suggest the application of short periods of frozen storage and thawing in the refrigerator.

  15. Efeito do colágeno na maciez da carne de bovinos de distintos grupos genéticos - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i1.664 Collagen effects in meat tenderness of bovines of different genetic groups - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i1.664

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Nunes de Oliveira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a influência do colágeno na maciez da carne de animais de diferentes grupos genéticos produzidos no sistema de produção do novilho superprecoce. Foram utilizados bezerros machos inteiros da raça Nelore, mestiços ½ Nelore x ½ Aberdeen Angus e mestiços ½ Nelore x ½ Simental. Após abate e resfriamento por 24 horas, foram retiradas amostras do músculo Longissimus dorsi, na região entre a 11a e a 13a costela, sendo que uma amostra foi congelada e as demais maturadas por 7 e 14 dias. Não houve diferença significativa (p > 0,01 entre os grupos genéticos para a quantidade e a solubilidade de colágeno e a força de cisalhamento. A quantidade e a solubilidade do colágeno não comprometeram a maciez da carne, indiferentemente do grupo genético utilizado e do tempo postmortem, tornando vantajosa a opção de se abaterem animais jovens.The aim of work was to analyze the collagen effect in meat tenderness of animals of different genetic groups produced by very young bullock production system. Male calves Nellore purebred, ½ Nellore x ½ Aberdeen Angus and ½ Nellore x ½ Simmental crossbred were used. After slaughter and cooling for 24 hours Longissimus dorsi samples were removed, between 11th and 13th ribs, one sample was frozen and the others ageing for 7 and 14 days. There was no difference (p > 0,01 between genetic groups for amount and heat soluble collagen and shear force values. The amount and solubility collagen don’t compromised the meat tenderness, indifferent of the genetic group used and postmortem period, becoming the early slaughter an advantageous option for meat production with desirable characteristics.

  16. The Finance Committee is invited to authorize CERN to negotiate on behalf of the Participating Institutes of the CMS Collaboration a contract, without competitive tendering, for the procurement of 200 scintillator sheets for the Outer Barrel of the CMS Hadron Detector from BICRON (USA) for a total cost of 285 000 US dollars, not subject to revision. At the present rate of exchange, this amount is e quivalent to approximately 439 000 Swiss francs.

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the supply of 2522 austenitic steel shells for the cold masses of the LHC superconducting dipole magnets. Following a market survey carried out among 158 firms in nineteen Member States and seven firms in Japan, a call for tenders (IT-2468/LHC/LHC) was sent on 16 August 1999 to eight firms and one consortium consisting of two firms, in six Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received five tenders. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the consortium ICARUS (BE) / BUTTING (DE), the lowest bidder, for the supply of 2522 austenitic steel shells for the cold masses of the LHC superconducting dipole magnets for a total amount of 18 723 773 euros (29 962 831 Swiss francs), subject to revision for contractual deliveries after 31 December 2001, with an option for the supply of up to 126 additional austenitic steel shells, for a total amount of 935 446 euros (1 496 953 Swiss francs), subject to revision for contractua...

  17. Increasing tobacco taxes : A cheap tool to increase public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baal, Pieter H. M.; Brouwer, Werner B. F.; Hoogenveen, Rudolf T.; Feenstra, Talitha L.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Several studies have estimated health effects resulting from tobacco tax increases. However, studies on the cost effectiveness of tobacco taxes are scarce. The aim of this study was to estimate the cost effectiveness of tobacco tax increases from a health care perspective, explicitly c

  18. Increasing diversity in radiologic technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carwile, Laura

    2003-01-01

    Diversity is increasingly important in the radiologic technology workplace. For significant changes to occur in work force diversity, educators must first recruit and retain students from a wide variety of backgrounds. This article examines personality, race and gender as factors affecting career choice and how educators can use these factors to increase diversity in their programs. An overview of the ASRT's efforts to improve diversity within the profession is presented, along with suggestions for developing effective recruitment and retention plans to increase diversity.

  19. Korea's 2015 cigarette tax increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherukupalli, Rajeev

    2016-03-01

    South Korea increased tobacco taxes in 2015 after a 10-year gap. This commentary suggests two lessons for public finance practitioners. Substantive tax increases are crucial to reducing tobacco use; particularly where prices are demonstrably lower and prevalence higher in comparison to other countries ranked similarly on economic development indicators. Second, as a rule of thumb, governments cannot afford to neglect the annual increases that ensure that tobacco taxes do not lose their efficacy over time.

  20. Increasing Access to Special Collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricky Erway

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In an environment where we increasingly have access to a collective collection of digitized books, special collections will become increasingly invisible if they are not accessible online. In an era of increasing expectations and decreasing budgets, finding ways to streamline some of our processes is the best way to enable us to do more with less. This report details a number of investigations into how access to special collections can be increased. It includes guidance running the gamut from digitization and rights management to policies and procedures.

  1. Is the incidence of temporomandibular disorder increased in polycystic ovary syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soydan, Sidika Sinem; Deniz, Kagan; Uckan, Sina; Unal, Aslı Dogruk; Tutuncu, Neslihan Bascıl

    2014-11-01

    The prevalence of temporomandibular disorders is higher among women than men (ratio 3:1 -9:1). Polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women, which is characterised by chronic low-grade inflammation and excess of androgenic hormones that lead to metabolic aberrations and ovarian dysfunction. Increased activities of various matrix metalloproteinases (particularly MMP-2 and 9) in the serum of these patients has been reported, and it has been hypothesised that high activities of MMP may contribute to loss of matrix and chronic inflammation of the fibrocartilage in temporomandibular disorders. Our aim was to evaluate the incidence of temopormandibular dysfunction in women with PCOS compared with an age-matched, disease-free, control group. We studied 50 patients with previously diagnosed PCOS and 50 volunteers who had normal menstrual cycles. We made a comprehensive clinical examination of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and muscles of mastication in both groups and recorded the Visual Analogue Scores (VAS) for pain. There were significant differences (ptemporomandibular disorders (n=43 (86%) in the PCOS group compared with n=12 24% in the control group), muscle tenderness(n=32 (64%) in the PCOS group compared with n=14 (28%) in the control group) and pain in the TMJ (mean (SD) VAS 2.9 (2.61) compared with 0.3 (1.56). We confirm the higher incidence and severity of disorders of the TMJ in patients with PCOS and suspect that chronic low-grade inflammation may play a part in the aetiology of the disease.

  2. RESTAURANT NO. 2: PRICE INCREASES

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    'DSR', the concession holder of Restaurant no. 2 (bldg. 504 - Meyrin site), has submitted to the Restaurant Supervisory Committee a request to increase certain prices. After close examination, the Committee has established that the proposed increases are compatible with the relevant price indexing mechanisms and other contractual conditions. The new prices will apply as from Monday, June 30, 2003.

  3. RESTAURANT NO. 3: PRICE INCREASES

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    'AVENANCE', the concession holder of Restaurant no. 3 (bldg. 866 - Prévessin site), has submitted to the Restaurant Supervisory Committee a request to increase its prices. After close examination, the Committee has established that the proposed increases are compatible with the relevant price indexing mechanisms and other contractual conditions. The new prices will apply as from Monday, June 2, 2003.

  4. Assessing and Increasing Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Hayes, Lynda B.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing physical activity is a crucial component of any comprehensive approach to combat the growing obesity epidemic. This review summarizes recent behavioral research on the measurement of physical activity and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and provides directions for future research.

  5. Assessing and Increasing Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Hayes, Lynda B.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing physical activity is a crucial component of any comprehensive approach to combat the growing obesity epidemic. This review summarizes recent behavioral research on the measurement of physical activity and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and provides directions for future research.

  6. Volatiles Which Increase Magma Viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, S.

    2015-12-01

    The standard model of an erupting volcano is one in which the viscosity of a decompressing magma increases as the volatiles leave the melt structure to form bubbles. It has now been observed that the addition of the "volatiles" P, Cl and F result in an increase in silicate melt viscosity. This observation would mean that the viscosity of selected degassing magmas would decrease rather than increase. Here we look at P, Cl and F as three volatiles which increase viscosity through different structural mechanisms. In all three cases the volatiles increase the viscosity of peralkaline composition melts, but appear to always decrease the viscosity of peraluminous melts. Phosphorus causes the melt to unmix into a Na-P rich phase and a Na-poor silicate phase. Thus as the network modifying Na (or Ca) are removed to the phosphorus-rich melt, the matrix melt viscosity increases. With increasing amounts of added phosphorus (at network modifying Na ~ P) the addition of further phosphorus causes a decrease in viscosity. The addition of chlorine to Fe-free aluminosilicate melts results in an increase in viscosity. NMR data on these glass indicates that the chlorine sits in salt-like structures surrounded by Na and/or Ca. Such structures would remove network-modifying atoms from the melt structure and thus result in an increase in viscosity. The NMR spectra of fluorine-bearing glasses shows that F takes up at least 5 different structural positions in peralkaline composition melts. Three of these positions should result in a decrease in viscosity due to the removal of bridging oxygens. Two of the structural positons of F, however, should result in an increase in viscosity as they require the removal of network-modifying atoms from the melt structure (with one of the structures being that observed for Cl). This would imply that increasing amounts of F might result in an increase in viscosity. This proposed increase in viscosity with increasing F has now been experimentally confirmed.

  7. Employee benefits or wage increase?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Duda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper comes from a survey done during the years 2007–2009. It focused on employee satisfaction with the provision of employee benefits. The research included 21 companies, 7 companies were from the engineering sector, 7 companies from the food industry, 3 companies represented the budgetary sphere, 3 companies the services sector and one company operates in pharmaceutical industry.The questionnaire survey consisted of 14 questions, including 5 identification-questions. The paper presents results of the questions on dealing with employees’ awareness of employee benefits and on choosing between employees’ preferences of wage increase or increase in value of benefits provided.Employees are informed about all options of providing employee benefits. Only in 3 cases employees stated dissatisfaction with information. This answer was related with the responses to the second monitored question. Employees of these companies preferred pay increases before benefits’ increases. There was no effect of gender of the respondents, neither the influence of the sector of operation, in the preference of increases in wages or in benefits. Exceptions were the employees of companies operating in the financial sector, who preferred employee benefits before a wage increase. It was found that employees of companies who participated in research in 2009, preferred wage increases before the extension of employee benefits, although the value of the net wage increase is lower than the monetary value of benefits increase.The paper is a part of solution of the research plan MSM 6215648904 The Czech economy in the process of integration and globalization, and the development of agricultural sector and the sector of services under the new conditions of the integrated European market.

  8. Demand for Phenol Increases Steadily

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Dramatic growth in output By the end of 2006 China's capacity to produce phenol had reached more than 600 thousand t/a. The total output was 523 thousand tons in 2006,an increase of 18.1% over 2005.

  9. Increasing Positive Interactive Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotcher, Elaine; Doremus, Richard R.

    1973-01-01

    The question examined in this study was as follows: do teachers increase their positive classroom interactive behaviors as a result of training in systematic classroom observation techniques? (Authors/JA)

  10. Demand for SBR Increased Steadily

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Yiwen

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 Rapid consumption growth Consumption of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) in China was 747 thousand tons in 2006, an increase of 21% over 2005, with faster growth than the average rubber consumption growth.

  11. AND INCREASED SMALLHOLDER PRODUCTIVITY IN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Increases in agricultural productivity are fundamental to the sustainable development of many African economies .... scientists learn how to manage trees sustainably ... Today there are powerful tools that can be brought to bear on ...

  12. INCREASING RETURN TO SMART CITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Lööf, Hans; Nabavi, Pardis

    2012-01-01

    Increased urbanization, global warming and sustainable growth belong to the major contemporary policy challenges. Today cities are home to more than 50% of the world population, the largest 600 urban centers generate about 60% of global GDP, and the agglomerated areas are responsible for 75% of world carbon emissions. The UN estimates that 70% of the world's growing population will live in cities by 2050. At the same time the world population is expected to increase from 7 billion people to 9...

  13. RESTAURANT NO. 3 : PRICE INCREASES

    CERN Multimedia

    Restaurant Supervisory Committee

    2002-01-01

    'AVENANCE', the concession holder of Restaurant no. 3 (bldg. 866 - Prévessin site), has submitted to the Restaurant Supervisory Committee a request to increase its prices. After close examination, the Committee has established that the proposed increases are compatible with the relevant price indexing mechanisms and other contractual conditions. The new prices will apply as from Monday, June 3, 2002. Restaurant Supervisory Committee, tel. 77551

  14. Pulsed electric field increases reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagopoulos, Dimitris J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To study the effect of pulsed electric field - applied in corona discharge photography - on Drosophila melanogaster reproduction, possible induction of DNA fragmentation, and morphological alterations in the gonads. Materials and methods Animals were exposed to different field intensities (100, 200, 300, and 400 kV/m) during the first 2-5 days of their adult lives, and the effect on reproductive capacity was assessed. DNA fragmentation during early- and mid-oogenesis was investigated by application of the TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling) assay. Sections of follicles after fixation and embedding in resins were observed for possible morphological/developmental abnormalities. Results The field increased reproduction by up to 30% by increasing reproductive capacity in both sexes. The effect increased with increasing field intensities. The rate of increase diminished at the strongest intensities. Slight induction of DNA fragmentation was observed exclusively in the nurse (predominantly) and follicle cells, and exclusively at the two most sensitive developmental stages, i.e., germarium and predominantly stage 7-8. Sections of follicles from exposed females at stages of early and mid-oogennesis other than germarium and stages 7-8 did not reveal abnormalities. Conclusions (1) The specific type of electric field may represent a mild stress factor, inducing DNA fragmentation and cell death in a small percentage of gametes, triggering the reaction of the animal's reproductive system to increase the rate of gametogenesis in order to compensate the loss of a small number of gametes. (2) The nurse cells are the most sensitive from all three types of egg chamber cells. (3) The mid-oogenesis checkpoint (stage 7-8) is more sensitive to this field than the early oogenesis one (germarium) in contrast to microwave exposure. (4) Possible therapeutic applications, or applications in increasing fertility, should be investigated.

  15. Increased chromosome radiosensitivity during pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricoul, Michelle; Sabatier, Laure; Dutrillaux, Bernard [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, Laboratoire de Radiobiologie et Oncologie, DRR, DSV, Fontenay aux roses (France)

    1997-03-04

    It was necessary to consider the risks of exposure of pregnant women, not only in relation to the child, but also in relation to their own hypersensitivity. We have demonstrated that pregnancy increases radiosensitivity of chromosome in the mouse at the end of gestation. This is of importance since it may have implications on radioprotection of pregnant women and give experimental guidelines to the problems of hypersensitivity to drugs and cancer aggravation during pregnancy. Blood obtained from women at various times of pregnancy was exposed to ionizing radiations. By comparison to non-pregnant women, an increase in chromosome breakage was observed in metaphases from lymphocytes, after short-term culture in the presence of the serum of the same donor. Immediately after delivery, this increase in radiosensitivity disappeared. In a prospective study, serial analyses showed a very strong correlation between the amount of pregnancy hormones, progesterone in particular, and the increase in radiosensitivity. Pregnant women may have an increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation during the second half of their pregnancy. This study provides the first evidence in human that radiosensitivity may vary in relation to physiological conditions.

  16. Increasing work-time influence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Garde, Anne Helene; Aust, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study investigated how an intervention aiming at increasing eldercare workers' influence on their working hours affected the flexibility, variability, regularity and predictability of the working hours. We used baseline (n = 296) and follow-up (n = 274) questionnaire data......-operation with colleagues. In subgroup B and C, the participants ended up discussing the potential consequences of more work-time influence without actually implementing any changes. PRACTITIONER SUMMARY: Employee work-time influence may buffer the adverse effects of shift work. However, our intervention study suggested...... that while increasing the individual flexibility, increasing work-time influence may also result in decreased regularity of the working hours and less continuity in the care of clients and co-operation with colleagues....

  17. Yohimbine increases human salivary secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelut, E; Rispail, Y; Berlan, M; Montastruc, J L

    1989-01-01

    The effect of oral yohimbine (14 mg) on salivary secretion was evaluated in healthy volunteers. Yohimbine significantly increased salivary secretion when compared with placebo. This effect was significant from 60 min until 180 min after administration under our experimental conditions. Yohimbine (or alpha 2-adrenoceptor blocking agents) could have a potential interest in the treatment of dry mouths. PMID:2789932

  18. Increasing Enrollment through Benefit Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnow, Betty

    1982-01-01

    The applicability of benefit segmentation, a market research technique which groups people according to benefits expected from a program offering, was tested at the College of DuPage. Preferences and demographic characteristics were analyzed and program improvements adopted, increasing enrollment by 20 percent. (Author/SK)

  19. Electromigration early resistance increase measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Niehof, J; Flinn, P. A.; Maloney, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    An early resistance change measurement set-up, using an AC bridge technique, has been developed, and measurements have been performed. Large sample-to-sample variations occur. The characteristic time for the resistance change curve is shorter for resistance increase (under current stress) than for resistance decay (during recovery).

  20. Direct observation of increasing CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heuven, S.M.A.C.; Hoppema, M.; Huhn, O.; Slagter, H.A.; de Baar, H.J.W.

    2011-01-01

    The World Ocean takes up a large portion of the anthropogenic CO2 emitted into the atmosphere. Determining the resulting increase in dissolved inorganic carbon (C-T, expressed in mu mol kg(-1)) is challenging, particularly in the sub-surface and deep Southern Ocean where the time rate of change of

  1. Direct observation of increasing CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heuven, S.M.A.C.; Hoppema, M.; Huhn, O.; Slagter, H.A.; de Baar, H.J.W.

    2011-01-01

    The World Ocean takes up a large portion of the anthropogenic CO2 emitted into the atmosphere. Determining the resulting increase in dissolved inorganic carbon (C-T, expressed in mu mol kg(-1)) is challenging, particularly in the sub-surface and deep Southern Ocean where the time rate of change of C

  2. PMR Composites Of Increased Toughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucci, Raymond D.; Bowles, Kenneth J.

    1988-01-01

    Toughness increased without sacrificing processability or hot strength. Resin composition provides best overall balance of composite toughness and retention of mechanical properties at 600 degree F (316 degree C) with processability obtained by substituting 20 mole percent of diamine used in PMR-15 resins with diamine containing twice number of flexible phenyl connecting groups.

  3. Increasing Enrollment through Benefit Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnow, Betty

    1982-01-01

    The applicability of benefit segmentation, a market research technique which groups people according to benefits expected from a program offering, was tested at the College of DuPage. Preferences and demographic characteristics were analyzed and program improvements adopted, increasing enrollment by 20 percent. (Author/SK)

  4. Increasing Positive Interactive Classroom Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotcher, Elaine; Doremus, Richard R.

    During the spring of 1972 training workshops for 88 elementary and secondary teachers of the Great Neck Public Schools held to examine four hypotheses: 1) workshops in training teachers to observe classroom behavior would significantly increase these same teachers' positive classroom interactive behaviors consisting of teacher, pupil-pupil,…

  5. Increased Challenge with the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Helen

    Research has shown that too little stress or stimulation can increase health risks. To determine the effectiveness of mild stimulation on the depression levels and feelings of self-worth of the elderly, 24 withdrawn nursing home residents participated in a non-judgemental 6-month art expression group. Half the group were assigned to a control…

  6. Demand for ink Increases Rapidly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Guiqin

    2007-01-01

    @@ Output increased steadily China's ink sector has developed rapidlyin recent years.According to the NationalBureau of Statistics of China.China's ink output was 347.9 thousand tons in 2006,anincrease of 15.1% over 2005.

  7. Increased NMDA receptor inhibition at an increased Sevoflurane MAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brosnan Robert J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sevoflurane potently enhances glycine receptor currents and more modestly decreases NMDA receptor currents, each of which may contribute to immobility. This modest NMDA receptor antagonism by sevoflurane at a minimum alveolar concentration (MAC could be reciprocally related to large potentiation of other inhibitory ion channels. If so, then reduced glycine receptor potency should increase NMDA receptor antagonism by sevoflurane at MAC. Methods Indwelling lumbar subarachnoid catheters were surgically placed in 14 anesthetized rats. Rats were anesthetized with sevoflurane the next day, and a pre-infusion sevoflurane MAC was measured in duplicate using a tail clamp method. Artificial CSF (aCSF containing either 0 or 4 mg/mL strychnine was then infused intrathecally at 4 μL/min, and the post-infusion baseline sevoflurane MAC was measured. Finally, aCSF containing strychnine (either 0 or 4 mg/mL plus 0.4 mg/mL dizocilpine (MK-801 was administered intrathecally at 4 μL/min, and the post-dizocilpine sevoflurane MAC was measured. Results Pre-infusion sevoflurane MAC was 2.26%. Intrathecal aCSF alone did not affect MAC, but intrathecal strychnine significantly increased sevoflurane requirement. Addition of dizocilpine significantly decreased MAC in all rats, but this decrease was two times larger in rats without intrathecal strychnine compared to rats with intrathecal strychnine, a statistically significant (P  Conclusions Glycine receptor antagonism increases NMDA receptor antagonism by sevoflurane at MAC. The magnitude of anesthetic effects on a given ion channel may therefore depend on the magnitude of its effects on other receptors that modulate neuronal excitability.

  8. Cellular traction stresses increase with increasing metastatic potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey M Kraning-Rush

    Full Text Available Cancer cells exist in a mechanically and chemically heterogeneous microenvironment which undergoes dynamic changes throughout neoplastic progression. During metastasis, cells from a primary tumor acquire characteristics that enable them to escape from the primary tumor and migrate through the heterogeneous stromal environment to establish secondary tumors. Despite being linked to poor prognosis, there are no direct clinical tests available to diagnose the likelihood of metastasis. Moreover, the physical mechanisms employed by metastatic cancer cells to migrate are poorly understood. Because metastasis of most solid tumors requires cells to exert force to reorganize and navigate through dense stroma, we investigated differences in cellular force generation between metastatic and non-metastatic cells. Using traction force microscopy, we found that in human metastatic breast, prostate and lung cancer cell lines, traction stresses were significantly increased compared to non-metastatic counterparts. This trend was recapitulated in the isogenic MCF10AT series of breast cancer cells. Our data also indicate that increased matrix stiffness and collagen density promote increased traction forces, and that metastatic cells generate higher forces than non-metastatic cells across all matrix properties studied. Additionally, we found that cell spreading for these cell lines has a direct relationship with collagen density, but a biphasic relationship with substrate stiffness, indicating that cell area alone does not dictate the magnitude of traction stress generation. Together, these data suggest that cellular contractile force may play an important role in metastasis, and that the physical properties of the stromal environment may regulate cellular force generation. These findings are critical for understanding the physical mechanisms of metastasis and the role of the extracellular microenvironment in metastatic progression.

  9. 乌江彭水水电站导流洞第一标段洞身混凝土施工技术%Concrete construction technique for lining of diversion tunnel ( No. 1 tender section) of Pengshui Hydropower Station on Wujiang River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小红; 卯战革; 孙洪涛

    2009-01-01

    在乌江彭水水电站导流洞第一标段洞身混凝土衬砌施工中采用了自制移动式钢筋台车,实现了大型断面的钢筋安装,并采用移动式全断面钢模台车、移动式半断面钢模台车、人工立模等工艺进行了混凝土衬砌中模板的施工以及大型马蹄形断面的导流洞混凝土衬砌,加快了施工进度、提高了施工效率,降低了施工成本,增强了施工的安全性,因而可在类似工程中推广.%During the construction of the concrete lining for the diversion tunnel (No. 1 tender section) of Pengshui Hydropower Station on Wujiang River, the reinforcement assembling for large section is realized with a kind of self-made movable trolley for the assembling. Moreover, the technologies of movable full-section and half-section steel formwork carriers and manual formwork erection, etc. are also applied to the construction of formwork for the concrete lining and the concrete lining for the large Ushaped section of the tunnel with quickened construction progress, enhanced construction efficiency, lowered construction cost and higher construction safety, which can be widely popularized to the similar projects concerned.

  10. Increasing Accuracy in Environmental Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacksier, Tracey; Fernandes, Adelino; Matthew, Matt; Lehmann, Horst

    2016-04-01

    Human activity is increasing the concentrations of green house gases (GHG) in the atmosphere which results in temperature increases. High precision is a key requirement of atmospheric measurements to study the global carbon cycle and its effect on climate change. Natural air containing stable isotopes are used in GHG monitoring to calibrate analytical equipment. This presentation will examine the natural air and isotopic mixture preparation process, for both molecular and isotopic concentrations, for a range of components and delta values. The role of precisely characterized source material will be presented. Analysis of individual cylinders within multiple batches will be presented to demonstrate the ability to dynamically fill multiple cylinders containing identical compositions without isotopic fractionation. Additional emphasis will focus on the ability to adjust isotope ratios to more closely bracket sample types without the reliance on combusting naturally occurring materials, thereby improving analytical accuracy.

  11. Plant genetics: increasing crop yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, P R

    1977-09-30

    Cell cultures of crop plants provide new opportunities to recover induced mutations likely to increase crop yield. Approaches include regulating respiration to conserve carbon fixed by photosynthesis, and increasing the nutritive value of seed protein. They depend on devising selecting conditions which only desired mutant cells can survive. Protoplast fusion offers some promise of tapping sources of genetic variation now unavailable because of sterility barriers between species and genera. Difficulties in regenerating cell lines from protoplasts, and plants from cells, still hamper progress but are becoming less severe. Recombinant DNA techniques may allow detection and selection of bacterial cell lines carrying specific DNA sequences. Isolation and amplification of crop plant genes could then lead to ways of transforming plants that will be useful to breeders.

  12. Increase voted to NSF Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The Subcommittee on Science, Research, and Technology of the House Committee on Science and Technology voted by a narrow margin on March 10 to increase the National Science Foundation (NSF) budget authorization by $30 million, pushing the total budget to $1099.5 million. The increase is targeted solely for science and engineering education (see table). Although the total for research and related activities in NSF remained the same as in President Reagan's budget request, the subcommittee shifted funds among directorates, including an $8.9 million decrease from the budget of the Directorate for Astronomical, Atmospheric, Earth, and Ocean Sciences (AAEO). The subcommittee action also calls for $1.6 million to be allocated to United States participation in the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (NASA).

  13. Production Increased with Higher Prices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng shiling

    2007-01-01

    @@ In the first quarter of 2007, China's petroleum and chemical industry remained up trend in production.Among the 66 types of petrochemical products that have been tracked by CPCIA (China Petroleum and Chemical Industry Association), the output of 58, types increased compared with the same period of 2006, accounting for 87.9% of the total, and the output of 19 types, in particular, grew by over20%, accounting for 28.8%.

  14. Price Increases from Online Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Michael R; Chen, Yu-Ching

    2001-01-01

    Consumers value keeping some information about them private from potential marketers. E-commerce dramatically increases the potential for marketers to accumulate otherwise private information about potential customers. Online marketers claim that this information enables them to better market their products. Policy makers are currently drafting rules to regulate the way in which these marketers can collect, store, and share this information. However, there is little evidence yet either of con...

  15. [Increasing interest in cold therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Bengt W

    2002-01-31

    Hypothermia was used early in the treatment of malignant tumors. New evidence shows that hypothermia protects normal tissues from the toxic effects of radiation and chemotherapeutic drugs. Hypothermia in oncological research is calculated to increase the therapeutic ratio by protecting normal tissue while retaining the antineoplastic effect. Animal results indicate that removal of the primary tumor using cryosurgery diminishes metastatic tumor growth more than does surgical excision.

  16. Experiencing discrimination increases risk taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Jeremy P; Koslov, Katrina; Nock, Matthew K; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2013-02-01

    Prior research has revealed racial disparities in health outcomes and health-compromising behaviors, such as smoking and drug abuse. It has been suggested that discrimination contributes to such disparities, but the mechanisms through which this might occur are not well understood. In the research reported here, we examined whether the experience of discrimination affects acute physiological stress responses and increases risk-taking behavior. Black and White participants each received rejecting feedback from partners who were either of their own race (in-group rejection) or of a different race (out-group rejection, which could be interpreted as discrimination). Physiological (cardiovascular and neuroendocrine) changes, cognition (memory and attentional bias), affect, and risk-taking behavior were assessed. Significant participant race × partner race interactions were observed. Cross-race rejection, compared with same-race rejection, was associated with lower levels of cortisol, increased cardiac output, decreased vascular resistance, greater anger, increased attentional bias, and more risk-taking behavior. These data suggest that perceived discrimination is associated with distinct profiles of physiological reactivity, affect, cognitive processing, and risk taking, implicating direct and indirect pathways to health disparities.

  17. Is surgical workforce diversity increasing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriole, Dorothy A; Jeffe, Donna B; Schechtman, Kenneth B

    2007-03-01

    We sought to determine the extent to which recent increases in levels of gender and racial diversity in the overall resident-physician workforce were evident among core-surgical specialty resident workforces. Chi-square tests for trend assessed the importance of changes from 1996 to 2004 in proportions of women and African Americans in the surgery-resident workforce. Surgery-resident trends were compared with overall resident workforce trends using two-tailed t-tests to compare regression slopes that quantified rates of change over time. Chi-square tests assessed differences between proportions of women and African Americans in the current overall board-certified workforce and their proportions in the surgery board-certified workforce. From 1996 to 2004, proportions of women increased in all seven surgical specialties studied. Compared with the overall trend toward increasing proportions of women in the resident workforce, the trend in one surgical specialty was larger (obstetrics/gynecology, p 0.05), and two were smaller (each p 0.05). Proportions of African Americans decreased in three specialties (each p workforce, except obstetrics/gynecology, remained lower than in the overall board-certified workforce (each p workforces have persisted since 1996 and will likely perpetuate ongoing surgery board-certified workforce disparities.

  18. Revising probability estimates: Why increasing likelihood means increasing impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglio, Sam J; Polman, Evan

    2016-08-01

    Forecasted probabilities rarely stay the same for long. Instead, they are subject to constant revision-moving upward or downward, uncertain events become more or less likely. Yet little is known about how people interpret probability estimates beyond static snapshots, like a 30% chance of rain. Here, we consider the cognitive, affective, and behavioral consequences of revisions to probability forecasts. Stemming from a lay belief that revisions signal the emergence of a trend, we find in 10 studies (comprising uncertain events such as weather, climate change, sex, sports, and wine) that upward changes to event-probability (e.g., increasing from 20% to 30%) cause events to feel less remote than downward changes (e.g., decreasing from 40% to 30%), and subsequently change people's behavior regarding those events despite the revised event-probabilities being the same. Our research sheds light on how revising the probabilities for future events changes how people manage those uncertain events. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Increased NMDA receptor inhibition at an increased Sevoflurane MAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Robert J; Thiesen, Roberto

    2012-06-06

    Sevoflurane potently enhances glycine receptor currents and more modestly decreases NMDA receptor currents, each of which may contribute to immobility. This modest NMDA receptor antagonism by sevoflurane at a minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) could be reciprocally related to large potentiation of other inhibitory ion channels. If so, then reduced glycine receptor potency should increase NMDA receptor antagonism by sevoflurane at MAC. Indwelling lumbar subarachnoid catheters were surgically placed in 14 anesthetized rats. Rats were anesthetized with sevoflurane the next day, and a pre-infusion sevoflurane MAC was measured in duplicate using a tail clamp method. Artificial CSF (aCSF) containing either 0 or 4 mg/mL strychnine was then infused intrathecally at 4 μL/min, and the post-infusion baseline sevoflurane MAC was measured. Finally, aCSF containing strychnine (either 0 or 4 mg/mL) plus 0.4 mg/mL dizocilpine (MK-801) was administered intrathecally at 4 μL/min, and the post-dizocilpine sevoflurane MAC was measured. Pre-infusion sevoflurane MAC was 2.26%. Intrathecal aCSF alone did not affect MAC, but intrathecal strychnine significantly increased sevoflurane requirement. Addition of dizocilpine significantly decreased MAC in all rats, but this decrease was two times larger in rats without intrathecal strychnine compared to rats with intrathecal strychnine, a statistically significant (P MAC. The magnitude of anesthetic effects on a given ion channel may therefore depend on the magnitude of its effects on other receptors that modulate neuronal excitability.

  20. [How to increase food production?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahamanyi, L

    1984-12-01

    Pressure of population on cultivable land, serious soil erosion, and low productivity due to scarcity of inputs have hampered efforts to provide an adequate diet for the population of Rwanda. Until the present, production has increased about as rapidly as population, but Rwanda is not totally self-sufficient in food, future climatic conditions may be less favorable than those of the past, technical and resource constraints are likely to increase, and little new land will be available for cultivation. Between 1970-80, hectares devoted to bananas and beans have increased considerably, but the marginal nature of much new land has seriously lowered productivity. Sweet potatoes are more extensively grown but their productivity is limited, and productivity of manioc has stagnated despite efforts to increase it. Peas are less frequently cultivated because the fallow land on they they are grown has almost disappeared due to population pressure. Agriculture in Rwanda has always been associated with herding, but population pressure is eliminating pastureland. Firewood for cooking is also becoming more scarce and reforestation is not proceeding rapidly enough to fill projected demand. Between 1978-80 and the year 2000, preliminary goals are to increase production in tons from 2,005,900 to 3,375,000 for bananas, from 177,400 to 330,000 for beans, from 15,200 to 45,500 for ground nuts, from 4000 to 25,000 for soybeans, from 174,800 to 288,000 for sorghum, from 81,300 to 250,000 for maize, from 3700 to 45,000 for rice, from 837,100 to 2,148,000 for sweet potatoes, from 506,600 to 1,200,000 for manioc, and from 216,000 to 600,000 for potatoes. Reaching these goals will require doubling of overall productivity per hectare. Different strategies will be required for increasing the yields of the principal crops. Priority should be given to developing strains of beans that will grow well in the poor soils, dry or cold regions, and acidic soils where they are usually planted in Rwanda

  1. Increase Productivity Through Knowledge Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrikova, N. A.; Dolgih, I. N.; Dyrina, E. N.

    2016-04-01

    Increase in competition level requires companies to improve the efficiency of work force use characterized by labor productivity. Professional knowledge of staff and its experience play the key role in it. The results of Extrusion Line operator’s working time analysis are performed in this article. The analysis revealed that the reasons of working time ineffective use connected with inadequate information exchange and knowledge management in the company. Authors suggest the way to solve this problem: the main sources of knowledge in engineering enterprise have been defined, the conditions of success and the stages of knowledge management control have been stated.

  2. Prostacyclin Increases Portal Venous Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    response curve . We2 constructed a dose response curve by using increasing doses of PGI (0.005, 0.05, 0.5, and 5.0 ug/kg) given through the left atrial...atropine 0 40- +1 S20- X ( 0- * -20 -40 , 0.005 0.05 0.5 5.0 DOSE jig/kg Figure 2A (top). The log dose response curve of femoral artery pressure (FAP...Figure 2B (bottom). The log dose response curve of {. pulmonary artery pressure (PAP). Both figures show the maximum . deviation from baseline

  3. Increasing production at Cerrejon Central

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Climent, J.; Alvarez, M.

    1997-12-01

    Colombian coal miner Prodeco is hoping to increase production of its opencast Cerrejon Central mine from 3.1 Mt in 1996 to 10 Mt by 2002. This article discusses how this is to be achieved. The development programme, presently in Phase II of three phases, will affect not only the mine itself but also include improvements to loading facilities at Santa Marta port, at the company`s head office, and construction of a new port nearby. 3 figs., 2 tabs., 3 photos.

  4. Increasing Coverage of Appropriate Vaccinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Verughese; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K.; Hopkins, David P.; Morgan, Jennifer Murphy; Pitan, Adesola A.; Clymer, John

    2016-01-01

    Context Population-level coverage for immunization against many vaccine-preventable diseases remains below optimal rates in the U.S. The Community Preventive Services Task Force recently recommended several interventions to increase vaccination coverage based on systematic reviews of the evaluation literature. The present study provides the economic results from those reviews. Evidence acquisition A systematic review was conducted (search period, January 1980 through February 2012) to identify economic evaluations of 12 interventions recommended by the Task Force. Evidence was drawn from included studies; estimates were constructed for the population reach of each strategy, cost of implementation, and cost per additional vaccinated person because of the intervention. Analyses were conducted in 2014. Evidence synthesis Reminder systems, whether for clients or providers, were among the lowest-cost strategies to implement and the most cost effective in terms of additional people vaccinated. Strategies involving home visits and combination strategies in community settings were both costly and less cost effective. Strategies based in settings such as schools and managed care organizations that reached the target population achieved additional vaccinations in the middle range of cost effectiveness. Conclusions The interventions recommended by the Task Force differed in reach, cost, and cost effectiveness. This systematic review presents the economic information for 12 effective strategies to increase vaccination coverage that can guide implementers in their choice of interventions to fit their local needs, available resources, and budget. PMID:26847663

  5. Social Power Increases Interoceptive Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrad Moeini-Jazani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Building on recent psychological research showing that power increases self-focused attention, we propose that having power increases accuracy in perception of bodily signals, a phenomenon known as interoceptive accuracy. Consistent with our proposition, participants in a high-power experimental condition outperformed those in the control and low-power conditions in the Schandry heartbeat-detection task. We demonstrate that the effect of power on interoceptive accuracy is not explained by participants’ physiological arousal, affective state, or general intention for accuracy. Rather, consistent with our reasoning that experiencing power shifts attentional resources inward, we show that the effect of power on interoceptive accuracy is dependent on individuals’ chronic tendency to focus on their internal sensations. Moreover, we demonstrate that individuals’ chronic sense of power also predicts interoceptive accuracy similar to, and independent of, how their situationally induced feeling of power does. We therefore provide further support on the relation between power and enhanced perception of bodily signals. Our findings offer a novel perspective–a psychophysiological account–on how power might affect judgments and behavior. We highlight and discuss some of these intriguing possibilities for future research.

  6. Public knowledge about AIDS increasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, M J; Waters, W E

    1987-04-04

    In response to concern over the perceived limited effectiveness of Department of Health and Social Security (UK) advertising campaigns to inform the public of the basic facts of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), a prospective questionnaire study was undertaken in Southampton, England to test the effectiveness of government education prior to a January, 1987 government television/leaflet advertising campaign. 300 questionnaires about AIDS were mailed in December of 1986 to a sample drawn from electoral rolls. The response rate was 61%. Most of the questions were drawn from material covered in the campaign. The results seemed to indicate a small overall increase in knowledge about AIDS. Some changes from a June survey were noted, e.g.: more people were aware that AIDS is a virus for which there is no cure and that it is not readily transmitted by sharing washing, eating or drinking utensils; more people believed that the statement that women are at greater risk for catching AIDS is false. Respondents were generally favorable to the government's continued use of television, even with explicit language, and to its use of the schools, for AIDS education. Many were not aware of the dangers to intravenous drug users or of the symptoms of AIDS. Other surveys have shown an increasing knowledge of AIDS dangers. It is possible that television coverage of the problem will continue to be necessary, in order that less literate populations be reached. Further AIDS health education in general is needed.

  7. Increase in composite binder activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fediuk, R.; Smoliakov, A.; Stoyushko, N.

    2016-11-01

    The binder of portland cement (51-59 wt.%), fly ash of thermal power stations (3644 wt.%), limestone crushing waste (4-9 wt.%) and dry hyper plasticizer (0.2 wt.%) has been created. It can be used in the building materials industry for production of high-strength concrete. The composite binder is obtained by co-milling of the components in vario-planetary mill to a specific surface area of 550-600 m2/kg. The technical result is the possibility of obtaining a composite binder with significant replacement of cement with industrial waste, cost-effective and superior to portland cement for construction and technical properties, increased activity. This allows producing concrete for walling with a compressive strength of 100 MPa, while using more than 50% of industrial waste.

  8. Increasing entropy for colloidal stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Songping; Shao, Xuefeng; Chen, Ying; Cheng, Zhengdong

    2016-11-01

    Stability is of paramount importance in colloidal applications. Attraction between colloidal particles is believed to lead to particle aggregation and phase separation; hence, stability improvement can be achieved through either increasing repulsion or reducing attraction by modifying the fluid medium or by using additives. Two traditional mechanisms for colloidal stability are electrostatic stabilization and steric stabilization. However, stability improvement by mixing attractive and unstable particles has rarely been considered. Here, we emphasize the function of mixing entropy in colloidal stabilization. Dispersion stability improvement is demonstrated by mixing suspensions of attractive nanosized titania spheres and platelets. A three-dimensional phase diagram is proposed to illustrate the collaborative effects of particle mixing and particle attraction on colloidal stability. This discovery provides a novel method for enhancing colloidal stability and opens a novel opportunity for engineering applications.

  9. Moire interferometry with increased sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bongtae; Post, Daniel

    The basic sensitivity of moire interferometry was increased beyond the previously conceived theoretical limit. This was accomplished by creating the virtual reference grating inside a refractive medium instead of air, thus shortening the wavelength of light. A very compact four-beam moire interferometer in a refractive medium was developed for microscopic viewing, which produced a basic sensitivity of 208 nm per fringe order, corresponding to moire with 4800 lines per mm. Its configuration made it inherently stable and relatively insensitive to environmental disturbances. An optical microscope was employed as the image recording system to obtain high spatial resolution. The method was demonstrated for deformation of a thick graphite/epoxy composite at the 0/90 deg ply interface.

  10. Propofol directly increases tau phosphorylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Whittington

    Full Text Available In Alzheimer's disease (AD and other tauopathies, the microtubule-associated protein tau can undergo aberrant hyperphosphorylation potentially leading to the development of neurofibrillary pathology. Anesthetics have been previously shown to induce tau hyperphosphorylation through a mechanism involving hypothermia-induced inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A activity. However, the effects of propofol, a common clinically used intravenous anesthetic, on tau phosphorylation under normothermic conditions are unknown. We investigated the effects of a general anesthetic dose of propofol on levels of phosphorylated tau in the mouse hippocampus and cortex under normothermic conditions. Thirty min following the administration of propofol 250 mg/kg i.p., significant increases in tau phosphorylation were observed at the AT8, CP13, and PHF-1 phosphoepitopes in the hippocampus, as well as at AT8, PHF-1, MC6, pS262, and pS422 epitopes in the cortex. However, we did not detect somatodendritic relocalization of tau. In both brain regions, tau hyperphosphorylation persisted at the AT8 epitope 2 h following propofol, although the sedative effects of the drug were no longer evident at this time point. By 6 h following propofol, levels of phosphorylated tau at AT8 returned to control levels. An initial decrease in the activity and expression of PP2A were observed, suggesting that PP2A inhibition is at least partly responsible for the hyperphosphorylation of tau at multiple sites following 30 min of propofol exposure. We also examined tau phosphorylation in SH-SY5Y cells transfected to overexpress human tau. A 1 h exposure to a clinically relevant concentration of propofol in vitro was also associated with tau hyperphosphorylation. These findings suggest that propofol increases tau phosphorylation both in vivo and in vitro under normothermic conditions, and further studies are warranted to determine the impact of this anesthetic on the acceleration of

  11. Vocal attractiveness increases by averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckert, Laetitia; Bestelmeyer, Patricia; Latinus, Marianne; Rouger, Julien; Charest, Ian; Rousselet, Guillaume A; Kawahara, Hideki; Belin, Pascal

    2010-01-26

    Vocal attractiveness has a profound influence on listeners-a bias known as the "what sounds beautiful is good" vocal attractiveness stereotype [1]-with tangible impact on a voice owner's success at mating, job applications, and/or elections. The prevailing view holds that attractive voices are those that signal desirable attributes in a potential mate [2-4]-e.g., lower pitch in male voices. However, this account does not explain our preferences in more general social contexts in which voices of both genders are evaluated. Here we show that averaging voices via auditory morphing [5] results in more attractive voices, irrespective of the speaker's or listener's gender. Moreover, we show that this phenomenon is largely explained by two independent by-products of averaging: a smoother voice texture (reduced aperiodicities) and a greater similarity in pitch and timbre with the average of all voices (reduced "distance to mean"). These results provide the first evidence for a phenomenon of vocal attractiveness increases by averaging, analogous to a well-established effect of facial averaging [6, 7]. They highlight prototype-based coding [8] as a central feature of voice perception, emphasizing the similarity in the mechanisms of face and voice perception.

  12. Scientific progress as increasing verisimilitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niiniluoto, Ilkka

    2014-06-01

    According to the foundationalist picture, shared by many rationalists and positivist empiricists, science makes cognitive progress by accumulating justified truths. Fallibilists, who point out that complete certainty cannot be achieved in empirical science, can still argue that even successions of false theories may progress toward the truth. This proposal was supported by Karl Popper with his notion of truthlikeness or verisimilitude. Popper's own technical definition failed, but the idea that scientific progress means increasing truthlikeness can be expressed by defining degrees of truthlikeness in terms of similarities between states of affairs. This paper defends the verisimilitude approach against Alexander Bird who argues that the "semantic" definition (in terms of truth or truthlikeness alone) is not sufficient to define progress, but the "epistemic" definition referring to justification and knowledge is more adequate. Here Bird ignores the crucial distinction between real progress and estimated progress, explicated by the difference between absolute (and usually unknown) degrees of truthlikeness and their evidence-relative expected values. Further, it is argued that Bird's idea of returning to the cumulative model of growth requires an implausible trick of transforming past false theories into true ones.

  13. Eesti sai OIF-i vaatlejaliikmeks / Tõnu Tender, Tiina Jaksman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tender, Tõnu, 1965-

    2010-01-01

    Eesti võeti rahvusvahelise frankofoonia organisatsiooni (OIF) vaatlejaliikmeks. OIF ühendab riike ja piirkondi, mille ametlik keel või haridussüsteemis traditsiooniliselt õpetatav keel on prantsuse keel

  14. Comparison of shear force tenderness, drip and cooking loss, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kahl, CEI, Mej

    2016-10-27

    Oct 27, 2016 ... pH of the loin muscle among grass-fed steers of four major beef crosses ... duration of shipping and cold storage for the various markets and ... Purge: Purge refers to weep/water accumulating in vacuum bag of packed meat ...

  15. Municipal Tender Awards and Internal Appeals by unsuccessful ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IT

    recommended, he/she must in writing, within ten working days, notify the Auditor-. General, the relevant provincial treasury and the National Treasury, and in the case ... hierarchical organogram, the BAC is required to report to the municipal ...

  16. Combining two proven mechanical tenderness measurements in one steak

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Callahan, Z D; Belk, K E; Miller, R K; Morgan, J B; Lorenzen, C L

    2013-01-01

    ...) and slice shear force (SSF) in the same steak. The objectives were to compare cooking methods commonly used in preparing steaks for WBSF and SSF procedures and compare them at different cooling times...

  17. Influential Factors in Estimating and Tendering for Construction Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon Toh Tien

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost estimation, bid/no bid decision, estimating accuracy, and cost overrun are the four main cost estimating issues (MCEI investigated by many previous researchers from different parts of the world for decades. Factors relating to client characteristics, consultant and design parameters, contractor attributes, project characteristics, contract procedures and procurement methods, and external market conditions [1] are examined for their influences on those four MCEI separately. However, very little attention is paid on the comparison of factors rankings across those four MCEI. Results from comparing those factors rankings improve the understandings on cost estimating issues. Thus, this study aims to compare the factors rankings across the four MCEI and evaluate the degree of agreement between the four sets of ranks for their influential factors. Four previous studies, each examining factors affecting each of the four MCEI are selected through literature survey for analysis. Influential factors from each previous study are assigned to their related categories: client, consultant, contractor, project, contract, and environment. Kendall’s coefficient of concordance is used to assess interjudge reliability. The computed correlation indicates a moderate degree of association between the four sets of ranks. It is found that the four MCEI are influenced by different factors with different ranks and hence should be treated as different MCEI and be managed differently.

  18. Pelvic floor tenderness in the etiology of superficial dyspareunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Paul J; Mui, Justin; Allaire, Catherine; Williams, Christina

    2014-11-01

    Objectif : Calculer la prévalence de la sensibilité du plancher pelvien au sein de la population des femmes qui connaissent des douleurs pelviennes et déterminer ses implications pour ce qui est des symptômes de la douleur pelvienne. Méthodes : Nous avons mené une analyse rétrospective auprès de patientes connaissant des douleurs pelviennes au sein d’un centre spécialisé tertiaire. La sensibilité du plancher pelvien a été définie comme étant une sensibilité du muscle releveur de l’anus ressentie au moins d’un côté au cours d’un examen pelvien mené au moyen d’un seul doigt. La prévalence de la sensibilité du plancher pelvien au sein de cette cohorte de femmes connaissant des douleurs pelviennes a été comparée à la même prévalence au sein d’une cohorte de femmes exemptes de douleurs fréquentant une clinique de gynécologie. Chez les femmes connaissant des douleurs pelviennes, une régression multiple a été menée en vue d’identifier les variables qui étaient associées de façon indépendante à la sensibilité du plancher pelvien. Résultats : La prévalence de la sensibilité du plancher pelvien était de 40 % (75/189) au sein de la cohorte « douleurs pelviennes »; elle était donc considérablement supérieure à la prévalence de 13 % (4/32) qui a été constatée au sein de la cohorte « absence de douleur » (RC, 4,61; IC à 95 %, 1,55 - 13,7, P = 0,005). Dans le cadre de la régression logistique multiple, la dyspareunie superficielle (RC, 4,45; IC à 95 %, 1,86 - 10,7, P = 0,001), la douleur ressentie au niveau de la paroi abdominale (RC, 4,04; IC à 95 %, 1,44 - 11,3, P = 0,005) et la sensibilité de la base de la vessie (RC, 4,65; IC à 95 %, 1,87 - 11,6, P = 0,001) étaient associées de façon indépendante à la sensibilité du plancher pelvien. Cette dernière était tout aussi présente chez les femmes qui connaissaient une endométriose sous-jacente que chez les femmes qui ne connaissaient pas une telle pathologie. Conclusion : La sensibilité du plancher pelvien est courante chez les femmes qui connaissent des douleurs pelviennes, en présence ou non d’une endométriose, et contribue à la dyspareunie superficielle. Elle a également été associée à la douleur ressentie au niveau de la paroi abdominale et à la sensibilité de la base de la vessie, ce qui semble indiquer que la sensibilisation du système nerveux est impliquée dans son étiologie.

  19. 1/38 GROUNDS FOR DISPENSING WITH PUBLIC TENDER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2010-01-25

    Jan 25, 2010 ... government assets.20 The Regulations provide that supply chain management systems .... insofar as the disposal of capital assets is concerned.46 The principles of. 42 MFMA SCM reg ..... offer competitive pricing. No competitive ..... United Nations Commission on International Trade Law Model Law on.

  20. Eesti sai OIF-i vaatlejaliikmeks / Tõnu Tender, Tiina Jaksman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tender, Tõnu, 1965-

    2010-01-01

    Eesti võeti rahvusvahelise frankofoonia organisatsiooni (OIF) vaatlejaliikmeks. OIF ühendab riike ja piirkondi, mille ametlik keel või haridussüsteemis traditsiooniliselt õpetatav keel on prantsuse keel

  1. Love me tender – Transition vers où ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solofo Randrianja

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available RÉSUMÉDepuis le coup d’État de 2009, la transition menée par Andry Rajoelina, dure malgré l’absence de tout mandat électif. Même si l’inertie de cette situation est parfois relativisée par des pressions nationales ou extérieures, elle est légitimée par la passivité de la résistance et par des promesses récurrentes d’élections futures. Cependant, ces trois années nous permettent au moins de cerner la vision des autorités actuelles quant au développement de Madagascar. Les gouvernants de facto semblent baser ce développement sur l’exploitation des ressources minières; ils inscrivent ainsi le pays dans une politique menant à l’effondrement du reste de l’économie ainsi qu’à la dilapidation du capital environnemental et humain. Or, ce choix fait de Madagascar une victime facile de la « malédiction des matières premières » dont une minorité seulement profite et dont les conséquences à long terme sont désastreuses. L’ensemble de la société est alors amené à s’interroger sur les valeurs sur lesquelles elle entend bâtir les vertus civiques et sur la capacité de la « transition » à mener le pays sur les rails du développement durable basé sur une démocratie stable. ABSTRACTFollowing the March 2009 coup, the government led by former ‘disc jockey’ Andry Rajoelina, has managed to perpetuate in the absence of any elections. Several reasons explain this longevity, of which the lack of legitimacy of his undertaking which has led to passive resistance. The authorities however, do want to prepare elections to legitimize their power. Being in command of the State, these authorities benefit from the administrative privilege of organising elections. This would allow them to be elected, according to well-established mechanisms. The inte­gration of members of the opposition into the institutions of transition illustrates the relative failure of this strategy; failure due to internal pressure and the reticence of international donors. Nevertheless these three years allow us to determine the visions that the de facto leaders hold of development on the Grande Ile. To achieve their goals, they count in particular on making use of the ‘manna’ from mining, which will flow from several mining companies in a few months. Several warning signs serve to indicate that Madagascar is a victim of the ‘curse of raw materials’ and will be even more so in the future. While this strengthens the militarisation of political power, this curse emerges in a worrying fashion in at least three ways: i the collapse of the real and informal economies not linked to the mining sector; ii the squandering of natural capital with the hurried exportation of raw materials with little value added (the resources acquired thanks to the sale of mineral and more gen­eral natural resources are currently invested in sectors that do not provide social benefits in the long term. They serve, beyond the personal enrichment of the members of the ruling class, to foster populism through a system of rents and prebends. The goal is to remain in power at the expense of sustainable development; iii the squandering of human capital through de-scholarisation and the perpetuation of the collapse of the school and university systems, demonstrating that the training of youth is considered more of an obstacle than an asset to sustainable development. This transitional government pursues unambiguous objectives, which benefit only a minority. These objectives appear clearly in the behaviour of numerous leaders. One can therefore ask oneself on what values can society build civic virtues. This governance therefore calls into question the nature of ‘transition’ and its capacity to lead the country on the road to a sustainable development based on a stable democracy.

  2. Tender offers in South America: Are abnormal returns really high?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcy Fuenzalida

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes estudios realizados en mercados de capital desarrollados han revelado tasas de retorno positivas inusuales de por lo menos 15% durante la fecha de anuncio de la oferta pública de adquisición de acciones. Aunque casi no se han llevado a cabo estudios sobre los mercados bursátiles en Sudamérica, algunos estudios han reportado tasas de retorno positivas inusuales en un rango del 25% al 50%, las cuales están relacionadas con el anuncio de la primera oferta de adquisición. En el presente estudio, se argumenta que las tasas de retorno positivas inusuales estimadas en los mercados emergentes son altas porque los estudios se han basado en un mercado de capitales totalmente segmentado aplicando el modelo de mercado y utilizando un índice del mercado bursátil local. Al considerar la integración parcial entre los cinco mercados emergentes en Sudamérica, se demuestra que efectivamente existen tasas de retorno positivas inusuales antes, durante y después de la fecha de anuncio de la primera oferta de adquisición. Sin embargo, el retorno positivo inusual asociado a la fecha del anuncio se encuentra en el orden del 8%. Utilizando un modelo de mercado que considere la integración parcial y el riesgo a la baja, se obtiene una tasa de retorno inusual ligeramente mayor. Estos resultados señalan una menor tasa de retorno positiva inusual en la muestra de las empresas sudamericanas incluidas en el estudio.

  3. The increasing burden of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lépine J-P

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Pierre Lépine1, Mike Briley21Hôpital Lariboisière Fernand Widal, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris Unité INSERM 705 CNRS UMR 8206, Université Paris Diderot, Paris, France; 2NeuroBiz Consulting and Communication, Castres, FranceAbstract: Recent epidemiological surveys conducted in general populations have found that the lifetime prevalence of depression is in the range of 10% to 15%. Mood disorders, as defined by the World Mental Health and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, have a 12-month prevalence which varies from 3% in Japan to over 9% in the US. A recent American survey found the prevalence of current depression to be 9% and the rate of current major depression to be 3.4%. All studies of depressive disorders have stressed the importance of the mortality and morbidity associated with depression. The mortality risk for suicide in depressed patients is more than 20-fold greater than in the general population. Recent studies have also shown the importance of depression as a risk factor for cardiovascular death. The risk of cardiac mortality after an initial myocardial infarction is greater in patients with depression and related to the severity of the depressive episode. Greater severity of depressive symptoms has been found to be associated with significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality including cardiovascular death and stroke. In addition to mortality, functional impairment and disability associated with depression have been consistently reported. Depression increases the risk of decreased workplace productivity and absenteeism resulting in lowered income or unemployment. Absenteeism and presenteeism (being physically present at work but functioning suboptimally have been estimated to result in a loss of $36.6 billion per year in the US. Worldwide projections by the World Health Organization for the year 2030 identify unipolar major depression as the leading cause of disease burden

  4. 绵羊嫩度相关基因mRNA表达量荧光定量PCR检测方法的建立%The establishment of fluorescent quantitative PCR method for the detection of the tenderness related gene expression in sheep

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄雅娟; 高爱武; 杨金丽; 王海荣; 侯先志; 考桂兰; 苗海明

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To establish a method which is used to detect the gene expression of sheep calpain family genes(Calpainl, Calpain2, P94, CAST) and cathepsin family genes(Cathepsin B, Cathepsin D, Cathepsin L). Method: Gene sequences from NCBI is used to design primers using DNAman software. The amplified fragments were detected by T-A clone detection to ensure the specificity and integring of the PCR products. Then the primers were used to check the expression of target genes by real time PCR. Result: Real-time PCR optimum cycle parameters for predegenerated 94 %, 4 min. 94 %, 58 ℃, 45 s, 72 ℃, 1 min. After 40 cycles 72 %, 5 min. Conclusion: A method of real time PCR established successfully and can be used for the detection of mRNA expression of tenderness related genes in sheep.%目的:建立检测绵羊钙蛋白酶家族几种基因(Calpain1、Calpain2、P94、CAST)和组织蛋白酶家族几种基因(Cathepsin B、Cathepsin D、Cathepsin L)mRNA表达量的方法。方法:在NCBI中查找出基因序列,根据引物设计原则利用DNAman软件设计引物。经T-A克隆检测引物扩增片段正确,再将其用于实时荧光定量PCR(Real-time PCR)。结果:Real-time PCR最适循环参数为预变性94℃4 min,94℃30 s,58℃45 s,72℃1 min,经过40个循环后72℃5 min延伸。结论:成功地建立了检测绵羊嫩度相关基因mRNA表达量的实时荧光定量PCR方法。该方法灵敏度高,特异性强,准确可靠。完全适用于绵羊嫩度相关基因mRNA表达量检测。

  5. Evaluation of clinical and laboratory findings of pediatric and adult patients with oropharyngeal tularemia in Turkey: a combination of surgical drainage and antibiotic therapy increases treatment success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozel, Mustafa Gokhan; Engin, Aynur; Altuntas, Emine Elif; Salk, İsmail; Kaya, Ali; Celik, Cem; Dokmetas, Ilyas; Bakir, Mehmet; Elaldi, Nazif

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the clinical and laboratory findings of both pediatric and adult patients with oropharyngeal tularemia. We also compared the therapeutic outcomes of patients who underwent surgical drainage of lymph nodes early or late during antibiotic therapy. A total of 68 patients with oropharyngeal tularemia, including 26 children and 42 adults, were enrolled in this study. The average duration between symptom onset and hospital admission was 20.8 days (4-60 days) in the pediatric group and 32.6 days (4-90 days) in the adult group (P = 0.009). The most frequently observed clinical symptoms were sore throat (100% and 100%), fever (96.2% and 90.5%), tonsillitis (69.2% and 78.6%), and rash (15.4% and 11.9%) in the pediatric and adult groups, respectively. However, the frequencies of erythema, tenderness, and fluctuant of enlarged lymph nodes were significantly higher in the adult group than in the pediatric group (P = 0.005, P = 0.029, and P = 0.041, respectively). Treatment failure was observed in 2 (7.7%) pediatric patients and 4 (9.5%) adult patients, for a total of 6 (8.8%) treatment failures in the study group. Similar clinical findings and treatment outcomes were observed in both groups. We concluded that a combination of surgical drainage and antibiotic therapy increases treatment success for patients diagnosed with oropharyngeal tularemia.

  6. Impaired brachial artery flow-mediated dilation and increased carotid intima-media thickness in rheumatoid arthritis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Chun-yan; ZHANG Zhi-yi; MEI Yi-fang; WU Chang-jun; SHEN Bao-zhong

    2012-01-01

    Background Carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation percentage (FMD%) are common parameters used for detecting subclinical atherosclerosis.This study compared subclinical atherosclerosis of the carotid and brachial arteries in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and healthy controls using high resolution ultrasonography.We also investigated their correlation with clinical factors and the association between FMD% and CIMT.Methods One hundred and two RA patients and 46 age-gender matched healthy controls were included in the study.FMD of the brachial artery and CIMT were measured ultrasonographically.Patients with diabetes mellitus,hypertension,renal failure,history of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease were excluded.Subjects who were receiving or used high dose steroids were also excluded.Results The CIMT was significantly higher in patients than that in the control group ((0.697±0.053) vs.(0.554±0.051) mm,P <0.001),whereas brachial artery FMD% was lower in patients than that in the controls ((5.454±2.653)% vs.(8.477±2.851)%,P <0.001).CIMT was related to age,disease duration,tender and swollen joint score,C-reactive protein,systolic blood pressure and high-density lipoprotein.However,FMD% was only association with systolic blood pressure.There was no significant correlation between CIMT and FMD%.Conclusions Compared with the healthy control subjects,RA patients without clinically evident cardiovascular disease had subclinical atherosclerosis in terms of impaired FMD% and increased CIMT.FMD% and CIMT may measure a different stage of subclinical atherosclerosis in RA patients.

  7. Hanging the beef carcass by the forequarter to improve tenderness of the Longissimus dorsi and Biceps femoris muscles Suspensão da carcaça pelo dianteiro para melhorar a maciez dos músculos Longissimus dorsi e Biceps femoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Luchiari Filho

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Hanging beef carcasses in different configurations in the cooler affect some carcass muscle tenderness. Forty Nellore steer carcasses (ten per day were chosen at random in a federally inspected slaughter plant and hanged alternate left and right sides either in the traditional way by the hindquarter (HQ or by the forequarter (FQ also called "tenderbife". Carcasses were selected from steers up to 30 months old and had an average hot carcass weight of 244.1 kg. These carcasses were chilled for 48 hours, when samples from the Longissimus dorsi (LD at the 12th rib and the Biceps femoris (BF at the P8 site were removed, kept under refrigeration (0-2ºC for five days and frozen for future analysis. The temperature of the LD after 24 hours taken at the 12th rib was not different for HQ (1.0ºC and FQ (0.9ºC. Fat thickness measured at the 12th rib was lower (P A suspensão da carcaça em diferentes formas na câmara fria influencia a maciez de alguns músculos da carcaça. As carcaças de 40 novilhos Nelore (dez por dia com no máximo 30 meses de idade foram selecionadas ao acaso em frigorífico (SIF 2543 e lados alternados de suas carcaças foram resfriados e pendurados pelo Tendão de Aquiles do traseiro especial (TA ou pelo músculo carpo radial dianteiro (DA, também chamado "tenderbife". Todas as carcaças eram de classificação B no Sistema Brasileiro de Tipificação de Carcaças, com média de peso de carcaça quente de 244,1 kg. O pH 24 horas não diferiu para os tratamentos, (TA = 5,69 e DA = 5,70. As carcaças foram resfriadas por 48 horas e a seguir, amostras do Longissimus dorsi (LD na altura da 12ª costela e Biceps femoris (BF na altura do sítio P8 foram removidas, mantidas sob refrigeração (0-2ºC por mais 5 dias e a seguir congeladas para posterior análises. A espessura de gordura medida na altura da 12ª costela foi menor (P < 0,05 para TA (3,8 mm do que DA (4,3 mm. A força de cisalhamento do músculo LD foi menor (P < 0,01 para

  8. Caracterização do processo de rigor mortis do músculo Ilio-ischiocaudalis de jacaré-do-pantanal (Caiman crocodilus yacare e maciez da carne Characterization of rigor mortis process of muscle Ilio-ischiocaudalis of pantanal alligator (Caiman crocodilus yacare and meat tenderness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Paulino Vieira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho utilizou seis carcaças de jacaré-do-pantanal (Caiman crocodilus yacare com o objetivo de caracterizar o processo de rigor mortis do músculo Ílio-ischiocaudalis durante o resfriamento industrial e avaliar a maciez dessa carne. Os jacarés foram escolhidos aleatoriamente e abatidos na Cooperativa de Criadores do Jacaré do Pantanal (COOCRIJAPAN, Cáceres, Mato Grosso. Após a sangria, aferiu-se as variações das temperaturas da câmara de resfriamento, das carcaças e o pH. Foram colhidas amostras para determinação do comprimento de sarcômero, da força de cisalhamento e perdas por cozimento em diferentes intervalos de tempo (0,5, 3, 5, 7, 10, 12, 15, 24 e 36h. A temperatura da câmara de resfriamento variou de 2,6°C (0,5h a 0,9°C (36h e a temperatura média das carcaças variou de 21,0°C a 4,2°C, respectivamente. O pH médio inicial do músculo foi de 6,7 e o final 5,6 e a contração máxima do sarcômero do músculo Ilio-ischiocaudalis ocorreu na 15ª hora após a sangria (1,5µm. Essa carne apresentou força de cisalhamento menor que 6,0kg.This paper studied six pantanal alligators (Caiman crocodilus yacare carcass with goal of rigor mortis process characterization of Ilio-ischiocaudalis muscle during industrial cooling and meat tenderness. The alligators were randomly assembled and slaughtered at Cooperativa de Criadores do Jacaré do Pantanal (COOCRIJAPAN - Cáceres- Mato Grosso After exsanguination, were mensured temperature of chilling room and carcasses, pH and samples were collected for determination the sarcomere length, shear force and cooking loss at different times (0.5, 3, 5, 7, 10, 12, 15, 24 and 36 hours. The temperature of chilling room varied from 2.6°C (0.5h to 0.9°C (36h and the mean carcass temperature from 21.0°C to 4.2°C, respectively. The mean initial pH of the muscle was 6.7 and the final was 5.6. The smallest sarcomere size ocurred at 15 hours after exsanguination (1.5µm. This meat presents

  9. Public, official, and industry submissions on a Bill to increase the alcohol minimum purchasing age: A critical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kypri, Kypros; Wolfenden, Luke; Hutchesson, Melinda; Langley, John; Voas, Robert

    2014-07-01

    In 2005 a Bill was introduced to the New Zealand parliament to increase the alcohol minimum purchasing age (MPA) from 18 to 20 years and submissions were invited from interested parties. We sought to characterise and critique the arguments tendered for and against the proposal. We used template analysis to study written submissions on the Bill from 178 people and organisations in New Zealand. Independent raters coded submissions according to the source, whether for or opposed, and the arguments employed. The most common sources of submissions were members of the public (28%), the alcohol industry (20%), and NGOs (20%). Overall, 40% opposed increasing the MPA, 40% were in favour, 4% supported a split MPA (18 years for on-premise, 20 years for off-premise), 7% were equivocal, and 8% offered no comment. The most common proponents of increasing the MPA were NGOs (36%) and members of the public (30%) and their arguments concerned the expected positive effects on public health (36%) and public disorder/property damage (16%), while 24% argued that other strategies should be used as well. The most common sources of opposition to increasing the MPA were the alcohol industry (50%) and the public (20%). It was commonly claimed that the proposed law change would be ineffective in reducing harm (22%), that other strategies should be used instead (16%), that it would infringe adult rights (15%), and that licensed premises are safe environments for young people (14%). There were noteworthy examples of NGOs and government agencies opposing the law change. The alcohol industry maximised its impact via multiple submissions appealing to individual rights while neglecting to report or accurately characterise the scientific evidence. Several health and welfare agencies presented confused logic and/or were selective in their use of scientific evidence. In contrast to the fragmented and inconsistent response from government and NGOs, the alcohol industry was organised and united, with

  10. Increased VLDL in nephrotic patients results from a decreased catabolism while increased LDL results from increased synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Sain-van der Velden, M; Kaysen, GA; Barrett, HA; Stellaard, F; Gadellaa, MM; Voorbij, HA; Reijngoud, DJ; Rabelink, TJ

    1998-01-01

    Increased very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) in nephrotic patients results from a decreased catabolism while increased low density lipoprotein (LDL) results from increased synthesis. Hyperlipidemias a hallmark of nephrotic syndrome that has been associated with increased risk for ischemic heart dis

  11. 14 CFR 381.13 - Price increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS SPECIAL EVENT TOURS § 381.13 Price increases. (a) Should the tour operator increase a participant's tour price by more than 10 percent (aggregate of all increases to that participant), that... refund within 14 days after the cancellation. (b) The tour operator shall not increase the tour price...

  12. Effects of increased flooding on riparian vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garssen, Annemarie G.; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Riis, Tenna

    2017-01-01

    In many parts of the world, the magnitude and frequency of cold-season precipitation are expected to increase in the near future. This will result in an increased magnitude and duration of winter and spring flooding by rain-fed streams and rivers. Such climate-driven increases in flooding...... of 3 years. We assessed the responses in riparian plant species richness, biomass, plant-available nitrogen and phosphorus and seed deposition to increased flooding depth (+18 cm on average at the lowest positions along the riparian gradient) and prolonged flooding duration (6 weeks on average). After...... 3 years of increased flooding, there was an overall decline in riparian species richness, while riparian plant biomass increased. Extractable soil nitrogen and phosphorus also increased and are likely to have contributed to the increased biomass. Increased flooding resulted in the arrival of more...

  13. 3 Ways to Increase Positive Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Someone Who's Being Bullied? Volunteering 3 Ways to Increase Positive Emotions KidsHealth > For Teens > 3 Ways to ... and the situations or activities that bring them. Increase a Specific Positive Emotion Identify a positive emotion ...

  14. Having Rheumatoid Arthritis May Increase Heart Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162038.html Having Rheumatoid Arthritis May Increase Heart Risk Treating inflammation linked to ... TUESDAY, Nov. 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- People with rheumatoid arthritis may have an increased risk for a heart ...

  15. Pregnancy outcomes according to increasing maternal age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jin Koo

    2012-03-01

    Conclusion: Increasing maternal age is an independent and substantial risk factor for adverse perinatal and obstetric outcomes. These adverse outcomes become more common as increasing maternal age without a clear cutoff age.

  16. Increasing ideological tolerance in social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbar, Yoel; Lammers, Joris

    2015-01-01

    We argue that recognizing current ideological diversity in social psychology and promoting tolerance of minority views is just as important as increasing the number of non-liberal researchers. Increasing tolerance will allow individuals in the minority to express dissenting views, which will improve psychological science by reducing bias. We present four recommendations for increasing tolerance.

  17. Many Private Colleges Report Small Tuition Increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraghty, Mary

    1997-01-01

    Many private colleges are reporting the lowest percentage tuition increases in a decade or more, four to five% at many institutions, but most increases still outpace inflation. A major reason for increasing tuition is to meet rising demand for student aid. Also, many institutional expenses are higher than for the average consumer, and facilities…

  18. Taurine increases hippocampal neurogenesis in aging mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Gebara

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with increased inflammation and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis, which may in turn contribute to cognitive impairment. Taurine is a free amino acid found in numerous diets, with anti-inflammatory properties. Although abundant in the young brain, the decrease in taurine concentration with age may underlie reduced neurogenesis. Here, we assessed the effect of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in middle-aged mice. We found that taurine increased cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus through the activation of quiescent stem cells, resulting in increased number of stem cells and intermediate neural progenitors. Taurine had a direct effect on stem/progenitor cells proliferation, as observed in vitro, and also reduced activated microglia. Furthermore, taurine increased the survival of newborn neurons, resulting in a net increase in adult neurogenesis. Together, these results show that taurine increases several steps of adult neurogenesis and support a beneficial role of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in the context of brain aging.

  19. Are diseases increasing in the ocean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Porter, James W.; Ford, Susan E.

    2004-01-01

    Many factors (climate warming, pollution, harvesting, introduced species) can contribute to disease outbreaks in marine life. Concomitant increases in each of these makes it difficult to attribute recent changes in disease occurrence or severity to any one factor. For example, the increase in disease of Caribbean coral is postulated to be a result of climate change and introduction of terrestrial pathogens. Indirect evidence exists that (a) warming increased disease in turtles; (b) protection, pollution, and terrestrial pathogens increased mammal disease; (c) aquaculture increased disease in mollusks; and (d) release from overfished predators increased sea urchin disease. In contrast, fishing and pollution may have reduced disease in fishes. In other taxa (e.g., sea grasses, crustaceans, sharks), there is little evidence that disease has changed over time. The diversity of patterns suggests there are many ways that environmental change can interact with disease in the ocean.

  20. Passive thermal performance increase in cisterns

    OpenAIRE

    Najmeh Najafi, Arash Alipour, Seyed Mohamad Ali Najafi

    2014-01-01

    Cisterns are ancient building having two main tasks. First task is storing water in raining seasons for using in dry seasons and the second task is decreasing water temperature, which happens because of the air flow above water surface and evaporating water. It can be stated that by increasing fluid flow above the surface, evaporating increase so increasing in heat transfer happens and decreasing of water temperature is the result. This paper has investigated fluid flow around and inside cist...