Sample records for actinidin increases tenderness

  1. Injection of marinade with actinidin increases tenderness of porcine M. biceps femoris and affects myofibrils and connective tissue

    Christensen, M.; Torngren, M. A.; Gunvig, A.


    BACKGROUND: Marination of beef muscles with brine solutions containing proteolytic enzymes from fruit extracts has been shown to tenderize meat. However, the effect of marination with actinidin on tenderness of pork muscles has not been investigated. Tenderness and eating quality of porcine M. bi...... indicate that actinidin tenderizes pork M. biceps femoris by affecting both the myofibrils and connective tissue....

  2. Methods to increase tenderness of individual muscles from beef rounds when cooked with dry or moist heat.

    Kolle, B K; McKenna, D R; Savell, J W


    Muscles (n=9) from beef rounds (n=40) were subjected to one of the four tenderization strategies: control, blade tenderization, enzymatic tenderization or salt/phosphate injection. Treated muscles were aged, cut into steaks, cooked using one of the two cooking methods (dry-heat or moist-heat), and Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) force values were determined. For dry-heat cookery, injection with a salt and phosphate solution resulted in the lowest WBS values, however, WBS values for blade tenderization and enzymatic tenderization were comparable in the M. adductor, M. vastus lateralis, M. rectus femoris, and M. semimembranosus (cranial and caudal aspects). The M. gluteobiceps (cranial and caudal aspects, and ischiatic head) and M. semitendinosus showed little improvement in WBS values with any of the tenderization treatments. For moist-heat cookery, only the M. rectus femoris and M. semimembranosus, caudal aspect, showed significant decreases in WBS values, and those improvements were only associated with salt and phosphate injection and enzymatic tenderization. Within each cooking method and tenderization treatment, the M. rectus femoris, M. semimembranosus, cranial aspect had the lowest WBS values, whereas the M. gluteobiceps, ischiatic head and M. semimembranosus typically had the highest WBS values. All tenderization strategies increased the frequency of muscles being rated as "very tender" (WBSdry- and moist-heat cookery.

  3. Isolation and Primary Culture of Rat Hepatocytes Using Kiwifruit Actinidin

    Z. Shirvani Farsani


    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Isolation of cells from different tissues rely on proteolytic enzymes mainly collagenases that selectively digest collagen fibers of extra-cellular matrix. It is important to find new and proper collagenases from plant sources. In the present research actinidin, a cysteine protease abundant in Kiwifruit, was used to isolate and culture of rat hepatocytes. Materials & Methods: Different concentrations of actinidin was used to isolate rat hepatocytes by one or two-step perfusion method. The viability of the separated cells was examined by the trypan blue test. The isolated rat hepatocytes were cultured on collagen coated plates in William´s E medium. The morphology of hepatocytes was examined microscopically after staining with the Papanicolaou method.Results: Actinidin in the concentration of 0.4 mg/ml in two-step perfusion method properly isolated hepatocytes from rat liver. The viability of isolated hepatocytes that successfully cultured in collagen coated plates was 90-95 percent.Conclusion: These results showed that actinidin is a proper protease for isolation of hepatocytes. In addition, purification of this enzyme is simpler than the collagenases.

  4. Proteolytic activities of kiwifruit actinidin (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward) on different fibrous and globular proteins: a comparative study of actinidin with papain.

    Chalabi, Maryam; Khademi, Fatemeh; Yarani, Reza; Mostafaie, Ali


    Actinidin, a member of the papain-like family of cysteine proteases, is abundant in kiwifruit. To date, a few studies have been provided to investigate the proteolytic activity and substrate specificity of actinidin on native proteins. Herein, the proteolytic activity of actinidin was compared to papain on several different fibrous and globular proteins under neutral, acidic and basic conditions. The digested samples were subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and densitometry to assess the proteolytic effect. Furthermore, the levels of free amino nitrogen (FAN) of the treated samples were determined using the ninhydrin colorimetric method. The findings showed that actinidin has no or limited proteolytic effect on globular proteins such as immunoglobulins including sheep IgG, rabbit IgG, chicken IgY and fish IgM, bovine serum albumin (BSA), lipid transfer protein (LTP), and whey proteins (α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin) compared to papain. In contrast to globular proteins, actinidin could hydrolyze collagen and fibrinogen perfectly at neutral and mild basic pHs. Moreover, this enzyme could digest pure α-casein and major subunits of micellar casein especially in acidic pHs. Taken together, the data indicated that actinidin has narrow substrate specificity with the highest enzymatic activity for the collagen and fibrinogen substrates. The results describe the actinidin as a mild plant protease useful for many special applications such as cell isolation from different tissues and some food industries as a mixture formula with other relevant proteases.

  5. Kiwifruit cysteine protease actinidin compromises the intestinal barrier by disrupting tight junctions

    Grozdanovic, Milica M; Čavić, Milena; Nešić, Andrijana; Andjelković, Uroš; Akbari, Peyman; Smit, Joost J; Gavrović-Jankulović, Marija


    BACKGROUND: The intestinal epithelium forms a barrier that food allergens must cross in order to induce sensitization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the plant-derived food cysteine protease--actinidin (Act d1) on the integrity of intestinal epithelium tight junctions (TJs). MET

  6. Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium: manipulating meat tenderness by increasing the turnover of intramuscular connective tissue.

    Purslow, P P; Archile-Contreras, A C; Cha, M C


    Controlled reduction of the connective tissue contribution to cooked meat toughness is an objective that would have considerable financial impact in terms of added product value. The amount of intramuscular connective tissue in a muscle appears connected to its in vivo function, so reduction of the overall connective tissue content is not thought to be a viable target. However, manipulation of the state of maturity of the collagenous component is a biologically viable target; by increasing connective tissue turnover, less mature structures can be produced that are functional in vivo but more easily broken down on cooking at temperatures above 60°C, thus improving cooked meat tenderness. Recent work using cell culture models of fibroblasts derived from muscle and myoblasts has identified a range of factors that alter the activity of the principal enzymes responsible for connective tissue turnover, the matrix metalloproteinases (MMP). Fibroblasts cultured from 3 different skeletal muscles from the same animal show different cell proliferation and MMP activity, which may relate to the different connective tissue content and architecture in functionally different muscles. Expression of MMP by fibroblasts is increased by vitamins that can counter the negative effects of oxidative stress on new collagen synthesis. Preliminary work using in situ zymography of myotubes in culture also indicates increased MMP activity in the presence of epinephrine and reactive oxidative species. Comparison of the relative changes in MMP expression from muscle cells vs. fibroblasts shows that myoblasts are more responsive to a range of stimuli. Muscle cells are likely to produce more of the total MMP in muscle tissue as a whole, and the expression of latent forms of the enzymes (i.e., pro-MMP) may vary between oxidative and glycolytic muscle fibers within the same muscle. The implication is that the different muscle fiber composition of different muscles eaten as meat may influence the

  7. Point tenderness - abdomen

    ... Point tenderness - abdomen To use the sharing features on this page, ... over a certain part of the belly area (abdomen). Considerations The abdomen is an area of the ...

  8. Reduced neck-shoulder muscle strength and aerobic power together with increased pericranial tenderness are associated with tension-type headache in girls

    Tornoe, Birte; Andersen, Lars L; Skotte, Jørgen H


    and pericranial tenderness in girls with TTH compared with healthy controls. METHODS: A blinded case-control study comprising 41 girls with TTH and 41 age-matched healthy controls. Standardised testing of isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and force steadiness of neck flexion and extension, as well...... as MVC and rate-of-force development of dominant shoulder, was conducted. VO2 max was recorded by a submaximal ergometer test and pericranial tenderness by standardised manual palpation. Logistic regression analyses were applied. RESULTS: Girls with TTH demonstrated significantly higher pericranial...

  9. Effects of gastrointestinal digestion and heating on the allergenicity of the kiwi allergens Act d 1, actinidin, and Act d 2, a thaumatin-like protein

    Bublin, Merima; Radauer, Christian; Knulst, Andre; Wagner, Stefan; Scheiner, Otto; Mackie, Alan R.; Mills, E. N. Clare; Breiteneder, Heimo


    Kiwifruit is a significant elicitor of allergy both in children and adults. Digestibility of two kiwifruit allergens, actinidin (Act d 1) and thaumatin-like protein (Act d 2), was assessed using an in vitro digestion system that approximates physiological conditions with respect to the passage of fo

  10. E-Tendering Process Within Construction: A UK Perspective

    Geoff Tindsley; Paul Stephenson


    E-tendering can be defined as the issue and receipt of tender documentation through electronic means which facilitates the procurement of construction work and the award of contracts. The current paper-based method of tendering has been commonplace within the industry for a significant number of years, but with recent technological advancements, this traditional process is rapidly becoming outdated. Several ma-jor projects within the UK are now being procured through the e-tendering process which includes the multi-billion pound development for the Olympic Games in London 2012. However, while these prestigious pro-jects are embracing e-tendering technology, it is not certain as to what extent e-tendering is used across the construction sector generally. This research is primarily concemed with establishing the current status, prac-ticalities and resource effectiveness of e-tendering within UK construction. Results are provided from an in-dustry survey which includes both quantitative and qualitative data. A case study implementation is also in-cluded which assesses the utilisation of e-tendering software in practice. The research findings indicated that e-tendering can provide substantial resource savings to a major part of the supply chain, with the key benefits being enhanced communication, time savings and reduced costs. However, a considerable propor-tion of the industry remains uncertain about embracing new technologies, with reluctance to change being perceived as the greatest barrier. The findings suggest that many professionals within the UK construction industry recognise a requirement for increased implementation of e-tendering, but feel that training, educa-tion and support from senior management are essential requirements for e-tendering to become widely ac-cepted in the future.

  11. 78 FR 72597 - Descriptive Designation for Needle- or Blade-Tenderized (Mechanically Tenderized) Beef Products


    ... Needle- or Blade-Tenderized (Mechanically Tenderized) Beef Products AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection... needle- or blade-tenderized (mechanically tenderized) beef products that appeared in the Federal Register...-tenderized (Mechanically Tenderized) Beef Products'' (78 FR 34589). The Agency proposed to require the use...

  12. 31 CFR 309.11 - Tenders; payment of accepted tenders.


    ...) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT ISSUE AND SALE OF TREASURY BILLS... the Public Debt in cash or other immediately available funds on or before the date specified, except... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tenders; payment of accepted...

  13. Insight into contractors’ competitiveness at Most Economically Advantageous Tenders in the Dutch construction sector

    De Vrind, S.M.H.


    Increased application of Most Economically Advantageous Tenders (MEAT) in the Dutch construction sector changes contractors’ tender processes. They are no longer requested to execute fully specified projects for the lowest price, but contractors are asked to come up with solutions themselves. This o

  14. Prerigor and postrigor changes in tenderness of ovine longissimus muscle.

    Wheeler, T L; Koohmaraie, M


    A novel approach was used to measure the tenderness of prerigor ovine longissimus thoracis et lumborum by avoiding the confounding effects of heat-induced shortening resulting from cooking prerigor meat. The objective was to determine the tenderness of the muscle at the time of slaughter and to monitor changes in tenderness during rigor development and postmortem aging. Nine Romanov and 12 Finnsheep rams were slaughtered at 49.3 kg live weight. Samples of longissimus thoracis et lumborum were removed at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 72, or 336 h after exsanguination. Five of the eight sample times were represented in each carcass and all carcasses were sampled at 0, 12, and 24 h. Prerigor muscle samples (0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 h) were clamped between two metal plates before excision to prevent shortening. The samples were frozen at -30 degrees C then stored at -5 degrees C for 10 d to allow glycolysis to proceed to completion, and thus ultimate pH and complete rigor mortis were attained. The longissimus thoracis et lumborum was then cut into chops and cooked and shear force was determined. Sarcomere length decreased through 24 h postmortem, then increased slightly through 336 h postmortem. Warner-Bratzler shear force values were 5.1 kg at 0 and 3 h, increased to 8.3 kg from 3 to 9 h, and then declined to 3.1 kg from 24 to 336 h postmortem. These data imply that longissimus thoracis et lumborum at slaughter is intermediate in tenderness, rigor shortening toughens the meat, and proteolysis tenderizes the meat, resulting in more tender meat after 14 d of aging than at slaughter.

  15. Cluster analysis application identifies muscle characteristics of importance for beef tenderness

    Chriki Sghaier


    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important controversy in the relationship between beef tenderness and muscle characteristics including biochemical traits exists among meat researchers. The aim of this study is to explain variability in meat tenderness using muscle characteristics and biochemical traits available in the Integrated and Functional Biology of Beef (BIF-Beef database. The BIF-Beef data warehouse contains characteristic measurements from animal, muscle, carcass, and meat quality derived from numerous experiments. We created three classes for tenderness (high, medium, and low based on trained taste panel tenderness scores of all meat samples consumed (4,366 observations from 40 different experiments. For each tenderness class, the corresponding means for the mechanical characteristics, muscle fibre type, collagen content, and biochemical traits which may influence tenderness of the muscles were calculated. Results Our results indicated that lower shear force values were associated with more tender meat. In addition, muscles in the highest tenderness cluster had the lowest total and insoluble collagen contents, the highest mitochondrial enzyme activity (isocitrate dehydrogenase, the highest proportion of slow oxidative muscle fibres, the lowest proportion of fast-glycolytic muscle fibres, and the lowest average muscle fibre cross-sectional area. Results were confirmed by correlation analyses, and differences between muscle types in terms of biochemical characteristics and tenderness score were evidenced by Principal Component Analysis (PCA. When the cluster analysis was repeated using only muscle samples from m. Longissimus thoracis (LT, the results were similar; only contrasting previous results by maintaining a relatively constant fibre-type composition between all three tenderness classes. Conclusion Our results show that increased meat tenderness is related to lower shear forces, lower insoluble collagen and total collagen content, lower

  16. 49 CFR 230.107 - Tender frame and body.


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender frame and body. 230.107 Section 230.107... Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.107 Tender frame and body. (a) Maintenance. Tender... repaired: (1) Portions of the tender frame or body (except wheels) that have less than a 21/2...

  17. Genetic effects on beef tenderness in Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle.

    O'Connor, S F; Tatum, J D; Wulf, D M; Green, R D; Smith, G C


    Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle, originating from diverse production environments, were used to quantify genetic variation in marbling, 24-h calpastatin activity, and beef tenderness and to identify strategies for prevention of beef tenderness problems in Bos indicus composite cattle. Comparisons among 3/8 Bos indicus breeds (Braford, Red Brangus, Simbrah) revealed significant differences in marbling and 24-h calpastatin activity, but not in tenderness. Compared with Bos taurus cattle, 3/ 8 Bos indicus cattle had similar marbling scores but higher 24-h calpastatin activities. Also, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus composites aged more slowly from 1 to 7 d and was less tender at 4, 7, 14, 21, and 35 d postmortem than beef from Bos taurus cattle. However, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was relatively tender if it was aged for a sufficient period of time (21 d). The delayed response to aging and greater toughness of beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was associated with Brahman breed effects and was not related to the Bos taurus germplasm source. Marbling was moderately heritable (.52 +/- .21) but exhibited positive genetic correlations with shear force at d 1 through 14 of aging, suggesting that, in these cattle, selection for increased marbling would have an unfavorable effect on beef tenderness. A low heritability estimate for 24-h calpastatin activity (.15 +/- .15), coupled with low genetic correlations between calpastatin activity and shear force at 7, 14, and 35 d, suggested that selection for low calpastatin activity would have little effect on aged beef tenderness. Panel tenderness and shear force at 7, 14, and 21 d were moderately heritable (.27 to .47), indicating that aged beef tenderness could be improved by direct selection (via progeny testing). Comparisons among Simbrah, Senegus x Simbrah, and Red Angus x Simmental steers showed that inclusion of a tropically adapted Bos taurus breed (Senepol) could be an effective strategy for preventing beef

  18. 49 CFR 230.103 - Tender roller bearing journal boxes.


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender roller bearing journal boxes. 230.103... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.103 Tender roller bearing journal boxes. Tender roller bearing journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition....

  19. Antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) protein hydrolysates produced by the proteases AFP, HT, Pro-G, actinidin and zingibain.

    Teh, Sue-Siang; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Carne, Alan; Birch, John


    Hemp protein isolates (HPIs) were hydrolysed by proteases (AFP, HT, ProG, actinidin and zingibain). The enzymatic hydrolysis of HPIs was evaluated through the degree of hydrolysis and SDS-PAGE profiles. The bioactive properties of the resultant hydrolysates (HPHs) were accessed through ORAC, DPPḢ scavenging and ACE-inhibitory activities. The physical properties of the resultant HPHs were evaluated for their particle sizes, zeta potential and surface hydrophobicity. HT had the highest rate of caseinolytic activity at the lowest concentration (0.1 mg mL(-1)) compared to other proteases that required concentration of 100 mg mL(-1) to achieve their maximum rate of caseinolytic activity. This led to the highest degree of hydrolysis of HPIs by HT in the SDS-PAGE profiles. Among all proteases and substrates, HT resulted in the highest bioactivities (ORAC, DPPḢ scavenging and ACE-inhibitory activities) generated from alkali extracted HPI in the shortest time (2 h) compared to the other protease preparations.

  20. Tenderness charactherization of ostrich meat commercial cuts

    Janaina Conte Hadlich


    Full Text Available The ostrich meat has become an interesting source of protein as well as being an alternative to red meat, because of its healthy fatty acid profile, with a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and low content of intramuscular fat, which arouses the interest of people who want a low animal fat diet. Ostrich meat is also appreciated by the tenderness, since it is one of the larger impact characteristics on the acceptance of a meat product for consumers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tenderness of different ostrich meat commercial cuts and certificate that all studied cuts present tenderness acceptable by consumers. The laboratory tests were performed at the Laboratory of Biochemistry of Proteins (FMVZ, being measured shear force of seven commercial cuts of ostrich meat. The cuts were: internal thigh, external thigh, filet plan, filet out, filet small, rump and filet fan. The samples were boiled in water bath controlled by time and temperature. After chilling, fragments of 1.0 x 1.0 x 3.0 cm were removed from samples. Shear force measurements were performed using a mechanical Warner-Bratzler Shear Force equipment. The shear force means were: internal thigh (3.5 kg, external thigh (2.8 kg, filet plan (2.4 kg, filet out (1.6 kg, filet small (3.5 kg, rump (3.3 kg and filet fan (2.0 kg. All the commercial cuts evaluated had very low values of shear force, denoting meat extremely tender. The classification of meat tenderness is based on shear force values, being values below 4.6 kg considered meat with desirable tenderness. All ostrich meat commercial cuts analyzed had shear force values lower than 4.6 kg, being classified as meat of extreme tenderness. The results found in this work allow concluding that ostrich meat can be considered tender. These findings lead us to consider the ostrich meat as an interesting alternative to red meat, in relation to tenderness and healthy fatty acid profile, being favorable for people suffering from

  1. Functional Genomic Analysis of Variation on Beef Tenderness Induced by Acute Stress in Angus Cattle

    Chunping Zhao


    Full Text Available Beef is one of the leading sources of protein, B vitamins, iron, and zinc in human food. Beef palatability is based on three general criteria: tenderness, juiciness, and flavor, of which tenderness is thought to be the most important factor. In this study, we found that beef tenderness, measured by the Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF, was dramatically increased by acute stress. Microarray analysis and qPCR identified a variety of genes that were differentially expressed. Pathway analysis showed that these genes were involved in immune response and regulation of metabolism process as activators or repressors. Further analysis identified that these changes may be related with CpG methylation of several genes. Therefore, the results from this study provide an enhanced understanding of the mechanisms that genetic and epigenetic regulations control meat quality and beef tenderness.

  2. Tenderness indicators in salted and dried meat: a review

    Yuri Montenegro Ishihara


    Full Text Available Salted and dried meats are known and appreciated worldly. Their consumption is often associated to certain groups of people or particular regions, and due to this, they can be called traditional. They usually have simple technology, passed on from generation to generation and for this reason, there is much variation in the quality of these products. In Brazil charque, jerked beef and sun-dried meat stand out. Biltong, cecina de León, kilishi, kaddid and bresaola are other examples of salted and dried meats. Despite the importance of these meat products, there are no specific studies on their tenderness. Since tenderness is one of the attributes most reported by consumers, research may help the acceptance of meat products, increasing their demand. In this context, this review presents the characteristics of traditional salted and dried meat products related to processing aspects and suggested tenderness indicators - shear force, myofibrillar fragmentation index, sarcomere length, collagen quantification – to assess the softness of meat products, since they are easy to apply and include the study of the main responsible for meat softness, myofibrillar and connective tissue proteins.

  3. The callipyge phenomenon: tenderness intervention methods.

    Solomon, M B


    Consumers continue to desire leaner meats. Lambs expressing the callipyge gene have been identified as having superior, leaner carcasses compared with normally muscled lambs. However, the longissimus muscle, a major merchandised muscle in lamb, has repeatedly been shown to be significantly less tender in callipyge lamb compared with normally muscled lambs. Preharvest factors, such as genetics, sex, and production/management practices, have thus far shown no promise at alleviating this tenderness problem. But a number of postharvest interventions have been introduced to alleviate it. Included among the strategies are postmortem aging, carcass electrical stimulation, the combination of freezing and thawing before aging, calcium chloride injection, and the Hydrodyne process. These strategies have exhibited various degrees of success. Postharvest strategies to improve callipyge longissimus tenderness are described in this article.

  4. Tender moments in the North Sea

    Fox, C.


    Described is tender-assisted drilling (TAD) on the UK North Sea Gannet field. The Gannet field is developed by Shell UK Exploration and Production (Shell Expro). In March 1990, Shell Expro awarded Sedco Forex the design and engineering contract to convert the semisubmersible drilling rig Sedco 704 into the Gannet TSV (Tender Support Vessel). The only semisubmersible TSV operation so far to have completed drilling in the North Sea has been in the Norwegian sector. The Odin field, operated by Esso Norge a/s, was developed using the converted drilling rig Treasure Hunter. 1 fig., 1 ill., 3 refs.

  5. Improving Tenderness of Spent Layer Hens Meat Using Papaya Leaves (Carica papaya

    H. O. Abdalla, N. N. A. Ali, F. S. Siddig and S. A. M. Ali*


    Full Text Available Two experiments were performed to study the use of papaya leaves as a meat tenderizer. The first experiment was to evaluate the effect of papaya dry leaves added to hen’s diet before slaughter. Spent hens (n=48 were used, half of them were fed a concentrate ration containing10% dried papaya leaves powder (DPLP while others received layer ration (Control, for 10 days. The second experiment involved a comparison between papaya leaves juice (PLJ, fresh papaya leaves (FPL and vinegar solution (VS as marinades applied to meat for one or two hours before cooking. Spent layer hens (n=42 were used for tenderness evaluation method. After slaughtering and preparing the chickens two methods of cooking were used (oven and moist cooking. The cooked parts (breast, thigh and drumstick were subjected to a panel test evaluation according to a designed questionnaire. Addition of dried papaya leaves powder to spent layer hens ration significantly (P≤0.05 increased the level of meat tenderness. Moist cooking had significantly (P≤0.05 improved meat tenderization compared to oven cooking. Meat treated with fresh papaya leaves had significantly (P≤0.05 improved tenderness. It was concluded that wrapping the tough meat of spent layer hens with fresh papaya leaves for one hour and moist cooking improve tenderness of meat.

  6. Tender points are not sites of ongoing inflammation -in vivo evidence in patients with chronic tension-type headache

    Ashina, M; Stallknecht, Bente; Bendtsen, L


    Increased muscle tenderness is the most prominent finding in patients with tension-type headache, and it has recently been shown that muscle blood flow is diminished in response to static exercise in tender points in these patients. Although tenderness has been ascribed to local inflammation...... (ATP), glutamate, bradykinin and other metabolites in a tender point of patients with chronic tension-type headache, in the resting state as well as in response to static exercise, and to compare findings with measurements in a matched non-tender point of healthy controls. We recruited 16 patients...... with chronic tension-type headache and 17 healthy control subjects. Two microdialysis catheters were inserted into the trapezius muscle and dialysates were collected at rest, 15 and 30 min after start of static exercise (10% of maximal force) and 15 and 30 min after end of exercise. All samples were coded...

  7. The tendering process: flaws and all.

    Spurgeon, Peter; Hicks, Carolyn


    The tendering process has become the dominant and now traditional approach to the allocation of research and consultancy projects. This is largely built around the notion that it ensures accountability and probity within the allocative procedure, and that high quality of work and 'value for money' are the outcomes. It appears to have become an institutionalized and unchallengeable process. Yet it is rarely costed in terms of the true resource implications for all the organizations involved, nor is quality assessed in terms of alternative processes that might be employed. This paper explores the tendering process in terms of factors that may suggest that the quality of work produced via the tendering process is not always as good as it might be. Also in a hypothetical example involving the university sector and the National Health Service, data are presented indicating that the overall cost to the public sector is often actually greater than the value of the contract being allocated. An alternative preferred provider relationship-based allocative process is advocated as an improvement to the current established tendering procedure.

  8. Tenderization of beef with bacterial collagenase.

    Allen Foegeding, E; Larick, D K


    The feasibility of using a purified collagenase produced by Clostridium histolyticum as a meat tenderizer was studied. Experiments were conducted with enzymes in model systems to compare collagenase with the currently used plant proteinases, papain, bromelain and ficin. Collagenase was shown to have a greater activity in hydrolyzing insoluble collagen than salt-soluble-protein (SSP) and highest activity between 40° and 60°C, with little to no activity above 60°C. Collagenase was added to raw steaks and steaks were placed in bags and cooked in a water bath to 6.5°C. Tenderness was evaluated by analyzing components of Warner-Bratzler shear-deformation curves. The results suggested that addition of NaCl or a combination of CaCl(2), NaCl and collagenase would cause equivalent tenderization. The lack of a significant tenderization due to collagenase could be related to a lack of sensitivity in the shear evaluation or an effect on the enzyme activity due to the meat environment.

  9. Gertrude Stein’s Tender Buttons (1911)

    Balle, Søren Hattesen


    Gertrude Stein’s book of prose poems Tender Buttons has been characterized as a modernist literary work by most of its critics. As a distinctive feature of its modernist poetics critics in particular emphasize Stein’s denial of representation through verbal abstraction and autotelism. This paper...

  10. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and...

  11. Efficacy of reverse micellar extracted fruit bromelain in meat tenderization

    Chaurasiya, Ram Saran; Sakhare, P. Z.; Bhaskar, N.; Hebbar, H. Umesh


    Reverse micellar extraction (RME) was used for the separation and purification of bromelain from pineapple core and efficacy of RME purified bromelain (RMEB) in tenderization of beef meat was compared with that of commercial stem bromelain (CSB). RME resulted in reasonably high bromelain activity recovery (85.0 %) and purification fold (4.0). Reduction in meat toughness was higher in RMEB treated meat (52.1 %) compared to raw (control) and CSB treated (26.7 %). Significant increase in water h...

  12. A secured e-tendering modeling using misuse case approach

    Mohd, Haslina; Robie, Muhammad Afdhal Muhammad; Baharom, Fauziah; Darus, Norida Muhd; Saip, Mohamed Ali; Yasin, Azman


    Major risk factors relating to electronic transactions may lead to destructive impacts on trust and transparency in the process of tendering. Currently, electronic tendering (e-tendering) systems still remain uncertain in issues relating to legal and security compliance and most importantly it has an unclear security framework. Particularly, the available systems are lacking in addressing integrity, confidentiality, authentication, and non-repudiation in e-tendering requirements. Thus, one of the challenges in developing an e-tendering system is to ensure the system requirements include the function for secured and trusted environment. Therefore, this paper aims to model a secured e-tendering system using misuse case approach. The modeling process begins with identifying the e-tendering process, which is based on the Australian Standard Code of Tendering (AS 4120-1994). It is followed by identifying security threats and their countermeasure. Then, the e-tendering was modelled using misuse case approach. The model can contribute to e-tendering developers and also to other researchers or experts in the e-tendering domain.

  13. Tough and tender: embodied categorization of gender.

    Slepian, Michael L; Weisbuch, Max; Rule, Nicholas O; Ambady, Nalini


    Emerging evidence has shown that human thought can be embodied within physical sensations and actions. Indeed, abstract concepts such as morality, time, and interpersonal warmth can be based on metaphors that are grounded in bodily experiences (e.g., physical temperature can signal interpersonal warmth). We hypothesized that social-category knowledge is similarly embodied, and we tested this hypothesis by examining a sensory metaphor related to categorical judgments of gender. We chose the dimension of "toughness" (ranging from tough to tender), which is often used to characterize differences between males and females. Across two studies, the proprioceptive experience of toughness (vs. tenderness) was manipulated as participants categorized sex-ambiguous faces as male or female. Two different manipulations of proprioceptive toughness predictably biased the categorization of faces toward "male." These findings suggest that social-category knowledge is at least partially embodied.

  14. Efficacy of reverse micellar extracted fruit bromelain in meat tenderization.

    Chaurasiya, Ram Saran; Sakhare, P Z; Bhaskar, N; Hebbar, H Umesh


    Reverse micellar extraction (RME) was used for the separation and purification of bromelain from pineapple core and efficacy of RME purified bromelain (RMEB) in tenderization of beef meat was compared with that of commercial stem bromelain (CSB). RME resulted in reasonably high bromelain activity recovery (85.0 %) and purification fold (4.0). Reduction in meat toughness was higher in RMEB treated meat (52.1 %) compared to raw (control) and CSB treated (26.7 %). Significant increase in water holding capacity (WHC) was observed in RMEB treated meat (91.1 %) as against CSB treated (55.6 %) and control (56.6 %). No change in cooking loss was observed in RMEB treated meat, whereas the loss increased by nearly 14.0 % in case of CSB treated. While the meat color was retained, trichloroacetic acid (TCA) soluble protein content increased due to hydrolysis of protein in RMEB treated meat. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed that RMEB treatment completely ruptures myofibril tissues, indicating a higher degree of tenderization.

  15. Decision Support Systems (DSS) in Construction Tendering Processes

    Mohemad, Rosmayati; Othman, Zulaiha Ali; Noor, Noor Maizura Mohamad


    The successful execution of a construction project is heavily impacted by making the right decision during tendering processes. Managing tender procedures is very complex and uncertain involving coordination of many tasks and individuals with different priorities and objectives. Bias and inconsistent decision are inevitable if the decision-making process is totally depends on intuition, subjective judgement or emotion. In making transparent decision and healthy competition tendering, there exists a need for flexible guidance tool for decision support. Aim of this paper is to give a review on current practices of Decision Support Systems (DSS) technology in construction tendering processes. Current practices of general tendering processes as applied to the most countries in different regions such as United States, Europe, Middle East and Asia are comprehensively discussed. Applications of Web-based tendering processes is also summarised in terms of its properties. Besides that, a summary of Decision Support Sy...

  16. µ-Calpain, calpastatin, and growth hormone receptor genetic effects on preweaning performance, carcass quality traits, and residual variance of tenderness in Angus cattle selected to increase minor haplotype ... frequencies

    Genetic marker effects and interactions are estimated with poor precision when minor marker allele frequencies are low. An Angus population was subjected to marker assisted selection for multiple years to increase divergent haplotype and minor marker allele frequencies to 1) estimate effect size an...

  17. Decision Support Systems (DSS in Construction Tendering Processes

    Rosmayati Mohemad


    Full Text Available The successful execution of a construction project is heavily impacted by making the right decision during tendering processes. Managing tender procedures is very complex and uncertain involving coordination of many tasks and individuals with different priorities and objectives. Bias and inconsistent decision are inevitable if the decision-making process is totally depends on intuition, subjective judgement or emotion. In making transparent decision and healthy competition tendering, there exists a need for flexible guidance tool for decision support. Aim of this paper is to give a review on current practices of Decision Support Systems (DSS technology in construction tendering processes. Current practices of general tendering processes as applied to the most countries in different regions such as United States, Europe, Middle East and Asia are comprehensively discussed. Applications of Web-based tendering processes is also summarised in terms of its properties. Besides that, a summary of Decision Support System (DSS components is included in the next section. Furthermore, prior researches on implementation of DSS approaches in tendering processes are discussed in details. Current issues arise from both of paper-based and Web-based tendering processes are outlined. Finally, conclusion is included at the end of this paper.

  18. Effect of phenotypic expression of Brahman breeding on marbling and tenderness traits.

    Sherbeck, J A; Tatum, J D; Field, T G; Morgan, J B; Smith, G C


    Steers with known proportions of Brahman and Hereford breeding (80 quarter-bloods, 25% Brahman x 75% Hereford and 79 half-bloods, 50% Brahman x 50% Hereford) were used to determine the effect of phenotype on marbling and beef tenderness characteristics. Three experienced evaluators independently classified each live steer according to estimated proportion of Brahman breeding based on phenotypic evidence of Brahman breed characteristics. The steers were slaughtered, their carcasses were graded, and a carcass. Samples of longissimus muscle were obtained for measurement of 24-h calpastatin activity, sensory panel evaluation, and Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) force measurements. Paired steaks were aged (6 and 18 d postmortem) and palatability determinations were completed. Estimates of live animal phenotype ranged from 0/16 to 9/16 for quarter-blood Brahman steers and from 1/14 to 13/16 for half-blood Brahman steers. Neither live animal phenotype nor carcass hump height was correlated with marbling score. Live animal phenotype was correlated (P carcass hump height exhibited low, negative correlations (P Brahman were tougher (P Brahman. Steaks from carcasses with hump height measurements of 7.60 cm or greater had lower panel tenderness ratings and higher WBS values (P Brahman steers that were similar in phenotype produced steaks that were similar in tenderness. Results of this study suggest that as phenotypic evidence of Brahman breeding increases the tenderness of cooked steaks from Brahman crossbred steers decreases.

  19. Effects of packaging atmospheres on beef instrumental tenderness, fresh color stability, and internal cooked color.

    Grobbel, J P; Dikeman, M E; Hunt, M C; Milliken, G A


    Fresh meat color is a major factor influencing the purchase of meat products by consumers, whereas tenderness is the primary trait determining overall eating satisfaction of consumers. The objectives of this research were to determine the effects of packaging atmosphere on fresh beef color stability, cooked color, and tenderness. Longissimus lumborum muscles (n = 14 pairs) from USDA Select, A-maturity carcasses were assigned to either 14-d tenderness measurement or to display and then to 18-d [80% O(2), 20% CO(2) (HiO(2)) modified atmosphere packaging (MAP)] or 28-d [vacuum package (VP) and ultra low (ULO(2)) plus CO MAP blends] tenderness measurement. Loins were then fabricated on d 7 postmortem into 2.54-cm-thick steaks. Steaks 8 to 10 caudal to the first 7 steaks were bisected, assigned to a packaging treatment, and used for internal cooked color. One full steak was used for initial tenderness. Packaging treatments were as follows: vacuum-packaging (VP); 80% O(2), 20% CO(2) (HiO(2)); 0.4% CO, 35% CO(2), 64.6%N(2) (ULO(2)CO); 0.4% CO, 99.6% CO(2) (ULO(2)COCO(2)); 0.4% CO, 99.6% N(2) (ULO(2)CON(2)); or 0.4% CO, 99.6% Ar (ULO(2)COAr). Steaks packaged in HiO(2) MAP were in dark storage (2 degrees C) for 4 d, and all other steaks were in dark storage for 14 d. Steaks were displayed under fluorescent lighting (2,153 lx; 3,000 K) for 7 d, with instrumental color measured on d 0 and 7 of display. Trained color panelists (n = 10) assigned color scores. Steaks for Warner-Bratzler shear force and cooked color were cooked to 70 degrees C. Steaks packaged in the 4 ULO(2) MAP blends with CO had no change (P > 0.05) or increased (P HiO(2) MAP discolored faster (P 0.05) in Warner-Bratzler shear force on d 14 postmortem. Steaks packaged in HiO(2) MAP were less tender (P HiO(2) had the lowest (P HiO(2) MAP and equal or better tenderness. Packaging atmospheres altered the internal cooked color, with steaks packaged in HiO(2) MAP exhibiting premature browning.

  20. Induction of prolonged tenderness in patients with tension-type headache by means of a new experimental model of myofascial pain.

    Mørk, H; Ashina, M; Bendtsen, L; Olesen, J; Jensen, R


    Tenderness is the most prominent abnormal finding in patients with tension-type headache (TTH). Recently we developed a model of myofascial tenderness using intramuscular infusion of a combination of bradykinin, serotonin, histamine and prostaglandin E2. We aimed to examine tenderness after this combination in patients with episodic TTH (ETTH). Fifteen patients and 15 healthy controls completed the study. Participants received the combination into the non-dominant trapezius muscle in a randomized, double-blinded and placebo-controlled design. Local tenderness and stimulus-response functions, mechanical pain thresholds (PPDT) in the temporal region and on the finger, and total tenderness score (TTS) were recorded. A local, prolonged, and mild to moderate tenderness was reported both in patients (P = 0.001) and in controls (P = 0.001) after the combination compared with the placebo. The response to the combination tended to be increased in patients. The stimulus-response function was leftward shifted after the combination, compared with baseline in both groups. No changes in PPDT or TTS were found after the infusions, whereas baseline PPDTs were decreased in ETTH compared with controls (PPDTfinger: P = 0.033; PPDTtemporal: P = 0.015). Intramuscular infusion of a combination of endogenous substances induced prolonged tenderness in both patients with episodic TTH and healthy subjects. The present results suggest an increased excitability of peripheral muscle afferents in TTH.

  1. Tenderization effect of cold-adapted collagenolytic protease MCP-01 on beef meat at low temperature and its mechanism.

    Zhao, Guo-Yan; Zhou, Ming-Yang; Zhao, Hui-Lin; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Xie, Bin-Bin; Zhang, Xi-Ying; He, Hai-Lun; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Zhong


    The enzymes currently used to increase meat tenderness are all mesophilic or thermophilic proteases. This study provides insight into the tenderization effect and the mechanism of a cold-adapted collagenolytic enzyme MCP-01 on beef meat at low temperatures. MCP-01 (10 U of caseinolytic activity) reduced the meat shear force by 23% and increased the relative myofibrillar fragmentation index of the meat by 91.7% at 4 °C, and it also kept the fresh colour and moisture of the meat. Compared to the commercially used tenderizers papain and bromelain, MCP-01 showed a unique tenderization mechanism. MCP-01 had a strong selectivity for degrading collagen at 4 °C, showed a distinct digestion pattern on the myofibrillar proteins, and had a different disruption pattern on the muscle fibres under scanning electron micrograph. These results suggest that the cold-adapted collagenolytic protease MCP-01 may be promising for use as a meat tenderizer at low and moderate temperatures.

  2. Palpation for muscular tenderness in the anterior chest wall

    Christensen, Henrik Wulff; Vach, Werner; Manniche, Claus;


    OBJECTIVE: To asses the interobserver and intraobserver reliability (in terms of day-to-day and hour-to-hour reliability) of palpation for muscular tenderness in the anterior chest wall. DESIGN: A repeated measures designs was used. SETTING: Department of Nuclear Medicine, Odense University...... Hospital, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Two experienced chiropractors examined 29 patients and 27 subjects in the interobserver part, and 1 of the 2 chiropractors examined 14 patients and 15 subjects in the intraobserver studies. INTERVENTION: Palpation for muscular tenderness was done in 14 predetermined areas...... palpating for intercostal tenderness or tenderness in the minor and major pectoral muscles in a population of patients with and without chest pain. This may hamper the ability of clinicians to diagnose and classify the musculoskeletal component of chest pain if based exclusively on palpation of the anterior...

  3. 49 CFR 230.100 - Defects in tender truck axles and journals.


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defects in tender truck axles and journals. 230... Steam Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.100 Defects in tender truck axles and journals. (a... wheel seats that is more than 1/8 of an inch in depth. (b) Tender truck journal condemning...

  4. Combining two proven mechanical tenderness measurements in one steak.

    Callahan, Z D; Belk, K E; Miller, R K; Morgan, J B; Lorenzen, C L


    This research was performed to determine the true efficacy of measuring both Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) and slice shear force (SSF) in the same steak. The objectives were to compare cooking methods commonly used in preparing steaks for WBSF and SSF procedures and compare them at different cooling times. United States Department of Agriculture select strip loins (n = 240) were aged for either 7 or 14 d to increase the variation in tenderness. Each strip loin was then frozen and cut into 2.54-cm steaks. Steaks were then cooked to an internal temperature of 71°C using a convection conveyor oven (conveyor), a convection oven, clamshell grill, or an open hearth grill. Steaks were allotted to 4 different cooling times to create the combinations of: WBSF 4 h/SSF 0 h, WBSF 4 h/SSF 4 h, WBSF 24 h/SSF 0 h, WBSF 24 h/SSF 24 h. Five 1.25-cm cores were used for WBSF and one 1- by 5-cm slice for SSF. The WBSF from steaks cooked with conveyor were tougher than convection oven cooked steaks [51.9 Newtons (N) vs. 46.1 N; P Correlations for WBSF and SSF performed in the same steak ranged from 0.51 to 0.88 (P correlation values but the magnitude of the relationship is dependent on the combination of cooking method and cooling time.

  5. Semisubmersible rigs attractive for tender-assisted drilling

    Tranter, P. (Sedco Forex, Aberdeen (United Kingdom))


    Tender-assisted drilling (TAD) involves the use of tender support vessel (TSV) during the drilling phase of platform development to provide drilling utilities to the platform-mounted drilling package. The TSV provides facilities such as mud mixing, storage, pumping, bulk storage, hotel accommodations, and power. Thus, the platform topsides and jacket weight and size can be smaller and less expensive. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of TAD, then describes the TAD vessel, semisubmersible, platform cost savings, accommodations, drilling and workovers, and field experience.

  6. Relationships between sensory evaluations of beef tenderness, shear force measurements and consumer characteristics.

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; De Smet, Stefaan; Ueland, Øydis; Verbeke, Wim


    The supply of tender beef is an important challenge for the beef industry. Knowledge about the profile of consumers who are more optimistic or more accurate in their tenderness evaluations is important for product development and beef marketing purposes. Central location tests of beef steaks were performed in Norway and Belgium (n=218). Instrumental and sensorial tenderness of three muscles from Belgian Blue and Norwegian Red cattle was reported. Consumers who are optimistically evaluating tenderness were found to be more often male, less food neophobic, more positive towards beef healthiness, and showed fewer concerns about beef safety. No clear profile emerged for consumers who assessed tenderness similar to shear force measurements, which suggests that tenderness is mainly evaluated subjectively. The results imply a window of opportunities in tenderness improvements, and allow targeting a market segment which is less critical towards beef tenderness.

  7. Utilization of sparker induced pressure waves to tenderize meat

    This study investigated the feasibility of tenderizing meat using high pressure waves generated from a sparker source. Beef strip loins were cut into steaks from the anterior end and one to two steaks from each strip loin were randomly selected to serve as non-treated controls and the remaining ste...

  8. Olanzapine-induced tender pitting pre-tibial edema

    Kaliaperumal Mathan


    Full Text Available Antipsychotic-induced edema is uncommonly encountered in clinical practice. We report a case of tender pitting pre-tibial edema with olanzapine in a woman with no medical comorbidities. The peculiar distribution of edema resulted in diagnostic confusion necessitating specific investigations. Eventually, the edema resolved following complete stoppage of the drug, but caused distress to the patient and the caregiver.

  9. Tendering and decision-making: a case on pharmaceutical products

    S. Dankers; R. Vieira


    In order to contain expenditures for pharmaceuticals, the latest healthcare reforms have focused on decentralising German pharmaceutical market. Health insurance funds are now able to tender the products and subsequently conclude rebate contracts with one or more companies. Considering the enormous

  10. Response of tender cactus pads to Salmonella strains

    Tender cactus pads (cladodes) or nopalitos (Opuntia ficus-indica L) are an important vegetable in Mexico. They are often pre-trimmed, cut and packaged, and while usually consumed cooked, they may also be eaten raw in salads. Salmonella is an enteropathogenic bacterium that can adapt to adverse envir...

  11. Pain sensitivity and pericranial tenderness in children with tension-type headache

    Soee, Ann-Britt L; Skov, Liselotte; Kreiner, Svend


    To compare tenderness and pain sensitivity in children (aged 7-17 years) with tension-type headache (TTH) and healthy controls using total tenderness score (TTS), pressure pain threshold (PPT), and pain perceived at suprapressure pain threshold (supraPPT).......To compare tenderness and pain sensitivity in children (aged 7-17 years) with tension-type headache (TTH) and healthy controls using total tenderness score (TTS), pressure pain threshold (PPT), and pain perceived at suprapressure pain threshold (supraPPT)....

  12. Grounds for dispensing with public tender procedures in Government Contracting

    P Bolton


    Full Text Available The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa1 provides that organs of state must comply with five principles when procuring goods or services: procurement procedures must be fair, equitable, transparent, competitive and cost-effective. In short, this means that organs of state should make use of competition when procuring goods or services. They should shop around and attract the maximum number of contractors who will participate in such competition. The aim should be the attainment of value for money, meaning, public money should be spent in an effective and efficient manner. Those who participate in competitions should also be treated fairly and without bias. In principle, no preferences should be afforded to different contractors; all contracting parties should have equal access to competition; some contractors should not be afforded more time for the preparation and submission of quotes or tenders than others; and the same information should be made available to all contracting parties. Government procurement procedures should further be transparent, meaning public or open. Thus, organs of state should not contract behind closed doors – government contracts should, as a rule, be advertised. Depending on the nature and value of a particular contract, the use of a public call for tenders is generally the best way to ensure compliance with the principles in the Constitution. By nature, a pubic call for tenders is open, it assists in the prevention of fraud and favouritism, and it ensures that the maximum number of contractors is approached to compete for a contract.Organs of state can also compare prices and quality and can contract with whoever offers the best deal. Most legislation therefore proceeds on the basis that procurement takes place by way of tendering. Generally, contracts above R200 000 are subject to public tender procedures. In certain instances, however, a public call for tenders may be inappropriate regardless of the high

  13. Determination of protein markers for beef tenderness in U. S. select beef

    Objectives: Beef tenderness is a primary quality feature that defines the consumer’s perception of the product quality. Therefore definition of chemical characteristics that contribute to variation in tenderness within a specific USDA grade can help refine our understanding of meat tenderness. The o...

  14. Renewable Energy Auctions and Tenders: How good are they?

    David Toke


    Full Text Available This paper analyses the performance of two cases of renewable energy (RE auction/tender systems in an effort to contribute to the evaluation of RE auction/tender systems and to study best practice in their delivery of RE projects. This is done by comparing regimes in different settings, one concerned with Danish offshore wind development, the other concerned with renewable energy development in South Africa. It is found that regulatory factors which promote certainty in deployment, including measures to ensure that projects achieve grid connection, are important in assuring delivery of the programmes. However cost reductions that are associated with renewable energy auctions are not caused mainly by the auction systems themselves, but rather are associated with general declines in the costs of renewable energy technologies. Moreover, the effect of renewable energy auctions systems may be more concerned with limiting renewable energy deployment rather than reducing the costs of energy generated by renewable energy projects that are deployed.

  15. The Role of Quality in the Adjudication of Public Tenders

    Geo Quinot


    Full Text Available The quality of the goods or services that government procures is obviously a very important consideration in deciding which supplier should be awarded a particular public tender. It follows that in the regulation of public procurement, particular attention should be given to the role of quality (also called functionality in the adjudication of public tenders and the final award decision. In South African public procurement law, the role of functionality in public tender adjudication has been a fairly controversial issue that has resulted in a continuing interaction between courts and law-makers on how and when quality should be assessed and should impact on the final award decision within the framework for public procurement found in section 217 of the Constitution. This contribution tracks the development of the role of functionality in public tender adjudication as prescribed by public procurement regulation since the enactment of the Preferential Procurement Policy Framework Act 5 of 2000, which spearheaded the development of contemporary public procurement regulation in South Africa. The analysis shows how the role of functionality has constantly changed since the enactment of the PPPFA and remains uncertain. This uncertainty relates to different interpretations of the constitutional requirements for public procurement primarily contained in section 217(1 of the Constitution. Whether functionality is used as a qualification criterion, an award criterion or both holds particular practical implications for both suppliers and contracting authorities. It is accordingly important to have certainty on this question. However, it cannot be said that the Constitution and section 217 in particular dictates one approach rather than another. The issue should thus be resolved with reference to the statutory scheme adopted under the PPPFA.

  16. Pain sensitivity and pericranial tenderness in children with tension-type headache: a controlled study

    Soee ABL


    Full Text Available Ann-Britt L Soee,1 Liselotte Skov,1 Svend Kreiner,4 Birte Tornoe,1,2 Lise L Thomsen3 1Department of Paediatrics, Children's Headache Clinic, Copenhagen University Hospital Herlev, Copenhagen, Denmark; 2Department of Physiotherapy, Medical Department O, Copenhagen University Hospital Herlev, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Department of Neuropediatrics, Juliane Marie Centre, Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen Denmark; 4Department of Biostatistics, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Purpose: To compare tenderness and pain sensitivity in children (aged 7–17 years with tension-type headache (TTH and healthy controls using total tenderness score (TTS, pressure pain threshold (PPT, and pain perceived at suprapressure pain threshold (supraPPT. Patients and methods: Twenty-three children with frequent episodic TTH, 36 with chronic TTH, and 57 healthy controls were included. TTS was measured bilaterally at seven pericranial myofascial structures. PPT and supraPPT were assessed in the finger, m. temporalis, and m. trapezius by a Somedic® algometer. SupraPPT was defined as the pain perceived at a stimulus calculated as the individual site-specific PPT + 50%. Statistics: The effect of group, sex, age, headache frequency, intensity, and years on TTS, PPT, and supraPPT was analyzed by general linear models. Confirmatory factor analysis was analyzed for mutual relations between measurements. Results and conclusion: Tenderness increased uniformly in both frequent episodic TTH (median 14; interquartile range [IQR] 10–18; P < 0.001 and chronic TTH (median 13; IQR 9–20; P < 0.001 compared to controls (median 5, IQR 3–11. However, the children with frequent episodic TTH and chronic TTH did not show significantly increased sensitivity when measured by PPT or supraPPT. Factor analysis confirmed that the site-specific measurements depended on general latent variables. Consequently, the PPT and supraPPT tests can be assumed to measure

  17. Reindeer meat – is it always tender, tasty and healthy?

    Eva Wiklund


    Full Text Available Meat with high pH values, so called DFD (Dark, Firm, Dry meat, is a persistent quality defect foundmin all meat species. DFD shortens shelf life, especially for vacuum-packed meat and affects meat colour, tenderness and water-holding properties. High pH values in reindeer meat have been related to pre-slaughter handling stress and poor nutritional status of the animals. There are numerous reports that variation in muscle pH and glycogen content give rise to considerable variations in meat tenderness in species such as beef and lamb. In contrast, reindeer meat has been found to be extremely tender regardless of ultimate pH. This phenomenon has been related to the speed of post mortem protein degradation and the small muscle fibre size in reindeer. Previous research has demonstrated that the fatty acid composition of meat changes in response to diets. Generally, a higher proportion of long, unsaturated fatty acids were found in meat from grazing animals compared with animals fed a grain-based diet. Reindeer meat has been found to contain moderate amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, especially so-called n-3 (or omega-3 PUFAs. The PUFAs are known to be susceptible to oxidation and may therefore be easily oxidized during processing by techniques like smoking and drying. A trained sensory panel concluded that meat from reindeer fed commercial feed scored higher for liverish and sweet flavours and lower for off-flavou (i.e. ‘grass’, ‘wild’ and ‘game’ compared with meat from grazing animals. Consumer preference tests on reindeer meat showed that 50 per cent of the consumers preferred meat from grazing reindeer and 50 per cent meat from pellet-fed animals. Recent reindeer meat research has included new feed mixtures using ingredients like linseed and fishmeal. Crushed linseed in the feed gave meat with a fat composition similar to that of natural pasture, which meant more PUFA than in meat from reindeer fed the normal grain

  18. Psychiatric disorders and muscle tenderness in episodic and chronic migraine.

    Mongini, Franco; Deregibus, Andrea; Rota, Eugenia


    This review first reports on the data concerning the relationship between migraine and personality traits and psychiatric disorders. The relationship between migraine and tenderness of the pericranial and cervical muscles is then discussed. In one study, a psychologic assessment was performed in 56 women with migraine, and the Minnesota Multiphase Personality Inventory (MMPI) and State Trait Anxiety Inventory were administered at baseline (T0) and after 6-7 years (T2). Frequency, severity and duration of migraine were recorded at T0, after treatment (T1) and at T2, and their relationship to the prevalence of depression, MMPI and State Trait Anxiety Inventory data were examined. Pain parameters improved in all patients in T0-1, but were higher at T2 in patients with depression at T0. The patients whose migraine improved at T2 had significantly lower MMPI and State Trait Anxiety Inventory scores at T0 and T2. Moreover, the prevalence of depression of the patients whose migraine improved at T2 was 37.5% at T0 and decreased to 12.5% at T2. The authors subsequently studied the function of the frontal lobe in 23 female patients previously treated for chronic migraine and 23 controls by applying three neuropsychologic tests (gambling task, tower of hanoi-3 and object alternation test). The patient group performed significantly worse on the tower of hanoi-3 and the object alternation test. In order to assess the extent to which muscle tenderness may relate to psychiatric disorders in patients with migraine and tension-type headache, diagnosed according International Headache Society criteria [2004], a psychologic assessment was performed and palpation tenderness scores calculated for the pericranial and cervical muscles in 459 patients. In total, 125 patients had frequent episodic migraine, 97 had chronic migraine, 82 had frequent episodic tension-type headache and chronic tension-type headache was present in 83. In a further 72 patients, both episodic migraine and

  19. Tenderness of Pork Muscles as Influenced by Chilling Rate and Altered Carcass Suspension

    Kirkegaard, Elin; Møller, Anders Juel


    Evaluation of tenderness improvements in porcine muscles (longissimus dorsi, semimembranosus, biceps femoris) in 72 carcasses by using combinations of three different chilling rates and two different suspennnsion methods....

  20. Danish Public Construction Counselling Selection and Assignment Criteria in European Tendering

    Larsen, Jesper Kranker; Ussing, Lene Faber; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev


    One of the largest customers in the Danish construction industry is public agencies that own and develop projects. For some of the counselling services, they recur to be put out in European tendering. The aim is to find which selection and assignment criteria are used most in public tendering. How...... projects use selection and assignment criteria for counselling services and finally if there is significant use of selection and assignment methods in public counselling. The method is based on 74 public counselling tenders from the European Tenders Electronic Daily database from January 2010 to March 2013...

  1. Synchronising Tender Drawings and Documents as an Aid for Discrepancies

    Ismail Iznny


    Full Text Available This paper recommends an aid to control discrepancies between drawings and documents in a project. The synchronisation may assist to better project’s preparation and documentations. The causes of discrepancies that found out during the contract stage may lead to ineffectiveness of construction cost. The controlling process initiated from the tendering stage as to minimize the causal by any of the consultants which some items may left behind or possibly not describe fully without the thorough affiliation of coordination. The method to reduce discrepancies between drawings and documents is identified through Case Study based on ‘hands on’ project. The case study is focused on the preparation of architectural detailing. Therefore, the relationship of 2-Dimensional (2-D Tender Drawings and bills of quantities is compared with the Elements of Building Works by Malaysian Standard Method of Measurement of Building Works Second Edition (SMM. The relationship study will simplify and supersede any unnecessary detailing. Thus, the application of the synchronisation method will result effectiveness of documentation during the contract stage by reducing discrepancies.

  2. Regulatory polymorphisms in the bovine Ankyrin 1 gene promoter are associated with tenderness and intra-muscular fat content

    Aslan, Ozlem


    Abstract Background Recent QTL and gene expression studies have highlighted ankyrins as positional and functional candidate genes for meat quality. Our objective was to characterise the promoter region of the bovine ankyrin 1 gene and to test polymorphisms for association with sensory and technological meat quality measures. Results Seven novel promoter SNPs were identified in a 1.11 kb region of the ankyrin 1 promoter in Angus, Charolais and Limousin bulls (n = 15 per breed) as well as 141 crossbred beef animals for which meat quality data was available. Eighteen haplotypes were inferred with significant breed variation in haplotype frequencies. The five most frequent SNPs and the four most frequent haplotypes were subsequently tested for association with sensory and technological measures of meat quality in the crossbred population. SNP1, SNP3 and SNP4 (which were subsequently designated regulatory SNPs) and SNP5 were associated with traits that contribute to sensorial and technological measurements of tenderness and texture; Haplotype 1 and haplotype 4 were oppositely correlated with traits contributing to tenderness (P < 0.05). While no single SNP was associated with intramuscular fat (IMF), a clear association with increased IMF and juiciness was observed for haplotype 2. Conclusion The conclusion from this study is that alleles defining haplotypes 2 and 4 could usefully contribute to marker SNP panels used to select individuals with improved IMF\\/juiciness or tenderness in a genome-assisted selection framework.

  3. E-money as legal tender : Does the status really matter?

    Kasiyanto, Safari; Kommers, Piet; Isaias, Pedro


    The pro and contra over the importance of e-money being attributed the status of legal tender has been brought on the table since the early 90s. Is obtaining the status of legal tender really necessary for e-money to strengthen its position as a means of efficient payments in the economy? What do cu

  4. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy: A Tough-Minded Therapy for a Tender-Minded Profession.

    Weinrach, Stephen G.


    Objections to Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) may be based on the predominance of the personality type in the counseling profession dubbed "tender mindedness." The dichotomy between the "tough minded" and the "tender minded" may suggest the reasons for its acceptance among some and rejection by others. The author examines common…

  5. Tendering and relationships in strategic logistics service provider selection for global supply chain organisations

    Tambo, Torben

    of private enterprise purchase additionally relate to the acceptance of some level of dialogue before, during and after the tender due date. Tendering is viewed as an extreme case of relationship management, where newcomers and existing suppliers are put on an equal footing, decades of incorporated...

  6. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy: A Tough-Minded Therapy for a Tender-Minded Profession.

    Weinrach, Stephen G.


    Objections to Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) may be based on the predominance of the personality type in the counseling profession dubbed "tender mindedness." The dichotomy between the "tough minded" and the "tender minded" may suggest the reasons for its acceptance among some and rejection by others. The…

  7. 17 CFR 240.13e-4 - Tender offers by issuers.


    ... advertisement must not include a transmittal letter that would permit security holders to tender securities... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tender offers by issuers. 240.13e-4 Section 240.13e-4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE...

  8. An analysis of project selection and assignment criteria of danish tenders in europe

    Larsen, Jesper Kranker; Ussing, Lene Faber; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev


    , and 3/ any significant difference between the use of selection and assignment criteria in Danish public construction projects. The study uses a quantitative research approach where 157 Danish public tender cases were selected from the European Tenders Electronic Daily database between the period...

  9. Criteria procedure development for tender in construction design

    Malykha Galina Gennad’evna

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problem of criteria optimization in order to objectively evaluate the experience of an applicant (a project organization and the quality of a design product (project documentation. The methodology to be developed is based on introduction of new evaluation criteria (sub-criteria that in conjunction with the applicable criteria specified by the Law on the Contract System will allow developing the optimal procedure to evaluate competitive bids of the participants in tenders and determining the most appropriate candidate, with whom the contract will be further concluded. The article analyzes the existing criteria and their interaction with each other and describes the specifics of tenders for design in the form of open competition. The list decreases to three criteria, such as "contract price", "quality, functional and environmental characteristics of a procurement facility", "qualification of procurement participants, including availability of financial resources, equipment and other material resources necessary for the execution of the contract material resources, the presence of goodwill, professionals and other employees of a certain experience level". However, in order to upgrade the quality of assurance procedures for the design works to be performed, it was decided to apply new evaluation criteria (sub-criteria components, such as "availability of positive findings of the state out-of-departmental examination that are similar to the subject of competition, on a participant in placement of order", "availability of the certificate on approval of architectural and urban planning decisions that are similar to the subject of competition, on a participant in placement of order", "availability of the permit for the commissioning of facilities that are similar to the subject of competition, on a participant in placement of order", "availability of the contract for designer's supervision with a participant in placement of

  10. Prevalence and anatomical location of muscle tenderness in adults with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain

    Mortensen Ole S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many adults experience bothersome neck/shoulder pain. While research and treatment strategies often focus on the upper trapezius, other neck/shoulder muscles may be affected as well. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence and anatomical location of muscle tenderness in adults with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain. Methods Clinical neck/shoulder examination at two large office workplaces in Copenhagen, Denmark. 174 women and 24 men (aged 25-65 years with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain for a duration of at least 30 days during the previous year and a pain intensity of at least 2 on a modified VAS-scale of 0-10 participated. Exclusion criteria were traumatic injuries or other serious chronic disease. Using a standardized finger pressure of 2 kg, palpable tenderness were performed of eight anatomical neck/shoulder locations in the left and right side on a scale of 'no tenderness', 'some tenderness' and 'severe tenderness'. Results In women, the levator scapulae, neck extensors and infraspinatus showed the highest prevalence of severe tenderness (18-30%. In comparison, the prevalence of severe tenderness in the upper trapezius, occipital border and supraspinatus was 13-19%. Severe tenderness of the medial deltoid was least prevalent (0-1%. In men, the prevalence of severe tenderness in the levator scapulae was 13-21%, and ranged between 0-8% in the remainder of the examined anatomical locations. Conclusions A high prevalence of tenderness exists in several anatomical locations of the neck/shoulder complex among adults with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain. Future research should focus on several neck/shoulder muscles, including the levator scapulae, neck extensors and infraspinatus, and not only the upper trapezius. Trial Registration ISRCTN60264809

  11. Effects of cooked temperature on pork tenderness and relationships among muscle physiology and pork quality traits in loins from Landrace and Berkshire swine.

    Crawford, S M; Moeller, S J; Zerby, H N; Irvin, K M; Kuber, P S; Velleman, S G; Leeds, T D


    The effect of, and associations between, loin muscle morphology and pork quality indicator traits were assessed at three cooked temperatures in loin chops from 38 purebred Berkshire and 52 purebred Landrace swine. Three loin chops from each pig were randomly assigned to cooked temperature treatments of 62, 71, or 79 degrees C and loin tenderness was assessed as Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). Cooked temperature (PLandrace pigs had greater WBSF at each cooked temperature compared with chops from Berkshire pigs. Chops from Landrace pigs became less tender with increasing cooked temperature, whereas chops from Berkshire pigs became less tender only when cooked to 79 degrees C. In loins from Landrace pigs, Minolta a* at 62 degrees C (R(2)=0.07), and average muscle fiber diameter at 71 degrees C and 79 degrees C (R(2)=0.07 and 0.24, respectively), contributed to WBSF variation. In contrast, for loins from Berkshire pigs, loin ultimate pH and intramuscular fat percentage accounted for 27% and 30% of the variation in WBSF at 62 degrees C and 71 degrees C, respectively, and loin ultimate pH accounted for 7% of variation in WBSF at 79 degrees C. Results suggest that loins from Berkshire pigs have properties that resist toughening at greater cooked temperatures and that associations between quality measures and loin tenderness differ between Landrace and Berkshire pigs.

  12. 17 CFR 240.14e-2 - Position of subject company with respect to a tender offer.


    ... disclosing that the subject company: (1) Recommends acceptance or rejection of the bidder's tender offer; (2... accordance with such laws, regulations and policies. (d) Exemption for cross-border tender offers. The... with respect to a tender offer. 240.14e-2 Section 240.14e-2 Commodity and Securities...

  13. Eighth Project book TIEC, Tenders Industrial Energy Conservation: Accepted Projects 1997; Achtste Projectenboek TIEB, Tenders Industriele Energiebesparing: Gehonoreerde projecten 1997



    The aim of the title subsidy regulation is to stimulate industrial companies to invest in taking energy conservation measures. This brochure gives insight into newly applied techniques or developments in the industry. An overview is given of studies, demonstration projects and market introduction projects regarding energy conservation. Also, overall and indicative figures of the different projects are presented. The industries in which projects were carried out concern the food industry, paper industry, chemical industry, rubber and synthetic materials processing industry, petroleum and coal processing industry, ceramics industry, graphics industry, electrotechnical industry, furniture industry, transportation sector and the metal industry. The eighth Call for Tenders resulted in 83 subsidy agreements, worth 21.5 million Dutch guilders of commitments. The subsidies applied, not only concern energy conservation projects, but also knowledge transfer

  14. Ninth Project book TIEC, Tenders Industrial Energy Conservation. Accepted Projects 1998; Negende Projectenboek TIEB, Tenders Industriele Energiebesparing. Gehonoreerde projecten 1998



    The aim of the title subsidy regulation is to stimulate industrial companies to invest in taking energy conservation measures. This brochure gives insight into newly applied techniques or developments in the industry. An overview is given of studies, demonstration projects and market introduction projects regarding energy conservation. Also, overall and indicative figures of the different projects are presented. The industries in which projects were carried out concern the food industry, paper industry, chemical industry, rubber and synthetic materials processing industry, petroleum and coal processing industry, ceramics industry, graphics industry, electrotechnical industry, furniture industry, transportation sector and the metal industry. The ninth Call for Tenders resulted in 78 subsidy agreements, worth 15.6 million Dutch guilders of commitments. The subsidies applied, not only concern energy conservation projects, but also knowledge transfer.

  15. Adapting Rational Unified Process (RUP) approach in designing a secure e-Tendering model

    Mohd, Haslina; Robie, Muhammad Afdhal Muhammad; Baharom, Fauziah; Darus, Norida Muhd; Saip, Mohamed Ali; Yasin, Azman


    e-Tendering is an electronic processing of the tender document via internet and allow tenderer to publish, communicate, access, receive and submit all tender related information and documentation via internet. This study aims to design the e-Tendering system using Rational Unified Process approach. RUP provides a disciplined approach on how to assign tasks and responsibilities within the software development process. RUP has four phases that can assist researchers to adjust the requirements of various projects with different scope, problem and the size of projects. RUP is characterized as a use case driven, architecture centered, iterative and incremental process model. However the scope of this study only focusing on Inception and Elaboration phases as step to develop the model and perform only three of nine workflows (business modeling, requirements, analysis and design). RUP has a strong focus on documents and the activities in the inception and elaboration phases mainly concern the creation of diagrams and writing of textual descriptions. The UML notation and the software program, Star UML are used to support the design of e-Tendering. The e-Tendering design based on the RUP approach can contribute to e-Tendering developers and researchers in e-Tendering domain. In addition, this study also shows that the RUP is one of the best system development methodology that can be used as one of the research methodology in Software Engineering domain related to secured design of any observed application. This methodology has been tested in various studies in certain domains, such as in Simulation-based Decision Support, Security Requirement Engineering, Business Modeling and Secure System Requirement, and so forth. As a conclusion, these studies showed that the RUP one of a good research methodology that can be adapted in any Software Engineering (SE) research domain that required a few artifacts to be generated such as use case modeling, misuse case modeling, activity

  16. Prevention of nipple tenderness and breast engorgement in the postpartal period.

    Storr, G B


    A study was conducted to identify an effective preparation method for breastfeeding and to develop measurement tools for nipple tenderness and breast engorgement for use in a clinical setting. Twenty-five subjects served as their own controls by preparing one nipple and massaging one breast, either the left or right, but not the other breast or nipple. Nipple tenderness and breast engorgement were recorded on five-point scales. Analysis of the data revealed that tenderness and engorgement were decreased in the prepared, massaged breast.

  17. La diaspora americana in Europa: il caso degli espatriati in Tender is the Night di F. Scott Fitzgerald

    Elisa A. Pantaleo


    Full Text Available From 1921 to 1930, F. Scott Fitzgerald travelled to Europe four times, and he spent almost four years in France and one year in Switzerland. While living abroad in the multicultural environment of Paris and of the French Riviera, his attitude towards Europe underwent a major change. Tender is the Night marks a significant transition from the narrow nationalism of Fitzgerald’s first travel correspondence to an increased sensitivity towards European otherness. The cultural encounter with Europe – that in the novel is rendered through an hybridization of the language and the characters –helped the author to reinterpret his identity in a cosmopolitan perspective.

  18. Use of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and dietary calcium to improve tenderness of beef from the round of beef cows.

    Carnagey, K M; Huff-Lonergan, E J; Lonergan, S M; Trenkle, A; Horst, R L; Beitz, D C


    The objective of this trial was to determine how 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) (25-OH D(3)) supplementation, altering supplemental dietary calcium, or their combination influence postmortem biochemical and tenderness changes in muscles from the round of mature cows. Twenty-seven Angus cows (3 to 7 yr old) were allotted randomly to 9 pens with 3 cows per pen. Treatments were arranged in a 3 x 3 factorial design with 3 dosages of 25-OH D(3) (0, 250, or 500 mg of 25-OH D(3) administered as a 1-time oral bolus 7 d before slaughter) and 3 percentages of supplemental limestone (0.5, 0.75, and 1.0%) replenished in the diet for 3 d before slaughter and after a 2-wk limestone withdrawal. Plasma samples were obtained during the feeding period. Upon slaughter, adductor, gracilus, pectineus, sartorius, semimembranosus, vastus intermedius, and vastus lateralis muscles were obtained and aged for 1, 3, or 7 d. Calcium concentrations were increased in plasma when 250 or 500 mg of 25-OH D(3) were administered (P meat and in plasma and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1,25-(OH)(2) D(3)] in plasma were increased when 25-OH D(3) was administered (P meat or in plasma. Calpastatin activity was affected by treatments only in the gracilus and vastus intermedius muscles (P tenderness, but improved tenderness was not observed.

  19. Modified-atmosphere storage under subatmospheric pressure and beef quality: II. Color, drip, cooking loss, sarcomere length, and tenderness.

    Smulders, F J M; Hiesberger, J; Hofbauer, P; Dögl, B; Dransfield, E


    Beef has a requirement for refrigerated storage up to 14 d to achieve adequate aging and a tender product. To achieve this aging with little spoilage and no surface drying, vacuum packaging is attractive, because it is inherently simple and offers a clear indication to the packer when the process has failed or there is risk of spoilage. However, there is increasing pressure on the meat industry to limit the use of packaging materials in view of their cost and the cost involved in their recovery and recycling. The purpose of this report was to evaluate an alternative storage system in containers using modified atmospheres at reduced pressure (approximately 25 kPa). The quality of the meat for both container- and vacuum-packed treatments was measured during chilled storage for up to 3 wk. Storage time had the most significant effect on quality characteristics, irrespective of the packaging method. Storage in containers under a 70%N2:30%CO2 gas mixture gave characteristics similar to beef stored under vacuum. Storage in containers under 100% CO2 produced less drip loss than under 70%N2:30%CO2, but generally container storage produced 3 times as much drip loss as vacuum packaging. Shear force of the LM was unaffected by the type of packaging, and at d 2 after slaughter (i.e., before the storage trial was begun), sarcomere lengths of muscles intended for container storage were similar to those destined for vacuum storage. During the packaging treatment, the comparison between the storage systems was always done within 1 animal using one carcass-half for container storage and the other half for vacuum packaging; all bulls were shackled from the left hindleg during bleeding. The majority of the muscles from the left sides had lower shear force values than those from the right sides at the earlier storage times (2 and 9 d after slaughter) but had similar values after longer storage (16 and 23 d after slaughter). This is the first report that shackling beef carcasses from

  20. [Differences between myofascial trigger points and tender points].

    Mense, S


    The article describes and compares the characteristics of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) of the myofascial pain syndrome and the tender points (TePs) of the fibromyalgia syndrome. Many statements are hypothetical, because not all aspects of the disorders have been clarified in solid studies. Signs and symptoms of MTrPs: (1) palpable nodule, often located close to the muscle belly, (2) often single, (3) allodynia and hyperalgesia at the MTrP, (4) referral of the MTrP pain, (5) normal pain sensitivity outside the MTrPs, (6) local twitch response, (7) local contracture in biopsy material, (8) peripheral mechanism probable. Signs and symptoms of TePs: (1) no palpable nodule, (2) location often close to the muscle attachments, (3) multiple by definition, (4) allodynia and hyperalgesia also outside the TePs, (5) enhanced pain under psychic stress, (6) unspecific histological changes in biopsy material, (7) central nervous mechanism probable. The multitude of differences speak against a common aetiology and pathophysiology.

  1. Effects of tender point acupuncture on delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS – a pragmatic trial

    Kitakoji Hiroshi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acupuncture is used to reduce inflammation and decrease pain in delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS. This study investigates the efficacy of acupuncture on the symptoms of DOMS. Methods Thirty subjects were assigned randomly to there groups, namely the control, non-tender point and tender point groups. Measurement of pain with full elbow flexion was used as indices of efficacy. Measurements were taken before and after exercise, immediately after treatment and seven days after treatment. Results Significant differences in visual analog scores for pain were found between the control group and tender point group immediately after treatment and three days after exercise (P Conclusion The results show that tender point acupuncture relieves muscle pain of DOMS.

  2. Effects of tender point acupuncture on delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) – a pragmatic trial

    Itoh, Kazunori; Ochi, Hideki; Kitakoji, Hiroshi


    Background Acupuncture is used to reduce inflammation and decrease pain in delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). This study investigates the efficacy of acupuncture on the symptoms of DOMS. Methods Thirty subjects were assigned randomly to there groups, namely the control, non-tender point and tender point groups. Measurement of pain with full elbow flexion was used as indices of efficacy. Measurements were taken before and after exercise, immediately after treatment and seven days after treatment. Results Significant differences in visual analog scores for pain were found between the control group and tender point group immediately after treatment and three days after exercise (P < 0.05, Dunnetts multiple test). Conclusion The results show that tender point acupuncture relieves muscle pain of DOMS. PMID:19032777

  3. An analysis of project selection and assignment criteria of Danish tenders in Europe

    Jasper Kranker Larsen


    Full Text Available Public construction agencies are one of the largest developers within the Danish construction industry, where such agencies own and develop new public construction projects. Most of these projects are put out in European tender. This study analyses the selection and assignment criteria employed by these agencies in different types of public sector projects. Some of the objectives pursued by the study include the determination of 1/ the selection and assignment criteria mostly used in Danish public tenders 2/ how different types of projects use selection and assignment criteria in the bidding process, and 3/ any significant difference between the use of selection and assignment criteria in Danish public construction projects. The study uses a quantitative research approach where 157 Danish public tender cases were selected from the European Tenders Electronic Daily database between the period: January 2010 to March 2013. Fisher's Exact Test was conducted to determine if there was any significant use of some selection and assignment criteria. The findings of the study showed that invited tenders with pre-qualification and lowest price in 69.8% of the tenders are the most used selection and assignment criteria, with little regard to project type.

  4. A New Insight into the Role of Calpains in Post-mortem Meat Tenderization in Domestic Animals: A review.

    Lian, Ting; Wang, Linjie; Liu, Yiping


    Tenderness is the most important meat quality trait, which is determined by intracellular environment and extracellular matrix. Particularly, specific protein degradation and protein modification can disrupt the architecture and integrity of muscle cells so that improves the meat tenderness. Endogenous proteolytic systems are responsible for modifying proteinases as well as the meat tenderization. Abundant evidence has testified that calpains (CAPNs) including calpain I (CAPN1) and calpastatin (CAST) have the closest relationship with tenderness in livestock. They are involved in a wide range of physiological processes including muscle growth and differentiation, pathological conditions and post-mortem meat aging. Whereas, Calpain3 (CAPN3) has been established as an important activating enzyme specifically expressed in livestock's skeletal muscle, but its role in domestic animals meat tenderization remains controversial. In this review, we summarize the role of CAPN1, calpain II (CAPN2) and CAST in post-mortem meat tenderization, and analyse the relationship between CAPN3 and tenderness in domestic animals. Besides, the possible mechanism affecting post-mortem meat aging and improving meat tenderization, and current possible causes responsible for divergence (whether CAPN3 contributes to animal meat tenderization or not) are inferred. Only the possible mechanism of CAPN3 in meat tenderization has been confirmed, while its exact role still needs to be studied further.

  5. Cement: Administrative tender specifications and standards in Spain

    Soria Santamaría, Francisco


    Full Text Available The paper describes, in chronological order, the different competent Authorities in Spain and the documents issued by them regarding Cement Regulations and Standards. The origin of the early cement quality Rules is referred to, the issuing of Regulations by the Public Bodies and finally the adoption of National Standards on the one hand, as well as the first initiatives to establish International Standards, especially motivated by the export boom after the Second World War, on the other. The second part of the paper offers a brief synthesis of the terms and conditions for cement in Administrative Tender Specifications from 1919 to date regarding definitions, classifications and specifications. Finally the present state of the art is outlined in a series of Tables describing the cement standards in force in Spain.

    Se empieza exponiendo, en orden cronológico, los organismos españoles y documentos elaborados por los mismos relativos a Reglamentos y Normas sobre cementos. Se justifica el origen de las primeras reglas para establecer la calidad de los cementos, la aparición de reglamentos por parte de las Administraciones públicas y la elaboración de normas a nivel nacional, en primer término, y los inicios de normas internacionales con motivo del auge de las exportaciones acabada la 2ª Guerra Mundial, en segundo lugar. A continuación se hace un breve resumen de la evolución de los Pliegos de Cemento en España desde 1919 hasta nuestros días, en lo que se refiere a Definiciones, Clasificación, Nomenclatura y Especificaciones. Finalmente, se incluye en forma tabulada la situación actual de las normas sobre cementos en España.

  6. Bovine gene polymorphisms related to fat deposition and meat tenderness

    Marina R.S. Fortes


    Full Text Available Leptin, thyroglobulin and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase play important roles in fat metabolism. Fat deposition has an influence on meat quality and consumers' choice. The aim of this study was to determine allele and genotype frequencies of polymorphisms of the bovine genes, which encode leptin (LEP, thyroglobulin (TG and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT1. A further objective was to establish the effects of these polymorphisms on meat characteristics. We genotyped 147 animals belonging to the Nelore (Bos indicus, Canchim (5/8 Bos taurus + 3/8 Bos indicus, Rubia Gallega X Nelore (1/2 Bos taurus + 1/2 Bos indicus, Brangus Three-way cross (9/16 Bos taurus + 7/16 Bos indicus and Braunvieh Three-way cross (3/4 Bos taurus + 1/4 Bos indicus breeds. Backfat thickness, total lipids, marbling score, ribeye area and shear force were fitted, using the General Linear Model (GLM procedure of the SAS software. The least square means of genotypes and genetic groups were compared using Tukey's test. Allele frequencies vary among the genetic groups, depending on Bos indicus versus Bos taurus influence. The LEP polymorphism segregates in pure Bos indicus Nelore animals, which is a new finding. The T allele of TG is fixed in Nelore, and DGAT1 segregates in all groups, but the frequency of allele A is lower in Nelore animals. The results showed no association between the genotypes and traits studied, but a genetic group effect on these traits was found. So, the genetic background remains relevant for fat deposition and meat tenderness, but the gene markers developed for Bos taurus may be insufficient for Bos indicus.

  7. Effect of pulsed electric field treatment on hot-boned muscles of different potential tenderness.

    Suwandy, Via; Carne, Alan; van de Ven, Remy; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Hopkins, David L


    In this study, the effect of pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment and ageing on the quality of beef M. longissimus lumborum (LL) and M. semimembranosus (SM) muscles was evaluated, including the tenderness, water loss and post-mortem proteolysis. Muscles were obtained from 12 steers (6 steers for each muscle), removed from the carcasses 4 hour postmortem and were treated with pulsed electric field within 2h. Six different pulsed electric field intensities (voltages of 5 and 10 kV × frequencies of 20, 50 and 90 Hz) plus a control were applied to each muscle to determine the optimum treatment conditions. Beef LL was found to get tougher with increasing treatment frequency whereas beef SM muscle was found to have up to 21.6% reduction in the shear force with pulsed electric field treatment. Post-mortem proteolysis showed an increase in both troponin and desmin degradation in beef LL treated with low intensity PEF treatment (20 Hz) compared to non-treated control samples.

  8. Tenderness of major muscles from three breed-types of cattle at different times-on-feed.

    McKeith, F K; Savell, J W; Smith, G C; Dutson, T R; Carpenter, Z L


    Seventy-five steers (9 to 12 months of age) of Angus (n = 25), Brahman (n = 25) and Brahman × Angus (n = 25) breed-types of known history were fed a high-energy diet and five steers from each breed-type were slaughtered after 0, 56, 112, 168 and 224 days on test. At seven days post mortem, the left side of each carcass was fabricated and eight major primals or subprimals were obtained. Steaks were removed from the shoulder clod, strip loin, tenderloin, top sirloin, knuckle, top round, bottom round and eye of round for Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) determinations and from the strip loin and bottom round for sensory panel evaluations. Steaks from Angus and Brahman × Angus steers were generally more tender than steaks from Brahman steers. Tenderness of steaks from steers of the three breed-types responded to time-on-feed differently: (a) steaks from Brahman steers improved (P 0·05) as time-on-feed increased and (c) for the Brahman × Angus steers, five of the ten muscles studied improved (P Brahman, from 0 to 56 days for Angus and from 56 to 168 days for Brahman × Angus.

  9. Is scar tenderness a reliable sign of scar complications in labor?

    Isha Gutgutia


    Full Text Available Background: Cesarean section has come a long way from being a risky & restrictive surgery to one that is safe and quick. Due to a rise in the rates of primary caesarean section globally, repeat cesarean section has also become very common. The chief concern during labor with scarred uteri is that of scar rupture which can have devastating fetal and maternal consequences, including mortality. Several studies monitoring for the features of scar rupture like abnormal cardiotocography (CTG, severe abdominal pain persisting between contractions, acute onset scar tenderness, hematuria or abnormal vaginal bleeding, maternal tachycardia or shock, cessation of uterine activity and loss of station of the presenting part exist with the exception of scar tenderness which has not been evaluated separately in any study. The present prospective observational study was undertaken in a tertiary care hospital to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of scar tenderness as a sign of scar complications in labor. Methods: 78 women with one previous cesarean delivery in spontaneous labor at term undergoing trial of scar were monitored for progress of labor and observed for vaginal bleeding, scar tenderness, maternal pulse and blood pressure every 30 minutes. Scar tenderness was elicited by pressing below and behind the pubic symphysis in between uterine contractions while engaging the woman in conversation and noting for a visible wince. Fetal heart rate auscultation was done as per protocol. Trial of scar was terminated for scar tenderness, unexplained maternal tachycardia, fresh vaginal bleeding, fetal heart rate abnormalities and non-progress of labor. Results: The sensitivity and specificity of scar tenderness as a predictor of scar complications was 92.3% and 3.8%, while accuracy was 33.3%. The likelihood ratio of a positive sign of scar tenderness being associated with scar complications in labour is 1.48. Maternal tachycardia was not a significant predictor

  10. [Research and identification of the concept and terminology of "tender-point"and "Ashi-point"].

    Zhao, Jing-Sheng


    It is generally acknowledged that "tender-point is taken as the acupoint" (tender-point) and "Ashi-point" belong to the same one concept. Through a series of research and analysis, it was found that these two nomenclatures contain both identical and different points in connotation, and reflect different experience in the treatment of abundant clinical conditions. "Tender-point" is involved in the general experience, for which the affected site is punctured directly by using an acupuncture needle or stimulated by using a moxa-stick or moxa-cone. "Ashi-point" is referred to the regional reactive site, i.e., the sensitive point for acupuncture and moxibustion, which is involved in the specific experience for taking the reactive point of clinical problems as the therapeutic site. The so-called "Tianying-point" and "Buding-point" in classical books on acu-moxibustion as Qian-jin Fang (Prescriptions Worth a Thousand Gold for Emergencies), Yulong Ge (Lyrics of Jade Dragon), etc., are the same to "Tender-point" but different to "Ashi-point". Currently, explanations and clinical application about "Tender-point" have been generalized and mixed up with "Ashi-point". The author of the present paper makes an analysis on their causes.

  11. Tender Papule Rising on the Digit: Pacinian Neuroma Should Be Considered in Differential Diagnosis

    Hyun Hee Cho, Jong Soo Hong, Se Young Park, Hyun Sun Park, Soyun Cho, Jong Hee Lee


    Full Text Available Pacinian corpuscles are sensory nerve-end organs located in the deep dermis and subcutaneous tissue of the palms or soles. Pacinian neuroma is an extremely rare feature, defined as hyperplasia or hypertrophy of Pacinian corpuscles. About half of Pacinian neuromas present with point tenderness. There have been a limited number of cases reported around the world.We observed a 45-year-old woman with an 8-month history of a tender whitish papule on her left thumb tip. Histopathologically, an enlarged hypertrophic Pacinian corpuscle in subcutaneous tissue, surrounded by numerous nerve fibers, was found. Herein, we report a case of Pacinian neuroma presenting as a tender papule on a fingertip that was clearly related to repetitive trauma at that site. This case shows that a meticulous history and histological examination can lead to an exact diagnosis and proper treatment.

  12. [Mechanisms of muscle pain : significance of trigger points and tender points].

    Brezinschek, H-P


    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) belong to the group of chronic non-inflammatory pain syndromes affecting muscles and tendinous insertions. Important criteria in the diagnosis of both diseases are the presence of "tender points" and "trigger points". According to ACR criteria FMS is characterized by the presence of tender points whereas trigger points are typically found in MPS.The main difference is that until now tender points could only be defined in terms of their localization, whereas trigger points can be found upon palpation which may cause a specific referred pain pattern. In addition, analysis of trigger points by microdialysis demonstrated elevated levels of pro-inflammatory substances at these sites. Moreover, local treatment of trigger points either by manipulative therapy or injection appears to be most effective for prompt relief of symptoms.

  13. Protein expression and oxygen consumption rate of early postmortem mitochondria relate to meat tenderness.

    Grabež, V; Kathri, M; Phung, V; Moe, K M; Slinde, E; Skaugen, M; Saarem, K; Egelandsdal, B


    Oxygen consumption rate (OCR) of muscle fibers from bovine semimembranosus muscle of 41 animals was investigated 3 to 4 h and 3 wk postmortem. Significant relations (P meat. Tender (22.92 ± 2.2 N/cm2) and tough (72.98 ± 7.2 N/cm2) meat samples (4 samples each), separated based on their OCR measurements, were selected for proteomic studies using mitochondria isolated approximately 2.5 h postmortem. Twenty-six differently expressed proteins (P meat and 19 in tough meat. In tender meat, the more prevalent antioxidant and chaperon enzymes may reduce reactive oxygen species and prolong oxygen removal by the electron transport system (ETS). Glycolytic, Krebs cycle, and ETS enzymes were also more abundant in tender meat

  14. Pork tenderness estimation by taste panel, Warner-Bratzler shear force and on-line methods.

    Van Oeckel, M J; Warnants, N; Boucqué, C V


    The extent to which modification of Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) determinations, relating to storage and preparation of the meat, aperture of the V-shaped cutting blade and shearing velocity, improve the relationship with sensory tenderness perception of pork was studied. Additionally four on-line methods: pH1, FOP1 (light scattering), PQM1 (conductivity) and DDLT (Double Density Light Transmission), were evaluated for their ability to predict tenderness. Sensory tenderness evaluation was conducted on 120 frozen (at -18°C for several months) samples of m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum. After overnight thawing, the meat was grilled to an internal temperature of 74°C and scored on an eight-point scale, from extremely tough to extremely tender. The standard WBSF procedure (protocol A) consisted of heating fresh meat samples (stored for 48 h at 4°C post slaughter) at 75°C for 50 min, cooling in cold tap water for 40 min, taking cylindrical cores parallel to the fibre direction, and shearing at a velocity of 200 mm/min with a blade aperture of 60°. For the prediction of sensory tenderness, the WBSF standard procedure (protocol A) showed the lowest variance (R(2)=15%) and the highest standard error of the estimate (SEE=0.97 N) compared to the other WBSF protocols. A decrease in shearing velocity, from 200 to 100 mm/min and, a replacement of the cutting blade with an aperture of 60° by one with an aperture of 30° led to improvements of R(2) (respectively, 19% vs. 13% and 47% vs. 23%) and SEE (respectively, 0.93 N vs. 0.97 N and 0.80 N vs. 0.97 N) and thus were better predictors of tenderness. A blade aperture of 30° instead of 60° also led to considerably lower WBSF values (22.1 N vs. 30.0 N). Freezing, frozen storage and thawing of the meat, prior to WBSF measurement, resulted in higher shear force values (32.7 N vs. 28.7 N) and a better prediction of tenderness, R(2) (25% vs. 15%) and SEE (0.94 N vs. 1.00 N). Furthermore, preparing the frozen stored

  15. Protein degradation and post-deboning tenderization in broiler breast meat with different degrees of muscle shortening

    Deboning broiler breast fillets prior to rigor mortis negatively influences tenderness due to sarcomere shortening. The effects of sarcomere shortening on muscle protein degradation and breast meat tenderization during post-deboning aging are not well understood. The objective of this study was to m...

  16. Relationships between the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire, tender point count, and muscle strength in female patients with fibromyalgia

    Henriksen, Marius; Lund, Hans Peter; Christensen, Robin


    To test the hypothesis that fibromyalgia (FM) patients with reduced lower extremity strength are more symptomatic and tender than FM patients with normal muscle strength.......To test the hypothesis that fibromyalgia (FM) patients with reduced lower extremity strength are more symptomatic and tender than FM patients with normal muscle strength....




    31P Magnetic Resonance-Spectroscopy was performed at the site of tender points in the trapezius muscle of patients with primary fibromyalgia syndrome. Earlier, in vitro studies have reported changes in the high energy phosphate-metabolism in biopsies taken from tender points of fibromyalgia patients

  18. The predetermined sites of examination for tender points in fibromyalgia syndrome are frequently associated with myofascial trigger points

    Ge, Hongyou; Wang, Ying; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente;


    The aim of this present study is to test the hypotheses that the 18 predetermined sites of examination for tender points (TP sites) in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) are myofascial trigger points (MTrPs), and that the induced pain from active MTrPs at TP sites may mimic fibromyalgia pain. Each TP site......), but not latent MTrPs (r = -.001, P = .99), was positively correlated with spontaneous pain intensity in FMS. The current study provides first evidence that pain from active MTrPs at TP sites mimics fibromyalgia pain. MTrPs may relate to generalized increased sensitivity in FMS due to central sensitization....... PERSPECTIVE: This article underlies the importance of active MTrPs in FMS patients. Most of the TP sites in FMS are MTrPs. Active MTrPs may serve as a peripheral generator of fibromyalgia pain and inactivation of active MTrPs may thus be an alternative for the treatment of FMS....

  19. Reproducibility of tender point examination in chronic low back pain patients as measured by intrarater and inter-rater reliability and agreement

    Jensen, Ole Kudsk; Callesen, Jacob; Nielsen, Merete Graakjaer;


    To evaluate the reliability and agreement of digital tender point (TP) examination in chronic low back pain (LBP) patients.......To evaluate the reliability and agreement of digital tender point (TP) examination in chronic low back pain (LBP) patients....

  20. Prevalence and anatomical location of muscle tenderness in adults with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain

    Andersen, Lars L; Hansen, Klaus; Mortensen, Ole S;


    Many adults experience bothersome neck/shoulder pain. While research and treatment strategies often focus on the upper trapezius, other neck/shoulder muscles may be affected as well. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence and anatomical location of muscle tenderness in adults...... with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain....

  1. Tendering by municipalities of wind turbines; Aanbesteding door gemeenten van windmolens



    This manual provides municipalities answers to the questions of how the municipality must do the tendering for wind turbines and what choices they have [Dutch] Deze handleiding biedt gemeenten antwoorden op de vragen hoe de gemeente moet aanbesteden en welke keuzes zij daarin heeft.

  2. 78 FR 41390 - Pershing County Water Conservation District; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing with the...


    ..., nearby the Town of Lovelock, Pershing County, Nevada. The project would occupy 0.25 acre of Reclamation... Energy Regulatory Commission Pershing County Water Conservation District; Notice of Application Tendered...: Pershing County Water Conservation District. e. Name of Project: Humboldt River Hydro Power Project....

  3. 17 CFR 240.14d-4 - Dissemination of tender offers to security holders.


    ... to security holders. 240.14d-4 Section 240.14d-4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... offers to security holders. As soon as practicable on the date of commencement of a tender offer, the bidder must publish, send or give the disclosure required by § 240.14d-6 to security holders of the...

  4. 17 CFR 240.14d-6 - Disclosure of tender offer information to security holders.


    ... information to security holders. 240.14d-6 Section 240.14d-6 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... information to security holders. (a) Information required on date of commencement—(1) Long-form publication. If a tender offer is published, sent or given to security holders on the date of commencement...

  5. 31 CFR 309.10 - Tenders; reservation of right to reject.


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tenders; reservation of right to reject. 309.10 Section 309.10 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT ISSUE AND SALE OF...

  6. 31 CFR 309.8 - Tenders; when cash deposit is required.


    ... (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT ISSUE AND SALE OF TREASURY... Bank, or Branch or to the Bureau of the Public Debt, Washington, DC 20226. If a special envelope is not... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tenders; when cash deposit...

  7. 31 CFR 309.9 - Tenders; acceptance by the Secretary of the Treasury.


    ... Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT ISSUE AND SALE OF... by the Bureau of the Public Debt will be opened. The Secretary of the Treasury will determine the... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tenders; acceptance by the...

  8. Quantitative analysis of vertical translocation and lateral cross-contamination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during mechanical tenderization of beef

    Quantitative vertical translocation and lateral cross-contamination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during mechanical tenderization of beef meat was investigated using a restaurant-style meat tenderizer, which was first used to tenderize a surface-inoculated sample, and then additional 4 uninoculated sa...

  9. Effect of two dietary concentrate levels on tenderness, calpain and calpastatin activities, and carcass merit in Waguli and Brahman steers.

    Ibrahim, R M; Goll, D E; Marchello, J A; Duff, G C; Thompson, V F; Mares, S W; Ahmad, H A


    The objective of this study was to compare carcass characteristics of a newly introduced breed, the Waguli (Wagyu x Tuli), with the carcass characteristics of the Brahman breed. Brahman cattle are used extensively in the Southwest of the United States because of their tolerance to adverse environmental conditions. However, Brahman carcasses are discounted according to the height of their humps because of meat tenderness issues. The Waguli was developed in an attempt to obtain a breed that retained the heat tolerance of the Brahman but had meat quality attributes similar to the Wagyu. Twenty-four animals were used. Six steers from each breed were fed a 94% concentrate diet and 6 steers from each breed were fed an 86% concentrate diet. Eight steers, 2 from each group, were harvested after 128 d, after 142 d, and after 156 d on feed. Waguli steers had larger LM, greater backfat thickness, greater marbling scores, and greater quality grades than the Brahman steers (P Brahman steers after 7 and 10 d of postmortem aging (P Brahman had increased to acceptable levels. Toughness of the Brahman has been associated with high levels of calpastatin in Brahman muscle, and the Waguli LM had significantly less calpastatin activity (P = 0.02) at 0 h postmortem than the Brahman LM. At 0-h postmortem, the total LM calpain activity did not differ between the Brahman and Waguli (P = 0.57). Neither diet nor days on feed had any significant effect on the 0-h postmortem calpain or at 0-h postmortem calpastatin activity, nor an effect on Warner-Bratzler shear-force values. In conclusion, LM muscle from the Waguli steers had a high degree of marbling, lower shear force values, and low calpastatin activity, all of which are related to more tender meat.

  10. Production and processing studies on calpain-system gene markers for beef tenderness: consumer assessments of eating quality.

    Robinson, D L; Cafe, L M; McIntyre, B L; Geesink, G H; Barendse, W; Pethick, D W; Thompson, J M; Polkinghorne, R; Greenwood, P L


    We investigated the effects of calpain-system genetic markers on consumer beef quality ratings, including interactions of marker effects with hormonal growth promotant (HGP) use and tenderstretch hanging. Brahman cattle in New South Wales (NSW; n = 164) and Western Australia (WA; n = 141) were selected at weaning from commercial and research herds to achieve balance and divergence in calpastatin (CAST) and calpain 3 (CAPN3) gene marker status. Genotypes for μ-calpain (CAPN1-4751 and CAPN1-316) were also determined. Angus cattle (49 in NSW, 17 in WA) with favorable CAST and CAPN3 alleles, balanced for CAPN1-316 status, were also studied. Half the cattle at each site had HGP (Revalor-H, containing 200 mg trenbolone acetate and 20 mg 17β-estradiol) implants during grain finishing. One side of each carcass was suspended from the Achilles tendon (AT) and the other from the pelvis [tenderstretch (TS)]. Meat Standards Australia consumer panels scored 7-d aged striploin steaks from both AT and TS sides, and 7-d aged rump and oyster blade steaks from the AT side of each carcass. Two favorable CAST alleles increased tenderness ratings of AT-striploin, TS-striploin, rump, and oyster blade steaks by, respectively, 6.1, 4.2, 4.2, and 3.1 units, and overall liking by 4.7, 2.8, 2.9, 3.7 (all P Brahman steaks from the same location with the same marker alleles had similar scores. In contrast, NSW Angus striploin steaks scored about 15 units greater for tenderness and overall liking (P < 0.001) than cattle with the same marker alleles at the other 3 location × breed combinations, which had generally similar scores. Therefore, calpain-system gene markers have beneficial effects on eating quality, consistent with our previous findings for objective meat quality.

  11. Microbiological Safety of Commercial Prime Rib Preparation Methods: Thermal Inactivation of Salmonella in Mechanically Tenderized Rib Eye.

    Calle, Alexandra; Porto-Fett, Anna C S; Shoyer, Bradley A; Luchansky, John B; Thippareddi, Harshavardhan


    Boneless beef rib eye roasts were surface inoculated on the fat side with ca. 5.7 log CFU/g of a five-strain cocktail of Salmonella for subsequent searing, cooking, and warm holding using preparation methods practiced by restaurants surveyed in a medium-size Midwestern city. A portion of the inoculated roasts was then passed once through a mechanical blade tenderizer. For both intact and nonintact roasts, searing for 15 min at 260°C resulted in reductions in Salmonella populations of ca. 0.3 to 1.3 log CFU/g. For intact (nontenderized) rib eye roasts, cooking to internal temperatures of 37.8 or 48.9°C resulted in additional reductions of ca. 3.4 log CFU/g. For tenderized (nonintact) rib eye roasts, cooking to internal temperatures of 37.8 or 48.9°C resulted in additional reductions of ca. 3.1 or 3.4 log CFU/g, respectively. Pathogen populations remained relatively unchanged for intact roasts cooked to 37.8 or 48.9°C and for nonintact roasts cooked to 48.9°C when held at 60.0°C for up to 8 h. In contrast, pathogen populations increased ca. 2.0 log CFU/g in nonintact rib eye cooked to 37.8°C when held at 60.0°C for 8 h. Thus, cooking at low temperatures and extended holding at relatively low temperatures as evaluated herein may pose a food safety risk to consumers in terms of inadequate lethality and/or subsequent outgrowth of Salmonella, especially if nonintact rib eye is used in the preparation of prime rib, if on occasion appreciable populations of Salmonella are present in or on the meat, and/or if the meat is not cooked adequately throughout.

  12. Effect of tender coconut water on systolic and diastolic blood pressure in prehypertensive women

    Farapti Farapti


    . Dietary intakes of high potassium will decrease blood pressure (BP. Tender coconut water (TCW is a typical drink high in potassium. This study aimed to investigate the effect of TCW on BP in female teachers and employees prehypertension. Methods: The research was a parallel single blind randomized clinical trial. A total of 32 female prehypertension subjects aged 25-44 years. The subjects were selected using certain criteria and randomly allocated to one of two groups using block randomized, 16 subjects each. The treatment group received TCW 300 ml twice daily for 14 days and nutritional counseling, and the control group received water 300 ml twice daily for 14 days and nutritional counseling. Assessment of BP was done on day 0, day 8, and day 15. Statistical analysis were done using t-test and Mann-Whitney test. Results: Mean dietary intakes of potassium were 1420.28±405.54 mg/day or 30.22±8.63% compared to Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA. During treatment period, potassium intake increased significantly in the treatment group. There were decreased BP in both groups, which were greater in the treatment group, but not statistically significant different (P > 0.05. The mean decrease of systolic BP was significant in treatment group (P = 0.031, meanwhile the mean decrease of diastolic BP was not significant (P=0.134. Conclusion: Tender coconut water 300 ml twice daily for 14 consecutive days has tendency to decrease systolic BP, but not diastolic blood pressure. (Health Science Indones 2013;2: 64-8Key words: coconut water, systolic and diastolic blood pressure

  13. The Tenderness of Old Meat%谈如何嫩化老肉



    s:Development of vocational education is a strategic initiatives to implement the national modernization and training of qualiifed personnel vocational skills. This paper analyzed the current problems in the implementation of a real culinary talent cultivation encountered - old meat tenderizer, combined with personal years of teaching experience, some suggestions and countermeasures on solving old meat tenderizer.%发展职业教育,是国家推行现代化建设,培养高素质职业技能人才的战略性举措。通过深入分析当前在实施烹饪人才培养过程中遇到的一个现实问题—老肉嫩化,结合个人多年的教育教学经验,提出一些关于老肉嫩化的建议和对策。

  14. Electrical stimulation affects metabolic enzyme phosphorylation, protease activation and meat tenderization in beef

    Li, C.B.; Li, J.; Zhou, G.H.;


    The objective of this study was to investigate the response of sarcoplasmic proteins in bovine longissimus muscle to low-voltage electrical stimulation (ES, 80 V, 35 s) after dressing and its contribution to meat tenderization at early postmortem time. Proteome analysis showed that ES resulted...... muscles up to 24 h. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy further indicated that lysosomal enzymes were released at early postmortem time. ES also induced ultrastructural disruption of sarcomeres. In addition, ES accelerated (P

  15. Mapping of intramuscular tenderness and muscle fiber orientation of muscles in the beef round.

    Senaratne, L S; Calkins, C R; de Mello, A S; Pokharel, S; Hinkle, J B


    Intramuscular tenderness variation and muscle fiber orientation of beef M. adductor femoris (AF), M. biceps femoris (BF), M. gracilis (GL), M. pectineus (PT), M. sartorius (SR), M. semimembranosus (SM), M. semitendinosus (SO), M. vastus intermedius (VI), M. vastus medialis (VM), and M. vastus lateralis (VL) were investigated. The USDA Choice boxed beef subprimals were purchased and aged for 14 d from boxed date. The AF, BF, GL, PT, SR, SM, SO, VI, VM, and VL (n = 10 each) were fabricated from subprimals. Crust-frozen AF, BF, SO, SM, and VL were cut into 2.54-cm steaks perpendicular to the long axis and grilled (71 degrees C). The PT, SR, VI, and VM were grilled (71 degrees C) as whole muscles, whereas the GL was grilled after cutting into anterior and posterior regions. Grilled muscles were cut into equal size sections perpendicular to long axis of muscles. Location-specific cores were prepared from each steak/section, and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) was measured. The muscle fiber orientations of BF, PT, and VI were bipennate, SR and SO were fusiform, and AD, SM, VL, GL, and VM were unipennate. The overall mean WBSF values for BF, SO, AF, SM, PT, SR, GL, VI, VM, and VL were 5.62, 4.86, 4.18, 4.90, 3.76, 4.44, 4.75, 4.78, 4.24, and 6.53 kg, respectively. Based on WBSF values, PT was tender, BF and VL were tough, and VM, VI, SM, GL SR, AF, and SO were intermediate. The first 2 proximal steaks of long head BF were more tender than the rest (P Dry or moist heat oven roasting, as compared with grilling, significantly tenderized SO (P = 0.002) and VL (P beef round.

  16. Prevalence and anatomical location of muscle tenderness in adults with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain


    Abstract Background Many adults experience bothersome neck/shoulder pain. While research and treatment strategies often focus on the upper trapezius, other neck/shoulder muscles may be affected as well. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence and anatomical location of muscle tenderness in adults with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain. Methods Clinical neck/shoulder examination at two large office workplaces in Copenhagen, Denmark. 174 women and 24 men (aged 25-65 years) with ...

  17. Fatty acid profile, cholesterol content and tenderness of ostrich meat as influenced by age at slaughter and muscle type.

    Girolami, A; Marsico, I; D'Andrea, G; Braghieri, A; Napolitano, F; Cifuni, G F


    Ten Blue Neck ostriches were used to study the effect of age at slaughter (10-11 and 14-15 months) and muscle on fatty acid profile, cholesterol content and texture of meat. Fatty acid profile of ostrich meat was significantly affected by age at slaughter (Pmuscles (Piliofibularis (Pmuscle location. No effect of age on shear values was observed, whereas sensory panellists scored meat from younger birds as more tender (Piliofibularis was more tender (P<0.001).

  18. The gas turbine - a bundle of energy - requires tender care

    Saarinen, J.; Uronen, J.; Leisio, C. [ed.


    The ability of a power plant to generate energy economically depends to a great extent on the functioning of the turbine. These days, an increasingly large number of these power plant `motors` are gas turbines. IVO`s expertise in the operation, maintenance and repair of gas turbines is based on long practical experience and the company`s own research. And IVO is also no stranger to the design and construction of new gas turbine plants

  19. Tender for cleaning up business. New techniques and tender to reduce the emission of buses; Aanbesteding schoon busvervoer. Nieuwe technieken en aanbesteding bieden kansen voor emissiereductie bij bussen

    Dorel, F.G.; Van den Broek, C.B.W.; Jansen, L. [Provincie Zuid-Holland, The Hague (Netherlands)


    Air pollution in urban areas in the Netherlands still causes health-problems, and the present air quality does not meet the new standards in the European Union. Every part of society (industry, traffic etc.) therefore has to contribute in reducing emissions. Regarding buses there are several options. New buses can be build with an engine suitable for LPG, or new and existing diesel buses can be equipped with so called 'Continuous Regenerating Traps' (CRT-filters). This article focuses on the new possibility of provinces and municipalities in the Netherlands to facilitate the introduction of these new techniques. For the first time, these governments are planning to call for tenders of bus companies publicly. In order to be granted permission to provide public transport in a certain area, a bus company has to agree upon reducing its present average bus emissions to a certain (fixed) extent. 10 refs.

  20. Analysis of the Impact of Transparency, Corruption, Openness in Competition and Tender Procedures on Public Procurement in the Czech Republic

    František Ochrana


    Full Text Available This study analyses the impact of transparency and openness to competition in public procurement in the Czech Republic. The problems of the Czech procurement market have been demonstrated on the analysis of a sample of contracts awarded by local government entities. From among a set of factors influencing the efficiency of public procurement, we closely analyse transparency, resilience against corruption, openness, effective administrative award procedure, and formulation of appropriate evaluation criteria for selecting the most suitable bid. Some assumptions were confirmed, including a positive effect of open procedures on the level of competition on the supply side as well as the dominant use of price criteria only. The latter case is probably often caused by low skills of workers at the contracting entities, as well as the lack of resources in public budgets. However, we have to reject the persistent legend of “undershooting” tender prices and subsequently increasing the final prices of public contracts. Increases of final prices are very limited. Based on the results of the analyses presented, we argue that the main problem of the Czech public procurement market lies in a rather low competence of administrators who are not able to use non-price criteria more often.

  1. The effect of the packaging system and storage time on myofibrillar protein degradation and oxidation process in relation to beef tenderness.

    Moczkowska, Małgorzata; Półtorak, Andrzej; Montowska, Magdalena; Pospiech, Edward; Wierzbicka, Agnieszka


    This study investigated the impact of packaging systems on the degradation and oxidation of beef proteins regarding beef tenderness of longissimus lumborum (LL) and biceps femoris (BF) muscles stored in vacuum skin packaging (VSP), a modified atmosphere with high oxygen concentration (MAP), and combined of these two methods (VSP+MAP). A significant decrease in the Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) in VSP at D14 and D28 for LL was observed compared to BF. A significant effect of packaging system on troponin-T (Tn-T) and desmin degradation was shown (p≤0.001). A high concentration of oxygen in MAP and VSP+MAP affected protein oxidation, which was reflected in myosin oxidative cross-linking. An increase of WBSF values detected in steaks packed in VSP and VSP+MAP systems could be caused by the intensification of protein oxidation. Furthermore, BF was more susceptible to oxidation compared to LL. The VSP+MAP packaging system has resulted in the maintenance of a bright, red color, however has not improved the beef tenderness.

  2. The efficacy of a vitamin D(3) metabolite for improving the myofibrillar tenderness of meat from Bos indicus cattle.

    Lawrence, R W; Doyle, J; Elliott, R; Loxton, I; McMeniman, J P; Norton, B W; Reid, D J; Tume, R W


    The influence of a once only administration of a metabolite of vitamin D(3) (HY·D(®)-25-hydroxy vitamin D(3)) on myofibrillar meat tenderness in Australian Brahman cattle was studied. Ninety-six Brahman steers of three phenotypes (Indo-Brazil, US and US/European) and with two previous hormonal growth promotant (HGP) histories (implanted or not implanted with Compudose(®)) were fed a standard feedlot ration for 70d. Treatment groups of 24 steers were offered daily 10g/head HY·D(®) (125mg 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3)) for 6, 4, or 2d before slaughter. One other group of 24 steers was given the basal diet without HY·D(®). Feed lot performance, blood and muscle samples and carcass quality data were collected at slaughter. Calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, iron and Vitamin D(3) metabolites were measured in plasma and longissimus dorsi muscle. Warner-Bratzler (WB) shear force (peak force, initial yield) and other objective meat quality measurements were made on the longissimus dorsi muscle of each steer after ageing for 1, 7 and 14d post-mortem at 0-2°C. There were no significant effects of HY·D(®) supplements on average daily gain (ADG, 1.28-1.45kg/d) over the experimental period. HY·D(®) supplements given 6d prior to slaughter resulted in significantly higher (P<0.05) initial yield values compared to supplements given 2d prior to slaughter. Supplementation had no significant effect on meat colour, ultimate pH, sarcomere length, cooking loss, instron compression or peak force. There was a significant treatment (HY·D(®)) by phenotype/HGP interaction for peak force (P=0.028), in which Indo-Brazil steers without previous HGP treatment responded positively (increased tenderness) to HY·D(®) supplements at 2d when compared with Indo-Brazil steers previously given HGP. There were no significant effects of treatment on other phenotypes. HY·D(®) supplements did not affect muscle or plasma concentrations of calcium, potassium or sodium, but did significantly

  3. Tender Is the Night: romantic tragedy or the tragedy of boundary violations?

    Houlding, Sybil


    In the author's reading, Fitzgerald's Tender Is the Night (1934) is a sustained investigation of the incest taboo and of the psychological pressures that can lead to its collapse in the clinical situation. This novel allows the reader privileged entry into the "case" of a clinical boundary violation in a way that no scientific paper can permit. Drawing on Chasseguet-Smirgel's (1976) concept of the illness of ideality, the author uses this novel to demonstrate why none of us is safe from the possibility of erotic involvement with a patient.

  4. Muscle fatigue in relation to forearm pain and tenderness among professional computer users

    Thomsen, GF; Johnson, PW; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff


    frequency (2 Hz) percutaneous electrical stimulation. Twitch forces were measured before, immediately after and 15 minutes into recovery of an extensor isometric wrist extension for ten minutes at 15 % Maximal Voluntary Contraction (MVC). RESULTS: The average MVC wrist extension force and baseline...... response was not explained by differences in the MVC or body mass index. CONCLUSION: Computer users with forearm pain and moderate to severe palpation tenderness had diminished forearm extensor muscle fatigue response. Additional studies are necessary to determine whether this result reflects an adaptive...

  5. Risk pre-warning of tender evaluation for civil projects:an outlier detection model


    The marking scheme method removes the low scores of the contractor's attributes given by experts when the overall score is calculated, which may result in that a contractor with some latent risks will win the project. In order to remedy the above defect of the marking scheme method, an outlier detection model, which is one mission of knowledge discovery in data, is established on the basis of the sum of similar coefficients. Then, the model is applied to the historical score data of tender evaluation for ci...

  6. Exploring Factors of Successful Tendering Practices using Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA): The Study of Organizational Repetitions

    Bekdik, Baris; Thuesen, Christian


    The purpose of this paper is to introduce and evaluate Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) as a method for exploring the complexity of practices of project organizing and management combining the benefits of top-down and bottom-up research strategies. The QCA method is used in order to describe...... combinations of factors leading to particular results of tendering practices. Empirical material collected through data mining in previously completed project records (quantitative data) is supported by data obtained from project managers of a general contractor company (qualitative data) in order...... between topdown and bottom-up research strategies....

  7. Fibromyalgia, myofascial pain, tender points and trigger points: splitting or lumping?

    Bennett, Robert M; Goldenberg, Don L


    Myofascial trigger points (MTPs) have long been a contentious issue in relation to fibromyalgia, and poorly defined pain complaints in general. Can MTPs be reproducibly identified? Do MTPs have valid objective findings, such as spontaneous electromyographic activity, muscle microdialysis evidence for an inflammatory milieu or visualization with newer ultrasound techniques? Is fibromyalgia a syndrome of multiple MTPs, or is focal muscle tenderness a manifestation of central sensitization? These issues are discussed with relevance to a recent paper reporting that manual palpation of active MTPs elicits the spontaneous pain experienced by fibromyalgia patients.

  8. As a mother tenderly: exploring parish ministry through the metaphor and analogy of mothering

    Percy, Emma


    As a mother tenderly: using mothering as a metaphor and analogy for parish ministry. The thesis sets out to use maternal imagery as a way of articulating the practice of parish ministry in the Church of England. The aim is to find a language which can affirm and encourage many aspects of good practice that are in danger of being over looked because they are neither well articulated nor valued. The ministry of a parish priest is a relational activity: characterised by care. It is becaus...

  9. A combination of extended fuzzy AHP and fuzzy GRA for government E-tendering in hybrid fuzzy environment.

    Wang, Yan; Xi, Chengyu; Zhang, Shuai; Yu, Dejian; Zhang, Wenyu; Li, Yong


    The recent government tendering process being conducted in an electronic way is becoming an inevitable affair for numerous governmental agencies to further exploit the superiorities of conventional tendering. Thus, developing an effective web-based bid evaluation methodology so as to realize an efficient and effective government E-tendering (GeT) system is imperative. This paper firstly investigates the potentiality of employing fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP) along with fuzzy gray relational analysis (GRA) for optimal selection of candidate tenderers in GeT process with consideration of a hybrid fuzzy environment with incomplete weight information. We proposed a novel hybrid fuzzy AHP-GRA (HFAHP-GRA) method that combines an extended fuzzy AHP with a modified fuzzy GRA. The extended fuzzy AHP which combines typical AHP with interval AHP is proposed to obtain the exact weight information, and the modified fuzzy GRA is applied to aggregate different types of evaluation information so as to identify the optimal candidate tenderers. Finally, a prototype system is built and validated with an illustrative example for GeT to confirm the feasibility of our approach.

  10. Estimation of Sensory Pork Loin Tenderness Using Warner-Bratzler Shear Force and Texture Profile Analysis Measurements.

    Choe, Jee-Hwan; Choi, Mi-Hee; Rhee, Min-Suk; Kim, Byoung-Chul


    This study investigated the degree to which instrumental measurements explain the variation in pork loin tenderness as assessed by the sensory evaluation of trained panelists. Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS) had a significant relationship with the sensory tenderness variables, such as softness, initial tenderness, chewiness, and rate of breakdown. In a regression analysis, WBS could account variations in these sensory variables, though only to a limited proportion of variation. On the other hand, three parameters from texture profile analysis (TPA)-hardness, gumminess, and chewiness-were significantly correlated with all sensory evaluation variables. In particular, from the result of stepwise regression analysis, TPA hardness alone explained over 15% of variation in all sensory evaluation variables, with the exception of perceptible residue. Based on these results, TPA analysis was found to be better than WBS measurement, with the TPA parameter hardness likely to prove particularly useful, in terms of predicting pork loin tenderness as rated by trained panelists. However, sensory evaluation should be conducted to investigate practical pork tenderness perceived by consumer, because both instrumental measurements could explain only a small portion (less than 20%) of the variability in sensory evaluation.

  11. Effects of supplemental vitamin D3 on feed intake, carcass characteristics, tenderness, and muscle properties of beef steers.

    Karges, K; Brooks, J C; Gill, D R; Breazile, J E; Owens, F N; Morgan, J B


    Research was conducted to determine the effects of supplemental dietary vitamin D3 on DMI, carcass traits, Warner Bratzler shear (WBS) force, calpastatin activity, plasma minerals, pH (0, 3, 12, and 24 h after slaughter), water-holding capacity (WHC), and sensory characteristics of three muscles. Pre-slaughter vitamin D3 treatments included no supplemental vitamin D3, 6 x 106 IU (MIU) of vitamin D3 for 4 d, or 6 MIU of vitamin D3 for 6 d. Cattle were slaughtered and carcasses were chilled for 48 h before removal of steaks from the longissimus, gluteus medius, and biceps femoris muscles. Steaks were aged at 2 degrees C for 7, 14, or 21 d before cooking to a final internal temperature of 70 degrees C for WBS and sensory panel analysis. Dry matter intake was lower for steers supplemented with vitamin D3 for 4 or 6 d. Live and carcass weights were lower (P or = 3.86 kg for all steaks. Feeding vitamin D3 had no effect on palatability traits evaluated by trained panelists. Blood Ca concentrations were greater (P 0.02) after 0 h, 24 h, and 21 d postmortem when vitamin D3 was fed and was greater at 0 and 24 h if vitamin D3 was fed for 6 d rather than 4 d. These data suggest that supplementing 6 MIU of vitamin D3 will decrease DMI and improve beef tenderness through increased blood plasma Ca concentrations and WHC.

  12. Research on Tender Beef Catering Technology%餐饮业牛肉嫩化技术的研究



    With the continuous improvement of people's living standards, human food structure has undergone great changes, beef consumption increased year by year. At the same time, consumers of beef quality requirements have become more sophisticated, more and more popular in the meat soft and tender, juicy meat. Therefore, to continuously improve the quality and yield of beef, thereby enhancing economic efficiency of enterprises, which will further enhance our position in the international food and beverage industry plays an important role.%随着人民生活水平的不断提高,人类食品结构发生了很大变化,牛肉的消费量逐年上升。与此同时,消费者对牛肉的质量要求也越来越高,越来越青睐于肉质柔软细嫩、多汁的肉。因此,不断提高我国牛肉的质量和产量,从而提高企业的经济效益,将会进一步提升我国餐饮业在国际上的地位。

  13. Utilization of beef from different cattle phenotypes to produce a guaranteed tender beef product.

    Hilton, G G; Gentry, J G; Allen, D M; Miller, M F


    Cattle (n = 303) were visually selected from four feed yards to represent six phenotypes (English [EN; n = 50], 3/4 English-1/4 Brahman [ENB; n = 52], 1/2 English-1/2 Exotic [ENEX; n = 56], 1/2 English-1/4 Exotic-1/4 Brahman [ENEXB; n = 47], 3/4 Exotic-1/4 Brahman [EXB; n = 49], and 1/2 Exotic-1/4 English-1/4 Brahman [EXENB; n = 49]). Carcasses were processed at a commercial beef packing facility, and strip loins were collected after 48-h chilling. Strip loins were aged for 14 d at 2 degrees C and frozen at -20 degrees C for 3 to 5 d before three 2.5-cm-thick steaks were cut for Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) determinations and sensory evaluations. Phenotype EN had the highest (P yield grade, whereas carcasses originating from phenotype EXB had lower (P yield grades than all other phenotypes except ENEX. No differences (P > 0.05) were found among phenotypes for mean WBSF values or sensory panel ratings for initial and sustained tenderness, initial and sustained juiciness, beef flavor characteristics, and overall mouthfeel. More than 90% of steaks from carcasses of all phenotypes had WBSF values less than 3.6 kg when cooked to an internal cooked temperature of 70 degrees C. Results from this study indicated that all phenotypes represented in this study could be managed to produce tender beef.

  14. PENGEMPUKAN DAGING DENGAN ENZIM PROTEASE TANAMAN BIDURI (Calotropis gigantea [Meat Tenderization using Protease of Biduri Plant (Calotropis gigantea

    Erni Sofia Murtini1


    Full Text Available Tenderness is the main attribute quality of meat, which influences consumer acceptability. Protease enzyme (like papain, bromelin and ficin are known to be used for improving tenderness of meat trough degradation of the protein. Biduri plant (Calotropis gigantea contains protease enzyme in its latex or the young tissue (0-20 cm plant tip. After isolation of crude enzyme using ammonium sulphate, the enzyme was the applied to tenderise meat at concentrations 0 ; 0,25; 0,5; 0,75 and 1,0%. The result showed that concentration of protease enzyme affected to meat tenderness that determined by compression test and tensile strength. The enzyme (0.5% was enough to tenderise meat indicated by decreasing its compression test value to 201,160 N 9 from control of 228,582 N and tensile strength value to 4,618 N (from control 9,588N

  15. Issues of provisions in the Specification of the Essential Terms of Contract (SIWZ in tenders for realization of forestry works

    Błuszkowska Urszula


    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to analyse the provisions included in the Specifications of the Essential Terms of Contract in tenders for forestry works. The subject of the analysis was tender documentation of a selected Regional Directorate of State Forests. An attention was given to a number of inconsistencies, and non-specific and unjustified requirements. The presence of significant differences in the manner of defining requirements in the examined forest districts was emphasised. In opinion of the authors, the differences observed are unjustified and without any doubt impede the creation of tender documentation by representatives of forestry work companies. The summary of the analysis consists of, among others, a few guidelines on the manner of defining the requirements for forestry work companies and the need to unify the SIWZ provisions at the level of Regional Directorate of State Forests.

  16. Relationships between the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire, tender point count, and muscle strength in female patients with fibromyalgia: a cohort study

    Henriksen, Marius; Lund, Hans; Christensen, Robin;


    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that fibromyalgia (FM) patients with reduced lower extremity strength are more symptomatic and tender than FM patients with normal muscle strength. METHODS: A total of 840 FM patients and 122 healthy subjects were evaluated between 1998 and 2005. All of the patie......OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that fibromyalgia (FM) patients with reduced lower extremity strength are more symptomatic and tender than FM patients with normal muscle strength. METHODS: A total of 840 FM patients and 122 healthy subjects were evaluated between 1998 and 2005. All...... of the patients completed version 1 of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and were assessed for tender points and knee muscle strength. All subjects underwent bilateral isokinetic knee muscle strength testing in flexion and extension. Normative knee muscle strength values were calculated from the healthy...

  17. Production and processing studies on calpain-system gene markers for tenderness in Brahman cattle: 1. Growth, efficiency, temperament, and carcass characteristics.

    Cafe, L M; McIntyre, B L; Robinson, D L; Geesink, G H; Barendse, W; Greenwood, P L


    Experiments were conducted concurrently at 2 locations to quantify effects and interactions of calpain-system tenderness gene markers on growth, efficiency, temperament, and carcass traits of Brahman cattle. Cattle were selected at weaning from commercial and research herds based on their genotype for commercially available calpastatin (CAST) and calpain 3 (CAPN3) gene markers for beef tenderness. Genotypes for mu-calpain gene markers (CAPN1-4751 and CAPN1-316) were also determined and included in statistical analyses. The New South Wales (NSW) herd was composed of 82 heifers and 82 castrated male cattle with 0 or 2 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3. The Western Australia (WA) herd was composed of 173 castrated male cattle with 0, 1, or 2 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3. One-half of the cattle at each site were implanted with a hormonal growth promotant (HGP: Revalor-H) during grain finishing. Cattle were backgrounded at pasture for 6 to 8 mo and grain-fed for 117 d (NSW) or 80 d (WA) before slaughter. Individually, or in combination with each other and with CAPN1-4751 status, CAST and CAPN3 status had no significant (all P > 0.05) effects on BW, growth, feed efficiency, or temperament traits. The only significant effect of CAST or CAPN3 on carcass characteristics was a small increase in rib fat with increasing number of favorable CAST alleles (P = 0.042) in the WA herd. There were no significant interactions (all P > 0.05) between the markers, or between the markers and sex or HGP treatment apart from CAST x HGP for area of the M. longissimus lumborum (P = 0.024) in the NSW experiment. Favorable CAST or CAPN3 alleles appear unlikely to have detrimental effects on growth, efficiency, temperament, or carcass characteristics of Brahman cattle; however, some effects evident for CAPN1 status indicate the need for further production studies on effects of these markers. Overall, the findings of the present study indicate that calpain-system gene markers are

  18. Proposal for the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the supply of chain clamps for the LHC beam vacuum system


    This document concerns the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the supply of 810 chain clamps for the LHC beam vacuum system. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract, without competitive tendering, with MKT (AT) for the supply of 810 chain clamps for a total amount of 480 000 Swiss francs, not subject to revision.

  19. Deciding about Design Quality: Value judgements and decision making in the selection of architects by public clients under European tendering regulations

    Volker, L.


    In the past few years the image of tender procedures in which Dutch public clients selected an architect has been dominated by distressing newspaper headlines. Architects fear that the current tender culture will harm the quality of our built environment due to a potential lack of diversity, creativ

  20. 31 CFR 309.7 - Tenders; submission through Federal Reserve Banks and branches and to the Bureau of the Public Debt.


    ... Reserve Banks and branches and to the Bureau of the Public Debt. 309.7 Section 309.7 Money and Finance... BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT ISSUE AND SALE OF TREASURY BILLS § 309.7 Tenders; submission through Federal Reserve Banks and branches and to the Bureau of the Public Debt. Tenders in response to any such...

  1. Tender evaluation and selection of condition security system for gas turbine (and boiler-) control; Offerte-evaluatie en selectie van conditiebewakingssyteem voor gasturbine- (en ketel-) bewaking

    De Ruijter, J.A.F. [KEMA Procesautomatisering en Informatietechnologie, Arnhem (Netherlands)


    Condition control systems for gas turbines and boilers in electric power generating plants can play an important part in improving the efficiency, in increasing the availability and in realizing state-dependent maintenance. On the basis of a specification document, tenders for condition control systems for gas turbines are invited at different suppliers, focusing on thermodynamic performance control. Also attention was paid to possibilities to extend the control with mechanical control for the gas turbines and with control modules for the other sections of the power generating units (boiler and steam turbines). One condition control system, based on the DATM4-system of Boyce Engineering International has been chosen and will be demonstrated in unit 10 of the power plant Bergum of the Dutch electric utility EPON

  2. PS-109 Barriers and facilitators to implementing drug changes caused by drug tenders and shortages

    Rishøj, Rikke Mie; Christrup, Lona Louring; Clemmensen, Marianne H


    Background Drug tenders and shortages result in drug changes. International studies found that drug changes can adversely affect patient safety and the working procedures of healthcare professionals.1,2 The challenges of drug changes in Danish public hospitals have not previously been studied...... for drug identification during drug shortages were proposed. Conclusion This study identified different barriers and facilitators for implementing drug changes. The barriers and facilitators included specific features related to drugs, health care technology as well as to financial and organisational...... aspects. Future studies should focus on removal of barriers and development and implementation of appropriate facilitators which may indeed improve patient safety and the working procedures of healthcare professionals during drug changes....

  3. Carcass characteristics, the calpain proteinase system, and aged tenderness of Angus and Brahman crossbred steers.

    Pringle, T D; Williams, S E; Lamb, B S; Johnson, D D; West, R L


    We used 69 steers of varying percentage Brahman (B) breeding (0% B, n = 11; 25% B, n = 13; 37% B, n = 10; 50% B, n = 12; 75% B, n = 12; 100% B, n = 11) to study the relationship between carcass traits, the calpain proteinase system, and aged meat tenderness in intermediate B crosses. Calpains and calpastatin activities were determined on fresh longissimus muscle samples using anion-exchange chromatography. The USDA yield and quality grade data (24 h) were collected for each carcass. Longissimus steaks were removed and aged for 5 or 14 d for determination of shear force and 5 d for sensory panel evaluation. Even though some yield grade factors were affected by the percentage of B breeding, USDA yield grades did not differ (P > .15) between breed types. Marbling score and USDA quality grade decreased linearly (P Brahman crosses.

  4. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in Brahman steers and their association with carcass and tenderness traits.

    Smith, T; Thomas, M G; Bidner, T D; Paschal, J C; Franke, D E


    Data from purebred Brahman steers (N = 467) were used to study the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with carcass traits and measures of tenderness. Fall weaned calves were grazed and fed in a subtropical environment and then harvested for processing in a commercial facility. Carcass data were recorded 24 h postmortem. Muscle samples and primal ribs were obtained to measure calpastatin activity and shear force. DNA was used to determine genotypes of thyroglobulin (TG5), calpastatin (CAST) and mu-calpain (CAPN 316 and CAPN 4751) SNP. Minor allele frequencies for CAST, CAPN 316 and CAPN 4751 were 0.342, 0.031, and 0.051, respectively. CAST genotypes were associated with calpastatin enzyme activity (P carcass traits.

  5. Time course of subjective pain ratings, and wound and leg tenderness after hysterectomy

    Møiniche, S; Dahl, J B; Erichsen, C J;


    BACKGROUND: Little information is available on time course of wound tenderness and relationship to subjective pain ratings following surgery. Furthermore, it is not clarified whether surgical procedures may induce hyperalgesia to mechanical stimulation outside the area of the surgical incision. We...... have therefore assessed postoperative pain and pressure pain thresholds (PPT) adjacent to and remote from the surgical incision in 16 patients undergoing hysterectomy. METHODS: Pressure pain threshold was assessed with pressure algometry preoperatively, 4 and 6 and 1, 4 and 8 d after surgery...... on the abdominal wall 0.05, 5, 10 and 15 cm perpendicular to the wound, and on the anterior surface of the left thigh and tuberositas tibia. Furthermore, pain was assessed on a visual analogue scale (VAS) at rest and during cough. RESULTS: PPT decreased significantly 0.5, 5, 10 and 15 cm from skin incision up...

  6. CAPN1基因4685位点与肉质嫩度相关性研究%Close Association between 4685 Loci on CAPN1 Gene and Meat Tenderness

    姜成国; 全世元; 曹阳; 张国梁; 董宝池; 金海国; 张立春


    [目的]探索延边黄牛与草原红牛钙蛋白酶Ⅰ(CAPN1)基因4685位点对肉质嫩度的影响.[方法]采用PCR-RFLP技术对草原红牛、延边黄牛CAPN1基因第14内含子区4685位点进行基因多态性与肉质嫩度进行分析,验证该位点在吉林省地方品种牛中的作用.[结果]该位点与肉质嫩度相关检测指标(蒸煮损失、肌纤维直径、剪切力、滴水损失等)密切相关,均表现为T等位基因的存在能够显著提高个体的嫩度水平,但该位点与pH无关.4685位点与屠宰性状(净肉重、胴体重、净肉率等)无关,仅与眼肌面积存在一定的相关性.[结论]延边黄牛与草原红牛CAPN1基因4685位点与肉质嫩度存在密切相关.%[Objective]The paper was to explore the impact of 4685 loci on CAPN1 gene of Yanbian yellow cattle and red steppe cattle on meat tenderness. [Method] 4685 loci in 14th intron region of CAPN1 gene of Yanbian yellow cattle and red steppe cattle was conducted analysis of gene polymorphism and meat tenderness by PCR-RFLP technology, and the effect of the loci on Jilin local cattle breeds was verified. [ Result] The loci had close relationship with related detection indexes of meat tenderness (cooking loss, muscle fibre diameter, shear force and drip loss) , and the existence of T allele could significantly increase the tenderness Level of individuals, but the loci was not associated to pH value. 4685 loci was not associated to carcass traits (carcass weight, net meat weight and carcass yield ratio) , which only had certain correlation with eye muscle area. .[Conclusion] 4685 loci on CAPN1 gene of Yanbian yellow cattle and red steppe cattle had close association with meat tenderness.

  7. Close Association between 4685 Loci on CAPN1 Gene and Meat Tenderness%CAPN1基因4685位点与肉质嫩度相关

    姜成国; 全世元; 曹阳; 张国梁; 董宝池; 金海国; 张立春


    [Objective] The paper was to explore the impact of 4685 loci on CAPN1 gene of Yanbian yellow cattle and red steppe cattle on meat tenderness. [Method] The 4685 loci in 14th intron region of CAPN1 gene of Yanbian yellow cattle and red steppe cattle was conducted analysis of gene polymorphism and meat tenderness by PCR-RFLP technology, and the effect of the loci on Jilin local cattle breeds was verified. [Result] The loci had close relationship with related detection indices of meat tenderness (cooking loss, muscle fibre diameter, shear force and drip loss), and the existence of T allele could significantly increase the tenderness level of in- dividuals, but the loci was not associated to pH value. 4685 loci was not associated to carcass traits (carcass weight, net meat weight and carcass yield ratio), which only had certain correlation with eye muscle area. [Conclusion] The 4685 loci on CAPN1 gene of Yanbian yellow cattle and red steppe cattle had close association with meat tenderness.%[目的]探索延边黄牛与草原红牛钙蛋白酶1(CAPN1)基因4685位点对肉质嫩度的影响。[方法]采用PCR—RFLP技术对草原红牛、延边黄牛CAPN1基因第14内含子区4685位点进行基因多态性与肉质嫩度进行分析,验证该位点在吉林省地方品种牛中的作用。[结果]该位点与肉质嫩度相关检测指标(蒸煮损失、肌纤维直径、剪切力、滴水损失等)密切相关,均表现为T等位基因的存在能够显著提高个体的嫩度水平,但该位点与pH无关。4685位点与屠宰性状(净肉重、胴体重、净肉率等)无关,仅与眼肌面积存在一定的相关性。[结论]延边黄牛与草原红牛CAPN1基因4685位点与肉质嫩度存在密切相关。

  8. 装备采购招标代理工作管理%Management of Equipment Procurement Tendering Surrogate Work

    周静; 李晓松; 刘杰


    The paper defines the concept of equipment procurement tendering surrogate and analyzes the necessity of introducing tendering surrogate into equipment procurement.Combined with the main prac-tices and existing problems,it puts forward the general ideas and specific measures on how to strengthen the management of equipment procurement tendering surrogate work,which provides reference for the sci-entific management of equipment procurement tendering surrogate organizations.%界定了装备采购招标代理的概念,分析了装备采购引入招标代理的必要性,结合目前装备采购招标代理的主要做法及存在问题,提出了加强装备采购招标代理工作管理的总体思路与具体举措,为实现装备采购招标代理机构的科学管理提供参考。

  9. 41 CFR 102-118.185 - When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on...


    ... transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on the bill of lading (including a GBL... Government Bill of Lading (gbl) Or Government Transportation Request (gtr) (until Form Retirement) § 102-118... the bill of lading (including a GBL)? Yes, your agency must reference the applicable contract...

  10. The effect of breed of sire and age at feeding on muscle tenderness in the beef chuck.

    Christensen, K L; Johnson, D D; West, R L; Marshall, T T; Hargrove, D D


    Steers (n = 59) produced from the mating of Braford, Simbrah, Senepol, and Simmental bulls to Brahman- and Romana Red-sired cows and Brahman bulls to Angus cows were used in this study. Effects of sire breed and age at feeding on muscle tenderness in the major muscles of the chuck when steers were fed to 1.0 cm 12th rib fat were determined. There were no muscle tenderness effects due to sire breed group, with the exception of the serratus ventralis muscle, which was more tender in Brahman- and Braford-sired steers than in Simmental-sired steers. Additionally, the supraspinatus muscle from the yearlings was lower in shear value than that from the calves. The Brahman-sired steers had serratus ventralis muscles with higher percentages (P less than .05) of intramuscular fat than those of Braford-, Simbrah-, and Simmental-sired steers. Fat deposited within the muscle or between muscles in the chuck was not related to muscle tenderness as measured by Warner-Bratzler shear values. Also, percentages of intramuscular fat of the triceps brachii, serratus ventralis, or supraspinatus muscles were not influenced (P greater than .05) by age at feeding.

  11. 77 FR 73636 - Rock River Beach, Inc.; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...


    ...] Rock River Beach, Inc.; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and Soliciting... No.: P-14345-001. c. Date filed: November 23, 2012. d. Applicant: Rock River Beach, Inc. e. Name of Project: Rock River Beach Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On the Rock River, in the Town of...

  12. 77 FR 2966 - Rock River Beach, Inc.; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...


    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Rock River Beach, Inc.; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the...: Exemption from Licensing. b. Project No.: 14345-000. c. Filing Date: January 5, 2012. d. Applicant: Rock River Beach, Inc. e. Name of Project: Rock River Beach Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On the...

  13. 17 CFR 240.14e-7 - Unlawful tender offer practices in connection with roll-ups.


    ...) Finite-life entities that are not limited partnerships; (ii) Partnerships whose investors will receive....C. 78k-1); or (iii) Partnerships whose investors' securities are reported under a transaction... holder list or mail communications related to a tender offer that is in furtherance of the...

  14. Microbiological safety of commercial prime rib preparation methods: thermal inactivation of Salmonella spp. in mechanically tenderized beef roasts

    A survey of food service operations in a medium-size Midwestern city was conducted to evaluate the microbiological safety of prime rib preparation methods relative to survival of Salmonella spp. in both intact and tenderized (non-intact) product. All six restaurants visited seared rib eye roasts (ai...

  15. Modified-atmosphere storage under subatmospheric pressure and beef quality: II. Color, drip, cooking loss, sarcomere length, and tenderness

    Smulders, F.J.M.; Hiesberger, J.; Hofbauer, P.; Dogl, B.; Dransfield, E.


    Beef has a requirement for refrigerated storage up to 14 d to achieve adequate aging and a tender product. To achieve this aging with little spoilage and no surface drying, vacuum packaging is attractive, because it is inherently simple and offers a clear indication to the packer when the process ha

  16. 77 FR 37031 - Don W. Gilbert Hydro Power, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission...


    ...-001] Don W. Gilbert Hydro Power, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission... Minor License. b. Project No.: 14367-001. c. Date filed: May 30, 2012. d. Applicant: Don W. Gilbert... W. Gilbert and DeAnn G. Somonich, Don W. Gilbert Hydro Power, LLC, 1805 Grace Power Plant...

  17. 76 FR 27310 - Coleman Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and Soliciting...


    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Coleman Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the...: Coleman Hydro LLC. e. Name of Project: Coleman Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On Little Timber Creek... 20426. m. The application is not ready for environmental analysis at this time. n. The proposed...

  18. Study on Tenderization of Dosidicus gigas Skin%秘鲁鱿鱼皮嫩化工艺的研究

    胡艺; 邓尚贵


    对秘鲁鱿鱼皮进行嫩化处理,改善鱿鱼皮口感,提升其嫩度,为后续加工生产提供技术支持。以经过脱酸处理的秘鲁鱿鱼皮为原料,以剪切力为指标,通过单因素和响应面试验优选木瓜蛋白酶嫩化秘鲁鱿鱼皮的工艺条件。研究表明:适宜的嫩化条件为木瓜蛋白酶浓度0.1%、处理时间40 min、温度35℃,在此条件下,鱿鱼皮得到嫩化,其剪切力为1.79 N,可溶性蛋白含量(CSP)为49 mg/g。%Tenderize Dosidicus gigas skin to improve the texture,enhance the tenderness,and provide the technical support for subsequent processing.Take the deacidified Dosidicus gigas skin as raw material,shearing force as indexes,Dosidicus gigas skin tenderized by papain is studied,the suitable tenderization conditions of Dosidicus gigas skin are optimized through single factor and orthogonal experiments.The result indicates that the suitable technological conditions for tenderization of Dosidicus gigas skin are as follows:papain concentration of 0.1%,soaking time of 40 min and temperature of 35 ℃.Under these conditions,the shearing force of Dosidicus gigas skin is up to 1.79 N and the concentration of soluble protein (CSP)is 49 mg/g.

  19. Calcium-activated tenderization of strip loin, top sirloin, and top round steaks in diverse genotypes of cattle.

    Pringle, T D; Harrelson, J M; West, R L; Williams, S E; Johnson, D D


    Steers of known percentage Brahman (B) and Angus (A) breeding (100% A, n = 6; F1 B x A, n = 6; and 100% B, n = 6) were used to determine the effect of calcium chloride injection on the calpain proteinase system and meat tenderness. The steers were slaughtered in six replications (at either 9 or 14 mm of backfat, determined ultrasonically), with each breed type represented. Calpains and calpastatin activities were measured on fresh, prerigor longissimus muscle samples. Carcass data were collected after a 24-h chill, and the short loin (IMPS #180), top sirloin (IMPS #184), and top round (IMPS #168) were removed from both sides of each carcass. The cuts from the right side were then injected at 5% (wt/wt) with CaCl2 solution (2.2%). Longissimus muscle calpain and calpastatin activities were also measured at 48 h postmortem from the injected and control sides of each carcass. Warner-Bratzler shear force was measured on steaks from the three subprimals aged 1, 2, 5, 15, or 31 d. Marbling scores and USDA quality grades were higher (P.05) across breed type. Calcium injection improved strip loin and top sirloin steak tenderness, but it did not affect top round steak tenderness. Collectively, these data show that CaC12 injection can be used to improve meat tenderness, with similar responses shown in cattle containing 0, 50, and 100% B inheritance. However, even with CaCl2 injection, B steaks are less tender than their A and F1 B x A counterparts.

  20. Joint involvement in patients affected by systemic lupus erythematosus: application of the swollen to tender joint count ratio

    E. Cipriano


    Full Text Available Joint involvement is a common manifestation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. According to the SLE disease activity index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K, joint involvement is present in case of ≥2 joints with pain and signs of inflammation. However this definition could fail to catch all the various features of joint involvement. Alternatively the Swollen to Tender joint Ratio (STR could be used. This new index, which was originally proposed for rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients, is based on the count of 28 swollen and tender joints. Our study is, therefore, aimed to assess joint involvement in a SLE cohort using the STR. SLE patients with joint symptoms (≥1 tender joint were enrolled over a period of one month. Disease activity was assessed by SLEDAI-2K. We performed the swollen and tender joint count (0-28 and calculated the STR. Depending on the STR, SLE patients were grouped into three categories of disease activity: low (STR1.0. We also calculated the disease activity score based on a 28-joint count and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR. We enrolled 100 SLE patients [F/M 95/5, mean±standard deviation (SD age 46.3±10.6 years, mean±SD disease duration 147.1±103.8 months]. The median of tender and swollen joints was 4 (IQR 7 and 1 (IQR 2.5, respectively. The median STR value was 0.03 (IQR 0.6. According to the STR, disease activity was low in 70 patients, moderate in 23 and high in 7. A significant correlation was identified between STR values and DAS28 (r=0.33, p=0.001. The present study suggests a correlation between STR and DAS28, allowing an easier and faster assessment of joint involvement with the former index.

  1. Chest pain in children and adolescents: epigastric tenderness as a guide to reduce unnecessary work-up.

    Sabri, M R; Ghavanini, A A; Haghighat, M; Imanieh, M H


    Our objective was to evaluate and highlight the significance of epigastric tenderness in children and adolescents with chest pain. In a 26-months period, patients who were referred for pediatri cardiology evaluation at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences with chief complaint of chest pain were studied. Patients with epigastric tenderness were evaluated endoscopically by gastroenterologist. Patients who had positive findings on endoscopy were appropriately treated. Since there were no serious findings on cardiac evaluation, no other treatment was necessary. The patients were re-evaluated 4 weeks later. Response to therapy was defined as relief of the initial symptoms as well as epigastric tenderness. One hundred thirty-two patients were referred for evaluation of chest pain during this period. Epigastric tenderness was found in 44 (33.3%) of these patients and endoscopy was performed. Endoscopy showed positive findings in 41 (93.2%). Thirty (75%) of these patients had varying degrees of gastritis. Duodenitis was found in six (13.6%) and gasteroduodenitis in five (11.4%). Esophagitis, which was always associated with gastritis, was seen in five (11.4%). Only three (6.8%) had normal endoscopy. Urease test was positive in three (7.3%) of the specimens. Two of the patients did not return for follow up. From the remaining 39 patients who received gastroenterology treatment, resolution of symptoms was seen in 38 (97.4%). Careful history and physical examination must guide the assessment of children and adolescents referred for evaluation of chest pain. Epigastric tenderness must be used as a reliable sign to initiate a gastrointestinal evaluation.

  2. Observation of tenderness parts of cervical spondylotic radiculopathy and analysis relevant tenderness parts and spinal nerve%神经根型颈椎病压痛部位分布及其与神经节段的关系

    于杰; 王乾; 魏戌; 甄朋超; 朱立国; 房敏; 林定坤; 李俊杰; 洪毅; 王平; 高景华; 王尚全


    Objective To ohserve tenderness parts of cervical spondylotic radiculopathy and analysis relevant tenderness parts and spinal nerve. Methods Tenderness parts of neck and shoulder of the 480 patients ( 3 patients removed) with cervical spondylotic radiculopathy were check with thumb and recoved reference to the main tenderness parts of neck and shoulder. Results Nerve root type cervical spondylosis The main spine nerve root of cervical spondylotic radiculopathy were C6 ( 53. 04% ) . C5 ( 24. 53% ) C7 ( 18. 87% ). The common tenderness points were located at the side of processus spinosus.medial angle of scapula、neck and shoulder transmigration of cowl-muscle、margo medialis scapulae. Conclusion The examination and analysis of tenderness points is important to the diagnosis and treatment ofcervical spondylotic radiculopathy.%目的 观察神经根型颈椎病压痛部位分布特征及其与神经节段的关系.方法 本组神经根型颈椎病患者480例(剔除3例),研究者以拇指逐次按压患者颈肩部进行压痛的体格检查,并参照主要颈肩压痛点记录压痛点.采用关联规则的研究方法作神经根节段与压痛部位作相关性分析.结果 神经根型颈椎病患者主要发病的神经根为C6(53.04%)、C5(24.53%)、C7(18.87%).神经根节段与压痛部位的关联分析显示压痛部位集中于受累神经根节段棘突旁、斜方肌颈肩移行部即肩井穴、斜方肌颈肩移行部即肩井穴)、肩胛骨上角即肩胛提肌止点等部位.结论 压痛点的检查与分析对于神经根型颈椎病的诊断和治疗具有重要意义.

  3. Proposal for the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the maintenance of low-voltage switchgear


    This document concerns the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the maintenance of low-voltage switchgear. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the maintenance of low-voltage switchgear with HAZEMEYER (FR) for a total amount of 385 000 euros (610 000 Swiss francs), covering an initial period of five years, subject to revision for inflation after 1 January 2007. The contract will include options for two one-year extensions beyond the initial five-year period. The amount in Swiss francs has been calculated using the present rate of exchange. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: FR - 100%.

  4. The Legal Practice of Corporate Takeover and Mandatory Tender Offer (MTO in the Indonesian Capital Market

    Yozua Makes


    Full Text Available The number of takeover transactions is relatively less compared to other corporate actions bypublicly-listed companies, (e.g. IPOs, rights issues, or material transactions. There is no researchthat explains or contextualizes this fact, but one may speculate that this may be due to (a the existenceof block-holders in Indonesia’s corporate structure profile (structural barrier or (b because itis costly to carry out a takeover in light of the existing Mandatory Tender Offer (MTO requirements(legal barrier. This article focuses on the latter problem, aiming to address the practical and legalissues pertaining to takeover transactions in Indonesia with respect to the existence of the MTO.Pursuant to the prevailing rule, in a takeover of publicly-listed companies that results in a change ofcontrol, a MTO/mandatory bid requirement must be followed with the potential acquirer making anoffer to purchase all of the remaining shares of the target company according to a certain minimumprice formula. Specifically the article discusses practical and creative strategies that prospectivecontrollers employ to avoid the mandatory bid/MTO requirement, and how these strategies impactthe principle of minority shareholders’ protection.

  5. Therapeutic effects of tender coconut water on oxidative stress in fructose fed insulin resistant hypertensive rats

    D Bhagya; L Prema; T Rajamohan


    ABSTRACT Objective:To investigate whether tender coconut water(TCW)mitigates oxidative stress in fructose fed hypertensive rats.Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed with fructose rich diet and treated withTCW (4 mL/100 g of body weight) for3 subsequent weeks. Systolic blood pressure was measured every three days using the indirect tail cuff method. At the end of the experimental period, plasma glucose and insulin, serum triglycerides and free fatty acids, lipid peroxidation markers (MDA, hydroperoxides and conjugated dienes) and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were analyzed in all the groups.Results: Treatment withTCW significantly lowered the systolic blood pressure and reduced serum triglycerides and free fatty acids. Plasma glucose and insulin levels and lipid peroxidation markers such asMDA, hydroperoxides and conjugated dienes were significantly reduced in fructose fed rats treated withTCW. Activities of antioxidant enzymes are up regulated significantly inTCW treated rats. Histopathological analysis of liver showed thatTCW treatment reduced the lipid accumulation and inflammatory infiltration without any significant hepatocellular damage.Conclusions: The overall results suggest that, TCW treatment could prevent and reverse high blood pressure induced by high fructose diet probably by inhibition of lipid peroxidation, upregulation of antioxidant status and improved insulin sensitivity.

  6. Effects of different packaging atmospheres and injection-enhancement on beef tenderness, sensory attributes, desmin degradation, and display color.

    Grobbel, J P; Dikeman, M E; Hunt, M C; Milliken, G A


    The objectives were to determine the effects of packaging atmosphere and injection-enhancement on tenderness, sensory traits, desmin degradation, and display color of different beef muscles. Longissimus lumborum (LL; n = 12 pairs), semitendinosus (ST; n = 12 pairs), and triceps brachii (TB; n = 24 pairs; 12 from the same carcasses as the LL and ST and 12 additional pairs) were obtained from the same USDA Select, A-maturity carcasses. On d 7 postmortem, each muscle from one side of the carcass was injection-enhanced, and each muscle from the other side was nonenhanced. Steaks 2.54-cm thick were cut from the muscles and packaged in vacuum packaging (VP), ultra-low oxygen with CO (ULO(2)CO; 0.4% CO/35% CO(2)/69.6% N(2)) modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), or high-oxygen MAP (HiO(2); 80% O(2)/20% CO(2)) and assigned to 14-d tenderness or display followed by 18- or 28-d tenderness measurement. Steaks packaged in HiO(2) MAP were in dark storage (2 degrees C) for 4 d and all other steaks for 14 d. Steaks for Warner-Bratzler shear force, sensory panel (n = 8 trained panelists), and desmin degradation were cooked to 70 degrees C. Steaks were displayed under fluorescent lighting (2,153 lx, 3,000 K) for 7 d. Trained color panelists (n = 10) assigned display color scores. Enhanced steaks had lower (P HiO(2) MAP. The LL and TB were more tender (P HiO(2) MAP were oxidative or rancid. Enhanced steaks had more (P 0.05) by packaging or enhancement. Enhanced steaks were darker (P HiO(2) MAP discolored faster (P HiO(2) MAP.

  7. Variation at the Calpain 3 gene is associated with meat tenderness in zebu and composite breeds of cattle

    Bunch Rowan J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL affecting meat tenderness have been reported on Bovine chromosome 10. Here we examine variation at the Calpain 3 (CAPN3 gene in cattle, a gene located within the confidence interval of the QTL, and which is a positional candidate gene based on the biochemical activity of the protein. Results We identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in the genomic sequence of the CAPN3 gene and tested three of these in a sample of 2189 cattle. Of the three SNP genotyped, the CAPN3:c.1538+225G>T had the largest significant additive effect, with an allele substitution effect in the Brahman of α = -0.144 kg, SE = 0.060, P = 0.016, and the polymorphism explained 1.7% of the residual phenotypic variance in that sample of the breed. Significant haplotype substitution effects were found for all three breeds, the Brahman, the Belmont Red, and the Santa Gertrudis. For the common haplotype, the haplotype substitution effect in the Brahman was α = 0.169 kg, SE = 0.056, P = 0.003. The effect of this gene was compared to Calpastatin in the same sample. The SNP show negligible frequencies in taurine breeds and low to moderate minor allele frequencies in zebu or composite animals. Conclusion These associations confirm the location of a QTL for meat tenderness in this region of bovine chromosome 10. SNP in or near this gene may be responsible for part of the overall difference between taurine and zebu breeds in meat tenderness, and the greater variability in meat tenderness found in zebu and composite breeds. The evidence provided so far suggests that none of these tested SNP are causative mutations.

  8. Inquiry on tender offer issues of metallurgical construction project%关于冶金工业建设工程投标报价的探讨


    The paper specifically introduces the specialty of tender offer phase of metallurgical construction project,describes current tender offer techniques of metallurgical construction project,and explores tender offer methods of metallurgical construction project by combining with tender and bidding experience of Taiyuan Iron and Steel Co. Ltd in recent years.%对冶金建设工程招投标阶段的特殊性进行了详细介绍,阐述了当前冶金建设工程招投标阶段投标报价的一些技巧,并结合太钢近几年在招投标工作中的实践经验,对冶金建设工程项目投标报价的方法进行了探讨。

  9. 谈投标施工组织设计编制%Discussion on the formulation of the tendering construction organization design



    Combining with working practice,the paper describes the formulation of tendering construction organization design,summarizes the construction organization design contents and formulation requirements,and illustrates the pre-tendering survey,tendering response,tendering invalid protection and management personnel quality and so on,which has significant meaning for guiding practice.%结合工作实践,对投标施工组织设计的编制进行了阐述,总结了施工组织设计的主要内容及编制要求,并对标前现场踏勘、招标文件的响应性、防止废标、经营人员素质等作了说明,对指导实际工作具有重要意义。

  10. Proposal to Negotiate, without Competitive Tendering, a Contract for the Supply of Beryllium Ultra-High-Vacuum Chambers for the ALICE, ATLAS and CMS Vacuum Systems


    This document concerns a contract to be placed, without competitive tendering, for the supply of UHV (ultra-high-vacuum) chambers for the ALICE, ATLAS and CMS vacuum systems. Following a market survey carried out among 12 firms in five Member States and two non-Member States, a call for tenders (IT-2926/LHC/LHC) was sent on 14 August 2002 to one firm, in a non-Member State. By the closing date, CERN had received one tender. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with BRUSH WELLMAN (US) for the supply of UHV chambers for the ALICE, ATLAS and CMS vacuum systems for an amount of 1 074 220 US dollars, (1 613 428 Swiss francs), not subject to revision. The rate of exchange used is that stipulated in the tender. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: US - 100%.

  11. SmartStretch™ technology. I. Improving the tenderness of sheep topsides (m. semimembranosus) using a meat stretching device.

    Toohey, E S; van de Ven, R; Thompson, J M; Geesink, G H; Hopkins, D L


    This study evaluated the effect of stretching hot-boned sheep topsides using a pre-production prototype device (SmartStretch™). To test this effect, 40 sheep from 3 consignments were assessed. Left and right topsides were collected pre-rigour and randomly allocated to one of four treatments; 0 days ageing+SmartStretch™, 0 days ageing+no stretch, 5 days ageing+SmartStretch™ and 5 days ageing+no stretch. Meat from the 0 days aged+no stretch treatment was the least tender and the 5 days ageing+SmartStretch™ treatment resulted in the most tender meat. The m. semimembranosus from topsides stretched using the SmartStretch™ prototype device had a lower cooking loss percentage (P<0.001) and longer sarcomeres (P<0.001) than non-stretched m. semimembranosus. There was no effect of SmartStretch™ on myofibrillar degradation measured using particle size analysis (PSA), but there was an ageing effect (P<0.001). The tenderness of stretched m. semimembranosus showed significant improvement over non-stretched m. semimembranosus.

  12. Effects of genetic variants for the bovine calpain gene on meat tenderness.

    Chung, Hoyoung; Shin, Sungchul; Chung, Euiryong


    The objective of this study was to determine whether the genetic variants of CAPN1 developed in several cattle populations can be applied for Hanwoo, regarding genetic effects on meat traits. The traits were examined for 286 purebred Hanwoo steers with genotypes classified by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. The nucleotide positions of primers and previously identified genetic variants were based on sequences of the calpain 1 (CAPN1) gene with GenBank accession numbers (AF252504, AF248054, and AY639597). The analysis of genetic distribution estimated levels of minor allele frequencies ranged from 0.165 to 0.392, showing no significant departures from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium for all markers. Overall averages of heterozygosites (He) and polymorphic information contents (PICs) for all markers were calculated to 0.503 and 0.429, respectively, and the g.4558G>A marker showed the lowest He (0.425) and PIC (0.367). Animals from 29 months of age were slaughtered to measure Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), cooking loss, water-holding capacity, pH, fat, and moisture. All the CAPN1 markers explained variations of WBSF, showing significant additive effects except g.5709G>A. A significant marginal mean difference in genotypes of g.6545C>T (P=0.046) was found in moisture with additive effects. From the result it may be possible to use three calpain markers (g.4558G>A, g.4685C>T, and g.6545C>T) classified by RFLP and SSCP analysis in marker assisted selection programs to improve WBSF as meat tenderness in Hanwoo.

  13. Genome-Wide Detection of CNVs and Their Association with Meat Tenderness in Nelore Cattle

    da Silva, Vinicius Henrique; Regitano, Luciana Correia de Almeida; Geistlinger, Ludwig; Pértille, Fábio; Morosini, Natália Silva; Zimmer, Ralf; Coutinho, Luiz Lehmann


    Brazil is one of the largest beef producers and exporters in the world with the Nelore breed representing the vast majority of Brazilian cattle (Bos taurus indicus). Despite the great adaptability of the Nelore breed to tropical climate, meat tenderness (MT) remains to be improved. Several factors including genetic composition can influence MT. In this article, we report a genome-wide analysis of copy number variation (CNV) inferred from Illumina® High Density SNP-chip data for a Nelore population of 723 males. We detected >2,600 CNV regions (CNVRs) representing ≈6.5% of the genome. Comparing our results with previous studies revealed an overlap in ≈1400 CNVRs (>50%). A total of 1,155 CNVRs (43.6%) overlapped 2,750 genes. They were enriched for processes involving guanosine triphosphate (GTP), previously reported to influence skeletal muscle physiology and morphology. Nelore CNVRs also overlapped QTLs for MT reported in other breeds (8.9%, 236 CNVRs) and from a previous study with this population (4.1%, 109 CNVRs). Two CNVRs were also proximal to glutathione metabolism genes that were previously associated with MT. Genome-wide association study of CN state with estimated breeding values derived from meat shear force identified 6 regions, including a region on BTA3 that contains genes of the cAMP and cGMP pathway. Ten CNVRs that overlapped regions associated with MT were successfully validated by qPCR. Our results represent the first comprehensive CNV study in Bos taurus indicus cattle and identify regions in which copy number changes are potentially of importance for the MT phenotype. PMID:27348523

  14. Discussion on the Reasonable Establishment of Tender Control Price%合理设立招标控制价的探讨



    随着工程量清单计价规范的不断完善及推广应用,建设单位越来越深刻认识招标控制价的编制质量对招投标结果及后续工程造价的合理控制产生的深远影响。工程实践过程中,工程量清单及招标控制价的编制质量参差不齐,建设单位也希望能找到有效的方法提高工程量清单及招标控制价的编制质量。本文从实践的角度分析招标控制价对中标价格的影响,并提出合理设置招标控制价的方法,供同业人事参考。%Along with the continuous improvement and application of pricing specification of bill of quantities, construc⁃tion units turn to more and more profoundly realize the far-reaching influence performed by tender control price's estab⁃lishment quality on the tender results and the reasonable control of the follow-up project cost. In engineering practice pro⁃cess, bill of quantities and the tender control price's establishment qualities are uneven, the construction units are also hoping to find effective ways to improve the quality of the compilation of bill of quantities and tender control price. From a practical point of view, the article analyzes the influence of tender control price on the tender price, and puts forward a method for reasonable setting of the tender control price for reference by personnel in the same industry.

  15. Association of CAPN1 and CAST gene polymorphisms with meat tenderness in Bos taurus beef cattle from Argentina

    Pablo Corva


    Full Text Available The activity of the calpains/calpastatin proteolytic system is closely related to the postmortem tenderization of meat. We investigated the association between beef tenderness and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers on the CAPN1 gene (SNP316, alleles C/G; SNP530 alleles A/G and the CAST gene 3' untranslated region (SNP2870, alleles A/G. We sampled nine slaughter groups comprising 313 steers which had been reared in beef production systems in Argentina between 2002 and 2004 from crosses between Angus, Hereford and Limousin cattle. Minor allele frequencies for the markers were 0.27 to 0.46 (C, 0.02 to 0.18 (A, and 0.24 to 0.53 (A, respectively. The presence of CAPN1 markers had significant effects on meat shear force but no detectable effects were demonstrated for the CAST marker. The shear force of meat from steers with the SNP316 CC genotype was 11% lower than for the SNP316 CG genotype and 17% lower than for the SNP316 GG genotype. There were very few steers with the SNP530 AA genotype and, contrary to previous studies, meat from steers with the SNP530 GG genotype showed an 11.5% higher shear force than that from steers with the SNP530 GA genotype. Final body weight, carcass weight and rib eye area were not affected by any of the markers. These results support the concept that CAPN1 variants are associated with tenderness across a wide range of beef production systems.

  16. Biomarkers of meat tenderness: present knowledge and perspectives in regards to our current understanding of the mechanisms involved.

    Ouali, Ahmed; Gagaoua, Mohammed; Boudida, Yasmine; Becila, Samira; Boudjellal, Abdelghani; Herrera-Mendez, Carlos H; Sentandreu, Miguel A


    Biomarkers of the meat quality are of prime importance for meat industry, which has to satisfy consumers' expectations and, for them, meat tenderness is and will remain the primary and most important quality attribute. The tenderization of meat starts immediately after animal death with the onset of apoptosis followed by a cooperative action of endogenous proteolytic systems. Before consideration of the biomarkers identified so far, we present here some new features on the apoptotic process. Among them, the most important is the recent discovery of a complex family of serpins capable to inhibit, in a pseudo-irreversible manner, caspases, the major enzymes responsible of cell dismantling during apoptosis. The biomarkers so far identified have been then sorted and grouped according to their common biological functions. All of them refer to a series of biological pathways including glycolytic and oxidative energy production, cell detoxification, protease inhibition and production of Heat Shock Proteins. Some unusual biomarkers are also presented: annexins, galectins and peroxiredoxins. On this basis, a detailed analysis of these metabolic pathways allowed us to identify some domains of interest for future investigations. It was thus emphasized that mitochondria, an important organelle in the production of energy from carbohydrates, lipids and proteins are a central element in the initiation and development of apoptosis. It was therefore stressed forward that, in fact, very little is known about the postmortem fate of these organelles and their multiple associated activities. Other topics discussed here would provide avenues for the future in the context of identifying reliable predictors of the ultimate meat tenderness.

  17. 浅谈合理低价中标法的投标报价策略%Discussed Shallowly the Reasonable Low Price is Selected Method Tender Offer Strategy



    文章介绍了合理低价中标法的评标方法,阐述了对于这种评标方法投标人应采取的报价策略.%The article introduced the reasonable low price is selected method the evaluation of tenders method, elaborated should adopt the quoted price strategy regarding this kind of evaluation of tenders method tenderer.

  18. Model for Bidding and Tendering with Bill of Quantities Based on Bid-Winning Estimate at Reasonable Low Price

    Song Jirong; Zhong Sheng; Guo Yaohuang


    The possibility and rationality of introducing an bid-winning estimate based on a reasonable low price into construction bidding mode with bill of quantities were analyzed by setting up a model for bidding and tendering, and the functions of the estimate of reasonable low price in the bidding were revealed. On this basis, a new bidding mode of the project with bill of quantities was proposed. The application of the new mode will be advantageous to the promotion of the bill of quantities in China.

  19. Production and processing studies on calpain-system gene markers for tenderness in Brahman cattle: 2. Objective meat quality.

    Cafe, L M; McIntyre, B L; Robinson, D L; Geesink, G H; Barendse, W; Pethick, D W; Thompson, J M; Greenwood, P L


    Effects and interactions of calpain-system tenderness gene markers on objective meat quality traits of Brahman (Bos indicus) cattle were quantified within 2 concurrent experiments at different locations. Cattle were selected for study from commercial and research herds at weaning based on their genotype for calpastatin (CAST) and calpain 3 (CAPN3) gene markers for beef tenderness. Gene marker status for mu-calpain (CAPN1-4751 and CAPN1-316) was also determined for inclusion in statistical analyses. Eighty-two heifer and 82 castrated male cattle with 0 or 2 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3 were studied in New South Wales (NSW), and 143 castrated male cattle with 0, 1, or 2 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3 were studied in Western Australia (WA). The cattle were backgrounded for 6 to 8 mo and grain-fed for 117 d (NSW) or 80 d (WA) before slaughter. One-half the cattle in each experiment were implanted with a hormonal growth promotant during feedlotting. One side of each carcass was suspended from the Achilles tendon (AT) and the other from the pelvis (tenderstretch). The M. longissimus lumborum from both sides and the M. semitendinosus from the AT side were collected; then samples of each were aged at 1 degrees C for 1 or 7 d. Favorable alleles for one or more markers reduced shear force, with little effect on other meat quality traits. The size of effects of individual markers varied with site, muscle, method of carcass suspension, and aging period. Individual marker effects were additive as evident in cattle with 4 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3 markers, which had shear force reductions of 12.2 N (P 0.05) of interactions between the gene markers, or between the hormonal growth promotant and gene markers for any meat quality traits. This study provides further evidence that selection based on the CAST or CAPN3 gene markers improves meat tenderness in Brahman cattle, with little if any detrimental effects on other meat quality traits. The CAPN1-4751 gene

  20. SUNSTORE 3. Phase 1. Project design and tender. Final report; SUNSTORE 3. Fase 1. Projektering og udbud. Slutrapport

    Soerensen, P.A. (PlanEnergi, Skoerping (Denmark)); Moeller Nielsen, C. (Dronninglund Fjernvarme, Dronninglund (Denmark)); Baunwall, M. (NIRAS Aalborg (Denmark)); Munkholt, H. (GG-Construction, Aalborg (Denmark)); Paaske, B. (Teknologisk Institut, AArhus (Denmark)); Schmidt, T. (SOLITES, Stuttgart (Germany))


    The objective of the project has been to carry out detailed design and tendering for a heat production plant consisting of: - 35.000 m{sub 2} solar thermal collectors, - 60.000 m{sub 3} pit heat storage, - 3 MW{sub heat} heat pump, covering app. 50% of the heat production at Dronninglund district heating plant (Denmark). The final report for the project includes detailed design of the pit heat storage (a further development of a 10.000 m{sub 3} storage implemented in Marstal) and simulation of the total production system in the simulation software TRNSYS. (ln)

  1. Proposal to negotiate, without competitive tendering, a contract for the maintenance of three 420 kV circuit breakers


    This document concerns the award of a contract for the maintenance, by the manufacturer, of three 420 kV circuit breakers. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract, without competitive tendering, with SCHNEIDER ITALY (IT) (formerly NUOVA MAGRINI GALILEO), the manufacturer of the equipment, for the maintenance of three 420 kV circuit breakers for a total amount of 490 000 Swiss francs, not subject to revision. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: IT?100%.

  2. 木薯嫩叶染色体的制片方法%Chromosome Observation Method for Cassava Tender Leaves

    凡杰; 安飞飞; 郑峰


    采用改良苯酚品红压片法,对华南124多倍体木薯品种的嫩叶染色体标本制备方法进行了探讨,比较了0.002mol·L-1的8-羟基喹啉3种温度3种时间的预处理效果、不同的解离方法以及取样部位对制片效果的影响。结果表明,于上午9:00.10:00摘取1.5~2cm长的嫩叶,用0.002mol·L“的8-羟基喹啉于4℃下预处理4h,再置于1mol·L-1盐酸溶液中,于25℃下解离1h,挑取嫩叶中部叶肉用改良苯酚品红染色,然后进行压片观察,能获得分散良好、清晰的染色体图像。%Modified phenol fuchsin squashing method was used to prepare chromosome specimens of tender leaves of polypoidy cassava SC 124. The tender leaves were pretreated with 0. 002 mol ·L-1 8 -hydroxyquinoline at three different temperatures for different time by using different solution methods and sampled from different parts of the plant. The tender leaves collected 1.5 -2 cm long in the morning at 9:00 am - 10:00 am were pretreated with 0. 002 mol · L-1 the 8 -hydroxyquinoline at 4 C for 4 h, and then put in 1 mol · L-1hydrochloric acid solution at 25 C for 1 h for maceration, and the mesophyll in the central part of the tender leaves were stained with modified phenol suchsin and then squashed for observatio n. This method produced a well dispersed, clear chromosome image.

  3. Therapeutic effect of patients with soft tissue pain treated by tenderness points massage and tenderness points massage adding hot magnetic therapy-A clinical observation on 20 case%压痛点推拿与热磁治疗软组织疼痛20例临床观察

    侯京山; 郑志新; 王飞; 蒋崇博; 马玲; 王军


    Objective To compare the therapeutic effect of soft tissue pain treated by tenderness points massage and tenderness points massage adding hot magnetic therapy.Methods 40 patients with soft tissue pain were randomly divided into tenderness points massage group ( n = 20) and tenderness points massage adding hot magnetic therapy group ( n = 20).Pain intensity of patients was evaluated with VAS prior therapy and post-therapy.Results Post-therapy VAS of both tenderness points massage group and tenderness points massage adding hot magnetic therapy group were different from that of prior therapy significantly ( P < 0.01 ).The difference of post-therapy VAS between two groups have statistical significance ( P < 0.01 ).Conclusion The therapeutic effect of patients with soft tissue pain with tenderness points massage adding hot magnetic therapy is better than that with tenderness points massage.%目的 对比压痛点推拿与压痛点推拿加温热磁治疗软组织痛的疗效.方法 40例软组织痛患者按随机数学分为治疗压痛点推拿组20例与压痛点推拿加温热磁组20例,采用目测类比定法(VAS)评定治疗前后软组织痛的疼痛强度.结果 压痛点推拿组与压痛点推拿加温热磁治疗组治疗后与治疗前VAS评分差异均有显著统计学意义(P<0.01),两组治疗后VAS评分相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 压痛点推拿加温热磁比单纯压痛点推拿疗效显著.

  4. SmartStretch™ technology. II. Improving the tenderness of leg meat from sheep using a meat stretching device.

    Toohey, E S; van de Ven, R; Thompson, J M; Geesink, G H; Hopkins, D L


    This study evaluated the effect of stretching hot-boned sheep hindlegs from 40 sheep carcases, classified as mutton, using a prototype device (SmartStretch™). Left and right legs were collected pre-rigor and randomly allocated to one of four treatments; 0days ageing+SmartStretch™, 0days ageing+no stretch, 5days ageing+SmartStretch™ and 5days ageing+no stretch. There was a significant interaction between stretch treatment and ageing (P<0.05) for shear force of the m. biceps femoris such that stretched and aged samples were the most tender. By contrast stretched m. semimembranosus (SM) had a significantly (P<0.05) lower shear force only at 0days of ageing. Stretching produced longer sarcomeres (P<0.001) for both the SM and m. semitendinosus muscles. Myofibrillar degradation indicated by particle size analysis or histology was not affected by stretching, but there was an ageing effect (P<0.001). SmartStretch™ provided significant improvements in tenderness of the individual muscles.

  5. Expression of ADAMTS4 and ADAMTS5 in longissimus dorsi muscle related to meat tenderness in Nanyang cattle.

    Zhang, X H; Qi, Y X; Gao, X; Li, J Y; Xu, S Z


    The ADAMTS4 and ADAMTS5 are secreted proteases, which can cleave aggrecan, brevican and versican to regulate rebuilding of the extracellular matrix. We analyzed the ADAMTS4 and ADAMTS5 gene expression patterns in longissimus dorsi muscle at intervals from 135 days fetal age to 30 months old by qRT-PCR in Nanyang cattle. Expression of ADAMTS4 was significantly higher in 135 and 185-day-old fetuses than at other stages, while expression of ADAMTS5 decreased during development. The promoter regions of ADAMTS4 and ADAMTS5 were cloned and the transcription factor binding sites were analyzed with bioinformatic methods. Twelve and six potential transcription factor binding sites were found in the promoter regions of ADAMTS4 and ADAMTS5 genes, respectively. Three transcription factors (MZF1, C/EBPb, and NF-kap) were selected to analyze the expression pattern during the development of the longissimus dorsi muscle. MZF1 was significantly co-expressed with ADAMTS4, while C/EBPb expression was significantly negatively associated with that of ADAMTS4. We concluded that the expression of ADAMTS4 is positively regulated by MZF1 and negatively regulated by C/EBPb. We examined the relationships of ADAMTS4 and ADAMTS5 expression with tenderness of longissimus dorsi muscle; ADAMTS4 was significantly and negatively correlated with meat tenderness. We conclude that ADAMTS4 participates in the regulation of muscle development in cattle.

  6. A Survey of Tender Is the Night from the Perspective of New Historicism%《夜色温柔》的新历史主义解读*

    顾颖; 费雪


    Tender Is the Night is one of Fitzgerald’s most important novels. The theory of Hew Historicism is applied to interpret Tender Is the Night from the aspects of“the historicity of text”and“the textuality of history”and thus the interrelationship between the history in Jazz Age and the text of Tender Is the Night is revealed.%《夜色温柔》是菲兹杰拉德最重要的长篇小说之一。通过运用新历史主义理论从“文本的历史性”及“历史的文本性”两大方面解读《夜色温柔》,揭示出爵士乐时代的历史和《夜色温柔》小说文本的相互影响作用。

  7. 农村生活污水治理工程招标模式研究%Research on Tendering Mode of Rural Sewage Treatment Project



    At present, the tendering relevant to rural sewage treatment project becomes a problem and focus of local governments. For the problems of rural sewage treatment project tendering, this paper compares and studies the world bank lending model of Ningbo and the third-party model of Deqing County, and proposes measures and suggestions for tendering mode innovation.%当前,有关农村生活污水治理工程的招标成为地方政府的难题和焦点。本文针对农村生活污水治理工程招标中存在的种种问题,重点比较研究了宁波市世界银行贷款模式、德清县第三方模式,提出了招标模式创新的对策建议。

  8. Bioanalytical methods for the metalloproteomics study of bovine longissimus thoracis muscle tissue with different grades of meat tenderness in the Nellore breed (Bos indicus).

    Baldassini, Welder Angelo; Braga, Camila Pereira; Chardulo, Luis Artur Loyola; Vasconcelos Silva, Josineudson Augusto; Malheiros, Jessica Moraes; de Albuquerque, Lúcia Galvão; Fernandes, Talita Tanaka; Padilha, Pedro de Magalhães


    The work describes a metalloproteomics study of bovine muscle tissue with different grades of meat tenderness from animals of the Nellore breed (Bos indicus) based on protein separation by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the identification of calcium ions in protein spots by X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) and the characterisation of proteins by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. Forty (40) specimens were selected and divided into two experimental groups: animals with tough meat (TO) and animals with tender meat (TE). A third group (P) of Piedmontese breed animals (Bos taurus) was included to serve as a comparative model for the level of meat tenderness. The procedures were efficient and preserved the metal-protein structure, enabling calcium detection in protein spots by SR-XRF at a given molecular weight range of 14-97kDa. Two proteins (pyruvate kinase and albumin) were inferred to be related to the phenotypical differences in animals from the different groups.

  9. Papel do sistema calpaína-calpastatina sobre a proteólise muscular e sua relação com a maciez da carne em bovinos de corte - Calpain-calpastatin role on muscle proteolysis and its relationship with beef tenderness

    Lage, Josiane Fonseca


    factors and mechanisms of different origin are responsible for post-mortem beef tenderization, which includes physical and chemical factors, enzymes without peptidase activity and peptidases. Although the exact mechanism of action still not completely understood,it has been proposed that myofibrillar protein degradation by endogenous proteins would be the main mechanism involved with post-mortem beef tenderization. During the post-mortem period the tenderization process depends on some factors like animal species, muscle fiber type, post-mortem management, and other factors.Tenderization occurs due to changes on some structural components of the muscle that take place in response to the action of enzymes during and after rigor mortis. The calcium dependent proteases (calpains and calpastatin are known to be the main factor responsible for beef tenderization. There are two calpain isoformes,called µ-calpain and m-calpain, which are responsible for post-mortem muscle degradation. The enzyme calpastatin also regulates the tenderization by inhibiting the activity of the calpains. Beef tenderization is a process that deserves a lot of attention, especially since consumer demand for products with higher quality havegreatly increased. The objective of this review is to understand the biochemical process of activation of the proteolytic enzymes and degradation of myofibrillar proteins.

  10. Conditions of call for tenders on the offshore wind power plants; Conditions de l'appel d'offres portant sur des centrales eolienne en mer



    In the framework of the renewable energies sources development, the french government decided to launch a call for tenders for the realization of offshore wind power plants in 2007. The call for tenders conditions concern: the energetic and technical characteristics of the installations as the primary energy, the production technic, the power; the industrial implementing delay; the exploitation and the operating time; the implementing sites; the weighting and the classification principles. The main conditions concerning the utilization of the maritime public land property outside of the harbors. (A.L.B.)

  11. Scientifically and Reasonably Determining Tender Offer%如何科学合理编制工程投标报价



    投标报价是关系到工程能否中标的关键.此文从投标准备工作、投标报价编制、工程成本分析、合理确定投标报价等几个方面论述了如何科学、合理的编制工程投标报价.%The tender offer is the key of the project bidding. This article discusses how to scientifically and reasonably determine the tender offer from the bidding preparation, bid price quotation preparation, engineering cost analysis, reasonably determining the bid price quotations.

  12. Proposal for the award of a blanket purchase contract, without competitive tendering, for the supply of radiation-resistant single-mode optical fibres for the LHC


    This document concerns the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the supply of radiation-resistant single-mode optical fibres for the LHC. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract, without competitive tendering, with FUJIKURA (JP), for the supply of radiation-resistant single-mode optical fibres for the LHC for a total amount of 660 000 US dollars (824 000 Swiss francs), not subject to revision. The rate of exchange used is the rate of 20 November 2006.

  13. Post-mortem kinetics of meat tenderness and the components of the calpain system in bull skeletal muscle.

    Thomson, B C; Dobbie, P M; Singh, K; Speck, P A


    Eight strip loins (M. longissimus dorsi) from pasture fed Friesian bulls were aged at 15 °C for a range of times from 1 to 120 h. pH declined from 6.29 (SE 0.119) one hour post slaughter to an ultimate pH of 5.48 (SE 0.013). The activities of the components of the calpain system (μ-calpain, m-calpain and calpastatin) were determined after separation on a DEAE-sephacel column. There was a dramatic decline in μ-calpain activity post slaughter with a complete disappearance within 48 h. The rates of decline in m-calpain and calpastatin activity were slower with 30% and 50% remaining 120 h post slaughter, respectively. The rapid decline in μ-calpain activity relative to the calpastatin activity is likely to reduce the degree of tenderisation and ultimate tenderness of the meat.

  14. Proposal to negotiate, without competitive tendering, the renewal of an existing contract for the repair, reconditioning or replacement of klystrons


    This document concerns the repair and reconditioning of pulsed klystrons being used in both the LEP Injector Linac and the CLIC Test Facilities or their replacement by klystrons with identical performance specification in cases where neither of these actions is economically or technically viable. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation, without competitive tendering, of the renewal of a contract with THOMSON (FR) for the repair and reconditioning or the replacement of pulsed klystrons being used in both the LEP Injector Linac and the CLIC test facilities for an estimated total amount not exceeding 1 000 000 Swiss francs. This contract is expected to run for a period of five years to cover the expected lifetime of the installation concerned. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: FR?100%.

  15. Estimating the impact of various pathway parameters on tenderness, flavour and juiciness of pork using Monte Carlo simulation methods.

    Channon, H A; Hamilton, A J; D'Souza, D N; Dunshea, F R


    Monte Carlo simulation was investigated as a potential methodology to estimate sensory tenderness, flavour and juiciness scores of pork following the implementation of key pathway interventions known to influence eating quality. Correction factors were established using mean data from published studies investigating key production, processing and cooking parameters. Probability distributions of correction factors were developed for single pathway parameters only, due to lack of interaction data. Except for moisture infusion, ageing period, aitchbone hanging and cooking pork to an internal temperature of >74°C, only small shifts in the mean of the probability distributions of correction factors were observed for the majority of pathway parameters investigated in this study. Output distributions of sensory scores, generated from Monte Carlo simulations of input distributions of correction factors and for individual pigs, indicated that this methodology may be useful in estimating both the shift and variability in pork eating traits when different pathway interventions are applied.

  16. Towards tender X-rays with Zernike phase-contrast imaging of biological samples at 50 nm resolution.

    Vartiainen, Ismo; Warmer, Martin; Goeries, Dennis; Herker, Eva; Reimer, Rudolph; David, Christian; Meents, Alke


    X-ray microscopy is a commonly used method especially in material science application, where the large penetration depth of X-rays is necessary for three-dimensional structural studies of thick specimens with high-Z elements. In this paper it is shown that full-field X-ray microscopy at 6.2 keV can be utilized for imaging of biological specimens with high resolution. A full-field Zernike phase-contrast microscope based on diffractive optics is used to study lipid droplet formation in hepatoma cells. It is shown that the contrast of the images is comparable with that of electron microscopy, and even better contrast at tender X-ray energies between 2.5 keV and 4 keV is expected.

  17. The predetermined sites of examination for tender points in fibromyalgia syndrome are frequently associated with myofascial trigger points

    Ge, Hong You; Wang, Ying; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente;


    The aim of this present study is to test the hypotheses that the 18 predetermined sites of examination for tender points (TP sites) in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) are myofascial trigger points (MTrPs), and that the induced pain from active MTrPs at TP sites may mimic fibromyalgia pain. Each TP site...... was evaluated with manual palpation followed by intramuscular electromyographic (EMG) registration of spontaneous electrical activity to confirm or refute the existence of an MTrP in 30 FMS patients. Overall spontaneous pain intensity and pain pattern were recorded before manual identification of MTrPs. Local...... and referred pain pattern from active MTrPs were drawn following manual palpation at TP sites. RESULTS: Showed that most of the TP sites are MTrPs. Local and referred pain from active MTrPs reproduced partly the overall spontaneous pain pattern. The total number of active MTrPs (r = .78, P

  18. Is Swollen to Tender Joint Count Ratio aNew and Useful Clinical Marker for BiologicDrug Response in Rheumatoid Arthritis?

    Kristensen, Lars Erik; Bliddal, Henning; Christensen, Robin;


    OBJECTIVE: To study the impact of swollen to tender joint count ratio (STR) and other baseline characteristics on treatment response to a first course of anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. METHODS: Patients with RA initiating their first course...

  19. Analysis of Budget and Offer Tips of Construction Tender%浅析工程施工投标的预算和报价技巧



    投标单位要在激烈的市场竞争中占有市场,一定要掌握企业实际的投标预算、精通投标报价的技巧和方法,提高招标项目的投标报价水平,投标人只有采用不同的投标策略,才能对投标报价正确分析,进而果断作出决策,使企业处于不败之地,从而保证低投标高效益,真正为企业的生存发展和壮大创造先决条件.%If the tender units want to occupy the market in fierce market competition, they must grasp the bid budget of actual business, be proficient in the skills and methods of tender offer, and raise the level of bid tender.Only using different bidding strategies, can the bidder correctly analyze the tender offer, and then make decisions decisively, so that make enterprises be in a position to guarantee high efficiency with low bids, which can create prerequisites for survival, development and growth of the enterprise.

  20. Unraveling the redox behavior of a CoMoS hydrodesulfurization catalyst : A scanning transmission X-ray microscopy study in the tender X-ray range

    Al Samarai, Mustafa; Meirer, Florian; Karunakaran, Chithra; Wang, Jian; Vogt, Eelco T C; Zandbergen, Henny W.; Weber, Thomas; Weckhuysen, Bert M.; De Groot, Frank M F


    We visualize the elemental zoning in an alumina-supported cobalt molybdenum sulfide (CoMoS) catalyst with scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). We use the Canadian Light Source beamline 10-ID's (SM) unique combination of soft X-ray and tender X-ray STXM to determine the spatial variation of

  1. An efficient plane-grating monochromator based on conical diffraction for continuous tuning in the entire soft X-ray range including tender X-rays (2-8 keV).

    Jark, Werner


    Recently it was verified that the diffraction efficiency of reflection gratings with rectangular profile, when illuminated at grazing angles of incidence with the beam trajectory along the grooves and not perpendicular to them, remains very high for tender X-rays of several keV photon energy. This very efficient operation of a reflection grating in the extreme off-plane orientation, i.e. in conical diffraction, offers the possibility of designing a conical diffraction monochromator scheme that provides efficient continuous photon energy tuning over rather large tuning ranges. For example, the tuning could cover photon energies from below 1000 eV up to 8 keV. The expected transmission of the entire instrument is high as all components are always operated below the critical angle for total reflection. In the simplest version of the instrument a plane grating is preceded by a plane mirror rotating simultaneously with it. The photon energy selection will then be made using the combination of a focusing mirror and exit slit. As is common for grating monochromators for soft X-ray radiation, the minimum spectral bandwidth is source-size-limited, while the bandwidth can be adjusted freely to any larger value. As far as tender X-rays (2-8 keV) are concerned, the minimum bandwidth is at least one and up to two orders of magnitude larger than the bandwidth provided by Si(111) double-crystal monochromators in a collimated beam. Therefore the instrument will provide more flux, which can even be increased at the expense of a bandwidth increase. On the other hand, for softer X-rays with photon energies below 1 keV, competitive relative spectral resolving powers of the order of 10000 are possible.

  2. 如何合理确定公路工程投标报价%How to Determine Highway Engineering Submit a Tender Quote in Reason



      投标报价工作对于承包商来讲非常重要,不但关系到承包商能否中标,同时也关系到承包商在中标之后能否在工程中获得合理的利润。在目前的公路工程建设中,普遍实行了工程投标报价制度。在这一制度下,承包商要积极做好报价分析,既要保证工程投标报价能够应对工程建设所面对的财务经营风险,又要保证工程投标报价能够具有一定的竞争力优势。承包商要想顺利中标并取得预期利润,就要认真研究招标文件,做好投标报价分析工作。%  Tender offer work is very important for contractors . It not only related to wether the contractor win the bidding, but also related to whether the project contractor get a reasonable profit after win the bidding. .In present highway construction, it carries out the universal engineering bidding system.Under this system, the contractor should do offer analysis actively, which is necessary to ensure the project tender offer is able to cope with the financial operating risks faced by the project construction, but also to ensure that the project tender offer with a certain competitive advantage.In order to bid success-ful y and achieved the expected profits, the contractor must seriously study the tender documents and do tender offer analysis wel .

  3. 仙人掌外敷治疗产后乳房胀痛效果观察%The cactus topical treatment of postpartum breast tenderness effect observation



    Objective To explore the cactus external treatment effect for the treatment of postpartum breast tenderness.Methods 50 cases of maternal postpartum breast tenderness, wash clean, apply adequate amount of fresh cactus thorn take skin pound becomes slimy state, after baking hot (not very hot as appropriate) ring cover on the breast, thickness determined according to the degree of breast tenderness and induration, areola and nipple part is not covered, topical 20 min - 30 min, and then remove the cactus, with hot towel to clean the breast, then massage and breast milk, 3 to 4 times daily.Results After the intervention of maternal breast tenderness degree and induration was significantly reduced.Conclusion The cactus external treatment can obviously relieve maternal breast tenderness, reduce breast hardness, to breast milk.%目的:探讨仙人掌外敷治疗产后乳房胀痛的效果。方法对产后乳房胀痛的产妇50例,取适量新鲜仙人掌洗干净,去刺带皮捣烂成泥状,焙热(以不烫为宜)后环型覆盖于乳房上,厚度根据乳房胀痛及硬结程度决定,乳晕及乳头部分不覆盖,外敷20min-30min,然后除去仙人掌,用热毛巾清洁乳房,再按摩乳房及挤奶,每日3-4次。结果干预后产妇乳房胀痛程度及硬结得到明显缓解。结论仙人掌外敷可明显缓解产妇乳房胀痛,减轻乳房硬度,利于乳汁排出。

  4. 牛肉的外源性蛋白酶嫩化技术研究进展%Recent Progress on Application of Exogenous Proteases for Beef Tenderization

    聂远洋; 李璐; 温文婷; 夏白雪; 孙群


    牛肉嫩度是一项肉质评定的重要指标,也是消费者评判肉质优劣的最常用指标.外源性蛋白酶嫩化技术具有方法简单,条件要求相对低,能显著提高牛肉的品质等优点,且处理后的牛肉具有柔软、适口、多汁和易于咀嚼等特点,多年来一直受到肉类加工行业的重视,并已得到了广泛的研究和应用.本文主要论述了外源性蛋白酶对牛肉的嫩化机理和近年来在利用各类外源性蛋白酶嫩化处理牛肉的研究上取得的进展,以期为牛肉嫩化的研究提供参考.%Beef tenderness is both an important indicator of meat quality assessment and the most commonly used indicator to evaluate consumer acceptance.Exogenous proteases have attracted considerable interest from the meat processing industry and have been widely used to tenderize beef due to simple operation,low requirements and high efficacy in improving beef quality as well as soft mouth feel,good palatability and high juiciness and high chewiness of tenderized beef.This paper focuses on the mechanism for the tenderization of beef by exogenous proteases and the recent progress on this application,which will provide guidelines for beef tenderization.

  5. Otters Increasing - Threats Increasing

    Andreas Kranz


    Full Text Available In some parts of Central Europe populations of otters are apparently increasing. Until recently, no research was being conducted on the ecology of otters in mainly artificial habitats like fish farms. Otters are not only a new source of conflict requiring species management, but appear once again threatened by illegal hunting. Austria is dealing with this problem using compensation for otter damage, electric fencing and translocation of problem otters. Despite a rise in illegal killing, Austria does not formally recognise this as a threat.

  6. 小型建筑企业的企业定额与投标报价%On enterprise quota and tender offer



    从企业定额着手,总结分析了小型建筑企业的现状、企业定额的编制及管理模式,并在此基础上提出了编制投标报价的步骤和方法,以期对小型建筑企业的投标报价提供一些借鉴。%From the enterprise quota,the paper summarizes the status of those small architectural enterprises,as well as their compilation and management of the enterprise quota,and points out the steps and methods for compiling tender offer based on the previous aspects,so as to pro-vide some reference for the tender offer of other small architectural enterprises.

  7. Petrochemical Enterprise Equipment Tendering Evaluation Methods Are Discussed%石化企业设备招标评标方法探讨



    Petrochemical enterprise equipment tendering the bid assessment methods, is using the bid assessment standards reviews, compare the concrete method of the bidding scheme actor. Petrochemical enterprise equipment tendering evaluation methods to implement the scientific equal competition, fair and reasonable choice ZhongBiaoZhe is extremely important. This paper discusses its bid assessment method.%石化企业设备招标评标的方法,是运用评标标准评审、比较投标方案优劣的具体方法。石化企业设备招标评标方法的科学性对于实施平等的竞争、公正合理地选择中标者是极其重要的。本文探讨了其评标方法。

  8. Proposal for the award of a blanket contract, without competitive tendering, for the packaging of custom application-specific integrated circuits for the CMS experiment


    This document concerns the award of a blanket contract, without competitive tendering, for the packaging of custom application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) for the CMS experiment. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a blanket contract, without competitive tendering, with ASAT (HK) for the packaging of custom ASICs for use in the CMS experiment, over a period of two years for a total estimated amount not exceeding 700 000 US dollars. At the present rate of exchange this is equivalent to approximately 910 000 Swiss francs of which CERN will contribute a total amount not exceeding 683 000 Swiss francs. The remaining amount will be financed by the other participating institutes of the CMS experiment. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: HK - 100%.

  9. Efficacy and Effectiveness of Exercise on Tender Points in Adults with Fibromyalgia: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    George A. Kelley


    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia is a major public health problem affecting an estimated 200 to 400 million people worldwide. The purpose of this study was to use the meta-analytic approach to determine the efficacy and effectiveness of randomized controlled exercise intervention trials (aerobic, strength training, or both on tender points (TPs in adults with fibromyalgia. Using random effects models and 95% confidence intervals (CI, a statistically significant reduction in TPs was observed based on per-protocol analyses (8 studies representing 322 participants but not intention-to-treat analyses (5 studies representing 338 participants (per-protocol, , −0.68, 95% CI, −1.16, −0.20; intention-to-treat, , −0.24, 95% CI, −0.62, 0.15. Changes were equivalent to relative reductions of 10.9% and 6.9%, respectively, for per-protocol and intention-to-treat analyses. It was concluded that exercise is efficacious for reducing TPs in women with FM. However, a need exists for additional well-designed and reported studies on this topic.

  10. An evaluation of the proposed ITS system for the city of São Paulo based on the 2015 tender

    Consulo Mauricio


    Full Text Available The Secretary of Transportation of the city of São Paulo recently released a public consultation for the city’s Urban Mobility plan. This consultation is quite broad in scope, addressing many different areas of the bus public transportation modal in the city, including the operation itself, control and bus terminal administration. The proposal contains guidelines to reorganize the actual services using the infrastructure already deployed. This article will bring to light the development stages of the ITS in the United States, Europe, and Japan while focusing on the technology portion of the São Paulo tender such as: (i planning and scheduling systems, (ii operational control center and its technologies to monitor and control the operation, (iii the on-board technologies, and (iv the integration to the existing track and location (T&L, control and reporting system called SIM – Sistema Integrado de Monitoramento (Integrated Monitoring System. The main goal of this article is to map the proposed ITS system for the city of São Paulo and compare it to the world class systems operating in the major cities in the world highlighting the areas of excellence and the ones with room for improvement.

  11. Proposal for the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the purchase of 200 scintillator sheets for the CMS hadron calorimeter


    The Finance Committee is invited to authorize CERN to negotiate on behalf of the Participating Institutes of the CMS Collaboration a contract, without competitive tendering, for the procurement of 200 scintillator sheets for the Outer Barrel of the CMS Hadron Detector from BICRON (USA) for a total cost of 285 000 US dollars, not subject to revision. At the present rate of exchange, this amount is equivalent to approximately 439 000 Swiss francs.

  12. Test-retest repeatability of strength capacity, aerobic power and pericranial tenderness of neck and shoulder muscles in children - relevant for tension-type headache

    Tornøe, Birte; Andersen, Lars L; Skotte, J H;


    Frequent or chronic tension-type headache in children is a prevalent and debilitating condition for the child, often leading to medication overuse. To explore the relationship between physical factors and tension-type headache in children, the quality of repeated measures was examined. The aim...... of the present study was to determine the test-retest repeatability of parameters determining isometric neck and shoulder strength and stability, aerobic power, and pericranial tenderness in children....

  13. Guideline for the tendering of the Europe-wide procurement of the electricity supply. 2. rev. ed.; Arbeitshilfe zur Durchfuehrung einer europaweiten Ausschreibung der Stromlieferung

    Buchmueller, Christian [Schnutenhaus und Kollegen, Berlin (Germany)


    In order to describe the practical fundamentals for the procurement of electricity, the authors of this contribution present a guideline for the implementation of a Europe-wide tendering of the electricity supply. The main aspects of this contribution are the procedure and time schedule of the procurement procedure, preparation of the procurement procedure, design of the procurement procedure concerning to the contents as well as the implementation of the procurement procedure.

  14. Proposal for the conclusion of a partnership agreement, without competitive tendering, for the management of medical emergencies on the CERN site and the training of CERN's medical staff and firefighters in emergency situations


    Proposal for the conclusion of a partnership agreement, without competitive tendering, for the management of medical emergencies on the CERN site and the training of CERN's medical staff and firefighters in emergency situations

  15. Effect of sire on mu- and m-calpain activity and rate of tenderization as indicated by myofibril fragmentation indices of steaks from Brahman cattle.

    Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Pringle, T D; West, R L; Johnson, D D; Olson, T A; Hammond, A C; Coleman, S W


    The objectives of this study were to assess the influence of sire on mu- and m-calpain activities, to evaluate the relationships of activities of these enzymes to other traits related to beef palatability, and to assess the influence of sire on the rate of tenderization (as measured by myofibril fragmentation index [MFI]) in Brahman longissimus muscle. Brahman calves (n = 87), sired by nine bulls, were born, weaned, fed, and slaughtered in central Florida. Traits evaluated were mu- and m-calpain activities and MFI after 1, 7, 14, and 21 d of aging. Other traits were analyzed to determine their associations with mu- and m-calpain activity and MFI, including calpastatin activity, percentage of raw and cooked lipids, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values after 7, 14, and 21 d of aging, and sensory panel rating of tenderness, juiciness, and connective tissue amount after 14 d of aging. Data were analyzed using a model with sire, sex, year, and slaughter group (calves of the same sex slaughtered on the same date) as fixed effects, and adjusted to a constant adjusted 12th-rib fat thickness. Sire affected mu-calpain activity (P carcass sorting program represents an alternative consideration for tenderization improvement programs.

  16. Application and optimization of the tenderization of pig Longissimus dorsi muscle by adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) using the response surface methodology.

    Deng, Shaoying; Wang, Daoying; Zhang, Muhan; Geng, Zhiming; Sun, Chong; Bian, Huan; Xu, Weimin; Zhu, Yongzhi; Liu, Fang; Wu, Haihong


    Based on single factor experiments, NaCl concentration, adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) concentration and temperature were selected as independent variables for a three-level Box-Behnken experimental design, and the shear force and cooking loss were response values for regression analysis. According to the statistical models, it showed that all independent variables had significant effects on shear force and cooking loss, and optimal values were at the NaCl concentration of 4.15%, AMP concentration of 22.27 mmol/L and temperature of 16.70°C, which was determined with three-dimensional response surface diagrams and contour plots. Under this condition, the observed shear force and cooking loss were 0.625 kg and 8.07%, respectively, exhibiting a good agreement with their predicted values, showing the good applicability and feasibility of response surface methodology (RSM) for improving pork tenderness. Compared with control pig muscles, AMP combined with NaCl treatment demonstrated significant effects on improvement of meat tenderness and reduction of cooking loss. Therefore, AMP could be regarded as an effective tenderization agent for pork.

  17. Call-for-tender documentation in the area of servers, personal computers and networks; Ausschreibungsunterlagen im Server-, PC- und Netzwerk-Bereich

    Grieder, T.; Huser, A.


    As a result of this work, sample texts, so-called performance sheets, have been drawn up for the invitation to tender for IT devices. As a supplement to the standard technical requirements, such as computer performance, memory capacity, etc., these texts cover the aspects of energy efficiency. The performance sheets can be enclosed with the invitations to tender as an appendix, or be used directly as text modules. They are supplemented by explanatory texts, which give information regarding technical terms, labels and possible technical realizations. Performance sheets and explanatory texts are included in the appendix to this report. The goal of these activities is to exert pressure on the market, which should ultimately lead to more efficient units. In addition, however, these texts should serve to make the offices placing the invitations to tender more aware of the energy efficiency aspect. Energy saving functions are fairly common for PCs and monitors nowadays. Reference to proved technical realisations can be made in the performance sheets. The situation is more difficult for servers. Although some technical solutions have been initiated, very little is known about practical applications. Further activities are necessary here. (author)

  18. Scanning electron microscopy combined with image processing technique: Analysis of microstructure, texture and tenderness in Semitendinous and Gluteus Medius bovine muscles.

    Pieniazek, Facundo; Messina, Valeria


    In this study the effect of freeze drying on the microstructure, texture, and tenderness of Semitendinous and Gluteus Medius bovine muscles were analyzed applying Scanning Electron Microscopy combined with image analysis. Samples were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy at different magnifications (250, 500, and 1,000×). Texture parameters were analyzed by Texture analyzer and by image analysis. Tenderness by Warner-Bratzler shear force. Significant differences (p image and instrumental texture features. A linear trend with a linear correlation was applied for instrumental and image features. Image texture features calculated from Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (homogeneity, contrast, entropy, correlation and energy) at 1,000× in both muscles had high correlations with instrumental features (chewiness, hardness, cohesiveness, and springiness). Tenderness showed a positive correlation in both muscles with image features (energy and homogeneity). Combing Scanning Electron Microscopy with image analysis can be a useful tool to analyze quality parameters in meat.Summary SCANNING 38:727-734, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Discussion on risk analysis and countermeasures of tendering procurement for university's purchase in China%高校招标采购风险分析及其对策探讨

    刘瑾琦; 侯文海


    The tendering procurement of colleges and universities is the most foundational work which can guarantee the teaching and the scientific research to carry on normally. It is also one important part of government procurement. With the development of tendering procurement, many problems urgently await to be solved.The article chooses the angle of tendering procurement risk. After giving a definition of tendering procurement risk, this article chooses two links of tendering procuremen to analyse. One is the establishing of tendering procurement document, another is the verification of bid business. This article provides corresponding countermeasures.%在基本界定招标采购风险含义的基础上,选择我国高校招标采购招标文件的编制和投标商资格审查两个环节,具体进行招标采购风险分析,并探讨相应的解决对策.

  20. Structural analysis of polymer thin films using GISAXS in the tender X-ray region: Concept and design of GISAXS experiments using the tender X-ray energy at BL-15A2 at the Photon Factory

    Takagi, H.; Igarashi, N.; Mori, T.; Saijo, S.; Nagatani, Y.; Ohta, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Shimizu, N.


    If small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) utilizing the soft X-ray region is available, advanced and unique experiments, which differ from traditional SAXS methods, can be realized. For example, grazing-incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) using hard X-ray is a powerful tool for understanding the nanostructure in both vertical and lateral directions of thin films, while GISAXS utilizing the tender X-ray region (SX-GISAXS) enables depth-resolved analysis as well as a standard GISAXS analysis in thin films. Thus, at BL-15A2 at the Photon Factory, a dedicated diffractometer for SX-GISAXS (above 2.1 keV) was constructed. This diffractometer is composed of four vacuum chambers and can be converted into the vacuum state from the sample chamber in front of the detector surface. Diffractions are clearly observed until 12th peak when measuring collagen by SAXS with an X-ray energy of 2.40 keV and a camera length of 825 mm. Additionally, we conducted the model experiment using SX-GISAXS with an X-ray energy of 2.40 keV to confirm that a poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(n-butyl acrylate) block copolymer thin film has a microphase-separated structure in the thin film, which is composed of lamellae aligned both parallel and perpendicular to the substrate surface. Similarly, in a polystyrene-poly(methyl methacrylate) block copolymer thin film, SX-GISAXS with 3.60 keV and 5.73 keV revealed that hexagonally packed cylinders are aligned parallel to the substrate surface. The incident angle dependence of the first order peak position of the qz direction obtained from experiments at various incident X-ray energies agrees very well with the theoretical one calculated from the distorted wave Born approximation.

  1. Effect of Papain on Tenderization of Beef Jerky%木瓜蛋白酶对牛肉干嫩化的影响

    金惠玉; 张筠; 王欢欢


    Papain is a kind of sulfhydryl protease and it has good protein hydrolysate ability.It iswidely used in food processing,such as meat tenderization,brewing,milk coagulation,modification of mixed dough,etc.China's beef jerky has been using the traditional process; the product is of tough taste and good hardness.In order to improve the tenderness and production rate of beef jerky,adopt single factor and orthogonal methods,take sensory evaluation and shear force value as the indexes to determine the effects of papain in different concentration,injection volume,processing time and processing temperature on tenderization degree of beef jerky.The results show that the tenderization effect is optimal when the concentration of papain is 0.5%,processing time is 3 h,injection volume is 3 % and temperature is 50 ℃.Papain concentration has a significant influence on tenderization of beef jerky.%木瓜蛋白酶是一种巯基蛋白酶,有较好的水解蛋白能力,在肉的嫩化、酿造、牛奶的凝固、混合面团的改性等食品加工中广泛使用.我国的牛肉干一直沿用传统的工艺,产品口感坚韧、硬度大.为了提高牛肉干的嫩度和出品率,课题采用单因素、正交的方法,以感官评价和剪切力值为指标,测定木瓜蛋白酶在不同浓度、注射量、处理时间和处理温度下对牛肉干嫩化程度的影响,结果表明:木瓜蛋白酶的使用浓度为0.5%,处理时间为3h,注射量为3%,温度为50℃时,对牛肉的嫩化效果最佳.其中,木瓜蛋白酶的浓度对牛肉干的嫩化影响最显著.

  2. Evaluation of the pain and local tenderness in bone metastasis treated with magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS)

    Namba, Hirofumi; Kawasaki, Motohiro; Kato, Tomonari; Tani, Toshikazu; Ushida, Takahiro; Koizumi, Norihiro


    It has been reported that MRgFUS has pain palliative effects on the local pain in patients with bone metastasis. In general, a severity of pain has been evaluated using only subjective method with numerical rating scale (NRS) or visual analogue scale (VAS). It is important to evaluate local pain-palliative effects of MRgFUS treatment with objective and quantitative method. The aim of this study is to investigate changes in the severity of local pain of bone metastasis before and after MRgFUS treatments, measuring pressure pain threshold (PPT) using pressure algometer, and pain intensity using electrical stimulation device (the Pain Vision system) at most painful site of bone metastasis. We have conducted MRgFUS for pain palliation of bone metastasis for 8 patients, and evaluated the local tenderness quantitatively for 8 patients, and evaluated local pain intensity for 7 patients. Before the treatments, PPTs were 106.3kPa [40.0-431.5] at metastatic site and 344.8 kPa [206.0-667.0] at normal control site, which showed a significant difference. The PPTs at metastatic site shows a significant increase from 106.3 kPa [40.0-431.5] at the baseline to 270.5 kPa [93.5-533.5] at 3 months after the treatment. The NRS score shows a significant decrease from 6.0 [4-8] at baseline to 1 [0-3] at 3 months after the treatment. Similarly, the pain intensity shows a significant decrease 245 [96.3-888.7] at baseline to 55.9 [2.8-292] at 3 months after the treatment. The results of our study illustrate the pain-relieving effects of MRgFUS for the treatment of painful bone metastasis. PPT might be a useful parameter not only for assessing a treatment's effect, but also for the decision of the painful area to treat with MRgFUS. Pain Vision seems to be useful for quantitative and objective evaluation of local pain of painful bone metastasis.

  3. Increased palpation tenderness and muscle strength deficit in the prediction of tendon hypertrophy in symptomatic unilateral shoulder tendinopathy: an ultrasonographic study

    Joensen, J.; Couppe, C.; Bjordal, J.M.


    Objective In asymptomatic, normal tendons, the difference in tendon thickness between sides is less than 15%. In this Study, three tests were used to examine differences between symptomatic and asymptomatic shoulders. Design Cross-sectional study. The three tests were performed in sequence. The o...

  4. Predictive model on tenderness of postmortem yak meat and its validation%牦牛肉宰后成熟嫩度预测模型与验证

    张丽; 孙宝忠; 余群力


    Tenderness is one of important sensorial properties for the quantitative evaluation of eating qualities influencing the consumption of beef, and the others are juiciness and flavor respectively. Poor tenderness is one of main causes for commercial unacceptability of yak meat. The variation of physiological and biochemical characteristics during tenderization at the initial phase of postmortem aging has an extraordinarily significant effect on the postmortem formation of the tenderness property of beef cuts, which is one of determinant factors for consumers to decide if the beef products should be purchased. Therefore, the improvement of research on the effect of physiological and biochemical characteristics on the tenderness of yak meat is beneficial to melioration of the theory of postmortem aging and tenderization of yak meat. In order to investigate the effect of the postmortem variation of physiological and biochemical characteristics on the formation of tenderness of yak meat, pH, glycogen content, calpain activity (CA), the myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI), sarcomere length, myofiber diameter, and shearing force of M. longissimus dorsi stored at 4℃ for 10d from 18 male yaks were determined. The estimated value of 6 characteristics at postmortem 1 h were obtained directly as alternative predictors of a predictive model of postmortem tenderness of yak meat. Meanwhile, the kinetic parameters of the rate and extent of variation of some physiological and biochemical characteristics including pH, CA, MFI and glycogen content obtained by kinetic data analysis within postmortem 72 h were also selected as alternative predictors. The ultimate predictors of a predictive model of postmortem tenderness of yak meat were determined through a“jackknife”method from all alternative predictors, including 6 variables at postmortem 1 h and 7 kinetic parameters within postmortem 72 h according to occurrences in optimal equations of 15 jackknife samples through multiple

  5. Rheological Flow Behavior of Structural Polysaccharides from Edible Tender Cladodes of Wild, Semidomesticated and Cultivated 'Nopal' (Opuntia) of Mexican Highlands.

    López-Palacios, C; Peña-Valdivia, C B; Rodríguez-Hernández, A I; Reyes-Agüero, J A


    The aim of this study was to quantify the content of polysaccharides of edible tender cladodes (nopalitos) of three species of Opuntia and to evaluate the rheological flow behavior of isolated polysaccharides. A completely randomized experimental design was used to characterize a wild (O. streptacantha), a semidomesticated (O. megacantha) and a domesticated (O. ficus-indica) species. Mucilage content was higher (4.93 to 12.43 g 100 g(-1) dry matter), tightly bound hemicelluloses were lower (3.32 to 1.81 g 100 g(-1) dry matter) and pectins and loosely bound hemicelluloses were not different in wild than in domesticated species. Aqueous solution/suspensions of mucilage, pectins, hemicellulose and cellulose of all species showed non-Newtonian behavior under simple shear flow. The flow behavior of the structural polysaccharides was well described by the Ostwald de-Waele model. Pectins and mucilages exhibited the highest consistency indexes (K values ranged from 0.075 to 0.177 Pas(n)) with a moderated shear-thinning behavior (n values ranged from 0.53 to 0.67). Cellulose dispersions exhibited the most shear-thinning behavior (n values ranged from 0.17 to 0.41) and hemicelluloses showed a tendency to Newtonian flow (n values ranged from 0.82 to 0.97). The rheological flow properties of these polysaccharides may be useful to improve the textural and sensory qualities of some foods and pharmaceutical materials. Moreover, they can emerge as functional ingredients mainly due to the nutraceutical properties that have been attributed to nopalitos.

  6. The Effect of Two-dimensional Tender Contract Design on Investment and Concession Term for BOT Projects%BOT项目投资与特许权期的二维招标合同设计

    吴孝灵; 周晶; 王冀宁; 陈星光


    为让管理水平较高的私营集团获得BOT项目特许权,并实现项目社会福利最大,本文利用机制设计理论建立了一个关于BOT项目投资与特许权期的二维招标合同的直接机制模型.通过模型分析,获得了该招标机制的可行性条件,最优形式和相应配置方案,并由一个算例表明,得到的最优招标机制在实际中是有效的.所获结果为政府对BOT特许权招标提供了一种理论指导和实际方法.%Tendering and bidding are two important trading mechanisms. However, many Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) projects are having issues with the concession bid. For instance, private groups sometimes falsify bidding information in order to win a bid from Chinese government. Therefore, it is important to redesign tendering and bidding mechanisms in order to maximize the social welfare of a BOT project. There is a lack of study on concession tender issues for BOT projects. This paper investigates a two-dimensional tender problem associated with BOT project's investment and concession period. We also consider the effect of the concession period on the private investment in the tendering practice. A direct tendering mechanism model on BOT project's investment and concession period is proposed according to the mechanism design theory. The proposed model can help derive the feasible condition, optimal form, and corresponding distribution program for the implementation of tendering mechanism. Firstly, it is difficult for the government to know the private group's information, such as the management level in the tendering process. A direct tendering mechanism model on the BOT project's investment and concession term is proposed. The model enables us to obtain the optimal direct tender mechanism and test its feasibility. Secondly, to select the private group with the highest management level for the project implementation, the distribution program for the BOT project's concession tender is discussed based on

  7. 宰后牦牛肉成熟过程中钙激活酶与嫩度指标的相关性分析%Correlation Analysis between Calpains and Tenderness Indexes during Postmortem Aging of Yak Meat

    师希雄; 余群力; 党欣


    Longissimus dorsi muscles of ten yaks from the south part of Gansu province were tested for myofibril fragmentation index (MFI),shear force,muscle fiber diameter and the activities of calpains (μ-calpain,m-calpain and calpastatin) during 8 d of postmortem aging.Furthermore,the calpain activities were analyzed for correlation with MFI,shear force and muscle fiber diameter.The results showed that each calpain activity was positively correlated with shear force and muscle fiber diameter,but negatively correlated with MFI; a significant correlation with MFI was observed for μ-calpain and calpastatin (P<0.05).Therefore,the changes in calpain activity may cause in the increase in MFI,weaken myofibrils and tenderize meat andμ-calpain seems to mainly contribute to tenderizing yak meat.%以10头甘南牦牛为研究对象,对宰后8d成熟期间肌原纤维小片化指数、剪切力、肌纤维直径、μ-钙蛋白酶(μ-calpain)、m-钙蛋白酶(m-calpain)、钙蛋白酶抑素(calpastatin)的活力进行了测定,同时研究了3种酶活力与肌原纤维小片化指数、剪切力、肌纤维直径3个嫩度指标之间的相关性.结果表明:μ-calpain、m-calpain、calpastatin 3种酶与剪切力值及肌纤维直径均呈正相关;3种酶与肌原纤维小片化指数呈负相关,其中μ-calpain与calpastatin呈显著负相关(P<0.05).因此,钙激活酶活力的变化可能导致了肌原纤维小片化指数的增加,肌原纤维的弱化和肉的嫩化,μ-calpain可能是牦牛肉嫩化的主要贡献者.

  8. 谈水利工程施工投标报价的技巧%Techniques of Tender Offering in Water Conservancy Construction

    郝瑞丽; 张学伟; 郝瑞娜


    为了解工程概况,研究项目施工技术和工程量清单,做好投标总价的讨论和研究,提高中标率,必须制定一系列的投标方法和战略.施工企业要做好投标准备工作和拓宽信息渠道,并组织专业人员成立投标小组,要重视资料的收集和提高投标人员综合素质,同时要注意投标事项及投标策略的应用.投标报价是水利建筑投标工作中的基本步骤和关键性工作,是一种与市场经济相适应的工程计价方式,也是施工企业实现利润目标基础.%Quantities of project are overviewed in this paper,and some suggestions are also given.Construction enterprises need to develop a series of bidding methods and strategies in order to adapt to the highly competitive construction market,trying to do the preparatory work well,to broaden the information channels,to pay attention to data collection and to improve the overall quality of the tender,keeping tender bidding strategies in mind.The tender offering is the key and fundamental step in water conservancy engineering bidding,which is a proper method to price project and achieve profit in market economy.

  9. 木瓜蛋白酶对骆驼肉嫩化效果的研究%Effects of Papain on Tenderness of Two-Humped Camel Meat

    马欣欣; 双全; 李秀丽; 乌尼孟和; 陈泽明


    通过试验研究木瓜蛋白酶处理对骆驼肉嫩度及感官品质的影响。对木瓜蛋白酶用量、处理温度、处理时间进行试验,并且通过L9(33)正交试验,筛选出木瓜蛋白酶嫩化骆驼肉的最佳条件。结果表明:木瓜蛋白酶对骆驼肉的失水率、持水力及嫩度均有显著影响,且对骆驼肉感官品质没有影响。木瓜蛋白酶嫩化骆驼肉的最佳条件:酶用量为0.02%、处理温度4℃、恒温放置时间60min。因素的显著性次序为:木瓜蛋白酶用量〉处理温度〉处理时间。%The influences of papain solution on the tenderness of two-humped camel meat and its sensory qualities were determined in this study. With papain dosage, treatment temperature and time were variables, L9(33) orthogonal experiment was used to sift the optimal conditions of the tenderization. The results showed that papain could significantly affect water loss rate, water holding capacity and the tenderness of the camel meat, without the change of sensory qualities. The optimum conditions are papain dosage 0.02%, temperatuxe 4 ℃, treatment time 60 min. The sequence of the significance of these factors is as follows: papain dosage〉treatment temperature〉treatment time.

  10. Korea nuclear exports: Why did the Koreans win the UAE tender? Will Korea achieve its goal of exporting 80 nuclear reactors by 2030?

    Berthelemy, Michel; Leveque, Francois


    The success of Korea in winning, in December 2009, a USD 18.6 billion nuclear tender in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) has led to a growing interest in the organization and strengths of the Korean nuclear industry. In this paper, we present the main economic and political factors that explain the success of the Korean consortium. In particular, thanks to an active national program of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) construction, Korea has developed distinct competitive advantages in terms of low cost, high credibility and high performance. At the same time, due to the important barriers to enter into the nuclear export market in the UAE, Korea has had to sacrifice its profit margin and has benefited from a strong political support from its government through export financing. More importantly, Korea's success is also due to its alliance with Westinghouse and the support of the US diplomacy. Subsequently, we show that while Korea has recently experienced setbacks in nuclear tenders, it will most certainly try to win in the short run a second nuclear tender with another aggressive price. In the longer run, Korea could take a growing share of the international market for NPPs. However, the extent to which Korea can achieve its long term export target will depend upon its capacity to finance nuclear export through export credits and upon the development of its alliance with Westinghouse. It is important to note that this paper was written before the Fukushima nuclear disaster. The scale of the human and environmental consequences of this accident are still unknown, and will undoubtedly have short and long term consequences on nuclear safety requirements and public attitude toward nuclear energy, which will most certainly impact the outlooks for nuclear new-builds. (authors)

  11. Detective quantum efficiency for photon-counting hybrid pixel detectors in the tender X-ray domain: application to Medipix3RX.

    Rinkel, Jean; Magalhães, Debora; Wagner, Franz; Meneau, Florian; Cesar Vicentin, Flavio


    Synchrotron-radiation-based X-ray imaging techniques using tender X-rays are facing a growing demand, in particular to probe the K absorption edges of low-Z elements. Here, a mathematical model has been developed for estimating the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) at zero spatial frequency in the tender X-ray energy range for photon-counting detectors by taking into account the influence of electronic noise. The experiments were carried out with a Medipix3RX ASIC bump-bonded to a 300 µm silicon sensor at the Soft X-ray Spectroscopy beamline (D04A-SXS) of the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS, Campinas, Brazil). The results show that Medipix3RX can be used to develop new imaging modalities in the tender X-ray range for energies down to 2 keV. The efficiency and optimal DQE depend on the energy and flux of the photons. The optimal DQE values were found in the 7.9-8.6 keV photon energy range. The DQE deterioration for higher energies due to the lower absorption efficiency of the sensor and for lower energies due to the electronic noise has been quantified. The DQE for 3 keV photons and 1 × 10(4) photons pixel(-1) s(-1) is similar to that obtained with 19 keV photons. Based on our model, the use of Medipix3RX could be extended down to 2 keV which is crucial for coming applications in imaging techniques at modern synchrotron sources.

  12. Proposal for the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for a design study for a 30 GHz, high peak power gyro-klystron


    This document concerns the award of a contract for a design study for a 30 GHz, high peak power gyro-klystron. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract, without competitive tendering, with COMMUNICATIONS & POWER INDUSTRIES (USA), for a design study for a 30 GHz, high peak power gyro-klystron for a total amount of 198 505 USD (328 278 Swiss francs), not subject to revision. COMMUNICATIONS & POWER INDUSTRIES is the only firm which has experience with such devices. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: USA - 100%.

  13. Management Status and Exploration of Tender Evaluation of Power Generation Enterprise%发电企业招标评标管理现状和探索



    The bidding is a procurement method which can full play the role of market mechanisms, make the participants obtain fair competition, improve the social and economic benefits and maximize the protection of the public interests of the state and society. In order to introduce competition, reduce costs and control quality, the technological transformation, overhaul and maintenance project and procurement of electric power company is completed through tender. To improve the institutionalized, scientific, standardized development of management of enterprises tender evaluation, the author introduces the materials, engineering, service tender evaluation work status of power generation corporate from the practical work experience, analyzes the problems and difficulties encountered in practice, learns advanced bidding management experience, and puts forward the improvement suggestions combined with the his own experience, to improve the quality of tender evaluation management of power generation companies. This paper has a certain reference role.%  招投标是一种充分发挥市场机制作用的采购方式,能使参与方获得公平竞争,提高社会经济效益,最大限度保护国家和社会公共利益。为了引入竞争,降低成本,控制质量,目前电力企业技术改造、检修和维护项目采购主要通过招标方式完成。为提高企业招标评标管理工作的制度化、科学化、规范化,笔者从实际工作经验出发,介绍了发电企业物资、工程、服务类招标评标工作现状,剖析实际操作中遇到的问题和难点,吸取先进招标管理经验结合作者自身的体会,提出改进招标管理和评标方法的建议,为提高发电企业招标评标管理工作质量,具有一定借鉴意义。

  14. Proposal for the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the supply of radiation hard luminosity detectors for the LHC


    This document concerns the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the supply of four radiation-hard luminosity detectors for the LHC. For the reasons explained in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with CEA-LETI (FR) for the supply of four radiation-hard luminosity detectors for a total amount of 247 770 euros (385 456 Swiss francs), not subject to revision. The amount in Swiss francs has been calculated using the present rate of exchange.

  15. Test-retest repeatability of strength capacity, aerobic power and pericranial tenderness of neck and shoulder muscles in children - relevant for tension-type headache

    Tornøe B


    Full Text Available Birte Tornøe,1,2,5,6 Lars L Andersen,3 Jørgen H Skotte,3 Rigmor Jensen,4 Gunvor Gard,1 Liselotte Skov,2 Inger Hallström1 1Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Scania, Sweden; 2Children's Headache Clinic, Department of Pediatrics, University of Copenhagen, Herlev Hospital, Herlev, Denmark; 3National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark; 4Danish Headache Center, Department of Neurology, University of Copenhagen, Glostrup Hospital, Glostrup, Denmark; 5Department of Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy, University of Copenhagen, Glostrup Hospital, Glostrup, Denmark; 6Department of Physiotherapy, Medical Department, University of Copenhagen, Herlev Hospital, Herlev, Denmark Background: Frequent or chronic tension-type headache in children is a prevalent and debilitating condition for the child, often leading to medication overuse. To explore the relationship between physical factors and tension-type headache in children, the quality of repeated measures was examined. The aim of the present study was to determine the test-retest repeatability of parameters determining isometric neck and shoulder strength and stability, aerobic power, and pericranial tenderness in children. Methods: Twenty-five healthy children, 9 to 18 years of age, participated in test-retest procedures within a 1-week interval. A computerized padded force transducer was used for testing. The tests included the isometric maximal voluntary contraction and force steadiness of neck flexion and extension, and the isometric maximal voluntary contraction and rate of force of the dominant shoulder. Pericranial tenderness was recorded by means of standardized manual palpation, and a submaximal cycle ergometer test predicted maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max. The measurements were evaluated in steps, using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC; changes in the mean between the two test occasions; the levels of agreement, visualized in Bland

  16. Proposal for the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the supply and upgrade of positioning sensors for the LHC


    This document concerns the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the supply of 60 new Hydrostatic Leveling Systems (HLS sensors) and 25 new Wire Positioning Systems (WPS sensors) and for the upgrade of 63 existing sensors. For the reasons explained in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with FOGALE NANOTECH (FR), for the supply and upgrade of HLS and WPS sensors for a total amount of 412 913 euros (631 757 Swiss francs), not subject to revision. The amount in Swiss francs has been calculated using the present rate of exchange.

  17. Study on Chinese Date and Tender Corn Beverage Fermented by Lactic Acid Bacteria%大枣嫩玉米乳饮料的研制



      大枣嫩玉米乳饮料是以大枣汁、嫩玉米汁和新鲜牛乳为主要原料,以蔗糖为甜味剂,接入乳酸菌进行发酵,生产出有大枣和玉米香味并具有营养和保健功能发酵型乳饮料。通过 L9(34)正交试验确定了大枣汁、玉米汁与鲜牛奶的添加量以及接种量对产品质量的影响。试验表明,大枣嫩玉米乳饮料的最佳配方为:玉米汁添加量为35%,大枣汁添加量为15%,鲜牛奶添加量为40%,酸奶添加量为10%。试验确定的复合稳定剂为0.2%蔗糖酯和0.1%黄原胶。%  To produce Chinese date and tender corn beverage fermented by lactic acid bacteria,Chinese date,tender corn and milk were used as main materials. Sucrose was used as sweeter and lactic acid bacteria were added for fermentation. Novel fermented milk beverage with combined flavor of Chinese date and tender corn was produced. The adding amount of Chinese date juice,tender corn juice and fresh milk as well as the influence of inoculation amount on product quality was determined through orthogonal experiments of L9(34). The best recipe of this product resulted from experiments was 35% corn juice,15% Chinese date juice,40%fresh milk and 10% yogurt. The combined stabilizer confirmed by experiments was 0.2% sucrose ester and 0.1% Xanthan.

  18. The Tender Offer of Enterprise in Engineering Quantity List Mode%试析工程量清单模式下企业的投标报价



    This paper analyzes the construction units bidding in the mode of quantities bil , points out the characteristics of the project quantity list valuation, expounds the application of the tender offer in of quantities pricing list mode, for reference.%  文章主要分析了工程量清单模式下施工单位投标报价,先点出工程量清单计价的特点,阐述工程量清单计价模式在投标报价中的应用,以供参考。

  19. On the Efficient Competitive Tender of Coal Mine Engineering Cost%煤矿工程造价竞标的高效研究



    本文在分析和研究煤矿工程造价的基础上,介绍了其含义与职能,并进一步探讨了煤矿工程造价竞标的意义和作用。%This paper analyzes and researches coal mine engineering cost, introduces the meaning and functions of it and further expounds the significance and effect of the competitive tender of coal mine engineering cost.

  20. Tenderization potential of Hanwoo beef muscles from carcasses with differed genders and loin intramuscular fat content levels during post mortem ageing.

    Park, Beom Young; Seong, Pil Nam; Ba, Hoa Van; Park, Kyoung Mi; Cho, Soo Hyun; Moon, Sung Sil; Kang, Geun Ho


    Carcasses from Hanwoo steers (n = 15) and cows (n = 15) were classified into three groups: group 1 (G1), the carcasses had 10% to muscles; group 2 (G2), the carcasses had 13% to muscles; and group 3(G3), the carcasses had 17% to muscles. These were used to evaluate the effects of gender and carcass group on quality traits and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) of Psoas major (PM), Longissimus thoracis (LT), Longissimus lumborum (LL), Longus colli (LC), Supraspinatus (SS), Latissimus dorsi (LAD), Semimembranosus (SM), Quadriceps femoris (QF), Biceps femoris (BF) and Semitendinosus (ST) muscles. Our results showed that pH values of LT, LL, LC, BF and QF muscles were lower in steers than in cows (P muscles of steers (P muscles in G1, and QF muscle in G3; however, with additional ageing, the gender effect was observed for most of the muscles. Most muscles showed ageing responses; however, the rates of ageing response significantly varied depending on gender and carcass groups. The muscles of G1 and G2 had generally higher tenderization potentials than those of G3. Furthermore, most muscles in G3 had generally lower WBSF values than in G1 and G2. These results clearly indicate that ageing has a significant effect on quality and WBSF of beef muscles, and the classification by loin IMF level may be useful for prediction of the tenderness of other muscles.

  1. Using "Tender" X-ray Ambient Pressure X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy as A Direct Probe of Solid-Liquid Interface.

    Axnanda, Stephanus; Crumlin, Ethan J; Mao, Baohua; Rani, Sana; Chang, Rui; Karlsson, Patrik G; Edwards, Mårten O M; Lundqvist, Måns; Moberg, Robert; Ross, Phil; Hussain, Zahid; Liu, Zhi


    We report a new method to probe the solid-liquid interface through the use of a thin liquid layer on a solid surface. An ambient pressure XPS (AP-XPS) endstation that is capable of detecting high kinetic energy photoelectrons (7 keV) at a pressure up to 110 Torr has been constructed and commissioned. Additionally, we have deployed a "dip &pull" method to create a stable nanometers-thick aqueous electrolyte on platinum working electrode surface. Combining the newly constructed AP-XPS system, "dip &pull" approach, with a "tender" X-ray synchrotron source (2 keV-7 keV), we are able to access the interface between liquid and solid dense phases with photoelectrons and directly probe important phenomena occurring at the narrow solid-liquid interface region in an electrochemical system. Using this approach, we have performed electrochemical oxidation of the Pt electrode at an oxygen evolution reaction (OER) potential. Under this potential, we observe the formation of both Pt(2+) and Pt(4+) interfacial species on the Pt working electrode in situ. We believe this thin-film approach and the use of "tender" AP-XPS highlighted in this study is an innovative new approach to probe this key solid-liquid interface region of electrochemistry.

  2. Analysis on the Features and Operation Modes of Bid and Tender in Urban and Rural Planning%城乡规划招投标特点及运行模式分析



    阐述了城乡规划组织编制现状及存在问题,论述了实施城乡规划招投标的重要意义,比较了城乡规划招投标特点,分析了城乡规划招投标运行模式。%ABSTRACT:This paper expounds the current situation of and existing problems in the organization and compilation of urban and rural planning, discusses the important significance of implementing the bid and tender in urban and rural planning, compares the features of the bid and tender in urban and rural planning, and analyzes the operation modes of the bid and tender in urban and rural planning.

  3. Consideration on the tender offer of overseas cement general contract project%海外水泥总承包工程投标报价的思考浅析



    In tender offer of overseas projects, how to obtain competitive advantage under the premise of conrolling and avoiding risk is the key to profit. Combined with practical experiences, from the aspects of biding doucuments reading, field reconnaissance and prepa?ration of tender documents, matters needing attention of tender offer in overseas cement general contract project are introduced in detail.%在海外工程投标报价中,如何在取得竞争优势的同时,又能控制和规避风险,这是项目获利的关键之一.结合具体实践经验,从招标文件的研读和现场踏勘及投标文件的准备方面详细介绍了海外水泥总包工程投标报价的注意事项.

  4. Discussion on Strengthening the Compiling Work of Construction Tender Control Price%关于加强工程招标控制价的编制工作探讨



    This paper introduces the main function of compiling work of construction tender control price, analyzes the advantages of the compiling work of construction tender control price and the relevant issues in the process of the preparation, and discusses how to improve the quality of the preparation of tender control price.%介绍了工程招标控制价编制的主要作用,分析了招标控制价的编制优点及其编制过程中需要注意的相关问题,并探讨了如何提高招标控制价编制的质量.

  5. Changes in protein abundance between tender and tough meat from bovine Longissimus thoracis muscle assessed by isobaric Tag for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis

    Bjarnadóttir, S G; Hollung, K; Høy, M


    -DE analysis (P flux through the tricarboxylate cycle [2......The aim of this study was to find potential biomarkers for meat tenderness in bovine Longissimus thoracis muscle and to compare results from isobaric Tag for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis. The experiment included 4 tender and 4......-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex component E2 (OGDC-E2)], apoptosis (galectin-1) and regulatory role in the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores (annexin A6). Even though the overlap in significantly changing proteins was relatively low between iTRAQ and 2-DE analysis, certain proteins predicted to have...

  6. IPL光子嫩肤术在皮肤美容中的应用%Application of IPL Photon Tender Skin in Skin Beauty

    邝靖; 郭丹凤; 张冠军; 娄焕民; 张谊; 邱晓东; 宫昔愿; 孙学武


    目的:分析IPL光子嫩肤术在皮肤美容中的应用效果。方法:选取我院于2012年1月~2013年3月收治皮肤老化、面部色斑、面部色素沉着及毛孔粗大等皮肤疾病患者55例,均给予IPL光子嫩肤术进行治疗。结果:毛孔粗大10例总有效率为100%;皮肤老化12例总有效率为100%;面部色斑20例总有效率为95%;13例面部色素沉着总有效率为92.3%。结论:IPL光子嫩肤术可有效改善皮肤老化,消除面部色斑、紧缩毛孔,安全有效,不会损害正常皮肤,值得临床推广。%Objective To analyze the effect of effect of IPL photon tender skin in skin beauty. Methods 55 patients with skin diseases such as skin aging,facial spots,facial pigmentation and bulky pore in the hospital from January 2012 to March 2013,were given the IPL photon tender skin suture treatment. Results Total effective rate of 10 patients with bulky pore was 100%;the total effective rate of 12 cases with skin aging was 100%;the total effective rate of 20 cases with facial spots was 95%;The total effective rate of 13 cases with facial pigmentation was 92.3%. Conclusion IPL photon tender skin surgery can effectively improve aging skin,eliminate facial pigmentation,and contract bulky pore. It is safe and effective,and does no harm on normal skin. So it is worth promotion.

  7. Self-reported somatosensory symptoms of neuropathic pain in fibromyalgia and chronic widespread pain correlate with tender point count and pressure-pain thresholds

    Amris, Kirstine; Jespersen, Anders; Bliddal, Henning


    Widespread pain and pain hypersensitivity are the hallmark of fibromyalgia, a complex pain condition linked to central sensitization. In this study the painDETECT questionnaire (PDQ), validated to identify neuropathic pain and based on pain quality items, was applied in a cross-sectional sample...... of patients with chronic widespread pain (CWP). The aims of the study were to assess the patient-reported sensory neuropathic symptoms by PDQ and to correlate these with tender point (TP) count and pressure-pain thresholds. Eighty-one patients (75 F, 6 M) with CWP (ACR-criteria) filled in the PDQ. Manual TP...... examination was conducted according to ACR guidelines. Computerized cuff pressure algometry was used for the assessment of pressure-pain detection thresholds (PDT, unit: kPa) and pressure-pain tolerance thresholds (PTT, unit: kPa). Mean TP count was 14.32 (range: 2-18), mean PDQ score 22.75 (range: 5...

  8. Discussion on the Selection of Tender Mode of Temporary Valuation Project%浅谈暂估价项目招标模式的选择



    In the current project valuation work, temporary valuation has become a main mode widely applied to the engineering practice, and has played the huge role in the engineering cost control. In this paper, it is to take a research on the selection of tender mode of temporary valuation project.%在现今项目计价工作中,暂估价已经成为了一种主要模式广泛的应用到了工程实践当中,并在工程造价的控制方面发挥了巨大的作用。在本文中,将就暂估价项目招标模式的选择进行一定的研究。

  9. 2-Furaldehyde diethyl acetal from tender coconut water (Cocos nucifera) attenuates biofilm formation and quorum sensing-mediated virulence of Chromobacterium violaceum and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Sethupathy, Sivasamy; Nithya, Chari; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-biofilm and quorum sensing inhibitory (QSI) potential of tender coconut water (TCW) against Chromobacterium violaceum and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. TCW significantly inhibited the QS regulated violacein, virulence factors and biofilm production without affecting their growth. qRT-PCR analysis revealed the down-regulation of autoinducer synthase, transcriptional regulator and virulence genes. Mass-spectrometric analysis of a petroleum ether extract of the TCW hydrolyte revealed that 2-furaldehyde diethyl acetal (2FDA) and palmitic acid (PA) are the major compounds. In vitro bioassays confirmed the ability of 2FDA to inhibit the biofilm formation and virulence factors. In addition, the combination of PA with 2FDA resulted in potent inhibition of biofilm formation and virulence factors. The results obtained strongly suggest that TCW can be exploited as a base for designing a novel antipathogenic drug formulation to treat biofilm mediated infections caused by P. aeruginosa.

  10. Development of a commercial feasible application of a hydrostatic meat tenderizer and demonstration of its efficacy. Final report, June 24, 1980-March 1, 1983

    Elgasim, E.A.


    Prerigor pressurization procedure involves hot-bonding, vacuum packaging the boneless cuts and subjecting them to 15,000 psi of water pressure in a closed chamber for two minutes. The pressure treatment causes a massive linear contraction of the muscle fibers which disrupts the fine connective tissue and consequently weakens the muscle, which is synonymous with tenderizing. Treated muscles, when compared to untreated muscles from the same carcass have been found to have longer storage life, brighter color, longer case-life and to be equal if not superior in nutritional value. The study demonstrated beyond doubt the beneficial effect of prerigor pressurization. Meat processed in this manner will occupy less space in the cooler and during transportation, and needs no aging, thus it is likely to result in less energy consumption.

  11. Self-reported somatosensory symptoms of neuropathic pain in fibromyalgia and chronic widespread pain correlate with tender point count and pressure-pain thresholds

    Amris, Kirstine; Jespersen, Anders; Bliddal, Henning


    of patients with chronic widespread pain (CWP). The aims of the study were to assess the patient-reported sensory neuropathic symptoms by PDQ and to correlate these with tender point (TP) count and pressure-pain thresholds. Eighty-one patients (75 F, 6 M) with CWP (ACR-criteria) filled in the PDQ. Manual TP......-37). Mean PDT was 8.8 kPa (range: 2-36) and mean PTT 30.9 kPa (range: 4-85). Deep-tissue hyperalgesia was the predominant somatosensory symptom reported in 83%, but other neuropathic symptoms were also frequent, e.g. burning 51% and prickling 47%. Statistically significant correlations were found between...

  12. Price increase


    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced, as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  13. Price increase


    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  14. 房地产项目最低价中标法的投标报价合理性研究%On Rationality of the Tender Offer in the Lowest Bid Price Method in Real Estate Projects



    最低价中标法是国际上通用的建筑工程招投标方法,投标报价是招标文件中最精密的部分,对建设工程至关重要。目前我国建筑市场主要采用最低价中标法。本文通过研究招标文件中关键指标即工程量清单计价标底,招标控制价、投标单位履约能力,以更好的促进房地产项目投标合理报价。%The lowest bid price method, as internationally practiced architecture engineering bidding method, requires an essential and sophisticated part in the tender documents: the tender offer. This article probes into the rationality of tender offer in the bid documents by analyzing following aspects : BOQ basic bidding price, bidding price control, bidder~ performance capabilities, so that rational tender offers can be delivered in real estate pro- jects.

  15. 低盐嫩化牛干巴与传统牛干巴的品质比较%Comparison between quality of low-salt and tenderization dry-cured beef and traditional dry-cured beef

    邱燕; 陈韬; 崔薇; 杨慧娟


    对采用中心组合设计优化的最佳实验组与传统牛干巴的品质进行比较,结果显示:最佳实验组肌原纤维小片化指数(MFI)、综合感官品分值高于传统组,剪切力、Na+浓度低于传统组(p〈0.05)。筛选的低盐和嫰化技术对降低传统牛干巴的盐含量,提高肉的嫩度是有效的。%Quality of low-salt and tenderization dry-cured beef which optimized by central composite design,was compared with traditional dry-cured beef.The results showed that MFI and general sensory quality of low-salt and tenderization dry-cured beef were higher than those of traditional dry-cured beef,while shear stress and Na ion content in low-salt and tenderization dry-cured beef were lower than those of traditional dry-cured beef,which indicated that new formula and technique was effective in lowing salt content and improving tenderness of traditional dry-cured beef.

  16. 温柔敦厚:作文主体的理想人格形态%Tender and Sincerity-Ideal Personalities of the Thesis Subject



    Tender and sincerity are not only requirements for the content and form of the literary text itself,but also ideal personalities of the thesis subj ect.The fundamental reason lies in that thesis subj ect has been determined by the multiple identities of literati and scholar officials.And thus the thesis subj ect is more than a writer who reveals unprofessional political opinions in literature through their passion and affections,whose self-realization is not j ust a free exploration of literary mystique without any reservation.The solutions to multiple conflicts such as those between political practice and literary pursuit are to develop the ideal personalities of the thesis subj ect-tender and sincerity.%“温柔敦厚”既是对文学文本自身内容形式的要求,更是作文主体的理想人格形态。其根本原因在于,文人、士大夫的多重身份决定了作文主体不仅仅是以一个文学家的激情和多情在文学中流露出非专业性的政治意见,他们的所谓“自我实现”也不仅仅是无所挂碍地自由探索文学之奥妙。解决政治践履与文学追求等多重冲突的方式就是教化出作文主体“温柔敦厚”的理想人格形态。

  17. 基于合作博弈视角的工程项目围标现象分析%An Analysis of Project Collusive Tendering Problem Based on Cooperative Game



    结合工程项目招投标过程中围标现象的含义及其特点,阐述了其对建筑市场的公平竞争的危害性。首先介绍了合作博弈的理论,然后分析了围标现象的合作博弈关系特点,并以合作博弈论作为分析工具,建立了招投标过程中围标现象能够存在所必须满足的数学模型,结合目前我国工程实际现状对此模型进行了分析和讨论,并针对性地提出了相应的措施和建议,强调尽快完善相关制度以制止围标现象。%By analyzing the connotation and the characteristics of collusive tendering in the process of project collusive tendering,this paper expounds the great harm it brings to the justice competition in the construction market.Firstly,the cooperative game theory is introduced,and then the characteristics of collusive tendering problem are analyzed based on the cooperative game.The mathematics model which collusive tendering has to rely on is set up.This paper,based on the current situation of our Chinese engineering practice,makes a discussion and an analysis of the model,proposes some countermeasures and suggestions accordingly,and makes emphatic proposal that the relative regulations should be improved and perfected to prevent the collusive tendering practice.

  18. Increasing turbine vendor competition in Canada

    Magee, J.T. [Emerging Energy Research, Cambridge, MA (United States)


    An overview of the wind turbine market in Canada was presented. Canada is now experiencing increased turbine vendor competition. Trends in wind turbine OEM market shares in Canada have increased from 10 per cent in 2000 to over 70 per cent in 2007. Several major companies in Canada have signed large-scale orders for delivery in 2010. It is expected that future wind turbine demands in all areas of Canada will increase. However, projections for Canadian wind growth demonstrate the difficulties provinces are now facing in trying to attract manufacturing investment away from the United States. Growth in wind turbine investment is in the process of creating a more robust North American wind turbine generator chain. However, the majority of new facilities are located in the United States. It is not known if Quebec's wind turbine generators will be viable outside of fulfilling Hydro-Quebec's tendering process. Canada's wind industry must consider equipment transport costs as well as a shortage of operating and maintenance service infrastructure. It was concluded that growth in the United States is expected to have a positive impact on Canadian wind energy customers. tabs., figs.

  19. 《夜色温柔》中狄克的心理学视角剖析%A Psychological Approach to Dick in Tender Is the Night

    任玲; 翟慧丽


    美国作家菲茨杰拉尔德的《夜色温柔》自出版以来,一度被评论界冷落,被认为并不是作者的代表作品。原因在于当时的评论界把这部作品只看作是作者的一个自传。但对《夜色温柔》的文本作深层分析后,不难看出这部小说的创作受到了弗洛伊德和荣格的精神分析学的巨大影响。因此这部小说不应该从作者个人经历或是从社会意义的角度进行剖析,必须从人物的心理入手。依据荣格的“情结理论”和“人格面具理论”,对小说男主人公狄克的心理进行了细致的分析,从而表明《夜色温柔》这部作品具有高度的心理学价值,是对二十年代美国人灵魂深处的刻画,昭示了现代西方人深刻的精神危机。%Since the Tender Is the Night has been published ,it once desolated or neglected by commentary stratum for its unrepresentative features .The reason is that critics consider this works only as an autobiog‐raphy of the author .However ,after deeply analyzing the text in Tender Is the Night ,the theory of psy‐choanalysis of Frend and Jung Carl Gustav was found ,which has a giant effect on it .The psychology of the characters rather than narrate person experience or his social significance was analyzed ,This article has a detailed analysis on the hero‐Dick's psychology based on the Jung Carl Gustav's theory of "complex"and "personality theory"in order to indicate that the works is psychologically valuable .At the same time ,the author wants to prove that the works symbolize the modern westerners'spiritual crisis by describing the twenties Americans .

  20. Discussion on base bid price controlling strategies in engineering tendering%谈工程招标中的标底控制策略



    On the basis of introducing the definition and functions of base bid price, the paper comprehensively explores base bid price control- ling strategies from aspects of determining engineering project, compiling basic principles of base bid price, common compiling base bid price methods, improving rationality of base bid price, and common methods and points of determining base bid price and so on, with a view to guar- antee smooth operation of bidding and tendering work.%在介绍了标底的定义和分析了标底作用的基础上,从工程项目确定和编制标底的基本原则、编制工程项目标底的常用方法、提高工程项目标底合理性、确定工程项目标底的常用方法和要点等几个方面,全面探讨了工程招标中的标底控制策略,以期保障招投标工作的顺利进行。

  1. Perbedaan Efek Terapi Penggunaan Dua Ukuran Jarum Dry Needling dengan Penurunan Nyeri dan Tenderness pada Sindrom Nyeri Miofasial Otot Upper Trapezius Tipe Aktif

    Nora Taofik


    Full Text Available Myofascial pain syndrome is a collection of sensoric, motoric, and autonomic symptoms due to myofascial trigger points. This is commonly seen in young age and involves postural muscles; one of those is upper trapezius muscle. Invasive and non-invasive therapies have been used as modalities to treat myofascial pain syndrom. Invasive therapy is superior due to its mechanical mechanism in deactivating trigger points. Different sizes of needles are used in invasive therapy to decrease symptoms. A clinical trial has been conducted in the outpatient clinic of Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung in the period of April–May 2014 with consecutive sampling method. Subjects in group I were given dry needling therapy with 25G injection needle (0.50x25 mm and subjects in group II received the therapy using 1 cun accupuncture needle (0.25x25 mm. Seventy four subjects participated in this study. The comparison of numeric rating scale between the 25G injection needle therapy group and the 1 cun accupuncture needle therapy group was not significantly different (p=0.230. The comparison of algometer value between the 25G injection needle therapy group and the 1 cun accupuncture needle therapy group was also not significantly different (p=0.134. In conclusion, there is no difference in pain and tenderness decrease in dry needling therapy using 25G injection needle and 1 cun accupuncture needle for active type of myofascial pain syndrome of upper trapezius muscle therapies.

  2. 延迟冷却对牛背最长肌中μ-calpain活性及嫩度的影响%Effect of Delay Chilling on μ-calpain Activities and the Tenderness of Bovine M.Iongissimus

    胡鹏; 丁玉; 梁荣蓉; 罗欣


    μ-calpain activities and shear force values of bovine M.Iongissimus from Chinese Yellow crossbred bulls were analyzed,and the effect of delay chilling on μ-calpain activities and the tenderness of beef during postmortem aging were studied.The results showed that delay chilling significantly improved μ-calpain activities (P<0.05) and enhanced the tenderness of bovine M.Iongissimus during earlier aging periods compared with conventional chilling.But in later aging periods,delay chilling weakened the effect on the tenderness of beef because of premature consumption of μ-calpain.The experiment results confirmed that delay chilling improved the rate of postmortem aging of beef and remarkably enhanced the tenderness of beef through the effect of delay chilling on μ-calpain activities.%[目的]研究延迟冷却对牛背最长肌中μ-calpain活性及嫩度的影响,为进一步改善牛肉食用品质提供依据.[方法]测定中国杂交黄牛(鲁西黄牛x西门塔尔)牛背最长肌中μ-calpain活性及剪切力值,分析延迟冷却对牛背最长肌宰后成熟过程中μ-calpain活性及牛肉嫩度的影响.[结果]在宰后成熟早期,延迟冷却显著提高了μ-calpain的活性,提高了牛背最长肌的嫩度;成熟后期,由于μ-calpain被过早消耗,对牛肉的嫩化作用减弱.[结论]延迟冷却通过对μ-calpain活性的影响,改变了肉的成熟速度,显著改善了牛肉的嫩度.

  3. Analysis on Preventing Collusion in Project Bidding and Tendering Based on Prisoner's Dilemma Game%基于“囚徒困境”博弈的防范工程招投标合谋研究

    王先甲; 肖露


    提出一种防范工程招投标中招标代理与投标人合谋的新策略,即同时派出两个招标代理审查投标人,使两个招标代理陷入“囚徒困境”博弈中以保证其报告真实.进而针对该策略成本太高的缺点,通过使两者处于不对称信息环境下,进一步改进了该“囚徒困境”博弈.据此,只要招标人设定适当的奖励和惩罚机制,就能在一定程度上阻止招标代理与投标人合谋.%This paper proposes a new strategy to prevent the collusion between the bidding agent and the tenderer in project bidding and tendering,namely sends two bidding agents to review the tenderer at the same time,and lets them fall into prisoner's dilemma game in order to make sure that they report truly.Furthermore,according to the disadvantage of high cost of this strategy,it improves this prisoner's dilemma game through making them be in asymmetric information environment.In this case,as long as the bidder sets proper reward and punishment mechanism,the problem of the collusion between the bidding agent and the tenderer to a certain extent could be solved.

  4. Application Effect of Tender Branch Cutting Technology of Juglans Linn in Bijie City%核桃属树木嫩枝扦插技术在毕节市的应用效果研究

    罗永猛; 李永荷; 杨先义; 余刚国


    Through introducing the tender branch cutting technology of Juglans Linn which developed by Forestry Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Forestry Sciences,by dopting the moisturize and calescence measures of intelligent greenhouse,the tender branches cutting of good Juglans Linn tender branches individual selected in recent years were propagated.The survival rate was promoted from 11.3% to 84.0%,so the technology showed significance in keeping good characters of Juglans Linn and forming good clonal varieties in Bijie City.%通过引进中国林业科学研究:林业研究所研究成功的“核桃属树木嫩枝扦插繁殖方法”,使用智能温棚等增温保湿措施,对毕节市近年鉴选出的核桃优良单株进行嫩枝扦插扩繁,使扦插成活率由11.3%提高至84.0%,对保持毕节市优良核桃品种的优良性状、形成一批优良无性系品种具有重要意义。

  5. 木瓜蛋白酶嫩化秘鲁鱿鱼肉工艺条件的研究%Study on optimization for tenderization conditions of Dosidicus gigas meat by papain

    郑贤孟; 杨文鸽; 徐大伦


    Using the shearing force and concentration of soluble protein(CSP) as indexes,the tenderization of Dosidicus gigas meat by papain was studied,and the suitable tenderization conditions of Dosidicus gigas meat were optimizated through single factor and orthogonal experiment.The results indicated that the suitable technological conditions for tenderization of Dosidicus gigas meat were as follows:papain concentration 1%,soaking time 40min,temperature 50℃ and pH7.0.Under these conditions,the shearing force of Dosidicus gigas meat was up to 2060.141g.%以鱿鱼肉的剪切力和可溶性蛋白含量(CSP)为指标,通过单因素和正交实验优化木瓜蛋白酶嫩化秘鲁鱿鱼肉的工艺条件.结果显示秘鲁鱿鱼肉适宜的嫩化条件为:木瓜蛋白酶浓度1%、处理时间40min、温度50℃、pH7.0,在此条件下鱿鱼肉得到嫩化,其剪切力为2060.141g.

  6. On tendering and bidding system development under quantity pricing model%工程量清单计价模式下招投标制度发展的探讨



    介绍了工程量清单计价的含义和工程量清单的分类,阐述了工程量清单计价模式下招投标活动遵循的原则及其对招投标机制的促进作用,并对工程量清单招标的相关问题进行了探讨并提出建议,以期完善工程量清单计价模式下招投标制度.%The paper introduces definition of quantity pricing and classification of quantity list, it states rules that must be follow under quantity pricing modal and it' s pushing effects to completion of tendering and bidding system, it also discusses about problems of tendering and bidding system development under quantity pricing model and proposes relative suggestion, so as to consummate tendering and bidding system under quantity pricing model.

  7. Effect of housing environment on laying hen meat quality: Assessing Pectoralis major pH, colour and tenderness in three strains of 80-81 week-old layers housed in conventional and furnished cages.

    Frizzell, K M; Lynch, E; Rathgeber, B M; Dixon, W T; Putman, C T; Jendral, M J


    1. Meat quality is affected by factors such as stress, genetic strain and activity and is determined in part by measures of pH, colour and tenderness. In conventional laying hen cages (CC), lack of physical space and inability to perform highly motivated behaviours leads to stress and inactivity. Furnished cages (FCs) permit expression of highly motivated behaviours, but typically house larger group sizes than CC, thereby contributing to social stress. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of CC and FC laying hen housing environments and strain differences on meat quality of 80-81-week-old birds. 2. Pectoralis major meat quality was assessed for two flocks of Shaver White (SH), Lohmann Lite (LL) and Lohmann Brown (LB) hens housed in either 5-hen CC or 40-hen FC. Between 80 and 81 weeks, muscle samples were collected from randomly selected hens and analysed for muscle pH, colour and shear force (SF) using established methods. 3. In both flocks, the combined treatment body weights (BWs) were higher for CC than FC hens and the combined strain BWs were higher for LB than LL and SH hens. Flock 1 LB had lower initial and ultimate pH than SH and LL, and greater pH decline than SH. Muscle redness (a*) was higher for CC SH than FC SH in both flocks. Muscle a* was higher for LL than SH and LB in Flock 1, and higher than SH in Flock 2. Housing differences in muscle SF were absent. In CC, SF was higher for SH than LL and LB in Flock 1, and higher than LB in Flock 2. 4. Lack of housing differences suggests that environmental stressors present in both housing systems similarly affected meat quality. Strain differences for muscle pH, a* and SF indicate increased stress experienced by SH and LL hens. The absence of Flock 2 strain differences is consistent with the cannibalism outbreak that occurred in this flock and most severely impacted LB hens.

  8. 工程建设项目招投标中的博弈量化分析%Game Quantitative Analysis on Tendering and Bidding of Construction Projects

    彭梅; 蔡光程; 甄晓云


    工程建设项目施工招投标中的竞标者、评标者之间存在一定的关联度和博弈关系。本文在目前招投标评标办法的基础上提出一种基于博弈的多方量化方法,利用竞标者报价、评标者以性能参数作为影响因子作评标估计,获得多竞标者参与竞标的最佳价格性能下的最优竞标价,以使评标过程更科学。实证数据实验结果显示通过该方法有利于鼓励竞争和保护质优价廉的竞标单位。%There exists a correlation and game relationship between users and bidders on tendering and bid-ding of a construction project.This paper presents a novel quantitative algorithm based on game theory for the user and the bidding corporations.This method uses the performance parameter to make an estimation for the bidding price.Optimum bidding value is obtained by the best performance values for all competition corpora-tions.It has more scientific decision for the process of bidding evaluation.Experimental results show that this method can embolden and protect the bedding enterprise of super quality and competitive price.

  9. Randomized Multicenter Clinical Trial of Myofascial Physical Therapy in Women with Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome (IC/PBS) and Pelvic Floor Tenderness

    FitzGerald, MP; Payne, CK; Lukacz, ES; Yang, CC; Peters, KM; Chai, TC; Nickel, JC; Hanno, PM; Kreder, KJ; Burks, DA; Mayer, R; Kotarinos, R; Fortman, C; Allen, TM; Fraser, L; Mason-Cover, M; Furey, C; Odabachian, L; Sanfield, A; Chu, J; Huestis, K; Tata, GE; Dugan, N; Sheth, H; Bewyer, K; Anaeme, A; Newton, K; Featherstone, W; Halle-Podell, R; Cen, L; Landis, JR; Propert, KJ; Foster, HE; Kusek, JW; Nyberg, *LM


    Objectives To determine the efficacy and safety of pelvic floor Myofascial Physical Therapy (MPT) in women with newly-symptomatic IC/PBS, as compared to Global Therapeutic Massage (GTM). Materials and Methods A randomized controlled trial of 10 scheduled treatments of MPT vs. GTM was performed at 11 clinical centers located in North America. We recruited women with IC/PBS with demonstrable pelvic floor tenderness on physical examination and a limitation of no more than 3 years symptom duration. The primary outcome was the proportion of responders defined as ‘moderately improved’ or ‘markedly improved’ in overall symptoms compared to baseline on a 7-point scale Global Response Assessment (GRA). Secondary outcomes included ratings for pain, urgency, frequency; the O'Leary-Sant IC Symptom and Problem Index (ICSI/ICPI) and reports of adverse events. We compared response rates between treatment arms using the exact conditional version of the Mantel-Haenszel test to control for clustering by clinical center. For secondary efficacy outcomes, cross-sectional descriptive statistics and changes from baseline were calculated. Results Eighty-one women randomized to the two treatment groups had similar symptoms at baseline. The GRA response rate was 26% in the GTM group and 59% in the MPT group (p=0.0012). Pain, urgency, and frequency ratings and in ICSI/ICPI decreased in both groups during follow-up and were not significantly different between the groups. Pain was the most common adverse event, occurring at similar rates in both groups. There were no serious adverse events reported. Conclusions A significantly higher proportion of women with IC/PBS reponded to treatment with MPT than with GTM. MPT may be a beneficial therapy in women with this syndrome. PMID:22503015

  10. 菠萝蛋白酶和超声波对羊肉嫩度的影响%Effects of bromelain and ultrasonic on mutton tenderness

    王晶; 田莹俏; 张艳花


    Water-holding capacity, cooking loss and shear force of mutton were taken as evalua⁃tion indexes. The effects of different bromelain addition, ultrasonic time, treat temperature and water bath time on mutton tenderness were studied. Through responses surface test, the best condition was ob⁃tained. The results showed that the significance of factors was:bromelain addition > treating temperature> treating time>ultrasonic time. The optimal conditions was that the addition of bromelain was 20U/g, ultrasonic time was 30min, treating temperature was 54. 93℃ and treating time was 2h.%通过实验测定羊肉的系水力、蒸煮损失率和剪切力三个指标,研究了菠萝蛋白酶添加量、超声时间、处理温度和水浴时间的条件对羊肉嫩度的影响,并通过响应面试验优化出了最佳的嫩化条件。实验结果表明,各因素影响显著性依次是:菠萝蛋白酶添加量>处理温度>处理时间>超声时间。菠萝蛋白酶的最佳嫩化条件是:菠萝蛋白酶添加量20U/g,超声处理时间30min,处理温度54.93℃,处理时间2h。

  11. 纤维肌痛患者压痛点的推拿效用分析%The Analysis about Tenderness Point Massage of the Fibromyalgia



      通过查询搜索推拿治疗纤维肌痛的中英文随机临床试验资料,总结了宣蛰人的软组织压痛点与Janet Travell激痛点的特点与区别,并在宣蛰人“去痛致松、以松治痛”的推拿治疗椎管外软组织损害的原理归纳的基础上,进一步分析了推拿治疗纤维肌痛压痛点的疗效机理。结果显示推拿对纤维肌痛有一定的效果,但对于推拿治疗纤维肌痛的研究质量及内容的充实方面均有待进一步加强。%Summarized the characteristic and difference between soft tissue tender point and Ja-netTravell trigger point which were founded by Zhe-RenXuan through referring and searching the Chinese and English randomized clinical trials data of massage treating fibromyalgia. Further ana-lyzed the efficacy mechanism of massage treating fibromyalgia on the basis of the theory induction about massage of“remove pain lead to loosen, use loosen to treat pain”to treat external vertebral canal soft tissue. The result showed that it had a certain efficacy about using massage to treat fibro-myalgia. But, the research quality and substantial content still need to be reinforced.

  12. Comparing complementary alternative treatment for chronic shoulder pain of myofascial origin: Collateral meridian therapy versus local tender area-related meridians therapy.

    Pan, Ru-Yu; Hsu, Yung-Chi; Wong, Chih-Shung; Lin, Shinn-Long; Li, Tsung-Ying; Cherng, Chen-Hwan; Ko, Shan-Chi; Yeh, Chun-Chang


    The aim of this study was to compare the short-term outcomes between 2 different treatments for unilateral chronic shoulder pain of myofascial origin, that is, local tender area related meridians (LTARMs) treatment and collateral meridian therapy (CMT), which were performed 6 times over a period of 4 weeks.Seventy patients with unilateral shoulder pain of chronic myofascial origin were enrolled. The patients were randomly assigned to 2 different treatment groups: 1 group received CMT (n = 35) and the other received LTARM (n = 35). Before and after the 2 treatment processes, all patients rated their overall pain intensity on a visual analogue scale (VAS) and a validated 13-question shoulder pain and disability index (SPADI) questionnaire was used to measure shoulder pain and functional impairment after therapy for 4 weeks.After CMT, the pain intensity was reduced after CMT. VAS score is reduced from 5.90 ± 2.07 (a mean of 5.90 and standard deviation of 2.07) to 3.39 ± 1.2. This was verified by the SPADI pain subscale scores (from 0.58 ± 0.193 to 0.33 ± 0.14). The pain-relief effect of CMT was significantly better than that of LTARM (VAS score from 5.78 ± 1.64 to 4.58 ± 1.40; P myofascial origin than the LTARM treatment, where treatment with the former resulted in better functional recovery after 4 weeks than the latter.

  13. Be Tender to Your Feet



    One of the most common mistakes many people make is to wear illfitting shoes. Women in particular tend to be embarrassed b), a Shoe sizethat seems large; in many cultures a small foot is thought to be a sign ofwomanliness.

  14. Ways and effects of purchasing drugs through tender as implemented in our hospital%我院实行药品招标采购的做法和效果

    汪成; 尹继云; 丁建强


    为降低药品购买价,防止药品在医院流通过程中出现的不正之风,减轻病人经济负担,从1997年3月开始对药品采购进行公开招标。具体做法:①成立药品采购领导小组和药品采购小组;②制订和认真执行公开招标采购药品制度,把好“五关”;③规范医院常规用药范围;④坚持新药引进药事管理委员会审批制度。实行招标采购制度后,药品进价平均下降14.7%;单病种药品费用降低。%In order to lower the purchasing prices of drugs, prevent unhealthy tendencies that might arise in the process of drug circulation in the hospital, and reduce the financial burdens of patients, our hospital started from March 1997 the practice of purchasing drugs through open tender. The measures adopted include: ①establishment of a leading group in charge of drug purchases and a drug purchasing group; ②formulation and earnest implementation of the system of purchasing drugs through open tender, making “five checks”; ③standardization of the scope of routine drugs used in the hospital; and ④adherence to the system of examination and approval by the Drug Management Committee when introduction of new drugs is being considered. Since the adoption of the system of purchasing drugs through tender, the purc hasing prices of drugs have on the average dropped 14.7% and the drug expenses for single entity diseases have been lowered.

  15. Effectjveness of radial extracorporeal shock wave to treat tenderness in soft tissue on the lateral of elbow%放射式体外冲击波治疗肘外侧软组织疼痛疗效观察

    孙建峰; 李红娟


    目的 观察放射式体外冲击渡对肘外侧软组织疼痛的治疗效果.方法 对26例患者应用统一的冲击波治疗方案进行压痛点治疗,观察治疗前后及随访半年的肘关节活动度、VAS及ADL评分情况.结果 23例完成治疗方案,参照自定治疗标准,治愈11例,显效6例,有效3例,无效3例,总显效率73.9%.结论 放射式体外冲击波治疗肘外侧软组织疼痛具有非侵入性、方法简单、安全有效、并发症少、患者痛苦小等优点,值得临床推广应用.%Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of radial extracoiporeal shock wave therapy(RESWT) for the management of tenderness in soft tissue on the lateral of elbow. Methods Twenty-six patients were given standard of RESWT in the tenderness. They were evaluated with rang of motion of elbow,visual analogue scale (VAS) and activities of daily living (ADL) before and after treatment and at a 6-month follow-up. Results Twenty-three patients were accomplished the therapy, 1 leases cured,6 cases apparent recovered,3 cases with effective recovered,3 cases with invalid treatment,the total apparent rate were 73.9%. Conclusion RESWT in the treatment of tenderness in soft tissue on the lateral of elbow is safe effective; the method is simple,less complications. It is worth to be clinical application.

  16. On amplitude beam splitting of tender X-rays (2-8 keV photon energy) using conical diffraction from reflection gratings with laminar profile.

    Jark, Werner; Eichert, Diane


    Conical diffraction is obtained when a radiation beam impinges onto a periodically ruled surface structure parallel or almost parallel to the ruling. In this condition the incident intensity is diffracted through an arc, away from the plane of incidence. The diffracted intensity thus lies on a cone, which leads to the name `conical diffraction'. In this configuration almost no part of the ruled structure will produce any shadowing effect for the incident or the diffracted beam. Then, compared with a grating in the classical orientation, relatively higher diffraction efficiencies will be observed for fewer diffraction orders. When the incident beam is perfectly parallel to the grooves of a rectangular grating profile, the symmetry of the setup causes diffraction of the intensity symmetrically around the plane of incidence. This situation was previously tested experimentally in the VUV spectral range for the amplitude beam splitting of a radiation beam with a photon energy of 25 eV. In this case the ideally expected beam splitting efficiency of about 80% for the diffraction into the two first orders was confirmed for the optimum combination of groove depth and angle of grazing incidence. The feasibility of the amplitude beam splitting for hard X-rays with 12 keV photon energy by use of the same concept was theoretically confirmed. However, no related experimental data are presented yet, not even for lower energy soft X-rays. The present study reports the first experimental data for the conical diffraction from a rectangular grating profile in the tender X-ray range for photon energies of 4 keV and 6 keV. The expected symmetries are observed. The maximum absolute efficiency for beam splitting was measured to be only about 30%. As the reflectivity of the grating coating at the corresponding angle of grazing incidence was found to be only of the order of 50%, the relative beam splitting efficiency was thus 60%. This is to be compared also here with an ideally

  17. Case Analysis of Tendering Documents for an International PPP/BOT Port Project%国际某港口PPP/BOT 项目招标文件案例分析

    张水波; 高颖; 孙唯晫


    Tfeis paper makes a content analysis of the Tender Documents of an international PPP/BOT Port Project to assist International PPP/BOT bidders in making proper bid decisions. The analysis includes the project background, bidding procedure, documents consisting of tender documents, requirements of bid proposals and risk allocations. Findings from the analysis suggest insufficient rime length allowed for preparing the hid, failure to provide such key information as project draft concession agreement in the tendering documents; vague and improper allocation of risks as between the host government and the concessionaire. This paper concludes that, only with sufficient time and information obtained from tendering documents or otherwise , and by taking an initiative strategy in specifying pre-conditions in their bids, would the bidders be able to make a successful PPP/BOT bid.%采用文本分析方法,对国际某港口项目招标文件进行分析,以帮助国际PPP/BOT项目投标人做出恰当的投标决策.分析内容包括:项目背景、招标程序、招标文件的组成、投标要求、风险分担.分析结果表明,该招标的时间安排比较仓促,不能满足投标人投标所需要的时间;招标文件的组成不够完善,没有提供投标人投标重要依据的项目特许权协议草案;项目投标要求的编制比较清晰,但涉及项目风险分担的规定比较笼统模糊,而且让特许权受让人承担法律、政策变更的风险不尽合理.认为,由于国际PPP/BOT项目具有前期沉没成本高的特点,投标者应在研究招标文件的基础上,采取“以我为主”的投标策略,设定投标的底线,并将其在投标书中体现出来,这样才能更好地实现投资国际PPP/BOT项目的目标.

  18. Proposal to negotiate, without competitive tendering, the renewal of a blanket purchase contract for the supply and maintenance of VME single-board computers for the LHC and its injectors


    This document concerns the renewal of a blanket purchase contract for the supply and maintenance of VME single-board computers for the LHC and its injectors. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of the renewal of a blanket purchase contract with CREATIVE ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS (CH), without competitive tendering, for the supply and maintenance of VME single-board computers for an estimated total amount not exceeding 2 500 000 Swiss francs for the period 2004-2006. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: CH-80%, US-20%.

  19. Brazilian consumers' perception of tenderness of beef steaks classified by shear force and taste Percepção pelos consumidores brasileiros da maciez da carne classificada pela força de cisalhamento e sabor

    Eduardo Francisquine Delgado


    Full Text Available The knowledge of consumer perception of meat tenderness and taste is essential to forecast a Brazilian quality value-based beef market. This study aimed to verify perception of tender (WBSF 4.8 kg strip loin steak or uncharacteristic (calcium-treated/Ca-IM and normal (non-calcium/NO-Ca meat taste by consumers according to gender, age, education and income levels. Steaks were previously classified by shear force measurements as tender or tough. Each consumer was served a paired sample of one tender and of one tough steak, which were either Ca-IM or NO-Ca treated before tenderness classification. Three hundred and eight consumers answered a nine-point intensity (tenderness and hedonic (taste scales evaluation questionnaire. Among consumers, 82.2% indicated beef as first choice meat products, 75.3% had beef at least four times a week; 39.3% considered taste as the most important meat attribute and 30.2% considered tenderness; 75.8% were males; 73.6% were 21 to 55 years old; 56.7% had college education; 76.6% had monthly income higher than US $ 435,00. Tender steaks were scored highest (P O conhecimento da percepção de maciez e sabor da carne bovina pelo consumidor é essencial para vislumbrar um mercado brasileiro que pague por qualidade. Este estudo avaliou a percepção diferenciada de contra-filé macio (WBSF 4.8 kg, ou ainda com sabor não característico (imersão em Ca/ Ca-IM ou normal (sem cálcio/ NO-Ca de acordo com sexo, faixa etária, e nível de escolaridade formal e renda dos consumidores. Os bifes foram pareados em amostras macia/dura e Ca-IM/NO-Ca, e servidos a 308 consumidores que responderam a um questionário apresentando escalas de intensidade (maciez e hedônica (sabor de nove pontos. O perfil dos consumidores mostrava que: 82,2% indicaram carne bovina como sua primeira escolha entre as carnes; 75,3% consumiam carne bovina pelo menos quatro vezes por semana; 39,3% consideravam sabor como o atributo mais importante durante o

  20. How to strengthen the agency's management of the tender under the new situation%在新形势下如何加强招标代理公司的管理



    文章分析了国内招标代理工作当中现存的代理机构的分布及发展不平衡、很难对招标代理机构进行定性和独立审核、不正当竞争导致的乱象以及从业者业务素质和职业道德不高等主要问题,提出严把资质条件关,严防一个技术人员多头挂靠;严把资质条件关,严防一个技术人员多头挂靠;加强对招标代理公司内从业者的培训等对措来加强招标代理公司的管理。%This article analyzes the distribution and development of domestic tendering agency work among existing agencies imbalance, it is difficult to bidding agency for qualitative and independent audit, the chaos caused by unfair competition and business practitioners are not high quality and professional ethics major problem. Proposed strict qualifications level, anchored to prevent a technician bulls, strict qualifications level and anchored to prevent a technician bulls. Strengthen the management of the tender agent practitioner training on measures to strengthen the agency's bidding.

  1. Thinking on the Tender Response to the Divergences of Bidders in Bidding Process%招标人应对招投标过程中投标人异议问题的思考



    Through the analysis of the divergent problems in tendering and bidding of engineering materials procurement,the paper elaborates the thinking to resolve these divergences of bidders,including investigating the conformity of project performance,preventing the bid in the name of others,clearing the bid qualification, increasingthe judges of economic class. Then,proposes exploratory thoughts to improve the bidding work of engineering materials procurement. This research can be helpful and referential to the further standardization and scientificity of tendering work on infrastructure engineering materials procurement in the university system.%通过总结工程货物采购招投标过程中常见的异议问题,阐述应对相关问题的对策思考,包括审查业绩符合度、防范以他人名义投标、明晰投标资格设定、增加经济类评委。然后,提出改进工程货物采购招标工作的探索思路,为高校系统基建工程货物采购招标工作进一步规范化、科学化推进提供了借鉴。

  2. 浅议水利工程投标阶段的风险管理与预控%On Risk Management and Prevention of Water Conservancy Project Tender Stage



    水利工程投标阶段主要风险包括经济风险、设备和材料采购风险、合同风险、自然与环境风险等,在工程投标过程中要有针对性地依据本企业自身情况及所投标项目的特点进行风险分析,采取相应的预控措施,为工程中标后的经营管理奠定良好的基础。本文对此加以介绍。%Main risks of water conservancy project tender stage include economic risk, equipment and material procurement risk,contract risk,natural and environmental risk,etc.Risks are analyzed in the project tender process in a targeted mode according to own enterprise condition and features of bidding project.Corresponding prevention measures are adopted,thereby laying good foundation for operation management after project bid winning.The condition is introduced in the paper.

  3. The Application of the CPM to Construction Management and Tendering%网络计划技术在施工管理及招投标中的应用



    The advantages of CPM applied in construction management are practical examples,the CPM and the Gantt chart are compared,this proves that there are still some shortcomings in them and how they would be made up with each other.This paper also points out what must be taken notice of when the CPM was drawn up in documents of tendering.As an advanced method,the CPM should be combined with the Gantt chart in construction management,and it can be especially well used in tendering.%分析了网络计划技术应用于施工管理的优点,并通过具体实例将网络计划技术与横道图进行了对比,说明了二者各存在的问题及如何相互补充应用。还指出了在投标文件中编制网络计划所必须注意的问题。作为一种先进的方法,网络计划技术在施工管理中应与横道图结合使用,在招投标工作中更应很好地运用。

  4. Uniform Design for Optimizating Regeneration Shoots Directly from Tender Leaves and Plant Regeneration System of Rhododendron chrysanthum Pall.%基于均匀设计优化牛皮杜鹃嫩叶直接再生芽苗及植株再生体系

    李玉梅; 姜云天; 孙智慧


    [Objective] The experimental was aimed to screen the optimum regeneration shoot induction media and rooting media for tender leaves of Rhododendron chrysanthum Pall.[Method] The tender leaves of Rhododendron chrysanthum Pall were taken as explants to select the optimum bud induction media and rooting media through uniform design and the screening results were verified.[Result] The optimum media for regeneration shoot of Rhododendron chrysanthum Pall contained 1/4 MS,3.70 mg/L ZT, 0.02 mg/L IAA and 1.00 mg/L KT and its induction rate was 95.5% and the rooting media contained modified MS, 0.10 mg/L IAA and 0.07 mg/L NAA and its rooting rate was 98%. [Conclusion] Through this experiment, regeneration systems for regeneration shoot and regenerated plant from tender leaves of Rhododendron chrysanthum Pall were created successfully.

  5. Effect of Different Ages and Postmortem Aging on Tenderness of Cherry Valley Ducks Breast%不同日龄及宰后成熟对樱桃谷鸭嫩度的影响

    邓方; 潘道东; 曹锦轩; 张小涛


    This research focused on the changes of tenderness of different ages cherry valley duck meat during postmortem aging.The effects of drip loss,cooking loss,shear force value,pH and calpain activity of duck breast meat were examined,and the degradation of Troponin-T and Desmin,which were heavily correlated with the tenderness of the protein,were also determined in the study.The result showed feed-day had a significant effect on the tenderness of duck meat (P<0.05),and the shear force value was positively correlated with postmortem time.pH and the shear force value of ducks muscle were positively correlation with postmortem time (P<0.05),while the cooking loss had a negative correlation with the shear force.The calpain activity were extremely significant (P<0.01) affected by shear force in the experiment.Meanwhile,the difference of the shear-force change was significant among the three day-age groups(P<0.01).%通过测定不同日龄樱桃谷鸭宰后不同时间的滴水损失、蒸煮损失、pH值、剪切力、钙蛋白酶活性等指标,同时结合SDS-PAGE和蛋白质印迹分析,研究骨骼肌中与肌肉嫩度高度相关的肌钙蛋白(Troponin-T)、肌间线蛋白(Desmin)的降解情况以及日龄对宰后鸭肉嫩度的影响.研究结果表明:随着日龄的增加,宰后肌肉剪切力显著增加(P<0.05);随着宰后成熟时间的延长,宰后肌肉剪切力减小.宰后成熟期间,pH值和肌肉剪切力呈显著正相关(P<0.05),蒸煮损失和肌肉剪切力呈显著负相关(P<0.05),钙蛋白酶酶活力和肌肉剪切力呈极显著正相关(P<0.01).增加日龄使得宰后肌肉剪切力增大,且日龄之间差异性极显著(P<0.01).

  6. Compound Enzyme-Based Fast Tenderizing Technology for Beef from the Three Gorges Reservoir Area%三峡库区牛肉复合酶快速嫩化技术

    肖夏; 李洪军; 贺稚非


    以三峡库区丰都县西门塔尔与蒙古牛杂交牛的牛肉为研究对象,在较低温度下采用复合酶快速嫩化牛肉.选用木瓜蛋白酶与菠萝蛋白酶1∶1复合,采用注射浸泡法嫩化牛肉.在不同酶添加量、嫩化时间、嫩化温度、pH下测定了牛肉的剪切力、质构特性、熟肉率等指标,并分析指标间相关性.通过正交试验获得最佳工艺条件为复合酶添加量0.03%,嫩化时间20 min ,嫩化温度20℃,pH中性.嫩化后样品剪切力降至3727.6 g ,弹性0.875,内聚性0.382,表明该条件下处理牛肉能显著提高肉品的嫩度,保持较好的弹性、内聚性及熟肉率,适于进行肉制品加工.%With the bovine muscle samples taken from Simmental x Mongo cattle hybrid in Fengdu County of the Three‐Gorges Reservoir Area as the experiment material ,the fast tenderizing technology of bovine muscles with a compound enzyme at relatively low temperature was studied .The compound enzyme was prepared with papain and bromelain in a proportion of 1 to 1 and used to treat the bovine muscles samples with injection and imbibition .The samples were subjected to shear force ,texture property and cooked meat percentage determination at different enzyme dosages ,treatment time and temperature and pH ,and correlation analyses were made .The optimal technology conditions identified with an orthogonal test were 0.03% compound enzyme + treatment time 20 min and temperature 20 ℃ + pH 7.0 .Under such condi‐tions ,the shear force was 3 727.6 g ,springiness was 0.875 and cohesiveness was 0.382 ,suggesting that the tenderizer could significantly improve the tenderness of the bovine muscles under the optimal condi‐tions w hile keeping satisfactory springiness ,cohesiveness and cooked meat percentage .

  7. 评选医疗器械产品系列的招标尝试分析研究%Brief discussion on tender attempt of selecting medical apparatus product series



    目的:探讨"低价基准,组件一一赋分;全部累计,平均计算"的医疗器械系列或组套招标的价格评审办法。方法:根据产品关联性打包编制目录,同名组件之间根据低价优先法进行价格比较,各自组件的比值相加,除以单件个数和,得品牌系列总值,总值低则价格相对合理。结果:09年温州市属医疗机构骨科项目招标进行尝试,在价格、产品关联性方面,都收到理想效果。结论:"低价基准,组件一一赋分;全部累计,平均计算"的产品系列总分计算法可以解决系列或组套医疗器械招标的价格评审问题。%Objective:To discuss the "low benchmarks,give the mark to each component;accumulate all and calculate on average" medical apparatus series or sets of the method for evaluating the tender price.Methods:According to the product association package and compiling directory,based on low price priority principle to compare the price of same name component,added the ratio of their components and divided by the numbers of each piece,getting the total value of each brand series.The price is relatively reasonable if the total value is low.Results:In 2009,Wenzhou municipal medical institutions orthopedic project tried to use the tender way,which received ideal effect price and product relevance.Conclusion:The total points numeration of "low benchmarks,give the mark to each component;accumulate all and calculate on average" apparatus series can solve the price evaluation problem of the series or sets medical apparatus tender.

  8. Analysis on bidding parts preparation of curtain wall project tender documents%幕墙工程招标文件的投标报价部分编制分析



    This paper mainly analyzed the setting ways of comprehensive unit price analysis table in outer decorative curtain wall engineering ten-dering and bidding documents,and discussed in detail the shall be clearly quote part of other aspects bidding documents,in order to reasonably and effectively control the project cost.%主要分析了外装饰幕墙工程招标文件中综合单价分析表设置方式,并对招标文件中投标报价部分应明确的其他方面内容进行了详细说明,以合理有效的控制工程造价。

  9. Subverting Sanity by Madness --A Psychoanalysis of the Central Figures in Tender is the Night%疯癫对文明的颠覆——对《夜色温柔》主人公的精神分析



    In the novel Tender is the Night, the hero and the heroine exchange their roles of patient and doctor, in- sanity and culture. The interchange between madness and normality is the keynote of the book, as well as a meta- phor. From the perspective of psychoanalysis, the interchange also echoes the complex relations between ego and id, those of domination and counter-strike, of control and break-off.%《夜色温柔》中的男女主人公完成了各自从医生到“疯子”与从病人到正常人的角色互换。疯癫即是小说的主题,也是重要隐喻。从心理分析的角度看,二人的关系接近本能与自我互相制约、互相对抗的关系。

  10. Proposal for the award of a contract, based on competitive tendering by CCLRC-RUTHERFORD APPLETON LABORATORY, for the supply of the Front-End Driver Boards for the Tracker detector of the CMS experime


    This document concerns the award of a contract, based on competitive tendering by CCLRC-RUTHERFORD APPLETON LABORATORY, for the supply of the Front-End Driver (FED) boards for the Tracker detector of the CMS experiment. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to a contract for the CERN share towards the cost of the supply of 500 FED boards for the Tracker detector of the CMS experiment with CCLRC-RUTHERFORD APPLETON LABORATORY (UK) for a total amount of 1 676 000 Pounds sterling (3 788 000 Swiss francs), not subject to revision. CERN's contribution to the contract will not exceed 575 000 Pounds sterling (1 300 000 Swiss francs). The remaining 1 101 000 Pounds sterling (2 488 000 Swiss francs) will be financed by several other participating institutes of the CMS Collaboration.

  11. MATLAB和TOPSIS算法在企业物流招标评估中的应用研究%Application of MATLAB and TOPSIS in Enterprise Logistics Service Tender Evaluation

    高洪波; 马素萍


    在分析企业物流招标对企业发展的重要意义及介绍TOPSIS算法的基本思路的基础上,研究了基于MATLAB的TOPSIS算法在物流招标评估方法的实现步骤,并对具体算例进行了实证分析,对企业物流招标评估实践有一定的参考意义.%In this paper, we studied the procedure for the realization of the TOPSIS algorithm based on M ATLAB in logistics service tender evaluation and carried out an empirical analysis in connection with a specifical numerical example.

  12. The Multiple Themes in Fitzgerald’ s Novels---The Case of Tender Is the Night%菲茨杰拉德长篇小说中的多重主题--以《夜色温柔》为例



    菲茨杰拉德留给后世的五部长篇小说,均取材于他所生活的年代,生动地展示了20世纪初期美国的生活。《夜色温柔》的独特之处在于它是一部具有自传性质的文学作品,作家将自己的亲身经历融进了小说内容,所以能更真实、更贴切地表达出那个时代的文学主题:悲剧命运、“美国梦”的破灭、现代主义特征、女性主义以及消费异化等。阅读菲氏的长篇小说,仿佛能被书中的文字带回到那个让人纸醉金迷的“爵士时代”。%The legacy of Fitzgerald ’ s five long novels is drawn from the time of his life and vividly shows life in the United States in the early 20th century.The unique of Tender Is the Night is that it is a literary works with characteristic of autobiography and the writer integrates his own experience into the novel .Thus Tender Is the Night could express the literary theme of that era more veritably and more relevantly:the tragic fate, the bursting of the American Dream, modernistic features, feminism, and con-sumption alienation etc .It seems that reading Fitzgerald ’ s novel could bring us back to the luxurious and dissipative Jazz Age .

  13. 基于高光谱图像纹理特征的牛肉嫩度分布评价%Distribution of beef tenderness grading based on texture features by hyperspectral image analysis

    赵娟; 彭彦昆


    传统牛肉品质的检测方法耗时长,效率低,破坏样品,已不能满足现代化生产的需要。为了实现对牛肉嫩度品质的快速无损检测和评价,该文利用高光谱成像系统,以西门塔尔牛多个胴体的背最长肌部位为研究对象,采集56个有效样本的高光谱立体图像,研究无损评价牛肉样品的嫩度分布。通过提取样本的反射光谱信息,并利用逐步回归算法结合遗传算法(GA,genetic algorithm)筛选出牛肉剪切力值(WBSF,warner-bratzler shear force)的特征波段。利用主成分分析(PCA,principle component analysis)提取样品的3个主成分。基于选出的特征波段图像和提取的主成分,通过计算图像灰度共生矩阵求取每幅图像8个主要纹理特征参数,分别建立了基于支持向量机(SVM,support vector machine)和线性判别(LDA,linear discriminant analysis)法的嫩度等级判别模型。经分析比较,基于主成分纹理特征优于基于特征波段图像建立的预测模型,并且,线性判别模型识别准确率相比支持向量机模型较高。基于主成分纹理特征建立的线性判别模型预测集判别精度为94.44%。研究结果证明,基于高光谱图像纹理特征分析,可以建立牛肉的嫩度判别模型,对牛肉嫩度快速无损检测技术研究提供理论参考。%Due to high protein, low fat, high vitamin and mineral content, beef is regarded as an important meat item which is consumed by human in regular basis. In addition, with the improvement of people's living standard, different quality parameters such as beef tenderness, water retention and other edible quality indicators have become important factors to consumers’ satisfaction. Sensory evaluation and shear force measurement are primarily two methods for measurement of beef tenderness, which are now considered as traditional methods. However, with improvement in technology, optical

  14. Evaluation method of beef tenderness based on texture properties and self-organizing neural network model%基于自组织神经网络模型与质构特性的牛肉嫩度评定方法

    王笑丹; 刘爱阳; 孙永海; 王莹; 韩云秀; 王洪美


    were: pre-test speed of 2 mm/s, test speed of 5 mm/s, posttest speed of 5 mm/s, trigger force of 10 g, distance of probe movement on the sample of 7 mm, and hold time after downward movement of the probe of 2 s. For those samples, viscous force, stickiness, elastic force, elastic length, cohesiveness, resilience, gumminess, chewiness and other texture properties were measured using the texture analyzer. The correlations were analyzed between the parameters and beef tenderness level. The main texture properties decreased with the increase of beef tenderness grade, and the texture properties value also showed a downward trend with chewing more times. Combined with the sensory evaluation method, the BP (back propagation) network model, the RBF (radical basis function) network model and the self-organizing competition network model were built, and all the training errors were 1×10-6. Another steak from the mid-region of each LD collected from each of 20 cattle was selected as verification sample. Then the 3 network models were compared, and the self-organizing competition network model was the most accurate model with an accuracy rate of 90%, which showed that this method can accurately assess the level of beef tenderness.%为了实现对牛肉嫩度品质的快速无损检测和评价。该文选取60头牛的眼肌部位作为试验样本,经在75~80℃的水浴中加热并煮至肉的内部温度达到70℃后取出,冷却至室温(20℃)。利用质构仪测得牛肉黏力、黏性、弹力、弹性长度、内聚性、弹性、胶着性和咀嚼性等质构特性参数,并分析各参数与牛肉嫩度等级之间的相关性,黏力和黏性与牛肉嫩度的相关性较低,相关系数为0.246和0.096;弹力、弹性长度、内聚性、弹性、胶着性和咀嚼性与牛肉嫩度相关性较大,且成负相关,说明上述流变学参数值会随着牛肉嫩度等级的增大而下降,相关系数为−0.92、−0.939、−0.771、−0.776

  15. Process Optimization of Bromelain with Rolling Treatment on Horse Meat Tenderness%菠萝蛋白酶结合滚揉嫩化马肉工艺的优化

    蒋小锋; 李芳; 任雯雯; 达迪拉·买买提; 张亚楠; 孔令明


    Water-holding capacity, cooking loss, shear force and sensory evaluation were used as the evaluation index, by injecting bromelain and rolling treatment, studied the effects of bromelain treatment on horse meat(semitendinosus) tenderness in different bromelain dose, treatment temperature, treatment time and pH. The orthogonal test was used to get the best conditions of bromelain. The results showed that:bromelain dose, processing temperature and processing time had more significant effects on tenderness. The best conditions of bromelain were bromalain dose 12 U/g, treatment temperature 60℃, treatment time 1.5 h, pH 7.0;or bromelain dose 16 U/g, treatment temperature 60℃, treatment time 2 h, pH 7.0.%以系水力、蒸煮损失率、剪切力和感官评定为评价指标,通过注射菠萝蛋白酶液,结合滚揉处理,研究菠萝蛋白酶在不同的添加量、处理温度、处理时间和pH条件下对马肉(半腱肌)嫩度的影响,采用L9(34)正交试验对嫩化条件进行优化。试验结果表明:蛋白酶添加量、处理温度和处理时间对马肉的嫩度有显著影响。菠萝蛋白酶的最佳嫩化条件是:菠萝蛋白酶添加量12 U/g,处理温度60℃,处理时间1.5 h,pH7.0;或者菠萝蛋白酶添加量16 U/g,处理温度60℃,处理时间2 h,pH7.0。

  16. Lost Soul-An Analysis of Dick’s Extramarital Affair of Tender Is the Night%迷失的灵魂--浅析《夜色温柔》中迪克的婚外情



    该文试图用弗洛伊德人格理论解析美国二十世纪著名小说家弗朗西斯·斯科特·菲茨杰拉德的《夜色温柔》中男主人公迪克与好莱坞女演员罗斯玛丽的婚外情,探寻迪克的心理变化以及这种变化对迪克人生悲剧的影响。《夜色温柔》是菲茨杰拉德的代表作之一,这部作品揭露了爵士乐时代人内心的脆弱迷茫和精神上的空虚。笔者希望该文对迪克婚外情的分析将有助于精神分析学对菲氏作品的研究。该文包括三大部分。第一部分是对作者菲茨杰拉德,《夜色温柔》以及弗洛伊德的人格分析理论的介绍。第二部分运用人格分析理论分析迪克对待婚外情的心理变化过程。第三部分为结论部分。%Tender Is the Night is a masterpiece written by Francis Scott Fitzgerald who is a famous American writer in the 20th cen⁃tury. This thesis tries to analyze Dick’s extramarital affair with Mary, a Hollywood actress, in the respective of Freudian theory of human psyche. The writer wants to explore Dick’s psychological changes and the influence to his tragic life. Tender Is the Night ex⁃poses persons’emotional confusion at the Jazz Age. The writer hopes this paper can help to study Fitzgerald’s works with psycho⁃analysis. It includes three parts, and the first part is introduction, the second part is analysis and the third part is conclusion.

  17. Efeito do colágeno na maciez da carne de bovinos de distintos grupos genéticos = Collagen effects in meat tenderness of bovines of different genetic groups

    Daniela Cristina Morales


    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a influência do colágeno na maciez da carne de animais de diferentes grupos genéticos produzidos no sistema de produção do novilho superprecoce. Foram utilizados bezerros machos inteiros da raça Nelore, mestiços ½ Nelore x ½ Aberdeen Angus e mestiços ½ Nelore x ½ Simental. Após abate e resfriamento por 24 horas, foram retiradas amostras do músculo Longissimus dorsi, na região entre a 11a e a 13a costela, sendo que uma amostra foi congelada e as demais maturadas por 7 e 14 dias. Nãohouve diferença significativa (P>0,01 entre os grupos genéticos para a quantidade e a solubilidade de colágeno e a força de cisalhamento. A quantidade e a solubilidade do colágeno não comprometeram a maciez da carne, indiferentemente do grupo genético utilizado e do tempo postmortem, tornando vantajosa a opção de se abaterem animais jovens.The aim of work was to analyze the collagen effect in meat tenderness of animals of different genetic groups produced by very young bullock production system. Male calves Nellore purebred, ½ Nellore x ½ Aberdeen Angus and ½ Nellore x ½ Simmental crossbred were used.After slaughter and cooling for 24 hours Longissimus dorsi samples were removed, between 11th and 13th ribs, one sample was frozen and the others ageing for 7 and 14 days. There was no difference (P>0,01 between genetic groups for amount and heat soluble collagen andshear force values. The amount and solubility collagen don’t compromised the meat tenderness, indifferent of the genetic group used and postmortem period, becoming the early slaughter an advantageous option for meat production with desirable characteristics.

  18. Increasing Mobility Confidence

    ... Español In Your Area NPF Shop Increasing Mobility Confidence To increase your confidence moving, you have to move! Make Text Smaller ... It might seem counterintuitive, but to increase your confidence moving, you have to move! Build physical activity ...

  19. Effect of increased

    Carreira , C.; Heldal, M.; Bratbak, G.


    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has increased since the pre-industrial period and is predicted to continue to increase throughout the twenty-first century. The ocean is a sink for atmospheric CO2 and increased CO2 concentration will change the carbonate equilibrium of seawater and result in lower c

  20. Regulating Tender-invitation in the Purchasing of Books for Library and Strengthening the Control of Bidding Procedures%规范图书招标采购行为 加强招标采购程序控制



    In order to further regulate the tender-invitation process in the purchasing of books for library, the control of the bidding procedures should be strengthened. In this paper, various types of tender-invitation in the purchasing of books for library were introduced and the bidding and purchasing procedures of library were also analyzed.%为进一步规范图书馆文献采购招标行为,必须加强文献招标采购过程中的程序控制。介绍了我国各类型图书馆文献招标采购的招标方式,同时对图书馆文献招标采购程序进行了分析和研究。

  1. 关于公路工程投标中资格预审申请文件编制的探讨%Discussion on the Compilation of Prequalification Application Documents in Highway Engineering Tender



    在公路工程中,资格预审是招标人组建审查委员会对申请人递交的资格预审申请进行审查。本文首先对申请文件编制程序进行了理解,然后分析了申请文件的有关内容,并对申请文件编制过程中需要注意的事项进行了论述。%In highway engineering, prequalification refers that the tender set up the Review Committee for the submission of the application provided by applicators. This paper first has carried on the understanding of the procedures for the docume-ntation, and then analyzes the relevant contents of the appli-cation documents, and discussed the mat ers needing at ention in the process of compiling the application documents.

  2. On Dick's Tragedy in Tender Is the Night from the Psychological Facet of Focalization%从人物视角的心理层面看《夜色温柔》中迪克的悲剧成因



    Dick is tempted by the upper class and destroyed by it in Tender Is the Night. Dick's love is so deep and Dick's heart is so kind. He wants to save Nicole and recovers his health with his sincere love, he even wants to treat the ill state of the upper class with a healthy life style. He is so childish, he the psychological Facet and try to find the root of his tragedy.%中迪克,受到上流社会的诱惑,希望通过他善良和纯真的爱来挽救富家小姐妮可并帮助她恢复健康.他甚至幻想通过自己健康的生活方式来挽救整个堕落的上流社会,但最终却被其毁灭.本文将从小说主人公迪克的视角的心理层面,分析迪克悲剧的成因.

  3. Discussion on how to control government investment project tender price audit%论如何做好政府投资项目招标控制价审核工作



    The paper analyzes the importance of government investment project bidding price control audit work. Starting from aspects of BOQ computation accuracy, BOQ integrity and material equipment price truth, the paper illustrates bidding price auditing points, and puts forward suggestions of comprehensively improve audit quality, which has provided some guidance for doing well in government investment project tender control auditing work.%分析了政府投资项目招标控制价审核工作的重要性,从工程量计算的准确性、工程量清单的完整性、材料设备价格的真实性等方面,阐述了招标控制价审核的要点,并提出了全面提高审核质量的建议,为做好政府招标控制价审核工作提供了参考.

  4. Increasingly minimal bias routing

    Bataineh, Abdulla; Court, Thomas; Roweth, Duncan


    A system and algorithm configured to generate diversity at the traffic source so that packets are uniformly distributed over all of the available paths, but to increase the likelihood of taking a minimal path with each hop the packet takes. This is achieved by configuring routing biases so as to prefer non-minimal paths at the injection point, but increasingly prefer minimal paths as the packet proceeds, referred to herein as Increasing Minimal Bias (IMB).

  5. Increasing SLEDed Linac Gradient

    Farkas, Zoltan D


    This note will show how to increase the SLED [1] gradient by varying Q{sub e}, the external Q of the SLED cavity, by increasing its Q{sub 0} and by increasing the compression ratio. If varying the external Q is to be effective, then the copper losses should be small so that Q{sub 0} >> Q{sub e}. Methods of varying Q{sub e} will be indicated but no experimental data will be presented. If we increase the klystron pulse width from 3.5 to 5 {micro}S and increase Q{sub 0} from the present 100000 to 300000, then the gradient increases by 19% and the beam energy increases from 50 to 60 GeV. This note will also discuss SLED operation at 11424 MHz, the NLC frequency. Without Q{sub e} switching, using SLED at 11424 MHz increases the SLAC gradient from 21 MV/m to 34 MV/m, and at the same repetition rate, uses about 1/5 of rf average power. If we also double the compression ratio, we reach 47 MV/m and over 100 GeV beam energy.

  6. Increasing Public Library Productivity.

    Samuelson, Howard


    Suggests ways of improving productivity for public libraries faced with increased accountability, dwindling revenues, and continuing inflation. Techniques described include work simplification, work analysis, improved management, and employee motivation. (RAA)

  7. Increased intracranial pressure

    ... patient's bedside in an emergency room or hospital. Primary care doctors may sometimes spot early symptoms of increased intracranial pressure such as headache, seizures, or other nervous system problems. An MRI ...

  8. Meeting increased demand.

    Blair, Andrew


    New Zealand is a little country with a little economy but with a population that's rapidly aging. New Zealand's population is only 4.3 million people. It's GDP is only $US58.6 billion (2002). New Zealand's expenditure on health as a percentage of GDP is not out of line with that of other countries. As a nation we have been increasing expenditure on health over recent years. In 1990 we spent 7% of GDP on health. In 1995 that increased to 7.65% and is now 8.3%. However, in per capita terms our expenditure on health does not compare so well with like countries. The size of New Zealand's economy is restricting what our country spends on health. Health is already the second highest demand on the New Zealand tax dollar. The tolerance of New Zealanders would be challenged if a Government attempted to increase taxes further to meet the growing demands for expenditure on health, but at the same time the population's expectations are increasing. This is the challenging situation we face today. What lies ahead? Like all industrialized countries New Zealand is facing an aging population. The population below age 40 is decreasing, but it is increasing significantly over that age. 16% of the population is currently aged over 60. By 2051 this proportion will almost double to just over 31%. Coupled with the aging population is increased awareness and expectations, as access to options for treatment and technology becomes readily accessible to the population through such media as the internet. The extent of the impact of the aging population can be clearly represented by focusing on one specialty such as orthopaedics. The New Zealand Orthopaecic Association undertook a study in July 2003 which concluded (among other things) that as a result of the projected aging of the population, over the next 50 years: Musculo-skeletal operations will increase by over 30%. The number of hip replacements will nearly double. The incidence of osteoporosis will increase by a massive 201%. The number

  9. Exploding Increase of Population

    Kim, J.H. [Sunmoon University, Chonan (Korea)


    Until 1650, the population of the world did not increase properly. According to studies of the demography, the annual increase rate of the world population during 2500 years, from 850 B.C. to 1650 A.D., was just 0.07%. Currently, however, the world population, which has exceptionally rapidly increased from 1900, is more than 6 billion as of 2000. After World War II, especially, the increase rate of the population has risen to about 1.8%, so we can use the word, explosion of the population. The explosion of the population accompanies the increase of energy consumption. The energy production of every year cannot sufficiently meet the energy demand, so we can face the grand energy crisis someday. The date might be a someday after 2020. According to the future forecasting of Shell, one of the majors, the peak of oil supply will be between 2015 and 2020. Unless the alternative energy is developed, the whole world will suffer the serious oil crisis.

  10. Physical, psychosocial, and individual risk factors for neck/shoulder pain with pressure tenderness in the muscles among workers performing monotonous, repetitive work

    Andersen, JH; Kaergaard, A.; Frost, P.


    with reduced health-related quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: Work-related physical and psychosocial factors, as well as several individual risk factors, are important in the understanding of neck/shoulder pain. The findings suggest that neck/shoulder pain has a multifactorial nature. Reduced health...... force (2.3, 1.4-4.0). The strongest work-related psychosocial risk was high job demands (1.8, 1.2-2.7). Increased risk was also associated with neck/shoulder injury (2.6, 1.6-4.1), female gender (1.8, 1.2-2.8), and low pressure pain threshold (1.6, 1.1-2.3). Neck/shoulder pain was strongly associated...

  11. Effect of thermal treatment on meat tenderness and color of pork tenderloin%热处理对猪通脊嫩度及色泽的影响

    戚彪; 刘燕; 郭爱菊


    The changes on cooking loss,pH,shear value and color have important effects on their texture and sensory quality for meat during thermal treatment.In this experiment,the shear value and color of pork tenderloin was studied during thermal treatment under different temperature and time.The result showed that the cooking loss,pH,a^* value and b^* value of pork tenderloin increases significantly as the rising of temperature and prolonging of time of thermal treatment,but the L^* value decreases.The shear value increases at fist and then decreases with the time prolonging of thermal treatment.In the experiment,the higher the temperature of thermal treatment,the faster of the changes.%肉类在热处理过程中的蒸煮损失、pH值、剪切力和色泽变化对肉的质地和感官具有重要影响。以猪通脊肉为原料,研究了不同的热处理温度和处理时间对猪通脊肉嫩度和色泽等物性的影响。结果表明:随着热处理温度的升高和处理时间的延长,猪通脊肉的蒸煮损失、pH值、红度a^*和黄度b^*均有显著的升高,亮度L^*下降,而剪切力随着热处理时间的延长先升高后降低,且在整个过程中,温度越高,变化越迅速。

  12. Correlação entre a contagem dos pontos dolorosos na fibromialgia com a intensidade dos sintomas e seu impacto na qualidade de vida Correlation between the number of tender points in fibromyalgia, the intensity of symptoms and its impact on quality of life

    José Eduardo Martinez


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estabelecer se há correlação entre o número de pontos dolorosos e a intensidade da percepção de aspectos centrais da síndrome (dor, fadiga, ansiedade, depressão e do seu impacto na capacidade funcional. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Avaliaram-se quarenta e um prontuários de pacientes que preenchem os Critérios de Classificação para Fibromialgia do Colégio Americano de Reumatologia, considerando as seguintes variáveis: percepção da intensidade de dor, fadiga, qualidade de vida global, depressão, ansiedade e contagem de pontos dolorosos. A avaliação da capacidade funcional foi realizada através do Questionário de Avaliação de Saúde simplificado (Health Assessment Questionnaire-HAQ. RESULTADOS: Observou-se correlação entre a contagem de pontos dolorosos e a intensidade da dor e a capacidade funcional. Não houve correlação com as notas atribuídas à fadiga (p = 0,358, ansiedade (p = 0,58, depressão (p = 0,50 e qualidade de vida (p = 0,538. A correlação entre o número de pontos dolorosos e a intensidade da dor foi mais forte que com o HAQ. CONCLUSÃO: Há correlação entre contagem dos pontos dolorosos e intensidade da dor e capacidade funcional. A correlação entre os pontos dolorosos e a intensidade da dor é mais importante do que com a capacidade funcional medida pelo HAQ. Não há correlação com as demais variáveis estudadas.OBJECTIVE: to study the correlation between the number of tender points and the intensity of the perception of key aspects of the fibromyalgia syndrome (pain, fatigue, anxiety, depression, and its impact in functional capacity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: forty-one records of patients who meet the Criteria for Classification of Fibromyalgia of the American College of Rheumatology were reviewed, focusing on the following variables: perception of the intensity of pain, fatigue, quality of sleep, depression, anxiety and the tender point count. The assessment of functional capacity was done by

  13. Temporomandibular disorders in scuba divers-an increased risk during diving certification training.

    Oztürk, Ozmen; Tek, Mustafa; Seven, Hüseyin


    The design of a diving regulator's mouthpiece increases the risk of a temporomandibular disorder (TMD) in scuba divers. The total weight of a diving regulator is reflected directly on the temporomandibular joint, causing articular and periarticular disorders. In the current study, the prevalence of TMD in scuba divers triggered during diving certification training is investigated. We also aimed to determine the factors that lead to TMD during diving training and clarify the observation that there is an increased incidence of TMD in inexperienced divers. The study was held between 2006 and 2011. Ninety-seven divers were referred with the complaint of pain around temporomandibular area. The divers were classified according to their diving experience. Symptoms and signs of TMD were graded. Fourteen divers were diagnosed with TMD. Temporomandibular disorder was seen more frequently in inexperienced divers than in experienced divers (P = 0.0434). The most prevalent symptom was an increased effort for mouthpiece gripping. Temporomandibular joint tenderness and trigger point activation were the mostly seen physical signs. Thirteen divers had an improvement with therapy. The increased effort for stabilizing the mouthpiece is a recognized factor in TMD development. Attention must be paid to an association of scuba diving with TMDs, especially in inexperienced divers having a scuba certification training.

  14. Increased urinary orosomucoid excretion

    Christiansen, M S; Iversen, K; Larsen, C T;


    , impaired left ventricular function and endothelial dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of 41 patients with type 2 diabetes (17 patients with normal UOER and 24 with increased UOER) with no history of cardiovascular disease and 21 healthy...

  15. Increasing mobile radiography productivity.

    Wong, Edward; Lung, Ngan Tsz; Ng, Kris; Jeor, Patrick


    Mobile radiography using computed radiography (CR) cassettes is a common equipment combination with a workflow bottleneck limited by location of CR readers. Advent of direct digital radiography (DDR) mobile x-ray machines removes this limitation by immediate image review and quality control. Through the use of key performance indicators (KPIs), the increase in efficiency can be quantified.

  16. Causative get-constructions in the dialogued passages in F. Scott Fitzgerald’s novels The Beautiful and Damned and Tender Is the Night as gender-conditioned structures

    Gołąbek Rafał


    Full Text Available It goes without saying that in modern sociolinguistics there is a consensus with regard to the fact that the language of males and females differs. The initial sections of the article briefly address the peculiarities of gendered speech as to provide a theoretical background for checking whether the causative get is used similarly or differently by men and women in the two of F. Scott Fitzgerald’s novels: The Beautiful and Damned and Tender Is the Night. The basic expectation formed is that the motifs for triggering the use of causative get are of social rather than structural nature. Before the analysis is carried out, the group of the English periphrastic causatives are sketchily characterized. Generally, what has been found is that there is a clear, socially-motivated pattern of how F. Scott Fitzgerald uses the causative get in the dialogued occurrences in his two novels. Get is a characteristic of men’s talk, but it is also the expected form while female characters address male ones - hence the verb is labelled as “masculine” get. Moreover, it has been discovered that there does not seem to be any particular pattern in either the speaker’s mood or the speaker’s attitude expressed that would trigger the use of the causative verb in question. Yet, what seems to be a well-defined tendency, when it comes to the speaker-hearer power relation, is that the speaker usually assumes a more superior position than the hearer when he or she uses the causative verb. The superiority in most cases is strongly associated with masculinity. Hence, what is postulated is that the causative get is labelled not only as “masculine" but also as “superior”.

  17. Thinking of the tender offer of international EPC project%国际EPC工程项目投标报价的思考

    王继源; 苗捷; 王乾; 马冲


    EPC项目是国际通行的集设计、采购、施工为一体的“交钥匙”工程。随着“一带一路”战略的推进以及国际产能和装备合作的深入开展,国内企业走出去步伐大大加快,EPC项目总承包工程的数量不断增加。在新形势下,加强对EPC项目报价的研究和思考,总结成功经验和失败教训,对未来我国企业走出去大有裨益。为此,将论述我国企业对国际EPC项目报价中重点要考虑的因素、目前报价中存在的问题以及应采取的措施。%The EPC project is a set of design,international procurement,construction as one of the "key" project. With the "The Belt and Road" strategy and the promotion of international cooperation and production equipment,domestic enterprises going out pace,the number of EPC project general contracting project in the new increasing. Under the situation,strengthen the research and Reflection on the EPC project bidding,summarizes the experiences and lessons for the future of China's enterprises to go. This will be of great advantage, discusses the factors of China's enterprises to offer international EPC project focus to consider the price,problems and measures should be taken.

  18. Increasing income inequality

    Frederiksen, Anders; Poulsen, Odile

    In recent decades most developed countries have experienced an increase in income inequality. In this paper, we use an equilibrium search framework to shed additional light on what is causing an income distribution to change. The major benefit of the model is that it can accommodate shocks...... to the skill composition in the market, employee bargaining power and productivity. Further, when our model is subjected to skill-upgrading and changes in employee bargaining power, it is capable of predicting the recent changes observed in the Danish income distribution. In addition, the model emphasizes...... that shocks to the employees' relative productivity, i.e., skill-biased technological change, are unlikely to have caused the increase in income inequality....

  19. Pemex increasing offshore activity

    Beachy, D.


    Although austere by boom-year standards, Mexico's National Energy Program for 1984-1988 calls for forty wildcats and 90 to 144 development wells off the coast, primarily in the prolific Campeche Bay area. Platform additions will include nine drilling platforms, each for twelve wells, and eight eight platforms to drill injection wells. Additionally, 7 production, 6 accomodation, 6 linkage and 8 compression platforms and 13 tetrapods will be installed. The main objectives of the plan are energy self-sufficiency through the turn of the century, and energy diversification, savings and productivity. The most controversial portion of Mexico's energy program is that calling for nuclear energy development. The energy program lists three basic goals in hydrocarbon production: continuing research on better techniques of secondary recovery; increasing capacity for refining primary and secondary crude products and improving production of heavy crudes; and increasing storage capacity and installing pipelines capable of carrying a greater volume of crude.

  20. Market Expects Demand Increase


    In the recent releasing Textile Industry Invigorating Plan,"givingattention to both domestlc and overseas markets"is put into a keyposition.Under a series policies,such as increasing the tax rebaterate for textile and garment exports,and granting loan for SME,thefurther development of this industry is expectative.Otherwise,weshould know that it costs time for demand driving.This need ourpatients.The only questionis how much time we have to wait.

  1. Increasing student success

    Stewart, Gay; Stewart, John


    A more scientifically literate society benefits all STEM disciplines, as well as society as a whole. It is best realized by better serving all undergraduate STEM students. In better-serving all students, a physics department also benefits. The University of Arkansas, Fayetteville physics department has seen a drastic change in number of majors, the number of students active in research and the number of graduates pursuing graduate work, while also increasing the number of majors who decide to teach. Prior to our involvement with the Physics Teacher Education Coalition, graduation rates had increased by more than a factor of 4 in 4 years. After the increased efforts when we became a part of PhysTEC ( our graduation numbers doubled again. Specific attention to class policy to impact student learning in our introductory courses and strong preparation of the graduate teaching assistants, and quality advising were our primary areas of emphasis. What worked to build these numbers and strengthen these resources at Arkansas will be discussed. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation and through the Physics Teacher Education Coalition.

  2. Alarming increase in refugees.


    Over the past decade and half there has been an alarming worldwide increase in refugees. The total rose form 2.8 million in 1976 to 8.2 million in 1980, to 17.3 million in 1990. Africa's refugees rose from 1.2 million in 1976 to 5.6 million in 1990. Asia's increase over this period was much more rapid--from a mere 180,000 to 8 million. In the Americas the numbers more than trebled, from 770,000 to 2.7 million. Europe was the smallest increase, from 570,000 to 894,000. International law defines a refugee as someone outside of their own country, who has a well-founded fear of persecution because of their political or religious beliefs or ethnic origin, and who cannot turn to their own country for protection. Most refugees are genuine by this definition. The increase reflects, in part, fallout from the cold war. Ethiopia, Mozambique and Angola accounted for almost 1/2 of Africa's refugees; Afghanistan alone for 3/4 of Asia's total. They fled, for the most part, from 1 poor country into another, where they added to shortages of land and fuelwood, and intensified environmental pressure. Malawi, 1 of the poorest countries in the world, is sheltering perhaps as many as 750,000 refugees from the war in Mozambique. But among these refugees--especially among those who turned to the rich countries for asylum--were an increasing number of people who were not suffering political persecution. Driven out of their homes by the collapse of their environment or economic despair, and ready to take any means to get across borders, they are a new category: economic and environmental refugees. The most spectacular attempts hit the television screens: the Vietnamese boat people, ships festooned with Albanians. Behind the headlines there was a growing tide of asylum seekers. The numbers rose 10-fold in Germany from 1983 to 1990. In Switzerland they multiplied by 4 times. In Europe, as a whole, they grew from 71,000 in 1983 to an estimated 550,000 in 1990. In 1990 the numbers threatened to

  3. Increasing Inflationary Pressure

    Guo Yan


    @@ China's CPI rose to 8.7 percent in February after hitting 7.1 percent in January,creating a 12-year high,the National Bureau of Statistics said.The figure exceeded market expectations,as the Bank of China,the country's secondlargest lender,had predicted a rise of only 8.3 percent.The Consumer Price Index (CPI)is the main gauge of inflation,andthe high CPI over the last two months has put pressure on the government to take action to curb the price increases,and added even more diffculty to the task of reining in this year's inflation rate.


    Mu Xueping


    @@ After half a year's gestation and adjustment, the State Administration of Taxation finally set new tax rate of petroleum resources. Notification issued by the Ministry of Finance and the State Administration of Taxation said the petroleum resources tax standard would be lifted nationwide, after the tax rate adjustment, tax on crude oil would be increased to RMB 14-30 yuan per ton and that on natural gas to RMB 7-15 yuan per thousand cubic meters. The new tax rate has been effective nationwide since July 1.

  5. Increasing Childhood Influenza Vaccination

    Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Lin, Chyongchiou J.; Hannibal, Kristin; Reis, Evelyn C.; Gallik, Gregory; Moehling, Krissy K.; Huang, Hsin-Hui; Allred, Norma J.; Wolfson, David H.; Zimmerman, Richard K.


    Background Since the 2008 inception of universal childhood influenza vaccination, national rates have risen more dramatically among younger children than older children and reported rates across racial/ethnic groups are inconsistent. Interventions may be needed to address age and racial disparities to achieve the recommended childhood influenza vaccination target of 70%. Purpose To evaluate an intervention to increase childhood influenza vaccination across age and racial groups. Methods In 2011–2012, 20 primary care practices treating children were randomly assigned to Intervention and Control arms of a cluster randomized controlled trial to increase childhood influenza vaccination uptake using a toolkit and other strategies including early delivery of donated vaccine, in-service staff meetings, and publicity. Results The average vaccination differences from pre-intervention to the intervention year were significantly larger in the Intervention arm (n=10 practices) than the Control arm (n=10 practices), for children aged 2–8 years (10.2 percentage points (pct pts) Intervention vs 3.6 pct pts Control) and 9–18 years (11.1 pct pts Intervention vs 4.3 pct pts Control, p<0.05), for non-white children (16.7 pct pts Intervention vs 4.6 pct pts Control, p<0.001), and overall (9.9 pct pts Intervention vs 4.2 pct pts Control, p<0.01). In multi-level modeling that accounted for person- and practice-level variables and the interactions among age, race and intervention, the likelihood of vaccination increased with younger age group (6–23 months), white race, commercial insurance, the practice’s pre-intervention vaccination rate, and being in the Intervention arm. Estimates of the interaction terms indicated that the intervention increased the likelihood of vaccination for non-white children in all age groups and white children aged 9–18 years. Conclusions A multi-strategy intervention that includes a practice improvement toolkit can significantly improve influenza

  6. Elenoside increases intestinal motility

    E Navarro; SJ Alonso; R Navarro; J Trujillo; E Jorge


    AIM: To study the effects of elenoside, an arylnaphthalene lignan from Justicia hyssopifolia, on gastrointestinal motility in vivo and in vitro in rats.METHODS: Routine in vivo experimental assessments were catharsis index, water percentage of boluses,intestinal transit, and codeine antagonism. The groups included were vehicle control (propylene glycol-ethanolplant oil-tween 80), elenoside (i.p. 25 and 50 mg/kg),cisapride (i.p. 10 mg/kg), and codeine phosphate (intragastric route, 50 mg/kg). In vitro approaches used isolated rat intestinal tissues (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum). The effects of elenoside at concentrations of 3.2× 10-4, 6.4 × 10-4 and 1.2 × 10-3 mol/L, and cisapride at 10-6 mol/L were investigated.RESULTS: Elenoside in vivo produced an increase in the catharsis index and water percentage of boluses and in the percentage of distance traveled by a suspension of activated charcoal. Codeine phosphate antagonized the effect of 25 mg/kg of elenoside. In vitro, elenoside in duodenum, jejunum and ileum produced an initial decrease in the contraction force followed by an increase.Elenoside resulted in decreased intestinal frequency in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. The in vitro and in vivo effects of elenoside were similar to those produced by cisapride.CONCLUSION: Elenoside is a lignan with an action similar to that of purgative and prokinetics drugs.Elenoside, could be an alternative to cisapride in treatment of gastrointestinal diseases as well as a preventive therapy for the undesirable gastrointestinal effects produced by opioids used for mild to moderate pain.

  7. Increasing Possibilities of Nanosuspension

    Kumar Bishwajit Sutradhar


    Full Text Available Nowadays, a very large proportion of new drug candidates emerging from drug discovery programmes are water insoluble and thus poorly bioavailable. To avoid this problem, nanotechnology for drug delivery has gained much interest as a way to improve the solubility problems. Nano refers to particles size range of 1–1000 nm. The reduction of drug particles into the submicron range leads to a significant increase in the dissolution rate and therefore enhances bioavailability. Nanosuspensions are part of nanotechnology. This interacts with the body at subcellular (i.e., molecular scales with a high degree of specificity and can be potentially translated into targeted cellular and tissue-specific clinical applications designed to achieve maximal therapeutic efficacy with minimal side effects. Production of drugs as nanosuspensions can be developed for drug delivery systems as an oral formulation and nonoral administration. Here, this review describes the methods of pharmaceutical nanosuspension production including advantages and disadvantages, potential benefits, characterization tests, and pharmaceutical applications in drug delivery.

  8. Increasing orUnderselling ?

    Guo Yan


    The downgrade of sovereignty credit rating of the United States causes new concerns on US treasury bonds.According to the report issued recently by Treasury Ministry of United States,China as the largest oversea holding country of US treasury bonds continues to buy US treasury bonds,with an increase of 5.7 billion US dollars in June,marking the third month in line.Till now,China has US treasury bonds up to a new record of 1,165.5 billion US dollars,which amounts to 26% of the oversea holding US treasury bonds,based on market estimation,followed by Japan (20%),UK (8%),Brazil (5%)and Russia (3%).However,in sharp contrast to China,other countries are underselling us treasury bonds,particularly Russia.Data shows that since October 2010,Russia has been selling US treasury bonds for eight months in line,up to 38% of their holdings.Now Russia only holds 111 billion US dollars of US treasury bond.Why the countries take totally different attitudes towards to US treasury bonds? Tne reporter interviewed the experts from China and Russia for more details.

  9. Euroopa keelemapi esimene Eesti mudel / Tõnu Tender

    Tender, Tõnu, 1965-


    Väljaanne: Euroopa keelemapp : 12-16 aastastele õpilastele = European language portfolio : for learners aged 12 to 16 = Portfolio Européen des Langues : pour les élèves de 12 à 16 ans. [Tartu] : Haridus- ja Teadusministeerium ; [Tallinn] : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, [2007]. Euroopa keelemapp on vahend keeleõppe kavandamiseks, edusammude kirjeldamiseks ja tulemuste jäädvustamiseks. Keelemapi kirjeldus, Euroopa keelemapi Eesti variandi väljatöötamisest, Euroopa keelemapi tulevikuvõimalustest

  10. F-Paris: integrated electronic circuits [Tender


    "Fourniture, montage et tests des circuits imprimes et modules multi composants pour le trajectographe central de CMS. Maximum de 12 000 circuits imprimes et modules multi-composants necessaires au trajectographe central de l'experience CMS aupres du Large Hadron Collider" (1 page).

  11. Uk-Didcot: aluminium products [Tenders


    "The CMS-ECAL-EE detector project for CERN require a firm to produce a number of small-machined components in Al Alloy. Mainly milling and drilling operations are required and would be most suited to a firm capable of small batch production. The general machining tolerance required is +/- 0,2mm, and the surface texture is 1,6 micrometers. All of the components are to be manufactured from Al Alloy."

  12. 小分子热应激蛋白与肉嫩度的关系研究进展%Relationship between Small Heat Shock Proteins and Meat Tenderness

    李鑫; 邢通; 徐幸莲


    肉嫩度的形成与动物宰后肌肉成熟过程中发生的复杂生理生化变化密切相关。动物宰杀放血后,氧气和营养物质供应终止,细胞凋亡程序启动,因此,调控该过程的凋亡因子可能最终影响到肌肉品质。小分子热应激蛋白(small heat shock proteins,sHSPs)作为肌肉嫩度的潜在生物标记,在许多蛋白组学的研究中得到证实。sHSPs由于其抗细胞凋亡和分子伴侣功能特性,在保护肌原纤维蛋白、干扰凋亡通路信号、延缓内源性蛋白酶对其的降解、延长肉的成熟时间等方面起到重要作用,与肉嫩度密切相关。本文综述了sHSPs作为肌肉向食用肉转变过程中的分子伴侣和其抗凋亡作用对肉嫩度的影响及其作用机理。%The development of meat eating quality is closely related to complex biochemical processes during postmortem aging. Oxygen and nutrient withdrawal following exsanguination is known to induce apoptosis, so that muscle cells inevitably engage towards apoptotic cell death. Thus, factors that regulate the process of apoptotic cell death of muscle cells are believed to influence the ultimate meat quality. Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs), as biomarkers for meat quality attributes, have been confirmed by many proteomic studies. Due to the anti-apoptotic and molecular chaperone functions, sHSPs can protect myofibrillar proteins from degradation, interfere with cellular signal transduction pathways, delay myofibrillar protein degradation by endogenous enzymes and extend the process of meat aging. In this review, we discuss the mechanism of their possible chaperone and anti-apoptotic roles involved in meat tenderness during the conversion of muscle to meat.

  13. Effect of Different Tendering Measures onCunninghamia lanceolata%不同抚育措施对杉木大径材培育效果的影响

    刘跃钧; 马海泉; 陈天华; 冯博杰; 傅兵; 鄢振武


    于2011年在浙江省庆元县和龙泉市的杉木人工林设立了3个小班进行试验,每木调查,2012年3月前完成间伐,然后采取“间后施肥”、“间后不施”、“不间不施”3种不同抚育措施,研究其对杉木胸径生长量和经济收入的影响。结果表明:以“间后施肥”的效果最好,两年杉木大径材平均胸径生长量比间伐前增加了4 cm,蓄积增长量比间伐前增加了66.75 m3/hm2,平均胸径增长量分别比“间后不施”和“不间不施”增加1.03 cm和3.43 cm,平均蓄积增长量分别比“间后不施”和“不间不施”增加15.45 m3/hm2和42.90 m3/hm2。%Three subcompartments were established in 2011 for test of different tending measures inCunninghamia lanceolata plantation of Qingyuan and Longquan of Zhejiang province. Complete enumeration was conducted in 2011 at permanent sample plots in each treatment of each subcompartment. Thinning was finished before March 2012, followed by three different tendering measures, such as fertilization after thinning, no fertilization after thinning, no fertilization no thinning. The result demonstrated that fertilization after thinning had the best effect on DBH and standing stock increment, with 4cm and 66.75 m3/ha more two years later. Mean DBH and standing stock increment of treatment of fertilization after thinning was 1.03cm and 3.43cm, 15.45 m3/ha and 42.90 m3/ha more than that of no fertilization after thinning, no fertilization no thinning.

  14. 藻酸盐印模材料在缓冲义齿压痛中的效果评价%The effect evaluation on buffering tenderness from dentures by alginate impression material

    王艳; 黄旭; 古力巴哈·买买提力


    目的:探讨藻酸盐印模材在缓冲义齿压痛中对义齿满意度的影响。方法:选取就诊的牙列缺损、牙列缺失患者146例,共146副全口、半口及可摘局部义齿,分为试验组和对照组,各73例,试验组:使用藻酸盐印模材料寻找压迫部位,对照组采用常规龙胆紫寻找压迫部位,调磨后调查患者对义齿修复的满意度。结果:试验组在咀嚼、舒适性和复诊次数方面较对照组均有所提高,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05),在稳固和语音方面比较,差异无统计学差异(P >0.05)。结论:藻酸盐印模材料在寻找义齿压迫部位方面可行,能减少患者复诊次数、减轻痛苦,提高患者满意度,值得在临床推广。%Objective To discuss the effect of alginate impression material after buffering tenderness from den-ture.Method 146 subjects were selected.A total of 146 complete dentures、semi -dentures and removable partial dentures.They were divided into experimental and control groups (each 73 patients).The experimental groups were using alginate impression mate-rial to find oppression site.Control group were using conventional gentian violet to find oppression site.To survey the patients′satis-faction after buffering the dentures.Results Compared with the control group,the satisfaction of mastication、comfort and number of subsequent visit was significantly improved in experimental group.The difference was statistically significant (P 0.05).Conclusion Alginate impression material is feasible in terms of looking dentures oppression site.It can reduce the number of subsequent visit,relieve pain,improve patient sat-isfaction,worthy of promotion.

  15. Caracterização do processo de rigor mortis em músculos de eqüinos e maciez da carne Caracterization of rigor mortis process of muscle horse and meat tenderness

    Tatiana Pacheco Rodrigues


    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa utilizou 12 eqüinos de diferentes idades, abatidos em um matadouro-frigorífico (SIF 1803 em Araguari-MG, e estudou a temperatura, pH, comprimento de sarcômero em diferentes intervalos de tempo após abate (1h, 5h, 8h, 10h, 12h, 15h e 24h e força de cisalhamento (maciez dos músculos Longissimus dorsi e Semitendinosus, com intuito de caracterizar o desenvolvimento do processo de rigor mortis de eqüídeos durante o processamento industrial. A temperatura da câmara fria variou de 10,2°C a 4,0°C e a temperatura média inicial das carcaças foi de 35,32°C e a final de 4,15°C. O pH inicial médio do músculo Longissimus dorsi foi 6,49 e o final 5,63, e para o músculo Semitendinosus o pH inicial médio foi 6,44 e o final 5,70. A menor medida de sarcômero observada em ambos os músculos foi na 15ª hora após abate, ou seja, 1,44µm e 1,41µm, respectivamente. A carne dos eqüídeos adultos foi mais dura (pThis work studied 12 horses at different ages butchered in a slaughterhouse in Minas Gerais State, Brazil (SIF 1803 and evaluated temperature, pH, sarcomere length in different periods after slaughter (1h, 5h, 8h, 10h, 12h, 15h, and 24 hours as well as the shear force (meat tenderness of the Longissimus dorsi and Semitendinosus muscles, aiming at characterizing the rigor mortis onset in the meat during industrial processing. The chilly room temperature varied from 10.2°C to 4.0°C, and the mean initial carcass temperature was 35.32°C and the final one was 4.15°C. The mean initial pH of Longissimus dorsi was 6.49 and the final one was 5.63; the mean initial pH of Semitendinosus was 6.44 and the final one was 5.70. The smallest sarcomere size obtained in both muscles occurred at 15 hours postmortem, and the sarcomere lengths were 1.44 µm and 1.41 µm, respectively. The meat from adult horses was tougher than that from young ones (p<0.05, and the Semitendinosus muscle was tougher than Longissimus dorsi muscle.

  16. Meat from wild ungulates: ensuring quality and hygiene of an increasing resource

    Massimo Trabalza Marinucci


    Full Text Available Wild ungulate populations are increasing in Europe and Italy, with a consequent increase in culling rates and availability of their meats. Objectives of this review were to evaluate the trends of availability of meat from wild ungulates in Italy, to review the present knowledge on nutritional properties, sensorial characteristics, and hygiene problems of wild ungulate meat and to examine the critical steps that influence their hygiene and quality. Wild ungulate meat in Italy derives mainly from wild boar, roe deer and red deer and its availability has been increasing in the last decade. Total consumption of wild ungulate meat is low (0.1-0.3 kg per capita/year, but in some regions rises to significant levels, especially for hunters’ families (1.0-4.0 kg per capita/year. Wild ungulate meats generally have a low fat content, although with a certain variability associated with gender, hunting season, age and physiological conditions, and a favourable fatty acid composition. In general, they are darker, less tender and characterised by a more intense and peculiar flavour than meats from domestic ruminants. However, these properties also show a great inter- and intra-specific variability. Risks for the consumer associated with contaminants (heavy metals, radionuclides, organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls and zoonoses are considered to be low. Critical steps from shooting in the field to the final marketing should be considered to ensure hygiene and quality of meats. Future research should focus on the variability of hunting modes, accuracy of shooting, field dressing and carcass processing, in order to understand how these practices influence the final microbiological and sensorial quality of wild ungulate meats.

  17. 78 FR 34589 - Descriptive Designation for Needle- or Blade-Tenderized (Mechanically Tenderized) Beef Products


    ....F., Buyck, M.J., Reagan, J.O. 1999. Beef Customer Satisfaction: Cooking Methods and Degree of... 77:653-660. Beef Customer Satisfaction: Cooking Method and Degree of Doneness Effects on the Top... consumers, hotels, restaurants, or similar institutions include validated cooking instructions that...

  18. 78 FR 48631 - Descriptive Designation for Needle- or Blade-Tenderized (Mechanically Tenderized) Beef Products


    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Rachel Edelstein, Assistant Administrator, Office of Policy and Program Development... race, color, national origin, gender, religion, age, disability, political beliefs, sexual...

  19. High Blood Pressure Increasing Worldwide

    ... page: High Blood Pressure Increasing Worldwide And health risks may appear even ... of people around the world with elevated or high blood pressure increases, so do the number of deaths linked ...

  20. Does residual force enhancement increase with increasing stretch magnitudes?

    Hisey, Brandon; Leonard, Tim R; Herzog, Walter


    It is generally accepted that force enhancement in skeletal muscles increases with increasing stretch magnitudes. However, this property has not been tested across supra-physiological stretch magnitudes and different muscle lengths, thus it is not known whether this is a generic property of skeletal muscle, or merely a property that holds for small stretch magnitudes within the physiological range. Six cat soleus muscles were actively stretched with magnitudes varying from 3 to 24 mm at three different parts of the force-length relationship to test the hypothesis that force enhancement increases with increasing stretch magnitude, independent of muscle length. Residual force enhancement increased consistently with stretch amplitudes on the descending limb of the force-length relationship up to a threshold value, after which it reached a plateau. Force enhancement did not increase with stretch amplitude on the ascending limb of the force-length relationship. Passive force enhancement was observed for all test conditions, and paralleled the behavior of the residual force enhancement. Force enhancement increased with stretch magnitude when stretching occurred at lengths where there was natural passive force within the muscle. These results suggest that force enhancement does not increase unconditionally with increasing stretch magnitude, as is generally accepted, and that increasing force enhancement with stretch appears to be tightly linked to that part of the force-length relationship where there is naturally occurring passive force.

  1. Análise e avaliação das especificações dos alimentos contidas em editais de chamadas públicas do PNAE | Analysis and Evaluation of the Food Specifications Contained in Public Calls for Tenders prepared by the PNAE

    Jeanice de Azevedo Aguiar


    Full Text Available A partir de 2009, especificamente após a promulgação da Lei nº 11.947/2009, os gestores do Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar – PNAE devem utilizar, no mínimo, 30% do total dos recursos financeiros recebidos do Governo Federal na aquisição de alimentos provenientes da agricultura e do empreendedor familiar rural. A compra dos alimentos deve ser realizada a partir de chamada pública, conforme a Lei nº 8.666/1993, requerendo que haja especificação do bem ou serviço a ser adquirido. O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi verificar o cumprimento da legislação vigente para o assunto pelos gestores do PNAE, quando da elaboração das chamadas públicas. A amostra foi composta por 201 editais de chamadas públicas, referentes ao período entre janeiro e julho de 2013, obtidos via eletrônica entre junho e julho de 2013. Os resultados indicaram não conformidades em todas as regiões pesquisadas, faltando informações básicas ao agricultor e empreendedor familiar rural sobre a qualificação dos alimentos nas chamadas públicas. Foi possível concluir que a maior parte dos gestores não tem observado a legislação vigente do PNAE, desconsideraram também, a questão da qualidade e segurança dos alimentos, situação constatada pelas deficiências verificadas nos editais de chamadas públicas, não sendo nesta pesquisa, perceptível a participação do nutricionista, apesar de 95% das EEx terem este profissional como responsável técnico. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- As of 2009, especially after the enactment of Law No. 11.947/2009, the managers of the National School Meal Program-PNAE must use at least 30% of the total funds received from the Federal Government, for purchasing food produced by agricultural and rural family entrepreneurs. The purchase of food must be subject to a public call for tenders, according to Law No. 8.666/1993, that must include

  2. Increasing tobacco taxes : A cheap tool to increase public health

    van Baal, Pieter H. M.; Brouwer, Werner B. F.; Hoogenveen, Rudolf T.; Feenstra, Talitha L.


    Introduction: Several studies have estimated health effects resulting from tobacco tax increases. However, studies on the cost effectiveness of tobacco taxes are scarce. The aim of this study was to estimate the cost effectiveness of tobacco tax increases from a health care perspective, explicitly c

  3. Korea's 2015 cigarette tax increases.

    Cherukupalli, Rajeev


    South Korea increased tobacco taxes in 2015 after a 10-year gap. This commentary suggests two lessons for public finance practitioners. Substantive tax increases are crucial to reducing tobacco use; particularly where prices are demonstrably lower and prevalence higher in comparison to other countries ranked similarly on economic development indicators. Second, as a rule of thumb, governments cannot afford to neglect the annual increases that ensure that tobacco taxes do not lose their efficacy over time.

  4. Increasing Access to Special Collections

    Ricky Erway


    Full Text Available In an environment where we increasingly have access to a collective collection of digitized books, special collections will become increasingly invisible if they are not accessible online. In an era of increasing expectations and decreasing budgets, finding ways to streamline some of our processes is the best way to enable us to do more with less. This report details a number of investigations into how access to special collections can be increased. It includes guidance running the gamut from digitization and rights management to policies and procedures.



    'DSR', the concession holder of Restaurant no. 2 (bldg. 504 - Meyrin site), has submitted to the Restaurant Supervisory Committee a request to increase certain prices. After close examination, the Committee has established that the proposed increases are compatible with the relevant price indexing mechanisms and other contractual conditions. The new prices will apply as from Monday, June 30, 2003.



    'AVENANCE', the concession holder of Restaurant no. 3 (bldg. 866 - Prévessin site), has submitted to the Restaurant Supervisory Committee a request to increase its prices. After close examination, the Committee has established that the proposed increases are compatible with the relevant price indexing mechanisms and other contractual conditions. The new prices will apply as from Monday, June 2, 2003.

  7. Assessing and Increasing Physical Activity

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Hayes, Lynda B.


    Increasing physical activity is a crucial component of any comprehensive approach to combat the growing obesity epidemic. This review summarizes recent behavioral research on the measurement of physical activity and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and provides directions for future research.

  8. Volatiles Which Increase Magma Viscosity

    Webb, S.


    The standard model of an erupting volcano is one in which the viscosity of a decompressing magma increases as the volatiles leave the melt structure to form bubbles. It has now been observed that the addition of the "volatiles" P, Cl and F result in an increase in silicate melt viscosity. This observation would mean that the viscosity of selected degassing magmas would decrease rather than increase. Here we look at P, Cl and F as three volatiles which increase viscosity through different structural mechanisms. In all three cases the volatiles increase the viscosity of peralkaline composition melts, but appear to always decrease the viscosity of peraluminous melts. Phosphorus causes the melt to unmix into a Na-P rich phase and a Na-poor silicate phase. Thus as the network modifying Na (or Ca) are removed to the phosphorus-rich melt, the matrix melt viscosity increases. With increasing amounts of added phosphorus (at network modifying Na ~ P) the addition of further phosphorus causes a decrease in viscosity. The addition of chlorine to Fe-free aluminosilicate melts results in an increase in viscosity. NMR data on these glass indicates that the chlorine sits in salt-like structures surrounded by Na and/or Ca. Such structures would remove network-modifying atoms from the melt structure and thus result in an increase in viscosity. The NMR spectra of fluorine-bearing glasses shows that F takes up at least 5 different structural positions in peralkaline composition melts. Three of these positions should result in a decrease in viscosity due to the removal of bridging oxygens. Two of the structural positons of F, however, should result in an increase in viscosity as they require the removal of network-modifying atoms from the melt structure (with one of the structures being that observed for Cl). This would imply that increasing amounts of F might result in an increase in viscosity. This proposed increase in viscosity with increasing F has now been experimentally confirmed.

  9. Increasing Positive Interactive Classroom Behavior

    Kotcher, Elaine; Doremus, Richard R.


    The question examined in this study was as follows: do teachers increase their positive classroom interactive behaviors as a result of training in systematic classroom observation techniques? (Authors/JA)

  10. Demand for Phenol Increases Steadily


    @@ Dramatic growth in output By the end of 2006 China's capacity to produce phenol had reached more than 600 thousand t/a. The total output was 523 thousand tons in 2006,an increase of 18.1% over 2005.

  11. Demand for SBR Increased Steadily

    Gao Yiwen


    @@ 1 Rapid consumption growth Consumption of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) in China was 747 thousand tons in 2006, an increase of 21% over 2005, with faster growth than the average rubber consumption growth.

  12. Is the incidence of temporomandibular disorder increased in polycystic ovary syndrome?

    Soydan, Sidika Sinem; Deniz, Kagan; Uckan, Sina; Unal, Aslı Dogruk; Tutuncu, Neslihan Bascıl


    The prevalence of temporomandibular disorders is higher among women than men (ratio 3:1 -9:1). Polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women, which is characterised by chronic low-grade inflammation and excess of androgenic hormones that lead to metabolic aberrations and ovarian dysfunction. Increased activities of various matrix metalloproteinases (particularly MMP-2 and 9) in the serum of these patients has been reported, and it has been hypothesised that high activities of MMP may contribute to loss of matrix and chronic inflammation of the fibrocartilage in temporomandibular disorders. Our aim was to evaluate the incidence of temopormandibular dysfunction in women with PCOS compared with an age-matched, disease-free, control group. We studied 50 patients with previously diagnosed PCOS and 50 volunteers who had normal menstrual cycles. We made a comprehensive clinical examination of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and muscles of mastication in both groups and recorded the Visual Analogue Scores (VAS) for pain. There were significant differences (ptemporomandibular disorders (n=43 (86%) in the PCOS group compared with n=12 24% in the control group), muscle tenderness(n=32 (64%) in the PCOS group compared with n=14 (28%) in the control group) and pain in the TMJ (mean (SD) VAS 2.9 (2.61) compared with 0.3 (1.56). We confirm the higher incidence and severity of disorders of the TMJ in patients with PCOS and suspect that chronic low-grade inflammation may play a part in the aetiology of the disease.


    Restaurant Supervisory Committee


    'AVENANCE', the concession holder of Restaurant no. 3 (bldg. 866 - Prévessin site), has submitted to the Restaurant Supervisory Committee a request to increase its prices. After close examination, the Committee has established that the proposed increases are compatible with the relevant price indexing mechanisms and other contractual conditions. The new prices will apply as from Monday, June 3, 2002. Restaurant Supervisory Committee, tel. 77551


    Lööf, Hans; Nabavi, Pardis


    Increased urbanization, global warming and sustainable growth belong to the major contemporary policy challenges. Today cities are home to more than 50% of the world population, the largest 600 urban centers generate about 60% of global GDP, and the agglomerated areas are responsible for 75% of world carbon emissions. The UN estimates that 70% of the world's growing population will live in cities by 2050. At the same time the world population is expected to increase from 7 billion people to 9...

  15. Pulsed electric field increases reproduction.

    Panagopoulos, Dimitris J


    Purpose To study the effect of pulsed electric field - applied in corona discharge photography - on Drosophila melanogaster reproduction, possible induction of DNA fragmentation, and morphological alterations in the gonads. Materials and methods Animals were exposed to different field intensities (100, 200, 300, and 400 kV/m) during the first 2-5 days of their adult lives, and the effect on reproductive capacity was assessed. DNA fragmentation during early- and mid-oogenesis was investigated by application of the TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling) assay. Sections of follicles after fixation and embedding in resins were observed for possible morphological/developmental abnormalities. Results The field increased reproduction by up to 30% by increasing reproductive capacity in both sexes. The effect increased with increasing field intensities. The rate of increase diminished at the strongest intensities. Slight induction of DNA fragmentation was observed exclusively in the nurse (predominantly) and follicle cells, and exclusively at the two most sensitive developmental stages, i.e., germarium and predominantly stage 7-8. Sections of follicles from exposed females at stages of early and mid-oogennesis other than germarium and stages 7-8 did not reveal abnormalities. Conclusions (1) The specific type of electric field may represent a mild stress factor, inducing DNA fragmentation and cell death in a small percentage of gametes, triggering the reaction of the animal's reproductive system to increase the rate of gametogenesis in order to compensate the loss of a small number of gametes. (2) The nurse cells are the most sensitive from all three types of egg chamber cells. (3) The mid-oogenesis checkpoint (stage 7-8) is more sensitive to this field than the early oogenesis one (germarium) in contrast to microwave exposure. (4) Possible therapeutic applications, or applications in increasing fertility, should be investigated.

  16. Increased chromosome radiosensitivity during pregnancy

    Ricoul, Michelle; Sabatier, Laure; Dutrillaux, Bernard [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, Laboratoire de Radiobiologie et Oncologie, DRR, DSV, Fontenay aux roses (France)


    It was necessary to consider the risks of exposure of pregnant women, not only in relation to the child, but also in relation to their own hypersensitivity. We have demonstrated that pregnancy increases radiosensitivity of chromosome in the mouse at the end of gestation. This is of importance since it may have implications on radioprotection of pregnant women and give experimental guidelines to the problems of hypersensitivity to drugs and cancer aggravation during pregnancy. Blood obtained from women at various times of pregnancy was exposed to ionizing radiations. By comparison to non-pregnant women, an increase in chromosome breakage was observed in metaphases from lymphocytes, after short-term culture in the presence of the serum of the same donor. Immediately after delivery, this increase in radiosensitivity disappeared. In a prospective study, serial analyses showed a very strong correlation between the amount of pregnancy hormones, progesterone in particular, and the increase in radiosensitivity. Pregnant women may have an increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation during the second half of their pregnancy. This study provides the first evidence in human that radiosensitivity may vary in relation to physiological conditions.

  17. Increasing work-time influence

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Garde, Anne Helene; Aust, Birgit


    This quasi-experimental study investigated how an intervention aiming at increasing eldercare workers' influence on their working hours affected the flexibility, variability, regularity and predictability of the working hours. We used baseline (n = 296) and follow-up (n = 274) questionnaire data......-operation with colleagues. In subgroup B and C, the participants ended up discussing the potential consequences of more work-time influence without actually implementing any changes. PRACTITIONER SUMMARY: Employee work-time influence may buffer the adverse effects of shift work. However, our intervention study suggested...... that while increasing the individual flexibility, increasing work-time influence may also result in decreased regularity of the working hours and less continuity in the care of clients and co-operation with colleagues....

  18. PMR Composites Of Increased Toughness

    Vannucci, Raymond D.; Bowles, Kenneth J.


    Toughness increased without sacrificing processability or hot strength. Resin composition provides best overall balance of composite toughness and retention of mechanical properties at 600 degree F (316 degree C) with processability obtained by substituting 20 mole percent of diamine used in PMR-15 resins with diamine containing twice number of flexible phenyl connecting groups.

  19. Increasing Positive Interactive Classroom Behavior.

    Kotcher, Elaine; Doremus, Richard R.

    During the spring of 1972 training workshops for 88 elementary and secondary teachers of the Great Neck Public Schools held to examine four hypotheses: 1) workshops in training teachers to observe classroom behavior would significantly increase these same teachers' positive classroom interactive behaviors consisting of teacher, pupil-pupil,…

  20. Increased Challenge with the Elderly.

    Wilson, Helen

    Research has shown that too little stress or stimulation can increase health risks. To determine the effectiveness of mild stimulation on the depression levels and feelings of self-worth of the elderly, 24 withdrawn nursing home residents participated in a non-judgemental 6-month art expression group. Half the group were assigned to a control…

  1. Increasing Enrollment through Benefit Segmentation.

    Goodnow, Betty


    The applicability of benefit segmentation, a market research technique which groups people according to benefits expected from a program offering, was tested at the College of DuPage. Preferences and demographic characteristics were analyzed and program improvements adopted, increasing enrollment by 20 percent. (Author/SK)

  2. Yohimbine increases human salivary secretion.

    Chatelut, E; Rispail, Y; Berlan, M; Montastruc, J L


    The effect of oral yohimbine (14 mg) on salivary secretion was evaluated in healthy volunteers. Yohimbine significantly increased salivary secretion when compared with placebo. This effect was significant from 60 min until 180 min after administration under our experimental conditions. Yohimbine (or alpha 2-adrenoceptor blocking agents) could have a potential interest in the treatment of dry mouths. PMID:2789932

  3. Demand for ink Increases Rapidly

    Song Guiqin


    @@ Output increased steadily China's ink sector has developed rapidlyin recent years.According to the NationalBureau of Statistics of China.China's ink output was 347.9 thousand tons in 2006,anincrease of 15.1% over 2005.

  4. Composição centesimal, perdas de peso e maciez de lombo (longissimus dorsi suíno submetido a diferentes tratamentos de congelamento e descongelamento Proximate analysis, weight losses and tenderness of pork loin (longissimus dorsi submitted to different freezing and thawing treatments

    Ivy Scorzi Cazelli PIRES


    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas a composição centesimal, as perdas de peso e a maciez de porções de carne suína (Longissimus dorsi grelhadas, submetidas a dois períodos de estocagem (15 e 60 dias e descongeladas a 7ºC e 25ºC. Constatou-se que os bifes contendo teores mais elevados de umidade correspondem aos tratamentos com 15 dias de estocagem congelada e descongelamento a 7ºC (59,54% e com 60 dias de estocagem congelada combinada com descongelamento a 25ºC (60,51%. Amostras armazenadas durante 60 dias apresentaram maior teor de minerais (5,58% em relação àquelas estocadas por 15 dias (4,51% (análise realizada em amostras grelhadas e pré-salgadas. Os teores de proteína e lipídios e a maciez não foram afetados por quaisquer dos procedimentos. A utilização de 25ºC para o descongelamento ocasionou maiores perdas de peso (40,19% que 7ºC (33,17%. Os resultados do presente estudo sugerem a aplicação de períodos curtos de estocagem congelada e descongelamento sob resfriamento.This paper evaluated the proximate analysis, the weight losses and the tenderness of grilled pork loin (Longissimus dorsi chops, submitted to two periods of storage (15 and 60 days and thawed at 7ºC or 25ºC. The higher contents of moisture were found in the pork loin samples kept frozen for 15 days and thawed at 7ºC (59.54% and in the ones kept frozen for 60 days with thawing at 25ºC (60.51%. Samples stored for 60 days presented higher minerals contents (5.58% in relation to those stored for 15 days (4.51% (the analysis was carried out with grilled and pre-salted portions. The different treatments did not influence the lipids and protein contents and the tenderness of the pork loin chops. The use of 25ºC for the thawing caused greater weight losses (40.19% than 7ºC (33.17%. The results of the present study suggest the application of short periods of frozen storage and thawing in the refrigerator.

  5. Efeito do colágeno na maciez da carne de bovinos de distintos grupos genéticos - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i1.664 Collagen effects in meat tenderness of bovines of different genetic groups - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i1.664

    Henrique Nunes de Oliveira


    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a influência do colágeno na maciez da carne de animais de diferentes grupos genéticos produzidos no sistema de produção do novilho superprecoce. Foram utilizados bezerros machos inteiros da raça Nelore, mestiços ½ Nelore x ½ Aberdeen Angus e mestiços ½ Nelore x ½ Simental. Após abate e resfriamento por 24 horas, foram retiradas amostras do músculo Longissimus dorsi, na região entre a 11a e a 13a costela, sendo que uma amostra foi congelada e as demais maturadas por 7 e 14 dias. Não houve diferença significativa (p > 0,01 entre os grupos genéticos para a quantidade e a solubilidade de colágeno e a força de cisalhamento. A quantidade e a solubilidade do colágeno não comprometeram a maciez da carne, indiferentemente do grupo genético utilizado e do tempo postmortem, tornando vantajosa a opção de se abaterem animais jovens.The aim of work was to analyze the collagen effect in meat tenderness of animals of different genetic groups produced by very young bullock production system. Male calves Nellore purebred, ½ Nellore x ½ Aberdeen Angus and ½ Nellore x ½ Simmental crossbred were used. After slaughter and cooling for 24 hours Longissimus dorsi samples were removed, between 11th and 13th ribs, one sample was frozen and the others ageing for 7 and 14 days. There was no difference (p > 0,01 between genetic groups for amount and heat soluble collagen and shear force values. The amount and solubility collagen don’t compromised the meat tenderness, indifferent of the genetic group used and postmortem period, becoming the early slaughter an advantageous option for meat production with desirable characteristics.

  6. Increase voted to NSF Budget

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The Subcommittee on Science, Research, and Technology of the House Committee on Science and Technology voted by a narrow margin on March 10 to increase the National Science Foundation (NSF) budget authorization by $30 million, pushing the total budget to $1099.5 million. The increase is targeted solely for science and engineering education (see table). Although the total for research and related activities in NSF remained the same as in President Reagan's budget request, the subcommittee shifted funds among directorates, including an $8.9 million decrease from the budget of the Directorate for Astronomical, Atmospheric, Earth, and Ocean Sciences (AAEO). The subcommittee action also calls for $1.6 million to be allocated to United States participation in the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (NASA).

  7. Increasing Accuracy in Environmental Measurements

    Jacksier, Tracey; Fernandes, Adelino; Matthew, Matt; Lehmann, Horst


    Human activity is increasing the concentrations of green house gases (GHG) in the atmosphere which results in temperature increases. High precision is a key requirement of atmospheric measurements to study the global carbon cycle and its effect on climate change. Natural air containing stable isotopes are used in GHG monitoring to calibrate analytical equipment. This presentation will examine the natural air and isotopic mixture preparation process, for both molecular and isotopic concentrations, for a range of components and delta values. The role of precisely characterized source material will be presented. Analysis of individual cylinders within multiple batches will be presented to demonstrate the ability to dynamically fill multiple cylinders containing identical compositions without isotopic fractionation. Additional emphasis will focus on the ability to adjust isotope ratios to more closely bracket sample types without the reliance on combusting naturally occurring materials, thereby improving analytical accuracy.

  8. Production Increased with Higher Prices

    Feng shiling


    @@ In the first quarter of 2007, China's petroleum and chemical industry remained up trend in production.Among the 66 types of petrochemical products that have been tracked by CPCIA (China Petroleum and Chemical Industry Association), the output of 58, types increased compared with the same period of 2006, accounting for 87.9% of the total, and the output of 19 types, in particular, grew by over20%, accounting for 28.8%.

  9. Price Increases from Online Privacy

    Ward, Michael R; Chen, Yu-Ching


    Consumers value keeping some information about them private from potential marketers. E-commerce dramatically increases the potential for marketers to accumulate otherwise private information about potential customers. Online marketers claim that this information enables them to better market their products. Policy makers are currently drafting rules to regulate the way in which these marketers can collect, store, and share this information. However, there is little evidence yet either of con...

  10. [Increasing interest in cold therapy].

    Johansson, Bengt W


    Hypothermia was used early in the treatment of malignant tumors. New evidence shows that hypothermia protects normal tissues from the toxic effects of radiation and chemotherapeutic drugs. Hypothermia in oncological research is calculated to increase the therapeutic ratio by protecting normal tissue while retaining the antineoplastic effect. Animal results indicate that removal of the primary tumor using cryosurgery diminishes metastatic tumor growth more than does surgical excision.

  11. Experiencing discrimination increases risk taking.

    Jamieson, Jeremy P; Koslov, Katrina; Nock, Matthew K; Mendes, Wendy Berry


    Prior research has revealed racial disparities in health outcomes and health-compromising behaviors, such as smoking and drug abuse. It has been suggested that discrimination contributes to such disparities, but the mechanisms through which this might occur are not well understood. In the research reported here, we examined whether the experience of discrimination affects acute physiological stress responses and increases risk-taking behavior. Black and White participants each received rejecting feedback from partners who were either of their own race (in-group rejection) or of a different race (out-group rejection, which could be interpreted as discrimination). Physiological (cardiovascular and neuroendocrine) changes, cognition (memory and attentional bias), affect, and risk-taking behavior were assessed. Significant participant race × partner race interactions were observed. Cross-race rejection, compared with same-race rejection, was associated with lower levels of cortisol, increased cardiac output, decreased vascular resistance, greater anger, increased attentional bias, and more risk-taking behavior. These data suggest that perceived discrimination is associated with distinct profiles of physiological reactivity, affect, cognitive processing, and risk taking, implicating direct and indirect pathways to health disparities.

  12. Revising probability estimates: Why increasing likelihood means increasing impact.

    Maglio, Sam J; Polman, Evan


    Forecasted probabilities rarely stay the same for long. Instead, they are subject to constant revision-moving upward or downward, uncertain events become more or less likely. Yet little is known about how people interpret probability estimates beyond static snapshots, like a 30% chance of rain. Here, we consider the cognitive, affective, and behavioral consequences of revisions to probability forecasts. Stemming from a lay belief that revisions signal the emergence of a trend, we find in 10 studies (comprising uncertain events such as weather, climate change, sex, sports, and wine) that upward changes to event-probability (e.g., increasing from 20% to 30%) cause events to feel less remote than downward changes (e.g., decreasing from 40% to 30%), and subsequently change people's behavior regarding those events despite the revised event-probabilities being the same. Our research sheds light on how revising the probabilities for future events changes how people manage those uncertain events. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. The Finance Committee is invited to authorize CERN to negotiate on behalf of the Participating Institutes of the CMS Collaboration a contract, without competitive tendering, for the procurement of 200 scintillator sheets for the Outer Barrel of the CMS Hadron Detector from BICRON (USA) for a total cost of 285 000 US dollars, not subject to revision. At the present rate of exchange, this amount is e quivalent to approximately 439 000 Swiss francs.


    This document concerns the award of a contract for the supply of 2522 austenitic steel shells for the cold masses of the LHC superconducting dipole magnets. Following a market survey carried out among 158 firms in nineteen Member States and seven firms in Japan, a call for tenders (IT-2468/LHC/LHC) was sent on 16 August 1999 to eight firms and one consortium consisting of two firms, in six Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received five tenders. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the consortium ICARUS (BE) / BUTTING (DE), the lowest bidder, for the supply of 2522 austenitic steel shells for the cold masses of the LHC superconducting dipole magnets for a total amount of 18 723 773 euros (29 962 831 Swiss francs), subject to revision for contractual deliveries after 31 December 2001, with an option for the supply of up to 126 additional austenitic steel shells, for a total amount of 935 446 euros (1 496 953 Swiss francs), subject to revision for contractua...

  14. Increase Productivity Through Knowledge Management

    Gavrikova, N. A.; Dolgih, I. N.; Dyrina, E. N.


    Increase in competition level requires companies to improve the efficiency of work force use characterized by labor productivity. Professional knowledge of staff and its experience play the key role in it. The results of Extrusion Line operator’s working time analysis are performed in this article. The analysis revealed that the reasons of working time ineffective use connected with inadequate information exchange and knowledge management in the company. Authors suggest the way to solve this problem: the main sources of knowledge in engineering enterprise have been defined, the conditions of success and the stages of knowledge management control have been stated.

  15. Prostacyclin Increases Portal Venous Flow.


    response curve . We2 constructed a dose response curve by using increasing doses of PGI (0.005, 0.05, 0.5, and 5.0 ug/kg) given through the left atrial...atropine 0 40- +1 S20- X ( 0- * -20 -40 , 0.005 0.05 0.5 5.0 DOSE jig/kg Figure 2A (top). The log dose response curve of femoral artery pressure (FAP...Figure 2B (bottom). The log dose response curve of {. pulmonary artery pressure (PAP). Both figures show the maximum . deviation from baseline

  16. Public knowledge about AIDS increasing.

    Campbell, M J; Waters, W E


    In response to concern over the perceived limited effectiveness of Department of Health and Social Security (UK) advertising campaigns to inform the public of the basic facts of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), a prospective questionnaire study was undertaken in Southampton, England to test the effectiveness of government education prior to a January, 1987 government television/leaflet advertising campaign. 300 questionnaires about AIDS were mailed in December of 1986 to a sample drawn from electoral rolls. The response rate was 61%. Most of the questions were drawn from material covered in the campaign. The results seemed to indicate a small overall increase in knowledge about AIDS. Some changes from a June survey were noted, e.g.: more people were aware that AIDS is a virus for which there is no cure and that it is not readily transmitted by sharing washing, eating or drinking utensils; more people believed that the statement that women are at greater risk for catching AIDS is false. Respondents were generally favorable to the government's continued use of television, even with explicit language, and to its use of the schools, for AIDS education. Many were not aware of the dangers to intravenous drug users or of the symptoms of AIDS. Other surveys have shown an increasing knowledge of AIDS dangers. It is possible that television coverage of the problem will continue to be necessary, in order that less literate populations be reached. Further AIDS health education in general is needed.

  17. Increasing entropy for colloidal stabilization

    Mo, Songping; Shao, Xuefeng; Chen, Ying; Cheng, Zhengdong


    Stability is of paramount importance in colloidal applications. Attraction between colloidal particles is believed to lead to particle aggregation and phase separation; hence, stability improvement can be achieved through either increasing repulsion or reducing attraction by modifying the fluid medium or by using additives. Two traditional mechanisms for colloidal stability are electrostatic stabilization and steric stabilization. However, stability improvement by mixing attractive and unstable particles has rarely been considered. Here, we emphasize the function of mixing entropy in colloidal stabilization. Dispersion stability improvement is demonstrated by mixing suspensions of attractive nanosized titania spheres and platelets. A three-dimensional phase diagram is proposed to illustrate the collaborative effects of particle mixing and particle attraction on colloidal stability. This discovery provides a novel method for enhancing colloidal stability and opens a novel opportunity for engineering applications.

  18. Increase in composite binder activity

    Fediuk, R.; Smoliakov, A.; Stoyushko, N.


    The binder of portland cement (51-59 wt.%), fly ash of thermal power stations (3644 wt.%), limestone crushing waste (4-9 wt.%) and dry hyper plasticizer (0.2 wt.%) has been created. It can be used in the building materials industry for production of high-strength concrete. The composite binder is obtained by co-milling of the components in vario-planetary mill to a specific surface area of 550-600 m2/kg. The technical result is the possibility of obtaining a composite binder with significant replacement of cement with industrial waste, cost-effective and superior to portland cement for construction and technical properties, increased activity. This allows producing concrete for walling with a compressive strength of 100 MPa, while using more than 50% of industrial waste.

  19. Moire interferometry with increased sensitivity

    Han, Bongtae; Post, Daniel

    The basic sensitivity of moire interferometry was increased beyond the previously conceived theoretical limit. This was accomplished by creating the virtual reference grating inside a refractive medium instead of air, thus shortening the wavelength of light. A very compact four-beam moire interferometer in a refractive medium was developed for microscopic viewing, which produced a basic sensitivity of 208 nm per fringe order, corresponding to moire with 4800 lines per mm. Its configuration made it inherently stable and relatively insensitive to environmental disturbances. An optical microscope was employed as the image recording system to obtain high spatial resolution. The method was demonstrated for deformation of a thick graphite/epoxy composite at the 0/90 deg ply interface.

  20. Propofol directly increases tau phosphorylation.

    Robert A Whittington

    Full Text Available In Alzheimer's disease (AD and other tauopathies, the microtubule-associated protein tau can undergo aberrant hyperphosphorylation potentially leading to the development of neurofibrillary pathology. Anesthetics have been previously shown to induce tau hyperphosphorylation through a mechanism involving hypothermia-induced inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A activity. However, the effects of propofol, a common clinically used intravenous anesthetic, on tau phosphorylation under normothermic conditions are unknown. We investigated the effects of a general anesthetic dose of propofol on levels of phosphorylated tau in the mouse hippocampus and cortex under normothermic conditions. Thirty min following the administration of propofol 250 mg/kg i.p., significant increases in tau phosphorylation were observed at the AT8, CP13, and PHF-1 phosphoepitopes in the hippocampus, as well as at AT8, PHF-1, MC6, pS262, and pS422 epitopes in the cortex. However, we did not detect somatodendritic relocalization of tau. In both brain regions, tau hyperphosphorylation persisted at the AT8 epitope 2 h following propofol, although the sedative effects of the drug were no longer evident at this time point. By 6 h following propofol, levels of phosphorylated tau at AT8 returned to control levels. An initial decrease in the activity and expression of PP2A were observed, suggesting that PP2A inhibition is at least partly responsible for the hyperphosphorylation of tau at multiple sites following 30 min of propofol exposure. We also examined tau phosphorylation in SH-SY5Y cells transfected to overexpress human tau. A 1 h exposure to a clinically relevant concentration of propofol in vitro was also associated with tau hyperphosphorylation. These findings suggest that propofol increases tau phosphorylation both in vivo and in vitro under normothermic conditions, and further studies are warranted to determine the impact of this anesthetic on the acceleration of

  1. Scientific progress as increasing verisimilitude.

    Niiniluoto, Ilkka


    According to the foundationalist picture, shared by many rationalists and positivist empiricists, science makes cognitive progress by accumulating justified truths. Fallibilists, who point out that complete certainty cannot be achieved in empirical science, can still argue that even successions of false theories may progress toward the truth. This proposal was supported by Karl Popper with his notion of truthlikeness or verisimilitude. Popper's own technical definition failed, but the idea that scientific progress means increasing truthlikeness can be expressed by defining degrees of truthlikeness in terms of similarities between states of affairs. This paper defends the verisimilitude approach against Alexander Bird who argues that the "semantic" definition (in terms of truth or truthlikeness alone) is not sufficient to define progress, but the "epistemic" definition referring to justification and knowledge is more adequate. Here Bird ignores the crucial distinction between real progress and estimated progress, explicated by the difference between absolute (and usually unknown) degrees of truthlikeness and their evidence-relative expected values. Further, it is argued that Bird's idea of returning to the cumulative model of growth requires an implausible trick of transforming past false theories into true ones.

  2. Vocal attractiveness increases by averaging.

    Bruckert, Laetitia; Bestelmeyer, Patricia; Latinus, Marianne; Rouger, Julien; Charest, Ian; Rousselet, Guillaume A; Kawahara, Hideki; Belin, Pascal


    Vocal attractiveness has a profound influence on listeners-a bias known as the "what sounds beautiful is good" vocal attractiveness stereotype [1]-with tangible impact on a voice owner's success at mating, job applications, and/or elections. The prevailing view holds that attractive voices are those that signal desirable attributes in a potential mate [2-4]-e.g., lower pitch in male voices. However, this account does not explain our preferences in more general social contexts in which voices of both genders are evaluated. Here we show that averaging voices via auditory morphing [5] results in more attractive voices, irrespective of the speaker's or listener's gender. Moreover, we show that this phenomenon is largely explained by two independent by-products of averaging: a smoother voice texture (reduced aperiodicities) and a greater similarity in pitch and timbre with the average of all voices (reduced "distance to mean"). These results provide the first evidence for a phenomenon of vocal attractiveness increases by averaging, analogous to a well-established effect of facial averaging [6, 7]. They highlight prototype-based coding [8] as a central feature of voice perception, emphasizing the similarity in the mechanisms of face and voice perception.

  3. The increasing burden of depression

    Lépine J-P


    Full Text Available Jean-Pierre Lépine1, Mike Briley21Hôpital Lariboisière Fernand Widal, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris Unité INSERM 705 CNRS UMR 8206, Université Paris Diderot, Paris, France; 2NeuroBiz Consulting and Communication, Castres, FranceAbstract: Recent epidemiological surveys conducted in general populations have found that the lifetime prevalence of depression is in the range of 10% to 15%. Mood disorders, as defined by the World Mental Health and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, have a 12-month prevalence which varies from 3% in Japan to over 9% in the US. A recent American survey found the prevalence of current depression to be 9% and the rate of current major depression to be 3.4%. All studies of depressive disorders have stressed the importance of the mortality and morbidity associated with depression. The mortality risk for suicide in depressed patients is more than 20-fold greater than in the general population. Recent studies have also shown the importance of depression as a risk factor for cardiovascular death. The risk of cardiac mortality after an initial myocardial infarction is greater in patients with depression and related to the severity of the depressive episode. Greater severity of depressive symptoms has been found to be associated with significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality including cardiovascular death and stroke. In addition to mortality, functional impairment and disability associated with depression have been consistently reported. Depression increases the risk of decreased workplace productivity and absenteeism resulting in lowered income or unemployment. Absenteeism and presenteeism (being physically present at work but functioning suboptimally have been estimated to result in a loss of $36.6 billion per year in the US. Worldwide projections by the World Health Organization for the year 2030 identify unipolar major depression as the leading cause of disease burden

  4. 乌江彭水水电站导流洞第一标段洞身混凝土施工技术%Concrete construction technique for lining of diversion tunnel ( No. 1 tender section) of Pengshui Hydropower Station on Wujiang River

    李小红; 卯战革; 孙洪涛


    在乌江彭水水电站导流洞第一标段洞身混凝土衬砌施工中采用了自制移动式钢筋台车,实现了大型断面的钢筋安装,并采用移动式全断面钢模台车、移动式半断面钢模台车、人工立模等工艺进行了混凝土衬砌中模板的施工以及大型马蹄形断面的导流洞混凝土衬砌,加快了施工进度、提高了施工效率,降低了施工成本,增强了施工的安全性,因而可在类似工程中推广.%During the construction of the concrete lining for the diversion tunnel (No. 1 tender section) of Pengshui Hydropower Station on Wujiang River, the reinforcement assembling for large section is realized with a kind of self-made movable trolley for the assembling. Moreover, the technologies of movable full-section and half-section steel formwork carriers and manual formwork erection, etc. are also applied to the construction of formwork for the concrete lining and the concrete lining for the large Ushaped section of the tunnel with quickened construction progress, enhanced construction efficiency, lowered construction cost and higher construction safety, which can be widely popularized to the similar projects concerned.

  5. Evaluation of clinical and laboratory findings of pediatric and adult patients with oropharyngeal tularemia in Turkey: a combination of surgical drainage and antibiotic therapy increases treatment success.

    Gozel, Mustafa Gokhan; Engin, Aynur; Altuntas, Emine Elif; Salk, İsmail; Kaya, Ali; Celik, Cem; Dokmetas, Ilyas; Bakir, Mehmet; Elaldi, Nazif


    We analyzed the clinical and laboratory findings of both pediatric and adult patients with oropharyngeal tularemia. We also compared the therapeutic outcomes of patients who underwent surgical drainage of lymph nodes early or late during antibiotic therapy. A total of 68 patients with oropharyngeal tularemia, including 26 children and 42 adults, were enrolled in this study. The average duration between symptom onset and hospital admission was 20.8 days (4-60 days) in the pediatric group and 32.6 days (4-90 days) in the adult group (P = 0.009). The most frequently observed clinical symptoms were sore throat (100% and 100%), fever (96.2% and 90.5%), tonsillitis (69.2% and 78.6%), and rash (15.4% and 11.9%) in the pediatric and adult groups, respectively. However, the frequencies of erythema, tenderness, and fluctuant of enlarged lymph nodes were significantly higher in the adult group than in the pediatric group (P = 0.005, P = 0.029, and P = 0.041, respectively). Treatment failure was observed in 2 (7.7%) pediatric patients and 4 (9.5%) adult patients, for a total of 6 (8.8%) treatment failures in the study group. Similar clinical findings and treatment outcomes were observed in both groups. We concluded that a combination of surgical drainage and antibiotic therapy increases treatment success for patients diagnosed with oropharyngeal tularemia.

  6. Impaired brachial artery flow-mediated dilation and increased carotid intima-media thickness in rheumatoid arthritis patients

    FAN Chun-yan; ZHANG Zhi-yi; MEI Yi-fang; WU Chang-jun; SHEN Bao-zhong


    Background Carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation percentage (FMD%) are common parameters used for detecting subclinical atherosclerosis.This study compared subclinical atherosclerosis of the carotid and brachial arteries in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and healthy controls using high resolution ultrasonography.We also investigated their correlation with clinical factors and the association between FMD% and CIMT.Methods One hundred and two RA patients and 46 age-gender matched healthy controls were included in the study.FMD of the brachial artery and CIMT were measured ultrasonographically.Patients with diabetes mellitus,hypertension,renal failure,history of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease were excluded.Subjects who were receiving or used high dose steroids were also excluded.Results The CIMT was significantly higher in patients than that in the control group ((0.697±0.053) vs.(0.554±0.051) mm,P <0.001),whereas brachial artery FMD% was lower in patients than that in the controls ((5.454±2.653)% vs.(8.477±2.851)%,P <0.001).CIMT was related to age,disease duration,tender and swollen joint score,C-reactive protein,systolic blood pressure and high-density lipoprotein.However,FMD% was only association with systolic blood pressure.There was no significant correlation between CIMT and FMD%.Conclusions Compared with the healthy control subjects,RA patients without clinically evident cardiovascular disease had subclinical atherosclerosis in terms of impaired FMD% and increased CIMT.FMD% and CIMT may measure a different stage of subclinical atherosclerosis in RA patients.

  7. Increased VLDL in nephrotic patients results from a decreased catabolism while increased LDL results from increased synthesis

    de Sain-van der Velden, M; Kaysen, GA; Barrett, HA; Stellaard, F; Gadellaa, MM; Voorbij, HA; Reijngoud, DJ; Rabelink, TJ


    Increased very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) in nephrotic patients results from a decreased catabolism while increased low density lipoprotein (LDL) results from increased synthesis. Hyperlipidemias a hallmark of nephrotic syndrome that has been associated with increased risk for ischemic heart dis

  8. Pelvic floor tenderness in the etiology of superficial dyspareunia.

    Yong, Paul J; Mui, Justin; Allaire, Catherine; Williams, Christina


    Objectif : Calculer la prévalence de la sensibilité du plancher pelvien au sein de la population des femmes qui connaissent des douleurs pelviennes et déterminer ses implications pour ce qui est des symptômes de la douleur pelvienne. Méthodes : Nous avons mené une analyse rétrospective auprès de patientes connaissant des douleurs pelviennes au sein d’un centre spécialisé tertiaire. La sensibilité du plancher pelvien a été définie comme étant une sensibilité du muscle releveur de l’anus ressentie au moins d’un côté au cours d’un examen pelvien mené au moyen d’un seul doigt. La prévalence de la sensibilité du plancher pelvien au sein de cette cohorte de femmes connaissant des douleurs pelviennes a été comparée à la même prévalence au sein d’une cohorte de femmes exemptes de douleurs fréquentant une clinique de gynécologie. Chez les femmes connaissant des douleurs pelviennes, une régression multiple a été menée en vue d’identifier les variables qui étaient associées de façon indépendante à la sensibilité du plancher pelvien. Résultats : La prévalence de la sensibilité du plancher pelvien était de 40 % (75/189) au sein de la cohorte « douleurs pelviennes »; elle était donc considérablement supérieure à la prévalence de 13 % (4/32) qui a été constatée au sein de la cohorte « absence de douleur » (RC, 4,61; IC à 95 %, 1,55 - 13,7, P = 0,005). Dans le cadre de la régression logistique multiple, la dyspareunie superficielle (RC, 4,45; IC à 95 %, 1,86 - 10,7, P = 0,001), la douleur ressentie au niveau de la paroi abdominale (RC, 4,04; IC à 95 %, 1,44 - 11,3, P = 0,005) et la sensibilité de la base de la vessie (RC, 4,65; IC à 95 %, 1,87 - 11,6, P = 0,001) étaient associées de façon indépendante à la sensibilité du plancher pelvien. Cette dernière était tout aussi présente chez les femmes qui connaissaient une endométriose sous-jacente que chez les femmes qui ne connaissaient pas une telle pathologie. Conclusion : La sensibilité du plancher pelvien est courante chez les femmes qui connaissent des douleurs pelviennes, en présence ou non d’une endométriose, et contribue à la dyspareunie superficielle. Elle a également été associée à la douleur ressentie au niveau de la paroi abdominale et à la sensibilité de la base de la vessie, ce qui semble indiquer que la sensibilisation du système nerveux est impliquée dans son étiologie.

  9. Love me tender – Transition vers où ?

    Solofo Randrianja


    Full Text Available RÉSUMÉDepuis le coup d’État de 2009, la transition menée par Andry Rajoelina, dure malgré l’absence de tout mandat électif. Même si l’inertie de cette situation est parfois relativisée par des pressions nationales ou extérieures, elle est légitimée par la passivité de la résistance et par des promesses récurrentes d’élections futures. Cependant, ces trois années nous permettent au moins de cerner la vision des autorités actuelles quant au développement de Madagascar. Les gouvernants de facto semblent baser ce développement sur l’exploitation des ressources minières; ils inscrivent ainsi le pays dans une politique menant à l’effondrement du reste de l’économie ainsi qu’à la dilapidation du capital environnemental et humain. Or, ce choix fait de Madagascar une victime facile de la « malédiction des matières premières » dont une minorité seulement profite et dont les conséquences à long terme sont désastreuses. L’ensemble de la société est alors amené à s’interroger sur les valeurs sur lesquelles elle entend bâtir les vertus civiques et sur la capacité de la « transition » à mener le pays sur les rails du développement durable basé sur une démocratie stable. ABSTRACTFollowing the March 2009 coup, the government led by former ‘disc jockey’ Andry Rajoelina, has managed to perpetuate in the absence of any elections. Several reasons explain this longevity, of which the lack of legitimacy of his undertaking which has led to passive resistance. The authorities however, do want to prepare elections to legitimize their power. Being in command of the State, these authorities benefit from the administrative privilege of organising elections. This would allow them to be elected, according to well-established mechanisms. The inte­gration of members of the opposition into the institutions of transition illustrates the relative failure of this strategy; failure due to internal pressure and the reticence of international donors. Nevertheless these three years allow us to determine the visions that the de facto leaders hold of development on the Grande Ile. To achieve their goals, they count in particular on making use of the ‘manna’ from mining, which will flow from several mining companies in a few months. Several warning signs serve to indicate that Madagascar is a victim of the ‘curse of raw materials’ and will be even more so in the future. While this strengthens the militarisation of political power, this curse emerges in a worrying fashion in at least three ways: i the collapse of the real and informal economies not linked to the mining sector; ii the squandering of natural capital with the hurried exportation of raw materials with little value added (the resources acquired thanks to the sale of mineral and more gen­eral natural resources are currently invested in sectors that do not provide social benefits in the long term. They serve, beyond the personal enrichment of the members of the ruling class, to foster populism through a system of rents and prebends. The goal is to remain in power at the expense of sustainable development; iii the squandering of human capital through de-scholarisation and the perpetuation of the collapse of the school and university systems, demonstrating that the training of youth is considered more of an obstacle than an asset to sustainable development. This transitional government pursues unambiguous objectives, which benefit only a minority. These objectives appear clearly in the behaviour of numerous leaders. One can therefore ask oneself on what values can society build civic virtues. This governance therefore calls into question the nature of ‘transition’ and its capacity to lead the country on the road to a sustainable development based on a stable democracy.

  10. Influential Factors in Estimating and Tendering for Construction Work

    Choon Toh Tien


    Full Text Available Cost estimation, bid/no bid decision, estimating accuracy, and cost overrun are the four main cost estimating issues (MCEI investigated by many previous researchers from different parts of the world for decades. Factors relating to client characteristics, consultant and design parameters, contractor attributes, project characteristics, contract procedures and procurement methods, and external market conditions [1] are examined for their influences on those four MCEI separately. However, very little attention is paid on the comparison of factors rankings across those four MCEI. Results from comparing those factors rankings improve the understandings on cost estimating issues. Thus, this study aims to compare the factors rankings across the four MCEI and evaluate the degree of agreement between the four sets of ranks for their influential factors. Four previous studies, each examining factors affecting each of the four MCEI are selected through literature survey for analysis. Influential factors from each previous study are assigned to their related categories: client, consultant, contractor, project, contract, and environment. Kendall’s coefficient of concordance is used to assess interjudge reliability. The computed correlation indicates a moderate degree of association between the four sets of ranks. It is found that the four MCEI are influenced by different factors with different ranks and hence should be treated as different MCEI and be managed differently.

  11. Eesti sai OIF-i vaatlejaliikmeks / Tõnu Tender, Tiina Jaksman

    Tender, Tõnu, 1965-


    Eesti võeti rahvusvahelise frankofoonia organisatsiooni (OIF) vaatlejaliikmeks. OIF ühendab riike ja piirkondi, mille ametlik keel või haridussüsteemis traditsiooniliselt õpetatav keel on prantsuse keel

  12. Tender offers in South America: Are abnormal returns really high?

    Darcy Fuenzalida


    Full Text Available Diferentes estudios realizados en mercados de capital desarrollados han revelado tasas de retorno positivas inusuales de por lo menos 15% durante la fecha de anuncio de la oferta pública de adquisición de acciones. Aunque casi no se han llevado a cabo estudios sobre los mercados bursátiles en Sudamérica, algunos estudios han reportado tasas de retorno positivas inusuales en un rango del 25% al 50%, las cuales están relacionadas con el anuncio de la primera oferta de adquisición. En el presente estudio, se argumenta que las tasas de retorno positivas inusuales estimadas en los mercados emergentes son altas porque los estudios se han basado en un mercado de capitales totalmente segmentado aplicando el modelo de mercado y utilizando un índice del mercado bursátil local. Al considerar la integración parcial entre los cinco mercados emergentes en Sudamérica, se demuestra que efectivamente existen tasas de retorno positivas inusuales antes, durante y después de la fecha de anuncio de la primera oferta de adquisición. Sin embargo, el retorno positivo inusual asociado a la fecha del anuncio se encuentra en el orden del 8%. Utilizando un modelo de mercado que considere la integración parcial y el riesgo a la baja, se obtiene una tasa de retorno inusual ligeramente mayor. Estos resultados señalan una menor tasa de retorno positiva inusual en la muestra de las empresas sudamericanas incluidas en el estudio.

  13. 14 CFR 381.13 - Price increases.


    ... REGULATIONS SPECIAL EVENT TOURS § 381.13 Price increases. (a) Should the tour operator increase a participant's tour price by more than 10 percent (aggregate of all increases to that participant), that... refund within 14 days after the cancellation. (b) The tour operator shall not increase the tour price...

  14. 绵羊嫩度相关基因mRNA表达量荧光定量PCR检测方法的建立%The establishment of fluorescent quantitative PCR method for the detection of the tenderness related gene expression in sheep

    黄雅娟; 高爱武; 杨金丽; 王海荣; 侯先志; 考桂兰; 苗海明


    Objective: To establish a method which is used to detect the gene expression of sheep calpain family genes(Calpainl, Calpain2, P94, CAST) and cathepsin family genes(Cathepsin B, Cathepsin D, Cathepsin L). Method: Gene sequences from NCBI is used to design primers using DNAman software. The amplified fragments were detected by T-A clone detection to ensure the specificity and integring of the PCR products. Then the primers were used to check the expression of target genes by real time PCR. Result: Real-time PCR optimum cycle parameters for predegenerated 94 %, 4 min. 94 %, 58 ℃, 45 s, 72 ℃, 1 min. After 40 cycles 72 %, 5 min. Conclusion: A method of real time PCR established successfully and can be used for the detection of mRNA expression of tenderness related genes in sheep.%目的:建立检测绵羊钙蛋白酶家族几种基因(Calpain1、Calpain2、P94、CAST)和组织蛋白酶家族几种基因(Cathepsin B、Cathepsin D、Cathepsin L)mRNA表达量的方法。方法:在NCBI中查找出基因序列,根据引物设计原则利用DNAman软件设计引物。经T-A克隆检测引物扩增片段正确,再将其用于实时荧光定量PCR(Real-time PCR)。结果:Real-time PCR最适循环参数为预变性94℃4 min,94℃30 s,58℃45 s,72℃1 min,经过40个循环后72℃5 min延伸。结论:成功地建立了检测绵羊嫩度相关基因mRNA表达量的实时荧光定量PCR方法。该方法灵敏度高,特异性强,准确可靠。完全适用于绵羊嫩度相关基因mRNA表达量检测。

  15. Increased rheumatoid factor and deep venous thrombosis

    Meyer-Olesen, Christine L; Nielsen, Sune F; Nordestgaard, Børge G


    BACKGROUND: The risk of deep venous thrombosis is increased in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. We tested the hypothesis that increased concentrations of rheumatoid factor are associated with increased risk of deep venous thrombosis in individuals without autoimmune rheumatic disease...... venous thrombosis. CONCLUSIONS: Increased rheumatoid factor in the general population was associated with up to 3-fold increased long-term risk and up to 9-fold increased 1-year risk of deep venous thrombosis....... was incident deep venous thrombosis. There were no losses to follow-up. RESULTS: During 368381 person-years, 670 individuals developed deep venous thrombosis. A rheumatoid factor concentration ≥ vs venous thrombosis, with multivariable adjusted hazard...

  16. 3 Ways to Increase Positive Emotions

    ... Healthy Breakfasts Shyness 3 Ways to Increase Positive Emotions KidsHealth > For Teens > 3 Ways to Increase Positive ... to give yourself a boost. Track Your Positive Emotions Name the positive emotions you're already familiar ...

  17. Having Rheumatoid Arthritis May Increase Heart Risk

    ... Having Rheumatoid Arthritis May Increase Heart Risk Treating inflammation linked to ... TUESDAY, Nov. 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- People with rheumatoid arthritis may have an increased risk for a heart ...

  18. Many Private Colleges Report Small Tuition Increases.

    Geraghty, Mary


    Many private colleges are reporting the lowest percentage tuition increases in a decade or more, four to five% at many institutions, but most increases still outpace inflation. A major reason for increasing tuition is to meet rising demand for student aid. Also, many institutional expenses are higher than for the average consumer, and facilities…

  19. Increasing ideological tolerance in social psychology.

    Inbar, Yoel; Lammers, Joris


    We argue that recognizing current ideological diversity in social psychology and promoting tolerance of minority views is just as important as increasing the number of non-liberal researchers. Increasing tolerance will allow individuals in the minority to express dissenting views, which will improve psychological science by reducing bias. We present four recommendations for increasing tolerance.

  20. Increased skeletal muscle capillarization enhances insulin sensitivity

    Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Laub, Lasse; Vedel, Kenneth;


    Increased skeletal muscle capillarization is associated with improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. However, a possible causal relationship has not previously been identified. We therefore investigated whether increased skeletal muscle capillarization increases insulin sensitivity....... Skeletal muscle specific angiogenesis was induced by adding the α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist Prazosin to the drinking water of Sprague Dawley rats (n=33) while 34 rats served as controls. Insulin sensitivity was measured ≥40 h after termination of the 3-week Prazosin treatment, which ensured......-body insulin sensitivity increased by ~24% and insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle 2-deoxy-[(3)H]-Glucose disposal increased by ~30% concomitant with a ~20% increase in skeletal muscle capillarization. Adipose tissue insulin sensitivity was not affected by the treatment. Insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake...

  1. Increased muscle glucose uptake during contractions

    Ploug, Thorkil; Galbo, H; Richter, E A


    We reinvestigated the prevailing concept that muscle contractions only elicit increased muscle glucose uptake in the presence of a so-called "permissive" concentration of insulin (Berger et al., Biochem. J. 146: 231-238, 1975; Vranic and Berger, Diabetes 28: 147-163, 1979). Hindquarters from rats...... in severe ketoacidosis were perfused with a perfusate containing insulin antiserum. After 60 min perfusion, electrical stimulation increased glucose uptake of the contracting muscles fivefold. Also, subsequent contractions increased glucose uptake in hindquarters from nondiabetic rats perfused for 1.5 h......-methylglucose uptake increased during contractions and glucose uptake was negative at rest and zero during contractions. An increase in muscle transport and uptake of glucose during contractions does not require the presence of insulin. Furthermore, glucose transport in contracting muscle may only increase if glycogen...

  2. Taurine increases hippocampal neurogenesis in aging mice

    Elias Gebara


    Full Text Available Aging is associated with increased inflammation and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis, which may in turn contribute to cognitive impairment. Taurine is a free amino acid found in numerous diets, with anti-inflammatory properties. Although abundant in the young brain, the decrease in taurine concentration with age may underlie reduced neurogenesis. Here, we assessed the effect of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in middle-aged mice. We found that taurine increased cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus through the activation of quiescent stem cells, resulting in increased number of stem cells and intermediate neural progenitors. Taurine had a direct effect on stem/progenitor cells proliferation, as observed in vitro, and also reduced activated microglia. Furthermore, taurine increased the survival of newborn neurons, resulting in a net increase in adult neurogenesis. Together, these results show that taurine increases several steps of adult neurogenesis and support a beneficial role of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in the context of brain aging.

  3. Are diseases increasing in the ocean?

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Porter, James W.; Ford, Susan E.


    Many factors (climate warming, pollution, harvesting, introduced species) can contribute to disease outbreaks in marine life. Concomitant increases in each of these makes it difficult to attribute recent changes in disease occurrence or severity to any one factor. For example, the increase in disease of Caribbean coral is postulated to be a result of climate change and introduction of terrestrial pathogens. Indirect evidence exists that (a) warming increased disease in turtles; (b) protection, pollution, and terrestrial pathogens increased mammal disease; (c) aquaculture increased disease in mollusks; and (d) release from overfished predators increased sea urchin disease. In contrast, fishing and pollution may have reduced disease in fishes. In other taxa (e.g., sea grasses, crustaceans, sharks), there is little evidence that disease has changed over time. The diversity of patterns suggests there are many ways that environmental change can interact with disease in the ocean.

  4. Passive thermal performance increase in cisterns

    Najmeh Najafi, Arash Alipour, Seyed Mohamad Ali Najafi


    Cisterns are ancient building having two main tasks. First task is storing water in raining seasons for using in dry seasons and the second task is decreasing water temperature, which happens because of the air flow above water surface and evaporating water. It can be stated that by increasing fluid flow above the surface, evaporating increase so increasing in heat transfer happens and decreasing of water temperature is the result. This paper has investigated fluid flow around and inside cist...

  5. Familial skin cancer syndromes: Increased melanoma risk.

    Ransohoff, Katherine J; Jaju, Prajakta D; Jaju, Prajaka D; Tang, Jean Y; Carbone, Michele; Leachman, Sancy; Sarin, Kavita Y


    Phenotypic traits, such as red hair and freckling, increase melanoma risk by 2- to 3-fold. In addition, approximately 10% of melanomas are caused by inherited germline mutations that increase melanoma risk from 4- to >1000-fold. This review highlights the key genes responsible for inherited melanoma, with an emphasis on when a patient should undergo genetic testing. Many genetic syndromes associated with increased melanoma risk are also associated with an increased risk of other cancers. Identification of these high-risk patients is essential for preventive behavior reinforcement, genetic counseling, and ensuring other required cancer screenings.

  6. Hanging the beef carcass by the forequarter to improve tenderness of the Longissimus dorsi and Biceps femoris muscles Suspensão da carcaça pelo dianteiro para melhorar a maciez dos músculos Longissimus dorsi e Biceps femoris

    Albino Luchiari Filho


    Full Text Available Hanging beef carcasses in different configurations in the cooler affect some carcass muscle tenderness. Forty Nellore steer carcasses (ten per day were chosen at random in a federally inspected slaughter plant and hanged alternate left and right sides either in the traditional way by the hindquarter (HQ or by the forequarter (FQ also called "tenderbife". Carcasses were selected from steers up to 30 months old and had an average hot carcass weight of 244.1 kg. These carcasses were chilled for 48 hours, when samples from the Longissimus dorsi (LD at the 12th rib and the Biceps femoris (BF at the P8 site were removed, kept under refrigeration (0-2ºC for five days and frozen for future analysis. The temperature of the LD after 24 hours taken at the 12th rib was not different for HQ (1.0ºC and FQ (0.9ºC. Fat thickness measured at the 12th rib was lower (P A suspensão da carcaça em diferentes formas na câmara fria influencia a maciez de alguns músculos da carcaça. As carcaças de 40 novilhos Nelore (dez por dia com no máximo 30 meses de idade foram selecionadas ao acaso em frigorífico (SIF 2543 e lados alternados de suas carcaças foram resfriados e pendurados pelo Tendão de Aquiles do traseiro especial (TA ou pelo músculo carpo radial dianteiro (DA, também chamado "tenderbife". Todas as carcaças eram de classificação B no Sistema Brasileiro de Tipificação de Carcaças, com média de peso de carcaça quente de 244,1 kg. O pH 24 horas não diferiu para os tratamentos, (TA = 5,69 e DA = 5,70. As carcaças foram resfriadas por 48 horas e a seguir, amostras do Longissimus dorsi (LD na altura da 12ª costela e Biceps femoris (BF na altura do sítio P8 foram removidas, mantidas sob refrigeração (0-2ºC por mais 5 dias e a seguir congeladas para posterior análises. A espessura de gordura medida na altura da 12ª costela foi menor (P < 0,05 para TA (3,8 mm do que DA (4,3 mm. A força de cisalhamento do músculo LD foi menor (P < 0,01 para

  7. Caracterização do processo de rigor mortis do músculo Ilio-ischiocaudalis de jacaré-do-pantanal (Caiman crocodilus yacare e maciez da carne Characterization of rigor mortis process of muscle Ilio-ischiocaudalis of pantanal alligator (Caiman crocodilus yacare and meat tenderness

    Juliana Paulino Vieira


    Full Text Available Este trabalho utilizou seis carcaças de jacaré-do-pantanal (Caiman crocodilus yacare com o objetivo de caracterizar o processo de rigor mortis do músculo Ílio-ischiocaudalis durante o resfriamento industrial e avaliar a maciez dessa carne. Os jacarés foram escolhidos aleatoriamente e abatidos na Cooperativa de Criadores do Jacaré do Pantanal (COOCRIJAPAN, Cáceres, Mato Grosso. Após a sangria, aferiu-se as variações das temperaturas da câmara de resfriamento, das carcaças e o pH. Foram colhidas amostras para determinação do comprimento de sarcômero, da força de cisalhamento e perdas por cozimento em diferentes intervalos de tempo (0,5, 3, 5, 7, 10, 12, 15, 24 e 36h. A temperatura da câmara de resfriamento variou de 2,6°C (0,5h a 0,9°C (36h e a temperatura média das carcaças variou de 21,0°C a 4,2°C, respectivamente. O pH médio inicial do músculo foi de 6,7 e o final 5,6 e a contração máxima do sarcômero do músculo Ilio-ischiocaudalis ocorreu na 15ª hora após a sangria (1,5µm. Essa carne apresentou força de cisalhamento menor que 6,0kg.This paper studied six pantanal alligators (Caiman crocodilus yacare carcass with goal of rigor mortis process characterization of Ilio-ischiocaudalis muscle during industrial cooling and meat tenderness. The alligators were randomly assembled and slaughtered at Cooperativa de Criadores do Jacaré do Pantanal (COOCRIJAPAN - Cáceres- Mato Grosso After exsanguination, were mensured temperature of chilling room and carcasses, pH and samples were collected for determination the sarcomere length, shear force and cooking loss at different times (0.5, 3, 5, 7, 10, 12, 15, 24 and 36 hours. The temperature of chilling room varied from 2.6°C (0.5h to 0.9°C (36h and the mean carcass temperature from 21.0°C to 4.2°C, respectively. The mean initial pH of the muscle was 6.7 and the final was 5.6. The smallest sarcomere size ocurred at 15 hours after exsanguination (1.5µm. This meat presents

  8. Does Twitter Increase Perceived Police Legitimacy?

    Grimmelikhuijsen, Stephan G|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313875405; Meijer, Albert J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/172436729


    Social media use has become increasingly popular among police forces. The literature suggests that social media use can increase perceived police legitimacy by enabling transparency and participation. Employing data from a large and representative survey of Dutch citizens (N = 4,492), this article t

  9. Exergames: Increasing Physical Activity through Effective Instruction

    Rudella, Jennifer L.; Butz, Jennifer V.


    Due to the growing obesity epidemic in the United States, educators must consider new ways to increase physical activity in an effort to address obesity. There are a variety of ways educators can increase physical activity in the classroom, and exergames--video games that require physical movement in order to play--are a modern-day approach to…

  10. Cyberbullying: An Increasing Challenge for Schools

    von Marees, Nandoli; Petermann, Franz


    The use of information and communication technology (ICT) has not only brought advantages to mankind. One downside is the emergence and increase of cyberbullying in schools. Affecting students of all ages, teachers, parents, and other educators, this special form of bullying is an increasing challenge for schools. This article offers an overview…

  11. Wilson's disease; increased aluminum in liver.

    Yasui, M; Yoshimasu, F; Yase, Y; Uebayashi, Y


    Interaction of trace metal metabolism was studied in a patient with Wilson's dease. Atomic absorption analysis showed markedly increased urinary excretion of copper and aluminum and an increased aluminum content was found in the biopsied liver by neutron activation analysis. These findings suggest a complicated pathogenetic mechanism involving other metals besides copper in the Wilson's disease.

  12. Are increases in cigarette taxation regressive?

    Borren, P; Sutton, M


    Using the latest published data from Tobacco Advisory Council surveys, this paper re-evaluates the question of whether or not increases in cigarette taxation are regressive in the United Kingdom. The extended data set shows no evidence of increasing price-elasticity by social class as found in a major previous study. To the contrary, there appears to be no clear pattern in the price responsiveness of smoking behaviour across different social classes. Increases in cigarette taxation, while reducing smoking levels in all groups, fall most heavily on men and women in the lowest social class. Men and women in social class five can expect to pay eight and eleven times more of a tax increase respectively, than their social class one counterparts. Taken as a proportion of relative incomes, the regressive nature of increases in cigarette taxation is even more pronounced.

  13. Increasing trends of herpes zoster in Australia.

    Raina MacIntyre

    Full Text Available Increasing trends in incidence of herpes zoster (HZ have been reported in Australia and internationally. This may reflect the impact of childhood VZV vaccination programs introduced universally in Australia in late 2005. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in incidence of HZ and PHN in Australia over time, and associated healthcare resource utilisation.Australian data on general practice (GP encounters for HZ, specific antiviral prescribing data from the pharmaceutical benefits scheme, emergency department presentations from the states of NSW and Victoria and national hospitalisation data for HZ were analysed for time trends using regression models. Two time periods (2000-2006 and 2006-2013 were compared which correspond broadly with the pre- and post- universal VZV vaccination period.All data sources showed increasing rates of HZ with age and over time. The GP database showed a significant annual increase in encounters for HZ of 2.5 per 100,000 between 1998 and 2013, and the rates of prescriptions for HZ increased by 4.2% per year between 2002 and 2012. In the 60+ population HZ incidence was estimated to increase from 11.9 to 15.4 per 1,000 persons using GP data or from 12.8 to 14.2 per 1,000 persons using prescription data (p<0.05, between the two periods. Hospitalisation data did not show the same increasing trend over time, except for the age group ≥80 years. Most emergency visits for HZ were not admitted, and showed significant increases over time.The burden of HZ in Australia is substantial, and continues to increase over time. This increase is seen both pre- and post-universal VZV vaccination in 2005, and is most prominent in the older population. The substantial burden of HZ, along with ageing of the Australian population and the importance of healthy ageing, warrants consideration of HZ vaccination for the elderly.

  14. Increasing mental health literacy via narrative advertising.

    Chang, Chingching


    This research explored the effectiveness of narrative advertising and argument advertising in increasing mental illness (depression) literacy. Results showed that narrative advertising was more effective than argument advertising at engaging participants in experiential immersion, resulting in greater sympathy toward those suffering from depression. In addition, narrative advertising better involved participants in issue elaboration and increased willingness to seek professional help. Finally, in comparison with argument advertising, narrative advertisements were rated higher in providing vivid information, resulting in an increase in participants' perceived efficacy in recognizing friends or family suffering from depression.

  15. Tobacco use increases susceptibility to bacterial infection

    Demuth Donald R


    Full Text Available Abstract Active smokers and those exposed to secondhand smoke are at increased risk of bacterial infection. Tobacco smoke exposure increases susceptibility to respiratory tract infections, including tuberculosis, pneumonia and Legionnaires disease; bacterial vaginosis and sexually transmitted diseases, such as chlamydia and gonorrhoea; Helicobacter pylori infection; periodontitis; meningitis; otitis media; and post-surgical and nosocomial infections. Tobacco smoke compromises the anti-bacterial function of leukocytes, including neutrophils, monocytes, T cells and B cells, providing a mechanistic explanation for increased infection risk. Further epidemiological, clinical and mechanistic research into this important area is warranted.

  16. Increasing bedbug, Cimex lectularius, infestations in Kuwait.

    El-Azazy, Osama M E; Al-Behbehani, Bahja; Abdou, Nadra-Elwgoud M I


    Bedbug, Cimex lectularius, human infestations were reported in the State of Kuwait in the last 2 years. Eleven separate infestations from different localities were received at the Veterinary Laboratories indicating that bedbug is widespread in the State of Kuwait. There was circumstantial evidence to suggest the transfer of bugs with recent immigrants or used furniture. The spread of infestation can be attributed to the increase in migrant labor and their mobility inside the country. The increase in reported cases appears also consistent with a worldwide increase in bedbug infestations.

  17. The increased importance of sector switching

    Frederiksen, Anders; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg


    Sector switching is an important phenomenon that casts light on public–private differences. Yet our knowledge about its prevalence and trends is limited. We study sector switching using unique Danish register-based employer–employee data covering more than 25 years. We find that sector switching...... constitutes 18.5% of all job-to-job mobility, and the trend is increasing both from public to private and from private to public. Sector switching is also generally increasing for middle managers, but for administrative professionals only the flows from private to public increase and for top managers only...

  18. The world-wide increase in tuberculosis: how demographic changes, HIV infection and increasing numbers in poverty are increasing tuberculosis.

    Davies, Peter D O


    After more than a century of decline, in the mid 1980s tuberculosis began to increase in some developed countries. Health care workers were then forced to look to the developing world, where they found tuberculosis to be out of control, in many countries. It is now appreciated that tuberculosis is not only increasing globally but is likely to do so beyond the next decade for three principal reasons. First, demographically as the expected population increase will be greatest in areas of the world where tuberculosis is most prevalent, particularly middle Africa and South Asia. Secondly, the increase of HIV, which renders the host uniquely susceptible to tuberculosis, is occurring in the same areas of the world and is already causing an increase in tuberculosis case rates of up to tenfold. Thirdly, as more and more people are forced to live in poverty, where poor nutrition and crowded conditions lead to the spread of tuberculosis, the disease risk will be compounded. Sound medical management, particularly the use of the five components of directly observed therapy, will relieve the situation. But until world conditions of poverty and HIV spread are addressed, it is unlikely that tuberculosis can be controlled.

  19. The ways of SOFC systems efficiency increasing

    Demin, A.K.; Timofeyeva, N.


    The efficiency of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) is described. This paper considers methods to lift the fuel utilization and/or the average cell voltage with the goal of increasing the cell efficiency by improved cell designs.

  20. Autism overflows: increasing prevalence and proliferating theories.

    Waterhouse, Lynn


    This selective review examines the lack of an explanation for the sharply increasing prevalence of autism, and the lack of any synthesis of the proliferating theories of autism. The most controversial and most widely disseminated notion for increasing prevalence is the measles-mumps-rubella/thimerosal vaccine theory. Less controversial causes that have been proposed include changes in autism diagnostic criteria, increasing services for autism, and growing awareness of the disorder. Regardless of its causes, the increasing prevalence of autism has put pressure on the field of autism research to generate productive and predictive theories of autism. However, the heterogeneity of brain deficits, impaired behaviors, and genetic variants in autism have challenged researchers and theorists, and despite 45 years of research, no standard causal synthesis has emerged. Research going forward should assume that autism is an aggregation of myriad independent disorders of impaired sociality, social cognition, communication, and motor and cognitive skills.

  1. Increasing incidence of diabetes after gestational diabetes

    Lauenborg, Jeannet; Hansen, Torben; Jensen, Dorte Møller;


    To study the incidence of diabetes among women with previous diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the light of the general increasing incidence of overweight and diabetes and to identify risk factors for the development of diabetes....

  2. Hyperestrogenemia and increased blood mercury level

    Viroj Wiwanitkit


    Hyperestrogenemia is an important reproductive hormone abnormality. This condition is not common in male patients. In this report, the author presents a case study on hyperestrogenemia with increased blood mercury level. The metalloestrogen phenomenon is discussed.

  3. Increase in the Array Television Camera Sensitivity

    Shakhrukhanov, O. S.

    A simple adder circuit for successive television frames that enables to considerably increase the sensitivity of such radiation detectors is suggested by the example of array television camera QN902K.

  4. Big increase in Spanish reseach funding

    Bosch, X


    The Spanish government plans to increase spending on civilian science research and development by between 8 and 10 per cent. The exact figure is unclear since it has been included in the budget along with military research projects (1 page).

  5. Increased aldosterone: mechanism of hypertension in obesity.

    Flynn, Colleen


    The prevalence of both obesity and hypertension are increasing worldwide. Hypertension is a common consequence of obesity. Increased central adiposity is associated with increased aldosterone levels and blood pressure in human beings. A number of small studies have shown an association between obesity-mediated hypertension and mechanisms directly linked to increased levels of aldosterone. These studies have shown a trend toward relatively greater blood pressure reduction using aldosterone-receptor blockers compared with other classes of antihypertensive agents. Other than treatment for weight loss, treatment of hypertension with specific antihypertensive medications that block or reduce aldosterone action are appropriate in obese patients. Further research is needed to understand the exact role of the adipocyte in obesity-mediated hypertension.

  6. Low Vitamin D: What Increases the Risk?

    ... Food Service Resources Additional Resources About FAQ Contact Low Vitamin D: What Increases The Risk? Our bodies ... use sunscreen daily are more likely to be low in vitamin D. ( 1 ) But don’t ditch ...

  7. Ethanologenic bacteria with increased resistance to furfural

    Miller, Elliot Norman; Jarboe, Laura R.; Yomano, Lorraine P.; York, Sean W.; Shanmugam, Keelnatham; Ingram, Lonnie O' Neal


    The invention relates to bacterium that have increased resistance to furfural and methods of preparation. The invention also relates to methods of producing ethanol using the bacterium and corresponding kits.

  8. Increasing incidence of diabetes after gestational diabetes

    Lauenborg, Jeannet; Hansen, Torben; Jensen, Dorte Møller


    To study the incidence of diabetes among women with previous diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the light of the general increasing incidence of overweight and diabetes and to identify risk factors for the development of diabetes.......To study the incidence of diabetes among women with previous diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the light of the general increasing incidence of overweight and diabetes and to identify risk factors for the development of diabetes....


    HeWenjiong; ZhangYi


    The dual random models about the life insurance and social pension insurance have received considerable attention in the recent articles on actuarial theory and applications. This paper discusses a general kind of increasing annuity based on its force of interest accumulationfunction as a general random process. The dual random model of the present value of the benefits of the increasing annuity has been set, and their moments have been calculated under certainconditions.

  10. Expanding your practice and increasing its profitability.

    Hunter, Craig


    Part One of this article identifies specific operational aspects that each practice should consider to enhance its future position including increased work efficiencies and financial opportunities, capitalizing on technological resources. Part Two discusses provider expansion, expansion of procedural services, and implementation of successful marketing initiatives. By addressing these topics, the practice will strengthen its internal morale and teamwork while increasing existing revenue streams. It will also reduce operational expenses and consider new revenue sources that fit the goals and objectives of the partners.

  11. The Effect of Increasing Mass upon Locomotion

    DeWitt, John; Hagan, Donald


    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if increasing body mass while maintaining bodyweight would affect ground reaction forces and joint kinetics during walking and running. It was hypothesized that performing gait with increased mass while maintaining body weight would result in greater ground reaction forces, and would affect the net joint torques and work at the ankle, knee and hip when compared to gait with normal mass and bodyweight. Vertical ground reaction force was measured for ten subjects (5M/5F) during walking (1.34 m/s) and running (3.13 m/s) on a treadmill. Subjects completed one minute of locomotion at normal mass and bodyweight and at four added mass (AM) conditions (10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of body mass) in random order. Three-dimensional joint position data were collected via videography. Walking and running were analyzed separately. The addition of mass resulted in several effects. Peak impact forces and loading rates increased during walking, but decreased during running. Peak propulsive forces decreased during walking and did not change during running. Stride time increased and hip extensor angular impulse and positive work increased as mass was added for both styles of locomotion. Work increased at a greater rate during running than walking. The adaptations to additional mass that occur during walking are different than during running. Increasing mass during exercise in microgravity may be beneficial to increasing ground reaction forces during walking and strengthening hip musculature during both walking and running. Future study in true microgravity is required to determine if the adaptations found would be similar in a weightless environment.

  12. Chromium increases pancreatic metallothionein in the rat.

    Solis-Heredia, M J; Quintanilla-Vega, B; Sierra-Santoyo, A; Hernández, J M; Brambila, E; Cebrián, M E; Albores, A


    The ability of chromium (Cr) salts to increase metallothionein (MT) levels in rat liver, kidney and pancreas, and its relationship with the presence of toxic effects are reported here. Rats were injected subcutaneously with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, or 50 mg K2Cr2O7/kg and sacrificed 24 h later. Total Cr accumulation followed a dose-dependent pattern, levels in kidney being higher than those in liver or pancreas, suggesting different tissue bioavailabilities and accumulation patterns. Cr(IV) administration resulted in a tissue-specific MT induction: pancreas and liver showed five- and 3.5-fold MT increases, respectively; no increase was observed in the kidney. A positive correlation was observed between zinc and MT concentrations in liver, and between total Cr and MT concentrations in pancreas. Serum alpha-amylase activity showed a dose-dependent increase starting from 20 mg/kg, whereas serum glucose levels increased at doses higher than 30 mg/kg. Serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities were increased in a dose-dependent manner, from 20 and 30 mg/kg, respectively. Our results showed that treatment with Cr(VI) can induce MT synthesis in pancreas and suggests a subsequent binding of Cr to MT. Also, pancreas is a target organ for Cr toxicity, and the usefulness of alpha-amylase activity as a sensitive biomarker of Cr toxicity in human exposed populations merits further study.

  13. Wind increases leaf water use efficiency.

    Schymanski, Stanislaus J; Or, Dani


    A widespread perception is that, with increasing wind speed, transpiration from plant leaves increases. However, evidence suggests that increasing wind speed enhances carbon dioxide (CO2 ) uptake while reducing transpiration because of more efficient convective cooling (under high solar radiation loads). We provide theoretical and experimental evidence that leaf water use efficiency (WUE, carbon uptake per water transpired) commonly increases with increasing wind speed, thus improving plants' ability to conserve water during photosynthesis. Our leaf-scale analysis suggests that the observed global decrease in near-surface wind speeds could have reduced WUE at a magnitude similar to the increase in WUE attributed to global rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, there is indication that the effect of long-term trends in wind speed on leaf gas exchange may be compensated for by the concurrent reduction in mean leaf sizes. These unintuitive feedbacks between wind, leaf size and water use efficiency call for re-evaluation of the role of wind in plant water relations and potential re-interpretation of temporal and geographic trends in leaf sizes.

  14. Randomness in Sequence Evolution Increases over Time.

    Guangyu Wang

    Full Text Available The second law of thermodynamics states that entropy, as a measure of randomness in a system, increases over time. Although studies have investigated biological sequence randomness from different aspects, it remains unknown whether sequence randomness changes over time and whether this change consists with the second law of thermodynamics. To capture the dynamics of randomness in molecular sequence evolution, here we detect sequence randomness based on a collection of eight statistical random tests and investigate the randomness variation of coding sequences with an application to Escherichia coli. Given that core/essential genes are more ancient than specific/non-essential genes, our results clearly show that core/essential genes are more random than specific/non-essential genes and accordingly indicate that sequence randomness indeed increases over time, consistent well with the second law of thermodynamics. We further find that an increase in sequence randomness leads to increasing randomness of GC content and longer sequence length. Taken together, our study presents an important finding, for the first time, that sequence randomness increases over time, which may provide profound insights for unveiling the underlying mechanisms of molecular sequence evolution.

  15. Exploring Increased Productivity Through Employee Engagement

    Richards, Wayne K., Jr.

    Disengaged employees cost U.S. companies billions of dollars annually in lowered productivity, a cost which has been compounded by the difficult economic situations in the country. The potential for increasing productivity through increased employee engagement was examined in this study. Using personal engagement theory and the theory of planned behavior, the purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore how the experiences of salaried aerospace employees affected productivity and the financial performance of an organization. Interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 20 aerospace employees whose responses were codified and analyzed to identify themes. The analysis indicated that (a) the lived experiences of employees influenced employee engagement, (b) employee engagement affects organizational commitment and performance, and (c) trust and respect and leadership are essential components to keep employees engaged. Eighty percent of the participants indicated that as employee engagement increases so too does organizational performance. The implications for positive social change include new insights for leaders seeking to increase productivity and financial performance, and to support employee engagement for maintaining sustainability, retaining talent, increasing profits, and improving the economy.

  16. Passive thermal performance increase in cisterns

    Najmeh Najafi, Arash Alipour, Seyed Mohamad Ali Najafi


    Full Text Available Cisterns are ancient building having two main tasks. First task is storing water in raining seasons for using in dry seasons and the second task is decreasing water temperature, which happens because of the air flow above water surface and evaporating water. It can be stated that by increasing fluid flow above the surface, evaporating increase so increasing in heat transfer happens and decreasing of water temperature is the result. This paper has investigated fluid flow around and inside cisterns with FLUENT software results. Increasing in air flow demand to the cistern is the primary purpose of this study, by changing main parameters of cistern geometry like increasing or decreasing of doom hale diameter, inlet and outlet of wind catcher, elevation of wind catcher and also wind speed. This study introduces the best geometry for cisterns according to maximum air flow demand and minimum volume. Considering that, there is a direct relation between heat transfer and airflow rate in cisterns, so in this study, the influence of mentioned parameters are investigated to reach optimum design for the best performance of cisterns.

  17. Birch Stands Growth Increase in Western Siberia

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Kuzmichev, Valeriy V.; Im, Sergey T.; Ranson, Kenneth J.


    Birch (Betula pendula Roth) growth within the Western Siberia forest-steppe was analyzed based on long-term (1897-2006) inventory data (height, diameter at breast height [dbh], and stand volume). Analysis of biometry parameters showed increased growth at the beginning of twenty-first century compared to similar stands (stands age = 40-60 years) at the end of nineteenth century. Mean height, dbh, and stem volume increased from 14 to 20 m, from 16 to 22 cm, and from approx. 63 to approx. 220 cu m/ha, respectively. Significant correlations were found between the stands mean height, dbh, and volume on the one hand, and vegetation period length (r(sub s) = 0.71 to 0.74), atmospheric CO2 concentration (r(sub s) = 0.71 to 0.76), and drought index (Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index, r(sub s) = -0.33 to -0.51) on the other hand. The results obtained have revealed apparent climate-induced impacts (e.g. increase of vegetation period length and birch habitat drying due to drought increase) on the stands growth. Along with this, a high correlation of birch biometric parameters and [CO2] in ambient air indicated an effect of CO2 fertilization. Meanwhile, further drought increase may switch birch stand growth into decline and greater mortality as has already been observed within the Trans-Baikal forest-steppe ecotone.

  18. Nutrient enrichment increases mortality of mangroves.

    Catherine E Lovelock

    Full Text Available Nutrient enrichment of the coastal zone places intense pressure on marine communities. Previous studies have shown that growth of intertidal mangrove forests is accelerated with enhanced nutrient availability. However, nutrient enrichment favours growth of shoots relative to roots, thus enhancing growth rates but increasing vulnerability to environmental stresses that adversely affect plant water relations. Two such stresses are high salinity and low humidity, both of which require greater investment in roots to meet the demands for water by the shoots. Here we present data from a global network of sites that documents enhanced mortality of mangroves with experimental nutrient enrichment at sites where high sediment salinity was coincident with low rainfall and low humidity. Thus the benefits of increased mangrove growth in response to coastal eutrophication is offset by the costs of decreased resilience due to mortality during drought, with mortality increasing with soil water salinity along climatic gradients.

  19. Are rates of pediatric bipolar disorder increasing?

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh


    Studies from the USA suggest that rates of pediatric bipolar disorder have increased since the mid-90s, but no study outside the USA has been published on the rates of pediatric bipolar disorder. Further, it is unclear whether an increase in rates reflects a true increase in the illness or more...... diagnostic attention. Using nationwide registers of all inpatients and outpatients contacts to all psychiatric hospitals in Denmark, we investigated (1) gender-specific rates of incident pediatric mania/bipolar disorder during a period from 1995 to 2012, (2) whether age and other characteristics...... for pediatric mania/bipolar disorder changed during the calendar period (1995 to 2003 versus 2004 to 2012), and (3) whether the diagnosis is more often made at first psychiatric contact in recent time compared to earlier according to gender. Totally, 346 patients got a main diagnosis of a manic episode (F30...

  20. Increased health care utilisation in international adoptees

    Graff, Heidi Jeannet; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Kragstrup, Jakob;


    after adoption. Our study aimed to theassess health-care utilisation of international adoptees inprimary and secondary care for somatic and psychiatricdiagnoses in a late post-adoption period. Is there an increaseduse of the health-care system in this period, evenwhen increased morbidity in the group...... of allservices in primary care, while in secondary care only fewareas showed an increased long-term morbidity. Conclusion: International adoptees use medical servicesin primary care at a higher rate than non-adoptees someyears after adoption. Excess use of services in secondarycare is also present, but only......Introduction: Several studies have documented thatinternational adoptees have an increased occurrence ofhealth problems and contacts to the health-care systemafter arriving to their new country of residence. This maybe explained by pre-adoption adversities, especially for theperiod immediately...

  1. Increased transvascular lipoprotein transport in diabetes

    Jensen, Jan Skov; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo; Borch-Johnsen, Knut;


    CONTEXT: Diabetes is associated with a highly increased risk of atherosclerosis, especially if hypertension or albuminuria is present. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that the increased transvascular lipoprotein transport in diabetes may be further accelerated if hypertension or albuminuria is present......, possibly explaining increased intimal lipoprotein accumulation and thus atherosclerosis. DESIGN: The study was cross-sectional and was performed in 1999-2002. SETTING: The study took place in the referral center. PATIENTS: The patients included 60 with diabetes mellitus (27 with type 1 diabetes and 33...... with type 2 diabetes) and 42 healthy controls. All were randomly recruited. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: We used an in vivo method for measurement of transvascular transport of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Autologous 131I-LDL was reinjected iv, and the 1-h fractional escape rate was taken as an index...

  2. Nutrient Enrichment Increases Mortality of Mangroves

    Lovelock, Catherine E.; Ball, Marilyn C.; Martin, Katherine C.; C. Feller, Ilka


    Nutrient enrichment of the coastal zone places intense pressure on marine communities. Previous studies have shown that growth of intertidal mangrove forests is accelerated with enhanced nutrient availability. However, nutrient enrichment favours growth of shoots relative to roots, thus enhancing growth rates but increasing vulnerability to environmental stresses that adversely affect plant water relations. Two such stresses are high salinity and low humidity, both of which require greater investment in roots to meet the demands for water by the shoots. Here we present data from a global network of sites that documents enhanced mortality of mangroves with experimental nutrient enrichment at sites where high sediment salinity was coincident with low rainfall and low humidity. Thus the benefits of increased mangrove growth in response to coastal eutrophication is offset by the costs of decreased resilience due to mortality during drought, with mortality increasing with soil water salinity along climatic gradients. PMID:19440554

  3. Increasing the weight of minimum spanning trees

    Frederickson, G.N.; Solis-Oba, R. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)


    Given an undirected connected graph G and a cost function for increasing edge weights, the problem of determining the maximum increase in the weight of the minimum spanning trees of G subject to a budget constraint is investigated. Two versions of the problem are considered. In the first, each edge has a cost function that is linear in the weight increase. An algorithm is presented that solves this problem in strongly polynomial time. In the second version, the edge weights are fixed but an edge can be removed from G at a unit cost. This version is shown to be NP-hard. An {Omega}(1/ log k)-approximation algorithm is presented for it, where k is the number of edges to be removed.

  4. Barriers to increasing market-oriented activity

    Bisp, Søren

    product development. Despite the increasing evidence of a positive relationship between above average business performance and a high level of market-oriented activity, normative recommendations on how to increase the level of market-oriented activity is sparse. The scientific contribution of the present...... research is to expand the understanding of what factors inhibit the increase of market-oriented activity and how these factors may interact. Identifying and describing the barriers is considered the first and necessary step in attempting to reach a higher level of market-oriented activity......Introduction: The Danish food processing industry faces a situation in which intensified competition in its primary markets and product categories forces several companies to rethink their relative focus in terms of marketing rather than production, or, in other words, in terms of value adding...

  5. Role of biofertilizers in increasing tea productivity

    P Nepolean; R Jayanthi; R Vidhya Pallavi; A Balamurugan; T Kuberan; T Beulah; R Premkumar


    Objective: To increase the tea productivity using biofertilizers like VAM fungi, phosphobacteria, Azosprillium. Methods: Nitrogen fixing Azospirillum, phosphate solubilising bacteria and VAM fungi were isolated from tea soils of southern India and region specific potential strains were selected based on laboratory, greenhouse, as well as field experiments. A technology for their mass multiplication has been developed. Results: Biofertilizers were showed higher yield at the rate of 5g/seedling and VAM fungi with 15 g of formulation/bush. Conclusions: Multifunctional biofertilizers were used to reduce the chemical fertilizers, diseases and to increase soil fertility in tea.

  6. Increasing dominance of IT in ICT convergence

    Henten, Anders; Tadayoni, Reza

    The aim of the paper is to examine the increasing dominance of IT companies in the converging ICT industry and, on the basis of this development, to contribute to extending the theoretical understanding of market and industry convergence in the ICT area.......The aim of the paper is to examine the increasing dominance of IT companies in the converging ICT industry and, on the basis of this development, to contribute to extending the theoretical understanding of market and industry convergence in the ICT area....

  7. Has risk associated with smoking increased?

    Prescott, E; Osler, M; Andersen, P K


    population representative of the general Danish population and whether any such changes relate to changes in smoking behaviour. METHODS: Pooled data from three prospective population studies conducted in Copenhagen with detailed information on smoking habits. A total of 31,194 subjects, 17,669 males and 13...... smokers with never-smokers) did not change in the study period. In females, ratios increased from 1964-1978 to 1979-1994 by a factor of 1.3 (95% confidence interval 1.0-1.8). CONCLUSIONS: In agreement with the observed changes in smoking habits, excess mortality in male smokers did not increase whereas...

  8. Increasing loads on mine centrifugal blowers

    Kovalevskaya, V.I.; Pak, V.V. (Donetskii Politekhnicheskii Institut (USSR))


    Increasing output of blowers for ventilation of deep coal mines by enlarging their dimensions and increasing revolution rate is uneconomic and technically complicated. Optimization of aerodynamic characteristics of the blowers is most economic. Effects of blower blade geometry (shape and cross-section) on blower output, air pressure and efficiency are analyzed. On the basis of Euler's equations a method is discussed for determining optimum aerodynamic parameters of the modified blade geometry that guarantees the most economic blower operation. 7 refs.

  9. Using synthetic biology to increase nitrogenase activity

    Li, Xin-Xin; Liu, Qi; Liu, Xiao-Meng; Shi, Hao-Wen; Chen, San-feng


    Background Nitrogen fixation has been established in protokaryotic model Escherichia coli by transferring a minimal nif gene cluster composed of 9 genes (nifB, nifH, nifD, nifK, nifE, nifN, nifX, hesA and nifV) from Paenibacillus sp. WLY78. However, the nitrogenase activity in the recombinant E. coli 78-7 is only 10 % of that observed in wild-type Paenibacillus. Thus, it is necessary to increase nitrogenase activity through synthetic biology. Results In order to increase nitrogenase activity ...

  10. Coal exporters win significant price increases



    Coal exports won a 3 dollars/t or almost 8% rise in hard coking coal prices to lift the benchmark Goonyella brand to 42.75 dollars/t. This was followed by major price increases for semi-hard coking coal with the prices of some grades increased by 8 dollars/t or by more than 23%. The new prices will come into effect for the year beginning April, 2001 and acre then first price rises in two years. The article reviews the major Asia countries with their coal supply information. 1 tab., 4 photos.


    Diego Pacheco


    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to point a set of practical strategies that can be adopted to increase the capacity of constraints resources on production systems, when the constraint is inside the factory and not is in the market. To serve this purpose will be presented strategies based on best practices of the Theory of Constraints, Lean Manufacturing and Total Productive Maintenance. This article also presents the mains tools for the deployment of these methodologies. The survey results have provided an objective set of practical strategy that can be used to increase the capacity and productivity of production systems according to the needs of each manufacturing system.

  12. Fresh inflation with increasing cosmological parameter

    Bellini, M


    I study a fresh inflationary model with an increasing F-cosmological parameter. The model provides sufficiently e-folds to solve the flatness/horizon problem and the density fluctuations agree with experimental values. The temperature increases during fresh inflation and reach its maximum value when inflation ends. I find that entropy perturbations always remain below $10^{-4}$ during fresh inflation and become negligible when fresh inflation ends. Hence, the adiabatic fluctuations dominate the primordial spectrum at the end of fresh inflation.

  13. Increased health care utilisation in international adoptees

    Graff, Heidi Jeannet; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Kragstrup, Jakob;


    after adoption. Our study aimed to theassess health-care utilisation of international adoptees inprimary and secondary care for somatic and psychiatricdiagnoses in a late post-adoption period. Is there an increaseduse of the health-care system in this period, evenwhen increased morbidity in the group...... comprised internationallyadopted children (n = 6,820), adopted between 1994 and2005, and all non-adopted children (n = 492,374) who couldbe matched with the adopted children on sex, age, municipalityand family constellation at the time of adoption. Results: International adoption increased the use...

  14. Robotic Bipedal Running: Increasing disturbance rejection

    Karssen, J.G.D.


    The goal of the research presented in this thesis is to increase the understanding of the human running gait. The understanding of the human running gait is essential for the development of devices, such as prostheses and orthoses, that enable disabled people to run or that enable able people to inc

  15. Increasing Incidence of Juvenile Thyrotoxicosis in Denmark

    Kjær, R. H.; Andersen, M. S.; Hansen, D.


    . Additional data were collected on children diagnosed with GD in 2008-2012. Results: In total, 237 patients with juvenile thyrotoxicosis (JT) were identified. The overall IR in 1998-2012 was 1.58/100,000 person-years and has increased significantly from 0.79/100,000 person-years in 1982-1988 (p

  16. Increasing Reading Engagement in African American Boys

    Husband, Terry


    Much has been written concerning the challenges many teachers face in engaging African American males in reading practices. While much of this extant scholarship focuses on African American males at the pre-adolescent stage of development and beyond, little has been written regarding increasing reading engagement in African American boys in P-5…

  17. Liver Abscess: Increasing Occurrence in Premature Newborns



    Full Text Available Neonatal liver abscess is a very rare condition associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. There seems to be an increasing trend of this rare condition amongst the newborns admitted to neonatal intensive care units. We report a case of liver abscess in a premature newborn and briefly review the literature and discuss its management.

  18. Liver Abscess: Increasing Occurrence in Premature Newborns

    Bosnalı, Oktav; Moralıoğlu, Serdar; Pektaş, Osman


    Neonatal liver abscess is a very rare condition associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. There seems to be an increasing trend of this rare condition amongst the newborns admitted to neonatal intensive care units. We report a case of liver abscess in a premature newborn and briefly review the literature and discuss its management. PMID:26023443

  19. Liver Abscess: Increasing Occurrence in Premature Newborns

    Oktav Bosnalı


    Full Text Available Neonatal liver abscess is a very rare condition associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. There seems to be an increasing trend of this rare condition amongst the newborns admitted to neonatal intensive care units. We report a case of liver abscess in a premature newborn and briefly review the literature and discuss its management.

  20. Increased carrying capacity with perennial forage kochia

    Carrying capacity can be increased on grass-dominated rangeland pastures by including perennial forage kochia (Kochia prostrata) as one of the plant components. The objectives of the study reported here were to compare the differences of traditional winter pastures versus pastures with forage kochi...

  1. Collaboration among sectors to increase pulse consumption.

    Curran, Julianne; McLachlan, Milla; Black, Richard; Widders, Irv; Manary, Mark


    The United Nations declaration of 2016 as the International Year of Pulses (IYP) provided an unprecedented opportunity to showcase pulses on the global stage for their contribution to affordable nutrition, health, and sustainability. Despite the IYP's successes in stakeholder engagement, continuing to foster and strengthen partnerships and collaborations is necessary to meet the IYP goals of increased pulse production and consumption for human benefit. Shifting consumer behavior to increase pulse consumption emerged during IYP meetings as a shared priority for all stakeholders. Focusing on this shared priority provides an opportunity to strengthen collaboration among all stakeholder groups for research, education, marketing, and ingredient/food production. Although the IYP officially closed at the end of 2016, the pulse community has an opportunity to continue building successful collaborations. The future research agenda can foster increased pulse production and consumption to address global nutrition, health, and sustainability challenges, provided that it is developed with multisectorial perspectives and cross-disciplinary collaborations. But, most importantly, the research agenda for pulses must be centered more deliberately on the end consumer and how to drive shifts in behavior toward increased pulse consumption, as this is the common shared priority around which all stakeholders can rally.

  2. Increasing security in inter-chip communication

    Edwards, Nathan J; Hamlet, Jason; Bauer, Todd; Helinski, Ryan


    An apparatus for increasing security in inter-chip communication includes a sending control module, a communication bus, and a receiving control module. The communication bus is coupled between the sending control module and the receiving control module. The sending control module operates to send data on the communication bus, disable the communication bus when threats are detected, or both.

  3. Environmental lead exposure increases micronuclei in children

    Kapka, Lucyna; Baumgartner, Adolf; Siwińska, Ewa


    and control group (standard MN test: 2.96 +/- 2.36 versus 1.16 +/- 1.28; FISH technique: 3.57 +/- 3.02 versus 1.43 +/- 1.69, respectively). The frequencies of both centromere-positive (C+MN) and centromere-negative (C-MN) micronuclei were significantly increased in exposed children; however, the contribution...

  4. Increased Gonorrhea Cases - Utah, 2009-2014.

    Watson, Joanna; Carlile, Jerry; Dunn, Angela; Evans, Megan; Fratto, Erin; Hartsell, Joel; Meinor, Lynn; Mietchen, Matthew; Nakashima, Allyn


    Gonorrhea (caused by infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae) is the second most commonly reported notifiable disease in the United States (1). Left untreated, gonorrhea is associated with serious long-term adverse health effects, including pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility. Infection also facilitates transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (2,3). Effective gonorrhea control relies upon early detection and effective antimicrobial treatment. To assess gonorrhea rate trends in Utah, the Utah Department of Health (UDOH) analyzed Utah National Electronic Disease Surveillance System (UT-NEDSS) data for the state during 2009-2014. After declining during 2009-2011, the statewide gonorrhea rate increased fivefold to 49 cases per 100,000 population in 2014. During 2009-2014, the proportion of cases among women increased from 21% to 39% (decreasing among males from 79% to 61%). Among male patients, the proportion who identified as men who have sex with men (MSM) decreased from 67% to 42%. These demographic changes suggest that increased heterosexual transmission of gonorrhea in Utah might be occurring. Health departments need to work with providers to ensure populations at high risk are being screened and properly treated for gonorrhea. Clinicians need to be aware of increases in the risk for infection among women and non-MSM males when making screening and testing decisions and educate their patients regarding gonorrhea transmission and prevention practices.

  5. Voluntary attention increases perceived spatial frequency.

    Abrams, Jared; Barbot, Antoine; Carrasco, Marisa


    Voluntary covert attention selects relevant sensory information for prioritized processing. The behavioral and neural consequences of such selection have been extensively documented, but its phenomenology has received little empirical investigation. Involuntary attention increases perceived spatial frequency (Gobell & Carrasco, 2005), but involuntary attention can differ from voluntary attention in its effects on performance in tasks mediated by spatial resolution (Yeshurun, Montagna, & Carrasco, 2008). Therefore, we ask whether voluntary attention affects the subjective appearance of spatial frequency--a fundamental dimension of visual perception underlying spatial resolution. We used a demanding rapid serial visual presentation task to direct voluntary attention and measured perceived spatial frequency at the attended and unattended locations. Attention increased the perceived spatial frequency of suprathreshold stimuli and also improved performance on a concurrent orientation discrimination task. In the control experiment, we ruled out response bias as an alternative account by using a lengthened interstimulus interval, which allows observers to disengage attention from the cued location. In contrast to the main experiment, the observers showed neither increased perceived spatial frequency nor improved orientation discrimination at the attended location. Thus, this study establishes that voluntary attention increases perceived spatial frequency. This phenomenological consequence links behavioral and neurophysiological studies on the effects of attention.

  6. Price of Vitamin B5 Increases Rapidly


    @@ The export price of vitamin B5 in China has increased constantly in 2007. According to the analysis made by experts, the demand of vitamin B5 has not grown greatly. The main reason for the price rise is the change of the supply mode.

  7. Sex Equity: Increasing Girls' Use of Computers.

    Lockheed, Marlaine E.; Frakt, Steven B.


    Indicates that although computer science has been free of male domination, the stereotype of computers as male machines is emerging with increasing growth in microcomputer use by children. Factors that account for this development and some strategies teachers can adopt to equalize computer use by boys and girls are presented. (MBR)

  8. Motivating Intervention Strategies to Increase Homework Completion

    Amerine, Melissa; Pender, Lisa; Schuler, Kristin


    The purpose of this action research project was to increase homework completion through the use of motivating strategies. There were approximately 75 students, 100 parents, and three teacher researchers involved in this study. The three intervention strategies used were 15 minutes of class time, extrinsic rewards, and assignment notebook checks.…

  9. Increased cerebral water content in hemodialysis patients.

    Kathrin Reetz

    Full Text Available Little information is available on the impact of hemodialysis on cerebral water homeostasis and its distribution in chronic kidney disease. We used a neuropsychological test battery, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and a novel technique for quantitative measurement of localized water content using 3T MRI to investigate ten hemodialysis patients (HD on a dialysis-free day and after hemodialysis (2.4±2.2 hours, and a matched healthy control group with the same time interval. Neuropsychological testing revealed mainly attentional and executive cognitive dysfunction in HD. Voxel-based-morphometry showed only marginal alterations in the right inferior medial temporal lobe white matter in HD compared to controls. Marked increases in global brain water content were found in the white matter, specifically in parietal areas, in HD patients compared to controls. Although the global water content in the gray matter did not differ between the two groups, regional increases of brain water content in particular in parieto-temporal gray matter areas were observed in HD patients. No relevant brain hydration changes were revealed before and after hemodialysis. Whereas longer duration of dialysis vintage was associated with increased water content in parieto-temporal-occipital regions, lower intradialytic weight changes were negatively correlated with brain water content in these areas in HD patients. Worse cognitive performance on an attention task correlated with increased hydration in frontal white matter. In conclusion, long-term HD is associated with altered brain tissue water homeostasis mainly in parietal white matter regions, whereas the attentional domain in the cognitive dysfunction profile in HD could be linked to increased frontal white matter water content.

  10. A mechanistic study to increase understanding of titanium dioxide nanoparticles-increased plasma glucose in mice.

    Hu, Hailong; Li, Li; Guo, Qian; Jin, Sanli; Zhou, Ying; Oh, Yuri; Feng, Yujie; Wu, Qiong; Gu, Ning


    Titanium dioxide nanoparticle (TiO2 NP) is an authorized food additive. Previous studies determined oral administration of TiO2 NPs increases plasma glucose in mice via inducing insulin resistance. An increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been considered the possible mechanism of increasing plasma glucose. However, persistently high plasma glucose is also a mechanism of increasing ROS. This study aims to explore whether TiO2 NPs increase plasma glucose via ROS. We found after oral administration of TiO2 NPs, an increase in ROS preceded an increase in plasma glucose. Subsequently, mice were treated with two antioxidants (resveratrol and vitamin E) at the same time as oral administration of TiO2 NPs. Results showed resveratrol and vitamin E reduced TiO2 NPs-increased ROS. An increase in plasma glucose was also inhibited. Further research showed resveratrol and vitamin E inhibited the secretion of TNF-α and IL-6, and the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK, resulting in improved insulin resistance. These results suggest TiO2 NPs increased ROS levels, and then ROS activated inflammatory cytokines and phosphokinases, and thus induced insulin resistance, resulting in an increase in plasma glucose. Resveratrol and vitamin E can reduce TiO2 NPs-increased ROS and thereby inhibit an increase in plasma glucose in mice.

  11. Shopper marketing nutrition interventions: Social norms on grocery carts increase produce spending without increasing shopper budgets

    Collin R. Payne


    Conclusions: Descriptive and provincial social norm messages (i.e., on grocery cart placards may be an overlooked tool to increase produce demand without decreasing store profitability and increasing shopper budgets.

  12. Increased taxon sampling greatly reduces phylogenetic error.

    Zwickl, Derrick J; Hillis, David M


    Several authors have argued recently that extensive taxon sampling has a positive and important effect on the accuracy of phylogenetic estimates. However, other authors have argued that there is little benefit of extensive taxon sampling, and so phylogenetic problems can or should be reduced to a few exemplar taxa as a means of reducing the computational complexity of the phylogenetic analysis. In this paper we examined five aspects of study design that may have led to these different perspectives. First, we considered the measurement of phylogenetic error across a wide range of taxon sample sizes, and conclude that the expected error based on randomly selecting trees (which varies by taxon sample size) must be considered in evaluating error in studies of the effects of taxon sampling. Second, we addressed the scope of the phylogenetic problems defined by different samples of taxa, and argue that phylogenetic scope needs to be considered in evaluating the importance of taxon-sampling strategies. Third, we examined the claim that fast and simple tree searches are as effective as more thorough searches at finding near-optimal trees that minimize error. We show that a more complete search of tree space reduces phylogenetic error, especially as the taxon sample size increases. Fourth, we examined the effects of simple versus complex simulation models on taxonomic sampling studies. Although benefits of taxon sampling are apparent for all models, data generated under more complex models of evolution produce higher overall levels of error and show greater positive effects of increased taxon sampling. Fifth, we asked if different phylogenetic optimality criteria show different effects of taxon sampling. Although we found strong differences in effectiveness of different optimality criteria as a function of taxon sample size, increased taxon sampling improved the results from all the common optimality criteria. Nonetheless, the method that showed the lowest overall

  13. Increasing muscle extensibility: a matter of increasing length or modifying sensation?

    Weppler, Cynthia Holzman; Magnusson, S Peter


    Various theories have been proposed to explain increases in muscle extensibility observed after intermittent stretching. Most of these theories advocate a mechanical increase in length of the stretched muscle. More recently, a sensory theory has been proposed suggesting instead that increases in ...

  14. Do fat supplements increase physical performance?

    Macaluso, Filippo; Barone, Rosario; Catanese, Patrizia; Carini, Francesco; Rizzuto, Luigi; Farina, Felicia; Di Felice, Valentina


    Fish oil and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) belong to a popular class of food supplements known as "fat supplements", which are claimed to reduce muscle glycogen breakdown, reduce body mass, as well as reduce muscle damage and inflammatory responses. Sport athletes consume fish oil and CLA mainly to increase lean body mass and reduce body fat. Recent evidence indicates that this kind of supplementation may have other side-effects and a new role has been identified in steroidogenensis. Preliminary findings demonstrate that fish oil and CLA may induce a physiological increase in testosterone synthesis. The aim of this review is to describe the effects of fish oil and CLA on physical performance (endurance and resistance exercise), and highlight the new results on the effects on testosterone biosynthesis. In view of these new data, we can hypothesize that fat supplements may improve the anabolic effect of exercise.

  15. Playing violent video games increases intergroup bias.

    Greitemeyer, Tobias


    Previous research has shown how, why, and for whom violent video game play is related to aggression and aggression-related variables. In contrast, less is known about whether some individuals are more likely than others to be the target of increased aggression after violent video game play. The present research examined the idea that the effects of violent video game play are stronger when the target is a member of an outgroup rather than an ingroup. In fact, a correlational study revealed that violent video game exposure was positively related to ethnocentrism. This relation remained significant when controlling for trait aggression. Providing causal evidence, an experimental study showed that playing a violent video game increased aggressive behavior, and that this effect was more pronounced when the target was an outgroup rather than an ingroup member. Possible mediating mechanisms are discussed.

  16. Increase of Organization in Complex Systems

    Georgiev, Georgi Yordanov; Gombos, Erin; Vinod, Amrit; Hoonjan, Gajinder


    Measures of complexity and entropy have not converged to a single quantitative description of levels of organization of complex systems. The need for such a measure is increasingly necessary in all disciplines studying complex systems. To address this problem, starting from the most fundamental principle in Physics, here a new measure for quantity of organization and rate of self-organization in complex systems based on the principle of least (stationary) action is applied to a model system - the central processing unit (CPU) of computers. The quantity of organization for several generations of CPUs shows a double exponential rate of change of organization with time. The exact functional dependence has a fine, S-shaped structure, revealing some of the mechanisms of self-organization. The principle of least action helps to explain the mechanism of increase of organization through quantity accumulation and constraint and curvature minimization with an attractor, the least average sum of actions of all elements ...

  17. Do Fat Supplements Increase Physical Performance?

    Valentina Di Felice


    Full Text Available Fish oil and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA belong to a popular class of food supplements known as “fat supplements”, which are claimed to reduce muscle glycogen breakdown, reduce body mass, as well as reduce muscle damage and inflammatory responses. Sport athletes consume fish oil and CLA mainly to increase lean body mass and reduce body fat. Recent evidence indicates that this kind of supplementation may have other side-effects and a new role has been identified in steroidogenensis. Preliminary findings demonstrate that fish oil and CLA may induce a physiological increase in testosterone synthesis. The aim of this review is to describe the effects of fish oil and CLA on physical performance (endurance and resistance exercise, and highlight the new results on the effects on testosterone biosynthesis. In view of these new data, we can hypothesize that fat supplements may improve the anabolic effect of exercise.

  18. Leptospirosis: a globally increasing zoonotic disease.

    Rock, Clare


    A 27-year-old previously healthy man was admitted to the intensive care unit with severe jaundice, dyspnoea with haemoptysis, anaemia, thrombocytopenia and acute renal injury. He had no recent history of foreign travel but had been building a shed in his back garden in Cork, Ireland, for the preceding week. The patient\\'s history, clinical observations, haematological and radiological results were all consistent with icteric leptospirosis or Weil\\'s disease. This was confirmed on serological testing. He completed 7 days intravenous ceftriaxone and made a complete recovery. While endemic in tropical climates, leptospirosis incidence is increasing in temperate climates. Recent cases seen in temperate climates can be severe, particularly with pulmonary manifestations. The report of this case serves to increase awareness of this re-emerging potentially fatal infectious disease.

  19. Increasing the efficiency of solar thermal panels

    Dobrnjac, M.; Latinović, T.; Dobrnjac, S.; Živković, P.


    The popularity of solar heating systems is increasing for several reasons. These systems are reliable, adaptable and pollution-free, because the renewable solar energy is used. There are many variants of solar systems in the market mainly constructed with copper pipes and absorbers with different quality of absorption surface. Taking into account the advantages and disadvantages of existing solutions, in order to increase efficiency and improve the design of solar panel, the innovative solution has been done. This new solar panel presents connection of an attractive design and the use of constructive appropriate materials with special geometric shapes. Hydraulic and thermotechnical tests that have been performed on this panel showed high hydraulic and structural stability. Further development of the solar panel will be done in the future in order to improve some noticed disadvantages.

  20. Interference comb-spectroscopy with increasing sensitivity

    Pulkin, Sergey; Borisov, Evgenii; Balabas, Michail; Uvarova, Svetlana; Shevtzov, Vladimir; Kalinichev, Alexei; Shoev, Vladislav; Venediktov, Dmitrii; Venediktov, Vladimir


    The paper considers the use of holographic interferometer for hologram recording of the wide spectrum from the comb - generator of the femtosecond laser was applied for illuminating of Michelson interferometer with atomic vapor. The behavior of spectral interference fringes on the exit slit of spectrograph reflects the behavior of nonlinear refractive index. The method of holographic interferometry with increasing sensitivity using phase modulator was applied for digital hologram processing.

  1. CNOOC Reports Significant Increase in 2006 Profits


    @@ China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC), the country's No.3 oil producer,recently announced pretax profits jumped 24 percent to 48.1 billion yuan (US$6.2 billion) in 2006. The offshore oil giant reported 60.1 percent increase in pretax profits, totaling 38.8 billion yuan (US$5 billion) in 2005. Analysts said the dropped oil prices in the second half of last year had greatly affected the company's profit growth.

  2. Increasing the Confidence in Student's $t$ Interval

    Goutis, Constantinos; Casella, George


    The usual confidence interval, based on Student's $t$ distribution, has conditional confidence that is larger than the nominal confidence level. Although this fact is known, along with the fact that increased conditional confidence can be used to improve a confidence assertion, the confidence assertion of Student's $t$ interval has never been critically examined. We do so here, and construct a confidence estimator that allows uniformly higher confidence in the interval and is closer (than $1 ...

  3. A short proof of increased parabolic regularity

    Stephen Pankavich


    Full Text Available We present a short proof of the increased regularity obtained by solutions to uniformly parabolic partial differential equations. Though this setting is fairly introductory, our new method of proof, which uses a priori estimates and an inductive method, can be extended to prove analogous results for problems with time-dependent coefficients, advection-diffusion or reaction diffusion equations, and nonlinear PDEs even when other tools, such as semigroup methods or the use of explicit fundamental solutions, are unavailable.

  4. Aridity under conditions of increased CO2

    Greve, Peter; Roderick, Micheal L.; Seneviratne, Sonia I.


    A string of recent of studies led to the wide-held assumption that aridity will increase under conditions of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and associated global warming. Such results generally build upon analyses of changes in the 'aridity index' (the ratio of potential evaporation to precipitation) and can be described as a direct thermodynamic effect on atmospheric water demand due to increasing temperatures. However, there is widespread evidence that contradicts the 'warmer is more arid' interpretation, leading to the 'global aridity paradox' (Roderick et al. 2015, WRR). Here we provide a comprehensive assessment of modeled changes in a broad set of dryness metrics (primarily based on a range of measures of water availability) over a large range of realistic atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We use an ensemble of simulations from of state-of-the-art climate models to analyse both equilibrium climate experiments and transient historical simulations and future projections. Our results show that dryness is, under conditions of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and related global warming, generally decreasing at global scales. At regional scales we do, however, identify areas that undergo changes towards drier conditions, located primarily in subtropical climate regions and the Amazon Basin. Nonetheless, the majority of regions, especially in tropical and mid- to northern high latitudes areas, display wetting conditions in a warming world. Our results contradict previous findings and highlight the need to comprehensively assess all aspects of changes in hydroclimatological conditions at the land surface. Roderick, M. L., P. Greve, and G. D. Farquhar (2015), On the assessment of aridity with changes in atmospheric CO2, Water Resour. Res., 51, 5450-5463

  5. The RMB Exchange Rate Keeps Increasing


    @@ In July 2005, the People's Bank of China officially announced that it would adopt a manageable floating exchange rate, adjusted according to a basket of currencies based on market supply and demand. On that day, the exchange rate of the RMB to the U.S. Dollar increased by 21 percent, and since then the RMB exchange rate has gradually turned to a more flexible exchange rate convention, rather than focusing on the Dollar only.

  6. Increasing demands on today's blood donors

    McClelland, W. M.


    Recently in Northern Ireland there has been a rapid increase in demand for a variety of blood components. To meet this need a large proportion of routine blood donations must be processed at the Transfusion Centre. In addition, several blood components are collected direct from donors by apheresis techniques. Apheresis is currently restricted to the collection of components from highly selected donors, but in future this method is likely to be employed for collection of some routine component...

  7. Symbiosis increases coral tolerance to ocean acidification

    S. Ohki


    Full Text Available Increasing the acidity of ocean waters will directly threaten calcifying marine organisms such as reef-building scleractinian corals, and the myriad of species that rely on corals for protection and sustenance. Ocean pH has already decreased by around 0.1 pH units since the beginning of the industrial revolution, and is expected to decrease by another 0.2–0.4 pH units by 2100. This study mimicked the pre-industrial, present, and near-future levels of pCO2 using a precise control system (±5% pCO2, to assess the impact of ocean acidification on the calcification of recently-settled primary polyps of Acropora digitifera, both with and without symbionts, and adult fragments with symbionts. The increase in pCO2 of 100 μatm between the pre-industrial period and the present had more effect on the calcification rate of adult A. digitifera than the anticipated future increases of several hundreds of micro-atmospheres of pCO2. The primary polyps with symbionts showed higher calcification rates than primary polyps without symbionts, suggesting that (i primary polyps housing symbionts are more tolerant to near-future ocean acidification than organisms without symbionts, and (ii corals acquiring symbionts from the environment (i.e. broadcasting species will be more vulnerable to ocean acidification than corals that maternally acquire symbionts.

  8. Happiness increases distraction by auditory deviant stimuli.

    Pacheco-Unguetti, Antonia Pilar; Parmentier, Fabrice B R


    Rare and unexpected changes (deviants) in an otherwise repeated stream of task-irrelevant auditory distractors (standards) capture attention and impair behavioural performance in an ongoing visual task. Recent evidence indicates that this effect is increased by sadness in a task involving neutral stimuli. We tested the hypothesis that such effect may not be limited to negative emotions but reflect a general depletion of attentional resources by examining whether a positive emotion (happiness) would increase deviance distraction too. Prior to performing an auditory-visual oddball task, happiness or a neutral mood was induced in participants by means of the exposure to music and the recollection of an autobiographical event. Results from the oddball task showed significantly larger deviance distraction following the induction of happiness. Interestingly, the small amount of distraction typically observed on the standard trial following a deviant trial (post-deviance distraction) was not increased by happiness. We speculate that happiness might interfere with the disengagement of attention from the deviant sound back towards the target stimulus (through the depletion of cognitive resources and/or mind wandering) but help subsequent cognitive control to recover from distraction.

  9. Increasing incidence of coeliac disease in Sweden.

    Ascher, H; Krantz, I; Kristiansson, B


    Changes in the incidence of coelic disease was studied among children born in Göteborg, Sweden, between 1970 and 1988. A total of 188 patients with coeliac disease were found. Of these, 83% were less than 2 years old at the time of their first duodenal biopsy and 74% of them have so far been verified according to the criteria of the European Society for Gastroenterology and Nutrition (ESPGAN). The cumulative incidence at 2 years of age/1000 liveborn infants increased significantly from 0.31 in the first birth cohort to 2.93 in the last. This increase could only partly be explained by improvements in detection. Weight for age at diagnosis was generally considerably below the reference value, but was slightly less affected towards the end of the period. The increase in incidence of coeliac disease is the first reported since the middle 1970s and makes the disease one of the most common chronic diseases among Swedish children. PMID:2039251

  10. Clusters - Tourism Activity Increase Competitiveness Support

    Carmen IORDACHE


    Full Text Available Tourism represents one of those areas with the greatest potential of global expansion. Tourism development strategy in terms of maximizing its positive effects on regional economic increase and implicitly on the national one starts from the premise that in global economy value is created in regions which are defined as particular geographical entities, separated by geographical reasons and not as political-administrative structures, and economic increase is centrally cumulated and valued according to the economic policy and the national legal system.Regional economic system approach based on “cluster” concept is explained by the fact that the regional activities portfolio is based on an inter and intra-industry networking grouped by cluster, in which is created the value that increases as the activity results are leading to the final consumers.This type of communication aims to highlight the tourism role as a factor in regional development, the clustering process significance in obtaining some competitiveness advantages, clusters development in tourism beginnings, and also the identification methodology used to select one touristic area to create the cluster.


    G. O. Magomedov


    Full Text Available Summary. Technology for producing milk candies on molasses with increased shelf-life, molded by "extrusion" with a vacuum syringe of continuous action used in the meat industry, into metallized film like "flow-pack" is considered. Rheological characteristics of candy mass: strength, toughness, organoleptic, physical and chemical quality are determined. While increasing the temperature of milk mass the colour, texture, mass fraction of reducing substances and solids change. It was found out that molasses based milk mass is easily molded at a moisture content of 10-11 % and temperature of 60 ºС. The advantages of the new method of forming products are: manufactured products have individual package, which increases the shelf life and improves the quality of products, extend the range of use, the technological equipment has a high productivity, it is compact and reliable. According to the consumer qualities the product surpasses all known analogs. Possibility of using a single-piece product while gathering dinners and breakfasts in public catering, establishments and transport. The technological process is simplified. Energy value of products on molasses in comparison with the control samples on sugar is calculated. It is 51 kcal less than in the control sample on sugar. Thus, the technology of functional milk candies with reduced sugar content is developed. The products will be useful for anyone who leads a healthy lifestyle.

  12. Polyploidization increases meiotic recombination frequency in Arabidopsis

    Rehmsmeier Marc


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyploidization is the multiplication of the whole chromosome complement and has occurred frequently in vascular plants. Maintenance of stable polyploid state over generations requires special mechanisms to control pairing and distribution of more than two homologous chromosomes during meiosis. Since a minimal number of crossover events is essential for correct chromosome segregation, we investigated whether polyploidy has an influence on the frequency of meiotic recombination. Results Using two genetically linked transgenes providing seed-specific fluorescence, we compared a high number of progeny from diploid and tetraploid Arabidopsis plants. We show that rates of meiotic recombination in reciprocal crosses of genetically identical diploid and autotetraploid Arabidopsis plants were significantly higher in tetraploids compared to diploids. Although male and female gametogenesis differ substantially in meiotic recombination frequency, both rates were equally increased in tetraploids. To investigate whether multivalent formation in autotetraploids was responsible for the increased recombination rates, we also performed corresponding experiments with allotetraploid plants showing strict bivalent pairing. We found similarly increased rates in auto- and allotetraploids, suggesting that the ploidy effect is independent of chromosome pairing configurations. Conclusions The evolutionary success of polyploid plants in nature and under domestication has been attributed to buffering of mutations and sub- and neo-functionalization of duplicated genes. Should the data described here be representative for polyploid plants, enhanced meiotic recombination, and the resulting rapid creation of genetic diversity, could have also contributed to their prevalence.

  13. Increased Science Instrumentation Funding Strengthens Mars Program

    Graham, Lee D.; Graff, T. G.


    As the strategic knowledge gaps mature for the exploration of Mars, Mars sample return (MSR), and Phobos/Deimos missions, one approach that becomes more probable involves smaller science instrumentation and integrated science suites. Recent technological advances provide the foundation for a significant evolution of instrumentation; however, the funding support is currently too small to fully utilize these advances. We propose that an increase in funding for instrumentation development occur in the near-term so that these foundational technologies can be applied. These instruments would directly address the significant knowledge gaps for humans to Mars orbit, humans to the Martian surface, and humans to Phobos/ Deimos. They would also address the topics covered by the Decadal Survey and the Mars scientific goals, objectives, investigations and priorities as stated by the MEPAG. We argue that an increase of science instrumentation funding would be of great benefit to the Mars program as well as the potential for human exploration of the Mars system. If the total non-Earth-related planetary science instrumentation budget were increased 100% it would not add an appreciable amount to the overall NASA budget and would provide the real potential for future breakthroughs. If such an approach were implemented in the near-term, NASA would benefit greatly in terms of science knowledge of the Mars, Phobos/Deimos system, exploration risk mitigation, technology development, and public interest.

  14. Global warming without global mean precipitation increase?

    Salzmann, Marc


    Global climate models simulate a robust increase of global mean precipitation of about 1.5 to 2% per kelvin surface warming in response to greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. Here, it is shown that the sensitivity to aerosol cooling is robust as well, albeit roughly twice as large. This larger sensitivity is consistent with energy budget arguments. At the same time, it is still considerably lower than the 6.5 to 7% K(-1) decrease of the water vapor concentration with cooling from anthropogenic aerosol because the water vapor radiative feedback lowers the hydrological sensitivity to anthropogenic forcings. When GHG and aerosol forcings are combined, the climate models with a realistic 20th century warming indicate that the global mean precipitation increase due to GHG warming has, until recently, been completely masked by aerosol drying. This explains the apparent lack of sensitivity of the global mean precipitation to the net global warming recently found in observations. As the importance of GHG warming increases in the future, a clear signal will emerge.

  15. Increasing Incidence of Canine Leptospirosis in Switzerland

    Andrea Major


    Full Text Available A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes <800 m, the disease presented a seasonal pattern associated with temperature (r2 0.73 and rainfall (r2 0.39, >90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of summer (r2 0.25 or rainy days (r2 0.38. Serovars Australis and Bratislava showed the highest seropositivity rates with 70.5% and 69.1%, respectively. Main clinical manifestations included renal (99.6%, pulmonary (76.7%, hepatic (26.0%, and hemorrhagic syndromes (18.2%, leading to a high mortality rate (43.3%. Similar to the human disease, liver involvement had the strongest association with negative outcome (OR 16.3. Based on these data, canine leptospirosis presents similar features and severity as the human infection for which it therefore can be considered a model. Its re-emergence in a temperate country with very high incidence rates in canines should thus be viewed as a warning and emphasize the need for increased awareness in other species.

  16. Increasing river floods: fiction or reality?

    Blöschl, Günter; Gaál, Ladislav; Hall, Julia; Kiss, Andrea; Komma, Jürgen; Nester, Thomas; Parajka, Juraj; Perdigão, Rui A P; Plavcová, Lenka; Rogger, Magdalena; Salinas, José Luis; Viglione, Alberto


    There has been a surprisingly large number of major floods in the last years around the world, which suggests that floods may have increased and will continue to increase in the next decades. However, the realism of such changes is still hotly discussed in the literature. This overview article examines whether floods have changed in the past and explores the driving processes of such changes in the atmosphere, the catchments and the river system based on examples from Europe. Methods are reviewed for assessing whether floods may increase in the future. Accounting for feedbacks within the human-water system is important when assessing flood changes over lead times of decades or centuries. It is argued that an integrated flood risk management approach is needed for dealing with future flood risk with a focus on reducing the vulnerability of the societal system. WIREs Water 2015, 2:329-344. doi: 10.1002/wat2.1079 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  17. Alcoholic Cirrhosis Increases Risk for Autoimmune Diseases

    Grønbæk, Lisbet; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Deleuran, Bent;


    IRR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.26-1.92), celiac disease (aIRR, 5.12; 95% CI, 2.58-10.16), pernicious anemia (aIRR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.50-3.68), and psoriasis (aIRR, 4.06; 95% CI, 3.32-4.97). There was no increase in the incidence rate for rheumatoid arthritis (aIRR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.69-1.15); the incidence rate......BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcoholic cirrhosis is associated with hyperactivation and dysregulation of the immune system. In addition to its ability to increase risk for infections, it also may increase the risk for autoimmune diseases. We studied the incidence of autoimmune diseases among patients...... (controls) of the same sex and age. The incidence rates of various autoimmune diseases were compared between patients with cirrhosis and controls and adjusted for the number of hospitalizations in the previous year (a marker for the frequency of clinical examination). RESULTS: Of the 24,679 patients...

  18. Paradoxical sleep deprivation increases plasma endothelin levels

    B.D. Palma


    Full Text Available The endothelins (ET-1, 2 and 3 constitute a family of 21 amino acid peptides with potent biological activities. ET-1 is one of the most potent endogenous vasoconstrictors so far identified and its increased concentration in plasma appears to be closely related to the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension as well as to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. OSA patients exhibit repetitive episodes of apnea and hypopnea that result in hypoxia and consecutive arousals. These patients are chronically sleep deprived, which may aggravate the hypertensive features, since literature data show that sleep deprivation results in hypertension both in humans and in animals. Based on the reported relationship between ET-1, hypertension and sleep deprivation consequences, the purpose of the present study was to determine plasma ET concentrations in paradoxical sleep-deprived animals. Male Wistar rats, 3 to 4 months old (N = 10 per group, were deprived of sleep for 24 and 96 h by the platform technique and plasma ET-1/2 was measured by radioimmunoassay. Analysis of plasma revealed that 96 h of sleep deprivation induced a significant increase in ET-1/2 release (6.58 fmol/ml compared to control (5.07 fmol/ml. These data show that sleep deprivation altered plasma ET-1/2 concentrations, suggesting that such an increase may participate in the genesis of arterial hypertension and cardiorespiratory changes observed after sleep deprivation.

  19. Increasing cardiac interventions among the aged.

    Groarke, J D


    Ireland\\'s over 65 year population is growing. As incidence of coronary events rises with age, there is a growing population of elderly patients with cardiac disease. The changing age profile of patients treated by a tertiary hospital\\'s Cardiology service was quantified using Hospital Inpatient Enquiry data. 53% of CCU admissions were aged > or = 65 years, with admissions aged > or = 85 years in 2008 four times greater than in 2002. Percentages of patients undergoing diagnostic coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary interventions in 1997 aged > or = 70 years were 19% and 18% respectively. By 2007, these percentages had risen to 31% and 34% respectively--greatest increases were in the very elderly age categories. The proportion of ICD recipients aged > 70 years increased from 8% in 2003 to 25% by 2008. The proportion of elderly patients receiving advanced cardiac care is increasing. This trend will continue and has clear resource implications. Outcomes of interventions in the very old need further investigation, since the \\'old old\\' are under-represented in clinical trials.

  20. DDT increases hepatic testosterone metabolism in rats.

    Sierra-Santoyo, Adolfo; Hernández, Manuel; Albores, Arnulfo; Cebrián, Mariano E


    DDT and its metabolites are considered as endocrine disruptors able to promote hormone-dependent pathologies. We studied the effects of technical-grade DDT on hepatic testosterone metabolism and testosterone hydroxylase activity ratios in the rat. Male and female Wistar rats were treated by gavage with a single dose of technical-grade DDT (0, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 mg/kg body weight) and killed 24 h later. Hepatic microsomes were incubated with [4-14C]-testosterone and the metabolites were separated by thin-layer chromatography and quantified by radio scanning. DDT increased testosterone biotransformation and modified the profile of metabolites produced in a sex-dependent manner. Males treated with a representative dose (10 mg/kg) produced relatively less androstenedione (AD), 2alpha-hydroxytestosterone (OHT), and 16alpha-OHT but higher 6beta-OHT whereas treated females produced less 7alpha-OHT and AD but higher 6beta-OHT and 6alpha-OHT than their respective controls. In both sexes DDT decreased the relative proportion of AD and increased that of 6beta-OHT suggesting that the androgen-saving pathway was affected. The testosterone 6alpha-/15alpha-OHT ratio, a proposed indicator of demasculinization, was increased in treated males. This effect was in agreement with the demasculinizing ability proposed for DDT. The effects on 6alpha-/16alpha-OHT and 6-dehydrotestosterone/16alpha-OHT ratios followed a similar tendency, with the ratio 6alpha-/16alpha-OHT being the most sensitive marker. Interestingly, these ratios were reduced in treated females suggesting that technical-grade DDT shifted testosterone hydroxylations toward a more masculine pattern. Thus, technical-grade DDT altered the hepatic sexual dimorphism in testosterone metabolism and decreased the metabolic differences between male and female rats.