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Sample records for act transportation rate

  1. Energy Policy Act transportation rate study: Interim report on coal transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The primary purpose of this report is to examine changes in domestic coal distribution and railroad coal transportation rates since enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90). From 1988 through 1993, the demand for low-sulfur coal increased, as a the 1995 deadline for compliance with Phase 1 of CAAA90 approached. The shift toward low-sulfur coal came sooner than had been generally expected because many electric utilities switched early from high-sulfur coal to ``compliance`` (very low-sulfur) coal. They did so to accumulate emissions allowances that could be used to meet the stricter Phase 2 requirements. Thus, the demand for compliance coal increased the most. The report describes coal distribution and sulfur content, railroad coal transportation and transportation rates, and electric utility contract coal transportation trends from 1979 to 1993 including national trends, regional comparisons, distribution patterns and regional profiles. 14 figs., 76 tabs.

  2. Energy policy act transportation study: Interim report on natural gas flows and rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-17

    This report, Energy Policy Act Transportation Study: Interim Report on Natural Gas Flows and Rates, is the second in a series mandated by Title XIII, Section 1340, ``Establishment of Data Base and Study of Transportation Rates,`` of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102--486). The first report Energy Policy Act Transportation Study: Availability of Data and Studies, was submitted to Congress in October 1993; it summarized data and studies that could be used to address the impact of legislative and regulatory actions on natural gas transportation rates and flow patterns. The current report presents an interim analysis of natural gas transportation rates and distribution patterns for the period from 1988 through 1994. A third and final report addressing the transportation rates and flows through 1997 is due to Congress in October 2000. This analysis relies on currently available data; no new data collection effort was undertaken. The need for the collection of additional data on transportation rates will be further addressed after this report, in consultation with the Congress, industry representatives, and in other public forums.

  3. Energy Policy Act transportation rate study: Availability of data and studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-13

    Pursuant to Section 1340(c) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), this report presents the Secretary of Energy`s review of data collected by the Federal Government on rates for rail and pipeline transportation of domestic coal, oil, and gas for the years 1988 through 1997, and proposals to develop an adequate data base for each of the fuels, based on the data availability review. This report also presents the Energy Information Administration`s findings regarding the extent to which any Federal agency is studying the impacts of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) and other Federal policies on the transportation rates and distribution patterns of domestic coal, oil, and gas.

  4. An Affordability Comparison Tool (ACT) for Space Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, C. M.; Bollo, T. R.; Garcia, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    NASA bas recently emphasized the importance of affordability for Commercial Crew Development Program (CCDP), Space Launch Systems (SLS) and Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). System architects and designers are challenged to come up with architectures and designs that do not bust the budget. This paper describes the Affordability Comparison Tool (ACT) analyzes different systems or architecture configurations for affordability that allows for a comparison of: total life cycle cost; annual recurring costs, affordability figures-of-merit, such as cost per pound, cost per seat, and cost per flight, as well as productivity measures, such as payload throughput. Although ACT is not a deterministic model, the paper develops algorithms and parametric factors that use characteristics of the architectures or systems being compared to produce important system outcomes (figures-of-merit). Example applications of outcome figures-of-merit are also documented to provide the designer with information on the relative affordability and productivity of different space transportation applications.

  5. A new conceptual model for aeolian transport rates on beaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, S.; Stive, M.J.F.; Van Rijn, L.; Ranasinghe, R.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a new conceptual model for aeolian sediment transport rates is presented. Traditional sediment transport formulations have known limitations when applied to coastal beach situations. A linear model for sediment transport rates with respect to wind speed is proposed and supported by

  6. A new conceptual model for aeolian transport rates on beaches

    OpenAIRE

    de Vries, S.; Stive, M.J.F.; van Rijn, L.; Ranasinghe, R.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a new conceptual model for aeolian sediment transport rates is presented. Traditional sediment transport formulations have known limitations when applied to coastal beach situations. A linear model for sediment transport rates with respect to wind speed is proposed and supported by both data and numerical model simulations. The presented model does not solve complex wind fields and is therefore very easily applicable. Physical principles such as the presence of a threshold veloc...

  7. 47 CFR 69.108 - Transport rate benchmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... with this subpart, the DS3-to-DS1 benchmark ratio shall be calculated as follows: the telephone company... benchmark ratio of 9.6 to 1 or higher. (c) If a telephone company's initial transport rates are based on... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transport rate benchmark. 69.108 Section...

  8. A transport-rate model of wind-blown sand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Sand transport by wind plays an important role in environmental problems.Formulating the sand-transport rate model has been of continuing significance,because the majority of the existing models relate sand-transport rate to the wind-shear velocity.However,the wind-shear velocity readapted to blown sand is difficult to determine from the measured wind profiles when sand movement occurs,especially at high wind velocity.Detailed wind tunnel tests were carried out to reformulate the sand-transport rate model,followed by attempts to relate sand-transport rate to parameters of wind velocity,threshold shear-velocity,and grain size.Finally,we validated the model based on the data from field observations.

  9. Effect of upward seepage on bedload transport rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-xie LIU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an investigation of injection effects on the bedload transport rate. According to dimensional analysis, two dimensionless groups, an Einstein’s parameter group and a modified densimetric Froude number group, were chosen to examine how injection affects the bedload transport rate. Experimental studies were conducted in an open-channel flume with an upward seepage zone. The sediment particles used for the test were 0.9 mm in diameter. The experimental results show that an increase in the injection velocity causes a reduction in the shear velocity excess, which is defined as the difference between the shear and critical shear velocities, leading to a reduction in the bedload transport rate. The equation for predicting the bedload transport rate in the presence of upward seepage was derived empirically. The proposed prediction method is suitable for engineering practice, since it only requires the undisturbed flow condition, properties of sediment particles, and the injection velocity.

  10. Dissociation of Axonal Neurofilament Content from Its Transport Rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidong Yuan

    Full Text Available The axonal cytoskeleton of neurofilament (NF is a long-lived network of fibrous elements believed to be a stationary structure maintained by a small pool of transported cytoskeletal precursors. Accordingly, it may be predicted that NF content in axons can vary independently from the transport rate of NF. In the present report, we confirm this prediction by showing that human NFH transgenic mice and transgenic mice expressing human NFL Ser55 (Asp develop nearly identical abnormal patterns of NF accumulation and distribution in association with opposite changes in NF slow transport rates. We also show that the rate of NF transport in wild-type mice remains constant along a length of the optic axon where NF content varies 3-fold. Moreover, knockout mice lacking NFH develop even more extreme (6-fold proximal to distal variation in NF number, which is associated with a normal wild-type rate of NF transport. The independence of regional NF content and NF transport is consistent with previous evidence suggesting that the rate of incorporation of transported NF precursors into a metabolically stable stationary cytoskeletal network is the major determinant of axonal NF content, enabling the generation of the striking local variations in NF number seen along axons.

  11. An Analysis of Energy Consumption on ACK+Rate Packet in Rate Based Transport Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Ganeshkumar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Rate based transport protocol determines the rate of data transmission between the sender and receiver and then sends the data according to that rate. To notify the rate to the sender, the receiver sends ACK+Rate packet based on epoch timer expiry. In this paper, through detailed arguments and simulation it is shown that the transmission of ACK+Rate packet based on epoch timer expiry consumes more energy in network with low mobility. To overcome this problem, a new technique called Dynamic Rate Feedback (DRF is proposed. DRF sends ACK+Rate whenever there is a change in rate of ±25% than the previous rate. Based on ns2 simulation DRF is compared with ATP.Keywords- Ad hoc network, Ad hoc transport Protocol, Rate based transport protocols, energy consumption, Intermediate node

  12. Annual variation in the net longshore sediment transport rate

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schoonees, JS

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The annual variation in the net long shore sediment transport rates at three South African and at one North African site is investigated. The net rates at these sites, given in the first table, showed large variations. It was found that measurements...

  13. RADIONUCLIDE DISPERSION RATES BY AEOLIAN, FLUVIAL, AND POROUS MEDIA TRANSPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Walton; P. Goodell; C. Brashears; D. French; A. Kelts

    2005-07-11

    Radionuclide transport was measured from high grade uranium ore boulders near the Nopal I Site, Chihuahua, Mexico. High grade uranium ore boulders were left behind after removal of a uranium ore stockpile at the Prior High Grade Stockpile (PHGS). During the 25 years when the boulder was present, radionuclides were released and transported by sheetflow during precipitation events, wind blown resuspension, and infiltration into the unsaturated zone. In this study, one of the boulders was removed, followed by grid sampling of the surrounding area. Measured gamma radiation levels in three dimensions were used to derive separate dispersion rates by the three transport mechanisms.

  14. Sound and vibration: effects on infants' heart rate and heart rate variability during neonatal transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Björn-Markus; Lindkvist, Marie; Lindkvist, Markus; Karlsson, Marcus; Lundström, Ronnie; Håkansson, Stellan; Wiklund, Urban; van den Berg, Johannes

    2012-02-01

    To measure the effect of sound and whole-body vibration on infants' heart rate and heart rate variability during ground and air ambulance transport. Sixteen infants were transported by air ambulance with ground ambulance transport to and from the airports. Whole-body vibration and sound levels were recorded and heart parameters were obtained by ECG signal. Sound and whole-body vibration levels exceeded the recommended limits. Mean whole-body vibration and sound levels were 0.19 m/s(2) and 73 dBA, respectively. Higher whole-body vibration was associated with a lower heart rate (p < 0.05), and higher sound level was linked to a higher heart rate (p = 0.05). The heart rate variability was significantly higher at the end of the transport than at the beginning (p < 0.01). Poorer physiological status was associated with lower heart rate variability (p < 0.001) and a lower heart rate (p < 0.01). Infants wearing earmuffs had a lower heart rate (p < 0.05). Sound and whole-body vibration during neonatal transport exceed recommended levels for adults, and sound seem to have a more stressful effect on the infant than vibrations. Infants should wear earmuffs during neonatal transport because of the stress-reducing effect. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  15. An Analysis of Energy Consumption on ACK plus Rate Packet in Rate Based Transport Protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Ganeshkumar, P

    2009-01-01

    Rate based transport protocol determines the rate of data transmission between the sender and receiver and then sends the data according to that rate. To notify the rate to the sender, the receiver sends ACKplusRate packet based on epoch timer expiry. In this paper, through detailed arguments and simulation it is shown that the transmission of ACKplusRate packet based on epoch timer expiry consumes more energy in network with low mobility. To overcome this problem, a new technique called Dynamic Rate Feedback (DRF) is proposed. DRF sends ACKplusRate whenever there is a change in rate of (plus or minus) 25 percent than the previous rate. Based on ns2 simulation DRF is compared with a reliable transport protocol for ad hoc network (ATP)

  16. Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) Accessibility Guidelines for Transportation Vehicles. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-14

    The Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (Access Board or Board) is issuing a final rule that revises its existing accessibility guidelines for non-rail vehicles--namely, buses, over-the-road buses, and vans--acquired or remanufactured by entities covered by the Americans with Disabilities Act. The revised guidelines ensure that such vehicles are readily accessible to, and usable by, individuals with disabilities. The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) is required to revise its accessibility standards for transportation vehicles acquired or remanufactured by entities covered by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) to be consistent with the final rule.

  17. 14 CFR 61.63 - Additional aircraft ratings (other than for ratings at the airline transport pilot certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ratings at the airline transport pilot certification level). 61.63 Section 61.63 Aeronautics and Space... aircraft ratings (other than for ratings at the airline transport pilot certification level). (a) General. For an additional aircraft rating on a pilot certificate, other than for an airline transport pilot...

  18. Transport Rate of Surface Erosion by the Hydrodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The coherence and exposure degree are used in analyzing initiation of slope sediment.The initial ve- locity is built by using a critical roiling model.A transport rate formula of slope erosion is established using the Meyer-Peter model.The formula is tested by experiment and agrees well but the errors are big when the flow discharge and rain intensity are smaller.

  19. Transport and chemical loss rates in Saturn's inner plasma disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, M. K. G.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Vigren, E.; Cassidy, T. A.; Andrews, D. J.

    2016-03-01

    The Kronian moon Enceladus is constantly feeding its surrounding with new gas and dust, from cryovolcanoes located in its south polar region. Through photoionization and impact ionization of these neutrals, a plasma disk is created, which mainly contains hydrogen ions and water group ions. This paper investigates the importance of ion loss by outward radial transport and ion loss by dissociative recombination, which is the dominant chemical loss process in the inner plasma disk. We use plasma densities derived from several years of measurements by the Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave Science electric field power spectral density and Langmuir probe to calculate the total flux tube content NL2. Our calculation shows that NL2 agrees well with earlier estimates within dipole L shell 8. We also show that loss by transport dominates chemical loss between L shells 4 and 10. Using extrapolation of available measurements, we extend the study to include L shells 2.5 to 4. The results indicate that loss by transport dominates chemical loss also between L shells 2.5 and 4. The loss rate by transport is around five times larger at L shell 5, and the difference increases as L7.7 beyond L = 5, for the net ion population. Chemical loss may still be important for the structure of the plasma disk in the region closest to Enceladus (around ±0.5 RS) at 3.95 RS (1 RS = Saturn's equatorial radius = 60,268 km), since the transport and chemical loss rates only differ by a factor of ˜2 in this region. We also derive the total plasma content of the plasma disk between L shells 4 and 10 to be 1.9 × 1033 ions and the total ion source rate for the same region to be 5.8 × 1027 s-1. The estimated equatorial ion production rate P ranges from 2.6 × 10-5 cm-3 s-1 (at L = 10) to 1.1 × 10-4 cm-3 s-1 (at L = 4.8). The net mass loading rate is derived to be 123 kg/s for L shells 4 to 10.

  20. Recovery Act - Sustainable Transportation: Advanced Electric Drive Vehicle Education Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caille, Gary

    2013-12-13

    The collective goals of this effort include: 1) reach all facets of this society with education regarding electric vehicles (EV) and plug–in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), 2) prepare a workforce to service these advanced vehicles, 3) create web–based learning at an unparalleled level, 4) educate secondary school students to prepare for their future and 5) train the next generation of professional engineers regarding electric vehicles. The Team provided an integrated approach combining secondary schools, community colleges, four–year colleges and community outreach to provide a consistent message (Figure 1). Colorado State University Ventures (CSUV), as the prime contractor, plays a key program management and co–ordination role. CSUV is an affiliate of Colorado State University (CSU) and is a separate 501(c)(3) company. The Team consists of CSUV acting as the prime contractor subcontracted to Arapahoe Community College (ACC), CSU, Motion Reality Inc. (MRI), Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) and Ricardo. Collaborators are Douglas County Educational Foundation/School District and Gooru (www.goorulearning.org), a nonprofit web–based learning resource and Google spin–off.

  1. Association between arterial stiffness and peritoneal small solute transport rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhe, Xing-wei; Tian, Xin-kui; Chen, Wei; Guo, Li-juan; Gu, Yue; Chen, Hui-min; Tang, Li-jun; Wang, Tao

    2008-05-01

    While cardiovascular disease accounts for 40-50% of the mortality in dialysis patients, and while a high peritoneal transport in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) is an independent predictor of outcome, it is unclear if there are any links. Aortic stiffness has become established as a cardiovascular risk factor. We thus studied pulse wave velocity (PWV) in CAPD patients to explore the possible link between peritoneal small solute transport and aortic stiffness. CAPD patients (n = 76, 27 M/49 F) in our center were included in the present study. Aortic stiffness was assessed by brachial pulse pressure (PP) and carotid-femoral PWV. Patients' peritoneal small solute transport rate was assessed by D/P(cr) at 4 h. Extracellular water over total body water (E/T ratio) was assessed by means of bioimpedance analysis. C-reactive protein was also measured. Carotid-femoral PWV was positively associated with patients' age (r = 0.555; P < 0.01), time on peritoneal dialysis (r = 0.332; P < 0.01), diabetic status (r = 0.319; P < 0.01), D/P(cr) (r = 0.241; P < 0.05), PP (r = 0.475; P < 0.01), and E/T (r = 0.606; P < 0.01). In a multivariate regression analysis, carotid-femoral PWV was independently determined by E/T (P < 0.01), PP (P < 0.01), age (P < 0.01), and D/P(cr) (P < 0.05). D/P(cr), in addition to E/T, age, and PP, was an independent predictor of elevated carotid-femoral PWV in CAPD patients, suggesting that there might be a link between high aortic stiffness and increased peritoneal small solute transport rate.

  2. The molecular mechanism for overcoming the rate-limiting step in monoamine neurotransmitter transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinning, Steffen; Said, Saida; Malinauskaite, Lina

    structures of the bacterial homolog, LeuT, captured in a new conformation without substrate or sodium bound shows a dramatic rotation of an absolutely conserved leucine into the substrate site. Molecular dynamics simulations combined with functional studies on SERT support that this leucine must act...... membrane. The rate-limiting step in monoamine reuptake is the return of the empty transporter from an inward-facing to an outward-facing conformation without neurotransmitter and sodium bound. The molecular mechanism underlying this important conformational transition has not been described. Crystal...

  3. Vehicle Emission Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Provision in the Fixing America’s Surface Transportation (FAST) Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is a memorandum regarding Vehicle Emission Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Provision in Fixing America's Surface Transportation (FAST) Act, which provides long-term funding certainty for surface transportation infrastructure planning

  4. Heart rate, heart rate variability and behaviour of horses during air transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsters, C C B M; de Gooijer, J-W; van den Broek, J; van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M Sloet

    2013-01-05

    Heart rate (HR), HR variability (HRV) and behaviour score (BS) of nine horses were evaluated during an eight-hour air transport between The Netherlands and New York. HR and HRV parameters were calculated every five minutes during the air transport. Compared with transit (40±3), mean HRs were higher during loading into the jet stall (67±21, Phorses showed differences in mean HR (P=0.005) and peak HR (Phorses. BS was highest during turbulence (3.2±0.4). However, behaviour did not always correspond with HR measurements: the least responsive horse had the highest HR. Loading into the jet stall caused the highest increase in HR and was considered the most stressful event. During transit, HR was generally comparable with resting rates. Previous studies have shown that loading and transporting by road caused more elevation in HR than during loading and transporting by air. HRV data were not found to be useful, and caution is needed when interpreting HRV data. Not every horse exhibited stress through visible (evasive) behaviour, and HR measurements may provide an additional tool to assess stress in horses.

  5. RNA transport in dendrites: a cis-acting targeting element is contained within neuronal BC1 RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslimov, I A; Santi, E; Homel, P; Perini, S; Higgins, D; Tiedge, H

    1997-06-15

    In nerve cells, a select group of RNAs has been localized to dendritic domains. Here we have examined dendritic RNA transport in sympathetic neurons in primary culture, using a microinjection protocol with neuronal BC1 RNA and with BC1-derived sequence segments. After cytoplasmic microinjection, full-length BC1 RNA was selectively transported to dendrites; in contrast, control RNAs such as nuclear RNAs and random-sequence irrelevant RNAs remained restricted to cytoplasmic areas proximal to the injection sites. Chimeric RNAs were constructed that contained the full-length BC1 sequence inserted upstream or downstream of the coding regions of nondendritic mRNAs. After microinjection, such chimeric RNAs were specifically targeted to dendrites; microinjected corresponding nonchimeric mRNAs were not. Dendritic transport of BC1 RNA was rapid: the average dendritic delivery rate within the first hour after microinjection was 242 +/- 25 microm/hr. Whereas a 5'-BC1 segment of 62 nucleotides was transported to dendrites to extents and at levels similar to full-length BC1 RNA, a 3'-BC1 segment of 60 nucleotides did not exit injected somata to any significant degree. A cis-acting dendritic targeting element is thus contained in the 5' part of neuronal BC1 RNA. These results demonstrate that mechanisms exist in neurons for fast and specific transport of selected RNAs to dendrites.

  6. Use of long-acting reversible contraceptives to reduce the rate of teen pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rome, Ellen

    2015-11-01

    Long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) are safe for use in adolescents and do not rely on compliance or adherence for effectiveness. Continuation rates are higher and pregnancy rates are lower for adolescent users of LARCs compared with short-acting methods such as oral contraceptives. Similarly, repeat pregnancy rates are lower when LARCs are used compared with other forms of contraception. Myths and misconceptions about LARCs and other contraceptives remain a barrier to their use. Health care providers are in a unique position to provide confidential care to adolescents, and should provide education to them about the various contraceptive options, especially LARCs.

  7. 2 CFR 176.190 - Award term-Wage rate requirements under Section 1606 of the Recovery Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... THAT INCLUDE FUNDS UNDER THE AMERICAN RECOVERY AND REINVESTMENT ACT OF 2009, PUBLIC LAW 111-5 Wage Rate... rate requirements under Section 1606 of the Recovery Act. When issuing announcements or requesting... to the Recovery Act shall be paid wages at rates not less than those prevailing on projects of...

  8. Paleophysical oceanography with an emphasis on transport rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybers, Peter; Wunsch, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Paleophysical oceanography is the study of the behavior of the fluid ocean of the past, with a specific emphasis on its climate implications, leading to a focus on the general circulation. Even if the circulation is not of primary concern, heavy reliance on deep-sea cores for past climate information means that knowledge of the oceanic state when the sediments were laid down is a necessity. Like the modern problem, paleoceanography depends heavily on observations, and central difficulties lie with the very limited data types and coverage that are, and perhaps ever will be, available. An approximate separation can be made into static descriptors of the circulation (e.g., its water-mass properties and volumes) and the more difficult problem of determining transport rates of mass and other properties. Determination of the circulation of the Last Glacial Maximum is used to outline some of the main challenges to progress. Apart from sampling issues, major difficulties lie with physical interpretation of the proxies, transferring core depths to an accurate timescale (the "age-model problem"), and understanding the accuracy of time-stepping oceanic or coupled-climate models when run unconstrained by observations. Despite the existence of many plausible explanatory scenarios, few features of the paleocirculation in any period are yet known with certainty.

  9. Wettability patterning for high-rate, pumpless fluid transport on open, non-planar microfluidic platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Aritra; Ganguly, Ranjan; Schutzius, Thomas M; Megaridis, Constantine M

    2014-05-07

    Surface tension driven transport of liquids on open substrates offers an enabling tool for open micro total analysis systems that are becoming increasingly popular for low-cost biomedical diagnostic devices. The present study uses a facile wettability patterning method to produce open microfluidic tracks that - due to their shape, surface texture and chemistry - are capable of transporting a wide range of liquid volumes (~1-500 μL) on-chip, overcoming viscous and other opposing forces (e.g., gravity) at the pertinent length scales. Small volumes are handled as individual droplets, while larger volumes require repeated droplet transport. The concept is developed and demonstrated with coatings based on TiO2 filler particles, which, when present in adequate (~80 wt.%) quantities within a hydrophobic fluoroacrylic polymer matrix, form composites that are intrinsically superhydrophobic. Such composite coatings become superhydrophilic upon exposure to UV light (390 nm). A commercial laser printer-based photo-masking approach is used on the coating for spatially selective wettability conversion from superhydrophobic to superhydrophilic. Carefully designed wedge-patterned surface tension confined tracks on the open-air devices move liquid on them without power input, even when acting against gravity. Simple designs of wettability patterning are used on versatile substrates (e.g., metals, polymers, paper) to demonstrate complex droplet handling tasks, e.g., merging, splitting and metered dispensing, some of which occur in 3-D geometries. Fluid transport rates of up to 350 μL s(-1) are attained. Applicability of the design on metal substrates allows these devices to be used also for other microscale engineering applications, e.g., water management in fuel cells.

  10. CW Interference Effects on High Data Rate Transmission Through the ACTS Wideband Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Ngo, Duc H.; Tran, Quang K.; Tran, Diepchi T.; Yu, John; Kachmar, Brian A.; Svoboda, James S.

    1996-01-01

    Satellite communications channels are susceptible to various sources of interference. Wideband channels have a proportionally greater probability of receiving interference than narrowband channels. NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) includes a 900 MHz bandwidth hardlimiting transponder which has provided an opportunity for the study of interference effects of wideband channels. A series of interference tests using two independent ACTS ground terminals measured the effects of continuous-wave (CW) uplink interference on the bit-error rate of a 220 Mbps digitally modulated carrier. These results indicate the susceptibility of high data rate transmissions to CW interference and are compared to results obtained with a laboratory hardware-based system simulation and a computer simulation.

  11. Bath salts components mephedrone and methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) act synergistically at the human dopamine transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Krasnodara N; Kolanos, Renata; Solis, Ernesto; Glennon, Richard A; De Felice, Louis J

    2013-04-01

    Bath salts is the street name for drug combinations that contain synthetic cathinone analogues, among them possibly mephedrone (MEPH) and certainly methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV). In animal studies, cathinone and certain cathinone analogues release dopamine (DA), similar to the action of amphetamine (AMPH) and methamphetamine (METH). AMPH and METH act on the human DA transporter (hDAT); thus, we investigated MEPH and MDPV acting at hDAT. We recorded electrical currents mediated by hDAT expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and exposed to: DA, METH, a known hDAT stimulant and DA releaser, MEPH, MDPV, MEPH + MDPV, or cocaine, a known hDAT inhibitor. DA, METH and MEPH induce an inward current (depolarizing) when the oocyte is held near the resting potential (-60 mV), therefore acting as excitatory hDAT substrates. Structurally analogous MDPV induces an outward (hyperpolarizing) current similar to cocaine, therefore acting as an inhibitory non-substrate blocker. Two components of bath salts, MEPH and MDPV, produce opposite effects at hDAT that are comparable with METH and cocaine, respectively. In our assay, MEPH is nearly as potent as METH; however, MDPV is much more potent than cocaine and its effect is longer lasting. When applied in combination, MEPH exhibits faster kinetics than MDPV, viz., the MEPH depolarizing current occurs seconds before the slower MDPV hyperpolarizing current. Bath salts containing MEPH (or a similar drug) and MDPV might then be expected initially to release DA and subsequently prevent its reuptake via hDAT. Such combined action possibly underlies some of the reported effects of bath salts abuse. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  12. Cathodic delamination: Quantification of ionic transport rates along coating-steel interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P.A.; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Weinell, C.E.

    2010-01-01

    and Fick's second law, under the assumption of a transport-controlled mechanism, show qualitative agreement with the observed delamination rates in 0.5 M sodium chloride. This confirms that the rate-determining step of cathodic delamination is the transport of sodium ions along the coating-steel interface....

  13. Cathodic delamination: Quantification of ionic transport rates along coating-steel interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Per Aggerholm; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Erik Weinell, Claus

    2010-01-01

    and Fick's second law, under the assumption of a transport controlled mechanism, show qualitative agreement with the observed delamination rates in 0.5 M sodium chloride. This confirms that the rate-determining step of cathodic delamination is the transport of sodium ions along the coating-steel interface...

  14. Nonlinear Analysis of Bedload Transport Rate of Paroxysm Debris Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The evolution characteristics of bedload transport feature of paroxysm debris flow have been studied by means of both theory analysis and experimental data.The analysis based on the flume experiment data of a sand pile model as well as a large amount of field data of debris flow clearly shown that the statistical distribu- tion for the main variable of the sand pile made of non-uniform sand (according the sand pile experiment,φ≥2.55) conform to the negative power law,that means the non-uniform sand syste...

  15. Complex source rate estimation for atmospheric transport and dispersion models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, L.L.

    1993-09-13

    The accuracy associated with assessing the environmental consequences of an accidental atmospheric release of radioactivity is highly dependent on our knowledge of the source release rate which is generally poorly known. This paper reports on a technique that integrates the radiological measurements with atmospheric dispersion modeling for more accurate source term estimation. We construct a minimum least squares methodology for solving the inverse problem with no a priori information about the source rate.

  16. Axonal transport rate decreased at the onset of optic neuritis in EAE mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tsen-Hsuan; Kim, Joong Hee; Perez-Torres, Carlos; Chiang, Chia-Wen; Trinkaus, Kathryn; Cross, Anne H; Song, Sheng-Kwei

    2014-10-15

    Optic neuritis is frequently the first symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS), an inflammatory demyelinating neurodegenerative disease. Impaired axonal transport has been considered as an early event of neurodegenerative diseases. However, few studies have assessed the integrity of axonal transport in MS or its animal models. We hypothesize that axonal transport impairment occurs at the onset of optic neuritis in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice. In this study, we employed manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) to assess axonal transport in optic nerves in EAE mice at the onset of optic neuritis. Axonal transport was assessed as (a) optic nerve Mn(2+) accumulation rate (in % signal change/h) by measuring the rate of increased total optic nerve signal enhancement, and (b) Mn(2+) transport rate (in mm/h) by measuring the rate of change in optic nerve length enhanced by Mn(2+). Compared to sham-treated healthy mice, Mn(2+) accumulation rate was significantly decreased by 19% and 38% for EAE mice with moderate and severe optic neuritis, respectively. The axonal transport rate of Mn(2+) was significantly decreased by 43% and 65% for EAE mice with moderate and severe optic neuritis, respectively. The degree of axonal transport deficit correlated with the extent of impaired visual function and diminished microtubule-associated tubulins, as well as the severity of inflammation, demyelination, and axonal injury at the onset of optic neuritis.

  17. Multicolor bleach-rate imaging enlightens in vivo sterol transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüstner, Daniel; Sage, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    ) labelled with GFP-tagged RME-1 (GFP-RME-1) in the intestine of both, wild-type nematodes and mutant animals lacking intestinal gut granules (glo1-mutants). DHE-enriched intestinal organelles of glo1-mutants were decorated with GFPrme8, a marker for early endosomes. No co-localization was found......, dehydroergosterol (DHE) in the genetically tractable model organism Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). DHE is structurally very similar to cholesterol and ergosterol, two sterols used by the sterol-auxotroph nematode. We developed a new computational method measuring fluorophore bleaching kinetics at every pixel...... with a lysosomal marker, GFP-LMP1. Our new methods hold great promise for further studies on endosomal sterol transport in C. elegans....

  18. The ActP acetate transporter acts prior to the PitA phosphate carrier in tellurite uptake by Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elías, Alex; Díaz-Vásquez, Waldo; Abarca-Lagunas, María José; Chasteen, Thomas G; Arenas, Felipe; Vásquez, Claudio C

    2015-08-01

    The tellurium oxyanion tellurite is harmful for most microorganisms. Since its toxicity occurs chiefly once the toxicant reaches the intracellular compartment, unveiling the toxicant uptake process is crucial for understanding the whole phenomenon of tellurium toxicity. While the PitA phosphate transporter is thought to be one of the main paths responsible for toxicant entry into Escherichia coli, genetic and physiological evidence have identified the ActP acetate carrier as the main tellurite importer in Rhodobacter capsulatus. In this work, new background on the role of these transporters in tellurite uptake by E. coli is presented. It was found that, similar to what occurs in R. capsulatus, ActP is able to mediate toxicant entry to this bacterium. Lower reactive oxygen species levels were observed in E. coli lacking the actP gene. Antioxidant enzyme catalase and fumarase C activity was almost unchanged after short exposure of E. coli ΔactP to sublethal tellurite concentrations, suggesting a low antioxidant response. In this strain, tellurite uptake decreased significantly during the first 5 min of exposure and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy assays using an actP-overexpressing strain confirmed that this carrier mediates toxicant uptake. Relative gene expression experiments by qPCR showed that actP expression is enhanced at short times of tellurite exposure, while pitA and pitB genes are induced later. Summarizing, the results show that ActP is involved in tellurite entry to E. coli and that its participation occurs mainly at early stages of toxicant exposure.

  19. Association between long-acting reversible contraceptive use, teenage pregnancy, and abortion rates in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connolly A

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Anne Connolly,1 Guilhem Pietri,2 Jingbo Yu,3 Samantha Humphreys4 1The Ridge Medical Practice, Cousen Road, Bradford, UK; 2HERON – A PAREXEL® Company, London, UK; 3Merck & Co, Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA; 4Merck Sharp & Dohme Limited, Hertfordshire, UK Background: Since the late 1990s, the British government has launched major strategies to address high teenage pregnancy and abortion rates in England. These have focused in part on improving access to contraception through national campaigns. This study assessed teenage pregnancy and abortion rate trends since 1998 and possible associations with usage of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs. Methods: Teenage conception rates and age-specific abortion rates were obtained from the Office for National Statistics and the Department of Health. LARC usage data was obtained for Depo-Provera, Implanon/Nexplanon, intrauterine devices, Mirena, and Noristerat from the IMS British Pharmaceutical Index, IMS Hospital Pharmacy Audit, IMS Disease Analyzer, and KT-31 reports. Through linear regression methods, changes in conception and abortion-related outcomes during 1998–2011 and the associations with LARC usage were assessed. Results: Conception rates for girls younger than 18 years of age decreased significantly between 1998–2011, from 46.6 to 30.7 per 1,000 girls. A statistically significant association was observed between this decrease and increased LARC usage (P=0.0024 in this population. Abortion rates among females aged <18 years or aged 18–19 years decreased between 1998–2011, and their associations with increased LARC usage were statistically significant (P=0.0029 and P=0.0479, respectively. The pattern in older women was complex; abortion rates in women aged 20–24 years or 25–34 years increased slightly from 1998 to 2011, with stabilization during 2007–2011. Conclusion: Increased LARC usage in England was significantly associated with decreased teenage pregnancy rates

  20. Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978: Natural Gas Rate Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The report concludes that, to effectively deal with our national energy problems, gas rate structures should be designed to reflect the costs which the nation avoids if gas is efficiently used and substituted for oil. Current pipeline and distribution company rate structures generally do not meet this test. Although gas is a substitute for oil in many applications, and conserved gas can reduce oil imports, gas rate structures often fail to convey to consumers the fact that, from a national perspective, gas is as valuable as oil. The provisions of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (NGPA) take a strong first step in correcting these problems. But, as clearly recognized in both NGPA and PURPA, these provisions need to be supplemented by updating pipeline and distribution company rate designs to address the problems of the 1980's - rather than the problems of the 1950's. In this regard, NGPA mandates incremental pricing, which raises the average price of gas to certain industrial users only. The Department of Energy (DOE) study suggests an alternate approach: pipeline and distribution rate structures that reflect in their tailblocks, for all customer classes, the economic costs of gas usage. Such rates would convey to all users the costs incurred by the nation as a consequence of their decisions to use or conserve gas. Such rate structures should promote the three purposes of PURPA - end-use conservation, efficient use of utility resources, and equitable rates - to a greater extent than do traditional accounting cost rate designs, which reflect decisions made in the distant past.

  1. Longshore sediment transport rate-measurement and estimation, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Anand, N.M.; Chandramohan, P.; Naik, G.N.

    transport rate were measured with traps deployed on a line spanning the surf zone. Sediment transport in the swash zone was not considered in the present study. The longshore current was measured at each trap location. The breaking wave parameters were...

  2. Packaging effects on shell egg breakage rates during simulated transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seydim, A C; Dawson, P L

    1999-01-01

    Shell eggs were packaged in either expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam or molded paper pulp (MPP) one dozen cartons, then were bulk packaged in either polypropylene crates or corrugated boxes. The packages were then subjected to a well-defined computer-simulated vibration test on an electrohydraulic test machine. The percentage and the location on the egg (side, top, bottom) of breakage was determined in the secondary (corrugated box or polypropylene crate) and primary (EPS or MPP carton) package after 15, 75, and 180 min. For each of three trials, 60 dozen Grade A large eggs were randomly assigned to each primary package and cross-stacked in a secondary container that contained three cartons in a row and a total of five layers. When cartons were packed in 15-dozen corrugated boxes, no significant difference was found in total eggshell damage rates between the MPP carton and the EPS carton. However, when eggs were packed in 15-dozen plastic crates, the MPP cartons caused significantly less eggshell damage than the EPS cartons. The EPS cartons packed in corrugated boxes had the lowest breakage (4.63%), whereas the EPS foam cartons packed in plastic crates had the highest breakage (12.59%). When the effect of secondary packaging and vibration time were not considered, no significant difference was found between MPP and EPS cartons. In addition, when the effect of primary packaging was not taken into account, the corrugated boxes had significantly lower breakage rates than the plastic crates. Nearly 55% of the breakage occurred in the bottom section of the eggshell as compared to the side and top. When the test periods were compared, the EPS cartons packed in plastic crates had the highest breakage (16.28%) at 180 min.

  3. Evaluation of dose equivalent rate distribution in JCO critical accident by radiation transport calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Sakamoto, Y

    2002-01-01

    In the prevention of nuclear disaster, there needs the information on the dose equivalent rate distribution inside and outside the site, and energy spectra. The three dimensional radiation transport calculation code is a useful tool for the site specific detailed analysis with the consideration of facility structures. It is important in the prediction of individual doses in the future countermeasure that the reliability of the evaluation methods of dose equivalent rate distribution and energy spectra by using of Monte Carlo radiation transport calculation code, and the factors which influence the dose equivalent rate distribution outside the site are confirmed. The reliability of radiation transport calculation code and the influence factors of dose equivalent rate distribution were examined through the analyses of critical accident at JCO's uranium processing plant occurred on September 30, 1999. The radiation transport calculations including the burn-up calculations were done by using of the structural info...

  4. Negative Trends in Transport-related Mortality Rates in Broiler Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecerek, Vladimir; Voslarova, Eva; Conte, Francesca; Vecerkova, Lenka; Bedanova, Iveta

    2016-12-01

    The high incidence of deaths during transport for slaughter is associated with poor welfare and represents a considerable loss to the poultry industry. In the period from 2009 to 2014, all shipments of broiler chickens to poultry processing plants were monitored in the Czech Republic and the numbers of chickens transported and those dying as a result of their transport were recorded and analysed. Overall transport-related mortality of broiler chickens transported for slaughter in the Czech Republic was 0.37%. It ranged from 0.31% to 0.72%, the increase approximately corresponding to the increasing transport distance. Statistically highly significant (prates in individual seasons of the year. The greatest mortality (0.55%) was associated with transports carried out in winter months whereas the lowest death losses (0.30%) were found in chickens transported for slaughter in summer months. Our study revealed greater transport-related mortality rates in broiler chickens transported for slaughter in the Czech Republic than expected when considering earlier studies. The most pronounced increases were found in transports for shorter distances and in winter months. However, an increase was found at all transport distances monitored except for distances exceeding 300 km and all seasons except for summer. Furthermore, a general increasing tendency in chicken losses during the monitored period was found. The particularly alarming finding is that the mortality of broiler chickens being transported to processing plants has been showing a long-term increasing tendency over the last two decades. Further research should focus on the identification of specific factors leading to such high and growing mortality rates and developing practical guidelines to improve the welfare of the birds in transit accordingly.

  5. From nose to brain: understanding transport capacity and transport rate of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongbing; Hu, Kaili; Jiang, Xinguo

    2008-10-01

    The unique relationship between nasal cavity and cranial cavity tissues in anatomy and physiology makes intranasal delivery to the brain feasible. An intranasal delivery provides some drugs with short channels to bypass the blood-brain barrier (BBB), especially for those with fairly low brain concentrations after a routine delivery, thus greatly enhancing the therapeutic effect on brain diseases. In the past two decades, a good number of encouraging outcomes have been reported in the treatment of diseases of the brain or central nervous system (CNS) through nasal administration. In spite of the significant merit of bypassing the BBB, direct nose-to-brain delivery still bears the problems of low efficiency and volume for capacity due to the limited volume of the nasal cavity, the small area ratio of olfactory mucosa to nasal mucosa and the limitations of low dose and short retention time of drug absorption. It is crucial that selective distribution and retention time of drugs or preparations on olfactory mucosa should be enhanced so as to increase the direct delivery efficiency. In this article, we first briefly review the nose-to-brain transport pathways, before detailing the impacts on them, followed by a comprehensive summary of effective methods, including formulation modification, agglutinant-mediated transport and a brain-homing, peptide-mediated delivery based on phage display screening technique, with a view to providing a theoretic reference for elevating the therapeutic effects on brain diseases.

  6. 77 FR 42754 - Mortgage and Loan Insurance Programs Under the National Housing Act-Debenture Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... adjusted to a constant maturity of 10 years. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Yong Sun, Department of... issued pursuant to section 221(g)(4) of the Act) will bear interest at the rate in effect on the date the... interest rate will be the rate borne by debentures issued with respect to any insured loan or...

  7. 76 FR 47225 - Mortgage and Loan Insurance Programs Under the National Housing Act-Debenture Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... adjusted to a constant maturity of 10 years. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Yong Sun, Department of... issued pursuant to section 221(g)(4) of the Act) will bear interest at the rate in effect on the date the... interest rate will be the rate borne by debentures issued with respect to any insured loan or...

  8. Littoral transport rates in the Santa Barbara Littoral Cell: a process-based model analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, E. P. L.; Barnard, Patrick L.; Brocatus, John

    2009-01-01

    Identification of the sediment transport patterns and pathways is essential for sustainable coastal zone management of the heavily modified coastline of Santa Barbara and Ventura County (California, USA). A process-based model application, based on Delft3D Online Morphology, is used to investigate the littoral transport potential along the Santa Barbara Littoral Cell (between Point Conception and Mugu Canyon). An advanced optimalization procedure is applied to enable annual sediment transport computations by reducing the ocean wave climate in 10 wave height - direction classes. Modeled littoral transport rates compare well with observed dredging volumes, and erosion or sedimentation hotspots coincide with the modeled divergence and convergence of the transport gradients. Sediment transport rates are strongly dependent on the alongshore variation in wave height due to wave sheltering, diffraction and focusing by the Northern Channel Islands, and the local orientation of the geologically-controlled coastline. Local transport gradients exceed the net eastward littoral transport, and are considered a primary driver for hot-spot erosion.

  9. Applying a Transportation Rating System to Advance Sustainability Evaluation, Planning and Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrella, Elise; Lineburg, Kelsey; Hurley, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe a pilot application of the Sustainable Transportation Analysis & Rating System (STARS), and highlight how a sustainability rating system can be used to promote sustainable urban development through a university-city partnership. STARS is an example of a second-generation "green"…

  10. Effect of long-acting beta2 agonists on exacerbation rates of asthma in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to examine the effect of long-acting beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonists (LABAs) on the asthma exacerbation rate in pediatric patients. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) that included the use of LABAs to treat symptoms of pediatric asthma in children on inhaled...... requiring a change in prescribed medication or not defined but reported as an asthma exacerbation or an asthma-related hospitalization. Analysis of data from the eight studies revealed no apparent protection from an asthma exacerbation among children on a LABA compared to patients on comparator treatment...... that reported asthma-related hospitalizations. The lack of evidence for the control of asthma exacerbations in children regularly using a LABA should bring into question its general use as add-on therapy. Studies should be designed to directly explore the implications of these observations in pediatric patients....

  11. Interpreting Changes over Time in High School Average ACT® College Readiness Assessment Composite Scores and ACT College Readiness Benchmark Attainment Rates. ACT Research Report Series, 2013 (9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Education officials and journalists frequently track changes over time in the average ACT® College Readiness Assessment Composite scores and ACT College Readiness Benchmark attainment rates of individual high schools. Using standard statistical methods, I examined how often changes in these statistics are unambiguously positive or negative, rather…

  12. Critical transport rates that limit the performance of microbial electrochemistry technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popat, Sudeep C; Torres, César I

    2016-09-01

    Microbial electrochemistry technologies (METs) take advantage of the connection of microorganisms with electrodes. In the classic case of a microbial anode, the maximization of current density produced is often the goal. But, current production is dependent on many transport processes occurring, which can be rate-limiting. These include the fluxes of electron donor and acceptor, the ionic flux, the acidity and alkalinity fluxes at anode and cathode respectively, the electron transport flux at the biofilm, and the reactant/product crossover flux. Associated with these fluxes are inherent concentration gradients that can affect performance. This critical review provides an analysis on how these transport processes have hindered the development of METs, and how MET designs have evolved as more knowledge of these transport limitations is gained. Finally, suggestions are provided on how to design MET systems taking into consideration critical transport processes that are intimately linked to the current produced.

  13. Solute transport predicts scaling of surface reaction rates in porous media: Applications to silicate weathering

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, Allen G; Ghanbarian, Behzad

    2013-01-01

    We apply our theory of conservative solute transport, based on concepts from percolation theory, directly and without modification to reactive solute transport. This theory has previously been shown to predict the observed range of dispersivity values for conservative solute transport over ten orders of magnitude of length scale. We now show that the temporal dependence derived for the solute velocity accurately predicts the time-dependence for the weathering of silicate minerals over nine orders of magnitude of time scale, while its predicted length dependence agrees with data obtained for reaction rates over five orders of magnitude of length scale. In both cases, it is possible to unify lab and field results. Thus, net reaction rates appear to be limited by solute transport velocities. We suggest the possible relevance of our results to landscape evolution of the earth's terrestrial surface.

  14. Prediction of water vapor transport rates across polyvinylchloride packaging systems using a novel radiotracer method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, R.W.; Mulski, M.J.; Kuu, W.Y. (Baxter Healthcare Corporation, Round Lake, IL (USA))

    1990-09-01

    A radiotracer method is used to study the transport properties of water vapor in polyvinylchloride (PVC), a plastic commonly used in the packaging of parenteral solutions. Water vapor transport across a PVC film appears to be Fickian in nature. Using the steady-state solution of Fick's second law and the permeability coefficient of water vapor across the PVC film obtained using the described method, the predicted water vapor transport rate (WVTR) for a parenteral solution packaged in PVC is in reasonable agreement with actual WVTR as determined by weight loss under precisely controlled conditions.

  15. 75 FR 7978 - Privacy Act of 1974: Implementation of Exemptions; Department of Homeland Security Transportation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... Exemptions; Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration-023 Workplace Violence... Security Administration-023 Workplace Violence Prevention Program System of Records and this proposed...-036, Transportation Security Administration, 601 South 12th Street, Arlington, VA 20598-6036....

  16. 75 FR 18867 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration-011...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... Security Administration--011, Transportation Security Intelligence Service Operations Files Systems of... Administration--011 Transportation Security Intelligence Service Operations Files previously published on... Security Intelligence Service (TSIS) Operations Files System of Records (69 FR 71828, December 10,...

  17. Macropore system characteristics controls on non-reactive solute transport at different flow rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsbo, Mats; Koestel, John

    2014-05-01

    Preferential flow and transport in macroporous soils are important pathways for the leaching of agrochemicals through soils. Preferential solute transport in soil is to a large extent determined by the macropore system characteristics and the water flow conditions. The importance of different characteristics of the macropore system is likely to vary with the flow conditions. The objective of this study was to determine which properties of the macropore system that control the shape of non-reactive tracer solute breakthrough curves at different steady-state flow rates. We sampled five undisturbed columns (20 cm high, 20 cm diameter) from the soil surface of four soils with clay contents between 21 and 50 %. Solute transport experiments were carried out under unsaturated conditions at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 mm h-1 flow rates. For each flow rate a pulse of potassium bromide solution was applied at the soil surface and the electrical conductivity was measured with high temporal resolution in the column effluent. We used the 5 % arrival time and the holdback factor to estimate the degree of preferential transport from the resulting breakthrough curves. Unsaturated hydraulic conductivities were measured at the soil surface of the columns using a tension disc infiltrometer. The macropore system was imaged by industrial X-ray computed tomography at a resolution of 125 μm in all directions. Measures of the macropore system characteristics including measures of pore continuity were calculated from these images using the ImageJ software. Results show that the degree of preferential transport is generally increasing with flow rate when larger pores become active in the transport. The degree of preferential flow was correlated to measures of macropore topology. This study show that conclusions drawn from experiments carried out at one flow rate should generally not be extrapolated to other flow rates.

  18. 78 FR 26845 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Transportation, Office of the Secretary of Transportation; DOT...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... but not limited to human resources. This system, titled Biographies, will be included in the... function including but not limited to human resources. These routine uses are compatible with the purposes... Transportation employees and other individuals for the purpose of publicizing skills, experiences, and...

  19. 42 CFR 137.378 - Do the Federal Davis-Bacon Act and wage rates apply to construction projects performed by Self...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Do the Federal Davis-Bacon Act and wage rates apply... Other § 137.378 Do the Federal Davis-Bacon Act and wage rates apply to construction projects performed...-Bacon Act and wage rates do not apply to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes...

  20. Increased ratio of electron transport to net assimilation rate supports elevated isoprenoid emission rate in eucalypts under drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, Kaidala Ganesha Srikanta; Jamie, Ian McLeod; Prentice, Iain Colin; Atwell, Brian James

    2014-10-01

    Plants undergoing heat and low-CO2 stresses emit large amounts of volatile isoprenoids compared with those in stress-free conditions. One hypothesis posits that the balance between reducing power availability and its use in carbon assimilation determines constitutive isoprenoid emission rates in plants and potentially even their maximum emission capacity under brief periods of stress. To test this, we used abiotic stresses to manipulate the availability of reducing power. Specifically, we examined the effects of mild to severe drought on photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR) and net carbon assimilation rate (NAR) and the relationship between estimated energy pools and constitutive volatile isoprenoid emission rates in two species of eucalypts: Eucalyptus occidentalis (drought tolerant) and Eucalyptus camaldulensis (drought sensitive). Isoprenoid emission rates were insensitive to mild drought, and the rates increased when the decline in NAR reached a certain species-specific threshold. ETR was sustained under drought and the ETR-NAR ratio increased, driving constitutive isoprenoid emission until severe drought caused carbon limitation of the methylerythritol phosphate pathway. The estimated residual reducing power unused for carbon assimilation, based on the energetic status model, significantly correlated with constitutive isoprenoid emission rates across gradients of drought (r(2) > 0.8) and photorespiratory stress (r(2) > 0.9). Carbon availability could critically limit emission rates under severe drought and photorespiratory stresses. Under most instances of moderate abiotic stress levels, increased isoprenoid emission rates compete with photorespiration for the residual reducing power not invested in carbon assimilation. A similar mechanism also explains the individual positive effects of low-CO2, heat, and drought stresses on isoprenoid emission.

  1. 78 FR 13405 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market Rules; Rate Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... opposite sex and same sex domestic partners; biological, adoptive, step, foster, and grandchildren (if... XXVII of the PHS Act. Section 1321(d) of the Affordable Care Act applies the same preemption principle... approach, the issuer would charge the same per- member premium for all family members of the same age...

  2. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes act as charge transport channel to boost the efficiency of hole transport material free perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Nian; Liu, Pei; Qi, Fei; Xiao, Yuqin; Yu, Wenjing; Yu, Zhenhua; Liu, Wei; Guo, Shi-Shang; Zhao, Xing-Zhong

    2016-11-01

    The two-step spin coating process produces rough perovskite surfaces in ambient condition with high humidity, which are unfavorable for the contact between the perovskite film and the low temperature carbon electrode. To tackle this problem, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are embedded into the perovskite layer. The MWCNTs can act as charge transport high way between individual perovskite nanoparticles and facilitate the collection of the photo-generated holes by the carbon electrode. Longer carrier lifetime is confirmed in the perovskite solar cells with addition of MWCNTs using open circuit voltage decay measurement. Under optimized concentration of MWCNT, average power conversion efficiency of 11.6% is obtained in hole transport material free perovskite solar cells, which is boosted by ∼15% compared to solar cells without MWCNT.

  3. Assessment of Plasmodium falciparum PfMDR1 transport rates using Fluo-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, O; Reiling, S J; Wunderlich, J; Rohrbach, P

    2014-09-01

    Mutations in the multidrug resistance transporter of Plasmodium falciparum PfMDR1 have been implicated to play a significant role in the emergence of worldwide drug resistance, yet the molecular and biochemical mechanisms of this transporter are not well understood. Although it is generally accepted that drug resistance in P. falciparum is partly associated with PfMDR1 transport activity situated in the membrane of the digestive vacuole, direct estimates of the pump rate of this transport process in the natural environment of the intact host-parasite system have never been analysed. The fluorochrome Fluo-4 is a well-documented surrogate substrate of PfMDR1 and has been found to accumulate by actively being transported into the digestive vacuole of several parasitic strains. In the present study, we designed an approach to use Fluo-4 fluorescence uptake as a measure of compartmental Fluo-4 concentration accumulation in the different compartments of the host-parasite system. We performed a 'reverse Fluo-4 imaging' approach to relate fluorescence intensity to changes in dye concentration rather than Ca(2+) fluctuations and were able to calculate the overall rate of transport for PfMDR1 in Dd2 parasites. With this assay, we provide a powerful method to selectively measure the effect of PfMDR1 mutations on substrate transport kinetics. This will be of high significance for future compound screening to test for new drugs in resistant P. falciparum strains. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  4. Modeling Atmospheric Emissions and Calculating Mortality Rates Associated with High Volume Hydraulic Fracturing Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Alyssa

    Emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels are a growing pollution concern throughout the global community, as they have been linked to numerous health issues. The freight transportation sector is a large source of these emissions and is expected to continue growing as globalization persists. Within the US, the expanding development of the natural gas industry is helping to support many industries and leading to increased transportation. The process of High Volume Hydraulic Fracturing (HVHF) is one of the newer advanced extraction techniques that is increasing natural gas and oil reserves dramatically within the US, however the technique is very resource intensive. HVHF requires large volumes of water and sand per well, which is primarily transported by trucks in rural areas. Trucks are also used to transport waste away from HVHF well sites. This study focused on the emissions generated from the transportation of HVHF materials to remote well sites, dispersion, and subsequent health impacts. The Geospatial Intermodal Freight Transport (GIFT) model was used in this analysis within ArcGIS to identify roadways with high volume traffic and emissions. High traffic road segments were used as emissions sources to determine the atmospheric dispersion of particulate matter using AERMOD, an EPA model that calculates geographic dispersion and concentrations of pollutants. Output from AERMOD was overlaid with census data to determine which communities may be impacted by increased emissions from HVHF transport. The anticipated number of mortalities within the impacted communities was calculated, and mortality rates from these additional emissions were computed to be 1 in 10 million people for a simulated truck fleet meeting stricter 2007 emission standards, representing a best case scenario. Mortality rates due to increased truck emissions from average, in-use vehicles, which represent a mixed age truck fleet, are expected to be higher (1 death per 341,000 people annually).

  5. Spatial distribution of soil erosion and suspended sediment transport rate for Chou-Shui river basin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chin-Ping Lin; Ching-Nuo Chen; Yu-Min Wang; Chih-Heng Tsai; Chang-Tai Tsai

    2014-10-01

    In this study, a Physiographic Soil Erosion–Deposition Model (PSED) is applied for better management of a watershed. The PSED model can effectively evaluate the key parameters of watershed management: surface runoff discharge, suspended sediment transport rate, quantity of soil erosion, and spatial distribution of soil erosion and deposition. A basin usually contains multiple watersheds. These watersheds may have complex topography and heterogeneous physiographic properties. The PSED model, containing a physiographic rainfall-runoff model and a basin scale erosion–deposition model, can simulate the physical mechanism of the entire erosion process based on a detailed calculation of bed-load transportation, surface soil entrainment, and the deposition mechanism. With the assistance of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), the PSED model can handle and analyze extremely large hydrologic and physiographic datasets and simulate the physical erosion process without the need for simplification. We verified the PSED model using three typhoon events and 40 rainfall events. The application of PSED to Chou-Shui River basin shows that the PSED model can accurately estimate discharge hydrographs, suspended sediment transport rates, and sediment yield. Additionally, we obtained reasonable quantities of soil erosion as well as the spatial distribution of soil erosion and deposition. The results show that the PSED model is capable of calculating spatially distributed soil erosion and suspended sediment transport rates for a basin with multiple watersheds even if these watersheds have complex topography and heterogeneous physiographic properties.

  6. Differences in brain 5-HT transporter dissociation rates among animal species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erreboe, I.; Plenge, P.; Mellerup, E.T. [Univ. of Copenhagen, Dept. of Pharmacology, Lab. of Neuropsychiatry, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1995-06-01

    The potential of using receptor-ligand dissociation rates as a model for investigating molecular changes in receptors was tested using the dissociation of [{sup 3}H]citalopram, [{sup 3}H]paroxetine and [{sup 3}H]imipramine from the brain 5-HT transporter of four different species (mouse, rat, pig and man). Since the dissociation rates of each of the three ligands differed in most of the species investigated, receptor-ligand dissociation rate constants would seem to be a sensitive measure of receptor conformation. The model could be useful in the search of structural variation in receptors whether attributable to genetic factors or to posttranslational modification. (au) (12 refs.).

  7. Determination of albumin transport rate between plasma and peritoneal space in decompensated cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ring-Larsen, H; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1984-01-01

    the abdominal puncture may lead to overestimation of TERperit.space, whereas systematic understimation seems less likely. This may besides differences in patient selection and unsteady state, account for the discrepancy between the present relatively low value and earlier reports on much higher values.......10-0.59). The transport rate of albumin from ascitic fluid back to plasma was measured in eight patients by plasma sampling after intraperitoneal injection of 131I-labelled serum albumin. After correction for tracer re-extravasation this back transport (median 0.31, range 0.07-0.44% IVM/h-1) was not significantly...

  8. A general correction to catalytic rates determined for nonprocessive exo-depolymerases acting on both substrate and product in the initial-rate measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, J Rose; Wagschal, Kurt; Lee, Charles C; Jordan, Douglas B

    2017-04-15

    We recently reported on the kinetics of the polygalacturonase TtGH28 acting on trimer and dimer substrates. When the starting substrate for hydrolysis is the trimer, the product dimer is also subject to hydrolysis, resulting in discrepancies when either the concentration of dimer or monomer product is used for analysis of trimer hydrolysis. Here, we derive a method for determining catalytic rates of exo-hydrolases acting on trimer (and higher order) substrates when products may also be substrates for hydrolysis and show how this correction may be applied for TtGH28. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Identification of biomolecule mass transport and binding rate parameters in living cells by inverse modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirmohammadi Adel

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantification of in-vivo biomolecule mass transport and reaction rate parameters from experimental data obtained by Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleaching (FRAP is becoming more important. Methods and results The Osborne-Moré extended version of the Levenberg-Marquardt optimization algorithm was coupled with the experimental data obtained by the Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleaching (FRAP protocol, and the numerical solution of a set of two partial differential equations governing macromolecule mass transport and reaction in living cells, to inversely estimate optimized values of the molecular diffusion coefficient and binding rate parameters of GFP-tagged glucocorticoid receptor. The results indicate that the FRAP protocol provides enough information to estimate one parameter uniquely using a nonlinear optimization technique. Coupling FRAP experimental data with the inverse modeling strategy, one can also uniquely estimate the individual values of the binding rate coefficients if the molecular diffusion coefficient is known. One can also simultaneously estimate the dissociation rate parameter and molecular diffusion coefficient given the pseudo-association rate parameter is known. However, the protocol provides insufficient information for unique simultaneous estimation of three parameters (diffusion coefficient and binding rate parameters owing to the high intercorrelation between the molecular diffusion coefficient and pseudo-association rate parameter. Attempts to estimate macromolecule mass transport and binding rate parameters simultaneously from FRAP data result in misleading conclusions regarding concentrations of free macromolecule and bound complex inside the cell, average binding time per vacant site, average time for diffusion of macromolecules from one site to the next, and slow or rapid mobility of biomolecules in cells. Conclusion To obtain unique values for molecular diffusion coefficient and

  10. 78 FR 69418 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Exchanges and Qualified Health Plans, Quality Rating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... Care Act; Standards Related to Essential Health Benefits, Actuarial Value, and Accreditation; Final... state-of-science for measuring health care quality, science and technology do not yet allow us to...

  11. Survival rate of initial azimuthal anisotropy in a multi-phase transport model

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Liang; Wang, Fuqiang

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the survival rate of an initial momentum anisotropy ($v_2^{ini}$) to the final state in a multi-phase transport (AMPT) model in Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=200 GeV. It is found that both the final-state parton and charged hadron $v_2$ show a linear dependence versus $v_2^{ini}$. We use the slope of this linear dependence to quantify the survival rate. It is found that the survival rate increases with transverse momentum ($p_T$), approximately linearly, reaching ~100% at $p_T$$\\sim$2.5 GeV/c for both parton and charged hadron. The survival rate decreases with collision centrality and energy. The results indicate that the survival rate decreases with increasing magnitude of interaction.

  12. RECOVERY ACT - Thylakoid Assembly and Folded Protein Transport by the Tat Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabney-Smith, Carole [Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (United States)

    2016-07-18

    Assembly of functional photosystems complete with necessary intrinsic (membrane-bound) and extrinsic proteins requires the function of at least 3 protein transport pathways in thylakoid membranes. Our research focuses on one of those pathways, a unique and essential protein transport pathway found in the chloroplasts of plants, bacteria, and some archaebacteria, the Twin arginine translocation (Tat) system. The chloroplast Tat (cpTat) system is thought to be responsible for the proper location of ~50% of thylakoid lumen proteins, several of which are necessary for proper photosystem assembly, maintenance, and function. Specifically, cpTat systems are unique because they transport fully folded and assembled proteins across ion tight membranes using only three membrane components, Tha4, Hcf106, and cpTatC, and the protonmotive force generated by photosynthesis. Despite the importance of the cpTat system in plants, the mechanism of transport of a folded precursor is not well known. Our long-term goal is to investigate the role protein transport systems have on organelle biogenesis, particularly the assembly of membrane protein complexes in thylakoids of chloroplasts. The objective of this proposal is to correlate structural changes in the membrane-bound cpTat component, Tha4, to the mechanism of translocation of folded-precursor substrates across the membrane bilayer by using a cysteine accessibility and crosslinking approach. Our central hypothesis is that the precursor passes through a proteinaceous pore of assembled Tha4 protomers that have undergone a conformational or topological change in response to transport. This research is predicated upon the observations that Tha4 exists in molar excess in the membrane relative to the other cpTat components; its regulated assembly to the precursor-bound receptor; and our data showing oligomerization of Tha4 into very large complexes in response to transport. Our rationale for these studies is that understanding cp

  13. Evaluation of Nasal Mucociliary Transport Rate by99mTc-Macroaggregated Albumin Rhinoscintigraphy in Woodworkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Dostbil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Woodworkers in the furniture industry are exposed to wood dust in their workplaces. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of occupational wood dust exposure on the nasal mucociliary transport rates (NMTRs in woodworkers. Twenty five woodworkers and 30 healthy controls were included in this study. Wood dust concentration in workplaces was measured using the sampling device. 99mTc-macroaggregated albumin (99mTc-MAA rhinoscintigraphy was performed, and NMTR was calculated in all cases. In statistical analysis, an independent samples t-test was used to compare NMTR of woodworkers and control subjects. We found that the mean NMTR of the woodworkers was lower than that of the healthy controls. However, there was not a statistically significant difference between them (=0.066. In conclusion, our findings suggested that wood dust exposure may not impair nasal mucociliary transport rate in woodworkers employed in joinery workshops.

  14. Drift Mode Growth Rate and Associated Ion Thermal Transport in Reversed Magnetic Shear Tokamak Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ai-Ke; QIU Xiao-Ming

    2001-01-01

    Drift mode linear growth rate and quasi-linear ion thermal transport in the reversed magnetic shear plasma are investigated by using the two-fluid theory, previously developed by Weiland and the Chalmers group [J. Nucl.Fusion, 29 (1989) 1810; ibid. 30 (1990) 983]. The theory is here extended to include both the radial electrical field shear (dEr/dr) and the electron fluid velocity (Ve) in the sheared coordinate system. Here, Ve describes the coupling between the safety factor q and the Er × B velocity V E. Their influences on the growth rate and associated ion thermal transport are obtained numerically. In addition, the ion heat pinch in the reversed shear plasma is observed. Qualitatively, the present conclusions are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  15. 78 FR 55270 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration-DHS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... federal government's counter-terrorism efforts by assisting in the detection of individuals on federal... and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (IRTPA),\\2\\ Congress directed TSA and DHS to assume from aircraft... General to establish an organization to consolidate the Federal Government's approach to terrorism...

  16. 75 FR 18863 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration-006...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... to the media when there exists a legitimate public interest in disclosing information. Release under... Handgun Violence Prevention Act. Both routine uses are duplicative. The retention and disposal section has... settlement negotiations or in connection with criminal law proceedings. R. To the news media and the...

  17. Consequences of light absorptance in calculating electron transport rate of desert and succulent plants

    OpenAIRE

    Stemke, JA; Santiago, LS

    2011-01-01

    The proportional light absorptance by photosynthetic tissue (α) is used with chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence methods to calculate electron transport rate (ETR). Although a value of α of 0.84 is often used as a standard for calculating ETR, many succulent plant species and species with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) have photosynthetic tissues that vary greatly in color or are highly reflective, and could have values of α that differ from 0.84, thus affecting the calculation of ETR. We meas...

  18. 77 FR 56590 - Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) Accessibility Guidelines for Transportation Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... American Public Transportation Association (APTA) annual meeting in Seattle, WA from 2:15 p.m. to 5:30 p.m..., including those who are not registered to attend the APTA annual meeting. The Access Board is interested...

  19. 75 FR 28042 - Privacy Act of 1974: System of Records; Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... Transportation Security Administration. Information in this system also includes records related to the... occurred during passenger or property screening would be covered by this system. Portions of this system... information system of records has been compromised. Another routine use permits the release of information to...

  20. 75 FR 28046 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration-002...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... other restrictions pertaining to airspace. (g) Other individuals who are connected to the transportation... indirect air carrier. (j) Aliens or other individuals designated by DHS/TSA who apply for flight training... and past citizenship information; immigration status; alien registration numbers; visa...

  1. 77 FR 70796 - Privacy Act of 1974; Retirement of Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... Administration-015 Registered Traveler Operations Files (November 8, 2005, 69 FR 67735), which was written to...)-015 Registered Traveler (RT) Operations File Files (November 8, 2005, 69 FR 67735), which was written... Transportation Security Administration System of Records AGENCY: Privacy Office, Department of Homeland...

  2. Developing a Teacher Evaluation Instrument to Provide Formative Feedback Using Student Ratings of Teaching Acts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Lans, Rikkert M.; van de Grift, Wim J.C.M.; van Veen, Klaas

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on the development of a teacher evaluation instrument, based on students’ observations, which exhibits cumulative ordering in terms of the complexity of teaching acts. The study integrates theory on teacher development with theory on teacher effectiveness and applies a cross-valid

  3. THE NONLINEAR CUSP-CATASTROPHE MODEL OF THE SEDIMENT TRANSPORT RATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In the catastrophe theory of nonlinear science,the intensity of water-flow and the coefficient of non-uniformsediment m are regarded as two bound variables, and the in-tensity of bed-load transport Φ as the state variable in the mo-tion of non-uniform sediment in cusp-catastrophe model.Based on the standard equation of the cusp-catastrophe theo-ry, the relation equation between the intensity of bed-loadtransport Φ and the intensity of water-flow has been derivedby used coordinate transform and topology transform. The e-quation of bed load transport rate was built on the cusp-catas-trophe theory of nonlinear science. The others are applied toverify this equation, that the results calculated by the cusp-ca-tastrophe equation agree well with the other equations. Thisindicates that the cusp-catastrophe equation is reasonable, and the results fully reflect the characteristics of threshold motionand transport of non-uniform sediment. The purpose of thispaper is to explore the incipient motion and transport laws ofnon-uniform sediment from the viewpoint of nonlinear science.

  4. 75 FR 43747 - Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) Accessibility Guidelines for Transportation Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... weight rating of 30,000 pounds or more, and adds a requirement for a forward excursion barrier at rear... accessible transit vehicles,'' 32 Medical Engineering & Physics 230-236 (2010). T303.8.1 simplifies the... direction in large vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating of 30,000 pounds or more. The design force...

  5. Evaluation of suspended load transport rate using transport formulas and artificial neural network models (Case study: Chelchay Catchment)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HADDADCHI Arman; MOVAHEDI Neshat; VAHIDI Elham; OMID Mohammad Hossein; DEHGHANI Amir Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Accurate estimation of sediment load or transport rate is very important to a wide range of water resources projects.This study was undertaken to determine the most appropriate model to predict suspended load in the Chelchay Watershed,northeast of Iran.In total,59 data series were collected from four gravel bed-rivers and a sand bed river and two depth integrating suspended load samplers to evaluate nine suspended load formulas and feed forward backpropagation Artificial Neural Network (ANN) structures.Although the Chang formula with higher correlation coefficient (r =0.69) and lower Root Mean Square Error (RMSE =0.013) is the best suspended load predictor among the nine studied formulas,the ANN models significantly outperform traditional suspended load formulas and show their superior performance for all statistical parameters.Among different ANN structures two models including 4 inputs,4 hidden and one output neurons,and 4 inputs,4 and one hidden and one output neurons provide the best simulation with the RMSE values of 0.0009 and 0.001,respectively.

  6. Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978: Natural Gas Rate Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-05-01

    First, the comments on May 3, 1979 Notice of Inquiry of DOE relating to the Gas Utility Rate Design Study Required by Section 306 of PURPA are presented. Then, comments on the following are included: (1) ICF Gas Utility Model, Gas Utility Model Data Outputs, Scenario Design; (2) Interim Model Development Report with Example Case Illustrations; (3) Interim Report on Simulation of Seven Rate Forms; (4) Methodology for Assessing the Impacts of Alternative Rate Designs on Industrial Energy Use; (5) Simulation of Marginal-Cost-Based Natural Gas Rates; and (6) Preliminary Discussion Draft of the Gas Rate Design Study. Among the most frequent comments expressed were the following: (a) the public should be given the opportunity to review the final report prior to its submission to Congress; (b) results based on a single computer model of only four hypothetical utility situations cannot be used for policy-making purposes for individual companies or the entire gas industry; (c) there has been an unobjective treatment of traditional and economic cost rate structures; the practical difficulties and potential detrimental consequences of economic cost rates are not fully disclosed; and (d) it is erroneous to assume that end users, particularly residential customers, are influenced by price signals in the rate structure, as opposed to the total bill.

  7. Numerical implementation of a crystal plasticity model with dislocation transport for high strain rate applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayeur, Jason R.; Mourad, Hashem M.; Luscher, Darby J.; Hunter, Abigail; Kenamond, Mark A.

    2016-05-01

    This paper details a numerical implementation of a single crystal plasticity model with dislocation transport for high strain rate applications. Our primary motivation for developing the model is to study the influence of dislocation transport and conservation on the mesoscale response of metallic crystals under extreme thermo-mechanical loading conditions (e.g. shocks). To this end we have developed a single crystal plasticity theory (Luscher et al (2015)) that incorporates finite deformation kinematics, internal stress fields caused by the presence of geometrically necessary dislocation gradients, advection equations to model dislocation density transport and conservation, and constitutive equations appropriate for shock loading (equation of state, drag-limited dislocation velocity, etc). In the following, we outline a coupled finite element-finite volume framework for implementing the model physics, and demonstrate its capabilities in simulating the response of a [1 0 0] copper single crystal during a plate impact test. Additionally, we explore the effect of varying certain model parameters (e.g. mesh density, finite volume update scheme) on the simulation results. Our results demonstrate that the model performs as intended and establishes a baseline of understanding that can be leveraged as we extend the model to incorporate additional and/or refined physics and move toward a multi-dimensional implementation.

  8. Effect of Different Stocking Densities on Survival Rates of Nile Tilapia Fingerlings Transported in Plastic Bags.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Ibrahim AM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fish farmers in Sudan obtain their seed stocks mainly not from their farms and as such rely heavily on good packing conditions covering sometimes 8–12 hours transportation time to maximize fish survival and quality the study here required main objective to identified the optimum loading for the success during transporting. closed oxygenated plastic bag which was carried three densities for each one with tow replicate for every treatment for the lower loading is 75 fingerlings /l the medium is, 100 fingerlings and last density is the larger one 140 fingerlings the duration factors was 10 hours, 11 hours and 18 hours. The fingerlings was sex reversed, their size is (5g ± 0.5. The collecting data analyze used SPSS computer software version- 16.0. Analysis result shown the factor of density in the tow treatments (75 fingerlings + 100 fingerlings was the best according to the survivor rate depending to type of the periods parameter. 10 hour=94% and 11 hours = 92% and here was N.S otherwise the comparative between those and the density 140 was high significant. Variation between loading and durations is NS at P<0.05, so the conclusions is found the optimum loading during transporting period was 100/l/18 (hundred fish per litter in 18 hours period according to analysis details.

  9. Estimation of rates of aerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation by simulation of gas transport in the unsaturated zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahvis, Matthew A.; Baehr, Arthur L.

    1996-07-01

    The distribution of oxygen and carbon dioxide gases in the unsaturated zone provides a geochemical signature of aerobic hydrocarbon degradation at petroleum product spill sites. The fluxes of these gases are proportional to the rate of aerobic biodegradation and are quantified by calibrating a mathematical transport model to the oxygen and carbon dioxide gas concentration data. Reaction stoichiometry is assumed to convert the gas fluxes to a corresponding rate of hydrocarbon degradation. The method is applied at a gasoline spill site in Galloway Township, New Jersey, to determine the rate of aerobic degradation of hydrocarbons associated with passive and bioventing remediation field experiments. At the site, microbial degradation of hydrocarbons near the water table limits the migration of hydrocarbon solutes in groundwater and prevents hydrocarbon volatilization into the unsaturated zone. In the passive remediation experiment a site-wide degradation rate estimate of 34,400 gyr-1 (11.7 gal. yr-1) of hydrocarbon was obtained by model calibration to carbon dioxide gas concentration data collected in December 1989. In the bioventing experiment, degradation rate estimates of 46.0 and 47.9 gm-2yr-1 (1.45×10-3 and 1.51×10-3 gal.ft.-2yr-1) of hydrocarbon were obtained by model calibration to oxygen and carbon dioxide gas concentration data, respectively. Method application was successful in quantifying the significance of a naturally occurring process that can effectively contribute to plume stabilization.

  10. The interplay between transport and reaction rates as controls on nitrate attenuation in permeable, streambed sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdown, K.; Heppell, C. M.; Trimmer, M.; Binley, A.; Heathwaite, A. L.; Byrne, P.; Zhang, H.

    2015-06-01

    Anthropogenic nitrogen fixation and subsequent use of this nitrogen as fertilizer have greatly disturbed the global nitrogen cycle. Rivers are recognized hot spots of nitrogen removal in the landscape as interaction between surface water and sediments creates heterogeneous redox environments conducive for nitrogen transformations. Our understanding of riverbed nitrogen dynamics to date comes mainly from shallow sediments or hyporheic exchange flow pathways with comparatively little attention paid to groundwater-fed, gaining reaches. We have used 15N techniques to quantify in situ rates of nitrate removal to 1 m depth within a groundwater-fed riverbed where subsurface hydrology ranged from strong upwelling to predominantly horizontal water fluxes. We combine these rates with detailed hydrologic measurements to investigate the interplay between biogeochemical activity and water transport in controlling nitrogen attenuation along upwelling flow pathways. Nitrate attenuation occurred via denitrification rather than dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium or anammox (range = 12 to >17,000 nmol 15N L-1 h-1). Overall, nitrate removal within the upwelling groundwater was controlled by water flux rather than reaction rate (i.e., Damköhler numbers rates of denitrification and short water residence time close to the riverbed surface balanced by slower rates of denitrification and water flux at depth. Within this permeable riverbed >80% of nitrate removal occurs within sediments not exposed to hyporheic exchange flows under base flow conditions, illustrating the importance of deep sediments as nitrate sinks in upwelling systems.

  11. Estimation of rates of aerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation by simulation of gas transport in the unsaturated zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahvis, M.A.; Baehr, A.L.

    1996-01-01

    The distribution of oxygen and carbon dioxide gases in the unsaturated zone provides a geochemical signature of aerobic hydrocarbon degradation at petroleum product spill sites. The fluxes of these gases are proportional to the rate of aerobic biodegradation and are quantified by calibrating a mathematical transport model to the oxygen and carbon dioxide gas concentration data. Reaction stoichiometry is assumed to convert the gas fluxes to a corresponding rate of hydrocarbon degradation. The method is applied at a gasoline spill site in Galloway Township, New Jersey, to determine the rate of aerobic degradation of hydrocarbons associated with passive and bioventing remediation field experiments. At the site, microbial degradation of hydrocarbons near the water table limits the migration of hydrocarbon solutes in groundwater and prevents hydrocarbon volatilization into the unsaturated zone. In the passive remediation experiment a site-wide degradation rate estimate of 34,400 g yr-1 (11.7 gal. yr-1) of hydrocarbon was obtained by model calibration to carbon dioxide gas concentration data collected in December 1989. In the bioventing experiment, degradation rate estimates of 46.0 and 47.9 g m-2 yr-1 (1.45 x 10-3 and 1.51 x 10-3 gal. ft.-2 yr-1) of hydrocarbon were obtained by model calibration to oxygen and carbon dioxide gas concentration data, respectively. Method application was successful in quantifying the significance of a naturally occurring process that can effectively contribute to plume stabilization.

  12. Amniotic fluid may act as a transporting pathway for signaling molecules and stem cells during the embryonic development of amniotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xinglong

    2013-11-01

    Amniotic fluid (AF) is formed at the very early stages of pregnancy, and is present throughout embryonic development of amniotes. It is well-known that AF provides a protective sac around the fetus that allows fetal movement and growth, and prevents mechanical and thermal shock. However, a growing body of evidence has shown that AF contains a number of proteins and peptides, including growth factors and cytokines, which potently affect cellular growth and proliferation. In addition, pluripotent stem cells have recently been identified in AF. Herein, this article reviews the biological properties of AF during embryonic development and speculates that AF may act as a transporting pathway for signaling molecules and stem cells during amniote embryonic development. Defining this novel function of AF is potentially significant for further understanding embryonic development and regenerative medicine, preventing genetic diseases, and developing therapeutic options for human malignancies.

  13. A way through the dark and thorny thickets? The adjudication of "serious injury" under the narrative tests in the Transport Accident Act 1986 (Vic) and the Workplace Injury Rehabilitation and Compensation Act 2013 (Vic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taliadoros, Jason

    2015-09-01

    The so-called "narrative" test provides the means by which injured persons who satisfy the statutory and common law definition of "serious injury" may bring proceedings for common law damages under s 93 of the Transport Accident Act 1986 (Vic) and s 134AB of the Accident Compensation Act 1985 (Vic) (or, for injuries after 1 July 2014, under ss 324-347 of the Workplace Injury Rehabilitation and Compensation Act 2013 (Vic)). These are among the most litigated provisions in Australia. This article outlines the legislative and political background to these provisions, the provisions themselves, and an account of the statutory and common law requirements needed to satisfy the provisions.

  14. Implications of sediment transport by subglacial water flow for interpreting contemporary glacial erosion rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaud, Flavien; Flowers, Gwenn E.; Venditti, Jeremy G.

    2017-04-01

    The role of glaciers in landscape evolution is central to the interactions between climate and tectonic forces at high latitudes and in mountainous regions. Sediment yields from glacierized basins are used to quantify contemporary erosion rates on seasonal to decadal timescales, often under the assumption that subglacial water flow is the main contributor to these yields. Two recent studies have furthermore used such sediment fluxes to calibrate a glacial erosion rule, where erosion rate scales with ice sliding speed raised to a power greater than one. Subglacial sediment transport by water flow has however seldom been studied, thus the controls on sediment yield from glacierized basins remain enigmatic. To bridge this gap, we develop a 1-D model of morphodynamics in semi-circular bedrock-floored subglacial channels. We adapt a sediment conservation law from the fluvial literature, developed for both mixed bedrock / alluvial and alluvial conditions, to subglacial channels. Channel evolution is a function of the traditional melt-opening due to viscous heat dissipation from the water flow, and creep closure of the overlying ice, to which we add the closure or enlargement due to sediment deposition or removal, respectively. Using a simple ice geometry representing a land-terminating glacier, we find that the shear stresses produced by the water flow on the bed decrease significantly near the terminus. As the ice thins, creep closure decreases and large hydraulic potential gradients cannot be sustained. The resulting gradients in sediment transport lead to a bottleneck, and sediment accumulates if the sediment supply is adequate. A similar bottleneck occurs if a channel is well established and water discharge drops. Whether such constriction happens in space of time, in the presence of a sufficiently large sediment supply sediment accumulates temporarily near the terminus, followed shortly thereafter by enhanced sediment transport. Reduction in the cross-sectional area

  15. 78 FR 59082 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Transportation, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... for their company and enforcement officers. Enforcement Management Information System (EMIS)--The EMIS... for FMCSA enforcement data. EMIS imports census files, investigatory files, driver/vehicle safety.../UNSATISFACTORY cases within EMIS resulting from Safety Rating letters generated by MCMIS. Analysis &...

  16. Quantifying metabolic rates in submarine hydrothermal vent chimneys: A reaction transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRowe, D.; Dale, A.; Aguilera, D.; Amend, J. P.; Regnier, P.

    2012-12-01

    The fluids emanating from active submarine hydrothermal vent chimneys provide a window into subseafloor processes and, through mixing with seawater, are responsible for steep thermal and compositional gradients that provide the energetic basis for diverse biological communities. Although several models have been developed to better understand the dynamic interplay of seawater, hydrothermal fluid, minerals and microorganisms inside chimney walls, none provide a fully integrated approach to quantifying the biogeochemistry of these hydrothermal systems. In an effort to remedy this, a fully coupled biogeochemical reaction transport model of a hydrothermal vent chimney has been developed that explicitly quantifies the rate of microbial catalysis while taking into account geochemical processes such as fluid flow, solute transport and oxidation-reduction reactions associated with fluid mixing as a function of temperature. Methanogenesis, hydrogen oxidation by oxygen and sulfate, sulfide oxidation by oxygen and methane oxidation by oxygen and sulfate are the metabolisms included in the reaction network. Model results indicate that microbial catalysis is fastest in the hottest habitable portion of the vent chimney except for methane oxidation by oxygen, which peaks near the seawater-side of the chimney at 20 nmol /cm^3 yr. The dominant metabolisms in the chimney are hydrogen oxidation by sulfate and oxygen and sulfide oxidation at peak rates 3200 , 300 and 900 nmol /cm^3 yr, respectively. The maximum rate of hydrogenotrophic methanogensis is just under 0.07 nmol /cm^3 yr, the slowest of the metabolisms considered. Due to thermodynamic inhibition, there is no anaerobic oxidation of methane by sulfate (AOM). The model developed here provides a quantitative approach to understanding the rates of biogeochemical transformations in hydrothermal systems and can be used to better understand the role of microbial activity in the deep subsurface.

  17. Recovery Act: Energy Efficiency of Data Networks through Rate Adaptation (EEDNRA) - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew Andrews; Spyridon Antonakopoulos; Steve Fortune; Andrea Francini; Lisa Zhang

    2011-07-12

    This Concept Definition Study focused on developing a scientific understanding of methods to reduce energy consumption in data networks using rate adaptation. Rate adaptation is a collection of techniques that reduce energy consumption when traffic is light, and only require full energy when traffic is at full provisioned capacity. Rate adaptation is a very promising technique for saving energy: modern data networks are typically operated at average rates well below capacity, but network equipment has not yet been designed to incorporate rate adaptation. The Study concerns packet-switching equipment, routers and switches; such equipment forms the backbone of the modern Internet. The focus of the study is on algorithms and protocols that can be implemented in software or firmware to exploit hardware power-control mechanisms. Hardware power-control mechanisms are widely used in the computer industry, and are beginning to be available for networking equipment as well. Network equipment has different performance requirements than computer equipment because of the very fast rate of packet arrival; hence novel power-control algorithms are required for networking. This study resulted in five published papers, one internal report, and two patent applications, documented below. The specific technical accomplishments are the following: • A model for the power consumption of switching equipment used in service-provider telecommunication networks as a function of operating state, and measured power-consumption values for typical current equipment. • An algorithm for use in a router that adapts packet processing rate and hence power consumption to traffic load while maintaining performance guarantees on delay and throughput. • An algorithm that performs network-wide traffic routing with the objective of minimizing energy consumption, assuming that routers have less-than-ideal rate adaptivity. • An estimate of the potential energy savings in service-provider networks

  18. Solving the Boltzmann equation to obtain electron transport coefficients and rate coefficients for fluid models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagelaar, G J M; Pitchford, L C [Centre de Physique des Plasmas et de leurs Applications de Toulouse, Universite Paul Sabatier, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France)

    2005-11-15

    Fluid models of gas discharges require the input of transport coefficients and rate coefficients that depend on the electron energy distribution function. Such coefficients are usually calculated from collision cross-section data by solving the electron Boltzmann equation (BE). In this paper we present a new user-friendly BE solver developed especially for this purpose, freely available under the name BOLSIG+, which is more general and easier to use than most other BE solvers available. The solver provides steady-state solutions of the BE for electrons in a uniform electric field, using the classical two-term expansion, and is able to account for different growth models, quasi-stationary and oscillating fields, electron-neutral collisions and electron-electron collisions. We show that for the approximations we use, the BE takes the form of a convection-diffusion continuity-equation with a non-local source term in energy space. To solve this equation we use an exponential scheme commonly used for convection-diffusion problems. The calculated electron transport coefficients and rate coefficients are defined so as to ensure maximum consistency with the fluid equations. We discuss how these coefficients are best used in fluid models and illustrate the influence of some essential parameters and approximations.

  19. Mass transport around comets and its impact on the seasonal differences in water production rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, M.; Altwegg, K.; Thomas, N. [Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Fougere, N.; Combi, M. R.; Tenishev, V. M. [Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Le Roy, L. [Center for Space and Habitability, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2014-06-20

    Comets are surrounded by a thin expanding atmosphere, and although the nucleus' gravity is small, some molecules and grains, possibly with the inclusion of ices, can get transported around the nucleus through scattering (atoms/molecules) and gravitational pull (grains). Based on the obliquity of the comet, it is also possible that volatile material and icy grains get trapped in regions, which are in shadow until the comet passes its equinox. When the Sun rises above the horizon and the surface starts to heat up, this condensed material starts to desorb and icy grains will sublimate off the surface, possibly increasing the comet's neutral gas production rate on the outbound path. In this paper we investigate the mass transport around the nucleus, and based on a simplified model, we derive the possible contribution to the asymmetry in the seasonal gas production rate that could arise from trapped material released from cold areas once they come into sunlight. We conclude that the total amount of volatiles retained by this effect can only contribute up to a few percent of the asymmetry observed in some comets.

  20. Rate of radial transport of plasma in Saturn’s inner magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Hill, T. W.

    2009-12-01

    The Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) and the Cassini Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument (MIMI) frequently observe longitudinally localized injection and drift dispersion of hot plasma in Saturn’s magnetosphere. These signatures provide direct evidence for the major convective process in the inner magnetosphere of a rapidly rotating planet, in which the radial transport of plasma comprises hot, tenuous plasma moving inward and cooler, denser plasma moving outward. These injection events have been found to occupy only a small fraction of the total available longitudinal space, indicating that the inflow speed is probably much larger than the outflow speed. We set the local corotation speed as the upper limit of inflow velocities, and deduce the corresponding radial velocities of the outflowing flux tubes by analyzing the width of injection structures and assuming that the total potential drop around a given L-shell is zero. We then estimate an upper limit to the plasma outward mass transport rate, which turns out to be somewhat larger than previous estimates of the Enceladus source rate (e.g., Pontius and Hill, 2006). An important assumption in this study is that the plasma is largely confined to a thin equatorial sheet, and we have applied a centrifugal scale height model developed by Hill and Michel [1976].

  1. Designing a Successful Transportation Project: Lessons Learned from the Clean Cities American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Kay L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Singer, Mark R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-28

    The largest source of funding for alternative fuel vehicle and infrastructure projects in the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program's history came from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (Recovery Act). In 2009, the 25 cost-share projects totaled nearly $300 million in federal government investment. This effort included the involvement of 50 Clean Cities coalitions and their nearly 700 stakeholder partners who provided an additional $500 million in matching funds to support projects in their local communities. In total, those 25 projects established 1,380 alternative fueling stations and put more than 9,000 alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles on the road. Together, these projects displaced 154 million gasoline gallon equivalents (GGE) of petroleum and averted 254,000 tons of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, while supporting U.S. energy independence and contributing to regional economic development. During post-project interviews, project leaders consistently cited a number of key components - ranging from technical and logistical factors, to administrative capabilities - for accomplishing an effective and impactful project. This report summarizes the high-level project design and administrative considerations for conducting a successful transportation project.

  2. EFFECTS OF PORE STRUCTURE CHANGE AND MULTI-SCALE HETEROGENEITY ON CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT AND REACTION RATE UPSCALING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindquist, W. Brent; Jones, Keith W.; Um, Wooyong; Rockhold, mark; Peters, Catherine A.; Celia, Michael A.

    2013-02-15

    This project addressed the scaling of geochemical reactions to core and field scales, and the interrelationship between reaction rates and flow in porous media. We targeted reactive transport problems relevant to the Hanford site - specifically the reaction of highly caustic, radioactive waste solutions with subsurface sediments, and the immobilization of 90Sr and 129I through mineral incorporation and passive flow blockage, respectively. We addressed the correlation of results for pore-scale fluid-soil interaction with field-scale fluid flow, with the specific goals of (i) predicting attenuation of radionuclide concentration; (ii) estimating changes in flow rates through changes of soil permeabilities; and (iii) estimating effective reaction rates. In supplemental work, we also simulated reactive transport systems relevant to geologic carbon sequestration. As a whole, this research generated a better understanding of reactive transport in porous media, and resulted in more accurate methods for reaction rate upscaling and improved prediction of permeability evolution. These scientific advancements will ultimately lead to better tools for management and remediation of DOE’s legacy waste problems. We established three key issues of reactive flow upscaling, and organized this project in three corresponding thrust areas. 1) Reactive flow experiments. The combination of mineral dissolution and precipitation alters pore network structure and the subsequent flow velocities, thereby creating a complex interaction between reaction and transport. To examine this phenomenon, we conducted controlled laboratory experimentation using reactive flow-through columns. Results and Key Findings: Four reactive column experiments (S1, S3, S4, S5) have been completed in which simulated tank waste leachage (STWL) was reacted with pure quartz sand, with and without Aluminum. The STWL is a caustic solution that dissolves quartz. Because Al is a necessary element in the formation of

  3. Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Fade Compensation Protocol Impact on Very Small-Aperture Terminal Bit Error Rate Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Christina B.; Coney, Thom A.

    1999-01-01

    The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) communications system operates at Ka band. ACTS uses an adaptive rain fade compensation protocol to reduce the impact of signal attenuation resulting from propagation effects. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of an analysis characterizing the improvement in VSAT performance provided by this protocol. The metric for performance is VSAT bit error rate (BER) availability. The acceptable availability defined by communication system design specifications is 99.5% for a BER of 5E-7 or better. VSAT BER availabilities with and without rain fade compensation are presented. A comparison shows the improvement in BER availability realized with rain fade compensation. Results are presented for an eight-month period and for 24 months spread over a three-year period. The two time periods represent two different configurations of the fade compensation protocol. Index Terms-Adaptive coding, attenuation, propagation, rain, satellite communication, satellites.

  4. Ergonomic analyses within the French transport and logistics sector: first steps towards a new "act elsewhere" prevention approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wioland, Liên

    2013-10-01

    Statistics from the French Employee National Health Insurance Fund indicate high accident levels in the transport sector. This study represents initial thinking on a new approach to transport sector prevention based on the assumption that a work situation could be improved by acting on another interconnected work situation. Ergonomic analysis of two connected work situations, involving the road haulage drivers and cross-docking platform employees, was performed to test this assumption. Our results show that drivers are exposed to a number of identified risks, but their multiple tasks raise the question of activity intensification. The conditions, under which the drivers will perform their work and take to the road, are partly determined by the quality and organisation of the platform with which they interact. We make a number of recommendations (e.g. changing handling equipment, re-appraising certain jobs) to improve platform organisation and employee working conditions with the aim of also improving driver conditions. These initial steps in this prevention approach appear promising, but more detailed investigation is required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Activity of the respiratory electron transport system and respiration rates within the oxygen minimum layer of the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Shailaja, M.S.

    Measurements of the activity of the respirtory electron transport system (ETS) at 15 stations in the Arabian Sea during the northeast monsoon (December 1988) yield high respiration rates that do not correlate with the trends in primary productivity...

  6. The effects of physical and geochemical heterogeneities on hydro-geochemical transport and effective reaction rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchley, Adam L; Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis K; Maxwell, Reed M

    2014-09-01

    The role of coupled physical and geochemical heterogeneities in hydro-geochemical transport is investigated by simulating three-dimensional transport in a heterogeneous system with kinetic mineral reactions. Ensembles of 100 physically heterogeneous realizations were simulated for three geochemical conditions: 1) spatially homogeneous reactive mineral surface area, 2) reactive surface area positively correlated to hydraulic heterogeneity, and 3) reactive surface area negatively correlated to hydraulic heterogeneity. Groundwater chemistry and the corresponding effective reaction rates were calculated at three transverse planes to quantify differences in plume evolution due to heterogeneity in mineral reaction rates and solute residence time (τ). The model is based on a hypothetical CO2 intrusion into groundwater from a carbon capture utilization and storage (CCUS) operation where CO2 dissolution and formation of carbonic acid created geochemical dis-equilibrium between fluids and the mineral galena that resulted in increased aqueous lead (Pb(2+)) concentrations. Calcite dissolution buffered the pH change and created conditions of galena oversaturation, which then reduced lead concentrations along the flow path. Near the leak kinetic geochemical reactions control the release of solutes into the fluid, but further along the flow path mineral solubility controls solute concentrations. Simulation results demonstrate the impact of heterogeneous distribution of geochemical reactive surface area in coordination with physical heterogeneity on the effective reaction rate (Krxn,eff) and Pb(2+) concentrations within the plume. Dissimilarities between ensemble Pb(2+) concentration and Krxn,eff are attributed to how geochemical heterogeneity affects the time (τeq) and therefore advection distance (Leq) required for the system to re-establish geochemical equilibrium. Only after geochemical equilibrium is re-established, Krxn,eff and Pb(2+) concentrations are the same for all

  7. 77 FR 70583 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market Rules; Rate Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... encouraged to leave their comments in the CMS drop slots located in the main lobby of the building. A stamp... that prohibit gender rating do not require maternity coverage in all individual market policies, meaning that, since maternity coverage requires additional premium in those states, a total of 40 states...

  8. Field Measurements of Influence of Sand Transport Rate on Structure of Wind-sand Flow over Coastal Transverse Ridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yuxiang; S L NAMIKAS; P A HESP; MA Jun

    2008-01-01

    The structure of wind-sand flow under different total sand transport rates was measured with field vertical anemometer and sand trap on the crest of typical coastal transverse ridge in Changli Gold Coast of Hebei Province,which is one of the most typical coastal aeolian distribution regions in China and famous for the tall and typical coastal transverse ridges.The measurement results show that,on the conditions of approximate wind velocities and same surface materials and environments,some changes happen to the structure of wind-sand flow with the increase of total sand transport rate on the crest of coastal transverse ridge.First,the sand transport rates of layers at different heights in the wind-sand flow increase,with the maximum increase at the height layer of 4-8cm.Second,the ratios of sand transport rates of layers at different heights to total sand transport rate decrease at the low height layer (0-4cm),but increase at the high height layer (4-60cm).Third,the distribution of the sand transport rate in the wind-sand flow can be expressed by an exponential function at the height layer of 0-40cm,but it changes fi'om power function model to exponential function model in the whole height layer (0-60cm) and changes into polynomial function model at the height layer of 40-60cm with the increase of total sand transport rate.Those changes have a close relationship with the limit of sand grain size of wind flow transporting and composition of sand grain size in the wind-sand flow.

  9. Nanoparticle transport in water-unsaturated porous media: effects of solution ionic strength and flow rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prédélus, Dieuseul; Lassabatere, Laurent; Louis, Cédric; Gehan, Hélène; Brichart, Thomas; Winiarski, Thierry; Angulo-Jaramillo, Rafael

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents the influence of ionic strength and flow on nanoparticle (NP) retention rate in an unsaturated calcareous medium, originating from a heterogeneous glaciofluvial deposit of the region of Lyon (France). Laboratory columns 10 cm in diameter and 30 cm in length were used. Silica nanoparticles (Au-SiO2-FluoNPs), with hydrodynamic diameter ranging from 50 to 60 nm and labeled with fluorescein derivatives, were used to simulate particle transport, and bromide was used to characterize flow. Three flow rates and five different ionic strengths were tested. The transfer model based on fractionation of water into mobile and immobile fractions was coupled with the attachment/detachment model to fit NPs breakthrough curves. The results show that increasing flow velocity induces a decrease in nanoparticle retention, probably as the result of several physical but also geochemical factors. The results show that NPs retention increases with ionic strength. However, an inversion of retention occurs for ionic strength >5.10-2 M, which has been scarcely observed in previous studies. The measure of zeta potential and DLVO calculations show that NPs may sorb on both solid-water and air-water interfaces. NPs size distribution shows the potential for nanoparticle agglomeration mostly at low pH, leading to entrapment in the soil pores. These mechanisms are highly sensitive to both hydrodynamic and geochemical conditions, which explains their high sensitivity to flow rates and ionic strength.

  10. ASSESSMENT OF OVERBANK SEDIMENTATION RATES AND ASSOCIATED POLLUTANT TRANSPORT WITHIN THE SEVERNYA DVINA RIVER BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Belyaev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is now widely recognized that significant proportion of pollutants in rivers is transported with suspended sediments. This paper presents a combination of reconstruction of recent floodplain sedimentation rates based on detailed description of sediment sections and 137Cs stratigraphy with geochemical analysis of overbank deposits at selected sites on rivers of the Severnaya Dvina River basin. Overbank sedimentation rates for sections sampled on floodplains of the Severnaya Dvina and Vychegda Rivers are characterized by noticeable decrease from ≈1.5–4.0 cm/year between 1954 and 1963 to <1.0 cm/year at present. It can be explained by the natural evolution of the floodplain segments sampled. In contrast, highest modern floodplain aggradation rates (≈1.8 cm/year observed for the relatively small Toshnya River are definitely associated with human impact—locally intensive agriculture. Evaluation of geochemical properties of overbank sediments has shown that general levels of the sediment contamination by heavy metals are low.

  11. Peritoneal macrophage infiltration is correlated with baseline peritoneal solute transport rate in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawai, Akiho; Ito, Yasuhiko; Mizuno, Masashi; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Toda, Susumu; Ito, Isao; Hattori, Ryohei; Matsukawa, Yoshihisa; Gotoh, Momokazu; Takei, Yoshifumi; Yuzawa, Yukio; Matsuo, Seiichi

    2011-07-01

    High baseline peritoneal solute transport rate is reportedly associated with reduced patient and technique survival in continuous peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. However, the determinants of baseline peritoneal solute transport rate remain uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between peritoneal local inflammation, angiogenesis and systemic inflammation and baseline peritoneal permeability. Peritoneal biopsy specimens from 42 pre-dialysis uraemic patients and 11 control individuals were investigated. Immunohistochemistry for CD68-positive macrophages, chymase- and tryptase-positive mast cells, interleukin-6 (IL-6)-positive cells, CD3-positive T cells, CD20-positive B cells, neutrophils and CD31- and pathologische anatomie Leiden-endothelium (PAL-E)-positive blood vessels in the peritoneum was performed. Baseline dialysate-to-plasma ratio for creatinine (D/P Cr) was determined within 6 months of PD induction. Clinical and laboratory parameters were measured at the time of peritoneal biopsy. Factors associated with peritoneal permeability were assessed by multiple linear regression analysis. Pre-dialysis uraemic peritoneum showed infiltration by CD68-positive macrophages, and mast cells, as compared with controls. Baseline D/P Cr was correlated with density of CD68-positive macrophages (P permeability was not correlated with infiltration by mast cells, B cells, T cells, neutrophils, serum C-reactive protein or other clinical factors. On multiple linear regression analysis, the number of CD68-positive macrophages in peritoneum was an independent predictor for baseline peritoneal permeability (P = 0.009). Peritoneal macrophage infiltration is predominant in uraemic patients and is an important factor in predicting baseline peritoneal permeability.

  12. Predicting fractional bed load transport rates: Application of the Wilcock-Crowe equations to a regulated gravel bed river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaeuman, D.; Andrews, E.D.; Kraus, A.; Smith, W.

    2009-01-01

    Bed load samples from four locations in the Trinity River of northern California are analyzed to evaluate the performance of the Wilcock-Crowe bed load transport equations for predicting fractional bed load transport rates. Bed surface particles become smaller and the fraction of sand on the bed increases with distance downstream from Lewiston Dam. The dimensionless reference shear stress for the mean bed particle size (t*rm) is largest near the dam, but varies relatively little between the more downstream locations. The relation between t*rm and the reference shear stresses for other size fractions is constant across all locations. Total bed load transport rates predicted with the Wilcock-Crowe equations are within a factor of 2 of sampled transport rates for 68% of all samples. The Wilcock-Crowe equations nonetheless consistently under-predict the transport of particles larger than 128 mm, frequently by more than an order of magnitude. Accurate prediction of the transport rates of the largest particles is important for models in which the evolution of the surface grain size distribution determines subsequent bed load transport rates. Values of term estimated from bed load samples are up to 50% larger than those predicted with the Wilcock-Crowe equations, and sampled bed load transport approximates equal mobility across a wider range of grain sizes than is implied by the equations. Modifications to theWilcock-Crowe equation for determining t*rm and the hiding function used to scale term to other grain size fractions are proposed to achieve the best fit to observed bed load transport in the Trinity River. Copyright 2009 by the American eophysical Union.

  13. Pacemaker rate and depolarization block in nigral dopamine neurons: a somatic sodium channel balancing act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Kristal R.; Huertas, Marco A.; Horn, John P.; Canavier, Carmen C.; Levitan, Edwin S.

    2012-01-01

    Midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons are slow intrinsic pacemakers that undergo depolarization (DP) block upon moderate stimulation. Understanding DP block is important because it has been correlated with the clinical efficacy of chronic antipsychotic drug treatment. Here we describe how voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels regulate DP block and pacemaker activity in DA neurons of the substantia nigra using rat brain slices. The distribution, density and gating of NaV currents were manipulated by blocking native channels with tetrodotoxin and by creating virtual channels and anti-channels with dynamic clamp. Although action potentials initiate in the axon initial segment (AIS) and NaV channels are distributed in multiple dendrites, selective reduction of NaV channel activity in the soma was sufficient to decrease pacemaker frequency and increase susceptibility to DP block. Conversely, increasing somatic NaV current density raised pacemaker frequency and lowered susceptibility to DP block. Finally, when NaV currents were restricted to the soma, pacemaker activity occurred at abnormally high rates due to excessive local subthreshold NaV current. Together with computational simulations, these data show that both the slow pacemaker rate and the sensitivity to DP block that characterizes DA neurons result from the low density of somatic NaV channels. More generally, we conclude that the somatodendritic distribution of NaV channels is a major determinant of repetitive spiking frequency. PMID:23077037

  14. Bedload transport rates in a gravel bedded-river derived from high-resolution monitoring using seismic impact plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Peter; Soar, Philip

    2015-04-01

    Accurate characterisation of bedload transport rates is critical for a better understanding of geomorphological process dynamics, aquatic habitats, sediment budgets and strategies for catchment-scale initiatives in sediment management under conditions of climate change. However, rate estimation is challenging in practice: direct measurements are costly and logistically difficult to achieve with acceptable accuracy over geomorphologically-relevant time periods, and the uncertainty in transport rates predicted from empirical formulae and numerical simulation is rarely below 50 per cent. Partly reflecting these issues, passive technologies for continuous bedload monitoring are becoming increasingly popular. Sensors such as seismic impact plates offer the opportunity to characterise bedload activity at exceptionally high resolution - monitoring from the River Avon, (Devon, UK) indicated that despite significant intra-event and between-plate differences in apparent bedload transport aggregated over 5-minute periods, the magnitude-frequency product of discharge and impact frequency result in a highly plausible effective discharge, supporting the potential value of impact plates as indicators of relative sediment transport loads over annual timescales. Whereas the focus in bedload rate estimation to date has been on developing satisfactory sediment rating curves from detection signals, we instead develop a method for directly estimating bedload transport rates from impact plate data as a function of intensity of transport (count, n, per second), bed material mass (kg) and cross-stream transport variability. Bulk sediment samples are converted to a mass in transit for each instantaneous discharge according to the intensity of transport and a Monte Carlo simulation of the load in transit determined at random from the bed material particle size distribution. The lower detection threshold is determined using experimental calibration and the upper size limit is determined from

  15. Evaluation of the H+/site ratio of mitochondrial electron transport from rate measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynafarje, B; Brand, M D; Lehninger, A L

    1976-12-10

    The mitochondrial H+/site ratio (i.e. the number of protons ejected per pair of electrons traversing each of the energy-conserving sites of the respiratory chain) has been evaluated employing a new experimental approach. In this method the rates of oxygen uptake and H+ ejection were measured simultaneously during the initial period of respiration evoked by addition of succinate to aerobic, rotenone-inhibited, de-energized mitochondria. Either K+, in the presence of valinomycin, or Ca2+, was used as mobile cation to dissipate the membrane potential and allow quantitative H+ ejection into the medium. The H+/site ratio observed with this method in the absence of precautions to inhibit the uptake of phosphate was close to 2.0, in agreement with values obtained using the oxygen pulse technique (Mitchell, P. and Moyle, J. (1967) Biochem. J. 105, 1147-1162). However, when phosphate movements were eliminated either by inhibition of the phosphate-hydroxide antiporter with N-ethylamaleimide or by depleting the mitochondria of their endogenous phosphate content, H+/site ratios close to 4.0 were consistently observed. This ratio was independent of the concentration of succinate, of mitochondrial protein, of pH between 6 and 8, and of ionic composition of the medium, provided that sufficient K+ (plus valinomycin) or Ca2+ were present. Specific inhibitors of the hydrolysis of endogenous ATP or transport of other ions (adenine nucleotides, tricarboxylates, HCO3-, etc.) were shown not to affect the observed H+/site ratio. Furthermore, the replacement of succinate by alpha-glycerol phosphate, a substrate which is oxidized on the outer surface of the inner membrane and thus does not need to enter the matrix, gave the same H+/site ratios as did succinate. It is concluded that the H+/site ratio of mitochondrial electron transport, when phosphate movements are eliminated, may be close to 4.0.

  16. Rating mass concentration of airborne dust in the road transport depending on the type of pollution transport routes.

    OpenAIRE

    PÁVEK, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    In the thesis the values of air pollution re-suspended solid pollutants on the diameter of 10 micrometres (PM10) during the movement of vehicles of different categories of polluted roads routes. Measurements were carried out on three lines of transport operation of various vehicle categories as diverse weight and the type of pollution road. Measured values and analysis results show that the resulting air pollution in the vicinity of the road affects several factors. The main factors include t...

  17. Segregation and H2 transport rate control in body-centered cubic PdCu membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lixiang; Goldbach, Andreas; Xu, Hengyong

    2007-09-20

    The H2 permeation of a supported 2 microm thick Pd48Cu52 membrane was investigated between 373 and 909 K at DeltaP=0.1 MPa. The initial H2 flux was 0.3 mol.m(-2).s(-1) at 723 K with an ideal H2/N2 selectivity better than 5000. The membrane underwent a bcc-fcc (body-centered cubic to face-centered cubic) phase transition between 723 and 873 K resulting in compositional segregation. After reannealing at 723 K the alloy layer reverted to a bcc structure although a small fcc fraction remained behind. The mixed-phase morphology was analyzed combining X-ray diffraction with scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive spectroscopic analysis (SEM-EDS) measurements, which revealed micrometer-scale Cu-enriched bcc and Cu-depleted fcc domains. The H2 flux JH2 of the fcc Pd48Cu52 single phase layer prevailing above 873 K could be described by an Arrhenius law with JH2=(7.6+/-4.9) mol.m(-2).s(-1) exp[(-32.9+/-4.5) kJ.mol(-1)/(RT)]. The characterization of the H2 flux in the mixed-phase region required two Arrhenius laws, i.e., JH2=(1.35+/-0.14) mol.m(-2).s(-1) exp[(-10.3+/-0.5) kJ.mol(-1)/(RT)] between 523 and ca. 700 K and JH2=(56.1+/-9.3) mol.m(-2).s(-1) exp[(-25.3+/-0.6) kJ.mol(-1)/(RT)] below 454 K. The H2 flux exhibited a square root pressure dependence above 523 K, but the pressure exponent gradually increased to 0.77 upon cooling to 373 K. The activation energy and pressure dependence in the intermediate temperature range are consistent with a diffusion-limited H2 transport, while the changes of these characteristics at lower temperatures indicate a desorption-limited H2 flux. The prevalence of desorption as the permeation rate-limiting step below 454 K is attributed to the pairing of an extraordinarily high hydrogen diffusivity with a marginal hydrogen solubility in bcc PdCu alloys. These result in an acceleration of the bulk diffusion rate and a deceleration of the desorption rate, respectively, allowing the bulk diffusion rate to surpass the desorption rate up to

  18. Drainage, sediment transport, and denudation rates on the Nanga Parbat Himalaya, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwell, Kevin; Norsby, Doug; Marston, Richard

    2003-09-01

    The Nanga Parbat Himalaya presents some of the greatest relief on Earth, yet sediment production and denudation rates have only been sporadically addressed. We utilized field measurements and computer models to estimate bank full discharge, sediment transport, and denudation rates for the Raikot and Buldar drainage basins (north slope of Nanga Parbat) and the upper reach of the Rupal drainage basin (south slope). The overall tasks of determining stream flow conditions in such a dynamic geomorphic setting is challenging. No gage data exist for these drainage basins, and the overall character of the drainage basins (high relief, steep flow gradients, and turbulent flow conditions) does not lend itself to either ready access or complete profiling. Cross-sectional profiles were surveyed through selected reaches of these drainage basins. These data were then incorporated into software (WinXSPRO) that aids in the characterization (stage, discharge, velocity, and shear stress) of high altitude, steep mountain stream conditions. Complete field measurements of channel depths were rarely possible (except at several bridges where the middle of the channel could actually be straddled and probed) and, when coupled with velocity measurements, provided discrete points of field-measured discharge calculations. These points were then used to calibrate WinXSPRO results for the same reach and provided a confidence level for computer-generated results. Flow calculations suggest that under near bank full conditions, the upper Raikot drainage basin produces discharges of ˜61 cm and moves about 11,000 tons day -1 (9980 tons day -1) of sediment through its channel. Bank full conditions on the upper portion of the Rupal drainage basin generate discharges of ˜84 cm and moves only about 3800 tons day -1 (3450 tons day -1) of sediment. Although the upper Rupal drainage basin moves more water, the lower slope of the drainage basin (0.03) generates a much smaller shear stress (461 Pa) than

  19. The Dependence of Atmospheric Circulation and Heat Transport on the Planetary Rotation Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, S.; Richardson, M. I.; Wilson, R. J.

    2002-12-01

    Simplified models of planetary climate require a parameterization for the equator-to-pole transport of heat and its dependence on factors, including the planetary rotation rate. Various such parameterizations exist, including ones based on the theory of baroclinic eddy mixing, and on principles of global entropy generation. However, such parameterizations are difficult to test given the limited available observational opportunities. In this study, we use a numerical model to examine heat flux dependencies, as part of a wider study of circulation regime sensitivity to rotation rates and other parameters. This study makes use of a simplified version of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) "Skyhi" General Circulation Model (GCM). All terrestrial hydrological processes have been stripped from the model, which in the form used here, is adapted from the Martian version of Skyhi. The atmosphere has the gas properties of CO2, except that it has been made uncondensible. No aerosols or surface ices are allowed. The model surface is flat, and of uniform albedo and thermal inertia. For the simulations presented in this study, the diurnal, seasonal, and eccentricity cycles have been disabled ({ i.e.} the surface and atmosphere receives constant, daily- and seasonally-averaged incident solar radiation). Radiative heating is treated with a band model for CO2 gas in the thermal and near-infrared bands. The use of a complex model to examine simplified theory of heat transport requires some justification since it is not necessarily clear that these models (GCM's) provide an accurate emulation of the real atmosphere (of any given planet). In this study, we have intentionally removed those aspects of GCM's that are of greatest concern. Especially for terrestrial GCM's, the hydrologic cycle is a major source of uncertainty due to radiative feedbacks, and cloud coupling to small-scale, convective mixing. For other planets, aerosols are important as radiatively and dynamical

  20. The Role of Angular Momentum Transport in Establishing the Accretion Rate--Protostellar Mass Correlation

    CERN Document Server

    DeSouza, Alexander L

    2016-01-01

    We model the mass accretion rate $\\dot{M}$ to stellar mass $M_*$ correlation that has been inferred from observations of intermediate to upper mass T Tauri stars---that is $\\dot{M} \\propto M_*^{1.3 \\pm 0.3}$. We explain this correlation within the framework of quiescent disk evolution, in which accretion is driven largely by gravitational torques acting in the bulk of the mass and volume of the disk. Stresses within the disk arise from the action of gravitationally driven torques parameterized in our 1D model in terms of Toomre's $Q$ criterion. We do not model the hot inner sub-AU scale region of the disk that is likely stable according to this criterion, and appeal to other mechanisms to remove or redistribute angular momentum and allow accretion onto the star. Our model has the advantage of agreeing with large-scale angle-averaged values from more complex nonaxisymmetric calculations. The model disk transitions from an early phase (dominated by initial conditions inherited from the burst mode of accretion) ...

  1. The role of angular momentum transport in establishing the accretion rate-protostellar mass correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSouza, Alexander L.; Basu, Shantanu

    2017-02-01

    We model the mass accretion rate M˙ to stellar mass M* correlation that has been inferred from observations of intermediate to upper mass T Tauri stars-that is M˙ ∝ M*1.3±0.3. We explain this correlation within the framework of quiescent disk evolution, in which accretion is driven largely by gravitational torques acting in the bulk of the mass and volume of the disk. Stresses within the disk arise from the action of gravitationally driven torques parameterized in our 1D model in terms of Toomre's Q criterion. We do not model the hot inner sub-AU scale region of the disk that is likely stable according to this criterion, and appeal to other mechanisms to remove or redistribute angular momentum and allow accretion onto the star. Our model has the advantage of agreeing with large-scale angle-averaged values from more complex nonaxisymmetric calculations. The model disk transitions from an early phase (dominated by initial conditions inherited from the burst mode of accretion) into a later self-similar mode characterized by a steeper temporal decline in M˙. The models effectively reproduce the spread in mass accretion rates that have been observed for protostellar objects of 0.2 M⊙ ≤ M* ≤ 3.0 M⊙, such as those found in the ρ Ophiuchus and Taurus star forming regions. We then compare realistically sampled populations of young stellar objects produced by our model to their observational counterparts. We find these populations to be statistically coincident, which we argue is evidence for the role of gravitational torques in the late time evolution of quiescent protostellar disks.

  2. Act No. 88-1091 modifying Act No. 66-420 of 18 June 1966 on chartering and maritime transport contracts, 1 December 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This Law provides that international transportation carriers may refuse the boarding or landing of a passenger who does not present a document authorizing landing at the point of arrival and at anticipated ports in France. full text

  3. Utilization of electromigration in civil and environmental engineering--processes, transport rates and matrix changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M; Christensen, Iben V; Rorig-Dalgård, Inge; Jensen, Pernille E; Hansen, Henrik K

    2008-07-01

    Electromigration (movement of ions in an applied electric field) is utilized for supply or extraction of ions from various porous materials within both civil and environmental engineering. In civil engineering, most research has been conducted on the removal of chlorides from concrete to hinder reinforcement corrosion while in environmental engineering remediation of heavy metal polluted soil is the issue most studied. Never the less, experiments have been conducted with utilization for several other materials and purposes within both engineering fields. Even though there are many topics of common interest in the use of electromigration for the two fields, there is no tradition for collaboration. The present paper is a review with the aim of pointing out areas of shared interest. Focus is laid on the purposes of the different processes, transport rates of various ions in different materials and on changes in the matrix itself. Desorption and dissolution of the target elements into ionic form is a key issue to most of the processes, and can be the limiting step. The removal rate is generally below 1 cm day(- 1), but it can be much less than 1 mm day(- 1) when desorption is slow and insufficient. Matrix changes occurs under the action of the applied electric field and it includes both physico-chemical and hydrological changes. Some of the solid phases is weathered and new can be formed. Increased fundamental understanding of the effects and side effects, when applying the electric field to a porous material, can lead to improvement of the known technologies and possibly to new applications.

  4. Transport and transfer rates in the waters of the Continental Shelf. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biscaye, P.E.

    1978-07-01

    The present contract year has been one of transition from an emphasis on field work and sample gathering to the predominance of sample and data analysis and the formulation of testable hypotheses concerning specific processes in the New York Bight. We have begun to understand the seasonal transition in the role of phytoplankton vs. grazing zooplankton in forming the particles on which some reactive pollutants are removed. Using natural radioactive tracers we have estimated the removal rates of reactive metals from the surface waters and these range over an order of magnitude from most rapid nearshore to least rapid over the upper continental slope. Once removed nearshore, however, these tracers, and the pollutants for which they proxy, do not remain permanently in the sediments but appear to be remobilized (probably by oxidation) during the winter and are reintroduced into the water column. Work on transport and mixing processes of pollutants which are or behave like those in solution has continued along several fronts. Hydrographic data on the structure of the water column continues to give a description of the system that is crucial to understanding geochemical and biological processes which affect pollutants. Hydrographic characterization of water masses from the data sets of cruises has resulted in hypotheses concerning the renewal of shelf water by direct exchange between shelf and upper slope water.

  5. Dropping rates of elaiosome-bearing seeds during transport by ants ( Formica polyctena Foerst.): Implications for distance dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorb, Stanislav N.; Gorb, Elena V.

    1999-09-01

    In a deciduous forest, foraging ants collect elaiosome-bearing seeds and carry them to their nests. Some of the seeds reach the nest and are concentrated there. Others may be dropped by ants during transport. The dropped seeds enter the soil seed pool. However, they might be repeatedly removed by other ant individuals and carried again in the direction of the nest. Rates of seed dropping and repeated removals must be known to evaluate the effect of ant workers on dispersal distance of seeds. The rate of seed dropping is predicted to depend on size of seeds and of elaiosomes, both of which vary among plant species, and on the size of the ant workers. Mark-recapture experiments were used to evaluate dropping rates of seeds of five myrmecochorous and diplochorous plants ( Chelidonium majus L., Asarum europaeum L., Viola matutina Klok., V. mirabilis L., V. hirta L.) during their transport by the ant Formica polyctena Foerst. In the series of species A. europaeum - V. hirta - V. mirabilis - Ch. majus - V. matutina, the dropping rate increased. Small workers dropped seeds of A. europaeum more often than did large ones, while seeds of V. hirta were dropped by ants of different size classes with the same frequency. Across species, dropping rates of seeds were negatively correlated with the rate at which ants removed them from the depot. The number of seeds which reach the nests is the other important parameter of seed dispersal. This parameter depends on dropping rates: seeds with lower dropping rates have higher chances of being deposited in nests. Diplochores usually produce many small seeds, which are characterised by low removal rates and high dropping rates during transport by ants. Obligate myrmecochores produce rather few large seeds, which have high removal rates and low dropping rates. To analyse the significance of seed dropping in the dispersal distance of seeds, a computer simulation based on two factors [(i) seed number produced by a plant; (ii) dropping rate

  6. On the Perplexingly Low Rate of Transport of IgG2 across the Human Placenta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einarsdottir, Helga K.; Stapleton, Nigel M.; Scherjon, Sicco; Andersen, Jan Terje; Rispens, Theo; van der Schoot, C. Ellen; Vidarsson, Gestur

    2014-01-01

    The neonatal receptor, FcRn, mediates both serum half-life extension as well as active transport of maternal IgG to the fetus during pregnancy. Therefore, transport efficiency and half-life go hand-in-hand. However, while the half-life of the human IgG2 subclass is comparable to IgG1, the placental

  7. Bed-Load Transport Rate Based on the Entrainment Probabilities of Sediment Grains by Rolling and Lifting

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jun-De; Lin, Binliang

    2016-01-01

    A function for the bed-load sediment transport rate is derived. This is achieved from the first principle by using the entrainment probabilities of the sediment grains by rolling and lifting, and by introducing two travel lengths, respectively, for the first time. The predictions from the new bed-load function agree well with the experimental results over the entire experimental range and show significant improvement over the commonly used formula for bed-load transport rate. The new function shows that, in terms of contributing to the bed-load transport rate, the total entrainment probability of the sediment grains is a weighted summation of those by the lifted and rolling grains, rather than a simple addition of the two. The function has also been used to predict the total entrainment probability, saltation length and the bed layer thickness at high bed-load transport rate. These predictions all agree well with the experimental results. It is found that, on average, the travel length for the rolling sand gr...

  8. Determination of uncertainties in the calculation of dose rates at transport and storage casks; Unsicherheiten bei der Berechnung von Dosisleistungen an Transport- und Lagerbehaeltern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schloemer, Luc Laurent Alexander

    2014-12-17

    The compliance with the dose rate limits for transport and storage casks (TLB) for spent nuclear fuel from pressurised water reactors can be proved by calculation. This includes the determination of the radioactive sources and the shielding-capability of the cask. In this thesis the entire computational chain, which extends from the determination of the source terms to the final Monte-Carlo-transport-calculation is analysed and the arising uncertainties are quantified not only by benchmarks but also by variational calculi. The background of these analyses is that the comparison with measured dose rates at different TLBs shows an overestimation by the values calculated. Regarding the studies performed, the overestimation can be mainly explained by the detector characteristics for the measurement of the neutron dose rate and additionally in case of the gamma dose rates by the energy group structure, which the calculation is based on. It turns out that the consideration of the uncertainties occurring along the computational chain can lead to even greater overestimation. Concerning the dose rate calculation at cask loadings with spent uranium fuel assemblies an uncertainty of (({sup +21}{sub -28}) ±2) % (rel.) for the total gamma dose rate and of ({sup +28±23}{sub -55±4}) % (rel.) for the total neutron dose rate are estimated. For mixed-loadings with spent uranium and MOX fuel assemblies an uncertainty of ({sup +24±3}{sub -27±2}) % (rel.) for the total gamma dose rate and of ({sup +28±23}{sub -55±4}) % (rel.) for the total neutron dose rate are quantified. The results show that the computational chain has not to be modified, because the calculations performed lead to conservative dose rate predictions, even if high uncertainties at neutron dose rate measurements arise. Thus at first the uncertainties of the neutron dose rate measurement have to be decreased to enable a reduction of the overestimation of the calculated dose rate afterwards. In the present thesis

  9. Secondhand smoke in public places: Can Bangalore metropolitan transport corporation be a role model for effective implementation of cigarette and other tobacco products Act, 2003?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N S Nayak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The Indian government enacted ′The cigarettes and other tobacco products act, 2003′ (COTPA, which prohibits smoking in public places. Aim : To validate the efficacy of the Act of 2003, enacted by the Government of India, to prevent secondhand smoking in public places. Settings and Design : The study is based on a non-random sample survey of 2,600 bus passengers carried out in the premises of three mega public road transport organizations in Karnataka state, India, in June 2007. Methods and Material : The information was gathered through administration of structured schedules. A sample of 1,000 each for the terminus of Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation (BMTC and Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC in Bangalore and, 600 for North West Karnataka Road Transport Corporation (NWKRTC in Hubli-Dharwad city was distributed proportionately according to the number of platforms in each terminus. Statistical Analysis Used : Simple Averages. Results : There is some reduction in smoking in general as perceived by 69% of the passengers as compared to the scenario a year before the enactment of COTPA. The observed smoking is lower in the bus premises of BMTC where there is strict regulation, and higher in the bus premises of NWKRTC, which has not taken any regulatory measures. Conclusions : Knowing smoking is banned in public places can itself create awareness depending on the coverage extended by media and implementing an agency to reach the public. The implementation of an act depends on the willingness of stakeholders to act upon it. The implementation of COTPA as done by BMTC could well become a role model for replication elsewhere, if BMTC can strive harder to accomplish a 100% smoke-free zone.

  10. Secondhand smoke in public places: can Bangalore metropolitan transport corporation be a role model for effective implementation of Cigarette and Other Tobacco Products Act, 2003?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, N S; Annigeri, V B; Revankar, D R; Kenchaigol, S

    2010-07-01

    The Indian government enacted 'The cigarettes and other tobacco products act, 2003' (COTPA), which prohibits smoking in public places. To validate the efficacy of the Act of 2003, enacted by the Government of India, to prevent secondhand smoking in public places. The study is based on a non-random sample survey of 2,600 bus passengers carried out in the premises of three mega public road transport organizations in Karnataka state, India, in June 2007. The information was gathered through administration of structured schedules. A sample of 1,000 each for the terminus of Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation (BMTC) and Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC) in Bangalore and, 600 for North West Karnataka Road Transport Corporation (NWKRTC) in Hubli-Dharwad city was distributed proportionately according to the number of platforms in each terminus. Simple Averages. There is some reduction in smoking in general as perceived by 69% of the passengers as compared to the scenario a year before the enactment of COTPA. The observed smoking is lower in the bus premises of BMTC where there is strict regulation, and higher in the bus premises of NWKRTC, which has not taken any regulatory measures. Knowing smoking is banned in public places can itself create awareness depending on the coverage extended by media and implementing an agency to reach the public. The implementation of an act depends on the willingness of stakeholders to act upon it. The implementation of COTPA as done by BMTC could well become a role model for replication elsewhere, if BMTC can strive harder to accomplish a 100% smoke-free zone.

  11. The molecular mechanism for overcoming the rate-limiting step in monoamine neurotransmitter transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinning, Steffen; Said, Saida; Malinauskaite, Lina

    as an endogenous substrate mimic in the empty transporter in order for it to overcome the transition from the inward-facing to the outward-facing conformation. We also show that the local conformational changes associated with the rotation of this conserved leucine explains how cation sites are perturbed...... and are targets for drugs of abuse such as cocaine, amphetamine and ecstasy as well as anxiolytics and antidepressants. The transporters undergo a series of concerted conformational changes in order to harness the driving force of co-transported cations to translocate the neurotransmitter across the neuronal...

  12. Quantifying the coevolution of bedload transport rates and bed topography in mountain rivers: a field experiment in Reynolds Creek, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olinde, L.; Johnson, J.; Pierson, F. B.

    2010-12-01

    Bedload transport rates in upland rivers remain difficult to predict, even to within an order of magnitude. We are conducting a field experiment by modifying the morphology of a mountain river channel and monitoring its response to better understand the evolution of bed topography and, ultimately, to improve bedload transport rate predictions. The field site is upper Reynolds Creek, a perennial gravel-cobble stream in the northern Owyhee Mountains, Idaho, within the USDA-ARS Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed. Discharge is dominated by predictable snowmelt runoff and rain-on-snow events , and is well constrained by a 40-year record of discharge and suspended sediment transport rates collected at a gauging station immediately downstream of our study reach. The Reynolds Creek experiment consists of perturbing a 100m reach by straightening, steepening, and smoothing the channel using construction equipment. Quantifying bedload transport rates and changes in bed topography and reach morphology over several years following the perturbation will provide temporal constraints on system dynamics and feedbacks between transport and bed topography. To date, we have collected field data to document reach conditions prior to the channel manipulation, including ground based LiDAR, detailed 10cm bed topography surveys, and grain size distribution analyzes. We have also installed a series of time-lapse cameras throughout this reach to relate stage-discharge conditions to channel width and channel response to precipitation. We will quantify bed roughness changes throughout the experiment over varied length scales with ground-based high resolution LiDAR and detailed survey data. Deployed Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tagged particles and receiving antennas established along several cross sections will record changes in bedload transport rates. We hypothesize that subsequent runoff events will rework the smoothed bed topography into a rougher topography due to the

  13. Chemical weathering rates in deep-sea sediments: Comparison of multicomponent reactive transport models and estimates based on 234U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, K.; Steefel, C. I.; Depaolo, D. J.

    2004-12-01

    Chemical weathering rates in natural systems are typically much slower than expected based on experiments and theory. There are several possible explanations. However, because it has been difficult to determine what effects in particular reduce the rates in specific settings, natural rates remain difficult to predict. Silicate-rich deep-sea sediments provide an ideal in-situ laboratory for investigating weathering rates because certain potentially important factors, such as advective transport through heterogeneous media, limitations on the availability of reactive surface area due to low porosity and/or cementation, unsaturated flow conditions, and seasonal variations in fluid flux and temperature, do not occur in this setting. Geochemical profiles from Site 984 in the North Atlantic are modeled using a multi-component reactive transport model (CRUNCH) to determine in-situ rates of plagioclase dissolution and other diagenetic processes, including sulfate reduction and anaerobic methane oxidation. Various possible processes which might contribute to slower rates in the field are considered, including the effect of mineral saturation state, secondary precipitation of clays, inhibition by dissolved aluminum, and the availability of reactive surface area. The reactive transport model includes an isotopic solid-solution formulation that tracks the isotopic composition of precipitating (calcite) and dissolving (plagioclase and calcite) phases, thus allowing the determination of plagioclase dissolution rates. The rate constants for plagioclase determined by geochemical transport modeling of major element profiles are within the same range determined from U-series calculations and suggest that natural weathering rates for this system are on the order of 10-17.5 to 10-17.7 mol/m2/sec assuming estimates of reactive surface area are correct, several orders of magnitude slower than laboratory-derived rates. The slow plagioclase rates are most likely due to the fact that

  14. Quantification of Na+,K+ pumps and their transport rate in skeletal muscle: functional significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Torben

    2013-10-01

    During excitation, muscle cells gain Na(+) and lose K(+), leading to a rise in extracellular K(+) ([K(+)]o), depolarization, and loss of excitability. Recent studies support the idea that these events are important causes of muscle fatigue and that full use of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (also known as the Na(+),K(+) pump) is often essential for adequate clearance of extracellular K(+). As a result of their electrogenic action, Na(+),K(+) pumps also help reverse depolarization arising during excitation, hyperkalemia, and anoxia, or from cell damage resulting from exercise, rhabdomyolysis, or muscle diseases. The ability to evaluate Na(+),K(+)-pump function and the capacity of the Na(+),K(+) pumps to fill these needs require quantification of the total content of Na(+),K(+) pumps in skeletal muscle. Inhibition of Na(+),K(+)-pump activity, or a decrease in their content, reduces muscle contractility. Conversely, stimulation of the Na(+),K(+)-pump transport rate or increasing the content of Na(+),K(+) pumps enhances muscle excitability and contractility. Measurements of [(3)H]ouabain binding to skeletal muscle in vivo or in vitro have enabled the reproducible quantification of the total content of Na(+),K(+) pumps in molar units in various animal species, and in both healthy people and individuals with various diseases. In contrast, measurements of 3-O-methylfluorescein phosphatase activity associated with the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase may show inconsistent results. Measurements of Na(+) and K(+) fluxes in intact isolated muscles show that, after Na(+) loading or intense excitation, all the Na(+),K(+) pumps are functional, allowing calculation of the maximum Na(+),K(+)-pumping capacity, expressed in molar units/g muscle/min. The activity and content of Na(+),K(+) pumps are regulated by exercise, inactivity, K(+) deficiency, fasting, age, and several hormones and pharmaceuticals. Studies on the α-subunit isoforms of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase have detected a relative increase in their

  15. EFFECTS OF PORE STRUCTURE CHANGE AND MULTI-SCALE HETEROGENEITY ON CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT AND REACTION RATE UPSCALING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Catherine A [Princeton University

    2013-05-15

    This project addressed the scaling of geochemical reactions to core and field scales, and the interrelationship between reaction rates and flow in porous media. We targeted reactive transport problems relevant to the Hanford site specifically the reaction of highly caustic, radioactive waste solutions with subsurface sediments, and the immobilization of 90Sr and 129I through mineral incorporation and passive flow blockage, respectively. We addressed the correlation of results for pore-scale fluid-soil interaction with field-scale fluid flow, with the specific goals of (i) predicting attenuation of radionuclide concentration; (ii) estimating changes in flow rates through changes of soil permeabilities; and (iii) estimating effective reaction rates. In supplemental work, we also simulated reactive transport systems relevant to geologic carbon sequestration. As a whole, this research generated a better understanding of reactive transport in porous media, and resulted in more accurate methods for reaction rate upscaling and improved prediction of permeability evolution. These scientific advancements will ultimately lead to better tools for management and remediation of DOE legacy waste problems.

  16. Copper oxide and zinc oxide nanomaterials act as inhibitors of multidrug resistance transport in sea urchin embryos: their role as chemosensitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bing; Torres-Duarte, Cristina; Cole, Bryan J; Cherr, Gary N

    2015-05-05

    The ability of engineered nanomaterials (NMs) to act as inhibitors of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) efflux transporters in embryos of white sea urchin (Lytechinus pictus) was studied. Nanocopper oxide (nano-CuO), nanozinc oxide (nano-ZnO), and their corresponding metal ions (CuSO4 and ZnSO4) were used as target chemicals. The results showed that nano-CuO, nano-ZnO, CuSO4, and ZnSO4, even at relatively low concentrations (0.5 ppm), significantly increased calcein-AM (CAM, an indicator of ABC transporter activity) accumulation in sea urchin embryos at different stages of development. Exposure to nano-CuO, a very low solubility NM, at increasing times after fertilization (>30 min) decreased CAM accumulation, but nano-ZnO (much more soluble NM) did not, indicating that metal ions could cross the hardened fertilization envelope, but not undissolved metal oxide NMs. Moreover, nontoxic levels (0.5 ppm) of nano-CuO and nano-ZnO significantly increased developmental toxicity of vinblastine (an established ABC transporter substrate) and functioned as chemosensitizers. The multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP, one of ABC transporters) inhibitor MK571 significantly increased copper concentrations in embryos, indicating ABC transporters are important in maintaining low intracellular copper levels. We show that low concentrations of nano-CuO and nano-ZnO can make embryos more susceptible to other contaminants, representing a potent amplification of nanomaterial-related developmental toxicity.

  17. UNC-16 (JIP3) Acts Through Synapse-Assembly Proteins to Inhibit the Active Transport of Cell Soma Organelles to Caenorhabditis elegans Motor Neuron Axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Stacey L; Morrison, Logan M; Yorks, Rosalina M; Hoover, Christopher M; Boominathan, Soorajnath; Miller, Kenneth G

    2015-09-01

    The conserved protein UNC-16 (JIP3) inhibits the active transport of some cell soma organelles, such as lysosomes, early endosomes, and Golgi, to the synaptic region of axons. However, little is known about UNC-16's organelle transport regulatory function, which is distinct from its Kinesin-1 adaptor function. We used an unc-16 suppressor screen in Caenorhabditis elegans to discover that UNC-16 acts through CDK-5 (Cdk5) and two conserved synapse assembly proteins: SAD-1 (SAD-A Kinase), and SYD-2 (Liprin-α). Genetic analysis of all combinations of double and triple mutants in unc-16(+) and unc-16(-) backgrounds showed that the three proteins (CDK-5, SAD-1, and SYD-2) are all part of the same organelle transport regulatory system, which we named the CSS system based on its founder proteins. Further genetic analysis revealed roles for SYD-1 (another synapse assembly protein) and STRADα (a SAD-1-interacting protein) in the CSS system. In an unc-16(-) background, loss of the CSS system improved the sluggish locomotion of unc-16 mutants, inhibited axonal lysosome accumulation, and led to the dynein-dependent accumulation of lysosomes in dendrites. Time-lapse imaging of lysosomes in CSS system mutants in unc-16(+) and unc-16(-) backgrounds revealed active transport defects consistent with the steady-state distributions of lysosomes. UNC-16 also uses the CSS system to regulate the distribution of early endosomes in neurons and, to a lesser extent, Golgi. The data reveal a new and unprecedented role for synapse assembly proteins, acting as part of the newly defined CSS system, in mediating UNC-16's organelle transport regulatory function.

  18. The time-associated impact of the Newborn Influenza Protection Act on infant influenza rates in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shetal; Messina, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    Influenza presents with increased morbidity and mortality in children ≤5 months of age. Vaccination of caregivers is indicated, but immunization rates are estimated at only 30%. The 2009 New York State Neonatal Influenza Protection Act (NIPA) mandated offering of influenza vaccine to caregivers during the post-partum hospitalization. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of NIPA on infant influenza rates. Data on laboratory-confirmed influenza cases between 2006 and 2012 were extracted from the New York State Electronic Clinical Laboratory Reporting System (ECLRS). Data on infant cases were categorized by age (0-5 months) and location [New York City (NYC), outside NYC] based on reporting laboratory site. The total number of influenza cases and the percentage of total cases in the infant age group were normalized to the number of reporting laboratory sites. The χ2-test was used to compare the proportions of cases pre- and post-implementation. Year-to-year trends were assessed by linear regression. All tests of significance were two-sided and evaluated at the P<0.05 level. During the 6-year study period, 3154 cases of infant influenza were detected. In bivariate analysis, 1707 (54.1%) of cases occurred prior to NIPA implementation and 1447 (45.9%) of cases occurred after (P<0.001). Of the 1422 total infant cases detected in NYC, the percentages of influenza cases pre- and post-NIPA were 54.6% (777) and 45.4% (645), respectively (P<0.006). Outside NYC, the percentage of infant cases was reduced from 53.7% (930/1732) to 46.3% (802/1732, P<0.02). Prior to implementation, there was a year-to-year increase in the number of infant influenza cases statewide (P<0.04 for trend). The ratio of infant influenza cases normalized per ECLRS site in NYC increased each year after NIPA passage (P<0.01 for trend). The ratio of infant cases outside NYC decreased annually (P<0.05 for trend). No year-to-year trends were seen in the percentage of total influenza cases in

  19. Modulating the rate of charge transport in a metal-organic framework thin film using host:guest chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hod, Idan; Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T

    2016-01-28

    Herein we demonstrate the use of host-guest chemistry to modulate rates of charge transport in metal-organic framework (MOF) films. The kinetics of site-to-site of charge hopping and, in turn, the overall redox conductivity, of a ferrocene-modified MOF can be altered by up to 30-fold by coupling electron exchange to the oxidation-state-dependent formation of inclusion complexes between cyclodextrin and channel-tethered metallocenes.

  20. Effect of repulsive interactions on the rate of doublet formation of colloidal nanoparticles in the presence of convective transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattuada, Marco; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2011-03-01

    In this work, we have performed a systematic investigation of the effect of electrostatic repulsive interactions on the aggregation rate of colloidal nanoparticles to from doublets in the presence of a convective transport mechanism. The aggregation rate has been computed by solving numerically the Fuchs-Smoluchowski diffusion-convection equation. Two convective transport mechanisms have been considered: extensional flow field and gravity-induced relative sedimentation. A broad range of conditions commonly encountered in the applications of colloidal dispersions has been analyzed. The relative importance of convective to diffusive contributions has been quantified by using the Peclet number Pe. The simulation results indicate that, in the presence of repulsive interactions, the evolution of the aggregation rate as a function of Pe can always be divided into three distinct regimes, no matter which convective mechanism is considered. At low Pe values the rate of aggregation is independent of convection and is dominated by repulsive interactions. At high Pe values, the rate of aggregation is dominated by convection, and independent of repulsive interactions. At intermediate Pe values, a sharp transition between these two regimes occurs. During this transition, which occurs usually over a 10-100-fold increase in Pe values, the aggregation rate can change by several orders of magnitude. The interval of Pe values where this transition occurs depends upon the nature of the convective transport mechanism, as well as on the height and characteristic lengthscale of the repulsive barrier. A simplified model has been proposed that is capable of quantitatively accounting for the simulations results. The obtained results reveal unexpected features of the effect of ionic strength and particle size on the stability of colloidal suspensions under shear or sedimentation, which have relevant consequences in industrial applications.

  1. Characterizing rates and mechanisms of soil transport using tephra as a tracer: Charwell River, South Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roering, J. J.; Almond, P.; Tonkin, P.; McKean, J.

    2001-12-01

    Downslope transport of soil in the absence of overland flow has been attributed to numerous mechanisms, including particle-by-particle rheologic creep and disturbances associated with biological activity. Process stochasticity and difficulties associated with field measurement have obscured the characterization of long-term soil transport rates and mechanisms. Most modeling studies represent soil transport as a slope and/or soil depth-dependent process, although field evidence is sparse. At our study site along incised fluvial terraces of the Charwell River, South Island, New Zealand, we documented vertical profiles of tephra concentration along a hillslope transect to quantify soil transport. Near the relatively undissected hilltop, we observed a 10 cm thick primary tephra layer (ca 22.6 kyr) within loess deposits approximately 80 cm below the landscape surface. In the downslope direction, the depth to the highly concentrated tephra layer decreases, coincident with an increase in hillslope convexity (which is proportional to erosion rate if soil flux varies linearly with hillslope gradient). Exhumation of the spike in tephra concentration results from landscape lowering due to soil transport processes as evidence for overland flow erosion is lacking. Approximately 20 m downslope of the hilltop, where the depth to the tephra spike declines to 40-50 cm, peak concentrations decrease by a factor of 4 and tephra is distributed uniformly within the upper 40 cm of soil. Further downslope near the valley margin, we observed low and relatively uniform tephra concentrations in the upper soil. The transition from a thin, highly concentrated tephra layer at depth to sparse, widely distributed tephra within the upper soil column may result from soil mixing and transport by tree and plant root activity. The depth of this transition is approximately 50 cm along our transect, coincident with the rooting depth of Podocarpus trees that populated the area through much of the

  2. Genetic variation in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR, rs25531 influences the analgesic response to the short acting opioid Remifentanil in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schalling Martin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence from animal studies that serotonin (5-HT can influence the antinociceptive effects of opioids at the spinal cord level. Therefore, there could be an influence of genetic polymorphisms in the serotonin system on individual variability in response to opioid treatment of pain. The serotonin transporter (5-HTT is a key regulator of serotonin metabolism and availability and its gene harbors several known polymorphisms that are known to affect 5-HTT expression (e.g. 5-HTTLPR, rs25531. The aim of this study was to investigate if the triallelic 5-HTTLPR influences pain sensitivity or the analgesic effect of opioids in humans. 43 healthy volunteers (12 men, 31 women, mean age 26 years underwent heat pain stimulations before and after intravenous injection of Remifentanil; a rapid and potent opioid drug acting on μ-type receptors. Subjects rated their perceived pain on a visual analogue scale (VAS. All participants were genotyped for the 5-HTTLPR and the rs25531 polymorphism. We recruited by advertising, with no history of drug abuse, chronic pain or psychiatric disorders. Results At baseline, there was no difference in pain ratings for the different triallelic 5-HTTLPR genotype groups. However, the opiod drug had a differential analgesic effect depending on the triallelic 5-HTTLPR genotype. Remifentanil had a significantly better analgesic effect in individuals with a genotype coding for low 5-HTT expression (SA/SA and SA/LG as compared to those with high expression(LA/LA, p Conclusion This is the first report showing an influence of the triallelic 5-HTTLPR on pain sensitivity or the analgesic effect of opioids in humans. Previously the 5-HTTLPR s-allele has been associated with higher risk of developing chronic pain conditions but in this study we show that the genotype coding for low 5-HTT expression is associated with a better analgesic effect of an opioid. The s-allele has been associated with downregulation of

  3. The Impact of Thermal Conductivity and Diffusion Rates on Water Vapor Transport through Gas Diffusion Layers

    CERN Document Server

    Burlatsky, S F; Gummallaa, M; Condita, D; Liua, F

    2013-01-01

    Water management in a hydrogen polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell is critical for performance. The impact of thermal conductivity and water vapor diffusion coefficients in a gas diffusion layer (GDL) has been studied by a mathematical model. The fraction of product water that is removed in the vapour phase through the GDL as a function of GDL properties and operating conditions has been calculated and discussed. Furthermore, the current model enables identification of conditions when condensation occurs in each GDL component and calculation of temperature gradient across the interface between different layers, providing insight into the overall mechanism of water transport in a given cell design. Water transport mode and condensation conditions in the GDL components depend on the combination of water vapor diffusion coefficients and thermal conductivities of the GDL components. Different types of GDL and water removal scenarios have been identified and related to experimentally-determined GDL proper...

  4. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics transport and rate processes in physical, chemical and biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Demirel, Yasar

    2014-01-01

    Natural phenomena consist of simultaneously occurring transport processes and chemical reactions. These processes may interact with each other and may lead to self-organized structures, fluctuations, instabilities, and evolutionary systems. Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics, 3rd edition emphasizes the unifying role of thermodynamics in analyzing the natural phenomena. This third edition updates and expands on the first and second editions by focusing on the general balance equations for coupled processes of physical, chemical, and biological systems. The new edition contains a new chapte

  5. Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Seaway Regional Transportation Study; Analysis of Freight Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    84 156-160 45 331-335 85.5 161-165 A6 335-34n 17 166:171 47 341-345 8 171.175 t 4,8 346-35’) 89" 176- 10 49 351-355 ".5 K. R. Tolonen Director of Transportation May 6, 1980 14~e~cL Qp o S~AJEN4~E F- 21 DAT FILMI

  6. Transport and transfer rates in the waters of the continental shelf. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biscaye, P.E.

    1980-09-01

    The goal of govern project is to understand and quantify the processes that the transport and dispersal of energy-related pollutants introduced to the waters of the continental shelf and slope. The report is divided into sections dealing with processes associated with suspended solids; processes associated with sediments sinks for radionuclides and other pollutants; and spreading of water characteristics and species in solution. (ACR)

  7. Comparison between Measured and Calculated Sediment Transport Rates in North Fork Caspar Creek, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T. W.; Yarnell, S. M.; Yager, E.; Leidman, S. Z.

    2015-12-01

    Caspar Creek is a gravel-bedded stream located in the Jackson Demonstration State Forest in the coast range of California. The Caspar Creek Experimental Watershed has been actively monitored and studied by the Pacific Southwest Research Station and California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection for over five decades. Although total annual sediment yield has been monitored through time, sediment transport during individual storm events is less certain. At a study site on North Fork Caspar Creek, cross-section averaged sediment flux was collected throughout two storm events in December 2014 and February 2015 to determine if two commonly used sediment transport equations—Meyer-Peter-Müller and Wilcock—approximated observed bedload transport. Cross-section averaged bedload samples were collected approximately every hour during each storm event using a Helley-Smith bedload sampler. Five-minute composite samples were collected at five equally spaced locations along a cross-section and then sieved to half-phi sizes to determine the grain size distribution. The measured sediment flux values varied widely throughout the storm hydrographs and were consistently less than two orders of magnitude in value in comparison to the calculated values. Armored bed conditions, changing hydraulic conditions during each storm and variable sediment supply may have contributed to the observed differences.

  8. Transportation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  9. Energy transport corridors: the potential role of Federal lands in states identified by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, section 368(b).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummel, J.; Hlohowskyj, I.; Kuiper, J.; Kolpa, R.; Moore, R.; May, J.; VanKuiken, J.C.; Kavicky, J.A.; McLamore, M.R.; Shamsuddin, S. (Decision and Information Sciences); ( EVS)

    2011-09-01

    On August 8, 2005, the President signed the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct) into law. In Subtitle F of EPAct, Congress set forth various provisions that would change the way certain federal agencies (Agencies) coordinate to authorize the use of land for a variety of energy-related purposes. As part of Subtitle F of EPAct, Section 368 addresses the issue of energy transportation corridors on federal land for oil, gas, and hydrogen pipelines, as well as electricity transmission and distribution facilities. Because of the critical importance of improving the nation's electrical transmission grid, Congress recognized that electricity transmission issues should receive added attention when the Agencies address corridor location and analysis issues. In Section 368, Congress specifically directed the Agencies to consider the need for upgraded and new facilities to deliver electricity: In carrying out [Section 368], the Secretaries shall take into account the need for upgraded and new electricity transmission and distribution facilities to (1) improve reliability; (2) relieve congestion; and (3) enhance capability of the national grid to deliver electricity. Section 368 does not require the Agencies to consider or approve specific projects, applications for rights-of-way (ROWs), or other permits within designated energy corridors. Importantly, Section 368 does not direct, license, or otherwise permit any on-the-ground activity of any sort. If an applicant is interested in obtaining an authorization to develop a project within any corridor designated under Section 368, the applicant would have to apply for a ROW authorization and applicable permits. The Agencies would consider each application by applying appropriate project-specific reviews under requirements of laws and related regulations, including, but not limited to, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act (ESA), and Section

  10. Persistent changes in the initial rate of pyruvate transport by isolated rat liver mitochondria after preincubation with adenine nucleotides and calcium ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaartjes, W.J.; Breejen, J.N. den; Geelen, M.J.H.; Bergh, S.G. van den

    1980-01-01

    1. Preincubation of isolated rat-liver mitochondria in the presence of adenine nucleotides or Ca2+ results in definite and persistent changes in the initial rate of pyruvate transport. 2. These changes in the rate of pyruvate transport are accompanied by equally persistent changes in the opposite d

  11. Polyhemoglobin-superoxide dismutase-catalase-carbonic anhydrase: a novel biotechnology-based blood substitute that transports both oxygen and carbon dioxide and also acts as an antioxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Yuzhu; Rong, Zhixia; Chang, Thomas Ming Swi

    2011-06-01

    Polyhemoglobin-superoxide dismutase-catalase-carbonic anhydrase (PolyHb-SOD-CAT-CA) is a therapeutic antioxidant that also transports both oxygen and carbon dioxide. This is formed by crosslinking Hb with SOD, CAT, and CA using glutaraldehyde. Crosslinking stroma free Hb from red blood cell (rbc) reduces CA activity to 55%. Addition of more CA resulted in a preparation with the same CA activity as RBC. PolyHb in the complex acts as a buffer to prevent large pH changes as carbon dioxide is converted to carbonic acid. We then prepare and optimize a novel PolyHb-SOD-CAT-CA, a therapeutic antioxidant that also transports both oxygen and carbon dioxide.

  12. The mineral dissolution rate conundrum: Insights from reactive transport modeling of U isotopes and pore fluid chemistry in marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Kate; Steefel, Carl I.; DePaolo, Donald J.; Viani, Brian E.

    2006-01-01

    Pore water chemistry and 234U/ 238U activity ratios from fine-grained sediment cored by the Ocean Drilling Project at Site 984 in the North Atlantic were used as constraints in modeling in situ rates of plagioclase dissolution with the multicomponent reactive transport code Crunch. The reactive transport model includes a solid-solution formulation to enable the use of the 234U/ 238U activity ratios in the solid and fluid as a tracer of mineral dissolution. The isotopic profiles are combined with profiles of the major element chemistry (especially alkalinity and calcium) to determine whether the apparent discrepancy between laboratory and field dissolution rates still exists when a mechanistic reactive transport model is used to interpret rates in a natural system. A suite of reactions, including sulfate reduction and methane production, anaerobic methane oxidation, CaCO 3 precipitation, dissolution of plagioclase, and precipitation of secondary clay minerals, along with diffusive transport and fluid and solid burial, control the pore fluid chemistry in Site 984 sediments. The surface area of plagioclase in intimate contact with the pore fluid is estimated to be 6.9 m 2/g based on both grain geometry and on the depletion of 234U/ 238U in the sediment via α-recoil loss. Various rate laws for plagioclase dissolution are considered in the modeling, including those based on (1) a linear transition state theory (TST) model, (2) a nonlinear dependence on the undersaturation of the pore water with respect to plagioclase, and (3) the effect of inhibition by dissolved aluminum. The major element and isotopic methods predict similar dissolution rate constants if additional lowering of the pore water 234U/ 238U activity ratio is attributed to isotopic exchange via recrystallization of marine calcite, which makes up about 10-20% of the Site 984 sediment. The calculated dissolution rate for plagioclase corresponds to a rate constant that is about 10 2 to 10 5 times smaller than

  13. Melt transport rates in heterogeneous mantle beneath mid-ocean ridges

    CERN Document Server

    Weatherley, Samuel M

    2015-01-01

    Recent insights to melt migration beneath ridges suggest that channelized flow is a consequence of melting of a heterogeneous mantle, and that spreading rate modulates the dynamics of the localized flow. A corollary of this finding is that both mantle het- erogeneity and spreading rate have implications for the speed and time scale of melt migration. Here, we investigate these implications using numerical models of magma flow in heterogeneous mantle beneath spreading plates. The models predict that a broad distribution of magma flow speeds is characteristic of the sub-ridge mantle. Within the melting region, magmatic flow is fastest in regions of average fusibility; surprisingly, magmas from sources of above-average fusibility travel to the ridge in a longer time. Spreading rate has comparatively simple consequences, mainly resulting in faster segregation speeds at higher spreading rates. The computed time scales are short enough to preserve deep origin 230Th disequilibria and, under favourable parameter regi...

  14. Truck Rates For Selected North, South, And Northeastern Brazilian Soybean Export Transportation Routes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture — Compares monthly truck rates from north Mato Grosso and East Tocantins to the ports Itaituba, Porto Velho, Santarém, São Luís, Santos, and Paranaguá. This is figure...

  15. Importance of anisotropy in detachment rates for force production and cargo transport by a team of motor proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takshak, Anjneya; Kunwar, Ambarish

    2016-05-01

    Many cellular processes are driven by collective forces generated by a team consisting of multiple molecular motor proteins. One aspect that has received less attention is the detachment rate of molecular motors under mechanical force/load. While detachment rate of kinesin motors measured under backward force increases rapidly for forces beyond stall-force; this scenario is just reversed for non-yeast dynein motors where detachment rate from microtubule decreases, exhibiting a catch-bond type behavior. It has been shown recently that yeast dynein responds anisotropically to applied load, i.e. detachment rates are different under forward and backward pulling. Here, we use computational modeling to show that these anisotropic detachment rates might help yeast dynein motors to improve their collective force generation in the absence of catch-bond behavior. We further show that the travel distance of cargos would be longer if detachment rates are anisotropic. Our results suggest that anisotropic detachment rates could be an alternative strategy for motors to improve the transport properties and force production by the team.

  16. Overexpression of the RieskeFeS Protein Increases Electron Transport Rates and Biomass Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkin, Andrew J; McAusland, Lorna; Lawson, Tracy; Raines, Christine A

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants overexpressing the Rieske FeS protein (PetC), a component of the cytochrome b6f (cyt b6f) complex. Increasing the levels of this protein resulted in concomitant increases in the levels of cyt f (PetA) and cyt b6 (PetB), core proteins of the cyt b6f complex. Interestingly, an increase in the levels of proteins in both the photosystem I (PSI) and PSII complexes also was seen in the Rieske FeS overexpression plants. Although the mechanisms leading to these changes remain to be identified, the transgenic plants presented here provide novel tools to explore this. Importantly, overexpression of the Rieske FeS protein resulted in substantial and significant impacts on the quantum efficiency of PSI and PSII, electron transport, biomass, and seed yield in Arabidopsis plants. These results demonstrate the potential for manipulating electron transport processes to increase crop productivity. © 2017 The author(s). All Rights Reserved.

  17. Leaf photosynthetic rate of tropical ferns is evolutionarily linked to water transport capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shi-Bao; Sun, Mei; Cao, Kun-Fang; Hu, Hong; Zhang, Jiao-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Ferns usually have relatively lower photosynthetic potential than angiosperms. However, it is unclear whether low photosynthetic potential of ferns is linked to leaf water supply. We hypothesized that there is an evolutionary association of leaf water transport capacity with photosynthesis and stomatal density in ferns. In the present study, a series of functional traits relating to leaf anatomy, hydraulics and physiology were assessed in 19 terrestrial and 11 epiphytic ferns in a common garden, and analyzed by a comparative phylogenetics method. Compared with epiphytic ferns, terrestrial ferns had higher vein density (Dvein), stomatal density (SD), stomatal conductance (gs), and photosynthetic capacity (Amax), but lower values for lower epidermal thickness (LET) and leaf thickness (LT). Across species, all traits varied significantly, but only stomatal length (SL) showed strong phylogenetic conservatism. Amax was positively correlated with Dvein and gs with and without phylogenetic corrections. SD correlated positively with Amax, Dvein and gs, with the correlation between SD and Dvein being significant after phylogenetic correction. Leaf water content showed significant correlations with LET, LT, and mesophyll thickness. Our results provide evidence that Amax of the studied ferns is linked to leaf water transport capacity, and there was an evolutionary association between water supply and demand in ferns. These findings add new insights into the evolutionary correlations among traits involving carbon and water economy in ferns.

  18. Carrier-Phonon Scattering Rate and Charge Transport in Spherical and TMV Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjeev K. Gupta; Jha, Prafulla K.

    2009-01-01

    The present paper presents the carrier-acoustic phonon scattering in the spherical and TMV viruses. We demonstrate theoretically that the absorption rate changes in spherical and TMV viruses according to the phonon energy while emission of phonon is limited by the hole energy. The obtained relaxation rate is then used to calculate the conductivity and mobility of viruses. The obtained conductivity for spherical and TMV viruses suggest that the TMV virus is more conducting and therefore may be...

  19. Stratospheric mean ages and transport rates from observations of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boering, K.A.; Wofsy, S.C.; Daube, B.C.; Schneider, H.R. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Div. of Engineering and Applied Sciences; Loewenstein, M.; Podolske, J.R. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States); Conway, T.J. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Measurements of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O concentrations are reported and analyzed to investigate stratospheric transport rates. Temporal variations in tropospheric CO{sub 2} are observed to propagate into the stratosphere, showing that tropospheric air enters the lower tropical stratosphere continuously, ascends, and is transported rapidly (in less than 1 month) to both hemispheres. The mean age of stratospheric air determined from CO{sub 2} data is approximately 5 years in the mid-stratosphere. It is shown that the mean age is mathematically equivalent to a conserved tracer analogous to exhaust from stratospheric aircraft. Comparison of the mean age from models and observations indicates that current model simulations likely underestimate pollutant concentrations from proposed stratospheric aircraft by 25-100%. (author) 36 refs.

  20. The fluidity of the nuclear envelope lipid does not affect the rate of nucleocytoplasmic RNA transport in mammalian liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agutter, P S; Suckling, K E

    1982-03-29

    The effects of in vitro and in vivo modifications of nuclear envelope lipid on DNa leakage and on ATP-stimulated RNA release from isolated rat liver nuclei were investigated. The modifications included corn-oil feeding of the animals to alter the fatty acid composition of the lipids, phospholipase treatment of the isolated nuclei, and extraction of the total lipid with Triton X-100. Significant changes in lipid composition and approximate order parameter values of the spin-label 5-doxylstearate resulted, but there was no significant effect on RNA transport rate. It was concluded that the nuclear envelope lipid does not play any important part in nucleocytoplasmic RNA transport in mammalian liver.

  1. Interplay of Natural Organic Matter with Flow Rate and Particle Size on Colloid Transport: Experimentation, Visualization, and Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinyao; Zhang, Yimeng; Chen, Fangmin; Yang, Yuesuo

    2015-11-17

    The investigation on factors that affect the impact of natural organic matter (NOM) on colloid transport in complex hydraulic flow systems remains incomplete. Using our previously established approach, the interplay of flow rate and particle size on the NOM effect was quantified, using flow rates of 1 and 2 mL/min and particle sizes of 50 and 200 nm to represent small nanoparticles (1-100 nm) and large non-nano-microspheres (100-1000 nm) in the low-flow groundwater environment. Latex particles, Suwannee River humic acid (SRHA), and iron oxide-coated sand were used as model particles, NOM, and the aquifer medium, respectively. The quantitative results show NOM blocked more sites for large particles at a high flow rate: 1 μg of SRHA blocked 5.95 × 10(9) microsphere deposition sites at 2 mL/min but only 7.38 × 10(8) nanoparticle deposition sites at 1 mL/min. The particle size effect dominated over the flow rate, and the overall effect of the two is antagonistic. Granule-scale visualization of the particle packing on the NOM-presented sand surface corroborates the quantification results, revealing a more dispersed status of large particles at a high flow rate. We interpret this phenomenon as a polydispersivity effect resulting from the differential size of the particles and NOM: high flow and a high particle size enlarge the ratio of particle-blocked to NOM-blocked areas and thus the NOM blockage. To our knowledge, this is the first model-assisted quantification on the interplay of NOM, flow rate, and particle size on colloid transport. These findings are significant for nanorisk assessment and nanoremediation practices.

  2. 78 FR 55274 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/Transportation Security Administration-DHS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... security threat assessment of law enforcement, immigration, and intelligence databases, including a... agency to perform a security threat assessment. The security threat assessment will be used to identify... ] security threat assessment to identify individuals who present a low risk to transportation security....

  3. The relationship between drainage density, erosion rate, and hilltop curvature: Implications for sediment transport processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clubb, Fiona J.; Mudd, Simon M.; Attal, Mikaël.; Milodowski, David T.; Grieve, Stuart W. D.

    2016-10-01

    Drainage density is a fundamental landscape metric describing the extent of the fluvial network. We compare the relationship between drainage density (Dd) and erosion rate (E) using the Channel-Hillslope Integrated Landscape Development (CHILD) numerical model. We find that varying the channel slope exponent (n) in detachment-limited fluvial incision models controls the relationship between Dd and E, with n > 1 resulting in increasing Dd with E if all other parameters are held constant. This result is consistent when modeling both linear and nonlinear hillslope sediment flux. We also test the relationship between Dd and E in five soil-mantled landscapes throughout the USA: Feather River, CA; San Gabriel Mountains, CA; Boulder Creek, CO; Guadalupe Mountains, NM; and Bitterroot National Forest, ID. For two of these field sites we compare Dd to cosmogenic radionuclide (CRN)-derived erosion rates, and for each site we use mean hilltop curvature as a proxy for erosion rate where CRN-derived erosion rates are not available. We find that there is a significant positive relationship between Dd, E, and hilltop curvature across every site, with the exception of the San Gabriel Mountains, CA. This relationship is consistent with an n exponent greater than 1, suggesting that at higher erosion rates, the transition between advective and diffusive processes occurs at smaller contributing areas in soil-mantled landscapes.

  4. Modification of atomic physics rates due to nonlocal electron parallel heat transport in divertor plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allais, F. [INRS-Energie, Materiaux et Telecommunications, 1650 boul. Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Quebec, J3X 1S2 (Canada); Matte, J.P. [INRS-Energie, Materiaux et Telecommunications, 1650 boul. Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Quebec, J3X 1S2 (Canada)]. E-mail: matte@inrs-emt.uquebec.ca; Alouani-Bibi, F. [INRS-Energie, Materiaux et Telecommunications, 1650 boul. Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Quebec, J3X 1S2 (Canada); Kim, C.G. [INRS-Energie, Materiaux et Telecommunications, 1650 boul. Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Quebec, J3X 1S2 (Canada); Stotler, D.P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Rognlien, T.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2005-03-01

    The effect of steep temperature gradients on the rate of ionization of atomic hydrogen is studied numerically with the electron kinetic code 'FPI' [Phys. Rev. Lett. 72 (1994) 1208]. A set of cross sections ['Atomic and Plasma-Material Interaction data for fusion'. Supplement to the journal Nucl. Fusion 4 (1993)] has been used which gives the same rates of radiation, ionization and recombination as in the well known edge modeling codes 'UEDGE' and 'DEGAS' for Maxwellian electron energy distribution functions. For this purpose, 30 energy levels are included in the computation, as stepwise ionization is dominant. The enhancement of the ionization rate by non-Maxwellian effects in the colder part of the plasma is significant.

  5. Strange metal from Gutzwiller correlations in infinite dimensions: Transverse transport, optical response, and rise of two relaxation rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wenxin; Žitko, Rok; Shastry, B. Sriram

    2017-09-01

    Using two approaches to strongly correlated systems, the extremely correlated Fermi liquid theory and the dynamical mean field theory, we compute the transverse transport coefficients, namely, the Hall constants RH and Hall angles θH, and the longitudinal and transverse optical response of the U =∞ Hubbard model in the limit of infinite dimensions. We focus on two successive low-temperature regimes, the Gutzwiller-correlated Fermi liquid (GCFL) and the Gutzwiller-correlated strange metal (GCSM). We find that the Hall angle cotθH is proportional to T2 in the GCFL regime, while upon warming into the GCSM regime it first passes through a downward bend and then continues as T2. Equivalently, RH is weakly temperature dependent in the GCFL regime, but becomes strongly temperature dependent in the GCSM regime. Drude peaks are found for both the longitudinal optical conductivity σx x(ω ) and the optical Hall angles tanθH(ω ) below certain characteristic energy scales. By comparing the relaxation rates extracted from fitting to the Drude formula, we find that in the GCFL regime there is a single relaxation rate controlling both longitudinal and transverse transport, while in the GCSM regime two different relaxation rates emerge. We trace the origin of this behavior to the dynamical particle-hole asymmetry of the Dyson self-energy, arguably a generic feature of doped Mott insulators.

  6. Simulations of water transport through carbon nanotubes: how different water models influence the conduction rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L; Patey, G N

    2014-11-14

    The conduction rate of water through (8,8) and (9,9) carbon nanotubes at 300 K and a pressure difference of 220 MPa is investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. The TIP3P, SPC/E, and TIP4P/2005 water models are considered. The pressure-driven flow rate is found to be strongly model dependent for both nanotubes. The fastest model (TIP3P) has a flow rate that is approximately five times faster than the slowest (TIP4P/2005). It is shown that the flow rate is significantly influenced by the structure taken on by the water molecules confined in the nanotube channels. The slower models, TIP4P/2005 and SPC/E, tend to favor stacked ring arrangements, with the molecules of a ring moving together through the nanotube, in what we term a "cluster-by-cluster" conduction mode. Confined TIP3P water has a much weaker tendency to form ring structures, and those that do form are fragile and break apart under flow conditions. This creates a much faster "diffusive" conduction mode where the water molecules mainly move through the tube as individual particles, rather than as components of a larger cluster. Our results demonstrate that water models developed to describe the properties of bulk water can behave very differently in confined situations.

  7. SAUR39, a small auxin-up RNA gene, acts as a negative regulator of auxin synthesis and transport in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Surya; Bi, Yong-Mei; Zhu, Tong; Rothstein, Steven J

    2009-10-01

    The phytohormone auxin plays a critical role for plant growth by regulating the expression of a set of genes. One large auxin-responsive gene family of this type is the small auxin-up RNA (SAUR) genes, although their function is largely unknown. The expression of the rice (Oryza sativa) SAUR39 gene showed rapid induction by transient change in different environmental factors, including auxin, nitrogen, salinity, cytokinin, and anoxia. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing the SAUR39 gene resulted in lower shoot and root growth, altered shoot morphology, smaller vascular tissue, and lower yield compared with wild-type plants. The SAUR39 gene was expressed at higher levels in older leaves, unlike auxin biosynthesis, which occurs largely in the meristematic region. The transgenic plants had a lower auxin level and a reduced polar auxin transport as well as the down-regulation of some putative auxin biosynthesis and transporter genes. Biochemical analysis also revealed that transgenic plants had lower chlorophyll content, higher levels of anthocyanin, abscisic acid, sugar, and starch, and faster leaf senescence compared with wild-type plants at the vegetative stage. Most of these phenomena have been shown to be negatively correlated with auxin level and transport. Transcript profiling revealed that metabolic perturbations in overexpresser plants were largely due to transcriptional changes of genes involved in photosynthesis, senescence, chlorophyll production, anthocyanin accumulation, sugar synthesis, and transport. The lower growth and yield of overexpresser plants was largely recovered by exogenous auxin application. Taken together, the results suggest that SAUR39 acts as a negative regulator for auxin synthesis and transport.

  8. A Compact, Transportable, Microchip-Based System for High Repetition Rate Production of Bose-Einstein Condensates

    CERN Document Server

    Farkas, Daniel M; Salim, Evan A; Segal, Stephen R; Squires, Matthew B; Anderson, Dana Z

    2009-01-01

    We present a compact, transportable system that produces Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) near the surface of an integrated atom microchip. The system occupies a volume of 0.4 m^3 and operates at a repetition rate as high as 0.3 Hz. Evaporative cooling in a chip trap with trap frequencies of several kHz leads to nearly pure condensates containing 1.9x10^4 87Rb atoms. Partial condensates are observed at a temperature of 1.58(8) \\mu K, close to the theoretical transition temperature of 1.1 \\mu K.

  9. 78 FR 4427 - Mortgage and Loan Insurance Programs Under the National Housing Act-Debenture Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... paid in cash, the debenture interest rate for purposes of calculating a claim shall be the monthly... Interest Rates AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing--Federal Housing Commissioner, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces changes in the interest rates to be paid on...

  10. 77 FR 4359 - Mortgage and Loan Insurance Programs Under the National Housing Act-Debenture Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... paid in cash, the debenture interest rate for purposes of calculating a claim shall be the monthly... Interest Rates AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing--Federal Housing Commissioner, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces changes in the interest rates to be paid on...

  11. 76 FR 4127 - Mortgage and Loan Insurance Programs Under the National Housing Act-Debenture Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... paid in cash, the debenture interest rate for purposes of calculating a claim shall be the monthly... Interest Rates AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing--Federal Housing Commissioner, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces changes in the interest rates to be paid on...

  12. Identification of a physically idealized human rated rocket based interplanetary transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewig, Ralph

    Every system engineering trade study has to address the challenge of eliminating unintentional bias towards one of the available system options. This challenge becomes especially difficult when trading conceptual options, where the amount and fidelity of data available to characterize the options is highly variable. This dissertation introduces the methodology of Physical Idealization as a tool to remove unintentional bias from conceptual trade studies. The premise is that (1) given the options available based on our understanding of physics, and (2) within the set of constraints necessary to define the problem, it is possible to identify the optimal physically idealized solution. This solution can then be used as a benchmark for technology development and real world system implementation. The methodology of Physical Idealization is developed to support a study of Interplanetary Transportation Systems (ITS). The ITS is modeled as consisting of payload, power, and propulsion subsystems, and optimized using a simplified two-dimensional equation of motion set. Both a genetic algorithm and gradient based optimization methods are used in a nested loop process. The presented results illustrate both the strengths and weaknesses associated with using physical idealization in a trade study, showing the methodology to be a useful addition to the system engineer's selection of tools.

  13. Computational Models to Determine Transport and Hydrolysis Rate Parameters of Contaminants in a Water Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    opposite to the fluoride leaving group through an SN2 -type reaction . Competition exists between a breaking of the P-S bond and a breaking of the P- OEt...model (PCM) in Gaussian03 to predict reaction rates of hydrolysis. 1. INTRODUCTION In previous research, empirical methods showed that uptake of... reaction . Verification that a transi- tion state was obtained in the degradation pathway was ob- tained by carefully tracing the reaction path in both direc

  14. Rate-limiting steps of stereochemistry retaining ß-D-xylosidase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus acting as substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinetic experiments of GSXynB2, a ß-xylosidase, acting on 2-nitrophenyl-ß-D-xylopyranoside (2NPX), 4-nitrophenyl-ß-D-xylopyranoside (4NPX), 4-methylumbelliferyl-ß-D-xylopyanoside (MuX) and xylobiose (X2) were conducted at pH 7.0 and 25 °C. Catalysis proceeds in two steps: E + substrate TO E-xylose ...

  15. Speaking rate, conversational speech acts, interruption, and linguistic complexity of 20 pre-school stuttering and non-stuttering children and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, B P

    2000-01-01

    This is the second in a series of reports concerning stuttering pre-school children enrolled in a longitudinal study; the first was Ryan (1992). Conversational samples of 20 stuttering and 20 non-stuttering pre-school children and their mothers were analysed for speaking rate, conversational speech acts, interruption, and linguistic complexity. Between-group analyses revealed few differences between either the two children or two mother groups. Within-group analyses indicated differences that involved conversational speech acts and linguistic complexity. Most stuttering occurred on statements (M = 32.3% stuttered) and questions (M = 20.9% stuttered). Stuttered and disfluent sentences had higher Developmental Sentence Scoring (DSS) (Lee, 1974) scores (M = 10.9, 12.9, respectively) than fluent sentences (M = 7.6). Multiple correlation analyses indicated that speaking rate of mothers (0.561) and normal disfluency of children (0.396) were major predictor variables.

  16. Transport critical current of MgB2 wires: pulsed current of varying rate compared to direct current method

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, K. W.; Xu, X.; Horvat, J.; Cook, C. D.; Dou, S. X.

    2011-10-01

    The measurement of transport critical current (Ic) for MgB2 wires and tapes has been investigated with two different techniques, the conventional four-probe arrangement with direct current (DC) power source, and a tailored triangle pulse at different rates of current change. The DC method has been widely used and practiced by various groups, but suffers from inevitable heating effects when high currents are used at low magnetic fields. The pulsed current method has no heating effects, but the critical current can depend on the rate of the current change (dI/dt) in the pulse. Our pulsed current measurements with varying dI/dt show that the same values of Ic are obtained as with the DC method, but without the artifacts of heating. Our method is particularly useful at low field regions which are often inaccessible by DC methods. We also performed a finite element method (FEM) analysis to obtain the time dependent heat distribution in MgB2 due to the electric potential produced at the current contacts to the superconducting sample and its gradient around the contacts. This gradient is defined as the current transfer length (CTL) of the samples and leads to Joule heating of the wire near the contacts. The FEM results provide further evidence of the limitation of the DC method in obtaining high transport critical current.

  17. Turbulent transport measurements in a cold model of GT-burner at realistic flow rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gobyzov Oleg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work simultaneous velocity field and passive admixture concentration field measurements at realistic flow-rates conditions in a non-reacting flow in a model of combustion chamber with an industrial mixing device are reported. In the experiments for safety reasons the real fuel (natural gas was replaced with neon gas to simulate stratification in a strongly swirling flow. Measurements were performed by means of planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF and particle image velocimetry technique (PIV at Reynolds number, based on the mean flow rate and nozzle diameter, ≈300 000. Details on experimental technique, features of the experimental setup, images and data preprocessing procedures and results of performed measurements are given in the paper. In addition to the raw velocity and admixture concentration data in-depth evaluation approaches aimed for estimation of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE components, assessment of turbulent Schmidt number and analysis of the gradient closure hypothesis from experimental data are presented in the paper.

  18. Balancing drug resistance and growth rates via compensatory mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Ines; Gabryszewski, Stanislaw J; Johnston, Geoffrey L; Dhingra, Satish K; Ecker, Andrea; Lewis, Rebecca E; de Almeida, Mariana Justino; Straimer, Judith; Henrich, Philipp P; Palatulan, Eugene; Johnson, David J; Coburn-Flynn, Olivia; Sanchez, Cecilia; Lehane, Adele M; Lanzer, Michael; Fidock, David A

    2015-07-01

    The widespread use of chloroquine to treat Plasmodium falciparum infections has resulted in the selection and dissemination of variant haplotypes of the primary resistance determinant PfCRT. These haplotypes have encountered drug pressure and within-host competition with wild-type drug-sensitive parasites. To examine these selective forces in vitro, we genetically engineered P. falciparum to express geographically diverse PfCRT haplotypes. Variant alleles from the Philippines (PH1 and PH2, which differ solely by the C72S mutation) both conferred a moderate gain of chloroquine resistance and a reduction in growth rates in vitro. Of the two, PH2 showed higher IC50 values, contrasting with reduced growth. Furthermore, a highly mutated pfcrt allele from Cambodia (Cam734) conferred moderate chloroquine resistance and enhanced growth rates, when tested against wild-type pfcrt in co-culture competition assays. These three alleles mediated cross-resistance to amodiaquine, an antimalarial drug widely used in Africa. Each allele, along with the globally prevalent Dd2 and 7G8 alleles, rendered parasites more susceptible to lumefantrine, the partner drug used in the leading first-line artemisinin-based combination therapy. These data reveal ongoing region-specific evolution of PfCRT that impacts drug susceptibility and relative fitness in settings of mixed infections, and raise important considerations about optimal agents to treat chloroquine-resistant malaria.

  19. Above the threshold for motion: erosion rates recorded in the bedload transport capacity of West Coast channels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, A.; Finnegan, N. J.; Willenbring, J. K.

    2015-12-01

    Gravel-bedded river channels commonly evolve so that median sized grains on the bed surface are at, or near, the threshold for motion when the flow reaches bankfull stage. In addition, theory predicts the near- equivalence of the bankfull (bf) and critical (c) non-dimensional shear stresses (τ*bf ~= τ*c) for straight, cohesionless gravel channels. However, not all natural gravel channels conform to this simple relationship. To understand why some channels maintain bankfull stresses far in excess of what is needed to initiate sediment motion, we compile a dataset of the hydraulic geometry and median grain sizes of ~300 reaches from gravel-bedded rivers in North America. Notably, we find that the ratio of bankfull to critical Shields stresses is significantly higher in West Coast river reaches (2.6, n=77) than in river reaches in the rest of the continent (1.0, n=216). We explore the hypothesis that these reaches have adjusted to maintain a high excess shear stress at bankfull flows to accommodate elevated sediment supplies resulting from rapid erosion along the tectonically active margin of western North America. As a test of this hypothesis, we explore spatial patterns in calculated transport capacity and 10Be-derived erosion rates across North America. We find that an order of magnitude decrease in sediment transport capacity away from the Pacific plate boundary parallels an order of magnitude decrease in 10Be-derived erosion rates. These findings suggest that tectonically sustained high erosion rates on the West Coast may be recorded in the channel geometry and bed surface grain size of gravel-bedded channels.

  20. Fitting the elementary rate constants of the P-gp transporter network in the hMDR1-MDCK confluent cell monolayer using a particle swarm algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deep Agnani

    Full Text Available P-glycoprotein, a human multidrug resistance transporter, has been extensively studied due to its importance to human health and disease. In order to understand transport kinetics via P-gp, confluent cell monolayers overexpressing P-gp are widely used. The purpose of this study is to obtain the mass action elementary rate constants for P-gp's transport and to functionally characterize members of P-gp's network, i.e., other transporters that transport P-gp substrates in hMDR1-MDCKII confluent cell monolayers and are essential to the net substrate flux. Transport of a range of concentrations of amprenavir, loperamide, quinidine and digoxin across the confluent monolayer of cells was measured in both directions, apical to basolateral and basolateral to apical. We developed a global optimization algorithm using the Particle Swarm method that can simultaneously fit all datasets to yield accurate and exhaustive fits of these elementary rate constants. The statistical sensitivity of the fitted values was determined by using 24 identical replicate fits, yielding simple averages and standard deviations for all of the kinetic parameters, including the efflux active P-gp surface density. Digoxin required additional basolateral and apical transporters, while loperamide required just a basolateral tranporter. The data were better fit by assuming bidirectional transporters, rather than active importers, suggesting that they are not MRP or active OATP transporters. The P-gp efflux rate constants for quinidine and digoxin were about 3-fold smaller than reported ATP hydrolysis rate constants from P-gp proteoliposomes. This suggests a roughly 3∶1 stoichiometry between ATP hydrolysis and P-gp transport for these two drugs. The fitted values of the elementary rate constants for these P-gp substrates support the hypotheses that the selective pressures on P-gp are to maintain a broad substrate range and to keep xenobiotics out of the cytosol, but not out of the

  1. The influence of flow rate on inter-nucleation site heat transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltis Coen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main topic of this paper is the influence of vertically aligned nucleation sites on each other in upward flow boiling. A setup was constructed to facilitate vertical up-flow of deminiralized water under saturation conditions. The main test section is a glass channel with a set of vertically aligned bubble generators. Each bubble generator is operated independently, where power and wall temperature are registered and the vapour bubbles are visualized by a high-speed camera. During the experiments, the downstream bubble generator (BG1 power is kept constant, while the power fed to the upstream bubble generator (BG2 is incrementally increased. Two main trends have been identified. The first trend is dominated by added convection from one site to the other. Both bubble frequency and detachment diameter on BG1 increase with increased power fed to upstream BG2. This effect decreases with increasing inter-site distance and becomes more significant with increasing liquid flow rate. When vapor bubbles start nucleating from BG2, these vapor bubbles inhibit bubble nucleation BG1 and can even lead to deactivation of this nucleation site. This second trend is only weakly dependent on inter-site distance, since the inhibition originates from bubbles flowing past BG1 in close proximity.

  2. A novel two mode-acting inhibitor of ABCG2-mediated multidrug transport and resistance in cancer chemotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Peng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multidrug resistance (MDR is a major problem in successful treatment of cancers. Human ABCG2, a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporter superfamily, plays a key role in MDR and an important role in protecting cancer stem cells. Knockout of ABCG2 had no apparent adverse effect on the mice. Thus, ABCG2 is an ideal target for development of chemo-sensitizing agents for better treatment of drug resistant cancers and helping eradicate cancer stem cells. METHODS/PRELIMINARY FINDINGS: Using rational screening of representatives from a chemical compound library, we found a novel inhibitor of ABCG2, PZ-39 (N-(4-chlorophenyl-2-[(6-{[4,6-di(4-morpholinyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino}-1,3-benzothiazol-2-ylsulfanyl]acetamide, that has two modes of actions by inhibiting ABCG2 activity and by accelerating its lysosome-dependent degradation. PZ-39 has no effect on ABCB1 and ABCC1-mediated drug efflux, resistance, and their expression, indicating that it may be specific to ABCG2. Analyses of its analogue compounds showed that the pharmacophore of PZ-39 is benzothiazole linked to a triazine ring backbone. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Unlike any previously known ABCG2 transporter inhibitors, PZ-39 has a novel two-mode action by inhibiting ABCG2 activity, an acute effect, and by accelerating lysosome-dependent degradation, a chronic effect. PZ-39 is potentially a valuable probe for structure-function studies of ABCG2 and a lead compound for developing therapeutics targeting ABCG2-mediated MDR in combinational cancer chemotherapy.

  3. Energy transport corridors: the potential role of Federal lands in states identified by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, section 368(b).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummel, J.; Hlohowskyj, I.; Kuiper, J.; Kolpa, R.; Moore, R.; May, J.; VanKuiken, J.C.; Kavicky, J.A.; McLamore, M.R.; Shamsuddin, S. (Decision and Information Sciences); ( EVS)

    2011-09-01

    On August 8, 2005, the President signed the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct) into law. In Subtitle F of EPAct, Congress set forth various provisions that would change the way certain federal agencies (Agencies) coordinate to authorize the use of land for a variety of energy-related purposes. As part of Subtitle F of EPAct, Section 368 addresses the issue of energy transportation corridors on federal land for oil, gas, and hydrogen pipelines, as well as electricity transmission and distribution facilities. Because of the critical importance of improving the nation's electrical transmission grid, Congress recognized that electricity transmission issues should receive added attention when the Agencies address corridor location and analysis issues. In Section 368, Congress specifically directed the Agencies to consider the need for upgraded and new facilities to deliver electricity: In carrying out [Section 368], the Secretaries shall take into account the need for upgraded and new electricity transmission and distribution facilities to (1) improve reliability; (2) relieve congestion; and (3) enhance capability of the national grid to deliver electricity. Section 368 does not require the Agencies to consider or approve specific projects, applications for rights-of-way (ROWs), or other permits within designated energy corridors. Importantly, Section 368 does not direct, license, or otherwise permit any on-the-ground activity of any sort. If an applicant is interested in obtaining an authorization to develop a project within any corridor designated under Section 368, the applicant would have to apply for a ROW authorization and applicable permits. The Agencies would consider each application by applying appropriate project-specific reviews under requirements of laws and related regulations, including, but not limited to, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act (ESA), and Section

  4. In vitro comparison rate of dental root canal transportation using two single file systems on the simulated resin blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Etesami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Cleaning and shaping is one of the most important stages in endodontic treatment. Single-file systems save time and reduce the risk of transmission of pathogens. This in vitro study was aimed to compare the rate of canal transportation after the preparation of the stimulated resin root canal with two single-file systems, namely Waveone and Reciproc. Materials and Methods: Thirty stimulated resin root canal blocks with size 8/0. 02 K file were randomly divided into two study groups. The preparation in Group A and Group B was performed using Reciproc and Waveone files, respectively. Pre and post- preparation photographs were taken and the images were superimposed to evaluate the inner and outer wall’s curvature tendency at three points (apical, middle and coronal using AutoCad pragram. Data were analyzed using T-test. Results: Based on the results, the degree of transportation in the inner and outer walls of the canal was less at the level of 3 millimeters (P0.05. Conclusion: Waveone showed better performance in the middle third of canal and this system maybe recommended.

  5. Molecular dynamics simulation of proton transport with quantum mechanically derived proton hopping rates (Q-HOP MD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lill, Markus A.; Helms, Volkhard

    2001-11-01

    A very efficient scheme is presented to simulate proton transport by classical molecular dynamics simulation coupled with quantum mechanically derived proton hopping. Simulated proton transfer rates and proton diffusion constants for an excess proton in a box of water molecules are in good agreement with experimental data and with previous simulations that employed empirical valence bond (EVB) theory. For the first time, the proton occupancy of an aspartic acid residue in water was computed directly by MD simulations. Locally enhanced sampling or multi copy techniques were used to facilitate proton release in simulations of an imidazole ring in a solvent box. Summarizing, a quasiclassical description of proton transfer dynamics has been able to capture important kinetic and thermodynamic features of these systems at less than 50% computational overhead compared to standard molecular dynamics simulations. The method can be easily generalized to simulate the protonation equilibria of a large number of titratable sites. This should make it an attractive method to study proton transport in large biological systems.

  6. Releasable activity and maximum permissible leakage rate within a transport cask of Tehran Research Reactor fuel samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezaeian Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Containment of a transport cask during both normal and accident conditions is important to the health and safety of the public and of the operators. Based on IAEA regulations, releasable activity and maximum permissible volumetric leakage rate within the cask containing fuel samples of Tehran Research Reactor enclosed in an irradiated capsule are calculated. The contributions to the total activity from the four sources of gas, volatile, fines, and corrosion products are treated separately. These calculations are necessary to identify an appropriate leak test that must be performed on the cask and the results can be utilized as the source term for dose evaluation in the safety assessment of the cask.

  7. Reach Scale Studies of Trace Metal Transport in Mountain Streams: Do Wetlands Act as a Sink or a Source?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, D. M.; August, E.; Duren, S.; Wong, J.

    2007-12-01

    In the Rocky Mountains, there are many watersheds containing streams impacted by acid rock and acid mine drainage. These streams typically have high concentrations of dissolved metals and copious amounts of iron and aluminum oxides deposited on the streambed. Remediation of these contaminated streams is challenging because of the remote locations of the abandoned mines and the large amounts of metal oxides potentially generated in treatment of the drainage. Wetlands have the potential to attenuate trace metal transport. We examined retention of metals in an iron-oxide rich wetland near Leadville, CO, which had been receiving mine drainage for almost a century. We found that in the summer, the wetland did have a net retentive effect for most metals studied, limiting input into the adjacent stream, whereas, the wetland was a net source of metals during the winter. Furthermore, during spring snowmelt, the wetland did not retain the large pulse of zinc and iron leached by melting snow on the surrounding tailings piles. In another stream system receiving acid rock drainage, we found that riparian wetlands become sources of metals to the stream under drought conditions, which further exacerbated the metal enrichment associated with lesser snowmelt dilution.

  8. Nitrogen transporter and assimilation genes exhibit developmental stage-selective expression in maize (Zea mays L.) associated with distinct cis-acting promoter motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liseron-Monfils, Christophe; Bi, Yong-Mei; Downs, Gregory S; Wu, Wenqing; Signorelli, Tara; Lu, Guangwen; Chen, Xi; Bondo, Eddie; Zhu, Tong; Lukens, Lewis N; Colasanti, Joseph; Rothstein, Steven J; Raizada, Manish N

    2013-10-01

    Nitrogen is considered the most limiting nutrient for maize (Zea mays L.), but there is limited understanding of the regulation of nitrogen-related genes during maize development. An Affymetrix 82K maize array was used to analyze the expression of ≤ 46 unique nitrogen uptake and assimilation probes in 50 maize tissues from seedling emergence to 31 d after pollination. Four nitrogen-related expression clusters were identified in roots and shoots corresponding to, or overlapping, juvenile, adult, and reproductive phases of development. Quantitative real time PCR data was consistent with the existence of these distinct expression clusters. Promoters corresponding to each cluster were screened for over-represented cis-acting elements. The 8-bp distal motif of the Arabidopsis 43-bp nitrogen response element (NRE) was over-represented in nitrogen-related maize gene promoters. This conserved motif, referred to here as NRE43-d8, was previously shown to be critical for nitrate-activated transcription of nitrate reductase (NIA1) and nitrite reductase (NIR1) by the NIN-LIKE PROTEIN 6 (NLP6) in Arabidopsis. Here, NRE43-d8 was over-represented in the promoters of maize nitrate and ammonium transporter genes, specifically those that showed peak expression during early-stage vegetative development. This result predicts an expansion of the NRE-NLP6 regulon and suggests that it may have a developmental component in maize. We also report leaf expression of putative orthologs of nitrite transporters (NiTR1), a transporter not previously reported in maize. We conclude by discussing how each of the four transcriptional modules may be responsible for the different nitrogen uptake and assimilation requirements of leaves and roots at different stages of maize development.

  9. Drosophila TIM binds importin α1, and acts as an adapter to transport PER to the nucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Reum Jang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Regulated nuclear entry of clock proteins is a conserved feature of eukaryotic circadian clocks and serves to separate the phase of mRNA activation from mRNA repression in the molecular feedback loop. In Drosophila, nuclear entry of the clock proteins, PERIOD (PER and TIMELESS (TIM, is tightly controlled, and impairments of this process produce profound behavioral phenotypes. We report here that nuclear entry of PER-TIM in clock cells, and consequently behavioral rhythms, require a specific member of a classic nuclear import pathway, Importin α1 (IMPα1. In addition to IMPα1, rhythmic behavior and nuclear expression of PER-TIM require a specific nuclear pore protein, Nup153, and Ran-GTPase. IMPα1 can also drive rapid and efficient nuclear expression of TIM and PER in cultured cells, although the effect on PER is mediated by TIM. Mapping of interaction domains between IMPα1 and TIM/PER suggests that TIM is the primary cargo for the importin machinery. This is supported by attenuated interaction of IMPα1 with TIM carrying a mutation previously shown to prevent nuclear entry of TIM and PER. TIM is detected at the nuclear envelope, and computational modeling suggests that it contains HEAT-ARM repeats typically found in karyopherins, consistent with its role as a co-transporter for PER. These findings suggest that although PER is the major timekeeper of the clock, TIM is the primary target of nuclear import mechanisms. Thus, the circadian clock uses specific components of the importin pathway with a novel twist in that TIM serves a karyopherin-like role for PER.

  10. The spin rate of pre-collapse stellar cores: wave driven angular momentum transport in massive stars

    CERN Document Server

    Fuller, Jim; Lecoanet, Daniel; Quataert, Eliot

    2015-01-01

    The core rotation rates of massive stars have a substantial impact on the nature of core collapse supernovae and their compact remnants. We demonstrate that internal gravity waves (IGW), excited via envelope convection during a red supergiant phase or during vigorous late time burning phases, can have a significant impact on the rotation rate of the pre-SN core. In typical ($10 \\, M_\\odot \\lesssim M \\lesssim 20 \\, M_\\odot$) supernova progenitors, IGW may substantially spin down the core, leading to iron core rotation periods $P_{\\rm min,Fe} \\gtrsim 50 \\, {\\rm s}$. Angular momentum (AM) conservation during the supernova would entail minimum NS rotation periods of $P_{\\rm min,NS} \\gtrsim 3 \\, {\\rm ms}$. In most cases, the combined effects of magnetic torques and IGW AM transport likely lead to substantially longer rotation periods. However, the stochastic influx of AM delivered by IGW during shell burning phases inevitably spin up a slowly rotating stellar core, leading to a maximum possible core rotation perio...

  11. Increased transvascular escape rate and lymph drainage of albumin in pigs during intravenous diuretic medication. Relations to treatment in man and transport mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Parving, H H; Lassen, N A;

    1982-01-01

    Transvascular escape rate of albumin (TERalb, i.e. the fraction of intravascular mass of albumin (IVMalb) passing to (or during steady state returning from) the extravascular space per unit time) was determined from the initial disappearance rate of i.v. injected radioiodinated serum albumin.......05). Pressures in artery, right atrium, hepatic and portal veins did not change significantly from control to diuretic period. TERalb equals the lymphatic return rate of albumin provided the transport mechanisms are filtrative-convective (i.e. no local back transport). Additional measurements in five pigs...

  12. PhoU Allows Rapid Adaptation to High Phosphate Concentrations by Modulating PstSCAB Transport Rate in Sinorhizobium meliloti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    diCenzo, George C; Sharthiya, Harsh; Nanda, Anish; Zamani, Maryam; Finan, Turlough M

    2017-09-15

    Maintenance of cellular phosphate homeostasis is essential for cellular life. The PhoU protein has emerged as a key regulator of this process in bacteria, and it is suggested to modulate phosphate import by PstSCAB and control activation of the phosphate limitation response by the PhoR-PhoB two-component system. However, a proper understanding of PhoU has remained elusive due to numerous complications of mutating phoU, including loss of viability and the genetic instability of the mutants. Here, we developed two sets of strains of Sinorhizobium meliloti that overcame these limitations and allowed a more detailed and comprehensive analysis of the biological and molecular activities of PhoU. The data showed that phoU cannot be deleted in the presence of phosphate unless PstSCAB is inactivated also. However, phoU deletions were readily recovered in phosphate-free media, and characterization of these mutants revealed that addition of phosphate to the environment resulted in toxic levels of PstSCAB-mediated phosphate accumulation. Phosphate uptake experiments indicated that PhoU significantly decreased the PstSCAB transport rate specifically in phosphate-replete cells but not in phosphate-starved cells and that PhoU could rapidly respond to elevated environmental phosphate concentrations and decrease the PstSCAB transport rate. Site-directed mutagenesis results suggested that the ability of PhoU to respond to phosphate levels was independent of the conformation of the PstSCAB transporter. Additionally, PhoU-PhoU and PhoU-PhoR interactions were detected using a bacterial two-hybrid screen. We propose that PhoU modulates PstSCAB and PhoR-PhoB in response to local, internal fluctuations in phosphate concentrations resulting from PstSCAB-mediated phosphate import.IMPORTANCE Correct maintenance of cellular phosphate homeostasis is critical in all kingdoms of life and in bacteria involves the PhoU protein. This work provides novel insights into the role of the Sinorhizobium

  13. Mitochondrial alternative oxidase acts to dampen the generation of active oxygen species during a period of rapid respiration induced to support a high rate of nutrient uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Justine Y. H.; Vanlerberghe, Greg C.

    2001-07-01

    When wild type (wt) tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Petit Havana SR1) suspension cells were grown under phosphate (P) limitation, they contained large amounts of mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX). When these cells were resupplied with P, there was a large, immediate and sustained stimulation of respiration to support a period of rapid P uptake. Two lines of evidence suggest that the abundant level of AOX present in wt cells contributed to this stimulated rate of respiration. First, when P-limited transgenic antisense tobacco cells (AS8) lacking AOX were resupplied with P, the stimulation of respiration was much less dramatic even though these cells displayed similar rates of P uptake. Second, while the stimulated rate of respiration in AS8 cells was insensitive (as expected) to the AOX inhibitor n-propyl gallate (nPG), much of the stimulated rate of respiration in wt cells could be inhibited by nPG. Given the non-phosphorylating nature of AOX respiration, wt cells required higher rates of electron transport to O2 than AS8 cells to support similar rates of P uptake. The utilization of AOX by wt cells during P uptake was apparently not occurring because the cytochrome (Cyt) pathway alone could not fully support the rate of P uptake, as the respiration of cells lacking AOX (either untreated AS8 cells or wt cells treated with nPG) supported similar rates of P uptake as wt cells with abundant AOX. Rather, we provide in vivo evidence that the utilization of AOX during the period of high respiration supporting P uptake was to dampen the mitochondrial generation of active oxygen species (AOS).

  14. Time-dependent quantum transport through an interacting quantum dot beyond sequential tunneling: second-order quantum rate equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, B; Ding, G H; Lei, X L

    2015-05-27

    A general theoretical formulation for the effect of a strong on-site Coulomb interaction on the time-dependent electron transport through a quantum dot under the influence of arbitrary time-varying bias voltages and/or external fields is presented, based on slave bosons and the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's function (GF) techniques. To avoid the difficulties of computing double-time GFs, we generalize the propagation scheme recently developed by Croy and Saalmann to combine the auxiliary-mode expansion with the celebrated Lacroix's decoupling approximation in dealing with the second-order correlated GFs and then establish a closed set of coupled equations of motion, called second-order quantum rate equations (SOQREs), for an exact description of transient dynamics of electron correlated tunneling. We verify that the stationary solution of our SOQREs is able to correctly describe the Kondo effect on a qualitative level. Moreover, a comparison with other methods, such as the second-order von Neumann approach and Hubbard-I approximation, is performed. As illustrations, we investigate the transient current behaviors in response to a step voltage pulse and a harmonic driving voltage, and linear admittance as well, in the cotunneling regime.

  15. Use of a Short-Acting β1 Blocker During Endotoxemia May Reduce Cerebral Tissue Oxygenation if Hemodynamics are Depressed by a Decrease in Heart Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, Tadayoshi; Kawashima, Shingo; Morita, Koji; Nakajima, Yoshiki

    2017-06-01

    A decrease in heart rate (HR) using a short-acting β blocker has potential benefits in sepsis; however, depression of hemodynamics and reduction of cerebral oxygenation may also occur in endotoxemia. Seventeen swine were allocated to landiolol or control groups. In the landiolol group, the dose was sequentially changed from 0 to 40 to 200 μg kg min, and stopped. Hemodynamics, blood variables, and the cerebral tissue oxygenation index (TOI) were recorded by near infrared spectroscopy at each dose. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was then administered continuously at 1 μg kg h after a 100 μg bolus administration. After 30 and 150 min, as two severity stages of endotoxemia (endotoxemia 1 and 2), landiolol was administered as above and measurements were made. In the control group, landiolol was not administered, but measurements were made. LPS increased HR and landiolol decreased HR, with similar effects in each endotoxemia stage. In endotoxemia 1, LPS decreased stroke volume (SV), but landiolol restored SV to a value similar to that before endotoxemia, and did not decrease cardiac output (CO), even at 200 μg kg min. In contrast, landiolol did not restore SV in endotoxemia 2, resulting in a decrease in CO and mean arterial pressure, accompanied with a dose-dependent decrease in TOI. A short-acting β blocker has various hemodynamic effects in endotoxemia. Use of a short-acting β blocker during endotoxemia may reduce cerebral tissue oxygenation if hemodynamics are depressed by a decrease in HR.

  16. Use of a Short-Acting β1 Blocker During Endotoxemia May Reduce Cerebral Tissue Oxygenation if Haemodynamics are Depressed by a Decrease in Heart Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, Tadayoshi; Kawashima, Shingo; Morita, Koji; Nakajima, Yoshiki

    2016-11-15

    A decrease in heart rate (HR) using a short-acting β blocker has potential benefits in sepsis; however, depression of haemodynamics and reduction of cerebral oxygenation may also occur in endotoxemia. Seventeen swine were allocated to landiolol or control groups. In the landiolol group, the dose was sequentially changed from 0 to 40 to 200 μg kg min, and stopped. Haemodynamics, blood variables and the cerebral tissue oxygenation index (TOI) were recorded by near infrared spectroscopy at each dose. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was then administered continuously at 1 μg kg h after a 100 μg bolus administration. After 30 and 150 min, as two severity stages of endotoxemia (endotoxemia 1 and 2), landiolol was administered as above and measurements were made. In the control group, landiolol was not administered, but measurements were made. LPS increased HR and landiolol decreased HR, with similar effects in each endotoxemia stage. In endotoxemia 1, LPS decreased stroke volume (SV), but landiolol restored SV to a value similar to that before endotoxemia, and did not decrease cardiac output (CO), even at 200 μg kg min. In contrast, landiolol did not restore SV in endotoxemia 2, resulting in a decrease in CO and mean arterial pressure (MAP), accompanied with a dose-dependent decrease in TOI. A short-acting β blocker has various haemodynamic effects in endotoxemia. Use of a short-acting β blocker during endotoxemia may reduce cerebral tissue oxygenation if haemodynamics are depressed by a decrease in HR.

  17. GCR Transport in the Brain: Assessment of Self-Shielding, Columnar Damage, and Nuclear Reactions on Cell Inactivation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavers, M. R.; Atwell, W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Badhwar, G. D. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Radiation shield design is driven by the need to limit radiation risks while optimizing risk reduction with launch mass/expense penalties. Both limitation and optimization objectives require the development of accurate and complete means for evaluating the effectiveness of various shield materials and body-self shielding. For galactic cosmic rays (GCR), biophysical response models indicate that track structure effects lead to substantially different assessments of shielding effectiveness relative to assessments based on LET-dependent quality factors. Methods for assessing risk to the central nervous system (CNS) from heavy ions are poorly understood at this time. High-energy and charge (HZE) ion can produce tissue events resulting in damage to clusters of cells in a columnar fashion, especially for stopping heavy ions. Grahn (1973) and Todd (1986) have discussed a microlesion concept or model of stochastic tissue events in analyzing damage from HZE's. Some tissues, including the CNS, maybe sensitive to microlesion's or stochastic tissue events in a manner not illuminated by either conventional dosimetry or fluence-based risk factors. HZE ions may also produce important lateral damage to adjacent cells. Fluences of high-energy proton and alpha particles in the GCR are many times higher than HZE ions. Behind spacecraft and body self-shielding the ratio of protons, alpha particles, and neutrons to HZE ions increases several-fold from free-space values. Models of GCR damage behind shielding have placed large concern on the role of target fragments produced from tissue atoms. The self-shielding of the brain reduces the number of heavy ions reaching the interior regions by a large amount and the remaining light particle environment (protons, neutrons, deuterons. and alpha particles) may be the greatest concern. Tracks of high-energy proton produce nuclear reactions in tissue, which can deposit doses of more than 1 Gv within 5 - 10 cell layers. Information on rates of

  18. Self-rated health and type 2 diabetes risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-InterAct study: a case-cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennberg, Patrik; Rolandsson, Olov; van der A, Daphne L; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Feller, Silke; Bergmann, Manuela M; Langenberg, Claudia; Sharp, Stephen J; Forouhi, Nita; Riboli, Elio; Wareham, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between self-rated health and risk of type 2 diabetes and whether the strength of this association is consistent across five European centres. Design Population-based prospective case-cohort study. Setting Enrolment took place between 1992 and 2000 in five European centres (Bilthoven, Cambridge, Heidelberg, Potsdam and Umeå). Participants Self-rated health was assessed by a baseline questionnaire in 3399 incident type 2 diabetic case participants and a centre-stratified subcohort of 4619 individuals from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct study which was drawn from a total cohort of 340 234 participants in the EPIC. Primary outcome measure Prentice-weighted Cox regression was used to estimate centre-specific HRs and 95% CIs for incident type 2 diabetes controlling for age, sex, centre, education, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol consumption, energy intake, physical activity and hypertension. The centre-specific HRs were pooled across centres by random effects meta-analysis. Results Low self-rated health was associated with a higher hazard of type 2 diabetes after adjusting for age and sex (pooled HR 1.67, 95% CI 1.48 to 1.88). After additional adjustment for health-related variables including BMI, the association was attenuated but remained statistically significant (pooled HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.53). I2 index for heterogeneity across centres was 13.3% (p=0.33). Conclusions Low self-rated health was associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes. The association could be only partly explained by other health-related variables, of which obesity was the strongest. We found no indication of heterogeneity in the association between self-rated health and type 2 diabetes mellitus across the European centres. PMID:23471609

  19. Effect of the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act on the Nutritional Quality of Meals Selected by Students and School Lunch Participation Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Donna B; Podrabsky, Mary; Rocha, Anita; Otten, Jennifer J

    2016-01-01

    Effective policies have potential to improve diet and reduce obesity. School food policies reach most children in the United States. To assess the nutritional quality of foods chosen by students and meal participation rates before and after the implementation of new school meal standards authorized through the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act. This descriptive, longitudinal study examined changes in the nutritional quality of 1,741,630 school meals at 3 middle schools and 3 high schools in an urban school district in Washington state. Seventy two hundred students are enrolled in the district; 54% are eligible for free and reduced-price meals. Student food selection data were collected daily from January 2011 through January 2014 during the 16 months prior to and the 15 months after implementation of the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act. The Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act. Nutritional quality was assessed by calculating monthly mean adequacy ratio and energy density of the foods selected by students each day. Six nutrients were included in the mean adequacy ratio calculations: calcium, vitamin C, vitamin A, iron, fiber, and protein. Monthly school meal participation was calculated as the mean number of daily meals served divided by student enrollment. Mean monthly values of mean adequacy ratio, energy density, and participation were compared before and after policy implementation. After implementation of the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act, change was associated with significant improvement in the nutritional quality of foods chosen by students, as measured by increased mean adequacy ratio from a mean of 58.7 (range, 49.6-63.1) prior to policy implementation to 75.6 (range, 68.7-81.8) after policy implementation and decreased energy density from a mean of 1.65 (range, 1.53-1.82) to 1.44 (range, 1.29-1.61), respectively. There was negligible difference in student meal participation following implementation of the new meal standards with 47% meal participation (range, 40

  20. Increased transvascular escape rate and lymph drainage of albumin in pigs during intravenous diuretic medication. Relations to treatment in man and transport mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, J H; Parving, H H; Lassen, N A

    1982-01-01

    Transvascular escape rate of albumin (TERalb, i.e. the fraction of intravascular mass of albumin (IVMalb) passing to (or during steady state returning from) the extravascular space per unit time) was determined from the initial disappearance rate of i.v. injected radioiodinated serum albumin in a...... being essential for a filtrative-convective transvascular albumin transport. Increased lymph drainage may contribute to the therapeutic effect of diuretic treatment in oedema and ascites....

  1. Transport of sucrose-modified nanoscale zero-valent iron in saturated porous media: role of media size, injection rate and input concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Zhao, Yong-sheng; Han, Zhan-tao; Hong, Mei

    2015-01-01

    The growing use of nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) in the remediation of contaminated groundwater raises concerns regarding its transport in aquifers. Laboratory-scale sand-packed column experiments were conducted with bare and sucrose-modified NZVI (SM-NZVI) to improve our understanding of the transport of the nanoparticles in saturated porous media, as well as the role of media size, suspension injection rate and concentration on the nanoparticle behavior. As the main indicative parameters, the normalized effluent concentration was measured and the deposition rate coefficient (k) was calculated for different simulated conditions. Overall, compared to the high retention of bare NZVI in the saturated silica column, SM-NZVI suspension could travel through the coarse sand column easily. However, the transport of SM-NZVI particles was not very satisfactory in a smaller size granular matrix especially in fine silica sand. Furthermore, the value of k regularly decreased with the increasing injection rate of suspension but increased with suspension concentration, which could reflect the role of these factors in the SM-NZVI travel process. The calculation of k-value at the tests condition adequately described the experimental results from the point of deposition dynamics, which meant the assumption of first-order deposition kinetics for the transport of NZVI particles was reasonable and feasible.

  2. Effects of transport duration on maintenance behavior, heart rate and gastrointestinal tract temperature of market-weight pigs in 2 seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goumon, S; Brown, J A; Faucitano, L; Bergeron, R; Widowski, T M; Crowe, T; Connor, M L; Gonyou, H W

    2013-10-01

    Welfare and meat quality of market-weight pigs may be negatively affected by transport duration and environmental temperatures, which vary considerably between seasons. This study evaluated the effects of 3 transport durations (6, 12, and 18 h) on the physiology and behavior of pigs in summer and winter in western Canada. Market-weight pigs were transported using a pot-belly trailer at an average loading density of 0.375 m(2)/100 kg. Four replicates of each transport duration were conducted during each season. Heart rate and gastrointestinal tract temperature (GTT) were monitored from loading to unloading in 16 pigs from 4 selected trailer compartments (n = 96 groups, total of 384 animals, BW = 120.8 ± 0.4 kg), namely top front (C1), top back (C4), middle front (C5), and bottom rear (C10). Behavior was recorded for pigs (948 and 924 animals, in summer and winter, respectively) in C1, C4, and C5 during transportation (standing, sitting, lying), and during 90 min in lairage (sitting, lying, drinking, latency to rest) for pigs in all 4 compartments. Transport was split into 7 periods: loading, pre-travel (PT), initial travel (IT), pre-arrival 1 (PA1) and 2 (PA2), unloading, and lairage. During IT and PA2, pigs spent less time lying in winter than summer (P floors. Pigs transported for 18 h in winter showed greater evidence of thirst. It may be concluded that under western Canadian climatic conditions, long transports (18 h) in cold weather appear to be more detrimental to pig welfare.

  3. No Superiority of Treatment With Osmotic Controlled-Release Oral Delivery System-Methylphenidate Over Short/Medium-Acting Methylphenidate Preparations in the Rate and Timing of Injuries in Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubchik, Pavel; Kodesh, Arad; Weizman, Abraham

    Methylphenidate (MPH) treatment in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is reported to reduce the risk for injuries. In the present study, the rate and timing of injuries were compared among the various MPH preparations (4 and 6-8 vs 12 hour-acting) in children with ADHD. This real-world retrospective study covered the years 2011 to 2013. Participants included 2042 youngsters (aged 4-18 years, 13.01 ± 3.2 years; 71.8% males and 28.2% females) diagnosed with ADHD according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision criteria and treated with various MPH preparations. They were divided into 2 groups by their treatment preparation as follows: MPH-immediate release (MPH-IR)-4 hour-acting pooled with MPH-slow release/long-acting (MPH-SR/LA)- 6 to 8 hour-acting versus osmotic controlled-release oral delivery system-MPH (OROS-MPH; Concerta)-12 hour-acting that consisted of pooling of OROS-MPH only and OROS-MPH combined with the other MPH preparations. The monthly rates of injury, specifically, late injury (occurrence between 4:00 p.m. to midnight) and for multiple injuries, the time interval between injuries, were assessed. No significant differences in monthly rate of nonfatal injuries were found between OROS-MPH with or without 4/6 to 8 hour-acting MPH-formulations versus only 4/6 to 8 hour-acting MPH-preparations (P = 0.53). Neither were differences found in the between-injury time interval (P = 0.83) or in late-injury-rates (P = 0.37) between those groups. This real-world-naturalistic study in the community demonstrates that, in ADHD pediatric populations, OROS-MPH preparation is not superior to short/medium-acting (4/6-8 hours) MPH preparations regarding the rate and timing of injuries.

  4. Does lower dose of long-acting triptorelin maintain pituitary suppression and produce good live birth rate in long down-regulation protocol for in-vitro fertilization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Feng, Shu-xian; Guo, Ping-ping; He, Yu-xia; Liu, Yu-dong; Ye, De-sheng; Chen, Shi-ling

    2016-04-01

    The effects of pituitary suppression with one-third depot of long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist in GnRH agonist long protocol for in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) were investigated. A retrospective cohort study was performed on 3186 cycles undergoing IVF/ICSI with GnRH agonist long protocol in a university-affiliated infertility center. The pituitary was suppressed with depot triptorelin of 1.25 mg or 1.875 mg. There was no significant difference in live birth rate between 1.25 mg triptorelin group and 1.875 mg triptorelin group (41.2% vs. 43.7%). The mean luteinizing hormone (LH) level on follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) starting day was significantly higher in 1.25 mg triptorelin group. The mean LH level on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) administration was slightly but statistically higher in 1.25 mg triptorelin group. There was no significant difference in the total FSH dose between the two groups. The number of retrieved oocytes was slightly but statistically less in 1.25 mg triptorelin group than in 1.875 mg triptorelin group (12.90±5.82 vs. 13.52±6.97). There was no significant difference in clinical pregnancy rate between the two groups (50.5% vs. 54.5%). It was suggested that one-third depot triptorelin can achieve satisfactory pituitary suppression and produce good live birth rates in a long protocol for IVF/ICSI.

  5. A Preliminary Study on Road Transportation Accident Rate for Radioactive Materials%放射性物质公路运输事故率初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国强; 曹芳芳; 张建岗; 王学新; 张红见

    2015-01-01

    放射性物质运输是核能和核技术应用中的一项活动,放射性物质运输事故的发生概率以及事故对工作人员、公众及环境的放射性影响是现实存在的。本文分析了放射性物质运输单位行驶量的事故率和装运单位货包的事故率,结果表明我国与美国、英国、德国等国的放射性物质运输事故率基本相当;另外,将我国放射性物质运输事故率与国道、高速公路事故率进行了比较。%Radioactive material transportation is an activity of nuclear energy and nuclear technology applica -tion .The probability of occurrence and radiological impact on the staff ,the public and the environment arising from radioactive material transportation accidents are a real fact .Both driving accident rate for transportation and package accident rate for shipping are analyzed .The results show that the radioactive material transporta-tion accident rate in China is generally comparable to those in the United States ,Britain ,Germany and other countries .On the other side ,the accident rate for radioactive material transportation is compared with those for national road and highway .

  6. Coupled Chemical and Thermal Processes During Contact Metamorphism: Constraining Rates and Duration with Time-Dependent 3-D Heat and Mass Transport Modeling of Fluid-Rock Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutrow, B. L.; Henry, D.; Gable, C. W.; Heydari, E.; Travis, B. J.

    2016-12-01

    Hydrothermal, metamorphic and metasomatic rocks develop through a complex set of coupled thermal, chemical and mechanical processes that contain non-linear feedbacks. The integrated outcome results in a mineral assemblage with a specific texture that records the rates, magnitude and duration of the controlling processes. However, it is often difficult to extract this coupled information from the rock record due to the competing and time-integrated nature of the final product. A particularly problematic case arises when advective metasomatism accompanies thermal energy transport. Advective transport of reactive components by thermally driven flowing fluids can dramatically alter the original bulk rock chemistry. In some instances, these chemical transformations are slow but in others, these alterations can occur over short time scales (yrs). To facilitate investigations of coupled, complex systems and to constrain the rates, duration and relative importance of governing processes during a thermal event, high-resolution 3-D time dependent computational modeling is used. An example of the integrated effects of thermal and chemical transport is found in subsurface Louisiana. Here, an 11m alkali igneous dike intruded Late Jurassic sandy limestones transforming these into new mineral assemblages rich in alkali, alkaline earth elements and F; hydrogrossular, diopside, pectolite (pct), apophyllite, fluorite, and feldspars. Increased temperatures (Ts) and significant mass transport of components from the dike into the host rocks are required. A series of coupled heat and mass transport calculations constrain the rates and duration of the thermal pulse and provide insights into the time-scale of mass transport within this system. For example, calculations incorporating silica transport indicate that at the pct zone (1.5m), thermal conditions remained above 150oC for 2.8 yrs assuming anisotropic permeability (K) and 4.2 yrs (layered K) reaching Tmax at 0.36 (aniso) or 0.53 yr

  7. Free-swimming northern elephant seals have low field metabolic rates that are sensitive to an increased cost of transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresh, Jennifer L; Simmons, Samantha E; Crocker, Daniel E

    2014-01-01

    Widely ranging marine predators often adopt stereotyped, energy-saving behaviours to minimize the energetic cost of transport while maximizing energy gain. Environmental and anthropogenic disturbances can disrupt energy balance by prompting avoidance behaviours that increase transport costs......, thereby decreasing foraging efficiency. We examined the ability of 12 free-ranging, juvenile northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) to mitigate the effects of experimentally increased transport costs by modifying their behaviour and/or energy use in a compensatory manner. Under normal...... locomotion, elephant seals had low energy requirements (106.5±28.2 kJ kg−1 day−1), approaching or even falling below predictions of basal requirements. Seals responded to a small increase in locomotion costs by spending more time resting between dives (149±44 s) compared with matched control treatments (102...

  8. Pilot Testing of a Sampling Methodology for Assessing Seed Attachment Propensity and Transport Rate in a Soil Matrix Carried on Boot Soles and Bike Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Nigel; Dietz, Kristina Charlotte; Bride, Ian; Passfield, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Land managers of natural areas are under pressure to balance demands for increased recreation access with protection of the natural resource. Unintended dispersal of seeds by visitors to natural areas has high potential for weedy plant invasions, with initial seed attachment an important step in the dispersal process. Although walking and mountain biking are popular nature-based recreation activities, there are few studies quantifying propensity for seed attachment and transport rate on boot soles and none for bike tires. Attachment and transport rate can potentially be affected by a wide range of factors for which field testing can be time-consuming and expensive. We pilot tested a sampling methodology for measuring seed attachment and transport rate in a soil matrix carried on boot soles and bike tires traversing a known quantity and density of a seed analog (beads) over different distances and soil conditions. We found % attachment rate on boot soles was much lower overall than previously reported, but that boot soles had a higher propensity for seed attachment than bike tires in almost all conditions. We believe our methodology offers a cost-effective option for researchers seeking to manipulate and test effects of different influencing factors on these two dispersal vectors.

  9. Effect of insulin on the rates of synthesis and degradation of GLUT1 and GLUT4 glucose transporters in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, R J; Pâquet, M R

    1993-01-01

    The effect of continuous insulin stimulation on the rates of turnover and on the total cellular contents of the glucose-transporter proteins GLUT1 and GLUT4 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes was investigated. Pulse-and-chase studies with [35S]methionine followed by immunoprecipitation of GLUT1 and GLUT4 with isoform-specific antibodies revealed the half-lives of these proteins to be 19 h and 50 h respectively. Inclusion of 100 nM insulin in the chase medium resulted in a decrease in the half-lives of both proteins to about 15.5 h. This effect of insulin was specific for the glucose-transporter proteins, as the average half-life of all proteins was found to be 55 h both with and without insulin stimulation. The effect of insulin on the rate of synthesis of the glucose transporters was determined by the rate of incorporation of [35S]methionine. After 24 h of insulin treatment, the rate of synthesis of GLUT1 and GLUT4 were elevated over control levels by 3.5-fold and 2-fold respectively. After 72 h of treatment under the same conditions, the rate of synthesis of GLUT1 remained elevated by 2.5-fold, whereas the GLUT4 synthesis rate was not different from control levels. Western-blot analysis of total cellular membranes revealed a 4.5-fold increase in total cellular GLUT1 content and a 50% decrease in total cellular GLUT4 after 72 h of insulin treatment. These observations suggest that the rates of synthesis and degradation of GLUT1 and GLUT4 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes are regulated independently and that these cells respond to prolonged insulin treatment by altering the metabolism of GLUT1 and GLUT4 proteins in a specific manner. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8457217

  10. Time trends of period prevalence rates of patients with inhaled long-acting beta-2-agonists-containing prescriptions: a European comparative database study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marietta Rottenkolber

    Full Text Available Inhaled, long-acting beta-2-adrenoceptor agonists (LABA have well-established roles in asthma and/or COPD treatment. Drug utilisation patterns for LABA have been described, but few studies have directly compared LABA use in different countries. We aimed to compare the prevalence of LABA-containing prescriptions in five European countries using a standardised methodology.A common study protocol was applied to seven European healthcare record databases (Denmark, Germany, Spain, the Netherlands (2, and the UK (2 to calculate crude and age- and sex-standardised annual period prevalence rates (PPRs of LABA-containing prescriptions from 2002-2009. Annual PPRs were stratified by sex, age, and indication (asthma, COPD, asthma and COPD.From 2002-2009, age- and sex-standardised PPRs of patients with LABA-containing medications increased in all databases (58.2%-185.1%. Highest PPRs were found in men ≥ 80 years old and women 70-79 years old. Regarding the three indications, the highest age- and sex-standardised PPRs in all databases were found in patients with "asthma and COPD" but with large inter-country variation. In those with asthma or COPD, lower PPRs and smaller inter-country variations were found. For all three indications, PPRs for LABA-containing prescriptions increased with age.Using a standardised protocol that allowed direct inter-country comparisons, we found highest rates of LABA-containing prescriptions in elderly patients and distinct differences in the increased utilisation of LABA-containing prescriptions within the study period throughout the five European countries.

  11. The relative diffusive transport rate of SrI2 in water changes over the nanometer length scale as measured by coherent quasielastic neutron scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinson, Kenneth A; Faraone, Antonio

    2016-05-14

    X-ray and neutron scattering have been used to provide insight into the structures of ionic solutions for over a century, but the probes have covered distances shorter than 8 Å. For the non-hydrolyzing salt SrI2 in aqueous solution, a locally ordered lattice of ions exists that scatters slow neutrons coherently down to at least 0.1 mol L(-1) concentration, where the measured average distance between scatterers is over 18 Å. To investigate the motions of these scatterers, coherent quasielastic neutron scattering (CQENS) data on D2O solutions with SrI2 at 1, 0.8, 0.6, and 0.4 mol L(-1) concentrations was obtained to provide an experimental measure of the diffusive transport rate for the motion between pairs of ions relative to each other. Because CQENS measures the motion of one ion relative to another, the frame of reference is centered on an ion, which is unique among all diffusion measurement methods. We call the measured quantity the pairwise diffusive transport rate Dp. In addition to this ion centered frame of reference, the diffusive transport rate can be measured as a function of the momentum transfer q, where q = (4π/λ)sin θ with a scattering angle of 2θ. Since q is related to the interion distance (d = 2π/q), for the experimental range 0.2 Å(-1)≤q≤ 1.0 Å(-1), Dp is, then, measured over interion distances from 40 Å to ≈6 Å. We find the measured diffusional transport rates increase with increasing distance between scatterers over the entire range covered and interpret this behavior to be caused by dynamic coupling among the ions. Within the model of Fickian diffusion, at the longer interionic distances Dp is greater than the Nernst-Hartley value for an infinitely dilute solution. For these nm-distance diffusional transport rates to conform with the lower, macroscopically measured diffusion coefficients, we propose that local, coordinated counter motion of at least pairs of ions is part of the transport process.

  12. The Use of the Hanford Onsite Packaging and Transportation Safety Program to Meet Cleanup Milestones Under the Hanford Site Cleanup 2015 Vision and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 - 12403

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavender, John C. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Edwards, W. Scott [Areva Federal Services, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Macbeth, Paul J.; Self, Richard J. [U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); West, Lori D. [Materials and Energy Corporation, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Hanford Site presents unique challenges in meeting the U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) 2015 Cleanup Vision. CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC), its subcontractors, and DOE-RL were challenged to retrieve, transport and remediate a wide range of waste materials. Through a collaborative effort by all Hanford Onsite Central Plateau Cleanup Team Members, disposition pathways for diverse and seemingly impossible to ship wastes were developed under a DOE Order 460.1C-compliant Hanford Onsite Transportation Safety Program. The team determined an effective method for transporting oversized compliant waste payloads to processing and disposition facilities. The use of the onsite TSD packaging authorizations proved to be vital to safely transporting these materials for processing and eventual final disposition. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) provided additional resources to expedite planning and execution of these important cleanup milestones. Through the innovative and creative use of the TSD, the Hanford Onsite Central Plateau Cleanup Team Members have developed and are executing an integrated project plan that enables the safe and compliant transport of a wide variety of difficult-to-transport waste items, accelerating previous cleanup schedules to meet cleanup milestones. (authors)

  13. Enhanced rate performance of flexible and stretchable linear supercapacitors based on polyaniline@Au@carbon nanotube with ultrafast axial electron transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiang; Ding, Jianning; Zhou, Xiaoshuang; Zhang, Yang; Zhu, Wenjun; Liu, Zunfen; Ge, Shanhai; Yuan, Ningyi; Fang, Shaoli; Baughman, Ray H.

    2017-02-01

    Linear supercapacitors suffer a severe loss of capacity at high rates due to the trade-off of radial ion diffusion and axial electron transport. Optimizing axial conductivity of electrodes is a key to circumvent this trade-off. We report here the synthesis of Au nanograin decorated aligned multiwall carbon nanotube (CNT) sheets, followed by the incorporation of polyaniline (PANI). The embedded Au nanograins results in fast radial ion diffusion and enhance axial electron transport in the linear electrodes. The flexible linear solid supercapacitor fabricated by twisting two PANI@Au@CNT yarns exhibits an outstanding electrochemical performance with a total volumetric capacitance of ∼6 F cm-3 at scan rate up to 10 V s-1. Diameter of the electrode has little effect on volumetric capacitance even at high scan rates because of its high electrical conductivity. Highly stretchable supercapacitors with high rate performance and excellent cycling and stretching stability have been also fabricated using buckled linear electrodes made by wrapping PANI@Au@CNT sheet on elastic rubber fibers. The stretchable linear supercapacitor possesses a stable total volumetric capacitance of up to ∼0.2 F cm-3 at scan rate of 1 V s-1 and at 400% strain, and remarkable capacitance retention of about 95% over 1000 stretch/release cycles.

  14. Variations in the rates of passenger usage of portable Technology on intercity buses, trains and planes: Implications for transportation planning

    OpenAIRE

    Schwieterman, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several years, the use of portable electronic devices by passengers on intercity transportation services has risen markedly. To support the use of such devices, carriers have installed Wi-Fi systems, power outlets, and cell-phone signal boosters for passenger use. To fill a void in research about the effects of portable electronic technology on intercity travel behavior, this study evaluates newly collected data for 7,028 passengers on bus, train, and air trips. It explores how ...

  15. Conception of transport cask with advanced safety, aimed at transportation and storage of spent nuclear fuel of power reactors, which meets the requirements of IAEA in terms of safety and increased stability during beyond-design-basis accidents and acts of terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Il' kaev, R.I.; Matveev, V.Z.; Morenko, A.I.; Shapovalov, V.I. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center - All-Russian Research Inst. of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation); Semenov, A.G.; Sergeyev, V.M.; Orlov, V.K. [All-Russian Research Inst. of Inorganic Materials, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shatalov, V.V.; Gotovchikov, V.T.; Seredenko, V.A. [All-Russian Research Inst. of Applied Chemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation); Haire, Jonathan M.; Forsberg, C.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The report is devoted to the problem of creation of a new generation of multi-purpose universal transport cask with advanced safety, aimed at transportation and storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of power reactors, which meets all requirements of IAEA in terms of safety and increased stability during beyond-design-basis accidents and acts of terrorism. Meeting all IAEA requirements in terms of safety both in normal operation conditions and accidents, as well as increased stability of transport cask (TC) with SNF under the conditions of beyond-design-basis accidents and acts of terrorism has been achieved in the design of multi-purpose universal TC due to the use of DU (depleted uranium) in it. At that, it is suggested to use DU in TC, which acts as effective gamma shield and constructional material in the form of both metallic depleted uranium and metal-ceramic mixture (cermet), based on stainless or carbon steel and DU dioxide. The metal in the cermet is chosen to optimize cask performance. The use of DU in the design of multi-purpose universal TC enables getting maximum load of the container for spent nuclear fuel when meeting IAEA requirements in terms of safety and providing increased stability of the container with SNF under conditions of beyond-design-basis accident and acts of terrorism.

  16. Effects of pH, ionic strength, dissolved organic matter, and flow rate on the co-transport of MS2 bacteriophages with kaolinite in gravel aquifer media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshe, Gillian E; Pang, Liping; Flury, Markus; Close, Murray E; Flintoft, Mark

    2010-02-01

    Viruses are often associated with colloids in wastewater and could be transported with colloids into groundwater from land disposal of human and animal effluent and sludge, causing contamination of groundwater. To investigate the role of colloids in the transport of viruses in groundwater, experiments were conducted using a 2m long column packed with heterogeneous gravel aquifer media. Bacteriophage MS2 was used as the model virus and kaolinite as the model colloid. Experimental data were analyzed using Temporal Moment Analysis and Filtration Theory. In the absence of kaolinite colloid, MS2 phage traveled slightly faster than the conservative tracer bromide (Br), with little differences observed between unfiltered and filtered MS2 phage (0.22 microm as the operational cut-off for colloid-free virus). In the presence of kaolinite colloids, MS2 phage breakthrough occurred concurrently with that of the colloidal particles and the time taken to reach the peak virus concentration was reduced, suggesting a colloid-facilitated virus transport in terms of peak-concentration time and velocity. Meanwhile mass recovery and magnitude of concentrations of the phages were significantly reduced, indicating colloid-assisted virus attenuation in terms of concentrations and mass. Decreasing the pH or increasing the ionic strength increased the level of virus attachment to the aquifer media and colloids, and virus transport became more retarded, resulting in lower peak-concentration, lower mass recovery, longer peak-concentration time, and greater apparent collision efficiency. Increasing the concentration of dissolved organic matter (DOM) or flow rate resulted in faster virus transport velocity, higher peak-concentrations and mass recoveries, and lower apparent collision efficiencies. The dual-role of colloids in transport viruses has important implications for risk analysis and remediation of virus-contaminated sites. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 77 FR 36231 - Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) and Architectural Barriers Act (ABA) Accessibility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ... Architectural Barriers Act (ABA) Accessibility Guidelines; Emergency Transportable Housing Units AGENCY... Disabilities Act (ADA) and Architectural Barriers Act (ABA) Accessibility Guidelines to specifically address... the ADA or ABA are readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities. Other...

  18. Privacy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the Privacy Act of 1974, the Electronic Government Act of 2002, the Federal Information Security Management Act, and other information about the Environmental Protection Agency maintains its records.

  19. 推移质输沙率公式比较与分析%The Comparison and Analysis for bed load transport rate formula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王承; 杨克君

    2013-01-01

      Load transport rate is a very important issue in the dynamics of the river.This article summarizes the six typical bed load transport rate which is calculated base onthe previous studies of bed load transport rate;the Single-wide sediment transport rates are unified into the form of bed load transport density,and a large number of theflume data validation is compared.The comparison shows that the largest relative errorcreated by Enge Long formula,up 118.6 percent;the lower relative error by Peterformula,39.1%;descending order of ac-curacy is Meyer-Peter formula,Douguorenformula,Ackers and White formula,Yalin formula,Sharmov formula, Engelund formula.The study can provide references for engineers to selection formulas.%  推移质输沙率是河流动力学中一个十分重要的问题。本文在前人研究推移质输沙率的基础上,总结了6个典型的推移质输沙率计算公式。把单宽输沙率都统一转化成推移质输移浓度的形式,并运用大量的试验水槽资料验证比较。比较结果表明,相对误差最大的是恩格隆公式,高达118.6%;相对误差最低的为梅叶-彼德公式,为39.1%;精度由高到低依次为 Meyer-Peter 公式,窦国仁公式, Ackers and White 公式, Yalin 公式, Sharmov公式, Engelund公式。该研究可为工程人员选择公式提供参考。

  20. Kinetic parameters, collision rates, energy exchanges and transport coefficients of non-thermal electrons in premixed flames at sub-breakdown electric field strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisetti, Fabrizio; El Morsli, Mbark

    2014-01-01

    The effects of an electric field on the collision rates, energy exchanges and transport properties of electrons in premixed flames are investigated via solutions to the Boltzmann kinetic equation. The case of high electric field strength, which results in high-energy, non-thermal electrons, is analysed in detail at sub-breakdown conditions. The rates of inelastic collisions and the energy exchange between electrons and neutrals in the reaction zone of the flame are characterised quantitatively. The analysis includes attachment, ionisation, impact dissociation, and vibrational and electronic excitation processes. Our results suggest that Townsend breakdown occurs for E/N = 140 Td. Vibrational excitation is the dominant process up to breakdown, despite important rates of electronic excitation of CO, CO2 and N2 as well as impact dissociation of O2 being apparent from 50 Td onwards. Ohmic heating in the reaction zone is found to be negligible (less than 2% of peak heat release rate) up to breakdown field strengths for realistic electron densities equal to 1010 cm-3. The observed trends are largely independent of equivalence ratio. In the non-thermal regime, electron transport coefficients are insensitive to mixture composition and approximately constant across the flame, but are highly dependent on the electric field strength. In the thermal limit, kinetic parameters and transport coefficients vary substantially across the flame due to the spatially inhomogeneous concentration of water vapour. A practical approach for identifying the plasma regime (thermal versus non-thermal) in studies of electric field effects on flames is proposed.

  1. Kinetic parameters, collision rates, energy exchanges and transport coefficients of non-thermal electrons in premixed flames at sub-breakdown electric field strengths

    KAUST Repository

    Bisetti, Fabrizio

    2014-01-02

    The effects of an electric field on the collision rates, energy exchanges and transport properties of electrons in premixed flames are investigated via solutions to the Boltzmann kinetic equation. The case of high electric field strength, which results in high-energy, non-thermal electrons, is analysed in detail at sub-breakdown conditions. The rates of inelastic collisions and the energy exchange between electrons and neutrals in the reaction zone of the flame are characterised quantitatively. The analysis includes attachment, ionisation, impact dissociation, and vibrational and electronic excitation processes. Our results suggest that Townsend breakdown occurs for E/N = 140 Td. Vibrational excitation is the dominant process up to breakdown, despite important rates of electronic excitation of CO, CO2 and N2 as well as impact dissociation of O2 being apparent from 50 Td onwards. Ohmic heating in the reaction zone is found to be negligible (less than 2% of peak heat release rate) up to breakdown field strengths for realistic electron densities equal to 1010 cm-3. The observed trends are largely independent of equivalence ratio. In the non-thermal regime, electron transport coefficients are insensitive to mixture composition and approximately constant across the flame, but are highly dependent on the electric field strength. In the thermal limit, kinetic parameters and transport coefficients vary substantially across the flame due to the spatially inhomogeneous concentration of water vapour. A practical approach for identifying the plasma regime (thermal versus non-thermal) in studies of electric field effects on flames is proposed. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

  2. Influence of the heart rate and atrioventricular delays on vortex evolution and blood transport inside the left ventricle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendabadi, Sahar; Martinez-Legazpi, Pablo; Benito, Yolanda; Bermejo, Javier; Del Alamo, Juan Carlos; Shadden, Shawn

    2013-11-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is used to help restore coordinated pumping of the ventricles by overcoming delays in electrical conduction due to cardiac disease. This is accomplished by a specialized cardiac pacemaker that is able to adjust the atrioventricular (AV) delay.A major clinical challenge is to adjust the pacing strategy to best coordinate the blood flow mechanics of ventricular filling and ejection. To this end, we have studied the difference in the vortex formation and its evolution inside the left ventricle (LV) for 4 different AV delays in a cohort of patients with implanted pacemakers. A reconstruction algorithm was used to obtain 2D velocity over the apical long-axis view of the LV from color Doppler and B-mode ultrasound data. To study blood transport, we have identified Lagrangian coherent structures to determine moving boundaries of the blood volumes injected to the LV in diastole and ejected to the aorta in systole. In all cases, we have analyzed the differences in filling and ejection patterns and the blood transport during the E-wave and A-wave formation.Finally we have assessed the influence of the AV delay on 2 indices of stasis, direct flow and residence time.The findings shed insight to the optimization of AV delays in patients undergoing CRT. NIH award 5R21HL108268 and grants PIS09/02603 and RD06/0010 from the Plan Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica, Spain.

  3. Simultaneous event-specific estimates of transport, loss, and source rates for relativistic outer radiation belt electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Q.; Tu, W.; Ali, A. F.; Li, X.; Godinez, H. C.; Turner, D. L.; Morley, S. K.; Henderson, M. G.

    2017-03-01

    The most significant unknown regarding relativistic electrons in Earth's outer Van Allen radiation belt is the relative contribution of loss, transport, and acceleration processes within the inner magnetosphere. Detangling each individual process is critical to improve the understanding of radiation belt dynamics, but determining a single component is challenging due to sparse measurements in diverse spatial and temporal regimes. However, there are currently an unprecedented number of spacecraft taking measurements that sample different regions of the inner magnetosphere. With the increasing number of varied observational platforms, system dynamics can begin to be unraveled. In this work, we employ in situ measurements during the 13-14 January 2013 enhancement event to isolate transport, loss, and source dynamics in a one-dimensional radial diffusion model. We then validate the results by comparing them to Van Allen Probes and Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms observations, indicating that the three terms have been accurately and individually quantified for the event. Finally, a direct comparison is performed between the model containing event-specific terms and various models containing terms parameterized by geomagnetic index. Models using a simple 3/Kp loss time scale show deviation from the event-specific model of nearly 2 orders of magnitude within 72 h of the enhancement event. However, models using alternative loss time scales closely resemble the event-specific model.

  4. The Children's Internet Protection Act and E-Rate Policies in Louisiana: A Comparison of Policy Interpretations in Region III and Their Impact on Learning Opportunities of Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautreaux, Madge L.

    2013-01-01

    In 2000, President Bill Clinton enacted the "Children's Internet Protection Act" (CIPA) which requires all K-12 schools and publicly funded libraries to use Internet filters to protect children from pornography and other obscene or potentially harmful online content as a stipulation for receiving E-Rate funding. The varying…

  5. Transport system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenth, K.F.

    1999-01-01

    The transport system comprises at least one road surface (2) and at least one vehicle (4) on wheels (6). The road surface (2) has a substantially bowl-shaped cross section and the vehicle (4) is designed so that the wheels (6) run directly on the road surface (2) while the road surface (2) acts as a

  6. Quantifying uranium transport rates and storage of fluvially eroded mine tailings from a historic mine site in the Grand Canyon Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalak, K.; Benthem, A. J.; Walton-Day, K. E.; Jolly, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Grand Canyon region contains a large number of breccia pipes with economically viable uranium, copper, and silver concentrations. Mining in this region has occurred since the late 19th century and has produced ore and waste rock having elevated levels of uranium and other contaminants. Fluvial transport of these contaminants from mine sites is a possibility, as this arid region is susceptible to violent storms and flash flooding which might erode and mobilize ore or waste rock. In order to assess and manage the risks associated with uranium mining, it is important to understand the transport and storage rates of sediment and uranium within the ephemeral streams of this region. We are developing a 1-dimensional sediment transportation model to examine uranium transport and storage through a typical canyon system in this region. Our study site is Hack Canyon Mine, a uranium and copper mine site, which operated in the 1980's and is currently experiencing fluvial erosion of its waste rock repository. The mine is located approximately 40km upstream from the Colorado River and is in a deep, narrow canyon with a small watershed. The stream is ephemeral for the upper half of its length and sediment is primarily mobilized during flash flood events. We collected sediment samples at 110 locations longitudinally through the river system to examine the distribution of uranium in the stream. Samples were sieved to the sand size and below fraction (system to determine where uranium is preferentially stored in canyon systems. This information will quantify the downstream transport of constituents associated with the Hack Canyon waste rock and contribute to understanding the risks associated with fluvial mobilization of uranium mine waste.

  7. A deterministic model for deteriorating items with displayed inventory level dependent demand rate incorporating marketing decisions with transportation cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Bhunia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an inventory model, which considers the impact of marketing strategies such as pricing and advertising as well as the displayed inventory level on the demand rate of the system. In addition, the demand rate during the stock-out period differs from that during the stock-in period by a function varied on the waiting time up to the beginning of the next cycle. Shortage are allowed and partially backlogged. Here, the deterioration rate is assumed to follow the Weibull distribution. Considering all these factors with others, different scenarios of the system are investigated. To obtain the solutions of these cases and to illustrate the model, an example is considered. Finally, to study the effects of changes of different parameters of the system, sensitivity analyses have been carried out with respect to the different parameters of the system.

  8. 14 CFR Appendix J to Part 141 - Aircraft Type Rating Course, For Other Than an Airline Transport Pilot Certificate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... control of airspeed, configuration, direction, altitude, and attitude in accordance with procedures and... preflight; and (7) Use of the aircraft's prestart checklist, appropriate control system checks, starting... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft Type Rating Course, For Other Than...

  9. Recovery Act: 'Carbonsheds' as a Framework for Optimizing United States Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Pipeline Transport on a Regional to National Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratson, Lincoln

    2012-11-30

    Carbonsheds are regions in which the estimated cost of transporting CO{sub 2} from any (plant) location in the region to the storage site it encompasses is cheaper than piping the CO{sub 2} to a storage site outside the region. We use carbonsheds to analyze the cost of transport and storage of CO{sub 2} in deploying CCS on land and offshore of the continental U.S. We find that onshore the average cost of transport and storage within carbonsheds is roughly $10/t when sources cooperate to reduce transport costs, with the costs increasing as storage options are depleted over time. Offshore transport and storage costs by comparison are found to be roughly twice as expensive but t may still be attractive because of easier access to property rights for sub-seafloor storage as well as a simpler regulatory system, and possibly lower MMV requirements, at least in the deep-ocean where pressures and temperatures would keep the CO{sub 2} negatively buoyant. Agent-based modeling of CCS deployment within carbonsheds under various policy scenarios suggests that the most cost-effective strategy at this point in time is to focus detailed geology characterization of storage potential on only the largest onshore reservoirs where the potential for mitigating emissions is greatest and the cost of storage appears that it will be among the cheapest.

  10. Estimation of dose rate of a package ({sup 223+}Ra) and evaluation of transport index; Dosisleistungsabschaetzung bei einem Versandstueck ({sup 223+}Ra) und Ermittlung der Transportkennzahl nach ADR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittner, Michael [TUEV SUED Industrie Services GmbH, Region Nordost, Leipzig (Germany). Anlagensicherheit/Strahlenschutz; Richter, Jens [TUEV SUED Industrie Services GmbH, Region Nordost, Dresden (Germany). Anlagensicherheit/Strahlenschutz

    2016-08-01

    The transport index of a package is to be determined according to provisions of the ADR. It is directly related to the maximum radiation level in mSv/h at a distance of 1 m from the external surface of the package or pallet. To evaluate the existing distribution of the dose equivalent outside the package or pallet calculations of photon dose rates are required. For Monte-Carlo simulations with MCNP5 a three-dimensional model of a package containing Xofigo trademark was created, which contains all relevant sources from {sup 223}Ra and its decay chain.

  11. Study on flow rate measurement in pipeline transportation for concentrated ore slurry%精矿浆体管道输送流量检测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何成; 王耀南; 邹伟生

    2012-01-01

    针对精矿浆体管道输送流量难以准确检测的问题,在浆体管道输送试验基地进行输运试验与研究.分析精矿流体特性与浆体浓度变化及气泡等对电磁流量计检测流量的影响.设计一种基于多传感器信息融合的流量检测系统,给出其检测系统结构框图.提取流体状态的特征量:差压波动系数、流量波动系数、浆体密度等,并研究其与流量的相关性.将精矿浆体管道输送过程划分为5个阶段,根据特征量识别所获数据所处阶段.采用分层产生式规则的专家系统对每个阶段检测的流量进行真伪辨别和融合修正处理.给出了带浆停泵再启动与多泵串联批量输送铁精矿浆体的流量试验曲线,说明系统能在各种工况下准确地检测输送流量.%Aiming at the problem that the flow rate in pipeline transportation for concentrated ore slurry can hardly be measured accurately, experiment and research were carried out in a slurry pipeline transportation engineering test base. The effects of concentrated ore slurry density and bubble on flow rate measurement are analyzed. A flow rate measurement system was designed based on multisensor information fusion. The block diagram of the measurement system structure is given. The characteristics representing the flow rate state such as differential pressure fluctuation coefficient, flow rate fluctuation coefficient, slurry density and etc. Are calculated and analyzed. The long-distance pipeline transportation process of concentrated ore slurry is divided into five stages. The stage for the obtained data is identified according to the characteristic. An expert system based on hierarchical production rules is adopted to carry out the authenticity identification and fusion modification processing of the measured flow rate in each stage. The flow experiment curves for shutdown and restart-up with slurry, multi-pump series batch transportation of concentrated ore slurry are given

  12. Children's Protection from Violent Programming Act. Report of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation on S. 363. Senate, 105th Congress, 1st Session, Calendar No. 182.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation.

    Senate Bill 363 is designed to protect American children from the harm caused by viewing violence on television. The bill amends the Communications Act of 1934 to require that violent video programming be limited to broadcast after the hours when children are reasonably likely to comprise a substantial portion of the audience, unless it is…

  13. Mechanobiology of LDL mass transport in the arterial wall under the effect of magnetic field, part I: Diffusion rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminfar, Habib; Mohammadpourfard, Mousa; Khajeh, Kosar

    2017-03-01

    It is well-known that the Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) can accumulate and penetrate into the arterial wall. Here, we have investigated the diffusion rate of macromolecules across the porous layer of blood vessel under the effects of magnetic force. By using a finite volume technique, it was found that magnetic field makes alterations in diffusion rate of LDLs, also surface concentration of macromolecules on the walls. As well, the influence of different value of Re and Sc number in the presence of a magnetic field have shown as nondimensional concentration profiles. Magnetic field considered as a body force, porous layer simulated by using Darcy's law and the blood regarded as nano fluid which was examined as a single phase model.

  14. ''Transportare necesse est''. Reflections on attempts to prohibit the transport of radioactive material in Germany with special consideration of the Bremen Port Operation Act; ''Transportare necesse est''. Zu den Versuchen in Deutschland, den Transport radioaktiver Stoffe zu unterbinden unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung des bremischen Hafenbetriebsgesetzes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldmann, U. [Wirtschaftsverband Kernbrennstoff-Kreislauf und Kerntechnik e.V., Berlin (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Irrespective of the fact that about 95% of all nuclear transports are not related to the nuclear fuel cycle but are needed among others in medicine, research, agriculture, non-destructive testing of material and in the non-nuclear industry the number of protests against transports of all sorts of radioactive material have increased, especially the attempts to prohibit nuclear transports or - e.g. by delay - to hamper them. Such attempts come from citizens' initiatives as well as out of the political area. However, prohibition of nuclear transports can also be prescribed by law. A striking example for such a prohibition is the ban of loading and unloading of nuclear fuel in the ports of Bremen which was inserted in the Bremen Port Operation Act in 2012. Because of the unconstitutionality of this ban (Breach of exclusive federal competence and breach of loyalty to the federal state) but also because of the ban setting a precedent it was indispensable to take action before court against the ban. Several actions were brought to the administration court of Bremen in 2013 by three companies being active in the nuclear fuel cycle. The aim of the actions is to get a decision by the Federal Constitutional Court attesting the unconstitutionality of paragraph 2 subpara 3 of Bremens Port Operation Act.

  15. The circulation pattern and day-night heat transport in the atmosphere of a synchronously rotating aquaplanet: Dependence on planetary rotation rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, S.; Ishiwatari, M.; Nakajima, K.; Takahashi, Y. O.; Takehiro, S.; Onishi, M.; Hashimoto, G. L.; Kuramoto, K.; Hayashi, Y.-Y.

    2017-01-01

    In order to investigate a possible variety of atmospheric states realized on a synchronously rotating aquaplanet, an experiment studying the impact of planetary rotation rate is performed using an atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) with simplified hydrological and radiative processes. The entire planetary surface is covered with a swamp ocean. The value of planetary rotation rate is varied from zero to the Earth's, while other parameters such as planetary radius, mean molecular weight and total mass of atmospheric dry components, and solar constant are set to the present Earth's values. The integration results show that the atmosphere reaches statistically equilibrium states for all runs; none of the calculated cases exemplifies the runaway greenhouse state. The circulation patterns obtained are classified into four types: Type-I characterized by the dominance of a day-night thermally direct circulation, Type-II characterized by a zonal wave number one resonant Rossby wave over a meridionally broad westerly jet on the equator, Type-III characterized by a long time scale north-south asymmetric variation, and Type-IV characterized by a pair of mid-latitude westerly jets. With the increase of planetary rotation rate, the circulation evolves from Type-I to Type-II and then to Type-III gradually and smoothly, whereas the change from Type-III to Type-IV is abrupt and discontinuous. Over a finite range of planetary rotation rate, both Types-III and -IV emerge as statistically steady states, constituting multiple equilibria. In spite of the substantial changes in circulation, the net energy transport from the day side to the night side remains almost insensitive to planetary rotation rate, although the partition into dry static energy and latent heat energy transports changes. The reason for this notable insensitivity is that the outgoing longwave radiation over the broad area of the day side is constrained by the radiation limit of a moist atmosphere, so that the

  16. Assessment of shielding analysis methods, codes, and data for spent fuel transport/storage applications. [Radiation dose rates from shielded spent fuels and high-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parks, C.V.; Broadhead, B.L.; Hermann, O.W.; Tang, J.S.; Cramer, S.N.; Gauthey, J.C.; Kirk, B.L.; Roussin, R.W.

    1988-07-01

    This report provides a preliminary assessment of the computational tools and existing methods used to obtain radiation dose rates from shielded spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). Particular emphasis is placed on analysis tools and techniques applicable to facilities/equipment designed for the transport or storage of spent nuclear fuel or HLW. Applications to cask transport, storage, and facility handling are considered. The report reviews the analytic techniques for generating appropriate radiation sources, evaluating the radiation transport through the shield, and calculating the dose at a desired point or surface exterior to the shield. Discrete ordinates, Monte Carlo, and point kernel methods for evaluating radiation transport are reviewed, along with existing codes and data that utilize these methods. A literature survey was employed to select a cadre of codes and data libraries to be reviewed. The selection process was based on specific criteria presented in the report. Separate summaries were written for several codes (or family of codes) that provided information on the method of solution, limitations and advantages, availability, data access, ease of use, and known accuracy. For each data library, the summary covers the source of the data, applicability of these data, and known verification efforts. Finally, the report discusses the overall status of spent fuel shielding analysis techniques and attempts to illustrate areas where inaccuracy and/or uncertainty exist. The report notes the advantages and limitations of several analysis procedures and illustrates the importance of using adequate cross-section data sets. Additional work is recommended to enable final selection/validation of analysis tools that will best meet the US Department of Energy's requirements for use in developing a viable HLW management system. 188 refs., 16 figs., 27 tabs.

  17. Determination of the Transport Rate of Xenobiotics and Nanomaterials Across the Placenta using the ex vivo Human Placental Perfusion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafmüller, Stefanie; Manser, Pius; Krug, Harald F.; Wick, Peter; von Mandach, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    Decades ago the human placenta was thought to be an impenetrable barrier between mother and unborn child. However, the discovery of thalidomide-induced birth defects and many later studies afterwards proved the opposite. Today several harmful xenobiotics like nicotine, heroin, methadone or drugs as well as environmental pollutants were described to overcome this barrier. With the growing use of nanotechnology, the placenta is likely to come into contact with novel nanoparticles either accidentally through exposure or intentionally in the case of potential nanomedical applications. Data from animal experiments cannot be extrapolated to humans because the placenta is the most species-specific mammalian organ 1. Therefore, the ex vivo dual recirculating human placental perfusion, developed by Panigel et al. in 1967 2 and continuously modified by Schneider et al. in 1972 3, can serve as an excellent model to study the transfer of xenobiotics or particles. Here, we focus on the ex vivo dual recirculating human placental perfusion protocol and its further development to acquire reproducible results. The placentae were obtained after informed consent of the mothers from uncomplicated term pregnancies undergoing caesarean delivery. The fetal and maternal vessels of an intact cotyledon were cannulated and perfused at least for five hours. As a model particle fluorescently labelled polystyrene particles with sizes of 80 and 500 nm in diameter were added to the maternal circuit. The 80 nm particles were able to cross the placental barrier and provide a perfect example for a substance which is transferred across the placenta to the fetus while the 500 nm particles were retained in the placental tissue or maternal circuit. The ex vivo human placental perfusion model is one of few models providing reliable information about the transport behavior of xenobiotics at an important tissue barrier which delivers predictive and clinical relevant data. PMID:23851364

  18. Determination of the transport rate of xenobiotics and nanomaterials across the placenta using the ex vivo human placental perfusion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafmüller, Stefanie; Manser, Pius; Krug, Harald F; Wick, Peter; von Mandach, Ursula

    2013-06-18

    Decades ago the human placenta was thought to be an impenetrable barrier between mother and unborn child. However, the discovery of thalidomide-induced birth defects and many later studies afterwards proved the opposite. Today several harmful xenobiotics like nicotine, heroin, methadone or drugs as well as environmental pollutants were described to overcome this barrier. With the growing use of nanotechnology, the placenta is likely to come into contact with novel nanoparticles either accidentally through exposure or intentionally in the case of potential nanomedical applications. Data from animal experiments cannot be extrapolated to humans because the placenta is the most species-specific mammalian organ (1). Therefore, the ex vivo dual recirculating human placental perfusion, developed by Panigel et al. in 1967 (2) and continuously modified by Schneider et al. in 1972 (3), can serve as an excellent model to study the transfer of xenobiotics or particles. Here, we focus on the ex vivo dual recirculating human placental perfusion protocol and its further development to acquire reproducible results. The placentae were obtained after informed consent of the mothers from uncomplicated term pregnancies undergoing caesarean delivery. The fetal and maternal vessels of an intact cotyledon were cannulated and perfused at least for five hours. As a model particle fluorescently labelled polystyrene particles with sizes of 80 and 500 nm in diameter were added to the maternal circuit. The 80 nm particles were able to cross the placental barrier and provide a perfect example for a substance which is transferred across the placenta to the fetus while the 500 nm particles were retained in the placental tissue or maternal circuit. The ex vivo human placental perfusion model is one of few models providing reliable information about the transport behavior of xenobiotics at an important tissue barrier which delivers predictive and clinical relevant data.

  19. Native and Non-native Teachers’ Pragmatic Criteria for Rating Request Speech Act: The Case of American and Iranian EFL Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoo Alemi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Over the last few decades, several aspects of pragmatic knowledge and its effects on teaching  and  learning  a  second  language  (L2  have  been  explored  in  many  studies.  However, among  various  studies,  the  area  of  interlanguage  pragmatic  (ILP  assessment  is  quite  novel issue and many features of it have remained unnoticed. As ILP assessment has received more attention recently, the necessity of investigation on the EFL teachers‟ rating criteria for rating various  speech  acts  has  become  important.  In  this  respect,  the  present  study  aimed  to investigate  the  native  and  non-native EFL teachers‟ rating scores and criteria  regarding  the speech  act  of  request.  To  this  end,  50  American  ESL  teachers  and  50  Iranian  EFL  teachers participated to rate the EFL learners‟ responses to video-prompted Discourse Completion Tests (DCTs  regarding  the  speech  act  of  request.  Raters  were  supposed to rate the EFL learners‟ responses and mention their criteria for assessment. The results of the content analysis of raters‟ comments revealed nine criteria that they considered in their assessment. Moreover, the result of  the  t-test  and  chi-square analyses of raters‟ rating scores and criteria proved that there are significant differences between native and non-native EFL teachers‟ rating pattern. The results of this study also shed light on importance of sociopragmatic and pragmalinguistic features in native  and  non-native teachers‟ pragmatic rating, which can have several implications for L2 teachers, learners, and material developers. معیارهای معلمان زبان بومی و غیربومی در نمره دهی کنش کلامی درخواست : مورد معلمان انگلیسی زبان آمریکایی و ایرانی چکیده: طی چند دهه اخیر،  جنبه های 

  20. Factors Associated with Implementation of the South Carolina Students Health and Fitness Act of 2005: Elementary School Principals' and Physical Activity Directors' Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Miriam Jones

    2012-01-01

    This study explores factors associated with implementation of the physical education and physical activity standards of the South Carolina Students Health and Fitness Act of 2005 in Title I elementary schools. The study was framed using selected components of the diffusion of innovations theory, which looked at characteristics of the law and their…

  1. Nicaragua - Transportation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation examines impacts of the Transportation Project in three ways. First, we calculate economic rates of return associated with reduced user costs for each...

  2. Long-term effects of short-acting methylphenidate on growth rates of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moungnoi, Pranee; Maipang, Prinyaporn

    2011-08-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is generally considered to be first-line treatment for the core symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Long-term administration of MPH in childhood may have adverse effects on growth. To determine the effect of long-term, short-acting MPH medication on growth. A retrospective descriptive study was employed by gathering the data of patients who were diagnosed as ADHD by child psychiatrists at the child and adolescent clinic, Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health. Subjects were patients received the first dose of short-acting methylphenidate from January 1st 2000 to December 31st 2007 and continued medication for at least 1 year. Data about height and weight were reviewed at the beginning of short-acting MPH medication, 6 months (mo), 1 yr, 2 yr, 3 yr, 4 yr, 5 yr, 6 yr and 7 yr interval. Collecting data was interpreted with INMU-Nutri Stat software program. Paired t-test was used to compare Z score of height and weight at different time points. There were 96 cases in the present study; the ratio of male to female was 3.6: 1. The first dose of short-acting methylphenidate was started at an average age of 8.62 +/- 1.70 years. Average drug dose ranged from 0.41-0.49 mg/kg/day. The data evaluated at 6 mo, 1 year 2 years, 3 years, 4 years and 5 years after drug use found that weight was not affected. Height decreased at 6 mo. after drug use (p < 0.05) but long-term treatment was not statistically significant. Prolonged medication with short-acting MPH has shown to have minimal impact on height only at the first 6 months; however, catch up growth was detected during adolescent period.

  3. Proceedings of the Prop'Elec 2000 colloquium. Advances of electric drive in urban transportation systems; Actes du colloque Prop'Elec 2000. Progres de la traction electrique dans les transports urbains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This document is the proceedings of Prop'Elec 2000 colloquium on the advances in electric power drive in urban transportation systems. The colloquium comprises 5 sessions dealing with: 1 - public collective electric-powered transportation system: synthesis of urban guided systems (C. Soulas, INRETS), the fast travelator (A. Cote, RATP), the power supply system of METEOR automatic underground railway (P. Lagrange, W. Seiler, RATP); 2 - electrical drive in urban transportation systems: start-up of a thermal engine with super-capacitors (D. Bouquain (CREEBEL), H. Gualous, A. Djerdir, A. Berthon, J.M. Kauffmann (L2ES, IGE)), The LEV (light weight electric vehicle) project in Mendrisio (U. Schwegler, LEV/Suisse), prototype of electrical bike that use a wheel-engine (C. Espanet, F. Gustin, J.M. Kauffmann (IGE), S. Robert, M. Karmous (EICN)), TWIL: a new generation of small electrical bikes (E. Escallot, T. Bontems (EPMI)), thermal and magnetic analysis of a rectilinear movement actuator (J.C. Vannier, M. Kadiri (SUPELEC)), torque undulation and vibrations in automobile electrical drives (A.L. Bui-Van (Renault), A. Fonseca (LEG)); 3 - collective electric-powered transportation systems: STARS: autonomous transportation system with flywheel charging at the station (P. Gibard (Alstom Transport), K. Abuda, J.M. Vinassa (IXL Bordeaux)), Translhor tramway: presentation of the drive system (L. Verdier, LHOR); 4 - electric-powered and hybrid vehicles: batteries for electric-powered vehicles (J.F. Fauvarque, CNAM), Li-ion batteries and their application in automotive industry (T. Faugeras, SAFT), optimized drive systems for electric-powered vehicles (J. Saint-Michel, Leroy Somer), the Citroen Xsara Dynactive (S. Derou, PSA), 5 - electric-powered and hybrid vehicles: the electrical car in tomorrows' city (M. Parent, INRIA), the market of electric-powered vehicles in France and Europe (M. Valet, PSA). (J.S.)

  4. ACTS 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Co-curator of ACTS 2014 together with Rasmus Holmboe, Judith Schwarzbart and Sanne Kofoed. ACTS is the Museum of Contemporary Art’s international bi-annual festival. ACTS was established in 2011 and, while the primary focus is on sound and performance art, it also looks toward socially oriented art...... various possibilities and public spaces as a stage. ACTS takes place in and around the museum and diverse locations in Roskilde city. ACTS is partly curated by the museum staff and partly by guest curators. ACTS 2014 is supported by Nordea-fonden and is a part of the project The Museum goes downtown....

  5. Biosynthesis of intestinal microvillar proteins. The intracellular transport of aminopeptidase N and sucrase-isomaltase occurs at different rates pre-Golgi but at the same rate post-Golgi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M; Cowell, G M

    1985-01-01

    The kinetics of processing and microvillar expression of aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2) and sucrose alpha-D-glucohydrolase-oligo-1,6-glucosidase (sucrase-isomaltase, EC 3.2.1.48 and EC 3.2.1.10) were compared by labelling of pig small intestinal mucosal explants with [35S]methionine. The conversi...... from transient (high mannose glycosylated) to mature (complex glycosylated) form was 1.7-times slower for sucrase-isomaltase than for aminopeptidase N, indicating a slower rate of migration from the rough endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi complex. Likewise, sucrase-isomaltase appeared...... in the microvillar fraction at a slower rate than aminopeptidase N. The relative pool sizes of mature and transient forms of both enzymes in intracellular membranes (Mg2+-precipitated fraction) were determined to obtain information on the relative time, spent pre- and post-Golgi, respectively, prior to microvillar...... expression. This ratio was 0.24 +/- 0.06 (mean +/- SD) for sucrase-isomaltase as compared to 0.40 +/- 0.04 (mean +/- SD) for aminopeptidase N. Considering the slower rate of pre-Golgi transport for sucrase-isomaltase, this indicates that the two microvillar enzymes have rather similar if not identical rates...

  6. The alignment between spatial planning, transportation planning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    engagement processes, support, ... Carel Schoeman • The alignment between spatial planning, transportation planning and environmental ..... NDOT: Public Transport Strategy (2007) .... Community Land Reform Act 28 of 1996 (CLARA).

  7. Dependence of radiation belt simulations to assumed radial diffusion rates tested for two empirical models of radial transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdov, Alexander; Shprits, Yuri; Aseev, Nikita; Kellerman, Adam; Reeves, Geoffrey

    2017-04-01

    Radial diffusion is one of the dominant physical mechanisms that drives acceleration and loss of the radiation belt electrons, which makes it very important for nowcasting and forecasting space weather models. We investigate the sensitivity of the two parameterizations of the radial diffusion of Brautigam and Albert [2000] and Ozeke et al. [2014] on long-term radiation belt modeling using the Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB). Following Brautigam and Albert [2000] and Ozeke et al. [2014], we first perform 1-D radial diffusion simulations. Comparison of the simulation results with observations shows that the difference between simulations with either radial diffusion parameterization is small. To take into account effects of local acceleration and loss, we perform 3-D simulations, including pitch-angle, energy and mixed diffusion. We found that the results of 3-D simulations are even less sensitive to the choice of parameterization of radial diffusion rates than the results of 1-D simulations at various energies (from 0.59 to 1.80 MeV). This result demonstrates that the inclusion of local acceleration and pitch-angle diffusion can provide a negative feedback effect, such that the result is largely indistinguishable simulations conducted with different radial diffusion parameterizations. We also perform a number of sensitivity tests by multiplying radial diffusion rates by constant factors and show that such an approach leads to unrealistic predictions of radiation belt dynamics. References Brautigam, D. H., and J. M. Albert (2000), Radial diffusion analysis of outer radiation belt electrons during the October 9, 1990, magnetic storm, J. Geophys. Res., 105(A1), 291-309, doi:10.1029/1999ja900344. Ozeke, L. G., I. R. Mann, K. R. Murphy, I. Jonathan Rae, and D. K. Milling (2014), Analytic expressions for ULF wave radiation belt radial diffusion coefficients, J. Geophys. Res. [Space Phys.], 119(3), 1587-1605, doi:10.1002/2013JA019204.

  8. Investigations on the heat transport capability of a cryogenic oscillating heat pipe and its application in achieving ultra-fast cooling rates for cell vitrification cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xu; Ma, Hongbin; Jiao, Anjun; Critser, John K

    2008-06-01

    Theoretically, direct vitrification of cell suspensions with relatively low concentrations ( approximately 1 M) of permeating cryoprotective agents (CPA) is suitable for cryopreservation of almost all cell types and can be accomplished by ultra-fast cooling rates that are on the order of 10(6-7) K/min. However, the methods and devices currently available for cell cryopreservation cannot achieve such high cooling rates. In this study, we constructed a novel cryogenic oscillating heat pipe (COHP) using liquid nitrogen as its working fluid and investigated its heat transport capability to assess its application for achieving ultra-fast cooling rates for cell cryopreservation. The experimental results showed that the apparent heat transfer coefficient of the COHP can reach 2 x 10(5) W/m(2).K, which is two orders of the magnitude higher than traditional heat pipes. Theoretical analyzes showed that the average local heat transfer coefficient in the thin film evaporation region of the COHP can reach 1.2 x 10(6) W/m(2).K, which is approximately 10(3) times higher than that achievable with standard pool-boiling approaches. Based on these results, a novel device design applying the COHP and microfabrication techniques is proposed and its efficiency for cell vitrification is demonstrated through numerical simulation. The estimated average cooling rates achieved through this approach is 10(6-7)K/min, which is much faster than the currently available methods and sufficient for achieving vitrification with relatively low concentrations of CPA.

  9. Quantifying uncertainty in morphologically-derived bedload transport rates for large braided rivers: insights from high-resolution, high-frequency digital elevation model differencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasington, J.; Hicks, M.; Wheaton, J. M.; Williams, R. D.; Vericat, D.

    2013-12-01

    Repeat surveys of channel morphology provide a means to quantify fluvial sediment storage and enable inferences about changes in long-term sediment supply, watershed delivery and bed level adjustment; information vital to support effective river and land management. Over shorter time-scales, direct differencing of fluvial terrain models may also offer a route to predict reach-averaged sediment transport rates and quantify the patterns of channel morphodynamics and the processes that force them. Recent and rapid advances in geomatics have facilitated these goals by enabling the acquisition of topographic data at spatial resolutions and precisions suitable for characterising river morphology at the scale of individual grains over multi-kilometre reaches. Despite improvements in topographic surveying, inverting the terms of the sediment budget to derive estimates of sediment transport and link these to morphodynamic processes is, nonetheless, often confounded by limited knowledge of either the sediment supply or efflux across a boundary of the control volume, or unobserved cut-and-fill taking place between surveys. This latter problem is particularly poorly constrained, as field logistics frequently preclude surveys at a temporal frequency sufficient to capture changes in sediment storage associated with each competent event, let alone changes during individual floods. In this paper, we attempt to quantify the principal sources of uncertainty in morphologically-derived bedload transport rates for the large, labile, gravel-bed braided Rees River which drains the Southern Alps of NZ. During the austral summer of 2009-10, a unique timeseries of 10 high quality DEMs was derived for a 3 x 0.7 km reach of the Rees, using a combination of mobile terrestrial laser scanning, aDcp soundings and aerial image analysis. Complementary measurements of the forcing flood discharges and estimates of event-based particle step lengths were also acquired during the field campaign

  10. Modeling the downward transport of {sup 210}Pb in Peatlands: Initial Penetration‐Constant Rate of Supply (IP-CRS) model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olid, Carolina, E-mail: olid.carolina@gmail.com [Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, SE-90187, Umeå (Sweden); Diego, David [Department of Earth Science, University of Bergen, NO-5020 Bergen (Norway); Garcia-Orellana, Jordi [Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Institut de Ciència i Tecnologia Ambientals (ICTA), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Cortizas, Antonio Martínez [Departamento de Edafoloxía e Química Agrícola, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Klaminder, Jonatan [Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, SE-90187, Umeå (Sweden)

    2016-01-15

    The vertical distribution of {sup 210}Pb is commonly used to date peat deposits accumulated over the last 100–150 years. However, several studies have questioned this method because of an apparent post-depositional mobility of {sup 210}Pb within some peat profiles. In this study, we introduce the Initial Penetration–Constant Rate of Supply (IP-CRS) model for calculating ages derived from {sup 210}Pb profiles that are altered by an initial migration of the radionuclide. This new, two-phased, model describes the distribution of atmospheric-derived {sup 210}Pb ({sup 210}Pb{sub xs}) in peat taking into account both incorporation of {sup 210}Pb into the accumulating peat matrix as well as an initial flushing of {sup 210}Pb through the uppermost peat layers. The validity of the IP-CRS model is tested in four anomalous {sup 210}Pb peat records that showed some deviations from the typical exponential decay profile not explained by variations in peat accumulation rates. Unlike the most commonly used {sup 210}Pb-dating model (Constant Rate of Supply (CRS)), the IP-CRS model estimates peat accumulation rates consistent with typical growth rates for peatlands from the same areas. Confidence in the IP-CRS chronology is also provided by the good agreement with independent chronological markers (i.e. {sup 241}Am and {sup 137}Cs). Our results showed that the IP-CRS can provide chronologies from peat records where {sup 210}Pb mobility is evident, being a valuable tool for studies reconstructing past environmental changes using peat archives during the Anthropocene. - Highlights: • Accurate age dating of peat and sediment cores is critical for evaluating change. • A new {sup 210}Pb dating model that includes vertical transport of {sup 210}Pb was developed. • The IP-CRS model provided consistent peat accumulation rates. • The IP-CRS ages were consistent with independent chronological markers. • The IP-CRS model derives peat ages where downward {sup 210}Pb transport is

  11. Animal Transports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ludrovcová

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The research is aimed to the animal transports issue, from two points of view – first is the animal cruelty and second is the policy and economic consideration. The goal is to acquaint the readers with the transports risks and its cruelty and evaluation of the economic, political aspects for he involved countries. The study is oriented on more points of view, what is rare in works with a similar theme. Method: This paper examines many issues and examinations from different authors and subsequently summarized the findings with authors own knowledge to one expanded unit. Results: Results proves, that livestock transports have negative impact on animal´s health, environment. Number of transported animals is rising every year. Society: Research familiarize the society with the animal transports, cruelty against animals during them, and influence of transports on some countries, their economy, policy. People get better informed and can form their own opinion on this topic. They may start acting, undertaking some steps to improve the present situation, what could help a lot to animals and environment. Limitations / further research: Future research could show progress and improvement of transports, quality of food supply and economics.

  12. Overexpression of a Grapevine Sucrose Transporter (VvSUC27 in Tobacco Improves Plant Growth Rate in the Presence of Sucrose In vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumeng Cai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The import of sugar from source leaves and it further accumulation in grape berries are considerably high during ripening, and this process is mediated via sucrose transporters. In this study, a grape sucrose transporter (SUT gene, VvSUC27, located at the plasma membrane, was transferred to tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum. The transformants were more sensitive to sucrose and showed more rapid development, especially roots, when cultured on MS agar medium containing sucrose, considering that the shoot/root dry weight ratio was only half that of the control. Moreover, all transformed plants exhibited light-colored leaves throughout their development, which indicated chlorosis and an associated reduction in photosynthesis. The total sugar content in the roots and stems of transformants was higher than that in control plants. No significant difference was observed in the leaves between the transformants and control plants. The levels of growth-promoting hormones were increased, and those of stress-mediating hormones were reduced in transgenic tobacco plants. The qRT-PCR analysis revealed that the expression of VvSUC27 was 1,000 times higher than that of the autologous tobacco sucrose transporter, which suggested that the markedly increased growth rate of transformants was because of the heterogeneously expressed gene. The transgenic tobacco plants showed resistance to abiotic stresses. Strikingly, the overexpression of VvSUC27 leaded to the up regulation of most reactive oxygen species scavengers and abscisic acid-related genes that might enable transgenic plants to overcome abiotic stress. Taken together, these results revealed an important role of VvSUC27 in plant growth and response to abiotic stresses, especially in the presence of sucrose in vitro.

  13. A mechanistic-stochastic formulation of bed load particle motions: From individual particle forces to the Fokker-Planck equation under low transport rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Niannian; Zhong, Deyu; Wu, Baosheng; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi; Guala, Michele

    2014-03-01

    Bed load transport is a highly complex process. The probability density function (PDF) of particle velocities results from the local particle momentum variability in response to fluid drag and interactions with the bed. Starting from the forces exerted on a single particle under low transport rates (i.e., rolling and sliding regimes), we derive here the nonlinear stochastic Langevin equation (LE) to describe the dynamics of a single particle, accounting for both the deterministic and the stochastic components of such forces. Then, the Fokker-Planck equation (FPE), which describes the evolution of the PDF of the ensemble particle velocities, is derived from the LE. We show that the theoretical PDFs of both streamwise and cross-stream velocities obtained by solving the FPE under equilibrium conditions have exponential form (PDFs of both positive and negative velocities decay exponentially), consistent with the experimental data by Roseberry et al. Moreover, we theoretically show how the exponential-like PDF of an ensemble of particle velocities results from the forces exerted on a single particle. We also show that the simulated particle motions using the proposed Langevin model exhibit an emergent nonlinear relationship between hop distances and travel times (power law with exponent 5/3), in agreement with the experimental data, providing a statistical description of the particles' random motion in the context of a stochastic transport process. Finally, our study emphasizes that the motion of individual particles, described by the LE, and the behavior of the ensemble, described by the FPE, are connected within a statistical mechanics framework.

  14. Nutrient uptake rate as a function of cell size and surface transporter density: A Michaelis-like approximation to the model of Pasciak and Gavis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Robert A.

    2008-10-01

    Pasciak and Gavis were first to propose a model of nutrient uptake that includes both physical transport by diffusion and active biological transport across the cell membrane. While the Pasciak-Gavis model is not complicated mathematically (it can be expressed in closed form as a quadratic equation), its parameters are not so easily interpretable biologically as are the parameters of the Michaelis-Menten uptake model; this lack of transparency is probably the main reason the Pasciak-Gavis model has not been adopted by ecologically oriented modelers. Here I derive a Michaelis-like approximation to the Pasciak-Gavis model, and show how the parameters of the latter map to those of the Michaelis-like model. The derived approximation differs from a pure Michaelis-Menten model in a subtle but potentially critical way: in a pure Michaelis-Menten model, the half-saturation constant for nutrient uptake is independent of the density of transporter (or "porter") proteins on the cell surface, while in the Pasciak-Gavis model and its Michaelis-like approximation, the half-saturation constant does depend on the density of porter proteins. The Pasciak-Gavis model predicts a unique relationship between cell size, nutrient concentration in the medium, the half-saturation constant of porter-limited nutrient uptake, and the resulting rate of uptake; the Michaelis-like approximation preserves the most important feature of that relationship, the size at which porter limitation gives way to diffusion limitation. Finally I discuss the implications for community structure that are implied by the Pasciak-Gavis model and its Michaelis-like approximation.

  15. Coupling the 3D hydro-morphodynamic model Telemac-3D-sisyphe and seismic measurements to estimate bedload transport rates in a small gravel-bed river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostache, Renaud; Krein, Andreas; Barrière, Julien

    2014-05-01

    Coupling the 3D hydro-morphodynamic model Telemac-3D-sisyphe and seismic measurements to estimate bedload transport rates in a small gravel-bed river. Renaud Hostache, Andreas Krein, Julien Barrière During flood events, amounts of river bed material are transported via bedload. This causes problems, like the silting of reservoirs or the disturbance of biological habitats. Some current bedload measuring techniques have limited possibilities for studies in high temporal resolutions. Optical systems are usually not applicable because of high turbidity due to concentrated suspended sediment transported. Sediment traps or bedload samplers yield only summative information on bedload transport with low temporal resolution. An alternative bedload measuring technique is the use of seismological systems installed next to the rivers. The potential advantages are observations in real time and under undisturbed conditions. The study area is a 120 m long reach of River Colpach (21.5 km2), a small gravel bed river in Northern Luxembourg. A combined approach of hydro-climatological observations, hydraulic measurements, sediment sampling, and seismological measurements is used in order to investigate bedload transport phenomena. Information derived from seismic measurements and results from a 3-dimensional hydro-morphodynamic model are exemplarily discussed for a November 2013 flood event. The 3-dimensional hydro-morphodynamic model is based on the Telemac hydroinformatic system. This allows for dynamically coupling a 3D hydrodynamic model (Telemac-3D) and a morphodynamic model (Sisyphe). The coupling is dynamic as these models exchange their information during simulations. This is a main advantage as it allows for taking into account the effects of the morphologic changes of the riverbed on the water hydrodynamic and the bedload processes. The coupled model has been calibrated using time series of gauged water depths and time series of bed material collected sequentially (after

  16. Chemical Weathering in the San Gabriel Mountains of California: The influence of erosion rates, soil depth, and transport processes on soil chemical losses (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, J. L.; Hartshorn, A. S.; Heimsath, A. M.; Dibiase, R. A.; Whipple, K. X.

    2010-12-01

    What controls the chemical weathering of soils in actively eroding landscapes? In this study, we explore the tectonic signature on soil weathering in the San Gabriel Mountains (SGM) of California, where propagating waves of incision triggered by increasing rock uplift have resulted in distinctly different hillslope morphologies and erosion rates across the range. We quantify downslope patterns of soil weathering across this landscape using sites that bracket low-gradient hillslopes of the stable upland plateau and hillslopes near the margins of the incising landscape. We use elemental mass balances in rock and soil to index the weathered extent of soils, and couple these extents with previously measured 10Be-derived soil production rates to calculate rates of soil weathering and erosion. Across all sites, Tau-Si—the fractional loss or gain of Si from parent material—averages -0.32±0.04, and the weathered extent of soils generally increases with increasing distance from the hillcrest. However, weathering intensities decrease as hillslope gradients steepen beyond 30°. Chemical weathering extents on slopes controlling mineral supply and residence time. These patterns are consistent with previously published predictive models for denudation-weathering relationships based on mineral weathering kinetics. Variable weathering extents in soils indicate that soil weathering in the SGM is largely kinetically limited. This work provides a field-based quantification of the complex relationship between soil erosion and chemical weathering, and together our data suggest that tectonic forcing strongly influences soil weathering rates and extents through its control on erosion rates, transport processes and soil thickness.

  17. Modeling and sensitivity analysis on the transport of aluminum oxide nanoparticles in saturated sand: effects of ionic strength, flow rate, and nanoparticle concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Tanzina; Millwater, Harry; Shipley, Heather J

    2014-11-15

    Aluminum oxide nanoparticles have been widely used in various consumer products and there are growing concerns regarding their exposure in the environment. This study deals with the modeling, sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification of one-dimensional transport of nano-sized (~82 nm) aluminum oxide particles in saturated sand. The transport of aluminum oxide nanoparticles was modeled using a two-kinetic-site model with a blocking function. The modeling was done at different ionic strengths, flow rates, and nanoparticle concentrations. The two sites representing fast and slow attachments along with a blocking term yielded good agreement with the experimental results from the column studies of aluminum oxide nanoparticles. The same model was used to simulate breakthrough curves under different conditions using experimental data and calculated 95% confidence bounds of the generated breakthroughs. The sensitivity analysis results showed that slow attachment was the most sensitive parameter for high influent concentrations (e.g. 150 mg/L Al2O3) and the maximum solid phase retention capacity (related to blocking function) was the most sensitive parameter for low concentrations (e.g. 50 mg/L Al2O3).

  18. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Neelima Godugu

    2000-07-30

    ACTS flow loop is now operational under elevated pressure and temperature. Currently, experiments with synthetic based drilling fluids under pressure and temperature are being conducted. Based on the analysis of Fann 70 data, empirical correlations defining the shear stress as a function of temperature, pressure and the shear rate have been developed for Petrobras synthetic drilling fluids. PVT equipment has been modified for testing Synthetic oil base drilling fluids. PVT tests with Petrobras Synthetic base mud have been conducted and results are being analyzed Foam flow experiments have been conducted and the analysis of the data has been carried out to characterize the rheology of the foam. Comparison of pressure loss prediction from the available foam hydraulic models and the test results has been made. Cuttings transport experiments in horizontal annulus section have been conducted using air, water and cuttings. Currently, cuttings transport tests in inclined test section are being conducted. Foam PVT analysis tests have been conducted. Foam stability experiments have also been conducted. Effects of salt and oil concentration on the foam stability have been investigated. Design of ACTS flow loop modification for foam and aerated mud flow has been completed. A flow loop operation procedure for conducting foam flow experiments under EPET conditions has been prepared Design of the lab-scale flow loop for dynamic foam characterization and cuttings monitoring instrumentation tests has been completed. The construction of the test loop is underway. As part of the technology transport efforts, Advisory Board Meeting with ACTS-JIP industry members has been organized on May 13, 2000.

  19. High-frequency and low-frequency chest compression: effects on lung water secretion, mucus transport, heart rate, and blood pressure using a trapezoidal source pressure waveform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Clock, George D; Lee, Yong Wan; Lee, Jongwong; Warwick, Warren J

    2012-01-01

    High-frequency chest compression (HFCC), using an appropriate source (pump) waveform for frequencies at or above 3 Hz, can enhance pulmonary clearance for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Using a trapezoidal HFCC source pressure waveform, secretion of water from epithelial tissue and transport of mucus through lung airways can be enhanced for patients with CF and COPD. At frequencies below 3 Hz, low-frequency chest compression (LFCC) appears to have a significant impact on the cardiovascular system. For a trapezoidal source pressure waveform at frequencies close to 1 Hz, LFCC produces amplitude or intensity variations in various components of the electrocardiogram time-domain waveform, produces changes at very low frequencies associated with the electrocardiogram frequency spectra (indicating enhanced parasympathetic nervous system activity), and promotes a form of heart rate synchronization. It appears that LFCC can also provide additional cardiovascular benefits by reducing peak and average systolic and diastolic blood pressure for patients with hypertension.

  20. Polarization-multiplexed rate-adaptive non-binary-quasi-cyclic-LDPC-coded multilevel modulation with coherent detection for optical transport networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabaci, Murat; Djordjevic, Ivan B; Saunders, Ross; Marcoccia, Roberto M

    2010-02-01

    In order to achieve high-speed transmission over optical transport networks (OTNs) and maximize its throughput, we propose using a rate-adaptive polarization-multiplexed coded multilevel modulation with coherent detection based on component non-binary quasi-cyclic (QC) LDPC codes. Compared to prior-art bit-interleaved LDPC-coded modulation (BI-LDPC-CM) scheme, the proposed non-binary LDPC-coded modulation (NB-LDPC-CM) scheme not only reduces latency due to symbol- instead of bit-level processing but also provides either impressive reduction in computational complexity or striking improvements in coding gain depending on the constellation size. As the paper presents, compared to its prior-art binary counterpart, the proposed NB-LDPC-CM scheme addresses the needs of future OTNs, which are achieving the target BER performance and providing maximum possible throughput both over the entire lifetime of the OTN, better.

  1. Radiative heating rates profiles associated with a springtime case of Bodélé and Sudan dust transport over West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lema^itre

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The radiative heating rate due to mineral dust over West Africa is investigated using the radiative code STREAMER, as well as remote sensing and in situ observations gathered during the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis Special Observing Period (AMMA SOP. We focus on two days (13 and 14 June 2006 of an intense and long lasting episode of dust being lifted in remote sources in Chad and Sudan and transported across West Africa in the African easterly jet region, during which airborne operations were conducted at the regional scale, from the southern fringes of the Sahara to the Gulf of Guinea. Profiles of heating rates are computed from airborne LEANDRE 2 (Lidar Embarqué pour l'étude de l'Atmosphère: Nuages Dynamique, Rayonnement et cycle de l'Eau and space-borne CALIOP (Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations lidar observations using two mineral dust model constrained by airborne in situ data and ground-based sunphotometer obtained during the campaign. Complementary spaceborne observations (from the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer-MODIS and in-situ observations such as dropsondes are also used to take into account the infrared contribution of the water vapour. We investigate the variability of the heating rate on the vertical within a dust plume, as well as the contribution of both shortwave and longwave radiation to the heating rate and the radiative heating rate profiles of dust during daytime and nighttime. The sensitivity of the so-derived heating rate is also analyzed for some key variables for which the associated uncertainties may be large. During daytime, the warming associated with the presence of dust was found to be between 1.5 K day−1 and 4 K day−1, on average, depending on altitude and latitude. Strong warming (i.e. heating rates as high as 8 K day−1 was also observed locally in some limited part of the dust plumes. The uncertainty on the

  2. Enhancement of marine cloud albedo via controlled sea spray injections: a global model study of the influence of emission rates, microphysics and transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Korhonen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Modification of cloud albedo by controlled emission of sea spray particles into the atmosphere has been suggested as a possible geoengineering option to slow global warming. Previous global studies have imposed changes in cloud drop concentration in low level clouds to explore the radiative and climatic effects. Here, we use a global aerosol transport model to quantify how an imposed flux of sea spray particles affects the natural aerosol processes, the particle size distribution, and concentrations of cloud drops. We assume that the proposed fleet of vessels emits sea spray particles with a wind speed-dependent flux into four regions of persistent stratocumulus cloud off the western coasts of continents. The model results show that fractional changes in cloud drop number concentration (CDNC vary substantially between the four regions because of differences in wind speed (which affects the spray efficiency of the vessels, transport and particle deposition rates, and because of variations in aerosols from natural and anthropogenic sources. Using spray emission rates comparable to those implied by previous studies we find that the predicted CDNC changes are very small (maximum 20% and in one of the four regions even negative. The weak or negative effect is because the added particles suppress the in-cloud supersaturation and prevent existing aerosol particles from forming cloud drops. A scenario with five times higher emissions (considerably higher than previously assumed increases CDNC on average by 45–163%, but median concentrations are still below the 375 cm−3 assumed in previous studies. An inadvertent effect of the spray emissions is that sulphur dioxide concentrations are suppressed by 1–2% in the seeded regions and sulphuric acid vapour by 64–68% due to chemical reactions on the additional salt particles. The impact of this suppression on existing aerosol is negligible in the model, but should be investigated further in

  3. EPAct Alternative Fuel Transportation Program: State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleet Compliance Annual Report; Fleet Compliance Results for MY 2013/FY 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    Compliance rates for covered state government and alternative fuel provider fleets under the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program (pursuant to the Energy Policy Act or EPAct) are reported for MY 2013/FY 2014 in this publication.

  4. Optimization of deterministic transport parameters for the calculation of the dose distribution around a high dose-rate 192Ir brachytherapy source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Kent A; Price, Michael J; Horton, John L; Wareing, Todd A; Mourtada, Firas

    2008-06-01

    The goal of this work was to calculate the dose distribution around a high dose-rate 192Ir brachytherapy source using a multi-group discrete ordinates code and then to compare the results with a Monte Carlo calculated dose distribution. The unstructured tetrahedral mesh discrete ordinates code Attila version 6.1.1 was used to calculate the photon kerma rate distribution in water around the Nucletron microSelectron mHDRv2 source. MCNPX 2.5.c was used to compute the Monte Carlo water photon kerma rate distribution. Two hundred million histories were simulated, resulting in standard errors of the mean of less than 3% overall. The number of energy groups, S(n) (angular order), P(n) (scattering order), and mesh elements were varied in addition to the method of analytic ray tracing to assess their effects on the deterministic solution. Water photon kerma rate matrices were exported from both codes into an in-house data analysis software. This software quantified the percent dose difference distribution, the number of points within +/- 3% and +/- 5%, and the mean percent difference between the two codes. The data demonstrated that a 5 energy-group cross-section set calculated results to within 0.5% of a 15 group cross-section set. S12 was sufficient to resolve the solution in angle. P2 expansion of the scattering cross-section was necessary to compute accurate distributions. A computational mesh with 55 064 tetrahedral elements in a 30 cm diameter phantom resolved the solution spatially. An efficiency factor of 110 with the above parameters was realized in comparison to MC methods. The Attila code provided an accurate and efficient solution of the Boltzmann transport equation for the mHDRv2 source.

  5. The impact of cell-specific absorption properties on the correlation of electron transport rates measured by chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic oxygen production in planktonic algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blache, Ulrich; Jakob, Torsten; Su, Wanwen; Wilhelm, Christian

    2011-08-01

    Photosynthesis-irradiance (P-E)-curves describe the photosynthetic performance of autotrophic organisms. From these P-E-curves the photosynthetic parameters α-slope, P(max), and E(k) can be deduced which are often used to characterize and to compare different organisms or organisms in acclimation to different environmental conditions. Particularly, for in situ-measurements of P-E curves of phytoplankton the analysis of variable chlorophyll fluorescence proved its potential as a sensitive and rapid method. By using Chlorella vulgaris (Trebouxiophyceae), Nannochloropsis salina (Eustigmatophyceae), Skeletonema costatum and Cyclotella meneghiniana (Bacillariophyceae), the present study investigated the influence of cellular bio-optical properties on the correlation of the photosynthetic parameters derived from fluorescence-based P-E-curves with photosynthetic parameters obtained from the measurement of oxygen evolution. It is demonstrated that small planktonic algae show a wide range of cellular absorptivity which was subject to species-specifity, growth stage and environmental conditions, e.g. nutrient limitation. This variability in bio-optical properties resulted in a great deviation of relative electron transport rates (rETRs) from oxygen-based photosynthesis rates. Thus, the photosynthetic parameters α-slope and P(max) derived from rETRs strongly depend on the specific cellular absorptivity and cannot be used to compare the photosynthetic performance of cells with different optical properties. However, it was shown that E(k) is independent of cellular absorptivity and could be used to compare samples with unknown optical properties.

  6. On a novel rate theory for transport in narrow ion channels and its application to the study of flux optimization via geometric effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, E; Reingruber, J; Sansom, M S P

    2009-02-28

    We present a novel rate theory based on the notions of splitting probability and mean first passage time to describe single-ion conduction in narrow, effectively one-dimensional membrane channels. In contrast to traditional approaches such as transition state theory or Kramers theory, transitions between different conduction states in our model are governed by rates which depend on the full geometry of the potential of mean force (PMF) resulting from the superposition of an equilibrium free energy profile and a transmembrane potential induced by a nonequilibrium constraint. If a detailed theoretical PMF is available (e.g., from atomistic molecular dynamics simulations), it can be used to compute characteristic conductance curves in the framework of our model, thereby bridging the gap between the atomistic and the mesoscopic level of description. Explicit analytic solutions for the rates, the ion flux, and the associated electric current can be obtained by approximating the actual PMF by a piecewise linear potential. As illustrative examples, we consider both a theoretical and an experimental application of the model. The theoretical example is based on a hypothetical channel with a fully symmetric sawtooth equilibrium PMF. For this system, we explore how changes in the spatial extent of the binding sites affect the rate of transport when a linear voltage ramp is applied. Already for the case of a single binding site, we find that there is an optimum size of the site which maximizes the current through the channel provided that the applied voltage exceeds a threshold value given by the binding energy of the site. The above optimization effect is shown to arise from the complex interplay between the channel structure and the applied electric field, expressed by a nonlinear dependence of the rates with respect to the linear size of the binding site. In studying the properties of current-voltage curves, we find a double crossover between sublinear and superlinear

  7. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. Interim Report on Customer Acceptance, Retention, and Response to Time-Based Rates from the Consumer Behavior Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hans, Liesel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Scheer, Richard [Scheer Ventures, Takoma Park, MD (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Time-based rate programs1, enabled by utility investments in advanced metering infrastructure (AMI), are increasingly being considered by utilities as tools to reduce peak demand and enable customers to better manage consumption and costs. There are several customer systems that are relatively new to the marketplace and have the potential for improving the effectiveness of these programs, including in-home displays (IHDs), programmable communicating thermostats (PCTs), and web portals. Policy and decision makers are interested in more information about customer acceptance, retention, and response before moving forward with expanded deployments of AMI-enabled new rates and technologies. Under the Smart Grid Investment Grant Program (SGIG), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) partnered with several utilities to conduct consumer behavior studies (CBS). The goals involved applying randomized and controlled experimental designs for estimating customer responses more precisely and credibly to advance understanding of time-based rates and customer systems, and provide new information for improving program designs, implementation strategies, and evaluations. The intent was to produce more robust and credible analysis of impacts, costs, benefits, and lessons learned and assist utility and regulatory decision makers in evaluating investment opportunities involving time-based rates. To help achieve these goals, DOE developed technical guidelines to help the CBS utilities estimate customer acceptance, retention, and response more precisely.

  8. Lactate transport and signaling in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergersen, Linda Hildegard

    2015-01-01

    Lactate acts as a ‘buffer’ between glycolysis and oxidative metabolism. In addition to being exchanged as a fuel by the monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) between cells and tissues with different glycolytic and oxidative rates, lactate may be a ‘volume transmitter’ of brain signals. According to...... of the favorable effects on the brain resulting from physical exercise......., such as in physical exercise, there is net influx of lactate from blood to brain, where the lactate is used for energy production and myelin formation. Lactate binds to the lactate receptor GPR81 aka hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor (HCAR1) on brain cells and cerebral blood vessels, and regulates the levels of c......Lactate acts as a ‘buffer’ between glycolysis and oxidative metabolism. In addition to being exchanged as a fuel by the monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) between cells and tissues with different glycolytic and oxidative rates, lactate may be a ‘volume transmitter’ of brain signals. According...

  9. The legacy pesticide dieldrin acts as a teratogen and alters the expression of dopamine transporter and dopamine receptor 2a in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarty, Kathleena I; Cowie, Andrew; Martyniuk, Christopher J

    2017-04-01

    Dieldrin (DLD) is a lipophilic pesticide that shows environmental persistence. The objectives were to determine the effects of DLD on GABAergic and dopaminergic systems in developing zebrafish. Both chorionated and dechorionated embryos (~24h post-hatch) were exposed to a single concentration of DLD (0.347-3470μM) for 48h. Following exposure, a subset of larvae was placed into clean water for 6days (i.e. depuration phase). Chorionated embryos showed 30%), suggesting that the chorion protected the embryos. Over a 6day depuration phase, there was a dose dependent effect observed in both the "dechorionated and chorionated embryo" treatments for larval mortality (>60%). At the end of depuration, there was no detectable change in neuro-morphological endpoints that included the ratio of notochord length to body length (%) and the ratio of head area to body area (%). However, DLD did induce cardiac edema, skeletal deformities, and tremors. GABA-related transcripts were not affected in abundance by DLD. Conversely, the relative mRNA levels of dopamine transporter (dat1) and dopamine receptor drd2a mRNA were decreased in dechorionated, but not chorionated, embryos. These data suggest that DLD can alter the expression of transcripts related to dopaminergic signaling. Lastly, GABAA receptor subunits gabrB1 and gabrB2, as well as dopamine receptors drd1 and drd2a, were inherently higher in abundance in dechorionated embryos compared to chorionated embryos. This is an important consideration when incorporating transcriptomics into embryo testing as expression levels can change with removal of the chorion prior to exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Tamm-Horsfall protein regulates circulating and renal cytokines by affecting glomerular filtration rate and acting as a urinary cytokine trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; El-Achkar, Tarek M; Wu, Xue-Ru

    2012-05-11

    Although few organ systems play a more important role than the kidneys in cytokine catabolism, the mechanism(s) regulating this pivotal physiological function and how its deficiency affects systemic cytokine homeostasis remain unclear. Here we show that elimination of Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) expression from mouse kidneys caused a marked elevation of circulating IFN-γ, IL1α, TNF-α, IL6, CXCL1, and IL13. Accompanying this were enlarged spleens with prominent white-pulp macrophage infiltration. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exacerbated the increase of serum cytokines without a corresponding increase in their urinary excretion in THP knock-out (KO) mice. This, along with the rise of serum cystatin C and the reduced inulin and creatinine clearance from the circulation, suggested that diminished glomerular filtration may contribute to reduced cytokine clearance in THP KO mice both at the baseline and under stress. Unlike wild-type mice where renal and urinary cytokines formed specific in vivo complexes with THP, this "trapping" effect was absent in THP KO mice, thus explaining why cytokine signaling pathways were activated in renal epithelial cells in such mice. Our study provides new evidence implicating an important role of THP in influencing cytokine clearance and acting as a decoy receptor for urinary cytokines. Based on these and other data, we present a unifying model that underscores the role of THP as a major regulator of renal and systemic immunity.

  11. Using combined measurements for comparison of light induction of stomatal conductance, electron transport rate and CO2 fixation in woody and fern species adapted to different light regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Shau-Lian; Chen, Chung-Wei; Huang, Hsien-Wen; Weng, Jen-Hsien

    2012-05-01

    We aimed to understand the relation of photosynthetic rate (A) with g(s) and electron transport rate (ETR) in species of great taxonomic range and light adaptation capability during photosynthetic light induction. We studied three woody species (Alnus formosana, Ardisia crenata and Ardisia cornudentata) and four fern species (Pyrrosia lingus, Asplenium antiquum, Diplazium donianum and Archangiopteris somai) with different light adaptation capabilities. Pot-grown materials received 100 and/or 10% sunlight according to their light adaptation capabilities. At least 4 months after light acclimation, CO(2) and H(2)O exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured simultaneously by equipment in the laboratory. In plants adapted or acclimated to low light, dark-adapted leaves exposed to 500 or 2000 µmol m(-2) s(-1) photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) for 30 min showed low gross photosynthetic rate (P(g)) and short time required to reach 90% of maximum P(g) (). At the initiation of illumination, two broad-leaved understory shrubs and the four ferns, especially ferns adapted to heavy shade, showed higher stomatal conductance (g(s)) than pioneer tree species; materials with higher g(s) had short at both 500 and 2000 µmol m(-2) s(-1) PPF. With 500 or 2000 µmol m(-2) s(-1) PPF, the g(s) for the three woody species increased from 2 to 30 min after the start of illumination, but little change in the g(s) of the four ferns. Thus, P(g) and g(s) were not correlated for all material measured at the same PPF and induction time. However, P(g) was positively correlated with ETR, even though CO(2) assimilation may be influenced by stomatal, biochemical and photoinhibitory limitations. In addition, was closely related to time required to reach 90% maximal ETR for all materials and with two levels of PPF combined. Thus, ETR is a good indicator for estimating the light induction of photosynthetic rate of species, across a wide taxonomic range and light adaptation and acclimation

  12. A random walk solution for modeling solute transport with network reactions and multi-rate mass transfer in heterogeneous systems: Impact of biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henri, Christopher V.; Fernàndez-Garcia, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    The interplay between the spatial variability of the aquifer hydraulic properties, mass transfer due to sub-grid heterogeneity and chemical reactions often complicates reactive transport simulations. It is well documented that hydro-biochemical properties are ubiquitously heterogeneous and that diffusion and slow advection at the sub-grid scale typically leads to the conceptualization of an aquifer as a multi-porosity system. Within this context, chemical reactions taking place in mobile/immobile water regions can be substantially different between each other. This paper presents a particle-based method that can efficiently simulate heterogeneity, network reactions and multi-rate mass transfer. The approach is based on the development of transition probabilities that describe the likelihood that particles belonging to a given species and mobile/immobile domain at a given time will be transformed into another species and mobile/immobile domain afterwards. The joint effect of mass transfer and sequential degradation is shown to be non-trivial. A characteristic rebound of degradation products can be observed. This late rebound of concentrations is not driven by any change in the flow regime (e.g., pumping ceases in the pump-and-treat remediation strategy) but due to the natural interplay between mass transfer and chemical reactions. To illustrate that the method can simultaneously represent mass transfer, spatially varying properties and network reactions without numerical problems, we have simulated the degradation of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in a three-dimensional fully heterogeneous aquifer subjected to rate-limited mass transfer. Two types of degradation modes were considered to compare the effect of an active biofilm with that of clay pods present in the aquifer. Results of the two scenarios display significantly differences. Biofilms that promote the degradation of compounds in an immobile region are shown to significantly enhance degradation, rapidly producing

  13. The influence of leaf anatomy on the internal light environment and photosynthetic electron transport rate: exploration with a new leaf ray tracing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yi; Tholen, Danny; Zhu, Xin-Guang

    2016-11-01

    Leaf photosynthesis is determined by biochemical properties and anatomical features. Here we developed a three-dimensional leaf model that can be used to evaluate the internal light environment of a leaf and its implications for whole-leaf electron transport rates (J). This model includes (i) the basic components of a leaf, such as the epidermis, palisade and spongy tissues, as well as the physical dimensions and arrangements of cell walls, vacuoles and chloroplasts; and (ii) an efficient forward ray-tracing algorithm, predicting the internal light environment for light of wavelengths between 400 and 2500nm. We studied the influence of leaf anatomy and ambient light on internal light conditions and J The results show that (i) different chloroplasts can experience drastically different light conditions, even when they are located at the same distance from the leaf surface; (ii) bundle sheath extensions, which are strips of parenchyma, collenchyma or sclerenchyma cells connecting the vascular bundles with the epidermis, can influence photosynthetic light-use efficiency of leaves; and (iii) chloroplast positioning can also influence the light-use efficiency of leaves. Mechanisms underlying leaf internal light heterogeneity and implications of the heterogeneity for photoprotection and for the convexity of the light response curves are discussed.

  14. Balancing Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Balancing Acts Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... scientific research on hearing, balance, smell, taste, voice, speech, and language—common elements in how we perceive ...

  15. INFLUENCE OF SEDIMENT TRANSPORT ON ARMORED SURFACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katinka KOLL; Andreas DITTRICH

    2001-01-01

    Laboratory experiments have been carried out to study the characteristics of sediment transport in steep streams. The question is discussed wether an armoured surfaces is destroyed due to the transport of material, because additional impulses are acting on it, or the layer is sheltered by the transported material, because a part of the stream power is used to move the material. According to the results of the presented experiments, in which the influence of the feeding rate and the feeding duration have been investigated, transported material reaching an armoured river section from upstream always remobilzes bed material, which is immobile under clear water flow conditions. To decide if a static armour layer is either destroyed or not, two simple criteria were chosen: oneconsidering the grain-size distribution of the eroded bed material, and another, which referes to the amount of eroded bed material.

  16. Host cell entry of powdery mildew is correlated with endosomal transport of antagonistically acting VvPEN1 and VvMLO to the papilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feechan, A; Jermakow, A M; Ivancevic, A; Godfrey, D; Pak, H; Panstruga, R; Dry, I B

    2013-10-01

    Challenge by a nonadapted powdery mildew fungal pathogen leads to the formation of a local cell-wall apposition (papilla) beneath the point of attempted penetration. Several plasma membrane (PM) proteins with opposing roles in powdery mildew infection, including Arabidopsis thaliana PENETRATION1 (PEN1) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) MILDEW RESISTANCE LOCUS O (MLO), are localized to the site of powdery mildew attack. PEN1 contributes to penetration resistance to nonadapted powdery mildews, whereas MLO is a susceptibility factor required by adapted powdery mildew pathogens for host cell entry. Our previous studies have demonstrated that the vesicle and endosomal trafficking inhibitors, brefeldin A and wortmannin, have opposite effects on the penetration rates of adapted and nonadapted powdery mildews on grapevine. These findings prompted us to study the pathogen-induced intracellular trafficking of grapevine variants of MLO and PEN1. We first identified grapevine (Vitis vinifera) VvPEN1 and VvMLO orthologs that rescue Arabidopsis Atpen1 and Atmlo2 mlo6 mlo12 null mutants, respectively. By using endomembrane trafficking inhibitors in combination with fluorescence microscopy, we demonstrate that VvMLO3/VvMLO4 and VvPEN1 are co-trafficked together from the PM to the site of powdery mildew challenge. This focal accumulation of VvMLO3/VvMLO4 and VvPEN1 to the site of attack seems to be required for their opposing functions during powdery mildew attack, because their subcellular localization is correlated with the outcome of attempted powdery mildew penetration.

  17. Erosion rates, sediment transport and characteristic discharge in a transient landscape in the Entle catchment (northern border of the Central Alps, Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Fabien; Schlunegger, Fritz; Norton, Kevin

    2010-05-01

    The 65 km2-large Entle catchment is located at the northern border of the Central Alps of Switzerland and is underlain by various lithologies including Flysch, carbonate sequences, Molasse deposits and glacial till. It has been subjected to headward knickpoint migration since the termination of the LGM (16 ± 3 ka), due to a base level fall upon glacial retreat. The incised portions of the catchment were delineated within a GIS environment in an effort to calculate volumetric differences between the glacial surface and the modern topography. The sediment budget estimates yield an average erosion rate of 1.93 ± 0.36 mm.yr-1 in the incised reaches, and a maximum local erosion rate of 11.47 ± 2.15 mm.yr-1. Assuming that there has been no erosion elsewhere, the basin-wide averaged erosion rate is estimated at 0.31 ± 0.06 mm.yr-1. This is consistent with 10Be-based denudation rates measured in adjacent catchments. Although constant erosion rates are generally assumed for studies involving 10Be analysis, field evidence indicate that headward knickzone migration through bedrock and unconsolidated glacial till has destabilized the surrounding hillslopes, resulting in supply of large volumes of sediment to the trunk channel by landsliding and/or debris flows downstream the knickzone. This additional influx of sediments may raise the local base level within the incised reach, thus perturbing the migration of the knickzone for a limited time interval. This time span critically depends on the relative importance between the probability density function (PDF) of the sediment particle size supplied by mass failure processes and debris flows, and the characteristic water discharge magnitude to remove that material. Measurements of the PDFs of the sediment particles along the incised Entle reach together with the application a simple long profile stream-power model for the entrainment and transport of sediment allow the identification of characteristic bed-forming discharge

  18. Charge Transport by Superexchange in Molecular Host-Guest Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symalla, Franz; Friederich, Pascal; Massé, Andrea; Meded, Velimir; Coehoorn, Reinder; Bobbert, Peter; Wenzel, Wolfgang

    2016-12-01

    Charge transport in disordered organic semiconductors is generally described as a result of incoherent hopping between localized states. In this work, we focus on multicomponent emissive host-guest layers as used in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), and show using multiscale ab initio based modeling that charge transport can be significantly enhanced by the coherent process of molecular superexchange. Superexchange increases the rate of emitter-to-emitter hopping, in particular if the emitter molecules act as relatively deep trap states, and allows for percolation path formation in charge transport at low guest concentrations.

  19. A mechanistic model for the light response of photosynthetic electron transport rate based on light harvesting properties of photosynthetic pigment molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zi-Piao; Robakowski, Piotr; Suggett, David J

    2013-03-01

    Models describing the light response of photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR) are routinely used to determine how light absorption influences energy, reducing power and yields of primary productivity; however, no single model is currently able to provide insight into the fundamental processes that implicitly govern the variability of light absorption. Here we present development and application of a new mechanistic model of ETR for photosystem II based on the light harvesting (absorption and transfer to the core 'reaction centres') characteristics of photosynthetic pigment molecules. Within this model a series of equations are used to describe novel biophysical and biochemical characteristics of photosynthetic pigment molecules and in turn light harvesting; specifically, the eigen-absorption cross-section and the minimum average lifetime of photosynthetic pigment molecules in the excited state, which describe the ability of light absorption of photosynthetic pigment molecules and retention time of excitons in the excited state but are difficult to be measured directly. We applied this model to a series of previously collected fluorescence data and demonstrated that our model described well the light response curves of ETR, regardless of whether dynamic down-regulation of PSII occurs, for a range of photosynthetic organisms (Abies alba, Picea abies, Pinus mugo and Emiliania huxleyi). Inherent estimated parameters (e.g. maximum ETR and the saturation irradiance) by our model are in very close agreement with the measured data. Overall, our mechanistic model potentially provides novel insights into the regulation of ETR by light harvesting properties as well as dynamical down-regulation of PSII.

  20. Recovery Act Final Project Report -- Transportation Electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogineni, Kumar

    2013-12-31

    ChargePoint America demonstrated the viability, economic and environmental benefits of an electric vehicle-charging infrastructure. Electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in electric vehicles (PHEVs) arrived in late 2010, there was a substantial lack of infrastructure to support these vehicles. ChargePoint America deployed charging infrastructure in ten (10) metropolitan regions in coordination with vehicle deliveries targeting those same regions by our OEM partners: General Motors, Nissan, Fisker Automotive, Ford, smart USA, and BMW. The metropolitan regions include Central Texas (Austin/San Antonio), Bellevue/Redmond (WA), Southern Michigan, Los Angeles area (CA), New York Metro (NY), Central Florida (Orlando/Tampa), Sacramento (CA), San Francisco/San Jose (CA), Washington DC and Boston (MA). ChargePoint America installed more than 4,600 Level 2 (220v) SAE J1772™ UL listed networked charging ports in home, public and commercial locations to support approximately 2000 program vehicles. ChargePoint collected data to analyze how individuals, businesses and local governments used their vehicles. Understanding driver charging behavior patterns will provide the DoE with critical information as EV adoption increases in the United States.

  1. Improving Hygiene in Food Transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoden van Velzen, E.U.; Lukasse, L.J.S.

    2016-01-01

    The hygiene aspect of food transport has become an issue for European transport operators. This development started roughly in 1990, when national governments urged transport operators to act on food safety. However, nowadays retailers and food producers are demanding more hygiene measures from

  2. Improving Hygiene in Food Transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoden van Velzen, E.U.; Lukasse, L.J.S.

    2016-01-01

    The hygiene aspect of food transport has become an issue for European transport operators. This development started roughly in 1990, when national governments urged transport operators to act on food safety. However, nowadays retailers and food producers are demanding more hygiene measures from tran

  3. SCALE/MAVRIC calculation of dose rates measured for a gamma radiation source in a thick-walled transport and storage cask of ductile cast iron with lead inserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Werner; Thiele, Holger; Ruprecht, Benjamin; Phlippen, Peter-W.; Schlömer, Luc

    2017-09-01

    Dose rate calculations are important for judging the shielding performance of transport casks for radioactive material. Therefore it is important to have reliable calculation tools. We report on measured and calculated dose rates near a thick-walled transport and storage cask of ductile cast iron with lead inserts and a Co-60 source inside. In a series of experiments the thickness of the inserts was varied, and measured dose rates near the cask were compared with SCALE/MAVRIC 6.1.3 and SCALE/MAVRIC 6.2 calculation results. Deviations from the measurements were found to be higher for increased lead thicknesses. Furthermore, it is shown how the shielding material density, air scattering and accounting for the floor influence the quality of the calculation.

  4. [Fructose transporter in yeasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Zbigniew; Dobrowolski, Adam; Robak, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Study of hexoses transporter started with discovery of galactose permease in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Glucose, fructose and mannose assimilation is assumed by numerous proteins encoded by different genes. To date over 20 hexoses transporters, belonging to Sugar Porter family and to Major Facilitator Superfamily, were known. Genome sequence analysis of Candida glabrata, Kluyveromyces lactis, Yarrowia lipolytica, S. cerevisaie and Debaryomyces hansenii reveled potential presence of 17-48 sugar porter proteins. Glucose transporters in S. cerevisiae have been already characterized. In this paper, hexoses transporters, responsible for assimilation of fructose by cells, are presented and compared. Fructose specific transporter are described for yeasts: Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Zygosaccharomyces bailli, K. lactis, Saccharomyces pastorianus, S. cerevisiae winemaking strain and for fungus Botritys cinerea and human (Glut5p). Among six yeasts transporters, five are fructose specific, acting by facilitated diffusion or proton symport. Yeasts monosaccharides transporter studies allow understanding of sugars uptake and metabolism important aspects, even in higher eukaryotes cells.

  5. Rate Review Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — As of September 1, 2011, the Affordable Care Act and rate review regulation require review of rate increases of 10 percent or more. A non-grandfathered health plan...

  6. The transmembrane tyrosines Y56, Y91 and Y167 play important roles in determining the affinity and transport rate of the rabbit proton-coupled peptide transporter PepT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieri, Myrtani; Gan, Christine; Bailey, Patrick; Meredith, David

    2009-11-01

    The mammalian proton-coupled peptide transporter PepT1 is widely accepted as the major route of uptake for dietary nitrogen, as well as being responsible for the oral absorption of a number of classes of drugs, including beta-lactam antibiotics and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Using site-directed mutagenesis and zero-trans transport assays, we investigated the role of conserved tyrosines in the transmembrane domains (TMDs) of rabbit PepT1 as predicted by hydropathy plots. All the individual TMD tyrosines were substituted with phenylalanine and shown to retain the ability to traffic to the plasma membrane of Xenopus laevis oocytes. These single substitutions of TMD tyrosines by phenylalanine residues did not affect the proton dependence of peptide uptake, with all retaining wild-type PepT1-like pH dependence. Individual mutations of four of the nine TMD residue tyrosines (Y64, Y287, Y345 and Y587) were without measurable effect on PepT1 function, whereas the other five (Y12, Y56, Y91, Y167 and Y345) were shown to result in altered transport function compared to the wild-type PepT1. Intriguingly, the affinity of Y56F-PepT1 was found to be dramatically increased (approximately 100-fold) in comparison to that of the wild-type rabbit PepT1. Y91 mutations also affected the substrate affinity of the transporter, which increased in line with the hydrophilicity of the substituted amino acid (F>Y>Q>R). Y167 was demonstrated to play a pivotal role in rabbit PepT1 function since Y167F, Y167R and Y167Q demonstrated very little transport function. These results are discussed with regard to a proposed mechanism for PepT1 substrate binding.

  7. A study of the heat treatment time, temperature and ramp rate on the transport current properties and Bi-2223 grain growth in (Bi,Pb)2223/Ag superconducting tapes

    CERN Document Server

    Young, E A

    2002-01-01

    The Bi-2223 phase formation in (Bi,Pb)2223/Ag tapes is known to be via a Pb rich liquid phase, the control of the wetting properties and the phase volume of liquid phase in the early hours of sintering can substantially improve the transport current of the final sintered tape. The phase volume of liquid phase, characterised by the formation of the Bi sub 2 (Sr sub 1 sub . sub 6 Ca sub 0 sub . sub 4)CuO sub 6 , (Bi-2201), phase, was observed to depend on the heat treatment temperature and atmosphere. The volume of secondary phases, (Cu sub 2 O, Cu-free phase, and Bi sub 2 (Sr sub 1 sub . sub 6 Ca sub 0 sub . sub 4)CuO sub 6), in the sintered Bi-2223 microstructure is shown to be sensitive to the sintering heating rate, and this is thought to be related to the wetting properties of the liquid phase. For an optimum transport critical current, (77K, self field), the heat treatment temperature and the heating rate are inter-dependent parameters, the heating rate only increasing the transport current of tapes heat ...

  8. Differential Internalization Rates and Postendocytic Sorting of the Norepinephrine and Dopamine Transporters Are Controlled by Structural Elements in the N Termini

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuorenpää, Anne Elina; Jørgensen, Trine Nygaard; Newman, Amy H

    2016-01-01

    increased intracellular accumulation of JHC 1-64-labeled NET and caused a parallel reduction in uptake capacity. Internalized NET strongly colocalized with the “long loop” recycling marker Rab11, whereas less overlap was seen with the “short loop” recycling marker Rab4 and the late endosomal marker Rab7....... Moreover, mitigating Rab11 function by overexpression of dominant negative Rab11 impaired NET function. Sorting of NET to the Rab11 recycling compartment was further supported by confocal imaging and reversible biotinylation experiments in transfected differentiated CATH.a cells. In contrast to NET......, the dopamine transporter displayed markedly less constitutive internalization and limited sorting to the Rab11 recycling compartment in the differentiated CATH.a cells. Exchange of domains between the two homologous transporters revealed that this difference was determined by non-conserved structural elements...

  9. Structural and functional dynamics of Excitatory Amino Acid Transporters (EAAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Rauen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Glutamate transporters control the glutamate homeostasis in the central nervous system, and, thus, are not only crucial for physiological excitatory synaptic signaling, but also for the prevention of a large number of neurodegenerative diseases that are associated with excessive and prolonged presence of the neurotransmitter glutamate in the extracellular space. Until now, five subtypes of high-affinity glutamate transporters (excitatory amino acid transporters, EAATs 1–5 have been identified. These 5 high-affinity glutamate transporter subtypes belong to the solute carrier 1 (SLC1 family of transmembrane proteins: EAAT1/GLAST (SLC1A3, EAAT2/GLT1 (SLC1A2, EAAT3/EAAC1 (SLC1A1, EAAT4 (SLC1A6 and EAAT5 (SLC1A7. EAATs are secondary-active transporters, taking up glutamate into the cell against a substantial concentration gradient. The driving force for concentrative uptake is provided by the co-transport of Na+ ions and the counter-transport of one K+ in a step independent of the glutamate translocation step. Due to the electrogenicity of transport, the transmembrane potential can also act as driving force. Glutamate transporters are also able to run in reverse, resulting in glutamate release from cells. Due to these important physiological functions, glutamate transporter expression and, therefore, the transport rate, are tightly regulated. The EAAT protein family are structurally expected to be highly similar, however, these transporters show a functional diversity that ranges from high capacity glutamate uptake systems (EAATs 1–3 to receptor-like glutamate activated anion channels (EAATs 4–5. Here, we provide an update on most recent progress made on EAAT’s molecular transport mechanism, structure-function relationships, pharmacology, and will add recent insights into mechanism of rapid membrane trafficking of glutamate transporters.

  10. Effect of Low Temperature Chain Transportation on Qualities and Decay Rate of Hami Melon Fruit%冷链运输对哈密瓜品质及腐烂率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨军; 廖新福; 沙勇龙; 程卫国; 李学文

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The purpose of this project was to study the effect of the low temperature chain transportation (LTCT) on qualities, decay rate and shelf life in order to resolve its related problems. [ Method ] Hami melon 'Jin long' was used as the test material to investigate the effect of LTCT on soluble solid content (SSC), decay rate, marketable rate and shelf life of the melon fruit during transportation. [Result] LTCT had a little effect on the SSC of the melon fruit, but suppress the declining of firmness of the melon. The melon fruit transported by LTCT was 40% higher in marketable rate, 30% higher in shelf life than that of the control fruit. The shelf life of the melon transported with LTCT was two days longer than that of the melon transported at normal temperature. [Conclusion] LTCT could delay the aging of melon fruit, maintain the qualities, lengthen the shelf life, and decline the decay rate of melon fruit.%[目的]研究冷链运输对哈密瓜运输品质、腐烂率及和货架期的影响,解决精品哈密瓜运输过程品质劣变,腐烂严重、货架期短的问题.[方法]以哈密瓜(Cucumis melo L ssp.melo Pang)金龙为试材,采用1-甲基环丙烯(1 - MCP)处理,冷链运输,研究冷链运输对不同可溶性固形物含量甜瓜果实运输品质、腐烂率、商品率以及货架品期的影响.[结果]冷链运输对甜瓜可溶性固形物含量的变化影响较小,延缓果实硬度的下降.各成熟度甜瓜,采用冷链运输商品率较对照高40%,货架期商品率高30%;冷链运输甜瓜货架期比常温运输延长2d.甜瓜成熟度过高,运输及货架期商品率低,腐烂率高.[结论]冷链运输延缓甜瓜运输过程果实衰老,保持品质,延长货架期,降低腐烂率.

  11. Survival rates of thermotolerant Campylobacter species in a transport and enrichment medium under different environmental conditions Taxas de sobrevida de espécies termotolerantes de Campylobacter mantidas em um meio de transporte sob diferentes condições ambientais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tresierra-Ayala

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a sobrevida de Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni e C. coli no meio de transporte e enriquecimento TEC, mantido sob diferentes condições de temperatura e concentração de oxigênio. A sobrevida da maioria das amostras foi superior a cinco dias, obtendo-se os períodos de sobrevida mais prolongados (sete a 15 dias, quando o meio foi incubado em microaerofilia à temperatura ambiente, condições nas quais o tempo de sobrevida de C. coli foi superior ao de C. jejuni subsp. jejuni.

  12. Water-transporting proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeuthen, Thomas

    2010-04-01

    Transport through lipids and aquaporins is osmotic and entirely driven by the difference in osmotic pressure. Water transport in cotransporters and uniporters is different: Water can be cotransported, energized by coupling to the substrate flux by a mechanism closely associated with protein. In the K(+)/Cl(-) and the Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporters, water is entirely cotransported, while water transport in glucose uniporters and Na(+)-coupled transporters of nutrients and neurotransmitters takes place by both osmosis and cotransport. The molecular mechanism behind cotransport of water is not clear. It is associated with the substrate movements in aqueous pathways within the protein; a conventional unstirred layer mechanism can be ruled out, due to high rates of diffusion in the cytoplasm. The physiological roles of the various modes of water transport are reviewed in relation to epithelial transport. Epithelial water transport is energized by the movements of ions, but how the coupling takes place is uncertain. All epithelia can transport water uphill against an osmotic gradient, which is hard to explain by simple osmosis. Furthermore, genetic removal of aquaporins has not given support to osmosis as the exclusive mode of transport. Water cotransport can explain the coupling between ion and water transport, a major fraction of transepithelial water transport and uphill water transport. Aquaporins enhance water transport by utilizing osmotic gradients and cause the osmolarity of the transportate to approach isotonicity.

  13. Energy-Dependent Scintillation Pulse Shape and Proportionality of Decay Components for CsI:Tl: Modeling with Transport and Rate Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, X.; Gridin, S.; Williams, R. T.; Mayhugh, M. R.; Gektin, A.; Syntfeld-Kazuch, A.; Swiderski, L.; Moszynski, M.

    2017-01-01

    Relatively recent experiments on the scintillation response of CsI:Tl have found that there are three main decay times of about 730 ns, 3 μ s , and 16 μ s , i.e., one more principal decay component than had been previously reported; that the pulse shape depends on gamma-ray energy; and that the proportionality curves of each decay component are different, with the energy-dependent light yield of the 16 -μ s component appearing to be anticorrelated with that of the 0.73 -μ s component at room temperature. These observations can be explained by the described model of carrier transport and recombination in a particle track. This model takes into account processes of hot and thermalized carrier diffusion, electric-field transport, trapping, nonlinear quenching, and radiative recombination. With one parameter set, the model reproduces multiple observables of CsI:Tl scintillation response, including the pulse shape with rise and three decay components, its energy dependence, the approximate proportionality, and the main trends in proportionality of different decay components. The model offers insights on the spatial and temporal distributions of carriers and their reactions in the track.

  14. Investigations on the heat transport capability of a cryogenic oscillating heat pipe and its application in achieving ultra-fast cooling rates for cell vitrification cryopreservation☆

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Xu; Ma, Hongbin; Jiao, Anjun; Critser, John K.

    2008-01-01

    Theoretically, direct vitrification of cell suspensions with relatively low concentrations (~1 M) of permeating cryoprotective agents (CPA) is suitable for cryopreservation of almost all cell types and can be accomplished by ultra-fast cooling rates that are on the order of 106–7 K/min. However, the methods and devices currently available for cell cryopreservation cannot achieve such high cooling rates. In this study, we constructed a novel cryogenic oscillating heat pipe (COHP) using liquid ...

  15. Serotonin transporter binding in the hypothalamus correlates negatively with tonic heat pain ratings in healthy subjects: A [11C]DASB PET study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kupers, Ron; Frokjaer, Vibe G.; Erritzoe, David

    2010-01-01

    analysis revealed a positive correlation between pain tolerance and SERT binding in the hypothalamus (r = 0.53; p = 0.02) although this was not seen in the parametric analysis. These data extend our earlier observation that cortical 5-HT receptors co-determine responses to tonic but not to phasic pain......There is a large body of evidence that the serotonergic system plays an important role in the transmission and regulation of pain. Here we used positron emission tomography (PET) with the serotonin transporter (SERT) tracer [11C]DASB to study the relationship between SERT binding in the brain...... and responses to noxious heat stimulation in a group of 21 young healthy volunteers. Responses to noxious heat stimuli were assessed in a separate psychophysical experiment and included measurements of pain threshold, pain tolerance, and responses to phasic noxious heat stimuli and to a long lasting (7-minute...

  16. Vertical transport rates and concentrations of OH and Cl radicals in the Tropical Tropopause Layer from observations of CO2 and halocarbons: implications for distributions of long- and short-lived chemical species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Bui

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Rates for large-scale vertical transport of air in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL were determined using high-resolution, in situ observations of CO2 concentrations in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere during the NASA Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling (TC4 campaign in August 2007. Upward movement of trace gases in the deep tropics was notably slower in TC4 than during the Costa Rica AURA Validation Experiment (CR-AVE, in January 2006. Transport rates in the TTL were combined with in situ measurements of chlorinated and brominated organic compounds from whole air samples to determine chemical loss rates for reactive chemical species, providing empirical vertical profiles for 24-h mean concentrations of hydroxyl radicals (OH and chlorine atoms in the TTL. The analysis shows that important short-lived species such as CHCl3, CH2Cl2, and CH2Br2 have longer chemical lifetimes than the time for transit of the TTL, implying that these species, which are not included in most models, could readily reach the stratosphere and make significant contributions of chlorine and/or bromine to stratospheric loading.

  17. Vertical transport rates and concentrations of OH and Cl radicals in the Tropical Tropopause Layer from Observations of CO2 and halocarbons: implications for distributions of long- and short-lived chemical species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Bui

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Rates for large-scale vertical transport of air in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL were determined using high-resolution, in situ observations of CO2 concentrations in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere during the NASA Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling (TC4 campaign in August 2007. Upward movement of trace gases in the deep tropics was notably slower in TC4 than during the Costa Rica AURA Validation Experiment (CR-AVE, in January 2006. Transport rates in the TTL were combined with in situ measurements of chlorinated and brominated organic compounds from whole air samples to determine chemical loss rates for reactive chemical species, providing empirical vertical profiles for 24-h mean concentrations of hydroxyl radicals (OH and chlorine atoms in the TTL. The analysis shows that important short-lived species such as CHCl3, CH2Cl2, and CH2Br2 have longer chemical lifetimes than the time for transit of the TTL, implying that these species, which are not included in most models, could readily reach the stratosphere and make significant contributions of chlorine and/or bromine to stratospheric loading.

  18. Pressure losses in pneumatic transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottjes, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    A model is derived to calculate the pressure losses originating from the dilute phase pneumatic transport of coarse particles in the horizontal stationary flow regime. The model is based on the balance of drag forces and frictional forces acting on the particles during pneumatic transport. The

  19. Transport of active ellipsoidal particles in ratchet potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ai, Bao-Quan, E-mail: aibq@scnu.edu.cn; Wu, Jian-Chun [Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, 510006 Guangzhou (China)

    2014-03-07

    Rectified transport of active ellipsoidal particles is numerically investigated in a two-dimensional asymmetric potential. The out-of-equilibrium condition for the active particle is an intrinsic property, which can break thermodynamical equilibrium and induce the directed transport. It is found that the perfect sphere particle can facilitate the rectification, while the needlelike particle destroys the directed transport. There exist optimized values of the parameters (the self-propelled velocity, the torque acting on the body) at which the average velocity takes its maximal value. For the ellipsoidal particle with not large asymmetric parameter, the average velocity decreases with increasing the rotational diffusion rate, while for the needlelike particle (very large asymmetric parameter), the average velocity is a peaked function of the rotational diffusion rate. By introducing a finite load, particles with different shapes (or different self-propelled velocities) will move to the opposite directions, which is able to separate particles of different shapes (or different self-propelled velocities)

  20. Rating of transport and radiation source events. Draft additional guidance for the INES national officers for pilot use and feedback; Echelle de classement des incidents de radioprotection: document d'application du systeme international propose par l'AIEA pour les sources radioactives et les transports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-15

    The International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) is a means for promptly communicating to the public in consistent terms the safety significance of any reported event associated with radioactive material and/or radiation and to any event occurring during the transport of radioactive material. As described in the 2001 Edition of the INES User.s Manual, events are classified on the scale at seven levels: the upper levels (4-7) are termed accidents. and the lower levels (1-3) incidents. Events which have no safety significance are classified below scale at Level 0 and termed deviations. An overview of the principles for the rating under INES together with flow charts summarizing the rating process is provided in Appendix I. The 2001 Edition of the INES User.s Manual provides some guidance for the rating of transport and radiation source events. At the technical meeting held in 2002 the INES National Officers requested the IAEA/NEA Secretariat to prepare additional guidance. Progress was reported at the Technical Meeting of the INES National Officers in March 2004 where preparation of this draft additional guidance was requested for pilot use. This note provides additional guidance on the rating of transport and radiation source events. It is for pilot use and feedback and is broadly consistent with the INES User.s Manual. It provides more detailed information and an expanded approach for the rating based on actual exposure of workers and members of the public. It is designed to be used as a self-standing document with limited need for reference to the INES User Manual. (author)

  1. Exposure of ELF-EMF and RF-EMF Increase the Rate of Glucose Transport and TCA Cycle in Budding Yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kang-Wei; Yang, Chuan-Jun; Lian, Hui-Yong; Cai, Peng

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the transcriptional response to 50 Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) and 2.0 GHz radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure by Illumina sequencing technology using budding yeast as the model organism. The transcription levels of 28 genes were upregulated and those of four genes were downregulated under ELF-EMF exposure, while the transcription levels of 29 genes were upregulated and those of 24 genes were downregulated under RF-EMF exposure. After validation by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), a concordant direction of change both in differential gene expression (DGE) and RT-qPCR was demonstrated for nine genes under ELF-EMF exposure and for 10 genes under RF-EMF exposure. The RT-qPCR results revealed that ELF-EMF and RF-EMF exposure can upregulate the expression of genes involved in glucose transportation and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, but not the glycolysis pathway. Energy metabolism is closely related with the cell response to environmental stress including EMF exposure. Our findings may throw light on the mechanism underlying the biological effects of EMF. PMID:27630630

  2. 78 FR 14403 - Alabama Metal Coil Securement Act; Petition for Determination of Preemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Alabama Metal Coil Securement Act; Petition for Determination... Alabama's Metal Coil Securement Act (the Act) is preempted by Federal law. Federal law provides for... Coil Securement Act The Act, adopted in 2009, prohibits a motor carrier from transporting metal...

  3. Radiation Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbatsch, Todd James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-06-15

    We present an overview of radiation transport, covering terminology, blackbody raditation, opacities, Boltzmann transport theory, approximations to the transport equation. Next we introduce several transport methods. We present a section on Caseology, observing transport boundary layers. We briefly broach topics of software development, including verification and validation, and we close with a section on high energy-density experiments that highlight and support radiation transport.

  4. Engineering yield and rate of reductive biotransformation in Escherichia coli by partial cyclization of the pentose phosphate pathway and PTS-independent glucose transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedler, Solvej; Bringer, Stephanie; Blank, Lars M; Bott, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Optimization of yields and productivities in reductive whole-cell biotransformations is an important issue for the industrial application of such processes. In a recent study with Escherichia coli, we analyzed the reduction of the prochiral β-ketoester methyl acetoacetate by an R-specific alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) to the chiral hydroxy ester (R)-methyl 3-hydroxybutyrate (MHB) using glucose as substrate for the generation of NADPH. Deletion of the phosphofructokinase gene pfkA almost doubled the yield to 4.8 mol MHB per mole of glucose, and it was assumed that this effect was due to a partial cyclization of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). Here, this partial cyclization was confirmed by (13)C metabolic flux analysis, which revealed a negative net flux from glucose 6-phosphate to fructose 6-phosphate catalyzed by phosphoglucose isomerase. For further process optimization, the genes encoding the glucose facilitator (glf) and glucokinase (glk) of Zymomonas mobilis were overexpressed in recombinant E. coli strains carrying ADH and deletions of either pgi (phosphoglucose isomerase), or pfkA, or pfkA plus pfkB. In all cases, the glucose uptake rate was increased (30-47%), and for strains Δpgi and ΔpfkA also, the specific MHB production rate was increased by 15% and 20%, respectively. The yield of the latter two strains slightly dropped by 11% and 6%, but was still 73% and 132% higher compared to the reference strain with intact pgi and pfkA genes and expressing glf and glk. Thus, metabolic engineering strategies are presented for improving yield and rate of reductive redox biocatalysis by partial cyclization of the PPP and by increasing glucose uptake, respectively.

  5. Mass Transport within Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.

    2009-03-01

    Contaminants in soil can impact human health and the environment through a complex web of interactions. Soils exist where the atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, and biosphere converge. Soil is the thin outer zone of the earth's crust that supports rooted plants and is the product of climate and living organisms acting on rock. A true soil is a mixture of air, water, mineral, and organic components. The relative proportions of these components determine the value of the soil for agricultural and for other human uses. These proportions also determine, to a large extent, how a substance added to soil is transported and/or transformed within the soil (Spositio, 2004). In mass-balance models, soil compartments play a major role, functioning both as reservoirs and as the principal media for transport among air, vegetation, surface water, deeper soil, and ground water (Mackay, 2001). Quantifying the mass transport of chemicals within soil and between soil and atmosphere is important for understanding the role soil plays in controlling fate, transport, and exposure to multimedia pollutants. Soils are characteristically heterogeneous. A trench dug into soil typically reveals several horizontal layers having different colors and textures. As illustrated in Figure 1, these multiple layers are often divided into three major horizons: (1) the A horizon, which encompasses the root zone and contains a high concentration of organic matter; (2) the B horizon, which is unsaturated, lies below the roots of most plants, and contains a much lower organic carbon content; and (3) the C horizon, which is the unsaturated zone of weathered parent rock consisting of bedrock, alluvial material, glacial material, and/or soil of an earlier geological period. Below these three horizons lies the saturated zone - a zone that encompasses the area below ground surface in which all interconnected openings within the geologic media are completely filled with water. Similarly to the unsaturated

  6. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  7. Proceedings of MUTA 2006, the 4. international forum on urban mobility and advanced transportation : alternative energies for the automobile; Actes du colloque MUTA 2006, le 4. forum international sur la mobilite urbaine et les transports avances : alternatives energetiques dans l'automobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-15

    Clean modes of transport were highlighted at this forum with particular reference to the needs of transport operators in meeting urban mobility targets. The constraints facing the delivering of goods in urban centres were identified along with political and financial incentives that can promote research and innovation in the transportation sector. Other topical issues included mass transportation as a means to achieve clean and efficient mobility; the leadership role of governments in establishing policies for sustainable transportation; intelligent transportation systems and their many applications; and, transportation solutions presented by electric vehicles. The technological developments required to meet the needs of buses, tramways and trucks were also identified along with some of the technical and societal barriers to the development of special urban vehicles, such as small delivery vehicles for local transport. New collaborative projects aimed at improving buses and delivery vehicles were highlighted with reference to future prospects for individualized urban mobility. Regulations and incentives that would contribute to fewer cars in urban environments were discussed in terms of the challenge created by the public's resistance to change. Methods to overcome bad habits and to optimize modal transport were recommended. Funding tools for transport innovation in France, Europe and elsewhere were highlighted along with case studies of research and development projects in urban transport. New developments and applications in batteries and hybrid technology for automotive propulsion systems were reviewed. refs., tabs., figs.

  8. Transport Studies Enabling Efficiency Optimization of Cost-Competitive Fuel Cell Stacks (aka AURORA: Areal Use and Reactant Optimization at Rated Amperage)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conti, Amedeo [Nuvera Fuel Cells, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Dross, Robert [Nuvera Fuel Cells, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States)

    2013-12-06

    Hydrogen fuel cells are recognized as one of the most viable solutions for mobility in the 21st century; however, there are technical challenges that must be addressed before the technology can become available for mass production. One of the most demanding aspects is the costs of present-day fuel cells which are prohibitively high for the majority of envisioned markets. The fuel cell community recognizes two major drivers to an effective cost reduction: (1) decreasing the noble metals content, and (2) increasing the power density in order to reduce the number of cells needed to achieve a specified power level. To date, the majority of development work aimed at increasing the value metric (i.e. W/mg-Pt) has focused on the reduction of precious metal loadings, and this important work continues. Efforts to increase power density have been limited by two main factors: (1) performance limitations associated with mass transport barriers, and (2) the historical prioritization of efficiency over cost. This program is driven by commercialization imperatives, and challenges both of these factors. The premise of this Program, supported by proprietary cost modeling by Nuvera, is that DOE 2015 cost targets can be met by simultaneously exceeding DOE 2015 targets for Platinum loadings (using materials with less than 0.2 mg-Pt/cm2) and MEA power density (operating at higher than 1.0 Watt/cm2). The approach of this program is to combine Nuvera’s stack technology, which has demonstrated the ability to operate stably at high current densities (> 1.5 A/cm2), with low Platinum loading MEAs developed by Johnson Matthey in order to maximize Pt specific power density and reduce stack cost. A predictive performance model developed by PSU/UTK is central to the program allowing the team to study the physics and optimize materials/conditions specific to low Pt loading electrodes and ultra-high current density and operation.

  9. Chamber transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OLSON,CRAIG L.

    2000-05-17

    Heavy ion beam transport through the containment chamber plays a crucial role in all heavy ion fusion (HIF) scenarios. Here, several parameters are used to characterize the operating space for HIF beams; transport modes are assessed in relation to evolving target/accelerator requirements; results of recent relevant experiments and simulations of HIF transport are summarized; and relevant instabilities are reviewed. All transport options still exist, including (1) vacuum ballistic transport, (2) neutralized ballistic transport, and (3) channel-like transport. Presently, the European HIF program favors vacuum ballistic transport, while the US HIF program favors neutralized ballistic transport with channel-like transport as an alternate approach. Further transport research is needed to clearly guide selection of the most attractive, integrated HIF system.

  10. First principles transport coefficients and reaction rates of Ar{sub 2}{sup +} ions in argon for cold plasma jet modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chicheportiche, Alexandre; Benhenni, Malika; Yousfi, Mohammed, E-mail: yousfi@laplace.univ-tlse.fr [Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d’Energie, LAPLACE and UMR5213 du CNRS, Université de Toulouse, UPS, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex (France); Stachoň, Martin; Kalus, René, E-mail: rene.kalus@vsb.cz [Center of Excellence IT4Innovations and Department of Applied Mathematics, VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15, 708 33 Ostrava (Czech Republic); Gadéa, Florent Xavier [Laboratoire de Chimie et de Physique Quantiques, IRSAMC and UMR5626 du CNRS, Université de Toulouse, UPS, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex (France)

    2014-10-07

    Momentum-transfer collision cross-sections and integral collision cross-sections for the collision-induced dissociation are calculated for collisions of ionized argon dimers with argon atoms using a nonadiabatic semiclassical method with the electronic Hamiltonian calculated on the fly via a diatomics-in-molecules semiempirical model as well as inverse-method modeling based on simple isotropic rigid-core potential. The collision cross-sections are then used in an optimized Monte Carlo code for evaluations of the Ar{sub 2}{sup +} mobility in argon gas, longitudinal diffusion coefficient, and collision-induced dissociation rates. A thorough comparison of various theoretical calculations as well as with available experimental data on the Ar{sub 2}{sup +} mobility and collision cross-sections is performed. Good agreement is found between both theoretical approaches and the experiment. Analysis of the role of inelastic processes in Ar{sub 2}{sup +}/Ar collisions is also provided.

  11. Precipitation rates and atmospheric heat transport during the Cenomanian greenhouse warming in North America: Estimates from a stable isotope mass-balance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ufnar, David F.; Ludvigson, Greg A.; Gonzalez, L.; Grocke, D.R.

    2008-01-01

    Stable isotope mass-balance modeling results of meteoric ??18O values from the Cenomanian Stage of the Cretaceous Western Interior Basin (KWIB) suggest that precipitation and evaporation fluxes were greater than that of the present and significantly different from simulations of Albian KWIB paleohydrology. Sphaerosiderite meteoric ??18O values have been compiled from the Lower Tuscaloosa Formation of southwestern Mississippi (25??N paleolatitude), The Dakota Formation Rose Creek Pit, Fairbury Nebraska (35??N) and the Dunvegan Formation of eastern British Columbia (55??N paleolatitude). These paleosol siderite ??18O values define a paleolatitudinal gradient ranging from - 4.2??? VPDB at 25??N to - 12.5??? VPDB at 55??N. This trend is significantly steeper and more depleted than a modern theoretical siderite gradient (25??N: - 1.7???; 65??N: - 5.6??? VPDB ), and a Holocene meteoric calcite trend (27??N: - 3.6???; 67??N: - 7.4??? VPDB). The Cenomanian gradient is also comparatively steeper than the Albian trend determined for the KWIB in the mid- to high latitudes. The steep latitudinal trend in meteoric ??18O values may be the result of increased precipitation and evaporation fluxes (amount effects) under a more vigorous greenhouse-world hydrologic cycle. A stable-isotope mass-balance model has been used to generate estimates of precipitation and evaporation fluxes and precipitation rates. Estimates of Cenomanian precipitation rates based upon the mass-balance modeling of the KWIB range from 1400??mm/yr at 25??N paleolatitude to 3600??mm/yr at 45??N paleolatitude. The precipitation-evaporation (P-E) flux values were used to delineate zones of moisture surplus and moisture deficit. Comparisons between Cenomanian P-E and modern theoretical siderite, and Holocene calcite latitudinal trends shows an amplification of low-latitude moisture deficits between 5-25??N paleolatitude and moisture surpluses between 40-60??N paleolatitude. The low-latitude moisture deficits

  12. Count rate balance method of measuring sediment transport of sand beds by radioactive tracers; Methode du bilan des taux de comptage d'indicateurs radioactifs pour la determination du debit de charriage des lits sableux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauzay, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91 - Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-11-01

    Radioactive tracers are applied to the direct measurement of the sediment transport rate of sand beds. The theoretical measurement formula is derived: the variation of the count rate balance is inverse of that of the transport thickness. Simultaneously the representativeness of the tracer is critically studied. The minimum quantity of tracer which has to be injected in order to obtain a correct statistical definition of count rate given by a low number of grains 'seen' by the detector is then studied. A field experiment was made and has let to study the technological conditions for applying this method: only the treatment of results is new, the experiment itself is carried out with conventional techniques applied with great care. (author) [French] Les indicateurs radioactifs sont appliques a la mesure directe du debit de charriage des lits sableux. On etablit la formule theorique de mesure: le bilan des taux de comptage varie en sens inverse de l'epaisseur de charriage. Parallelement on fait une etude critique de la representativite de l'indicateur, puis on determine la quantite minimale de traceur qu'il faut immerger pour que les taux de comptage fournis pour un faible nombre de grains 'vus' par le detecteur aient une definition statistique correcte. Une experience de terrain a permis d'etudier les conditions technologiques de cette methode: seul le depouillement des resultats est nouveau. L'experimentation in-situ se fait suivant les procedes classiques avec un tres grand soin. (auteur)

  13. 20 CFR 617.28 - Transportation payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transportation payments. 617.28 Section 617... ASSISTANCE FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Reemployment Services § 617.28 Transportation payments. (a... transportation expenses if the training is outside the commuting area, but may not receive such assistance...

  14. 22 CFR 228.21 - Ocean transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ocean transportation. 228.21 Section 228.21... for USAID Financing § 228.21 Ocean transportation. (a) The Cargo Preference Act of 1954, Section 901(b... transportation services is determined by the flag registry of the vessel. (1) When the authorized source...

  15. A Simulator Study of the Effectiveness of a Pilot's Indicator which Combined Angle of Attack and Rate of Change of Total Pressure as Applied to the Take-Off Rotation and Climbout of a Supersonic Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Albert W.; Harris, Jack E.

    1961-01-01

    A simulator study has been made to determine the effectiveness of a single instrument presentation as an aid to the pilot in controlling both rotation and climbout path in take-off. The instrument was basically an angle-of-attack indicator, biased with a total-pressure-rate input as a means of suppressing the phugoid oscillation. Linearized six-degree-of-freedom equations of motion were utilized in simulating a hypothetical supersonic transport as the test vehicle. Each of several experienced pilots performed a number of simulated take-offs, using conventional flight instruments and either an angle-of-attack instrument or the combined angle-of-attack and total-pressure-rate instrument. The pilots were able to rotate the airplane, with satisfactory precision, to the 15 deg. angle of attack required for lift-off when using either an angle-of-attack instrument or the instrument which combined total-pressure-rate with angle of attack. At least 4 to 6 second-S appeared to be required for rotation to prevent overshoot, particularly with the latter instrument. The flight paths resulting from take-offs with simulated engine failures were relatively smooth and repeatable within a reasonably narrow band when the combined angle-of-attack and total-pressure-rate instrument presentation was used. Some of the flight paths resulting from take-offs with the same engine-failure conditions were very oscillatory when conventional instruments and an angle-of-attack instrument were used. The pilots considered the combined angle-of-attack and total- pressure-rate instrument a very effective aid. Even though they could, with sufficient practice, perform satisfactory climbouts after simulated engine failure by monitoring the conventional instruments and making correction based on their readings, it was much easier to maintain a smooth flight path with the single combined angle-of-attack and total-pressure-rate instrument.

  16. Technical note: Monte Carlo genetic algorithm (MCGA for model analysis of multiphase chemical kinetics to determine transport and reaction rate coefficients using multiple experimental data sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Berkemeier

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a Monte Carlo genetic algorithm (MCGA for efficient, automated, and unbiased global optimization of model input parameters by simultaneous fitting to multiple experimental data sets. The algorithm was developed to address the inverse modelling problems associated with fitting large sets of model input parameters encountered in state-of-the-art kinetic models for heterogeneous and multiphase atmospheric chemistry. The MCGA approach utilizes a sequence of optimization methods to find and characterize the solution of an optimization problem. It addresses an issue inherent to complex models whose extensive input parameter sets may not be uniquely determined from limited input data. Such ambiguity in the derived parameter values can be reliably detected using this new set of tools, allowing users to design experiments that should be particularly useful for constraining model parameters. We show that the MCGA has been used successfully to constrain parameters such as chemical reaction rate coefficients, diffusion coefficients, and Henry's law solubility coefficients in kinetic models of gas uptake and chemical transformation of aerosol particles as well as multiphase chemistry at the atmosphere–biosphere interface. While this study focuses on the processes outlined above, the MCGA approach should be portable to any numerical process model with similar computational expense and extent of the fitting parameter space.

  17. Technical note: Monte Carlo genetic algorithm (MCGA) for model analysis of multiphase chemical kinetics to determine transport and reaction rate coefficients using multiple experimental data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkemeier, Thomas; Ammann, Markus; Krieger, Ulrich K.; Peter, Thomas; Spichtinger, Peter; Pöschl, Ulrich; Shiraiwa, Manabu; Huisman, Andrew J.

    2017-06-01

    We present a Monte Carlo genetic algorithm (MCGA) for efficient, automated, and unbiased global optimization of model input parameters by simultaneous fitting to multiple experimental data sets. The algorithm was developed to address the inverse modelling problems associated with fitting large sets of model input parameters encountered in state-of-the-art kinetic models for heterogeneous and multiphase atmospheric chemistry. The MCGA approach utilizes a sequence of optimization methods to find and characterize the solution of an optimization problem. It addresses an issue inherent to complex models whose extensive input parameter sets may not be uniquely determined from limited input data. Such ambiguity in the derived parameter values can be reliably detected using this new set of tools, allowing users to design experiments that should be particularly useful for constraining model parameters. We show that the MCGA has been used successfully to constrain parameters such as chemical reaction rate coefficients, diffusion coefficients, and Henry's law solubility coefficients in kinetic models of gas uptake and chemical transformation of aerosol particles as well as multiphase chemistry at the atmosphere-biosphere interface. While this study focuses on the processes outlined above, the MCGA approach should be portable to any numerical process model with similar computational expense and extent of the fitting parameter space.

  18. Effects of salinity on metabolic rate and branchial expression of genes involved in ion transport and metabolism in Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikos, Aris; Seale, Andre P; Lerner, Darren T; Grau, E Gordon; Korsmeyer, Keith E

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of two rearing salinities, and acute salinity transfer, on the energetic costs of osmoregulation and the expression of metabolic and osmoregulatory genes in the gill of Mozambique tilapia. Using automated, intermittent-flow respirometry, measured standard metabolic rates (SMRs) of tilapia reared in seawater (SW, 130 mg O₂ kg⁻¹ h⁻¹) were greater than those reared in fresh water (FW, 103 mg O₂ kg⁻¹ h⁻¹), when normalized to a common mass of 0.05 kg and at 25±1°C. Transfer from FW to 75% SW increased SMR within 18h, to levels similar to SW-reared fish, while transfer from SW to FW decreased SMR to levels similar to FW-reared fish. Branchial gene expression of Na⁺-K⁺-2Cl⁻ cotransporter (NKCC), an indicator of SW-type mitochondria-rich (MR) cells, was positively correlated with SMR, while Na⁺-Cl⁻ cotransporter (NCC), an indicator of FW-type MR cells, was negatively correlated. Principal Components Analysis also revealed that branchial expression of cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV (COX-IV), glycogen phosphorylase (GP), and a putative mitochondrial biogenesis regulator in fish, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), were correlated with a higher SMR, plasma osmolality, and environmental salinity, while expression of glycogen synthase (GS), PGC-1β, and nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) had negative correlations. These results suggest that the energetic costs of osmoregulation are higher in SW than in FW, which may be related to the salinity-dependent differences in osmoregulatory mechanisms found in the gills of Mozambique tilapia.

  19. Information on the Interstate Transport Good Neighbor Provision for the 2012 Fine Particulate Matter (PM) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) under Clean Air Act (CAA) Section 110(a)(2)(D)(i)(I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this March 2016 memorandum is to provide information to EPA regional offices and states as they develop and review SIPs that address the interstate transport Good Neighbor provision as it pertains to the PM2.5 NAAQS

  20. Public Law 96-479--National Materials and Minerals Policy, R & D Act of 1980 and Consideration of H.R. 4281 - Critical Materials Act of 1981. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Transportation, Aviation and Materials and the Subcommittee on Science, Research and Technology of the Committee on Science and Technology U. S. House of Representatives, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session. [No. 117

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Science and Technology.

    Presented in this document are transcripts of hearings on the subject of national materials policy. The hearings focused on implementation of P.L. 96-479, the National Materials and Minerals Policy, Research and Development Act of 1980 (including the recent Presidential program plan and report made to Congress) and on H.R. 4281, the Critical…

  1. Neurotransmitter transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gether, Ulrik; Andersen, Peter H; Larsson, Orla M

    2006-01-01

    The concentration of neurotransmitters in the extracellular space is tightly controlled by distinct classes of membrane transport proteins. This review focuses on the molecular function of two major classes of neurotransmitter transporter that are present in the cell membrane of neurons and....../or glial cells: the solute carrier (SLC)1 transporter family, which includes the transporters that mediate the Na(+)-dependent uptake of glutamate, and the SLC6 transporter family, which includes the transporters that mediate the Na(+)-dependent uptake of dopamine, 5-HT, norepinephrine, glycine and GABA....... Recent research has provided substantial insight into the structure and function of these transporters. In particular, the recent crystallizations of bacterial homologs are of the utmost importance, enabling the first reliable structural models of the mammalian neurotransmitter transporters...

  2. School Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Executive Educator, 1990

    1990-01-01

    This special section on student transportation offers a case study of a school system that recycles buses for safety drills; articles on fuel-saving strategies, the pros and cons of contracting for transportation services or operating a publicly owned bus fleet, and advice on full cost accounting for transportation costs; and a transportation…

  3. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Evren Ozbayoglu; Lei Zhou

    2002-07-30

    This is the fourth quarterly progress report for Year-3 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between April 1, 2002 and June 30, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)''; (c) Research project (Task 9b): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions''; (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions''; (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), and Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b); (f) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S); (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  4. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2003-01-30

    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year-4 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between October 1, 2002 and December 30, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks. (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System, Task 4: Addition of a Pipe Rotation System. (b) New research project (Task 9b): ''Development of a Foam Generator/Viscometer for Elevated Pressure and Elevated Temperature (EPET) Conditions''. (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions''. (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), and Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b). (f) New Research project (Task 13): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions''. (g) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (h) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  5. Carrier transport uphill. I. General

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, T; Wilbrandt, W

    1963-01-01

    are worked out with respect to net transport rate, initial rate, unidirectional fluxes including back-flow through the pump, maximum accumulation ratio, competitive inhibition and acceleration, counter transport, and metabolic poisoning. The energetics of the system are treated. The fact that the system...

  6. 78 FR 64541 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD Sunshine Act Meeting TIME AND DATE: 9:30 a.m., Tuesday, November 5, 2013 PLACE: NTSB Conference Center, 429 L'Enfant Plaza SW., Washington, DC 20594. STATUS: The one item is open to the...

  7. 76 FR 75881 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... Sunshine Act Meeting AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETING: Federal Maritime Commission. TIME AND DATE: December 8... Proposal of the Ministry of Transport of the People's Republic of China for Adjustment of the Amount for... the Liner Shipping Conference Exemption from Competition Laws-Discussion of Bureau of Trade...

  8. 76 FR 77738 - Telecommunications Act Accessibility Guidelines; Electronic and Information Technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Parts 1193 and 1194 RIN 3014-AA37 Telecommunications Act... recent Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking to update its Telecommunications Act Accessibility... Federal Register to continue the process of updating its guidelines for telecommunications...

  9. Osmotic stress alters chromatin condensation and nucleocytoplasmic transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finan, John D.; Leddy, Holly A.; Guilak, Farshid

    2011-01-01

    Osmotic stress is a potent regulator of biological function in many cell types, but its mechanism of action is only partially understood. In this study, we examined whether changes in extracellular osmolality can alter chromatin condensation and the rate of nucleocytoplasmic transport, as potential mechanisms by which osmotic stress can act. Transport of 10 kDa dextran was measured both within and between the nucleus and the cytoplasm using two different photobleaching methods. A mathematical model was developed to describe fluorescence recovery via nucleocytoplasmic transport. As osmolality increased, the diffusion coefficient of dextran decreased in the cytoplasm, but not the nucleus. Hyper-osmotic stress decreased nuclear size and increased nuclear lacunarity, indicating that while the nucleus was getting smaller, the pores and channels interdigitating the chromatin had expanded. The rate of nucleocytoplasmic transport was increased under hyper-osmotic stress but was insensitive to hypo-osmotic stress, consistent with the nonlinear osmotic properties of the nucleus. The mechanism of this osmotic sensitivity appears to be a change in the size and geometry of the nucleus, resulting in a shorter effective diffusion distance for the nucleus. These results may explain physical mechanisms by which osmotic stress can influence intracellular signaling pathways that rely on nucleocytoplasmic transport. PMID:21463604

  10. Sustainable Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The transportation system is the backbone of economic and social progress and the means by which humans access goods and services and connect with one another. Yet, as the scale of transportation activities has grown worldwide, so too have the negative environmental, social, and economic impacts...... that relate to the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and the operation or use of the different transportation modes. The concept of sustainable transportation emerged in response to these concerns as part of the broader notion of sustainable development. Given the transportation...... sector’s significant contribution to global challenges such as climate change, it is often said that sustainable development cannot be achieved without sustainable transportation....

  11. Autism: Why Act Early?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Autism: Why Act Early? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... helped the world make sense." Florida teenager with Autism Spectrum Disorder "Because my parents acted early, I ...

  12. Logistic innovations in transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Antonowicz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The article discusses the issue of logistic innovations in transport. The essentials of logistic innovations in transport together with some examples of specific innovations are presented. The role of the client's needs in transport innovations is indicated. The most vital postulates affecting the innovativeness of shipping companies and derived from the author's experience as well as scholarly publications, are time, safety, reliability as well as comprehensiveness of service offer. Following the analysis of the issue, and on the grounds of Kaizen's and Lean's method, the concept of continuous innovations is suggested as very useful for the development of transport. The potential of clusters as the source of logistic innovations in transport is emphasised. Methods: The discussion of the issue was preceded by the author's analysis of written sources on innovativeness, the evaluation of ratings of innovativeness as well as the analysis of rewarded innovative solutions in transport subsequent to the businesses participation in the programme of innovative solutions in transport. The role of innovation practical business operations is argued following the analysis of some strategic documents such as: 2011 White Paper and the Strategy for the Development of Transport by 2020 adopted by the Polish government in 2013. Aim: The aim of the article is to present the role and significance of the issue of logistic innovations in transport and to cite instances of practical solutions implemented by shipping companies, the solutions which resulted in measurable effects. Following the author's observation of the instances of innovative solutions as well as his analysis of the ratings of innovativeness, the article aims to present the conclusions as for the specific kinds of activities which are indispensable to foster innovativeness in transport. Conclusions: The conclusions derived from the author's analyses and observations show that logistic

  13. The dermatology acting internship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, John B; Raimer, Sharon S; Wagner, Richard F

    2011-07-15

    Acting internships are an important component of modern day medical school curriculum. Several specialties outside of internal medicine now offer acting internship experiences to fourth year medical students. We have found that a dermatology acting internship is a valuable experience for fourth year medical students who are interested in pursuing a residency in dermatology. Our experience with the dermatology acting internship over the 2010-2011 academic year is described.

  14. General Information for Transportation and Conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transportation conformity is required by the Clean Air Act section 176(c) (42 U.S.C. 7506(c)) to ensure that federal funding and approval are given to highway and transit projects that are consistent with SIP.

  15. Map of Federal Lands Highway American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Projects -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The map depicts Federal Lands Highway (FLH) American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) projects, which are administered through the Federal Lands Divisions (FLD)....

  16. Enstrophy transport conditional on local flow topologies in different regimes of premixed turbulent combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Papapostolou, Vassilios

    2017-09-11

    Enstrophy is an intrinsic feature of turbulent flows, and its transport properties are essential for the understanding of premixed flame-turbulence interaction. The interrelation between the enstrophy transport and flow topologies, which can be assigned to eight categories based on the three invariants of the velocity-gradient tensor, has been analysed here. The enstrophy transport conditional on flow topologies in turbulent premixed flames has been analysed using a Direct Numerical Simulation database representing the corrugated flamelets (CF), thin reaction zones (TRZ) and broken reaction zones (BRZ) combustion regimes. The flame in the CF regime exhibits considerable flame-generated enstrophy, and the dilatation rate and baroclinic torque contributions to the enstrophy transport act as leading order sink and source terms, respectively. Consequently, flow topologies associated with positive dilatation rate values, contribute significantly to the enstrophy transport in the CF regime. By contrast, enstrophy decreases from the unburned to the burned gas side for the cases representing the TRZ and BRZ regimes, with diminishing influences of dilatation rate and baroclinic torque. The enstrophy transport in the TRZ and BRZ regimes is governed by the vortex-stretching and viscous dissipation contributions, similar to non-reacting flows, and topologies existing for all values of dilatation rate remain significant contributors.

  17. Sector-specific issues and reporting methodologies supporting the General Guidelines for the voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Volume 2: Part 4, Transportation sector; Part 5, Forestry sector; Part 6, Agricultural sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This volume, the second of two such volumes, contains sector-specific guidance in support of the General Guidelines for the voluntary reporting of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon sequestration. This voluntary reporting program was authorized by Congress in Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. The General Guidelines, bound separately from this volume, provide the overall rationale for the program, discuss in general how to analyze emissions and emission reduction/carbon sequestration projects, and address programmatic issues such as minimum reporting requirements, time parameters, international projects, confidentiality, and certification. Together, the General Guidelines and the guidance in these supporting documents will provide concepts and approaches needed to prepare the reporting forms. This second volume of sector-specific guidance covers the transportation sector, the forestry sector, and the agricultural sector.

  18. Health Insurance Rate Review Fact Sheet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Affordable Care Act is bringing an unprecedented level of scrutiny and transparency to health insurance rate increases. The Act ensures that, in any State, any...

  19. Sustainable Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The transportation system is the backbone of economic and social progress and the means by which humans access goods and services and connect with one another. Yet, as the scale of transportation activities has grown worldwide, so too have the negative environmental, social, and economic impacts ...... sector’s significant contribution to global challenges such as climate change, it is often said that sustainable development cannot be achieved without sustainable transportation....

  20. Indirect Speech Acts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李威

    2001-01-01

    Indirect speech acts are frequently used in verbal communication, the interpretation of them is of great importance in order to meet the demands of the development of students' communicative competence. This paper, therefore, intends to present Searle' s indirect speech acts and explore the way how indirect speech acts are interpreted in accordance with two influential theories. It consists of four parts. Part one gives a general introduction to the notion of speech acts theory. Part two makes an elaboration upon the conception of indirect speech act theory proposed by Searle and his supplement and development of illocutionary acts. Part three deals with the interpretation of indirect speech acts. Part four draws implication from the previous study and also serves as the conclusion of the dissertation.

  1. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Lei Zhou

    2000-01-30

    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year 2 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in Flow Loop development and research during the period of time between Oct 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 2: Addition of a foam generation and breaker system), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 7): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Research project (Task 8): ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (g) Research on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), and Foam properties while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), (h) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (i) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members. The tasks Completed During This Quarter are Task 7 and Task 8.

  2. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport

  3. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk, Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2002-10-30

    This is the first quarterly progress report for Year-4 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between July 1, 2002 and Sept. 30, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System, Task 4: Addition of a Pipe Rotation System, (b) New Research project (Task 9b): ''Development of a Foam Generator/Viscometer for Elevated Pressure and Elevated Temperature (EPET) Conditions'', (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings (Task 12), Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b). (f) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  4. Staff turnover in statewide implementation of ACT: relationship with ACT fidelity and other team characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Angela L; Salyers, Michelle P; Tsai, Jack; Lydick, Jennifer M

    2010-09-01

    Staff turnover on assertive community treatment (ACT) teams is a poorly understood phenomenon. This study examined annual turnover and fidelity data collected in a statewide implementation of ACT over a 5-year period. Mean annual staff turnover across all observations was 30.0%. Turnover was negatively correlated with overall fidelity at Year 1 and 3. The team approach fidelity item was negatively correlated with staff turnover at Year 3. For 13 teams with 3 years of follow-up data, turnover rates did not change over time. Most ACT staff turnover rates were comparable or better than other turnover rates reported in the mental health and substance abuse literature.

  5. Transport Phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCready, Mark J.; Leighton, David T.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the problems created in graduate chemical engineering programs when students enter with a wide diversity of understandings of transport phenomena. Describes a two-semester graduate transport course sequence at the University of Notre Dame which focuses on fluid mechanics and heat and mass transfer. (TW)

  6. Osmotic stress alters chromatin condensation and nucleocytoplasmic transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finan, John D.; Leddy, Holly A. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Guilak, Farshid, E-mail: guilak@duke.edu [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States)

    2011-05-06

    Highlights: {yields} The rate of nucleocytoplasmic transport increases under hyper-osmotic stress. {yields} The mechanism is a change in nuclear geometry, not a change in permeability of the nuclear envelope. {yields} Intracytoplasmic but not intranuclear diffusion is sensitive to osmotic stress. {yields} Pores in the chromatin of the nucleus enlarge under hyper-osmotic stress. -- Abstract: Osmotic stress is a potent regulator of biological function in many cell types, but its mechanism of action is only partially understood. In this study, we examined whether changes in extracellular osmolality can alter chromatin condensation and the rate of nucleocytoplasmic transport, as potential mechanisms by which osmotic stress can act. Transport of 10 kDa dextran was measured both within and between the nucleus and the cytoplasm using two different photobleaching methods. A mathematical model was developed to describe fluorescence recovery via nucleocytoplasmic transport. As osmolality increased, the diffusion coefficient of dextran decreased in the cytoplasm, but not the nucleus. Hyper-osmotic stress decreased nuclear size and increased nuclear lacunarity, indicating that while the nucleus was getting smaller, the pores and channels interdigitating the chromatin had expanded. The rate of nucleocytoplasmic transport was increased under hyper-osmotic stress but was insensitive to hypo-osmotic stress, consistent with the nonlinear osmotic properties of the nucleus. The mechanism of this osmotic sensitivity appears to be a change in the size and geometry of the nucleus, resulting in a shorter effective diffusion distance for the nucleus. These results may explain physical mechanisms by which osmotic stress can influence intracellular signaling pathways that rely on nucleocytoplasmic transport.

  7. ACT Verbal Prep Course

    CERN Document Server

    Standridge, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensive Prep for ACT Verbal. Every year, students pay 1,000 and more to test prep companies to prepare for the verbal sections of the ACT. Now you can get the same preparation in a book. The verbal sections are not easy. There is no quick fix that will allow you to "beat" the ACT, but it is very learnable. If you study hard and master the techniques in this book, your score will improve-significantly. The ACT cannot be "beaten." But it can be mastered-through hard work, analytical thought, and by training yourself to think like a test writer. Many of the exercises in this book are design

  8. Coupled transport processes in semipermeable media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnahan, C.L.; Jacobsen, J.S.

    1990-04-01

    The thermodynamics of irreversible processes (TTIP) is used to derive governing equations and phenomenological equations for transport processes and chemical reactions in water-saturated semipermeable media. TTIP is based on three fundamental postulates. The first postulate, the assumption of local equilibrium, allows the formulation of balance equations for entropy. These equations are the bases for the derivation of governing equations for the thermodynamic variables, temperature, pressure, and composition. The governing equations involve vector fluxes of heat and mass and scalar rates of chemical reactions; in accordance with the second postulate of TTIP, these fluxes and rates are related, respectively, to all scalar driving forces (gradients of thermodynamic variables) acting within the system. The third postulate of TTIP states equality (the Onsager reciprocal relations) between certain of the phenomenological coefficients relating forces and fluxes. The description by TTIP of a system undergoing irreversible processes allows consideration of coupled transport processes such as thermal osmosis, chemical osmosis, and ultrafiltration. The coupled processes can make significant contributions to flows of mass and energy in slightly permeable, permselective geological materials such as clays and shales.

  9. Quantum measurement act as a "speech act"

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, J

    2005-01-01

    I show that the quantum measurement problem can be understood if the measurement is seen as a ``speech act'' in the sense of modern language theory. The reduction of the state vector is in this perspective an intersubjectice -- or better a-subjective -- symbolic process. I then give some perspectives on applications to the ``Mind-Body problem''.

  10. SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda STEG

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses possible contributions of psychologists to sustainable transportation. It is argued that in order to reach sustainable transportation, among others, behaviour changes of individual car users are needed. As transport policies will be more effective if they target important antecedents of travel behaviour, first, factors influencing such behaviour are discussed. It is argued that car use is very attractive and sometimes even necessary for many different reasons. This implies that a combination of policies is called for, each targeting different factors that support car use and hinder the use of more sustainable modes of transport. Next, the paper elaborates on policy strategies that may be employed to achieve sustainable transportation by changing car use. Increasing the attractiveness of sustainable transport modes by means of pull measures seems not sufficient to reduce the level of car use. Besides, car use should be made less attractive by means of push measures to force drivers to reconsider their travel behaviour. The acceptability of such policies may be increased by clearly communicating the aim of these policies, and the expected positive consequences (e.g., less congestion, improved environmental quality. Moreover, possible negative effects for individual freedom may be compensated by implementing additional policies aimed at facilitating the use of sustainable transport modes.

  11. Nearshore Sand Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Born November 19, 1956 - Peoria, Illinois 1978 B.S., Civil Engineering, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida 1978 B.S., Physics, University of...Aubrey, 1985, "Theoretical and observational estimates of nearshore bedload transport rates," Marino Geology, v 64, p 91-111. Guza, R.T., N.C. Clifton

  12. The Davis-Bacon Act: An Appraisal of Recent Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Robert S.; Morrall, John F., III

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the Davis-Bacon Act, including how its wage determinations compare to local construction wages as measured by sources other than the act's administrators; the effects of lags in the act's data-gathering process; and the savings that would result from changing the way prevailing rates are calculated. (CT)

  13. Competitiveness in Road Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgström, Benedikte; Gammelgaard, Britta; Bruun, Poul

    Road transport is an important sector, connecting time and space of production and consumption. Its market conditions has changed. The EU single market implementation has increased price pressure due to supply of low cost road freight transport from counties with lower cost structures. Changes....... In this paper we will explore that knowledge gap and analyze what value proposition(s) and capabilities can transform potential cost disadvantages of acting in a market that includes both high- and low-cost-country actors? And in conceptual terminology, how are capabilities deployed and developed to construct...... take into account logistics service supplier strategic management. We also contribute with better understanding of value creation in order to escape commoditization and differentiate services through relationships (customers and/or other hauliers). Practical implications concern hauliers’ strategy...

  14. Atomic transportation via carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quan

    2009-01-01

    The transportation of helium atoms in a single-walled carbon nanotube is reported via molecular dynamics simulations. The efficiency of the atomic transportation is found to be dependent on the type of the applied loading and the loading rate as well as the temperature in the process. Simulations show the transportation is a result of the van der Waals force between the nanotube and the helium atoms through a kink propagation initiated in the nanotube.

  15. 78 FR 26667 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... encouraging unsolicited ratings of asset-backed securities. The third panel will focus on other potential... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... Sunshine Act, Public Law 94-409, that the Securities and Exchange Commission will hold a credit ratings...

  16. Regulation of amniotic fluid volume: mathematical model based on intramembranous transport mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brace, Robert A; Anderson, Debra F; Cheung, Cecilia Y

    2014-11-15

    Experimentation in late-gestation fetal sheep has suggested that regulation of amniotic fluid (AF) volume occurs primarily by modulating the rate of intramembranous transport of water and solutes across the amnion into underlying fetal blood vessels. In order to gain insight into intramembranous transport mechanisms, we developed a computer model that allows simulation of experimentally measured changes in AF volume and composition over time. The model included fetal urine excretion and lung liquid secretion as inflows into the amniotic compartment plus fetal swallowing and intramembranous absorption as outflows. By using experimental flows and solute concentrations for urine, lung liquid, and swallowed fluid in combination with the passive and active transport mechanisms of the intramembranous pathway, we simulated AF responses to basal conditions, intra-amniotic fluid infusions, fetal intravascular infusions, urine replacement, and tracheoesophageal occlusion. The experimental data are consistent with four intramembranous transport mechanisms acting in concert: 1) an active unidirectional bulk transport of AF with all dissolved solutes out of AF into fetal blood presumably by vesicles; 2) passive bidirectional diffusion of solutes, such as sodium and chloride, between fetal blood and AF; 3) passive bidirectional water movement between AF and fetal blood; and 4) unidirectional transport of lactate into the AF. Further, only unidirectional bulk transport is dynamically regulated. The simulations also identified areas for future study: 1) identifying intramembranous stimulators and inhibitors, 2) determining the semipermeability characteristics of the intramembranous pathway, and 3) characterizing the vesicles that are the primary mediators of intramembranous transport.

  17. The Apocryphal Acts Of Andrew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, Jan N.

    2000-01-01

    Following the first three volumes of the new series on the Acts of John (1995), the Acts of Paul and Thecla (1996) and the Acts of Peter (1998), this new volume is devoted to the Acts of Andrew. After a study of the relationship between the Acts of Andrew and the Acts of Andrew and Matthias, the maj

  18. The Polish Budget Act for 2016: Legal Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Borodo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the legal content and system of the 2016 Budget Act and the legal significance of its regulations. The Budget Act for 2016 contains three parts: the state budget (general budget, complementary budgets, other legal provisions. The state revenues, expenditure, expenses, salaries, rates of some state levies are determined in the Budget Act. The regulations of the Budget Act relate to the financial activity of government and other parts of the state. The complex Budget Act contains provisions resulting from the many legal acts.

  19. Machine learning techniques in dialogue act recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Fišel

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This report addresses dialogue acts, their existing applications and techniques of automatically recognizing them, in Estonia as well as elsewhere. Three main applications are described: in dialogue systems to determine the intention of the speaker, in dialogue systems with machine translation to resolve ambiguities in the possible translation variants and in speech recognition to reduce word recognition error rate. Several recognition techniques are described on the surface level: how they work and how they are trained. A summary of the corresponding representation methods is provided for each technique. The paper also includes examples of applying the techniques to dialogue act recognition.The author comes to the conclusion that using the current evaluation metric it is impossible to compare dialogue act recognition techniques when these are applied to different dialogue act tag sets. Dialogue acts remain an open research area, with space and need for developing new recognition techniques and methods of evaluation.

  20. Sediment Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou

    Flow and sediment transport are important in relation to several engineering topics, e.g. erosion around structures, backfilling of dredged channels and nearshore morphological change. The purpose of the present book is to describe both the basic hydrodynamics and the basic sediment transport...... mechanics. Chapter 1 deals with fundamentals in fluid mechanics with emphasis on bed shear stress by currents, while chapter 3 discusses wave boundary layer theory. They are both written with a view to sediment transport. Sediment transport in rivers, cross-shore and longshore are dealt with in chapters 2......, 4 and 5, respectively. It is not the intention of the book to give a broad review of the literature on this very wide topic. The book tries to pick up information which is of engineering importance. An obstacle to the study of sedimentation is the scale effect in model tests. Whenever small...

  1. Transport Phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, D. B.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a course designed to achieve a balance between exposing students to (1) advanced topics in transport phenomena, pointing out similarities and differences between three transfer processes and (2) common methods of solving differential equations. (JN)

  2. Marine Mammal Protection Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA or Act) prohibits, with certain exceptions, the "take" of marine mammals in U.S. waters and by U.S. citizens on the high seas,...

  3. Gradation effects in sediment transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Meijer, RJ; Bosboom, J; Cloin, B; Katopodi, [No Value; Kitou, N; Koomans, RL; Manso, F

    2002-01-01

    To determine the effects of grain size and density gradation in oscillatory sheet-flow, experiments are conducted in an oscillating water tunnel. A formal derivation of a schematised transport model shows that the transport rates per sediment fraction can be determined with and without the assumptio

  4. Transport service

    CERN Document Server

    C. Cerruti / FI

    2006-01-01

    A large number of pallet-crates (panières grillagées), which are used for transporting equipment and for removals, have been dispatched to various locations around the CERN site. We kindly request all users who may have such crates in their possession and no longer need them to make the necessary arrangements (EDH request to the Transport Group) to return them to Building 133, as we currently have no more in stock. Claude CERRUTI / FI-PI

  5. The COW1 locus of arabidopsis acts after RHD2, and in parallel with RHD3 and TIP1, to determine the shape, rate of elongation, and number of root hairs produced from each site of hair formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grierson, C S; Roberts, K; Feldmann, K A; Dolan, L

    1997-11-01

    Two recessive mutant alleles at CAN OF WORMS1 (COW1), a new locus involved in root hair morphogenesis, have been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh. Root hairs on Cow1- mutants are short and wide and occasionally formed as pairs at a single site of hair formation. The COW1 locus maps to chromosome 4. Root hairs on Cow1- plants form in the usual positions, suggesting that the phenotype is not the result of abnormal positional signals. Root hairs on Cow1- roots begin hair formation normally, forming a small bulge, or root hair initiation site, of normal size and shape and in the usual position on the hair-forming cell. However, when Cow1- root hairs start to elongate by tip growth, abnormalities in the shape and elongation rate of the hairs become apparent. Genetic evidence from double-mutant analysis of cow1-1 and other loci involved in root hair development supports our conclusion that COW1 is required during root hair elongation.

  6. 75 FR 63703 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... CFR Part 261a Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act Regulation AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal...) is issuing a final rule to amend its regulation implementing the Privacy Act of 1974 (Privacy Act..., and applicants for Board employment, for access to their records under the Privacy Act; the amendment...

  7. Transport of persistent organic pollutants by microplastics in estuarine conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakir, Adil; Rowland, Steven J.; Thompson, Richard C.

    2014-03-01

    Microplastics represent an increasing source of anthropogenic contamination in aquatic environments, where they may also act as scavengers and transporters of persistent organic pollutants. As estuaries are amongst the most productive aquatic systems, it is important to understand sorption behaviour and transport of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) by microplastics along estuarine gradients. The effects of salinity sorption equilibrium kinetics on the distribution coefficients (Kd) of phenanthrene (Phe) and 4,4‧-DDT, onto polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and onto polyethylene (PE) were therefore investigated. A salinity gradient representing freshwater, estuarine and marine conditions, with salinities corresponding to 0 (MilliQ water, 690 μS/cm), 8.8, 17.5, 26.3 and 35 was used. Salinity had no significant effect on the time required to reach equilibrium onto PVC or PE and neither did it affect desorption rates of contaminants from plastics. Although salinity had no effect on sorption capacity of Phe onto plastics, a slight decrease in sorption capacity was observed for DDT with salinity. Salinity had little effect on sorption behaviour and POP/plastic combination was shown to be a more important factor. Transport of Phe and DDT from riverine to brackish and marine waters by plastic is therefore likely to be much more dependent on the aqueous POP concentration than on salinity. The physical characteristics of the polymer and local environmental conditions (e.g. plastic density, particle residence time in estuaries) will affect the physical transport of contaminated plastics. A transport model of POPs by microplastics under estuarine conditions is proposed. Transport of Phe and DDT by PVC and PE from fresh and brackish water toward fully marine conditions was the most likely net direction for contaminant transport and followed the order: Phe-PE >> DDT-PVC = DDT-PE >> Phe-PVC.

  8. 77 FR 52108 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Open Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation... Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 5 U.S.C. App. 2), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Commercial...

  9. 75 FR 50708 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Transportation Conformity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ...; Transportation Conformity Consultation Requirement AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct... ``Transportation Conformity.'' This approval will meet a requirement of the Clean Air Act (Act) and EPA's Transportation Conformity regulations. DATES: This direct final rule will be effective October 18, 2010,...

  10. 18 CFR 284.3 - Jurisdiction under the Natural Gas Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Natural Gas Act. 284.3 Section 284.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978...

  11. Column experiments to investigate transport of colloidal humic acid through porous media during managed aquifer recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Zhou, Jingjing; Zhang, Wenjing; Huan, Ying; Yu, Xipeng; Li, Fulin; Chen, Xuequn

    2016-09-01

    Colloids act as vectors for pollutants in groundwater, thereby creating a series of environmental problems. While managed aquifer recharge plays an important role in protecting groundwater resources and controlling land subsidence, it has a significant effect on the transport of colloids. In this study, particle size and zeta potential of colloidal humic acid (HA) have been measured to determine the effects of different hydrochemistry conditions. Column experiments were conducted to examine the effects on the transport of colloidal HA under varying conditions of pH (5, 7, 9), ionic strength (<0.0005, 0.02, 0.05 M), cation valence (Na+, Ca2+) and flow rate (0.1, 0.2, 0.4 ml/min) through collectors (glass beads) to model the properties and quality of artificial recharge water and changes in the hydrodynamic field. Breakthrough curves showed that the behavior of colloidal HA being transported varied depending on the conditions. Colloid transport was strongly influenced by hydrochemical and hydrodynamic conditions. With decreasing pH or increasing ionic strength, a decrease in the peak effluent concentration of colloidal HA and increase in deposition could be clearly seen. Comparison of different cation valence tests indicated that changes in transport and deposition were more pronounced with divalent Ca2+ than with monovalent Na+. Changes in hydrodynamic field (flow rate) also had an impact on transportation of colloidal HA. The results of this study highlight the need for further research in this area.

  12. National Environmental Policy Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was the first major environmental law in the United States and established national environmental policies for the...

  13. Acts of Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelund, Sidsel

    with an awareness of larger political, economic, geographical and art-related aspects. The concept of ‘acts of research’ is suggested as a way to understand knowledge production as a creative act in which research carried out in relation to a specific material challenges and resists the protocols of conventional...... described as knowledge producers and exhibitions and art works as instances of knowledge production. Acts of Research: Knowledge Production in Contemporary Arts between Knowledge Economy and Critical Practices analyses this development. The academic discussion of knowledge production in the arts has taken...... place mostly in seminars and articles, in which knowledge is often discussed as an intrinsic quality of the artwork. Acts of Research, however, is devoted to studying the rise of knowledge production in contemporary art from the perspective of artistic, curatorial and educational research...

  14. Abandoned Shipwreck Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Abandoned Shipwreck Act of 1987 (ASA) affirms the authority of state governments to claim ownership to, protect, and manage abandoned shipwrecks on state...

  15. Marine Pollution Prevention Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Pollution Prevention Act of 2008 implements the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, including related Protocols (MARPOL)...

  16. Clean Water Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Clean Water Act (CWA) establishes the basic structure for regulating discharges of pollutants into U.S. waters and regulating quality standards for surface...

  17. Affordable Care Act (ACA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Affordable Care Act (ACA) is a federal statute enacted with a goal of increasing the quality and affordability of health insurance. Through a web service, CMS...

  18. Endangered Species Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) is to protect and recover imperiled species and the ecosystems upon which they depend. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  19. ACT250 Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The ACT 250 Districts layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  20. Energy Policy Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Energy Policy Act (EPA) addresses energy production in the United States, including: (1) energy efficiency; (2) renewable energy; (3) oil and gas; (4) coal; (5)...

  1. Modeling helicity dissipation-rate equation

    CERN Document Server

    Yokoi, Nobumitsu

    2016-01-01

    Transport equation of the dissipation rate of turbulent helicity is derived with the aid of a statistical analytical closure theory of inhomogeneous turbulence. It is shown that an assumption on the helicity scaling with an algebraic relationship between the helicity and its dissipation rate leads to the transport equation of the turbulent helicity dissipation rate without resorting to a heuristic modeling.

  2. The Corporations Act 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Bostock, Tom

    2002-01-01

    The author outlines reforms made in Australia in the area of company law with an analysis of the Corporations Act 2001, which along with the Australian Securities and Investments Commission Act 2001 comprises Corporations legislation in Australia. Article by Tom Bostock (a partner in the law firm Mallesons Stephen Jaques, Melbourne, Australia). Published in Amicus Curiae - Journal of the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies and its Society for Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by...

  3. Mechanisms of contaminant transport in a multi-basin lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Francisco J; Schladow, S Geoffrey; Clark, Jordan F

    2008-12-01

    Tracer studies are combined with a three-dimensional (3-D) numerical modeling study to provide a robust description of hydrodynamic and particle transport in Clear Lake, a multi-basin, polymictic lake in northern California, USA. The focus is on the mechanisms of transport of contaminants away from the vicinity of the Sulphur Bank Mercury Mine and out of the Oaks Arm to the rest of the lake and the hydraulic connection existing among the sub-basins of the lake. Under stratified conditions, the rate of spreading of the tracer was found to be large. In less than a week the tracer spread from the eastern end of the Oaks Arm to the other basins. Under non-stratified conditions, the tracer spread more slowly and had a concentration that gradually diminished with distance from the injection location. The numerical results showed that the mechanisms accounting for these observed patterns occur in pulses, with maximum rates coinciding with the stratified periods. Stratification acts first to enhance the currents by inhibiting vertical momentum mixing and decoupling the surface currents from bottom friction. The diversity of the flow structures that results from the interaction of the wind and the density fields in the lake is responsible for the high dispersion rates. Contaminants originating in the Oaks Arm are shown to be transported into the Lower Arm following the surface currents and into the Upper Arm mainly through the bottom currents. It was also shown that, under stratified conditions, both the baroclinic (density driven) gradients and the wind forcing act jointly to exacerbate the interbasin exchange.

  4. Travel and transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bill, Jan; Roesdahl, Else

    2007-01-01

    On the interrelationship between travel, transport and society; on land transport, sea and river transport, and on winter transport;  on the related technologies and their developments......On the interrelationship between travel, transport and society; on land transport, sea and river transport, and on winter transport;  on the related technologies and their developments...

  5. Longshore sediment transport model for the Indian west coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Nayak, B.U.

    Longshore sediment transport rates for the Indian west coast from Cochin to Porbandar are estimated from ship observed wave data (1968 to 1986). The sediment transport rate is relatively high during the southwest monsoon period from June...

  6. Modelled transport of benthic marine microplastic pollution in the Nazaré Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballent, A.; Pando, S.; Purser, A.; Juliano, M. F.; Thomsen, L.

    2013-12-01

    With knowledge of typical hydrodynamic behavior of waste plastic material, models predicting the dispersal of benthic plastics from land sources within the ocean are possible. Here we investigated the hydrodynamic behavior (density, settling velocity and resuspension characteristics) of non-buoyant preproduction plastic pellets in the laboratory. From these results we used the MOHID modelling system to predict what would be the likely transport and deposition pathways of such material in the Nazaré Canyon (Portugal) during the spring/summer months of 2009 and the autumn/winter months of 2011. Model outputs indicated that non-buoyant plastic pellets would likely be transported up and down canyon as a function of tidal forces, with only a minor net down canyon movement resulting from tidal action. The model indicated that transport down canyon was likely greater during the autumn/winter, primarily as a result of occasional mass transport events related to storm activity and internal wave action. Transport rates within the canyon were not predicted to be regular throughout the canyon system, with stretches of the upper canyon acting more as locations of pellet deposition than conduits of pellet transport. Topography and the depths of internal wave action are hypothesized to contribute to this lack of homogeneity in predicted transport.

  7. Optimal transport

    CERN Document Server

    Eckmann, B

    2008-01-01

    At the close of the 1980s, the independent contributions of Yann Brenier, Mike Cullen and John Mather launched a revolution in the venerable field of optimal transport founded by G Monge in the 18th century, which has made breathtaking forays into various other domains of mathematics ever since. The author presents a broad overview of this area.

  8. Transport modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.E. Waltz

    2007-01-01

    @@ There has been remarkable progress during the past decade in understanding and modeling turbulent transport in tokamaks. With some exceptions the progress is derived from the huge increases in computational power and the ability to simulate tokamak turbulence with ever more fundamental and physically realistic dynamical equations, e.g.

  9. Transport fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronsse, Frederik; Jørgensen, Henning; Schüßler, Ingmar

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, the use of transport fuel derived from biomass increased four-fold between 2003 and 2012. Mainly based on food resources, these conventional biofuels did not achieve the expected emission savings and contributed to higher prices for food commod - ities, especially maize and oilseeds...

  10. Anomalous transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheverry, Christophe

    2017-02-01

    This article is concerned with the relativistic Vlasov equation, for collisionless axisymmetric plasmas immersed in a strong magnetic field, like in tokamaks. It provides a consistent kinetic treatment of the microscopic particle phase-space dynamics. It shows that the turbulent transport can be completely described through WKB expansions.

  11. Transportation System Concept of Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Slater-Thompson

    2006-08-16

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), as amended, authorized the DOE to develop and manage a Federal system for the disposal of SNF and HLW. OCRWM was created to manage acceptance and disposal of SNF and HLW in a manner that protects public health, safety, and the environment; enhances national and energy security; and merits public confidence. This responsibility includes managing the transportation of SNF and HLW from origin sites to the Repository for disposal. The Transportation System Concept of Operations is the core high-level OCRWM document written to describe the Transportation System integrated design and present the vision, mission, and goals for Transportation System operations. By defining the functions, processes, and critical interfaces of this system early in the system development phase, programmatic risks are minimized, system costs are contained, and system operations are better managed, safer, and more secure. This document also facilitates discussions and understanding among parties responsible for the design, development, and operation of the Transportation System. Such understanding is important for the timely development of system requirements and identification of system interfaces. Information provided in the Transportation System Concept of Operations includes: the functions and key components of the Transportation System; system component interactions; flows of information within the system; the general operating sequences; and the internal and external factors affecting transportation operations. The Transportation System Concept of Operations reflects OCRWM's overall waste management system policies and mission objectives, and as such provides a description of the preferred state of system operation. The description of general Transportation System operating functions in the Transportation System Concept of Operations is the first step in the OCRWM systems engineering process, establishing the starting point for the lower

  12. Bioreactor Mass Transport Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleis, Stanley J.; Begley, Cynthia M.

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of the proposed research efforts were to develop both a simulation tool and a series of experiments to provide a quantitative assessment of mass transport in the NASA rotating wall perfused vessel (RWPV) bioreactor to be flown on EDU#2. This effort consisted of a literature review of bioreactor mass transport studies, the extension of an existing scalar transport computer simulation to include production and utilization of the scalar, and the evaluation of experimental techniques for determining mass transport in these vessels. Since mass transport at the cell surface is determined primarily by the relative motion of the cell assemblage and the surrounding fluid, a detailed assessment of the relative motion was conducted. Results of the simulations of the motion of spheres in the RWPV under microgravity conditions are compared with flight data from EDU#1 flown on STS-70. The mass transport across the cell membrane depends upon the environment, the cell type, and the biological state of the cell. Results from a literature review of cell requirements of several scalars are presented. As a first approximation, a model with a uniform spatial distribution of utilization or production was developed and results from these simulations are presented. There were two candidate processes considered for the experimental mass transport evaluations. The first was to measure the dissolution rate of solid or gel beads. The second was to measure the induced fluorescence of beads as a stimulant (for example hydrogen peroxide) is infused into the vessel. Either technique would use video taped images of the process for recording the quantitative results. Results of preliminary tests of these techniques are discussed.

  13. CONSIDERATIONS UPON ASSIMILATED ADMINISTRATIVE ACTS

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Although the classic administrative courts know as object the acts against classic administrative acts, it should not be lost sight of the assimilated administrative acts, which also may be subject to acts in this litigation. Taking in consideration this category of acts, this study will examine the documents falling into this category and the impact that such acts have on public authorities. Given the significant increase of administrative cases that have as object assimilated administrative...

  14. Transport Market and its Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Perić

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Market is the integrity of relations between supply and demandof traffic or some other service (goods which at a ce11ainplace and location, at a certain time affect the supply and purchaseof certain products, including services, stocks, money,and the set of all institutions, areas, devices and instrumentsthat act on the sale and other transactions realised at that point.It is the main resource allocator (~resource allocation in thesystems of free private ownership economic and transport systems.

  15. Twin boundary-assisted lithium-ion transport

    KAUST Repository

    Nie, Anmin

    2015-01-14

    With the increased need for high-rate Li-ion batteries, it has become apparent that new electrode materials with enhanced Li-ion transport should be designed. Interfaces, such as twin boundaries (TBs), offer new opportunities to navigate the ionic transport within nanoscale materials. Here, we demonstrate the effects of TBs on the Li-ion transport properties in single crystalline SnO2 nanowires. It is shown that the TB-assisted lithiation pathways are remarkably different from the previously reported lithiation behavior in SnO2 nanowires without TBs. Our in situ transmission electron microscopy study combined with direct atomic-scale imaging of the initial lithiation stage of the TB-SnO2 nanowires prove that the lithium ions prefer to intercalate in the vicinity of the (101¯) TB, which acts as conduit for lithium-ion diffusion inside the nanowires. The density functional theory modeling shows that it is energetically preferred for lithium ions to accumulate near the TB compared to perfect neighboring lattice area. These findings may lead to the design of new electrode materials that incorporate TBs as efficient lithium pathways, and eventually, the development of next generation rechargeable batteries that surpass the rate performance of the current commercial Li-ion batteries.

  16. Application of longshore transport equations to Andhra coast, East coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Nayak, B.U.; RamaRaju, V.S.

    during November to February. The longshore transport rate is high during the southwest monsoon period from June to September. A higher sediment transport rate is observed for the coastline oriented at 80 degrees east of north. The annual net transport...

  17. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira

    2000-10-30

    This is the first quarterly progress report for Year 2 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in Flow Loop development and research during the period of time between July 14, 2000 and September 30, 2000. This report presents information on the following specific tasks: (a) Progress in Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility design and development (Task 2), (b) Progress on research project (Task 8): ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (c) Progress on research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Progress on research project (Task 7): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (e) Progress on research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Initiate research on project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (g) Progress on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution (Tasks 11), and Foam properties (Task 12), (h) Initiate a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. Since the previous Task 1 has been completed, we will now designate this new task as: (Task 1S). (i) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  18. The ACTS multibeam antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, Frank A.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) to be launched in 1993 is briefly introduced. Its multibeam antenna, consisting of electrically similar 30 GHz receive and 20 GHz transmit offset Cassegrain systems, both utilizing orthogonal polarizations, is described. Dual polarization is achieved by using one feed assembly for each polarization in conjunction with nested front and back subreflectors, the gridded front subreflector acting as a window for one polarization and a reflector for the other. The antennas produce spot beams with approximately 0.3 degree beamwidth and gains of approximately 50 dbi. High surface accuracy and high edge taper produce low sidelobe levels and high cross-polarization isolation. A brief description is given of several Ka-band components fabricated for ACTS. These include multiflare antenna feedhorns, beam-forming networks utilizing latching ferrite waveguide switches, a 30 GHz HEMT low-noise amplifier and a 20 GHz TWT power amplifier.

  19. The ACTS multibeam antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, Frank A.

    1992-06-01

    The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) to be launched in 1993 is briefly introduced. Its multibeam antenna, consisting of electrically similar 30 GHz receive and 20 GHz transmit offset Cassegrain systems, both utilizing orthogonal polarizations, is described. Dual polarization is achieved by using one feed assembly for each polarization in conjunction with nested front and back subreflectors, the gridded front subreflector acting as a window for one polarization and a reflector for the other. The antennas produce spot beams with approximately 0.3 degree beamwidth and gains of approximately 50 dbi. High surface accuracy and high edge taper produce low sidelobe levels and high cross-polarization isolation. A brief description is given of several Ka-band components fabricated for ACTS. These include multiflare antenna feedhorns, beam-forming networks utilizing latching ferrite waveguide switches, a 30 GHz HEMT low-noise amplifier and a 20 GHz TWT power amplifier.

  20. Copper transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, M C; Wooten, L; Cerveza, P; Cotton, S; Shulze, R; Lomeli, N

    1998-05-01

    In adult humans, the net absorption of dietary copper is approximately 1 mg/d. Dietary copper joins some 4-5 mg of endogenous copper flowing into the gastrointestinal tract through various digestive juices. Most of this copper returns to the circulation and to the tissues (including liver) that formed them. Much lower amounts of copper flow into and out of other major parts of the body (including heart, skeletal muscle, and brain). Newly absorbed copper is transported to body tissues in two phases, borne primarily by plasma protein carriers (albumin, transcuprein, and ceruloplasmin). In the first phase, copper goes from the intestine to the liver and kidney; in the second phase, copper usually goes from the liver (and perhaps also the kidney) to other organs. Ceruloplasmin plays a role in this second phase. Alternatively, liver copper can also exit via the bile, and in a form that is less easily reabsorbed. Copper is also present in and transported by other body fluids, including those bathing the brain and central nervous system and surrounding the fetus in the amniotic sac. Ceruloplasmin is present in these fluids and may also be involved in copper transport there. The concentrations of copper and ceruloplasmin in milk vary with lactational stage. Parallel changes occur in ceruloplasmin messenger RNA expression in the mammary gland (as determined in pigs). Copper in milk ceruloplasmin appears to be particularly available for absorption, at least in rats.

  1. Regulation of human trophoblast GLUT1 glucose transporter by insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc U Baumann

    Full Text Available Glucose transport to the fetus across the placenta takes place via glucose transporters in the opposing faces of the barrier layer, the microvillous and basal membranes of the syncytiotrophoblast. While basal membrane content of the GLUT1 glucose transporter appears to be the rate-limiting step in transplacental transport, the factors regulating transporter expression and activity are largely unknown. In view of the many studies showing an association between IGF-I and fetal growth, we investigated the effects of IGF-I on placental glucose transport and GLUT1 transporter expression. Treatment of BeWo choriocarcinoma cells with IGF-I increased cellular GLUT1 protein. There was increased basolateral (but not microvillous uptake of glucose and increased transepithelial transport of glucose across the BeWo monolayer. Primary syncytial cells treated with IGF-I also demonstrated an increase in GLUT1 protein. Term placental explants treated with IGF-I showed an increase in syncytial basal membrane GLUT1 but microvillous membrane GLUT1 was not affected. The placental dual perfusion model was used to assess the effects of fetally perfused IGF-I on transplacental glucose transport and syncytial GLUT1 content. In control perfusions there was a decrease in transplacental glucose transport over the course of the perfusion, whereas in tissues perfused with IGF-I through the fetal circulation there was no change. Syncytial basal membranes from IGF-I perfused tissues showed an increase in GLUT1 content. These results demonstrate that IGF-I, whether acting via microvillous or basal membrane receptors, increases the basal membrane content of GLUT1 and up-regulates basal membrane transport of glucose, leading to increased transepithelial glucose transport. These observations provide a partial explanation for the mechanism by which IGF-I controls nutrient supply in the regulation of fetal growth.

  2. Glycine Transporters and Their Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilfillan, Robert; Kerr, Jennifer; Walker, Glenn; Wishart, Grant

    Glycine plays a ubiquitous role in many biological processes. In the central nervous system it serves as an important neurotransmitter acting as an agonist at strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors and as an essential co-agonist with glutamate at the NMDA receptor complex. Control of glycine concentrations in the vicinity of these receptors is mediated by the specific glycine transporters, GlyT1 and GlyT2. Inhibition of these transporters has been postulated to be of potential benefit in several therapeutic indications including schizophrenia and pain. In this review we discuss our current knowledge of glycine transporters and focus on recent advances in the medicinal chemistry of GlyT1 and GlyT2 inhibitors.

  3. Acting like a Pro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Marlon A.

    2012-01-01

    The Saturday morning acting class in the Pearson Hall auditorium at Miles College boasts the school's highest attendance all year. The teacher, actress Robin Givens, was a lure few students--and others from surrounding areas--could resist. Some came to learn about their prospective field from a professional. Others were there for pointers to…

  4. An Act of Colonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders Bo

    and the United States signed an act on July 19, 1862, wherein the U.S. Navy agreed to unload “all negroes, mulattoes, or persons of color, delivered from on board vessels seized in the prosecution of the slave trade.” Yet, despite the two countries’ mutual interests in employing “laborers of African Extraction...

  5. ST–ACTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2006-01-01

    various geo–statistical data sources and intuitive principles, models the so far neglected aspects. ST–ACTS considers that (1) objects (representing mobile users) move from one spatio–temporal location to another with the objective of performing a certain activity at the latter location; (2) not all users...

  6. Acts of Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelund, Sidsel

    described as knowledge producers and exhibitions and art works as instances of knowledge production. Acts of Research: Knowledge Production in Contemporary Arts between Knowledge Economy and Critical Practices analyses this development. The academic discussion of knowledge production in the arts has taken...

  7. The USA PATRIOT Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Mary; Coyle, Karen; Kaufman, Paula

    2002-01-01

    Explains the USA PATRIOT (Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism) Act, passed after the September 11 terrorist attacks, and its implications for libraries and patron records. Considers past dealings with the FBI; court orders; search warrants; wiretaps; and subpoenas. Includes:…

  8. Acting like a Pro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Marlon A.

    2012-01-01

    The Saturday morning acting class in the Pearson Hall auditorium at Miles College boasts the school's highest attendance all year. The teacher, actress Robin Givens, was a lure few students--and others from surrounding areas--could resist. Some came to learn about their prospective field from a professional. Others were there for pointers to…

  9. Osmotic water transport in aquaporins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Thomas; Alsterfjord, Magnus; Beitz, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Abstract  We test a novel, stochastic model of osmotic water transport in aquaporins. A solute molecule present at the pore mouth can either be reflected or permeate the pore. We assume that only reflected solute molecules induce osmotic transport of water through the pore, while permeating solute...... sizes and geometries were obtained with the two aquaporins AQP1 and AQP9 and mutant versions of these. Osmotic water transport was generated by adding 20 mM of a range of different-sized osmolytes to the outer solution. The osmotic water permeability and the reflection coefficient were measured...... molecules give rise to no water transport. Accordingly, the rate of water transport is proportional to the reflection coefficient σ, while the solute permeability, P(S), is proportional to 1 - σ. The model was tested in aquaporins heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. A variety of aquaporin channel...

  10. Transporter Classification Database (TCDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Transporter Classification Database details a comprehensive classification system for membrane transport proteins known as the Transporter Classification (TC)...

  11. Sanitary Transportation of Human and Animal Food. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-06

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is issuing a final rule to establish requirements for shippers, loaders, carriers by motor vehicle and rail vehicle, and receivers engaged in the transportation of food, including food for animals, to use sanitary transportation practices to ensure the safety of the food they transport. This action is part of our larger effort to focus on prevention of food safety problems throughout the food chain and is part of our implementation of the Sanitary Food Transportation Act of 2005 (2005 SFTA) and the Food Safety Modernization Act of 2011 (FSMA).

  12. Creep at very low rates

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The creep rate in a land-based power station must be less than 10(-11) s(-1). At these low rates of deformation the transport of matter occurs by the migration of vacancies rather than by the glide of dislocations. A quantitative understanding...

  13. Phloem transport and drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevanto, Sanna

    2014-04-01

    Drought challenges plant water uptake and the vascular system. In the xylem it causes embolism that impairs water transport from the soil to the leaves and, if uncontrolled, may even lead to plant mortality via hydraulic failure. What happens in the phloem, however, is less clear because measuring phloem transport is still a significant challenge to plant science. In all vascular plants, phloem and xylem tissues are located next to each other, and there is clear evidence that these tissues exchange water. Therefore, drought should also lead to water shortage in the phloem. In this review, theories used in phloem transport models have been applied to drought conditions, with the goal of shedding light on how phloem transport failure might occur. The review revealed that phloem failure could occur either because of viscosity build-up at the source sites or by a failure to maintain phloem water status and cell turgor. Which one of these dominates depends on the hydraulic permeability of phloem conduit walls. Impermeable walls will lead to viscosity build-up affecting flow rates, while permeable walls make the plant more susceptible to phloem turgor failure. Current empirical evidence suggests that phloem failure resulting from phloem turgor collapse is the more likely mechanism at least in relatively isohydric plants.

  14. Public-Private Partnerships for Transport Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueroa, Maria Josefina; Greve, Carsten

    The provision of transport infrastructure and services creates fundamental value to society. With traditional sources of transport public funding running short, governments around the world are increasingly turning to public-private finance (PPPs) as a promising tool of public infrastructure...... of the public but of the private actor as well, to act perhaps motivated by corporate social responsibility, committing to bringing innovation and transparency in their efforts for advancing sustainability....

  15. 27 CFR 555.26 - Prohibited shipment, transportation, receipt, possession, or distribution of explosive materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... licensee or permittee knowingly may transport, ship, cause to be transported, or receive any explosive... limited permit may— (1) Transport, ship, cause to be transported, or receive in interstate or foreign... and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101)); or (ii) Is in lawful nonimmigrant status, is a refugee admitted...

  16. Alpha Adrenergic Induction of Transport of Lysosomal Enzyme across the Blood-Brain Barrier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Urayama

    Full Text Available The impermeability of the adult blood-brain barrier (BBB to lysosomal enzymes impedes the ability to treat the central nervous system manifestations of lysosomal storage diseases. Here, we found that simultaneous stimulation of the alpha1 and alpha2 adrenoreceptor restores in adult mice the high rate of transport for the lysosomal enzyme P-GUS that is seen in neonates but lost with development. Beta adrenergics, other monoamines, and acetylcholine did not restore this transport. A high dose (500 microg/mouse of clonidine, a strong alpha2 and weak alpha1 agonist, was able to act as monotherapy in the stimulation of P-GUS transport. Neither use of alpha1 plus alpha2 agonists nor the high dose clonidine disrupted the BBB to albumin. In situ brain perfusion and immunohistochemistry studies indicated that adrengerics act on transporters already at the luminal surface of brain endothelial cells. These results show that adrenergic stimulation, including monotherapy with clonidine, could be key for CNS enzyme replacement therapy.

  17. FRACTIONAL TRANSPORT OF SEDIMENT MIXTURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baosheng WU; Albert MOLINAS; Anping SHU

    2003-01-01

    A new method based on the Transport Capacity Fraction (TCF) concept is proposed to compute the fractional transport rates for nonuniform sediment mixtures in sand-bed channels. The TCF concept is derived from the understanding that the measurements and predictions of bed-material load are more accurate and reliable than the measurements and predictions of fractional loads. First the bed-material load is computed using an appropriate equation, then the fractional transport rates are determined by distributing the bed-material load into size groups through a transport capacity distribution function. For the computation of bed-material loads, the Aekers and White, Engelund and Hansen, and Yang equations are used in this study. Two new transport capacity distribution functions are developed for flows in sand-bed channels. The new expressions presented in this paper account for the sheltering and exposure effects that exist in mixtures. Comparisons with measured data show that the proposed method can significantly improve the predictions of fractional transport rates for nonuniform sediment mixtures.

  18. Mobile Transporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Atlantis, STS-110 mission, deployed this railcar, called the Mobile Transporter, and an initial 43-foot section of track, the S0 (S-zero) truss, preparing the International Space Station (ISS) for future spacewalks. The first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The 27,000-pound S0 truss is the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002. STS-110's Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station.

  19. Rates of Gravel Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschenburger, J. K.

    2010-12-01

    Sediment transfers in gravel-bed rivers involve the three-dimensional dispersion of mixed size sediment. From a kinematics standpoint, few studies are available to inform on the streamwise and vertical rates of sediment dispersion in natural channels. This research uses a gravel tracing program to quantify dispersion rates over 19 flood seasons. Empirical observations come from Carnation Creek, a small gravel-bed river with large woody debris located on the west coast of Vancouver Island, Canada. Frequent floods and the relatively limited armor layer facilitate streambed activity and relatively high bedload transport rates, typically under partial sediment transport conditions. Over 2500 magnetically tagged stones, ranging in size from 16 to 180 mm, were deployed on the bed surface between 1989 and 1992 in four generations. To quantify gravel dispersion over distances up to 2.6 km, observations are taken from 11 recoveries. Over 280 floods capable of moving bedload occurred during this period, with five exceeding the estimated bankfull discharge. Streamwise dispersion is quantified by virtual velocity, while dispersion into the streambed is quantified by a vertical burial rate. The temporal trend in streamwise dispersion rates is described by a power function. Initial virtual velocities decline rapidly from around 1.4 m/hr to approach an asymptote value of about 0.2 m/hr. The rapid change corresponds to a significant increase in the proportion of buried tracers due to vertical mixing. Initial burial rates reflect the magnitude of the first flood after tracer deployment and range from 0.07 to 0.46 cm/hr depending on tracer generation. Burial rates converge to about 0.06 cm/hr after the fourth flood season and then gradually decline to about 0.01 cm/hr. Thus, the rate of streamwise dispersion exceeds that of vertical dispersion by three orders of magnitude when the movement of sediment routinely activated by floods is considered.

  20. 78 FR 33841 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Applicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... Transportation Intermediary (OTI) license as a Non-Vessel-Operating Common Carrier (NVO) and/or Ocean Freight Forwarder (OFF) pursuant to section 19 of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46 U.S.C. 40101). Notice is also given...

  1. The Act of Walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Maria Quvang Harck; Olesen, Mette; Helmer, Pernille Falborg

    2014-01-01

    individuals in Denmark conduct and experience walking, and the ‘rationalities’ (Giddens 1984) that lie behind their choice of mobility. It provides insight into how different lifestyles perceive and act walking in their everyday life. Kaufmann (2002) describes how the individual mobility is influenced......’ of mobility (Jensen 2013:111) such as the urban environment, and the infrastructures. Walking has indeed also a ‘software dimension’ as an embodied performance that trigger the human senses (Jensen 2013) and which is closely related to the habitus and identity of the individual (Halprin 1963). The individual...... by individual strategies, values, perceptions and habits, and how appropriation of mobility is constructed through the internalization of standards and values. The act of walking could thus be understood as the result of dynamic internal negotiation of individual, everyday mobility strategies (Lassen 2005...

  2. Acts of Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelund, Sidsel

    The term ‘knowledge society’ is used to refer to the increasing relevance of nonmanual knowledge-producing labour in current post-industrial economies. Contemporary art, especially since 1989, has not been left out of this trend, to the extent that today it is not rare to see artists and curators...... place mostly in seminars and articles, in which knowledge is often discussed as an intrinsic quality of the artwork. Acts of Research, however, is devoted to studying the rise of knowledge production in contemporary art from the perspective of artistic, curatorial and educational research...... described as knowledge producers and exhibitions and art works as instances of knowledge production. Acts of Research: Knowledge Production in Contemporary Arts between Knowledge Economy and Critical Practices analyses this development. The academic discussion of knowledge production in the arts has taken...

  3. RECOGNISING SPEECH ACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phyllis Kaburise

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Speech Act Theory (SAT, a theory in pragmatics, is an attempt to describe what happens during linguistic interactions. Inherent within SAT is the idea that language forms and intentions are relatively formulaic and that there is a direct correspondence between sentence forms (for example, in terms of structure and lexicon and the function or meaning of an utterance. The contention offered in this paper is that when such a correspondence does not exist, as in indirect speech utterances, this creates challenges for English second language speakers and may result in miscommunication. This arises because indirect speech acts allow speakers to employ various pragmatic devices such as inference, implicature, presuppositions and context clues to transmit their messages. Such devices, operating within the non-literal level of language competence, may pose challenges for ESL learners.

  4. Innovative Rates Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-06-21

    Title II of the Energy Conservation and Production Act (ECPA) as amended by the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) provided financial assistance to state utility regulatory commissions, nonregulated electric utilities, and the Tennessee Valley Authority through the Innovative Rates Program. The financial assistance was to be used to plan or carry out electric utility regulatory rate reform initiatives relating to innovative rate structures that encourage conservation of energy, electric utility efficiency and reduced costs, and equitable rates to consumers. The Federal and local objectives of the project are described. Activities planned and accomplishments are summarized for the following: project management, data collection, utility bill evaluation, billing enclosure/mailing evaluation, media program evaluation, display evaluation, rate study sessions evaluation, speakers bureau evaluation, and individual customer contacts. A timetable/milestone chart and financial information are included. (MHR)

  5. REVOCATION OF ADMINISTRATIVE ACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTA CLAUDIA CLIZA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Because the revocation is totally specific for administrative law principles, I chose to talk about in this study and its impact on the cancellation of administrative acts. Revocation will be explored, in terms of the authorities which it may provide but also of the effects caused.It also would examine if revocation has a legal basis, as well as real cases to provide the impact of this principle in administrative law.

  6. Toxic Substances Control Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Toxic Substances Control Act and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  7. Why the act?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumta, N B

    1995-07-01

    All of the 4000 infants who die daily in India have been bottle fed. Most of these infants die from infections which are typically caused by bottle feeding. Considerable research has shown that human breast milk ideally suits babies' needs. Human breast milk protects infants from several infections and allergies, such that the breastfed infant is 25 times less likely than the bottle fed infant to die due to diarrhea and pneumonia. Comparative studies have even found breastfed babies to have higher IQs than bottle fed ones. Detrimental maternity home practices, adverse social factors, and the unethical and aggressive marketing strategy adopted by the manufacturers of infant milk substitutes and feeding bottles are the major factors responsible for the erosion of the practice of breastfeeding. These factors are discussed. The Infant Milk Substitutes, Feeding Bottles, and Infant Foods Act prohibits the advertisement and promotion of feeding bottles and infant milk substitutes by unethical marketing strategies. Violations of the act are punishable by imprisonment and a heavy fine. The act and the need for its passage are discussed.

  8. A Closer Look: The American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer, Mary

    2013-01-01

    School districts may be affected by the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 with regard to fixed assets management and education entities. The act avoids the scheduled increases to individual income tax rates for most Americans and extends a host of expired and expiring tax provisions for both individuals and businesses. The provisions described…

  9. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Schreiner

    2001-06-27

    The purpose of this work is to develop the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, as directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M&O 1999a). This abstraction is the conceptual model that will be used to determine the rate of release of radionuclides from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ) in the total system performance assessment-license application (TSPA-LA). In particular, this model will be used to quantify the time-dependent radionuclide releases from a failed waste package (WP) and their subsequent transport through the EBS to the emplacement drift wall/UZ interface. The development of this conceptual model will allow Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department to provide a more detailed and complete EBS flow and transport abstraction. The results from this conceptual model will allow PA0 to address portions of the key technical issues (KTIs) presented in three NRC Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs): (1) the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (ENFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999a), (2) the Container Life and Source Term (CLST), Revision 2 (NRC 1999b), and (3) the Thermal Effects on Flow (TEF), Revision 1 (NRC 1998). The conceptual model for flow and transport in the EBS will be referred to as the ''EBS RT Abstraction'' in this analysis/modeling report (AMR). The scope of this abstraction and report is limited to flow and transport processes. More specifically, this AMR does not discuss elements of the TSPA-SR and TSPA-LA that relate to the EBS but are discussed in other AMRs. These elements include corrosion processes, radionuclide solubility limits, waste form dissolution rates and concentrations of colloidal particles that are generally represented as boundary conditions or input parameters for the EBS RT Abstraction. In effect, this AMR provides the algorithms for transporting radionuclides using the flow geometry and radionuclide concentrations

  10. Williamson Act - The California Land Conservation Act of 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The California Land Conservation Act of 1965 - commonly referred to as the Williamson Act - is the State's primary program for the conservation of private land in...

  11. Impacts Analyses Supporting the National Environmental Policy Act Environmental Assessment for the Resumption of Transient Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette L. Schafer; Lloyd C. Brown; David C. Carathers; Boyd D. Christensen; James J. Dahl; Mark L. Miller; Cathy Ottinger Farnum; Steven Peterson; A. Jeffrey Sondrup; Peter V. Subaiya; Daniel M. Wachs; Ruth F. Weiner

    2013-11-01

    Environmental and health impacts are presented for activities associated with transient testing of nuclear fuel and material using two candidate test reactors. Transient testing involves irradiation of nuclear fuel or materials for short time-periods under high neutron flux rates. The transient testing process includes transportation of nuclear fuel or materials inside a robust shipping cask to a hot cell, removal from the shipping cask, pre-irradiation examination of the nuclear materials, assembly of an experiment assembly, transportation of the experiment assembly to the test reactor, irradiation in the test reactor, transport back to the hot cell, and post-irradiation examination of the nuclear fuel or material. The potential for environmental or health consequences during the transportation, examination, and irradiation actions are assessed for normal operations, off-normal (accident) scenarios, and transportation. Impacts to the environment (air, soil, and groundwater), are assessed during each phase of the transient testing process. This report documents the evaluation of potential consequences to the general public. This document supports the Environmental Assessment (EA) required by the U.S. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) (42 USC Subsection 4321 et seq.).

  12. 47 CFR 69.112 - Direct-trunked transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Direct-trunked transport. 69.112 Section 69.112... Computation of Charges § 69.112 Direct-trunked transport. (a) A flat-rated direct-trunked transport charge... other persons that use telephone company direct-trunked transport facilities. (b)(1) For...

  13. 50 CFR 17.4 - Pre-Act wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pre-Act wildlife. 17.4 Section 17.4 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE...

  14. The systematic implementation of Acceptance & Commitment Therapy (ACT) in Dutch multidisciplinary chronic pain rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trompetter, H.R.; Schreurs, Karlein Maria Gertrudis; Heuts, Peter H.T.G.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study evaluates the implementation of Acceptance & Commitment Therapy (ACT) in Dutch chronic pain rehabilitation centers. Changes in multidisciplinary professionals’ self-perceived competencies in working with ACT were evaluated and corroborated with patients’ ratings of treatment

  15. Demand assignment in the ACTS LBR system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Larry C.; White, Lawrence W.

    1990-05-01

    On the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) being developed at NASA Lewis, low-burst-rate (LBR) traffic stations will access the ACTS multibeam package via two hopping beams that can be directed at certain areas in the continental U.S. An onboard baseband processor (BBP) demodulates uplink traffic, switches it between uplink and downlink beams at baseband, and then remodulates it for retransmission at 20 GHz. This study describes the demand-assigned operation of the ACTS LBR system, where the onboard switch is remote from both traffic stations and master control station (MCS). Network control uses inbound and outbound orderwire channels and a BBP control channel, allowing the MCS to coordinate assignment of individual 64-kb/s spacecraft channels. Models are developed to simulate the dynamics of the assignment process and verify the call blocking behavior, to predict control channel loads, and to evaluate algorithms for burst time plan rearrangement.

  16. Sediment Transport in Rivers and Coastal Waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨树清; 余建星; 王元战

    2003-01-01

    Following Bagnold′s approach, a relationship between sediment transport and energy dissipation is developed. The major assumption made in the study is that the near bed velocity plays a dominant role in the process of sediment transport. A general relationship between energy dissipation and sediment transport is first proposed. Then the equations for total sediment transport are derived by introducing the appropriate expression of energy dissipation rate under different conditions, such as open channel flows, combination of wave and current, as well as longshore sediment transport. Within the flows investigated, the derived relationships are fairly consistent with the available data over a wide range of conditions.

  17. Transportation Energy Efficiency Trends, 1972--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Fan, Y. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The US transportation sector, which remains 97% dependent on petroleum, used a record 22.8 quads of energy in 1993. Though growing much more slowly than the economy from 1975 to 1985, energy use for transportation is now growing at nearly the same rate as GDP. This report describes the analysis of trends in energy use and energy intensity in transportation into components due to, (1) growth in transportation activity, (2) changes in energy intensity, and (3) changes in the modal structure of transportation activities.

  18. 7 CFR 17.8 - Ocean transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... THE AGRICULTURAL TRADE DEVELOPMENT AND ASSISTANCE ACT OF 1954, AS AMENDED § 17.8 Ocean transportation... letter of credit for the portion of the ocean freight not financed by CCC. All banking institution.... (b) Contracting procedures—(1) Invitations for Bids (IFB's). (i) Public freight “Invitations for Bids...

  19. Internal transport barriers in W7-AS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroth, Ulrich [Institut fuer Experimentelle und AngewandtePhysik, Kiel (Germany); Itoh, Kimitaka [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Hartfuss, Hans; Laqua, Heinrich [MPI fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Itoh, Sanae-I. [Kyushu Univ., Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    The three-dimensional magnetic configuration of a stellarator offers a specific mechanism for a transition to improved particle and energy confinement. The pathway opens due to the layer of a strongly varying radial electric field which is present in the transitional region from neoclassical electron to ion-root confinement. This type of improvement acts on turbulent transport. (author)

  20. Where does slow axonal transport go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Sumio

    2003-12-01

    Axonal transport is the specialized and well-developed intracellular transport system for regulated and/or long-distance transport based on generalized cellular machineries. Among them, slow axonal transport conveys cytoplasmic proteins. The motor molecule, the nature of transporting complex and the transport regulation mechanism for slow transport are still unclarified. There has been a dispute regarding the nature of transporting complex of cytoskeletal proteins, polymer-sliding hypothesis versus subunit-transport theory. Recent data supporting the hypothesis of polymer sliding in cultured neurons only reconfirm the previously reported structure and this inference suffers from the lack of ultrastructural evidence and the direct relevance to the physiological slow transport phenomenon in vivo. Observation of the moving cytoskeletal proteins in vivo using transgenic mice or squid giant axons revealed that subunits do move in a microtubule-dependent manner, strongly indicating the involvement of microtubule-based motor kinesin. If the slow transport rate reflects the intermittent fast transport dependent on kinesin motor, we have to investigate the molecular constituents of the transporting complex in more detail and evaluate why the motor and cargo interaction is so unstable. This kind of weak and fluctuating interaction between various molecular pairs could not be detected by conventional techniques, thus necessitating the establishment of a new experimental system before approaching the molecular regulation problem.

  1. 78 FR 71708 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Sunshine Act Meeting; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice...

  2. 78 FR 77773 - Sunshine Act Meetings; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Sunshine Act Meetings; Unified Carrier Registration Plan Board of Directors AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice...

  3. Affordable Care Act and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Outcomes Research Trust Fund (PCORTF) Poverty Poverty Guidelines Poverty Analysis Teen Pregnancy Prevention Homelessness MACRA Publications Data and Tools Evaluation Database The Affordable Care Act and Women 03/20/2012 Home The Affordable Care Act ...

  4. Ratings Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Signe Sophus

    2015-01-01

    tværs af medier og platforme, forskudt i tid og on-demand. This article focuses on audience ratings, which have functioned as the central ‘currency’ informing the media trade. It discusses changes to the production and accuracy of audience ratings at a time when established standards are being...... consumption. It argues that current tracking systems cannot capture increasingly cross-media, time-shifted, mobile, and on-demand audience behavior....

  5. Virtual Acts of Balance!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Koed

    2013-01-01

    improve 'knowledge-democracy' in different ways. The paper denotes such portals 'virtual technologies of knowledge management' and it uses the documental data as a window to analyze and discuss the infrastructural choices of such portals. The analysis is grounded in theories related to 'Social....... It is especially emphasized how technical web-ontologies implicitly carries with them deeper philosophical ontologies about phanomena such as 'politic', 'scientific intentionality' and 'freedom'. The compromise between these technical influences and the social intentions is described as a 'virtual act of balance...

  6. Teaching Speech Acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teaching Speech Acts

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I argue that pragmatic ability must become part of what we teach in the classroom if we are to realize the goals of communicative competence for our students. I review the research on pragmatics, especially those articles that point to the effectiveness of teaching pragmatics in an explicit manner, and those that posit methods for teaching. I also note two areas of scholarship that address classroom needs—the use of authentic data and appropriate assessment tools. The essay concludes with a summary of my own experience teaching speech acts in an advanced-level Portuguese class.

  7. The Act of Walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Maria Quvang Harck; Olesen, Mette; Helmer, Pernille Falborg

    2014-01-01

    ’ of mobility (Jensen 2013:111) such as the urban environment, and the infrastructures. Walking has indeed also a ‘software dimension’ as an embodied performance that trigger the human senses (Jensen 2013) and which is closely related to the habitus and identity of the individual (Halprin 1963). The individual...... the individuals evaluate, interpret and act (Bourdieu 1984), and how this affects their choice to walk. Therefore it could be questioned if whether an assessment of the physical environment is sufficient to identify all the factors that influence the individual perception of ‘walkability’, or if other influencing...

  8. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Troy Reed; Ergun Kuru

    2004-09-30

    The Advanced Cuttings Transport Study (ACTS) was a 5-year JIP project undertaken at the University of Tulsa (TU). The project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and JIP member companies. The objectives of the project were: (1) to develop and construct a new research facility that would allow three-phase (gas, liquid and cuttings) flow experiments under ambient and EPET (elevated pressure and temperature) conditions, and at different angle of inclinations and drill pipe rotation speeds; (2) to conduct experiments and develop a data base for the industry and academia; and (3) to develop mechanistic models for optimization of drilling hydraulics and cuttings transport. This project consisted of research studies, flow loop construction and instrumentation development. Following a one-year period for basic flow loop construction, a proposal was submitted by TU to the DOE for a five-year project that was organized in such a manner as to provide a logical progression of research experiments as well as additions to the basic flow loop. The flow loop additions and improvements included: (1) elevated temperature capability; (2) two-phase (gas and liquid, foam etc.) capability; (3) cuttings injection and removal system; (4) drill pipe rotation system; and (5) drilling section elevation system. In parallel with the flow loop construction, hydraulics and cuttings transport studies were preformed using drilling foams and aerated muds. In addition, hydraulics and rheology of synthetic drilling fluids were investigated. The studies were performed under ambient and EPET conditions. The effects of temperature and pressure on the hydraulics and cuttings transport were investigated. Mechanistic models were developed to predict frictional pressure loss and cuttings transport in horizontal and near-horizontal configurations. Model predictions were compared with the measured data. Predominantly, model predictions show satisfactory agreements with the measured data. As a

  9. Robotic transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lob, W S

    1990-09-01

    Mobile robots perform fetch-and-carry tasks autonomously. An intelligent, sensor-equipped mobile robot does not require dedicated pathways or extensive facility modification. In the hospital, mobile robots can be used to carry specimens, pharmaceuticals, meals, etc. between supply centers, patient areas, and laboratories. The HelpMate (Transitions Research Corp.) mobile robot was developed specifically for hospital environments. To reach a desired destination, Help-Mate navigates with an on-board computer that continuously polls a suite of sensors, matches the sensor data against a pre-programmed map of the environment, and issues drive commands and path corrections. A sender operates the robot with a user-friendly menu that prompts for payload insertion and desired destination(s). Upon arrival at its selected destination, the robot prompts the recipient for a security code or physical key and awaits acknowledgement of payload removal. In the future, the integration of HelpMate with robot manipulators, test equipment, and central institutional information systems will open new applications in more localized areas and should help overcome difficulties in filling transport staff positions.

  10. Chemical transport reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Schäfer, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Chemical Transport Reactions focuses on the processes and reactions involved in the transport of solid or liquid substances to form vapor phase reaction products. The publication first offers information on experimental and theoretical principles and the transport of solid substances and its special applications. Discussions focus on calculation of the transport effect of heterogeneous equilibria for a gas motion between equilibrium spaces; transport effect and the thermodynamic quantities of the transport reaction; separation and purification of substances by means of material transport; and

  11. Modelling Transportation of Efavirenz: Inference on possibility of mixed modes of transportation and kinetic solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tafireyi eNemaura

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding drug transportation mechanisms in the human body is of paramount importance in modelling Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic relationships. This work gives a novel general model of efavirenz transportation projections based on concentrations simulated from patients on a dose of 600mg. The work puts forward a proposition that transportation can wholly be modeled by concentration and time in a uniform volumetric space. Furthermore, movement entities are used to inform the state of kinetic solubility of a solution. There is use of Ricker’s model, and forms of the Hill’s equation in modelling transportation. Characterization on the movement rates of solution particle are suggested in relation to advection rate of solution particle. At turning points on the transportation rate of solution particle vs concentration curve, a suggestion of possibly change of dominance in the mode of transportation and saturation is made. There are four movement rates postulated at primary micro-level transportation, that are attributed to convection, diffusion (passive transportation ( EI and energy dependent system transportation ( ED in relation to advection. Furthermore, a new parameter is introduced which is defined as an advection rate constant of solution particle. It is postulated to be dependent on two rate constants of solution particle, that is a convection rate constant of solution particle and a saturable transportation rate constant of solution particle. At secondary micro-level transportation, the results show convection as sum of advection and saturable transportation. The kinetics of dissolution of efavirenz in the solution space is postulated. Relatively, a good level of kinetics of dissolution is projected in the concentration region 0−32.82μg/ml.

  12. FCC and the Sunshine Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Kenneth

    The Sunshine Act, designed to encourage open meetings to increase public understanding of the governmental decision-making process, went into effect in March 1977. A total of 50 agencies, including the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), are subject to the provisions of the Sunshine Act. The act lists 10 exemptions, any of which can result in…

  13. of the Intestate Succession Act

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    substitution in terms of the Intestate Succession Act 81 of 1987. See the ... the Court explained the reasons for the difference between its .... (b) Each surviving spouse should inherit a child's share of the intestate estate or so ... the Black Administration Act 38 of 1927 and the Births and Deaths Registration Act 51 of 1992. 36.

  14. Safety in the Transport Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    In EU the transport sector has an incident rate of accidents at work at 40 pr 1000 employees. The Danish insurance company CODAN has insured a big part of this sector concerning transport of gods on shore. The purpose of the project is to document the safety problems in the sector and to develop......, unloading or work with transport equipment carried out at many different work places. The main safety problems are falls, heavy lifting, poor ergonomic working conditions, hits or collisions with gods, equipments or falling objects, the traffic risk situations, work with animals and finally the risk...... of violence and robbery. The transport branch is characterized by many small enterprises of which 97% of the enterprises in Denmark have less than 50 employees and 89% have less than 10 employees. The intervention in 5 small enterprises show a relevant focus on both the risk for occupational accidents...

  15. Interest Rates, Inflation, and the National Debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseltine, Robert W.

    1985-01-01

    Government must act more fiscally responsible. The government must put the brakes on an economy it has allowed to run free, and citizens must be willing to support a government that will act tough in the domestic market in order to lower interest rates, reduce inflationary pressure, and increase employment. (Author/RM)

  16. Physiological responses to repeated transportation of gestating Brahman cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The transportation process acts as a stressor with adverse effects on animal health and performance. The purpose of this study was to examine physiological responses to repeated transportation of gestating Brahman cows, previously classified as mature cows, into temperament groups of calm, moderate,...

  17. 18 CFR 284.122 - Transportation by intrastate pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Commission approval, transport natural gas on behalf of: (1) Any interstate pipeline; or (2) Any local... interstate pipeline or local distribution company has physical custody of and transports the natural gas at... REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978...

  18. 18 CFR 284.102 - Transportation by interstate pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Commission approval, to transport natural gas on behalf of: (1) Any intrastate pipeline; or (2) Any local... company has physical custody of and transports the natural gas at some point; or (2) The intrastate... REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978...

  19. Comparison of heterologous xylose transporters in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hahn-Hägerdal Bärbel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been engineered for xylose utilization to enable production of fuel ethanol from lignocellulose raw material. One unresolved challenge is that S. cerevisiae lacks a dedicated transport system for pentose sugars, which means that xylose is transported by non-specific Hxt transporters with comparatively low transport rate and affinity for xylose. Results In this study, we compared three heterologous xylose transporters that have recently been shown to improve xylose uptake under different experimental conditions. The transporters Gxf1, Sut1 and At5g59250 from Candida intermedia, Pichia stipitis and Arabidopsis thaliana, respectively, were expressed in isogenic strains of S. cerevisiae and the transport kinetics and utilization of xylose was evaluated. Expression of the Gxf1 and Sut1 transporters led to significantly increased affinity and transport rates of xylose. In batch cultivation at 4 g/L xylose concentration, improved transport kinetics led to a corresponding increase in xylose utilization, whereas no correlation could be demonstrated at xylose concentrations greater than 15 g/L. The relative contribution of native sugar transporters to the overall xylose transport capacity was also estimated during growth on glucose and xylose. Conclusions Kinetic characterization and aerobic batch cultivation of strains expressing the Gxf1, Sut1 and At5g59250 transporters showed a direct relationship between transport kinetics and xylose growth. The Gxf1 transporter had the highest transport capacity and the highest xylose growth rate, followed by the Sut1 transporter. The range in which transport controlled the growth rate was determined to between 0 and 15 g/L xylose. The role of catabolite repression in regulation of native transporters was also confirmed by the observation that xylose transport by native S. cerevisiae transporters increased significantly during cultivation in xylose and

  20. 76 FR 68257 - Letters of Interest for Credit Assistance Under the Transportation Infrastructure Finance and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... Credit Assistance Under the Transportation Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act (TIFIA) Program... Transportation Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act of 1998 (TIFIA), authorizing the U.S. Department of... letter and detailed plan of finance). Letters of Interest submitted pursuant to this notice of...

  1. Environnement et transports. Transport et pollution de l'air (ETTAP2009) . Environment and transport. Transport and air pollution. 3ème(17e)/3rd(17th), conférence, Toulouse, 2-4 juin 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Joumard, R.

    2009-01-01

    Ces actes de la 3eme conférence Environnement & Transports, incluant la 17eme conférence Transports et pollution de l'air, à Toulouse du 2 au 4 juin 2009 - ETTAP2009, regroupent les communications sur les thématiques suivantes : qualité de l'air et matière particulaire générée par les transports ; consommation d'énergie et émissions de gaz à effet de serre ; émissions et impacts des transports non-routiers ; évaluation et acceptabilité des politiques de transport ; exposition personnelle et ...

  2. Anti-jamming in a fungal transport network

    CERN Document Server

    Hickey, Patrick C; Foshe, Sierra; Roper, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Congestion limits the efficiency of transport networks ranging from highways to the internet. Fungal hyphal networks are studied as an examples of optimal biological transport networks, but the scheduling and direction of traffic to avoid congestion has not been examined. We show here that the Neurospora crassa fungal network exhibits anticongestion: more densely packed nuclei flow faster along hyphal highways, and transported nuclei self-organize into fast flowing solitons. Concentrated transport by solitons may allow cells to cycle between growing and acting as transport conduits.

  3. Identification of an allosteric modulator of the serotonin transporter with novel mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortagere, Sandhya; Fontana, Andreia Cristina Karklin; Rose, Deja Renée; Mortensen, Ole Valente

    2013-09-01

    Serotonin transporters (SERTs) play an essential role in the termination and regulation of serotonin signaling in the brain. SERT is also the target of antidepressants and psychostimulants. Molecules with novel activities and modes of interaction with regard to SERT function are of great scientific and clinical interest. We explored structural regions outside the putative serotonin translocation pathway to identify potential binding sites for allosteric transporter modulators (ATMs). Mutational studies revealed a pocket of amino acids outside the orthosteric substrate binding sites located in the interface between extracellular loops 1 and 3 that when mutated affect transporter function. Using the structure of the bacterial transporter homolog leucine transporter as a template, we developed a structural model of SERT. We performed molecular dynamics simulations to further characterize the allosteric pocket that was identified by site-directed mutagenesis studies and employed this pocket in a virtual screen for small-molecule modulators of SERT function. In functional transport assays, we found that one of the identified molecules, ATM7, increased the reuptake of serotonin, possibly by facilitating the interaction of serotonin with transport-ready conformations of SERT when concentrations of serotonin were low and rate limiting. In addition, ATM7 potentiates 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA, "Ecstasy")-induced reversed transport by SERT. Taking advantage of a conformationally sensitive residue in transmembrane domain 6, we demonstrate that ATM7 mechanistically stabilizes an outward-facing conformation of SERT. Taken together these observations demonstrate that ATM7 acts through a novel mechanism that involves allosteric modulation of SERT function.

  4. Transporting particulate material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldred, Derek Leslie [North Hollywood, CA; Rader, Jeffrey A [North Hollywood, CA; Saunders, Timothy W [North Hollywood, CA

    2011-08-30

    A material transporting system comprises a material transporting apparatus (100) including a material transporting apparatus hopper structure (200, 202), which comprises at least one rotary transporting apparatus; a stationary hub structure (900) constraining and assisting the at least one rotary transporting apparatus; an outlet duct configuration (700) configured to permit material to exit therefrom and comprising at least one diverging portion (702, 702'); an outlet abutment configuration (800) configured to direct material to the outlet duct configuration; an outlet valve assembly from the material transporting system venting the material transporting system; and a moving wall configuration in the material transporting apparatus capable of assisting the material transporting apparatus in transporting material in the material transporting system. Material can be moved from the material transporting apparatus hopper structure to the outlet duct configuration through the at least one rotary transporting apparatus, the outlet abutment configuration, and the outlet valve assembly.

  5. Plant Transporter Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bo

    Membrane transport proteins (transporters) play a critical role for numerous biological processes, by controlling the movements of ions and molecules in and out of cells. In plants, transporters thus function as gatekeepers between the plant and its surrounding environment and between organs......, tissues, cells and intracellular compartments. Since plants are highly compartmentalized organisms with complex transportation infrastructures, they consequently have many transporters. However, the vast majority of predicted transporters have not yet been experimentally verified to have transport...... activity. This project contains a review of the implemented methods, which have led to plant transporter identification, and present our progress on creating a high-throughput functional genomics transporter identification platform....

  6. Plant Transporter Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bo

    Membrane transport proteins (transporters) play a critical role for numerous biological processes, by controlling the movements of ions and molecules in and out of cells. In plants, transporters thus function as gatekeepers between the plant and its surrounding environment and between organs......, tissues, cells and intracellular compartments. Since plants are highly compartmentalized organisms with complex transportation infrastructures, they consequently have many transporters. However, the vast majority of predicted transporters have not yet been experimentally verified to have transport...... activity. This project contains a review of the implemented methods, which have led to plant transporter identification, and present our progress on creating a high-throughput functional genomics transporter identification platform....

  7. Transportation and the environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banister, D.; Anderton, K.; Bonilla, D.; Givoni, M.; Schwanen, T.

    2011-01-01

    The growth of CO2-intensive transport, mobility and the impact of transport on the environment are reviewed. The recent global exponential growth in transport is unsustainable and must end unless the transport sector can decarbonize. The paper examines solutions for low-carbon transport systems; the

  8. Modeling of sediment transport along Mangalore coast using mike 21

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Babu, K.S.; Dwarakish, G.S.; Jayakumar, S.

    The objective of the present study is to understand the sediment transport along Mangalore Coast and to quantify the sediment transport rates. The data used in the present study includes Wave, Wind, Tide, Naval Hydrographic Chart (Bathymetry Chart...

  9. Adoption of alternative transport technologies in the construction industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habets, Thijs; Voordijk, Hans; Sijde, van der Peter

    2006-01-01

    This research examines how the construction industry adopts alternative transport technologies. This paper presents the general characteristics of the adopter and what his perceptions are towards innovative transport technologies. The study focused on four rates of innovation, related tot alternativ

  10. 75 FR 80866 - Credit Rating Standardization Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... to a new credit rating terminology, or for private contracts and investment management agreements... Act of 2010 on the feasibility and desirability of: Standardizing credit ratings terminology, so that... stress; and standardizing credit rating terminology across asset classes, so that named...

  11. Conversation, speech acts, and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtgraves, Thomas

    2008-03-01

    Speakers frequently have specific intentions that they want others to recognize (Grice, 1957). These specific intentions can be viewed as speech acts (Searle, 1969), and I argue that they play a role in long-term memory for conversation utterances. Five experiments were conducted to examine this idea. Participants in all experiments read scenarios ending with either a target utterance that performed a specific speech act (brag, beg, etc.) or a carefully matched control. Participants were more likely to falsely recall and recognize speech act verbs after having read the speech act version than after having read the control version, and the speech act verbs served as better recall cues for the speech act utterances than for the controls. Experiment 5 documented individual differences in the encoding of speech act verbs. The results suggest that people recognize and retain the actions that people perform with their utterances and that this is one of the organizing principles of conversation memory.

  12. Multi-Fraction Bayesian Sediment Transport Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L. Schmelter

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A Bayesian approach to sediment transport modeling can provide a strong basis for evaluating and propagating model uncertainty, which can be useful in transport applications. Previous work in developing and applying Bayesian sediment transport models used a single grain size fraction or characterized the transport of mixed-size sediment with a single characteristic grain size. Although this approach is common in sediment transport modeling, it precludes the possibility of capturing processes that cause mixed-size sediments to sort and, thereby, alter the grain size available for transport and the transport rates themselves. This paper extends development of a Bayesian transport model from one to k fractional dimensions. The model uses an existing transport function as its deterministic core and is applied to the dataset used to originally develop the function. The Bayesian multi-fraction model is able to infer the posterior distributions for essential model parameters and replicates predictive distributions of both bulk and fractional transport. Further, the inferred posterior distributions are used to evaluate parametric and other sources of variability in relations representing mixed-size interactions in the original model. Successful OPEN ACCESS J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2015, 3 1067 development of the model demonstrates that Bayesian methods can be used to provide a robust and rigorous basis for quantifying uncertainty in mixed-size sediment transport. Such a method has heretofore been unavailable and allows for the propagation of uncertainty in sediment transport applications.

  13. EXCHANGE RATE - REGIMES AND POLICIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novak Lučić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Exchange rate of one currency is the price of the currency expressed in units of other currency. It is formed by the interaction of supply and demand in the foreign exchange market. Given that the exchange rate has a direct impact on the competitiveness of a country in terms of features of its exports and imports, in its balance of payments, and indirectly the overall economic and social development, in addition to acting in market principles - supply and demand in the formation of the equilibrium exchange rate, exchange rate is subject to different, stronger or weaker, more or less, forms of intervention. In the search for the optimal exchange rate policy of the national currency, the monetary authorities are positioned between the two extremes - the complete abandonment of the exchange rate to the market laws of supply and demand, or fixing the exchange rate for any of the selected anchor currency.

  14. Road Transport Entrepreneurs and Road Transportation Revolution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    An International Multidisciplinary Journal, Ethiopia. Vol. 7 (4), Serial No. ... Nnewi Igbo emerged as pioneer road transport entrepreneurs and charted this novel ..... the cardinal motives for venturing into the transport industry. (Maduewesi ...

  15. A Balancing Act?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstlberger, Wolfgang; Knudsen, Mette Præst; Stampe, Ian

    efficiency moderates the effect of market attention on new product development. The paper therefore concludes that product innovation and energy efficiency is a balancing act, focusing on one will have detrimental effects on the other! These findings point to the conclusion that researchers and practitioners...... the 2009 European Manufacturing Survey for the Danish sub-sample including 335 manufacturing firms. Through factor analysis, the paper confirms three main focus areas of new product development in relation to production facilities: efficiency considerations, market attention and greening of innovation....... Logistic regression analysis demonstrates that while market attention is important for new product development, green aspects of innovation and efficiency considerations for innovation are important for the energy efficiency of the production companies. Combining these models highlights that energy...

  16. Sand transport, erosion and granular electrification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrison, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    The transport of granular materials by wind has a major impact on our environment through sand/soil erosion and the generation and transport of atmospheric dust aerosols. Terrestrially the transport of dust involves billions of tons of material every year, influencing the global climate and impac......The transport of granular materials by wind has a major impact on our environment through sand/soil erosion and the generation and transport of atmospheric dust aerosols. Terrestrially the transport of dust involves billions of tons of material every year, influencing the global climate...... can affect grain transport through the generation of intense electric fields and processes of electrostatic assembly. Importantly the transport of sand is characterized by saltation, which is known to be an active process for erosion and therefore a source for dust and sand formation. Using novel...... erosion simulation techniques the link between grain transport rates and erosion rates has been quantified. Furthermore this can be linked to production rates for dust and has been associated with chemical and mineral alteration through a process of mechanical activation of fractured surfaces. This work...

  17. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. S. Viswanathan

    2004-10-07

    This scientific analysis provides retardation factors for colloids transporting in the saturated zone (SZ) and the unsaturated zone (UZ). These retardation factors represent the reversible chemical and physical filtration of colloids in the SZ. The value of the colloid retardation factor, R{sub col} is dependent on several factors, such as colloid size, colloid type, and geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, and ionic strength). These factors are folded into the distributions of R{sub col} that have been developed from field and experimental data collected under varying geochemical conditions with different colloid types and sizes. Attachment rate constants, k{sub att}, and detachment rate constants, k{sub det}, of colloids to the fracture surface have been measured for the fractured volcanics, and separate R{sub col} uncertainty distributions have been developed for attachment and detachment to clastic material and mineral grains in the alluvium. Radionuclides such as plutonium and americium sorb mostly (90 to 99 percent) irreversibly to colloids (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025], Section 6.3.3.2). The colloid retardation factors developed in this analysis are needed to simulate the transport of radionuclides that are irreversibly sorbed onto colloids; this transport is discussed in the model report ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]). Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this scientific analysis especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste-degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and americium may be irreversibly attached to colloids for the time scales of interest. A section of this report will also discuss the validity of using microspheres as analogs to colloids in some of the lab and field experiments used to obtain the colloid retardation factors. In addition, a small fraction of colloids travels with the groundwater without any significant

  18. Lifetime-enhanced transport in silicon due to spin and valley blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansbergen, G P; Rahman, R; Verduijn, J; Tettamanzi, G C; Collaert, N; Biesemans, S; Klimeck, G; Hollenberg, L C L; Rogge, S

    2011-09-23

    We report the observation of lifetime-enhanced transport (LET) based on perpendicular valleys in silicon by transport spectroscopy measurements of a two-electron system in a silicon transistor. The LET is manifested as a peculiar current step in the stability diagram due to a forbidden transition between an excited state and any of the lower energy states due to perpendicular valley (and spin) configurations, offering an additional current path. By employing a detailed temperature dependence study in combination with a rate equation model, we estimate the lifetime of this particular state to exceed 48 ns. The two-electron spin-valley configurations of all relevant confined quantum states in our device were obtained by a large-scale atomistic tight-binding simulation. The LET acts as a signature of the complicated valley physics in silicon: a feature that becomes increasingly important in silicon quantum devices.

  19. Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory (Saxton Laboratory) is a state-of-the-art facility for conducting transportation operations research. The laboratory...

  20. Smart Growth and Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes the relationship between smart growth and transportation, focusing smart and sustainable street design, transit-oriented development, parking management, sustainable transportation planning, and related resources.

  1. The effect of flow and mass transport in thrombogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basmadjian, D

    1990-01-01

    The paper presents a mathematical analysis of the contributions of flow and mass transport to a single reactive event at a blood vessel wall. The intent is to prepare the ground for a comprehensive study of the intertwining of these contributions with the reaction network of the coagulation cascade. We show that in all vessels with local mural activity, or in "large" vessels (d greater than 0.1 mm) with global reactivity, events at the tubular wall can be rigorously described by algebraic equations under steady conditions, or by ordinary differential forms (ODEs) during transient conditions. This opens up important ways for analyzing the combined roles of flow, transport, and coagulation reactions in thrombosis, a task hitherto considered to be completely intractable. We report extensively on the dependence of transport coefficient kL and mural coagulant concentration Cw on flow, vessel geometry, and reaction kinetics. It is shown that for protein transport, kL varies only weakly with shear rate gamma in large vessels, and not at all in the smaller tubes (d less than 10(-2) mm). For a typical protein, kL approximately 10(-3) cm s-1 within a factor of 3 in most geometries, irrespective of the mural reaction kinetics. Significant reductions in kL (1/10-1/1,000) leading to high-coagulant accumulation are seen mainly in stagnant zones vicinal to abrupt expansions and in small elliptical tubules. This is in accord with known physical observations. More unexpected are the dramatic increases in accumulation which can come about through the intervention of an autocatalytic reaction step, with Cw rising sharply toward infinity as the ratio of reaction to transport coefficient approaches unity. Such self-catalyzed reactions have the ability to act as powerful amplifiers of an otherwise modest influence of flow and transport on coagulant concentration. The paper considers as well the effect on mass transport of transient conditions occasioned by coagulation initiation or

  2. A History of the Improvement of Internet Protocols Over Satellites Using ACTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allman, Mark; Kruse, Hans; Ostermann, Shawn

    2000-01-01

    This paper outlines the main results of a number of ACTS experiments on the efficacy of using standard Internet protocols over long-delay satellite channels. These experiments have been jointly conducted by NASAs Glenn Research Center and Ohio University over the last six years. The focus of our investigations has been the impact of long-delay networks with non-zero bit-error rates on the performance of the suite of Internet protocols. In particular, we have focused on the most widely used transport protocol, the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), as well as several application layer protocols. This paper presents our main results, as well as references to more verbose discussions of our experiments.

  3. Iodide transport and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Vikki L; McCabe, Christopher J

    2015-10-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide and the leading cause of cancer death in women, with incidence rates that continue to rise. The heterogeneity of the disease makes breast cancer exceptionally difficult to treat, particularly for those patients with triple-negative disease. To address the therapeutic complexity of these tumours, new strategies for diagnosis and treatment are urgently required. The ability of lactating and malignant breast cells to uptake and transport iodide has led to the hypothesis that radioiodide therapy could be a potentially viable treatment for many breast cancer patients. Understanding how iodide is transported, and the factors regulating the expression and function of the proteins responsible for iodide transport, is critical for translating this hypothesis into reality. This review covers the three known iodide transporters - the sodium iodide symporter, pendrin and the sodium-coupled monocarboxylate transporter - and their role in iodide transport in breast cells, along with efforts to manipulate them to increase the potential for radioiodide therapy as a treatment for breast cancer.

  4. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, gasoline and diesel fuel have accounted for about 80 percent of total transportation fuel and nearly all of the fuel used in on-road vehicles. Growing concerns about the environmental effects of fossil fuel use and the Nation`s high level of dependence on foreign oil are providing impetus for the development of replacements or alternatives for these traditional transportation fuels. (The Energy Policy Act of 1992 definitions of {open_quotes}replacement{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}alternative{close_quotes} fuels are presented in the following box.) The Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) and the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) are significant legislative forces behind the growth of replacement fuel use. Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 1993 provides the number of on-road alternative fueled vehicles in use in the United States, alternative and replacement fuel consumption, and information on greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the production, delivery, and use of replacement fuels for 1992, 1993, and 1995.

  5. Central-Acting Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ADHD) Hot flashes Drug withdrawal Tourette syndrome These medications can have strong side effects, so they aren't commonly used. Side effects include: Fatigue Drowsiness or sedation Dizziness Impotence Constipation Abnormally slow heart rate Dry mouth Headache Fever Abruptly stopping use ...

  6. Transport of H2S and HS− across the human red blood cell membrane: rapid H2S diffusion and AE1-mediated Cl−/HS− exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The rates of H2S and HS− transport across the human erythrocyte membrane were estimated by measuring rates of dissipation of pH gradients in media containing 250 μM H2S/HS−. Net acid efflux is caused by H2S/HS− acting analogously to CO2/HCO3− in the Jacobs-Stewart cycle. The steps are as follows: 1) H2S efflux through the lipid bilayer and/or a gas channel, 2) extracellular H2S deprotonation, 3) HS− influx in exchange for Cl−, catalyzed by the anion exchange protein AE1, and 4) intracellular HS− protonation. Net acid transport by the Cl−/HS−/H2S cycle is more efficient than by the Cl−/HCO3−/CO2 cycle because of the rapid H2S-HS− interconversion in cells and medium. The rates of acid transport were analyzed by solving the mass flow equations for the cycle to produce estimates of the HS− and H2S transport rates. The data indicate that HS− is a very good substrate for AE1; the Cl−/HS− exchange rate is about one-third as rapid as Cl−/HCO3− exchange. The H2S permeability coefficient must also be high (>10−2 cm/s, half time H2S and HS− enter erythrocytes very rapidly in the microcirculation of H2S-producing tissues, thereby acting as a sink for H2S and lowering the local extracellular concentration, and the fact that HS− is a substrate for a Cl−/HCO3− exchanger indicates that some effects of exogenous H2S/HS− may not result from a regulatory role of H2S but, rather, from net acid flux by H2S and HS− transport in a Jacobs-Stewart cycle. PMID:23864610

  7. The role of multidrug resistance protein (MRP-1) as an active efflux transporter on blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingineni, Karthik; Belekar, Vilas; Tangadpalliwar, Sujit R; Garg, Prabha

    2017-01-03

    Drugs acting on central nervous system (CNS) may take longer duration to reach the market as these compounds have a higher attrition rate in clinical trials due to the complexity of the brain, side effects, and poor blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability compared to non-CNS-acting compounds. The roles of active efflux transporters with BBB are still unclear. The aim of the present work was to develop a predictive model for BBB permeability that includes the MRP-1 transporter, which is considered as an active efflux transporter. A support vector machine model was developed for the classification of MRP-1 substrates and non-substrates, which was validated with an external data set and Y-randomization method. An artificial neural network model has been developed to evaluate the role of MRP-1 on BBB permeation. A total of nine descriptors were selected, which included molecular weight, topological polar surface area, ClogP, number of hydrogen bond donors, number of hydrogen bond acceptors, number of rotatable bonds, P-gp, BCRP, and MRP-1 substrate probabilities for model development. We identified 5 molecules that fulfilled all criteria required for passive permeation of BBB, but they all have a low logBB value, which suggested that the molecules were effluxed by the MRP-1 transporter.

  8. Coal transportation by MGR system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daga, P.R.

    1980-08-01

    34000 tonnes of coal per day will need to be transported nearly 34 km by rail to India's coal-fired Korba Super Thermal Power Project. The Merry-go-Round rail system was adopted because it has a much higher rate of loading and unloading of wagons than the Tippler Arrangement. The route for the railway is described, together with regulations that the route has satisfied. Details are given of the track, wagons, locomotives, loading station, unloading station, signalling, telecommunications, maintenance workshop and total capital costs. The MGR system of coal transportation will provide greater reliability and reduced time factor.

  9. Next Generation Transport Phenomenology Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Douglas J.; Knight, Harold; Evans, J. Scott

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the progress made in Quarter 3 of Contract Year 3 on the development of Aeronomy Phenomenology Modeling Tool (APMT), an open-source, component-based, client-server architecture for distributed modeling, analysis, and simulation activities focused on electron and photon transport for general atmospheres. In the past quarter, column emission rate computations were implemented in Java, preexisting Fortran programs for computing synthetic spectra were embedded into APMT through Java wrappers, and work began on a web-based user interface for setting input parameters and running the photoelectron and auroral electron transport models.

  10. An Act of Colonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders Bo

    When Gideon Welles, U.S. Secretary of the Navy, sat down to write his diary entry on September 26, 1862, his thoughts turned once more to colonization. President Lincoln was an ardent proponent of colonization, “the government-promoted settlement of black Americans in Africa or some other location......” and based on the recurring cabinet discussions, Welles understood that “Great Britain, Denmark and perhaps other powers would take them [the black population].” Since at least 1860, Denmark had encouraged the American government to send the “quite uncivilized (…) Africans liberated” from slave ships to St...... and the United States signed an act on July 19, 1862, wherein the U.S. Navy agreed to unload “all negroes, mulattoes, or persons of color, delivered from on board vessels seized in the prosecution of the slave trade.” Yet, despite the two countries’ mutual interests in employing “laborers of African Extraction...

  11. Double acting bit holder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Roger J.; Larson, David A.; Ruzzi, Peter L.

    1994-01-01

    A double acting bit holder that permits bits held in it to be resharpened during cutting action to increase energy efficiency by reducing the amount of small chips produced. The holder consist of: a stationary base portion capable of being fixed to a cutter head of an excavation machine and having an integral extension therefrom with a bore hole therethrough to accommodate a pin shaft; a movable portion coextensive with the base having a pin shaft integrally extending therefrom that is insertable in the bore hole of the base member to permit the moveable portion to rotate about the axis of the pin shaft; a recess in the movable portion of the holder to accommodate a shank of a bit; and a biased spring disposed in adjoining openings in the base and moveable portions of the holder to permit the moveable portion to pivot around the pin shaft during cutting action of a bit fixed in a turret to allow front, mid and back positions of the bit during cutting to lessen creation of small chip amounts and resharpen the bit during excavation use.

  12. The act of interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Abreu, Aloysio Augusto

    2006-08-01

    The author understands the interpreting act as an attempt to perceive what happens in the transference/countertransference field and not just what happens in the patient's mind. Interpretation transcends mere intellectual communication. It is also an experience in which analysts' emotions work as an important instrument in understanding their patients. Interpretation is seen to possess manifest as well as latent content; the latter would contain the analysts' feelings, emotions and personality. The unconscious content of an interpretation does not inconvenience or preclude the development of the analytic process, but, on the contrary, it allows new associative material to emerge, and it transforms the analytic session into a human relationship. Analysts' awareness of this content derived from patients' apperceptions is a significant instrument for understanding what is happening in the analytic relationship, and what transpires in these sessions provides fundamental elements for analysts' self-analysis. Some clinical examples demonstrate these occurrences in analytic sessions, and how they can be apprehended and used for a better understanding of the patient. The author also mentions the occurrence of difficulties during the analytic process. These difficulties are often the result of lapses in an analyst's perception related to unconscious elements of the relationship.

  13. Seawater transport during coral biomineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Alexander C.; Adkins, Jess F.; Erez, Jonathan

    2012-05-01

    Cation transport during skeletal growth is a key process controlling metal/calcium (Me/Ca) paleoproxy behavior in coral. To characterize this transport, cultured corals were transferred into seawater enriched in the rare earth element Tb3 + as well as stable isotopes of calcium, strontium, and barium. Subsequent NanoSIMS ion images of each coral skeleton were used to follow uptake dynamics. These images show a continuous region corresponding to new growth that is homogeneously enriched in each tracer. Isotope ratio profiles across the new growth boundary transition rapidly from natural abundance ratios to a ratio matching the enriched culture solution. The location of this transition is the same for each element, within analytical resolution. The synchronous incorporation of all these cations, including the dissimilar ion terbium, which has no known biological function in coral, suggests that: (1) there is cation exchange between seawater and the calcifying fluid, and (2) these elements are influenced by similar transport mechanisms consistent with direct and rapid seawater transport to the site of calcification. Measured using isotope ratio profiles, seawater transport rates differ from place to place on the growing coral skeleton, with calcifying fluid turnover times from 30 min to 5.7 h. Despite these differences, all the elements measured in this study show the same transport dynamics at each location. Using an analytical geochemical model of biomineralization that includes direct seawater transport we constrain the role of active calcium pumping during calcification and we show that the balance between seawater transport and precipitation can explain observed Me/Ca variability in deep-sea coral.

  14. Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Dean A.; Schertler, Ronald J.

    The benefits that will be offered by the NASA-sponsored communication spacecraft ACTS which is scheduled for launch in 1992 are described together with examples of demonstrations on proposed data, video, and voice applications supported by the advanced ACTS technologies. Compared to existing satellite service, the ACTS will provide lower cost, better service, greater convenience, and improved service reliability of telecommunications to customers around the world. In addition, the pioneering ACTS technology will provide many capabilities qualitatively different from those of current satellite systems, such as on-demand assignment, frequency reuse, and the flexible targeting of spot beams directly to the very-small-aperture terminals at customer premises.

  15. Multi-process herbicide transport in structured soil columns: experiments and model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhne, J Maximilian; Köhne, Sigrid; Simůnek, Jirka

    2006-05-01

    Model predictions of pesticide transport in structured soils are complicated by multiple processes acting concurrently. In this study, the hydraulic, physical, and chemical nonequilibrium (HNE, PNE, and CNE, respectively) processes governing herbicide transport under variably saturated flow conditions were studied. Bromide (Br-), isoproturon (IPU, 3-(4-isoprpylphenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) and terbuthylazine (TER, N2-tert-butyl-6-chloro-N4-ethyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) were applied to two soil columns. An aggregated Ap soil column and a macroporous, aggregated Ah soil column were irrigated at a rate of 1 cm h(-1) for 3 h. Two more irrigations at the same rate and duration followed in weekly intervals. Nonlinear (Freundlich) equilibrium and two-site kinetic sorption parameters were determined for IPU and TER using batch experiments. The observed water flow and Br- transport were inversely simulated using mobile-immobile (MIM), dual-permeability (DPM), and combined triple-porosity (DP-MIM) numerical models implemented in HYDRUS-1D, with improving correspondence between empirical data and model results. Using the estimated HNE and PNE parameters together with batch-test derived equilibrium sorption parameters, the preferential breakthrough of the weakly adsorbed IPU in the Ah soil could be reasonably well predicted with the DPM approach, whereas leaching of the strongly adsorbed TER was predicted less well. The transport of IPU and TER through the aggregated Ap soil could be described consistently only when HNE, PNE, and CNE were simultaneously accounted for using the DPM. Inverse parameter estimation suggested that two-site kinetic sorption in inter-aggregate flow paths was reduced as compared to within aggregates, and that large values for the first-order degradation rate were an artifact caused by irreversible sorption. Overall, our results should be helpful to enhance the understanding and modeling of multi-process pesticide transport through structured soils

  16. Mitochondrial ascorbic acid transport is mediated by a low-affinity form of the sodium-coupled ascorbic acid transporter-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Montesino, Carola; Roa, Francisco J; Peña, Eduardo; González, Mauricio; Sotomayor, Kirsty; Inostroza, Eveling; Muñoz, Carolina A; González, Iván; Maldonado, Mafalda; Soliz, Carlos; Reyes, Alejandro M; Vera, Juan Carlos; Rivas, Coralia I

    2014-05-01

    Despite the fundamental importance of the redox metabolism of mitochondria under normal and pathological conditions, our knowledge regarding the transport of vitamin C across mitochondrial membranes remains far from complete. We report here that human HEK-293 cells express a mitochondrial low-affinity ascorbic acid transporter that molecularly corresponds to SVCT2, a member of the sodium-coupled ascorbic acid transporter family 2. The transporter SVCT1 is absent from HEK-293 cells. Confocal colocalization experiments with anti-SVCT2 and anti-organelle protein markers revealed that most of the SVCT2 immunoreactivity was associated with mitochondria, with minor colocalization at the endoplasmic reticulum and very low immunoreactivity at the plasma membrane. Immunoblotting of proteins extracted from highly purified mitochondrial fractions confirmed that SVCT2 protein was associated with mitochondria, and transport analysis revealed a sigmoidal ascorbic acid concentration curve with an apparent ascorbic acid transport Km of 0.6mM. Use of SVCT2 siRNA for silencing SVCT2 expression produced a major decrease in mitochondrial SVCT2 immunoreactivity, and immunoblotting revealed decreased SVCT2 protein expression by approximately 75%. Most importantly, the decreased protein expression was accompanied by a concomitant decrease in the mitochondrial ascorbic acid transport rate. Further studies using HEK-293 cells overexpressing SVCT2 at the plasma membrane revealed that the altered kinetic properties of mitochondrial SVCT2 are due to the ionic intracellular microenvironment (low in sodium and high in potassium), with potassium acting as a concentration-dependent inhibitor of SVCT2. We discarded the participation of two glucose transporters previously described as mitochondrial dehydroascorbic acid transporters; GLUT1 is absent from mitochondria and GLUT10 is not expressed in HEK-293 cells. Overall, our data indicate that intracellular SVCT2 is localized in mitochondria, is

  17. 28 CFR 79.62 - Criteria for eligibility for claims by ore transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ore transporters. 79.62 Section 79.62 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims by Ore Transporters § 79.62 Criteria for eligibility for claims by ore transporters. To establish eligibility for...

  18. 28 CFR 79.63 - Proof of employment as an ore transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of employment as an ore transporter... RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims by Ore Transporters § 79.63 Proof of employment as an ore transporter. (a) The Department will accept, as proof of employment for the time...

  19. 75 FR 26745 - ONEOK Gas Transportation, LLC; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ...] ONEOK Gas Transportation, LLC; Notice of Baseline Filing May 5, 2010. Take notice that on April 28, 2010, ONEOK Gas Transportation, LLC (OGT) submitted its baseline filing of its Statement of Operating Conditions for transportation services provided under section 311(a)(2) of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978...

  20. 75 FR 24773 - Research and Innovative Technology Administration Advisory Council on Transportation Statistics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... Bureau of Transportation Statistics Research and Innovative Technology Administration Advisory Council on Transportation Statistics; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S... on Transportation Statistics (ACTS). The meeting will be held on Friday, June 4, 2010, from 9 a.m....