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Sample records for actinide measurement quality

  1. Actinide measurements by AMS using fluoride matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornett, R.J., E-mail: Jack.Cornett@uottawa.ca [André E. Lalonde AMS Laboratory, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Department of Earth Sciences, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Kazi, Z.H. [André E. Lalonde AMS Laboratory, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Department of Earth Sciences, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Zhao, X.-L. [André E. Lalonde AMS Laboratory, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Chartrand, M.G. [André E. Lalonde AMS Laboratory, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Department of Earth Sciences, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Charles, R.J.; Kieser, W.E. [André E. Lalonde AMS Laboratory, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2015-10-15

    Actinides can be measured by alpha spectroscopy (AS), mass spectroscopy or accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). We tested a simple method to separate Pu and Am isotopes from the sample matrix using a single extraction chromatography column. The actinides in the column eluent were then measured by AS or AMS using a fluoride target matrix. Pu and Am were coprecipitated with NdF{sub 3}. The strongest AMS beams of Pu and Am were produced when there was a large excess of fluoride donor atoms in the target and the NdF{sub 3} precipitates were diluted about 6–8 fold with PbF{sub 2}. The measured concentrations of {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am agreed with the concentrations in standards of known activity and with two IAEA certified reference materials. Measurements of {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am made at A.E. Lalonde AMS Laboratory agree, within their statistical uncertainty, with independent measurements made using the IsoTrace AMS system. This work demonstrated that fluoride targets can produce reliable beams of actinide anions and that the measurement of actinides using fluorides agree with published values in certified reference materials.

  2. Fission cross section measurements for minor actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fursov, B. [IPPE, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    The main task of this work is the measurement of fast neutron induced fission cross section for minor actinides of {sup 238}Pu, {sup 242m}Am, {sup 243,244,245,246,247,248}Cm. The task of the work is to increase the accuracy of data in MeV energy region. Basic experimental method, fissile samples, fission detectors and electronics, track detectors, alpha counting, neutron generation, fission rate measurement, corrections to the data and error analysis are presented in this paper. (author)

  3. Fission cross section measurements for minor actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fursov, B. [IPPE, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    The main task of this work is the measurement of fast neutron induced fission cross section for minor actinides of {sup 238}Pu, {sup 242m}Am, {sup 243,244,245,246,247,248}Cm. The task of the work is to increase the accuracy of data in MeV energy region. Basic experimental method, fissile samples, fission detectors and electronics, track detectors, alpha counting, neutron generation, fission rate measurement, corrections to the data and error analysis are presented in this paper. (author)

  4. Measurement of Actinides in Molybdenum-99 Solution Analytical Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soderquist, Chuck Z. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weaver, Jamie L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This document is a companion report to a previous report, PNNL 24519, Measurement of Actinides in Molybdenum-99 Solution, A Brief Review of the Literature, August 2015. In this companion report, we report a fast, accurate, newly developed analytical method for measurement of trace alpha-emitting actinide elements in commercial high-activity molybdenum-99 solution. Molybdenum-99 is widely used to produce 99mTc for medical imaging. Because it is used as a radiopharmaceutical, its purity must be proven to be extremely high, particularly for the alpha emitting actinides. The sample of 99Mo solution is measured into a vessel (such as a polyethylene centrifuge tube) and acidified with dilute nitric acid. A gadolinium carrier is added (50 µg). Tracers and spikes are added as necessary. Then the solution is made strongly basic with ammonium hydroxide, which causes the gadolinium carrier to precipitate as hydrous Gd(OH)3. The precipitate of Gd(OH)3 carries all of the actinide elements. The suspension of gadolinium hydroxide is then passed through a membrane filter to make a counting mount suitable for direct alpha spectrometry. The high-activity 99Mo and 99mTc pass through the membrane filter and are separated from the alpha emitters. The gadolinium hydroxide, carrying any trace actinide elements that might be present in the sample, forms a thin, uniform cake on the surface of the membrane filter. The filter cake is first washed with dilute ammonium hydroxide to push the last traces of molybdate through, then with water. The filter is then mounted on a stainless steel counting disk. Finally, the alpha emitting actinide elements are measured by alpha spectrometry.

  5. Status of measurements of fission neutron spectra of Minor Actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drapchinsky, L.; Shiryaev, B. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Inst., Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    The report considers experimental and theoretical works on studying the energy spectra of prompt neutrons emitted in spontaneous fission and neutron induced fission of Minor Actinides. It is noted that neutron spectra investigations were done for only a small number of such nuclei, most measurements, except those of Cf-252, having been carried out long ago by obsolete methods and imperfectapparatus. The works have no detailed description of experiments, analysis of errors, detailed numerical information about results of experiments. A conclusion is made that the available data do not come up to modern requirements. It is necessary to make new measurements of fission prompt neutron spectra of transuranium nuclides important for the objectives of working out a conception of minor actinides transmutation by means of special reactors. (author)

  6. Status of measurements of fission neutron spectra of Minor Actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drapchinsky, L.; Shiryaev, B. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Inst., Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    The report considers experimental and theoretical works on studying the energy spectra of prompt neutrons emitted in spontaneous fission and neutron induced fission of Minor Actinides. It is noted that neutron spectra investigations were done for only a small number of such nuclei, most measurements, except those of Cf-252, having been carried out long ago by obsolete methods and imperfectapparatus. The works have no detailed description of experiments, analysis of errors, detailed numerical information about results of experiments. A conclusion is made that the available data do not come up to modern requirements. It is necessary to make new measurements of fission prompt neutron spectra of transuranium nuclides important for the objectives of working out a conception of minor actinides transmutation by means of special reactors. (author)

  7. Measurement of actinides in environmental samples by Photo-Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadieux, J.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Clark, S. [Savannah River Ecology Lab., Univ. of Georgia (United States); Fjeld, R.A.; Reboul, S.; Sowder, A. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Dept. of Environmental Systems Engineering

    1994-05-01

    This work describes the adaptation of extractive scintillation with a Photo-Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation (PERALS) (ORDELA, Inc.) spectrometer to the analysis of actinides in environmental samples from the Savannah River Site (SRS). Environmental quality assurance standards and actual water samples were treated by one of two methods; either a two step direct extraction, or for more complex samples, pretreatment by an extraction chromatographic separation prior to measurement of the alpha activity by PERALS.

  8. Measurements of Fission Cross Sections of Actinides

    CERN Multimedia

    Wiescher, M; Cox, J; Dahlfors, M

    2002-01-01

    A measurement of the neutron induced fission cross sections of $^{237}$Np, $^{241},{243}$Am and of $^{245}$Cm is proposed for the n_TOF neutron beam. Two sets of fission detectors will be used: one based on PPAC counters and another based on a fast ionization chamber (FIC). A total of 5x10$^{18}$ protons are requested for the entire fission measurement campaign.

  9. High-Precision Isotope Ratio Measurements of Sub-Picogram Actinide Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollington, A. D.; Kinman, W.

    2016-12-01

    One of the most exciting trends in analytical geochemistry over the past decade is the push towards smaller and smaller sample sizes while simultaneously achieving high precision isotope ratio measurements. This trend has been driven by advances in clean chemistry protocols, and by significant breakthroughs in mass spectrometer ionization efficiency and detector quality (stability and noise for low signals). In this presentation I will focus on new techniques currently being developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the characterization of ultra-small samples (pg, fg, ag), with particular focus on actinide measurements by MC-ICP-MS. Analyses of U, Pu, Th and Am are routinely carried out in our facility using multi-ion counting techniques. I will describe some of the challenges associated with using exclusively ion counting methods (e.g., stability, detector cross calibration, etc.), and how we work to mitigate them. While the focus of much of the work currently being carried out is in the broad field of nuclear forensics and safeguards, the techniques that are being developed are directly applicable to many geologic questions that require analyses of small samples of U and Th, for example. In addition to the description of the technique development, I will present case studies demonstrating the precision and accuracy of the method as applied to real-world samples.

  10. Micromagnetic susceptometer for the measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of the actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nave, S. E.

    1979-08-01

    A device with the sensitivity for measuring the magnetic susceptibility of small volume samples (10/sup -7/ cm/sup 3/) as a function of temperature from 4.2K to 300K is described as designed specifically for measurements with microgram or submicrogram quantities of the actinide metals. Specifically, results are given for the susceptibility of curium-248 in the temperature range from 4.2K to 300K.

  11. Actinide fission and capture cross section measurements at ILL: the Mini-INCA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letourneau, A.; Bringer, O.; Chabod, S.; Fioni, G.; Foucher, Y.; Marie, F.; Veyssiere, Ch. [CEA/Saclay/DSM/DAPNIA - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Mahamid, I. Al. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, E.H. and S division, Berkeley CA (United States); Blandin, Ch. [CEA/Cadarache/DEN/DER/SPEX - Saint-Paul-lez-Durances (France); Chartier, F. [CEA/Saclay/DEN/DPC/SECR - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Faust, H.; Mutti, P. [Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2005-07-01

    Fission cross section of short-lived minor actinides is of prime importance for the incineration of minor actinides in high and thermal neutron fluxes. But due to the shortness of their half-lives, measurements are difficult to handle on these isotopes and the existing data present some large discrepancies. An original method has been developed, in the framework of the Mini-INCA project at ILL, to measure the fission and capture cross sections of minor actinides with low error bars associated even for short-lived isotopes. This method lies on a quasi on-line alpha- and gamma-spectroscopy of irradiated samples and on the use of fission micro-chambers. Coupled to a very powerful Monte-Carlo simulation, both microscopic information on nuclear reactions (total and partial cross sections for neutron capture and/or fission reactions) and macroscopic information on transmutation and incineration potentials could be gathered. In this paper, the method is explained in its originality and some recent results are given and compared with existing measurements and evaluated data libraries. (authors)

  12. Benchmark Evaluation of Dounreay Prototype Fast Reactor Minor Actinide Depletion Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, J. D.; Gauld, I. C.; Gulliford, J.; Hill, I.; Okajima, S.

    2017-01-01

    Historic measurements of actinide samples in the Dounreay Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) are of interest for modern nuclear data and simulation validation. Samples of various higher-actinide isotopes were irradiated for 492 effective full-power days and radiochemically assayed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). Limited data were available regarding the PFR irradiation; a six-group neutron spectra was available with some power history data to support a burnup depletion analysis validation study. Under the guidance of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD NEA), the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) and Spent Fuel Isotopic Composition (SFCOMPO) Project are collaborating to recover all measurement data pertaining to these measurements, including collaboration with the United Kingdom to obtain pertinent reactor physics design and operational history data. These activities will produce internationally peer-reviewed benchmark data to support validation of minor actinide cross section data and modern neutronic simulation of fast reactors with accompanying fuel cycle activities such as transportation, recycling, storage, and criticality safety.

  13. Measuring the Cosmic Particle Radiation from electrons to actinides - CALET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John; Calet Collaboration; Hnx/Tigeriss Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    CALET (Calorimetric Electron Telescope) was installed on the Exposed Facility of the Japanese Experiment Module (Kibo) on for 24 August 2015. CALET measures the high-energy spectra of electrons, nuclei, and gamma-rays. CALET will extend direct measurements of the total electron spectrum into the trans-TeV energy range for the first time. In this paper, we well present the science and current status of CALET and initial observations from its first 1.5 years in orbit.

  14. Comparative analysis between measured and calculated concentrations of major actinides using destructive assay data from Ohi-2 PWR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oettingen Mikołaj

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, we assess the accuracy of the Monte Carlo continuous energy burnup code (MCB in predicting final concentrations of major actinides in the spent nuclear fuel from commercial PWR. The Ohi-2 PWR irradiation experiment was chosen for the numerical reconstruction due to the availability of the final concentrations for eleven major actinides including five uranium isotopes (U-232, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-238 and six plutonium isotopes (Pu-236, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, Pu-242. The main results were presented as a calculated-to-experimental ratio (C/E for measured and calculated final actinide concentrations. The good agreement in the range of ±5% was obtained for 78% C/E factors (43 out of 55. The MCB modeling shows significant improvement compared with the results of previous studies conducted on the Ohi-2 experiment, which proves the reliability and accuracy of the developed methodology.

  15. Actinides-1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-09-01

    Abstracts of 134 papers which were presented at the Actinides-1981 conference are presented. Approximately half of these papers deal with electronic structure of the actinides. Others deal with solid state chemistry, nuclear physic, thermodynamic properties, solution chemistry, and applied chemistry.

  16. Measurement of fission cross-section of actinides at n_TOF for advanced nuclear reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Calviani, Marco; Montagnoli, G; Mastinu, P

    2009-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the determination of high accuracy neutron-induced fission cross-sections of various isotopes - all of which radioactive - of interest for emerging nuclear technologies. The measurements had been performed at the CERN neutron time-of-flight facility n TOF. In particular, in this work, fission cross-sections on 233U, the main fissile isotope of the Th/U fuel cycle, and on the minor actinides 241Am, 243Am and 245Cm have been analyzed. Data on these isotopes are requested for the feasibility study of innovative nuclear systems (ADS and Generation IV reactors) currently being considered for energy production and radioactive waste transmutation. The measurements have been performed with a high performance Fast Ionization Chamber (FIC), in conjunction with an innovative data acquisition system based on Flash-ADCs. The first step in the analysis has been the reconstruction of the digitized signals, in order to extract the information required for the discrimination between fission fragm...

  17. Measurements of actinide-fission product yields in Caliban and Prospero metallic core reactor fission neutron fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casoli, P.; Authier, N. [CEA, Centre de Valduc, 21120 Is-sur-Tille (France); Laurec, J.; Bauge, E.; Granier, T. [CEA, Centre DIF, 91297 Arpajon (France)

    2011-07-01

    In the 1970's and early 1980's, an experimental program was performed on the facilities of the CEA Valduc Research Center to measure several actinide-fission product yields. Experiments were, in particular, completed on the Caliban and Prospero metallic core reactors to study fission-neutron-induced reactions on {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 239}Pu. Thick actinide samples were irradiated and the number of nuclei of each fission product was determined by gamma spectrometry. Fission chambers were irradiated simultaneously to measure the numbers of fissions in thin deposits of the same actinides. The masses of the thick samples and the thin deposits were determined by mass spectrometry and alpha spectrometry. The results of these experiments will be fully presented in this paper for the first time. A description of the Caliban and Prospero reactors, their characteristics and performances, and explanations about the experimental approach will also be given in the article. A recent work has been completed to analyze and reinterpret these measurements and particularly to evaluate the associated uncertainties. In this context, calculations have also been carried out with the Monte Carlo transport code Tripoli-4, using the published benchmarked Caliban description and a three-dimensional model of Prospero, to determine the average neutron energy causing fission. Simulation results will be discussed in this paper. Finally, new fission yield measurements will be proposed on Caliban and Prospero reactors to strengthen the results of the first experiments. (authors)

  18. Surrogate Measurements of Actinide (n,2n) Cross Sections with NeutronSTARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casperson, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Burke, J. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hughes, R. O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Akindele, O. A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Koglin, J. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wang, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tamashiro, A. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2016-09-27

    Directly measuring (n,2n) cross sections on short-lived actinides presents a number of experimental challenges. The surrogate reaction technique is an experimental method for measuring cross sections on short-­lived isotopes, and it provides a unique solution for measuring (n,2n) cross sections. This technique involves measuring a charged-­particle reaction cross section, where the reaction populates the same compound nucleus as the reaction of interest. To perform these surrogate (n,2n) cross section measurements, a silicon telescope array has been placed along a beam line at the Texas A&M University Cyclotron Institute, which is surrounded by a large tank of gadolinium-doped liquid scintillator, which acts as a neutron detector. The combination of the charge-particle and neutron-detector arrays is referred to as NeutronSTARS. In the analysis procedure for calculating the (n,2n) cross section, the neutron detection efficiency and time structure plays an important role. Due to the lack of availability of isotropic, mono-energetic neutron sources, modeling is an important component in establishing this efficiency and time structure. This report describes the NeutronSTARS array, which was designed and commissioned during this project. It also describes the surrogate reaction technique, specifically referencing a 235U(n,2n) commissioning measurement that was fielded during the past year. Advanced multiplicity analysis techniques have been developed for this work, which should allow for efficient analysis of 241Pu(n,2n) and 239Pu(n,2n) cross section measurements

  19. Level Densities in the actinide region and indirect n,y cross section measurements using the surrogate method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiedeking M.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Results from a program of measurements of level densities and gamma ray strength functions in the actinide region are presented. Experiments at the Oslo cyclotron involving the Cactus/Siri detectors and 232Th(d,x and 232Th(3He,x reactions were carried out to help answer the question of which level density model is the most appropriate for actinide nuclei, since it will have an impact on cross section calculations important for reactor physics simulations. A new technique for extracting level densities and gamma ray strength functions from particle-gamma coincidence data is proposed and results from the development of this technique are presented. In addition, simultaneous measurements of compound nuclear gamma decay probabilities have been performed for the key thorium cycle nuclei 233Th, 231Th and 232Pa up to around 1MeV above the neutron binding energy and have enabled extraction of indirect neutron induced capture cross sections for the 232Th, 231Pa and 230Th nuclei using the surrogate reaction method. Since the neutron capture cross section for 232Th is already well known from direct measurements a comparison provides a stringent test of the applicability of the surrogate technique in the actinide region.

  20. A fast switching electrostatic deflector system for actinide isotopic ratio measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorko, Benjamin; Child, D. P.; Hotchkis, M. A. C.

    2010-04-01

    We have implemented a fast switching electrostatic system on the actinides beamline on the ANTARES accelerator at ANSTO, to improve the precision of analyses by accelerator mass spectrometry. This high-energy bouncing system is based on a pair of deflector plates, deflecting in the orbit plane, set at the entrance and exit of the analysing magnet. The design of deflector plates is unique, and it was modelled by SIMION in order to minimize field inhomogenity and fringe field effects. The pair of deflector plates are supplied by a high-voltage amplifier driven by an EPICS-enabled control unit, with two 4 W power supplies providing up to ±10 kV modulation. The high-energy bouncing system is synchronized with the existing low-energy bouncing system. To measure the isotopic ratio with the new system, the magnetic fields of the injector and analysing magnets are set to transmit selected isotopes along the beam line with zero voltage applied. The other isotopes of interest are transmitted by keeping the magnetic fields constant and modulating the voltages on the injector magnet chamber and on the high-energy deflector plates.

  1. Actinide neutron induced cross section measurements using the oscillation technique in the Minerve reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, B.; Leconte, P.; Gruel, A.; Antony, M.; Di-Salvo, J.; Hudelot, J.P.; Pepino, A.; Lecluze, A. [CEA Cadarache, DEN/CAD/DER/SPRC/LEPh, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2009-07-01

    CEA is deeply involved research programs concerning nuclear fuel advanced studies (actinides, plutonium), waste management, the scientific and technical support of French PWR reactors and EPR reactor, and innovative systems. In this framework, specific neutron integral experiments have been carried out in the critical ZPR (zero power reactor) facilities of the CEA at Cadarache such as MINERVE, EOLE and MASURCA. This paper deals with MINERVE Pool Reactor experiments. MINERVE is mainly devoted to neutronics studies of different reactor core types. The aim is to improve the knowledge of the integral absorption cross sections of actinides (OSMOSE program), of new absorbers (OCEAN program) and also for fission Products (CBU program) in thermal, epithermal and fast neutron spectra. (authors)

  2. In vivo measurement of actinides in the human lung. [Calibration and comparison of Phoswich, large-area proportional counter, and intrinsic germanium planar array detector systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, A.L.; Campbell, G.W.; Griffith, R.V.

    1979-11-06

    The problems associated with the in vivo detection and measurement of actinides in the human lung are discussed together with various measurement systems currently in use. In particular, the methods and calibration procedures employed at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, namely, the use of twin Phoswich detectors and a new, more realistic, tissue-equivalent phantom, are described. Methods for the measurement of chest-wall thickness, fat content, and normal human background counts are also discussed. Detection-efficiency values and minimum detectable activity estimates are given for three common actinides, /sup 238/Pu, /sup 239/Pu, and /sup 241/Am.

  3. Measuring neutron-induced fission cross-section of shortlived actinides using a lead neutron-slowing-down spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granier, T. E-mail: thierry.granier@cea.fr; Pangault, L.; Ethvignot, T.; Haight, R.C.; Ledoux, X.; Meot, V.; Patin, Y.; Pras, P.; Szmigiel, M.; Rundberg, R.S.; Wilhelmy, J.B

    2003-06-21

    The 'lead-slowing-down-spectrometer' method is an established technique for measuring neutron-induced reaction cross-sections. It is known to provide high neutron fluences below 100 keV. In this work, the possibility of applying this method to the measurement of the neutron-induced fission cross-section of shortlived actinides and in particular of the 77 eV isomer of {sup 235}U is investigated. Numerical simulations and a test-experiment using a photovaltaic cell fission detector demonstrate the feasibility of such a measurement at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center using 800 MeV proton-induced spallation to provide source neutrons.

  4. MDS Quality Measures

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of the quality measures displayed on Nursing Home Compare, excluding Measures of Rehospitalization, Emergency Room Visit, and Community Discharge. Each row...

  5. Quality Measurement Impact Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services is required to assess the impact of consensus-endorsed quality and efficiency measures used in federal...

  6. Quality measurement in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Eliot J; Fleischut, Peter; Regan, Brian K

    2013-01-01

    Measurement is the basis for assessing potential improvements in healthcare quality. Measures may be classified into four categories: volume, structure, outcome, and process (VSOP). Measures of each type should be used with a full understanding of their cost and benefit. Although volume and structure measures are easily collected, impact on healthcare results is not always clear. Process measures are generally more difficult and expensive to collect, and the relationship between process and outcomes is only recently being explored. Knowledge of measure types and relationships among them, as well as emerging evidence on the role of patient satisfaction, must be used to guide improvements and ultimately for demonstrating value in healthcare.

  7. Neutron capture measuremetns on minor actinides at the n_TOF facility at CERN: past, present and future

    OpenAIRE

    Cano Ott, Daniel; Colonna, Nicola; Tagliente, G.; Belloni, Fabio; Calviño Tavares, Francisco; Cortés Rossell, Guillem Pere; Poch Parés, Agustí; Pretel Sánchez, Carme

    2011-01-01

    The successful development of advanced nuclear systems for sustainable energy production and nuclear waste management depends on high quality nuclear data libraries. Recent sensitivity stud- ies and reports [1-3] have identi ed the need for substantially improving the accuracy of neutron cross-section data for minor actinides. The n TOF collaboration has initiated an ambitious exper- imental program for the measurement of neutron capture cross sections of minor actinides. Two e...

  8. Actinide ion sensor for pyroprocess monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jue, Jan-fong; Li, Shelly X.

    2014-06-03

    An apparatus for real-time, in-situ monitoring of actinide ion concentrations which comprises a working electrode, a reference electrode, a container, a working electrolyte, a separator, a reference electrolyte, and a voltmeter. The container holds the working electrolyte. The voltmeter is electrically connected to the working electrode and the reference electrode and measures the voltage between those electrodes. The working electrode contacts the working electrolyte. The working electrolyte comprises an actinide ion of interest. The reference electrode contacts the reference electrolyte. The reference electrolyte is separated from the working electrolyte by the separator. The separator contacts both the working electrolyte and the reference electrolyte. The separator is ionically conductive to the actinide ion of interest. The reference electrolyte comprises a known concentration of the actinide ion of interest. The separator comprises a beta double prime alumina exchanged with the actinide ion of interest.

  9. Revisiting the melting temperature of NpO2 and the challenges associated with high temperature actinide compound measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Böhler, R.; Welland, M.J.; De Bruycker, F.; Boboridis, K.; Janssen, A.; Eloirdi, R.; Konings, R.J.M.; Manara, D.

    2012-01-01

    This work revisits the melting behaviour of neptunium dioxide, an actinide compound which can be produced in the nuclear fuel during operation, and which has an important impact on the nuclear fuel and waste radioactivity especially on the very long term. The present experimental approach employs re

  10. Experimental studies of actinides in molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reavis, J.G.

    1985-06-01

    This review stresses techniques used in studies of molten salts containing multigram amounts of actinides exhibiting intense alpha activity but little or no penetrating gamma radiation. The preponderance of studies have used halides because oxygen-containing actinide compounds (other than oxides) are generally unstable at high temperatures. Topics discussed here include special enclosures, materials problems, preparation and purification of actinide elements and compounds, and measurements of various properties of the molten volts. Property measurements discussed are phase relationships, vapor pressure, density, viscosity, absorption spectra, electromotive force, and conductance. 188 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Interpretation of Nasal Swab Measurements Following Suspected Releases of Actinide Aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, John; Bertelli, Luiz; Waters, Tom

    2017-05-01

    For radionuclides such as plutonium and americium, detection of removable activity in the nose (i.e., nasal swab measurements) are frequently used to determine whether follow-up bioassay measurements are warranted following a potential intake. For this paper, the authors analyzed 429 nasal swab measurements taken following incidents or suspicious circumstances (such as an air monitor alarming) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for which the dose was later evaluated using in vitro bioassay. Nasal swab measurements were found to be very poor predictors of dose and should not be used as such in the field. However, nasal swab measurements can be indicative of whether a reliably detectable committed effective dose (CED) occurred. About 14% of nasal swab measurements between 1.25 and 16.7 Bq corresponded to CEDs greater than 1 mSv, so in general, positive nasal swabs always indicate that follow-up bioassay should be performed (positive nasal swabs less than 1.25 Bq are considered separately). This probability increased significantly for nasal swabs greater than 16.7 Bq. Only about 3% of nasal swabs with no detectable activity (NDA) corresponded to reliably detectable CEDs. A nasal swab with NDA is therefore necessary, but not sufficient, to negate the need for a follow-up bioassay if it was collected following other workplace indicators of a potential intake.

  12. Multi-layered parallel plate ionization chamber for cross-section measurements of minor actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, K., E-mail: hirose@lns.tohoku.ac.j [Research Center for Electron Photon Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 982-0826 (Japan); Ohtsuki, T.; Shibasaki, Y. [Research Center for Electron Photon Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 982-0826 (Japan); Iwasa, N. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Hori, J.; Takamiya, K.; Yashima, H. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennangun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Nishio, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kiyanagi, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)

    2010-09-21

    A multi-layered parallel plate ionization chamber (MLPPIC) has been developed for the measurement of neutron-induced fission cross-sections using the lead slowing-down neutron spectrometer at the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University. The MLPPIC consists of two sets of multi-layered electrodes to detect fission fragments from two samples located back-to-back between them. The performance of the MLPPIC was tested with a spontaneous fission of {sup 248}Cm. The cross-section for the neutron-induced fission of {sup 241}Am was successfully obtained using that of {sup 235}U as a reference.

  13. Research in actinide chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choppin, G.R.

    1993-01-01

    This research studies the behavior of the actinide elements in aqueous solution. The high radioactivity of the transuranium actinides limits the concentrations which can be studied and, consequently, limits the experimental techniques. However, oxidation state analogs (trivalent lanthanides, tetravalent thorium, and hexavalent uranium) do not suffer from these limitations. Behavior of actinides in the environment are a major USDOE concern, whether in connection with long-term releases from a repository, releases from stored defense wastes or accidental releases in reprocessing, etc. Principal goal of our research was expand the thermodynamic data base on complexation of actinides by natural ligands (e.g., OH[sup [minus

  14. Measuring Quality in Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didar Bayır

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the proceedings of a Seminar held at the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris on 23 March 2007. The Seminar involved 26 invited participants from eleven countries and included nine presentations followed by detailed discussion and the exchange of ideas. The broad themes were: Tools for Quality Measurement, Standards and Performance Indicators, Benchmarking and Auditing. The Seminar’s agreed purpose was to identify the available tools, such as LibQUAL+ and ISO standards, to explore the results of the assessments undertaken, to identify actions to take forward, to look at the issues involved from a European perspective and to identify the basis for comparisons across Europe.

  15. Lattice effects in the light actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, A.C.; Cort, B.; Roberts, J.A.; Bennett, B.I.; Brun, T.O.; Dreele, R.B. von [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Richardson, J.W. Jr. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The light actinides show a variety of lattice effects that do not normally appear in other regions of the periodic table. The article will cover the crystal structures of the light actinides, their atomic volumes, their thermal expansion behavior, and their elastic behavior as reflected in recent thermal vibration measurements made by neutron diffraction. A discussion of the melting points will be given in terms of the thermal vibration measurements. Pressure effects will be only briefly indicated.

  16. PREFACE: Actinides 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Linfeng; Tobin, James G.; Shuh, David K.

    2010-07-01

    This volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering consists of 98 papers that were presented at Actinides 2009, the 8th International Conference on Actinide Science held on 12-17 July 2009 in San Francisco, California, USA. This conference was jointly organized by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The Actinides conference series started in Baden-Baden, Germany (1975) and this first conference was followed by meetings at Asilomar, CA, USA (1981), Aix-en-Provence, France (1985), Tashkent, USSR (1989), Santa Fe, NM, USA (1993), Baden-Baden, Germany (1997), Hayama, Japan (2001), and Manchester, UK (2005). The Actinides conference series provides a regular venue for the most recent research results on the chemistry, physics, and technology of the actinides and heaviest elements. Actinides 2009 provided a forum spanning a diverse range of scientific topics, including fundamental materials science, chemistry, physics, environmental science, and nuclear fuels. Of particular importance was a focus on the key roles that basic actinide chemistry and physics research play in advancing the worldwide renaissance of nuclear energy. Editors Linfeng Rao Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (lrao@lbl.gov) James G Tobin Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (tobin1@llnl.gov) David K Shuh Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (dkshuh@lbl.gov)

  17. SiC Schottky Diode Detectors for Measurement of Actinide Concentrations from Alpha Activities in Molten Salt Electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windl, Wolfgang [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Blue, Thomas [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2013-01-28

    In this project, we have designed a 4H-SiC Schottky diode detector device in order to monitor actinide concentrations in extreme environments, such as present in pyroprocessing of spent fuel. For the first time, we have demonstrated high temperature operation of such a device up to 500 °C in successfully detecting alpha particles. We have used Am-241 as an alpha source for our laboratory experiments. Along with the experiments, we have developed a multiscale model to study the phenomena controlling the device behavior and to be able to predict the device performance. Our multiscale model consists of ab initio modeling to understand defect energetics and their effect on electronic structure and carrier mobility in the material. Further, we have developed the basis for a damage evolution model incorporating the outputs from ab initio model in order to predict respective defect concentrations in the device material. Finally, a fully equipped TCAD-based device model has been developed to study the phenomena controlling the device behavior. Using this model, we have proven our concept that the detector is capable of performing alpha detection in a salt bath with the mixtures of actinides present in a pyroprocessing environment.

  18. Chemistry of actinides; Chimie des actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitorge, P. [CEA/Saclay, Dept. d' Entreposage et de Stockage des Dechets (DESD), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1999-07-01

    This article gives the basic data of the actinides chemistry, describes then qualitatively the main parts of the fuel cycle and concludes with quantitative data. The theoretical recalls give qualitative notions to explain the chemical reactivity of actinides and to understand thus the values of the thermodynamic data which allow quantitative anticipations at equilibrium. The Thermodynamic Data Base (TDB) of the NEA-OECD and the CEA in France have recently estimated some of them in using and developing methodologies whose some are presented here. Some current problems of actinides chemistry are described: analysis of the possibilities to (1)improve the reprocessing of long-lived actinides (2)anticipate their behaviour in the environment in order to compare the impact of the different options of the wastes management. The Pourbaix diagrams summarize the chemistry in solution; the author has added information on the solubility, the influence of the ionic strength and of the complexes formation in bicarbonate/carbonate (HCO{sub 3}{sup -}/CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}) media. The discussion on the choice of the equilibrium constants allows to point out the particular points, the dubiousness and the data which have to be proved. (O.M.)

  19. The Framework of Quality Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Grela

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes general determinants of quality measurement. There are discussed four assumptions that have been formulated to develop the framework of quality measurement. The assumptions are: (1 quality is the degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfils requirements, (2 requirements and inherent characteristics create finite sets, (3 requirements may have both different importance and different values depending on who formulates them, and (4 requirements do not have to be constant in time. The article contains the framework of quality measurement based on above four assumptions. There are proposed notation on the quality measurement on booth synthetic and the analytical level. It also contains examples of selected distance metrics in m-dimensional space as well as examples of selected aggregate functions that may be used in quality measurement on synthetic level.

  20. Quality measurement of semantic standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, E.J.A.; Oude Luttighuis, P.H.W.M.; Hillegersberg, J. van

    2010-01-01

    Quality of semantic standards is unadressed in current research while there is an explicit need from standard developers. The business importance is evident since quality of standards will have impact on its diffusion and achieved interoperability in practice. An instrument to measure the quality of

  1. Actinide cation-cation complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoyer, Nancy Jane [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The +5 oxidation state of U, Np, Pu, and Am is a linear dioxo cation (AnO2+) with a formal charge of +1. These cations form complexes with a variety of other cations, including actinide cations. Other oxidation states of actinides do not form these cation-cation complexes with any cation other than AnO2+; therefore, cation-cation complexes indicate something unique about AnO2+ cations compared to actinide cations in general. The first cation-cation complex, NpO2+•UO22+, was reported by Sullivan, Hindman, and Zielen in 1961. Of the four actinides that form AnO2+ species, the cation-cation complexes of NpO2+ have been studied most extensively while the other actinides have not. The only PuO2+ cation-cation complexes that have been studied are with Fe3+ and Cr3+ and neither one has had its equilibrium constant measured. Actinides have small molar absorptivities and cation-cation complexes have small equilibrium constants; therefore, to overcome these obstacles a sensitive technique is required. Spectroscopic techniques are used most often to study cation-cation complexes. Laser-Induced Photacoustic Spectroscopy equilibrium constants for the complexes NpO2+•UO22+, NpO2+•Th4+, PuO2+•UO22+, and PuO2+•Th4+ at an ionic strength of 6 M using LIPAS are 2.4 ± 0.2, 1.8 ± 0.9, 2.2 ± 1.5, and ~0.8 M-1.

  2. NMR studies of actinide dioxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokunaga, Y. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)], E-mail: tokunaga.yo@jaea.go.jp; Sakai, H.; Fujimoto, T.; Kambe, S.; Walstedt, R.E.; Ikushima, K.; Yasuoka, H. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Aoki, D.; Homma, Y. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Haga, Y.; Matsuda, T.D.; Ikeda, S.; Yamamoto, E.; Nakamura, A. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Shiokawa, Y. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Nakajima, K.; Arai, Y. [Department of Nuclear Energy System, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Onuki, Y. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Department of Physics, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)

    2007-10-11

    {sup 17}O NMR measurements have been performed on a series of the actinide dioxides, UO{sub 2}, NpO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2}. Although the {sup 17}O NMR spectra in these materials are similar at higher temperatures, the low-temperature spectra present are significantly different. In UO{sub 2} we have observed a wide spectrum, forming a rectangular shape below T{sub N}=30 K. In NpO{sub 2}, on the other hand, the spectra broaden rather gradually and exhibit a two-peak structure below T{sub 0}=26 K. In PuO{sub 2}, neither spectrum broadening nor splitting has been observed. We show that these NMR spectra clearly indicate the different nature of the low-temperature magnetic ground states in these actinide compounds.

  3. Measurements of thermal fission and capture cross sections of minor actinides within the Mini-INCA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringer, O.; Chabod, S.; Dupont, E.; Letourneau, A.; Panebianco, S.; Veyssiere, Ch. [CEA Saclay, Dept. d' Astrophysique de Physique des Particules, de Physique Nucleaire et de l' Instrumentation Associee, 91- Gif sur Yvette (France); Oriol, L. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Reacteurs, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Chartier, F. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Physico-Chimie, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Mutti, P. [Institut Laue Langevin, 38 - Grenoble, (France); AlMahamid, I. [Wadsworth Center, New York State Dept. of Health, Albany, NY (United States)

    2008-07-01

    In the framework of nuclear waste transmutation studies, the Mini-INCA project has been initiated at Cea/DSM to determine optimal conditions for transmutation and incineration of Minor Actinides in high intensity neutron fluxes in the thermal region. Our experimental tool is based on alpha- and gamma-spectroscopy of irradiated samples and microscopic fission-chambers. It can provide both microscopic information on nuclear reactions (total and partial cross sections for neutron capture and/or fission reactions) and macroscopic information on transmutation and incineration potentials. The {sup 232}Th, {sup 237}Np, {sup 241}Am, and {sup 244}Cm transmutation chains have been explored in details, showing some discrepancies in comparison with evaluated data libraries but in overall good agreement with recent experimental data. (authors)

  4. Gamma spectroscopy of neutron rich actinide nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkenbach, Benedikt; Geibel, Kerstin; Vogt, Andreas; Hess, Herbert; Reiter, Peter; Steinbach, Tim; Schneiders, David [Koeln Univ. (Germany). IKP; Collaboration: AGATA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    Excited states in neutron-rich actinide Th and U nuclei were investigated after multi nucleon transfer reactions employing the AGATA demonstrator and PRISMA setup at LNL (INFN, Italy). A primary {sup 136}Xe beam of 1 GeV hitting a {sup 238}U target was used to produce the nuclei of interest. Beam-like reaction products of Xe- and Ba isotopes after neutron transfer were selected by the PRISMA spectrometer. The recoil like particles were registered by a MCP detector inside the scattering chamber. Coincident γ-rays from excited states in beam and target like particles were measured with the position sensitive AGATA HPGe detectors. Improved Doppler correction and quality of the γ-spectra is based on the novel γ-ray tracking technique which was successfully exploited. First results on the collective properties of various Th and U isotopes are discussed.

  5. Subsurface Biogeochemistry of Actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kersting, Annie B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Univ. Relations and Science Education; Zavarin, Mavrik [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Glenn T. Seaborg Inst.

    2016-06-29

    A major scientific challenge in environmental sciences is to identify the dominant processes controlling actinide transport in the environment. It is estimated that currently, over 2200 metric tons of plutonium (Pu) have been deposited in the subsurface worldwide, a number that increases yearly with additional spent nuclear fuel (Ewing et al., 2010). Plutonium has been shown to migrate on the scale of kilometers, giving way to a critical concern that the fundamental biogeochemical processes that control its behavior in the subsurface are not well understood (Kersting et al., 1999; Novikov et al., 2006; Santschi et al., 2002). Neptunium (Np) is less prevalent in the environment; however, it is predicted to be a significant long-term dose contributor in high-level nuclear waste. Our focus on Np chemistry in this Science Plan is intended to help formulate a better understanding of Pu redox transformations in the environment and clarify the differences between the two long-lived actinides. The research approach of our Science Plan combines (1) Fundamental Mechanistic Studies that identify and quantify biogeochemical processes that control actinide behavior in solution and on solids, (2) Field Integration Studies that investigate the transport characteristics of Pu and test our conceptual understanding of actinide transport, and (3) Actinide Research Capabilities that allow us to achieve the objectives of this Scientific Focus Area (SFA and provide new opportunities for advancing actinide environmental chemistry. These three Research Thrusts form the basis of our SFA Science Program (Figure 1).

  6. Measurements of the neutron capture cross sections and incineration potentials of minor-actinides in high thermal neutron fluxes: Impact on the transmutation of nuclear wastes; Mesures des sections efficaces de capture et potentiels d'incineration des actinides mineurs dans les hauts flux de neutrons: Impact sur la transmutation des dechets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringer, O

    2007-10-15

    This thesis comes within the framework of minor-actinide nuclear transmutation studies. First of all, we have evaluated the impact of minor actinide nuclear data uncertainties within the cases of {sup 241}Am and {sup 237}Np incineration in three different reactor spectra: EFR (fast), GT-MHR (epithermal) and HI-HWR (thermal). The nuclear parameters which give the highest uncertainties were thus highlighted. As a result of fact, we have tried to reduce data uncertainties, in the thermal energy region, for one part of them through experimental campaigns in the moderated high intensity neutron fluxes of ILL reactor (Grenoble). These measurements were focused onto the incineration and transmutation of the americium-241, the curium-244 and the californium-249 isotopes. Finally, the values of 12 different cross sections and the {sup 241}Am isomeric branching ratio were precisely measured at thermal energy point. (author)

  7. Device for Detecting Actinides, Method for Detecting Actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Fred J.; Wilkins-Stevens, Priscilla

    1998-10-29

    A heavy metal detector is provided comprising a first molecule and a second molecule, whereby the first and second molecules interact in a predetermined manner; a first region on the first molecule adapted to interact with an actinide; and a second region on the second molecule adapted to interact with the actinide, whereby the interactions of the actinide with the regions effect the predetermined manner of interaction between the molecules.

  8. An emergency bioassay method for actinides in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiongxin; Kramer-Tremblay, Sheila

    2011-08-01

    A rapid bioassay method has been developed for the sequential measurements of actinides in human urine samples. The method involves actinide separation from a urine matrix by co-precipitation with hydrous titanium oxide (HTiO), followed by anion exchange and extraction chromatography column purification, and final counting by alpha spectrometry after cerium fluoride micro-precipitation. The minimal detectable activities for the method were determined to be 20 mBq L(-1) or less for plutonium, uranium, americium and curium isotopes, with an 8-h sample turn-around time. Spike tests showed that this method would meet the requirements for actinide bioassay following a radiation emergency.

  9. End point control of an actinide precipitation reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muske, K.R. [Villanova Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Palmer, M.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The actinide precipitation reactors in the nuclear materials processing facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory are used to remove actinides and other heavy metals from the effluent streams generated during the purification of plutonium. These effluent streams consist of hydrochloric acid solutions, ranging from one to five molar in concentration, in which actinides and other metals are dissolved. The actinides present are plutonium and americium. Typical actinide loadings range from one to five grams per liter. The most prevalent heavy metals are iron, chromium, and nickel that are due to stainless steel. Removal of these metals from solution is accomplished by hydroxide precipitation during the neutralization of the effluent. An end point control algorithm for the semi-batch actinide precipitation reactors at Los Alamos National Laboratory is described. The algorithm is based on an equilibrium solubility model of the chemical species in solution. This model is used to predict the amount of base hydroxide necessary to reach the end point of the actinide precipitation reaction. The model parameters are updated by on-line pH measurements.

  10. Measurement of cross-sections of fission reactions induced by neutrons on actinides from the thorium cycle at n-TOF facility; Mesures de sections efficaces de fission induite par neutrons sur des actinides du cycle du thorium a n-TOF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrant, L

    2005-09-01

    In the frame of innovating energy source system studies, thorium fuel cycle reactors are considered. Neutron induced fission cross section on such cycle involved actinides play a role in scenario studies. To feed them, data bases are built with experimental results and nuclear models. For some nuclei, they are not complete or in disagreement. In order to complete these data bases, we have built an original set up, consisting in an alternation of PPACs (Parallel Plate Avalanche Chamber) and ultra - thin targets, which we installed on n-TOF facility. We describe detectors, set up, and the particular care brought to target making and characterization. Fission products in coincidence are detected with precise time measurement and localization with delay line read out method. We contributed, within the n-TOF collaboration, to the CERN brand new intense spallation neutron source characterization, based on time of flight measurement, and we describe its characteristics and performances. We were able to measure such actinide fission cross sections as {sup 232}Th, {sup 234}U, {sup 233}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 209}Bi, and {sup nat}Pb relative to {sup 235}U et {sup 238}U standards, using an innovative acquisition system. We took advantage of the lame accessible energy field, from 0.7 eV to 1 GeV, combined with the excellent energy resolution in this field. Data treatment and analysis advancement are described to enlighten performance and limits of the obtained results. (author)

  11. Measuring effectiveness of food quality management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiegel, van der M.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: effectiveness, food quality management, instrument, quality performance, contextual factors, agri-food production, conceptual model, performance measurement indicators, identification, validation, assessment, quality assurance systems, QA systems, HACCP, Hygiene code, ISO, BRC, GMP, bakery

  12. Hospital Quality Initiative - Outcome Measures

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — In the interest of promoting high-quality, patient-centered care and accountability, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and Hospital Quality...

  13. Moessbauer spectroscopy with actinide elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potzel, W.; Moser, J.; Asch, L.; Kalvius, G.M. (Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany, F.R.)

    1983-01-01

    Although formally equivalent to the lanthanide (4f) elements, the light actinides show a much more varied behaviour due to the larger spatial extent and ionizability of the 5f electrons. The application of Moessbauer spectroscopy for the determination of electronic properties of the actinides is outlined. Emphasis is put on high pressure Moessbauer experiments using the 60 keV transition in /sup 237/Np to study questions of delocalization of 5f electrons.

  14. Actinides in irradiated graphite of RBMK-1500 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plukienė, R., E-mail: rita@ar.fi.lt; Plukis, A.; Barkauskas, V.; Gudelis, A.; Gvozdaitė, R.; Duškesas, G.; Remeikis, V.

    2014-10-01

    Highlights: • Activation of actinides in the graphite of the RBMK-1500 reactor was analyzed. • Numerical modeling using SCALE 6.1 and MCNPX was used for actinide calculation. • Measurements of the irradiated graphite sample were used for model validation. • Results are important for further decommissioning process of the RBMK type reactors. - Abstract: The activation of graphite in the nuclear power plants is the problem of high importance related with later graphite reprocessing or disposal. The activation of actinide impurities in graphite due to their toxicity determines a particular long term risk to waste management. In this work the activation of actinides in the graphite constructions of the RBMK-1500 reactor is determined by nuclear spectrometry measurements of the irradiated graphite sample from the Ignalina NPP Unit I and by means of numerical modeling using two independent codes SCALE 6.1 (using TRITON-VI sequence) and MCNPX (v2.7 with CINDER). Both models take into account the 3D RBMK-1500 reactor core fragment with explicit graphite construction including a stack and a sleeve but with a different simplification level concerning surrounding graphite and construction of control roads. The verification of the model has been performed by comparing calculated and measured isotope ratios of actinides. Also good prediction capabilities of the actinide activation in the irradiated graphite have been found for both calculation approaches. The initial U impurity concentration in the graphite model has been adjusted taking into account the experimental results. The specific activities of actinides in the irradiated RBMK-1500 graphite constructions have been obtained and differences between numerical simulation results, different structural parts (sleeve and stack) as well as comparison with previous results (Ancius et al., 2005) have been discussed. The obtained results are important for further decommissioning process of the Ignalina NPP and other RBMK

  15. Status of nuclear data for actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzhovskii, B.Y.; Gorelov, V.P.; Grebennikov, A.N. [Russia Federal Nuclear Centre, Arzamas (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Nuclear data required for transmutation problem include many actinide nuclei. In present paper the analysis of neutron fission, capture, (n,2n) and (n,3n) reaction cross sections at energy region from thermal point to 14 MeV was carried out for Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am and Cm isotops using modern evaluated nuclear data libraries and handbooks of recommended nuclear data. Comparison of these data indicates on substantial discrepancies in different versions of files, that connect with quality and completeness of original experimental data.

  16. Recovery and chemical purification of actinides at JRC, Karlsruhe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokelund, H.; Apostolidis, C.; Glatz, J.-P.

    1989-07-01

    The application of actinide elements in research and in technology is many times subject to rather stringent purity requirements; often a nuclear grade quality is specified. The additional possible demand for a high isotopic purity is a special feature in the handling of these elements. The amount of actinide elements contained in or adhering to materials declared as waste should be low for safety reasons and out of economic considerations. The release of transuranium elements to the environment must be kept negligible. For these and for other reasons a keen interest in the separation of actinides from various materials exists, either for a re-use through recycling, or for their safe confinement in waste packages. This paper gives a short review of the separation methods used for recovery and purification of actinide elements over the past years in the European Institute for Transuranium Elements. The methods described here involve procedures based on precipitation, ion exchange or solvent extraction; often used in a combination. The extraction methods were preferably applied in a Chromatographie column mode. The actinide elements purified and/or separated from each other by the above methods include uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, curium, and californium. For the various elements the work was undertaken with different aims, ranging from reprocessing and fabrication of nuclear fuels on a kilogramme scale, over the procurement of alpha-free waste, to the preparation of neutron sources of milligramme size.

  17. Measuring healthcare quality: the challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, J.; Niemeijer, G.C.; Does, R.J.M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - Current health care quality performance indicators appear to be inadequate to inform the public to make the right choices. The aim of this paper is to define a framework and an organizational setting in which valid and reliable healthcare information can be produced to inform the general p

  18. Neutron Capture Measuremetns on Minor Actinides at the n_TOF Facility at CERN: Past, Present and Future

    CERN Document Server

    Cano-Ott, D; Eleftheriadis, C; Leeb, H; Calvino, F; Herrera-Martinez, A; Savvidis, I; Vlachoudis, V; Haas, B; Abbondanno, U; Vannini, G; Oshima, M; Gramegna, F; Wiescher, M; Pigni, M T; Wiendler, H; Mengoni, A; Quesada, J; Becvar, F; Rosetti, M; Cennini, P; Mosconi, M; Duran, I; Rauscher, T; Ketlerov, V; Couture, A; Capote, R; Sarchiapone, L; Vlastou, R; Domingo-Pardo, C; Pavlopoulos, P; Karamanis, D; Krticka, M; Griesmayer, E; Jericha, E; Ferrari, A; Martinez, T; Oberhummer, H; Karadimos, D; Plompen, A; Mendoza, E; Terlizzi, R; Cortes, G; Cox, J; Voss, F; Pretel, C; Colonna, N; Berthoumieux, E; Dolfini, R; Vaz, P; Heil, M; Lopes, I; Lampoudis, C; Walter, S; Calviani, M; Gonzalez-Romero, E; Stephan, C; Tain, J L; Belloni, F; Igashira, M; Papachristodoulou, C; Aerts, G; Tavora, L; Milazzo, P M; Rudolf, G; Andrzejewski, J; Villamarin, D; Ferreira-Marques, R; Meaze, M H; O'Brien, S; Gunsing, F; Reifarth, R; Perrot, L; Lindote, A; Neves, F; Poch, A; Konovalov, V; Kerveno, M; Marques, L; Rubbia, C; Koehler, P; Dahlfors, M; Wisshak, K; Fujii, K; De Albornoz, A C; Salgado, J; Dridi, W; Ventura, A; Andriamonje, S; Dillman, I; Assimakopoulos, P; Ferrant, L; Lozano, M; Patronis, N; Chiaveri, E; Guerrero, C; Kadi, Y; Vicente, M C; Praena, J; Baumann, P; Moreau, C; Kappeler, F; Rullhusen, P; Furman, W; David, S; Marrone, S; Paradela, C; Audouin, L; Tassan-Got, L; Alvarez-Velarde, F; Massimi, C; Mastinu, P; Isaev, S; Pancin, J; Papadopoulos, C; Tagliente, G; Alvarez, H; Haight, R; Goverdovski, A; Chepel, V; Plag, R; Kossionides, E; Badurek, G; Marganiec, J; Lukic, S; Frais-Koelbl, H; Pavlik, A; Goncalves, I

    2011-01-01

    The successful development of advanced nuclear systems for sustainable energy production and nuclear waste management depends on high quality nuclear data libraries. Recent sensitivity studies and reports {[}1-3] have identified the need for substantially improving the accuracy of neutron cross-section data for minor actinides. The n\\_TOF collaboration has initiated an ambitious experimental program for the measurement of neutron capture cross sections of minor actinides. Two experimental setups have been constructed for this purpose: a Total Absorption Calorimeter (TAC) {[}4] for measuring neutron capture cross-sections of low-mass and/or radioactive samples and a set of two low neutron sensitivity C(6)D(6) detectors for the less radioactive materials.

  19. Social Quality: A Way to Measure the Quality of Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Pamela; Wallace, Claire

    2012-08-01

    In this paper we suggest a way to measure the well-being of society based upon our own development of the Social Quality model. The Social Quality model has the advantage of being sociologically grounded as a measure of the well-being of society and the individuals within it. We test our model of Social Quality against life satisfaction as an indicator of how successful it is in delivering these aspirations. The model was tested on all European countries using the European Quality of Life Surveys in 2003 and 2007 and was found to explain a large amount of variance, which was consistent across time and space. We suggest that it is possible to operationalise this model using small number of variables, ones that are frequently used in comparative surveys and this should enable the quality of society to be measured in a parsimonious and effective way.

  20. Nurse reported quality of care: a measure of hospital quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Matthew D; Stimpfel, Amy Witkoski

    2012-12-01

    As the primary providers of round-the-clock bedside care, nurses are well positioned to report on hospital quality of care. Researchers have not examined how nurses' reports of quality correspond with standard process or outcomes measures of quality. We assess the validity of evaluating hospital quality by aggregating hospital nurses' responses to a single item that asks them to report on quality of care. We found that a 10% increment in the proportion of nurses reporting excellent quality of care was associated with lower odds of mortality and failure to rescue; greater patient satisfaction; and higher composite process of care scores for acute myocardial infarction, pneumonia, and surgical patients. Nurse reported quality of care is a useful indicator of hospital performance. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Challenges of measuring quality in emergency management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynette, Jennifer Elyse

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the challenges and importance of measuring quality within the field of emergency response. Using quality as a standard of measurement to evaluate response efforts of trained personnel in emergency situations is necessary to increase effectiveness in the response phase...

  2. 33rd Actinide Separations Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, L M; Wilk, P A

    2009-05-04

    Welcome to the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference hosted this year by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This annual conference is centered on the idea of networking and communication with scientists from throughout the United States, Britain, France and Japan who have expertise in nuclear material processing. This conference forum provides an excellent opportunity for bringing together experts in the fields of chemistry, nuclear and chemical engineering, and actinide processing to present and discuss experiences, research results, testing and application of actinide separation processes. The exchange of information that will take place between you, and other subject matter experts from around the nation and across the international boundaries, is a critical tool to assist in solving both national and international problems associated with the processing of nuclear materials used for both defense and energy purposes, as well as for the safe disposition of excess nuclear material. Granlibakken is a dedicated conference facility and training campus that is set up to provide the venue that supports communication between scientists and engineers attending the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference. We believe that you will find that Granlibakken and the Lake Tahoe views provide an atmosphere that is stimulating for fruitful discussions between participants from both government and private industry. We thank the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the United States Department of Energy for their support of this conference. We especially thank you, the participants and subject matter experts, for your involvement in the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference.

  3. Quality of life measures in otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maile, E J; Youngs, R

    2013-05-01

    Disabling hearing impairment is the world's most common disability. Traditionally, hearing levels measured by pure tone audiometry have been used to define and quantify hearing loss. The effects of disabling hearing loss on patients' quality of life can be profound, and audiometric data alone may not correlate with quality of life measures. Generic measures of quality of life can be used to compare different diseases, and as such are useful in resource allocation and burden of disease studies. Their disadvantage is that they are not disease-specific and can therefore under-estimate the effects of a disease on patients' quality of life. Disease-specific measures are more sensitive. In chronic otitis media, additional factors such as discharge augment the effect of hearing loss alone on quality of life. Many of the quality of life measures developed for chronic otitis media have been used to assess improvement following reconstructive surgery. Quality of life measures have also been used to assess the effect of paediatric otitis media. Quality of life measures also have utility in the developing world, where hearing impairment is a huge burden.

  4. Quality measures for nurse practitioner practice evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinpell, Ruth; Kapu, April N

    2017-08-01

    Evaluating the impact of nurse practitioner (NP) practice has become a priority area of focus for demonstrating outcomes. A number of quality measures are available to enable practice-specific evaluation of NP roles and initiatives. This article reviews sources of quality measures that can be used to facilitate quantifying the outcomes of NP practice as part of an overall evaluation agenda. National resources and published literature on NP quality measures were reviewed. Various resources and toolkits exist to assist NPs in identifying outcomes of practice using quality measures. The need to demonstrate outcomes of NP practice remains an ongoing priority area regardless of the clinical practice setting. A variety of sources of quality measures exist that can be used to showcase the effect of NP care. The use of quality measures can be effectively integrated into evaluation of NP role and NP-directed initiatives to demonstrate impact, and enhance the conduct of an NP outcomes assessment. The use of organizational, NP-specific, and national-related quality measures can help to showcase how NP care improves the quality, safety, and costs of health care. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  5. Earnings Quality Measures and Excess Returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Pietro; Wagenhofer, Alfred

    2014-06-01

    This paper examines how commonly used earnings quality measures fulfill a key objective of financial reporting, i.e., improving decision usefulness for investors. We propose a stock-price-based measure for assessing the quality of earnings quality measures. We predict that firms with higher earnings quality will be less mispriced than other firms. Mispricing is measured by the difference of the mean absolute excess returns of portfolios formed on high and low values of a measure. We examine persistence, predictability, two measures of smoothness, abnormal accruals, accruals quality, earnings response coefficient and value relevance. For a large sample of US non-financial firms over the period 1988-2007, we show that all measures except for smoothness are negatively associated with absolute excess returns, suggesting that smoothness is generally a favorable attribute of earnings. Accruals measures generate the largest spread in absolute excess returns, followed by smoothness and market-based measures. These results lend support to the widespread use of accruals measures as overall measures of earnings quality in the literature.

  6. Calculation of cohesive energy of actinide metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱存富; 陈秀芳; 余瑞璜; 耿平; 段占强

    1997-01-01

    According to empirical electron theory of solids and molecules (EET), an equation for calculating the cohesive energy of actinide metals is given, the cohesive energy of 9 actinide metals with known crystal structure is calculated, which is identical with the experimental values on the whole, and the cohesive energy of 6 actinide metals with unknown crystal structure is forecast.

  7. Actinides and Life's Origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Zachary

    2007-12-01

    There are growing indications that life began in a radioactive beach environment. A geologic framework for the origin or support of life in a Hadean heavy mineral placer beach has been developed, based on the unique chemical properties of the lower-electronic actinides, which act as nuclear fissile and fertile fuels, radiolytic energy sources, oligomer catalysts, and coordinating ions (along with mineralogically associated lanthanides) for prototypical prebiotic homonuclear and dinuclear metalloenzymes. A four-factor nuclear reactor model was constructed to estimate how much uranium would have been required to initiate a sustainable fission reaction within a placer beach sand 4.3 billion years ago. It was calculated that about 1-8 weight percent of the sand would have to have been uraninite, depending on the weight percent, uranium enrichment, and quantity of neutron poisons present within the remaining placer minerals. Radiolysis experiments were conducted with various solvents with the use of uraniumand thorium-rich minerals (metatorbernite and monazite, respectively) as proxies for radioactive beach sand in contact with different carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen reactants. Radiation bombardment ranged in duration of exposure from 3 weeks to 6 months. Low levels of acetonitrile (estimated to be on the order of parts per billion in concentration) were conclusively identified in 2 setups and tentatively indicated in a 3(rd) by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. These low levels have been interpreted within the context of a Hadean placer beach prebiotic framework to demonstrate the promise of investigating natural nuclear reactors as power production sites that might have assisted the origins of life on young rocky planets with a sufficiently differentiated crust/mantle structure. Future investigations are recommended to better quantify the complex relationships between energy release, radioactive grain size, fissionability, reactant phase, phosphorus

  8. Actinides and Life's Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Zachary

    2007-12-01

    There are growing indications that life began in a radioactive beach environment. A geologic framework for the origin or support of life in a Hadean heavy mineral placer beach has been developed, based on the unique chemical properties of the lower-electronic actinides, which act as nuclear fissile and fertile fuels, radiolytic energy sources, oligomer catalysts, and coordinating ions (along with mineralogically associated lanthanides) for prototypical prebiotic homonuclear and dinuclear metalloenzymes. A four-factor nuclear reactor model was constructed to estimate how much uranium would have been required to initiate a sustainable fission reaction within a placer beach sand 4.3 billion years ago. It was calculated that about 1-8 weight percent of the sand would have to have been uraninite, depending on the weight percent, uranium enrichment, and quantity of neutron poisons present within the remaining placer minerals. Radiolysis experiments were conducted with various solvents with the use of uranium- and thorium-rich minerals (metatorbernite and monazite, respectively) as proxies for radioactive beach sand in contact with different carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen reactants. Radiation bombardment ranged in duration of exposure from 3 weeks to 6 months. Low levels of acetonitrile (estimated to be on the order of parts per billion in concentration) were conclusively identified in 2 setups and tentatively indicated in a 3rd by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. These low levels have been interpreted within the context of a Hadean placer beach prebiotic framework to demonstrate the promise of investigating natural nuclear reactors as power production sites that might have assisted the origins of life on young rocky planets with a sufficiently differentiated crust/mantle structure. Future investigations are recommended to better quantify the complex relationships between energy release, radioactive grain size, fissionability, reactant phase, phosphorus

  9. Quality improvement in neurology: AAN Parkinson disease quality measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, E.M.; Tonn, S.; Swain-Eng, R.; Factor, S.A.; Weiner, W.J.; Bever, C.T.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Measuring the quality of health care is a fundamental step toward improving health care and is increasingly used in pay-for-performance initiatives and maintenance of certification requirements. Measure development to date has focused on primary care and common conditions such as diabetes; thus, the number of measures that apply to neurologic care is limited. The American Academy of Neurology (AAN) identified the need for neurologists to develop measures of neurologic care and to establish a process to accomplish this. Objective: To adapt and test the feasibility of a process for independent development by the AAN of measures for neurologic conditions for national measurement programs. Methods: A process that has been used nationally for measure development was adapted for use by the AAN. Topics for measure development are chosen based upon national priorities, available evidence base from a systematic literature search, gaps in care, and the potential impact for quality improvement. A panel composed of subject matter and measure development methodology experts oversees the development of the measures. Recommendation statements and their corresponding level of evidence are reviewed and considered for development into draft candidate measures. The candidate measures are refined by the expert panel during a 30-day public comment period and by review by the American Medical Association for Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) II codes. All final AAN measures are approved by the AAN Board of Directors. Results: Parkinson disease (PD) was chosen for measure development. A review of the medical literature identified 258 relevant recommendation statements. A 28-member panel approved 10 quality measures for PD that included full specifications and CPT II codes. Conclusion: The AAN has adapted a measure development process that is suitable for national measurement programs and has demonstrated its capability to independently develop quality measures. GLOSSARY

  10. Preliminary considerations concerning actinide solubilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, T.W.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; Erdal, B.R.; Ogard, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    Work at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory on the fundamental solution chemistry of the actinides has thus far been confined to preliminary considerations of the problems involved in developing an understanding of the precipitation and dissolution behavior of actinide compounds under environmental conditions. Attempts have been made to calculate solubility as a function of Eh and pH using the appropriate thermodynamic data; results have been presented in terms of contour maps showing lines of constant solubility as a function of Eh and pH. Possible methods of control of the redox potential of rock-groundwater systems by the use of Eh buffers (redox couples) is presented.

  11. Bibliometric indicators: quality measurements of scientific publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durieux, Valérie; Gevenois, Pierre Alain

    2010-05-01

    Bibliometrics is a set of mathematical and statistical methods used to analyze and measure the quantity and quality of books, articles, and other forms of publications. There are three types of bibliometric indicators: quantity indicators, which measure the productivity of a particular researcher; quality indicators, which measure the quality (or "performance") of a researcher's output; and structural indicators, which measure connections between publications, authors, and areas of research. Bibliometric indicators are especially important for researchers and organizations, as these measurements are often used in funding decisions, appointments, and promotions of researchers. As more and more scientific discoveries occur and published research results are read and then quoted by other researchers, bibliometric indicators are becoming increasingly important. This article provides an overview of the currently used bibliometric indicators and summarizes the critical elements and characteristics one should be aware of when evaluating the quantity and quality of scientific output.

  12. Quality Measurement in Early Childhood Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslow, Martha, Ed.; Martinez-Beck, Ivelisse, Ed.; Tout, Kathryn, Ed.; Halle, Tamara, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    What constitutes quality in early childhood settings, and how can it best be measured with today's widely used tools and promising new approaches? Find authoritative answers in this book, a must-have for high-level administrators and policymakers as more and more states adopt early childhood Quality Rating and Improvement Systems. The most…

  13. Measuring the Mathematical Quality of Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we describe a framework and instrument for measuring the mathematical quality of mathematics instruction. In describing this framework, we argue for the separation of the "mathematical quality of instruction" (MQI), such as the absence of mathematical errors and the presence of sound mathematical reasoning, from pedagogical…

  14. Measuring Service Quality in a Tertiary Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soutar, Geoffrey; McNeil, Margaret

    1996-01-01

    Measures service quality from the viewpoint of customers (students at an Australian university), using the SERVQUAL model. Obtains evaluations of academic and administrative aspects of the educational service. Makes significant negative evaluations of administrative service quality (resulting from communication problems). Satisfaction with the…

  15. Business Process Modelling for Measuring Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidari, F.; Loucopoulos, P.; Brazier, F.M.

    2013-01-01

    Business process modelling languages facilitate presentation, communication and analysis of business processes with different stakeholders. This paper proposes an approach that drives specification and measurement of quality requirements and in doing so relies on business process models as

  16. Business Process Modelling for Measuring Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidari, F.; Loucopoulos, P.; Brazier, F.M.

    2013-01-01

    Business process modelling languages facilitate presentation, communication and analysis of business processes with different stakeholders. This paper proposes an approach that drives specification and measurement of quality requirements and in doing so relies on business process models as represent

  17. Medicaid Adult Health Care Quality Measures

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Affordable Care Act (Section 1139B) requires the Secretary of HHS to identify and publish a core set of health care quality measures for adult Medicaid...

  18. Measuring indoor air quality of hookah lounges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiala, Steven C; Morris, Daniel S; Pawlak, Rebecca L

    2012-11-01

    Many states have implemented smoke-free workplace laws to protect employees and customers from exposure to secondhand smoke. However, exemptions in these laws have allowed indoor tobacco smoking in hookah lounges to proliferate in recent years. To describe the amount of secondhand smoke in hookah lounges, we measured the indoor air quality of 10 hookah lounges in Oregon. Air quality measurements ranged from "unhealthy" to "hazardous" according to Environmental Protection Agency standards, indicating a potential health risk for patrons and employees.

  19. Environmental research on actinide elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinder, J.E. III; Alberts, J.J.; McLeod, K.W.; Schreckhise, R.G. (eds.)

    1987-08-01

    The papers synthesize the results of research sponsored by DOE's Office of Health and Environmental Research on the behavior of transuranic and actinide elements in the environment. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 21 individual papers. (ACR)

  20. Chemistry of lower valent actinide halides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, K.H.; Hildenbrand, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    This research effort was concerned almost entirely with the first two members of the actinide series, thorium and uranium, although the work was later extended to some aspects of the neptunium-fluorine system in a collaborative program with Los Alamos National Laboratory. Detailed information about the lighter actinides will be helpful in modeling the properties of the heavier actinide compounds, which will be much more difficult to study experimentally. In this program, thermochemical information was obtained from high temperature equilibrium measurements made by effusion-beam mass spectrometry and by effusion-pressure techniques. Data were derived primarily from second-law analysis so as to avoid potential errors in third-law calculations resulting from uncertainties in spectroscopic and molecular constants. This approach has the additional advantage of yielding reaction entropies that can be checked for consistency with various molecular constant assignments for the species involved. In the U-F, U-Cl, and U-Br systems, all of the gaseous species UX, UX{sub 2}, UX{sub 3}, UX{sub 4}, and UX{sub 5}, where X represents the halogen, were identified and characterized; the corresponding species ThX, ThX{sub 2}, ThX{sub 3}, and ThX{sub 4} were studied in the Th-F, Th-Cl, and Th-Br systems. A number of oxyhalide species in the systems U-0-F, U-0-Cl, Th-0-F, and Th-O-Cl were studied thermochemically. Additionally, the sublimation thermodynamics of NpF{sub 4}(s) and NpO{sub 2}F{sub 2}(s) were studied by mass spectrometry.

  1. RAPID SEPARATION OF ACTINIDES AND RADIOSTRONTIUM IN VEGETATION SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, S.

    2010-06-01

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides and radiostrontium in vegetation samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used in emergency response situations or for routine analysis. The actinides in vegetation method utilizes a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion method, a lanthanum fluoride matrix removal step, and a streamlined column separation process with stacked TEVA, TRU and DGA Resin cartridges. Lanthanum was separated rapidly and effectively from Am and Cm on DGA Resin. Alpha emitters are prepared using rare earth microprecipitation for counting by alpha spectrometry. The purified {sup 90}Sr fractions are mounted directly on planchets and counted by gas flow proportional counting. The method showed high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. The actinide and {sup 90}Sr in vegetation sample analysis can be performed in less than 8 h with excellent quality for emergency samples. The rapid fusion technique is a rugged sample digestion method that ensures that any refractory actinide particles or vegetation residue after furnace heating is effectively digested.

  2. From carbon to actinides: A new universal 1MV accelerator mass spectrometer at ANSTO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcken, K. M.; Hotchkis, M.; Levchenko, V.; Fink, D.; Hauser, T.; Kitchen, R.

    2015-10-01

    A new 1 MV NEC pelletron AMS system at ANSTO is presented. The spectrometer comprises large radius magnets for actinide measurements. A novel feature of the system is fast switching between isotopes both at low and high energy sections allowing measurements of up to 8 isotopes within a single sequence. Technical details and layout of the spectrometer is presented. Performance data for 14C, 10Be, 26Al and actinides demonstrate the system is ready for routine AMS measurements.

  3. From carbon to actinides: A new universal 1MV accelerator mass spectrometer at ANSTO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcken, K.M., E-mail: klaus.wilcken@ansto.gov.au [Australian Nuclear Science & Technology Organisation, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Hotchkis, M.; Levchenko, V.; Fink, D. [Australian Nuclear Science & Technology Organisation, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Hauser, T.; Kitchen, R. [National Electrostatics Corporation, 7540 Graber Road, Middleton, WI 53562-0310 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    A new 1 MV NEC pelletron AMS system at ANSTO is presented. The spectrometer comprises large radius magnets for actinide measurements. A novel feature of the system is fast switching between isotopes both at low and high energy sections allowing measurements of up to 8 isotopes within a single sequence. Technical details and layout of the spectrometer is presented. Performance data for {sup 14}C, {sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al and actinides demonstrate the system is ready for routine AMS measurements.

  4. Measuring Data Quality in Analytical Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Ioana ANDREESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Measuring and assuring data quality in analytical projects are considered very important issues and overseeing their benefits may cause serious consequences for the efficiency of organizations. Data profiling and data cleaning are two essential activities in a data quality process, along with data integration, enrichment and monitoring. Data warehouses require and provide extensive support for data cleaning. These loads and renew continuously huge amounts of data from a variety of sources, so the probability that some of the sources contain "dirty data" is great. Also, analytics tools offer, to some extent, facilities for assessing and assuring data quality as a built in support or by using their proprietary programming languages. This paper emphasizes the scope and relevance of a data quality measurement in analytical projects by the means of two intensively used tools such as Oracle Warehouse Builder and SAS 9.3.

  5. Objective speech quality measures for Internet telephony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Timothy A.

    2001-07-01

    Measuring voice quality for telephony is not a new problem. However, packet-switched, best-effort networks such as the Internet present significant new challenges for the delivery of real-time voice traffic. Unlike the circuit-switched PSTN, Internet protocol (IP) networks guarantee neither sufficient bandwidth for the voice traffic nor a constant, minimal delay. Dropped packets and varying delays introduce distortions not found in traditional telephony. In addition, if a low bitrate codec is used in voice over IP (VoIP) to achieve a high compression ratio, the original waveform can be significantly distorted. These new potential sources of signal distortion present significant challenges for objectively measuring speech quality. Measurement techniques designed for the PSTN may not perform well in VoIP environments. Our objective is to find a speech quality metric that accurately predicts subjective human perception under the conditions present in VoIP systems. To do this, we compared three types of measures: perceptually weighted distortion measures such as enhanced modified Bark spectral distance (EMBSD) and measuring normalizing blocks (MNB), word-error rates of continuous speech recognizers, and the ITU E-model. We tested the performance of these measures under conditions typical of a VoIP system. We found that the E-model had the highest correlation with mean opinion scores (MOS). The E-model is well-suited for online monitoring because it does not use the original (undistorted) signal to compute its quality metric and because it is computationally simple.

  6. Quality Management of Measurements incl. Documentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2004-01-01

    -Nürnberg, Chair for Quality Management and Manufacturing-Oriented Metrology (Germany). 'Metro-E-Learn' project proposes to develop and implement a coherent learning and competence chain that leads from introductory and foundation e-courses in initial manufacturing engineering studies towards higher....... Machine tool testing 9. The role of manufacturing metrology for QM 10. Inspection planning 11. Quality management of measurements incl. Documentation 12. Advanced manufacturing measurement technology The present report (which represents the section 11 - Quality management of measurements incl....... Documentation – of the e-learning system) is part of the contribution of the Department for Manufacturing Engineering and Management (IPL) / Centre for Geometrical Metrology (CGM) at the Technical University of Denmark to the MINERVA EU project mentioned above....

  7. Goal-oriented Data Warehouse Quality Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Cachero, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Requirements engineering is known to be a key factor for the success of software projects. Inside this discipline, goal-oriented requirements engineering approaches have shown specially suitable to deal with projects where it is necessary to capture the alignment between system requirements and stakeholders' needs, as is the case of data-warehousing projects. However, the mere alignment of data-warehouse system requirements with business goals is not enough to assure better data-warehousing products; measures and techniques are also needed to assure the data-warehouse quality. In this paper, we provide a modelling framework for data-warehouse quality measurement (i*DWQM). This framework, conceived as an i* extension, provides support for the definition of data-warehouse requirements analysis models that include quantifiable quality scenarios, defined in terms of well-formed measures. This extension has been defined by means of a UML profiling architecture. The resulting framework has been implemented in the E...

  8. Air quality measurements in laying hens housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Prodanov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring good environmental conditions of the poultry houses can be costly for the farmers, but without it losses due to poor bird health and performance due to poor air quality can be much more detrimental to net returns. The goal of this study was to investigate the variations in air quality in various areas inside the laying hen houses. Ten houses with laying hen conventional battery cages were measured for O2, H2S, CO, NH3, temperature, relative humidity, CO2, airflow and luminance. The results of the physical measures showed that temperatures in the houses were between 15.31–25.6°C, the relative humidity 48.03-81.12%, while the luminance rarely exceeded 8 lux. As for the gasses, the values for NH3 rarely exceeded 8 ppm, although at some measuring points it reached 26 ppm. O2 was generally at 20.9 %, and the levels of CO2 were very low. No presence of H2S and CO was detected. In this study it was concluded that the measurement of the air quality in a house can vary depending of the places this measures are taken. Multiple measurement points are important because they may make the staff aware of the problems connected to low ventilation and culmination of harmful gases. The air quality in different positions in the houses is of great importance not only for the animal welfare, but also for the safety of the staff.

  9. Measures of Quality in Business Process Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Hronza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Business process modelling and analysing is undoubtedly one of the most important parts of Applied (Business Informatics. Quality of business process models (diagrams is crucial for any purpose in this area. The goal of a process analyst’s work is to create generally understandable, explicit and error free models. If a process is properly described, created models can be used as an input into deep analysis and optimization. It can be assumed that properly designed business process models (similarly as in the case of correctly written algorithms contain characteristics that can be mathematically described. Besides it will be possible to create a tool that will help process analysts to design proper models. As part of this review will be conducted systematic literature review in order to find and analyse business process model’s design and business process model’s quality measures. It was found that mentioned area had already been the subject of research investigation in the past. Thirty-three suitable scietific publications and twenty-two quality measures were found. Analysed scientific publications and existing quality measures do not reflect all important attributes of business process model’s clarity, simplicity and completeness. Therefore it would be appropriate to add new measures of quality.

  10. One-electron physics of the actinides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toropova, A.; Marianetti, C. A.; Haule, K.; Kotliar, G.

    2007-10-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the one-electron physics of the actinides. Various linear muffin-tin orbital basis sets are analyzed in order to determine a robust bare Hamiltonian for the actinides. The hybridization between f and spd states is compared with the f-f hopping in order to understand the Anderson-like and Hubbard-like contributions to itineracy in the actinides. We show that both contributions decrease strongly as one moves from the light actinides to the heavy actinides, while the Anderson-like contribution dominates in all cases. A real-space analysis of the band structure shows that nearest-neighbor hopping dominates the physics in these materials. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results to the delocalization transition as a function of atomic number across the actinide series.

  11. Moessbauer spectroscopy of actinide intermetallics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalvius, G.M.; Potzel, W.; Moser, J.; Litterst, F.J.; Asch, L.; Zaenkert, J.; Potzel, U.; Kratzer, A.; Wunsch, M. (Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany, F.R.). Fakultaet fuer Physik); Gal, J.

    1985-04-01

    Due to their wider radical extent the 5f electrons may form bands of different width and hybridization in metallic compounds of the light actinides. This leads to a broad spectrum of magnetic properties ranging from the localized magnetism of the lanthanides to the itinerant electron magnetism often found in transition metal compounds. Also, the influence of the crystalline electric field tends to be more pronounced than in rare earth compounds, but is usually not as dominant as in the 3d series. Magnetic structures and the question of 5f electron delocalization will be reviewed with respect to actinide Moessbauer data and new results will be presented. In particular the influence of applying external pressure will be discussed.

  12. Mossbauer spectroscopy of actinide intermetallics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalvius, G.M.; Potzel, W.; Moser, J.; Litterst, F.J.; Asch, L.; Zankert, J.; Potzel, U.; Kratzer, A.; Wunsch, M.; Gal, J.

    1984-09-01

    Due to their wider radial extend the 5f electrons may form bands of different width and hybridization in metallic compounds of the light actinides. This leads to a broad spectrum of magnetic properties ranging from the localized magnetism of the lanthanides to the itinerant electron magnetism often found in transition metal compounds. Also, the influence of the crystalline electric field tends to be more pronounced than in rare earth compounds, but is usually not as dominant as in the 3d series. Magnetic structures and the question of 5f electron delocalization are reviewed with respet to actinide Moessbauer data and new results are presented. In particular the influence of applying external pressure is discussed. 60 references, 24 figures.

  13. Thermodynamics of actinide complexation in solution at elevated temperatures: application of variable-temperature titration calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Linfeng

    2007-06-01

    Studies of actinide complexation in solution at elevated temperatures provide insight into the effect of solvation and the energetics of complexation, and help to predict the chemical behavior of actinides in nuclear waste processing and disposal where temperatures are high. This tutorial review summarizes the data on the complexation of actinides at elevated temperatures and describes the methodology for thermodynamic measurements, with the emphasis on variable-temperature titration calorimetry, a highly valuable technique to determine the enthalpy and, under appropriate conditions, the equilibrium constants of complexation as well.

  14. Many quality measurements, but few quality measures assessing the quality of breast cancer care in women: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Li

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer in women is increasingly frequent, and care is complex, onerous and expensive, all of which lend urgency to improvements in care. Quality measurement is essential to monitor effectiveness and to guide improvements in healthcare. Methods Ten databases, including Medline, were searched electronically to identify measures assessing the quality of breast cancer care in women (diagnosis, treatment, followup, documentation of care. Eligible studies measured adherence to standards of breast cancer care in women diagnosed with, or in treatment for, any histological type of adenocarcinoma of the breast. Reference lists of studies, review articles, web sites, and files of experts were searched manually. Evidence appraisal entailed dual independent assessments of data (e.g., indicators used in quality measurement. The extent of each quality indicator's scientific validation as a measure was assessed. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO was asked to contribute quality measures under development. Results Sixty relevant reports identified 58 studies with 143 indicators assessing adherence to quality breast cancer care. A paucity of validated indicators (n = 12, most of which assessed quality of life, only permitted a qualitative data synthesis. Most quality indicators evaluated processes of care. Conclusion While some studies revealed patterns of under-use of care, all adherence data require confirmation using validated quality measures. ASCO's current development of a set of quality measures relating to breast cancer care may hold the key to conducting definitive studies.

  15. Measuring Active Learning to Predict Course Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John E.; Ku, Heng-Yu

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether active learning within computer-based training courses can be measured and whether it serves as a predictor of learner-perceived course quality. A major corporation participated in this research, providing access to internal employee training courses, training representatives, and historical course evaluation data.…

  16. Measuring Teaching Quality in Several European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Grift, Wim J. C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Teaching quality has been observed in large representative samples from Flanders (Belgium), Lower Saxony (Germany), the Slovak Republic, and The Netherlands. This study reveals that measures of "creating a safe and stimulating climate", "clear and activating instruction", and "teaching learning strategies" were…

  17. Measuring the Quality of Ecotourism Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor’Aini Yusof

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecotourism forms the pillar of the country’s tourism industry. Ecotourists make up more than 10% of international tourists in Malaysia. When service quality is thought of as an important factor to the success of tourism service providers, the importance of estimating service quality provided to tourists becomes apparent. Estimating service quality provides tourism service providers with the necessary information needed to manage their marketing operations appropriately. Therefore, this estimation should be performed with the right measurement scales. Despite the high volume of research on service quality (SERVQUAL models in recent years, limited effort has been directed toward improving the tool for measuring service quality, particularly to apply to the ecotourism sector in developing countries. This article aims to improve a SERVQUAL model that is suitable for ecotourism areas in developing countries using five dimensions of the original model and one additional sustainability dimension. Based on a survey of 127 tourists in Tasik Kenyir, an exploratory factor analysis (EFA was conducted to discover the underlying dimension of ecotourism services and test for reliability and validity. Using EFA resulted in seven factors totaling 27 items. These factors are labeled as follows: tangible sustainability, sustainable practices, tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy. The results reveal that when SERVQUAL is applied within the ecotourism context, new dimensions of tangible sustainability and sustainable practices may emerge. The result implies the need to refine the SERVQUAL model when used in different contexts.

  18. Adaptive measurements of urban runoff quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Brandon P.; Kerkez, Branko

    2016-11-01

    An approach to adaptively measure runoff water quality dynamics is introduced, focusing specifically on characterizing the timing and magnitude of urban pollutographs. Rather than relying on a static schedule or flow-weighted sampling, which can miss important water quality dynamics if parameterized inadequately, novel Internet-enabled sensor nodes are used to autonomously adapt their measurement frequency to real-time weather forecasts and hydrologic conditions. This dynamic approach has the potential to significantly improve the use of constrained experimental resources, such as automated grab samplers, which continue to provide a strong alternative to sampling water quality dynamics when in situ sensors are not available. Compared to conventional flow-weighted or time-weighted sampling schemes, which rely on preset thresholds, a major benefit of the approach is the ability to dynamically adapt to features of an underlying hydrologic signal. A 28 km2 urban watershed was studied to characterize concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS) and total phosphorus. Water quality samples were autonomously triggered in response to features in the underlying hydrograph and real-time weather forecasts. The study watershed did not exhibit a strong first flush and intraevent concentration variability was driven by flow acceleration, wherein the largest loadings of TSS and total phosphorus corresponded with the steepest rising limbs of the storm hydrograph. The scalability of the proposed method is discussed in the context of larger sensor network deployments, as well the potential to improving control of urban water quality.

  19. Quality Measures for Improving Technology Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teemu J. Heinimäki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of technology trees in digital games can be improved by adjusting their structural and quantitative properties. Therefore, there is a demand for recognizing and measuring such properties. Part of the process can be automated; there are properties measurable by computers, and analyses based on the results (and visualizations of them may help to produce significantly better technology trees, even practically without extra workload for humans. In this paper, we introduce useful technology tree properties and novel measuring features implemented into our software tool for manipulating technology trees.

  20. Application of voxelised numerical phantoms linked to the M.C.N.P. Monte Carlo code to the realistic measurement in vivo of actinides in the lungs and contaminated wounds; Application des fantomes numeriques voxelises associes au code Monte Carlo MCNP a la mesure in vivo realiste des actinides dans les poumons et les plaies contaminees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noelle, P

    2006-12-15

    In vivo lung counting, one of the preferred methods for monitoring people exposed to the risk of actinide inhalation, is nevertheless limited by the use of physical calibration phantoms which, for technical reasons, can only provide a rough representation of human tissue. A new approach to in vivo measurements has been developed to take advantage of advances in medical imaging and computing; this consists of numerical phantoms based on tomographic images (CT) or magnetic resonance images (R.M.I.) combined with Monte Carlo computing techniques. Under laboratory implementation of this innovative method using specific software called O.E.D.I.P.E., the main thrust of this thesis was to provide answers to the following question: what do numerical phantoms and new techniques like O.E.D.I.P.E. contribute to the improvement in calibration of low-energy in vivo counting systems? After a few developments of the O.E.D.I.P.E. interface, the numerical method was validated for systems composed of four germanium detectors, the most widespread configuration in radio bioassay laboratories (a good match was found, with less than 10% variation). This study represents the first step towards a person-specific numerical calibration of counting systems, which will improve assessment of the activity retained. A second stage focusing on an exhaustive evaluation of uncertainties encountered in in vivo lung counting was possible thanks to the approach offered by the previously-validated O.E.D.I.P.E. software. It was shown that the uncertainties suggested by experiments in a previous study were underestimated, notably morphological differences between the physical phantom and the measured person. Some improvements in the measurement procedure were then proposed, particularly new bio-metric equations specific to French measurement configurations that allow a more sensible choice of the calibration phantom, directly assessing the thickness of the torso plate to be added to the Livermore phantom

  1. Quality improvement in neurology: dementia management quality measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odenheimer, Germaine; Borson, Soo; Sanders, Amy E; Swain-Eng, Rebecca J; Kyomen, Helen H; Tierney, Samantha; Gitlin, Laura; Forciea, Mary Ann; Absher, John; Shega, Joseph; Johnson, Jerry

    2014-03-01

    Professional and advocacy organizations have long urged that dementia should be recognized and properly diagnosed. With the passage of the National Alzheimer's Project Act in 2011, an Advisory Council for Alzheimer's Research, Care, and Services was convened to advise the Department of Health and Human Services. In May 2012, the Council produced the first National Plan to address Alzheimer's disease, and prominent in its recommendations is a call for quality measures suitable for evaluating and tracking dementia care in clinical settings. Although other efforts have been made to set dementia care quality standards, such as those pioneered by RAND in its series Assessing Care of Vulnerable Elders (ACOVE), practitioners, healthcare systems, and insurers have not widely embraced implementation. This executive summary (full manuscript available at www.neurology.org) reports on a new measurement set for dementia management developed by an interdisciplinary Dementia Measures Work Group (DWG) representing the major national organizations and advocacy organizations concerned with the care of individuals with dementia. The American Academy of Neurology (AAN), the American Geriatrics Society, the American Medical Directors Association, the American Psychiatric Association, and the American Medical Association-convened Physician Consortium for Performance Improvement led this effort. The ACOVE measures and the measurement set described here apply to individuals whose dementia has already been identified and properly diagnosed. Although similar in concept to ACOVE, the DWG measurement set differs in several important ways; it includes all stages of dementia in a single measure set, calls for the use of functional staging in planning care, prompts the use of validated instruments in patient and caregiver assessment and intervention, highlights the relevance of using palliative care concepts to guide care before the advanced stages of illness, and provides evidence-based support

  2. Measuring Physical Neighborhood Quality Related to Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A. Rollings

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although sociodemographic factors are one aspect of understanding the effects of neighborhood environments on health, equating neighborhood quality with socioeconomic status ignores the important role of physical neighborhood attributes. Prior work on neighborhood environments and health has relied primarily on level of socioeconomic disadvantage as the indicator of neighborhood quality without attention to physical neighborhood quality. A small but increasing number of studies have assessed neighborhood physical characteristics. Findings generally indicate that there is an association between living in deprived neighborhoods and poor health outcomes, but rigorous evidence linking specific physical neighborhood attributes to particular health outcomes is lacking. This paper discusses the methodological challenges and limitations of measuring physical neighborhood environments relevant to health and concludes with proposed directions for future work.

  3. Measuring Physical Neighborhood Quality Related to Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollings, Kimberly A.; Wells, Nancy M.; Evans, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    Although sociodemographic factors are one aspect of understanding the effects of neighborhood environments on health, equating neighborhood quality with socioeconomic status ignores the important role of physical neighborhood attributes. Prior work on neighborhood environments and health has relied primarily on level of socioeconomic disadvantage as the indicator of neighborhood quality without attention to physical neighborhood quality. A small but increasing number of studies have assessed neighborhood physical characteristics. Findings generally indicate that there is an association between living in deprived neighborhoods and poor health outcomes, but rigorous evidence linking specific physical neighborhood attributes to particular health outcomes is lacking. This paper discusses the methodological challenges and limitations of measuring physical neighborhood environments relevant to health and concludes with proposed directions for future work. PMID:25938692

  4. Improved Actinide Neutron Capture Cross Sections Using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauder, W.; Pardo, R. C.; Kondev, F. G.; Kondrashev, S.; Nair, C.; Nusair, O.; Palchan, T.; Scott, R.; Seweryniak, D.; Vondrasek, R.; Collon, P.; Paul, M.; Youinou, G.; Salvatores, M.; Palmotti, G.; Berg, J.; Maddock, T.; Imel, G.

    2014-09-01

    The MANTRA (Measurement of Actinide Neutron TRAnsmutations) project will improve energy-integrated neutron capture cross section data across the actinide region. These data are incorporated into nuclear reactor models and are an important piece in understanding Generation IV reactor designs. We will infer the capture cross sections by measuring isotopic ratios from actinide samples, irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor at INL, with Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) at ATLAS (ANL). The superior sensitivity of AMS allows us to extract multiple cross sections from a single sample. In order to analyze the large number of samples needed for MANTRA and to meet the goal of extracting multiple cross sections per sample, we have made a number of modifications to the AMS setup at ATLAS. In particular, we are developing a technique to inject solid material into the ECR with laser ablation. With laser ablation, we can better control material injection and potentially increase efficiency in the ECR, thus creating less contamination in the source and reducing cross talk. I will present work on the laser ablation system and preliminary results from our AMS measurements. The MANTRA (Measurement of Actinide Neutron TRAnsmutations) project will improve energy-integrated neutron capture cross section data across the actinide region. These data are incorporated into nuclear reactor models and are an important piece in understanding Generation IV reactor designs. We will infer the capture cross sections by measuring isotopic ratios from actinide samples, irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor at INL, with Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) at ATLAS (ANL). The superior sensitivity of AMS allows us to extract multiple cross sections from a single sample. In order to analyze the large number of samples needed for MANTRA and to meet the goal of extracting multiple cross sections per sample, we have made a number of modifications to the AMS setup at ATLAS. In particular, we are

  5. Prompt fission neutron spectrum of actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capote, R. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Chen, Y. -J. [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China); Hambsch, F. J. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre - IRRM, Geel (Belgium); Jurado, B. [CENBG, CNRS/IN2P3, Gradignan (France); Kornilov, N. [Ohio Univ., Athens, OH (United States); Lestone, J. P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Litaize, O. [CEA, DEN, DER, SPRC, Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Morillon, B. [CEA, DAM, DIF, Arpajon (France); Neudecker, D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Oberstedt, S. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre - IRRM, Geel (Belgium); Ohsawa, T. [Kinki Univ., Osaka-fu (Japan); Otuka, N. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Pronyaev, V. G. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Saxena, A. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Schmidt, K. H. [CENBG, CNRS/IN2P3, Gradignan (France); Serot, O. [CEA, DEN, DER, SPRC, Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Shcherbakov, O. A. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute of NRC " Kurchatov Institute" , Gatchina (Russian Federation); Shu, N. -C. [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China); Smith, D. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Talou, P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Trkov, A. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Tudora, A. C. [Univ. of Bucharest, Magurele (Romania); Vogt, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Vorobyev, A. S. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute of NRC " Kurchatov Institute" , Gatchina (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-06

    Here, the energy spectrum of prompt neutron emitted in fission (PFNS) plays a very important role in nuclear science and technology. A Coordinated Research Project (CRP) "Evaluation of Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra of Actinides" was established by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section in 2009, with the major goal to produce new PFNS evaluations with uncertainties for actinide nuclei.

  6. Calculated Atomic Volumes of the Actinide Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, H.; Andersen, O. K.; Johansson, B.

    1979-01-01

    The equilibrium atomic volume is calculated for the actinide metals. It is possible to account for the localization of the 5f electrons taking place in americium.......The equilibrium atomic volume is calculated for the actinide metals. It is possible to account for the localization of the 5f electrons taking place in americium....

  7. Measuring the quality of transdisciplinary teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batorowicz, Beata; Shepherd, Tracy A

    2008-12-01

    The Team Decision Making Questionnaire (TDMQ) demonstrated internal consistency, stability over time, and construct validity. Internal consistencies were excellent and Cronbach's Alphas (N = 102) for the 4 components ranged from 0.83 to 0.91. The internal consistency for the total instrument was 0.96. Test re-test reliability (N = 22) measured with Intraclass Correlation Coefficient was good. Transdisciplinary teamwork is widely practiced in health care. However, specific measures to evaluate transdisciplinary team decision-making are not described in the literature. The purpose of this study was to develop and psychometrically test a scale to measure the quality of transdisciplinary teamwork. A multi-method approach using focus groups, field testing, and quantitative instrument development procedures was used to develop and evaluate TDMQ. Principal component analysis (PCA) with a varimax rotation (N = 102) revealed a four-component solution resulting in a 19-item measure consisting of 4 subscales including Decision Making, Team Support, Learning, and Developing Quality Services. This study's findings support the use of the TDMQ for measuring the benefits of transdisciplinary teamwork. The four subscales of the measure provide insight into the nature of such benefits. To validate the TDMQ research is required with a greater number of health care professionals and in other clinical fields.

  8. Radiochemical separation of actinides for their determination in environmental samples and waste products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleisberg, B. [Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Rossendorf, Inc. (VKTA), Dresden (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    The determination of low level activities of actinides in environmental samples and waste products makes high demands on radiochemical separation methods. Artificial and natural actinides were analyzed in samples form the surrounding areas of NPP and of uranium mines, incorporation samples, solutions containing radioactive fuel, solutions and solids resutling from the process, and in wastes. The activities are measured by {alpha}-spectrometry and {gamma}-spectrometry. (DG)

  9. Set up of an innovative methodology to measure on-line the incineration potential of minor actinides under very high neutron sources in the frame of the future prospects of the nuclear waste transmutation; Mise au point d'une methodologie innovante pour la mesure du potentiel d'incineration d'actinides mineurs sous des sources tres intenses de neutrons, dans la perspective de transmutation des dechets nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadil, M

    2003-03-01

    This work deals generally with the problem of nuclear waste management and especially with the transmutation of it to reduce considerably its radiotoxicity potential. The principal objective of this thesis is to show the feasibility to measure on-line the incineration potential of minor actinides irradiated under very high neutron flux. To realize this goal, we have developed fission micro-chambers able to operate, for the first time in the world, in saturation regime under a severe neutron flux. These new chambers use {sup 235}U as an active deposit. They were irradiated in the high flux reactor at Laue-Langevin Institute in Grenoble. The measurement of the saturation current delivered by these chambers during their irradiation for 26 days allowed to evaluate the burn-up of {sup 235}U. We have determined the neutron flux intensity of 1,6 10{sup 15} n.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1} in the bottom of the irradiation tube called 'V4'. The relative uncertainty of this value is less than 4 %. This is for the first time that such high neutron flux is measured with a fission chamber. To confirm this result, we have also performed independent measurements using gamma spectroscopy of irradiated Nb and Co samples. Both results are in agreement within error bars. Simple Deposit Fission Chambers (SDFC) as above were the reference of the new generation of fission chambers that we have developed in the framework of this thesis: Double Deposit Fission Chambers (DDFC). The reference active deposit was {sup 235}U. The other deposit was the actinide that we wanted to study (e.g. {sup 237}Np and {sup 241}Am). At the end of the thesis, we present some suggestions to ameliorate the operation of the DDFC to be exploited in other transmutation applications in the future. (author)

  10. Catalytic Organic Transformations Mediated by Actinide Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabell S. R. Karmel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This review article presents the development of organoactinides and actinide coordination complexes as catalysts for homogeneous organic transformations. This chapter introduces the basic principles of actinide catalysis and deals with the historic development of actinide complexes in catalytic processes. The application of organoactinides in homogeneous catalysis is exemplified in the hydroelementation reactions, such as the hydroamination, hydrosilylation, hydroalkoxylation and hydrothiolation of alkynes. Additionally, the use of actinide coordination complexes for the catalytic polymerization of α-olefins and the ring opening polymerization of cyclic esters is presented. The last part of this review article highlights novel catalytic transformations mediated by actinide compounds and gives an outlook to the further potential of this field.

  11. Internal contamination by actinides after wounding: a robust rodent model for assessment of local and distant actinide retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, N M; Wilk, J C; Abram, M C; Renault, D; Chau, Q; Helfer, N; Guichet, C; Van der Meeren, A

    2012-08-01

    Internal contamination by actinides following wounding may occur in nuclear fuel industry workers or subsequent to terrorist activities, causing dissemination of radioactive elements. Contamination by alpha particle emitting actinides can result in pathological effects, either local or distant from the site of entry. The objective of the present study was to develop a robust experimental approach in the rat for short- and long- term actinide contamination following wounding by incision of the skin and muscles of the hind limb. Anesthetized rats were contaminated with Mixed OXide (MOX, uranium, plutonium oxides containing 7.1% plutonium) or plutonium nitrate (Pu nitrate) following wounding by deep incision of the hind leg. Actinide excretion and tissue levels were measured as well as histological changes from 2 h to 3 mo. Humid swabs were used for rapid evaluation of contamination levels and proved to be an initial guide for contamination levels. Although the activity transferred from wound to blood is higher after contamination with a moderately soluble form of plutonium (nitrate), at 7 d most of the MOX (98%) or Pu nitrate (87%) was retained at the wound site. Rapid actinide retention in liver and bone was observed within 24 h, which increased up to 3 mo. After MOX contamination, a more rapid initial urinary excretion of americium was observed compared with plutonium. At 3 mo, around 95% of activity remained at the wound site, and excretion of Pu and Am was extremely low. This experimental approach could be applied to other situations involving contamination following wounding including rupture of the dermal, vascular, and muscle barriers.

  12. Measurement Practices for Reliability and Power Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueck, JD

    2005-05-06

    This report provides a distribution reliability measurement ''toolkit'' that is intended to be an asset to regulators, utilities and power users. The metrics and standards discussed range from simple reliability, to power quality, to the new blend of reliability and power quality analysis that is now developing. This report was sponsored by the Office of Electric Transmission and Distribution, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Inconsistencies presently exist in commonly agreed-upon practices for measuring the reliability of the distribution systems. However, efforts are being made by a number of organizations to develop solutions. In addition, there is growing interest in methods or standards for measuring power quality, and in defining power quality levels that are acceptable to various industries or user groups. The problems and solutions vary widely among geographic areas and among large investor-owned utilities, rural cooperatives, and municipal utilities; but there is still a great degree of commonality. Industry organizations such as the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the American Public Power Association (APPA), and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) have made tremendous strides in preparing self-assessment templates, optimization guides, diagnostic techniques, and better definitions of reliability and power quality measures. In addition, public utility commissions have developed codes and methods for assessing performance that consider local needs. There is considerable overlap among these various organizations, and we see real opportunity and value in sharing these methods, guides, and standards in this report. This report provides a ''toolkit'' containing synopses of noteworthy reliability measurement practices. The toolkit has been developed to address the interests of three groups: electric power users, utilities, and

  13. High Precision Isotopic Analysis of Actinide Bearing Materials: Performance of a New Generation of Purpose Built Actinide Multi-Collector ICPMS Instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eiden, Gregory C.; Duffin, Andrew M.; Liezers, Martin; Ward, Jesse D.; Robinson, John W.; Hart, Garret L.; Pratt, Sandra H.; Springer, Kellen WE; Carman, April J.; Duckworth, Douglas C.

    2014-11-14

    Recently, a new class of multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometers (MC-ICPMS) has been introduced commercially that includes detector arrays purpose built for actinide measurements. These detector arrays significantly enhance the data quality possible for applications encountered in nuclear forensics. Two such instruments are described in this paper, the NeptunePlusTM, developed by Thermo-Fisher (Bremen, Germany), and the NuPlasma2, developed by Nu Instruments (Wrexham, UK). Research results are presented that have been obtained by the authors using the first commercial NeptunePlusTM. This paper also presents performance characteristics and results for traditional liquid introduction, including a means for ultra-trace detection via electrochemical separation prior to solution nebulization, as well as solid sample introduction with femtosecond-laser ablation. We also discuss the advantages and limitations of the current systems for detection of the transient signals associated with these two methods for introducing sample into the plasma.

  14. Measurement quality assurance for radioassay laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCurdy, D.E. [Yankee Atomic Environmental Laboratory, Boston, MA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Until recently, the quality of U.S. radioassay laboratory services has been evaluated by a limited number of governmental measurement assurance programs (MAPs). The major programs have been limited to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). In 1988, an industry MAP was established for the nuclear power utility industry through the U.S. Council for Energy Awareness/National Institute of Standards and Technology (USCEA/NIST). This program functions as both a MAP for utility laboratories and/or their commercial contractor laboratories, and as a traceability program for the U.S. radioactive source manufacturers and the utility laboratories. Each of these generic MAPs has been initiated and is maintained to serve the specific needs of the sponsoring agency or organization. As a result, there is diversification in their approach, scope, requirements, and degree of traceability to NIST. In 1987, a writing committee was formed under the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) N42.2 committee to develop a standard to serve as the basis document for the creation of a national measurement quality assurance (MQA) program for radioassay laboratories in the U.S. The standard is entitled, {open_quotes}Measurement Quality Assurance For Radioassay Laboratories.{open_quotes} The document was developed to serve as a guide for MQA programs maintained for the specialized sectors of the radioassay community, such as bioassay, routine environmental monitoring, environmental restoration and waste management, radiopharmaceuticals, and nuclear facilities. It was the intent of the writing committee to develop a guidance document that could be utilized to establish a laboratory`s specific data quality objectives (DQOs) that govern the operational requirements of the radioassay process, including mandated protocols and recommendations.

  15. Actinides, accelerators and erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tims, S. G.; Fifield, L. K.

    2012-10-01

    Fallout isotopes can be used as artificial tracers of soil erosion and sediment accumulation. The most commonly used isotope to date has been 137Cs. Concentrations of 137Cs are, however, significantly lower in the Southern Hemisphere, and furthermore have now declined to 35% of original values due to radioactive decay. As a consequence the future utility of 137Cs is limited in Australia, with many erosion applications becoming untenable within the next 20 years, and there is a need to replace it with another tracer. Plutonium could fill this role, and has the advantages that there were six times as many atoms of Pu as of 137Cs in fallout, and any loss to decay has been negligible due to the long half-lives of the plutonium isotopes. Uranium-236 is another long-lived fallout isotope with significant potential for exploitation as a tracer of soil and sediment movement. Uranium is expected to be more mobile in soils than plutonium (or caesium), and hence the 236U/Pu ratio will vary with soil depth, and so could provide an independent measure of the amount of soil loss. In this paper we discuss accelerator based ultra-sensitive measurements of plutonium and 236U isotopes and their advantages over 137Cs as tracers of soil erosion and sediment movement.

  16. Actinides, accelerators and erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fifield L.K.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fallout isotopes can be used as artificial tracers of soil erosion and sediment accumulation. The most commonly used isotope to date has been 137Cs. Concentrations of 137Cs are, however, significantly lower in the Southern Hemisphere, and furthermore have now declined to 35% of original values due to radioactive decay. As a consequence the future utility of 137Cs is limited in Australia, with many erosion applications becoming untenable within the next 20 years, and there is a need to replace it with another tracer. Plutonium could fill this role, and has the advantages that there were six times as many atoms of Pu as of 137Cs in fallout, and any loss to decay has been negligible due to the long half-lives of the plutonium isotopes. Uranium-236 is another long-lived fallout isotope with significant potential for exploitation as a tracer of soil and sediment movement. Uranium is expected to be more mobile in soils than plutonium (or caesium, and hence the 236U/Pu ratio will vary with soil depth, and so could provide an independent measure of the amount of soil loss. In this paper we discuss accelerator based ultra-sensitive measurements of plutonium and 236U isotopes and their advantages over 137Cs as tracers of soil erosion and sediment movement.

  17. The ALMR actinide burning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, J.E. (General Electric Co., San Jose, CA (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The advanced liquid-metal reactor (ALMR) actinide burning system is being developed under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy to bring its unique capabilities to fruition for deployment in the early 21st century. The system consists of four major parts: the reactor plant, the metal fuel and its recycle, the processing of light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel to extract the actinides, and the development of a residual waste package. This paper addresses the status and outlook for each of these four major elements. The ALMR is being developed by an industrial group under the leadership of General Electric (GE) in a cost-sharing arrangement with the US Department of Energy. This effort is nearing completion of the advanced conceptual design phase and will enter the preliminary design phase in 1994. The innovative modular reactor design stresses simplicity, economics, reliability, and availability. The design has evolved from GE's PRISM design initiative and has progressed to the final stages of a prelicensing review by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); a safety evaluation report is expected by the end of 1993. All the major issues identified during this review process have been technically resolved. The next design phases will focus on implementation of the basic safety philosophy of passive shutdown to a safe, stable condition, even without scram, and passive decay heat removal. Economic projections to date show that it will be competitive with non- nuclear and advanced LWR nuclear alternatives.

  18. Ionic Interactions in Actinide Tetrahalides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdeniz, Z.; Karaman, A.; Tosi, M. P.

    2001-05-01

    We determine a model of the ionic interactions in AX 4 compounds (where A is an atom in the actinide series from Th to Am and X = F, Cl, Br or I) by an analysis of data on the static and dynamic structure of their molecular monomers. The potential energy function that we adopt is taken from earlier work on rare-earth trihalides [Z. Akdeniz, Z. Q q e k and M. P. Tosi, Z. Naturforsch. 55a, 861 (2000)] and in particular allows for the electronic polarizability of the actinide ion. This polarizability quantitatively determines the antisymmetric-bending vibrational mode, but its magnitude remains compatible with a symmetric tetrahedral shape of the molecule at equilibrium. The fluorides have an especially high degree of ionic character, and the interionic-force parameters for each halide of the U, Np, Pu and Am series show regular trends, suggesting that extrapolations to the other transuranic-element halides may usefully be made. The Th compounds show some deviations from these trends, and the interionic-force model that we determine for ThCl4 differs somewhat from that obtained in a previous study. We therefore return on the evaluation of the relative stability of charged oligomers of ThCl4 and ZrCl4 and find confirmation of our earlier results on this problem.

  19. Accuracy Improvement of Neutron Nuclear Data on Minor Actinides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harada Hideo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of accuracy of neutron nuclear data for minor actinides (MAs and long-lived fission products (LLFPs is required for developing innovative nuclear system transmuting these nuclei. In order to meet the requirement, the project entitled as “Research and development for Accuracy Improvement of neutron nuclear data on Minor ACtinides (AIMAC” has been started as one of the “Innovative Nuclear Research and Development Program” in Japan at October 2013. The AIMAC project team is composed of researchers in four different fields: differential nuclear data measurement, integral nuclear data measurement, nuclear chemistry, and nuclear data evaluation. By integrating all of the forefront knowledge and techniques in these fields, the team aims at improving the accuracy of the data. The background and research plan of the AIMAC project are presented.

  20. Radioanalytical determination of actinides and fission products in Belarus soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, H; Gasparro, J; Barci-Funel, G; Dalmasso, J; Ardisson, G; Sharovarov, G

    1999-04-01

    Alpha emitting actinides such as plutonium, americium or curium were measured by alpha-spectrometry after radiochemical separation. The short range of alpha-particles within matter requires, after a pre-concentration process, a succession of isolation and purification steps based on the valence states modification of the researched elements. For counting, actinides were electrodeposited in view to obtain the mass-less source necessary to avoid self-absorption of the emitted radiations. Activity concentrations of gamma-emitting fission products were calculated after measurement with high purity germanium detectors (HPGe). These different methods were used to analyse soils sampled in the Republic of Belarus, not far from the Chernobyl nuclear plant.

  1. Interaction of actinides with amino acids: from peptides to proteins; Interaction des actinides avec les acides amines: du peptide a la proteine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeanson, A

    2008-09-15

    Structural information on complexes of actinides with molecules of biological interest is required to better understand the mechanisms of actinides transport in living organisms, and can contribute to develop new decorporation treatments. Our study is about Th(IV), Np(IV), Pu(IV) and uranyl(VI) cations, which have a high affinity for some protein domains, and Fe(III), which is the natural cation of these biological systems. In this work, chelation of actinides has been brought to light with UV-visible-Near Infra Red spectroscopy, NMR, EPR, and ultrafiltration. Determination of the structure of the complexation site has been undertaken with Exafs measurements, and of the tertiary structure of the protein with SANS measurements. The first approach was to describe the interaction modes between actinides and essential chemical functions of proteins. Thus, the Ac-AspAspProAspAsp-NH{sub 2} peptide was studied as a possible chelate of actinides. Polynuclear species with {mu}-oxo or {mu}-hydroxo bridges were identified. The iron complex is binuclear, and the actinide ones have a higher nuclearity. The second approach was to study a real case of complexation of actinide with a protein: transferrin. Results show that around physiological ph a mononuclear complex is formed with Np(IV) and Pu(IV), while transferrin does not complex Th(IV) in the same conditions. Characteristic distances of M-transferrin complexes (M = Fe, Np, Pu) were determined. Moreover, the protein seems to be in its close conformation with Pu(IV), and in its open form with Np(IV) and UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}. (author)

  2. A new era of quality measurement in rheumatology: electronic clinical quality measures and national registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonner, Chris; Schmajuk, Gabriela; Yazdany, Jinoos

    2017-03-01

    This article reviews the evolution of quality measurement in rheumatology, highlighting new health-information technology infrastructure and standards that are enabling unprecedented innovation in this field. Spurred by landmark legislation that ties physician payment to value, the widespread use of electronic health records, and standards such as the Quality Data Model, quality measurement in rheumatology is rapidly evolving. Rather than relying on retrospective assessments of care gathered through administrative claims or manual chart abstraction, new electronic clinical quality measures (eCQMs) allow automated data capture from electronic health records. At the same time, qualified clinical data registries, like the American College of Rheumatology's Rheumatology Informatics System for Effectiveness registry, are enabling large-scale implementation of eCQMs across national electronic health record networks with real-time performance feedback to clinicians. Although successful examples of eCQM development and implementation in rheumatology and other fields exist, there also remain challenges, such as lack of health system data interoperability and problems with measure accuracy. Quality measurement and improvement is increasingly an essential component of rheumatology practice. Advances in health information technology are likely to continue to make implementation of eCQMs easier and measurement more clinically meaningful and accurate in coming years.

  3. Photofission of actinide and pre-actinide nuclei in the quasideuteron and delta energy regions

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, B L; Cole, P L; Dodge, W R; Feldman, G; Sanabria, J C; Kolb, N; Pywell, R E; Vogt, J; Nedorezov, V; Sudov, A; Kezerashvili, G Ya

    1999-01-01

    The photofission cross sections for the actinide nuclei sup 2 sup 3 sup 2 Th, sup 2 sup 3 sup 3 sup , sup 2 sup 3 sup 5 sup , sup 2 sup 3 sup 8 U, and sup 2 sup 3 sup 7 Np have been measured from 68 to 264 MeV and those for the pre-actinide nuclei sup 1 sup 9 sup 7 Au and sup N sup A sup T Pb from 122 to 222 MeV at the Saskatchewan Accelerator Laboratory, using monoenergetic tagged photons and novel parallel-plate avalanche detectors for the fission fragments. The aim of the experiment was to obtain a comprehensive and self-consistent data set and to investigate previous anomalous results in this energy region. The fission probability for transuranic nuclei is expected to be close to unity here. However, important discrepancies have been confirmed for sup 2 sup 3 sup 7 Np and sup 2 sup 3 sup 2 Th, compared with sup 2 sup 3 sup 8 U, which have serious implications for the inferred total photoabsorption strengths, and hence call into question the 'Universal Curve' for photon absorption at these energies. High-s...

  4. NOVEL IMAGE-DEPENDENT QUALITY ASSESSMENT MEASURES

    OpenAIRE

    Asaad Noori Hashim; Zahir M. Hussain

    2014-01-01

    The image is a 2D signal whose pixels are highly correlated in a 2D manner. Hence, using pixel by pixel error what we called previously Mean-Square Error, (MSE) is not an efficient way to compare two similar images (e.g., an original image and a compressed version of it). Due to this correlation, image comparison needs a correlative quality measure. It is clear that correlation between two signals gives an idea about the relation between samples of the two signals. Generally speaking, correla...

  5. Software Quality Measurement Demonstration Project II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    Report ............................... 1-7 1.4-4 Time Log .................................................. 1-8 2.0-1 ECOAEA Scores for Worksheet 1...34 Conduct independent software quality evaluation and validation to include goal specification, data collection, worksheet scoring, assessment of time logs ...8217n ’~’t"~ i m ’u ~ ~ ej 𔃺 vall-datc. s;Cores )..3SieL dd Spcf ’,t~ii,, it -~ L Th~ 1r 3QM prc:"d’:ae 1c ricvn r )o aL used i n measuring the cpaiity

  6. Actinides: How well do we know their stellar production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goriely, S.; Arnould, M.

    2001-12-01

    The reliable evaluation of the r-process production of the actinides and careful estimates of the uncertainties affecting these predictions are key ingredients especially in nucleo-cosmochronology studies based on the analysis of very metal-poor stars or on the composition of meteorites. This type of information is also required in order to make the best possible use of future high precision data on the actinide composition of galactic cosmic rays, of the local interstellar medium, or of meteoritic grains of presumed circumstellar origin. This paper provides the practitioners in these various fields with the most detailed and careful analysis of the r-process actinide production available to-date. This study is based on a version of the multi-event canonical model of the r-process which discards the largely used waiting point approximation. It considers also different combinations of models for the calculation of nuclear masses, beta -decay and fission rates. Two variants of the model used to predict nuclear reaction rates are adopted. In addition, the influence of the level of Pb and Bi production by the r-process on the estimated actinide production is evaluated by relying on the solar abundances of these two elements. In total, thirty-two different cases are presented, and are considered to give a fair picture of the level of reliability of the predictions of the actinide production, at least in the framework of a simple r-process model. This simplicity is imposed by our inability to identify the proper astrophysical sites for the r-process. As a guide to the practitioners, constraints on the actinide yield predictions and associated uncertainties are suggested on grounds of the measured abundances of r-nuclides, including Th and U, in the star CS 31082-001, and under the critical and questionable assumption of the ``universality'' of the r-process. We also define alternative constraints based on the nucleo-cosmochronological results derived from the present

  7. TOOLS OF QUALITY IMPROVEMENT – MEASURING CUSTOMER SATISFACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Catalina Soriana Sitnikov

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, quality is often divided into service quality and product quality. The dimensions of quality of service are quite different from the quality of product due to the main difference between services and products (service intangibility and the customer who can use it only once). Customer satisfaction is one of the topics related with the quality due to the main measurement of quality is customer service. The main question about quality service is what the customer expects to get from th...

  8. Rapid separation method for actinides in emergency air filter samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Sherrod L; Culligan, Brian K; Noyes, Gary W

    2010-12-01

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides and strontium in air filter samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used in emergency response situations. The actinides and strontium in air filter method utilizes a rapid acid digestion method and a streamlined column separation process with stacked TEVA, TRU and Sr Resin cartridges. Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates are used to reduce analytical time. Alpha emitters are prepared using cerium fluoride microprecipitation for counting by alpha spectrometry. The purified (90)Sr fractions are mounted directly on planchets and counted by gas flow proportional counting. The method showed high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. This new procedure was applied to emergency air filter samples received in the NRIP Emergency Response exercise administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in April, 2009. The actinide and (90)Sr in air filter results were reported in less than 4 h with excellent quality. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Spin and orbital moments in actinide compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, B.; Wulff, M.; Lander, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    experiments designed to determine the magnetic moments at the actinide and transition-metal sublattice sites in compounds such as UFe2, NpCo2, and PuFe2 and to separate the spin and orbital components at the actinide sites. The results show, indeed, that the ratio of the orbital to spin moment is reduced......The extended spatial distribution of both the transition-metal 3d electrons and the actinide 5f electrons results in a strong interaction between these electron states when the relevant elements are alloyed. A particular interesting feature of this hybridization, which is predicted by single...

  10. Validation of minor actinides fission neutron cross-sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Milan P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Verification of neutron fission cross-sections of minor actinides from some recently available evaluated nuclear data libraries was carried out by comparison of the reaction rates calculated by the MCNP6.1 computer code to the experimental values. The experimental samples, containing thin layers of 235U, 237Np, 238,239,240,241Pu, 242mAm, 243Cm, 245Cm, and 247Cm, deposited on metal support and foils of 235U (pseudo-alloy 27Al + 235U, 238U, natIn, 64Zn, 27Al, and multi-component sample alloy 27Al + 55Mn + natCu + natLu + 197Au, were irradiated in the channels of the tank containing fluorine salts 0.52NaF + 0.48ZrF4, labelled as the Micromodel Salt Blanket, inserted in the lattice centre of the MAKET heavy water critical assembly at the Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow. This paper is a continuation of earlier initiated scientific-research activities carried out for validation of the evaluated fission cross-sections of actinides that were supposed to be used for the quality examination of the fuel design of the accelerator driven systems or fast reactors, and consequently, determination of transmutation rates of actinides, and therefore, determination of operation parameters of these reactor facilities. These scientific-research activities were carried out within a frame of scientific projects supported by the International Science and Technology Center and the International Atomic Energy Agency co-ordinated research activities, from 1999 to 2010. Obtained results confirm that further research is needed in evaluations in order to establish better neutron cross-section data for the minor actinides and selected nuclides which could be used in the accelerator driven systems or fast reactors.

  11. Recovery of actinides from actinide-aluminium alloys by chlorination: Part I

    OpenAIRE

    Cassayre, Laurent; Soucek, Pavel; Mendes, Eric; Malmbeck, Rikard; Nourry, Christophe; Eloirdi, Rachel; Glatz, Jean-Paul

    2011-01-01

    Pyrochemical processes in molten LiCl–KCl are being developed in ITU for recovery of actinides from spent nuclear fuel. The fuel is anodically dissolved to the molten salt electrolyte and actinides are electrochemically reduced on solid aluminium cathodes forming solid actinide–aluminium alloys. A chlorination route is being investigated for recovery of actinides from the alloys. This route consists in three steps: Vacuum distillation for removal of the salt adhered on the electrode, chlorina...

  12. The Measurement of Quality of Working life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Orpen

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the questionnaire measures of job satisfaction relied on for so long by industrial psychologists do not provide information that can help improve quality of working life. There is little agreement as to what is measured by such scales and the employees' responses to them reflect a variety of things besides satisfaction with their jobs. The problems with job satisfaction measures are highlighted by the fact that such measures have shown high and stable levels of job satisfaction at a time when signs of employee frustration and alienation have been increasing. It is argued that industrial psychologists need to develop quite different ways of assessing job satisfaction in which the subjects participate in the development of the measuring instruments themselves. OpsommingDie bruikbaarheid van vraelyste om inligting te voorsien op grond waarvan die gehalte van 'n werklewe nagevors kan word, word bevraagteken. Daar is weinig ooreenstemming oor wat sodanige vraelyste meet. Die probleem word onderstreep deur die feit dat navorsing waarin sodanige meetinstrumente gebruik word deurgaans 'n hoë mate van werkstevredenheid toon terwyl werknemerfrustrasie en vervreemding aan die orde van die dag is. 'n Nuwe benadering tot die bepaling van werkstevredenheid word bepleit waarin die werknemer deelneem aan die ontwikkeling van die meetinstrumente wat gebruik word.

  13. Subsurface interactions of actinide species and microorganisms : implications for the bioremediation of actinide-organic mixtures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banaszak, J.E.; Reed, D.T.; Rittmann, B.E.

    1999-02-12

    By reviewing how microorganisms interact with actinides in subsurface environments, we assess how bioremediation controls the fate of actinides. Actinides often are co-contaminants with strong organic chelators, chlorinated solvents, and fuel hydrocarbons. Bioremediation can immobilize the actinides, biodegrade the co-contaminants, or both. Actinides at the IV oxidation state are the least soluble, and microorganisms accelerate precipitation by altering the actinide's oxidation state or its speciation. We describe how microorganisms directly oxidize or reduce actinides and how microbiological reactions that biodegrade strong organic chelators, alter the pH, and consume or produce precipitating anions strongly affect actinide speciation and, therefore, mobility. We explain why inhibition caused by chemical or radiolytic toxicities uniquely affects microbial reactions. Due to the complex interactions of the microbiological and chemical phenomena, mathematical modeling is an essential tool for research on and application of bioremediation involving co-contamination with actinides. We describe the development of mathematical models that link microbiological and geochemical reactions. Throughout, we identify the key research needs.

  14. BWR Assembly Optimization for Minor Actinide Recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Ivan Maldonado; John M. Christenson; J.P. Renier; T.F. Marcille; J. Casal

    2010-03-22

    The Primary objective of the proposed project is to apply and extend the latest advancements in LWR fuel management optimization to the design of advanced boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies specifically for the recycling of minor actinides (MAs).

  15. Advanced Aqueous Separation Systems for Actinide Partitioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, Kenneth L.; Clark, Sue; Meier, G Patrick; Alexandratos, Spiro; Paine, Robert; Hancock, Robert; Ensor, Dale

    2012-03-21

    One of the most challenging aspects of advanced processing of spent nuclear fuel is the need to isolate transuranium elements from fission product lanthanides. This project expanded the scope of earlier investigations of americium (Am) partitioning from the lanthanides with the synthesis of new separations materials and a centralized focus on radiochemical characterization of the separation systems that could be developed based on these new materials. The primary objective of this program was to explore alternative materials for actinide separations and to link the design of new reagents for actinide separations to characterizations based on actinide chemistry. In the predominant trivalent oxidation state, the chemistry of lanthanides overlaps substantially with that of the trivalent actinides and their mutual separation is quite challenging.

  16. Overview of actinide chemistry in the WIPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borkowski, Marian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lucchini, Jean - Francois [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Richmann, Michael K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reed, Donald T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Khaing, Hnin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swanson, Juliet [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The year 2009 celebrates 10 years of safe operations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the only nuclear waste repository designated to dispose defense-related transuranic (TRU) waste in the United States. Many elements contributed to the success of this one-of-the-kind facility. One of the most important of these is the chemistry of the actinides under WIPP repository conditions. A reliable understanding of the potential release of actinides from the site to the accessible environment is important to the WIPP performance assessment (PA). The environmental chemistry of the major actinides disposed at the WIPP continues to be investigated as part of the ongoing recertification efforts of the WIPP project. This presentation provides an overview of the actinide chemistry for the WIPP repository conditions. The WIPP is a salt-based repository; therefore, the inflow of brine into the repository is minimized, due to the natural tendency of excavated salt to re-seal. Reducing anoxic conditions are expected in WIPP because of microbial activity and metal corrosion processes that consume the oxygen initially present. Should brine be introduced through an intrusion scenario, these same processes will re-establish reducing conditions. In the case of an intrusion scenario involving brine, the solubilization of actinides in brine is considered as a potential source of release to the accessible environment. The following key factors establish the concentrations of dissolved actinides under subsurface conditions: (1) Redox chemistry - The solubility of reduced actinides (III and IV oxidation states) is known to be significantly lower than the oxidized forms (V and/or VI oxidation states). In this context, the reducing conditions in the WIPP and the strong coupling of the chemistry for reduced metals and microbiological processes with actinides are important. (2) Complexation - For the anoxic, reducing and mildly basic brine systems in the WIPP, the most important

  17. Non-compound nucleus fission in actinide and pre-actinide regions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Tripathi; S Sodaye; K Sudarshan

    2015-08-01

    In this article, some of our recent results on fission fragment/product angular distributions are discussed in the context of non-compound nucleus fission. Measurement of fission fragment angular distribution in 28Si+176Yb reaction did not show a large contribution from the non-compound nucleus fission. Data on the evaporation residue cross-sections, in addition to those on mass and angular distributions, are necessary for better understanding of the contribution from non-compound nucleus fission in the pre-actinide region. Measurement of mass-resolved angular distribution of fission products in 20Ne+232Th reaction showed an increase in angular anisotropy with decreasing asymmetry of mass division. This observation can be explained based on the contribution from pre-equilibrium fission. Results of these studies showed that the mass dependence of anisotropy may possibly be used to distinguish pre-equilibrium fission and quasifission.

  18. Fission fragment angular distributions in pre-actinide nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Tathagata; Nath, S.; Jhingan, A.; Kaur, Gurpreet; Dubey, R.; Yadav, Abhishek; Laveen, P. V.; Shamlath, A.; Shareef, M.; Gehlot, J.; Saneesh, N.; Prasad, E.; Sugathan, P.; Pal, Santanu

    2016-10-01

    Background: Complete fusion of two nuclei leading to formation of a heavy compound nucleus (CN) is known to be hindered by various fission-like processes, in which the composite system reseparates after capture of the target and the projectile inside the potential barrier. As a consequence of these non-CN fission (NCNF) processes, fusion probability (PCN) starts deviating from unity. Despite substantial progress in understanding, the onset and the experimental signatures of NCNF and the degree of its influence on fusion have not yet been unambiguously identified. Purpose: This work aims to investigate the presence of NCNF, if any, in pre-actinide nuclei by systematic study of fission angular anisotropies and fission cross sections (σfis) in a number of nuclear reactions carried out at and above the Coulomb barrier (VB) . Method: Fission fragment angular distributions were measured for six 28Si-induced reactions involving isotopically enriched targets of 169Tm,176Yb,175Lu,180Hf,181Ta, and 182W leading to probable formation of CN in the pre-actinide region, at a laboratory energy (Elab) range of 129-146 MeV. Measurements were performed with large angular coverage (θlab=41∘ -170∘) in which fission fragments (FFs) were detected by nine hybrid telescope (E -Δ E ) detectors. Extracted fission angular anisotropies and σfis were compared with statistical model (SM) predictions. Results: Barring two reactions involving targets with large non-zero ground state spin (J ) , viz., 175Lu(7/2+) and 181Ta(7/2+) , experimental fission angular anisotropies were found to be higher in comparison with predictions of the statistical saddle point model (SSPM), at Ec .m . near VB. Comparison of present results with those from neighboring systems revealed that experimental anisotropies increasingly deviated from SSPM predictions as one moved from pre-actinide to actinide nuclei. For reactions involving targets with large nonzero J , this deviation was subdued. Comparison between

  19. Transmutation of actinides in power reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergelson, B R; Gerasimov, A S; Tikhomirov, G V

    2005-01-01

    Power reactors can be used for partial short-term transmutation of radwaste. This transmutation is beneficial in terms of subsequent storage conditions for spent fuel in long-term storage facilities. CANDU-type reactors can transmute the main minor actinides from two or three reactors of the VVER-1000 type. A VVER-1000-type reactor can operate in a self-service mode with transmutation of its own actinides.

  20. The Actinide Transition Revisited by Gutzwiller Approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenhu; Lanata, Nicola; Yao, Yongxin; Kotliar, Gabriel

    2015-03-01

    We revisit the problem of the actinide transition using the Gutzwiller approximation (GA) in combination with the local density approximation (LDA). In particular, we compute the equilibrium volumes of the actinide series and reproduce the abrupt change of density found experimentally near plutonium as a function of the atomic number. We discuss how this behavior relates with the electron correlations in the 5 f states, the lattice structure, and the spin-orbit interaction. Our results are in good agreement with the experiments.

  1. Predictive Modeling in Actinide Chemistry and Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-16

    These are slides from a presentation on predictive modeling in actinide chemistry and catalysis. The following topics are covered in these slides: Structures, bonding, and reactivity (bonding can be quantified by optical probes and theory, and electronic structures and reaction mechanisms of actinide complexes); Magnetic resonance properties (transition metal catalysts with multi-nuclear centers, and NMR/EPR parameters); Moving to more complex systems (surface chemistry of nanomaterials, and interactions of ligands with nanoparticles); Path forward and conclusions.

  2. Advances in computational actinide chemistry in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dongqi; Wu, Jingyi; Chai, Zhifang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Multidisciplinary Initiative Center; Su, Jing [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China). Div. of Nuclear Materials Science and Engineering; Li, Jun [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Chemistry and Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering

    2014-04-01

    The advances in computational actinide chemistry made in China are reviewed. Several areas relevant to chemistry of actinides in gas, liquid, and solid phases have been explored. However, we limit the scope to selected contributions in the chemistry of molecular actinide systems in gas and liquid phases. These studies may be classified into two categories: treatment of relativistic effects, which cover the development of two- and four-component Hamiltonians and the optimization of relativistic pseudopotentials, and the applications of theoretical methods in actinide chemistry. The applications include (1) the electronic structures of actinocene, noble gas complexes, An-C multiple bonding compounds, uranyl and its isoelectronic species, fluorides and oxides, molecular systems with metal-metal bonding in their isolated forms (U{sub 2}, Pu{sub 2}) and in fullerene (U{sub 2} rate at C{sub 60}), and the excited states of actinide complexes; (2) chemical reactions, including oxidation, hydrolysis of UF{sub 6}, ligand exchange, reactivities of thorium oxo and sulfido metallocenes, CO{sub 2}/CS{sub 2} functionalization promoted by trivalent uranium complex; and (3) migration of actinides in the environment. A future outlook is discussed. (orig.)

  3. Quantitative comparison of measurements of urgent care service quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hong; Prybutok, Victor; Prybutok, Gayle

    2016-01-01

    Service quality and patient satisfaction are essential to health care organization success. Parasuraman, Zeithaml, and Berry introduced SERVQUAL, a prominent service quality measure not yet applied to urgent care. We develop an instrument to measure perceived service quality and identify the determinants of patient satisfaction/ behavioral intentions. We examine the relationships among perceived service quality, patient satisfaction and behavioral intentions, and demonstrate that urgent care service quality is not equivalent using measures of perceptions only, differences of expectations minus perceptions, ratio of perceptions to expectations, and the log of the ratio. Perceptions provide the best measure of urgent care service quality.

  4. APPLICATION OF DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES AND MEASUREMENT QUALITY OBJECTIVES TO RESEARCH PROJECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper assists systematic planning for research projects. It presents planning concepts in terms that have some utility for researchers. For example, measurement quality objectives are more familiar to researchers than data quality objectives because these quality criteria are...

  5. Measuring and Assessing the Quality and Usefulness of Accounting Information

    OpenAIRE

    Gergana Tsoncheva

    2014-01-01

    High quality accounting information is of key importance for a large number of users, as it influences the quality of the decisions made. Providing high quality and useful accounting information is a prerequisite for the efficiency of the enterprise. Usefulness is determined by the quality of accounting information. Measuring and assessing the quality and usefulness of accounting information are of particular importance, as these activities will not only enhance the quality of economic decisi...

  6. Equilibrium distribution of actinides including Cm between molten LiCl-KCl eutectic and liquid cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, T.; Kinoshita, K.; Inoue, T. [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Ougier, M.; Malmbeck, R.; Glatz, J.P. [Joint Research Centre, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Transuranium Elements

    2008-07-01

    Equilibrium distribution of actinides both in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic and liquid cadmium were measured from the concentration data obtained in electrorefining tests and reductive extraction tests. Separation factors for U, Np, Am, Cm against Pu were derived in the practical temperature range of 700 K to 783 K. The derived separation factors are consistent with the reported values measured at 773 K and 723 K. The temperature dependence for Cm is different compared to the other actinides (U, Np and Am). This behavior remains unclear and additional experimental measurements of distribution coefficient of Cm are required before ruling on the real behavior. (orig.)

  7. Actinide production in /sup 136/Xe bombardments of /sup 249/Cf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregorich, K.E.

    1985-08-01

    The production cross sections for the actinide products from /sup 136/Xe bombardments of /sup 249/Cf at energies 1.02, 1.09, and 1.16 times the Coulomb barrier were determined. Fractions of the individual actinide elements were chemically separated from recoil catcher foils. The production cross sections of the actinide products were determined by measuring the radiations emitted from the nuclides within the chemical fractions. The chemical separation techniques used in this work are described in detail, and a description of the data analysis procedure is included. The actinide production cross section distributions from these /sup 136/Xe + /sup 249/Cf bombardments are compared with the production cross section distributions from other heavy ion bombardments of actinide targets, with emphasis on the comparison with the /sup 136/Xe + /sup 248/Cm reaction. A technique for modeling the final actinide cross section distributions has been developed and is presented. In this model, the initial (before deexcitation) cross section distribution with respect to the separation energy of a dinuclear complex and with respect to the Z of the target-like fragment is given by an empirical procedure. It is then assumed that the N/Z equilibration in the dinuclear complex occurs by the transfer of neutrons between the two participants in the dinuclear complex. The neutrons and the excitation energy are statistically distributed between the two fragments using a simple Fermi gas level density formalism. The resulting target-like fragment initial cross section distribution with respect to Z, N, and excitation energy is then allowed to deexcite by emission of neutrons in competition with fission. The result is a final cross section distribution with respect to Z and N for the actinide products. 68 refs., 33 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Actinide transmutation in nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bultman, J.H.

    1995-01-17

    An optimization method is developed to maximize the burning capability of the ALMR while complying with all constraints imposed on the design for reliability and safety. This method leads to a maximal transuranics enrichment, which is being limited by constraints on reactivity. The enrichment can be raised by using the neutrons less efficiently by increasing leakage from the fuel. With the developed optimization method, a metallic and an oxide fueled ALMR were optimized. Both reactors perform equally well considering the burning of transuranics. However, metallic fuel has a much higher heat conductivity coefficient, which in general leads to better safety characteristics. In search of a more effective waste transmuter, a modified Molten Salt Reactor was designed. A MSR operates on a liquid fuel salt which makes continuous refueling possible, eliminating the issue of the burnup reactivity loss. Also, a prompt negative reactivity feedback is possible for an overmoderated reactor design, even when the Doppler coefficient is positive, due to the fuel expansion with fuel temperature increase. Furthermore, the molten salt fuel can be reprocessed based on a reduction process which is not sensitive to the short-lived spontaneously fissioning actinides. (orig./HP).

  9. PF-4 actinide disposition strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margevicius, Robert W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-05-28

    The dwindling amount of Security Category I processing and storage space across the DOE Complex has driven the need for more effective storage of nuclear materials at LANL's Plutonium Facility's (PF-4's) vault. An effort was begun in 2009 to create a strategy, a roadmap, to identify all accountable nuclear material and determine their disposition paths, the PF-4 Actinide Disposition Strategy (PADS). Approximately seventy bins of nuclear materials with similar characteristics - in terms of isotope, chemical form, impurities, disposition location, etc. - were established in a database. The ultimate disposition paths include the material to remain at LANL, disposition to other DOE sites, and disposition to waste. If all the actions described in the document were taken, over half of the containers currently in the PF-4 vault would been eliminated. The actual amount of projected vault space will depend on budget and competing mission requirements, however, clearly a significant portion of the current LANL inventory can be either dispositioned or consolidated.

  10. Hybrid video quality prediction: reviewing video quality measurement for widening application scope

    OpenAIRE

    Barkowsky, Marcus; Sedano, Inigo; Brunnstrom, Kjell; Leszczuk, Mikolaj; Staelens, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    A tremendous number of objective video quality measurement algorithms have been developed during the last two decades. Most of them either measure a very limited aspect of the perceived video quality or they measure broad ranges of quality with limited prediction accuracy. This paper lists several perceptual artifacts that may be computationally measured in an isolated algorithm and some of the modeling approaches that have been proposed to predict the resulting quality from those algorithms....

  11. Application of chemical structure and bonding of actinide oxide materials for forensic science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkerson, Marianne Perry [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    We are interested in applying our understanding of actinide chemical structure and bonding to broaden the suite of analytical tools available for nuclear forensic analyses. Uranium- and plutonium-oxide systems form under a variety of conditions, and these chemical species exhibit some of the most complex behavior of metal oxide systems known. No less intriguing is the ability of AnO{sub 2} (An: U, Pu) to form non-stoichiometric species described as AnO{sub 2+x}. Environmental studies have shown the value of utilizing the chemical signatures of these actinide oxide materials to understand transport following release into the environment. Chemical speciation of actinide-oxide samples may also provide clues as to the age, source, or process history of the material. The scientific challenge is to identify, measure and understand those aspects of speciation of actinide analytes that carry information about material origin and history most relevant to forensics. Here, we will describe our efforts in material synthesis and analytical methods development that we will use to provide the fundamental science to characterize actinide oxide molecular structures for forensic science. Structural properties and initial results to measure structural variability of uranium oxide samples using synchrotron-based X-ray Absorption Fine Structure will be discussed.

  12. Quality indicators and performance measures in diabetes care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, David C

    2014-03-01

    The operations of any portion of the healthcare delivery system, eg, ambulatory care, the consultation and referral process, or hospital care, are critically dependent upon their control systems. The quality of health care produced by the system and its components is also subject to "control." One of the regulatory mechanisms involves performance measures. The development of good measures of quality is a complex and dynamic process. Within endocrinology, most measures have addressed diabetes care and most quality measurement in diabetes has focused on the ambulatory setting and mainly includes measures of process and intermediate outcomes. This review addresses quality and performance measures for diabetes, their development, characteristics, use, misuse, and future prospects.

  13. Competency-Based Education: A Framework for Measuring Quality Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Jackie; Dias, Laura Portolese; Schedler, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The growth of competency-based education in an online environment requires the development and measurement of quality competency-based courses. While quality measures for online courses have been developed and standardized, they do not directly align with emerging best practices and principles in the design of quality competency-based online…

  14. Competency-Based Education: A Framework for Measuring Quality Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Jackie; Dias, Laura Portolese; Schedler, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The growth of competency-based education in an online environment requires the development and measurement of quality competency-based courses. While quality measures for online courses have been developed and standardized, they do not directly align with emerging best practices and principles in the design of quality competency-based online…

  15. Measuring Service Quality in the Networked Environment: Approaches and Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertot, John Carlo

    2001-01-01

    This article offers a number of statistics and performance measures that libraries may find useful in determining the overall quality of their network-based services; identifies a number of service quality criteria; and provides a framework to assist librarians in selecting statistics and performance measures based on service quality criteria.…

  16. TUCS/phosphate mineralization of actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, K.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-10-01

    This program has as its objective the development of a new technology that combines cation exchange and mineralization to reduce the concentration of heavy metals (in particular actinides) in groundwaters. The treatment regimen must be compatible with the groundwater and soil, potentially using groundwater/soil components to aid in the immobilization process. The delivery system (probably a water-soluble chelating agent) should first concentrate the radionuclides then release the precipitating anion, which forms thermodynamically stable mineral phases, either with the target metal ions alone or in combination with matrix cations. This approach should generate thermodynamically stable mineral phases resistant to weathering. The chelating agent should decompose spontaneously with time, release the mineralizing agent, and leave a residue that does not interfere with mineral formation. For the actinides, the ideal compound probably will release phosphate, as actinide phosphate mineral phases are among the least soluble species for these metals. The most promising means of delivering the precipitant would be to use a water-soluble, hydrolytically unstable complexant that functions in the initial stages as a cation exchanger to concentrate the metal ions. As it decomposes, the chelating agent releases phosphate to foster formation of crystalline mineral phases. Because it involves only the application of inexpensive reagents, the method of phosphate mineralization promises to be an economical alternative for in situ immobilization of radionuclides (actinides in particular). The method relies on the inherent (thermodynamic) stability of actinide mineral phases.

  17. MOLECULAR SPECTROSCPY AND REACTIONS OF ACTINIDES IN THE GAS PHASE AND CRYOGENIC MATRICES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaven, Michael C.; Gibson, John K.; Marcalo, Joaquim

    2009-02-01

    In this chapter we review the spectroscopic data for actinide molecules and the reaction dynamics for atomic and molecular actinides that have been examined in the gas phase or in inert cryogenic matrices. The motivation for this type of investigation is that physical properties and reactions can be studied in the absence of external perturbations (gas phase) or under minimally perturbing conditions (cryogenic matrices). This information can be compared directly with the results from high-level theoretical models. The interplay between experiment and theory is critically important for advancing our understanding of actinide chemistry. For example, elucidation of the role of the 5f electrons in bonding and reactivity can only be achieved through the application of experimentally verified theoretical models. Theoretical calculations for the actinides are challenging due the large numbers of electrons that must be treated explicitly and the presence of strong relativistic effects. This topic has been reviewed in depth in Chapter 17 of this series. One of the goals of the experimental work described in this chapter has been to provide benchmark data that can be used to evaluate both empirical and ab initio theoretical models. While gas-phase data are the most suitable for comparison with theoretical calculations, there are technical difficulties entailed in generating workable densities of gas-phase actinide molecules that have limited the range of species that have been characterized. Many of the compounds of interest are refractory, and problems associated with the use of high temperature vapors have complicated measurements of spectra, ionization energies, and reactions. One approach that has proved to be especially valuable in overcoming this difficulty has been the use of pulsed laser ablation to generate plumes of vapor from refractory actinide-containing materials. The vapor is entrained in an inert gas, which can be used to cool the actinide species to room

  18. Measurement and Assessment of Flow Quality in Wind Tunnels Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New wind tunnel flow quality test and analysis procedures have been developed and will be used to establish standardized turbulent flow quality measurement...

  19. Electronic Structure of the Actinide Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, B.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1982-01-01

    Some recent experimental photoelectron spectroscopic results for the actinide metals are reviewed and compared with the theoretical picture of the basic electronic structure that has been developed for the actinides during the last decade. In particular the experimental data confirm the change from...... itinerant to localized 5f electron behaviour calculated to take place between plutonium and americium. From experimental data it is shown that the screening of deep core-holes is due to 5f electrons for the lighter actinide elements and 6d electrons for the heavier elements. A simplified model for the full...... LMTO electronic structure calculations is introduced. In this model the spd and 5f electronic contributions are treated as separable entities. It is shown that the model reproduces quite well the results from the full treatment. The equilibrium volume, cohesive energy and bulk modulus are calculated...

  20. Monazite as a suitable actinide waste form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlenz, Hartmut; Heuser, Julia; Schmitz, Stephan; Bosbach, Dirk [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Energie und Klimaforschung (IEK), Nukleare Entsorgung und Reaktorsicherheit (IEK-6); Neumann, Andreas [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Energie und Klimaforschung (IEK), Nukleare Entsorgung und Reaktorsicherheit (IEK-6); RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Crystallography

    2013-03-01

    The conditioning of radioactive waste from nuclear power plants and in some countries even of weapons plutonium is an important issue for science and society. Therefore the research on appropriate matrices for the immobilization of fission products and actinides is of great interest. Beyond the widely used borosilicate glasses, ceramics are promising materials for the conditioning of actinides like U, Np, Pu, Am, and Cm. Monazite-type ceramics with general composition LnPO{sub 4} (Ln = La to Gd) and solid solutions of monazite with cheralite or huttonite represent important materials in this field. Monazite appears to be a promising candidate material, especially because of its outstanding properties regarding radiation resistance and chemical durability. This article summarizes the most recent results concerning the characterization of monazite and respective solid solutions and the study of their chemical, thermal, physical and structural properties. The aim is to demonstrate the suitability of monazite as a secure and reliable waste form for actinides. (orig.)

  1. Measuring data quality for ongoing improvement a data quality assessment framework

    CERN Document Server

    Sebastian-Coleman, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The Data Quality Assessment Framework shows you how to measure and monitor data quality, ensuring quality over time. You'll start with general concepts of measurement and work your way through a detailed framework of more than three dozen measurement types related to five objective dimensions of quality: completeness, timeliness, consistency, validity, and integrity. Ongoing measurement, rather than one time activities will help your organization reach a new level of data quality. This plain-language approach to measuring data can be understood by both business and IT and provides pra

  2. Technical requirements for the actinide source-term waste test program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Molecke, M.A.

    1993-10-01

    This document defines the technical requirements for a test program designed to measure time-dependent concentrations of actinide elements from contact-handled transuranic (CH TRU) waste immersed in brines similar to those found in the underground workings of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This test program wig determine the influences of TRU waste constituents on the concentrations of dissolved and suspended actinides relevant to the performance of the WIPP. These influences (which include pH, Eh, complexing agents, sorbent phases, and colloidal particles) can affect solubilities and colloidal mobilization of actinides. The test concept involves fully inundating several TRU waste types with simulated WIPP brines in sealed containers and monitoring the concentrations of actinide species in the leachate as a function of time. The results from this program will be used to test numeric models of actinide concentrations derived from laboratory studies. The model is required for WIPP performance assessment with respect to the Environmental Protection Agency`s 40 CFR Part 191B.

  3. Quality Measures for Digital Business Ecosystems Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Muhammad; Hussain, Farookh Khadeer; Chang, Elizabeth

    To execute a complex business task, business entities may need to collaborate with each other as individually they may not have the capability or willingness to perform the task on its own. Such collaboration can be seen implemented in digital business ecosystems in the form of simple coalitions using multi-agent systems or by employing Electronic Institutions. A major challenge is choosing optimal partners who will deliver the agreed commitments, and act in the coalition’s interest. Business entities are scaled according to their quality level. Determining the quality of previously unknown business entities and predicting the quality of such an entity in a dynamic environment are crucial issues in Business Ecosystems. A comprehensive quality management system grounded in the concepts of Trust and Reputation can help address these issues.

  4. PRIMARY HEALTHCARE SERVICE QUALITY MEASUREMENT: SERVQUAL SCALE

    OpenAIRE

    Dijana Mečev; Ivana Kardum Goleš

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine customers’ perceptions of primary healthcare service quality in public institutions in the city of Šibenik. The research was aimed at investigating whether there is difference between customers` expectations and their satisfaction with received medical services. The findings suggest that primary healthcare public institutions need to improve all the dimensions of SERVQUAL service quality from the gap analysis carried out. Furthermore, the research analy...

  5. Measuring educational heterogeneity and labor quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.; Sørensen, Anders

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the magnitude of the mismeasurement that occurs when only a few education categories are used in the construction of a constant quality index for labor input. By employing a very comprehensive data set it is found that the error resulting from the omission of information...... on education is relatively small. The empirical results are thus supportive of the current state of practice of constructing indices of constant quality labor input....

  6. The Quality Quotient: A Tool for Measuring Organizational Quality Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    Hagle and Whitehair, 1988:29). Honesty is one of the most important values to foster in pursuing quality (Groocock, 1986:17-19 ). Communication must...to future, more complex goals, thus creating a cycle of performance reinforcement (Hall and Foster , 1977:282). Survey item 79 was developed by the...i:r~3!ei Costo ~er Sv’ce. Ne5DOflSvaeSS By Variabfe vrOUZ le ASALfi5 :)F V "ACE ASORE .H s A RE3 A 10 Dis ETWEi N 3ROPS 37 4 0 935 2 6. 4 5 7. 53 7;SE

  7. Chapter 12: Uncertainty in measured water quality data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water quality assessment, management, and regulation continue to rely on measured water quality data, in spite of advanced modeling capabilities. However, very little information is available on one very important component of the measured data - the inherent measurement uncertainty. Although all ...

  8. Spin–orbit coupling in actinide cations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagus, Paul S.; Ilton, Eugene S.; Martin, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    The limiting case of Russell–Saunders coupling, which leads to a maximum spin alignment for the open shell electrons, usually explains the properties of high spin ionic crystals with transition metals. For actinide compounds, the spin–orbit splitting is large enough to cause a significantly reduced...... spin alignment. Novel concepts are used to explain the dependence of the spin alignment on the 5f shell occupation. We present evidence that the XPS of ionic actinide materials may provide direct information about the angular momentum coupling within the 5f shell....

  9. Actinide and fission product separation and transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-07-01

    The second international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product separation and transmutation, took place in Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois United States, on 11-13 November 1992. The proceedings are presented in four sessions: Current strategic system of actinide and fission product separation and transmutation, progress in R and D on partitioning processes wet and dry, progress in R and D on transmutation and refinements of neutronic and other data, development of the fuel cycle processes fuel types and targets. (A.L.B.)

  10. Quality Measures for the Care of Patients with Narcolepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahn, Lois E.; Hershner, Shelley; Loeding, Lauren D.; Maski, Kiran P.; Rifkin, Daniel I.; Selim, Bernardo; Watson, Nathaniel F.

    2015-01-01

    The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) commissioned a Workgroup to develop quality measures for the care of patients with narcolepsy. Following a comprehensive literature search, 306 publications were found addressing quality care or measures. Strength of association was graded between proposed process measures and desired outcomes. Following the AASM process for quality measure development, we identified three outcomes (including one outcome measure) and seven process measures. The first desired outcome was to reduce excessive daytime sleepiness by employing two process measures: quantifying sleepiness and initiating treatment. The second outcome was to improve the accuracy of diagnosis by employing the two process measures: completing both a comprehensive sleep history and an objective sleep assessment. The third outcome was to reduce adverse events through three steps: ensuring treatment follow-up, documenting medical comorbidities, and documenting safety measures counseling. All narcolepsy measures described in this report were developed by the Narcolepsy Quality Measures Work-group and approved by the AASM Quality Measures Task Force and the AASM Board of Directors. The AASM recommends the use of these measures as part of quality improvement programs that will enhance the ability to improve care for patients with narcolepsy. Citation: Krahn LE, Hershner S, Loeding LD, Maski KP, Rifkin DI, Selim B, Watson NF. Quality measures for the care of patients with narcolepsy. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(3):335–355. PMID:25700880

  11. PRIMARY HEALTHCARE SERVICE QUALITY MEASUREMENT: SERVQUAL SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dijana Mečev

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine customers’ perceptions of primary healthcare service quality in public institutions in the city of Šibenik. The research was aimed at investigating whether there is difference between customers` expectations and their satisfaction with received medical services. The findings suggest that primary healthcare public institutions need to improve all the dimensions of SERVQUAL service quality from the gap analysis carried out. Furthermore, the research analyzed whether there is difference in the perception of given healthcare service between examinees considering their gender, age, employment status and frequency of using the mentioned services. It was established that demographic variables of age and gender do not generate significant differences in the perception of healthcare service quality while there is significant difference in satisfaction regarding employment status and frequency of services usage. The given results partially differ from the data acquired in other relevant and similar studies. The factor analysis which was conducted did not confirm “a priori” accepted theoretical model of Parasuraman et al. (1988 which claims that the concept of quality has five dimensions. On the contrary, it reached the conclusion that three highly reliable factors were identified regarding the perceived quality of primary healthcare services.

  12. Studies on fluoride complexing of hexavalent actinides using a fluoride ion selective electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawant, R.M.; Chaudhuri, N.K.; Rizvi, G.H.; Patil, S.K.

    1985-08-01

    Complex formation between actinide(VI) and fluoride ions in aqueous solutions was investigated using a fluoride ion selective electrode (F-ISE). As fairly high acidity used to suppress hydrolysis of the actinide(VI) ions, significant liquid junction potentials (Esub(j)) existed in the system. An iterative procedure was developed for computing free hydrogen ion concentration (Hsup(+)) as it could not be measured directly, using data obtained with F-ISE. Esub(j) values were estimated from known (Hsup(+)) and the stability constants of fluoride complexes of actinide(VI) ions were calculated following King and Gallagher's method using a computer program. The stability constants were found to follow the order U(VI) > Np(VI) > Pu(VI). (author). 18 refs.; 3 figs.; 9 tables.

  13. Quality of life: its definition and measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felce, D; Perry, J

    1995-01-01

    A model of quality of life is proposed that integrates objective and subjective indicators, a broad range of life domains, and individual values. It takes account of concerns that externally derived norms should not be applied without reference to individual differences. It also allows for objective comparisons to be made between the situations of particular groups and what is normative. Considerable agreement exists that quality of life is multidimensional. Coverage may be categorised within five dimensions: physical wellbeing, material wellbeing, social wellbeing, emotional wellbeing, and development and activity. A research agenda is discussed as are the particular problems caused by difficulties in understanding and communicating.

  14. Influence of fiber quality on draftometer measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber-to-fiber and fiber-to-machine friction play an important role in determining textile processing efficiency and end-product quality. A process, known as drafting, is used to control the attenuation of the fiber mass being processed in carding, drawing and spinning. The amount of attenuation t...

  15. Personal Outcomes as Measures of Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, James F.; Nudler, Sylvia; Chapman, Michael S.

    1997-01-01

    The Council on Quality and Leadership in Supports for People with Disabilities conducted interviews with 447 people with disabilities to identify priority outcomes they expect from service and supports. An analysis resulted in 24 variables loading onto 7 major factors: identity, autonomy, affiliation, attainment, rights, health, and safeguards.…

  16. Measuring the Multifaceted Nature of Infant and Toddler Care Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangione, Peter L.; Kriener-Althen, Kerry; Marcella, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: The quality of group care infants and toddlers experience relates to their concurrent and later development. Recent quality improvement initiatives point to the need for ecologically valid measures that assess the multifaceted nature of child care quality. In this article, we present the psychometric properties of an infant and…

  17. APPLICATION OF ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY TO ACTINIDE PROCESS ANALYSIS AND MONITORING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascola, R.; Sharma, V.

    2010-06-03

    The characteristic strong colors of aqueous actinide solutions form the basis of analytical techniques for actinides based on absorption spectroscopy. Colorimetric measurements of samples from processing activities have been used for at least half a century. This seemingly mature technology has been recently revitalized by developments in chemometric data analysis. Where reliable measurements could formerly only be obtained under well-defined conditions, modern methods are robust with respect to variations in acidity, concentration of complexants and spectral interferents, and temperature. This paper describes two examples of the use of process absorption spectroscopy for Pu analysis at the Savannah River Site, in Aiken, SC. In one example, custom optical filters allow accurate colorimetric measurements of Pu in a stream with rapid nitric acid variation. The second example demonstrates simultaneous measurement of Pu and U by chemometric treatment of absorption spectra. The paper concludes with a description of the use of these analyzers to supplement existing technologies in nuclear materials monitoring in processing, reprocessing, and storage facilities.

  18. Subjective vs. objective measures in the valuation of water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artell, Janne; Ahtiainen, Heini; Pouta, Eija

    2013-11-30

    Environmental valuation studies rely on accurate descriptions of the current environmental state and its change. Valuation scenario can be based on objective quality measures described to respondents, on individual subjective perceptions or their combination. If subjective perceptions differ systematically from objective measures, valuation results may be biased. We examine the factors underlying the divergence between perceptions of water quality among summer house owners and the objective water quality classification. We use bivariate probit and multinomial logit models to identify factors that explain both the divergence between perceived and objectively measured water quality and its direction, paying special attention to variables essential in valuation, including those describing the respondent, the summer house and the water body. Some 50% of the respondents perceive water quality differently from the objective quality measures. Several factors are identified behind systematic differences between the perceived and objectively measured quality, in particular the water body type, the level of the objective quality classification and the travel distance to the site. The results emphasize the need to take individual perceptions into account in addition to objective measures in valuation studies, especially if the environmental quality of the study area differs considerably from the average quality in general.

  19. The quality of measurements a metrological reference

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, A E

    2012-01-01

    This book provides a detailed discussion and commentary on the fundamentals of metrology. The fundamentals of metrology, the principles underlying the design of the SI International System of units, the theory of measurement error, a new methodology for estimation of measurement accuracy based on uncertainty, and methods for reduction of measured results and estimation of measurement uncertainty are all discussed from a modern point of view. The concept of uncertainty is shown to be consistent with the classical theory of accuracy. The theory of random measurement errors is supplemented by a very general description based on the generalized normal distribution; systematic instrumental error is described in terms of a methodology for normalizing the metrological characteristics of measuring instruments. A new international system for assuring uniformity of measurements based on agreements between national metrological institutes is discussed, in addition to the role and procedure for performance of key compari...

  20. Developing Quality Measures for Adult Cochlear Implant Centers: Preliminary Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, Peter M; Lieu, Judith E C; Hullar, Timothy E; Buchman, Craig A

    2016-11-01

    The study objective was to develop quality measures for adult cochlear implant centers. A modified Delphi design beginning with focus groups of surgeons and audiologists was used, as adapted from the American College of Cardiology / American Heart Association method for creating quality measures. Two academic cochlear implant programs and 1 private program participated. Qualitative focus group analysis yielded 58 candidate measures. An additional 5 candidate measures were added from a systematic review of the literature. After exclusion of pediatric measures, structure measures, and process measures and discussion of details and implications of each measure, 8 measures remained as the preliminary Adult Cochlear Implant Outcome (CI-OUTCOME) Measure Set. This study provides a preliminary set of measures for evaluating the quality of adult cochlear implant centers, based on input from implant surgeons and audiologists. The next step will be to gather feedback from implant patients. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  1. The quality infrastructure measuring, analyzing, and improving library services

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Sarah Anne

    2013-01-01

    Summarizing specific tools for measuring service quality alongside tips for using these tools most effectively, this book helps libraries of all kinds take a programmatic approach to measuring, analyzing, and improving library services.

  2. Transmuting minor actinides with thermal reactor neutrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A Kazansky

    2015-11-01

    The final conclusion about the practicability of Americium and Curium transmutation must be drawn by taking into account in the considered scenarios the difference in probability of the environmental release, the difference of biological effect and the transmutation efficiency of minor actinides continuously fed to spent fuel storages by the operating nuclear energy industry.

  3. Actinide valences in xenotime and monazite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vance, E.R. [Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001 Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); Zhang, Y., E-mail: yzx@ansto.gov.au [Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001 Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); McLeod, T.; Davis, J. [Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001 Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia)

    2011-02-28

    Tetravalent U, Np and Pu can be substituted by ceramic methods into the rare earth site of xenotime and monazite in air atmospheres using Ca ions as charge compensators, while no evidence of penta- or hexavalent actinide ions was found. Some Pu{sup 3+} and Np{sup 3+} can be incorporated in xenotime samples fired in a reducing atmosphere.

  4. Actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The third international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation, took place in Cadarache France, on 12-14 December 1994. The proceedings are presented in six sessions : an introduction session, the major programmes and international cooperation, the systems studies, the reactors fuels and targets, the chemistry and a last discussions session. (A.L.B.)

  5. Scalar Static Polarizabilities of Lanthanides and Actinides

    CERN Document Server

    Dzuba, V A; Flambaum, V V

    2014-01-01

    We calculate scalar static polarizabilities for lanthanides and actinides, the atoms with open $4f$ or $5f$ subshell. We show that polarizabilities of the low states are approximately the same for all states of given configuration and present a way of calculating them reducing valence space to just two or three valence electrons occupying $6s$ and $5d$ states for lanthanides or $7s$ and $6d$ states for actinides while $4f$ and $5f$ states are considered to be in the core. Configuration interaction technique is used to calculate polarizabilities of lanthanides and actinides for all states of the $4f^n6s^2$ and $4f^{n-1}6s^25d$ configurations of lanthanides and all states of the $5f^{n}7s^2$ and $5f^{n-1}7s^26d$ configurations of actinides. Polarizability of the electron core (including f-orbitals) has been calculated in the RPA approximation.

  6. Reversible optical sensor for the analysis of actinides in solution; Capteur optique reversible pour l'analyse des actinides en solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesage, B.; Picard, S. [CEA Marcoule, Dept. de Radiochimie et Procedes, Service de Chimie des Procedes de Separation, Lab. de Chimie des Actinides, 30 (France); Serein-Spirau, F.; Lereporte, J.P. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Montpellier (ENSCM), CNRS UMR 5076, Lab. Heterochimie Moleculaire et Macromoleculaire, 34 - Montpellier (France)

    2007-07-01

    In this work is presented a concept of reversible optical sensor for actinides. It is composed of a p doped conducing polymer support and of an anion complexing the actinides. The chosen conducing polymer is the thiophene-2,5-di-alkoxy-benzene whose solubility and conductivity are perfectly known. The actinides selective ligand is a lacunar poly-oxo-metallate such as P{sub 2}W{sub 17}O{sub 61}{sup 10-} or SiW{sub 11}O{sub 39}{sup 8-} which are strong anionic complexing agents of actinides at the oxidation state (IV) even in a very acid medium. The sensor is prepared by spin coating of the composite mixture 'polymer + ligand' on a conducing glass electrode and then tested towards its optical and electrochemical answer in presence of uranium (IV). The absorption change due to the formation of cations complexes by poly-oxo-metallate reveals the presence of uranium (IV). After the measurement, the sensor is regenerated by anodic polarization of the support and oxidation of the uranium (IV) into uranium (VI) which weakly interacts with the poly-oxo-metallate and is then released in solution. (O.M.)

  7. Measure for Measure: Advancement's Role in Assessments of Institutional Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedekind, Annie; Pollack, Rachel H.

    2002-01-01

    Explores how accreditation, bond ratings, and magazine rankings--including advancement's role in these assessments--continue to be incomplete and controversial indicators of educational quality. Asserts that advancement officers should work to demonstrate the importance of their efforts, such as increasing endowments and alumni support, within the…

  8. Measuring Quality of Life in Prosthetic Practice: Benefits and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Pamela; Desmond, Deirdre

    2007-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness that the inclusion of quality of life as an outcome measure is important in ensuring a client-centred and holistic assessment. This review outlines the benefits of quality of life as an outcome measurement in the field of prosthetics. It introduces the key concepts and challenges in the definition and assessment of quality of life post-amputation, including the relative advantages and disadvantages of adopting generic, disease/condition specific, dimension spe...

  9. Measuring Fingerprint Image Quality Using the Fourier Spectrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The fingerprint image quality has a significant effect on the performance of automatic fingerprint identification system. A method for measure of fingerprint image quality based on Fourier spectrum is proposed. First the band frequency which corresponds to the global average period of ridge is searched. Then the quality score of the fingerprint image is computed by measuring relative magnitude of the band frequency components. The method is verified to have good performance by experiments.

  10. Measuring ICT usage quality for information society building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup; Danylchenko, Lesya

    2014-01-01

    , an alternative framework for IS measurement, addressing the important aspects of ICT usage quality, is developed based on data from EU member states. By applying the framework on measuring of ICT usage quality at Romania, Cyprus and Estonia, the usefulness is tested positive, and the need to evaluate the actual...

  11. On Quality and Measures in Software Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucur, Ion I.

    2006-01-01

    Complexity measures are mainly used to estimate vital information about reliability and maintainability of software systems from regular analysis of the source code. Such measures also provide constant feedback during a software project to assist the control of the development procedure. There exist several models to classify a software product's…

  12. Information quality measurement of medical encoding support based on usability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, John; Montagner, Julien; Lecornu, Laurent; Cauvin, Jean-Michel

    2013-12-01

    Medical encoding support systems for diagnoses and medical procedures are an emerging technology that begins to play a key role in billing, reimbursement, and health policies decisions. A significant problem to exploit these systems is how to measure the appropriateness of any automatically generated list of codes, in terms of fitness for use, i.e. their quality. Until now, only information retrieval performance measurements have been applied to estimate the accuracy of codes lists as quality indicator. Such measurements do not give the value of codes lists for practical medical encoding, and cannot be used to globally compare the quality of multiple codes lists. This paper defines and validates a new encoding information quality measure that addresses the problem of measuring medical codes lists quality. It is based on a usability study of how expert coders and physicians apply computer-assisted medical encoding. The proposed measure, named ADN, evaluates codes Accuracy, Dispersion and Noise, and is adapted to the variable length and content of generated codes lists, coping with limitations of previous measures. According to the ADN measure, the information quality of a codes list is fully represented by a single point, within a suitably constrained feature space. Using one scheme, our approach is reliable to measure and compare the information quality of hundreds of codes lists, showing their practical value for medical encoding. Its pertinence is demonstrated by simulation and application to real data corresponding to 502 inpatient stays in four clinic departments. Results are compared to the consensus of three expert coders who also coded this anonymized database of discharge summaries, and to five information retrieval measures. Information quality assessment applying the ADN measure showed the degree of encoding-support system variability from one clinic department to another, providing a global evaluation of quality measurement trends.

  13. A STUDY ON QUALITY ANALYSIS MEASURING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana LUCA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a study concerning the use of the Ishikawa diagram in analyzing the causes that determine errors in the measuring the sizes of the pieces of machine construction field. The studied problem was "errors in the measurement process” and this constitutes the head of the Ishikawa diagram skeleton.All the possible, main and secondary causes that could generate the studied problem were identified. The paper shows the potential causes of the studied problem, which were firstly grouped in fives categories, as follows: man/people methods, machines/ measuring devices, material/ piece of measured, environment. Performing the Ishikawa diagram in a more detailed form in order to determine the potential causes of a found defect has the advantage that it offers the possibility to identify and analyze all factors, which relate to the problem studied. The paper presented a formula for the Ishikawa diagram was determined, 4M+E.

  14. Quality control based on electrical resistivity measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Rui Miguel; Jalali, Said

    2006-01-01

    The electrical resistivity of concrete is one of the main parameters controlling the initiation and propagation of reinforcement corrosion. It is common knowledge that concrete electrical resistivity is mainly dependent on the w/c ratio (pore connectivity), volume and type of cement, temperature and the moisture. This research work studies the effect of specimen shape and temperature of measurement on electrical resistivity measurements of concrete using the four-point Werner electrode. In ad...

  15. Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra of Actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capote, R; Chen, Y J; Hambsch, F J; Kornilov, N V; Lestone, J P; Litaize, O; Morillon, B; Neudecker, D; Oberstedt, S; Ohsawa, T; Smith, D. L.

    2016-01-01

    The energy spectrum of prompt neutrons emitted in fission (PFNS) plays a very important role in nuclear science and technology. A Coordinated Research Project (CRP) “Evaluation of Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra of Actinides”was established by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section in 2009, with the major goal to produce new PFNS evaluations with uncertainties for actinide nuclei. The following technical areas were addressed: (i) experiments and uncertainty quantification (UQ): New data for neutron-induced fission of 233U, 235U, 238U, and 239Pu have been measured, and older data have been compiled and reassessed. There is evidence from the experimental work of this CRP that a very small percentage of neutrons emitted in fission are actually scission neutrons; (ii) modeling: The Los Alamos model (LAM) continues to be the workhorse for PFNS evaluations. Monte Carlo models have been developed that describe the fission phenomena microscopically, but further development is needed to produce PFNS evaluations meeting the uncertainty targets; (iii) evaluation methodologies: PFNS evaluations rely on the use of the least-squares techniques for merging experimental and model data. Considerable insight was achieved on how to deal with the problem of too small uncertainties in PFNS evaluations. The importance of considering that all experimental PFNS data are “shape” data was stressed; (iv) PFNS evaluations: New evaluations, including covariance data, were generated for major actinides including 1) non-model GMA evaluations of the 235U(nth,f), 239Pu(nth,f), and 233U(nth,f) PFNS based exclusively on experimental data (0.02 ≤ E ≤ 10 MeV), which resulted in PFNS average energies E of 2.00±0.01, 2.073±0.010, and 2.030±0.013 MeV, respectively; 2) LAM evaluations of neutron-induced fission spectra on uranium and plutonium targets with improved UQ for incident energies from thermal up to 30 MeV; and 3) Point-by-Point calculations for 232Th, 234U and 237Np targets; and (v) data

  16. Adventures in Actinide Chemistry: A Year of Exploring Uranium and Thorium in Los Alamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagano, Justin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-01-08

    The first part of this collection of slides is concerned with considerations when working with actinides. The topics discussed in the document as a whole are the following: Actinide chemistry vs. transition metal chemistry--tools we can use; New synthetic methods to obtain actinide hydrides; Actinide metallacycles: synthesis, structure, and properties; and Reactivity of actinide metallacycles.

  17. Measuring service quality provision within an eating disorders context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Desmond; Smith, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally, research concerning quality measurement and improvement has centred on manufacturing and industrial sectors. In the last decade, however, the focus has turned to the measurement of quality in services and more recently to healthcare. In today's progressively competitive health-care environment hospitals increasingly realise the need service quality as a means to improve their competitive position. The aim of this study is to assess the service quality provision of a leading UK-based eating disorder service provider, achieved through the development and application of the SERVQUAL research instrument for measuring service quality. Following thematic analysis of service user feedback, six dimensions of service quality were identified and mapped on to the P-C-P attributes model. The approach adopted for this case study research may usefully inform service assessment programmes for similarly positioned health-care service providers.

  18. Behavioral System Feedback Measurement Failure: Sweeping Quality under the Rug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalic, Maria T.; Ludwig, Timothy D.

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral Systems rely on valid measurement systems to manage processes and feedback and to deliver contingencies. An examination of measurement system components designed to track customer service quality of furniture delivery drivers revealed the measurement system failed to capture information it was designed to measure. A reason for this…

  19. Measuring Quality Satisfaction with Servqual Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Păuna

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The orientation to customer satisfaction is not a recent phenomenon, many very successfulbusinesspeople from the beginning of the 20th century, such as Sir Henry Royce, a name synonymous withRoll – Royce vehicles, stated the first principle regarding customer satisfaction “Our interest in the Roll-Royce cars does not end at the moment when the owner pays for and takes delivery the car. Our interest in thecar never wanes. Our ambition is that every purchaser of the Rolls - Royce car shall continue to be more thansatisfied (Rolls-Royce.” The following paper tries to deal with the important qualities of the concept for themeasuring of the gap between expected costumer services satisfactions, and perceived services like a routinecustomer feedback process, by means of a relatively new model, the Servqual model.

  20. Synthesis of actinide nitrides, phosphides, sulfides and oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Sluys, William G.; Burns, Carol J.; Smith, David C.

    1992-01-01

    A process of preparing an actinide compound of the formula An.sub.x Z.sub.y wherein An is an actinide metal atom selected from the group consisting of thorium, uranium, plutonium, neptunium, and americium, x is selected from the group consisting of one, two or three, Z is a main group element atom selected from the group consisting of nitrogen, phosphorus, oxygen and sulfur and y is selected from the group consisting of one, two, three or four, by admixing an actinide organometallic precursor wherein said actinide is selected from the group consisting of thorium, uranium, plutonium, neptunium, and americium, a suitable solvent and a protic Lewis base selected from the group consisting of ammonia, phosphine, hydrogen sulfide and water, at temperatures and for time sufficient to form an intermediate actinide complex, heating said intermediate actinide complex at temperatures and for time sufficient to form the actinide compound, and a process of depositing a thin film of such an actinide compound, e.g., uranium mononitride, by subliming an actinide organometallic precursor, e.g., a uranium amide precursor, in the presence of an effectgive amount of a protic Lewis base, e.g., ammonia, within a reactor at temperatures and for time sufficient to form a thin film of the actinide compound, are disclosed.

  1. Structural organization and spectroscopy of peptide-actinide(IV) complexes; Organisation structurale et spectroscopie de peptides susceptibles de complexer les actinides(IV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahou, S.

    2010-11-05

    The contamination of living organisms by actinide elements is at the origin of both radiological and chemical toxicity that may lead to severe dysfunction. Most of the data available on the actinide interaction with biological systems are macroscopic physiological measurements and are lacking a molecular description of the systems. Because of the intricacy of these systems, classical biochemical methods are difficult to implement. Our strategy consisted in designing simplified biomimetic peptides, and describing the corresponding intramolecular interactions with actinides. A carboxylic pentapeptide of the form DDPDD has been at the starting point of this work in order to further assess the influence of the peptide sequence on the topology of the complexes.To do so, various linear (Asp/Ala permutations, peptoids) and cyclic analogues have been synthesized. Furthermore, in order to include the hydroxamic function (with a high affinity for Fe(III)) in the peptide, both desferrioxamine and acetohydroxamic acid have been investigated. However because of difficulties in synthesis, we have not been able to test these peptides. Three actinide cations have been considered at oxidation state +IV (Th, Np, Pu) and compared to Fe(III), often considered as a biological surrogate of Pu(IV). The spatial arrangement of the peptide around the cation has been probed by spectrophotometry and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy. The spectroscopic data and EXAFS data adjustment lead us to rationalize the topology of the complexes as a function of the peptide sequence: mix hydroxy polynuclear species for linear and cyclic peptides, mononuclear for the desferrioxamine complexes. Furthermore, significant differences have appeared between Fe(III) and actinide(IV), related to differences of reactivity in aqueous medium. (author)

  2. Cherenkov Detector for Beam Quality Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Orfanelli, Stella

    2015-01-01

    A new detector to measure the machine induced background at larger radiihas been developed and installed in the CMS experiment at LHC. Itconsists of 40 modules, each comprising a quartz bar read out by aphotomultiplier. Since Cerenkov radiation is emitted in a forward conearound the charged particle trajectory, these detectors can distinguishthe directions of the machine induced background.The back-end consists of a microTCA readout with excellent time resolution.The performance of the detector modules measured in several test-beamcampaigns will be reported. The installation in CMS will be described, andfirst results about operating the detector during data taking will begiven.

  3. Standards for measurements and testing of wind turbine power quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, P. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Gerdes, G.; Klosse, R.; Santjer, F. [DEWI, Wilhelmshaven (Germany); Robertson, N.; Davy, W. [NEL, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Koulouvari, M.; Morfiadakis, E. [CRES, Pikermi (Greece); Larsson, Aa. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1999-03-01

    The present paper describes the work done in power quality sub-task of the project `European Wind Turbine Testing Procedure Developments` funded by the EU SMT program. The objective of the power quality sub-task has been to make analyses and new recommendation(s) for the standardisation of measurement and verification of wind turbine power quality. The work has been organised in three major activities. The first activity has been to propose measurement procedures and to verify existing and new measurement procedures. This activity has also involved a comparison of the measurements and data processing of the participating partners. The second activity has been to investigate the influence of terrain, grid properties and wind farm summation on the power quality of wind turbines with constant rotor speed. The third activity has been to investigate the influence of terrain, grid properties and wind farm summation on the power quality of wind turbines with variable rotor speed. (au)

  4. Rapid radiochemical method for determination of actinides in emergency concrete and brick samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Sherrod L; Culligan, Brian K; Kelsey-Wall, Angel; Shaw, Patrick J

    2011-09-02

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides in emergency concrete and brick samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used in emergency response situations or for routine analysis. If a radiological dispersive device (RDD), Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) or nuclear accident occurs, there will be a urgent need for rapid analyses of many different environmental matrices, including building materials such as concrete and brick, to support dose mitigation and environmental clean-up. The new method for actinides in concrete and brick method utilizes a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion method, a lanthanum fluoride matrix removal step, and a column separation process with stacked TEVA, TRU and DGA Resin cartridges. Alpha emitters are prepared using rare earth microprecipitation for counting by alpha spectrometry. The method showed high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. The determination of actinides in concrete and brick sample analysis can be performed in less than 8h with excellent quality for emergency samples. The rapid fusion technique is a rugged sample digestion method that ensures that any refractory actinide particles are effectively digested.

  5. Understanding Quality Measures in Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, Peter M.; Schneider, John S.; Piccirillo, Jay F.; Lieu, Judith E. C.

    2017-01-01

    As health care reimbursements based on pay-for-performance models become more common, there is an unprecedented demand for ways to measure health care quality and demonstrate value. Performance measures, a type of quality measure, are unique tools in a health care delivery system that allow objective monitoring of adherence to specific goals and tracking of outcomes. We sought to provide information on the development of quality measures in otolaryngology–head and neck surgery, as well as the goals of performance measurement at a national level and for our specialty. The historical development, various types, and approach to creating effective performance measures are discussed. The primary methods of developing performance measures (using clinical practice guidelines, clinical registries, and alternative methods) are also discussed. Performance measures are an important tool that can aid otolaryngologists in achieving effective, efficient, equitable, timely, safe, and patient-centered care as outlined by the Institute of Medicine. PMID:26606715

  6. Measuring patient-perceived hospital service quality: a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Yogesh P; Chary, Satyanarayana T

    2016-04-18

    Purpose - Although measuring healthcare service quality is not a new phenomenon, the instruments used to measure are timeworn. With the shift in focus to patient centric processes in hospitals and recognizing healthcare to be different compared to other services, service quality measurement needs to be tuned specifically to healthcare. The purpose of this paper is to design a conceptual framework for measuring patient perceived hospital service quality (HSQ), based on existing service quality literature. Design/methodology/approach - Using HSQ theories, expanding existing healthcare service models and literature, a conceptual framework is proposed to measure HSQ. The paper outlines patient perceived service quality dimensions. Findings - An instrument for measuring HSQ dimensions is developed and compared with other service quality measuring instruments. The latest dimensions are in line with previous studies, but a relationship dimension is added. Practical implications - The framework empowers managers to assess healthcare quality in corporate, public and teaching hospitals. Originality/value - The paper helps academics and practitioners to assess HSQ from a patient perspective.

  7. Electrorecovery of actinides at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoll, Michael E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oldham, Warren J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Costa, David A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    There are a large number of purification and processing operations involving actinide species that rely on high-temperature molten salts as the solvent medium. One such application is the electrorefining of impure actinide metals to provide high purity material for subsequent applications. There are some drawbacks to the electrodeposition of actinides in molten salts including relatively low yields, lack of accurate potential control, maintaining efficiency in a highly corrosive environment, and failed runs. With these issues in mind we have been investigating the electrodeposition of actinide metals, mainly uranium, from room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) and relatively high-boiling organic solvents. The RTILs we have focused on are comprised of 1,3-dialkylimidazolium or quaternary ammonium cations and mainly the {sup -}N(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2} anion [bis(trif1uoromethylsulfonyl)imide {equivalent_to} {sup -}NTf{sub 2}]. These materials represent a class of solvents that possess great potential for use in applications employing electrochemical procedures. In order to ascertain the feasibility of using RTILs for bulk electrodeposition of actinide metals our research team has been exploring the electron transfer behavior of simple coordination complexes of uranium dissolved in the RTIL solutions. More recently we have begun some fundamental electrochemical studies on the behavior of uranium and plutonium complexes in the organic solvents N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Our most recent results concerning electrodeposition will be presented in this account. The electrochemical behavior of U(IV) and U(III) species in RTILs and the relatively low vapor pressure solvents NMP and DMSO is described. These studies have been ongoing in our laboratory to uncover conditions that will lead to the successful bulk electrodeposition of actinide metals at a working electrode surface at room temperature or slightly elevated temperatures. The RTILs we

  8. An Approach to Measuring Software Quality Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Radoslaw

    Perception measuring and perception management is an emerging approach in the area of product management. Cognitive, psychological, behavioral and neurological theories, tools and methods are being employed for a better understanding of the mechanisms of a consumer's attitude and decision processes. Software is also being defined as a product, however this kind of product is significantly different from all other products. Software products are intangible and it is difficult to trace their characteristics which are strongly dependant on a dynamic context of use.

  9. Subjective Quality Measurement of Speech Its Evaluation, Estimation and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kondo, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    It is becoming crucial to accurately estimate and monitor speech quality in various ambient environments to guarantee high quality speech communication. This practical hands-on book shows speech intelligibility measurement methods so that the readers can start measuring or estimating speech intelligibility of their own system. The book also introduces subjective and objective speech quality measures, and describes in detail speech intelligibility measurement methods. It introduces a diagnostic rhyme test which uses rhyming word-pairs, and includes: An investigation into the effect of word familiarity on speech intelligibility. Speech intelligibility measurement of localized speech in virtual 3-D acoustic space using the rhyme test. Estimation of speech intelligibility using objective measures, including the ITU standard PESQ measures, and automatic speech recognizers.

  10. FY2011 Annual Report for the Actinide Isomer Detection Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Glen A.; Francy, Christopher J.; Ressler, Jennifer J.; Erikson, Luke E.; Tatishvili, Gocha; Hatarik, R.

    2011-10-01

    This project seeks to identify a new signature for actinide element detection in active interrogation. This technique works by exciting and identifying long-lived nuclear excited states (isomers) in the actinide isotopes and/or primary fission products. Observation of isomers in the fission products will provide a signature for fissile material. For the actinide isomers, the decay time and energy of the isomeric state is unique to a particular isotope, providing an unambiguous signature for SNM. This project entails isomer identification and characterization and neutron population studies. This document summarizes activities from its third year - completion of the isomer identification characterization experiments and initialization of the neutron population experiments. The population and decay of the isomeric state in 235U remain elusive, although a number of candidate gamma rays have been identified. In the course of the experiments, a number of fission fragment isomers were populated and measured [Ressler 2010]. The decays from these isomers may also provide a suitable signature for the presence of fissile material. Several measurements were conducted throughout this project. This report focuses on the results of an experiment conducted collaboratively by PNNL, LLNL and LBNL in December 2010 at LBNL. The measurement involved measuring the gamma-rays emitted from an HEU target when bombarded with 11 MeV neutrons. This report discussed the analysis and resulting conclusions from those measurements. There was one strong candidate, at 1204 keV, of an isomeric signature of 235U. The half-life of the state is estimated to be 9.3 {mu}s. The measured time dependence fits the decay time structure very well. Other possible explanations for the 1204-keV state were investigated, but they could not explain the gamma ray. Unfortunately, the relatively limited statistics of the measurement limit, and the lack of understanding of some of the systematic of the experiment, limit

  11. Recovery of actinides from actinide-aluminium alloys by chlorination: Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassayre, L.; Souček, P.; Mendes, E.; Malmbeck, R.; Nourry, C.; Eloirdi, R.; Glatz, J.-P.

    2011-07-01

    Pyrochemical processes in molten LiCl-KCl are being developed in ITU for recovery of actinides from spent nuclear fuel. The fuel is anodically dissolved to the molten salt electrolyte and actinides are electrochemically reduced on solid aluminium cathodes forming solid actinide-aluminium alloys. A chlorination route is being investigated for recovery of actinides from the alloys. This route consists in three steps: Vacuum distillation for removal of the salt adhered on the electrode, chlorination of the actinide-aluminium alloys by chlorine gas and sublimation of the formed AlCl 3. A thermochemical study showed thermodynamic feasibility of all three steps. On the basis of the conditions identified by the calculations, experiments using pure UAl 3 alloy were carried out to evaluate and optimise the chlorination step. The work was focused on determination of the optimal temperature and Cl 2/UAl 3 molar ratio, providing complete chlorination of the alloy without formation of volatile UCl 5 and UCl 6. The results showed high efficient chlorination at a temperature of 150 °C.

  12. Energy-Dependent Fission Q Values Generalized for All Actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, R

    2008-09-25

    We generalize Madland's parameterization of the energy release in fission to obtain the dependence of the fission Q values on incident neutron energy, E{sub n}, for all major and minor actinides. These Q(E{sub n}) parameterizations are included in the ENDL2008 release. This paper describes calculations of energy-dependent fission Q values based on parameterizations of the prompt energy release in fission [1], developed by Madland [1] to describe the prompt energy release in neutron-induced fission of {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, and {sup 239}Pu. The energy release is then related to the energy deposited during fission so that experimentally measurable quantities can be used to obtain the Q values. A discussion of these specific parameterizations and their implementation in the processing code for Monte Carlo neutron transport, MCFGEN, [2] is described in Ref. [3]. We extend this model to describe Q(E) for all actinides, major and minor, in the Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (ENDL) 2008 release, ENDL2008.

  13. Heat capacities of lanthanide and actinide monazite-type ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Piotr M.; Beridze, George; Vinograd, Victor L.; Bosbach, Dirk

    2015-09-01

    (Ln, An)xPO4 monazite-type ceramics are considered as potential matrices for the disposal of nuclear waste. In this study we computed the heat capacities and the standard entropies of these compounds using density functional perturbation theory. The calculations of lanthanide monazites agree well with the existing experimental data and provide information on the variation of the standard heat capacities and entropies along the lanthanide series. The results for AnPO4 monazites are similar to those obtained for the isoelectronic lanthanide compounds. This suggests that the missing thermodynamic data on actinide monazites could be similarly computed or assessed based on the properties of their lanthanide analogs. However, the computed heat capacity of PuPO4 appear to be significantly lower than the measured data. We argue that this discrepancy might indicate potential problems with the existing experimental data or with their interpretation. This shows a need for further experimental studies of the heat capacities of actinide-bearing, monazite-type ceramics.

  14. Fabrication of nitride fuels for transmutation of minor actinides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minato, Kazuo; Akabori, Mitsuo; Takano, Masahide; Arai, Yasuo; Nakajima, Kunihisa; Itoh, Akinori; Ogawa, Toru

    2003-07-01

    At the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the concept of the transmutation of minor actinides (MA: Np, Am and Cm) with accelerator-driven systems is being studied. The MA nitride fuel has been chosen as a candidate because of the possible mutual solubility among the actinide mononitrides and excellent thermal properties besides supporting hard neutron spectrum. MA nitrides of NpN, (Np, Pu)N, (Np, U)N, AmN, (Am, Y)N, (Am, Zr)N and (Cm, Pu)N were prepared from the oxides by the carbothermic reduction method. The prepared MA nitrides were examined by X-ray diffraction and the contents of impurities of oxygen and carbon were measured. The fabrication conditions for MA nitrides were improved so as to reduce the impurity contents. For an irradiation test of U-free nitride fuels, pellets of (Pu, Zr)N and PuN + TiN were prepared and a He-bonded fuel pin was fabricated. The irradiation test started in May 2002 and will go on for two years in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor.

  15. Actinide Isotopes for the Synthesis of Superheavy Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, J. B.; Alexander, C. W.; Boll, R. A.; Dean, D. J.; Ezold, J. G.; Felker, L. K.; Rykaczewski, K. P.

    2014-09-01

    Recent research resulting in the synthesis of isotopes of new elements 113-118 has demonstrated the importance of actinide targets in superheavy element research. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has unique facilities for the production and processing of actinide target materials, including the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC). These facilities have provided actinide target materials that have been used for the synthesis of all superheavy (SHE) elements above Copernicium (element 112). In this paper, the use of actinide targets for SHE research and discovery is described, including recent results for element 117 using 249Bk target material from ORNL. ORNL actinide capabilities are reviewed, including production and separation/purification, availabilities of actinide materials, and future opportunities including novel target materials such as 251Cf.

  16. Comparing Alternative Instruments to Measure Service Quality in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochado, Ana

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the performance of five alternative measures of service quality in the high education sector--service quality (SERVQUAL), importance-weighted SERVQUAL, service performance (SERVPERF), importance-weighted SERVPERF, and higher education performance (HEdPERF). Design/methodology/approach: Data were…

  17. Measuring Customer Satisfaction and Quality of Service in Special Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Marilyn Domas; Abels, Eileen G.; Nitecki, Danuta

    This project tested the appropriateness of SERVQUAL (i.e., an instrument widely used in the service industry for assessing service quality based on repeated service encounters rather than a particular service encounter) to measure service quality in special libraries and developed a modified version for special libraries. SERVQUAL is based on an…

  18. Quality Changes of Frozen Meat During Storage and Control Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Jiangping

    2010-01-01

    The frozen is a common method of meat storage, generally applications in meat industrial. However, the quality of meat still have taken place changes even in the low temperature, This article discussion on the changes of frozen meat quality during freezing storage, and give the corresponding control measures.

  19. Comparing Alternative Instruments to Measure Service Quality in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochado, Ana

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the performance of five alternative measures of service quality in the high education sector--service quality (SERVQUAL), importance-weighted SERVQUAL, service performance (SERVPERF), importance-weighted SERVPERF, and higher education performance (HEdPERF). Design/methodology/approach: Data were…

  20. Microbial Transformations of Actinides and Other Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis,A.J.; Dodge, C. J.

    2009-01-07

    Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides and other radionuclides released from nuclear fuel cycle and from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution in the environment and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been extensively investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes and biochemical mechanisms which affect the stability and mobility of radionuclides. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, the fission products and other radionuclides such as Ra, Tc, I, Cs, Sr, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

  1. Seventeen-coordinate actinide helium complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas [School of Chemistry, The University of Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-12

    The geometries and electronic structures of molecular ions featuring He atoms complexed to actinide cations are explored computationally using density functional and coupled cluster theories. A new record coordination number is established, as AcHe{sub 17}{sup 3+}, ThHe{sub 17}{sup 4+}, and PaHe{sub 17}{sup 4+} are all found to be true geometric minima, with the He atoms clearly located in the first shell around the actinide. Analysis of AcHe{sub n}{sup 3+} (n=1-17) using the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) confirms these systems as having closed shell, charge-induced dipole bonding. Excellent correlations (R{sup 2}>0.95) are found between QTAIM metrics (bond critical point electron densities and delocalization indices) and the average Ac-He distances, and also with the incremental He binding energies. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Actinide and fission product separation and transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-07-01

    The first international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product separation and transmutation, took place in Mito in Japan, on 6-8 November 1990. It starts with a number of general overview papers to give us some broad perspectives. Following that it takes a look at some basic facts about physics and about the quantities of materials it is talking about. Then it proceeds to some specific aspects of partitioning, starting with evolution from today commercially applied processes and going on to other possibilities. At the end of the third session it takes a look at the significance of partitioning and transmutation of actinides before it embarks on two sessions on transmutation, first in reactors and second in accelerators. The last session is designed to throw back into the discussion the main points which need to be looked at when considering future work in this area. (A.L.B.)

  3. Preparation, properties, and some recent studies of the actinide metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haire, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    The actinide elements form a unique series of metals. The variation in their physial properties combined with the varying availability of the different elements offers a challenge to the preparative scientist. This article provides a brief review of selected methods used for preparing ..mu..g to kg amounts of the actinide metals and the properties of these metals. In addition, some recent studies on selected actinide metals are discussed. 62 refs.

  4. eQuality for all: Extending automated quality measurement of free text clinical narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steven H; Elkin, Peter L; Rosenbloom, S Trent; Fielstein, Elliot; Speroff, Ted

    2008-11-06

    Electronic quality monitoring(eQuality) from clinical narratives may advance current manual quality measurement techniques.We evaluated automated eQuality measurement tools on clinical narratives of veterans' disability examinations. We used a general purpose indexing engine to encode clinical concepts with SNOMED CT. We developed computer usable quality assessment rules from established quality indicators and evaluated the automated approach against a gold standard of double independent human expert review. Rules were iteratively improved using a training set of 1446 indexed exam reports and evaluated on a test set of 1454 indexed exam reports. The eQuality system achieved 86%sensitivity (recall), 62% specificity, and 96%positive predictive value (precision) for automated quality assessment of veterans' disability exams. Summary data for each exam type and detailed data for joint exam quality assessments are presented. The current results generalize our previous results to ten exam types covering over 200 diagnostic codes. eQuality measurement from narrative clinical documents has the potential to improve healthcare quality and safety.

  5. SPECIFIC SEQUESTERING AGENTS FOR THE ACTINIDES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, Kenneth N.; Smith, William L.; Weitl, Frederick L.; Durbin, Patricia W.; Jones, E.Sarah; Abu-Dari, Kamal; Sofen, Stephen R.; Cooper, Stephen R.

    1979-09-01

    This paper summarizes the current status of a continuing project directed toward the synthesis and characterization of chelating agents which are specific for actinide ions - especially Pu(IV) - using a biomimetic approach that relies on the observation that Pu(IV) and Fe(III) has marked similarities that include their biological transport and distribution in mammals. Since the naturally-occurring Fe(III) sequestering agents produced by microbes commonly contain hydroxamate and catecholate functional groups, these groups should complex the actinides very strongly and macrocyclic ligands incorporating these moieties are being prepared. We have reported the isolation and structure analysis of an isostructural series of tetrakis(catecholato) complexes with the general stoichiometry Na{sub 4}[M(C{sub 6}H{sub 4}O{sub 2}){sub 4}] • 21 H{sub 2}O (M = Th, U, Ce, Hf). These complexes are structural archetypes for the cavity that must be formed if an actinide-specific sequestering agent is to conform ideally to the coordination requirements of the central metal ion. The [M(cat){sub 4}]{sup 4-} complexes have the D{sub 2d} symmetry of the trigonal-faced dodecahedron.. The complexes Th [R'C(0)N(O)R]{sub 4} have been prepared where R = isopropyl and R' = t-butyl or neopentyl. The neopentyl derivative is also relatively close to an idealized D{sub 2d} dodecahedron, while the sterically more hindered t-butyl compound is distorted toward a cubic geometry. The synthesis of a series of 2, 3-dihydroxy-benzoyl amide derivatives of linear and cyclic tetraaza- and diazaalkanes is reported. Sulfonation of these compounds improves the metal complexation and in vivo removal of plutonium from test animals. These results substantially exceed the capabilities of compounds presently used for the therapeutic treatment of actinide contamination.

  6. Positron Spectroscopy of Hydrothermally Grown Actinide Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    In this method, the powdered material is placed in a solution which contains extremely powerful mineralizers , such as cesium fluoride for actinide...environmentally triggered background counts and it subtends a very small solid angle with respect to the detector. Thus, the benefit of the lead sheet outweighs...low electron density. This is mainly a property of their atomic makeup , though the microstructure of the paper is porous as well. In addition, a

  7. Actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The fourth international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation, took place in Mito City in Japan, on 111-13 September 1996. The proceedings are presented in six sessions: the major programmes and international cooperation, the partitioning and transmutation programs, feasibility studies, particular separation processes, the accelerator driven transmutation, and the chemistry of the fuel cycle. (A.L.B.)

  8. Measuring quality of dental care: Caries prevention services for children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Herndon, Jill Boylston; Tomar, Scott L; Catalanotto, Frank A; Rudner, Nancy; Huang, I-Chan; Aravamudhan, Krishna; Shenkman, Elizabeth A; Crall, James J

    2015-01-01

    The authors conducted a study to validate the following 3 evidence-based, process-of-care quality measures focused on dental caries prevention for children with an elevated risk of experiencing caries...

  9. 2014 Child and Adult Health Care Quality Measures

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Performance rates on frequently reported health care quality measures in the CMS Medicaid/CHIP Child and Adult Core Sets, for FFY 2014 reporting. Dataset contains...

  10. 2015 Child and Adult Health Care Quality Measures

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Performance rates on frequently reported health care quality measures in the CMS Medicaid/CHIP Child and Adult Core Sets, for FFY 2015 reporting. Source: Mathematica...

  11. National Impact Assessment of CMS Quality Measures Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Impact Assessment of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Quality Measures Reports (Impact Reports) are mandated by section 3014(b), as...

  12. Comparing alternative instruments to measure service quality in higher education

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to examine the performance of five alternative measures of service quality in the high education sector – SERVQUAL (Service Quality), Importance-weighted SERVQUAL, SERVPERF (Service Performance), Importance-weighted SERVPERF and HedPERF (Higher Education Performance). We aim at determining which instrument has the superior measurement capability. Data were collected by means of a structured questionnaire containing perception items enhanced from the SERVPERF and HE...

  13. Actinide and lanthanide separation process (ALSEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelis, Artem V.

    2013-01-15

    The process of the invention is the separation of minor actinides from lanthanides in a fluid mixture comprising, fission products, lanthanides, minor actinides, rare earth elements, nitric acid and water by addition of an organic chelating aid to the fluid; extracting the fluid with a solvent comprising a first extractant, a second extractant and an organic diluent to form an organic extractant stream and an aqueous raffinate. Scrubbing the organic stream with a dicarboxylic acid and a chelating agent to form a scrubber discharge. The scrubber discharge is stripped with a simple buffering agent and a second chelating agent in the pH range of 2.5 to 6.1 to produce actinide and lanthanide streams and spent organic diluents. The first extractant is selected from bis(2-ethylhexyl)hydrogen phosphate (HDEHP) and mono(2-ethylhexyl)2-ethylhexyl phosphonate (HEH(EHP)) and the second extractant is selected from N,N,N,N-tetra-2-ethylhexyl diglycol amide (TEHDGA) and N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyl-3-oxapentanediamide (TODGA).

  14. Recovery of actinides from actinide-aluminium alloys by chlorination: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souček, P.; Cassayre, L.; Eloirdi, R.; Malmbeck, R.; Meier, R.; Nourry, C.; Claux, B.; Glatz, J.-P.

    2014-04-01

    A chlorination route is being investigated for recovery of actinides from actinide-aluminium alloys, which originate from pyrochemical recovery of actinides from spent metallic nuclear fuel by electrochemical methods in molten LiCl-KCl. In the present work, the most important steps of this route were experimentally tested using U-Pu-Al alloy prepared by electrodeposition of U and Pu on solid aluminium plate electrodes. The investigated processes were vacuum distillation for removal of the salt adhered on the electrode, chlorination of the alloy by chlorine gas and sublimation of the AlCl3 formed. The processes parameters were set on the base of a previous thermochemical study and an experimental work using pure UAl3 alloy. The present experimental results indicated high efficiency of salt distillation and chlorination steps, while the sublimation step should be further optimised.

  15. Hydrothermal decomposition of actinide(IV oxalates: a new aqueous route towards reactive actinide oxide nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrothermal decomposition of actinide(IV oxalates (An= Th, U, Pu at temperatures between 95 and 250 °C is shown to lead to the production of highly crystalline, reactive actinide oxide nanocrystals (NCs. This aqueous process proved to be quantitative, reproducible and fast (depending on temperature. The NCs obtained were characterised by X-ray diffraction and TEM showing their size to be smaller than 15 nm. Attempts to extend this general approach towards transition metal or lanthanide oxalates failed in the 95–250 °C temperature range. The hydrothermal decomposition of actinide oxalates is therefore a clean, flexible and powerful approach towards NCs of AnO2 with possible scale-up potential.

  16. Measuring Quality of Electronic Service (E- Service In Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba M. Hussain

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This research to evaluate e- service quality from the customers, perspective, and to examine the effect of e- service quality dimensions on customer's perception of banking e- service quality. Data was collected via self-administered questionnaire from random samples drawn from the population of customers using e-banking service. The constructs in this search were developed by using measurement scales adopted from prior studies. The instrument was evaluated for reliability and validity. The results in this search indicate that Reliability; Responsiveness; Ease of use; Personalization; Security; and Website design have influence on customer's perception of e- service quality.

  17. PROCESS AND PRODUCT QUALITY ASSURANCE MEASURES IN CMMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Khraiwesh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Process and product quality assurance are very important aspects in development of software. Process and product quality assurance monitor the software engineering processes and methods to ensure quality. It is the process of confirming and verifying that whether services and products meet the customer expectation or not. This research will identify general measures for the specific goals and its specific practices of Process and Product Quality Assurance Process Area in Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI. CMMI is developed by Software Engineering Institute (SEI in Carnegie Mellon University in USA. CMMI is a framework for assessment and improvement of computer information systems. The procedure we used to determine the measures is to apply the Goal Questions Metrics (GQM approach to the two specific goals and its four specific practices of Process and Product Quality Assurance Process Area in CMMI.

  18. Addressing electronic clinical information in the construction of quality measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, L Charles; Mistry, Kamila B; Tinoco, Aldo; Earls, Marian; Rallins, Marjorie C; Hanley, Kendra; Christensen, Keri; Jones, Meredith; Woods, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHR) and registries play a central role in health care and provide access to detailed clinical information at the individual, institutional, and population level. Use of these data for clinical quality/performance improvement and cost management has been a focus of policy initiatives over the past decade. The Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2009 (CHIPRA)-mandated Pediatric Quality Measurement Program supports development and testing of quality measures for children on the basis of electronic clinical information, including de novo measures and respecification of existing measures designed for other data sources. Drawing on the experience of Centers of Excellence, we review both structural and pragmatic considerations in e-measurement. The presence of primary observations in EHR-derived data make it possible to measure outcomes in ways that are difficult with administrative data alone. However, relevant information may be located in narrative text, making it difficult to interpret. EHR systems are collecting more discrete data, but the structure, semantics, and adoption of data elements vary across vendors and sites. EHR systems also differ in ability to incorporate pediatric concepts such as variable dosing and growth percentiles. This variability complicates quality measurement, as do limitations in established measure formats, such as the Quality Data Model, to e-measurement. Addressing these challenges will require investment by vendors, researchers, and clinicians alike in developing better pediatric content for standard terminologies and data models, encouraging wider adoption of technical standards that support reliable quality measurement, better harmonizing data collection with clinical work flow in EHRs, and better understanding the behavior and potential of e-measures.

  19. Assessment of SFR fuel pin performance codes under advanced fuel for minor actinide transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouineau, V.; Lainet, M.; Chauvin, N.; Pelletier, M. [French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission - CEA, CEA Cadarache, DEN/DEC/SESC, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Di Marcello, V.; Van Uffelen, P.; Walker, C. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D- 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Americium is a strong contributor to the long term radiotoxicity of high activity nuclear waste. Transmutation by irradiation in nuclear reactors of long-lived nuclides like {sup 241}Am is, therefore, an option for the reduction of radiotoxicity and residual power packages as well as the repository area. In the SUPERFACT Experiment four different oxide fuels containing high and low concentrations of {sup 237}Np and {sup 241}Am, representing the homogeneous and heterogeneous in-pile recycling concepts, were irradiated in the PHENIX reactor. The behavior of advanced fuel materials with minor actinide needs to be fully characterized, understood and modeled in order to optimize the design of this kind of fuel elements and to evaluate its performances. This paper assesses the current predictability of fuel performance codes TRANSURANUS and GERMINAL V2 on the basis of post irradiation examinations of the SUPERFACT experiment for pins with low minor actinide content. Their predictions have been compared to measured data in terms of geometrical changes of fuel and cladding, fission gases behavior and actinide and fission product distributions. The results are in good agreement with the experimental results, although improvements are also pointed out for further studies, especially if larger content of minor actinide will be taken into account in the codes. (authors)

  20. Standard guide for making quality nondestructive assay measurements

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This guide is a compendium of Quality Measurement Practices for performing measurements of radioactive material using nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments. The primary purpose of the guide is to assist users in arriving at quality NDA results, that is, results that satisfy the end user’s needs. This is accomplished by providing an acceptable and uniform basis for the collection, analysis, comparison, and application of data. The recommendations are not compulsory or prerequisites to achieving quality NDA measurements, but are considered contributory in most areas. 1.2 This guide applies to the use of NDA instrumentation for the measurement of nuclear materials by the observation of spontaneous or stimulated nuclear radiations, including photons, neutrons, or the flow of heat. Recommended calibration, operating, and assurance methods represent guiding principles based on current NDA technology. The diversity of industry-wide nuclear materials measurement applications and instrumentation precludes disc...

  1. MEASURES AND INDICATORS OF VGI QUALITY: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Antoniou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of VGI quality has been a very interesting and popular issue amongst academics and researchers. Various metrics and indicators have been proposed for evaluating VGI quality elements. Various efforts have focused on the use of well-established methodologies for the evaluation of VGI quality elements against authoritative data. In this paper, a number of research papers have been reviewed and summarized in a detailed report on measures for each spatial data quality element. Emphasis is given on the methodology followed and the data used in order to assess and evaluate the quality of the VGI datasets. However, as the use of authoritative data is not always possible many researchers have turned their focus on the analysis of new quality indicators that can function as proxies for the understanding of VGI quality. In this paper, the difficulties in using authoritative datasets are briefly presented and new proposed quality indicators are discussed, as recorded through the literature review. We classify theses new indicators in four main categories that relate with: i data, ii demographics, iii socio-economic situation and iv contributors. This paper presents a dense, yet comprehensive overview of the research on this field and provides the basis for the ongoing academic effort to create a practical quality evaluation method through the use of appropriate quality indicators.

  2. Rapid core measure improvement through a "business case for quality".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlin, Jonathan B; Horner, Stephen J; Englebright, Jane D; Bracken, Richard M

    2014-01-01

    Incentives to improve performance are emerging as revenue or financial penalties are linked to the measured quality of service provided. The HCA "Getting to Green" program was designed to rapidly increase core measure performance scores. Program components included (1) the "business case for quality"-increased awareness of how quality drives financial performance; (2) continuous communication of clinical and financial performance data; and (3) evidence-based clinical protocols, incentives, and tools for process improvement. Improvement was measured by comparing systemwide rates of adherence to national quality measures for heart failure (HF), acute myocardial infarction (AMI), pneumonia (PN), and surgical care (SCIP) to rates from all facilities reporting to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). As of the second quarter of 2011, 70% of HCA total measure set composite scores were at or above the 90th percentile of CMS scores. A test of differences in regression coefficients between the CMS national average and the HCA average revealed significant differences for AMI (p = .001), HF (p = .012), PN (p < .001), and SCIP (p = .015). This program demonstrated that presentation of the financial implications of quality, transparency in performance data, and clearly defined goals could cultivate the desire to use improvement tools and resources to raise performance. © 2012 National Association for Healthcare Quality.

  3. Actinides input to the dose in the irradiated graphite of RBMK-1500 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plukienė, R., E-mail: rita@ar.fi.lt [Institute of Physics, Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanorių pr. 231, LT-02300 Vilnius (Lithuania); Plukis, A.; Puzas, A.; Gvozdaitė, R.; Barkauskas, V.; Duškesas, G. [Institute of Physics, Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanorių pr. 231, LT-02300 Vilnius (Lithuania); Cizdziel, J.V.; Bussan, D. [University of Mississippi, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 305 Coulter Hall, University, Oxford, MS 38677 (United States); Remeikis, V. [Institute of Physics, Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanorių pr. 231, LT-02300 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Actinides input to the dose in RBMK-1500 reactor graphite was estimated. • SCALE 6.1 and MCNPX models were used to calculate actinides specific activities. • ORIGEN-ARP was used for gamma power, neutron source and effective dose calculation. • Concentrations of Pu, Am and Cm isotopes in the RBMK graphite sample were measured. • {sup 244}Cm was found to be a critical contributor to effective dose of the personnel. - Abstract: The purpose of this work is to indicate the actinides input to the total radiation dose caused by the irradiated graphite of the RBMK-1500 reactor in comparison to the dose delivered by other nuclides. We used computer codes (SCALE 6.1 and MCNPX 2.7) to estimate the dose rate delivered by actinides giving special attention to the {sup 244}Cm isotope as a critical contributor to the total activity of actinides in the spent graphite for approximately up to 200 years. The concentrations of Pu, Am and Cm isotopes in the graphite sample from the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Unit 1 have been measured with the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer and specific isotope ratios have been compared with alpha spectrometric results as well as with the values simulated by the computer codes. Good agreement of the experimental results and the simulated ratios serves as an additional confirmation of validity of the calculation models. The effective doses rates of inhalation and ingestion for personnel, gamma radiation power, and nuclides, which constitute the neutron source in the irradiated RBMK-1500 graphite constructions, have also been identified. The obtained results are important for decommissioning of the Ignalina NPP and other NPPs with graphite-moderated reactors.

  4. Advanced Aqueous Separation Systems for Actinide Partitioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, Ken [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Martin, Leigh [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lumetta, Gregg [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-04-02

    One of the most challenging aspects of advanced processing of used nuclear fuel is the separation of transplutonium actinides from fission product lanthanides. This separation is essential if actinide transmutation options are to be pursued in advanced fuel cycles, as lanthanides compete with actinides for neutrons in both thermal and fast reactors, thus limiting efficiency. The separation is difficult because the chemistry of Am3+ and Cm3+ is nearly identical to that of the trivalent lanthanides (Ln3+). The prior literature teaches that two approaches offer the greatest probability of devising a successful group separation process based on aqueous processes: 1) the application of complexing agents containing ligand donor atoms that are softer than oxygen (N, S, Cl-) or 2) changing the oxidation state of Am to the IV, V, or VI state to increase the essential differences between Am and lanthanide chemistry (an approach utilized in the PUREX process to selectively remove Pu4+ and UO22+ from fission products). The latter approach offers the additional benefit of enabling a separation of Am from Cm, as Cm(III) is resistant to oxidation and so can easily be made to follow the lanthanides. The fundamental limitations of these approaches are that 1) the soft(er) donor atoms that interact more strongly with actinide cations than lanthanides form substantially weaker bonds than oxygen atoms, thus necessitating modification of extraction conditions for adequate phase transfer efficiency, 2) soft donor reagents have been seen to suffer slow phase transfer kinetics and hydro-/radiolytic stability limitations and 3) the upper oxidation states of Am are all moderately strong oxidants, hence of only transient stability in media representative of conventional aqueous separations systems. There are examples in the literature of both approaches having been described. However, it is not clear at present that any extant process is sufficiently robust for application at the scale

  5. Angular distributions in the neutron-induced fission of actinides

    CERN Multimedia

    In 2003 the n_TOF Collaboration performed the fission cross section measurement of several actinides ($^{232}$Th, $^{233}$U, $^{234}$U, $^{237}$Np) at the n_TOF facility using an experImental setup made of Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPAC). The method based on the detection of the 2 fragments in coincidence allowed to clearly disentangle the fission reactions among other types of reactions occurring in the spallation domain. We have been therefore able to cover the very broad neutron energy range 1eV-1GeV, taking full benefit of the unique characteristics of the n_TOF facility. Figure 1 shows an example obtained in the case of $^{237}$Np where the n_ TOF measurement showed that the cross section was underestimated by a large factor in the resonance region.

  6. Population-Level Quality Measures for Behavioral Screening and Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard L; Smith, Mindy A

    2016-07-01

    Delivered routinely in general health care settings, smoking, alcohol, depression, and obesity screening and intervention (behavioral screening and intervention [BSI]) could substantially improve population health and reduce health care costs. Yet BSI is seldom delivered in an evidence-based manner. This article assesses the adequacy of quality measures for BSI. Online searches of the National Quality Forum's Quality Positioning System and the National Clearinghouse for Quality Measures databases were conducted using the keywords smoking, tobacco, alcohol, depression, and obesity The types and focuses of each measure were classified, and differences between the metrics and evidence-based practice were identified. Most measures indicate whether BSI components are delivered, not how well. Clinicians can perform well on most metrics without delivering evidence-based services. More rigorous quality measures are needed. A new kind of measure is proposed, whereby separate terms representing the reach and effectiveness of key BSI components are multiplied to produce a single indicator of population-level impact for each behavioral topic.

  7. Issues in Evaluating Importance Weighting in Quality of Life Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chang-ming

    2013-01-01

    For most empirical research investigating the topic of importance weighting in quality of life (QoL) measures, the prevailing approach has been to use (1) a limited choice of global QoL measures as criterion variables (often a single one) to determine the performance of importance weighting, (2) a limited option of weighting methods to develop…

  8. Comparison of quality of life measures in a depressed population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Stephen R; Rush, A John; Bryan, Charlene; Shelton, Richard; Trivedi, Madhukar H; Marcus, Sheila; Husain, Mustafa M; Hollon, Steven D; Fava, Maurizio

    2007-03-01

    Measures of quality of life have been increasingly used in clinical trials. When designing a study, researchers must decide which quality of life measure to use. Some literature provides guidance through general recommendations, though lacks quantitative comparisons. In this report, 2 general quality of life measures, the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) and the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q), are compared in a depressed population. STAR*D data were used to analyze the associations among the SF-12 and the Q-LES-Q. Each measure covers 6 domains, overlapping on 5 (health, self-esteem/well-being, community/productivity, social/love relationships, leisure/creativity), with the SF-12 addressing family and the Q-LES-Q addressing living situations. Strong item-by-item associations exist only between the Q-LES-Q and the SF-12 physical health items. The 2 measures overlap on the domains covered while the lack of correlation between the 2 measures may be attributed to the perspective of each question as the Q-LES-Q measures satisfaction while the SF-12 measures the patient's perception of function.

  9. Does Input Quality Drive Measured Differences in Firm Productivity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Jeremy T.; Smeets, Valerie Anne Rolande

    Firms in the same industry can differ in measured productivity by multiples of 3. Griliches (1957) suggests one explanation: the quality of inputs differs across firms. We add labor market history variables such as experience and firm and industry tenure, as well as general human capital measures...

  10. Quality indicators to measure appropriate antibiotic use in hospitalized adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, C.M.A. van den; Geerlings, S.E.; Natsch, S.S.; Prins, J.M.; Hulscher, M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An important requirement for an effective antibiotic stewardship program is the ability to measure appropriateness of antibiotic use. The aim of this study was to develop quality indicators (QIs) that can be used to measure appropriateness of antibiotic use in the treatment of all

  11. Field quality measurements of a 2-Tesla transmission line magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velev, G.V.; Foster, W.; Kashikhin, V.; Mazur, P.; Oleck, A.; Piekarz, H.; Schlabach, P.; Sylvester, C.; /Fermilab; Wake, M.; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2005-09-01

    A prototype 2-Tesla superconducting transmission line magnet for future hadron colliders was designed, built and tested at Fermilab. The 1.5 m long, combined-function gradient-dipole magnet has a vertical pole aperture of 20 mm. To measure the magnetic field quality in such a small magnet aperture, a specialized rotating coil of 15.2 mm diameter, 0.69 m long was fabricated. Using this probe, a program of magnetic field quality measurements was successfully performed. Results of the measurements are presented and discussed.

  12. Measurement of quality in Saudi Arabian service industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannadi, O.A. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Al-Saggaf, H. [SCECO-East (Saudi Arabia)

    2000-10-12

    Quality problems in the service organisation are the result of the mismatch between prior expectation and perceived quality of the service. Each organisation will attempt to determine the requirements of its customers and translate these requirements into product and delivery process specifications. This paper examines a particular electric company (SCECO-East), a typical service provider in Saudi Arabia, in which service quality is a distinguishing feature of primary importance. It describes a detailed survey and analysis in the light of the model put forward by Parasuraman et al. It utilises SERVQUAL for measuring customers' perceptions of service quality. The study revealed that SCECO-East scored high in tangibles dimension but low in features of responsiveness and reliability. In addition, while the performance of SCECO-East was acceptable to all customer categories, service quality was perceived differently by various types of customers, with reinforcement and commercial customers awarding SCECO-East even lower ratings than other customers did. (Author)

  13. Measuring the effect of managerial ability on earning quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Bahri Sales

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to measure the effect of managerial ability on earning quality on selected firms listed on Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2007-2013. The proposed study uses data envelopment analysis to measure the relative efficiency of selected firms where Sales is considered as output and Cost of goods (COGS, Selling, General and Administrative Expenses (SG&A, Net Property Plant and Equipment (PPE, Net operating Leases (OpsLease, Research & Development (R&D, Purchased Good will (Goodwill and Other intangible assets (OtherIntan are considered as inputs. Earning quality in this survey consists of three parts of quality of accruals, earnings and earnings forecast persistence. The results of our survey have indicated that managerial ability influences positively on earning quality.

  14. Do patients "like" good care? measuring hospital quality via Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timian, Alex; Rupcic, Sonia; Kachnowski, Stan; Luisi, Paloma

    2013-01-01

    With the growth of Facebook, public health researchers are exploring the platform's uses in health care. However, little research has examined the relationship between Facebook and traditional hospital quality measures. The authors conducted an exploratory quantitative analysis of hospitals' Facebook pages to assess whether Facebook "Likes" were associated with hospital quality and patient satisfaction. The 30-day mortality rates and patient recommendation rates were used to quantify hospital quality and patient satisfaction; these variables were correlated with Facebook data for 40 hospitals near New York, NY. The results showed that Facebook "Likes" have a strong negative association with 30-day mortality rates and are positively associated with patient recommendation. These exploratory findings suggest that the number of Facebook "Likes" for a hospital may serve as an indicator of hospital quality and patient satisfaction. These findings have implications for researchers and hospitals looking for a quick and widely available measure of these traditional indicators.

  15. ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING OF SRS WASTE TANKS TO IMPROVE ACTINIDE SOLUBILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudisill, T.; Thompson, M.

    2011-09-20

    Processes for the removal of residual sludge from SRS waste tanks have historically used solutions containing up to 0.9 M oxalic acid to dissolve the remaining material following sludge removal. The selection of this process was based on a comparison of a number of studies performed to evaluate the dissolution of residual sludge. In contrast, the dissolution of the actinide mass, which represents a very small fraction of the waste, has not been extensively studied. The Pu, Np, and Am in the sludge is reported to be present as hydrated and crystalline oxides. To identify aqueous solutions which have the potential to increase the solubility of the actinides, the alkaline and mildly acidic test solutions shown below were selected as candidates for use in a series of solubility experiments. The efficiency of the solutions in solubilizing the actinides was evaluated using a simulated sludge prepared by neutralizing a HNO{sub 3} solution containing Pu, Np, and Am. The hydroxide concentration was adjusted to a 1.2 M excess and the solids were allowed to age for several weeks prior to starting the experiments. The sludge was washed with 0.01 M NaOH to prepare the solids for use. Following the addition of an equal portion of the solids to each test solution, the concentrations of Pu, Np, and Am were measured as a function of time over a 792 h (33 day) period to provide a direct comparison of the efficiency of each solution in solubilizing the actinide elements. Although the composition of the sludge was limited to the hydrated actinide oxides (and did not contain other components of demonstrated importance), the results of the study provides guidance for the selection of solutions which should be evaluated in subsequent tests with a more realistic surrogate sludge and actual tank waste.

  16. Related Measures on Improving the Teaching Quality of DGED Course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yi; SHAN Hong-bo; WANG Xiao-hong; YU Hai-yan; GE Bin

    2013-01-01

    Engineering Drawing course is one of the main contents of teaching at most of science and engineering colleges or univer-sities. In this paper, some feasible measures is discussed on improving the teaching quality of Engineering Drawing course from four aspects, including diversified teacher participation and coordinating the teaching process, optimizing the content of teaching and im-proving teaching quality, improving teaching effect and reforming teaching methods, and integrating practice and cultivating practi-cal ability.

  17. Measurements and prediction of inhaled air quality with personalized ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Radim; Majer, M.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the performance of five different air terminal devices for personalized ventilation in relation to the quality of air inhaled by a breathing thermal manikin in a climate chamber. The personalized air was supplied either isothermally or non-isothermally (6 deg.C cooler than...... the room air) at flow rates ranging from less than 5 L/s up to 23 L/s. The air quality assessment was based on temperature measurements of the inhaled air and on the portion of the personalized air inhaled. The percentage of dissatisfied with the air quality was predicted. The results suggest...

  18. Determining the quality of water in environmental measuring technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonfig, K.W.; Kramp, E.

    1983-11-01

    The present high degree of pollution of our water resources due to environmental effects endangers the natural cleaning processes. With the growing demand for water from domestic, industrial and other users, certain minimum requirements must be postulated for the quality of water returned to the natural circuit. This requires continuous control and monitoring of the quality of water in many industrial and community areas, such as water treatment plants, for example. Measuring processes and equipment are used to an increasing degree here. This article reports on processes for determining important parameters for the quality of water. Processes with and without treatment of samples are mentioned.

  19. Measurement system as a subsystem of the quality management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubica Floreková

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Each measurement system and a control principle must be based on certain facts about the system behaviour (what, operation (how and structure (why. Each system is distributed into subsystems that provide an input for the next subsystem. For each system, start is important the begin, that means system characteristics, collecting of data, its hierarchy and the processes distribution.A measurement system (based on the chapter 8 of the standard ISO 9001:2000 Quality management system, requirements defines the measurement, analysis and improvement for each organization in order to present the products conformity, the quality management system conformity guarantee and for the continuously permanent improvement of effectivity, efficiency and economy of quality management system.

  20. Quality Measures for Dialysis: Time for a Balanced Scorecard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliger, Alan S

    2016-02-05

    Recent federal legislation establishes a merit-based incentive payment system for physicians, with a scorecard for each professional. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services evaluate quality of care with clinical performance measures and have used these metrics for public reporting and payment to dialysis facilities. Similar metrics may be used for the future merit-based incentive payment system. In nephrology, most clinical performance measures measure processes and intermediate outcomes of care. These metrics were developed from population studies of best practice and do not identify opportunities for individualizing care on the basis of patient characteristics and individual goals of treatment. The In-Center Hemodialysis (ICH) Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) survey examines patients' perception of care and has entered the arena to evaluate quality of care. A balanced scorecard of quality performance should include three elements: population-based best clinical practice, patient perceptions, and individually crafted patient goals of care.

  1. MEASURABILITY OF ORAL SPEECH SAMPLE AS A TEST QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Petrashchuk

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The article deals with the problem of measurability of oral speech sample as a test quality.Provision of this quality is required for reliability of assessment speaking skills. The main focus is on specificnature of speaking skill including its mental, communication and social aspects. Assessment of speakingskills is analyzed through prism of descriptors of rating scales proposed in ICAO documents. Method of oralproficiency interview is applied to obtain an oral speech sample measurable against the scales. Themeasurability of oral speech sample is considered as a Speaking Test quality alongside with other testqualities such as validity and reliability.Keywords: aviation english language proficiency, ICAO rating scale, measurability of oral speechperformance, oral speech sample, speaking skill.

  2. First ionization potential of the heaviest actinide lawrencium, element 103

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tetsuya K.; Asai, Masato; Borschevsky, Anastasia; Stora, Thierry; Sato, Nozomi; Kaneya, Yusuke; Tsukada, Kazuaki; Düllmann, Christoph E.; Eberhardt, Klaus; Eliav, Ephraim; Ichikawa, Shinichi; Kaldor, Uzi; Kratz, Jens V.; Miyashita, Sunao; Nagame, Yuichiro; Ooe, Kazuhiro; Osa, Akihiko; Renisch, Dennis; Runke, Jörg; Schädel, Matthias; Thörle-Pospiech, Petra; Toyoshima, Atsushi; Trautmann, Norbert

    2016-12-01

    The first ionization potential (IP1) of element 103, lawrencium (Lr), has been successfully determined for the first time by using a newly developed method based on a surface ionization process. The measured IP1 value is 4.963 eV. This value is the smallest among those of actinide elements and is in excellent agreement with the value of 4.963(15) eV predicted by state-of-the-art relativistic calculations also performed in this work. Our results strongly support that the Lr atom has an electronic configuration of [Rn]7s25f147p, which is influenced by strong relativistic effects. The present work provides a reliable benchmark for theoretical calculations and also opens the way for studies on atomic properties of heavy elements with atomic number Z > 100. Moreover, the present achievement has triggered a controversy on the position of lutetium (Lu) and Lr in the Periodic Table of Elements.

  3. Chemistry of tetravalent actinides phosphates. The thorium phosphate-diphosphate as immobilisation matrix of actinides; Chimie des phosphates d'actinides tetravalents. Le phosphate-diphosphate de thorium en tant que matrice d'imobilisation des actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dacheux, N

    2002-07-01

    The author presents in this document its scientific works from 1992 to 2001, in order to obtain the enabling to manage scientific and chemical researches at the university Paris Sud Orsay. The first part gives an abstract of the thesis on the characterizations, lixiviation and synthesis of uranium and thorium based phosphate matrix in the framework of the search for a ceramic material usable in the radioactive waste storage. The second part presents briefly the researches realized at the CEA, devoted to a reliable, independent and accurate measure of some isotopes activity. The last part presents the abstracts of researches activities from 1996 to 2001 on the tetravalent actinides phosphates chemistry, the sintering of PDT and solid solutions of PDTU and the kinetic and thermodynamical studies of the PDT dissolution. Many references and some publication in full text are provided. (A.L.B.)

  4. Influence of FIMA burnup on actinides concentrations in PWR reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oettingen Mikołaj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we present the study on the dependence of actinides concentrations in the spent nuclear fuel on FIMA burnup. The concentrations of uranium, plutonium, americium and curium isotopes obtained in numerical simulation are compared with the result of the post irradiation assay of two spent fuel samples. The samples were cut from the fuel rod irradiated during two reactor cycles in the Japanese Ohi-2 Pressurized Water Reactor. The performed comparative analysis assesses the reliability of the developed numerical set-up, especially in terms of the system normalization to the measured FIMA burnup. The numerical simulations were preformed using the burnup and radiation transport mode of the Monte Carlo Continuous Energy Burnup Code – MCB, developed at the Department of Nuclear Energy, Faculty of Energy and Fuels of AGH University of Science and Technology.

  5. Research in actinide chemistry. Progress report, 1990--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choppin, G.R.

    1993-04-01

    This research studies the behavior of the actinide elements in aqueous solution. The high radioactivity of the transuranium actinides limits the concentrations which can be studied and, consequently, limits the experimental techniques. However, oxidation state analogs (trivalent lanthanides, tetravalent thorium, and hexavalent uranium) do not suffer from these limitations. Behavior of actinides in the environment are a major USDOE concern, whether in connection with long-term releases from a repository, releases from stored defense wastes or accidental releases in reprocessing, etc. Principal goal of our research was expand the thermodynamic data base on complexation of actinides by natural ligands (e.g., OH{sup {minus}}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3{minus}}, humates). The research undertakes fundamental studies of actinide complexes which can increase understanding of the environmental behavior of these elements.

  6. Quality improvement education to improve performance on ulcerative colitis quality measures and care processes aligned with National Quality Strategy priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Laurence; Moreo, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Studies on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have reported suboptimal approaches to patient care. In the United States, the findings have motivated leading gastroenterology organizations to call for initiatives that support clinicians in aligning their practices with quality measures for IBD and priorities of the National Quality Strategy (NQS). We designed and implemented a quality improvement (QI) education program on ulcerative colitis in which patient charts were audited for 30 gastroenterologists before (n = 300 charts) and after (n = 290 charts) they participated in QI-focused educational activities. Charts were audited for nine measures, selected for their alignment with four NQS priorities: making care safer, ensuring patient engagement, promoting communication, and promoting effective treatment practices. Four of the measures, including guideline-directed vaccinations and assessments of disease type and activity, were part of the CMS Physician Quality Reporting System (PQRS). The other five measures involved counseling patients on various topics in ulcerative colitis management, documentation of side effects, assessment of adherence status, and simplification of dosing. The gastroenterologists also completed baseline and post-education surveys designed to assess qualitative outcomes. One of the educational interventions was a private audit feedback session conducted for each gastroenterologist. The sessions were designed to support participants in identifying measures reflecting suboptimal care quality and developing action plans for improvement. In continuous improvement cycles, follow-up interventions included QI tools and educational monographs. Across the nine chart variables, post-education improvements ranged from 0% to 48%, with a mean improvement of 15.9%. Survey findings revealed improvements in self-reported understanding of quality measures and intentions to apply them to practice, and lower rates of perceived significant barriers to high-quality

  7. In situ measurement of ceramic vacuum chamber conductive coating quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doose, C.; Harkay, K.; Kim, S.; Milton, S.

    1997-08-01

    A method for measuring the relative surface resistivity and quality of conductive coatings on ceramic vacuum chambers was developed. This method is unique in that it allows one to test the coating even after the ceramic chamber is installed in the accelerator and under vacuum; furthermore, the measurement provides a localized surface reading of the coating conductance. The method uses a magnetic probe is calibrated using the measured DC end-to-end resistance of the tube under test and by comparison to a high quality test surface. The measurement method has also been verified by comparison to high frequency impedance measurements. A detailed description, results, and sensitivity of the technique are given here.

  8. Detailed studies of Minor Actinide transmutation-incineration in high-intensity neutron fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringer, O. [CEA/Saclay/DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Al Mahamid, I. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, E.H. and S. Div., CA (United States); Blandin, C. [CEA/Cadarache/DEN/DER/SPEX, Saint-Paul-lez-Durances (France); Chabod, S. [CEA/Saclay/DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Chartier, F. [CEA/Cadarache/DEN/DPC/SECR, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dupont, E.; Fioni, G. [CEA/Saclay/DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Isnard, H. [CEA/Cadarache/DEN/DPC/SECR, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Letourneau, A.; Marie, F. [CEA/Saclay/DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Mutti, P. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France); Oriol, L. [CEA/Cadarache/DEN/DER/SPEX, Saint-Paul-lez-Durances (France); Panebianco, S.; Veyssiere, C. [CEA/Saclay/DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2006-07-01

    The Mini-INCA project is dedicated to the measurement of incineration-transmutation chains and potentials of minor actinides in high-intensity thermal neutron fluxes. In this context, new types of detectors and methods of analysis have been developed. The {sup 241}Am and {sup 232}Th transmutation-incineration chains have been studied and several capture and fission cross sections measured very precisely, showing some discrepancies with existing data or evaluated data. An impact study was made on different based-like GEN-IV reactors. It underlines the necessity to proceed to precise measurements for a large number of minor-actinides that contribute to these future incineration scenarios. (authors)

  9. Calculated Bulk Properties of the Actinide Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Andersen, O. K.; Johansson, B.

    1978-01-01

    Self-consistent relativistic calculations of the electronic properties for seven actinides (Ac-Am) have been performed using the linear muffin-tin orbitals method within the atomic-sphere approximation. Exchange and correlation were included in the local spin-density scheme. The theory explains...... the variation of the atomic volume and the bulk modulus through the 5f series in terms of an increasing 5f binding up to plutonium followed by a sudden localisation (through complete spin polarisation) in americium...

  10. Actinide management with commercial fast reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohki, Shigeo [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002, Narita-cho, O-arai-machi, Higashi-Ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan)

    2015-12-31

    The capability of plutonium-breeding and minor-actinide (MA) transmutation in the Japanese commercial sodium-cooled fast reactor offers one of practical solutions for obtaining sustainable energy resources as well as reducing radioactive toxicity and inventory. The reference core design meets the requirement of flexible breeding ratio from 1.03 to 1.2. The MA transmutation amount has been evaluated as 50-100 kg/GW{sub e}y if the MA content in fresh fuel is 3-5 wt%, where about 30-40% of initial MA can be transmuted in the discharged fuel.

  11. Electronic structure and magnetism in actinide compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durakiewicz, T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)]. E-mail: tomasz@lanl.gov; Joyce, J.J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Lander, G.H. [JRC, Institute of Transuranium Elements, Postfach 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Olson, C.G. [Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 5011 (United States); Butterfield, M.T. [Lawrence Livermoore National Laboratory, Livermoore, CA 94550 (United States); Guziewicz, E. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Batista, C.D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Arko, A.J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Morales, L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Mattenberger, K. [Laboratorium fur Festkorperphysik, ETH, CH-8093, Zurich (Switzerland); Vogt, O. [Laboratorium fur Festkorperphysik, ETH, CH-8093, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2006-05-01

    A close relationship between electronic structure and magnetic properties is observed in actinide compounds. The exact nature of this relationship is under investigation. We present examples of a direct link between electronic structure and ordered magnetic moment and/or magnetization. Specifically, results obtained for cubic U, Np and Pu compounds and quasi-2D U compounds are be presented. In the case of cubic compounds, a direct relationship between binding energy of valence band features and magnetic moment will be discussed. A Stoner-like mechanism and simple mean-field explanation is proposed for ferromagnetic UTe.

  12. Calculated Bulk Properties of the Actinide Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Andersen, O. K.; Johansson, B.

    1978-01-01

    Self-consistent relativistic calculations of the electronic properties for seven actinides (Ac-Am) have been performed using the linear muffin-tin orbitals method within the atomic-sphere approximation. Exchange and correlation were included in the local spin-density scheme. The theory explains t...... the variation of the atomic volume and the bulk modulus through the 5f series in terms of an increasing 5f binding up to plutonium followed by a sudden localisation (through complete spin polarisation) in americium...

  13. Actinide management with commercial fast reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohki, Shigeo

    2015-12-01

    The capability of plutonium-breeding and minor-actinide (MA) transmutation in the Japanese commercial sodium-cooled fast reactor offers one of practical solutions for obtaining sustainable energy resources as well as reducing radioactive toxicity and inventory. The reference core design meets the requirement of flexible breeding ratio from 1.03 to 1.2. The MA transmutation amount has been evaluated as 50-100 kg/GWey if the MA content in fresh fuel is 3-5 wt%, where about 30-40% of initial MA can be transmuted in the discharged fuel.

  14. Challenges in quality of environmental measurements for compliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, M.G.

    1994-04-07

    Quality systems development in environmental measurements for compliance with regulatory requirements for nuclear and other contaminants in the environment is one of the major challenges in current technology disciplines. Efforts to fulfill the mission and objectives of funded projects will not be successful on a timely and cost-effective schedule without adequate plans and credible action for the protection of workers, facilities, and the public in environment, safety, and health aspects. This can be accomplished through quality assurance planning and implementation of an effective, controlled environmental measurements program.

  15. Measuring service life and evaluating the quality of solid tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charoenyut Dechwayukul

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to propose procedures for measuring service life and evaluating the quality of locallymade and used solid tires in Thailand. The solid tires were stressed and rotated until blowout on a drum-like test apparatuswhich is designed, constructed by the authors and equipped with laboratory instrumentation. Solid tires from five differentmanufacturers were selected for testing. We measured service life, length of time to tire failure, at three different loadingamplitudes and three different speeds on the testing drum. The service life of all specimens was studied and compared todetermine the possibility of using service life to evaluate the quality of a solid tire.

  16. A standard for measuring metadata quality in spectral libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasaiah, B.; Jones, S. D.; Bellman, C.

    2013-12-01

    A standard for measuring metadata quality in spectral libraries Barbara Rasaiah, Simon Jones, Chris Bellman RMIT University Melbourne, Australia barbara.rasaiah@rmit.edu.au, simon.jones@rmit.edu.au, chris.bellman@rmit.edu.au ABSTRACT There is an urgent need within the international remote sensing community to establish a metadata standard for field spectroscopy that ensures high quality, interoperable metadata sets that can be archived and shared efficiently within Earth observation data sharing systems. Metadata are an important component in the cataloguing and analysis of in situ spectroscopy datasets because of their central role in identifying and quantifying the quality and reliability of spectral data and the products derived from them. This paper presents approaches to measuring metadata completeness and quality in spectral libraries to determine reliability, interoperability, and re-useability of a dataset. Explored are quality parameters that meet the unique requirements of in situ spectroscopy datasets, across many campaigns. Examined are the challenges presented by ensuring that data creators, owners, and data users ensure a high level of data integrity throughout the lifecycle of a dataset. Issues such as field measurement methods, instrument calibration, and data representativeness are investigated. The proposed metadata standard incorporates expert recommendations that include metadata protocols critical to all campaigns, and those that are restricted to campaigns for specific target measurements. The implication of semantics and syntax for a robust and flexible metadata standard are also considered. Approaches towards an operational and logistically viable implementation of a quality standard are discussed. This paper also proposes a way forward for adapting and enhancing current geospatial metadata standards to the unique requirements of field spectroscopy metadata quality. [0430] BIOGEOSCIENCES / Computational methods and data processing [0480

  17. Pitfalls of converting practice guidelines into quality measures: lessons learned from a VA performance measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Louise C; Davidowitz, Natalie P; Heineken, Paul A; Covinsky, Kenneth E

    2004-05-26

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) manages the largest health care system in the United States, and the Institute of Medicine has recommended that many practices of VA quality measurement be applied to the US health care system as a whole. The VA measures quality of care at all of its sites by assessing adherence rates to performance measures, which generally are derived from evidence-based practice guidelines. Higher adherence rates are used as evidence of better quality of care. However, there are problems with converting practice guidelines, intended to offer guidance to clinicians, into performance measures that are meant to identify poor-quality care. We suggest a more balanced perspective on the use of performance measures to define quality by delineating conceptual problems with the conversion of practice guidelines into quality measures. Focusing on colorectal cancer screening, we use a case study at 1 VA facility to illustrate pitfalls that can cause adherence rates to guideline-based performance measures to be poor indicators of the quality of cancer screening. Pitfalls identified included (1) not properly considering illness severity of the sample population audited for adherence to screening, (2) not distinguishing screening from diagnostic procedures when setting achievable target screening rates, and (3) not accounting for patient preferences or clinician judgment when scoring performance measures. For many patients with severe comorbid illnesses or strong preferences against screening, the risks of colorectal cancer screening outweigh the benefits, and the decision to not screen may reflect good quality of care. Performance measures require more thoughtful specification and interpretation to avoid defining high testing rates as good quality of care regardless of who received the test, why it was performed, or whether the patient wanted it.

  18. DUQuE quality management measures: associations between quality management at hospital and pathway levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Cordula; Groene, Oliver; Thompson, Caroline A.; Dersarkissian, Maral; Klazinga, Niek S.; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Suñol, Rosa; Klazinga, N; Kringos, DS; Lombarts, K; Plochg, T; Lopez, MA; Secanell, M; Sunol, R; Vallejo, P; Bartels, P; Kristensen, S; Michel, P; Saillour-Glenisson, F; Vlcek, F; Car, M; Jones, S; Klaus, E; Garel, P; Hanslik, K; Saluvan, M; Bruneau, C; Depaigne-Loth, A; Shaw, C; Hammer, A; Ommen, O; Pfaff, H; Groene, O; Botje, D; Wagner, C; Kutaj-Wasikowska, H; Kutryba, B; Escoval, A; Franca, M; Almeman, F; Kus, H; Ozturk, K; Mannion, R; Arah, OA; Chow, A; DerSarkissian, M; Thompson, C; Wang, A; Thompson, A

    2014-01-01

    Objective The assessment of integral quality management (QM) in a hospital requires measurement and monitoring from different perspectives and at various levels of care delivery. Within the DUQuE project (Deepening our Understanding of Quality improvement in Europe), seven measures for QM were developed. This study investigates the relationships between the various quality measures. Design It is a multi-level, cross-sectional, mixed-method study. Setting and Participants As part of the DUQuE project, we invited a random sample of 74 hospitals in 7 countries. The quality managers of these hospitals were the main respondents. Furthermore, data of site visits of external surveyors assessing the participating hospitals were used. Main Outcome Measures Three measures of QM at hospitals level focusing on integral systems (QMSI), compliance with the Plan-Do-Study-Act quality improvement cycle (QMCI) and implementation of clinical quality (CQII). Four measures of QM activities at care pathway level focusing on Specialized expertise and responsibility (SER), Evidence-based organization of pathways (EBOP), Patient safety strategies (PSS) and Clinical review (CR). Results Positive significant associations were found between the three hospitals level QM measures. Results of the relationships between levels were mixed and showed most associations between QMCI and department-level QM measures for all four types of departments. QMSI was associated with PSS in all types of departments. Conclusion By using the seven measures of QM, it is possible to get a more comprehensive picture of the maturity of QM in hospitals, with regard to the different levels and across various types of hospital departments. PMID:24615597

  19. Pyrometallurgical process of actinide metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jae Hyung; Kang, Young Ho; Woo, Mun Sik; Hwang, Sung Chan

    1999-06-01

    Major subject on pyrometallurgical partitioning technology is to separate transmutation elements (TRU) from rare earth elements(RE). Distribution coefficients of TRU and RE between molten chloride and liquid cadmium were measured for reductive extraction, and TRU were separated from RE in simplified molten chloride system by electrorefining. And separation efficiency between TRU and RE were estimated by using thermodynamics data. The results indicate that uranium, neptunium and plutonium are easy to separate from RE but some amount of RE accompany americium, and that processes have to be optimized to attain good separation efficiency of TRU. (author)

  20. Measuring quality of life in Macedonia - using human development indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar Eftimoski

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available By the end of the 1980s, the central issue of development was focused on the growth of income and not on the growth of quality of life. Therefore, the development strategies were oriented towards production and left no significant space for improving the welfare of individuals.In the beginning of the 1990s, the human development concept emerged, stressing that economic development ultimately should result in growth of quality of life of individuals, while the goal of the development process was to expand the capabilities of individuals by placing them in the focus of the efforts for development.This paper if focused on the quality of life of the individuals. Moreover, in addition to the previous practice in Macedonia of calculating the human development index (HDI - as a measure of quality of life, an attempt will be made to calculate the humanpoverty index (HPI-2 - as a measure of non-income poverty, gender development index (GDI - as a measure of inequality between men and women, as well as the human development index at the level of aggregated urban and rural municipalities.We hope that it will contribute to the improvement of the quality of decisions made by the state and local authorities in Macedonia when it comes to issues concerning the human development.

  1. Gamma ray spectroscopy of neutron-rich actinides after multi-nucleon transfer reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, Andreas; Birkenbach, Benedikt; Reiter, Peter; Hess, Herbert; Lewandowski, Lars; Steinbach, Tim [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet zu Koeln (Germany); Collaboration: LNL 11.22-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    Excited states in neutron-rich Th and U nuclei were investigated after multi-nucleon transfer reactions employing the AGATA demonstrator and PRISMA setup at LNL (INFN, Italy). A primary {sup 136}Xe beam of 1 GeV hitting a {sup 238}U target was used to produce the nuclei of interest in the actinide region. Beam-like reaction products in the Xe-Ba-region were identified and selected by the PRISMA spectrometer. Kinematic coincidences between the binary reaction products of beam-like and target-like nuclei are detected with an additional MCP detector. Those coincidences allow clean conditions for in-beam γ-ray spectroscopy. Background contributions from excited fission fragments are successfully discriminated. γ-rays from excited states in beam- and target-like particles were measured with the position sensitive AGATA HPGe detectors. Improved energy resolution after Doppler correction is based on the novel γ-ray tracking technique which was successfully exploited to increase the quality of the γ-spectra. γ-ray spectra of the produced beam-like isotopes in the one-proton and two-proton transfer channels will be presented. Corresponding results from the hard-to-reach neutron-rich isotopes beyond {sup 232}Th will focus on their collective properties and cross section limits for their production.

  2. Quality and noise measurements in mobile phone video capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, Doina; Pincenti, John

    2011-02-01

    The quality of videos captured with mobile phones has become increasingly important particularly since resolutions and formats have reached a level that rivals the capabilities available in the digital camcorder market, and since many mobile phones now allow direct playback on large HDTVs. The video quality is determined by the combined quality of the individual parts of the imaging system including the image sensor, the digital color processing, and the video compression, each of which has been studied independently. In this work, we study the combined effect of these elements on the overall video quality. We do this by evaluating the capture under various lighting, color processing, and video compression conditions. First, we measure full reference quality metrics between encoder input and the reconstructed sequence, where the encoder input changes with light and color processing modifications. Second, we introduce a system model which includes all elements that affect video quality, including a low light additive noise model, ISP color processing, as well as the video encoder. Our experiments show that in low light conditions and for certain choices of color processing the system level visual quality may not improve when the encoder becomes more capable or the compression ratio is reduced.

  3. Measurement of the perceived quality of a product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maire J.-L.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For some companies, visual inspection has become an essential step when seeking to improve the quality of their products. The aim of this control is to be sure of the perceived quality of the product, which often goes well beyond the quality expected by the customer. For this type of control, the controller should be able to detect any anomaly on a product, characterize this anomaly, and then evaluate it in order to decide if the product should be accepted or rejected. This paper describes how this characterization can be carried out and, more specifically, how to measure the impact of the local environment of an anomaly on the perceived quality of the product.

  4. Sewage water quality measuring technology. Josuido suishitsu keisoku gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urushibara, S.; Sato, S.; Fukuoka, M. (Meidensha Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-07-01

    This paper describes a new bubble-cleaning dissolved oxygen analyzer with improved maintainability as a sewage water quality measuring instrument, and a sludge activity measuring instrument to measure new water quality control items for managing and controlling microorganisms. The bubble-cleaning dissolved oxygen analyzer uses a tip-detecting polarographic electrode, and has excellent maintainability because of its bubble cleaning mechanism. Since output rise resulted from the bubble cleaning is as very small as about 0.2 mg/l, continuous cleaning is possible while a measurement is continued. The continuous cleaning provides high cleaning effect because microorganism film deposition can be prevented constantly. The sludge activity measuring instrument measures automatically adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to evaluate activities in microorganisms quickly and accurately. The ATP measurement utilizes organismic luminous reaction, and performs the measurement automatically from the sample extraction to the luminous measurement by simply fractioning the test samples into test tubes. The instrument can also estimate using ATP such biomasses as MLVSS and BOD, of which measurement consumes a large amount of time. 2 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Measures to improve the quality of hotel services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca MADAR

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to exemplify how, starting from the evaluation of customer satisfaction on service quality, the hotel units’ management, can apply different measures and strategies to improve it. To achieve the target, a marketing research survey is conducted based on a sample of 120 customers of Hotel „Kronwell” at the end of 2013. After analysing customer’ responses a series of measures have been taken to improve the quality of services offered by this hotel, then at the end of 2015 a new research was achieved, based on the same questionnaire. The results of this research highlight the increasing of customer satisfaction as a result of improving the quality of hotel services, supported by growth in net profit, turnover and decrease of employees’ number.

  6. Results from power quality measurements in Germany - An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdes, G.J.; Santjer, F. [German Wind Energy Inst, Wilhelmshaven (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Grid interferences caused by wind turbines (WT) are getting a severe problem in Germany with the fast increasing number of installed turbines. The wind energy capacity was doubled annually in the past three years. The actual situation and the plannings for the next years will lead to a situation, where high wind energy penetration will exercise a big influence on the power and voltage quality of local utility networks. Measurements performed in Germany according to a national guideline show a big variety in power quality performance of WT`s, which does affect the requirements for grid connection and thus the economical situation of wind energy projects to a large extent. The results from more than 25 power quality measurements will be discussed in this paper. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Measures of quality of process models created in BPMN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Hronza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Description, documentation, evaluation and redesign of key processes during their execution should be an essential part of the strategic management of any organization. All organizations live in a dynamically changing environment. Therefore they must adapt its internal processes to market changes. These processes must be described. Suitable way of description could be BPMN notation. Right after description of processes via BPMN, processes should be controlled to ensure expected of their quality. System (which could be automated based on mathematical expression of qualitative characteristics of process models (i.e. measures of quality of process models can support mentioned process controls. Research team trying to design and get into practical use such a tool. The aim of this publication is description of mentioned system – based on measures of the quality of process models - and answer associated scientific questions.

  8. Aircraft Transparency Optical Quality: New Methods of Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    AFAMRL.TR-1-21 X AIRCRAFT TRANSPARENCY OPTICAL QUALITY: NEW METHODS OF MEASUREMENT LOUIS V. GENCO , O.D., Lt. Colonel HARRY L. TASK, Ph.D. FEBRUARY...aircraft transparency with simple modifications of a positioning fixture ( Genco , 1979). DESIRABLE CHARACTERISTICS The ideal field evaluation unit for...34Windscreen Angular Deviation Measurement Device," U.S. Air Force Invention No. 13647, Patent Pending. Task, Harry L., Louis V. Genco , and Kenneth L. Smith

  9. Measuring patient satisfaction for the Quality and Outcomes Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Hankins, Matthew; Fraser, Alice; Hodson, Andrew; Hooley, Claire; Smith, Helen

    2007-01-01

    The general medical services (GMS) contract Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) awards up to 70 points for measuring patient satisfaction with either the Improving Practices Questionnaire (IPQ) or the General Practice Assessment Questionnaire (GPAQ). The usefulness of data collected depends crucially on the validity and reliability of the measurement instrument. The literature was reviewed to assess the validity and reliability of these questionnaires. The literature was searched for peer-re...

  10. Actinide Solubility and Speciation in the WIPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Donald T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-11-02

    The presentation begins with the role and need for nuclear repositories (overall concept, international updates (Sweden, Finland, France, China), US approach and current status), then moves on to the WIPP TRU repository concept (design, current status--safety incidents of February 5 and 14, 2014, path forward), and finally considers the WIPP safety case: dissolved actinide concentrations (overall approach, oxidation state distribution and redox control, solubility of actinides, colloidal contribution and microbial effects). The following conclusions are set forth: (1) International programs are moving forward, but at a very slow and somewhat sporadic pace. (2) In the United States, the Salt repository concept, from the perspective of the long-term safety case, remains a viable option for nuclear waste management despite the current operational issues/concerns. (3) Current model/PA prediction (WIPP example) are built on redundant conservatisms. These conservatisms are being addressed in the ongoing and future research to fill existing data gaps--redox control of plutonium by Fe(0, II), thorium (analog) solubility studies in simulated brine, contribution of intrinsic and biocolloids to the mobile concentration, and clarification of microbial ecology and effects.

  11. Evaluation of actinide biosorption by microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Happel, A.M.

    1996-06-01

    Conventional methods for removing metals from aqueous solutions include chemical precipitation, chemical oxidation or reduction, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, electrochemical treatment and evaporation. The removal of radionuclides from aqueous waste streams has largely relied on ion exchange methods which can be prohibitively costly given increasingly stringent regulatory effluent limits. The use of microbial cells as biosorbants for heavy metals offers a potential alternative to existing methods for decontamination or recovery of heavy metals from a variety of industrial waste streams and contaminated ground waters. The toxicity and the extreme and variable conditions present in many radionuclide containing waste streams may preclude the use of living microorganisms and favor the use of non-living biomass for the removal of actinides from these waste streams. In the work presented here, we have examined the biosorption of uranium by non-living, non-metabolizing microbial biomass thus avoiding the problems associated with living systems. We are investigating biosorption with the long term goal of developing microbial technologies for the remediation of actinides.

  12. Measuring Afterschool Program Quality Using Setting-Level Observational Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yoonkyung; Osgood, D. Wayne; Smith, Emilie P.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of afterschool hours for youth development is widely acknowledged, and afterschool settings have recently received increasing attention as an important venue for youth interventions, bringing a growing need for reliable and valid measures of afterschool quality. This study examined the extent to which the two observational tools,…

  13. Requirements for a quality measurement instrument for semantic standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, E.J.A.; Krukkert, D.; Oude Luttighuis, P.; Hillegersberg van, J. van

    2010-01-01

    This study describes requirements for an instrument to measure the quality of semantic standards. A situational requirements engineering method was used, resulting in a goal-tree in which requirements are structured. This structure shows requirements related to the input of the instrument; stating

  14. Does Input Quality Drive Measured Differences in Firm Productivity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Jeremy T.; Smeets, Valerie Anne Rolande

    2011-01-01

    One explanation for productivity dispersion is that the quality of inputs differs across firms. We add labor market history variables such as experience and firm and industry tenure, as well as general human capital measures such as schooling and sex. Adding these variables decreases the ratio of...

  15. Measuring Quality in Special Libraries: Lessons from Service Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Marilyn Domas; Abels, Eileen G.

    1995-01-01

    Surveys the service marketing literature for models and data-gathering instruments measuring service quality, particularly the instruments SERVQUAL and SERVPERF, and assesses their applicability to special libraries and information centers. Topics include service characteristics and definitions of service; performance-minus-expectations and…

  16. Quality measures for HRR alignment based ISAR imaging algorithms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Janse van Rensburg, V

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Some Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) algorithms form the image in a two-step process of range alignment and phase conjugation. This paper discusses a comprehensive set of measures used to quantify the quality of range alignment, with the aim...

  17. Questioning as formative assessment and its quality measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Hubeňáková, Veronika; Šveda, Dušan

    2015-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents the tool for measuring the quality of questioning in mathematics classes. Its construction is based on video analysis and interviews with teachers. Actually, we identified five different categories within the constructs of questioning. These rubrics have potential to be used in research and in teacher education.

  18. Standardized measurement of quality of life after incisional hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian K; Henriksen, Nadia A; Harling, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    repair. The aim of this systematic review was to analyze existing standardized methods to measure quality of life after incisional hernia repair. DATA SOURCES: A PubMed and Embase search was carried out together with a cross-reference search of eligible papers, giving a total of 26 included studies...

  19. Objective Speech Quality Measurement Using Statistical Data Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-Yip Chan

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Measuring speech quality by machines overcomes two major drawbacks of subjective listening tests, their low speed and high cost. Real-time, accurate, and economical objective measurement of speech quality opens up a wide range of applications that cannot be supported with subjective listening tests. In this paper, we propose a statistical data mining approach to design objective speech quality measurement algorithms. A large pool of perceptual distortion features is extracted from the speech signal. We examine using classification and regression trees (CART and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS, separately and jointly, to select the most salient features from the pool, and to construct good estimators of subjective listening quality based on the selected features. We show designs that use perceptually significant features and outperform the state-of-the-art objective measurement algorithm. The designed algorithms are computationally simple, making them suitable for real-time implementation. The proposed design method is scalable with the amount of learning data; thus, performance can be improved with more offline or online training.

  20. Pu-doped zirconolite for minor actinide containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deschanels, X.; Broudic, V.; Jegou, C.; Peuget, S.; Roudil, D.; Jorion, F.; Advocat, T

    2004-07-01

    Zirconolite is a potential matrix for the immobilization of the minor actinides stream produced by the reprocessing of the spent fuel. In order to check the incorporation of actinide into the structure, zirconolite ceramic pellets doped with 10 wt% in {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} were sintered. Characterization by SEM, XRD and XANES spectroscopy have been done on this material. The microstructural homogeneity of the pellets is good, and their relative density is higher than 90% of the theoretical density. XANES spectroscopy shows that Pu is at the oxidation state IV in this material. To investigate the effects of radiation damage on zirconolite structure, pellets doped with 10 wt% of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} were fabricated. The {sup 238}Pu accelerates the radiation damage relative to the {sup 239}Pu because of its much higher specific activity (63.2 x 10{sup 10} Bq/g for {sup 238}Pu vs. 2.2 x 10{sup 9} Bq/g for {sup 238}Pu). Some pellets are storing at ambient, 250 deg. C and 500 deg C. Up 10{sup 19} {alpha}/cm{sup 3}, the macroscopic swelling of the samples stored at ambient is about 0.5% by 10{sup 18} {alpha}/cm{sup 3}, and the microscopic one near 0.35% by 10{sup 18} {alpha}/cm{sup 3}. Some microcracks are observed on these pellets. The samples started to become amorphous at 10{sup 19} {alpha}/cm{sup 3}. The swelling strongly decreases with the storage temperature of the samples. The leaching rate of {sup 239}Pu doped ceramics measured by Soxhlet tests at 100 deg. C in deionized water appears to be the same as inactive material. (authors)

  1. The Role of Measurement Quality on Practical Guidelines for Assessing Measurement and Structural Invariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yoonjeong; McNeish, Daniel M.; Hancock, Gregory R.

    2016-01-01

    Although differences in goodness-of-fit indices (?GOFs) have been advocated for assessing measurement invariance, studies that advanced recommended differential cutoffs for adjudicating invariance actually utilized a very limited range of values representing the quality of indicator variables (i.e., magnitude of loadings). Because quality of…

  2. MOLECULAR SPECTROSCPY AND REACTIONS OF ACTINIDES IN THE GAS PHASE AND CRYOGENIC MATRICES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaven, Michael C.; Gibson, John K.; Marcalo, Joaquim

    2009-02-01

    In this chapter we review the spectroscopic data for actinide molecules and the reaction dynamics for atomic and molecular actinides that have been examined in the gas phase or in inert cryogenic matrices. The motivation for this type of investigation is that physical properties and reactions can be studied in the absence of external perturbations (gas phase) or under minimally perturbing conditions (cryogenic matrices). This information can be compared directly with the results from high-level theoretical models. The interplay between experiment and theory is critically important for advancing our understanding of actinide chemistry. For example, elucidation of the role of the 5f electrons in bonding and reactivity can only be achieved through the application of experimentally verified theoretical models. Theoretical calculations for the actinides are challenging due the large numbers of electrons that must be treated explicitly and the presence of strong relativistic effects. This topic has been reviewed in depth in Chapter 17 of this series. One of the goals of the experimental work described in this chapter has been to provide benchmark data that can be used to evaluate both empirical and ab initio theoretical models. While gas-phase data are the most suitable for comparison with theoretical calculations, there are technical difficulties entailed in generating workable densities of gas-phase actinide molecules that have limited the range of species that have been characterized. Many of the compounds of interest are refractory, and problems associated with the use of high temperature vapors have complicated measurements of spectra, ionization energies, and reactions. One approach that has proved to be especially valuable in overcoming this difficulty has been the use of pulsed laser ablation to generate plumes of vapor from refractory actinide-containing materials. The vapor is entrained in an inert gas, which can be used to cool the actinide species to room

  3. Hospital value-based purchasing (VBP) program: measurement of quality and enforcement of quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szablowski, Katarzyna M

    2014-01-01

    VBP program is a novel medicare payment estimatin tool used to encourage clinical care quality improvement as well as improvement of patient experience as a customer of a health care system. The program utilizes well established tools of measuring clinical care quality and patient satisfaction such as the hospital IQR program and HCAHPS survey to estimate Medicare payments and encourage hospitals to continuosly improve the level of care they provide.

  4. Separation of actinides from spent nuclear fuel: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veliscek-Carolan, Jessica

    2016-11-15

    This review summarises the methods currently available to extract radioactive actinide elements from solutions of spent nuclear fuel. This separation of actinides reduces the hazards associated with spent nuclear fuel, such as its radiotoxicity, volume and the amount of time required for its' radioactivity to return to naturally occurring levels. Separation of actinides from environmental water systems is also briefly discussed. The actinide elements typically found in spent nuclear fuel include uranium, plutonium and the minor actinides (americium, neptunium and curium). Separation methods for uranium and plutonium are reasonably well established. On the other hand separation of the minor actinides from lanthanide fission products also present in spent nuclear fuel is an ongoing challenge and an area of active research. Several separation methods for selective removal of these actinides from spent nuclear fuel will be described. These separation methods include solvent extraction, which is the most commonly used method for radiochemical separations, as well as the less developed but promising use of adsorption and ion-exchange materials.

  5. Thin extractive membrane for monitoring actinides in aqueous streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Vivek; Paul, Sumana; Pandey, Ashok K; Kalsi, P C; Goswami, A

    2013-09-15

    Alpha spectrometry and solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) are used for monitoring ultra-trace amount of alpha emitting actinides in different aqueous streams. However, these techniques have limitations i.e. alpha spectrometry requires a preconcentration step and SSNTDs are not chemically selective. Therefore, a thin polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) supported on silanized glass was developed for preconcentraion and determination of ultra-trace concentration of actinides by α-spectrometry and SSNTDs. PIMs were formed by spin coating on hydrophobic glass slide or solvent casting to form thin and self-supported membranes, respectively. Sorption experiments indicated that uptakes of actinides in the PIM were highly dependent on acidity of solution i.e. Am(III) sorbed up to 0.1 molL(-1) HNO₃, U(VI) up to 0.5 molL(-1) HNO₃ and Pu(IV) from HNO₃ concentration as high as 4 molL(-1). A scheme was developed for selective sorption of target actinide in the PIM by adjusting acidity and oxidation state of actinide. The actinides sorbed in PIMs were quantified by alpha spectrometry and SSNTDs. For SSNTDs, neutron induced fission-fragment tracks and α-particle tracks were registered in Garware polyester and CR-39 for quantifications of natural uranium and α-emitting actinides ((241)Am/(239)Pu/(233)U), respectively. Finally, the membranes were tested to quantify Pu in 4 molL(-1) HNO3 solutions and synthetic urine samples.

  6. Applying revised gap analysis model in measuring hotel service quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Cheng; Wang, Yu-Che; Chien, Chih-Hung; Wu, Chia-Huei; Lu, Shu-Chiung; Tsai, Sang-Bing; Dong, Weiwei

    2016-01-01

    With the number of tourists coming to Taiwan growing by 10-20 % since 2010, the number has increased due to an increasing number of foreign tourists, particularly after deregulation allowed admitting tourist groups, followed later on by foreign individual tourists, from mainland China. The purpose of this study is to propose a revised gap model to evaluate and improve service quality in Taiwanese hotel industry. Thus, service quality could be clearly measured through gap analysis, which was more effective for offering direction in developing and improving service quality. The HOLSERV instrument was used to identify and analyze service gaps from the perceptions of internal and external customers. The sample for this study included three main categories of respondents: tourists, employees, and managers. The results show that five gaps influenced tourists' evaluations of service quality. In particular, the study revealed that Gap 1 (management perceptions vs. customer expectations) and Gap 9 (service provider perceptions of management perceptions vs. service delivery) were more critical than the others in affecting perceived service quality, making service delivery the main area of improvement. This study contributes toward an evaluation of the service quality of the Taiwanese hotel industry from the perspectives of customers, service providers, and managers, which is considerably valuable for hotel managers. It was the aim of this study to explore all of these together in order to better understand the possible gaps in the hotel industry in Taiwan.

  7. Simultaneous Objective Measurements Of Dose And Image Quality In Mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochon, Y.; Depeursinge, Ch.; Hessler, Ch.; Raimondi, S.; Valley, J.-F.

    1982-12-01

    The performance of a radiological system can be evaluated on the one hand by an objective determination of the quality of the produced image and, on the other hand, by the dose delivered to the patient. In order to measure these two factors in a single exposure a Kodak breast phantom has been modified so as to simulate the breast absorption. The dose distribution is measured with thermoluminescent detectors. By consideration of a theoretical model of the X-ray imaging in mammography, a single quality factor is computed from the contrast, the spatial resolution and the noise measured on the phantom image. We present results obtained in various working conditions, i.e. variable X-ray tube voltages, use of different screen-film combinations, use of a grid.

  8. Rural southeast Texas air quality measurements during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, Gunnar W; Khan, Siraj; Park, Changhyoun; Boedeker, Ian

    2011-10-01

    The authors conducted air quality measurements of the criteria pollutants carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and ozone together with meteorological measurements at a park site southeast of College Station, TX, during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study II (TexAQS). Ozone, a primary focus of the measurements, was above 80 ppb during 3 days and above 75 ppb during additional 8 days in summer 2006, suggestive of possible violations of the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) in this area. In concordance with other air quality measurements during the TexAQS II, elevated ozone mixing ratios coincided with northerly flows during days after cold front passages. Ozone background during these days was as high as 80 ppb, whereas southerly air flows generally provided for an ozone background lower than 40 ppb. Back trajectory analysis shows that local ozone mixing ratios can also be strongly affected by the Houston urban pollution plume, leading to late afternoon ozone increases of as high as 50 ppb above background under favorable transport conditions. The trajectory analysis also shows that ozone background increases steadily the longer a southern air mass resides over Texas after entering from the Gulf of Mexico. In light of these and other TexAQS findings, it appears that ozone air quality is affected throughout east Texas by both long-range and regional ozone transport, and that improvements therefore will require at least a regionally oriented instead of the current locally oriented ozone precursor reduction policies.

  9. Scenarios for the transmutation of actinides in CANDU reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyland, Bronwyn, E-mail: hylandb@aecl.ca [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada); Gihm, Brian, E-mail: gihmb@aecl.ca [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, 2251 Speakman Drive, Mississauga, Ontario, L5K 1B2 (Canada)

    2011-12-15

    With world stockpiles of used nuclear fuel increasing, the need to address the long-term utilization of this resource is being studied. Many of the transuranic (TRU) actinides in nuclear spent fuel produce decay heat for long durations, resulting in significant nuclear waste management challenges. These actinides can be transmuted to shorter-lived isotopes to reduce the decay heat period or consumed as fuel in a CANDU(R) reactor. Many of the design features of the CANDU reactor make it uniquely adaptable to actinide transmutation. The small, simple fuel bundle simplifies the fabrication and handling of active fuels. Online refuelling allows precise management of core reactivity and separate insertion of the actinides and fuel bundles into the core. The high neutron economy of the CANDU reactor results in high TRU destruction to fissile-loading ratio. This paper provides a summary of actinide transmutation schemes that have been studied in CANDU reactors at AECL, including the works performed in the past. The schemes studied include homogeneous scenarios in which actinides are uniformly distributed in all fuel bundles in the reactor, as well as heterogeneous scenarios in which dedicated channels in the reactor are loaded with actinide targets and the rest of the reactor is loaded with fuel. The transmutation schemes that are presented reflect several different partitioning schemes. Separation of americium, often with curium, from the other actinides enables targeted destruction of americium, which is a main contributor to the decay heat 100-1000 years after discharge from the reactor. Another scheme is group-extracted transuranic elements, in which all of the transuranic elements, plutonium (Pu), neptunium (Np), americium (Am), and curium (Cm) are extracted together and then transmuted. This paper also addresses ways of utilizing the recycled uranium, another stream from the separation of spent nuclear fuel, in order to drive the transmutation of other actinides.

  10. Crystal growth methods dedicated to low solubility actinide oxalates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamain, C., E-mail: christelle.tamain@cea.fr [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, Marcoule, RadioChemistry & Processes Department, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Arab-Chapelet, B. [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, Marcoule, RadioChemistry & Processes Department, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Rivenet, M. [University Lille Nord de France, Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UCCS UMR CNRS 8181, ENSCL-USTL, B.P. 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France); Grandjean, S. [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, Marcoule, RadioChemistry & Processes Department, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Abraham, F. [University Lille Nord de France, Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UCCS UMR CNRS 8181, ENSCL-USTL, B.P. 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France)

    2016-04-15

    Two novel crystal growth syntheses dedicated to low solubility actinide-oxalate systems and adapted to glove box handling are described. These methods based on the use of precursors of either actinide metal or oxalic acid have been optimized on lanthanide systems (analogue of actinides(III)) and then assessed on real actinide systems. They allow the synthesis of several actinide oxalate single crystals, Am{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}·xH{sub 2}O, Th(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O, M{sub 2+x}[Pu{sup IV}{sub 2−x}Pu{sup III}{sub x}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 5}]·nH{sub 2}O and M{sub 1−x}[Pu{sup III}{sub 1−x}Pu{sup IV}{sub x}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2}·H{sub 2}O]·nH{sub 2}O. It is the first time that these well-known compounds are formed by crystal growth methods, thus enabling direct structural studies on transuranic element systems and acquisition of basic data beyond deductions from isomorphic (or not) lanthanide compounds. Characterizations by X-ray diffraction, UV–visible solid spectroscopy, demonstrate the potentialities of these two crystal growth methods to obtain oxalate compounds. - Graphical abstract: Two new single crystal growth methods dedicated to actinide oxalate compounds. - Highlights: • Use of diester as oxalate precursor for crystal growth of actinide oxalates. • Use of actinide oxide as precursor for crystal growth of actinide oxalates. • Crystal growth of Pu(III) and Am(III) oxalates. • Crystal growth of mixed Pu(III)/Pu(IV) oxalates.

  11. Measurement of Quality of Life I. A Methodological Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soren Ventegodt

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the widespread acceptance of quality of life (QOL as the ideal guideline in healthcare and clinical research, serious conceptual and methodological problems continue to plague this area. In an attempt to remedy this situation, we propose seven criteria that a quality-of-life concept must meet to provide a sound basis for investigation by questionnaire. The seven criteria or desiderata are: (1 an explicit definition of quality of life; (2 a coherent philosophy of human life from which the definition is derived; (3 a theory that operationalizes the philosophy by specifying unambiguous, nonoverlapping, and jointly exhaustive questionnaire items; (4 response alternatives that permit a fraction-scale interpretation; (5 technical checks of reproducibility; (6 meaningfulness to investigators, respondents, and users; and (7 an overall aesthetic appeal of the questionnaire. These criteria have guided the design of a validated 5-item generic, global quality-of-life questionnaire (QOL5, and a validated 317-item generic, global quality-of-life questionnaire (SEQOL, administered to a well-documented birth cohort of 7,400 Danes born in 1959�1961, as well as to a reference sample of 2,500 Danes. Presented in outline, the underlying integrative quality-of-life (IQOL theory is a meta-theory. To illustrate the seven criteria at work, we show the extent to which they are satisfied by one of the eight component theories. Next, two sample results of our investigation are presented: satisfaction with one's sex life has the expected covariation with one's quality of life, and so does mother's smoking during pregnancy, albeit to a much smaller extent. It is concluded that the methodological framework presented has proved helpful in designing a questionnaire that is capable of yielding acceptably valid and reliable measurements of global and generic quality of life.

  12. Definition of air quality measurements for monitoring space shuttle launches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, R. D.

    1978-01-01

    A description of a recommended air quality monitoring network to characterize the impact on ambient air quality in the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) (area) of space shuttle launch operations is given. Analysis of ground cloud processes and prevalent meteorological conditions indicates that transient HCl depositions can be a cause for concern. The system designed to monitor HCl employs an extensive network of inexpensive detectors combined with a central analysis device. An acid rain network is also recommended. A quantitative measure of projected minimal long-term impact involves the limited monitoring of NOx and particulates. All recommended monitoring is confined ti KSC property.

  13. Workshop on measurement quality assurance for ionizing radiation: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, J.A.; Swinth, K.L. [comps.

    1993-12-31

    This workshop was held to review the status of secondary level calibration accreditation programs, review related measurement accreditation programs, document lessons learned, and to present changes in programs due to new national priorities involving radioactivity measurements. Contents include: fundamentals of measurement quality assurance (MQA), standards for MQA programs; perspectives and policies; complete MQA programs; future MQA programs; QA/QC programs--radioactivity; QA/QC programs--dosimetry; laboratory procedures for QA/QC; in-house control of reference dosimetry laboratories; in-house controls of radioactivity laboratories; and poster session. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  14. Measuring quality of dental care: Caries prevention services for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, Jill Boylston; Tomar, Scott L; Catalanotto, Frank A; Rudner, Nancy; Huang, I-Chan; Aravamudhan, Krishna; Shenkman, Elizabeth A; Crall, James J

    2015-08-01

    The authors conducted a study to validate the following 3 evidence-based, process-of-care quality measures focused on dental caries prevention for children with an elevated risk of experiencing caries: sealants for 6- to 9-year-olds, sealants for 10- to 14-year-olds, and topical fluoride. Using evidence-based guidelines, the Dental Quality Alliance developed measures for implementation with administrative data at the plan and program levels. To validate the measures, the authors used data from the Florida and Texas Medicaid programs and Children's Health Insurance Programs and from national commercial dental benefit plans. Data were extracted from 414 randomly selected dental office records to validate the use of administrative data to accurately calculate the measures. The authors also assessed statistically significant variations in overall measure performance. Agreement between administrative data and dental records was 95% for sealants (κ = 0.82) and 90% for topical fluoride (κ = 0.78). Sensitivity and specificity were 90.7% and 88.5% for topical fluoride and 77.8% and 98.8% for sealants, respectively. Variation in overall measure performance was greatest for topical fluoride (χ(2) = 5,887.1; P caries received at least 2 topical fluoride applications during the reporting year. Although there was greater variation in performance for sealants for 6- to 9-year-olds (range, 21.0-31.3%; χ(2) = 548.6; P caries prevention process-of-care quality measures can be implemented feasibly and validly using administrative claims data. The measures can be used to assess, monitor, and improve the proportion of children with an elevated risk of experiencing dental caries who receive evidence-based caries prevention services. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Review of actinide nitride properties with focus on safety aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albiol, Thierry [CEA Cadarache, St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Arai, Yasuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-12-01

    This report provides a review of the potential advantages of using actinide nitrides as fuels and/or targets for nuclear waste transmutation. Then a summary of available properties of actinide nitrides is given. Results from irradiation experiments are reviewed and safety relevant aspects of nitride fuels are discussed, including design basis accidents (transients) and severe (core disruptive) accidents. Anyway, as rather few safety studies are currently available and as many basic physical data are still missing for some actinide nitrides, complementary studies are proposed. (author)

  16. Distribution of actinides in SFR1; Aktinidfoerdelning i SFR1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingemansson, Tor [ALARA Engineering, Skultuna (Sweden)

    2000-02-01

    The amount of actinides in the Swedish repository for intermediate level radioactive wastes has been estimated. The sources for the actinides are mainly the purification filters of the reactors and the used fuel pools. Defect fuel elements are the originating source of the actinides. It is estimated that the 12 Swedish reactors, in total, have had 2.2 kg of fuel dissolved in their systems since start-up. About 880 g of this amount has been brought to the intermediate-level repository.

  17. Self-interaction corrected local spin density calculations of actinides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petit, Leon; Svane, Axel; Szotek, Z

    2010-01-01

    We use the self-interaction corrected local spin-density approximation in order to describe localization-delocalization phenomena in the strongly correlated actinide materials. Based on total energy considerations, the methodology enables us to predict the ground-state valency configuration...... of the actinide ions in these compounds from first principles. Here we review a number of applications, ranging from electronic structure calculations of actinide metals, nitrides and carbides to the behaviour under pressure of intermetallics, and O vacancies in PuO2....

  18. Separating the Minor Actinides Through Advances in Selective Coordination Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Braley, Jenifer C.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Carter, Jennifer C.

    2012-08-22

    This report describes work conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 under the auspices of the Sigma Team for Minor Actinide Separation, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy. Researchers at PNNL and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) are investigating a simplified solvent extraction system for providing a single-step process to separate the minor actinide elements from acidic high-level liquid waste (HLW), including separating the minor actinides from the lanthanide fission products.

  19. Electronic structure and ionicity of actinide oxides from first principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petit, Leon; Svane, Axel; Szotek, Z.

    2010-01-01

    The ground-state electronic structures of the actinide oxides AO, A2O3, and AO2 (A=U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm, Bk, and Cf) are determined from first-principles calculations, using the self-interaction corrected local spin-density approximation. Emphasis is put on the degree of f-electron localization, which...... in the actinide dioxides is discussed, and it is found that the dioxide is the most stable oxide for the actinides from Np onward. Our study reveals a strong link between preferred oxidation number and degree of localization which is confirmed by comparing to the ground-state configurations of the corresponding...

  20. Using quality measures for quality improvement: the perspective of hospital staff.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asgar Aghaei Hashjin

    Full Text Available RESEARCH OBJECTIVE: This study examines the perspectives of a range of key hospital staff on the use, importance, scientific background, availability of data, feasibility of data collection, cost benefit aspects and availability of professional personnel for measurement of quality indicators among Iranian hospitals. The study aims to facilitate the use of quality indicators to improve quality of care in hospitals. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted over the period 2009 to 2010. Staff at Iranian hospitals completed a self-administered questionnaire eliciting their views on organizational, clinical process, and outcome (clinical effectiveness, patient safety and patient centeredness indicators. POPULATION STUDIED: 93 hospital frontline staff including hospital/nursing managers, medical doctors, nurses, and quality improvement/medical records officers in 48 general and specialized hospitals in Iran. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: On average, only 69% of respondents reported using quality indicators in practice at their affiliated hospitals. Respondents varied significantly in their reported use of organizational, clinical process and outcome quality indicators. Overall, clinical process and effectiveness indicators were reported to be least used. The reported use of indicators corresponded with their perceived level of importance. Quality indicators were reported to be used among clinical staff significantly more than among managerial staff. In total, 74% of the respondents reported to use obligatory indicators, while this was 68% for voluntary indicators (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: There is a general awareness of the importance and usability of quality indicators among hospital staff in Iran, but their use is currently mostly directed towards external accountability purposes. To increase the formative use of quality indicators, creation of a common culture and feeling of shared ownership, alongside an increased uptake of clinical process and

  1. STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE SEPARATIONS FROM HIGH LEVEL NUCLEAR WASTE SOLUTIONS USING MONOSODIUM TITANATE 1. SIMULANT TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOBBS, D. T.; BARNES, M. J.; PULMANO, R. L.; MARSHALL, K. M.; EDWARDS, T. B.; BRONIKOWSKI, M. G.; FINK, S. D.

    2005-04-14

    High-level nuclear waste produced from fuel reprocessing operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) requires pretreatment to remove {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and alpha-emitting radionuclides (i.e., actinides) prior to disposal. Separation processes planned at SRS include caustic side solvent extraction, for {sup 137}Cs removal, and ion exchange/sorption of {sup 90}Sr and alpha-emitting radionuclides with an inorganic material, monosodium titanate (MST). The predominant alpha-emitting radionuclides in the highly alkaline waste solutions include plutonium isotopes {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu. This paper provides a summary of data acquired to measure the performance of MST to remove strontium and actinides from simulated waste solutions. These tests evaluated the influence of ionic strength, temperature, solution composition and the oxidation state of plutonium.

  2. Simulation of alpha decay of actinides in iron phosphate glasses by ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dube, Charu L., E-mail: dubecharu@gmail.com; Stennett, Martin C.; Gandy, Amy S.; Hyatt, Neil C.

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Alpha decay of actinides in iron phosphate glasses is simulated by employing ion irradiation technique. • FTIR and Raman spectroscopic measurements confirm modification of glass network. • The depolymerisation of glass network after irradiation is attributed to synergetic effect of nuclear and electronic losses. - Abstract: A surrogate approach of ion beam irradiation is employed to simulate alpha decay of actinides in iron phosphate nuclear waste glasses. Bismuth and helium ions of different energies have been selected for simulating glass matrix modification owing to radiolysis and ballistic damage due to recoil atoms. Structural modification and change in coordination number of network former were probed by employing Reflectance Fourier-Transform Infrared (FT-IR), and Raman spectroscopies as a consequence of ion irradiation. Depolymerisation is observed in glass sample irradiated at intermediate energy of 2 MeV. Helium blisters of micron size are seen in glass sample irradiated at low helium ion energy of 30 keV.

  3. Spent nuclear fuel corrosion: The application of ICP-MS to direct actinide analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, R. [Caledon-Consult AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Eklund, U.B. [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1995-01-01

    The ICP-MS technique has been applied to the analysis of the actinide contents of corrodant solutions from experiments performed to study the corrosion of spent nuclear fuel in simulated groundwaters. Analysis was performed directly on the solutions, without employing separation or isotope dilution techniques. The results from two analytical campaigns using natural indium and thorium internal standards are compared. Under both oxic and anoxic conditions, the U contents can be determined with good accuracy and precision. The same applies to Np and Pu under oxic conditions, where the solution concentrations range down to about 0.1 ppb. Under anoxic conditions, where solution concentrations are lower by one or two orders of magnitude, reasonable results for these two actinides can be obtained, but with much lower precision. Direct analysis of Am and Cm, however, gave unsatisfactory results, since the technique is limited by poor measurement statistics and background uncertainty.

  4. Neutron nuclear data evaluation of actinide nuclei for CENDL-3.1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guo-Chang; CAO Wen-Tian; YU Bao-Sheng; TANG Guo-You; SHI Zhao-Min; TAO Xi

    2012-01-01

    New evaluations for several actinide nuclei of the third version of Chinese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library for Neutron Reaction Data (CENDL-3.1) have been completed and released.The evaluation is for all neutron induced reactions with uranium,neptunium,plutonium and americium in the mass range A=232-241,236-239,236-246 and 240-244,respectively,and cover the incident neutron energy up to 20 MeV.In the present evaluation,much more effort was devoted to improving the reliability of the evaluated nuclear data for available new measured data,especially scarce or absent experimental data.A general description for the evaluation of several actinides' data is presented.

  5. MEASURING THE DATA MODEL QUALITY IN THE ESUPPLY CHAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zora Arsovski

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of Internet technology in business has enabled the development of e-business supply chains with large-scale information integration among all partners.The development of information systems (IS is based on the established business objectives whose achievement, among other things, directly depends on the quality of development and design of IS. In the process of analysis of the key elements of company operations in the supply chain, process model and corresponding data model are designed which should enable selection of appropriate information system architecture. The quality of the implemented information system, which supports e-supply chain, directly depends on the level of data model quality. One of the serious limitations of the data model is its complexity. With a large number of entities, data model is difficult to analyse, monitor and maintain. The problem gets bigger when looking at an integrated data model at the level of participating partners in the supply chain, where the data model usually consists of hundreds or even thousands of entities.The paper will analyse the key elements affecting the quality of data models and show their interactions and factors of significance. In addition, the paper presents various measures for assessing the quality of the data model on which it is possible to easily locate the problems and focus efforts in specific parts of a complex data model where it is not economically feasible to review every detail of the model.

  6. Prediction of Wine Sensorial Quality by Routinely Measured Chemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bednárová Adriána

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the sensorial quality of wines is of great interest for wine consumers and producers since it declares the quality in most of the cases. The sensorial assays carried out by a group of experts are time-consuming and expensive especially when dealing with large batches of wines. Therefore, an attempt was made to assess the possibility of estimating the wine sensorial quality with using routinely measured chemical descriptors as predictors. For this purpose, 131 Slovenian red wine samples of different varieties and years of production were analysed and correlation and principal component analysis were applied to find inter-relations between the studied oenological descriptors. The method of artificial neural networks (ANNs was utilised as the prediction tool for estimating overall sensorial quality of red wines. Each model was rigorously validated and sensitivity analysis was applied as a method for selecting the most important predictors. Consequently, acceptable results were obtained, when data representing only one year of production were included in the analysis. In this case, the coefficient of determination (R2 associated with training data was 0.95 and that for validation data was 0.90. When estimating sensorial quality in categorical form, 94 % and 85 % of correctly classified samples were achieved for training and validation subset, respectively.

  7. Perceived no reference image quality measurement for chromatic aberration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Anupama B.; Khambete, Madhuri

    2016-03-01

    Today there is need for no reference (NR) objective perceived image quality measurement techniques as conducting subjective experiments and making reference image available is a very difficult task. Very few NR perceived image quality measurement algorithms are available for color distortions like chromatic aberration (CA), color quantization with dither, and color saturation. We proposed NR image quality assessment (NR-IQA) algorithms for images distorted with CA. CA is mostly observed in images taken with digital cameras, having higher sensor resolution with inexpensive lenses. We compared our metric performance with two state-of-the-art NR blur techniques, one full reference IQA technique and three general-purpose NR-IQA techniques, although they are not tailored for CA. We used a CA dataset in the TID-2013 color image database to evaluate performance. Proposed algorithms give comparable performance with state-of-the-art techniques in terms of performance parameters and outperform them in terms of monotonicity and computational complexity. We have also discovered that the proposed CA algorithm best predicts perceived image quality of images distorted with realistic CA.

  8. How to Measure Progress Towards Quality and Sustainability of Life?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nováček Pavel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The vagueness of the concept of ‘sustainable development’ ceased to serve as a consensus platform and instead became a source of controversy. Therefore an instrument is needed to measure whether we are striving towards sustainable development or not. Today the most widely used indicator of economic prosperity is gross domestic product (GDP. It is often incorrectly interpreted as an indicator of quality of life. If, however, GDP is considered to be quality-of-life indicator, it is a misleading indicator as GDP does not cover the services people conduct outside the official market. As a result, environmentalists together with economists have long been cooperating in designing an alternative indicator capable of better capturing the development of society. Even though GDP is good for measuring economic performance, it is highly misleading as an indicator of the quality and sustainability of life. This article describes briefly the most relevant alternative indicators to GDP developed during last two decades including Czech and Slovak methodology of the Quality and Sustainability of Life Index.

  9. Quality of life issues and measurement in patients with psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan X

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Xi Tan1, Steven R Feldman2, Rajesh Balkrishnan11Department of Clinical, Social and Administrative Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 2Department of Dermatology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USAAbstract: Psoriasis is a chronic immunologic disease characterized by red papules and plaques with a silver colored scale. The impact of psoriasis on patients’ overall quality of life is significant, broad, and deep, including effects on emotional wellbeing, psychological stress, self-esteem, relationship, work, social activities, financial burden, and even physical function. Although there are various measures available for assessing health-related quality of life (HRQoL in research studies, there is no consensus on which measure is best to use in clinical practice or for research comparing different treatments. Choosing treatments based on patients’ specific individual preferences, goal-orientation, and close, attentive cooperation between patients and their doctors may be an effective strategy that can be applied to improve patients’ quality of life.Keywords: treatment, health related quality of life, HRQoL

  10. System for Measuring Elevator Guide Rail Quality and Its Calibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A system for measuring the quality parameters of elevator guide rails is developed. The quality parameters the system can measure include straightness, flatness, squareness, width and height of the rail. The system consists of six parts:main guideway, auxiliary guideway, reference rail, saddle, control casing and measured rail. The guide rail to be measured is mounted on a bed.The straightness errors of surfaces are checked by five linear displacement sensors mounted on the saddle. The deviation of readings from the sensor, which is in contact with top guiding surface,gives the straightness error of the surface and height of the rail. The other four sensors are used to measure side guiding surfaces respectively and give other parameters including flatness on the surfaces, squareness, width and height of the rail. A novel calibration method is also developed to calibrate the straightness motion error of the system in horizontal and vertical directions. The deflection deformation of the measured rail is fitted by using a fourth-order polynomial. Experimental results show that the uncertainty of the system on the side surfaces after compensating the straightness motion error is less than 0.01 mm, and the uncertainty of the system on the top surface after compensating the straightness motion error and the deflection deformation of the rail is less than 0.03 mm.

  11. Urban air quality measurements using a sensor-based system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ródenas, Mila; Hernández, Daniel; Gómez, Tatiana; López, Ramón; Muñoz, Amalia

    2017-04-01

    Air pollution levels in urban areas have increased the interest, not only of the scientific community but also of the general public, and both at the regional and at the European level. This interest has run in parallel to the development of miniaturized sensors, which only since very recently are suitable for air quality measurements. Certainly, their small size and price allows them to be used as a network of sensors capable of providing high temporal and spatial frequency measurements to characterize an area or city and with increasing potential, under certain considerations, as a complement of conventional methods. Within the frame of the LIFE PHOTOCITYTEX project (use of photocatalytic textiles to help reducing air pollution), CEAM has developed a system to measure gaseous compounds of importance for urban air quality characterization. This system, which allows an autonomous power supply, uses commercial NO, NO2, O3 and CO2 small sensors and incorporates measurements of temperature and humidity. A first version, using XBee boards (Radiofrequency) for communications has been installed in the urban locations defined by the project (tunnel and school), permitting the long-term air quality characterization of sites in the presence of the textiles. An improved second version of the system which also comprises a sensor for measuring particles and which uses GPRS for communications, has been developed and successfully installed in the city center of Valencia. Data are sent to a central server where they can be accessed by citizens in nearly real time and online and, in general, they can be utilized in the air quality characterization, for decision-making related to decontamination (traffic regulation, photocatalytic materials, etc.), in air quality models or in mobile applications of interest for the citizens. Within this work, temporal trends obtained with this system in different urban locations will be shown, discussing the impact of the characteristics of the

  12. Night Sky Quality Measurements at the ATA50 Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Hüseyin; Nasiroglu, Ilham; Guney, Yavuz

    2016-07-01

    One of the most important factor affecting the quality of the sky in astronomy is the light pollution (luminance of the night sky). Light pollution, also affects humans and wildlife in many ways. This effect occurs by using the light source of outdoor lighting in the wrong way. Light pollution can be reduced by lighting only what is actually needed, when and where it is needed. In generally, SQM (Sky Quality Meter- Clear Sky Detector) is used to measure this light effect. In this work we present night sky brightness measurements performed at the Atatürk University Astrophysics Research Telescope (ATA50) and the surrounding area, Erzurum, TURKEY. We also discussed the physical impacts of light pollution on science, humans and wildlife.

  13. RAPID DETERMINATION OF ACTINIDES IN URINE BY INDUCTIVELY-COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY AND ALPHA SPECTROMETRY: A HYBRID APPROACH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, S.; Jones, V.

    2009-05-27

    A new rapid separation method that allows separation and preconcentration of actinides in urine samples was developed for the measurement of longer lived actinides by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and short-lived actinides by alpha spectrometry; a hybrid approach. This method uses stacked extraction chromatography cartridges and vacuum box technology to facilitate rapid separations. Preconcentration, if required, is performed using a streamlined calcium phosphate precipitation. Similar technology has been applied to separate actinides prior to measurement by alpha spectrometry, but this new method has been developed with elution reagents now compatible with ICP-MS as well. Purified solutions are split between ICP-MS and alpha spectrometry so that long- and short-lived actinide isotopes can be measured successfully. The method allows for simultaneous extraction of 24 samples (including QC samples) in less than 3 h. Simultaneous sample preparation can offer significant time savings over sequential sample preparation. For example, sequential sample preparation of 24 samples taking just 15 min each requires 6 h to complete. The simplicity and speed of this new method makes it attractive for radiological emergency response. If preconcentration is applied, the method is applicable to larger sample aliquots for occupational exposures as well. The chemical recoveries are typically greater than 90%, in contrast to other reported methods using flow injection separation techniques for urine samples where plutonium yields were 70-80%. This method allows measurement of both long-lived and short-lived actinide isotopes. 239Pu, 242Pu, 237Np, 243Am, 234U, 235U and 238U were measured by ICP-MS, while 236Pu, 238Pu, 239Pu, 241Am, 243Am and 244Cm were measured by alpha spectrometry. The method can also be adapted so that the separation of uranium isotopes for assay is not required, if uranium assay by direct dilution of the urine sample is preferred instead

  14. Using quality measures for quality improvement: The perspective of hospital staff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A. Hashjin (Asgar Aghaei); H. Ravaghi (Hamid); D.S. Kringos (Dionne); U.C. Ogbu (Uzor); C. Fischer (Claudia); S.R. Azami (Saeid Reza); N.S. Klazinga (Niek)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractResearch objective: This study examines the perspectives of a range of key hospital staff on the use, importance, scientific background, availability of data, feasibility of data collection, cost benefit aspects and availability of professional personnel for measurement of quality indica

  15. Development of Metallic Fuels for Actinide Transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, Steven Lowe [Idaho National Laboratory; Fielding, Randall Sidney [Idaho National Laboratory; Benson, Michael Timothy [Idaho National Laboratory; Chichester, Heather Jean MacLean [Idaho National Laboratory; Carmack, William Jonathan [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-09-01

    Research and development activities on metallic fuels are focused on their potential use for actinide transmutation in future sodium fast reactors. As part of this application, there is also a need for a near zero-loss fabrication process and a desire to demonstrate a multifold increase in burnup potential. The incorporation of Am and Np into the traditional U-20Pu-10Zr metallic fuel alloy was demonstrated in the US during the Integral Fast Reactor Program of the 1980’s and early 1990’s. However, the conventional counter gravity injection casting method performed under vacuum, previously used to fabricate these metallic fuel alloys, was not optimized for mitigating loss of the volatile Am constituent in the casting charge; as a result, approximately 40% of the Am casting charge failed to be incorporated into the as-cast fuel alloys. Fabrication development efforts of the past few years have pursued an optimized bottom-pour casting method to increase utilization of the melted charge to near 100%, and a differential pressure casting approach, performed under an argon overpressure, has been demonstrated to result in essentially no loss of Am due to volatilization during fabrication. In short, a path toward zero-loss fabrication of metallic fuels including minor actinides has been shown to be feasible. Irradiation testing of advanced metallic fuel alloys in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) has been underway since 2003. Testing in the ATR is performed inside of cadmium-shrouded positions to remove >99% of the thermal flux incident on the test fuels, resulting in an epi-thermal driven fuel test that is free from gross flux depression and producing an essentially prototypic radial temperature profile inside the fuel rodlets. To date, three irradiation test series (AFC-1,2,3) have been completed. Over 20 different metallic fuel alloys have been tested to burnups as high as 30% with constituent compositions of Pu up to 30%, Am up to 12%, Np up to 10%, and Zr between 10

  16. Factors affecting the placental transfer of actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikov, M.R.; Kelman, B.J. (Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (USA))

    1989-01-01

    The primary goal of this paper is to consider factors that affect the availability and transport of actinides from maternal blood, through the placenta, to the conceptus. These factors, of particular importance in scaling results from animals to man, include the route and temporal pattern of administration, the mass and physicochemical state of material administered, metabolism of the pregnant animal and fetal organs or tissue, and species-specific changes in placental structure relative to stage of gestation at exposure. Preliminary concepts for descriptive and kinetic models are proposed to integrate these results, to identify additional information required for developing more comprehensive models, and to provide a basis for scaling to human pregnancies for purposes of radiation dosimetry.

  17. Solidification of simulated actinides by natural zircon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jian-Wen; LUO Shang-Geng

    2004-01-01

    Natural zircon was used as precursor material to produce a zircon waste form bearing 20wt% simulated actinides (Nd2O3 and UO2) through a solid state reaction by a typical synroc fabrication process. The fabricated zircon waste form has relatively good physical properties (density 5.09g/cm3, open porosity 4.0%, Vickers hardness 715kg/mm2). The XRD, SEM/EDS and TEM/EDS analyses indicate that there are zircon phases containing waste elements formed through the reaction. The chemical durability and radiation stability are determined by the MCC-1method and heavy ion irradiation; the results show that the zircon waste form is highly leach resistance and relatively stable under irradiation (amorphous dose 0.7dpa). From this study, the method of using a natural mineral to solidify radioactive waste has proven to be feasible.

  18. The relationship between health plan performance measures and physician network overlap: implications for measuring plan quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Daniel D; Scanlon, Dennis P; Chernew, Michael E; Gronniger, Tim; Wodchis, Walter P; McLaughlin, Catherine G

    2010-08-01

    To examine the extent to which health plan quality measures capture physician practice patterns rather than plan characteristics. We gathered and merged secondary data from the following four sources: a private firm that collected information on individual physicians and their health plan affiliations, The National Committee for Quality Assurance, InterStudy, and the Dartmouth Atlas. We constructed two measures of physician network overlap for all health plans in our sample and linked them to selected measures of plan performance. Two linear regression models were estimated to assess the relationship between the measures of physician network overlap and the plan performance measures. The results indicate that in the presence of a higher degree of provider network overlap, plan performance measures tend to converge to a lower level of quality. Standard health plan performance measures reflect physician practice patterns rather than plans' effort to improve quality. This implies that more provider-oriented measurement, such as would be possible with accountable care organizations or medical homes, may facilitate patient decision making and provide further incentives to improve performance.

  19. Actinide partitioning and transmutation program. Progress report, July 1--September 30, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedder, D.W.; Blomeke, J.O. (comps.)

    1978-02-01

    In Purex process modifications, two cold runs with mixer-settlers were made on the extraction and stripping of ruthenium and zirconium without the presence of uranium. Efforts in actinide recovery from solids were directed toward the determination of dissolution parameters in various reagents for /sup 241/Am and /sup 239/Pu oxide mixtures, /sup 233/U oxide, /sup 237/Np oxide, /sup 244/Cm oxide, /sup 232/Th oxide, and PuO/sub 2/. Studies in americium-curium recovery with OPIX (oxalate precipitation and ion exchange), Talspeak, and cation exchange chromatography focused on the feasibility of forming oxalate precipitates in continuous systems, the effects of zirconium on Talspeak, and methods for removing solvent degradation products of the Talspeak system. In studies of americium-curium recovery using bidentate extractants, additional distribution coefficients for actinides and other key elements between reduced synthetic LWR waste solution and 30 percent dihexyl-N, N-diethyl-carbamylmethylene phosphonate in diisopropylbenzene were measured. Studies in the americium-curium recovery using inorganic ion exchange media to determine the pH dependence of lanthanide ion affinity for niobate, titanate, and zirconate ion exchange materials have been completed. A modified flowsheet for the extraction of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curium from high-level liquid waste is presented. Evaluation of methods for measuring actinides from incinerator ash is continuing. A preliminary evaluation of methods for treatment of salt waste and waste waters was completed. In thermal reactor transmutation studies, waste actinides from an LWR lattice containing mixed uranium-plutonium assemblies were recycled in separate target assemblies. (LK)

  20. Radiochemical studies of neutron deficient actinide isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, K.E.

    1978-04-01

    The production of neutron deficient actinide isotopes in heavy ion reactions was studied using alpha, gamma, x-ray, and spontaneous fission detection systems. A new isotope of berkelium, /sup 242/Bk, was produced with a cross-section of approximately 10 ..mu..b in reactions of boron on uranium and nitrogen on thorium. It decays by electron capture with a half-life of 7.0 +- 1.3 minutes. The alpha-branching ratio for this isotope is less than 1% and the spontaneous fission ratio is less than 0.03%. Studies of (Heavy Ion, pxn) and (Heavy Ion, ..cap alpha..xn) transfer reactions in comparison with (Heavy ion, xn) compound nucleus reactions revealed transfer reaction cross-sections equal to or greater than the compound nucleus yields. The data show that in some cases the yield of an isotope produced via a (H.I.,pxn) or (H.I.,..cap alpha..xn) reaction may be higher than its production via an xn compound nucleus reaction. These results have dire consequences for proponents of the ''Z/sub 1/ + Z/sub 2/ = Z/sub 1+2/'' philosophy. It is no longer acceptable to assume that (H.I.,pxn) and (H.I.,..cap alpha..xn) product yields are of no consequence when studying compound nucleus reactions. No evidence for spontaneous fission decay of /sup 228/Pu, /sup 230/Pu, /sup 232/Cm, or /sup 238/Cf was observed indicating that strictly empirical extrapolations of spontaneous fission half-life data is inadequate for predictions of half-lives for unknown neutron deficient actinide isotopes.

  1. Studies of actinides in a superanoxic fjord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, P.

    1997-04-01

    Water column and sediment profiles of Pu, Am, Th and U have been obtained in the superanoxic Framvaren fjord, southern Norway. The concentration of bomb test fallout Pu, Am as well as `dissolved` Th in the bottom water are the highest recorded in the marine environment. The behaviour of the actinides in the anoxic water mass is to a large extent governed by the behaviour of the colloidal material. Ultrafiltration reveals that 40-60% of the actinides are associated to the large colloids, surprisingly this is valid also for U. The sediment acts as a source for Pu, Am, and Th to the water column but primarily as a sink for U. The remobilization of Pu, Am and Th is evident from the water column profiles which have similar diffusion shape profiles as other constituents originating from the sediments. The vertical eddy diffusion coefficient calculated from the Pu profile is in the same order of magnitude as reported from the H{sub 2}S profile. Decreased bottom water concentrations (but a constant water column inventory) between 1989 and 1995 as well as pore water Pu concentrations nearly identical to the overlaying bottom water indicates that the present Pu flux from the sediments are low. Contrary to Pu and Am, the water column Th inventory ({sup 232}Th and {sup 230}Th) continues to increase. The flux of {sup 232}Th from the sediments was determined from changes in water column inventory between 1989 and 1995 and from a pore water profile to be in the order of 2-8 Bq/m{sup 2}/y. 208 refs.

  2. Pyrometallurgical processes for recovery of actinide elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battles, J.E.; Laidler, J.J.; McPheeters, C.C.; Miller, W.E.

    1994-01-01

    A metallic fuel alloy, nominally U-20-Pu-lOZr, is the key element of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle. Metallic fuel permits the use of an innovative, simple pyrometallurgical process, known as pyroprocessing, (the subject of this report), which features fused salt electrorefining of the spent fuel. Electrorefining separates the actinide elements from fission products, without producing a separate stream of plutonium. The plutonium-bearing product is contaminated with higher actinides and with a minor amount of rare earth fission products, making it diversion resistant while still suitable as a fuel material in the fast spectrum of the IFR core. The engineering-scale demonstration of this process will be conducted in the refurbished EBR-II Fuel Cycle Facility, which has entered the start-up phase. An additional pyrometallurgical process is under development for extracting transuranic (TRU) elements from Light Water Reactor (LWR) spent fuel in a form suitable for use as a feed to the IFR fuel cycle. Four candidate extraction processes have been investigated and shown to be chemically feasible. The main steps in each process are oxide reduction with calcium or lithium, regeneration of the reductant and recycle of the salt, and separation of the TRU product from the bulk uranium. Two processes, referred to as the lithium and salt transport (calcium reductant) processes, have been selected for engineering-scale demonstration, which is expected to start in late 1993. An integral part of pyroprocessing development is the treatment and packaging of high-level waste materials arising from the operations, along with the qualification of these waste forms for disposal in a geologic repository.

  3. Quality measures in neurology consult care for epileptic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Morena Vicente, M A; Ballesteros Plaza, L; Martín García, H; Vidal Díaz, B; Anaya Caravaca, B; Pérez Martínez, D A

    2014-06-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most frequently observed diseases in neurology outpatient care. We analysed our hospital's implementation of the 8 epilepsy quality measures proposed by the American Academy of Neurology: documented seizure types and seizure frequency, aetiology of epilepsy or the epilepsy syndrome, review of EEG, MRI, or CT results, counselling about antiepileptic drug side effects, surgical therapy referral for intractable epilepsy, and counselling about epilepsy-specific safety issues and for women of childbearing age. In most cases, the first four quality measures were documented correctly. In 66% of the cases, doctors had asked about any adverse drug effects during every visit. Almost all patients with intractable epilepsy had been informed about surgical options or referred to a surgical centre of reference for an evaluation at some point, although referrals usually took place more than 3 years after the initial proposal. Safety issues had been explained to 37% of the patients and less than half of women of childbearing age with epilepsy had received counselling regarding contraception and pregnancy at least once a year. The care we provide is appropriate according to many of the quality measures, but we must deliver more counselling and information necessary for the care of epileptic patients in different stages of life. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Aesthetics and quality of numbers using the primety measure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    The Farey sequences can be used to create the Euler totient function, by identifying the fractions for number n that did not occur in all Farey sequences up to n – 1. This function creates, when divided by n – 1, what is here called the primety measure, which is a measure of how close to being...... a prime number n is. The quality of a number sequence can be determined using the primety, which is further generalised to real numbers through the use of real numbered Farey sequences. Ambiguous and interesting results are obtained in this process; for instance it seems that all integers approach full...

  5. Measuring the quality of the producer price index

    OpenAIRE

    John Morris; Tegwen Green

    2007-01-01

    Presents initial ONS estimates of standard errors for two growth rate measures of the gross sector output PPI.The calculation of standard errors for the output producer price index (PPI) has been investigated with the aim of measuring the quality of the growth rates of the published price indices. This article presents, for the first time, Office for National Statistics? (ONS) estimates of the standard errors for month-on-month and 12-month growth rates of the gross sector output PPI. It prov...

  6. AMS of actinides in groundwater: development of a new procedure for trace analysis of Np, Pu, Am and Cm isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinto, Francesca; Lagos, Markus; Plaschke, Markus; Schaefer, Thorsten; Geckeis, Horst [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Nuclear Waste Disposal (KIT-INE), Hermann-von Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Steier, Peter [VERA Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Waehringer Strasse 17, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-07-01

    In order to assess the actinides contamination in groundwater, their geochemistry is intensely studied in field and laboratory experiments focusing on speciation and ways of transport through the aquifers. A challenge lies in the analysis of actinides below ppq levels. We present a new analytical protocol suited to the measurement by accelerator mass spectrometry of Np, Pu, Am and Cm isotopes without previous chemical separation from each other. The actinides are quantitatively co-precipitated with Fe-hydroxide from the groundwater specimens. This procedure allows the pre-concentration of the actinides from the bulk elements and their incorporation into a sample matrix suited to the AMS measurements. The chemical yield of the co-precipitation is estimated measuring samples with suitable spikes by HR ICP-MS. At the AMS sytem: (a) the ionization yield of Np, Pu, Am and Cm in the given sample matrix, (b) the maximum number of nuclides per sample allowing detection limits below 0.01 ppq, and (c) the influence of the laboratory background on the results, are determined.

  7. Element Partitioning in Glass-Ceramic Designed for Actinides Immobilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Glass-ceramics were designed for immobilization of actinides. In order to immobilizing more wastes in the matrix and to develop the optimum formulation for the glass-ceramic, it is necessary to study the

  8. Advanced techniques for actinide spectroscopy (ATAS 2012). Abstract book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerstendorf, Harald; Mueller, Katharina; Steudtner, Robin (eds.)

    2012-07-01

    The abstract book of the International workshop on advanced techniques for actinide spectroscopy (ATAS 2012) include contributions concerning the following issues: environmental applications, NMR spectroscopy, vibrational spectroscopy, X-ray spectroscopy and theory, technical application: separation processes, emission spectroscopy.

  9. Measurement quality and uncertainty evaluation in civil engineering research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Ribeiro A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Civil engineering is a branch of science that covers a broad range of areas where experimental procedures often plays an important role. The research in this field is usually supported by experimental structures able to test physical and mathematical models and to provide measurement results with acceptable accuracy. To assure measurement quality, a metrology probabilistic approach can provide valuable mathematical and computational tools especially suited to the study, evaluation and improvement of measurement processes in its different components (modeling, instrumentation performance, data processing, data validation and traceability, emphasizing measurement uncertainty evaluation as a tool to the analysis of results and to promote the quality and capacity associated with decision-making. This paper presents some of the research held by the metrology division of the Portuguese civil engineering research institutes, focused on the contribution of measurement uncertainty studies to a variety of frameworks, such as testing for metrological characterization and physical and mathematical modeling. Experimental data will be used to illustrate practical cases.

  10. Best-Quality Vessel Identification Using Vessel Quality Measure in Multiple-Phase Coronary CT Angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jordan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Zhou, Chuan; Wei, Jun; Chughtai, Aamer; Kuriakose, Jean; Agarwal, Prachi; Kazerooni, Ella

    2016-01-01

    The detection of stenotic plaques strongly depends on the quality of the coronary arterial tree imaged with coronary CT angiography (cCTA). However, it is time consuming for the radiologist to select the best-quality vessels from the multiple-phase cCTA for interpretation in clinical practice. We are developing an automated method for selection of the best-quality vessels from coronary arterial trees in multiple-phase cCTA to facilitate radiologist's reading or computerized analysis. Our automated method consists of vessel segmentation, vessel registration, corresponding vessel branch matching, vessel quality measure (VQM) estimation, and automatic selection of best branches based on VQM. For every branch, the VQM was calculated as the average radial gradient. An observer preference study was conducted to visually compare the quality of the selected vessels. 167 corresponding branch pairs were evaluated by two radiologists. The agreement between the first radiologist and the automated selection was 76% with kappa of 0.49. The agreement between the second radiologist and the automated selection was also 76% with kappa of 0.45. The agreement between the two radiologists was 81% with kappa of 0.57. The observer preference study demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed automated method for the selection of the best-quality vessels from multiple cCTA phases.

  11. Analysis of the Gas Core Actinide Transmutation Reactor (GCATR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, J. D.; Rust, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    Design power plant studies were carried out for two applications of the plasma core reactor: (1) As a breeder reactor, (2) As a reactor able to transmute actinides effectively. In addition to the above applications the reactor produced electrical power with a high efficiency. A reactor subsystem was designed for each of the two applications. For the breeder reactor, neutronics calculations were carried out for a U-233 plasma core with a molten salt breeding blanket. A reactor was designed with a low critical mass (less than a few hundred kilograms U-233) and a breeding ratio of 1.01. The plasma core actinide transmutation reactor was designed to transmute the nuclear waste from conventional LWR's. The spent fuel is reprocessed during which 100% of Np, Am, Cm, and higher actinides are separated from the other components. These actinides are then manufactured as oxides into zirconium clad fuel rods and charged as fuel assemblies in the reflector region of the plasma core actinide transmutation reactor. In the equilibrium cycle, about 7% of the actinides are directly fissioned away, while about 31% are removed by reprocessing.

  12. A quantitative method for measuring the quality of history matches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, T.S. [Kerr-McGee Corp., Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Knapp, R.M. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    1997-08-01

    History matching can be an efficient tool for reservoir characterization. A {open_quotes}good{close_quotes} history matching job can generate reliable reservoir parameters. However, reservoir engineers are often frustrated when they try to select a {open_quotes}better{close_quotes} match from a series of history matching runs. Without a quantitative measurement, it is always difficult to tell the difference between a {open_quotes}good{close_quotes} and a {open_quotes}better{close_quotes} matches. For this reason, we need a quantitative method for testing the quality of matches. This paper presents a method for such a purpose. The method uses three statistical indices to (1) test shape conformity, (2) examine bias errors, and (3) measure magnitude of deviation. The shape conformity test insures that the shape of a simulated curve matches that of a historical curve. Examining bias errors assures that model reservoir parameters have been calibrated to that of a real reservoir. Measuring the magnitude of deviation assures that the difference between the model and the real reservoir parameters is minimized. The method was first tested on a hypothetical model and then applied to published field studies. The results showed that the method can efficiently measure the quality of matches. It also showed that the method can serve as a diagnostic tool for calibrating reservoir parameters during history matching.

  13. Low-Cost Sensor Units for Measuring Urban Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popoola, O. A.; Mead, M.; Stewart, G.; Hodgson, T.; McLoed, M.; Baldovi, J.; Landshoff, P.; Hayes, M.; Calleja, M.; Jones, R.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of selected key air quality gases (CO, NO & NO2) have been made with a range of miniature low-cost sensors based on electrochemical gas sensing technology incorporating GPS and GPRS for position and communication respectively. Two types of simple to operate sensors units have been designed to be deployed in relatively large numbers. Mobile handheld sensor units designed for operation by members of the public have been deployed on numerous occasions including in Cambridge, London and Valencia. Static sensor units have also been designed for long-term autonomous deployment on existing street furniture. A study was recently completed in which 45 sensor units were deployed in the Cambridge area for a period of 3 months. Results from these studies indicate that air quality varies widely both spatially and temporally. The widely varying concentrations found suggest that the urban environment cannot be fully understood using limited static site (AURN) networks and that a higher resolution, more dispersed network is required to better define air quality in the urban environment. The results also suggest that higher spatial and temporal resolution measurements could improve knowledge of the levels of individual exposure in the urban environment.

  14. Quality of life measurement in bone metastases: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukirtha Tharmalingam

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Sukirtha Tharmalingam, Edward Chow, Kristin Harris, Amanda Hird, Emily SinclairRapid Response Radiotherapy Program, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, CanadaAbstract: Quality of life (QOL has become an important consideration in the care of patients with bone metastases as prevalence, incidence and patient survival are on the rise. As a result, more interventional studies now measure patient’s QOL as a meaningful endpoint. However, well-developed bone metastases specific quality of life instruments are lacking. A literature review was conducted to better understand the nature of QOL instruments used in bone metastases trials. A total of 47 articles evaluating QOL in patients with bone metastases were identified. Twenty-five different instruments were used to evaluate QOL with study-designed questionnaires and the EORTC QLQ-C30 being most commonly employed. Many studies used more than one scale or instrument to measure QOL. This makes it difficult to compare QOL in bone metastases patients across studies and come to any formal conclusions. Therefore, this review demonstrates the need to develop a bone module that can be used across countries in future clinical trials.Keywords: bone metastases, quality of life, QOL instrument, review

  15. Soft X-ray scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) of actinide particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Hans J; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Wilson, Richard E; Werme, Lars; Shuh, David K

    2005-09-01

    A descriptive account is given of our most recent research on the actinide dioxides with the Advanced Light Source Molecular Environmental Science (ALS-MES) Beamline 11.0.2 soft X-ray scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The ALS-MES STXM permits near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) and imaging with 30-nm spatial resolution. The first STXM spectromicroscopy NEXAFS spectra at the actinide 4d5/2 edges of the imaged transuranic particles, NpO2 and PuO2, have been obtained. Radiation damage induced by the STXM was observed in the investigation of a mixed oxidation state particle (Np(V,VI)) and was minimized during collection of the actual spectra at the 4d5/2 edge of the Np(V,VI) solid. A plutonium elemental map was obtained from an irregular PuO2 particle with the dimensions of 650 x 650 nm. The Pu 4d5/2 NEXAFS spectra were collected at several different locations from the PuO2 particle and were identical. A representative oxygen K-edge spectrum from UO2 was collected and resembles the oxygen K-edge from the bulk material. The unique and current performance of the ALS-MES STXM at extremely low energies (ca. 100 eV) that may permit the successful measurement of the actinide 5d edge is documented. Finally, the potential of STXM as a tool for actinide investigations is briefly discussed.

  16. Skin absorption of actinides: influence of solvents or chelates on skin penetration ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazrart, Anissa; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine; Coudert, Sylvie; Lamart, Stephanie; Miller, Brian W; Angulo, Jaime F; Briançon, Stéphanie; Griffiths, Nina M

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate skin penetration and retention of americium (Am) and plutonium (Pu), in different chemical forms relevant to the nuclear industry and to treatment by chelation. Percutaneous penetration of different Am and Pu forms were evaluated using viable pig skin with the Franz cell diffusion system. The behavior of the complex Pu-tributyl phosphate (Pu-TBP), Am or Pu complexed to the chelator Diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and the effect of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was assessed. Radioactivity was measured in skin and receiver compartments. Three approaches were used to visualize activity in skin including the recent iQID technique for quantification. Transfer of Am was 24-fold greater than Pu and Pu-TBP complex penetration was enhanced by 500-fold. Actinide-DTPA transfer was greater than the Am or Pu alone (17-fold and 148-fold, respectively). The stratum corneum retained the majority of activity in all cases and both DMSO and TBP enhanced skin retention of Am and Pu, respectively. Histological and bioimaging data confirmed these results and the iQID camera allowed the quantification of skin activity. Skin penetration and fixation profiles are different depending on the chemical actinide form. Altered behavior of Pu-TBP and actinide-DTPA complexes reinforces the need to address decontamination protocols.

  17. Measuring Effectiveness of Food Quality Management in the Bakery Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiegel, van der M.; Luning, P.A.; Boer, de W.J.; Ziggers, G.W.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    2006-01-01

    Inappropriate management of food production operations cause several quality performance problems. Therefore, the actual contribution of food quality management to quality performance has to be revealed. This article investigates the effectiveness of food quality management in the bakery sector.

  18. Measuring Effectiveness of Food Quality Management in the Bakery Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiegel, van der M.; Luning, P.A.; Boer, de W.J.; Ziggers, G.W.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    2006-01-01

    Inappropriate management of food production operations cause several quality performance problems. Therefore, the actual contribution of food quality management to quality performance has to be revealed. This article investigates the effectiveness of food quality management in the bakery sector. Rel

  19. Full-Reference Image Quality Assessment with Linear Combination of Genetically Selected Quality Measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Oszust

    Full Text Available Information carried by an image can be distorted due to different image processing steps introduced by different electronic means of storage and communication. Therefore, development of algorithms which can automatically assess a quality of the image in a way that is consistent with human evaluation is important. In this paper, an approach to image quality assessment (IQA is proposed in which the quality of a given image is evaluated jointly by several IQA approaches. At first, in order to obtain such joint models, an optimisation problem of IQA measures aggregation is defined, where a weighted sum of their outputs, i.e., objective scores, is used as the aggregation operator. Then, the weight of each measure is considered as a decision variable in a problem of minimisation of root mean square error between obtained objective scores and subjective scores. Subjective scores reflect ground-truth and involve evaluation of images by human observers. The optimisation problem is solved using a genetic algorithm, which also selects suitable measures used in aggregation. Obtained multimeasures are evaluated on four largest widely used image benchmarks and compared against state-of-the-art full-reference IQA approaches. Results of comparison reveal that the proposed approach outperforms other competing measures.

  20. Automatic measuring of quality criteria for heart valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condurache, Alexandru Paul; Hahn, Tobias; Hofmann, Ulrich G.; Scharfschwerdt, Michael; Misfeld, Martin; Aach, Til

    2007-03-01

    Patients suffering from a heart valve deficiency are often treated by replacing the valve with an artificial or biological implant. In case of biological implants, the use of porcine heart valves is common. Quality assessment and inspection methods are mandatory to supply the patients (and also medical research) with only the best such xenograft implants thus reducing the number of follow-up surgeries to replace worn-up valves. We describe an approach for automatic in-vitro evaluation of prosthetic heart valves in an artificial circulation system. We show how to measure the orifice area during a heart cycle to obtain an orifice curve. Different quality parameters are then estimated on such curves.

  1. Effectiveness of local air quality measures; Effectiviteit van likale luchtkwaliteitsmaatregelen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Bommel, R.; Van de Poll, T. [Royal Haskoning DHV, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    This article examines the effects of local air quality measures which are calculated by order of the city of Utrecht. The conclusions are that environmental zones and other local measures contribute to meet the targets and improve public health. It is also explained why this is the case, and the question is raised whether or not national measures would be better [Dutch] Dit artikel gaat in op de effecten van lokale maatregelen die zijn berekend in opdracht van de gemeente Utrecht. De conclusie: milieuzones en andere lokale maatregelen dragen bij aan het halen van normen en leveren gezondheidswinst op. Er wordt uitgelegd waarom dat zo is en de vraag wordt gesteld of landelijke maatregelen niet beter zijn.

  2. Integral Criteria for Measuring the Quality of Teacher Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Navickienė

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—To construct the knowledge evaluation quality integral criteria, which allows to ascertain whether the different teachers properly assess the students’ knowledge. The criteria has been tested setting up the educational experiment and examining the six mathematics lecturers’ assessments.Design/methodology/approach—This research involved the Mykolas Romeris University students of Public Administration degree second year and Management of Organizations degree first year. The test questions for students were designed using the mathematical knowledge assessment information system, which allows for closed-ended mathematical test, to obtain statistical data about test takers, to perform quality analysis of the test; in the middle and the end of the semester.Findings—The construction technique for the evaluation quality criteria of the students’ working results assessment, which were performed by six different lecturers, during practical trainings, seminars, laboratory and other sessions is proposed in this article.Research limitations/implications—The constructed evaluation criteria is universal: it does not depend on the particular subject; it can be applied to several groups, courses or lecturers. It depends on three calculated indicators I, S, K, which show in two ways obtained estimates of the measured information compatibility of degrees, marks matching and correlation terms.Practical implications—The integral criteria has been tested examining the six mathematics lecturers’ assessments.Originality/Value—Constructing the criteria have been used the educational measurement models of authors of this article and other researchers, however its’ connection to general (integral criteria, best of authors’ knowledge, is original and have not be researched before.Keywords: knowledge evaluation, quality of teacher evaluation, evaluation of teachers, mathematical modeling.Research type: research paper.

  3. Autonomous Quality Control of Joint Orientation Measured with Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Lebel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Clinical mobility assessment is traditionally performed in laboratories using complex and expensive equipment. The low accessibility to such equipment, combined with the emerging trend to assess mobility in a free-living environment, creates a need for body-worn sensors (e.g., inertial measurement units—IMUs that are capable of measuring the complexity in motor performance using meaningful measurements, such as joint orientation. However, accuracy of joint orientation estimates using IMUs may be affected by environment, the joint tracked, type of motion performed and velocity. This study investigates a quality control (QC process to assess the quality of orientation data based on features extracted from the raw inertial sensors’ signals. Joint orientation (trunk, hip, knee, ankle of twenty participants was acquired by an optical motion capture system and IMUs during a variety of tasks (sit, sit-to-stand transition, walking, turning performed under varying conditions (speed, environment. An artificial neural network was used to classify good and bad sequences of joint orientation with a sensitivity and a specificity above 83%. This study confirms the possibility to perform QC on IMU joint orientation data based on raw signal features. This innovative QC approach may be of particular interest in a big data context, such as for remote-monitoring of patients’ mobility.

  4. Quality of blood pressure measurement in community health centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoya-Olivera, Edgardo; Ferreira-Umpiérrez, Augusto; Machado-González, Federico

    To determine the quality of the blood pressure measurements performed during routine care in community health centres. An observational, cross-sectional study was conducted in 5 private and public health centres in Maldonado, Uruguay, in July-August 2015. The observations were made during the measurements performed by health personnel, using the requirements established by the American Heart Association. An analysis was made on 36 variables that were grouped in categories related to environment, equipment, interrogation, patient, and observer. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi(2) test or Fisher test. Statistical significance was considered to be less than 5% (p<.05). The measurements were made by a registered nurse or nurse in 71% of cases, physician in 20%, and student nurse in 9%. An aneroid sphygmomanometer was used in 89%, and mercury 11%. Satisfactory results were found in variables related to environment (93%), equipment (99%), and patient attitude (82%), and intermediate in the attitudes of the operator (64%), and poor in relation to the interrogation (18%), with the mean of correct variables per measurement being 69%. The main flaws in the procedure were the operator. The measurement of blood pressure is a manoeuvre that healthcare professionals perform thousands of times a year. If the measurement is used for the diagnosis and/or chronic management of arterial hypertension, not systematically applying the established recommendations leads to an inappropriate care of a very significant number of patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Criticality investigations for the fixed bed nuclear reactor using thorium fuel mixed with plutonium or minor actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahin, Suemer [Beykoz Lojistik Meslek Yueksekokulu, Beykoz, Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: sumer@gazi.edu.tr; Sahin, Haci Mehmet; Acir, Adem [Beykoz Lojistik Meslek Yueksekokulu, Istanbul (Turkey); Al-Kusayer, Tawfik Ahmed [King Saud University, College of Engineering, P.O. Box 800, Riyadh 11421 (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-08-15

    Prospective fuels for a new reactor type, the so called fixed bed nuclear reactor (FBNR) are investigated with respect to reactor criticality. These are (1) low enriched uranium (LEU); (2) weapon grade plutonium + ThO{sub 2}; (3) reactor grade plutonium + ThO{sub 2}; and (4) minor actinides in the spent fuel of light water reactors (LWRs) + ThO{sub 2}. Reactor grade plutonium and minor actinides are considered as highly radio-active and radio-toxic nuclear waste products so that one can expect that they will have negative fuel costs. The criticality calculations are conducted with SCALE5.1 using S{sub 8}-P{sub 3} approximation in 238 neutron energy groups with 90 groups in thermal energy region. The study has shown that the reactor criticality has lower values with uranium fuel and increases passing to minor actinides, reactor grade plutonium and weapon grade plutonium. Using LEU, an enrichment grade of 9% has resulted with k{sub eff} = 1.2744. Mixed fuel with weapon grade plutonium made of 20% PuO{sub 2} + 80% ThO{sub 2} yields k{sub eff} = 1.2864. Whereas a mixed fuel with reactor grade plutonium made of 35% PuO{sub 2} + 65% ThO{sub 2} brings it to k{sub eff} = 1.267. Even the very hazardous nuclear waste of LWRs, namely minor actinides turn out to be high quality nuclear fuel due to the excellent neutron economy of FBNR. A relatively high reactor criticality of k{sub eff} = 1.2673 is achieved by 50% MAO{sub 2} + 50% ThO{sub 2}. The hazardous actinide nuclear waste products can be transmuted and utilized as fuel in situ. A further output of the study is the possibility of using thorium as breeding material in combination with these new alternative fuels.

  6. Empowering smartphone users with sensor node for air quality measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oletic, Dinko; Bilas, Vedran

    2013-06-01

    We present an architecture of a sensor node developed for use with smartphones for participatory sensing of air quality in urban environments. Our solution features inexpensive metal-oxide semiconductor gas sensors (MOX) for measurement of CO, O3, NO2 and VOC, along with sensors for ambient temperature and humidity. We focus on our design of sensor interface consisting of power-regulated heater temperature control, and the design of resistance sensing circuit. Accuracy of the sensor interface is characterized. Power consumption of the sensor node is analysed. Preliminary data obtained from the CO gas sensors in laboratory conditions and during the outdoor field-test is shown.

  7. 77 FR 42738 - Request for Information on Quality Measurement Enabled by Health IT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... Enabled by Health IT AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Health and Human Services... information technology (IT) system developers, including vendors; payers, quality measure developers, end... regarding quality measurement enabled by health IT. Quality measurement--the assessment of the...

  8. Identification and influence of spatial outliers in air quality measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, B. F.; Lemke, L. D.

    2015-12-01

    The heterogeneous nature of urban air complicates the analysis of spatial and temporal variability in air quality measurements. Evaluation of potentially inaccurate measurements (i.e., outliers) poses particularly difficult challenges in extensive air quality datasets with multiple measurements distributed in time and space. This study investigated the identification and impact of outliers in measurements of NO­2, BTEX, PM2.5, and PM10 in the contiguous Detroit, Michigan, USA and Windsor, Ontario, Canada international airshed. Measurements were taken at 100 locations during September 2008 and June 2009 and modeled at a 300m by 300m scale resolution. The objective was to determine if outliers were present and, if so, to quantify the magnitude of their impact on modeled spatial pollution distributions. The study built upon previous investigations by the Geospatial Determinants of Health Outcomes Consortium that examined relationships between air pollutant distributions and asthma exacerbations in the Detroit and Windsor airshed. Four independent approaches were initially employed to identify potential outliers: boxplots, variogram clouds, difference maps, and the Local Moran's I statistic. Potential outliers were subsequently reevaluated for consistency among methods and individually assessed to select a final set of outliers. The impact of excluding individual outliers was subsequently determined by revising the spatially variable air pollution models and recalculating associations between air contaminant concentrations and asthma exacerbations in Detroit and Windsor in 2008. For the pollutants examined, revised associations revealed weaker correlations with spatial outliers removed. Nevertheless, the approach employed improves the model integrity by increasing our understanding of the spatial variability of air pollution in the built environment and providing additional insights into the association between acute asthma exacerbations and air pollution.

  9. Current Practice in Measuring the Quality of Conceptual Models:Challenges and Research%Current Practice in Measuring the Quality of Conceptual Models:Challenges and Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Lei; WU Yu-feng; LI Xiao-jun

    2012-01-01

    How to measure the quality of conceptual models is an important issue in the IS field and related research. This paper conducts a review of research in measuring conceptual model quality and identifies the major theoretical and practical issues that need to be addressed in future studies. We review current classification frameworks for conceptual model quality and practice of measuring conceptual model quality. Based on the review, challenges for studies of measuring the quality of conceptual models are proposed and these challenges are also research points which should be strengthened in future studies.

  10. Application of Quantitative Measures for Analysing Aircraft Handling Qualities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Hebbar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ease and precision with which pilot is able to handle the designated task determines the aircraft’s handling qualities. Accordingly, the most common methodology for determining aircraft’s handling qualities is through pilot opinions or through questionnaires. These subjective means of analysis is not reliable as the sole source of judgments. Quantitative metrics to analyse the task difficulty based on pilot’s performance, supplemented with subjective decision, can provide better insight into pilot workload levels and in turn the aircraft’s handling qualities. The application of few objective performance measurement techniques to flight data of a high performance fighter aircraft is discussed. Pilot/aircraft’s performance under different configurations is analysed. Analysis results show that pilots usually tend to give more priority to pitch axis in case of dual axis tracking task. And pilots are therefore more aggressive in accomplishing pitch axis tracking task than in roll. Workload assessments were also performed by comparing the results of single axis tracking experiments conducted using a high fidelity flight simulator with the flight data. It is seen that pilot’s aggressiveness levels in controlling the roll control inceptor is significantly less, with improved tracking accuracy when exercised as the primary task.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 66, No. 1, January 2016, pp. 03-10, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.66.9196

  11. Library Quality and Impact: Is There a Relationship between New Measures and Traditional Measures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Sharon A.

    2005-01-01

    Traditional measures of quality are no longer adequate to reflect library excellence and impact. Analysis of an Association for Research Libraries data set showed that there was a relationship between the ARL Index and services; between the number of undergraduate students and services; and between instructional presentations and operating…

  12. IAEA's ALMERA network: Supporting the quality of environmental radioactivity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osvath, I; Tarjan, S; Pitois, A; Groening, M; Osborn, D

    2016-03-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency coordinates and provides methodological and analytical quality support to the network of Analytical Laboratories for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity (ALMERA), comprising 150 laboratories in 84 countries. Annual proficiency tests (PTs) are organized for the network laboratories using sets of different samples typically encountered in environmental and food monitoring laboratories. The PT system is designed to respond to the needs of the network for rapid response and reliable measurement results, and to metrological principles and international standards and guides. Comparison of performance of ALMERA and non-ALMERA laboratories in PTs indicates that the "PT - method development - training - PT" strategy adopted for capability building is beneficial to the network. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. BIAS IN THE MEASUREMENT OF QUALITY OF LIFE: RESPONSE SHIFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesim SENOL

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Quality of Life (QoL is a descriptive term that refers to people’s emotional, social and physical wellbeing, and their ability to function in the ordinary task of living. The importance of QoL makes it critical to improve and refine measure to understand patients’ experience of health, illness and treatment. However individuals change with time and the basis on which they make a QoL judgment may also change, a phenomenon increasingly referred to as response shift. The definition of response shift is recalibration of internal standards of measurement and reconceptualization of the meaning of item. The purpose of study is to discuss the effects of response shift bias. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(5.000: 382-389

  14. Image Quality Assessment for Performance Evaluation of Focus Measure Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Memon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the performance evaluation of eight focus measure operators namely Image CURV (Curvature, GRAE (Gradient Energy, HISE (Histogram Entropy, LAPM (Modified Laplacian, LAPV (Variance of Laplacian, LAPD (Diagonal Laplacian, LAP3 (Laplacian in 3D Window and WAVS (Sum of Wavelet Coefficients. Statistical matrics such as MSE (Mean Squared Error, PNSR (Peak Signal to Noise Ratio, SC (Structural Content, NCC (Normalized Cross Correlation, MD (Maximum Difference and NAE (Normalized Absolute Error are used to evaluate stated focus measures in this research. . FR (Full Reference method of the image quality assessment is utilized in this paper. Results indicate that LAPD method is comparatively better than other seven focus operators at typical imaging conditions

  15. Cumulative sum quality control for calibrated breast density measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heine, John J.; Cao Ke; Beam, Craig [Cancer Prevention and Control Division, Moffitt Cancer Center, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States); Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1603 W. Taylor St., Chicago, Illinois 60612 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Purpose: Breast density is a significant breast cancer risk factor. Although various methods are used to estimate breast density, there is no standard measurement for this important factor. The authors are developing a breast density standardization method for use in full field digital mammography (FFDM). The approach calibrates for interpatient acquisition technique differences. The calibration produces a normalized breast density pixel value scale. The method relies on first generating a baseline (BL) calibration dataset, which required extensive phantom imaging. Standardizing prospective mammograms with calibration data generated in the past could introduce unanticipated error in the standardized output if the calibration dataset is no longer valid. Methods: Sample points from the BL calibration dataset were imaged approximately biweekly over an extended timeframe. These serial samples were used to evaluate the BL dataset reproducibility and quantify the serial calibration accuracy. The cumulative sum (Cusum) quality control method was used to evaluate the serial sampling. Results: There is considerable drift in the serial sample points from the BL calibration dataset that is x-ray beam dependent. Systematic deviation from the BL dataset caused significant calibration errors. This system drift was not captured with routine system quality control measures. Cusum analysis indicated that the drift is a sign of system wear and eventual x-ray tube failure. Conclusions: The BL calibration dataset must be monitored and periodically updated, when necessary, to account for sustained system variations to maintain the calibration accuracy.

  16. Implementation of Quality Assurance and Quality Control Measures in the National Phenology Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerst, K.; Rosemartin, A.; Denny, E. G.; Marsh, L.; Barnett, L.

    2015-12-01

    The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN; www.usanpn.org) serves science and society by promoting a broad understanding of plant and animal phenology and the relationships among phenological patterns and environmental change. The National Phenology Database has over 5.5 million observation records for plants and animals for the period 1954-2015. These data have been used in a number of science, conservation and resource management applications, including national assessments of historical and potential future trends in phenology, regional assessments of spatio-temporal variation in organismal activity, and local monitoring for invasive species detection. Customizable data downloads are freely available, and data are accompanied by FGDC-compliant metadata, data-use and data-attribution policies, and vetted documented methodologies and protocols. The USA-NPN has implemented a number of measures to ensure both quality assurance and quality control. Here we describe the resources that have been developed so that incoming data submitted by both citizen and professional scientists are reliable; these include training materials, such as a botanical primer and species profiles. We also describe a number of automated quality control processes applied to incoming data streams to optimize data output quality. Existing and planned quality control measures for output of raw and derived data include: (1) Validation of site locations, including latitude, longitude, and elevation; (2) Flagging of records that conflict for a given date for an individual plant; (3) Flagging where species occur outside known ranges; (4) Flagging of records when phenophases occur outside of the plausible order for a species; (5) Flagging of records when intensity measures do not follow a plausible progression for a phenophase; (6) Flagging of records when a phenophase occurs outside of the plausible season, and (7) Quantification of precision and uncertainty for estimation of phenological metrics

  17. Electrochemical decontamination system for actinide processing gloveboxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedman, D.E.; Lugo, J.L.; Ford, D.K.; Nelson, T.O.; Trujillo, V.L.; Martinez, H.E.

    1998-03-01

    An electrolytic decontamination technology has been developed and successfully demonstrated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for the decontamination of actinide processing gloveboxes. The technique decontaminates the interior surfaces of stainless steel gloveboxes utilizing a process similar to electropolishing. The decontamination device is compact and transportable allowing it to be placed entirely within the glovebox line. In this way, decontamination does not require the operator to wear any additional personal protective equipment and there is no need for additional air handling or containment systems. Decontamination prior to glovebox decommissioning reduces the potential for worker exposure and environmental releases during the decommissioning, transport, and size reduction procedures which follow. The goal of this effort is to reduce contamination levels of alpha emitting nuclides for a resultant reduction in waste level category from High Level Transuranic (TRU) to low Specific Activity (LSA, less than or equal 100 nCi/g). This reduction in category results in a 95% reduction in disposal and disposition costs for the decontaminated gloveboxes. The resulting contamination levels following decontamination by this method are generally five orders of magnitude below the LSA specification. Additionally, the sodium sulfate based electrolyte utilized in the process is fully recyclable which results in the minimum of secondary waste. The process bas been implemented on seven gloveboxes within LANL`s Plutonium Facility at Technical Area 55. Of these gloveboxes, two have been discarded as low level waste items and the remaining five have been reused.

  18. Quality of coverage: conformity measures for stereotactic radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Q-R Jackie; Wessels, B W; Einstein, D B; Maciunas, R J; Kim, E Y; Kinsella, T J

    2003-01-01

    In radiosurgery, conformity indices are often used to compare competing plans, evaluate treatment techniques, and assess clinical complications. Several different indices have been reported to measure the conformity of the prescription isodose to the target volume. The PITV recommended in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) radiosurgery guidelines, defined as the ratio of the prescription isodose volume (PI) over the target volume (TV), is probably the most frequently quoted. However, these currently used conformity indices depend on target size and shape complexity. The objectives of this study are to systematically investigate the influence of target size and shape complexity on existing conformity indices, and to propose a different conformity index-the conformity distance index (CDI). The CDI is defined as the average distance between the target and the prescription isodose line. This study examines five case groups with volumes of 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, 10.0, and 30.0 cm(3). Each case group includes four simulated shapes: a sphere, a moderate ellipsoid, an extreme ellipsoid, and a concave "C" shape. Prescription dose coverages are generated for three simplified clinical scenarios, i.e., the PI completely covers the TV with 1 and 2 mm margins, and the PI over-covers one half of the TV with a 1 mm margin and under-covers the other half with a 1 mm margin. Existing conformity indices and the CDI are calculated for these five case groups as well as seven clinical cases. When these values are compared, the RTOG PITV conformity index and other similar conformity measures have much higher values than the CDI for smaller and more complex shapes. With the same quality of prescription dose coverage, the CDI yields a consistent conformity measure. For the seven clinical cases, we also find that the same PITV values can be associated with very different conformity qualities while the CDI predicts the conformity quality accurately. In summary, the proposed CDI provides

  19. Studies on Neutron, Photon (Bremsstrahlung and Proton Induced Fission of Actinides and Pre-Actinides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Naik

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We present the yields of various fission products determined in the reactor neutron, 3.7-18.1 MeV quasi-mono energetic neutron, 8-80 MeV bremsstrahlung and 20-45 MeV proton induced fission of 232Th and 238U using radiochemical and off-line beta or gamma ray counting. The yields of the fission products in the bremsstrahlung induced fission natPb and 209Bi with 50- 70 MeV and 2.5 GeV based on off-line gamma ray spectrometric technique were also presented. From the yields of fission products, the mass chains yields were obtained using charge distribution correction. From the mass yield distribution, the peak-to-valley (P/V ratio was obtained. The role of excitation energy on the peak-to-valley ratio and fine structure such as effect of shell closure proximity and even-odd effect of mass yield distribution were examined. The higher yields of the fission products around A=133-134, 138-140 and 143-144 and their complementary products explained from the nuclear structure effect and role of standard I and II mode of asymmetric fission. In the neutron, photon (bremsstrahlung and proton induced fission, the asymmetric mass distribution for actinides (Th, U and symmetric distribution for pre-actinides (Pb, Bi were explained from different type of potential fission barrier

  20. Rapid algorithm prototyping and implementation for power quality measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołek, Krzysztof; Piątek, Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    This article presents a Model-Based Design (MBD) approach to rapidly implement power quality (PQ) metering algorithms. Power supply quality is a very important aspect of modern power systems and will become even more important in future smart grids. In this case, maintaining the PQ parameters at the desired level will require efficient implementation methods of the metering algorithms. Currently, the development of new, advanced PQ metering algorithms requires new hardware with adequate computational capability and time intensive, cost-ineffective manual implementations. An alternative, considered here, is an MBD approach. The MBD approach focuses on the modelling and validation of the model by simulation, which is well-supported by a Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) packages. This paper presents two algorithms utilized in modern PQ meters: a phase-locked loop based on an Enhanced Phase Locked Loop (EPLL), and the flicker measurement according to the IEC 61000-4-15 standard. The algorithms were chosen because of their complexity and non-trivial development. They were first modelled in the MATLAB/Simulink package, then tested and validated in a simulation environment. The models, in the form of Simulink diagrams, were next used to automatically generate C code. The code was compiled and executed in real-time on the Zynq Xilinx platform that combines a reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) with a dual-core processor. The MBD development of PQ algorithms, automatic code generation, and compilation form a rapid algorithm prototyping and implementation path for PQ measurements. The main advantage of this approach is the ability to focus on the design, validation, and testing stages while skipping over implementation issues. The code generation process renders production-ready code that can be easily used on the target hardware. This is especially important when standards for PQ measurement are in constant development, and the PQ issues in emerging smart

  1. First ionization potential of the heaviest actinide lawrencium, element 103

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato Tetsuya K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The first ionization potential (IP1 of element 103, lawrencium (Lr, has been successfully determined for the first time by using a newly developed method based on a surface ionization process. The measured IP1 value is 4.9630.080.07 eV. This value is the smallest among those of actinide elements and is in excellent agreement with the value of 4.963(15 eV predicted by state-of-the-art relativistic calculations also performed in this work. Our results strongly support that the Lr atom has an electronic configuration of [Rn]7s25f147p11/2, which is influenced by strong relativistic effects. The present work provides a reliable benchmark for theoretical calculations and also opens the way for studies on atomic properties of heavy elements with atomic number Z > 100. Moreover, the present achievement has triggered a controversy on the position of lutetium (Lu and Lr in the Periodic Table of Elements.

  2. On the valence fluctuation in the early actinide metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Söderlind, P., E-mail: soderlind@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Landa, A.; Tobin, J.G.; Allen, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Medling, S.; Booth, C.H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bauer, E.D.; Cooley, J.C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Sokaras, D.; Weng, T.-C.; Nordlund, D. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • We make a connection between experimentally observed valence fluctuations and density functional theory. • We present a new model for valence fluctuations. • We present new experimental data for uranium and valence fluctuations. - Abstract: Recent X-ray measurements suggest a degree of valence fluctuation in plutonium and uranium intermetallics. We are applying a novel scheme, in conjunction with density functional theory, to predict 5f configuration fractions of states with valence fluctuations for the early actinide metals. For this purpose we perform constrained integer f-occupation calculations for the α phases of uranium, neptunium, and plutonium metals. For plutonium we also investigate the δ phase. The model predicts uranium and neptunium to be dominated by the f{sup 3} and f{sup 4} configurations, respectively, with only minor contributions from other configurations. For plutonium (both α and δ phase) the scenario is dramatically different. Here, the calculations predict a relatively even distribution between three valence configurations. The δ phase has a greater configuration fraction of f{sup 6} compared to that of the α phase. The theory is consistent with the interpretations of modern X-ray experiments and we present resonant X-ray emission spectroscopy results for α-uranium.

  3. Potential radiation dose from eating fish exposed to actinide contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, R.M.; Klopfer, D.C.; Baker, D.A.; Soldat, J.K.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to establish a maximum potential for transporting actinides to man via fish consumption. The study took place in U-Pond, a nuclear waste pond on the Hanford Site. It has concentrations of /sup 238/U, /sup 238/Pu, /sup 239,240/Pu and /sup 241/Am that are approximately three orders of magnitude greater than background levels. Fish living in the pond contain higher actinide concentrations than those observed in fish from any other location. Experiments were performed in U-pond to determine maximum quantities of actinides that could accumulate in fillets and whole bodies of two centrarchid fish species. Doses to hypothetical consumers were then estimated by assuming that actinide behavior in their bodies was similar to that defined for Standard Man by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Results indicate that highest concentrations occurring in bluegill or bass muscle after more than a year's exposure to the pond would not be sufficient to produce a significant radiation dose to a human consumer, even if he ate 0.5 kg (approx.1 lb) of these fillets every day for 70 years. Natural predators (heron or coyote), having lifetime diets of whole fish from U-Pond, would receive less radiation dose from the ingested actinides than from natural background sources. 34 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. A Summary of Actinide Enrichment Technologies and Capability Gaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, Bradley D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Robinson, Sharon M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The evaluation performed in this study indicates that a new program is needed to efficiently provide a national actinide radioisotope enrichment capability to produce milligram-to-gram quantities of unique materials for user communities as summarized in Table 1. This program xiv should leverage past actinide enrichment, the recent advances in stable isotope enrichment, and assessments of the future requirements to cost effectively develop this capability while establishing an experience base for a new generation of researchers in this vital area. Preliminary evaluations indicate that an EMIS device would have the capability to meet the future needs of the user community for enriched actinides. The EMIS technology could be potentially coupled with other enrichment technologies, such as irradiation, as pre-enrichment and/or post-enrichment systems to increase the throughput, reduce losses of material, and/or reduce operational costs of the base EMIS system. Past actinide enrichment experience and advances in the EMIS technology applied in stable isotope separations should be leveraged with this new evaluation information to assist in the establishment of a domestic actinide radioisotope enrichment capability.

  5. Development of the Chalmers Grouped Actinide Extraction Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halleröd Jenny

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Several solvents for Grouped ActiNide EXtraction (GANEX processes have been investigated at Chalmers University of Technology in recent years. Four different GANEX solvents; cyclo-GANEX (CyMe4- -BTBP, 30 vol.% tri-butyl phosphate (TBP and cyclohexanone, DEHBA-GANEX (CyMe4-BTBP, 20 vol.% N,N-di-2(ethylhexyl butyramide (DEHBA and cyclohexanone, hexanol-GANEX (CyMe4-BTBP, 30 vol.% TBP and hexanol and FS-13-GANEX (CyMe4-BTBP, 30 vol.% TBP and phenyl trifluoromethyl sulfone (FS-13 have been studied and the results are discussed and compared in this work. The cyclohexanone based solvents show fast and high extraction of the actinides but a somewhat poor diluent stability in contact with the acidic aqueous phase. FS-13-GANEX display high separation factors between the actinides and lanthanides and a good radiolytic and hydrolytic stability. However, the distribution ratios of the actinides are lower, compared to the cyclohexanone based solvents. The hexanol-GANEX is a cheap solvent system using a rather stable diluent but the actinide extraction is, however, comparatively low.

  6. The actinides-a beautiful ending of the Periodic Table

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Boerje [Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics, Uppsala University, Box 530, S-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Applied Materials Physics, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Brinellvaegen 23, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)], E-mail: borje.johansson@fysik.uu.se; Li, Sa [Applied Materials Physics, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Brinellvaegen 23, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Physics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23284 (United States)

    2007-10-11

    The 5f elements, actinides, show many properties which have direct correspondence to the 4f transition metals, the lanthanides. The remarkable similarity between the solid state properties of compressed Ce and the actinide metals is pointed out in the present paper. The {alpha}-{gamma} transition in Ce is considered as a Mott transition, namely, from delocalized to localized 4f states. An analogous behavior is also found for the actinide series, where the sudden volume increase from Pu to Am can be viewed upon as a Mott transition within the 5f shell as a function of the atomic number Z. On the itinerant side of the Mott transition, the earlier actinides (Pa-Pu) show low symmetry structures at ambient conditions; while across the border, the heavier elements (Am-Cf) present the dhcp structure, an atomic arrangement typical for the trivalent lanthanide elements with localized 4f magnetic moments. The reason for an isostructural Mott transition of the f electron in Ce, as opposed to the much more complicated cases in the actinides, is identified. The strange appearance of the {delta}-phase (fcc) in the phase diagram of Pu is another consequence of the border line behavior of the 5f electrons. The path leading from {delta}-Pu to {alpha}-Pu is identified.

  7. Hydrophilic actinide complexation studied by solvent extraction radiotracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydberg, J. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry and Radiochemistry Consultant Group, Vaestra Froelunda (Sweden)

    1996-10-01

    Actinide migration in the ground water is enhanced by the formation of water soluble complexes. It is essential to the risk analysis of a wet repository to know the concentration of central atoms and the ligands in the ground water, and the stability of complexes formed between them. Because the chemical behavior at trace concentrations often differ from that at macro concentrations, it is important to know the chemical behavior of actinides at trace concentrations in ground water. One method used for such investigations is the solvent extraction radiotracer (SXRT) technique. This report describes the SXRT technique in some detail. A particular reason for this analysis is the claim that complex formation constants obtained by SXRT are less reliable than results obtained by other techniques. It is true that several difficulties are encountered in the application of SXRT technique to actinide solution, such as redox instability, hydrophilic complexation by side reactions and sorption, but it is also shown that a careful application of the SXRT technique yields results as reliable as by any other technique. The report contains a literature survey on solvent extraction studies of actinide complexes formed in aqueous solutions, particularly by using the organic reagent thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) dissolved in benzene or chloroform. Hydrolysis constants obtained by solvent extraction are listed as well as all actinide complexes studied by SX with inorganic and organic ligands. 116 refs, 11 tabs.

  8. Ventilation system of actinides handling facility in Oarai-branch of Tohoku University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yoshimitsu; Watanabe, Makoto; Hara, Mituo; Shikama, Tatsuo; Kayano, Hideo; Mitsugashira, Toshiaki [Oarai Branch, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku Univ., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    We have reported the development of the facility for handling actinides in Tohoku University at the second KAERI-JAERI joint seminar on PIE technology. Actinide isotopes have most hazurdous {alpha}-radioactivity. Therefore, a specially designed facility is necessary to carry out experimental study for actinide physics and chemistry. In this paper, we will describe the ventilation system and monitoring system for actinide handling facility. (author)

  9. Image quality in CT: From physical measurements to model observers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdun, F R; Racine, D; Ott, J G; Tapiovaara, M J; Toroi, P; Bochud, F O; Veldkamp, W J H; Schegerer, A; Bouwman, R W; Giron, I Hernandez; Marshall, N W; Edyvean, S

    2015-12-01

    Evaluation of image quality (IQ) in Computed Tomography (CT) is important to ensure that diagnostic questions are correctly answered, whilst keeping radiation dose to the patient as low as is reasonably possible. The assessment of individual aspects of IQ is already a key component of routine quality control of medical x-ray devices. These values together with standard dose indicators can be used to give rise to 'figures of merit' (FOM) to characterise the dose efficiency of the CT scanners operating in certain modes. The demand for clinically relevant IQ characterisation has naturally increased with the development of CT technology (detectors efficiency, image reconstruction and processing), resulting in the adaptation and evolution of assessment methods. The purpose of this review is to present the spectrum of various methods that have been used to characterise image quality in CT: from objective measurements of physical parameters to clinically task-based approaches (i.e. model observer (MO) approach) including pure human observer approach. When combined together with a dose indicator, a generalised dose efficiency index can be explored in a framework of system and patient dose optimisation. We will focus on the IQ methodologies that are required for dealing with standard reconstruction, but also for iterative reconstruction algorithms. With this concept the previously used FOM will be presented with a proposal to update them in order to make them relevant and up to date with technological progress. The MO that objectively assesses IQ for clinically relevant tasks represents the most promising method in terms of radiologist sensitivity performance and therefore of most relevance in the clinical environment.

  10. Improving regional variation using quality of care measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Berkowitz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Scott A Berkowitz1, Gary Gerstenblith1, Robert Herbert2, Gerard Anderson1,21Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Center for Hospital Finance and Management, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: There is significant regional variability in the quality of care provided in the United States. This article compares regional performance for three measures that focus on transitions in care, and the care of patients with multiple conditions. Admissions for people with ambulatory care-sensitive conditions, hospital readmissions within 30 days of discharge, and compliance with practice guidelines for people with three chronic conditions (congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and diabetes were analyzed using data drawn from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services’ Standard Analytic Files for 5% of a 2004 national sample of Medicare beneficiaries which was divided by hospital referral regions and regional performance. There were significant regional differences in performance which we hypothesize could be improved through better care coordination and system management.Keywords: performance, quality, chronic condition, ambulatory care, sensitive conditions, readmissions

  11. Air quality performed with satellite measurement within the QUITSAT project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masieri, Samuele; Petritoli, Andrea; Premuda, Margarita; Kostadinov, Ivan; Bortoli, Daniele; Ravegnani, Fabrizio; Giovanelli, Giorgio

    Ground pollutants monitoring, using satellite observation, represents an interesting and high potential approach to air quality that could be inserted into Global monitoring systems. The QUITSAT Italian pilot project (air QUality with Integration of ground based and SAtellite measurements and chemical Transport and multiphase model), funded by the Italian Space Agency (ASI), proposes a new approach producing some interesting results in this frame. The approach focuses in the integration of the satellite observations (ENVISAT/SCIAMACHY and AURA/OMI) with the outputs of the GAMES (Gas Aerosol Modelling Evaluation System) chemical transport model, to provide the evaluation of the tropospheric profiles of some atmo-spheric compounds such as NO2 , O3 , HCHO and SO2 . This activity appears to be very useful to retrieve the surface concentration of trace gases from tropospheric columns of atmospheric compounds obtained with satellite instrumentation. The comparison with the in situ analyzer network over the Po' Valley shows a good correlation between the two data set. The corre-spondence can be improved taking into account also concentration gradients between different stations, classifying the ground base stations according to their rural or urban characteristics and considering the general orography of the ground. Results and methodology are presented and discussed.

  12. Identifying shortcomings in the measurement of service quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, G; Catts, R; Forlin, C

    2000-01-01

    SERVPEFR, the performance component of the Service Quality Scale (SERVQUAL), has been shown to measure five underlying dimensions corresponding to Tangibles, Reliability, Responsiveness, Assurance, and Empathy (Parasuraman, Zeithaml, & Berry, 1988). This paper describes three separate studies employing SERVPERF in an Australian context. In the first of these studies (N = 113), a shortened 15-item version of the SERVPERF scale (SERVPERF-R) was found to be suitable for use in an Australian small business setting. A five-factor structure was identifiable but the factors were highly correlated, suggesting that they were not clearly distinct. The tendency for marked negative skewness observed by other researchers was also noted here. A follow-up study involving three other small businesses (N = 212) used Rasch analysis to test assumptions about the spread of items on the underlying continuum. These analyses indicated that there is an even, though narrow, spread of items across the continuum. The Rasch analysis suggested that the items in both SERVPERF and SERVPERF-R are too easy to rate highly and that more "difficult" items need to be added to the scale. The third study (N = 122) was conducted using a version of SERVPERF-R that included seven new items intended to extend the range of the scale. The new items, however, did not achieve this desirable outcome. The implications for service quality assessment are discussed.

  13. Network compression as a quality measure for protein interaction networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loic Royer

    Full Text Available With the advent of large-scale protein interaction studies, there is much debate about data quality. Can different noise levels in the measurements be assessed by analyzing network structure? Because proteomic regulation is inherently co-operative, modular and redundant, it is inherently compressible when represented as a network. Here we propose that network compression can be used to compare false positive and false negative noise levels in protein interaction networks. We validate this hypothesis by first confirming the detrimental effect of false positives and false negatives. Second, we show that gold standard networks are more compressible. Third, we show that compressibility correlates with co-expression, co-localization, and shared function. Fourth, we also observe correlation with better protein tagging methods, physiological expression in contrast to over-expression of tagged proteins, and smart pooling approaches for yeast two-hybrid screens. Overall, this new measure is a proxy for both sensitivity and specificity and gives complementary information to standard measures such as average degree and clustering coefficients.

  14. Unintended consequences of a quality measure for acute bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Serena; Gonzales, Ralph; Harding-Anderer, Tammy; Bloom, Frederick J; Graf, Thomas; Stahl, Melissa S; Maselli, Judith H; Metlay, Joshua P

    2012-06-01

    To determine whether diagnostic coding shifts might undermine apparent improvements resulting from the 2007 Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) measure on avoidance of antibiotics for the treatment of adults with acute bronchitis (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code 466.0). Time series analysis within a primary care network for 3 successive winter seasons from 2006 to 2009. All initial adult visits with a primary diagnosis code of 466.0 or 490 (bronchitis, not otherwise specified) were analyzed. Multivariable analysis accounted for clustering of observations by physician. The percentage of visits treated with antibiotics declined significantly for code 466.0 (76.8% to 74.4% to 27.0% of visits over the 3-year study period; P bronchitis visits in year 1 to 84.6% of total bronchitis visits in year 3. As a result, the odds of an antibiotic prescription for codes 466 and 490 combined decreased slightly in year 3 compared with year 1 (odds ratio 0.88; 95% confidence interval 0.78-0.99). While performance on the specific HEDIS measure improved dramatically during this study period, overall antibiotic prescribing did not decline substantially. Quality measures that assess performance on specific diagnosis codes are imperfect and do not account for shifts in diagnosis coding.

  15. Measuring soil physical properties to assess soil quality

    OpenAIRE

    Raczkowski, C.W.

    2007-01-01

    Soil quality is the capacity of a soil to function within ecosystem boundaries to sustain biological productivity, maintain environmental quality, and promote plant, animal and human health. A quantitative assessment of soil quality is invaluable in determining the sustainability of land management systems. Criteria for soil quality assessment are: 1) Choose indicators of soil quality based on the multiple functions of soil that maintain productivity and environmental health, 2)must include s...

  16. ATP measurements for monitoring microbial drinking water quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Óluva Karin

    methods are vital for an improved surveillance and distribution of clean and safe drinking water. One of these rapid methods is the ATP assay. This thesis encompasses various methodological aspects of the ATP assay describing the principal and theory of the ATP assay measurement. ATP is the main energy...... carrying molecule in living cells, thus ATP can be used as a parameter for microbial activity. ATP is extracted from cells through cell lysis and subsequently assayed with the luciferase enzyme and its substrate luciferin, resulting in bioluminescence, i.e. light emission which can be quantified....... The overall aim of this PhD study was to investigate various methodological features of the ATP assay for a potential implementation on a sensor platform as a real-time parameter for continuous on-line monitoring of microbial drinking water quality. Commercial reagents are commonly used to determine ATP...

  17. Development of Optical Fiber Sensor for Water Quality Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, A. F.; MatJafri, M. Z.

    2008-05-01

    The development of water quality fiber sensor through spectroscopy analysis utilizes the emission of incident light and detection of backscattered light through fiber optic cables as key elements of the design. The system has the capability to detect the light scattered 180° away from the incident light when there is an interaction between the light and the solids suspended in the water. The empirical analysis is conducted for the measurement of the capacity of clay suspended in water (in mg/L). The system consists of two separate light detector circuitry that is sensitive to blue (470 nm) and red (635 nm) monochromatic light. The heart of the system is the sensor, TSLB257 and TSLR257 that having a peak response at wavelength of 470 nm and 635 nm respectively. The final result of detection is submitted to Basic Stamp 2 microcontroller for processing and analysis. The level of turbidity is then defined and displayed by the microcontroller.

  18. Quality assessment in nursing home facilities: measuring customer satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostyn, M M; Race, K E; Seibert, J H; Johnson, M

    2000-01-01

    A national study designed to assess the reliability and validity of a nursing home customer satisfaction survey is summarized. One hundred fifty-nine facilities participated, each responsible for the distribution and collection of 200 questionnaires randomly sent to the home of the resident's responsible party. A total of 9053 completed questionnaires were returned, for an average adjusted response rate of 53%. The factor analysis identified 4 scales: Comfort and Cleanliness, Nursing, Food Services, and Facility Care and Services, each with high reliability. Based on a multiple regression analysis, the scales were shown to have good criterion-related validity, accounting for 64% of the variance in overall quality ratings. Comparisons based on select characteristics indicated significantly different satisfaction ratings among facilities. The results are interpreted as providing evidence for the construct validity of a multidimensional customer satisfaction scale with measured reliability and criterion-related validity. Moreover, the scale can be used to differentiate satisfaction levels among facilities.

  19. Measurement quality assurance for beta particle calibrations at NIST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, C.G.; Pruitt, J.S. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Standardized beta-particle fields have been established in an international standard and have been adopted for use in several U.S. dosimeter and instrument testing standards. Calibration methods and measurement quality assurance procedures employed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for beta-particle calibrations in these reference fields are discussed. The calibration facility including the NIST-automated extrapolation ionization chamber is described, and some sample results of calibrations are shown. Methods for establishing and maintaining traceability to NIST of secondary laboratories are discussed. Currently, there are problems in finding a good method for routine testing of traceability to NIST. Some examples of past testing methods are given and solutions to this problem are proposed.

  20. Measuring the quality of neuronal identification in ensemble recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neymotin, Samuel A; Lytton, William W; Olypher, Andrey V; Fenton, André A

    2011-11-09

    Technological advances in electrode construction and digital signal processing now allow recording simultaneous extracellular action potential discharges from many single neurons, with the potential to revolutionize understanding of the neural codes for sensory, motor, and cognitive variables. Such studies have revealed the importance of ensemble neural codes, encoding information in the dynamic relationships among the action potential spike trains of multiple single neurons. Although the success of this research depends on the accurate classification of extracellular action potentials to individual neurons, there are no widely used quantitative methods for assessing the quality of the classifications. Here we describe information theoretic measures of action potential waveform isolation applicable to any dataset that have an intuitive, universal interpretation, that are not dependent on the methods or choice of parameters for single-unit isolation, and that have been validated using a dataset of simultaneous intracellular and extracellular neuronal recordings from Sprague Dawley rats.

  1. The Current State of Behavioral Health Quality Measures: Where Are the Gaps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Milesh M; Brown, Jonathan D; Croake, Sarah; Lewis, Rita; Liu, Junqing; Patton, Lisa; Potter, D E B; Scholle, Sarah Hudson

    2015-08-01

    This review examined the extent to which existing behavioral health quality measures address the priority areas of the National Behavioral Health Quality Framework (NBHQF) as well as the extent to which the measures have received National Quality Forum endorsement and are used in major reporting programs. This review identified behavioral health quality measures in widely used measure inventories, including the National Quality Measures Clearinghouse, National Quality Forum, and the Center for Quality Assessment in Mental Health. Additional measures were identified through outreach to federal agencies. Measures were categorized by type, condition, target population, data source, reporting unit, endorsement status, and use in reporting programs. The review identified 510 measures. Nearly one-third of these measures address broad mental health or substance use conditions rather than a specific condition or diagnosis. Seventy-two percent are process measures. The most common data source for measures is administrative claims, and very few measures rely on electronic health records or surveys. Fifty-three (10%) measures have received National Quality Forum (NQF) endorsement, and 28 (5%) unique measures are used in major quality reporting programs. Several subdomains of the NBHQF, such as treatment intensification, financial barriers to care, and continuity of care, lack measures that are NQF endorsed. Despite the wide array of behavioral health quality measures, relatively few have received endorsement or are used in reporting programs. Future efforts should seek to fill gaps in measurement and to identify the most salient and strongest measures in each priority area.

  2. Fluoride-conversion synthesis of homogeneous actinide oxide solid solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, G W Chinthaka M [ORNL; Hunn, John D [ORNL; Yeamans, Charles B. [University of California, Berkeley; Cerefice, Gary S. [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Czerwinski, Ken R. [University of Nevada, Las Vegas

    2011-01-01

    Here, a novel route to synthesize (U, Th)O2 solid solutions at a relatively low temperature of 1100 C is demonstrated. First, the separate actinide oxides reacted with ammonium bifluoride to form ammonium actinide fluorides at room temperature. Subsequently, this mixture was converted to the actinide oxide solid solution using a two-phased heat treatment, first at 610 C in static air, then at 1100 C in flowing argon. Solid solutions obeying Vegard s Law were synthesized for ThO2 content from 10 to 90 wt%. Microscopy showed that the (U, Th)O2 solid solutions synthesized with this method to have considerably high crystallinity and homogeneity, suggesting the suitability of material thus synthesized for sintering into nuclear fuel pellets at low temperatures.

  3. Actinide (III) solubility in WIPP Brine: data summary and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borkowski, Marian; Lucchini, Jean-Francois; Richmann, Michael K.; Reed, Donald T.

    2009-09-01

    The solubility of actinides in the +3 oxidation state is an important input into the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) performance assessment (PA) models that calculate potential actinide release from the WIPP repository. In this context, the solubility of neodymium(III) was determined as a function of pH, carbonate concentration, and WIPP brine composition. Additionally, we conducted a literature review on the solubility of +3 actinides under WIPP-related conditions. Neodymium(III) was used as a redox-invariant analog for the +3 oxidation state of americium and plutonium, which is the oxidation state that accounts for over 90% of the potential release from the WIPP through the dissolved brine release (DBR) mechanism, based on current WIPP performance assessment assumptions. These solubility data extend past studies to brine compositions that are more WIPP-relevant and cover a broader range of experimental conditions than past studies.

  4. X-ray and electron microscopy of actinide materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kevin T

    2010-06-01

    Actinide materials demonstrate a wide variety of interesting physical properties in both bulk and nanoscale form. To better understand these materials, a broad array of microscopy techniques have been employed, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), high-angle annular dark-field imaging (HAADF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (WDXS), electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). Here these techniques will be reviewed, highlighting advances made in the physics, materials science, chemistry, and biology of actinide materials through microscopy. Construction of a spin-polarized TEM will be discussed, considering its potential for examining the nanoscale magnetic structure of actinides as well as broader materials and devices, such as those for computational magnetic memory. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Electronic, structural, and thermodynamic properties of actinide dioxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Atta-Fynn, Raymond; Ray, Asok K.

    2010-03-01

    As a continuation of our studies of pure actinide metals using hybrid density functional theory,footnotetextR. Atta-Fynn and A. K. Ray, Europhysics Letters, 85, 27008-p1- p6 (2009); Chemical Physics Letters, 482, 223-227 (2009). we present here a systematic study of the electronic and geometric structure properties of the actinide dioxides, UO2, PuO2 and AmO2, using both density functional and hybrid density functional theories. For the hybrid density functionals, the fractions of exact Hartree-Fock exchange used were 25% and 40%. Each compound has been studied at the nonmagnetic, ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic configurations, with and without spin-orbit coupling (SOC). The influence of SOC on the properties of the actinide dioxides will be discussed. Thermodynamic properties such as phonon dispersion curves, heat capacity, entropy, internal energy and free energy have been calculated by a coupling of first-principles calculations and lattice dynamics.

  6. Modeling actinide chemistry with ASPEN PLUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigsby, C.O.

    1995-12-31

    When chemical engineers think of chemical processing, they often do not include the US government or the national laboratories as significant participants. Compared to the scale of chemical processing in the chemical process, petrochemical and pharmaceutical industries, the government contribution to chemical processing is not large. However, for the past fifty years, the US government has been, heavily involved in chemical processing of some very specialized materials, in particular, uranium and plutonium for nuclear weapons. Individuals and corporations have paid taxes that, in part have been used to construct and to maintain a series of very expensive laboratories and production facilities throughout the country. Even ignoring the ongoing R & D costs, the price per pound of enriched uranium or of plutonium exceeds that of platinum by a wide margin. Now, with the end of the cold war, the government is decommissioning large numbers of nuclear weapons and cleaning up the legacy of radioactive wastes generated over the last fifty years. It is likely that the costs associated with the build-down and clean-up of the nuclear weapons complex will exceed the investment of the past fifty years of production. Los Alamos National Laboratory occupies a special place in the history of nuclear weapons. The first weapons were designed and assembled at Los Alamos using uranium produced in Oak Ridge, Tennessee or plutonium produced in Richland, Washington. Many of the thermophysical and metallurgical properties of actinide elements have been investigated at Los Alamos. The only plutonium processing facility currently operating in the US is in Los Alamos, and the Laboratory is striving to capture and maintain the uranium processing technology applicable to the post-cold war era. Laboratory researchers are actively involved in developing methods for cleaning up the wastes associated with production of nuclear weapons throughout the US.

  7. In pursuit of homoleptic actinide alkyl complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Lani A; Walensky, Justin R; Wu, Guang; Hayton, Trevor W

    2013-04-01

    This Forum Article describes the pursuit of isolable homoleptic actinide alkyl complexes, starting with the pioneering work of Gilman during the Manhattan project. The initial reports in this area suggested that homoleptic uranium alkyls were too unstable to be isolated, but Wilkinson demonstrated that tractable uranium alkyls could be generated by purposeful "ate" complex formation, which serves to saturate the uranium coordination sphere and provide the complexes with greater kinetic stability. More recently, we reported the solid-state molecular structures of several homoleptic uranium alkyl complexes, including [Li(THF)4][U(CH2(t)Bu)5], [Li(TMEDA)]2[UMe6], [K(THF)]3[K(THF)2][U(CH2Ph)6]2, and [Li(THF)4][U(CH2SiMe3)6], by employing Wilkinson's strategy. Herein, we describe our attempts to extend this chemistry to thorium. The treatment of ThCl4(DME)2 with 5 equiv of LiCH2(t)Bu or LiCH2SiMe3 at -25 °C in THF affords [Th(CH2(t)Bu)5] (1) and [Li(DME)2][Th(CH2SiMe3)5 (2), respectively, in moderate yields. Similarly, the treatment of ThCl4(DME)2 with 6 equiv of K(CH2Ph) produces [K(THF)]2[Th(CH2Ph)6] (3), in good yield. Complexes 1-3 have been fully characterized, while the structures of 1 and 3 were confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Additionally, the electronic properties of 1 and 3 were explored by density functional theory.

  8. Actinide consumption: Nuclear resource conservation without breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannum, W.H.; Battles, J.E.; Johnson, T.R.; McPheeters, C.C.

    1991-01-01

    A new approach to the nuclear power issue based on a metallic fast reactor fuel and pyrometallurgical processing of spent fuel is showing great potential and is approaching a critical demonstration phase. If successful, this approach will complement and validate the LWR reactor systems and the attendant infrastructure (including repository development) and will alleviate the dominant concerns over the acceptability of nuclear power. The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept is a metal-fueled, sodium-cooled pool-type fast reactor supported by a pyrometallurgical reprocessing system. The concept of a sodium cooled fast reactor is broadly demonstrated by the EBR-II and FFTF in the US; DFR and PFR in the UK; Phenix and SuperPhenix in France; BOR-60, BN-350, BN-600 in the USSR; and JOYO in Japan. The metallic fuel is an evolution from early EBR-II fuels. This fuel, a ternary U-Pu-Zr alloy, has been demonstrated to be highly reliable and fault tolerant even at very high burnup (160-180,000 MWd/MT). The fuel, coupled with the pool type reactor configuration, has been shown to have outstanding safety characteristics: even with all active safety systems disabled, such a reactor can survive a loss of coolant flow, a loss of heat sink, or other major accidents. Design studies based on a small modular approach show not only its impressive safety characteristics, but are projected to be economically competitive. The program to explore the feasibility of actinide recovery from spent LWR fuel is in its initial phase, but it is expected that technical feasibility could be demonstrated by about 1995; DOE has not yet committed funds to achieve this objective. 27 refs.

  9. Selection of actinide chemical analogues for WIPP tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villarreal, R.; Spall, D.

    1995-07-05

    The Department of Energy must demonstrate the effectiveness of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as a permanent repository for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste. Performance assessments of the WIPP require that estimates of the transportability and outcome of the radionuclides (actinides) be determined from disposal rooms that may become either partially or completely filled with brine. Federal regulations limit the amount of radioactivity that may be unintentionally released to the accessible environment by any mechanism during the post closure phase up to 10,000 years. Thermodynamic models have been developed to predict the concentrations of actinides in the WIPP disposal rooms under various situations and chemical conditions. These models are based on empirical and theoretical projections of the chemistry that might be present in and around the disposal room zone for both near and long-term periods. The actinides that are known to be present in the TRU wastes (and are included in the model) are Th, U, Np, Pu, and Am. Knowledge of the chemistry that might occur in the disposal rooms when the waste comes in contact with brine is important in understanding the range of oxidation states that might be present under different conditions. There is a need to establish the mechanisms and resultant rate of transport, migration, or effective retardation of actinides beyond the disposal rooms to the boundary of the accessible environment. The influence of the bulk salt rock, clay sediments and other geologic matrices on the transport behavior of actinides must be determined to establish the overall performance and capability of the WIPP in isolating waste from the environment. Tests to determine the capabilities of the WIPP geologic formations in retarding actinide species in several projected oxidation states would provide a means to demonstrate the effectiveness of the WIPP in retaining TRU wastes.

  10. Improving Oncology Quality Measurement in Accountable Care: Filling Gaps with Cross-Cutting Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valuck, Tom; Blaisdell, David; Dugan, Donna P; Westrich, Kimberly; Dubois, Robert W; Miller, Robert S; McClellan, Mark

    2017-02-01

    each gap, we searched for available measures not already being used in programs. Where existing measures did not cover gaps, we recommended refinements to existing measures or proposed measures for development. We shared the results of the measure gap analysis with a roundtable of national experts in cancer care and oncology measurement. During a web meeting and an in-person meeting, the roundtable reviewed the gap analysis and identified priority opportunities for improving measurement. The group determined that overreliance on condition-specific process measures is problematic because of rapidly changing evidence and increasing personalization of cancer care. The group's primary recommendation for enhancing measure sets was to prioritize and develop effective cross-cutting measures that assess clinical and patient-reported outcomes, including shared decision making, care planning, and symptom control. The group also prioritized certain safety and structural measures to complement condition-specific process measures. Further, the group explored strategies for using clinical pathways and devising layered measurement approaches to improve measurement for accountable care. This article presents the roundtable's conclusions and recommendations for next steps. Funding for this project was provided by the National Pharmaceutical Council (NPC). Westrich and Dubois are employees of the NPC. Valuck is a partner with Discern Health. Blaisdell and Dugan are employed by Discern Health. McClellan reports fees for serving on the Johnson & Johnson Board of Directors. Dugan reports consulting fees from the National Committee for Quality Assurance and Pharmacy Quality Alliance. The remaining authors report no relationship or financial interest with any entity that would pose a conflict of interest with the subject matter of this article. Study concept and design were contributed by Blaisdell, Valuck, Dugan, and Westrich. Blaisdell took the lead in data collection, along with Valuck

  11. Are the CMS Hospital Outpatient Quality Measures Relevant for Rural Hospitals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Michelle M.; Prasad, Shailendra; Klingner, Jill; Moscovice, Ira

    2012-01-01

    Context: Quality measures focused on outpatient settings are of increasing interest to policy makers, but little research has been conducted on hospital outpatient quality measures, especially in rural settings. Purpose: To evaluate the relevance of Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' (CMS) outpatient quality measures for rural hospitals,…

  12. Are the CMS Hospital Outpatient Quality Measures Relevant for Rural Hospitals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Michelle M.; Prasad, Shailendra; Klingner, Jill; Moscovice, Ira

    2012-01-01

    Context: Quality measures focused on outpatient settings are of increasing interest to policy makers, but little research has been conducted on hospital outpatient quality measures, especially in rural settings. Purpose: To evaluate the relevance of Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' (CMS) outpatient quality measures for rural hospitals,…

  13. Thermally unstable complexants/phosphate mineralization of actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    In situ immobilization is an approach to isolation of radionuclides from the hydrosphere that is receiving increasing attention. Rather than removing the actinides from contaminated soils, this approach transforms the actinides into intrinsically insoluble mineral phases resistant to leaching by groundwater. The principal advangates of this concept are the low cost and low risk of operator exposure and/or dispersion of the radionuclides to the wider environment. The challenge of this approach is toe accomplish the immobilization without causing collateral damage to the environment (the cure shouldn`t be worse than the disease) and verification of system performance.

  14. New cubic structure compounds as actinide host phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanovsky, S V [SIA Radon, 7th Rostovskii lane 2/14, Moscow 119121 (Russian Federation); Yudintsev, S V; Livshits, T S, E-mail: profstef@mtu-net.ru [Institute of Geology of Ore Deposits, Petrography, Mineralogy and Geochemistry RAS, Staromonetny lane 35, Moscow 119017 (Russian Federation)

    2010-03-15

    Various compounds with fluorite (cubic zirconia) and fluorite-derived (pyrochlore, zirconolite) structures are considered as promising actinide host phases at immobilization of actinide-bearing nuclear wastes. Recently some new cubic compounds - stannate and stannate-zirconate pyrochlores, murataite and related phases, and actinide-bearing garnet structure compounds were proposed as perspective matrices for complex actinide wastes. Zirconate pyrochlore (ideally Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}) has excellent radiation resistance and high chemical durability but requires high temperatures (at least 1500 deg. C) to be produced by hot-pressing from sol-gel derived precursor. Partial Sn{sup 4+} substitution for Zr{sup 4+} reduces production temperature and the compounds REE{sub 2}ZrSnO{sub 7} may be hot-pressed or cold pressed and sintered at {approx}1400 deg. C. Pyrochlore, A{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 7-x} (two-fold elementary fluorite unit cell), and murataite, A{sub 3}B{sub 6}C{sub 2}O{sub 20-y} (three-fold fluorite unit cell), are end-members of the polysomatic series consisting of the phases whose structures are built from alternating pyrochlore and murataite blocks (nano-sized modules) with seven- (2C/3C/2C), five- (2C/3C), eight- (3C/2C/3C) and three-fold (3C - murataite) fluorite unit cells. Actinide content in this series reduces in the row: 2C (pyrochlore) > 7C > 5C > 8C > 3C (murataite). Due to congruent melting murataite-based ceramics may be produced by melting and the firstly segregated phase at melt crystallization is that with the highest fraction of the pyrochlore modules in its structure. The melts containing up to 10 wt. % AnO{sub 2} (An = Th, U, Np, Pu) or REE/An fraction of HLW form at crystallization zoned grains composed sequentially of the 5C {yields} 8C {yields} 3C phases with the highest actinide concentration in the core and the lowest - in the rim of the grains. Radiation resistance of the 'murataite' is comparable to titanate pyrochlores. One

  15. New molecules for the separation of actinides (III): the picolinamides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordier, P.Y.; Condamines, N.; Berthon, L.; Madic, C.

    1994-12-31

    Minor actinide partitioning from high level liquid wastes produced during the reprocessing of nuclear fuels by the Purex process, requires the design of new extracting molecules. These new extractants must be able to separate, for example, actinides from lanthanides. This separation is very difficult, due to the similar chemical properties of these metallic species, but it can possibly be reached by using extractants with soft donor atoms (N or S). Some new molecules : the picolinamides are investigated in this way. The general chemical formula and the behaviour of these compounds in acidic media are given. (O.L.). 3 refs.

  16. Production of heavy actinides in incomplete fusion reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonenko, N. V.; Cherepanov, E. A.; Iljinov, A. S.; Mebel, M. V.

    1994-10-01

    We present preliminary results of calculations by the phenomenological model of the estimated yield of some heavy actinide isotopes. It is assumed that these isotopes are produced as a result of multinucleon transfers followed by neutrons and charged particle emission A.S. Iljinov and E.A. Cherepanov (1980). The yield P(sub Z, N)(E*) of primary excited actinides is found using the model of N.V. Antonenko and R.V. Jolos (1991). Absolute cross-sections for different binary reaction channels are obtained by summing the cross-sections for all subchannels with an appreciable yield according to J. Wilczynski et al. (1980).

  17. Physics studies of higher actinide consumption in an LMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, R.N.; Wade, D.C.; Fujita, E.K.; Khalil, H.S.

    1990-01-01

    The core physics aspects of the transuranic burning potential of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) are assessed. The actinide behavior in fissile self-sufficient IFR closed cycles of 1200 MWt size is characterized, and the transuranic isotopics and risk potential of the working inventory are compared to those from a once-through LWR. The core neutronic performance effects of rare-earth impurities present in the recycled fuel are addressed. Fuel cycle strategies for burning transuranics from an external source are discussed, and specialized actinide burner designs are described. 4 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Physics studies of higher actinide consumption in an LMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, R.N.; Wade, D.C.; Fujita, E.K.; Khalil, H.S.

    1990-01-01

    The core physics aspects of the transuranic burning potential of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) are assessed. The actinide behavior in fissile self-sufficient IFR closed cycles of 1200 MWt size is characterized, and the transuranic isotopics and risk potential of the working inventory are compared to those from a once-through LWR. The core neutronic performance effects of rare-earth impurities present in the recycled fuel are addressed. Fuel cycle strategies for burning transuranics from an external source are discussed, and specialized actinide burner designs are described. 4 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR SEPARATING ACTINIDE AND LANTHANIDE METAL VALUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, R.A.; Hyman, H.H.; Vogler, S.

    1962-08-14

    A process of countercurrently extracting an aqueous mineral acid feed solution for the separation of actinides from lanthanides dissolved therern is described. The feed solution is made acid-defrcient with alkali metal hydroxide prior to.contact with acid extractant; during extraction, however, acid is transferred from organic to aqueous solution and the aqueous solution gradually becomes acid. The acid-deficient phase ' of the process promotes the extraction of the actinides, while the latter acid phase'' of the process improves retention of the lanthanides in the aqueous solution. This provides for an improved separation. (AEC)

  20. Principle and Uncertainty Quantification of an Experiment Designed to Infer Actinide Neutron Capture Cross-Sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Youinou; G. Palmiotti; M. Salvatorre; G. Imel; R. Pardo; F. Kondev; M. Paul

    2010-01-01

    An integral reactor physics experiment devoted to infer higher actinide (Am, Cm, Bk, Cf) neutron cross sections will take place in the US. This report presents the principle of the planned experiment as well as a first exercise aiming at quantifying the uncertainties related to the inferred quantities. It has been funded in part by the DOE Office of Science in the framework of the Recovery Act and has been given the name MANTRA for Measurement of Actinides Neutron TRAnsmutation. The principle is to irradiate different pure actinide samples in a test reactor like INL’s Advanced Test Reactor, and, after a given time, determine the amount of the different transmutation products. The precise characterization of the nuclide densities before and after neutron irradiation allows the energy integrated neutron cross-sections to be inferred since the relation between the two are the well-known neutron-induced transmutation equations. This approach has been used in the past and the principal novelty of this experiment is that the atom densities of the different transmutation products will be determined with the Accelerator Mass Spectroscopy (AMS) facility located at ANL. While AMS facilities traditionally have been limited to the assay of low-to-medium atomic mass materials, i.e., A < 100, there has been recent progress in extending AMS to heavier isotopes – even to A > 200. The detection limit of AMS being orders of magnitude lower than that of standard mass spectroscopy techniques, more transmutation products could be measured and, potentially, more cross-sections could be inferred from the irradiation of a single sample. Furthermore, measurements will be carried out at the INL using more standard methods in order to have another set of totally uncorrelated information.

  1. A fourier transform quality measure for iris images

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Makinana, S

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Iris recognition systems have attracted much attention for their uniqueness, stability and reliability. However, performance of this system depends on quality of acquired iris sample. This is because in order to obtain reliable features good quality...

  2. Software cost/resource modeling: Software quality tradeoff measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    A conceptual framework for treating software quality from a total system perspective is developed. Examples are given to show how system quality objectives may be allocated to hardware and software; to illustrate trades among quality factors, both hardware and software, to achieve system performance objectives; and to illustrate the impact of certain design choices on software functionality.

  3. QUALITY OF SERVICE AND CONDITIONS OF CUSTOMER SATISFACTION MEASUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Winkler

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The starting point for the considerations made in the article is to compare such categories as product quality and service quality. An essential part of analysis is devoted to the relation of quality of service and satisfaction with the service. In the article discusses the grounds of designing and preparing customer satisfaction survey of services.

  4. Quality of life measurements in patients with osteoporosis and fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa M. Madureira

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available To review all specific questionnaires regarding quality of life in osteoporosis and to describe their distinctive indications, we searched Medline, the Scientific Electronic Library Online database, and the Latin-American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature database. Nine specific questionnaires related to osteoporosis quality of life were found: 1 the Women's Health Questionnaire, 2 Osteoporosis Quality of Life Questionnaire, 3 Osteoporosis Assessment Questionnaire, 4 Osteoporosis Functional Disability Questionnaire, 5 Quality of Life Questionnaire of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis, 6 Osteoporosis-Targeted Quality of Life Questionnaire, 7 Japanese Osteoporosis Quality of Life Questionnaire, 8 the 16-item Assessment of Health-Related Quality of Life in Osteoporosis, and 9 the Quality of Life Questionnaire in Osteoporosis (QUALIOST TM. The Quality of Life Questionnaire of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis is the osteoporosis-specific questionnaire most commonly used in the literature. The Quality of Life Questionnaire of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the Osteoporosis Quality of Life Questionnaire are targeted more toward fracture assessment, and the Osteoporosis Functional Disability Questionnaire can be used for longitudinal studies involving exercise. In the present study, the authors summarize all of the specific questionnaires for osteoporosis and demonstrate that these questionnaires should be selected based on the objectives to be evaluated. Osteoporosis-specific quality of life questionnaires should be validated in the language of the country of origin before being used.

  5. Measuring the quality of MDT working: an observational approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Cath

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer multidisciplinary teams (MDTs are established in many countries but little is known about how well they function. A core activity is regular MDT meetings (MDMs where treatment recommendations are agreed. A mixed methods descriptive study was conducted to develop and test quality criteria for observational assessment of MDM performance calibrated against consensus from over 2000 MDT members about the “characteristics of an effective MDT”. Methods Eighteen of the 86 ‘Characteristics of Effective MDTs’ were considered relevant and feasible to observe. They collated to 15 aspects of MDT working covering four domains: the team (e.g. attendance, chairing, teamworking; infrastructure for meetings (venue, equipment; meeting organisation and logistics; and patient-centred clinical decision-making (patient-centredness, clarity of recommendations. Criteria for rating each characteristic from ‘very poor’ to ‘very good’ were derived from literature review, observing MDMs and expert input. Criteria were applied to 10 bowel cancer MDTs to assess acceptability and measure variation between and within teams. Feasibility and inter-rater reliability was assessed by comparing three observers. Results Observational assessment was acceptable to teams and feasible to implement. Total scores from 29 to 50 (out of 58 highlighted wide diversity in quality between teams. Eight teams were rated either ‘very good/good’ or ‘very poor/poor’ for at least three domains demonstrating some internal consistency. ‘Very good’ ratings were most likely for attendance and administrative preparation, and least likely for patient-centredness of decision-making and prioritisation of complex cases. All except two characteristics had intra-class correlations of ≥0.50. Conclusions This observational tool (MDT-OARS may contribute to the assessment of MDT performance. Further testing to confirm validity and reliability is required.

  6. General measures and quality of life issues in psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Sarkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis generally does not affect survival but has significant detrimental effect on quality of life (QOL, which may be comparable to that of ischemic heart disease, diabetes, depression, and cancer. The foremost important thing in the management of psoriasis is counseling of the patient. The clinician needs to be empathetic and spend adequate time with the patient and educating the patient about psoriasis. Clinicians should make it clear to the patient that the primary goal of treatment is control of the disease rather than cure. Eating a balanced and low glycemic diet could be an important adjuvant factor in the prevention and treatment of moderate nonpustular psoriasis. Obese people are more likely to have severe psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis than people with an average body mass index. Dietary supplementation with oily fish, rich in n-3 fatty acids, in psoriasis had shown mixed results in trials. Promising results have been documented for parenteral application of n-3 fatty acid, but not with oral supplementation. Increased smoking or alcohol abuse increases the risk of developing psoriasis and may influence disease severity, and hence must be avoided. Soaking in warm water with bath oil can be done in extensive psoriasis for hydration and emollient effect, and bland soaps or soap substitutes should be used; antiseptics should be avoided as they may irritate the skin. Relatively small, localized patches of psoriasis may improve with occlusion, i.e., waterproof adhesive dressings. The use of emollients is an internationally accepted standard adjunctive to the treatment of psoriasis. Dermatology Life Quality Index is a psychometrically sound and responsive measure of psoriasis-specific outcomes and most comprehensively captures the impact of clinical signs and symptoms on patient's well-being.

  7. Measurement of indoor air quality in two new test houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, A.T.

    1996-01-01

    This study assessed indoor air quality in two similar, new houses being evaluated for energy performance. One house (A) was built conventionally. The other (B) was an energy-efficient structure. Air samples for individual volatile organic compounds (VOCs), total VOCs (TVOC) and formaldehyde were collected following completion of the interiors of the houses and on several occasions during the following year. Ventilation rates were also determined so that source strengths of airborne contaminants could be estimated with a mass- balance model. There were no substantial differences in indoor air quality between the houses. The TVOC concentrations in House A ranged from 1,700 - 4,400 {mu}p m{sup -3}, with the highest value coinciding with the lowest ventilation rate. The TVOC concentrations in House B were 2,400 - 2,800 {mu}g m{sup -3}. These values are elevated compared to a median value of 700 {mu}g m{sup -3} measured for a large residential study. Formaldehyde concentrations ranged up to 74 {mu}g m{sup -3}. The dominant VOC in both houses was hexanal, an odorous chemical irritant. The concentrations of acetone, pentanal, toluene, alpha-pinene and other aldehydes were also relatively high in both houses. The source strengths of many of the analytes did not decline substantially over the course of the study. The OSB was estimated to contribute substantially to concentrations of formaldehyde and acetone in the houses. The results also suggested that OSB was not the dominant source of pentanal, hexanal and alpha-pinene, all of which had elevated emissions in the houses, possibly from a single source.

  8. Molecular and electronic structure of actinide hexa-cyanoferrates; Structure moleculaire et electronique des hexacyanoferrates d'actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonhoure, I

    2001-07-01

    The goal of this work is to improve our knowledge on the actinide-ligand bond properties. To this end, the hexacyanoferrate entities have been used as pre-organized ligand. We have synthesized, using mild chemistry, the following series of complexes: An{sup IV}[Fe{sup II}(CN){sub 6}].xH{sub 2}O (An = Th, U, Np, Pu); Am{sup III}[Fe{sup III}(CN){sub 6}].xH{sub 2}O; Pu {sup III}[Co{sup III}(CN){sub 6}].xH{sub 2}O and K(H?)An{sup III}[Fe{sup II}(CN){sub 6}].xH{sub 2}O (An = Pu, Am). The metal oxidation states have been obtained thanks to the {nu}{sub CN}, stretching vibration and to the actinide L{sub III} absorption edge studies. As Prussian Blue, the An{sup IV}[Fe{sup II}(CN){sub 6}].xH{sub 2}O (An = Np, Pu) are class II of Robin and Day compounds. X-ray Diffraction has shown besides that these complexes crystallize in the P6{sub 3}/m space group, as the isomorphic LaKFe(CN){sub 6}.4H{sub 2}O complex used as structural model. The EXAFS oscillations at the iron K edge and at the An L{sub III} edge allowed to determine the An-N, An-O, Fe-C and Fe-N distances. The display of the multiple scattering paths for both edges explains the actinide contribution absence at the iron edge, whereas the iron signature is present at the actinide edge. We have shown that the actinide coordination sphere in actinides hexa-cyanoferrates is comparable to the one of lanthanides. However, the actinides typical behavior towards the lanthanides is brought to the fore by the An{sup IV} versus Ln{sup III} ions presence in this family of complexes. Contrarily to the 4f electrons, the 5f electrons influence the electronic properties of the compounds of this family. However, the gap between the An-N and Ln-N distances towards the corresponding metals ionic radii do not show any covalence bond evolution between the actinide and lanthanide series. (author)

  9. Advances in quality control for dioxins monitoring and evaluation of measurement uncertainty from quality control data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppe, Gauthier; De Pauw, Edwin

    2009-08-01

    This paper describes an application of multivariate and multilevel quality control charts with the aim of improving the internal quality control (IQC) procedures for the monitoring of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs analysis in food. Dioxin analysts have to use the toxic equivalent concept (TEQ) to assess the toxicity potential of a mixture of dioxin-like compounds. The TEQ approach requires quantifying individually 29 dioxin-like compounds. Monitoring the congeners separately on univariate QC charts is misleading owing to the increase of false alarm rate. We propose to subdivide the TEQ value into 3 sub-groups and to control simultaneously the 3 variables in a T(2) chart. When a T(2) exceeds the upper control limit, it acts as a warning to trigger additional investigations on individual congeners. We discuss the minimum number of runs required to reliably estimate the QC chart parameters and we suggest using data from multilevel QC charts to properly characterize the standard deviations and the correlation coefficients. Moreover, the univariate QC chart can be sensitised to detect systematic errors by using exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) technique. The EWMA chart provides an additional guidance on setting appropriate criteria to control the method bias and to support trend analysis. Finally, we present an estimate of measurement uncertainty by computing the accuracy profile in a retrospective way with the QC data generated and we discuss assessment of compliance with regulatory maximum levels.

  10. Implementing Composite Quality Metrics for Bipolar Disorder: Towards a More Comprehensive Approach to Quality Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, Amy M.; Farmer, Carrie; Welsh, Deborah; Pincus, Harold Alan; Lasky, Elaine; Perron, Brian; Bauer, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective We implemented a set of processes of care measures for bipolar disorder that reflect psychosocial, patient preference, and continuum of care approaches to mental health, and examined whether veterans with bipolar disorder receive care concordant with these practices. Method Data from medical record reviews were used to assess key processes of care for 433 VA mental health outpatients with bipolar disorder. Both composite and individual processes of care measures were operationalized. Results Based on composite measures, 17% had documented assessment of psychiatric symptoms (e.g., psychotic, hallucinatory), 28% had documented patient treatment preferences (e.g., reasons for treatment discontinuation), 56% had documented substance abuse and psychiatric comorbidity assessment, and 62% had documentation of adequate cardiometabolic assessment. No-show visits were followed up 20% of the time and monitoring of weight gain was noted in only 54% of the patient charts. In multivariate analyses, history of homelessness (OR=1.61; 95% CI=1.05-2.46) and nonwhite race (OR=1.74; 95%CI=1.02-2.98) were associated with documentation of psychiatric symptoms and comorbidities, respectively. Conclusions Only half of patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder received care in accordance with clinical practice guidelines. High quality treatment of bipolar disorder includes not only adherence to treatment guidelines but also patient-centered care processes. PMID:21112457

  11. Sky Quality Meter measurements in a colour-changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Aubé, M.; Zamorano, J.; Kocifaj, M.; Roby, J.; Tapia, C.

    2017-05-01

    The Sky Quality Meter (SQM) has become the most common device used to track the evolution of the brightness of the sky from polluted regions to first-class astronomical observatories. A vast database of SQM measurements already exists for many places in the world. Unfortunately, the SQM operates over a wide spectral band and its spectral response interacts with the sky's spectrum in a complex manner. This is why the optical signals are difficult to interpret when the data are recorded in regions with different sources of artificial light. The brightness of the night sky is linked in a complex way to ground-based light emissions, while taking into account atmospheric-induced optical distortion as well as spectral transformation from the underlying ground surfaces. While the spectral modulation of the sky's radiance has been recognized, it still remains poorly characterized and quantified. The impact of the SQM's spectral characteristics on sky-brightness measurements is analysed here for different light sources, including low- and high-pressure sodium lamps, PC-amber and white LEDs, metal halide and mercury lamps. We show that a routine conversion of radiance to magnitude is difficult, or rather impossible, because the average wavelength depends on actual atmospheric and environment conditions, the spectrum of the source and device-specific properties. We correlate SQM readings with both the Johnson astronomical photometry bands and the human system of visual perception, assuming different lighting technologies. These findings have direct implications for the processing of SQM data and for their improvement and/or remediation.

  12. Quality of Life Assessment for Physical Activity and Health Promotion: Further Psychometrics and Comparison of Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Diane L.; Reifsteck, Erin J.; Adams, Melanie M.; Shang, Ya-Ting

    2015-01-01

    Despite the clear relationship between physical activity and quality of life, few sound, relevant quality of life measures exist. Gill and colleagues developed a 32-item quality of life survey, and provided initial psychometric evidence. This study further examined that quality of life survey in comparison with the widely used short form (SF-36)…

  13. Quality of life measurements in patients with osteoporosis and fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Madureira,Melisa M.; Ciconelli,Rozana M.; Pereira,Rosa M. R.

    2012-01-01

    To review all specific questionnaires regarding quality of life in osteoporosis and to describe their distinctive indications, we searched Medline, the Scientific Electronic Library Online database, and the Latin-American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature database. Nine specific questionnaires related to osteoporosis quality of life were found: 1) the Women's Health Questionnaire, 2) Osteoporosis Quality of Life Questionnaire, 3) Osteoporosis Assessment Questionnaire, 4) Osteoporosis F...

  14. Surface energy and work function of the light actinides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kollár, J.; Vitos, Levente; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1994-01-01

    We have calculated the surface energy and work function of the light actinides Fr, Ra, Ac, Th, Pa, U, Np, and Pu by means of a Green's-function technique based on the linear-muffin-tin-orbitals method within the tight-binding representation. In these calculations we apply an energy functional which...

  15. Experimental Evaluation of Actinide Transport in a Fractured Granodiorite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittrich, Timothy M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reimus, Paul W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-03-16

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate and evaluate new experimental methods for quantifying the potential for actinide transport in deep fractured crystalline rock formations. We selected a fractured granodiorite at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in Switzerland as a model system because field experiments have already been conducted with uranium and additional field experiments using other actinides are planned at the site. Thus, working on this system provides a unique opportunity to compare lab experiment results with fieldscale observations. Rock cores drilled from the GTS were shipped to Los Alamos National Laboratory, characterized by x-ray diffraction and microscopy, and used in batch sorption and column breakthrough experiments. Solutions with pH 6.8 and 8.8 were tested. Solutions were switched to radionuclide-free synthetic Grimsel groundwater after near-steady actinide/colloid breakthrough occurred in column experiments. We are currently evaluating actinide adsorption/desorption rates as a function of water chemistry (initial focus on pH), with future testing planned to evaluate the influence of carbonate concentrations, flow rates, and mineralogy in solutions and suspensions with bentonite colloids. (auth)

  16. Potential radiation dose from eating fish exposed to actinide contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, R.M.; Klopfer, D.C.; Baker, D.A.; Soldat, J.K. (Battelle Pacific Northwest Labs., Richland, WA (USA))

    1981-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to establish a maximum potential for transporting actinides to man via fish consumption. The study took place in U-pond, a nuclear waste pond on the Hanford Site. It has concentrations of /sup 238/U, /sup 238/Pu, sup(239,240)Pu and /sup 241/Am that are approx. 3 orders of magnitude greater than background levels. Fish living in the pond contain higher actinide concentrations than those observed in fish from any other location. Experiments were performed in U-Pond to determine maximum quantities of actinides that could accumulate in fillets and whole bodies of two centrarchid fish species. Doses to hypothetical consumers were then estimated. Results indicate that highest concentrations occurring in bluegill or bass muscle after more than a year's exposure to the pond would not be sufficient to produce a significant radiation dose to a human consumer, even if he ate 0.5 kg (of the order of 1 lb) of these fillets every day for 70 yr. Natural predators (heron or coyote), having lifetime diets of whole fish from U-Pond, would receive less radiation dose from the ingested actinides than from natural background sources.

  17. Functionalized pyrazines as ligands for minor actinide extraction and catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikishkin, N.

    2013-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis concerns the design of ligands for a wide range of applications, from nuclear waste treatment to catalysis. The strategies employed to design actinide-selective extractants, for instance, comprise the fine tuning of the ligand electronic properties as well as

  18. Nuclear fuel cycle-oriented actinides separation in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jing; He, Xihong; Wang, Jianchen [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Inst. of Nuclear and New Energy Technology

    2014-04-01

    In the last decades, the separation of actinides was widely and continuously studied in China. A few kinds of salt-free reductants to adjust Pu and Np valences have been investigated. N,N-dimethylhydroxylamine is a good reductant with high reduction rate constants for the co-reduction of Pu(IV) and Np(VI), and monomethylhydrazine is a simple compound for the individual reduction of Np(VI). Advanced PUREX based on Organic Reductants (APOR) was proposed. Trialkylphosphine oxide (TRPO) with a single functional group was found to possess strong affinity to tri-, tetra- and hexa-valent actinides. TRPO process has been first explored in China for actinides partitioning from high level waste and the good partitioning performance was demonstrated by the hot test. High extraction selectivity for trivalent actinides over lanthanides by dialkyldithiophosphinic acids was originally found in China. A separation process based on purified Cyanex 301 for the separation of Am from lanthanides was presented and successfully tested in a battery of miniature centrifugal contactors. (orig.)

  19. Functionalized pyrazines as ligands for minor actinide extraction and catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikishkin, N.

    2013-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis concerns the design of ligands for a wide range of applications, from nuclear waste treatment to catalysis. The strategies employed to design actinide-selective extractants, for instance, comprise the fine tuning of the ligand electronic properties as well as us

  20. Preparation of actinide targets and sources using nonaqueous electrodeposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, M.M.; Gursky, J.C.; Wilhelmy, J.B. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

    1991-05-15

    Application of the method of 'molecular plating' to prepare actinide targets suitable for accelerator bombardment is presented. Two example applications involving {sup 229}Th and {sup 254}Es are discussed along with the merits and liabilities of the method. (orig.).

  1. Actinide biocolloid formation in brine by halophilic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Harris, R.; Beveridge, T.J. [Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada); Brady, P.V.; Papenguth, H.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The authors examined the ability of a halophilic bacterium (WIPP 1A) isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to accumulate uranium in order to determine the potential for biocolloid facilitated actinide transport. The bacterial cell surface functional groups involved in the complexation of the actinide were determined by titration. Uranium, added as uranyl nitrate, was removed from solution at pH 5 by cells but at pH 7 and 9 very little uranium was removed due to its limited solubility. Although present as soluble species, uranyl citrate at pH 5, 7, and 9, and uranyl carbonate at pH 9 were not removed by the bacterium because they were not bioavailable due to their neutral or negative charge. Addition of uranyl EDTA to brine at pH 5, 7, and 9 resulted in the immediate precipitation of U. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed that uranium was not only associated with the cell surface but also accumulated intracellularly as uranium-enriched granules. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis of the bacterial cells indicated the bulk sample contained more than one uranium phase. Nevertheless these results show the potential for the formation of actinide bearing bacterial biocolloids that are strictly regulated by the speciation and bioavailability of the actinide.

  2. ACTINIDE BIOCOLLOID FORMATION IN BRINE BY HALOPHILIC BACTERIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GILLOW,J.B.; FRANCIS,A.J.; DODGE,C.J.; HARRIS,R.; BEVERIDGE,T.J.; BRADY,P.B.; PAPENGUTH,H.W.

    1998-11-09

    The authors examined the ability of a halophilic bacterium (WIPP 1A) isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to accumulate uranium in order to determine the potential for biocolloid facilitated actinide transport. The bacterial cell surface functional groups involved in the complexation of the actinide were determined by titration. Uranium, added as uranyl nitrate, was removed from solution at pH 5 by cells but at pH 7 and 9 very little uranium was removed due to its limited solubility. Although present as soluble species, uranyl citrate at pH 5, 7, and 9, and uranyl carbonate at pH 9 were not removed by the bacterium because they were not bioavailable due to their neutral or negative charge. Addition of uranyl EDTA to brine at pH 5, 7, and 9 resulted in the immediate precipitation of U. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed that uranium was not only associated with the cell surface but also accumulated intracellularly as uranium-enriched granules. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis of the bacterial cells indicated the bulk sample contained more than one uranium phase. Nevertheless these results show the potential for the formation of actinide bearing bacterial biocolloids that are strictly regulated by the speciation and bioavailability of the actinide.

  3. Actinide Biocolloid Formation in Brine by Halophilic Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.; Harris, R.; Beveridge, T.J.; Brady, P.V.; Papenguth, H.W.

    1999-07-28

    We examined the ability of a halophilic bacterium (WFP 1A) isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to accumulate uranium in order to determine the potential for biocolloid facilitated actinide transport. The bacterial cell Surface functional groups involved in the complexation of the actinide were determined by titration. Uranium, added as uranyl nitrate, was removed from solution at pH 5 by cells but at pH 7 and 9 very little uranium was removed due to its limited volubility. Although present as soluble species, uranyl citrate at pH 5, 7, and 9, and uranyl carbonate at pH 9 were not removed by the bacterium because they were not bioavailable due to their neutral or negative charge. Addition of uranyl EDTA to brine at pH 5, 7, and 9 resulted in the immediate precipitation of U. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed that uranium was not only associated with the cell surface but also accumulated intracellulary as uranium-enriched granules. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis, of the bacterial cells indicated the bulk sample contained more than one uranium phase. Nevertheless these results show the potential for the formation of actinide bearing bacterial biocolloids that are strictly regulated by the speciation and bioavailability of the actinide.

  4. Electron-phonon coupling of the actinide metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, H. L.; Mertig, I.

    1985-01-01

    -phonon parameter λ is found to attain its maximum value in Ac, and they predict a transition temperature of 9K for this metal. In the light actinides Th through Pu, λ is found to be of order 0.4 and within a factor of 2 of experiments which is also the accuracy found in studies of the transition metals...

  5. Actinides How well do we know their stellar production?

    CERN Document Server

    Goriely, S

    2001-01-01

    The reliable evaluation of the r-process production of the actinides and careful estimates of the uncertainties affecting these predictions are key ingredients especially in nucleo-cosmochronology studies based on the analysis of very metal-poor stars or on the composition of meteorites. This type of information is also required in order to make the best possible use of future high precision data on the actinide composition of galactic cosmic rays, of the local interstellar medium, or of meteoritic grains of presumed circumstellar origin. This paper provides the practitioners in these various fields with the most detailed and careful analysis of the r-process actinide production available to-date. In total, thirty-two different multi-event canonical calculations using different nuclear ingredients or astrophysics conditions are presented, and are considered to give a fair picture of the level of reliability of the predictions of the actinide production, at least in the framework of a simple r-process model. T...

  6. Innovative SANEX process for trivalent actinides separation from PUREX raffinate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sypula, Michal

    2013-07-01

    Recycling of nuclear spent fuel and reduction of its radiotoxicity by separation of long-lived radionuclides would definitely help to close the nuclear fuel cycle ensuring sustainability of the nuclear energy. Partitioning of the main radiotoxicity contributors followed by their conversion into short-lived radioisotopes is known as partitioning and transmutation strategy. To ensure efficient transmutation of the separated elements (minor actinides) the content of lanthanides in the irradiation targets has to be minimised. This objective can be attained by solvent extraction using highly selective ligands that are able to separate these two groups of elements from each other. The objective of this study was to develop a novel process allowing co-separation of minor actinides and lanthanides from a high active acidic feed solution with subsequent actinide recovery using just one cycle, so-called innovative SANEX process. The conditions of each step of the process were optimised to ensure high actinide separation efficiency. Additionally, screening tests of several novel lipophilic and hydrophilic ligands provided by University of Twente were performed. These tests were aiming in better understanding the influence of the extractant structural modifications onto An(III)/Ln(III) selectivity and complexation properties. Optimal conditions for minor actinides separation were found and a flow-sheet of a new innovative SANEX process was proposed. Tests using a single centrifugal contactor confirmed high Eu(III)/Am(III) separation factor of 15 while the lowest SF{sub Ln/Am} obtained was 6,5 (for neodymium). In addition, a new masking agent for zirconium was found as a substitution for oxalic acid. This new masking agent (CDTA) was also able to mask palladium without any negative influence on An(III)/Ln(III). Additional tests showed no influence of CDTA on plutonium present in the feed solution unlike oxalic acid which causes Pu precipitation. Therefore, CDTA was proposed as

  7. 77 FR 11119 - Request for Nominations of Children's Healthcare Quality Measures for Potential Inclusion in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... Healthcare Quality Measures for Potential Inclusion in the CHIPRA 2013 Improved Core Set of Health Care... soliciting the submission of measures of children's healthcare quality for potential inclusion in the CHIPRA..., and feasibility of the measures. If a measure is selected for inclusion, more information, including a...

  8. Health-related quality of life in dermatology: measurement, interpretation and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinsen, C.A.C.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis consists of three parts. The aim of part one, ‘Measurement of health-related quality of life in dermatology’, was to contribute to the quality of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measurement in dermatological research and clinical practice. The aim of part two, ‘Interpretation of h

  9. Actinide Sorption in Rainier Mesa Tunnel Waters from the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, P; Zavarin, M; Leif, R; Powell, B; Singleton, M; Lindvall, R; Kersting, A

    2007-12-17

    The sorption behavior of americium (Am), plutonium (Pu), neptunium (Np), and uranium (U) in perched Rainier Mesa tunnel water was investigated. Both volcanic zeolitized tuff samples and groundwater samples were collected from Rainier Mesa, Nevada Test Site, NV for a series of batch sorption experiments. Sorption in groundwater with and without the presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) was investigated. Am(III) and Pu(IV) are more soluble in groundwater that has high concentrations of DOM. The sorption K{sub d} for Am(III) and Pu(IV) on volcanic zeolitized tuff was up to two orders of magnitude lower in samples with high DOM (15 to 19 mg C/L) compared to samples with DOM removed (< 0.4 mg C/L) or samples with naturally low DOM (0.2 mg C/L). In contrast, Np(V) and U(VI) sorption to zeolitized tuff was much less affected by the presence of DOM. The Np(V) and U(VI) sorption Kds were low under all conditions. Importantly, the DOM was not found to significantly sorb to the zeolitized tuff during these experiment. The concentration of DOM in groundwater affects the transport behavior of actinides in the subsurface. The mobility of Am(III) and Pu(IV) is significantly higher in groundwater with elevated levels of DOM resulting in potentially enhanced transport. To accurately model the transport behavior of actinides in groundwater at Rainier Mesa, the low actinide Kd values measured in groundwater with high DOM concentrations must be incorporated in predictive transport models.

  10. Analysis methodology and development of a statistical tool for biodistribution data from internal contamination with actinides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamart, Stephanie; Griffiths, Nina M; Tchitchek, Nicolas; Angulo, Jaime F; Van der Meeren, Anne

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a computational tool that integrates several statistical analysis features for biodistribution data from internal contamination experiments. These data represent actinide levels in biological compartments as a function of time and are derived from activity measurements in tissues and excreta. These experiments aim at assessing the influence of different contamination conditions (e.g. intake route or radioelement) on the biological behavior of the contaminant. The ever increasing number of datasets and diversity of experimental conditions make the handling and analysis of biodistribution data difficult. This work sought to facilitate the statistical analysis of a large number of datasets and the comparison of results from diverse experimental conditions. Functional modules were developed using the open-source programming language R to facilitate specific operations: descriptive statistics, visual comparison, curve fitting, and implementation of biokinetic models. In addition, the structure of the datasets was harmonized using the same table format. Analysis outputs can be written in text files and updated data can be written in the consistent table format. Hence, a data repository is built progressively, which is essential for the optimal use of animal data. Graphical representations can be automatically generated and saved as image files. The resulting computational tool was applied using data derived from wound contamination experiments conducted under different conditions. In facilitating biodistribution data handling and statistical analyses, this computational tool ensures faster analyses and a better reproducibility compared with the use of multiple office software applications. Furthermore, re-analysis of archival data and comparison of data from different sources is made much easier. Hence this tool will help to understand better the influence of contamination characteristics on actinide biokinetics. Our approach can aid

  11. Assessing Educational Processes Using Total-Quality-Management Measurement Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchia, Peter, Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of the use of Total Quality Management (TQM) assessment tools in educational settings highlights and gives examples of fishbone diagrams, or cause and effect charts; Pareto diagrams; control charts; histograms and check sheets; scatter diagrams; and flowcharts. Variation and quality are discussed in terms of continuous process…

  12. Sequestering agents for the removal of actinides from waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, K.N.; White, D.J.; Xu, Jide; Mohs, T.R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The goal of this project is to take a biomimetic approach toward developing new separation technologies for the removal of radioactive elements from contaminated DOE sites. To achieve this objective, the authors are investigating the fundamental chemistry of naturally occurring, highly specific metal ion sequestering agents and developing them into liquid/liquid and solid supported actinide extraction agents. Nature produces sideophores (e.g., Enterobactin and Desferrioxamine B) to selectivity sequester Lewis acidic metal ions, in particular Fe(III), from its surroundings. These chelating agents typically use multiple catechols or hydroxamic acids to form polydentate ligands that chelate the metal ion forming very stable complexes. The authors are investigating and developing analogous molecules into selective chelators targeting actinide(IV) ions, which display similar properties to Fe(III). By taking advantage of differences in charge, preferred coordination number, and pH stability range, the transition from nature to actinide sequestering agents has been applied to the development of new and highly selective actinide extraction technologies. Additionally, the authors have shown that these chelating ligands are versatile ligands for chelating U(VI). In particular, they have been studying their coordination chemistry and fundamental interactions with the uranyl ion [UO{sub 2}]{sup 2+}, the dominant form of uranium found in aqueous media. With an understanding of this chemistry, and results obtained from in vivo uranium sequestration studies, it should be possible to apply these actinide(IV) extraction technologies to the development of new extraction agents for the removal of uranium from waste streams.

  13. Actinide partitioning-transmutation program final report. I. Overall assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croff, A.G.; Blomeke, J.O.; Finney, B.C.

    1980-06-01

    This report is concerned with an overall assessment of the feasibility of and incentives for partitioning (recovering) long-lived nuclides from fuel reprocessing and fuel refabrication plant radioactive wastes and transmuting them to shorter-lived or stable nuclides by neutron irradiation. The principal class of nuclides considered is the actinides, although a brief analysis is given of the partitioning and transmutation (P-T) of /sup 99/Tc and /sup 129/I. The results obtained in this program permit us to make a comparison of the impacts of waste management with and without actinide recovery and transmutation. Three major conclusions concerning technical feasibility can be drawn from the assessment: (1) actinide P-T is feasible, subject to the acceptability of fuels containing recycle actinides; (2) technetium P-T is feasible if satisfactory partitioning processes can be developed and satisfactory fuels identified (no studies have been made in this area); and (3) iodine P-T is marginally feasible at best because of the low transmutation rates, the high volatility, and the corrosiveness of iodine and iodine compounds. It was concluded on the basis of a very conservative repository risk analysis that there are no safety or cost incentives for actinide P-T. In fact, if nonradiological risks are included, the short-term risks of P-T exceed the long-term benefits integrated over a period of 1 million years. Incentives for technetium and iodine P-T exist only if extremely conservative long-term risk analyses are used. Further RD and D in support of P-T is not warranted.

  14. Measurement of quality of life I. A methodological framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ventegodt, Søren; Hilden, Jørgen; Merrick, Joav

    2003-01-01

    meet to provide a sound basis for investigation by questionnaire. The seven criteria or desiderata are: (1) an explicit definition of quality of life; (2) a coherent philosophy of human life from which the definition is derived; (3) a theory that operationalizes the philosophy by specifying unambiguous......Despite the widespread acceptance of quality of life (QOL) as the ideal guideline in healthcare and clinical research, serious conceptual and methodological problems continue to plague this area. In an attempt to remedy this situation, we propose seven criteria that a quality-of-life concept must...... guided the design of a validated 5-item generic, global quality-of-life questionnaire (QOL5), and a validated 317-item generic, global quality-of-life questionnaire (SEQOL), administered to a well-documented birth cohort of 7,400 Danes born in 1959-1961, as well as to a reference sample of 2,500 Danes...

  15. Integrating Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Measures in the Air Quality Planning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guidance provides state and local air quality officials with valuable information on how to incorporate energy efficiency and renewable energy (EE/RE) measures into their air quality plan, also known as the State Implementation Plan (SIP).

  16. The use of quality of life measures in oral medicine: a review of the literature.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Riordain, R Ni

    2010-07-01

    To explore the use of patient reported quality of life measures in oral medicine, to highlight the importance of use of these measures in oral medicine practice and to provide guidance for the selection of such measures in the future.

  17. Detection limits for actinides in a monochromatic, wavelength-dispersive x-ray fluorescence instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Michael L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Havrilla, George J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Recent developments in x-ray optics have made it possible to examine the L x-rays of actinides using doubly-curved crystals in a bench-top device. A doubly-curved crystal (DCC) acts as a focusing monochromatic filter for polychromatic x-rays. A Monochromatic, Wavelength-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (MWDXRF) instrument that uses DCCs to measure Cm and Pu in reprocessing plant liquors was proposed in 2007 by the authors at Los Alamos National Laboratory. A prototype design of this MWDXRF instrument was developed in collaboration with X-ray Optical Systems Inc. (XOS), of East Greenbush, New York. In the MWDXRF instrument, x-rays from a Rhodium-anode x-ray tube are passed through a primary DCC to produce a monochromatic beam of 20.2-keV photons. This beam is focused on a specimen that may contain actinides. The 20.2-keV interrogating beam is just above the L3 edge of Californium; each actinide (with Z = 90 to 98) present in the specimen emits characteristic L x-rays as the result of L3-shell vacancies. In the LANL-XOS prototype MWDXRf, these x-rays enter a secondary DCC optic that preferentially passes 14.961-keV photons, corresponding to the L-alpha-1 x-ray peak of Curium. In the present stage of experimentation, Curium-bearing specimens have not been analyzed with the prototype MWDXRF instrument. Surrogate materials for Curium include Rubidium, which has a K-beta-l x-ray at 14.961 keV, and Yttrium, which has a K-alpha-1 x-ray at 14.958 keV. In this paper, the lower limit of detection for Curium in the LANL-XOS prototype MWDXRF instrument is estimated. The basis for this estimate is described, including a description of computational models and benchmarking techniques used. Detection limits for other actinides are considered, as well as future safeguards applications for MWDXRF instrumentation.

  18. Nucleon scattering on actinides using a dispersive optical model with extended couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukhovitskiĩ, E. Sh.; Capote, R.; Quesada, J. M.; Chiba, S.; Martyanov, D. S.

    2016-12-01

    The Tamura coupling model [Rev. Mod. Phys. 37, 679 (1965), 10.1103/RevModPhys.37.679] has been extended to consider the coupling of additional low-lying rotational bands to the ground-state band. Rotational bands are built on vibrational bandheads (even-even targets) or single-particle bandheads (odd-A targets) including both axial and nonaxial deformations. These additional excitations are introduced as a perturbation to the underlying axially symmetric rigid-rotor structure of the ground-state rotational band. Coupling matrix elements of the generalized optical model are derived for extended multiband transitions in even-even and odd-A nuclei. Isospin symmetric formulation of the optical model is employed. A coupled-channels optical-model potential (OMP) containing a dispersive contribution is used to fit simultaneously all available optical experimental databases including neutron strength functions for nucleon scattering on 232Th,233,235,238U, and 239Pu nuclei. Quasielastic (p ,n ) scattering data on 232Th and 238U to the isobaric analog states of the target nucleus are also used to constrain the isovector part of the optical potential. Lane consistent OMP is derived for all actinides if corresponding multiband coupling schemes are defined. For even-even (odd-A ) actinides almost all low-lying collective levels below 1 MeV (0.5 MeV) of excitation energy are coupled. OMP parameters show a smooth energy dependence and energy-independent geometry. A phenomenological optical-model potential that couples multiple bands in odd-A actinides is published for a first time. Calculations using the derived OMP potential reproduce measured total cross-section differences between several actinide pairs within experimental uncertainty for incident neutron energies from 50 keV up to 150 MeV. The importance of extended coupling is studied. Multiband coupling is stronger in even-even targets owing to the collective nature of the coupling; the impact of extended coupling on

  19. SRNL Development of Recovery Processes for Mark-18A Heavy Actinide Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allender, Jeffrey S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Bridges, Nicholas J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Loftin, Bradley M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Dunsmuir, Michael D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-07-14

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are developing plans for the recovery of rare and unique isotopes contained within heavy-actinide target assemblies, specifically the Mark-18A. Mark-18A assemblies were irradiated in Savannah River Site (SRS) reactors in the 1970s under extremely high neutron-flux conditions and produced, virtually, the world's supply of plutonium-244, an isotope of key importance to high-precision actinide measurement and other scientific and nonproliferation uses; and curium highly enriched in heavy isotopes (e.g., curium-246 and curium-248). In 2015 and 2016, SRNL is pursuing tasks that would reduce program risk and budget requirements, including further characterization of unprocessed targets; engineering studies for the use of the SRNL Shielded Cells Facility (SCF) for recovery; and development of onsite and offsite shipping methods including a replacement for the heavy (70 ton) cask previously used for onsite transfer of irradiated items at SRS. A status update is provided for the characterization, including modeling using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP); direct non-destructive assay measurements; and cask design.

  20. The exploration of service quality and its measurement for private ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 18, No 2 (2014) >. Log in or ... Many businesses such as private higher education institutions (PHEIs) regard service quality excellence as the single most important and distinct competence for survival and sustainability.

  1. The exploration of service quality and its measurement for private ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kirstam

    2014-09-01

    Sep 1, 2014 ... in South Africa, and this paper explores service quality in this context. .... 1This section briefly discusses the research problem, objectives and methods. Research ...... SERVQUAL scale', Journal of Retailing, 67(4): 420–450.

  2. Predicting Software Assurance Using Quality and Reliability Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    quality and security results ap- pear to be related. Section 5 describes other efforts underway to evaluate quality and security that are providing use...potential faults. Software security failure modes are exploita- ble conditions, such as unverified input data. A design review should confirm that the...deployed as the software is developed, whether it be on checklists for inspections or other approaches.” [Shull 2013] Staff members were trained to

  3. Image quality in CT: From physical measurements to model observers.

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of image quality (IQ) in Computed Tomography (CT) is important to ensure that diagnostic questions are correctly answered, whilst keeping radiation dose to the patient as low as is reasonably possible. The assessment of individual aspects of IQ is already a key component of routine quality control of medical x-ray devices. These values together with standard dose indicators can be used to give rise to 'figures of merit' (FOM) to characterise the dose efficiency of the CT scanners o...

  4. SERVICE QUALITY MEASUREMENT: IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTHCARE SECTOR IN BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    VASSILEVA, Bistra; BALLONI, Antonio José

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to present the service quality situation in hospitals in North-Eastern Planning Region in Bulgaria. Our intention was to assess the gap between the expected and perceived healthcare service quality in hospitals. To meet these goals we conducted a study using prospective questionnaire provided by the GESITI project (Management of System and Information Technology in Hospitals [GESITI], 2013) and SERVQUAL scale. The results helped us to summarize the challenges for Bulga...

  5. Solubility of actinides and surrogates in nuclear glasses; Solubilite des actinides et de leurs simulants dans les verres nucleaires. Limites d'incorporation et comprehension des mecanismes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Ch

    2003-07-01

    The nuclear wastes are currently incorporated in borosilicate glass matrices. The resulting glass must be perfectly homogeneous. The work discussed here is a study of actinide (thorium and plutonium) solubility in borosilicate glass, undertaken to assess the extent of actinide solubility in the glass and to understand the mechanisms controlling actinide solubilization. Glass specimens containing; actinide surrogates were used to prepare and optimize the fabrication of radioactive glass samples. These preliminary studies revealed that actinide Surrogates solubility in the glass was enhanced by controlling the processing temperature, the dissolution kinetic of the surrogate precursors, the glass composition and the oxidizing versus reducing conditions. The actinide solubility was investigated in the borosilicate glass. The evolution of thorium solubility in borosilicate glass was determined for temperatures ranging from 1200 deg C to 1400 deg C.Borosilicate glass specimens containing plutonium were fabricated. The experimental result showed that the plutonium solubility limit ranged from 1 to 2.5 wt% PuO{sub 2} at 1200 deg C. A structural approach based on the determination of the local structure around actinides and their surrogates by EXAFS spectroscopy was used to determine their structural role in the glass and the nature of their bonding with the vitreous network. This approach revealed a correlation between the length of these bonds and the solubility of the actinides and their surrogates. (author)

  6. Quality control measurements for digital x-ray detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, N W; Mackenzie, A; Honey, I D

    2011-02-21

    This paper describes a digital radiography (DR) quality control protocol for DR detectors from the forthcoming report from the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM). The protocol was applied to a group of six identical caesium iodide (CsI) digital x-ray detectors to assess reproducibility of methods, while four further detectors were assessed to examine the wider applicability. Twelve images with minimal spatial frequency processing are required, from which the detector response, lag, modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) and threshold contrast-detail (c-d) detectability are calculated. The x-ray spectrum used was 70 kV and 1 mm added copper filtration, with a target detector air kerma of 2.5 µGy for the NNPS and c-d results. In order to compare detector performance with previous imaging technology, c-d data from four screen/film systems were also acquired, at a target optical density of 1.5 and an average detector air kerma of 2.56 µGy. The DR detector images were typically acquired in 20 min, with a further 45 min required for image transfer and analysis. The average spatial frequency for the 50% point of the MTF for six identical detectors was 1.29 mm(-1) ± 0.05 (3.9% coefficient of variation (cov)). The air kerma set for the six systems was 2.57 µGy ± 0.13 (5.0% cov) and the NNPS at this air kerma was 1.42 × 10(-5) mm(2) (6.5% cov). The detective quantum efficiency (DQE) measured for the six identical detectors was 0.60 at 0.5 mm(-1), with a maximum cov of 10% at 2.9 mm(-1), while the average DQE was 0.56 at 0.5 mm(-1) for three CsI detectors from three different manufacturers. Comparable c-d performance was found for these detectors (5.9% cov) with an average threshold contrast of 0.46% for 11 mm circular discs. The average threshold contrast for the S/F systems was 0.70% at 11 mm, indicating superior imaging performance for the digital systems. The protocol was found to be quick, reproducible and

  7. Theory of the crystal structures of the actinide metals; Theorie des structures cristallines des metaux actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penicaud, M. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91 (France)

    2005-07-01

    We describe, by bands calculation methods, the delocalized-localized transition of 5f electrons in the series of actinide metals, at ambient conditions, which happens between {alpha}-Pu and Am, and which is characterized by the change from the open and complex monoclinic crystal structure to the double hexagonal close-packed structure, and by the density collapse from 19.86 g.cm{sup -3} to 13.67 g.cm{sup -3}. The case of the alloy stabilized Pu in the high temperature {delta} phase (face centered cubic) is treated. Its ambient experimental density (15.92 g.cm{sup -3}) is obtained with a localization of the only 5f5/2 electrons. We find a 5f5/2 density of states peak pinned at the Fermi level, in agreement with photoelectron spectroscopy, and the high value of the electronic specific heat coefficient. The crystalline stability under pressure of U, Np, Pu and Am is examined. We find theoretically, at high pressure in Am, the stability of the recently discovered experimentally Am IV structure which is primitive-orthorhombic with four atoms in the unit cell. We calculate this structure also stable for Pu, for which it is proposed that the sequence is: {alpha}-Pu {yields} Am IV {yields} body-centered cubic. (author)

  8. QMeter Tools for Quality Measurement in Telecommunication Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Aburas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Call Quality is prevalent and widely used by carriers that transport the calls of telecom operators. Butfrom end-users perspective call quality has been not taken very seriously until now and this is the reasonfor surge in GSM gateways which resulted in interconnect revenue loss and more importantly the callquality. This particular research developed as QMeter® is focussed to address and derive the callquality parameters from end-users perspective. The call parameters used in our research are SignalStrength, the successful call rate, normal drop call rate, handover drop rate. An attempt to visualizethose parameters for better understanding of where the quality is bad with respect to various parametersproposed and implemented. To address the issues of quality in subscriber segment and satisfy its demandfor quality of services, an alternative solution proposing the varying tariff based on call and bandwidthquality parameter is proposed. Call statistics for the bundles of ten calls and ten data sessions isproposed to better address the tariff redemption procedures. The proposed methods of qualitymeasurement has been compared and correlated with subjective scores for hundreds of calls and theresults show that our results are 85% on an average in correlation with subjective scores.

  9. Facing a Problem of Electrical Energy Quality in Ship Networks-measurements, Estimation, Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tomasz Tarasiuk; Janusz Mindykowski; Xiaoyan Xu

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, electrical energy quality and its indices in ship electric networks are introduced, especially the meaning of electrical energy quality terms in voltage and active and reactive power distribution indices. Then methods of measurement of marine electrical energy indices are introduced in details and a microprocessor measurement-diagnosis system with the function of measurement and control is designed. Afterwards, estimation and control of electrical power quality of marine electrical power networks are introduced. And finally, according to the existing method of measurement and control of electrical power quality in ship power networks, the improvement of relative method is proposed.

  10. A sensometric approach to cod-quality measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, H.S.; Jørgensen, Bo

    1997-01-01

    The quality index method was used for describing the sensory quality of thawed whole cod and raw fillet and the quality of boiled fillet was assessed by profiling analysis. These data were compared to the water holding capacity of the minced cod by principal component analysis (PCA) and partial...... least squares regression. The sensory data and the water holding capacity were correlated to an extent that made possible the prediction of high and low values of water holding capacity. Multivariate methods were also used for extracting some information about the assessor variability. This was done...... by determining the ability of the assessors to predict the water holding capacity through partial least squares regression and by examining the distances between PCA-models of profiling data from the single assessors. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  11. A RNN-based objective video quality measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuan Huang; Rong Zhang; Jianxin Pang

    2009-01-01

    @@ Technology used to automatically assess video quality plays a significant role in video processing areas.Because of the complexity of video media, there are great limitations to assess video quality with only one factor.We propose a new method using artificial random neural networks (RNNs) with motion evaluation as an estimation of perceived visual distortion.The results are obtained through a nonlinear fitting procedure and well correlated with human perception.Compared with other methods, the proposed method performs more adaptable and accurate predictions.

  12. Agricultural management practices and soil quality : measuring, assessing, and comparing laboratory and field test kit indicators of soil quality atributes

    OpenAIRE

    Evanylo, Gregory K.; McGuinn, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Describes some indicators of soil that can be measured with a simple test kit developed by the United States Department of Agriculture - Natural Resource Conservation Service, directions for interpreting these measurements, the effects of soil amendments on soil quality attributes, and comparisons of field kit and laboratory results.

  13. Human Factors in Software Development Processes: Measuring System Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahão, Silvia; Baldassarre, Maria Teresa; Caivano, Danilo

    2016-01-01

    Software Engineering and Human-Computer Interaction look at the development process from different perspectives. They apparently use very different approaches, are inspired by different principles and address different needs. But, they definitively have the same goal: develop high quality software...

  14. Measuring Quality of Life: A New and Practical Survey Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenley, James R.; Greenberg, Jan Steven; Brown, Roger

    1997-01-01

    Presents a new, short, self-administered questionnaire that assesses the quality of life in seven areas. Evidence for the reliability and validity of the questionnaire was based on data gathered from 971 clients; results indicate instrument reliability. The questionnaire features low-cost administration and valid psychometric properties. (RJM)

  15. Identifying Shortcomings in the Measurement of Service Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Gerard; Catts, R.; Forlin, C.

    2000-01-01

    Studied the use of SERVPEFR the performance component of the Service Quality Scale (SERVQUAL) in 2 studies involving 113 and 212 customers of businesses in Australia and investigated a revised (extended) version of SERVPEFR with 122 customers. Results suggest that SERVPEFR items are too easy to rate highly, and that the revisions did not overcome…

  16. University Rankings: How Well Do They Measure Library Service Quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Brian

    2015-01-01

    University rankings play an increasingly large role in shaping the goals of academic institutions and departments, while removing universities themselves from the evaluation process. This study compares the library-related results of two university ranking publications with scores on the LibQUAL+™ survey to identify if library service quality--as…

  17. Measuring the Quality of the Website User Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauro, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Consumers spend an increasing amount of time and money online finding information, completing tasks, or making purchases. The quality of the website experience has become a key differentiator for organizations--affecting whether they purchase and their likelihood to return and recommend a website to friends. Two instruments were created to more…

  18. Quality of life as an outcome measure in surgical oncology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenhoff, B S; Krabbe, P F; Wobbes, T; Ruers, T J

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a growing interest in assessing the impact of a disease and the effect of a treatment on a patient's life, expressed as health-related quality of life (HRQoL). HRQoL assessment can provide essential outcome information for cancer surgery. METHODS: The core of this review is deri

  19. University Rankings: How Well Do They Measure Library Service Quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Brian

    2015-01-01

    University rankings play an increasingly large role in shaping the goals of academic institutions and departments, while removing universities themselves from the evaluation process. This study compares the library-related results of two university ranking publications with scores on the LibQUAL+™ survey to identify if library service quality--as…

  20. Towards a conceptual model to measure effectiveness of food quality systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiegel, van der M.; Luning, P.A.; Ziggers, G.W.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    2003-01-01

    In the food industry quality assurance (QA) systems such as GMP, HACCP, ISO and BRC, are applied for assuring food quality. However, it is still unknown to what extent these QA systems contribute to the realization of quality. Therefore, an instrument is required that measures the effectiveness of f

  1. [The measurement of data quality in censuses of population and housing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The determination of data quality in population and housing censuses is discussed. Principal types of errors commonly found in census data are reviewed, and the parameters used to evaluate data quality are described. Various methods for measuring data quality are outlined and possible applications of the methods are illustrated using Canadian examples

  2. Superabsorbing gel for actinide, lanthanide, and fission product decontamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Michael D.; Mertz, Carol J.

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides an aqueous gel composition for removing actinide ions, lanthanide ions, fission product ions, or a combination thereof from a porous surface contaminated therewith. The composition comprises a polymer mixture comprising a gel forming cross-linked polymer and a linear polymer. The linear polymer is present at a concentration that is less than the concentration of the cross-linked polymer. The polymer mixture is at least about 95% hydrated with an aqueous solution comprising about 0.1 to about 3 percent by weight (wt %) of a multi-dentate organic acid chelating agent, and about 0.02 to about 0.6 molar (M) carbonate salt, to form a gel. When applied to a porous surface contaminated with actinide ions, lanthanide ions, and/or other fission product ions, the aqueous gel absorbs contaminating ions from the surface.

  3. Development of a remote bushing for actinide vitrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, R.F.; Ramsey, W.G.; Johnson, F.M. [and others

    1996-12-31

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) are combining their existing experience in handling highly radioactive, special nuclear materials with commercial glass fiberization technology in order to assemble a small vitrification system for radioactive actinide solutions. The vitrification system or {open_quotes}brushing{close_quotes}, is fabricated from platinum-rhodium alloy and is based on early marble remelt fiberization technology. Advantages of this unique system include its relatively small size, reliable operation, geometrical safety (nuclear criticality), and high temperature capability. The bushing design should be capable of vitrifying a number of the actinide nuclear materials, including solutions of americium/curium, neptunium, and possibly plutonium. State of the art, mathematical and oil model studies are being combined with basic engineering evaluations to verify and improve the thermal and mechanical design concepts.

  4. Recovery of minor actinides from irradiated superfact fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apoltolidis, C.; Glatz, J.P.; Molinet, R.; Nicholl, A.; Pagliosa, G.; Romer, K.; Bokelund, H.; Koch, L. [European Commission, JRC, Institute fuer Transuranium Elements, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    It could be demonstrated that the reprocessing of fast reactor oxide fuels containing up to 45 % MA (Np and Am), irradiated in the PHENIX reactor in the frame of a transmutation study, is possible. The fuels were dissolved under PUREX type conditions in order to determine their behaviour in the head-end step of the reprocessing process. For one of the fuels containing 20 % Am and 20 % Np before irradiation, an almost complete partitioning of actinides from the dissolver solution could be achieved. Chromatographic extraction was used for the separation of the main bulk elements U, Pu and Np, whereas centrifugal extractors were used to separate the minor actinides from the remaining high level liquid wastes (HLLW). For the relevant radio-toxic isotopes a high recovery rate from the irradiation targets was reached. Those elements are thus available for new fuel fabrication. (authors) 12 refs.

  5. Actinide-specific sequestering agents and decontamination applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, William L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials and Molecular Research Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Raymond, Kenneth N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials and Molecular Research Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1981-04-07

    With the commercial development of nuclear reactors, the actinides have become very important industrial elements. A major concern of the nuclear industry is the biological hazard associated with nuclear fuels and their wastes. The acute chemical toxicity of tetravalent actinides, as exemplified by Th(IV), is similar to Cr(III) or Al(III). However, the acute toxicity of 239Pu(IV) is similar to strychnine, which is much more toxic than any of the non-radioactive metals such as mercury. Although the more radioactive isotopes of the transuranium elements are more acutely toxic by weight than plutonium, the acute toxicities of 239Pu, 241Am, and 244Cm are nearly identical in radiation dose, ~100 μCi/kg in rodents. Finally and thus, the extreme acute toxicity of 239Pu is attributed to its high specific activity of alpha emission.

  6. Using Rasch Measurement to Validate an Instrument for Measuring the Quality of Classroom Teaching in Secondary Chemistry Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Peng; Liu, Xiufeng; Zheng, Changlong; Jia, Mengying

    2016-01-01

    This study intends to develop a standardized instrument for measuring classroom teaching and learning in secondary chemistry lessons. Based on previous studies and interviews with expert teachers, the progression of five quality levels was constructed hypothetically to represent the quality of chemistry lessons in Chinese secondary schools. The…

  7. Design of unique pins for irradiation of higher actinides in a fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basmajian, J.A.; Birney, K.R.; Weber, E.T.; Adair, H.L.; Quinby, T.C.; Raman, S.; Butler, J.K.; Bateman, B.C.; Swanson, K.M.

    1982-03-01

    The actinides produced by transmutation reactions in nuclear reactor fuels are a significant factor in nuclear fuel burnup, transportation and reprocessing. Irradiation testing is a primary source of data of this type. A segmented pin design was developed which provides for incorporation of multiple specimens of actinide oxides for irradiation in the UK's Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) at Dounreay Scotland. Results from irradiation of these pins will extend the basic neutronic and material irradiation behavior data for key actinide isotopes.

  8. Comparative Study of f-Element Electronic Structure across a Series of Multimetallic Actinide, Lanthanide-Actinide and Lanthanum-Actinide Complexes Possessing Redox-Active Bridging Ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schelter, Eric J.; Wu, Ruilian; Veauthier, Jacqueline M.; Bauer, Eric D.; Booth, Corwin H.; Thomson, Robert K.; Graves, Christopher R.; John, Kevin D.; Scott, Brian L.; Thompson, Joe D.; Morris, David E.; Kiplinger, Jaqueline L.

    2010-02-24

    A comparative examination of the electronic interactions across a series of trimetallic actinide and mixed lanthanide-actinide and lanthanum-actinide complexes is presented. Using reduced, radical terpyridyl ligands as conduits in a bridging framework to promote intramolecular metal-metal communication, studies containing structural, electrochemical, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy are presented for (C{sub 5}Me{sub 5}){sub 2}An[-N=C(Bn)(tpy-M{l_brace}C{sub 5}Me4R{r_brace}{sub 2})]{sub 2} (where An = Th{sup IV}, U{sup IV}; Bn = CH{sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 5}; M = La{sup III}, Sm{sup III}, Yb{sup III}, U{sup III}; R = H, Me, Et) to reveal effects dependent on the identities of the metal ions and R-groups. The electrochemical results show differences in redox energetics at the peripheral 'M' site between complexes and significant wave splitting of the metal- and ligand-based processes indicating substantial electronic interactions between multiple redox sites across the actinide-containing bridge. Most striking is the appearance of strong electronic coupling for the trimetallic Yb{sup III}-U{sup IV}-Yb{sup III}, Sm{sup III}-U{sup IV}-Sm{sup III}, and La{sup III}-U{sup IV}-La{sup III} complexes, [8]{sup -}, [9b]{sup -} and [10b]{sup -}, respectively, whose calculated comproportionation constant K{sub c} is slightly larger than that reported for the benchmark Creutz-Taube ion. X-ray absorption studies for monometallic metallocene complexes of U{sup III}, U{sup IV}, and U{sup V} reveal small but detectable energy differences in the 'white-line' feature of the uranium L{sub III}-edges consistent with these variations in nominal oxidation state. The sum of this data provides evidence of 5f/6d-orbital participation in bonding and electronic delocalization in these multimetallic f-element complexes. An improved, high-yielding synthesis of 4{prime}-cyano-2,2{prime}:6{prime},2{double_prime}-terpyridine is also reported.

  9. Future nuclear fuel cycles: Prospect and challenges for actinide recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warin, Dominique

    2010-03-01

    The global energy context pleads in favour of a sustainable development of nuclear energy since the demand for energy will likely increase, whereas resources will tend to get scarcer and the prospect of global warming will drive down the consumption of fossil fuel. In this context, nuclear power has the worldwide potential to curtail the dependence on fossil fuels and thereby to reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emissions while promoting energy independence. How we deal with nuclear radioactive waste is crucial in this context. In France, the public's concern regarding the long-term waste management made the French Governments to prepare and pass the 1991 and 2006 Acts, requesting in particular the study of applicable solutions for still minimizing the quantity and the hazardousness of final waste. This necessitates High Active Long Life element (such as the Minor Actinides MA) recycling, since the results of fuel cycle R&D could significantly change the challenges for the storage of nuclear waste. HALL recycling can reduce the heat load and the half-life of most of the waste to be buried to a couple of hundred years, overcoming the concerns of the public related to the long-life of the waste and thus aiding the "burying approach" in securing a "broadly agreed political consensus" of waste disposal in a geological repository. This paper presents an overview of the recent R and D results obtained at the CEA Atalante facility on innovative actinide partitioning hydrometallurgical processes. For americium and curium partitioning, these results concern improvements and possible simplifications of the Diamex-Sanex process, whose technical feasibility was already demonstrated in 2005. Results on the first tests of the Ganex process (grouped actinide separation for homogeneous recycling) are also discussed. In the coming years, next steps will involve both better in-depth understanding of the basis of these actinide partitioning processes and, for the new promising

  10. Chemical and Ceramic Methods Toward Safe Storage of Actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.E.D. Morgan; R.M. Housley; J.B. Davis; M.L. DeHaan

    2005-08-19

    A very import, extremely-long-term, use for monazite as a radwaste encapsulant has been proposed. THe use of ceramic La-monazite for sequestering actinides (isolating them from the environment), especially plutonium and some other radioactive elements )e.g., fission-product rare earths), had been especially championed by Lynn Boatner of ORNL. Monazite may be used alone or, copying its compatibility with many other minerals in nature, may be used in diverse composite combinations.

  11. EXAFS studies of actinide ions in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karim, D P; Georgopoulos, P; Knapp, G S

    1979-01-01

    The applicability of the EXAFS technique in the study of actinide systems is discussed. Uranium L/sub III/-edge spectra obtained on an in-lab rotating anode EXAFS facility are presented and analyzed for crystalline UO/sub 2/F/sub 2/ and aqueous solutions containing hexavalent uranium ions. Methods for the extension of the technique to more dilute systems are discussed.

  12. Chemical properties of the heavier actinides and transactinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulet, E.K.

    1981-01-01

    The chemical properties of each of the elements 99 (Es) through 105 are reviewed and their properties correlated with the electronic structure expected for 5f and 6d elements. A major feature of the heavier actinides, which differentiates them from the comparable lanthanides, is the increasing stability of the divalent oxidation state with increasing atomic number. The divalent oxidation state first becomes observable in the anhydrous halides of californium and increases in stability through the series to nobelium, where this valency becomes predominant in aqueous solution. In comparison with the analogous 4f electrons, the 5f electrons in the latter part of the series are more tightly bound. Thus, there is a lowering of the 5f energy levels with respect to the Fermi level as the atomic number increases. The metallic state of the heavier actinides has not been investigated except from the viewpoint of the relative volatility among members of the series. In aqueous solutions, ions of these elements behave as a normal trivalent actinides and lanthanides (except for nobelium). Their ionic radii decrease with increasing nuclear charge which is moderated because of increased screening of the outer 6p electrons by the 5f electrons. The actinide series of elements is completed with the element lawrencium (Lr) in which the electronic configuration is 5f/sup 14/7s/sup 2/7p. From Mendeleev's periodicity and Dirac-Fock calculations, the next group of elements is expected to be a d-transition series corresponding to the elements Hf through Hg. The chemical properties of elements 104 and 105 only have been studied and they indeed appear to show the properties expected of eka-Hf and eka-Ta. However, their nuclear lifetimes are so short and so few atoms can be produced that a rich variety of chemical information is probably unobtainable.

  13. Ground-state electronic structure of actinide monocarbides and mononitrides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petit, Leon; Svane, Axel; Szotek, Z.

    2009-01-01

    The self-interaction corrected local spin-density approximation is used to investigate the ground-state valency configuration of the actinide ions in the actinide monocarbides, AC (A=U,Np,Pu,Am,Cm), and the actinide mononitrides, AN. The electronic structure is characterized by a gradually...... increasing degree of f electron localization from U to Cm, with the tendency toward localization being slightly stronger in the (more ionic) nitrides compared to the (more covalent) carbides. The itinerant band picture is found to be adequate for UC and acceptable for UN, while a more complex manifold...... of competing localized and delocalized f-electron configurations underlies the ground states of NpC, PuC, AmC, NpN, and PuN. The fully localized 5f-electron configuration is realized in CmC (f7), CmN (f7), and AmN (f6). The observed sudden increase in lattice parameter from PuN to AmN is found to be related...

  14. A literature review of actinide-carbonate mineral interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, D.L. [Missouri Univ., Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences; Carroll, S.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Chemical retardation of actinides in groundwater systems is a potentially important mechanism for assessing the performance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility intended to demonstrate safe disposal of transuranic waste. Rigorous estimation of chemical retardation during transport through the Culebra Dolomite, a water-bearing unit overlying the WIPP, requires a mechanistic understanding of chemical reactions between dissolved elements and mineral surfaces. This report represents a first step toward this goal by examining the literature for pertinent experimental studies of actinide-carbonate interactions. A summary of existing models is given, along with the types of experiments on which these models are based. Articles pertaining to research into actinide interactions with carbonate minerals are summarized. Select articles involving trace element-carbonate mineral interactions are also reviewed and may serve as templates for future research. A bibliography of related articles is included. Americium(III), and its nonradioactive analog neodymium(III), partition strongly from aqueous solutions into carbonate minerals. Recent thermodynamic, kinetic, and surface studies show that Nd is preferentially removed from solution, forming a Nd-Ca carbonate solid solution. Neptunium(V) is rapidly removed from solution by carbonates. Plutonium incorporation into carbonates is complicated by multiple oxidation states. Little research has been done on the radium(H) and thorium(IV) carbonate systems. Removal of uranyl ion from solution by calcite is limited to monolayer surface coverage.

  15. Behavior of actinides in the Integral Fast Reactor fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtney, J.C. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Nuclear Science Center; Lineberry, M.J. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Technology Development Div.

    1994-06-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) under development by Argonne National Laboratory uses metallic fuels instead of ceramics. This allows electrorefining of spent fuels and presents opportunities for recycling minor actinide elements. Four minor actinides ({sup 237}Np, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, and {sup 243}Am) determine the waste storage requirements of spent fuel from all types of fission reactors. These nuclides behave the same as uranium and other plutonium isotopes in electrorefining, so they can be recycled back to the reactor without elaborate chemical processing. An experiment has been designed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the high-energy neutron spectra of the IFR in consuming these four nuclides and plutonium. Eighteen sets of seven actinide and five light metal targets have been selected for ten day exposure in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-2 which serves as a prototype of the IFR. Post-irradiation analyses of the exposed targets by gamma, alpha, and mass spectroscopy are used to determine nuclear reaction-rates and neutron spectra. These experimental data increase the authors` confidence in their ability to predict reaction rates in candidate IFR designs using a variety of neutron transport and diffusion programs.

  16. Behavior of actinides in the Integral Fast Reactor fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtney, J.C. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Nuclear Science Center; Lineberry, M.J. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Technology Development Div.

    1994-06-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) under development by Argonne National Laboratory uses metallic fuels instead of ceramics. This allows electrorefining of spent fuels and presents opportunities for recycling minor actinide elements. Four minor actinides ({sup 237}Np, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, and {sup 243}Am) determine the waste storage requirements of spent fuel from all types of fission reactors. These nuclides behave the same as uranium and other plutonium isotopes in electrorefining, so they can be recycled back to the reactor without elaborate chemical processing. An experiment has been designed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the high-energy neutron spectra of the IFR in consuming these four nuclides and plutonium. Eighteen sets of seven actinide and five light metal targets have been selected for ten day exposure in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-2 which serves as a prototype of the IFR. Post-irradiation analyses of the exposed targets by gamma, alpha, and mass spectroscopy are used to determine nuclear reaction-rates and neutron spectra. These experimental data increase the authors` confidence in their ability to predict reaction rates in candidate IFR designs using a variety of neutron transport and diffusion programs.

  17. Crystalline matrices for the immobilization of plutonium and actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, E.B.; Burakov, E.E.; Galkin, Ya.B.; Starchenko, V.A.; Vasiliev, V.G. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1996-05-01

    The management of weapon plutonium, disengaged as a result of conversion, is considered together with the problem of the actinide fraction of long-lived high level radioactive wastes. It is proposed to use polymineral ceramics based on crystalline host-phases: zircon ZrSiO{sub 4} and zirconium dioxide ZrO{sub 2}, for various variants of the management of plutonium and actinides (including the purposes of long-term safe storage or final disposal from the human activity sphere). It is shown that plutonium and actinides are able to form with these phases on ZrSiO{sub 4} and ZrO{sub 2} was done on laboratory level by the hot pressing method, using the plasmochemical calcination technology. To incorporate simulators of plutonium into the structure of ZrSiO{sub 4} and ZrO{sub 2} in the course of synthesis, an original method developed by the authors as a result of studying the high-uranium zircon (Zr,U) SiO{sub 4} form Chernobyl {open_quotes}lavas{close_quotes} was used.

  18. Forage quality and composition measurements as predictors of ethanol yield from maize (Zea mays L.) stover

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lorenz, Aaron J; Anex, Rob P; Isci, Asli; Coors, James G; de Leon, Natalia; Weimer, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    .... Our objective was to evaluate whether forage quality and compositional measurements could be used to estimate ethanol yield of maize stover as measured by a simplified pretreatment and simultaneous...

  19. Valid instrument for measuring quality of life in youth: VIHDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Joaquín Martínez Lozano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the validity and reliability of VIDHAB instrument, its objective is to evaluate the quality of urban life of the youth of the municipality of Cucuta, Colombia. Follows a descriptive study design validation through multidimensional scaling factor analysis, construct validity, and face. The study population were people aged 18-28 in Cucuta, the sample comprised 1180 habitants. Results: a scale of 57 items was obtained. Factor analysis showed dimensions of life satisfaction, quality of public space, poverty rate, perception of public space; Internal consistency was adequate (Cronbach's alpha 0.81 to 0.89, overall intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.967 (95%, from 0.933 to 0.984, average sum of differences in items -1.3 (SD: 8.5 and Kappa indices above 0.86 shows high agreement among experts. Conclusion: VIDHAB is a valid and reliable for the context Cucuta, Colombia instrument.

  20. Measuring grade inflation and grade divergence accounting for student quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Matos-Díaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study uses a rich longitudinal data-set of 13,202 full-time students belonging to 11 cohorts over 22 consecutive semesters (Fall 1995 to Spring 2006 to model the determinants of the grade inflation rates prevailing at the University of Puerto Rico at Bayamón. The following new interesting findings are reported: (1 Estimated rates vary significantly among and within the academic programs, implying grade divergence, depending on the time reference used: cohort time dummies or semesters since admission to the institution. (2 The rates are significantly related to the proportions of female students, students who switch from their original academic programs, and students from private schools. (3 Results suggest that, under determinate circumstances, average- and low-quality students consider higher grades as normal goods; conversely, high-quality students consider higher grades as inferior goods.