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Sample records for acrylonitrile

  1. 21 CFR 180.22 - Acrylonitrile copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., preferably with animals exposed in utero to the chemical, (2) studies of multigeneration reproduction with... between acrylonitrile monomer and cyanide ion, and (6) a literature search on the effects of...

  2. Butadiene-acrylonitrile elastomers as PVC modifiers

    OpenAIRE

    M. Rojek; J. Stabik

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to present the results of research programme on influence of acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymers on plasticized polyvinylchloride compounds used as window gasket material.Design/methodology/approach: Short review concerning application of modified plasticized PVC compounds as gasket material was presented. In experimental part two types of acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymers were used as elastomeric plasticizers for PVC. Formulations with fifteen dif...

  3. Starch Modification by Graft Copolymerization of Acrylonitrile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑞贤; 李莉; 茹宗玲; 张黎明; 高建平; 田汝川

    2003-01-01

    The graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) onto starch under the initiation of potassium permanganate was investigated. The effect of various reaction conditions on the graft copolymerization was studied. The relationships between the grafting rate and the initiator concentration of potassium permanganate, monomer acrylonitrile and backbone starch, as well as reaction temperature were established. The oxidation reaction of starch with manganic ions and valence changes of manganic ions during the graft copolymerization were discussed. The results show that manganic ion Mn7+ underwent a series of valence changes during the graft copolymerization: Mn(Ⅶ) → Mn(Ⅳ) → Mn(Ⅲ) → Mn(Ⅱ). The grafting rate of the graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile onto starch is also given.

  4. 29 CFR 1910.1045 - Acrylonitrile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... addition, contact lenses should not be worn in areas where eye contact with acrylonitrile can occur. v... eye exposure. The employer shall assure that no employee is exposed to skin contact or eye contact... eye or skin contact with liquid AN may occur, the employer shall provide at no cost to the...

  5. Surface amination of poly(acrylonitrile)

    OpenAIRE

    Hartwig, Andreas; Mulder, Marcel; Smolders, Cees A.

    1994-01-01

    The surface amination of poly (acrylonitrile) by ammonia plasma treatment has been studied. Furthermore, two other surface modification techniques have been investigated, the plasma chemical decomposition of an amino group containing chemical (tris-(2-aminoethyl)amine) onto the polymer surface and the surface reduction by lithium aluminium hydride. The three different methods are compared with respect to the adhesion improvement of the coatings onto the modified surfaces.

  6. Modification of PVC compounds with butadiene-acrylonitrile elastomers

    OpenAIRE

    J. Stabik; M. Rojek

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to present the research programme on influence of acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymers on properties of plasticized polyvinylchloride as window gaskets material.Design/methodology/approach: Short literature review concerning application of modified PVC as gasket material was presented. In experimental part two types of acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymers were used as elastomeric plasticizers. Compounds with fifteen different levels of modifiers content (up to...

  7. Modification of PVC compounds with butadiene-acrylonitrile elastomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Stabik

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to present the research programme on influence of acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymers on properties of plasticized polyvinylchloride as window gaskets material.Design/methodology/approach: Short literature review concerning application of modified PVC as gasket material was presented. In experimental part two types of acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymers were used as elastomeric plasticizers. Compounds with fifteen different levels of modifiers content (up to 25% by weight were prepared and tested. Additionally three commercial compounds were tested as reference formulations. The following test were performed: Shore hardness, short-term and long-term elastic recovery, tensile strength, elongation at break and migration of plasticizers from gasket material to unplasticized PVC.Findings: Application of acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymers as PVC modifier enhanced many properties essential for window gasket materials such as long-term and short term elastic recovery, tensile strength and elongation at break. At the same time addition of these elastomers did not change migration of other plasticizers contained in gasket material. Obtained results indicated that among tested compounds best properties as gasket material exhibited plasticized PVC with 23% of acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer Chemigum P83. Reference commercial compounds exhibited worse performance properties than compounds with this acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer. Practical implications: Research programme allowed to elaborate plasticized PVC compounds modified with acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer that can be industrially applied for PVC window gaskets.Originality/value: Obtained results are of scientific and practical value. Research programme allowed to investigate the influence of elastomeric modifiers on plasticized PVC properties. Research results are also of practical importance.

  8. Commercial Application of the XYA-5 Catalyst in Acrylonitrile Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhengguang

    2008-01-01

    The XYA-5 catalyst was first applied in commercial scale on an 80-kt/a acrylonitrile unit at the Daqing Refining and Chemical Company.Test results had shown that the once-through yield of acrylonitrile exceeded 80% with the unit consumption of propylene reaching 1032 kg on each ton of acryionitrile.The product quality could be easily put under control and the distribution of reaction products was reasonable with good cleaning performance and stability of the catalyst that was suitable for use on this commercial unit.

  9. Polyacrylamide polymers derived from acrylonitrile without intermediate isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, C.J.; Falk, D.O.

    1977-04-05

    Hydrolyzed and neutralized acrylonitrile is polymerized in solution without isolation to produce a high molecular weight polyacrylamide useful for mobility control in secondary recovery of petroleum. The polyacrylamide optionally may be hydrolyzed, methylolated, and sulfomethylated to further enhance its water-thickening properties. This procedure reduces the cost of making polyacrylamide. (5 claims)

  10. A New Quenching Process and Tower to Improve the Recovery of Acrylonitrile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘永胜; 顾军民; 方永成

    2004-01-01

    Quenching process and design of the quenching tower in acrylonitrile production in China were studied in order to decrease the polymerization loss of acrylonitrile in the quenching tower. Based on the research of acrylonitrile polymerization in the quenching tower, a new quenching process was proposed to avoid the disadvantages of the original process. Two kinds of internals were installed to improve the performance of the quenching tower. Through a series of air-flow and real-flow model experiments, the new quenching process and new design were showed to be successful in enhancing the mass and heat transfer in the vapor-liquid system and decreasing the loss of acrylonitrile.Industrial application showed satisfactory results of decrease of the acrylonitrile loss in the quenching tower by about 4.5% and increase of the acrylonitrile recovery of the whole plant by more than 4%.

  11. Thermal Stability of Poly (acrylonitrile-methyl acrylate) Copolymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Na; ZHANG Xing-xiang; WANG Xue-chen

    2008-01-01

    Poly (acrylonitrile-methyl acrylate) copolymer was synthesized by water depositing polymerization and has a typical feed ratio of 85/15. And then 1 - 3 wt% lauryl alcohol maleic anhydride (LAM) was adopted as stabilizer to mix with the acrylonitrile based copolymer. The mixtures were characterized by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR ), Gel Permeation Chromatography ( GPC ), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), optic microscope and Ubbelohde viscosimetryr etc. The melting point (Tm) and glass transition temperature (Tg) of the 85/15 AN/MA copolymer mixed with LAM all decrease with the increase of stabilizer content. The lowest Tg and Tm were 116.1 ℃ and 209. 1℃ respectively at the heating rate of 100℃/min when the content of LAM is 2 wt%. The 85°/15 AN/MA copolymer mixed with 1 - 3 w t% LAM possess good thermal stability up to 30 min at 220 ℃.

  12. Polymerization of Acrylonitrile with(Diisopropylamido)Bis(indenyl) Lanthanides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李刚; 张学全; 应来强; 巴小微; 崔冬梅; 唐涛; 金鹰泰

    2002-01-01

    The polymerization of acrylonitrile was studied using (diisopropylamido)bis(indenyl) lanthanides, Ind2LnN(i-Pr)2(Ln=Y, Yb) as a single-component catalyst. The effects of the amount of catalyst, monomer concentration and polymerization temperature on catalytic activity and molecular weight of polyacrylonitrile(PAN) were studied. The results show that the catalytic activity is raised obviously with rising polymerization temperature. The monomer conversion reaches 64% under polymerization temperature, monomer concentration and catalyst concentration are 50 ℃, 5.1 mol*L-1 and 0.3%(molar ratio) sequentially. The conversion and molecular weight of the polymer increase appreciably with adding additive, PhONa. When the molar ratio of PhONa to the catalyst is three, the conversion and the molecular weight is 76% and 1.32×104, respectively. The initiation mechanism for the polymerization of acrylonitrile was proposed.

  13. Radiation initiated copolymerization of allyl alcohol with acrylonitrile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solpan, Dilek; Guven, Olgun [Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-07-01

    Copolymerization of allyl alcohol (AA) with acrylonitrile (AN) initiated by {gamma}-rays has been investigated to determine the respective reactivity ratios. Three different experimental techniques, namely Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Ultraviolet (UV/vis) and elemental analysis (EA) have been used for the determination of copolymer compositions. Fineman-Ross (FR), Kelen-Tudos (KT), Non-Linear Least Square (NLLS) Analysis and Q-e methods have been applied to the three sets of experimental data. It has been concluded that data obtained from elemental analysis as applied to the Non-Linear Least Square approach gave the most reliable reactivity ratios as 2.09 and 0.40 for acrylonitrile and allyl alcohol, respectively. (Author).

  14. Radiation initiated copolymerization of allyl alcohol with acrylonitrile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şolpan, Dilek; Güven, Olgun

    1996-07-01

    Copolymerization of allyl alcohol (AA) with acrylonitrile (AN) initiated by γ-rays has been investigated to determine the respective reactivity ratios. Three different experimental techniques, namely Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Ultraviolet (UV/vis) and elemental analysis (EA) have been used for the determination of copolymer compositions. Fineman-Ross (FR), Kelen-Tüdös (KT), Non-Linear Least Square (NLLS) Analysis and Q-e methods have been applied to the three sets of experimental data. It has been concluded that data obtained from elemental analysis as applied to the Non-Linear Least Square approach gave the most reliable reactivity ratios as 2.09 and 0.40 for acrylonitrile and allyl alcohol, respectively.

  15. Hydrolyzed Poly(acrylonitrile) Electrospun Ion-Exchange Fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Jassal, Manisha; Bhowmick, Sankha; Sengupta, Sukalyan; Patra, Prabir K.; Walker, Douglas I.

    2014-01-01

    A potential ion-exchange material was developed from poly(acrylonitrile) fibers that were prepared by electrospinning followed by alkaline hydrolysis (to convert the nitrile group to the carboxylate functional group). Characterization studies performed on this material using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-Transform infra-red spectroscopy, and ion chromatography confirmed the presence of ion-exchange functional group (carboxylate). Optimum hydrolysis co...

  16. 21 CFR 177.1020 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... acrylonitrile adduct as determined by a method titled “Analysis of Cycopac Resin for Residual β-(2... copolymer is in the range of 16 to 18.5 percent as determined by Micro-Kjeldahl analysis. (2) Residual... determined by a gas chromatographic method titled “Determination of Residual Acrylonitrile and...

  17. 21 CFR 177.1030 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene/methyl methacrylate copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... as determined by a method titled “Analysis of Cycopac Resin for Residual β-(2-Hydroxyethylmercapto... the range of 13.0 to 16.0 percent as determined by Micro-Kjeldahl analysis. (2) Residual acrylonitrile... a gas chromatographic method titled “Determination of Residual Acrylonitrile and Styrene...

  18. Kinetic and equilibrium studies of acrylonitrile binding to cytochrome c peroxidase and oxidation of acrylonitrile by cytochrome c peroxidase compound I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinchilla, Diana, E-mail: Diana_Chinchilla@yahoo.com; Kilheeney, Heather, E-mail: raindropszoo@yahoo.com; Vitello, Lidia B., E-mail: lvitello@niu.edu; Erman, James E., E-mail: jerman@niu.edu

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •Cytochrome c peroxidase (CcP) binds acrylonitrile in a pH-independent fashion. •The spectrum of the CcP/acrylonitrile complex is that of a 6c–ls ferric heme. •The acrylonitrile/CcP complex has a K{sub D} value of 1.1 ± 0.2 M. •CcP compound I oxidizes acrylonitrile with a maximum turnover rate of 0.61 min{sup −1}. -- Abstract: Ferric heme proteins bind weakly basic ligands and the binding affinity is often pH dependent due to protonation of the ligand as well as the protein. In an effort to find a small, neutral ligand without significant acid/base properties to probe ligand binding reactions in ferric heme proteins we were led to consider the organonitriles. Although organonitriles are known to bind to transition metals, we have been unable to find any prior studies of nitrile binding to heme proteins. In this communication we report on the equilibrium and kinetic properties of acrylonitrile binding to cytochrome c peroxidase (CcP) as well as the oxidation of acrylonitrile by CcP compound I. Acrylonitrile binding to CcP is independent of pH between pH 4 and 8. The association and dissociation rate constants are 0.32 ± 0.16 M{sup −1} s{sup −1} and 0.34 ± 0.15 s{sup −1}, respectively, and the independently measured equilibrium dissociation constant for the complex is 1.1 ± 0.2 M. We have demonstrated for the first time that acrylonitrile can bind to a ferric heme protein. The binding mechanism appears to be a simple, one-step association of the ligand with the heme iron. We have also demonstrated that CcP can catalyze the oxidation of acrylonitrile, most likely to 2-cyanoethylene oxide in a “peroxygenase”-type reaction, with rates that are similar to rat liver microsomal cytochrome P450-catalyzed oxidation of acrylonitrile in the monooxygenase reaction. CcP compound I oxidizes acrylonitrile with a maximum turnover number of 0.61 min{sup −1} at pH 6.0.

  19. POLYMERIZATION OF ACRYLONITRILE WITH ORGANOLANTHANIDES AS SINGLE-COMPONENT CATALYSTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lai-qiang Ying; Xiao-wei Ba; Yu-ying Zhao; Gang Li; Tao Tang; Ying-tai Jin

    2001-01-01

    Ind2Y(μ-Et)2A1Et2 and Ind2LnN(i-Pr)2 (Ln = Y, Yb) were used as a single-component catalyst for the polymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) respectively. The regularity of polymerization of AN and stereoregularity of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) were also studied in both cases. Both catalysts can produce PAN with molecular weight from I0,000to 30,000. In addition, the catalytic activity and molecular weights were increased by the addition of PhONa.

  20. Radical-initiated controlled synthesis of homo- and copolymers based on acrylonitrile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishin, D. F.; Grishin, I. D.

    2015-07-01

    Data on the controlled synthesis of polyacrylonitrile and acrylonitrile copolymers with other (meth)acrylic and vinyl monomers upon radical initiation and metal complex catalysis are analyzed. Primary attention is given to the use of metal complexes for the synthesis of acrylonitrile-based (co)polymers with defined molecular weight and polydispersity in living mode by atom transfer radical polymerization. The prospects for using known methods of controlled synthesis of macromolecules for the preparation of acrylonitrile homo- and copolymers as carbon fibre precursors are estimated. The major array of published data analyzed in the review refers to the last decade. The bibliography includes 175 references.

  1. Application of control technology developed in the polyvinyl chloride industry to polymerization processes using acrylonitrile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoultz, K S; Gideon, J A; Bochinski, J H

    1979-02-01

    Polymerization processes for PVC are sufficiently similar to acrylonitrile polymerization processes to allow a significant transfer of control technology. This transfer should be of value to manufacturers of polyacrylonitrile, ABS/SAN resins, nitrile elastomer and latex who will need to install extensive additional controls to comply with the new permanent standard for acrylonitrile scheduled to be issued by OSHA in late 1978. Control strategies and individual controls developed to limit worker exposure in the PVC industry are described and evaluated relative to applicability to acrylonitrile polymerization processes. PMID:495444

  2. BARRIER PROPERTY AND STRUCTURE OF ACRYLONITRILE/ACRYLIC COPOLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhenghua; LI Yuesheng

    1997-01-01

    A series of acrylonitrile (AN) copolymers with methyl acrylate (MA) or ethyl acrylate (EA) as comonomer (5-23 wt%) was prepared by free-radical copolymerization. The permeability coefficients of the copolymers to oxygen and carbon dioxide were measured at 1.0 MPa and at 30 ℃, and those to water vapor also measured at 100% relative humidity and at 30 ℃. All the AN/acrylic copolymers are semicrystalline. As the acrylate content increase, the permeability coefficients of the copolymers to oxygen and carbon dioxide are increased progressively, but those to water vapor are decreased progressively. The gas permeability coefficients of the polymers were correlated with free-volume fractions or the ratio of free volume to cohesive energy.

  3. ICAR ATRP of Acrylonitrile under Ambient and High Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhicheng Huang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that well-defined polyacrylonitrile (PAN with high molecular weight (Mw > 106 g·mol−1 is an excellent precursor for high performance carbon fiber. In this work, a strategy for initiators for a continuous activator regeneration atom transfer radical polymerization (ICAR ATRP system for acrylonitrile (AN was firstly established by using CuCl2·2H2O as the catalyst and 2,2′-azobis(2-methylpropionitrile (AIBN as the thermal initiator in the presence of ppm level catalyst under ambient and high pressure (5 kbar. The effect of catalyst concentration and polymerization temperature on the polymerization behaviors was investigated. It is important that PAN with ultrahigh viscosity and average molecular weight (Mη = 1,034,500 g·mol−1 could be synthesized within 2 h under high pressure.

  4. Determination of potentially carcinogenic compounds in food : trace analysis of vinylchloride, vinylidenechloride, acrylonitrile, epichlorohydrin and diethylpyrocarbonate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lierop, van J.B.H.

    1979-01-01

    Toxicological evidence shows that some monomers present in packaging materials may be carcinogenic. These monomers, notably vinylchloride, vinylidenechloride, acrylonitrile and epichlorohydrin, may migrate from the packaging material into the food. Therefore, severe limits are set to the contents of

  5. Hydration of acrylonitrile to produce acrylamide using biocatalyst in a membrane dispersion microreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiahui; Chen, Jie; Wang, Yujun; Luo, Guangsheng; Yu, Huimin

    2014-10-01

    In this work, a membrane dispersion microreactor was utilized for the hydration of acrylonitrile to produce acrylamide. Through observation using a microscopy, it was found that the acrylonitrile was dispersed into the continuous phase (the aqueous phase contains nitrile hydratase (NHase)) as droplets with a diameter ranged from 25 to 35 μm, hence the mass transfer specific surface area was significantly increased, and the concentration of acrylamide reached 52.5 wt% within 50 min. By contrast, in stirred tanks, the concentration of acrylamide only got 39.5 wt% within 245 min. Moreover, only a few amounts of acrylonitrile were accumulated in this microreactor system. Through optimizing the flow rate, the concentration of acrylamide reached 45.8 wt% within 35 min, the short reaction time greatly weakened the inhibition of acrylonitrile and acrylamide on the enzyme activity, which is suitable for prolonging the life of free cell.

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of a Novel Acrylonitrile Copolymer Containing Glucose Pendants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In this work, a novel sugar-containing copolymer was synthesized by the copolymerization of α-allyl glucoside (AG) with acrylonitrile (AN). The copolymers were characterized by NMR spectroscopy. It was found that acrylonitrile-based copolymers containing as high as 22wt.% of α-allyl glucoside can be synthesized by the free radical solution copolymerization of the two monomers in DMSO with AIBN as initiator.

  7. EFFECTS OF SOLVENT POLARITY ON FREE RADICAL COPOLY MERIZATION OF 5-HEXENOIC ACID AND ACRYLONITRILE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bing; XIE Shishan; CAO Mengjiun

    1987-01-01

    The effects of solvent polarity on free radical copolymerization of 5-hexenoic acid and acrylonitrile at 60℃ were studied. It was observed that as the polarity of solvents enhanced, both the copolymerization rate and the reactivity ratios r1, r2 increased, while the alternating tendency of monomer units in copolymer chain decreased. It is believed that the solvent polarity raises the reactivities of acrylonitrile monomer and its growing chain radical, but causes no distinct variation in those of 5-hexenoic acid.

  8. Recycling of Chrome Tanned Leather Dust in Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sabbagh, Salwa H.; Mohamed, Ola A.

    2010-06-01

    Concerns on environmental waste problem caused by chrome tanned leather wastes in huge amount have caused an increasing interest in developing this wastes in many composite formation. This leather dust was used as filler in acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) before treatment and after treatment with ammonia solution and sod. formate. Different formulations of NBR/ leather dust (untreated-treated with ammonia solution—treated with sod. formate) composites are prepared. The formed composite exhibit a considerable improvement in some of their properties such as rheometric characteristics especially with composites loaded with treated leather dust. Tensile strength, modulus at 100% elongation, hardness and youngs modulus were improved then by further loading start to be steady or decrease. Cross linking density in toluene were increased by incorporation of leather dust treated or untreated resulting in decreases in equilibrium swelling. Distinct increase in the ageing coefficient of both treated and untreated leather with drop in NBR vulcanizates without leather dust. Addition of leather dust treated or untreated exhibit better thermal stability.

  9. The Formation and characteristics of Acrylonitrile/Urea Inclusion Compound

    CERN Document Server

    Zou, Jun-Ting; Pang, Wen-Min; Shi, Lei; Lu, Fei

    2012-01-01

    The formation process and composition of the acrylonitrile/urea inclusion compounds (AN/UIC) with different aging times and AN/urea molar feed ratios are studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It is suggested that DSC could be one of the helpful methods to determine the guest/host ratio and the heat of decomposition. Meanwhile, the guest/host ratio and heat of deformation are obtained, which are 1.17 and 5361.53 J/mol, respectively. It is found that the formation of AN/UIC depends on the aging time. The formation process ends after enough aging time and the composition of AN/UIC becomes stable. It is suggested AN molecules included in urea canal lattice may be packed flat against each other. XRD results reveal that once AN molecules enter urea lattice, AN/UIC are formed, which possess the final structure. When AN molecules are sufficient, the content of AN/UIC increased as aging time prolonging until urea tunnels are saturated by AN.

  10. Lactoperoxidase catalyzes in vitro activation of acrylonitrile to cyanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasralla, Sherry N; Ghoneim, Asser I; Khalifa, Amani E; Gad, Mohamed Z; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B

    2009-12-15

    Acrylonitrile (ACN) is a widely used industrial chemical. Although it is a well reported animal carcinogen, its current designation to humans is "possibly carcinogenic". The present study aimed at investigating the ability of LPO enzyme system to oxidize ACN to cyanide (CN(-)) in vitro. Detection of CN(-) served as a marker for the possible generation of free radical intermediates implicated in ACN induced toxicity in the activation process. Optimum conditions for the oxidation of ACN to CN(-) were characterized with respect to pH, temperature and time of incubation as well as ACN, LPO and H(2)O(2) concentrations in incubation mixtures. Maximum reaction velocity (V(max)) and Michaelis-Menten constant (K(m)) were assessed. Addition of nitrite (NO(2)(-)) salts to the reaction mixtures significantly enhanced the rate of the reaction. Free radical scavengers (quercetin and trolox C), LPO enzyme inhibitor (resorcinol) and competitors for LPO binding (sodium azide and indomethacin) were found to reduce the rate of CN(-) production. Inclusion of the sulfhydryl compounds glutathione (GSH), NAC (N-acetylcysteine), D-penicillamine or L-cysteine enhanced the rate of ACN oxidation. The present results demonstrate the ability of LPO enzyme system to oxidize ACN to CN(-) and provide insight for the elucidation of ACN chronic toxicity.

  11. Selective Vulnerability of the Cochlear Basal Turn to Acrylonitrile and Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Pouyatos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to acrylonitrile, a high-production industrial chemical, can promote noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL in the rat even though this agent does not itself produce permanent hearing loss. The mechanism by which acrylonitrile promotes NIHL includes oxidative stress as antioxidant drugs can partially protect the cochlea from acrylonitrile+noise. Acrylonitrile depletes glutathione levels while noise can increase the formation of reactive oxygen species. It was previously noted that the high-frequency or basal turn of the cochlea was particularly vulnerable to the combined effects of acrylonitrile and noise when the octave band noise (OBN was centered at 8 kHz. Normally, such a noise would be expected to yield damage at a more apical region of the cochlea. The present study was designed to determine whether the basal cochlea is selectively sensitive to acrylonitrile or whether, by adjusting the frequency of the noise band, it would be possible to control the region of the auditory impairment. Rats were exposed to one of three different OBNs centered at different frequencies (4 kHz, 110 dB and 8 or 16 kHz at 97 dB for 5 days, with and without administration of acrylonitrile (50 mg/kg/day. The noise was set to cause limited NIHL by itself. Auditory function was monitored by recording distortion products, by compound action potentials, and by performing cochlear histology. While the ACN-only and noise-only exposures induced no or little permanent auditory loss, the three exposures to acrylonitrile+noise produced similar auditory and cochlear impairments above 16 kHz, despite the fact that the noise exposures covered 2 octaves. These observations show that the basal cochlea is much more sensitive to acrylonitrile+noise than the apical partition. They provide an initial basis for distinguishing the pattern of cochlear injury that results from noise exposure from that which occurs due to the combined effects of noise and a chemical

  12. Chrome-tanned leather shavings as a filler of butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przepiórkowska, A; Chrońska, K; Zaborski, M

    2007-03-01

    The noxious wastes from the tanning industry such as chrome-tanned leather shavings were used as the only filler of rubber mixes containing carboxylated butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber (XNBR) or butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber (NBR), and a dispersing agent Limanol PEV (Schill & Seilacher). The best form addition of leather powder to the rubber mixes is mixed the waste protein with zinc oxide. The leather powder added to the rubber mixes improves the mechanical properties: tensile strength (T(s)), elongation at break (epsilon(b)) and increase the cross-linking density of carboxylated XNBR and NBR rubber mixes. Satisfactory results of these studies are presented in this work. PMID:16942836

  13. Synthesis and Thermal Properties of Acrylonitrile/Butyl Acrylate/Fumaronitrile and Acrylonitrile/Ethyl Hexyl Acrylate/Fumaronitrile Terpolymers as a Potential Precursor for Carbon Fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Nurul Ain Md Jamil; Rusli Daik; Ishak Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    A synthesis of acrylonitrile (AN)/butyl acrylate (BA)/fumaronitrile (FN) and AN/EHA (ethyl hexyl acrylate)/FN terpolymers was carried out by redox polymerization using sodium bisulfite (SBS) and potassium persulphate (KPS) as initiator at 40 °C. The effect of comonomers, BA and EHA and termonomer, FN on the glass transition temperature (Tg) and stabilization temperature was studied using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The degradation behavior and char yield were obtained by Thermog...

  14. ABSORPTION OF CO2 AND SUBSEQUENT VISCOSITY REDUCTION OF AN ACRYLONITRILE COPOLYMER. (R829555)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acrylonitrile (AN) copolymers (AN content greater than about 85 mol%) are traditionally solution processed to avoid a cyclization and crosslinking reaction that takes place at temperatures where melt processing would be feasible. It is well known that carbon dioxide (CO

  15. New Star-Branched Poly(acrylonitrile) Architectures : ATRP Synthesis and Solution Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitto, Valentina; Voit, Brigitte I.; Loontjens, Ton J.A.; Benthem, Rolf A.T.M. van

    2004-01-01

    Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) has been chosen as ‘‘living’’/controlled free radical polymerization system to synthesize a number of novel poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN) architectures. The reaction conditions for the synthesis of linear samples with control over molar mass and molar mass dis

  16. Arylation of Acrylamide and Acrylonitrile with Arenediazonium Salts Catalyzed by Palladium Acetate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Arylation of acrylamide and acrylonitrile were carried out with various arenediazonium tetrafluoroborates in the presence of a catalytic amount of Pd(OAc)2 in ethanol and a variety of substituted (E)-cinnamamides and (E)-cinnamonitriles were obtained in high yields under mild reaction conditions.

  17. Heck Arylation of Acrylonitrile with Aryl Iodides Catalyzed by a Silica-bound Arsine Palladium(0) Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Zhong CAI; Hong ZHAO; Rong Li ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    Acrylonitrile reacts with aryl iodides in the presence of tri-n-butylamine and a catalytic amount of a silica-bound arsine palladium(0) complex to afford stereoselectively (E)-cinnamonitriles in high yields.

  18. Dimedone-catalyzed Addition of Amines into Cyano Group: Facile Synthesis of Thiazol-2-yl Substituted E-Acrylonitriles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱伟军; 屠兴超; 冯惠; 屠蔓苏; 姜波; 吴飞跃; 屠树江

    2012-01-01

    An efficient dimedone-catalyzed synthesis of highly functionalized thiazol-2-yl substituted E-acrylonitrile derivatives has been established through two-step reaction of a-thiocyanate ketones with malononitrile and amines. The a-thiocyanate ketones were subjected with malononitrile to provide thiazol-2-ylidenemalononitrile derivatives, followed with various amines in the presence of dimedone to yield the final thiazol-2-yl substituted acrylonitrile derivatives.

  19. Copolymerization of Indene with Acrylic Acid, Itaconic Acid and Acrylonitrile: Characterization and Reactivity Ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Random copolymers of indene (In) with acrylic acid (AA), itaconic acid (IA) and acrylonitrile (AN) were synthesized by free radical polymerization in dioxane in the presence of azobisisobutyronitrile as an initiator at 60 degree C. The homopolymer of indene and acrylonitrile was prepared using K2MnO4 and sulphuric acid as an initiator, while acrylic acid and itaconic acid were prepared using K2S2O8 solution. The reactivity ratios of the monomers were calculated by different methods. X-ray diffraction as well as thermal analyses were studied. The latter was studied via thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis. The complexation with metal ions such as Cu+2 and Fe+2 was investigated. The copolymerization and the complexation processes were confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy. Also the activation energy of the prepared copolymers was determined

  20. Nitrilase-catalysed conversion of acrylonitrile by free and immobilized cells of Streptomyces sp.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V K Nigam; A K Khandelwal; R K Gothwal; M K Mohan; B Choudhury; A S Vidyarthi; P Ghosh

    2009-03-01

    The biotransformation of acrylonitrile was investigated using thermophilic nitrilase produced from a new isolate Streptomyces sp. MTCC 7546 in both the free and immobilized state. Under optimal conditions, the enzyme converts nitriles to acids without the formation of amides. The whole cells of the isolate were immobilized in agar-agar and the beads so formed were evaluated for 25 cycles at 50°C. The enzyme showed a little loss of activity during reuse. Seventy-one per cent of 0.5 M acrylonitrile was converted to acid at 6 h of incubation at a very low density of immobilized cells, while 100% conversion was observed at 3 h by free cells.

  1. STUDY ON THE EPOXY RESIN TOUGHENED BY HYDROXY-TERMINATED BUTADIENE-ACRYLONITRILE COPOLYMER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Xiaozu; LI Shaoying; ZHANG Qingyu

    1990-01-01

    Toughened epoxy resin with excellent properties was obtained by adding organic acid anhydride curing agent and hydroxy-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer (HTBN), which is cheaper than CTBN. The anhydride reacts with both epoxy groups on epoxy resin and hydroxyl groups on HTBN. As a result the soft long chains of HTBN and the rigid chain of epoxy resin form one network, giving the resin toughness. Two-phase structure of the toughened resin was observed by SEM and TEM.

  2. Adsorption of Acrylonitrile on Some Soils and Minerals from Aqueous Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUDE-YI; N.MATSUE; 等

    1993-01-01

    Equilibrium and kinetic studies have been made on the adsorption of acrylonitrile(CH2=CHCN) on three soils and four minerals from aqueous solutions.It was shown that the organic matter was the major factor affecting the adsorption process in the soils.The conformity of the equilibrium data to linear type(one soil) and Langmuir type(two soils) isotherms indicated that different mechanisms were involved in the adsorption.This behavior appears bo be related to the hydrophobicity of soil organic matter due to their composition and E4/E6 ratio of humic acids.The adsorption kinetics were also different among the soils,indicating the difference in porosity of organic matter among the soils,and the kinetics strongly affected the adsorption capacity of soils for acrylonitrile.Acrylonitrile was slightly adsorbed from aqueous solutions on pyrophyllite with electrically neutral and hydrophobic nature,and practically not on montmorillonite and kaolinite saturated with Ca.However,much higher adsorption occurred on the zeolitized coal ash,probably caused by high organic carbon content(107g/kg).

  3. Electromechanical responses of poly(3-thiopheneacetic acid/acrylonitrile-butadiene rubbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR and blends of poly(3-thiopheneacetic acid/ acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber, P3TAA/NBR, were fabricated, and the electrorheological properties, dielectric, and electrical conductivities were investigated . The electrorheological properties were determined under an oscillatory shear mode in a frequency range of 0.1 to 100 rad/s at various electric field strengths, from 0 to 2 kV/mm, at a fixed 27°C to observe the effects of acrylonitrile content (ACN in the rubber systems and the conductive particle concentration in the blends. For the pure rubber systems, the storage modulus response (ΔG′ is linearly dependent on its dielectric constant (ε′, and increases with the ACN content. For the NBR/P3TAA blends, the storage modulus response varies nonlinearly with the dielectric constant. The bending responses of the rubbers and the blends were investigated in a vertical cantilever fixture. For the pure rubber system, the bending angle and the dielectrophoresis force vary linearly with electric field strength. For the blend system, the bending angle and the dielectrophoresis force vary nonlinearly with electric field strength.

  4. Acrylonitrile polymerization by Cy3PCuMe and (Bipy)2FeEt2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaper, Frank; Foley, Stephen R; Jordan, Richard F

    2004-02-25

    Cy(3)PCuMe (1) undergoes reversible ligand redistribution at low temperature in solution to form the tight ion pair [Cu(PCy(3))(2)][CuMe(2)] (3). The structure of 3 was assigned on the basis of (i) the stoichiometry of the 1 = 3 equilibrium, (ii) the observation of a triplet for the PCy(3) C1 (13)C NMR resonance due to virtual coupling to two (31)P nuclei, and (iii) reverse synthesis of 1 by combining separately generated Cu(PCy(3))(2)(+) and CuMe(2)(-) ions. Complex 1 and [Cu(PCy(3))(2)][PF(6)] (5) coordinate additional PCy(3) to form (Cy(3)P)(2)CuMe and [Cu(PCy(3))(3)][PF(6)], respectively, while 3 does not. Complex 1, free PCy(3), and (bipy)(2)FeEt(2) (2) each initiate the polymerization of acrylonitrile. In each case, the polyacrylonitrile contains branches that are characteristic of an anionic polymerization mechanism. The major initiator in acrylonitrile polymerization by 1 is PCy(3), which is liberated from 1. A transient iron hydride complex is proposed to initiate acrylonitrile polymerization by 2. PMID:14971946

  5. Characterisation of recycled acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and high-impact polystyrene from waste computer equipment in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Denise; Saron, Clodoaldo

    2015-06-01

    Polymeric materials constitute a considerable fraction of waste computer equipment and polymers acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and high-impact polystyrene are the main thermoplastic polymeric components found in waste computer equipment. Identification, separation and characterisation of additives present in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and high-impact polystyrene are fundamental procedures to mechanical recycling of these polymers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the methods for identification of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and high-impact polystyrene from waste computer equipment in Brazil, as well as their potential for mechanical recycling. The imprecise utilisation of symbols for identification of the polymers and the presence of additives containing toxic elements in determinate computer devices are some of the difficulties found for recycling of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and high-impact polystyrene from waste computer equipment. However, the considerable performance of mechanical properties of the recycled acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and high-impact polystyrene when compared with the virgin materials confirms the potential for mechanical recycling of these polymers.

  6. ION CONDUCTION IN COMPLEX OF ACRYLONITRILE-COPOLYMERIZED COMB POLYETHER WITH LITHIUM PERCHLORATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Kang; DENG Zhenghua; WAN Guoxiang

    1991-01-01

    Poly ( oligoether methacrylate- co- acrylonitrile ) s, P ( MEOn- AN ), with oligoether pendants of different lengths were synthesized and the ion conduction property of their Li-salt complexes was studied as the function of polymer structure. At proper copolymer composition, lithium concentration and pendant length, the ion conductivity reaches 7.0×10-5S/cm at ambient temperature, together with improved mechanical strength. The ion transport in the polymer media is assisted by segmental relaxation ,which is confirmed both by the consistency between ion conductivity and Tg and by the study of TSC.

  7. Modification of fiber properties through grafting of acrylonitrile to rayon by chemical and radiation methods

    OpenAIRE

    Inderjeet Kaur; Neelam Sharma; Vandna Kumari

    2013-01-01

    Fibrous properties of rayon has been modified through synthesis of graft copolymers of rayon with acrylonitrile (AN) by chemical method using ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN/HNO3) as a redox initiator and gamma radiation mutual method. Percentage of grafting (Pg) was determined as a function of initiator concentration, monomer concentration, irradiation dose, temperature, time of reaction and the amount of water. Maximum percentage of grafting (160.01%) using CAN/HNO3 was obtained at [CAN] = 22.8...

  8. Deposition of acrylonitrile cluster ions on solid substrates: thin film formation by intracluster polymerization products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Sato, Naoki

    2006-03-01

    Cluster anions of acrylonitrile (AN), known to give intracluster anionic polymerization products, were deposited on solid substrates. The obtained films were examined by using infrared absorption spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and gel permeation chromatography with the aid of quantum chemical calculations. The acquired spectroscopic data are similar to those of polyacrylonitrile (PAN), while the normal polymerization of AN or reactions related to PAN seemed not to occur noticeably. On the contrary, the product analysis shows that most of the constituent molecules of the films are formed via cyclohexane-1,3,5-tricarbonitrile (CHTCN), a dominant product of the intracluster polymerization of AN, accompanied by fragmentation and dimerization. PMID:16509718

  9. Theoretical study on the gas phase reaction of acrylonitrile with a hydroxyl radical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingyu; Wang, Rongshun; Wang, Baoshan

    2011-10-01

    The mechanism and kinetics of the reaction of acrylonitrile (CH(2)=CHCN) with hydroxyl (OH) has been investigated theoretically. This reaction is revealed to be one of the most significant loss processes of acrylonitrile. BHandHLYP and M05-2X methods are employed to obtain initial geometries. The reaction mechanism conforms that OH addition to C[double bond, length as m-dash]C double bond or C atom of -CN group to form the chemically activated adducts, 1-IM1(HOCH(2)=CHCN), 2-IM1(CH(2)=HOCHCN), and 3-IM1(CH(2)=CHCOHN) via low barriers, and direct hydrogen abstraction paths may also occur. Temperature- and pressure-dependent rate constants have been evaluated using the Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus theory. The calculated rate constants are in good agreement with the experimental data. At atmospheric pressure with N(2) as bath gas, 1-IM1(OHCH(2)=CHCN) formed by collisional stabilization is the major product in the temperature range of 200-1200 K. The production of CH(2)CCN and CHCHCN via hydrogen abstractions becomes dominant at high temperatures (1200-3000 K).

  10. Ultrasonic velocity and absorption study of binary mixtures of cyclohexane with acrylonitrile by interferometric method at different frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, N. R.; Chimankar, O. P.; Bhandakkar, V. D.; Padole, N. N.

    2012-12-01

    The ultrasonic velocity (u), absorption (α), density (ρ), and viscosity (η) has been measured at different frequencies (1MHz to 10MHz) in the binary mixtures of cyclohexane with acrylonitriile over the entire range of composition at temperature 303K. Vander Waal's constant (b), adiabatic compressibility (βa), acoustic impedance (Z), molar volume (V), free length (Lf), free volume, internal pressure, intermolecular radius and relative association have been also calculated. A special application for acrylonitrile is in the manufacture of carbon fibers. These are produced by paralysis of oriented poly acrylonitrile fibers and are used to reinforce composites for high-performance applications in the aircraft, defense and aerospace industries. Other applications of acrylonitrile are in the production of fatty amines, ion exchange resins and fatty amine amides used in cosmetics, adhesives, corrosion inhibitors and water-treatment resins. Cyclohexane derivatives can be used for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, dyes, herbicides, plant growth regulator, plasticizers, rubber chemicals, nylon, cyclamens and other organic compounds. In the view of these extensive applications of acrylonitrile and cyclohexane in the engineering process, textile and pharmaceutical industries present study provides qualitative information regarding the nature and strength of interaction in the liquid mixtures through derive parameters from ultrasonic velocity and absorption measurement.

  11. Ultrasonic velocity and absorption study of binary mixtures of cyclohexane with acrylonitrile by interferometric method at different frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultrasonic velocity (u), absorption (α), density (ρ), and viscosity (η) has been measured at different frequencies (1MHz to 10MHz) in the binary mixtures of cyclohexane with acrylonitriile over the entire range of composition at temperature 303K. Vander Waal's constant (b), adiabatic compressibility (βa), acoustic impedance (Z), molar volume (V), free length (Lf), free volume, internal pressure, intermolecular radius and relative association have been also calculated. A special application for acrylonitrile is in the manufacture of carbon fibers. These are produced by paralysis of oriented poly acrylonitrile fibers and are used to reinforce composites for high-performance applications in the aircraft, defense and aerospace industries. Other applications of acrylonitrile are in the production of fatty amines, ion exchange resins and fatty amine amides used in cosmetics, adhesives, corrosion inhibitors and water-treatment resins. Cyclohexane derivatives can be used for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, dyes, herbicides, plant growth regulator, plasticizers, rubber chemicals, nylon, cyclamens and other organic compounds. In the view of these extensive applications of acrylonitrile and cyclohexane in the engineering process, textile and pharmaceutical industries present study provides qualitative information regarding the nature and strength of interaction in the liquid mixtures through derive parameters from ultrasonic velocity and absorption measurement.

  12. Improved procedure for determination of acrylonitrile in foods and its application to meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, B D; Charbonneau, C F

    1985-01-01

    The previously described headspace-gas chromatographic procedure for the determination of acrylonitrile (AN) in several foods, with N/P selective detection, has been modified to include packaged luncheon meats. The loss of AN during equilibration at 100 degrees C in meat samples as well as the previously described loss in cold pack cheese and peanut butter has been studied. The loss of AN could be prevented by the addition of 10% phosphoric acid, which increases the acidity of the food-acid-salt slurry to pH 1.2-1.5. This acidification permits detection of AN at 2 ppb (5% FSD at 16 X 10(-2) amp/mV) in all foods studied. AN was not detected in 10 samples of luncheon meat packaged in AN-based plastic which contained up to 2.6 ppm AN.

  13. Preparing cellulose nanocrystal/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene nanocomposites using the master-batch method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Libo; Zhang, Yang; Meng, Yujie; Anusonti-Inthra, Phuriwat; Wang, Siqun

    2015-07-10

    The master-batch method provides a simple way to apply cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) as reinforcement in a hydrophobic matrix. The two-stage process includes making high-CNC content (70 wt%) master batch pellets, then mixing acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene with the master batch pellets to prepare the ABS/CNC nanocomposite in extruder. SEM image indicates that self-assembled CNC nanosheets disperse evenly throughout the polymer matrix. The improved mechanical properties shown in tensile and DMA tests reveal that the CNC combines well with the ABS. TGA results show that the thermal degradation temperature of CNC in the master batch increases because of the protection of the ABS coating. This approach not only improves the dispersion ability and the thermal stability of CNC, but it is also applicable to use with other hydrophobic thermoplastics in industrial scale production. PMID:25857992

  14. Studies of plastic crystal gel polymer electrolytes based on poly(vinylidene chloride-co-acrylonitrile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambali, D.; Zainuddin, Z.; Supa'at, I.; Osman, Z.

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we have prepared systems of poly(vinylidene chloride-co-acrylonitrile) (PVdC-co-AN) based gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) which are single plasticized-GPEs and double plasticized-GPEs. Both systems comprised plastic crystal succinonitrile SN to form plastic crystal gel polymer electrolyte (PGPE) films. The ionic conductivity of the PGPE films were analysed by means of a.c. impedance spectroscopy at room temperature as well as at the temperature range of 303 K to 353 K. The temperature dependence ionic conductivity was found to obey the VTF rule. To study the interactions among the constituents in the PGPEs, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was carried out and hence, the complexation between them has also been confirmed.

  15. Efficient polymerization of acrylonitrile catalyzed by diValent lanthanide complex/sodium phenolate systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Four divalent lanthanide complexes Sm(ArO)2(THF)4, Yb(ArO)2(THF)3, Eu(ArO)2(THF)3 (ArO = 2,6-ditert-butyl-4-methylphenolate) and (ButCp)2Sm(THF)2 were synthesized. Their catalytic activities on the polymerization of acrylonitrile were studied. The catalytic activities were influenced by the central metal ions involved. The catalytic activities of these divalent lanthanide complexes can be greatly increased by adding NaOC~H2-2,6-But2-4-Me,NaOC6H4-4-But, or NaOC10H6-2-Me. The amount of additive has apparent effect on the catalytic activity, but the additive has no effect on the tacticity of the resulting polyacrylonitrile

  16. Structures and Properties Characterization of Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene/Organo-palygorskite Clay Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhe; CHANG Ying; XU Jian; WU Zhancui; MA Hengchang; LEI Ziqiang

    2012-01-01

    Palygorskite (PGS) and vinyl tris-(2-methoxyethoxy) silane (KH-172) modified palygorskite (OPGS) were used to prepare acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS)/clay composites.Thermal stability of the composites was evaluated by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).The morphology of the fractured surface and the degree of dispersion of the clay in the ABS matrix were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis results showed the variation of the crystal structure.Measurements of the tensile properties of the ABS/clay composites proved that the ABS/OPGS composited material represented the most excellent tensile property,because of good compatibility and dispersion of ABS with OPGS.

  17. A flexible Li polymer primary cell with a novel gel electrolyte based on poly(acrylonitrile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Ko-ichi; Sekai, Koji

    The performance of a Li polymer primary cell with fire-retardant poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN)-based gel electrolytes is reported. By optimizing electrodes, electrolytes, the packaging material, and the structural design of the polymer cell, we succeeded in developing a "film-like" Li polymer primary cell with sufficient performance for practical use. The cell is flexible and less than 0.5 mm thick, which makes it suitable for a power source for some smart devices, such as an IC card. Fast cation conduction in the gel electrolyte minimizes the drop of the discharge capacity even at -20 °C. The high chemical stability of the gel electrolytes and the new packaging material allow the self-discharge rate to be limited to under 4.3%, which is equivalent to that of conventional coin-shaped or cylindrical Li-MnO 2 cells.

  18. Flame Retardant Effects of Nano-Clinoptilolite on AcrylonitrileButadiene-Styrene (ABS Nano-Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboulfazl Barati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, intumescent technology has found a place in polymer science as a method of providing flame retardance to polymeric materials. On heating, fire-retardant intumescent material restricts the action of the heat flux or flame. The proposed mechanism is based on charred layer acting as physical barrier, which slows down heat and mass transfer between the gas and the condensed phases. In this paper, the flammability of intumescent fire-retardant acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS matrix composites consisting of hydromagnesite (HMg as an acid source and blowing agent, pentaerythritol (PER as a carbonisation agent and natural zeolite (clinoptilolite rich, Kansar Shargh as a synergistic agent were examined. The flammability of composites was characterized by limiting oxygen index (LOI measurement and horizontal burning tests. A synergistic effect in flame retardancy was observed when natural zeolites were used in combination with HMg and PER.

  19. Acrylonitrile-14C metabolism in rats: effect of the route of administration on the elimination of thiocyanate and other radioactive metabolites in urine and feces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Wistar rats, the elimination of the sum of radioactive metabolites of acrylonitrile-14C was not markedly influenced by the route of acrylonitrile administration. The elimination of thiocyanate, however, was significantly higher after oral (23% of the dose) than after intraperitoneal (4%), subcutaneous (4.6%), or intravenous (1.2%) administrations. The elimination of the sum of radioactive metabolites was highest in the first 4 hours after acrylonitrile administration and rapidly decreased whereas the excretion of thiocyanate reached the maximum between hours 8 and 14 after oral or intraperitoneal administration. Less than 1% of the radioactivity of the acrylonitrile-14C dose was eliminated in feces irrespective of the route of administration. (author)

  20. Covalent immobilization of glucose oxidase onto new modified acrylonitrile copolymer/silica gel hybrid supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godjevargova, Tzonka; Nenkova, Ruska; Dimova, Nedyalka

    2005-08-12

    New polymer/silica gel hybrid supports were prepared by coating high surface area of silica gel with modified acrylonitrile copolymer. The concentrations of the modifying agent (NaOH) and the modified polymer were varied. GOD was covalently immobilized on these hybrid supports and the relative activity and the amount of bound protein were determined. The highest relative activity and sufficient amount of bound protein of the immobilized GOD were achieved in 10% NaOH and 2% solution of modified acrylonitrile copolymer. The influence of glutaraldehyde concentration and the storage time on enzyme efficiency were examined. Glutaraldehyde concentration of 0.5% is optimal for the immobilized GOD. It was shown that the covalently bound enzyme (using 0.5% glutaraldehyde) had higher relative activity than the activity of the adsorbed enzyme. Covalently immobilized GOD with 0.5% glutaraldehyde was more stable for four months in comparison with the one immobilized on pure silica gel, hybrid support with 10% glutaraldehyde and the free enzyme. The effect of the pore size on the enzyme efficiency was studied on four types of silica gel with different pore size. Silica with large pores (CPC-Silica carrier, 375 A) presented higher relative activity than those with smaller pore size (Silica gel with 4, 40 and 100 A). The amount of bound protein was also reduced with decreasing the pore size. The effect of particle size was studied and it was found out that the smaller the particle size was, the greater the activity and the amount of immobilized enzyme were. The obtained results proved that these new polymer/silica gel hybrid supports were suitable for GOD immobilization. PMID:16080168

  1. Photoinitiated decomposition of substituted ethylenes: The photodissociation of vinyl chloride and acrylonitrile at 193 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, D.A.; Suits, A.G.; Lee, Y.T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Ethylene and its substituted analogues (H{sub 2}CCHX) are important molecules in hydrogen combustion. As the simplest {pi}-bonded hydrocarbons these molecules serve as prototypical systems for understanding the decomposition of this important class of compounds. The authors have used the technique of photofragment translational spectroscopy at beamline 9.0.2.1 to investigate the dissociation of vinyl chloride (X=Cl) and acrylonitrile (X=CN) following absorption at 193 nm. The technique uses a molecular beam of the reactant seeded in helium which is crossed at 90 degrees with the output of an excimer laser operating on the ArF transition, 193.3 nm. The neutral photoproducts which recoil out of the molecular beam travel 15.1 cm where they are photoionized by the VUV undulator radiation, mass selected, and counted as a function of time. The molecular beam source is rotatable about the axis of the dissociation laser. The authors have directly observed all four of the following dissociation channels for both systems: (1) H{sub 2}CCHX {r_arrow} H + C{sub 2}H{sub 2}X; (2) H{sub 2}CCHX {r_arrow} X + C{sub 2}H{sub 3}; (3) H{sub 2}CCHX {r_arrow} H{sub 2} + C{sub 2}HX; and (4) H{sub 2}CCHX {r_arrow} HX + C{sub 2}H{sub 2}. They measured translational energy distributions for all of the observed channels and measured the photoionization onset for many of the photoproducts which provided information about their chemical identity and internal energy content. In the case of acrylonitrile, selective product photoionization provided the ability to discriminate between channels 2 and 4 which result in the same product mass combination.

  2. Synthesis and Thermal Properties of Acrylonitrile/Butyl Acrylate/Fumaronitrile and Acrylonitrile/Ethyl Hexyl Acrylate/Fumaronitrile Terpolymers as a Potential Precursor for Carbon Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nurul Ain Md Jamil

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A synthesis of acrylonitrile (AN/butyl acrylate (BA/fumaronitrile (FN and AN/EHA (ethyl hexyl acrylate/FN terpolymers was carried out by redox polymerization using sodium bisulfite (SBS and potassium persulphate (KPS as initiator at 40 °C. The effect of comonomers, BA and EHA and termonomer, FN on the glass transition temperature (Tg and stabilization temperature was studied using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC. The degradation behavior and char yield were obtained by Thermogravimetric Analysis. The conversions of AN, comonomers (BA and EHA and FN were 55%–71%, 85%–91% and 76%–79%, respectively. It was found that with the same comonomer feed (10%, the Tg of AN/EHA copolymer was lower at 63 °C compared to AN/BA copolymer (70 °C. AN/EHA/FN terpolymer also exhibited a lower Tg at 63 °C when compared to that of the AN/BA/FN terpolymer (67 °C. By incorporating BA and EHA into a PAN system, the char yield was reduced to ~38.0% compared to that of AN (~47.7%. It was found that FN reduced the initial cyclization temperature of AN/BA/FN and AN/EHA/FN terpolymers to 228 and 221 °C, respectively, in comparison to that of AN/BA and AN/EHA copolymers (~260 °C. In addition, FN reduced the heat liberation per unit time during the stabilization process that consequently reduced the emission of volatile group during this process. As a result, the char yields of AN/BA/FN and AN/EHA/FN terpolymers are higher at ~45.1% and ~43.9%, respectively, as compared to those of AN/BA copolymer (37.1% and AN/EHA copolymer (38.0%.

  3. 提高丙烯腈回收率的一种新型急冷工艺和急冷塔%A new quenching process and tower to improve the recovery of acrylonitrile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘永胜; 顾军民; 方永成

    2004-01-01

    Quenching process and design of the quenching tower in acrylonitrile production in China were studied in order to decrease the polymerization loss of acrylonitrile in the quenching tower.Based on the research of acrylonitrile polymerization in the quenching tower,a new quenching process was proposed to avoid the disadvantages of the original process.Two kinds of internals were installed to improve the performance of the quenching tower.Through a series of air-flow and real-flow model experiments,the new quenching process and new design were showed to be successful in enhancing the mass and heat transfer in the vapor-liquid system and decreasing the loss of acrylonitrile.Industrial application showed satisfactory results of decrease of the acrylonitrile loss in the quenching tower by about 4.5% and increase of the acrylonitrile recovery of the whole plant by more than 4%.

  4. REDUCING NONSELECTIVE PROTEIN ADSORPTION AND CELL ADHESION ON POLYACRYLONITRILE FILMS BY COPOLYMERIZATION OF ACRYLONITRILE WITH α-ALLYL GLUCOSIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-qiang Kou; Chao Qu; Zhi-kang Xu; You-yi Xu; Ke Yao

    2003-01-01

    In this work, the surface properties of novel sugar-containing polymers, α-allyl glucoside (AG)/acrylonitrile (AN)copolymers, were studied by contact angle, protein adsorption and cell adhesion measurements. It was found that the contact angle of the copolymer films decreased from 68° to 30° with the increase of AG content in the copolymer. The adsorption amount of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and the adhesive macrophage onto the film surface also decreased significantly with increasing α-allyl glucoside content from 0 to 42 wt% in the copolymer. These preliminary results reveal that both the hydrophilicity and the biocompatibility of polyacrylonitrile-based membranes could be improved by copolymerizing acrylonitrile with vinyl carbohydrates.

  5. Carboxyl-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile-toughened epoxy/carboxyl-modified carbon nanotube nanocomposites: Thermal and mechanical properties

    OpenAIRE

    H. F. Xie; Wang, Y. T.; Wang, C. S.; H. Y. Yin; Wang, L.L.; R. S. Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Carboxyl-modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT–COOHs) as nanofillers were incorporated into diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) toughened with carboxyl-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile (CTBN). The carboxyl functional carbon nanotubes were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Furthermore, cure kinetics, glass transition temperature (Tg), mechanical properties, thermal stability and morphology of DGEBA/CTBN/MWCNT–COOH...

  6. Morphology and Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Diglycidyl Ether of Bisphenol-A Toughened with Carboxyl-Terminated Butadiene-Acrylonitrile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S. D.; Chung, S. Y.; Fedors, R. F.; Moacanin, J.; Gupta, A.

    1984-01-01

    The fracture toughness of an incorporation of a carboxyl-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile (CTBN) elastomer in diglycidyl ether bisphenol A (DGEBA) resin was investigated. Measurements of dynamic mechanical properties, scanning electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering were carried out to characterize the state of cure, morphology and particle size and size distribution of the neat resins and their graphite fiber reinforced composites.

  7. Improved Method for Preparation of Amidoxime Modified Poly(acrylonitrile-co-acrylic acid: Characterizations and Adsorption Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Amirah Mohd Zahri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Redox polymerization of poly(acrylonitrile-co-acrylic acid (poly(AN-co-AA is performed at 40 °C under N2 gas by varying the ratio of acrylonitrile (AN and acrylic acid (AA in the feed. The yield production of poly(acrylonitrile (PAN is 73% and poly(AN-co-AA with a feed ratio of 93:7 is the highest yield (72%. The PAN and poly(AN-co-AA are further chemically modify with hydroxylamine hydrochloride. The FTIR spectroscopy is used to confirm the copolymerization of poly(AN-co-AA and chemical modification of poly(AN-co-AA. Elemental microanalysis shows that the overall trend percentage of carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen for all feed ratios are slightly decreasing as the feed ratio of AA is increasing except for poly(AN-co-AA 93:7. The SEM images shows that spherical diameter of poly(AN-co-AA is smaller compared to the PAN and amidoxime (AO modified poly(AN-co-AA. The TGA (thermogravimetric analysis analysis reveals that the poly(AN-co-AA degrades at lower temperatures compared to the PAN but higher than AO modified poly(AN-co-AA. The case study adsorption test showed that the AO modified poly(AN-co-AA 93:7 had the highest percentage removal of Cd2+ and Pb2+.

  8. Preparation and evaluation of some investigated natural and acrylonitrile rubber vulcanizations for physiotherapeutic purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A trial was made to design and prepare rubber article that can be used to reactivate, strengthen and reinforce the hand muscles and fingers which had suffered from trouble movement.The investigated rubber article was prepared from natural and acrylonitrile rubber formulations. These formulations were processed in the form of compounds which contain significant quantities of fillers as Hisil, CaCO3 and TiO2.The rheological characteristics and physicochemical properties of the vulcanizations were determined according to standard tests. It was found that it is possible to prepare the designated rubber article for the desired purpose. The test results show that the prepared rubber article has a good chemical resistant against acid, alkali, and salt. Also it possesses high resistance to deterioration and deformation. The prepared article has an ability to retain its elastic property after the action of compressive forces at 70 degree C for 24 hours.This was conformed with applied commercial hand exercise therapeutic article

  9. Effects of acrylonitrile on lymphocyte lipid rafts and RAS/RAF/MAPK/ERK signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X J; Li, B; Huang, J S; Shi, J M; Wang, P; Fan, W; Zhou, Y L

    2014-09-26

    Acrylonitrile (ACN) is a widely used chemical in the production of plastics, resins, nitriles, acrylic fibers, and synthetic rubber. Previous epidemiological investigations and animal studies have confirmed that ACN affects the lymphocytes and spleen. However, the immune toxicity mechanism is unknown. Lipid rafts are cell membrane structures that are rich in cholesterol and involved in cell signal transduction. The B cell lymophoma-10 (Bcl10) protein is a joint protein that is important in lymphocyte development and signal pathways. This study was conducted to examine the in vitro effects of ACN. We separated lipid rafts, and analyzed Bcl10 protein and caveolin. Western blotting was used to detect mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphorylated MAPK levels. The results indicated that with increasing ACN concentration, the total amount of Bcl10 remained stable, but was concentrated mainly in part 4 to part 11 in electrophoretic band district which is high density in gradient centrifugation. Caveolin-1 was evaluated as a lipid raft marker protein; caveolin-1 content and position were relatively unchanged. Western blotting showed that in a certain range, MAPK protein was secreted at a higher level. At some ACN exposure levels, MAPK protein secretion was significantly decreased compared to the control group (P lipid raft structures, causing Bcl10 protein and lipid raft separation and restraining Ras-Raf-MAPK-extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathways.

  10. Peroxydisulfate initiated synthesis of potato starch-graft-poly(acrylonitrile under microwave irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Potato starch-graft-poly(acrylonitrile could be efficiently synthesized using small concentration of ammonium peroxydisulfate (0.0014M in aqueous medium under microwave irradiation. A representative microwave synthesized graft copolymer was characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Thermogravimetric Analysis. Under microwave conditions oxygen removal from the reaction vessel was not required and the graft copolymer was obtained in high yield using very small amount of ammonium peroxydisulfate, however using the same amount of ammonium peroxydisulfate (0.0014M on thermostatic water bath no grafting was observed up to 98°C (even in inert atmosphere. Raising the concentration of the initiator to 0.24 M resulted into 10% grafting at 50 °C but in inert atmosphere.The viscosity/shear stability of the grafted starch (aqueous solution and water/saline retention ability of the microwave synthesized graft copolymer were also studied and compared with that of the native potato starch.

  11. Nanostructured synthetic carbons obtained by pyrolysis of spherical acrylonitrile/divinylbenzene copolymers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danish J Malik

    Full Text Available Novel carbon materials have been prepared by the carbonization of acrylonitrile (AN/divinylbenzene (DVB suspension porous copolymers having nominal crosslinking degrees in the range of 30-70% and obtained in the presence of various amounts of porogens. The carbons were obtained by pre-oxidation of AN/DVB copolymers at 250-350°C in air followed by pyrolysis at 850°C in an N(2 atmosphere. Both processes were carried out in one furnace and the resulting material needed no further activation. Resulting materials were characterized by XPS and low temperature nitrogen adsorption/desorption. It was found that maximum pyrolysis yield was ca. 50% depending on the oxidation conditions but almost independent of the crosslinking degree of the polymers. Porous structure of the carbons was characterized for the presence of micropores and macropores, when obtained from highly crosslinked polymers or polymers oxidized at 350°C and meso- and macropores in all other cases. The latter pores are prevailing in the structure of carbons obtained from less porous AN/DVB resins. Specific surface area (BET of polymer derived carbons can vary between 440 m(2/g and 250 m(2/g depending on the amount of porogen used in the synthesis of the AN/DVB polymeric precursors.

  12. An investigation on chloroprene-compatibilized acrylonitrile butadiene rubber/high density polyethylene blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Blends of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber/high density polyethylene (NBR/HDPE compatibilized by Chloroprene rubber (CR were prepared. A fixed quantity of industrial waste such as marble waste (MW, 40 phr was also included. The effect of the blend ratio and CR on cure characteristics, mechanical and swelling properties of MW-filled NBR/HDPE blends was investigated. The results showed that the MW-filled NBR/HDPE blends revealed an increase in tensile strength, tear, modulus, hardness and cross-link density for increasing weight ratio of HDPE. The minimum torque (ML and maximum torque (MH of blends increased with increasing weight ratio of HDPE while scorch time (ts2 cure time (tc90, compression set and abrasion loss of blends decreased with increasing weight ratio of HDPE. The blends also showed a continuous reduction in elongation at break as well as swelling coefficient with increasing HDPE amount in blends. MW filled blends based on CR provided the most encouraging balance values of overall properties.

  13. Regenerated thermosetting styrene-co-acrylonitrile sandwich composite panels reinforced by jute fibre: structures and properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jinglong Li; Qin Peng; Anrong Zeng; Junlin Li; Xiaole Wu; Xiaofei Liu

    2016-02-01

    Jute fibres-reinforced sandwich regenerated composite panels were fabricated using industrial waste thermosetting styrene-co-acrylonitrile (SAN) foam scraps via compression moulding for the purpose of recycling waste SAN foam and obtaining high physical performance. The jute fibres were, respectively, treated by heat, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution (5.0 wt%), and N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) in order to improve the mechanical properties of the composites. The structures and mechanical properties of the composites were studied. The SAN matrix got compact and some crystalline region formed in SAN matrix via compression moulding. The composite reinforced by DMAc-treated jute fibres performed optimum mechanical properties among the regenerated panels whose impact strength, flexural strength, and compressive strength were 19.9 kJ m−2, 41.7 MPa, and 61.0 MPa, respectively. Good interfacial bonding between DMAc-treated fibres and SAN matrix was verified by peel test and exhibited in SEM photographs. Besides, the water absorption of DMAc-treated fibres composite was lower than other SAN/jute fibre-reinforced sandwich composite panels.

  14. Microstrueture and Properties of Fluoroelastomer/Butadiene-Acrylonitrile Rubber Interpenetrating Polymer Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chunming; XIONG Chuanxi; YANG Jian; DONG Lijie

    2008-01-01

    Interpenetrating polymer networks(IPNs)based on fluoroelastomer/butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber(FKM/NBR)by molten blending at a high temperature and chemical cross-linking of two components were prepared.The influence of the two networks component on the mechanical properties and thermostabilities was studied.The experimental results show that the mechanical properties of the IPNs are superior to those of the individual FKM and NBR networks due to forming the case of interpenetrating and intercross-linking between the two networks,the mechanical properties and thermal resistance exhibit higher values when 80/20(w/w)FKM and NBR is blended and respectively cured simultaneously.The co-continuous morphology of the IPNs in the blends of 80/20(w/w)FKM/NBR is found by transmission electron microscopy(TEM),the differential scanning calorimetry(DSC)determination shows that the blends of 80/20(w/w)FKM/NBR have better compatibility,and the glass transition temperature of the elastomer is -21.5℃.

  15. Crack initiation and propagation on the polymeric material ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene, under ultrasonic fatigue testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Domínguez Almaraz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Crack initiation and propagation have been investigated on the polymeric material ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene, under ultrasonic fatigue testing. Three controlled actions were implemented in order to carry out fatigue tests at very high frequency on this material of low thermal conductivity, they are: a The applying load was low to limit heat dissipation at the specimen neck section, b The dimensions of testing specimen were small (but fitting the resonance condition, in order to restraint the temperature gradient at the specimen narrow section, c Temperature at the specimen neck section was restrained by immersion in water or oil during ultrasonic fatigue testing. Experimental results are discussed on the basis of thermo-mechanical behaviour: the tail phenomenon at the initial stage of fatigue, initial shear yielding deformation, crazed development on the later stage, plastic strain on the fracture surface and the transition from low to high crack growth rate. In addition, a numerical analysis is developed to evaluate the J integral of energy dissipation and the stress intensity factor K, with the crack length

  16. Carbon nanotube buckypaper reinforced acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene composites for electronic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Pascual, Ana M; Gascón, David

    2013-11-27

    Novel acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) nanocomposites reinforced with pristine or functionalized single- or multiwalled carbon nanotube buckypaper (BP) sheets were manufactured via hot-compression and vacuum infiltration. Their morphology, thermal, mechanical, and electrical properties were comparatively investigated. Scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis showed that the infiltration process leads to better BP impregnation than the hot-press technique. BPs made from functionalized or short nanotubes form compact networks that hamper the penetration of the matrix chains, whereas those composed of pristine tubes possess large pores that facilitate the polymer flow, resulting in composites with low degree of porosity and improved mechanical performance. Enhanced thermal and electrical properties are found for samples incorporating functionalized BPs since dense networks lead to more conductive pathways, and a stronger barrier effect to the diffusion of degradation products, thus better thermal stability. According to dynamic mechanical analysis these composites exhibit the highest glass transition temperatures, suggesting enhanced filler-matrix interactions as corroborated by the Raman spectra. The results presented herein demonstrate that the composite performance can be tailored by controlling the BP architecture and offer useful insights into the structure-property relationships of these materials to be used in electronic applications, particularly for EMI shielding and packaging of integrated circuits. PMID:24171494

  17. The physical and degradation properties of starch-graft-acrylonitrile/carboxylated nitrile butadiene rubber latex films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misman, M A; Azura, A R; Hamid, Z A A

    2015-09-01

    Starch-graft-acrylonitrile (ANS) is compounded with carboxylated nitrile butadiene rubber (XNBR) latex. The control XNBR and the ANS/XNBR latex films were prepared through a coagulant dipping process. The films were subjected to ageing and soil burial procedures. For the biodegradation experiment, the surface of the film was assessed after the 2nd, 4th and 8th week of soil burial. The ANS, XNBR, and ANS/XNBR colloidal stability were determined with a Malvern Zetasizer. For the dipped latex films, the mechanical, morphological and thermal properties were analyzed. The addition of ANS into the XNBR latex increased the stability of the colloidal dispersions, decreased the latex film tensile strength, but increased the elongation at break due to the bipolar interaction of the ANS and XNBR particles. The ANS/XNBR latex films aged faster than the control films while the morphological analysis showed the existence of a starch crystal region and the formation of microbial colonies on the surfaces of the films. Based on the TGA-DTA curves, a higher ΔT was observed for the ANS/XNBR latex films signifying high thermal energy needed for the film to thermally degrade. PMID:26005134

  18. THERMAL DECOMPOSITION AND FLAMMABILITY OF ACRYLONITRILE-BUTADIENE-STYRENE/MULTI-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBES COMPOSITES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-fang Tong; Hai-yun Ma; Zheng-ping Fang

    2008-01-01

    Thermal and flammability properties of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer (ABS) with the addition of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were studied. ABS/MWNTs composites were prepared via melt blending with the MWNTs content varied from 0.2% to 4.0% by mass. Thermogravimetry results showed that the addition of MWNTs accelerated the degradation of ABS during the whole process under air atmosphere, and both onset and maximum degradation temperature were lower than those of pure ABS. The destabilization effect of MWNTs on the thermal stability of the composites became unobvious under nitrogen, and the addition of MWNTs could improve the maximum degradation temperature. The heat release rate and time of ignition (tign) for the composites reduced greatly with the addition of MWNTs especially when the concentration of nanotubes was higher than 1.0%. The accumulation of carbon nanotubes with a network structure was observed and the char layer became thicker with increasing nanotubes concentration. Results from Raman spectra showed a higher degree of graphitization for the residues of ABS/MWNTs composites.

  19. AGET ATRP of acrylonitrile with ionic liquids as reaction medium without any additional ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Hou, E-mail: lduchenhou@hotmail.com [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Ludong University, Yantai 264025 (China); Liang Ying; Liu Delong; Tan Zhi; Zhang Shaohong; Zheng Meiling; Qu Rongjun [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Ludong University, Yantai 264025 (China)

    2010-05-10

    Atom transfer radical polymerization using activators generated by electron transfer (AGET ATRP) of acrylonitrile (AN) was carried out for the first time in 1-methylimidazolium acetate ([mim][AT]), 1-methylimidazolium propionate([mim][PT]), and 1-methylimidazolium butyrate ([mim][BT]), respectively. The polymerization was approached by using ascorbic acid (VC) as a reducing agent, ethyl 2-bromoisobutyrate (EBiB) as initiator, only FeBr{sub 3} as catalyst without any additional ligand. Kinetic studies showed that both AGET ATRP of AN in the absence of oxygen and in the presence of air proceeded in a well-controlled manner. Under the same conditions, the polymerization in the presence of air provided rather slower reaction rate and showed better control of molecular weight and its distribution than in the absence of oxygen. The sequence of the apparent polymerization rate constants of AGET ATRP of AN in three ionic liquids was k{sub app}([mim][AT]) > k{sub app}([mim][PT]) > k{sub app}([mim][BT]). The living nature of the polymerization was confirmed by chain end analysis and block copolymerization of methyl methacrylate with polyacrylonitrile as macroinitiator. All the three ionic liquids and FeBr{sub 3} could be recycled and reused and had no effect on the living nature of polymerization.

  20. "CAGE" VANADYL POLYCARBOXYLATE-THIOUREA COMPLEX FOR THE POLYMERIZATION OF ACRYLONITRILE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jinyuan; YANG Chaoxiong

    1993-01-01

    The polymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) in aqueous nitric acid initiated by " cage" vanadyl polycarboxylate (P=VO)- thiourea (TU) complex was investigated. The overall rate of polymerization is Rp=9.7×105e-10,500/RT[AN][HNO3]1.5[P =VO]0.50[TU]0.76 The relationship between the induction period (τ) and the temperature of polymerization as well as the concentrations of reactants can be expressed as follows: 1/τ=4.6× 1012e-13,500/RT[HNO3]3[p=VO][TU]3/2=KτRiThe molecular weight of polyacrylonitrile(-Mn)increases with increasing monomer concentrationand decreases with increasing temperature of polymerization and concentrations of vanadyl polycarboxylate and thiourea (-M)n=KM1/τ.[AN]/[HNO3]3/2[P=VO1/2[TU]3/4=KM·1/τ·Rp/R1] The polymerization mechanism was proposed and discussed.

  1. High-Energy-Density Poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fei; Xu, Zhuo; Xia, Weimin; Ye, Hongjun; Wei, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Zhicheng

    2013-12-01

    The dielectric response of poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) (PSAN) thin films fabricated by a solution casting process was investigated in this work. Linear dielectric behavior was obtained in PSAN films under an electric field at frequencies from 100 Hz to 1 MHz and temperature of -50°C to 100°C. The polymer films exhibited an intermediate dielectric permittivity of 4 and low dielectric loss (tan δ) of 0.027. Under 400 MV/m, the energy density of the PSAN films was 6.8 J/cm3, which is three times higher than that of biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) (about 1.6 J/cm3). However, their charge-discharge efficiency (about 90%) was rather close to that of BOPP. The calculated effective dielectric permittivity of the PSAN films under high electric field was as high as 9, which may be attributed to the improved displacement of the cyanide groups (-CN) polarized at high electric fields. These high-performance features make PSAN attractive for high-energy-density capacitor applications.

  2. Covalent Immobilization of Lipase on Poly ( acrylonitrile-co-maleic acid) Ultrafiltration Hollow Fiber Membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Peng; XU Zhi-kang; WU Jian; DENG Hong-tao; SETA Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Lipase from Candida rugosa was covalently immobilized on the surface of an ultrafiltration hollow fiber membrane fabricated from poly (acrylonitrile-co-maleic acid) (PANCMA) in which the carboxyl groups were activated with 1-ethyl-3-(dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and dicyclohexyl carbodiimide (DCC)/N-hydroxyl succinimide(NHS), respectively. The properties of the immobilized lipase were assayed and compared with those of the free enzyme. The maximum activities were observed in a relatively broader pH value range at high temperatures for the immobilized lipase compared to the free one. It was also found that the thermal and pH stabilities of lipase were improved upon immobilization and at 50 ℃ the thermal inactivation rate constant values are 2.1×10-2 for the free lipase, 3.2×10-3 for the immobilized lipase on the EDC-activated PANCMA membrane and 3.5×10-3 for the immobilized lipase on the DCC/NHS-activated PANCMA membrane, respectively.

  3. Analysis of acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, and related compounds in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymers for kitchen utensils and children's toys by headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Hiroyuki; Kawamura, Yoko

    2010-01-01

    A headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous determination of the residual levels of acrylonitrile (AN), 1,3-butadiene (1,3-BD), and their related compounds containing propionitrile (PN) and 4-vinyl-1-cyclohexene (4-VC) in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) copolymers for kitchen utensils and children's toys. A sample was cut into small pieces, then N,N-dimethylacetamide and an internal standard were added in a sealed headspace vial. The vial was incubated for 1 h at 90 degrees C and the headspace gas was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The recovery rates of the analytes were 93.3-101.8% and the coefficients of variation were 0.3-6.5%. In ABS copolymers, the levels were 0.3-50.4 microg/g for AN, ND-4.5 microg/g for PN, 0.06-1.58 microg/g for 1,3-BD, and 1.1-295 microg/g for 4-VC. The highest level was found for 4-VC, which is a dimer of 1,3-BD, and the next highest was for AN, which is one of the monomers of the ABS copolymer. Furthermore, the method was also applied to acrylonitrile-styrene (AS) copolymers and polystyrenes (PS) for kitchen utensils, and nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) gloves. In AS copolymers, AN and PN were detected at 16.8-54.5 and 0.8-6.9 microg/g, respectively. On the other hand, the levels in PS and NBR samples were all low. PMID:21313827

  4. 国内外丙烯腈供需现状和发展趋势%Global Supply & Demand Situation and Developing Trend of Acrylonitrile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴宇红

    2012-01-01

    介绍了丙烯腈的国内外供需现状,分析了未来丙烯腈装置的投资计划及下游应用领域的需求情况,并预测了未来丙烯腈供需状况。估计到2015年全球丙烯腈产能将出现过剩,投资还需谨慎。%The global supply and demand situation of acrylinitrile was introduced.Based on anaysis of acrylinitrile plant investment plans and demand situation of downstream application filelds,the supply and demand situation of acrylonitrile in the future was predicted.It is predicted that global acrylonitrile capability would be surplus by 2015,so investment on acrylonitrile needs discretion.

  5. Dynamic and kinetic aspects of the adsorption of acrylonitrile on Si(001)-2x1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM), photoelectron and photoabsorption spectroscopies, we have examined how acrylonitrile (H2C=CH-C≡N) reacts with the Si(001)-2x1 surface for coverages ranging from ∼1012 molecules/cm2 to ∼1014 molecules/cm2. At 300 K, in the very low coverage regime (below 1013 molecules/cm2), filled- and empty-state STM images show that the molecule bridges, via its β carbon and nitrogen ends, two silicon dangling bonds, across the trench separating two dimer rows. A cumulative-double-bond unit (C=C=N) is formed. The 300 K STM image results from the dynamic flipping of the molecule between two equivalent equilibrium positions, which can be seen when the molecular motion is slowed down at 80 K. For coverages larger than 1013 molecules/cm2, for which STM does not show ordered adsorption any more, the adsorption kinetics were observed in real-time using valence band photoemission and resonant Auger yield, associated with N 1s x-ray absorption spectroscopy (NEXAFS). At 300 K, these techniques point to a situation more complex than the one explored by STM at very low coverage. Three species (cyano-bonded, vinyl-bonded, and cumulative-double-bond species) are detected. Their distribution does not vary with increasing coverage. All dimerization-related surface states are quenched at saturation. The uptake rates versus coverage relationship points to the presence of a mobile precursor. Finally, the paper discusses a possible mechanism leading to the formation of cross-trench C=C=N unit at low coverage, and the reasons why the product branching ratio changes with increasing coverage

  6. Nanofibrous poly(acrylonitrile-co-maleic acid) membranes functionalized with gelatin and chitosan for lipase immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Peng; Xu, Zhi-Kang; Wu, Jian; Innocent, Christophe; Seta, Patrick

    2006-08-01

    Nanofibrous membranes with an average diameter of 100 and 180 nm were fabricated from poly(acrylonitrile-co-maleic acid) (PANCMA) by the electrospinning process. These nanofibrous membranes contain reactive groups which can be used to covalently immobilize biomacromolecules. Two natural macromolecules, chitosan and gelatin, were tethered on these nanofibrous membranes to fabricate dual-layer biomimetic supports for enzyme immobilization in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-(dimethyl-aminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC)/N-hydroxyl succinimide (NHS). Lipase from Candida rugosa was then immobilized on these dual-layer biomimetic supports using glutaraldehyde (GA), and on the nascent PANCMA fibrous membrane using EDC/NHS as coupling agent, respectively. The properties of the immobilized lipases were assayed. It was found that there is an increase of the activity retention of the immobilized lipase on the chitosan-modified nanofibrous membrane (45.6+/-1.8%) and on the gelatin-modified one (49.7+/-1.8%), compared to that on the nascent one (37.6+/-1.8%). The kinetic parameters of the free and immobilized lipases, K(m) and V(max), were also assayed. In comparison with the immobilized lipase on the nascent nanofibrous membrane, there is an increase of the V(max) value for the immobilized lipases on the chitosan- and gelatin-modified nanofibrous membranes. Results also indicate that the pH and thermal stabilities of lipases increase upon immobilization. The residual activities of the immobilized lipases are 55% on the chitosan-modified nanofibrous membrane and 60% on the gelatin-modified one, after 10 uses. PMID:16584770

  7. Chitosan-tethered poly(acrylonitrile-co-maleic acid) hollow fiber membrane for lipase immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Peng; Xu, Zhi-Kang; Che, Ai-Fu; Wu, Jian; Seta, Patrick

    2005-11-01

    A protocol was used to prepare a dual-layer biomimetic membrane as support for enzyme immobilization by tethering chitosan on the surface of poly(acrylonitrile-co-maleic acid) (PANCMA) ultrafiltration hollow fiber membrane in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-(dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC)/N-hydroxylsuccin-imide (NHS). The chemical change of the chitosan-modified PANCMA membrane surface was confirmed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Lipase from Candida rugosa was immobilized on this dual-layer biomimetic membrane using glutaraldehyde (GA), and on the nascent PANCMA membrane using EDC/NHS as coupling agent. The properties of the immobilized enzymes were assayed and compared with those of the free one. It was found that both the activity retention of the immobilized lipase and the amount of bound protein on the dual-layer biomimetic membrane (44.5% and 66.5 mg/m2) were higher than those on the nascent PANCMA membrane (33.9% and 53.7 mg/m2). The kinetic parameters of the free and immobilized lipases, Km and Vmax, were also assayed. The Km values were similar for the immobilized lipases, while the Vmax value of the immobilized lipase on the dual-layer biomimetic membrane was higher than that on the nascent PANCMA membrane. Results indicated that the pH and thermal stabilities of lipase increased upon immobilization. The residual activity of the immobilized lipase after 10 uses was 53% on the dual-layer biomimetic membrane and 62% on the nascent PANCMA membrane. PMID:15919112

  8. Modeling contaminant transport and remediation at an acrylonitrile spill site in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şengör, S. Sevinç; Ünlü, Kahraman

    2013-07-01

    The August 1999 earthquake in Turkey damaged three acrylonitrile (AN) storage tanks at a plant producing synthetic fiber by polymerization. A numerical modeling study was carried out to analyze the groundwater flow and contaminant (AN) transport at the spill site. This study presents the application of a numerical groundwater model to determine the hydrogeological parameters of the site, where such data were not available during the field surveys prior to the simulation studies. The two- and three-dimensional transient flow and transport models were first calibrated using the first 266 days of observed head and concentration data and then verified using the remaining 540-day observed data set. Off-site migration of the contaminant plume was kept under control within the site boundaries owing to the favorable geology of the site, the characteristics of the local groundwater flow regime and the pumping operations. As expected, the applied pump-and-treat system was effective at high-permeability zones, but not fully effective at low-permeability zones. The results of long-term simulations for unconfined aquifer showed that the size of the plume in the high permeability zone shrank significantly due to the dilution by natural recharge. However, in the low permeability zone, it was not significantly affected. The study showed that accurate and sufficient data regarding the source characteristics, concentration and groundwater level measurements, groundwater pumping rates and their durations at each of the extraction points involved in the pump-and-treat system along with the hydrogeological site characterization are the key parameters for successful flow and transport model calibrations.

  9. Modification of fiber properties through grafting of acrylonitrile to rayon by chemical and radiation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inderjeet Kaur

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Fibrous properties of rayon has been modified through synthesis of graft copolymers of rayon with acrylonitrile (AN by chemical method using ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN/HNO3 as a redox initiator and gamma radiation mutual method. Percentage of grafting (Pg was determined as a function of initiator concentration, monomer concentration, irradiation dose, temperature, time of reaction and the amount of water. Maximum percentage of grafting (160.01% using CAN/HNO3 was obtained at [CAN] = 22.80 × 10−3 mol/L, [HNO3] = 112.68 × 10−2 mol/L and [AN] = 114.49 × 10−2 mol/L in 20 mL of water at 45 °C within 120 min while in case of gamma radiation method, maximum Pg (90.24% was obtained at an optimum concentration of AN of 76.32 × 10−2 mol/L using 10 mL of water at room temperature with total dose exposure of 3.456 kGy/h. The grafted fiber was characterized by FTIR, SEM, TGA and XRD studies. Swelling behavior of grafted rayon in different solvents such as water, methanol, ethanol, DMF and acetone was studied and compared with the unmodified rayon. Dyeing behavior of the grafted fiber was also investigated.

  10. SELECTIVE SEPARATION OF WATER—ETHANOL MIXTURE THROUGH COPOLYMERIC MEMBRANES.Ⅱ.ACRYLONITRILE AND MALEIC ANHYDRIDE COPOLYMERIC MEMBRANES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHangFuyao; ZhangYifeng; 等

    1993-01-01

    Acrylonitrile(AN) and maleic anhydride(MA) copolymer has been synthesized by radical polymerization using ammonium persulfate and sodium bisulfite as initiator.The pervaporation properties of the copolymeric membranes prepared have been investigated for the first time. The dependences of pervaporation characteristics on coplymer composition,feed concentration and operating temperature have been studied.In order to improve the separation properties of the copolymeric membranes,the membranes were hydrolyzed with 10 wt% soldium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide aqueous solution.The hydrolyzed membranes containing more than 0.069MA mol fraction showed higher tensile strength and separation properties than the original membranes.

  11. Mechanistic diversity of the van Leusen reaction applied to 6-ketomorphinans and synthetic potential of the resulting acrylonitrile substructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, Johannes; Windisch, Petra; Kristeva, Elka; Wurst, Klaus; Ongania, Karl-Hans; Horvath, Ulrike E I; Schottenberger, Herwig; Laus, Gerhard; Schmidhammer, Helmut

    2005-06-24

    Tosylmethyl isocyanide was used to convert 7,8-didehydro-6-ketomorphinans to 6,7-didehydromorphinan-6-carbonitriles with retainment of the 4,5-epoxy ring. However, ring opening occurred in the presence of NaH giving 5,6,7,8-tetradehydromorphinan-6-carbonitriles. Addition of nucleophiles such as Li diisopropylamide or Grignard reagents to the acrylonitrile substructure yielded ring-opened 5,6-didehydro products. Seven products were characterized by X-ray crystal structure analysis and revealed insight into the mechanistic diversity of the van Leusen reaction.

  12. Pre-irradiation induced emulsion co-graft polymerization of acrylonitrile and acrylic acid onto a polyethylene nonwoven fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanzhou; Yu, Ming; Ma, Hongjuan; Wang, Ziqiang; Li, Linfan; Li, Jingye

    2014-01-01

    A pre-irradiation induced emulsion co-graft polymerization method was used to introduce acrylonitrile and acrylic acid onto a PE nonwoven fabric. The use of acrylic acid is meant to improve the hydrophilicity of the modified fabric. The kinetics of co-graft polymerization were studied. The existence of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) graft chains was proven by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The existence of the nitrile groups in the graft chains indicates that they are ready for further amidoximation and adsorption of heavy metal ions.

  13. The Protective Value of Hesperidin in Mitigating the Biochemical Perturbations and Trace Element alterations induced by Acrylonitrile in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Abdallah*, N. E. Amien**, M. R. Mohamed*, A. S. Nada**, M. A. Mohamed

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Acrylonitrile (a chemical pollutant has been reported to induce harmful effects in humans. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of hesperidin, a natural bioflavonoid, against the toxicity induced by acrylonitrile (AN in rats. Material&Methods: This study includes determination of serum total scavenger capacity “TSC”, liver enzymes (aspartate transaminase “ASAT”, alanine transaminase “ALAT” and alkaline phosphatase “ALP”, total proteins, albumin, glucose, creatinine, urea and lipid profile. Moreover, liver and kidney homogenate glutathione content “GSH”, catalase, superoxide dismutase “SOD”, glutathione peroxidase “GPx”, malondialdehyde “MDA” and some minerals were estimated. Results: revealed that administration of AN (orally 50mg/ kg b.wt. induced alterations in TSC level as well as liver, kidney and lipid profiles. In addition, a decrease in GSH-content and catalase, SOD and GPx activities was observed with an increase in MDA levels in both liver and kidney. There was disturbance in certain minerals such as Cu, Zn, Fe, Se, Ca, Mg and Mn. Conclusion: particularly, Hesperidin administration (orally 200 mg/kg b.wt. ameliorates the oxidative stress induced by AN, consistent with the reported antioxidant activity of hesperidin

  14. Fabrication of Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Nanostructures with Anodic Alumina Oxide Templates, Characterization and Biofilm Development Test for Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Desrousseaux

    Full Text Available Medical devices can be contaminated by microbial biofilm which causes nosocomial infections. One of the strategies for the prevention of such microbial adhesion is to modify the biomaterials by creating micro or nanofeatures on their surface. This study aimed (1 to nanostructure acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS, a polymer composing connectors in perfusion devices, using Anodic Alumina Oxide templates, and to control the reproducibility of this process; (2 to characterize the physico-chemical properties of the nanostructured surfaces such as wettability using captive-bubble contact angle measurement technique; (3 to test the impact of nanostructures on Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm development. Fabrication of Anodic Alumina Oxide molds was realized by double anodization in oxalic acid. This process was reproducible. The obtained molds present hexagonally arranged 50 nm diameter pores, with a 100 nm interpore distance and a length of 100 nm. Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene nanostructures were successfully prepared using a polymer solution and two melt wetting methods. For all methods, the nanopicots were obtained but inside each sample their length was different. One method was selected essentially for industrial purposes and for better reproducibility results. The flat ABS surface presents a slightly hydrophilic character, which remains roughly unchanged after nanostructuration, the increasing apparent wettability observed in that case being explained by roughness effects. Also, the nanostructuration of the polymer surface does not induce any significant effect on Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion.

  15. Dye-sensitized solar cell with poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylonitrile)-based gel polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A nontoxic, easily synthesized poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylonitrile) showed suitable transmittance for dye-sensitized solar cell. ► A cell with relatively large active area fabricated with this polymer material showed acceptable efficiency. ► The gel polymer matrix affected the charge recombination, I3− diffusion, double layer capacitance, and electron lifetime in the cell. - Abstract: A non-conducting, nontoxic poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylonitrile) (PAA) was prepared and used as a supporting matrix for the electrolyte of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). DSSCs of active area 0.80 cm × 1.10 cm fabricated with PAA, 0.5 M LiI, 0.05 M I2, 0.5 M 3-tert-butylpyridine, and 0.1 M 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide in 3-methoxypropionitrile solvent showed an average solar energy conversion efficiency of 1.61% under simulated sunlight illumination of 100 mW cm−2, AM 1.5. The effects of the gel polymer matrix on the electrochemical properties of DSSCs were studied using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Relative to the non-gel reference cells, the results showed a decrease in charge recombination, ionic diffusion, and double layer capacitance and an increase in electron lifetime. These results could play an important role in determining the future direction for the development of high-performance gel polymer electrolytes.

  16. Fire and Gas Barrier Properties of Poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile Nanocomposites Using Polycaprolactone/Clay Nanohybrid Based-Masterbatch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Benali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Exfoliated nanocomposites are prepared by dispersion of poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL grafted montmorillonite nanohybrids used as masterbatches in poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile (SAN. The PCL-grafted clay nanohybrids with high inorganic content are synthesized by in situ intercalative ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone between silicate layers organomodified by alkylammonium cations bearing two hydroxyl functions. The polymerization is initiated by tin alcoholate species derived from the exchange reaction of tin(II bis(2-ethylhexanoate with the hydroxyl groups borne by the ammonium cations that organomodified the clay. These highly filled PCL nanocomposites (25 wt% in inorganics are dispersed as masterbatches in commercial poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile by melt blending. SAN-based nanocomposites containing 3 wt% of inorganics are accordingly prepared. The direct blend of SAN/organomodified clay is also prepared for sake of comparison. The clay dispersion is characterized by wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and solid state NMR spectroscopy measurements. The thermal properties are studied by thermogravimetric analysis. The flame retardancy and gas barrier resistance properties of nanocomposites are discussed both as a function of the clay dispersion and of the matrix/clay interaction.

  17. Acrylonitrile potentiates hearing loss and cochlear damage induced by moderate noise exposure in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diversity of chemical and drugs that can potentiate noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) has impeded efforts to predict such interactions. We have hypothesized that chemical contaminants that disrupt intrinsic antioxidant defenses hold significant risk for potentiating NIHL. If this is true, then acrylonitrile (ACN) would be expected to potentiate NIHL. ACN, one of the 50 most commonly used chemicals in the United States, is metabolized via two pathways that are likely to disrupt intrinsic reactive oxygen species (ROS) buffering systems: (1) it conjugates glutathione, depleting this important antioxidant rapidly; (2) a second pathway involves the formation of cyanide, which can inhibit superoxide dismutase. We hypothesized that moderate noise exposure, that does not produce permanent hearing loss by itself, could initiate oxidative stress and that ACN could render the inner ear more sensitive to noise by disrupting intrinsic antioxidant defenses. Temporary and persistent effects of ACN alone (50 mg/kg, sc 5 days), noise alone (95 or 97 dB octave band noise, 4 h/day for 5 days), or ACN in combination with noise were determined using distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) and compound action potential (CAP) amplitudes. Histopathological damage to hair cells resulting from these treatments was also investigated using surface preparations of the organ of Corti. Individually, neither ACN nor noise exposures caused any permanent hearing or hair cell loss; only a reversible temporary threshold shift was measured in noise-exposed animals. However, when given in combination, ACN and noise induced permanent threshold shifts (13-16 dB between 7 and 40 kHz) and a decrease in DPOAE amplitudes (up to 25 dB at 19 kHz), as well as significant outer hair cell (OHC) loss (up to 20% in the first row between 13 and 47 kHz). This investigation demonstrates that ACN can potentiate NIHL at noise levels that are realistic in terms of human exposure, and that the OHCs are the

  18. A COMPARISON BETWEEN THE MORPHOLOGY OF SEMICRYSTALLINE POLYMER BLENDS OF POLY(EPSILON-CAPROLACTONE)/POLY(VINYL METHYL-ETHER) AND POLY(EPSILON-CAPROLACTONE)/(STYRENE-ACRYLONITRILE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OUDHUIS, AACM; THIEWES, HJ; VANHUTTEN, PF; TENBRINKE, G

    1994-01-01

    The morphology of polymer blends of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(vinyl methyl ether) (PVME) is compared with that of PCL and a random copolymer of styrene and acrylonitrile (SAN). The main objective is to determine the influence of the glass transition temperature of the amorphous compo

  19. EFFECT OF AMPHIPHILIC POLY (STYRENE-B-ETHYLENE OXIDE) DIBLOCK COPOLYMER INTERCALATED LAYERED SILICATE AS FILLER ON ACRYLONITRILE-BUTADIENE-STYRENE RESIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Tianying; Zhang Jie; Hao Guangjie; Song Moudao; Zhang Banghua

    2003-01-01

    The diblock copolymers intercalated layered silicate was prepared via a melt dispersion technique. Then the effect of intercalated hybrid as filler on acrylonitrile- butadiene-styrene resin was characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, stress-strain measurements in elongation.

  20. Effect of reactive compatibilization on the morphology and physical properties of bisphenol-A-polycarbonate/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildes, Gregg Stephen

    1998-11-01

    An amine functional styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN-amine) polymer is proposed as a reactive compatibilizer for bisphenol-A-polycarbonate/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (PC/ABS) blends. This polymer is miscible with the styrene/acrylonitrile (SAN) copolymer matrix of ABS materials, and the pendant secondary amine groups react with PC at the carbonate linkage to form a SAN-g-PC copolymer. The graft copolymer molecules reside at the PC/ABS interface and provide improved morphological stability at elevated temperatures by suppressing phase coalescence. The synthesis of this reactive compatibilizer and its reaction with carbonate moieties is described. Characterization of this reaction was done by NMR and GPC using model secondary amine and carbonate containing compounds. A technique was developed for the quantitative measurement of the kinetics of dispersed phase particle coalescence in these blends; the morphology was examined using TEM. While uncompatibilized PC/SAN blends showed an increase in particle size from approximately 1 mum to 2 mum (depending on PC viscosity) in less than five minutes at 270sp°C; compatibilized blends containing as little as 1% SAN-amine exhibited no change in morphology after 20 minutes. The effects of dispersed phase concentration, viscosity ratio and interfacial compatibilization using the SAN-amine compatibilizer on the process induced morphology of PC/SAN blends were also examined. Dispersed phase particle size increased significantly with SAN concentration and, although the morphology of uncompatibilized PC/SAN blends mixed in a Brabender mixer, single and twin screw extruders were quite similar, the twin screw extruder produced significantly finer morphologies in blends containing SAN-amine. The average particle size for blends compatibilized with the SAN-amine polymer was approximately half that of uncompatibilized blends and was relatively independent of viscosity ratio and dispersed phase composition. The fracture of thin (3.18 mm

  1. The use of poly(vinylpyridine-co-acrylonitrile) in polymer electrolytes for quasi-solid dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Minyu [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), Key Laboratory of photochemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Feng, Shujing; Fang, Shibi; Xiao, Xurui; Li, Xueping; Zhou, Xiaowen; Lin, Yuan [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), Key Laboratory of photochemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)

    2007-04-01

    Poly(vinylpyridine-co-acrylonitrile) (P(VP-co-AN)) was used to form polymer electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The effects of P(VP-co-AN) on the photovoltaic performances of DSSCs have been investigated with nonaqueous electrolytes containing alkali-iodide and iodine. It was found that the effect of P(VP-co-AN) on V{sub oc} closely related to its amount in the electrolyte. Lower amount of P(VP-co-AN) was benefit for the construction of a solar cell containing P(VP-co-AN) with higher energy conversion efficiency. Chemically crosslinking solidification with backbone polymer P(VP-co-AN) amount of 3% fabricated quasi-solid DSSCs with 10% increased conversion efficiencies with relative to that of the initial liquid DSSCs. (author)

  2. The use of poly(vinylpyridine-co-acrylonitrile) in polymer electrolytes for quasi-solid dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly(vinylpyridine-co-acrylonitrile) (P(VP-co-AN)) was used to form polymer electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The effects of P(VP-co-AN) on the photovoltaic performances of DSSCs have been investigated with nonaqueous electrolytes containing alkali-iodide and iodine. It was found that the effect of P(VP-co-AN) on V oc closely related to its amount in the electrolyte. Lower amount of P(VP-co-AN) was benefit for the construction of a solar cell containing P(VP-co-AN) with higher energy conversion efficiency. Chemically crosslinking solidification with backbone polymer P(VP-co-AN) amount of 3% fabricated quasi-solid DSSCs with 10% increased conversion efficiencies with relative to that of the initial liquid DSSCs

  3. STUDY ON THE GASEOUS PRODUCTS OF HIGH TEMPERATURE PYROLYSIS OF ACRYLONITRILE POLYMERS BY ON-LINE FTIR METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Genxiang; CHEN Bangjie

    1987-01-01

    The gaseous products of high temperature pyrolysis (300℃ to 960℃) of acrylonitrile polymers were measured continuously under nitrogen atnosphere by on-line Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic method (FTIR). From the variations of characteristic peaks it was found that the nitrogen of macromolecules evolved were mainly in the form of hydrogen cyanide and ammonia. During the pyrolysis amorphous carbonaceous element was formed, and crosslinked to form network structure. Three kinds of samples were used for comparison. The experimental results show that the gaseous products of volatile small molecules were HCN, NH3, CH4, C2H6 and cyanide. CO and CO2 were also formed when copolymers of PAN were thermally pyrolyzed.

  4. Pressure induced graft-co-polymerization of acrylonitrile onto Saccharum cilliare fibre and evaluation of some properties of grafted fibre

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A S Singha; Anjali Shama; Vijay Kumar Thakur

    2008-02-01

    In the present work, graft co-polymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) onto Saccharum cilliare fibre has been carried out in the presence of potassium persulphate and ferrous ammonium sulphate (FAS–KPS) as redox initiator. The reactions were carried out under pressure in an autoclave. Various reaction parameters such as pressure, time, pH, concentrations of initiator and monomer were optimized to get maximum graft yield (35.59%). Grafted and ungrafted Saccharum cilliare fibres were then subjected to evaluation of some of their properties like swelling behaviour in different solvents, moisture absorbance under different humidity levels, water uptake and resistance towards chemicals such as hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide. The characterization of the graft copolymers were carried out by FTIR spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies.

  5. Use of Yb-based catalyst for AGET ATRP of acrylonitrile to simultaneously control molecular mass distribution and tacticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Chen, Hou; Zhang, Min; Wang, Chunhua; Zhang, Ying; Qu, Rongjun

    2012-08-01

    Yb-based catalyst was used for the first time for atom transfer radical polymerization using activators generated by electron transfer (AGET ATRP) of acrylonitrile (AN) with 2-bromopropionitrile (BPN) as initiator, 2, 2'-bipyridine (bipy) as ligand, and tisn(II) bis(2-ethylhexanoate) (Sn(EH)2) as reducing agent in the presence of air. With respect to AGET ATRP of AN catalyzed by CuBr2, an evident increase of polymer tacticity was observed for AGET ATRP of AN. The increase of syndiotacticity became more and more pronounced than the increase of isotacticity of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) along with YbBr3 content. The block copolymer PAN-b-PMMA with molecular weight at 60,000 and polydispersity at 1.36 was successfully prepared. PMID:24364980

  6. Fittings of unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC-U), chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (PVC-C) or acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene (ABS) with plain sockets for pipes under pressure - Dimensions of sockets - Metric series

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    1985-01-01

    Fittings of unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC-U), chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (PVC-C) or acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene (ABS) with plain sockets for pipes under pressure - Dimensions of sockets - Metric series

  7. Theoretical and experimental investigations of the 2-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-{[5-(2-cyano-2-phenylethenyl)]furan-2-yl}acrylonitrile molecule as a potential acceptor in organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazici, Mehmet; Bozar, Sinem; Aydin Yuksel, Sureyya; Ongul, Fatih; Gokce, Halil; Gunes, Serap; Yorur Goreci, Cigdem

    2016-06-01

    A novel soluble asymmetric acrylonitrile derivative, 2-(4-Chlorophenyl)-3-{[5-(2-cyano-2-phenylethenyl)]furan-2-yl}acrylonitrile (CPCPFA, 3) was synthesized in three steps by Knoevenagel condensation. The structure of the CPCPFA was characterized using UV-vis, FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and LC-MS. CPCPFA was evaluated as an electron acceptor in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells. Its optical and electronic properties as well as photovoltaic performance were investigated.

  8. The Structure of the Free Volume in Poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) from Positron Lifetime and Pressure Volume Temperature (PVT) Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Dlubek, Gunter; Bondarenko, Vladimir; Al-Qaradawi, Ilham Y.; Kilburn, Duncan; Krause-Rehberg, Reinhard

    2004-01-01

    Summary: The structure of the free volume and its temperature dependence between 25 and 190 °C of copolymers of styrene with acrylonitrile, SAN (0 to 50 mol-% AN), is studied by pressure volume temperature (PVT) experiments and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). In this second part of the work, PALS data are reported from which the temperature dependence of the mean size and size distribution of local free volumes (subnanometer size holes) is analysed. The mean hole volume, v...

  9. 丙烯腈生殖毒理学研究概况%An Overview of the Study of Acrylonitrile on Reproductive Toxiocology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴鑫; 金泰; 钟先玖

    2000-01-01

    @@ 丙烯腈(acrylonitrile,ACN)为有机合成工业中广泛应用的一种重要单体物质,可合成腈纶纤维,丁腈橡胶,ABS工程塑料及某些树脂.1994年全世界的ACN生产量超过30亿磅,1995年已达到100亿磅的生产能力[1].

  10. 丙烯腈生产的高效精制工艺优化%Optimization of Efficient Refining Technology of Acrylonitrile Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴金海

    2011-01-01

    Cation exchange resin D001 was chosen to adsorb oxazole from acrylonitrile. The equilibrium adsorption capacity of resin D001 was 37. 08 mg · g-1. The adsorpion rate was above 99% with input flow rate of 2. 0 BV ? h-1 and temperatune of 20 °C , and desorpion rate was 100% with 5% HC1 as desorption reagent, 5% HC1 volume of 1. 2 BV, the elution flow rate of 1. 0 BV ? h-1 , soaking time of 6 h. By adding refining process of cation exchange resin, the content of oxazole in acrylonitrile of finished product tower was controlled above 40 mg · g-1 , the content of oxazole in acrylonitrile was controlled below 1 mg · g-1 , and the yield of acrylonitrile was increased above 0. 5%, which realized the efficient refinery of acrylonitrile.%采用阳离子交换树脂D001去除丙烯腈中(口恶)唑。D001的平衡吸附量为37.08 mg·g-1,在20℃、30℃、40℃、50℃下,D001对(口恶)唑的吸附符合Langmuir吸附等温方程。在进料流量为2.0 BV·h-1、体系温度为20℃时,丙烯腈中(口恶)唑的去除率达99%以上。采用5%的HCl为洗脱剂,在其用量为1.2 BV、洗脱速度为1 BV·h-1、浸泡时间为6 h的条件下,(口恶)唑的脱附率可达100%。在丙烯腈生产工艺中增加离子交换树脂吸附(口恶)唑工艺部分,可控制成品塔丙烯腈中(口恶)唑的含量在40 mg·g-1以上、丙烯腈产品中(口恶)唑的含量在1 mg·g-1以下,而且丙烯腈收率提高0.5%以上,实现了丙烯腈的高效精制。

  11. Determination of Bound Acrylonitrile Content in Acrylonitrile-butadiene Rubber(NBR) by Infrared Spectroscopy Method%红外光谱法测定丁腈橡胶中的结合丙烯腈含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高杜娟; 黄世英; 赵家琳; 刘俊保

    2015-01-01

    Infrared spectrometry in this article was used to determinate the bound acrylonitrile content in nitrile rubber( NBR). In the process of experimenting,the sample preparation conditions were determined and the stand-ard values of seven substitute standard sample were confirmed by Kjeldahl method,through which the quantitative calculation formula was get. And finally,the results were compared with the method of element analysis.%本文采用红外光谱法测定丁腈橡胶( NBR)中的结合丙烯腈含量,确定了样品前处理条件,通过凯氏定氮法确定7个代用标准胶中结合丙烯腈含量的标准值,得出了结合丙烯腈含量的定量计算公式,测试结果与元素分析法进行了对比。

  12. Carboxyl-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile-toughened epoxy/carboxyl-modified carbon nanotube nanocomposites: Thermal and mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Xie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Carboxyl-modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT–COOHs as nanofillers were incorporated into diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA toughened with carboxyl-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile (CTBN. The carboxyl functional carbon nanotubes were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Furthermore, cure kinetics, glass transition temperature (Tg, mechanical properties, thermal stability and morphology of DGEBA/CTBN/MWCNT–COOHs nanocomposites were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA, universal test machine, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. DSC kinetic studies showed that the addition of MWCNT–COOHs accelerated the curing reaction of the rubber-toughened epoxy resin. DMA results revealed that Tg of rubber-toughened epoxy nanocomposites lowered with MWCNT–COOH contents. The tensile strength, elongation at break, flexural strength and flexural modulus of DGEBA/CTBN/MWCNT-COOHs nanocomposites were increased at lower MWCNT-COOH concentration. A homogenous dispersion of nanocomposites at lower MWCNT–COOH concentration was observed by SEM.

  13. Isolation of the {epsilon}-caprolactam denitrifying bacteria from a wastewater treatment system manufactured with acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.-C. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Hungkuang University, Shalu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: chunchin@sunrise.hk.edu.tw; Lee, C.-M. [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)

    2007-06-25

    {epsilon}-Caprolactam has high COD and toxicity, so its discharge to natural water and soil systems may lead to an adverse environmental effect on water quality, endangering public health and welfare. This investigation attempts to isolate {epsilon}-caprolactam denitrifying bacteria from a wastewater treatment system manufactured with acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) resin. The goal is to elucidate the effectiveness of isolated pure strain and ABS mixed strains in treating {epsilon}-caprolactam from synthetic wastewater. The results reveal that Paracoccus versutus MDC-3 was isolated from the wastewater treatment system manufactured with ABS resin. The ABS mixed strains and P. versutus MDC-3 can consume up to 1539 mg/l {epsilon}-caprolactam to denitrify from synthetic wastewater. Complete {epsilon}-caprolactam removal depended on the supply of sufficient electron acceptors (nitrate). Strain P. versutus MDC-3, Hyphomicrobium sp. HM, Methylosinus pucelana and Magnetospirillum sp. CC-26 are related closely, according to the phylogenetic analyses of 16S rDNA sequences.

  14. Isolation of the epsilon-caprolactam denitrifying bacteria from a wastewater treatment system manufactured with acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Chin; Lee, Chi-Mei

    2007-06-25

    epsilon-Caprolactam has high COD and toxicity, so its discharge to natural water and soil systems may lead to an adverse environmental effect on water quality, endangering public health and welfare. This investigation attempts to isolate epsilon-caprolactam denitrifying bacteria from a wastewater treatment system manufactured with acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) resin. The goal is to elucidate the effectiveness of isolated pure strain and ABS mixed strains in treating epsilon-caprolactam from synthetic wastewater. The results reveal that Paracoccus versutus MDC-3 was isolated from the wastewater treatment system manufactured with ABS resin. The ABS mixed strains and P. versutus MDC-3 can consume up to 1539mg/l epsilon-caprolactam to denitrify from synthetic wastewater. Complete epsilon-caprolactam removal depended on the supply of sufficient electron acceptors (nitrate). Strain P. versutus MDC-3, Hyphomicrobium sp. HM, Methylosinus pucelana and Magnetospirillum sp. CC-26 are related closely, according to the phylogenetic analyses of 16S rDNA sequences. PMID:17161908

  15. Reclamation of post-consumer plastics for development of polycarbonate and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene based nanocomposites with nanoclay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zicans, Janis; Meri, Remo Merijs; Ivanova, Tatjana; Berzina, Rita; Saldabola, Ruuta; Maksimov, Robert

    2016-05-01

    Suitability of recycled acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (R-ABS) and recycled polycarbonate (R-PC) for the development of polymer matrix nanocomposites with organically modified nanoclay (OMMT) is evaluated in comparison to virgin polymers (V-ABS and V-PC) based systems. The influence of OMMT content on the structure as well as calorimetric, mechanical and thermal properties of virgin and recycled polymers containing systems is revealed. Increase in stiffness and strength of virgin and recycled polymers based systems is observed along with rising nanoclay content. However, it is observed that reinforcing efficiency of clays on the R-ABS containing systems is reduced to certain extent in comparison to those, based on virgin polymers. It is shown, that in the presence of OMMT approximation of glass transition temperatures of both polymeric components is observed, which can testify about certain improvement of compatibility between PC and ABS. Increment of the modulus of elasticity and yield strength of the nanocomposites is associated with anisodiametric shape of OMMT, as well as with intercalation of polymer within the interlaminar space of the clay nanoparticles. It is also demonstrated that addition of nanoclay improves thermogravimetric behavior of the investigated compositions. Consequently, it is suggested that nanoclays can be used as promising functional additives and replace halogenated flame-retardants, without reducing mechanical properties of the composites.

  16. The effect of trichloroethylene and acrylonitrile on RNA and ribosome synthesis and ribosome content in Saccharomyces cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochmann, E R; Ehrlich, W; Mangir, M

    1984-04-01

    The effects of trichloroethylene (TCE) and acrylonitrile (ACN) on growth, RNA synthesis, ribosome synthesis, and ribosome content were tested in yeast cells. TCE causes a delay of the growth of a cell culture (prolongation of the lag phase), but does not cause inhibition. Cells exposed to increasing concentrations of ACN show increasing damage, so that, at a certain point of the growth curve, cell division stops altogether. Similar results were obtained when RNA synthesis was investigated: After treatment with TCE, the maximum RNA synthesis of the cell culture was retarded, but subsequently reached the same level as the untreated control cells. In the presence of ACN, however, the rate of RNA synthesis was lowered with increasing ACN concentrations. The same effect was observed upon investigation of ribosome synthesis: Whereas TCE produces only a slight effect, treatment with increasing concentrations of ACN leads to a substantial decrease in ribosome synthesis, and finally to total inhibition. Parallel to this, the content of free and membrane-bound ribosomes is diminished. Obviously, the decrease in ribosome content is caused not only by an inhibition of ribosome synthesis, but also by a degradation of existing ribosomes, as well as by induction of a ribosome-associated RNase. PMID:6714140

  17. Preparation of Mesoporous Carbons from Acrylonitrile-methyl Methacrylate Copolymer/Silica Nanocomposites Synthesized by in-situ Emulsion Polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Yongzhong; ZHAO Wenting; HUANG Zhiming

    2013-01-01

    Acrylonitrile-methyl methacrylate (AN-MMA) copolymer/silica nanocomposites were synthesized by in-situ emulsion polymerization initiated by 2,2′-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride absorbed onto colloidal silica particles,and the mesoporous carbon materials were prepared through carbonization of the obtained AN-MMA copolymer/silica nanocomposites,followed by HF etching.Thermogravimetric analysis of AN-MMA copolymer/silica nanocomposites showed that the carbon yield of copolymer was slightly decreased as silica particle incorporated.N2 adsorption-desorption,scan electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the structure and morphology of the mesoporous carbon materials.Both SEM and TEM results showed that disordered mesopores were formed in the obtained carbon material mainly through templating effect of silica nanoparticles.The diameter of mesopores was mainly distributed in the range from 5 nm to 15 nm.The mean pore diameter and total pore volume of the material increased as the mass fraction of silica in the nanocomposites increased from 0 to 24.93%.The significant increase of the mean pore diameter and the decrease of surface area for the carbon material prepared from the nanocomposite with 24.93% silica were caused by partial aggregation of silica nanoparticles in the polymer matrix.

  18. Molecular mechanism of gelation upon the addition of water to a solution of poly(acrylonitrile) in dimethylsulfoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettegren, V. I.; Kulik, V. B.; Savitskii, A. V.; Fetisov, O. I.; Usov, V. V.

    2010-05-01

    The solidification of a solution of poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN) in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) upon introduction of water into the solution is studied by Raman spectroscopy. In the absence of water, DMSO molecules are found to produce dipole-dipole bonds with PAN molecules. Upon the introduction of water, DMSO molecules produce hydrogen bonds with it and bands at 1005 and 1015 cm-1 appear in the Raman spectrum, which are assigned to the valence vibrations of S=O bonds involved in the hydrogen bonds. Simultaneously, water molecules produce hydrogen bonds with PAN molecules: R-C≡N...H-O-H...N≡C-R, where R is the carbon skeleton of a PAN molecule. Accordingly, a band at 2250 cm-1 arises in the Raman spectrum, which is assigned to the valence vibrations of C≡N bonds producing hydrogen bonds with a water molecule. When the water content is low and the DMSO concentration is high, the length of the hydrogen bonds varies in wide limits and the band at 2250 cm-1 is wide. As the water content rises, DMSO molecules come out of PAN, the variation of the hydrogen bond length in it decreases (the band at 2250 cm-1 narrows), and a high-viscosity system (gel) arises that consists of PAN molecules bonded to water molecules via “equally strong” hydrogen bonds.

  19. Acrylonitrile-contamination induced enhancement of formic acid electro-oxidation at platinum nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nagar, Gumaa A.; Mohammad, Ahmad M.; El-Deab, Mohamed S.; Ohsaka, Takeo; El-Anadouli, Bahgat E.

    2014-11-01

    Minute amount (∼1 ppm) of acrylonitrile (AcN), a possible contaminant, shows an unexpected enhancement for the direct electro-oxidation of formic acid (FAO) at Pt nanoparticles modified GC (nano-Pt/GC) electrodes. This is reflected by a remarkable increase of the current intensity of the direct oxidation peak (Ipd, at ca. 0.3 V) in the presence of AcN, concurrently with a significant decrease of the second (indirect) oxidation current (Ipind, at ca. 0.7 V), compared to that observed in the absence of AcN (i.e., at the unpoisoned Pt electrode). The extent of enhancement depends on the surface coverage (θ) of AcN at the surface of Pt nanoparticles. AcN is thought to favor the direct FAO by disturbing the contiguity of the Pt sites, which is necessary for CO adsorption. Furthermore, XPS measurements revealed a change in the electronic structure of Pt in presence of AcN, which has a favorable positive impact on the charge transfer during the direct FAO.

  20. STUDY ON THE POLYMERIZATION OF ACRYLONITRILE INITIATED BY POLYPROPYLENE-BASED VANADYL POLYIMIDODIACETATE——THIOUREA REDOX SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Chaoxiong; Wu Jinyun; Liang Zhenming; Feng Zhouquan

    1989-01-01

    The present paper deals with the kinetics of polymerization of acrylonitrile ( AN ) initiated by the redox system of polypropylene-based vanadyl polyimidodiacetate (PV)-thiourea (TU)in aqueous sulfuric acid in the temperature range from 25 to 40 ℃ . The polymerization rate was measured by varying the concentrations of monomer, vanadyl polyimidodiacetate, thiourea and sulfuric acid. The overall rate of polymerization was summarized as RP =2.2 × 105e-6.860/RT[AN]1.0[PV]0.50[ TU]1.5[H2SO4]2.0 The molecular weight of polyacrylonitrile based on the experimental data was:(-M)n=k·1/T·[AN]/[PV]0.50[TU]1.5[H2SO4]2.0 These results indicated that the chain radicals are terminated by combination and/or disproportionation rather than chain transfer. The cooperation effect of carboxylic groups and the macromolecular field effect of polymer supporter are the characters of vanadyl polyimidodiacetate such as the case reported in early paper[ 1 ].

  1. TEMPERATURE AND pH RESPONSE, AND SWELLING BEHAVIOR OF POROUS ACRYLONITRILE-ACRYLIC ACID COPOLYMER HYDROGELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Huang; Zhi-ming Huang; Yong-zhong Bao; Zhi-xue Weng

    2006-01-01

    Macroporous acrylonitrile-acrylic acid (AN-AA) copolymer hydrogels were synthesized by free-radical solution polymerizations, using ammonium persulfate (APS)/N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED) redox initiator system and alcohols porogens. The morphology, temperature and pH sensitive swelling behavior, and swelling kinetics of the resulting hydrogels were investigated. It was found that alcohol type and concentration had great influences on the pore structure and porosity of hydrogels. The pore size of hydrogel increases with the moderate increase of the length of alcohol alkyl chain. However, a further increase of alkyl length would result in the formation of cauliflower-like structure and the decrease of pore size. The porosity of hydrogels increases with the increase of porogen concentration in the polymerization medium. The hydrogels with macroporous structure swell or shrink much faster in response to the change of pH in comparison with the conventional hydrogel without macroporous structure. Furthermore, the response rate is closely related to the porosity of the hydrogels, which could be easily controlled by modulating the concentration of the porogen in the medium. The circular swelling behavior of hydrogels indicated the formation of a relaxing three-dimensional network.

  2. Preparation of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber by soap-free emulsion polymerization%无皂乳液聚合制备丁二烯-丙烯腈橡胶

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂强; 梁琨; 钟启林; 马朋高; 张元寿; 王真琴

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,soap-free acrylonitrile butadiene rubber was prepared using sulfate polymerisable emulsifier KD SE-10 by emulsion copolymerization at low temperature. The article studied the influence of the amount of polymerisable emulsifier on mooney viscosity, bound acrylonitrile content, the gel ratio, tensile strength and molecular weight. And the amount of KD SE-10 was determined as 2. 7%~3.0wt%. Acrylonitrile butadiene rubber prepared has the remarkable characteristics of high-strength,excellent oil resistance and narrow molecular weight distribution.%采用硫酸盐类可聚合乳化剂烯丙氧基壬基苯氧基丙醇聚氧乙烯醚硫酸铵(KD SE-10)通过低温乳液聚合法制备无皂丁腈橡胶.详细考察了可聚合乳化剂用量对门尼粘度、结合丙烯腈含量、凝胶量、拉伸强度、相对分子质量的影响情况,并确定了KD SE-10用量为2.7%~3.0%(质量分数).制得的无皂丁腈橡胶相比普通丁腈橡胶具有显著的高强度、更优良的耐油性、相对分子质量分布窄的特点.

  3. Use of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium L-lactates as both ligand and reaction media for AGET ATRP of acrylonitrile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Hou, E-mail: lduchenhou@hotmail.com [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Ludong University, Yantai 264025 (China); Liu Delong; Chen Lingfang; Qu Rongjun [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Ludong University, Yantai 264025 (China)

    2011-08-15

    Graphical abstract: Chiral ionic liquids, [C{sub 2}mim][LLA], [C{sub 4}mim][LLA] and [C{sub 6}mim][LLA] were firstly applied as both ligand and reaction media for atom transfer radical polymerization using activators generated by electron transfer (AGET ATRP) of acrylonitrile (AN) with ascorbic acid (VC) as reducing agent in the presence of air. A small but clear increase of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) isotacticity was observed for AGET ATRP ofANin [C6mim][LLA] than in [C6mim][BF4]. PAN isotacticity markedly increased with the content of [C{sub 6}mim][LLA]. Compared with in [C{sub 2}mim][LLA] and [C{sub 4}mim][LLA], the rate of AGET ATRP of AN in [C{sub 6}mim][LLA] was fastest and the polymerization was best controlled. Well-defined PAN with molecular weight at 76,590, relatively narrower distribution at 1.27 and higher isotacticity at 0.37 was successfully prepared in [C{sub 6}mim][LLA]. Highlights: {yields} Chiral ionic liquids, [C{sub 2}mim][LLA], [C{sub 4}mim][LLA] and [C{sub 6}mim][LLA] were firstly applied as both ligand and reaction media for AGET ATRP of AN in the presence of air. {yields} A small but clear increase of polymer isotacticity was observed for AGET ATRP of AN in [C{sub 6}mim][LLA] than in [C{sub 6}mim][BF{sub 4}]. {yields} Well-defined PAN with molecular weight at 76,590, relatively narrower distribution at 1.27 and higher isotacticity at 0.37 was successfully prepared in [C{sub 6}mim][LLA]. - Abstract: Chiral ionic liquids, [C{sub 2}mim][LLA], [C{sub 4}mim][LLA] and [C{sub 6}mim][LLA] were firstly applied as both ligand and reaction media for atom transfer radical polymerization using activators generated by electron transfer (AGET ATRP) of acrylonitrile (AN) with ascorbic acid (VC) as reducing agent in the presence of air. A small but clear increase of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) isotacticity was observed for AGET ATRP of AN in [C{sub 6}mim][LLA] than in [C{sub 6}mim][BF{sub 4}]. PAN isotacticity markedly increased with the content of [C{sub 6}mim

  4. Use of Yb-based catalyst for AGET ATRP of acrylonitrile to simultaneously control molecular mass distribution and tacticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yb-based catalyst was used for the first time for atom transfer radical polymerization using activators generated by electron transfer (AGET ATRP) of acrylonitrile (AN) with 2-bromopropionitrile (BPN) as initiator, 2, 2′-bipyridine (bipy) as ligand, and tisn(II) bis(2-ethylhexanoate) (Sn(EH)2) as reducing agent in the presence of air. With respect to AGET ATRP of AN catalyzed by CuBr2, an evident increase of polymer tacticity was observed for AGET ATRP of AN. The increase of syndiotacticity became more and more pronounced than the increase of isotacticity of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) along with YbBr3 content. The block copolymer PAN-b-PMMA with molecular weight at 60,000 and polydispersity at 1.36 was successfully prepared. - Graphical abstract: Yb-based catalyst was used for the first time for AGET ATRP of AN with BPN as the initiator, bipy as the ligand, and Sn(EH)2 as the reducing agent in the presence of air. With respect to AGET ATRP with CuBr2 as catalyst, an obvious increase of polymer tacticity was observed for AGET ATRP of AN. The increase of syndiotacticity became more and more pronounced than the increase of isotacticity of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) along with YbBr3 content. The block copolymer PAN-b-PMMA with molecular weight at 60000 and polydispersity at 1.36 was successfully prepared. Highlights: ► Yb-based catalyst was used for the first time for AGET ATRP of AN. ► The reaction simultaneously controls polydispersity and tacticity of PAN. ► Well-defined block copolymer PAN-b-PMMA was successfully prepared.

  5. Use of Yb-based catalyst for AGET ATRP of acrylonitrile to simultaneously control molecular mass distribution and tacticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Jing; Chen Hou, E-mail: lduchenhou@hotmail.com; Zhang Min; Wang Chunhua; Zhang Ying; Qu Rongjun

    2012-08-01

    Yb-based catalyst was used for the first time for atom transfer radical polymerization using activators generated by electron transfer (AGET ATRP) of acrylonitrile (AN) with 2-bromopropionitrile (BPN) as initiator, 2, 2 Prime -bipyridine (bipy) as ligand, and tisn(II) bis(2-ethylhexanoate) (Sn(EH){sub 2}) as reducing agent in the presence of air. With respect to AGET ATRP of AN catalyzed by CuBr{sub 2}, an evident increase of polymer tacticity was observed for AGET ATRP of AN. The increase of syndiotacticity became more and more pronounced than the increase of isotacticity of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) along with YbBr{sub 3} content. The block copolymer PAN-b-PMMA with molecular weight at 60,000 and polydispersity at 1.36 was successfully prepared. - Graphical abstract: Yb-based catalyst was used for the first time for AGET ATRP of AN with BPN as the initiator, bipy as the ligand, and Sn(EH){sub 2} as the reducing agent in the presence of air. With respect to AGET ATRP with CuBr{sub 2} as catalyst, an obvious increase of polymer tacticity was observed for AGET ATRP of AN. The increase of syndiotacticity became more and more pronounced than the increase of isotacticity of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) along with YbBr{sub 3} content. The block copolymer PAN-b-PMMA with molecular weight at 60000 and polydispersity at 1.36 was successfully prepared. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Yb-based catalyst was used for the first time for AGET ATRP of AN. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The reaction simultaneously controls polydispersity and tacticity of PAN. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Well-defined block copolymer PAN-b-PMMA was successfully prepared.

  6. One-step Preparation and Antibacterial Property of Poly(N-iso- propyl-acrylamide) Grafted Poly(acrylonitrile/styrene) Micro- spheres Immobilized with Silver Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG,Jiao; FAN,Liheng; CHU,Hong; XIONG,Wanbin; JIANG,Jinqiang; CHEN,Mingqing

    2009-01-01

    Monodispersed silver nanoparticles were immobilized onto the surface of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) grafted poly(acrylonitrile/styrene) (PNIPAAm-g-PAN/PSt) microspheres by a one-step method using AgNO3 as a silver source. This process was performed via the coordination interaction between Ag ions and amide groups on PNIPAAm-g-PAN/PSt microsphere surfaces with the reduction of the corresponding ions by ethanol taking place simultaneously. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectra illustrated that the silver nanoparticles were successfully immobilized onto the PNIPAAm-g-PAN/PSt microspheres. The size and morphology of silvered microspheres were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The weight percent of silver nanoparticles immobilized onto the microspheres was 12% based on the determination of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The antibacterial tests demonstrated that the as-prepared silvered microspheres showed activity against Gram-negative bacteria.

  7. SELECTIVE SEPARATION OF WATER-ETHANOL MIXTURES THROUGH COPOLYMERIC MEMBRANES:Ⅰ. ACRYLIC ACID AND ACRYLONITRILE COPOLYMER AND ITS IONIZED MEMBRANES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Fuyao; ZHANG Yifeng; ZHAO Zhuomin; SHEN Zhiquan

    1993-01-01

    The copolymer of acrylic acid and acrylonitrile has been synthesized and pervaporation properties of the copolymeric membranes have been investigated. In order to elucidate the influence of membrane-permeate interaction on the pervaporation of water-ethanol mixtures and to prepare much improved membranes, the membranes have been treated with alkali metal, alkali earth metal and transition metal salt aqueous solutions. The treated membranes (ionized membranes)exhibited higher separation factors than the untreated membranes. The separation factors of various alkali metal cation membranes decreased in the following order: Li+>Na+>K+, and the permeation rates showed an opposite tendency. The dependence of pervaporation behavior on the copolymer composition ,feed concentration and operating temperature have been studied with both ionized and non-ionized membranes. The apparent activation energies of water and ethanol permeation were calculated.

  8. Modification on liquid retention property of cassava starch by radiation grafting with acrylonitrile. I. Effect of γ-irradiation on grafting parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiatkamjornwong, S.; Chvajarernpun, J.; Nakason, C.

    1993-07-01

    Radiation modification on liquid retention properties of native cassava starch, gelatinized at 85°C, by graft copolymerization with acrylonitrile was carried out by mutual irradiation to gamma-rays. A thin aluminum foil was used to cover the inner wall of the reaction vessel, so that the homopolymer concentration was reduced to be less than 1.0% with a distilled water retention value of 665 g/g of the dry weight of the saponified grafted product. Confirmation of graft copolymerization and saponification reactions was made by the infrared spectrophotometric technique. The combined effect of radiation parameters in terms of an irradiation time and a dose rate to the total dose on the extent of the grafting reaction expressed in terms of grafting parameters which directly influenced liquid retention values was evaluated in conjunction with statistical analysis.

  9. NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) testimony to DOL (Department of Labor) on occupational exposure to acrylonitrile, by R. Yodaiken, M. D. , March 3, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-03

    Testimony was presented concerning the establishment of an occupational exposure standard for acrylonitrile (AN) to which an estimated 125,000 workers were potentially exposed. Two-year feeding and inhalation studies with animals indicated the chemical to be carcinogenic, producing tumors of the central nervous system (CNS), cerebral tumors, squamous cell neoplasms of the Zymbal gland, adenocarcinoma of the small intestine and large intestine, along with numerous benign tumors. Other findings included papillomata in the stomach, hemangioma of the kidney, fibroadenomas of the mammary gland, benign tumors of the uterus, and tumors of the ear canal. Teratogenicity studies indicated increased incidence of fetal malformation. Cases of AN as an allergen causing contact dermatitis and ulcers have been widely documented. It was recommended that drugs essential to the treatment of acute intoxication from AN be kept in the medical facility of all facilities using AN, and that employers institute a respiratory-protection program in accordance with requirements.

  10. Thermosensitive Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylonitrile) Hydrogels with Rapid Response%非离子型凝胶球在水中的溶胀行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄健; 黄志明; 包永忠; 翁志学

    2006-01-01

    Acrylonitrile (AN) was copolymerized with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) to synthesize thermosensitive bydrogels, and the on-off switch behavior of poly(NIPA-co-AN) hydrogels with different fraction of hydrophobic component (AN) was investigated. It is found that the lower critical solution temperature (LCST), the swelling ratio at certain temperature and the reswelling rate of poly(NIPA-co-AN) hydrogels decreased as AN unit fraction in copolymers increased. In order to improve the responsive rate of poly(NIPA-co-AN) hydrogels, they were further treated by surface crosslinking using N, N'-methylene bisacrylamide (BIS) as a crosslinking agent. The swelling and deswelling behaviors of these copolymers were compared with those of the untreated hydrogels. The results indicated that the responsive rate of poly(NIPA-co-AN) hydrogel was improved by surface crosslinking. The resulting hydrogels bearing cyano groups with fast response have potential applications in the field of drug-controlled release and immobilization of biomolecules.

  11. FINITE ELEMENT SIMULATION FOR YIELD STRESS OF HARD POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)/ACRYLONITRILE-BUTADIENE-STYRENE BLENDS AT DIFFERENT CROSSHEAD SPEEDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei-hua Du; Jie Yu; Peng-fei Lin; Yi-hu Song; Qiang Zneng

    2011-01-01

    Hard poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) blends were prepared using injectionmolding and influence of crosshead speed on mechanical properties was examined.Based on morphology parameters obtained from transmission electron microscopy photography and the material parameters from true stress-strain curves of neat PVC and ABS,yield stresses of the blends at different crosshead speeds were simulated employing a two-dimensional nine-particle model based on the finite element analysis (FEA).The FEA results were compared with the experimental yielding stress and the good agreement validated the simulation approach.The FEA approach allowed establishing a yielding criterion related to local yielding of the interstitial matrix between ABS particles.

  12. Studies on blends of cycloaliphatic epoxy resin with varying concentrations of carboxyl terminated butadiene acrylonitrile copolymer I: Thermal and morphological properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Garima Tripathi; Deepak Srivastava

    2009-04-01

    Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) of the blends of cycloaliphatic epoxy (CAE) resin toughened with liquid elastomer such as carboxyl terminated butadiene acrylonitrile copolymer (CTBN) have been carried out. Exothermal heat of reaction due to cross linking of the resin in the presence of diamino diphenyl sulphone (DDS, an amine hardener) showed a decreasing trend with increasing rubber concentration. Enhancement of thermal stability as well as lower mass loss of the epoxy–rubber blends with increasing rubber concentration have been observed in thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Dynamic mechanical properties reflected a monotonic decrease in the storage modulus (′) with increasing rubber concentration. The loss modulus (″) and the loss tangent (tan ) values, however, showed an increasing trend with rise of temperature up to a maximum (peak) followed by a gradual fall in both cases.

  13. The effects of electron beam irradiation on the thermal properties, fatigue life and natural weathering of styrene butadiene rubber/recycled acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Addition of TMPTA helps to align polymer chains through crosslinking. → Improvement in fatigue life of irradiated blends due to formation of irradiation-induced crosslinks. → Excessive crosslinking caused reduction of tensile properties of irradiated SBR/NBRr blends. -- Abstract: The effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation on the thermal properties, fatigue life and natural weathering of styrene butadiene rubber/recycled acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (SBR/NBRr) blends were investigated. The SBR/NBRr blends were prepared at 95/5, 85/15, 75/25, 65/35, or 50/50 blend ratios with and without the presence of a 3 part per hundred rubber (phr) of polyfunctional monomer, trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA). Results indicate that the crystallisation temperature (Tc) observed in polymeric blends is due to the alignment of polymer chains forming a semi-crystalline phase. Addition of TMPTA helps to align polymer chains through crosslinking. More crosslinking occurred between polymer blends with the help of TMPTA, upon irradiation. The improvement in fatigue life can also be associated with the stabilisation of SBR/NBRr blends upon irradiation and irradiation-induced crosslinking, which was accomplished with relatively low radiation-induced oxidative degradation in the presence of TMPTA. The tensile properties of both blends decreased over the periods of environmental exposure due to the effect of polymer degradation. After 6 months, the irradiated SBR/NBRr blends could not retain better retention [mainly with 25, 35 or 50 phr of recycled acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBRr) particles] due to the samples becoming brittle over the long period of outdoor exposure.

  14. 光照射下丙烯腈活性自由基聚合的研究%Photo-induced Living Radical Polymerization of Acrylonitrile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何斌鸿

    2015-01-01

    Acrylonitrile as monomer, azobisisobutyronitrile as initiator, hexamethylenetetramine as ligand, copper chloride dihydrate as catalyst and Vitamin C as reducing agent, polyacrylonitrile was synthesized in N,N-dimethylformamide under the light irradiation. The effects of the amount of monomer, initiator, catalyst, hexamethylenetetramine and Vitamin C on the photo-induced polymerization of acrylonitrile have been invetigated. On the basis of experiments, it is concluded that the best polymerization conditions were that the amount of monomer is 0.2 mol and the usage of azobisisobutyronitrile, copper chloride dihydrate, hexamethylenetetramine and vitamin C was 1%, 0.75%, 1%, 4 % of the mole of monomer, respectively. The best reaction time is 11 h.%以丙烯腈作为单体,偶氮二异丁腈为引发剂,六次亚甲基四胺为配体,二水氯化铜为催化剂,维生素C为还原剂,在光的照射下,于溶剂 N,N-二甲基甲酰胺中采用自由基聚合的原理制得聚丙烯腈,并探究改变单一反应物的用量时对该聚合反应的影响,最后得出最佳的聚合条件为:在室温20℃下反应时,最佳单体用量为0.2mol,引发剂偶氮二异丁腈、催化剂二水氯化铜、配体六次亚甲基四胺、还原剂维生素C分别为单体摩尔总量的1%、0.75%、1%、4%,最佳反应时间为11 h.

  15. Simultaneous determination of acrylonitrile, carbon disulfide, methyl ethyl ketone, and isobutanol leachates by purge and trap- gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the Mexican General Law of the Ecological Equilibrium and Environmental Protection, issued by the National Institute of Ecology, some chemicals such as acrylonitrile, methyl ethyl ketone, carbon disulfide, and isobutanol must be monitored in industrial residues because of their toxicity. This report describes an analytical method for the simultaneous determination of these four analytes in leachates. A purge and trap concentrator coupled to a computerized gas-chromatograph-mass selective detector was used to achieve the analysis. Quantitation measurements were based on the internal standardization method, using the area ratios of the molecular ions of the analytes and the internal standard obtained by deconvolution of the data. The scope of this method as well as the validation data is reported. The method is reliable in spite of the fact that, in some cases, the analytes or the standard coeluted with other compounds of the samples. Because the data acquisition is carried out in the scan mode it is possible to detect and identify other substances in the samples. (Author)

  16. Effects of aminopropyltriethoxysilane (γ-APS) on tensile properties and morphology of polypropylene (PP), recycle acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBRr) and sugarcane bagasse (SCB) composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiagoo, Ragunathan; Omar, Latifah; Zainal, Mustaffa; Ting, Sam Sung; Ismail, Hanafi

    2015-07-01

    The performance of sugarcane baggase (SCB) treated with γ-APS filled polypropylene (PP)/recycled acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBRr) biocomposites were investigated. The composites with different filler loading ranging from 5 to 30 wt % were prepared using heated two roll mill by melt mixing at temperature of 180 °C. Tensile properties of the PP/NBRr/SCB composites which is tensile strength, Young Modulus and elongation at break were investigated. Increasing of treated SCB filler loading in PP/NBRr/SCB composites have increased the Young modulus however decreased the tensile strength and elongation at break of the PP/NBRr/SCB composites. From the results, γ-APS treated SCB composites shown higher tensile strength and Young Modulus but lower elongation at break when compared to the untreated SCB composites. This is due to the stronger bonding between γ-APS treated SCB with PP/NBRr matrices. These findings was supported by micrograph pictures from morphological study. SCB filler treated with γ-APS has improved the adhesion as well as gave strong interfacial bonding between SCB filler and PP/NBRr matrices which results in good tensile strength of PP/NBRr/SCB composites.

  17. Preparation and Characterization of Carboxyl-terminated Poly (butadiene-co-acrylonitrile)-epoxy Resin Prepolymers for Fusion-bonded-epoxy Powder Coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jingcheng; JIA Xiuli; ZHANG Shengwen; LIU Ren; LIU Xiaoya

    2012-01-01

    Liquid carboxyl-terminated poly(butadiene-co-acrylonitrile)(CTBN)-epoxy resin(EP)prepolymers were prepared with different contents of CTBN.The chemical reactions between EP and CTBN were characterized by Fourier ransform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography (GPC).The scanning electron micrograph (SEM) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) of curing films showed phase separation,and the rubber particles were finely dispersed in the epoxy matrix.Mechanical properties analysis of curing films showed that impact strength and elongation at break increased significantly upon the addition of CTBN,indicating good toughness of the modified epoxy resins.Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the incorporation of CTBN had little effect on the thermal stability of EP.Fusion-bondedepoxy (FBE) powder coatings modified with CTBN-EP prepolymers were prepared.The experimental results demonstrate the ability of CTBN-EP prepolymers,toughening technology to dramatically enhance the flexibility and impact resistance of FBE coatings without compromising other key properties such as corrosion protection.

  18. THE DISSOCIATIVE RECOMBINATION OF PROTONATED ACRYLONITRILE, CH2CHCNH+, WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR THE NITRILE CHEMISTRY IN DARK MOLECULAR CLOUDS AND THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE OF TITAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements on the dissociative recombination (DR) of protonated acrylonitrile, CH2CHCNH+, have been performed at the heavy ion storage ring CRYRING located in the Manne Siegbahn Laboratory in Stockholm, Sweden. It has been found that at ∼2 meV relative kinetic energy about 50% of the DR events involve only ruptures of X-H bonds (where X = C or N) while the rest leads to the production of a pair of fragments each containing two heavy atoms (alongside H and/or H2). The absolute DR cross section has been investigated for relative kinetic energies ranging from ∼1 meV to 1 eV. The thermal rate coefficient has been determined to follow the expression k(T) = 1.78 x 10-6 (T/300) -0.80 cm3 s-1 for electron temperatures ranging from ∼10 to 1000 K. Gas-phase models of the nitrile chemistry in the dark molecular cloud TMC-1 have been run and results are compared with observations. Also, implications of the present results for the nitrile chemistry of Titan's upper atmosphere are discussed.

  19. Flame retardancy mechanisms of bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate) in combination with zinc borate in bisphenol A polycarbonate/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisphenol A polycarbonate/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (PC/ABS) with and without bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BDP) and 5 wt.% zinc borate (Znb) were investigated. The pyrolysis was studied by thermogravimetry (TG), TG-FTIR and NMR, the fire behaviour with a cone calorimeter applying different heat fluxes, LOI and UL 94. Fire residues were examined with NMR. BDP affects the decomposition of PC/ABS and acts as a flame retardant in the gas and condensed phases. The addition of Znb results in an additional hydrolysis of PC. The fire behaviour is similar to PC/ABS, aside from a slightly increased LOI and a reduced peak heat release rate, both caused by borates improving the barrier properties of the char. In PC/ABS + BDP + Znb, the addition of Znb yields a borate network and amorphous phosphates. Znb also reacts with BDP to form alpha-zinc phosphate and borophosphates that suppress the original flame retardancy mechanisms of BDP. The inorganic-organic residue formed provides more effective flame retardancy, in particular at low irradiation in the cone calorimeter, and a clear synergy in LOI, whereas for more developed fires BDP + Znb become less effective than BDP in PC/ABS with respect to the total heat evolved.

  20. Co-recycling of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene waste plastic and nonmetal particles from waste printed circuit boards to manufacture reproduction composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhixing; Shen, Zhigang; Zhang, Xiaojing; Ma, Shulin

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) waste plastic and nonmetal particles from waste printed circuit boards (WPCB) to manufacture reproduction composites (RC), with the aim of co-recycling these two waste resources. The composites were prepared in a twin-crew extruder and investigated by means of mechanical testing, in situ flexural observation, thermogravimatric analysis, and dimensional stability evaluation. The results showed that the presence of nonmetal particles significantly improved the mechanical properties and the physical performance of the RC. A loading of 30 wt% nonmetal particles could achieve a flexural strength of 72.6 MPa, a flexural modulus of 3.57 GPa, and an impact strength of 15.5 kJ/m2. Moreover, it was found that the application of maleic anhydride-grafted ABS as compatilizer could effectively promote the interfacial adhesion between the ABS plastic and the nonmetal particles. This research provides a novel method to reuse waste ABS and WPCB nonmetals for manufacturing high value-added product, which represents a promising way for waste recycling and resolving the environmental problem.

  1. Microwave absorption properties of lightweight absorber based on Fe50Ni50-coated poly(acrylonitrile) microspheres and reduced graphene oxide composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Wang, Jun; Wang, Junpeng; Huo, Siqi; Zhang, Bin; Tang, Yushan

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we proposed a facile method to obtain the lightweight composites consisting of surface modified Fe50Ni50-coated poly(acrylonitrile) microspheres (PANS@SMF), reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and epoxy resin. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and vector network analyzer (VNA). Impedance matching condition and electromagnetic wave attenuation characteristic were used for the reflection loss (RL) performance of the composites. Compared with pure PANS@SMF and RGO composites, the -10 dB absorption bandwidth and the minimum RL of the hybrid composites were enhanced. The bandwidth less than -10 dB was almost 4.5 GHz in the range of 10 GHz to 14.5 GHz, with a matching thickness of 2.5 mm. The density of the hybrid composites was in the range of 0.25-0.34 g/cm3. Therefore, the hybrid composite can be considered as a potential lightweight microwave absorber.

  2. COMPOSITE PROCESS OF ZINC ELECTRODEPOSITION AND ACRYLONITRILE ELECTROPOLYMERIZATION%锌/聚丙烯腈复合镀层的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卫国; 周旻; 姚素薇; 张瑜

    2001-01-01

    通过金属锌的电沉积与丙烯腈(AN)电聚合的复合过程,获得有机大分子链掺杂的金属基复合镀层——锌/聚丙烯腈(PAN)复合镀层.考察了电沉积条件对电镀及电聚合过程的影响,并测定了复合镀层组成及性能.性能测试结果表明,复合镀层的胶接性能较纯锌镀层有显著提高.%In this paper,a metal matrix composite coating containingmacromolecular chain of polymer,zinc/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) composite coating,were obtained through a composite process of zincic electrodeposition and acrylonitrile (AN) electrochemically initiated polymerization (EIP).Investigations were carried out into the function of PAN content in coatings and plating condition.And the properties of the films were studied.Compared with the pure zinc coating,the composite coating showed well glued performance.

  3. Zinc oxide nanorod assisted rapid single-step process for the conversion of electrospun poly(acrylonitrile) nanofibers to carbon nanofibers with a high graphitic content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nain, Ratyakshi; Singh, Dhirendra; Jassal, Manjeet; Agrawal, Ashwini K.

    2016-02-01

    The effect of incorporation of rigid zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures on carbonization behavior of electrospun special acrylic fiber grade poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN-SAF) nanofibers was investigated. ZnO nanorods with high aspect ratios were incorporated into a PAN-N,N-dimethylformamide system and the composite nanofibers reinforced with aligned ZnO rods up to 50 wt% were successfully electrospun, and subsequently, carbonized. The morphology and the structural analysis of the resultant carbon nanofibers revealed that the rigid ZnO nanorods, present inside the nanofibers, possibly acted as scaffolds (temporary support structures) for immobilization of polymer chains and assisted in uniform heat distribution. This facilitated rapid and efficient conversion of the polymer structure to the ladder, and subsequently, the graphitized structure. At the end of the process, the ZnO nanorods were found to completely separate from the carbonized fibers yielding pure carbon nanofibers with a high graphitic content and surface area. The approach could be used to eliminate the slow, energy intensive stabilization step and achieve fast conversion of randomly laid carbon nanofiber webs in a single step to carbon nanofibers without the application of external tension or internal templates usually employed to achieve a high graphitic content in such systems.The effect of incorporation of rigid zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures on carbonization behavior of electrospun special acrylic fiber grade poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN-SAF) nanofibers was investigated. ZnO nanorods with high aspect ratios were incorporated into a PAN-N,N-dimethylformamide system and the composite nanofibers reinforced with aligned ZnO rods up to 50 wt% were successfully electrospun, and subsequently, carbonized. The morphology and the structural analysis of the resultant carbon nanofibers revealed that the rigid ZnO nanorods, present inside the nanofibers, possibly acted as scaffolds (temporary support structures) for

  4. Technical scheme for integration of DCC unit and acrylonitrile unit%DCC装置和丙烯腈装置一体化技术方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘福安; 朱校春; 王飞

    2013-01-01

    The technical scheme for integration of DCC unit and acrylonitrile unit is presented.The internal mutual feedstock supply,the comprehensive utilization of steam and sour gas treatment technologies of the integrated unit are analyzed.The analysis of internal feedstock supply has found that the volume of intermediate storage tanks for propylene can be reduced,and the temperature of propylene from gas stripper to acrylonitrile unit is raised by 5℃.As the result,the unit energy consumption is lowered.The study of comprehensive steam utilization has concluded that a 4.0 MPa steam boiler can be saved and the steam utilization can be improved.The analysis of DCC sour gas treatment technology has concluded that the application of this technology can save a LO-CAT sulfur recovery unit for DCC unit.All these analysis demonstrate that the application of this integration technology offers good economic benefits.1.39 × 108 RMB ¥ of capital investment can be saved from no installation of a 4.0 MPa steam boiler and a LO-CAT sulfur recovery unit.The conversion of sour gas into on-spec sulfuric acid and increasing of propylene feed supply temperature can add an economic benefit of 3.67 × 106 RMB ¥ a year.%提出DCC装置和丙烯腈装置一体化技术方案,对该技术方案的物料直供、蒸汽综合利用以及酸性气处理技术进行了具体的分析.通过物料互供分析,可以适当减少丙烯的中间储存罐容,提高丙烯从气分装置进丙烯腈装置的温度约5℃,降低装置运行能耗;通过蒸汽综合利用分析,可省去一台4.0 MPa的中压蒸汽锅炉,同时还能提高蒸汽的利用效率;通过对DCC装置酸性气处理技术的分析,发现该技术方案可省去一套与DCC装置配套的LO-CAT硫黄装置.分析表明该组合技术方案有很好的经济效益,省去的一台4.0 MPa中压蒸汽锅炉和一套LO-CAT硫黄装置可为企业节约工程投资1.39×108 RMB¥;酸性气转化为合格硫酸产品和提高丙烯

  5. Differential metabolism of acrylonitrile to cyanide is responsible for the greater sensitivity of male vs female mice: role of CYP2E1 and epoxide hydrolases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acrylonitrile (AN) is a potent toxicant and a known rodent carcinogen. AN epoxidation to cyanoethylene oxide (CEO) via CYP2E1 and its subsequent metabolism via epoxide hydrolases (EH) to yield cyanide is thought to be responsible for the acute toxicity and mortality of AN. Recent reports showed that male mice are more sensitive than females to the acute toxicity/mortality of AN. The present work was undertaken to assess the metabolic and enzymatic basis for the greater sensitivity of male vs female mice to AN toxicity. Male and female wild-type and CYP2E1-null mice received AN at 0, 2.5, 10, 20, or 40 mg/kg by gavage. Cyanide concentrations were measured at 1 or 3 h after dosing. Current data demonstrated that cyanide levels in blood and tissues of AN-treated wild-type mice of both sexes were significantly greater than in vehicle-treated controls and increased in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, cyanide levels in AN-treated CYP2E1-null mice were not statistically different from those measured in vehicle-treated controls. Furthermore, higher levels of cyanide were detected in male wild-type mice vs females in association with greater sensitivity of males to the acute toxicity/mortality of this chemical. Using Western blot analysis, negligible difference in CYP2E1 expression with higher levels of soluble and microsomal EH (sEH and mEH) was detected in the liver of male vs female mice. In kidneys, male mice exhibited higher expression of both renal CYP2E1 and sEH than did female mice. In conclusion, higher blood and tissue cyanide levels are responsible for the greater sensitivity of male vs female mice to AN. Further, higher expression of CYP2E1 and EH in male mice may contribute to greater formation of CEO and its subsequent metabolism to yield cyanide, respectively

  6. 丙烯腈吸收过程模拟优化%Simulation and Optimization of the Absorption Process to a Acrylonitrile Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨家军; 霍凤华; 崔吉成

    2015-01-01

    Throughout its history,chemical process simulation software has been widely used in chemical process design,operational evaluation and optimization.As well known by chemical technicans,the PROII software was used for the simulation of the absorption process of acrylonitrile production plant in the study.Firstly,the operating parameters of the absorption process were analyzed to determine the optimization variables.After that, the absorption tower was simulated with PROII software.By comparing the simulation results of different conditions,the process parameters related to the sbsorption process were analyzed,such as the comsuption of absorption water and side withdrawing,and the operating pressure. The optimum values in the corresponding conditions were obtained.%化工过程模拟软件发展至今已被广泛地应用于化工过程的设计计算、操作评估和优化中。该文应用化工技术人员熟知的PROII软件对丙烯腈的吸收过程进行模拟研究。首先对年产20万吨的丙烯腈生产过程吸收塔单元中的操作参数进行分析,确定要优化的参数。然后应用PROII软件对丙烯腈吸收塔进行模拟,通过改变操作参数后模拟结果的比较对操作参数中的吸收水用量、侧线采出量和吸收塔的操作压力进行了模拟分析,并得到相应条件下的最佳值。

  7. 丙烯腈吸收过程模拟优化%Simulation and Optimization of the Absorption Process to a Acrylonitrile Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨家军; 霍凤华; 崔吉成

    2015-01-01

    Throughout its history,chemical process simulation software has been widely used in chemical process design,operational evaluation and optimization.As well known by chemical technicans,the PROII software was used for the simulation of the absorption process of acrylonitrile production plant in the study.Firstly,the operating parameters of the absorption process were analyzed to determine the optimization variables.After that, the absorption tower was simulated with PROII software.By comparing the simulation results of different conditions,the process parameters related to the sbsorption process were analyzed,such as the comsuption of absorption water and side withdrawing,and the operating pressure. The optimum values in the corresponding conditions were obtained.%化工过程模拟软件发展至今已被广泛地应用于化工过程的设计计算、操作评估和优化中.该文应用化工技术人员熟知的PROII软件对丙烯腈的吸收过程进行模拟研究.首先对年产20万吨的丙烯腈生产过程吸收塔单元中的操作参数进行分析,确定要优化的参数.然后应用PROII软件对丙烯腈吸收塔进行模拟,通过改变操作参数后模拟结果的比较对操作参数中的吸收水用量、侧线采出量和吸收塔的操作压力进行了模拟分析,并得到相应条件下的最佳值.

  8. Copper-catalyzed retro-aldol reaction of β-hydroxy ketones or nitriles with aldehydes: chemo- and stereoselective access to (E)-enones and (E)-acrylonitriles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Song-Lin; Deng, Zhu-Qin

    2016-07-26

    A copper-catalyzed transfer aldol type reaction of β-hydroxy ketones or nitriles with aldehydes is reported, which enables chemo- and stereoselective access to (E)-α,β-unsaturated ketones and (E)-acrylonitriles. A key step of the in situ copper(i)-promoted retro-aldol reaction of β-hydroxy ketones or nitriles is proposed to generate a reactive Cu(i) enolate or cyanomethyl intermediate, which undergoes ensuing aldol condensation with aldehydes to deliver the products. This reaction uses 1.2 mol% Cu(IPr)Cl (IPr denotes 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene) as the catalyst in the presence of 6.0 mol% NaOtBu cocatalyst at room temperature or 70 °C. A range of aryl and heteroaryl aldehydes as well as acrylaldehydes are compatible with many useful functional groups being tolerated. Under the mild and weakly basic conditions, competitive Cannizzaro-type reaction of benzaldehydes and side reactions of base-sensitive functional groups can be effectively suppressed, which show synthetic advantages of this reaction compared to classic aldol reactions. The synthetic potential of this reaction is further demonstrated by the one-step synthesis of biologically active quinolines and 1,8-naphthyridine in excellent yields (up to 91%). Finally, a full catalytic cycle for this reaction has been constructed using DFT computational studies in the context of a retro-aldol/aldol two-stage mechanism. A rather flat reaction energy profile is found indicating that both stages are kinetically facile, which is consistent with the mild reaction conditions. PMID:27397647

  9. Between Ni(mnt)2 and Ni(tfd)2 dithiolene complexes: the unsymmetrical 2-(trifluoromethyl)acrylonitrile-1,2-dithiolate and its nickel complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeannin, Olivier; Delaunay, Jacques; Barrière, Frédéric; Fourmigué, Marc

    2005-12-26

    A novel 1,2-dithiolate ligand, that is, the 2-(trifluoromethyl)acrylonitrile-1,2-dithiolate, abbreviated here as tfadt, is prepared from the corresponding cyclic dithiocarbonate. This ligand, substituted with both a CN and a CF(3) group, is compared with the well-known maleonitrile- and bis(trifluoromethyl)ethane-1,2-dithiolates. The preparation, electrochemical properties, and X-ray crystal structures of the square-planar nickel complexes, in both their dianionic diamagnetic [Ni(tfadt)(2)](2)(-) and their monoanionic paramagnetic [Ni(tfadt)(2)](*)(-) forms, are reported, as n-Bu(4)N(+), PPh(4)(+), and (18-crown-6)Na(+) salts, respectively. In the [(18-crown-6)Na](2)[Ni(tfadt)(2)] salt, each CN moiety of the [Ni(tfadt)(2)](2)(-) dianion is coordinated to a (18-crown-6)Na(+) cation through a CN...Na interaction [N...Na = 2.481(3) A], affording an "axle with wheels" model where two MeOH molecules act as axle caps. On the other hand, in [(18-crown-6)Na][Ni(tfadt)(2)], each (18-crown-6)Na(+) cation is coordinated on both sides by the CN groups of two monoanionic [Ni(tfadt)(2)](*)(-) complexes with N...Na(+) distances at 2.434(5) and 2.485(4) A, giving rise to heterobimetallic chains with alternating (18-crown-6)Na(+) and [Ni(tfadt)(2)](*)(-) ions. These two examples demonstrate the attractive ability of the CN moieties in the [Ni(tfadt)(2)](2)(-)(,)(*)(-) complexes to coordinate metallic cationic centers. The paramagnetic salts of the anionic [Ni(tfadt)(2)](*)(-) complex follow Curie-type law in the 2-300 K temperature range, indicating the absence of intermolecular magnetic interactions in the solid state. The complexes are found in their trans form in all crystal structures, while density functional theory calculations establish that both forms have essentially the same energy. A cis-trans interconversion process is observed by variable-temperature NMR on the dianionic [Ni(tfadt)(2)](2)(-) complex with a coalescence temperature T(c) of 260 K and a free energy of

  10. Laser transmission welding of Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) using a tailored high power diode-laser optical fiber coupled system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Vidal, E.; Quintana, I.; Etxarri, J.; Otaduy, D.; González, F.; Moreno, F.

    2012-06-01

    Laser transmission welding (LTW) of polymers is a direct bonding technique which is already used in different industrial applications sectors such as automobile, microfluidic, electronic and biomedicine. This technique offers several advantages over conventional methods, especially when a local deposition of energy and minimum thermal distortions are required. In LTW one of the polymeric materials needs to be transparent to the laser wavelength and the second part needs to be designed to be absorbed in IR spectrum. This report presents a study of laser weldability of ABS (acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene) filled with two different concentrations of carbon nanotubes (0.01% and 0.05% CNTs). These additives are used as infrared absorbing components in the laser welding process, affecting the thermal and optical properties of the material and, hence, the final quality of the weld seam. A tailored laser system has been designed to obtain high quality weld seams with widths between 0.4 and 1.0mm. It consists of two diode laser bars (50W per bar) coupled into an optical fiber using a non-imaging solution: equalization of the beam quality factor (M2) in the slow and fast axes by a pair of micro step-mirrors. The beam quality factor has been analyzed at different laser powers with the aim to guarantee a coupling efficiency to the multimode optical fiber. The power scaling is carried out by means of multiplexing polarization technique. The analysis of energy balance and beam quality is performed in two linked steps: first by means ray tracing simulations (ZEMAX®) and second, by validation. Quality of the weld seams is analyzed in terms of the process parameters (welding speed, laser power and clamping pressure) by visual and optical microscope inspections. The optimum laser power range for three different welding speeds is determinate meanwhile the clamping pressure is held constant. Additionally, the corresponding mechanical shear tests were carried out to analyze the

  11. Study of ageing effects in polymer-in-salt electrolytes based on poly(acrylonitrile-co-butyl acrylate) and lithium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Properties of freshly cast and aged poly(AN-co-BuA) – LiTFSI electrolytes are studied. • For fresh electrolytes, conductivity increases and Tg decreases with increasing salt content. • Ageing of polymer-in-salt electrolytes results in a drop of conductivity and a rise of Tg. • Ageing effects can be explained by changes of properties of amorphous salt domains. • Precipitation of salt is observed in electrolytes containing over 84 wt.% of LiTFSI. • Electrolytes with mixture of LiI and LiTFSI are more stable than those with LiTFSI only. -- Abstract: Polymer electrolytes composed of an acrylonitrile and butyl acrylate copolymer poly(AN-co-BuA) with addition of LiN(CF3SO2)2 (LiTFSI) or LiI and LiTFSI salt mixture are studied by impedance spectroscopy, DSC, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, SEM and TEM. Impedance study shows that the ionic conductivity of the electrolytes containing LiTFSI is strongly dependent on the salt content and transition from “salt-in-polymer” to “polymer-in-salt” regime is observed at high salt content. Gradual changes of physical properties of the studied polymer electrolytes are observed in the course of their prolonged storage under argon atmosphere. These include the increase of glass transition temperature and decrease of ionic conductivity. In order to study the effects of this ageing process, measurements on samples of electrolyte films were repeated after several months. Precipitation of salt, which occurred at the nanometer length scale is observed with the aid of electron microscopy in electrolytes containing more than 84 wt.% of salt. Crystalline salt is not observed in electrolytes with lower amount of salt – however, the results indicate the structural changes of salt aggregates, which strongly influence transport of ions through the electrolyte. For preparation of electrolytes with mixed LiTFSI and LiI salts, a mixture of salts (16 wt.% LiI, 84 wt.% LiTFSI) is used, which exhibits the

  12. Study on Teratogenicity of Acrylonitrile in Rats by Subcutaneous Injection%皮下注射丙烯腈对大鼠致畸作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔金山; 杨衍凯; 付守林; 张玉敏; 段志文; 李海山; 王瀛; 张岸舸

    2001-01-01

    目的评价丙烯腈对雌性大鼠有无致畸作用。方法于雌性大鼠妊娠第7~16天皮下注射丙烯腈(AN)15,25,35 mg·kg-1,常规方法检测AN的胚胎毒性和致畸作用。结果 25 mg·kg-1组死胎率、吸收胎率升高,胎鼠平均体重、体长、尾长减小,与阴性对照组比较差异有显著性(P<0.05);35 mg·kg-1组除窝平均活胎数减少,差异有显著性( P<0.05),其余各指标与阴性对照组比较差异有非常显著性(P <0.01);25,35 mg·kg-1组畸胎率、母体畸胎率、活胎畸形率升高,与对照组相比差异有显著性和/或非常显著性(P<0.05或P <0.01),且有明确的剂量效应或剂量反应关系。本实验皮下注射AN染毒的致畸最低剂量为 15 mg·kg-1,致畸指数为6.3,以骨骼畸形为主,外观畸形主要为无尾、短尾等。结论丙烯腈皮下注射染毒有明显的胚胎毒性,致畸剂量小于经口染毒阈剂量,是一种弱致畸物。%Objective The teratogenicity of acrylonitrile(AN)on fe male rats was evaluated.Methods 15,25 and 35 mg/kg AN were administ ered by subcutaneous injection to rats on the time 7~16 d of gestation.Embryoto x icity and teratogenicity of AN were examined by a traditional teratogenic method .Results At the dosage of 25 mg/kg,AN could induce higher incidence of fetal resorption and death,and decrease the average fetal body weight and le ngth with significant difference(P<0.05)when compared with neg ative controls.At the dosage of 35 mg/kg,AN could decrease average vital fet us p er litter with significant difference(P<0.05),and induce chang es of other indexes with highly significant difference(P<0.0 1).At the dosage of 25 and 35 mg/kg,AN could induce higher teras rate,maternal t eras rate and malformation rate of vital fetus with significant and/or highly s ignificant difference(P<0.05 or P<0.01),resp ectively.There existed a dose-effect or dose-response relationship between abo ve

  13. Studies on the physico-mechanical and thermal characteristics of blends of DGEBA epoxy, 3,4 epoxy cyclohexylmethyl, 3',4'-epoxycylohexane carboxylate and carboxyl terminated butadiene co-acrylonitrile (CTBN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toughening of blend of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) and 3,4 epoxy cyclohexylmethyl, 3',4'-epoxycylohexane carboxylate, i.e. cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (CAE) with varying weight ratios (0-25 wt%) of carboxyl terminated butadiene acrylonitrile (CTBN) copolymer have been investigated. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis established that the interaction between oxirane groups of DGEBA, CAE and CTBN were responsible for characteristics peak shifts in the blends compared to their counterparts. Physico-mechanical properties of the prepared samples, e.g. tensile, flexural and impact strengths showed an optimum concentration of CTBN (15 wt%) into epoxy matrix, which offered maximum toughening. Thermal stability of the prepared samples was analyzed by dynamic thermogravimetric runs. Cross-sections of the cured samples which failed during impact testing have been critically studied through scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis to gain insight into the phase morphology

  14. Studies on the physico-mechanical and thermal characteristics of blends of DGEBA epoxy, 3,4 epoxy cyclohexylmethyl, 3',4'-epoxycylohexane carboxylate and carboxyl terminated butadiene co-acrylonitrile (CTBN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, Garima [Department of Plastic Technology, H. B. Technological Institute, Kanpur 208002 (India); Srivastava, Deepak [Department of Plastic Technology, H. B. Technological Institute, Kanpur 208002 (India)], E-mail: deepak_sri92@rediffmail.com

    2008-11-25

    Toughening of blend of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) and 3,4 epoxy cyclohexylmethyl, 3',4'-epoxycylohexane carboxylate, i.e. cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (CAE) with varying weight ratios (0-25 wt%) of carboxyl terminated butadiene acrylonitrile (CTBN) copolymer have been investigated. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis established that the interaction between oxirane groups of DGEBA, CAE and CTBN were responsible for characteristics peak shifts in the blends compared to their counterparts. Physico-mechanical properties of the prepared samples, e.g. tensile, flexural and impact strengths showed an optimum concentration of CTBN (15 wt%) into epoxy matrix, which offered maximum toughening. Thermal stability of the prepared samples was analyzed by dynamic thermogravimetric runs. Cross-sections of the cured samples which failed during impact testing have been critically studied through scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis to gain insight into the phase morphology.

  15. 无机盐对丙烯腈与N-乙烯基吡咯烷酮共聚物溶液黏度的影响%EFFECT OF INORGANIC SALTS ON VISCOSITY OF ACRYLONITRILE/N-VINYLPYRROLIDONE COPOLYMER SOLUTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈厚; 王成国; 蔡华甦

    2003-01-01

    Effect of inorganic salts on viscosities of dimethyl sulphoxide(DMSO)solutions of acrylonitrile(AN)/N-vinylpyrrolidone(N-VP) copolymer was discussed. Viscosity was determined by revolving viscosimeter. It was shown that solution viscosity decreased quickly with addition of KCl and NaCl and the effect of NaCl was more prominent than KCl. As the concentration of KCl and NaCl beyond 0.025mol*L-1, the viscosity tended to increase. The viscosity increased considerably with addition of FeCl3 and CuCl2. The change of solution viscosity became less obvious with addition of ZnCl2.With increasing temperature, the viscosity of copolymer solution containing NaCl decreased most quickly and the copolymer solution containing FeCl3 decreased most slowly.

  16. Optimal design of acrylonitrile removal column for one-step condensate%一步法蒸发冷凝水脱单塔设计优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任健; 梅诗宇; 李健辉; 章渊昶; 祝铃钰; 姚克俭

    2013-01-01

    建立了脱单塔系统的费用模型,确定影响脱单塔设计优化的关键变量为废水进料温度、塔内件型式和丙烯腈脱除率,对一步法蒸发冷凝水脱单塔系统的操作与设备费用进行分析.以总成本最小为目标,完成三个关键变量与系统总成本的关联,以操作费用和设备成本最小确定关键变量的选择方案,并对工业设计进行指导.结果表明,当选择圆筒型散装填料作为塔内件时,系统的总费用比选择板式塔要低.将理论计算结果用于工业设计,优化设计点是若干设计工况中的最佳点.%A cost model of the single tower is established,in which feed temperature of wastewater,column internal and acrylonitrile recovery are determined as key variables to analyze the operation and capital costs of acrylonitrile removal system for one-step condensate. To obtain the minimum total cost, the correlations between these three key variables and the total cost are analyzed. The operation and capital costs are minimized to choose the optimal case which could conduct industrial design. The results show that the total cost of the plant using random cylindrical packing column is lower than that using tray column. Applying the optimization results to industrial design,the optimized point is the best circumstance of several design conditions.

  17. GC Determination of Acetaldehyde, Acrolein and Acrylonitrile in Water with Purge and Trap Technique%吹扫捕集-气相色谱法测定水中乙醛、丙烯醛、丙烯腈

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆文娟; 王晋宇; 陈玲瑚; 赵辰

    2011-01-01

    Purge and trap technique was applied in the GC determination of acetaldehyde, acrolein and acrylonitrile in water. The analytes were purged, trapped and thermodesorbed using the Trap Vocarb 3000, and determined by CR2 with flame ionization detector (FID). Linear relationships between values of peak area and mass concentration of acetaldehyde, acrolein and acrylonitrile obtained were same in the range of 0. 020--0.20 mg·L^-1 , with detection limits (3S/N) of 0. 005, 0. 010, 0. 001mg·L^-1 respectively. Tests for recovery and precision were made by standard addition method, values of recovery found were in the range of 90. 0%-110.0% and values of RSD's (n=7) were less than 50%.%提出了吹扫捕集-气相色谱法测定水中乙醛、丙烯醛和丙烯腈的分析方法。样品用Trap Vocarb 3000捕集阱吹扫、捕集及热解析后,用气相色谱法氢火焰离子化检测器分析。3种化合物的质量浓度在0.020~0.20mg·L^-1的相同范围内与其峰面积呈线性关系,方法的检出限(3S/N)分别为0.005,0.010,0.001mg·L^-。标准加入回收率在90.0%~110.0%之间,相对标准偏差(n=7)均小于5%。

  18. Uterotrophic and Hershberber Assays for Acrylonitrile in Rats%丙烯腈类性激素作用的整体动物筛检试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宁; 荣顺兴; 朱菊一; 黄简抒; 周元陵; 金泰廙

    2005-01-01

    [目的]研究丙烯腈(AN)的类性激素样作用.[方法]①采用经典大鼠子宫增重方法测试丙烯腈的类雌激素样作用,对去卵巢SD大鼠皮下注射剂量分别为0、10、15、25、40、60 mg/kg受试物丙烯腈,每天一次、连续3天;同时皮下注射剂量为0.001 mg/kg雌二醇玉米油溶液为阳性对照组.最后一次给药24 h后,将大鼠麻醉后取血并处死,观察受试动物子宫湿重、干重、肝重、肾重等指标.②研究丙烯腈的抗雄激素作用.采用OECD推荐的内分泌干扰体内筛检实验方法(Hershberger试验),对雄性去势大鼠皮下注射剂量为0.4mg/kg体重丙酸睾酮,同时经口灌胃剂量分别为0,10,20,30,40,50 mg/kg体重的受试物丙烯腈以及25 mg/kg体重的阳性参照物氟他胺(flutamide,FLU),每天一次,连续10天.最后一次给药24 h后,将大鼠麻醉后取血并处死,观察受试动物前列腺、精囊腺、阴茎、肛提肌/球体海绵体肌、尿道球腺等附性腺组织(sex accessorytissue,SAT)重量和肝重、肾重等指标.[结果]①子宫增重实验:丙烯腈各剂量组大鼠子宫干重、湿重与溶剂对照组无显著差异(P>0.05),阳性对照组与溶剂对照组及丙烯腈各剂量组比较,子宫干重、湿重差异存在显著性(P<0.05).②Hershberger试验:丙烯腈各剂量组与阴性对照组相比,SAT重量差异无显著性(P>0.05),阳性对照组(FLU)与阴性对照组相比,SAT重量差别具有显著性(P<0.05).丙烯腈各剂量组肝、肾重量与阴性对照组差别无显著性(P>0.05),提示受试动物无明显系统毒性.[结论]采用子宫增重测试和Hershberger体内筛检试验未发现丙烯腈具有类性激素作用.%[ Objective ] To assess the estrogenic and anti-androgenic effects of acrylonitrile (AN) by in-vivo uterotrophic and Hershberger assays proposed by the OECD. [ Methods ] For the uterotrophic assay, AN was injected subcutaneously at the doses of 0, 10, 15, 25, 40 and 60mg/kg to

  19. 丙烯腈-苯乙烯磺酸共聚物/层状双金属氢氧化物纳米复合质子传导聚合物电解质的制备与表征%Synthesis and characterization of proton-conducting polymer electrolytes based on acrylonitrile-styrene sulfonic acid copolymer/layered double hydroxides nanocomposites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王盎然; 包永忠; 翁志学; 黄志明

    2008-01-01

    Acrylonitrile-sodium styrene sulfonate copolymer/layered double hydroxides nanocomposites were prepared by in situ aqueous precipitation copolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) and sodium styrene sulfonate (SSS) in the presence of 4-vinylbenzene sulfonate intercalated layered double hydroxides (MgAl-VBS LDHs) and transferred to acrylonitrile-styrene sulfonic acid (AN-SSA) copolymer/LDHs nanocomposites as a proton-conducting polymer electrolyte. MgAl-VBS LDHs were prepared by a coprecipitation method, and the structure and composition of MgAl-VBS LDHs were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. X-ray diffraction result of AN-SSS copolymer/LDHs nanocomposites indicated that the LDHs layers were well dispersed in the AN-SSS copolymer matrix. All the AN-SSS copolymer/LDHs nanocomposites showed significant enhancement of the decomposition temperatures compared with the pristine AN-SSS copolymer, as identified by the thermogravimetric analysis. The methanol crossover was decreased and the proton conductivity was highly enhanced for the AN-SSA copolymer/LDHs nanocomposite electrolyte systems In the case of the nanocomposite electrolyte containing 2% (by mass) LDHs, the proton conductivity of 2.60×10-3 S·m-1 was achieved for the polymer electrolyte.

  20. 氢化度与丙烯腈含量对HNBR硫化胶性能的影响%Effect of Acrylonitrile Content and Hydrogenation on Properties of Hydrogenated Nitrile Rubber(HNBR) Vulcanizates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张成龙; 李再峰; 白延光; 王宁; 李岩峰; 熊召举

    2013-01-01

    研究了氢化度和丙烯腈含量对氢化丁腈橡胶(HNBR)硫化特性、力学性能、热老化性能以及热性能的影响.利用核磁共振(NMR)考察了不同型号HNBR橡胶的交联性能;并采用凝胶色谱法(GPC)对生胶的分子量和分子量分布进行了测定,给出了橡胶门尼黏度与其分子量和分子量分布之间的关系.结果表明,随着氢化度与丙烯腈含量的增加,Tg升高;硫化胶的交联密度随着不饱和度和丙烯腈含量的增加而增加;氢化度升高,硫化胶的拉伸强度变化不大,扭断伸长率和撕裂强度降低,100%定伸增加;丙烯腈含量升高,硫化胶的拉伸强度、撕裂强度和100%定伸提高,扯断伸长率变化不大.%In this paper, effects of crylonitrile content and hydrogenation on vulcanization characteristics, physical performances, thermal aging performance and thermal properties of hydrogenated nitrile rubber (HNBR) were investigated. Crosslinking density of vulcanizates was tested by the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and crosslinking properties of different types of HNBR rubber were investigated further. Relative molecular weight and molecular weight distribution of raw material were tested by GPC. The relationship between molecular weight distribution and mooney viscosity of rubber was given. The glass-transition temperature is enhanced with an increase in the acrylonitrile content and hydrogenation, and the crosslinking density raises with the increase of the acrylonitrile and double bond content. High unsaturated HNBR shows low break elongation, tear strength, higher stress at 100% , and tensile strength is improved little. With the incensement in crylonitrile content, tensile strength and tear strength are improved, stress at 100% is increased, however, break elongation has little change.

  1. The effect of graphene oxide on the polymerization of acrylonitrile and its rheological properties%氧化石墨烯对丙烯腈聚合及溶液流变性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩娜娟; 吕永根; 杨常玲; 陆叶涛

    2013-01-01

    Graphene oxide modified polyacrylonitrile (GO/PAN) was prepared by in situ polymerization. The effects of the GO on the polymeration of acrylonitrile and the rheological properties of PAN solution were studied. The results showed that GO slightly hindered the polymerization, and the molecular weight and conversion rate of GO/PAN solution decreased with the increasing content of GO. GO facilitated the fluidity of PAN solution. All the storage modulus, loss modulus and viscosity of the GO/PAN solution decreased with the increasing content of GO, and the GO/PAN solution is prone to be viscous with increasing content of GO.%采用原位聚合法制备了氧化石墨烯/聚丙烯腈(GO/PAN)共聚物,研究了GO对丙烯腈聚合及PAN纺丝溶液流变性能的影响.结果表明,GO对聚合反应有一定的抑制作用,GO/PAN的相对分子质量和转化率均随着GO质量分数的增加而减小;GO的加入增加了PAN的流动性,GO/PAN溶液的储能模量、损耗模量和粘度均随着GO质量分数的增加而减小,并且随着GO质量分数的增加更倾向于粘性.

  2. Morphology, mechanical, cross-linking, thermal, and tribological properties of nitrile and hydrogenated nitrile rubber/multi-walled carbon nanotubes composites prepared by melt compounding: The effect of acrylonitrile content and hydrogenation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work was to prepare nanocomposites by mixing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with nitrile and hydrogenated nitrile elastomers (NBR and HNBR). Utilization of transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering techniques (SAXS and WAXS) for advanced morphology observation of conducting filler-reinforced nitrile and hydrogenated nitrile rubber composites is reported. Principal results were increases in hardness (maximally 97 Shore, type A), elastic modulus (maximally 981 MPa), tensile strength (maximally 27.7 MPa), elongation at break (maximally 216%), cross-link density (maximally 7.94 x 1028 m-3), density (maximally 1.16 g cm-3), and tear strength (11.2 kN m-1), which were clearly visible at particular acrylonitrile contents both for unhydrogenated and hydrogenated polymers due to enhanced distribution of carbon nanotubes (CNT) and their aggregated particles in the applied rubber matrix. Conclusion was that multi-walled carbon nanotubes improved the performance of nitrile and hydrogenated nitrile rubber nanocomposites prepared by melt compounding.

  3. Evaluation of the detoxication efficiencies for acrylonitrile wastewater treated by a combined anaerobic oxic-aerobic biological fluidized tank (A/O-ABFT) process: Acute toxicity and zebrafish embryo toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Chunhong; Zhang, Ying; Deng, Minjie; Quan, Xie; Chen, Shuo; Zhang, Yaobin

    2016-07-01

    Acrylonitrile (ACN) wastewater generated during ACN production has been reported to be toxic to many aquatic organisms. However, few studies have evaluated toxicity removal of ACN wastewater during and after the treatment process. In this study, the detoxication ability of an ACN wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was evaluated using Daphnia magna, Danio rerio and zebrafish embryo. This ACN WWTP has a combined anaerobic oxic-aerobic biological fluidized tank (A/O-ABFT) process upgraded from the traditional anaerobic oxic (A/O) process. Moreover, the potential toxicants of the ACN wastewaters were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The raw ACN wastewater showed high acute and embryo toxicity. 3-Cyanopyridine, succinonitrile and a series of nitriles were detected as the toxic contributors of ACN wastewater. The A/O process was effective for the acute and embryo toxicity removal, as well as the organic toxicants. However, the A/O effluent still showed acute and embryo toxicity which was attributed by the undegraded and the newly generated toxicants during the A/O process. The residual acute and embryo toxicity as well as the organic toxicants in the A/O effluent were further reduced after going through the downstream ABFT process system. The final effluent displayed no significant acute and embryo toxicity, and less organic toxicants were detected in the final effluent. The upgrade of this ACN WWTP results in the improved removal efficiencies for acute and embryo toxicity, as well as the organic toxicants. PMID:27037768

  4. Poly(methyl methacrylate-acrylonitrile-ethyl acrylate) terpolymer based gel electrolyte for LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode of high voltage lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ping; Liao, Youhao; Xie, Huili; Chen, Tingting; Rao, Mumin; Li, Weishan

    2014-12-01

    A novel gel polymer electrolyte (GPE), based on poly(methyl methacrylate-acrylonitrile-ethyl acrylate) (P(MMA-AN-EA)) terpolymer, is designed to match LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode of 5 V lithium ion battery. The performances of the synthesized P(MMA-AN-EA) terpolymer and the corresponding membrane and GPE are investigated by scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectra, thermogravimetric analyzer, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, linear sweep voltammetry, and charge/discharge test. It is found that the pore structure of P(MMA-AN-EA) membrane is affected by the dose of pore forming agent, polyethylene glycol (PEG400). The membrane with 3 wt% PEG400 presents the best pore structure, in which pores are dispersed uniformly and interconnected, and exhibits the largest electrolyte uptake, resulting in the highest ionic conductivity of 3.82 × 10-3 S cm-1 for the corresponding GPE at room temperature. The GPE has improved compatibility with lithium anode and is electrochemically stable up to 5.2 V (vs. Li/Li+). The high voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode using the resulting GPE exhibits excellent cyclic stability, maintaining 97.9% of its initial discharge capacity after 100 cycles compared to that of 79.7% for the liquid electrolyte at 0.5 C.

  5. Inlfuence of Different Toughness Agents on Weatherability of Acrylonitrile-Styrene Copolymer%不同增韧剂对丙烯腈-苯乙烯共聚物耐候性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺芳; 黄兴宇; 钱晶; 申娟

    2015-01-01

    Using seven different toughness agents in acrylonitrile-styrene copolymer(SAN Resin)was studied,the influence of high glue powder,acrylic resin(ACR),maleic anhydride grafted EPDM (EPDM–g–MAH),styrene copolymer(MBS),ethylene butyl acrylate(EBA),maleic anhydride grafted PE–LD(PE–LD–g–MAH)and ethylene methyl acrylate(EMA) on mechanical properties of acrylonitrile styrene copolymer(SAN resin)was respectively researched. And temperature test machine and xenon lamp climate chamber were used to analysis of the influence of different toughness agents on the weatherability of SAN. The results show that compared with other toughness agents,the impact strength of SAN resin with MBS is the best. The impact strength of SAN resin is decreasing with the lower temperature,EBA and EPDM–g–MAH could improve the impact strength of SAN resin in low temperature. And Xenon lamp aging test results show that the SAN resin will appear the phenomenon of xanthochroia after xenon lamp aging test,but EPDM–g–MAH,MBS and EBA could improve the light resistance properties of SAN resin,and the effect of EPDM–g–MAH is the best.%采用7种增韧剂:高胶粉、丙烯酸酯类树脂(ACR),马来酸酐接枝三元乙丙橡胶(EPDM–g–MAH),苯乙烯三元共聚物(MBS),乙烯丙烯酸丁酯(EBA),马来酸酐接枝低密度聚乙烯(PE–LD–g–MAH),乙烯–甲基丙烯酸酯(EMA)对丙烯腈-苯乙烯共聚物(SAN)进行增韧改性,通过高低温实验箱和氙灯人工气候试验箱来研究各增韧剂对SAN耐候性的影响。结果表明,添加增韧剂MBS的SAN冲击强度最高;随着温度的降低,SAN的冲击强度是下降的, EBA,EPDM–g–MAH能改善SAN的低温冲击强度;氙灯光照老化试验结果表明,SAN经过光照老化后都会出现黄变现象,而添加了EPDM–g–MAH,MBS,EBA的SAN的耐光照老化性能都有所提高,其中添加了EPDM–g–MAH的耐光照老化性最好。

  6. 高负荷下臭氧催化氧化深度处理丙烯腈废水运行特性%Operation characteristics of catalytic ozonation under the high load condition for the treatment of acrylonitrile wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈中英

    2015-01-01

    采用臭氧催化氧化技术对大庆炼化公司丙烯腈废水进行深度处理,处理能力为20 m3/h。在实际进水COD远远高于设计进水浓度条件下,臭氧催化氧化装置对COD的去除总量大大高于设计值(1 kg/h),平均为1.88 kg/h。在高负荷条件下,该装置处理效果优于预期,但同时也存在催化剂污染等问题。通过每周1次的定期气水联合反洗,可保证装置稳定运行并维持良好的处理效果。%Catalytic ozo nation technology has been used for the advanced treatment of the acrylonitrile wastewater from Daqing Branch,Oil Refinery Chemical Co.,CNPC,whose treatment capacity is 20 m3/h. Under the condition that the COD of actual influent is much higher than the designed influent concentration ,the total amount of COD removing capacity is averagely 1.88 kg/h,much higher than the initially designed value,1 kg/h. Under the high load condition,the treatment effect of this system is better than what was expected,but in the meanwhile,problems,such as catalyst pollution,etc.,have occurred. By means of periodic air-water backwashing once a week,the system can run steadily and keep good treatment effect.

  7. 腈纶皂化制备电流变液悬浮粒子的研究%Studies on Saponification of Acrylonitrile Terpolymer for Suspending Particles of Electrorheological Fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴孟强; 陈艾

    2001-01-01

    In order to prepare suspending particles for electrorheological fluids, hetergeneous hydrolysis of acrylonitrile terpolymer is conducted in presence of saponifying agent(sodium hydroxide) in this paper. The effects of the saponification conditions such as the amount of added sodium hydroxide, time duration and temperature on the degree of saponification are studied in detail. Meanwhile, the conversion of nitrile groups is discussed with the result that the saponification of nitrile groups of the terpolymer initially yields amide groups, then slows down to carboxylic groups. The research sets a way for the preparation of dispersing particles of water-free electrorheological fluids tentatively used for controlling light transmittance.%为了制备无水电流变液用悬浮粒子,研究了腈纶在碱性条件下的多相水解。详细考察了皂化试剂氢氧化钾的用量,皂化时间和温度等皂化条件对皂化程度的影响; 讨论了氰基转化过程。研究结果表明,在皂化初期,腈纶分子链上的氰基转化为酰胺基,然后缓慢转化为羧基。给出了一条制备无水电流变液用悬浮粒子的方法,并初步考察了该类电流变液的控光特性。

  8. 淀粉丙烯腈接枝共聚物皂化制备吸水剂%The Preparation Technology of Water-Absorbent by the Saponification of the Graft Copolymer of Starch and Acrylonitrile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾正彪; 吴嘉根

    2001-01-01

    通过对淀粉丙烯腈接枝共聚物(SPAN)皂化制备吸水剂HSPAN的研究表明:HSPAN为水不溶性凝胶,但具有很强的吸水能力.以氢氧化钾皂化,酸作沉淀剂,经洗涤、分散和干燥制备HSPAN的工艺路线较为理想.皂化工艺条件在用碱量为SPAN中接枝链部分摩尔数的1.1倍、皂化温度95°C以上、皂化时间大于3h,且HSPAN的平板干燥温度在70°C时最好.当SPAN接枝百分率在70%左右时,制得的HSPAN吸水率最高.%Studies on the Preparation Technology of Water-absorbent (HSPAN)by the Saponification of the graft Copolymer of Starch and Acrylonitrile (SPAN) showed that, HSPAN was a kind of gel which was insoluble in water but could absorb a great amount of water. The best technology for the preparation of HSPAN was that,after SPAN was saponified by potassium hydroxide, precipited by sulfuric acid, washed and dispersed in water again, HSPAN was obtained by drying it on a plate. Moreover, the best conditions were that,the quantity of potassium hydroxide used in saponification was 1.1 as much as the mole of polyacrylonitrile in SPAN, saponifying temperature over 95°C, reaction time more than 3 h and drying temperature at 70°C. In addition, the highest water-absorbing capacity could be obtained from the SPAN in which grafted ratio was 70% or so.

  9. NMR measurement of identical polymer samples by round robin method. 4. Analysis of composition and monomer sequence distribution in poly(methyl methacrylate-co-acrylonitrile) leading to determinations of monomer reactivity ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatada, Koichi; Kitayama, Tatsuki; Terawaki, Yoshio [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering Science] [and others

    1995-11-01

    In order to assess the reliability of NMR measurement of polymers, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR data for three copolymers of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and acrylonitrile (AN) prepared with AIBN were collected from 46 spectrometers whose resonance frequencies for {sup 1}H NMR measurements ranging from 90 to 500 MHz. {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectra were measured in nitrobenzene-d{sub 5} at 110degC and acetonitrile-d{sub 3} at 70degC, respectively. Standard deviations ({sigma}`s) for chemical shift measurements of the {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR signals were 0.003-0.008 ppm and 0.03-0.05 ppm, respectively. Compositions of the copolymers were determined from the relative intensities of the signals due to the OCH{sub 3} (MMA) and CH (AN) protons, and the {sigma} values for the determinations were 3.7-9.5%. The compositions determined from {sup 13}C NMR (C = O for MMA unit, CN for AN unit) agreed well with those obtained from {sup 1}H NMR. Monomer reactivity ratios r{sub ij} (i,j = 1 or 2) for a penultimate model were determined from monomer feed ratios and triad fractions obtained from the C = O (MMA) and CH (AN) carbon signals. Most of the {sigma} values for r{sub ij} determinations were 5-14%. While r{sub 22} and r{sub 12} are nearly equivalent, r{sub 11} and r{sub 21} are significantly different from each other, indicating a possible existence of the penultimate-unit effect in the copolymerization of MMA and AN. Terminal model reactivity ratios, r{sub 1} and r{sub 2}, determined formally from the compositions of three samples by Fineman-Ross method showed large {sigma} values (22-24%). (author).

  10. Comparison of sodium naphthenate and air-ionization corona discharge as surface treatments for the ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene polymer (ETFE) to improve adhesion between ETFE and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene polymer (ABS) in the presence of a cyanoacrylate adhesive (CAA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucía Johanning-Solís, Ana; Stradi-Granados, Benito A.

    2014-09-01

    This study compares two ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) surface activation treatments, namely chemical attack with a solution of sodium naphthenate and plasma erosion via air-ionization corona discharge in order to improve the adhesive properties of the ETFE. An experimental design was prepared for both treatments in order to assess the effect of the treatment characteristics on the tensile load needed to break the bond between the ETFE and the acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene polymer (ABS) formed with a cyanoacrylate adhesive (CAA) applied between them. The reason for the selection of this problem is that both polymers are frequently used in the biomedical industry for their properties, and they need to be joined firmly in biomedical devices, and the cyanoacrylate adhesive is the adhesive traditionally used for fluoropolymers, in this case the ETFE, and the same CAA has also shown good adhesion with ABS. However, the strength of the bond for the triplet ETFE-CAA-ABS has not been reported and the improvement of the strength of the bond with surface treatments is not found in scholarly journals for modern medical devices such as stents and snares. Both treatments were compared based on the aforementioned design of experiments. The case where ETFE receives no surface treatment serves as the reference. The results indicated that the three factors evaluated (initial drying of the material, temperature of the chemical bath, and immersion time), and their interactions have no significant effect over the tensile load at failure (tensile strength) of the adhesive bond being evaluated. For the air-ionization corona discharge treatment, two factors were evaluated: discharge exposition time and air pressure. The results obtained from this experimental design indicate that there is no significant difference between the levels of the factors evaluated. These results were unexpected as the ranges used were representative of the maximum ranges permissible in manufacturing

  11. Preparation and properties of thermoresponsive acrylonitrile-based copolymer nanofibrous membranes%温敏性丙烯腈共聚物纳米纤维膜的制备与性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万灵书; 王芳; 李晶; 雷浩; 傅磊; 徐志康

    2011-01-01

    Diblock copolymers of acrylonitrile and N-isopropylaerylamide (NIPAM) were synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization and the molecular weight distribution was found to be around 1.3. Nanofibrous membranes were prepared from the resultant copolymers by electrospinning. Optimized conditions for the electrospinning were established. FESEM images elucidate that the nanofibers are uniform. Water contact angles on the copolymer membranes show distinct transition upon temperature, which is around 20 ℃. This decreased transition temperature can be attributed to the introduction of a relatively hydrophobic polyacrylonitrile block. Bovine serum albumin adsorptions at different temperatures also confirm the thermoresponsive properties of the membranes, i.e. at lower temperature the fiber surface is more hydrophilic, which is protein-resistant. This thermoresponsive nanofibrious membrane show great potential in intelligent separation.%采用可逆加成断裂链转移可控/‘活性"聚合方法合成了丙烯腈与N-异丙基丙烯酰胺(NIPAM)的嵌段共聚物,通过调控嵌段聚合反应时间可以获得一系列不同嵌段链长的共聚物,分子量分布在1.3左右.运用静电纺丝技术制备了所合成嵌段共聚物的纳米纤维膜,扫描电镜照片表明纳米纤维膜较为均匀且直径可调.研究了纳米纤维膜表面水接触角与荧光标记牛血清清蛋白的吸附现象,接触角结果证实共聚物纳米纤维膜具有一定的温度响应性,且疏水性嵌段的引入导致响应温度较PNIPAM有所降低;蛋白质吸附结果则表明温度较低时纳米纤维膜表面更亲水,蛋白质吸附较少.所制备的温敏性纳米纤维膜可望用作智能分离与吸附材料.

  12. 丙烯腈对小鼠肝组织脂质过氧化反应的影响%Effects of acrylonitrile on lipid peroxidation in the liver tissues of mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马国燕; 金娜; 李福轮; 陈亚; 薛红丽; 李芝兰

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过观察丙烯腈( acrylonitrile,AN)对小鼠肝组织脂质过氧化的影响,探讨AN的毒作用机制.方法 将200只成年健康SPF级昆明种雄性小鼠按体重随机分为4组,分别为阴性对照(生理盐水)组和低(1.25 mg/kg)、中(2.50 mg/kg)、高(5.00 mg/kg)剂量AN染毒组,每组50只.采用腹腔注射方式进行染毒,染毒容量为10 mi/kg,1次/d,连续染毒5d.于首日染毒后第7、14、21、28和35天测定其肝组织中丙二醛(MDA)含量、过氧化物歧化酶(SOD)和谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px)的活力.结果 AN首日染毒后第28天中、高剂量组MDA含量与阴性对照组比较明显升高,有统计学意义(P <0.05,P<0.01),第35天高剂量组MDA含量高于阴性对照组,有统计学意义(P<0.01);第28天高剂量组SOD活力高于阴性对照组(P<0.01);第28天组高剂量组GSH-Px活力显著高于阴性对照组和中剂量组(P<0.01,P<0.05).结论 AN可能通过破坏氧化-抗氧化体系的平衡,诱导小鼠肝组织产生氧化损伤,在首日染毒后第28天时比较明显.%Objective To explore the toxicity mechanism of acrylonitrile( AN ) by observing the lipid peroxidation of the liver tissues in mice. Methods Two hundred adult male mice (6-8 weeks old, SPF grade) were randomly divided into 4 groups according to the body weight, the negative control group (normal saline) , the low-dose AN group (1.2S mg/kg) , the medium-dose AN group (2.50 mg/kg) , and the high-dose AN group (5.00 mg/kg). All mice were treated via dairy intraperitoneal injection for 5 successive days. Malonaldehyde (MDA) concentration and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in the liver tissues were measured on the 7th, 14th, 21st, 28th, and 35th day after the first treatment. Results In comparison with different dose groups within the same period of time showed that the concentrations of MDA increased significantly in medium-and high-dose groups at 28th

  13. Caraterização composicional do AES - um copolímero de enxertia de poli(estireno-co-acrilonitrila em poli(etileno-co-propileno-co-dieno Compositional characterization of AES a graft copolymer based on poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile and poly(etyhlene-co-propylene-co-diene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Turchet

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é a caracterização do AES, um copolímero de enxertia de poli(estireno-co-acrilonitrila, SAN, em poli(etileno-co-propileno-co-dieno, EPDM. Para tanto, o AES foi submetido à extração seletiva de seus componentes: o SAN livre, o EDPM livre, e o copolímero de enxertia EPDM-g-SAN. O AES e suas frações foram caracterizados por espectroscopia de infravermelho, análise elementar, calorimetria diferencial de varredura e ressonância magnética nuclear, RMN¹H e RMN13C. O AES analisado apresenta a seguinte composição em massa: 65% de EPDM-g-SAN, 13% de EPDM livre e 22% de SAN livre. O EPDM apresenta 69,8% em massa de etileno, 26,5% em massa de propileno e 4,6% em massa do dieno, 2-etilideno-5-norboneno, ENB. O SAN apresenta razão em massa acrilonitrila/estireno de 28/72 e distribuição randômica de comonômeros de estireno e acrilonitrila. Estes resultados são concordantes com a composição do AES fornecida pelo fabricante, indicando que a metodologia proposta é adequada.This work aims the characterization of AES, a graft copolymer based on poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile, SAN, and poly(etyhlene-co-propylene-co-diene, EPDM. AES was submitted to selective extraction of its components: free SAN, EPDM chains and the graft copolymer EPDM-g-SAN. AES and its fractions were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, 13C and ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance. The AES has 65 wt % of EPDM-g-SAN, 13 wt % of free EPDM and 22 wt % of free SAN. EPDM has 69.8 wt % of ethylene, 26.5 wt % of propylene and 4.6 wt % of diene, 2-ethylidene-5-norbonene ENB. SAN presents acrylonitrile/styrene mass ratio of 28/72 and a random distribution of acrylonitrile and styrene comonomers. These results are in agreement with the composition reported by the AES supplier, indicating that the proposed methodology is adequate.

  14. 2-[Hydroxy(2-methoxyphenylmethyl]acrylonitrile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bakthadoss

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C11H11NO2, the mean planes formed by the benzene ring and the C and N atoms of the acryl group are almost orthogonal to each other, with a dihedral angle of 85.7 (1°. During the structure analysis, it was observed that the unit cell contains large accessible voids, with a volume of 186.9 Å3, which may host disordered solvent molecules. This affects the diffraction pattern, mostly at low scattering angles. Density identified in these solvent-accessible areas was calculated and corrected for using the SQUEEZE routine in PLATON [Spek (2009, Acta Cryst. D65, 148–155]. Despite the presence of the hydroxy group in the molecule, no classical or nonclassical hydrogen bonds are observed in the structure. This may reflect the fact that the O—H group points towards the solvent-accessible void.

  15. Enzymatic surface modification of acrylonitrile fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistel, Ezio; Morra, Marco; Marinetti, Massimo

    2001-06-01

    The surface of polyacrylonitrile polymer (containing 10% acetate groups) as fibers and finely ground powder have been modified by enzymatic treatment. The enzyme used was a nitrile hydratase, member of the class of nitrile converting enzymes, present in the microorganisms Brevibacterium imperiale and Corynebacterium nitrilophilus. The pendant nitrile groups were selectively converted into the corresponding amides as assessed by XPS analysis. As indicated by the increase of the O/C atomic ratio, the fiber surface showed a significant increase in hydrophilicity. The newly formed amide groups were then able to react with the acid dyes typically used to stain natural fibers, conferring the coloring properties to the otherwise inert polymer surface.

  16. Study on Sulfomethylation of Cellulose Copolymer Copolymerized with Acrylonitrile and Acrylamide%纤维素-丙烯腈-丙烯酰胺共聚物磺甲基化改性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄统琳; 刘明华; 刘剑锋; 詹怀宇

    2011-01-01

    The nitrile spherical cellulose adsorbent (SCAN) was prepared by sulfomethylating the prepared copolymer of grafting acrylonitrile and acrylamide onto the spherical cellulose beads, doing so is in order to provide reference data for getting higher application value of cellulose. The spherical cellulose beads were prepared by NMMO (N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide) process and sequential cooling technique. The sulfomethylation process was optimized through the orthogonal experiments and single-factor experiments. The results indicate that the adsorbent prepared has a specific surface area of 207.9 m2g-1, and sulfonation degree of 56.32% can be obtained under following optimal operating conditions: the solution pH=12, the mass ratio of HCHO, NaHSO3 and copolymer is 4:6:10, the reaction temperature is 50℃ and the reaction time is 5 h. In addition, the effect of sulfonation degree on the adsorption capacity of SCAN was also studied by using berberine hydrochloride as adsorbate. The results indicate that the increase of sulfonation degree is beneficial to the adsorption capacity, the maximum adsorption capacity of SCAN could reach 16.64 mg-g-1.%研制和开发新型改性纤维素类吸附剂,将是吸附剂研究的一个焦点.研究在球形纤维素珠体接枝丙烯腈和丙烯酰胺的基础上对其进行磺甲基化改性,制备出一种含腈基球形纤维素吸附剂(SCAN),以期为纤维素高值化利用提供参考数据.球形纤维素珠体由NMMO法和程序降温法制备.并通过正交试验和单因素实验进行工艺优化.实验结果表明,SCAN具有较大比表面积—207.9 m2·g-1,且在溶液pH=12,m(HCHO)∶m(NaHSO3)∶m(copolymer)=4∶6∶10,反应温度50℃下反应5h时的磺化度最高,为56.32%,以盐酸小檗碱为吸附质,研究磺化度对吸附剂吸附效果的影响,结果表明,在实验研究的磺化度范围内,磺化度越高,吸附效果越好,最大吸附量达16.64 mg·g-1.

  17. 硅烷偶联剂改性纳米二氧化钛并接枝丙烯腈的机理%Mechanism of nano-TiO2 modified silane coupling agent and grafting acrylonitrile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雅珍; 陈国力; 岳成娥; 赵宇; 何子健

    2015-01-01

    主要研究了硅烷偶联剂(KH-560)改性纳米二氧化钛(TiO2)制备TiO2(KH-560)以及TiO2(KH-560)与丙烯腈(AN)接枝聚合生成TiO2(KH-560)-g-AN的反应机理。通过傅里叶变换红外(FT-IR)分析确定了TiO2(KH-560)和TiO2(KH-560)-g-AN的官能团结构。通过X射线光电子能谱(XPS)分析,由TiO2(KH-560)中的氧元素和碳元素结合能的微小变化,引起 C1s、O1s 化学环境的变化,来确定 TiO2(KH-560)的结构;由 TiO2(KH-560)-g-AN的氧元素、碳元素和氮元素的结合能微小变化引起 C1s、O1s、N1s 化学环境的变化,从而确定了TiO2(KH-560)-g-AN的结构。结合FTIR和XPS两者的分析,最终确定TiO2(KH-560)-g-AN的反应机理。%The reaction mechanism of nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2) modified with the silane coupling agent (KH-560) grafted with acrylonitrile(AN) to produce TiO2(KH-560)-g-AN was studied. Functional group structures of TiO2 (KH-560) and TiO2(KH-560)-g-AN were determined by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis. The results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis show that chemical environment of C1s,O1s in TiO2(KH-560) are caused by slight variations of oxygen and carbon element binding energy in TiO2(KH-560). So the structure of TiO2(KH-560) is determined. Chemical environment of C1s,O1s,and N1s in TiO2(KH-560)-g-AN are caused by slight variations of oxygen,carbon,and nitrogen element binding energy in TiO2(KH-560)-g-AN. So the structure of TiO2(KH-560)-g-AN is determined. The graft polymerization mechanism of TiO2(KH-560) and AN is determined ultimately by the analysis of both FT-IR and XPS.

  18. Influence of Small Amount of Co-Monomers on Acrylonitrile Polymerization in Dimethylformamide (DMF) Solution%少量共单体对丙烯腈在DMF中溶液聚合的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭水龙; 卜志扬; 李伯耿

    2013-01-01

    Polymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) on the presence of small amount of co-monomers such as, itaconic acid (IA), acrylic acid (AA), methacrylic acid (MA), methyl methacrylate (MMA) and acrylamide(AM), were conducted in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) solution. The cloudy threshold at which the polymerized mixture becomes heterogeneous was determined for different co-monomer feeds. The cloudy line slope indicates the effect of co-monomer on polyacrylonitrile (PAN) modification. The favorable PAN modification of carbon fiber precursors are ordered as IA > AM > MMA > MA > AA. Then, the co-polymerization kinetics of IA was further studied. With the increase of IA feeding amount, the polymerization rate and polymer molecular weight are both reduced. The reactivity ratio of IA and AN was estimated from experimental data of co-monomer content at different conversion state in a batch reactor by non-linear optimization method. It is found that the co-polymerization of IA-AN in DMF is approximately to be "ideal" with rIA 2.0 and ran 0.5. The accumulated amount of IA in co-polymer declines linearly with conversion when the IA feeding amount is low as demanded by carbon fiber precursors.%研究了丙烯腈与少量衣康酸、丙烯酸、丙烯酸甲酯、甲基丙烯酸甲酯、丙烯酰胺等共单体在N,N-二甲基甲酰胺(DMF)中溶液共聚时的云点阈值.提出共单体云点迹线斜率的概念,用以比较不同共单体对丙烯腈聚合物的改性作用,发现相比其他几种烯类单体衣康酸更适合于用作碳纤维原丝的共单体.同时考察了衣康酸与丙烯腈在DMF中溶液共聚时,其含量对聚合动力学的影响.发现随衣康酸用量的增加,聚合速率与分子量都降低.分析了间歇共聚中共单体含量随转化率的变化,并拟合了该单体对溶液共聚时的竞聚率,发现接近于理想共聚:rIA=2.0、rAN=0.5:且在低共单含量时,共聚物的累积平均共单组成随转化率线性地下降.

  19. Synthesis and Properties of Melt Processable Acrylonitrile-N-vinylimidazole Copolymers and Fiber†%可熔融丙烯腈-N-乙烯基咪唑共聚物及纤维的制备与性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩娜; 李慧慧; 李传宝; 张兴祥; 李伟; 王栋

    2015-01-01

    采用自由基溶液聚合法制备了不同投料摩尔比的丙烯腈( AN)-N-乙烯基咪唑( VIM)共聚物[P(AN-co-VIM)].将 n(AN): n(VIM)为82:18和80:20的 P(AN-co-VIM)共聚物于210~220℃熔融纺丝制备了P(AN-co-VIM)初生纤维.通过傅里叶变换红外光谱、核磁共振(1 H NMR)谱、差示扫描量热分析、X 射线衍射分析和热台显微镜对 P(AN-co-VIM)共聚物的组成、热力学和结晶行为进行了表征.结果表明,自由基溶液聚合法可成功制备 P(AN-co-VIM)共聚物,当 VIM 的摩尔分数大于10%时,共聚物具有可熔融加工性.随着 VIM 摩尔分数的增加,共聚物的熔点降低,当 VIM 含量为20%时,共聚物的熔点从317℃降低至180℃,其分解温度最高为313.7℃.扫描电子显微镜(SEM)和电子单纤维强力测试.结果表明,纤维的表面光滑,断面结构致密,初生纤维的断裂强度为1.58 cN/ dtex,断裂伸长率为11.2%,有望广泛应用于碳纤维领域.%Polyacrylonitrile(PAN) and acrylonitrile(AN)-N-vinylimidazole(VIM) copolymers[ abbreviated as P(AN-co-VIM)] with various n(AN) : n(VIM)(93 : 7—80 : 20) were synthesized by free-radical solution copolymerization in dimethyl formamide ( DMF). The P ( AN-co-VIM) copolymers (82 : 18 and 80 : 20) possessed good melt processability, which were melt spun at the temperature of 210—220 ℃. The crystallinity, thermodynamics behavior and the composition of P(AN-co-VIM) copolymers were studied and characterized by ubbelodhe viscosimeter, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy( FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR), differential scanning calorimetry( DSC), X-ray diffraction( XRD) analyses and hot stage microscope. The results revealed that P(AN-co-VIM) could be synthesized successfully by free-radical solution copolymerization. P( AN-co-VIM) could be melt processable as VIM molar fraction is higher than 10% . The melting temperature of P ( AN-co-VIM) shifts continuously to the lower temperature with the

  20. 丙烯腈与N-乙烯基吡咯烷酮在H2O/DMSO混合试剂中共聚反应动力学研究%Kinetics of Copolymerization of Acrylonitrile with N-Vinylpyrrolidone in H2O/Dimethyl Sulphoxide Mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈厚; 王成国; 梁英; 蔡华甦

    2003-01-01

    Kinetics of copolymerization of acrylonitrile(AN) with N-vinylpyrrolidone(NVP) initiated by azodiisobutyronitrile(AIBN) was investigated in H2O/dimethyl sulphoxide(DMSO) mixture between 50℃ and 70℃ under N2 atmosphere. The rate of copolymerization and particle size were measured respectively. The kinetic equation 0.651±0.123 1.59±0.35 1.17±0.14of copolymerization system is obtained as Rp ∝ cAIBN cAN cNVP at 60℃. The overall activation energy for copolymerization system was computed as 87.3 kJ.mol-1. Effect of additives of hydroquinone and dioxane on copolymerization was discussed. The polymerization is retarded by hydroquinone and accelerated by dioxane, which confirms the free radical copolymerization of AN with NVP.

  1. Synthesis of (Z)-2-Methyl-2-Butenedioic Acid-l-Methyl Ester and Determination of Apparent Reactivity Ratio of Copolymerization with Acrylonitrile%2-甲基-2-丁烯二酸单甲酯的合成及其与丙烯腈二元共聚的表观竞聚率的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨俊锋; 陆国林; 谭久青; 黄晓宇; 陈惠芳; 潘鼎

    2008-01-01

    以柠糠酸酐为原料,合成了一种可以与丙烯(AN,acrylonitrile)共的新单体:2-甲基-2-丁烯二酸单甲酯(MBAME).以偶氮二异丁腈(AIBN,2,2'-azobis isobutyronitrle)为引发剂,70℃下引发MBAME与AN在N,N-二甲基甲酰胺(DMF,N,N-dimethylformamide)中进行无规共聚,通过Fineman-Ross法测定了两者在DMF溶液聚合体系的表观竞聚率,γ1(AN)=7.985,γ2(MBAME)=0.599,有助于优化聚丙烯腈基碳纤维用树脂的生产工艺.

  2. Effect of acrylonitrile on the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in spermatogenic cell of mice%丙烯腈对小鼠生精细胞Bcl-2、Bax蛋白表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴凌云; 马国燕; 金娜; 陈亚; 冯玉娟; 党瑜慧; 薛红丽; 李芝兰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of acrylonitrile exposure on the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in mice spermatogenic cells. Methods Based on body weight, 250 SPF Kunming adult male mice were randomly divided into five groups; negative control group (normal saline 0. 01ml/g), three AN exposure groups (intraperitoneal injection of 1.25, 2. 50 or 5. 00 mg/kg of AN daily for 5 days, respectively) and positive control group (intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide 40mg/kg) . Mice were killed in the 7th, 14th, 21st, 28th and 35th day after the first exposure by cervical dislocation. Immunohistochemical method ( SABC ) was used to detect the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax protein in spermatogenic cells. Results The average optical density values of Bcl-2 at five time points of the AN 2. 50 mg/kg group and the 21th day point of the AN 1. 25 mg/kg group were significantly lower than the negative control group ( P < 0. 05 ) . Except the 21st day point of the AN 1. 25 mg/kg group, the mean optical density values of Bax in all time points of AN exposure groups were significantly higher than the negative control group (P < 0. 05 ). The decreased expression of Bcl-2 protein was most distinct in AN 2. 50mg/kg group and the positive control group at all time points. The expression of Bax protein was significantly increased in all groups at the 14th day point. Conclusion The expression of Bel-2 protein could be weakened in spermatogenic cells induced by AN, especially in the AN 2. 50 mg/kg8roup; while the expression of Bax was enhanced, and the amplitude of change in the 14th day point was more obvious.%目的 探讨丙烯腈(AN)暴露对小鼠睾丸生精细胞Bcl-2、Bax蛋白表达水平的影响.方法 将250只成年健康SPF级昆明种雄性小鼠,按体重随机分为阴性对照组、3个AN染毒组和阳性对照组,阴性对照组用生理盐水,各染毒组分别以1.25、2.50、5.00mg/kg AN腹腔注射(注射剂量为0.01 ml/g BW),每天1次,连续5天,阳性

  3. Effects of milk and coenzyme Q10 on the interference of acrylonitrile on vascular endothelial functions%牛奶和辅酶Q10对丙烯腈致血管内皮功能紊乱的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭进; 王卫群; 龚辉

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨牛奶或辅酶Q10预处理对丙烯腈致大鼠血管内皮功能紊乱的影响.方法 将80只大鼠分为4组:对照组、单纯丙烯腈组、牛奶组、辅酶Q10组.采用灌胃染毒法,对照组仅予玉米油(丙烯腈的溶剂,1 ml/100 g),其他3组予丙烯腈25 mg/kg染毒.牛奶组和辅酶Q10组在染毒前30 min分别给予牛奶、辅酶Q10预处理.染毒12周后检测血清及主动脉组织中诱导型一氧化氮合酶(iNOS)和内皮型一氧化氮合酶(eNOS)的活力.结果 单纯丙烯腈组、牛奶组、辅酶Q10组血清iNOS水平[(42.9±2.5)U/ml、(26.5±4.4)U/ml、(26.7±3.3)U/ml]比对照组[(21.9±1.6)U/ml,P<0.05]升高.主动脉组织中iNOS在单纯丙烯腈组、牛奶组、辅酶Q10组[(0.812±0.008)、(0.773±0.019)、(0.622±0.013)U/mg蛋白]比对照组[(0.540±0.028)U/mg蛋白,P<0.05]高;而辅酶Q10组的主动脉eNOS活力[(0.471±0.011)U/mg蛋白]高于对照组、单纯丙烯腈组和牛奶组[(0.371±0.029)、(0.380±0.016)、(0.425±0.020)U/mg蛋白,P<0.05].结论 牛奶和辅酶Ql0可以缓解丙烯腈致血管内皮功能紊乱作用.%Objective To explore the influences of milk or coenzyme Q10 pretreatment to acrylonitrile on vascular endothelial functions in rats.Methods A total of 80 rats were randomly divided into 4 groups:control group(Con),acrylonitrile exposure group(ACN),milk pretreatment group (M + ACN)and coenzyme Q10 pretreatment group(Q10 + ACN).The experiment was conducted by the method of gavage exposure in rats.Control group was exposed to corn oil;acrylonitrile was administered to other three groups at the doses of 25 mg/kg.The M + ACN and Q10 + ACN groups were pretreated by milk or coenzyme Q10 at 30 minutes before acrylonitrile exposureAfter a 12-week exposure,the activities of inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS)and endothelial nitric oxide synthase(eNOS)were measured in serum and aortal tissues.Results As compared with Con group[(21.9 ± 1.6)U/ml],the activity of blood serum i

  4. Effect of bound acrylonitrile content on structure and properties of carbon black reinforced hindered phenol/nitrile rubber composites%丁腈橡胶/受阻酚AO-80/炭黑复合材料中结合丙烯腈量对其结构与性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋洪松; 李静; 曹亚君; 赵秀英; 王松

    2011-01-01

    在结合丙烯腈量不同的丁腈橡胶(NBR)中加入受阻酚AO-80和炭黑,制备了NBR/AO-80/炭黑(NBR/AO-80/CB)复合材料,用差示扫描量热仪、动态力学分析仪及物理机械性能测试等手段对复合材料的热性能、动态力学性能及物理机械性能进行了研究.结果表明,与纯NBR硫化胶相比,NBR/AO-80/CB复合材料的玻璃化转变温度大幅度升高,且随着NBR基质中结合丙烯腈量的增大而向高温方向移动;NBR/AO-80/CB复合材料具有较好的阻尼性能,其损耗峰的峰值高于1.22,有效阻尼温域(损耗因子不小于0.3)大于38 ℃,在不同的参考温度下均具有较宽的有效阻尼频率范围;同时,NBR/AO-80/CB复合材料具有较好的物理机械性能和耐热老化性能,尤其是N 220 S/AO-80/CB复合材料的综合性能最好.%Crosslinked nitrile rubber ( NBR )/hindered phenol (AO-80)/carbon black composites were prepared by mixing AO-80 and carbon black into NBR with different bound acrylonitrile contents. The thermal properties, dynamic mechanical properties and mechanical properties of the composites were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis and tensile tester. The results showed that compared with pure NBR, the glass transition temperature of NBR/AO-80/carbon black composites increased greatly, and shifted to high temperature direction with increasing the bound acrylonitrile content of NBR. NBR/AO-80/carbon black composites showed excellent damping properties: loss factor ( tan δ) was more than 1.22, and the effective damping temperature range( tan δ equal to or more than 0. 3 ) was more than 38 ℃ ,the frequency range with high tan δ was wide at different reference temperatures. NBR/AO-80/carbon black composites had good mechanical properties and thermal aging resistance.Especially, N 220 S/AO-80/carbon black composites were the best in all-round properties.

  5. Propriedades Mecânicas de Blendas de Nylon-6/Acrilonitrila-EPDM-Estireno (AES Compatibilizadas com Copolímero Acrílico Reativo (MMA-MA Mechanical Properties of Nylon-6/Acrylonitrile-EPDM-Styrene (AES Blends Compatibilized with Reactive Acrylic Copolymer (MMA-MA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriane Bassani

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas blendas de nylon-6 com copolímero de acrilonitrila/EPDM/estireno (AES utilizando, como agentes compatibilizantes, uma série de copolímeros reativos de metacrilato de metila-anidrido maleico (MMA-MA. As unidades anidrido maleico (MA, destes copolímeros, podem reagir com os grupos finais de cadeia do nylon-6. Como verificado através de reometria de torque, os copolímeros MMA-MA podem gerar copolímeros in situ na interface das blendas durante o processamento. O principal enfoque deste trabalho foi estudar os efeitos da funcionalidade e concentração dos grupos anidrido maleico do compatibilizante sobre as propriedades mecânicas das blendas. Os resultados mostraram que a incorporação dos copolímeros MMA-MA melhorou significativamente a resistência ao impacto sob entalhe das blendas nylon-6/AES. As blendas contendo copolímero MMA-MA com 1,3% em peso de MA podem ser classificadas como supertenazes e mantêm sua tenacidade em temperaturas abaixo de zero.Blends of nylon-6 with acrylonitrile/EPDM/styrene (AES using a series of methyl methacrylate-maleic anhydride (MMA-MA copolymers as compatibilizing agents were prepared. The maleic anhydride (MA units in the copolymers are capable to react with the nylon-6 end groups. The MMA-MA copolymer has a potencial to form in situ copolymers at the blend interface during melt processing as indicated by torque rheometry tests. This study focuses on the effects of functionality and concentration of the reactive maleic anhydride units of the compatibilizer on the mechanical properties of these blends. The results show that incorporation of the MMA-MA copolymer significantly improves the impact strength of nylon-6/AES blends. The blend containing 1.3wt% of MA in the copolymer is supertough at room temperature, and remains tough at subzero temperatures.

  6. 顶空气相色谱法测定丙烯腈-苯乙烯(AS)塑料中残留的7种单体%Determination of 7 residual monomers in acrylonitrile-styrene plastic by gas chromatography with head space sampler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱文亮; 周勇; 陈晓鹏; 谭锦萍; 吴炜亮

    2012-01-01

    A reliable method had been developed for determination of 7 residual monomers in acrylonitrile- styrene (AS) plastic by headspace-gas chromatography. The samples were completely dissolved into N, N-diethylformamide,and then the gas after achieved equilibrium in the headspace bottle was extracted by headspace injection equipment for gas chromatography analysis. The optimum conditions of gas chromatography and headspace injection were obtained by experiments. The optimum conditions of headspace injection were usage of solvent 3mL,heating temperature 120℃ ,time for equilibrium 40min. The average recoveries of 7 residual monomers were 95.71%-106.89%,the detection limits were 0.25N1.0mg/kg. The analysis method not only improved detection efficiency,but also cut down the detection cost. Meanwhile,this method was simple, rapid,accurate,and sensitive.%建立了顸空气相色谱法测定丙烯腈-苯乙烯(AS)塑料中7种残留单体的分析方法。以N,N-二甲基甲酰胺为溶剂溶解AS塑料,于顶空装置中平衡后,进样进行气相分析。通过实验得到了优化的气相色谱分离条件及顶空条件,其中优化的顸空条件为溶剂使用量3mL,加热温度120℃,平衡时间40min。7种残留单体的平均回收率为95.71%-106.89%,检出限为0.25-1.0mg/kg。该方法既提高了检测效率,又降低了检测成本。同时,此方法还具有简便、快速、灵敏、准确等优点.

  7. Solubility parameter of poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlfarth, Ch.

    This document is part of Subvolume D2 'Polymer Solutions - Physical Properties and their Relations I (Thermodynamic Properties: PVT -Data and miscellaneous Properties of polymer Solutions) of Volume 6 `Polymers' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII `Advanced Materials and Technologies'.

  8. Molecular Imprinting Fibrous Membranes of Poly(acrylonitrile-co-acrylic acid) Prepared by Electrospinning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Introduction Over the past few decades, molecular imprinting has been described as a technology for preparing "molecular doors" which can be matched to "template keys". It has been found to be a simple and effective approach to introduce specific recognition sites into synthetic polymers, namely, to create molecular imprinting polymers[1-4]. Remarkable features such as stability,ease of preparation and low cost, have made molecular imprinting polymers particularly attractive in chemical sensors, catalysis, drug delivery, and dedicated separations.

  9. Power Efficient, Restart-Capable Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Arc Ignitor for Hybrid Rockets

    OpenAIRE

    Whitmore, Stephen; Merkely, Daniel; Inkley, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Because hybrid rocket propellant materials are individually chemically stable prior to mixing within the combustion chamber, these systems possess well-known safety advantages. Unfortunately, the relative stability of traditional hybrid propellants also makes hybrid systems difficult to ignite. Hybrid ignition has historically involved one of three means, 1) pyrotechnic charges, 2) plasma torch, and 3) electric spark plugs with bi-propellant injectors. All of these methods possess distinct di...

  10. Coconut shell powder as cost effective filler in copolymer of acrylonitrile and butadiene rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keerthika, B; Umayavalli, M; Jeyalalitha, T; Krishnaveni, N

    2016-08-01

    Filler is one of the major additives in rubber compounds to enhance the physical properties. Even though numerous benefits obtained from agricultural by products like coconut shell, rice husk etc., still they constitute a large source of environmental pollution. In this investigation, one of the agricultural bye product coconut shell powder (CSP) is used as filler in the compounding KNB rubber. It shows the positive and satisfied result was achieved only by the use of filler Fast Extrusion Furnace (FEF) and coconut shell powder (CSP) which was used 50% in each. The effect of these fillers on the mechanical properties of a rubber material at various loading raging from 0 to 60PHP was studied. Mercaptodibanzothiazole disulphide (MBTS) was used as an accelerator. The result shows that presence of 25% and 50% of the composites has better mechanical properties like Hardness, Tensile strength, Elongation at break and Specific gravity when compared with other two combinations. Even though both 25% and 50% of composites shows good mechanical properties, 50% of CSP have more efficient than 25% of CSP. PMID:27060197

  11. 21 CFR 177.1040 - Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...: Substances Limitation Condensation polymer of toluene sulfonamide and formaldehyde 0.15 pct maximum. (c... of Polymer Extracted from Barex 210 Resin Pellets”; “Procedure for the Determination of Molecular... multilayer construction by ASTM method D-1434-82, “Standard Method for Determining Gas...

  12. 21 CFR 177.1480 - Nitrile rubber modified acrylonitrile-methyl acrylate copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Specifications. (i) Nitrogen content is in the range 16.5-19 percent as determined by Kjeldahl analysis. (ii... method D1243-79, “Standard Test Method for Dilute Solution Viscosity of Vinyl Chloride Polymers,” which... method titled, “Infrared Spectrophotometric Determination of Polymer Extracted from Borex ® 210...

  13. NONCONVENTIONAL EMULSION POLYMERIZATION OF ACRYLONITRILE CATALYZED BY in situ METAL COMPLEX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bijayashree Samal; Prafulla K.Sahoo

    2007-01-01

    Nano-sized polyacrylonitrile (PAN) particles were prepared under the catalytic effect of in situ developed CoCl2/EDTA complex with ammonium persulfate as the initiator in the absence of any added emulsifier.The emulsion polymerization was studied at varying concentrations of the initiator,monomer,complex and solvent over a temperature range of 30-70℃.The overall activation energy(Ea,49.79 kJ/mol),energy of dissociation of initiator(Ed,82.68kJ/mol),number of micelles(0.163 × 1018)and the viscosity average molecular weight of the polymer were computed.The distribution of particle sizes was determined by transmission electron microscopy(TEM).It was found that the oil-in-water polymerization was stabilized by the presence of the CoCl2/EDTA in situ complex reducing the particle size into the nano order.The average diameters of PAN nano particles,obtained by TEM,were in the range of 50-150 nm at the maximum conversion.The experimental particle size was mainly dependent on the concentration of the complex and temperature.

  14. Rheological and LASER additives for higher efficiency in producing poly(acrylonitrile)-based carbon fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Herbert, Christian

    2016-01-01

    This work is based on the NRW Ziel2 ‘Megacarbon’ project which aims for the more resource efficient production of carbon fibers (CF) for the automotive market. In cooperation with the Dralon GmbH in Dormagen a CF precursor with properties at least equal to the industry reference fiber Bluestar was developed and used in fiber spinning experiments. For the improvement of the spinning process a hyperbranched, rheological additive was synthesized for the decrease of dynamic viscosity over a broad...

  15. Design and Synthesis of Transparent Poly (acrylonitrile butadiene-styrene) and Relationship Between Its Phase Construction and Transparency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A series of transparent ABS(T-ABS) resins were prepared by emulsion in situ suspension polymerization. The influences of the particle size and the content of rubber particles on the transparency of T-ABS resins were studied by varying the size and content of rubber particles in a single model system( rubber particles with a uniform size). The optical properties of T-ABS resins were investigated in a mixed system of SBR/PB particles and a bi-modal particle system(rubber particles with two different sizes, 70 and 400 nm in diameter) of SBR particles. It was found that when the size of the smaller particles (70 nm) in the mixed system of SBR/PB particles was in the range of 50-100 nm in diameter, the T-ABS resins showed a better transparency. These results provide a flexible and practical process for the preparation of T-ABS resins with good optical and mechanical properties.

  16. Conformational and Molecular Structures of α,β-Unsaturated Acrylonitrile Derivatives: Photophysical Properties and Their Frontier Orbitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Judith Percino

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We report single crystal X-ray diffraction (hereafter, SCXRD analyses of derivatives featuring the electron-donor N-ethylcarbazole or the (4-diphenylaminophenyl moieties associated with a -CN group attached to a double bond. The compounds are (2Z-3-(4-(diphenylamino-phenyl-2-(pyridin-3-ylprop-2-enenitrile (I, (2Z-3-(4-(diphenylaminophenyl-2-(pyridin-4-yl-prop-2-enenitrile (II and (2Z-3-(9-ethyl-9H-carbazol-3-yl-2-(pyridin-2-ylenenitrile (III. SCXRD analyses reveal that I and III crystallize in the monoclinic space groups P2/c with Z’ = 2 and C2/c with Z’ = 1, respectively. Compound II crystallized in the orthorhombic space group Pbcn with Z’ = 1. The molecular packing analysis was conducted to examine the pyridine core effect, depending on the ortho, meta- and para-positions of the nitrogen atom, with respect to the optical properties and number of independent molecules (Z’. It is found that the double bond bearing a diphenylamino moiety introduced properties to exhibit a strong π-π-interaction in the solid state. The compounds were examined to evaluate the effects of solvent polarity, the role of the molecular structure, and the molecular interactions on their self-assembly behaviors. Compound I crystallized with a cell with two conformers, anti and syn, due to interaction with solvent. DFT calculations indicated the anti and syn structures of I are energetically stable (less than 1 eV. Also electrochemical and photophysical properties of the compounds were investigated, as well as the determination of optimization calculations in gas and different solvent (chloroform, cyclohexane, methanol, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran, dichloromethane and dimethyl sulfoxide in the Gaussian09 program. The effect of solvent by PCM method was also investigated. The frontier HOMO and LUMO energies and gap energies are reported.

  17. Recycling cycle of materials applied to acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene/policarbonate blends with styrene-butadiene-styrene copolymer addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cândido, L. H. A.; Ferreira, D. B.; Júnior, W. Kindlein; Demori, R.; Mauler, R. S.

    2014-05-01

    The scope of this research is the recycling of polymers from mobile phones hulls discarded and the performance evaluation when they are submitted to the Recycling Cycle of Materials (RCM). The studied material was the ABS/PC blend in a 70/30 proportion. Different compositions were evaluated adding virgin material, recycled material and using the copolymer SBS as impact modifier. In order to evaluate the properties of material's composition, the samples were characterized by TGA, FTIR, SEM, IZOD impact strength and tensile strength tests. At the first stage, the presented results suggest the composition containing 25% of recycled material and 5% of SBS combines good mechanical performance to the higher content of recycled material and lower content of impact modifier providing major benefits to recycling plans. Five cycles (RCM) were applied in the second stage; they evidenced a decrease trend considering the impact strength. At first and second cycle the impact strength was higher than reference material (ABS/PC blend) and from the fourth cycle it was lower. The superiority impact strength in the first and second cycles can be attributed to impact modifier effect. The thermal tests and the spectrometry didn't show the presence of degradation process in the material and the TGA curves demonstrated the process stability. The impact surface of each sample was observed at SEM. The microstructures are not homogeneous presenting voids and lamellar appearance, although the outer surface presents no defects, demonstrating good moldability. The present work aims to assess the life cycle of the material from the successive recycling processes.

  18. Effect of winding layer and speed on kenaf/glass fiber hybrid reinforced acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoni, Norizzahthul Ainaa Abdul; Sharifah Shahnaz S., B.; Ghazali, Che Mohd Ruzaidi

    2016-07-01

    The usage of natural fiber is becoming significant in composite industries due to their good performance. Single and continuous natural fibers have relatively high mechanical properties; especially their young modulus can be as high as glass fibers. Filament winding is a method to produce technically aligned composites which have high fibers content. The properties of filament winding can be tailored to meet the end product requirements. This research studied the compression properties of kenaf/glass fibers hybrid reinforced composites. Kenaf/glass fibers hybrid composite samples were fabricated by filament winding technique and their properties were compared with the properties of neat kenaf fiber and glass fibers composites. The kenaf/glass fiber hybrid composites exhibited higher strength compared to the neat glass fibers composites. Composites of helical pattern, which produced at low winding speed showed better compression resistance than hoop pattern winding, which produced at high winding speed. As predicted, kenaf composite showed highest water absorption; followed by kenaf/glass fiber hybrid composites while neat glass fiber has lowest water absorption capability.

  19. Application of gamma irradiation for incorporation of rubber powder in the formulations of acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiyan, Ludmila Y.P.; Parra, Duclerc Fernandes, E-mail: ludmilapozzo@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Quimica e Meio Ambiente (CQMA)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Polymeric materials do not decompose easily, disposal of waste polymers is a major environmental problem of global character. Recycling is an economical alternative and environmentally recommended for polymers consumed and discarded by society. As regards the rubber in object, its natural decomposition is much slower due to their highly crosslinked, in three-dimensional networks, structures which makes it an infusible and insoluble material. Moreover, these three dimensional structures entails several problems for their recovery and reprocessing. The aim of this paper was to study the behavior of NBR rubber recycle. It was used rubber powder from industry. The powder was irradiated in master-batch composition and used directly in classical formulations for rubber vulcanization. The master-batch processed was irradiated at doses of 50, 100 and 150kGy in {sup 60}Co source at 5 kGy s{sup -1} rate, at room temperature. Gamma radiation created active sites during devulcanization that promoted further integration of the rubber powder in formulations for commercial use. The processes were compared and their products were characterized by analytical methods of the physical properties such as tensile strength and elongation. The greatest change in the properties of polymeric materials by exposure to ionizing radiation resulted mainly of two main reactions occurring in the polymer molecule: chains scission (degradation) and crosslinking. Although these two processes occur simultaneously in all the polymers, the predominance of one or other effect depends mainly of the chemical structure of each polymer, and the irradiation conditions. In the results was observed the behavior of nitrile rubber under different doses and radiation improvement of the mechanical properties. (author)

  20. Morphology and contact angle studies of poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile modified epoxy resin blends and their glass fibre reinforced composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the surface characteristics of blends and composites of epoxy resin were investigated. Poly(styrene-co-acylonitrile (SAN was used to modify diglycedyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA type epoxy resin cured with diamino diphenyl sulfone (DDS and the modified epoxy resin was used as the matrix for fibre reinforced composites (FRP’s. E-glass fibre was used as the fibre reinforcement. The scanning electron micrographs of the fractured surfaces of the blends and composites were analyzed. Morphological analysis revealed different morphologies such as dispersed, cocontinuous and phase-inverted structures for the blends. Contact angle studies were carried out using water and methylene iodide at room temperature. The solid surface energy was calculated using harmonic mean equations. Blending of epoxy resin increases its contact angle. The surface free energy, work of adhesion, interfacial free energy, spreading coefficient and Girifalco-Good’s interaction parameter were changed significantly in the case of blends and composites. The incorporation of thermoplastic and glass fibre reduces the wetting and hydrophilicity of epoxy resin.

  1. Performance of CTBN(carboxyl-terminated poly (butadiene-co-acrylonitrile))-EP(diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A(DGEBA)) Prepolymers and CTBN-EP/polyetheramine (PEA) System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Minxian; HUANG Zhixiong; LI Yaming; YANG Guorui

    2009-01-01

    CTBN-EP prepolymers were synthesized from CTBN and epoxy resin under the catalysis of HTMAB.FTIR analyses indicate the formation of ester group between the carboxyl group of CTBN and the oxirane group of epoxy resin.The viscosity of modified prepolymer increases with CTBN content increasing,but the epoxy value of the prepolymer decreases greatly.DSC analyses verify that CTBN affects the curing process of CTBN-EP/PEA system.Mechanical testing presents the improved toughness of CTBN-EP/PEA curings for the decrease of tensile strength,flexural strength and compressive strength,and increase of impact strength and elongation-at-break with the CTBN content increasing.SEM micrographs show the rubber phase with many holes in diameter about 0.5-1.5μm is formed when CTBN content is lower than 10 phr.However,the pattern of SEM graph shows some stalactite-like strips when CTBN content is higher than 15 phr.Furthermore,the SEM image of 25 phr CTBN sample forms a kind of co-continuous structure.

  2. Optical Resolution of Phenylalanine Using D-Phe-Imprinted Poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylonitrile) Membrane-pH Effect on performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The molecular imprinting technique was used for chiral resolution of phenylalanine (Phe). The template was introduced during polymerization and removed after polymerization by leaving imprinted cavities in the polymer matrix correspondence to template. The D-Phe imprinted membrane selectively adsorbed D-Phe, facilitated permeation of D-Phe and rejected L-Phe. These results are evidence of the availability of the chiral environment in the membrane. The membrane was found to be pH sensitive, with 0.30 rejection selectivity, 2.40 adsorption selectivity and 2.03 permselectivity being achieved at pH-2. FT-IR and FE-SEM analyses revealed that the membrane was nano-porous and very thin. (author)

  3. Preparation of 1,3-Disubstituted-5-cyano-4,5-dihydropyrazoles via 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition of Nitrile Imine with Acrylonitrile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG,Li-Ping(宋力平); ZHU,Shi-Zheng(朱士正); HUANG,Ji-Ling(黄吉玲)

    2002-01-01

    Oxidation of aldehyde 4-chloro-2, 3, 5, 6-tetrafluorophhenylhydrazones (1) with [bis(acetoxy)iodo]benzene leads to the formation of nitrile imines (2) which can react in situ with acryloniprile to produce 1-(4-chloro-2, 3, 5, 6-tetrafluorophenyl)-3-substituted-5-cyano-4, 5-dihydropyrazoles (3) in moderate to good yields. The structures of new compounds were fully confirmed by their spectral data and elemental analyses. A plausible reaction mechanism for the generation of nitrile imine is proposed.

  4. 丙烯腈对小鼠睾丸组织形态学的影响%Influence of acrylonitrile on morphology of testicle tissue in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖卫; 刘小宁

    2006-01-01

    丙烯腈对雄性小鼠生殖系统具有细胞毒作用,我们通过雄性小鼠腹腔注射染毒,光镜结合病理图像分析仪定量测定,探讨丙烯腈染毒后小鼠睾丸组织学形态改变.

  5. Gel electrolytes based on poly(acrylonitrile)/sulpholane with hybrid TiO2/SiO2 filler for advanced lithium polymer batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Paper describes properties of gel electrolyte based on PAN with TMS and TiO2-SiO2. • The TiO2-SiO2 oxide composite was precipitated in the emulsion system and used as the fillers. • The capacity of the graphite anode depends on the current rate and the amount of TiO2-SiO2. • For PE3 electrolyte was obtained practical capacity more than 90% of the theoretical capacity. - Abstract: This paper describes the synthesis and properties of a new type of ceramic fillers for composite polymer gel electrolytes. Hybrid TiO2-SiO2 ceramic powders have been obtained by co-precipitation from titanium(IV) sulfate solution using sodium silicate as the precipitating agent. The resulting submicron-size powders have been applied as fillers for composite polymer gel electrolytes for Li-ion batteries based on polyacrylonitrile (PAN) membranes. The powders and gel electrolytes have been examined structurally and electrochemically, showing favorable properties in terms of electrolyte uptake and electrochemical characteristics in Li-ion cells

  6. 丙烯腈对蝾螈睾丸精原细胞DNA的诱导损伤%DNA Damage on Newt Testicle Spermatogonia Induced by Acrylonitrile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄简抒; 吴鑫; 钟先玖

    2006-01-01

    目的探讨丙烯腈(ACN)对睾丸精原细胞DNA的损伤作用及经肝微粒体酶活化前后该损伤程度的差异.方法用体外培养方法分离蝾螈睾丸精原细胞,不同浓度(0,0.1,0.4,0.8,1.6 μmol/ml)ACN染毒3 h,每个浓度分活化组(加S9)和非活化组(不加S9),另设2个阳性对照组(丝裂霉素C,1.6μg/ml,加S9)和(环磷酰胺,80μg/ml,不加S9),用单细胞凝胶电泳法检测DNA损伤程度.结果未活化ACN浓度≥0.8μmol/ml及活化后ACN浓度≥0.4 μmol/ml时,蝾螈精原细胞DNA损伤程度明显升高,彗星发生率、长尾彗星率及彗星细胞平均尾长均明显高于对照组(P<0.05),并存在剂量-反应关系,经S9活化后,ACN对DNA损伤程度比同浓度未活化组明显增强.结论ACN能诱导蝾螈睾丸精原细胞DNA损伤,并且经肝微粒体酶活化后损伤能力明显增强.

  7. Electrospun Poly(acrylonitrile-co-acrylic acid) Nanofibrous Membranes for Catalase Immobilization:Effect of Porphyrin Filling on the Enzyme Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KE Bei-bei; WAN Ling-shu; HUANG Xiao-jun; XU Zhi-kang

    2011-01-01

    Porphyrin-filled nanofibrous membranes were facilely prepared by electrospinning of the mixtures of poly(acryionitrile-co-acrylic acid)(PANCAA) and porphyrins. 5,10,15,20-Tetraphenyiporphyrin(TPP) and its metalloderivatives(ZnTPP and CuTPP) were studied as filling mediators for the immobilization of redox enzyme. Results indicate that the introduction of TPP, ZnTPP and CuTPP improves the retention activity of the immobilized catalase.Among these three porphyrins, the ZnTPP-filled PANCAA nanofibrous membrane exhibits an activity retention of 93%, which is an exciting improvement. This improvement is attributed to both the strong catalase-porphyrin affinity and the possible facilitated electron transfer induced by the porphyrin as evidenced by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and fluorescence spectroscopy studies.

  8. BULK POLYMERIZATION OF ACRYLONITRILE AND VINYL ACETATE INITIATED AT ROOM TEMPERATURE%丙烯腈/醋酸乙烯酯单体的室温引发本体聚合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜中杰; 励杭泉

    2000-01-01

    提出了丙烯腈/醋酸乙烯酯的一种室温引发、自加热的快速共聚合方法.探讨了该聚合反应的特点,研究了氧化还原引发体系的各种变量,包括氧化剂对还原剂的质量比、不同还原剂的质量比、引发剂用量等对30 min转化率和产物分子量等的影响.

  9. Preparation and Properties of Poly(Acrylonitrile-co-Methyl Acrylate) Membrane%丙烯腈-丙烯酸甲酯微孔膜的制备及成膜性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊俊诚; 韩娜; 王争争; 陈素梅; 张兴祥; 王栋; 王宁; 李伟

    2014-01-01

    以摩尔比为85/15的可熔融丙烯腈-丙烯酸甲酯共聚物(85/15 AN-MA)为膜基体,用γ-丁内酯(γ-BA)和三乙酸甘油酯(GTA)复配作为混合稀释剂,采用热致相分离(TIPS)法制备了AN-MA基微孔膜.详细研究了聚合物浓度、混合稀释剂的配比和冷却速率对微孔膜的孔结构、孔隙率、水通量及力学性能的影响.研究结果表明,随着γ-BA含量的增加或凝固浴温度升高,微孔膜成型过程中存在小部分非溶剂致相分离(NIPS),形成不对称的横截面结构.增加GTA的比例或快的冷却速率更利于发生TIPS,γ-BA的质量分数为45%和50%时,微孔膜发生单纯的TIPS过程,凝固浴为0℃的乙醇浴时,AN-MA微孔膜具有更好的力学性能.

  10. 丁腈橡胶中结合丙烯腈含量的不确定度评定%Uncertainty Evaluation on Determination of Bound Acrylonitrile Content in Nitrile Rubber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵慧晖; 廖翼涛; 刘俊保; 杜烨; 翟月勤; 杨玉琼

    2015-01-01

    对凯氏定氮法测定丁腈橡胶(NBR)中结合丙烯腈含量的不确定度来源进行了分析,对测定过程中的主要不确定度分量进行了评定,包括滴定试样的重复性、滴定试样所消耗标液的体积、硫酸标准滴定溶液的浓度值及结合丙烯含量平均值的数值修约引入的不确定度.结果表明,结合丙烯腈含量的测定结果为(28.59 ±0.12)%,且滴定试样的重复性引入的不确定度最大.

  11. 一起丙烯腈槽罐车泄漏事故应急救援的体会%Thoughts about the Emergency Rescue Preparedness from One Leak Accident of the Acrylonitrile Tank Wagon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周锦山

    2006-01-01

    2005年6月28日中午,在江苏丹阳后巷318省道处,发生一起运输槽罐车侧翻而引发内烯腈泄漏事故。通过对事故的应急救援处理深切体会到:剧毒化学品泄漏事故的应急救援必须运用科学应急观,采取快速而有效的也急救援行动是控制事故的唯一手段。

  12. 丙烯睛嵌段共聚物的合成及其自组装研究进展%Research progresss of synthesis and self-assembly for acrylonitrile block copolymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓露; 马晓燕; 宋春莹; 王颖

    2011-01-01

    综述了含聚丙烯腈(PAN)嵌段共聚物的合成方法及其在溶液中的自组装技术.对常用的活性自由基聚合方法,如原子转移自由基聚合(ATRP),可逆加成断裂链转移(RAFT)聚合、氮氧自由基聚合(NMP)以及钻调介自由基聚合(CMRP)等方面的研究进行了总结,同时对PAN类嵌段共聚物在溶液中的自组装技术进行了概括.最后提出了现有技术存在的问题,并对其今后发展方向进行了展望.%The synthetic processes for block copolymers with polyacrylonitrile(PAN) and their self-assembly in solution were reviewed. Mainly some common radical polymerization methods,including ATRP(atom transfer radical polymerization ), RAFT (reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer ) polymerization, NMP ( nitroxide radical polymerization), CMRP(cobalt-mediated radical polymerization) and so on ,were overviewed. Meanwhile,self-assembly of PAN block copolymers in solution was also summarized. Finally,some existent technic problems in these two aspects were proposed, and their future development direction was expected.

  13. Effect of Acrylonitrile Exposure on Reproductive Outcomes of Fathers and Parents%父亲和双亲接触丙烯腈对生殖结局的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婷; 尚慧; 张建华; 郭宝清; 李林云

    2003-01-01

    目的探讨丙烯腈(ACN)对男女工生殖功能的影响.方法选择510名接触ACN作业工人,其中331名男工为父亲接触组,179人为双亲接触组,另选无ACN接触史的男工503人为对照组,比较女方的生殖结局.同时进行动物实验,小鼠静式吸入ACN,处死后取附睾检查精子畸变率.结果对接触组与对照组配偶生殖结局调查结果的比较发现,其过期产数、周岁患病例数差异均有显著性,但子代出生缺陷差异无显著性.父亲接触组和双亲接触组女方生殖结局调查结果的比较发现,其不孕率差异有显著性.动物实验结果显示,吸入ACN后,小鼠精子畸变率随着染毒时间的延长和ACN浓度的增高而增高,与对照组比较差异有显著性.结论ACN对男、女生殖系统都有一定的毒作用.

  14. Toxicity of Acrylonitrile (ACN) on Rat Sertoli Cells in Primary Dual-chamber Culture%丙烯腈对原代双室培养的大鼠睾丸支持细胞的毒性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟先玖; 吴鑫; 韩志英; 钱海雷; 金泰廙

    2006-01-01

    [目的]研究丙烯腈(ACN)对原代双室培养的大鼠睾丸支持细胞(Sertoli cell,Sc)的毒性,以探讨ACN诱导雄性生殖毒性机制.[方法]用已分离纯化的大鼠睾丸SC为材料,用原代双室培养方法,加和不加S9,以浓度为0、0.5、5.0、25.0μg/ml ACN染毒,于4、12、24、48 h后检测跨细胞上皮电阻(TER);染毒24、48 h后检测转铁蛋白(Trf)浓度,评价ACN体外染毒对大鼠睾丸SC的损伤.[结果]ACN浓度≥5.0μg/ml时,对TER的形成有明显抑制作用;5.0 μg/ml培养48 h、25.0μg/ml培养12 h后对已形成的TER引起下降;加S9(+S9)与不加S9(-S9),TER值接近(如25.0 μg/ml组培养12 h后+S9组为480.3,-S9组为486.3),无明显差异.浓度为25.0μg/ml时,ACN染毒引起外室Trf浓度升高,明显高于对照及其他组(P<0.05),内室Trf浓度变化不明显,因此内室与外室之间Trf浓度差值缩小.[结论]结果表明ACN对双室培养的SCTER的形成有抑制作用,对已形成的TER有降低作用;提示ACN可能对SC形成的紧密连接和"血睾屏障"有影响.

  15. 丙烯腈对小鼠肺成纤维细胞增殖分化的影响%Effect of Acrylonitrile on Proliferation and Differentiation of Mouse Lung Fibroblasts in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    端礼荣; 吴全义; 张志坚

    2006-01-01

    目的 研究丙烯腈(ACN)对小鼠肺成纤维细胞增殖分化的影响.方法 将ICR小鼠肺成纤维细胞纯化后进行细胞培养,加入二甲亚砜和浓度分别为0.01、0.5、1.0、10.0、50.0、100.0、200.0μg/ml的ACN,作为对照组和染毒组,每组10个平行样.从细胞形态学角度,通过细胞计数,观察细胞生长与分化的过程,同时测定蛋白质含量、丙二醛(MDA)含量和超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活力.结果 浓度为0.01、0.5、1.0、10.0μg/ml的ACN对小鼠肺成纤维细胞生长无抑制作用,而浓度达到50.0、100.0、200.0μg/ml时,小鼠肺成纤维细胞的增殖和分化明显受到抑制,集落形成率明显减少,细胞体积变小,且随着ACN浓度的加大,其抑制作用增大.当ACN剂量为50.0、100.0、200.0μg/ml时,小鼠肺成纤维细胞相对蛋白质含量低于对照组(P<0.05).当ACN剂量为10.0、50.0、100.0、200.0μg/ml时,小鼠肺成纤维细胞MDA的含量高于对照组(P<0.01).当ACN剂量为10.0、50.0、100.0、200.0μg/ml时,小鼠肺成纤维细胞SOD活力低于对照组(P<0.05).结论 ACN能抑制小鼠肺成纤维细胞增殖和分化,可能与其能抑制蛋白质合成,并引起脂质过氧化有关.

  16. 丙烯腈对雄性大小鼠血清中性激素水平的影响%Effects of Acrylonitrile on Levels of Sexual Hormone in Sera of Rats and Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄简抒; 吴鑫; 钟先玖

    2005-01-01

    目的通过研究丙烯腈(ACN)对雄性大鼠、小鼠生殖性激素水平的影响,探讨ACN诱导生殖毒性的可能机制.方法选用ICR和昆明种小鼠用不同剂量的ACN(0,6.0,12.0,24.0 mg/kg)灌胃染毒8周,选用SD雄性大鼠用不同剂量的ACN(0,7.5,15.0,30.0 mg/kg)腹腔注射染毒13周,用放射免疫分析法(RIA)检测血清中睾酮(T)及雌二醇(E\\-2)水平;选用出生后22~25 d的SD雌性大鼠,一次性腹腔注射不同剂量的ACN(5.0,15.0,30.0 mg/kg)染毒,设阴性对照组(溶剂)和阳性对照组(β-雌二醇,剂量30 μg/kg), 染毒后6 h取子宫称重.结果 ACN染毒8周后,ICR小鼠血清中T水平均低于对照组,高剂量组与对照组比较差异有显著性(P<0.01); 昆明种小鼠血清中T水平也降低,中剂量组与对照组比较,差异有显著性(P<0.05).大鼠ACN染毒13周后,低剂量组E\\-2水平明显高于对照组(P<0.05),高剂量组T水平和E\\-2水平明显低于低剂量组(P<0.05), 但与对照组比较差异无显著性.雌性SD大鼠染毒后,各剂量组子宫重量与阴性对照组之间差异无显著性,但明显低于阳性对照组.结论 ACN能诱导雄性大鼠、小鼠血清性激素水平改变,对雄性大鼠、小鼠生殖内分泌系统有影响,在本实验条件下ACN没有出现雌激素样作用.

  17. Soft sensor modeling of acrylonitrile yield based on hybrid SVR-PLS approach%基于混合SVR-PLS方法的丙烯腈收率软测量建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华忠; 俞金寿

    2005-01-01

    为了更有效地处理过程非线性、多输入和数据共线性等复杂特性,提高模型的推广能力和精度,提出了混合支持向量回归机-偏最小二乘法(SVR-PLS)方法.该方法兼具SVR和PLS的优点,用PLS进行特征提取,用SVR建立PLS的内部模型.对工业丙烯腈生产过程丙烯腈收率软测量建模的应用表明,采用该方法建立的软测量模型,在模型精度、推广能力等方面明显优于一些传统软测量建模方法,满足工业应用要求.

  18. 丙烯酸偕二硝基丙酯聚合动力学及与丙烯腈的共聚合%Kinetics of 2,2-Dinitropropyl Acrylate Polymerization and the Copolymerization with Acrylonitrile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张公正; 王芳; 向星

    2010-01-01

    采用膨胀计法研究了丙烯酸偕二硝基丙酯(DNPA)在甲苯溶液中聚合动力学,确定了聚合速率方程,并研究了丙烯酸偕二硝基丙酯与丙烯腈(AN)在甲苯溶液中共聚合的动力学行为,利用红外光谱法测定了共聚物的组成,从而测得了丙烯酸偕二硝基丙酯与丙烯腈的竞聚率.研究结果表明,丙烯酸偕二硝基丙酯聚合速率方程为Rp=k[M]1.18[I]0.60,说明链终止为单基终止和双基终止并存终止方式,引发过程与单体浓度有关;采用Fineman-Ross方法,求得丙烯酸偕二硝基丙酯和丙烯腈两单体的竞聚率分别为γAN=0.508,γDNPA=0.157.

  19. Anging Petrochemical Co.Adopts Novel Acrvlonitrile Catalyst Developed by Shanghai Petrochemical Research Institute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The SANC catalyst for synthesis of acrylonitrile developed by the SINOPEC Shanghai Petrochemical Research Institute (SPRI) has been successfully applied in the 80 kt/a acrylonitrile unit at the Anqing Petrochemical Company.At present the bulk catalyst used in the acrylonitrile unit at Anqing Petrochemical Company cannot meet the requirements for increasingly elevating operating level.Starting May 2008 the novel SANC catalyst,developed by SPRI and manufactured by the SINOPEC Catalyst Branch Company

  20. Synthesis of SAN-PB-SAN triblock copolymers via a ''living'' copolymerization with macro-photoiniferters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, E; de Boer, B.; ten Brinke, G.; Hadziioannou, G

    1996-01-01

    A technique is described for the synthesis of poly((styrene-co-acrylonitrile)-block-butadiene-block-(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)) (SAN-PB-SAN) triblock copolymers through polybutadiene-based photo-iniferters. Dihydroxy- and dicarboxy-terminated polybutadienes were transformed into the chloro-terminate

  1. Synthesis and characterization of polyacrylonitrile-graft-poly(ethylene oxide) obtained in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone solution by macromonomer method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Maria Elizabeth F.; Nobrega, Ronaldo [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Quimica]. E-mail: megarcia@peq.coppe.ufrj.br; nobrega@peq.coppe.ufrj.br; Oliveira, Clara Marize F. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas. E-mail: cmarize@ima.ufrj.br

    2001-07-01

    The present study investigates the effects of initiator concentration and acrylonitrile/macro monomer molar ratio on the conversion, molecular weight and poly(ethylene oxide) branch content on the radical copolymerization of poly(ethylene oxide) macro monomer with acrylonitrile in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone homogeneous solution.

  2. Compatibilization of blends of low density polyethylene and poly(vinyl chloride) by segmented EB(SAN-block-EB)(n) block copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, E; ten Brinke, G.; Hadziioannou, G

    1997-01-01

    Hydrogenated segmented poly[butadiene-block-((styrene-co-acrylonitrile)-block-butadiene)(n)] block copolymers, which were developed by use of the polymeric iniferter technique, were tested for their compatibilizing capacities for (10/90) LDPE/PVC blends. The acrylonitrile content of the SAN blocks o

  3. Pengaruh suhu vulkanisasi terhadap sifat mekanis vulkanisat karet alam dan karet akrilonitril-butadiena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Arisanti Kinasih

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural and acrylonitrile-butadiene rubbers possess different vulcanization characteristics. Selection of the vulcanization system and temperature affects the mechanical properties of vulcanized natural rubber (NR and acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR. In the present work, the effect of vulcanization temperature (150, 160, 170 and 180oC on the mechanical properties of NR and NBR vulcanizates was studied. The effect of different vulcanization system (semi efficient, efficient and sulfur donor was studied in NR blends, while the effect of different acrylonitrile content (26, 28 and 33 wt % was studied in NBR blends. The NBR curing characteristics and mechanical properties data showed that vulcanization at low temperature (150oC was suitable for low acrylonitrile-NBR, whereas that at high temperature (170oC was suitable for high acrylonitrile-NBR. In addition, the semi efficient system at low temperature vulcanization (150oC was suitable for natural rubber.

  4. 端羧基丁腈橡胶改性环氧树脂的结构与性能%Structual and Properties of Carboxyl-Terminated Poly(Butadiene-co-Acrylonitrile) Modified Diglycidyl Ether of Bisphenol-A Epoxy Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘敬成; 张胜文; 周琼; 刘仁; 刘晓亚; 王春林

    2010-01-01

    用液体端羧基丁腈橡胶(CTBN)对固体环氧树脂(EP)进行改性,合成了CTBN-EP预聚物,研究了CTBN-EP/HTP-305体系的微观形貌、力学性能和热性能.研究结果表明,随着CTBN含量的增大,冲击强度及断裂伸长率显著提高,说明通过CTBN化学预聚改性的EP韧性提高,而体系的拉伸强度和热性能略有下降.动态热机械分析(DMA)测试体系的动态力学性能结果表明,体系出现了两相结构(Tg对应温度分别是-60℃和80℃~100℃).扫描电镜(SEM)分析表明,固化过程中析出了橡胶相并均匀分散在环氧树脂基体中,形成了剪切空洞变形结构.

  5. 端羧基丁腈橡胶改性环氧树脂的结构与性能%Structure and Properties of Carboxyl-Terminated Poly(Butadiene-co-Acrylonitrile) Modified Diglycidyl Ether of Bisphenol-A Epoxy Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石敏先; 黄志雄; 郦亚铭; 杨国瑞

    2008-01-01

    用液体端羧基丁腈橡胶(CTBN)对环氧树脂(EP)进行改性,合成了CTBN/EP预聚物,FT-IR分析表明,在反应中EP的环氧基开环后与CTBN的羧基反应生成了酯键.研究了CTBN/EP/聚醚胺(PEA)体系的力学性能,结果表明,随着CTBN含量的增大,其弯曲强度、拉伸强度降低,冲击强度、断裂伸长率增大,说明CTBN通过化学预聚改性的EP具有良好的韧性.SEM分析表明,固化过程中析出了橡胶相并均匀分散在环氧树脂基体中.

  6. Preparation and Properties of Epoxidized Acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber/Carboxylic Carbon Nanotubes Composites%环氧化丁腈橡胶/羧基化碳纳米管复合材料的制备与性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐绍彬; 任文坛; 张勇; 张隐西

    2010-01-01

    采用无溶剂反应性加工技术,以叔丁基过氧化氢为氧化剂、三氧化钼为催化剂,在哈克转矩流变仪中实施了原位催化环氧化反应.产物的全反射红外光谱证实了环氧化丁腈橡胶的生成,用化学滴定法测定了其环氧化度为3.6%;将环氧化丁腈橡胶与羧基化多壁碳纳米管(MWNT-COOH)直接共混制备复合材料,研究了MWNT-COOH对复合材料的硫化性能、动态力学性能、热性能的影响.结果表明,复合材料在150℃~190℃范围内表现出较好的硫化性能,MWNT-COOH含量提高可促进橡胶的交联;复合材料在温度低于Tg时,MWNT-COOH可显著提高材料的储能模量;复合材料的热稳定性能随MWNT-COOH用量的增加而提高,其中4份用量的MWNT-COOH可使环氧化丁腈橡胶的最大热失重速率温度由465℃提高到471℃.

  7. 聚(丙烯腈-对羟基苯乙烯)与聚碳酸酯及聚四甲基双酚-A碳酸酯的相容性研究%MISCIBILITY OF POLY( ACRYLONITRILE-co-4-VINYLPHENOL) WITH BISPHENOL-A POLYCARBONATE AND TETRAMETHYL BISPHENOL-A POLYCARBONATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟诗云; 姜苏俊; 李光宪

    2004-01-01

    在聚(丙烯腈-苯乙烯)[P(S-AN)]中苯乙烯(S)苯环的对位引入羟基基团获得聚(丙烯腈-对羟基苯乙烯)[P(AN-VPh)],P(AN-VPh)与聚碳酸酯(PC)体系及P(AN-VPh)与聚四甲基双酚-A碳酸酯(TMPC)体系的相容性实验结果表明,由于对羟基苯乙烯(VPh)的引入,使体系中同时存在"分子间特殊相互作用"和"分子内排斥性相互作用"两种效应,从而使体系的相容性获得改善.P(AN-VPh)共聚物中AN的摩尔百分含量在12.3%~49.5%范围内时,P(AN-VPh)/PC共混物体系为热力学均相体系,采用TMPC替代PC与P(AN-VPh)共混时,共聚物中AN的摩尔百分含量在0~58.9 mol%范围内TMPC/P(AN-VPh)共混物体系为热力学相容体系.通过Flory-Huggins平均场理论计算与拟合所获得的相容窗口相图与实验值较为吻合,同时获得相互作用参数TMPC-VPh=-0.19.

  8. Effects of acrylonitrile on T lymphocytes' the lipid raft protein Caveolin-1 and the MEK protein in vitro%丙烯腈T淋巴细胞体外染毒对其脂筏Caveolin-1蛋白、MEK蛋白的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀菊; 黄简抒; 王朋; 周元陵; 范卫

    2013-01-01

    目的 丙烯腈染毒T淋巴细胞,分析膜脂筏及Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK信号通路中MEK蛋白变化,探讨丙烯腈免疫毒性的可能作用机制.方法 采取体外细胞培养技术,以T淋巴细胞Jurkat细胞株为研究对象,分为空白对照组、低浓度、中浓度、高浓度丙烯腈(0、20、100和500μmol/l)细胞染毒组,分析膜脂筏Caveolin-1蛋白、MEK蛋白变化.结果 随染毒浓度增加,受检细胞经处理4h后各染毒组与对照组细胞膜胆固醇含量差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),细胞膜胆固醇的含量下降,间接表明脂筏的数量越少;Caveolin-1蛋白定位改变,变构便于信号传递;p-MEK蛋白随浓度增高条带变浅.结论 丙烯腈可能通过破坏脂筏结构,脂筏数量减少,Caveolin-1蛋白位移变构,Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK信号传导过程受到抑制而发挥免疫毒性.

  9. 新型(6-氯喹喔啉-2-基氧基)苯基丙烯酸酯和丙烯腈衍生物的设计、合成及生物活性%Design, synthesis and biological activity of novel (6-chloroquinoxalin-2-yloxy) phenylacrylate and acrylonitrile derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于春睿; 徐龙鹤; 吐松; 李志念; 李斌

    2006-01-01

    以2,6-二氯喹喔啉为起始原料、经Baylis-Hillman反应设计并合成了4个结构新颖的(6-氯喹喔啉-2-基氧基)苯基丙烯酸酯和丙烯腈衍生物,其结构经红外、核磁、元素分析确认.生物活性测定结果表明2-((3-(6-氯喹喔啉-2-基氧)苯基)(羟基)甲基)丙烯酸甲酯(3a)和2-((4-(6-氯喹喔啉-2-基氧)苯基)(羟基)甲基)丙烯腈(3d)具有有效的杀菌活性,在400 g a.i./hm2的剂量下对黄瓜霜霉病的防效分别为100%和75%.

  10. Effects of butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer/polyvinyl chloride composites filled with aluminum hydroxide and carbon black on vulcanization%氢氧化铝和炭黑对丁腈橡胶-聚氯乙烯复合材料硫化性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李来丙; 龚必珍

    2009-01-01

    以氢氧化铝(ATH)为复合材料的添加型阻燃剂填充到丁腈橡胶-聚氯乙烯共聚物(NBR/PVC)体系中,采用不同比例的ATH和炭黑(CB)2种填充剂交替添加,制备出NBR/PVC复合材料;使用Haake 流变仪对NBR/PVC复合材料基体的硫化参数和流变过程进行了研究,并与NBR/PVC纯树脂及含硅酮表面处理的ATH复合材料进行了对比试验.结果表明:使用硅酮对ATH的表面进行处理,虽然对NBR/PVC树脂材料不是非常有效,但能促进体系中无机填充剂和聚合物的空间点阵的交互作用;改变了ATH与树脂的比例,改善了它们的相互作用和加工性能,并通过流变过程得以验证.

  11. Synthesis and E/Z Configuration Determination of Novel Derivatives of 3-Aryl-2-(benzothiazol-2'-ylthio Acrylonitrile, 3-(Benzothiazol-2'-ylthio-4-(furan-2''-yl-3-buten-2-one and 2-(1-(Furan-2''-yl-3'-oxobut-1''-en-2-ylthio-3-phenylquinazolin-4(3H-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Abou El-Khair

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Knoevenagel condensation of 2-(benzothiazol-2-ylthio acetonitrile (2 with either furan-2-carbaldehyde or thiophene-2-carbaldehydes leads to E-isomers 4a–b exclusively, while the condensation of the compound 2 with benzaldehyde or para-substituted benzaldehydes with an electron-donating group afforded E/Z mixtures 4c–e with preferentially formation of the E-isomer. Condensation of furan-2-carbaldehyde (3a with either 1-(benzothiazol-2'-ylthio propan-2-one (5 or 2-(2'-oxo propylthio-3-phenyl-quinazolin-4(3H-one (9 leads exclusively to the Z-isomers of 6 and 10, respectively. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were elucidated by elemental analyses, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectra, COSY, HSQC, HMBC, NOE, MS and X-ray crystallographic investigations.

  12. 丙烯腈对中国仓鼠肺细胞细胞活力和间隙连接通讯功能的影响%The effects of acrylonitrile on viability and gap junctional intercellular communication in CHL cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张正东; 金复生; 朱瑞娟; 范卫; 金锡鹏

    2001-01-01

    目的探讨丙烯腈(ACN)对中国仓鼠肺细胞(CHL)细胞活力及细胞间隙连接通讯(GJIC)功能的影响.方法镜下观察细胞形态学改变,采用MTT法测定细胞生长半数抑制浓度(IC50),应用荧光染料示踪技术观测ACN对CHL细胞GJIC的影响.结果 ACN染毒12和24 h,细胞生长IC50分别为435.73和251.09 μg/ml.低剂量组(12.5和25.0 μg/ml)细胞形态与对照组相比无明显改变,较高剂量组(50.0~200.0 μg/ml)细胞轻度受损(0~Ⅰ级),高剂量组(800.0 μg/ml)细胞明显受损(Ⅲ级).ACN原形在无明显细胞毒性剂量(10.0~50.0 μg/ml)时即可抑制GJIC,并呈持续抑制作用,存在剂量-效应和时间-效应关系.ACN经代谢活化后,可加重对细胞GJIC的抑制作用和细胞受损程度,但在染毒12 h后停止接触,该作用在一定程度上可逆转.牛磺酸作为一种重要的抗氧化剂,预处理细胞(牛磺酸剂量为10和20 mmol/L)可明显抑制ACN对细胞GJIC的下调作用.结论 ACN在较高剂量时对CHL细胞具有毒性作用,但在无明显细胞损伤剂量时即能明显抑制细胞GJIC功能,该抑制作用在停止接触ACN或有抗氧化剂存在时可逆转,提示氧化应激在ACN所致细胞GJIC功能下调中具有重要作用.

  13. Effect of acrylonitrile on proliferation and differentiation of rat embryo spinal cord nerve cells in vitro%丙烯腈对体外培养大鼠胚胎脊髓神经细胞增殖分化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    端礼荣; 吴全义; 陆荣柱

    2005-01-01

    目的研究丙烯腈(ACN)对体外培养的大鼠胚胎脊髓神经细胞增殖分化的影响.方法 16 d的大鼠胚胎脊髓组织作原代细胞培养,从细胞形态学及细胞计数观察研究细胞生长与分化过程,同时测定蛋白质含量和丙二醛(MDA)含量并与对照组进行比较.结果 10.0~100.0 mg/L ACN组明显抑制脊髓神经细胞分化、增殖、集落形成率明显减少,细胞体积小,细胞内MDA含量增加,蛋白质相对含量降低,并显示浓度效应关系.结论 ACN引起的大鼠胚胎脊髓神经细胞的增殖和分化抑制,可能与ACN诱发蛋白质合成下降和脂质过氧化物有关.

  14. pH响应型聚丙烯腈-丙烯酰胺-丙烯酸多孔水凝胶的制备及其在环境污染方面的应用%Preparation of pH sensitive poly(acrylonitrile-acrylamide-acrylic acid) hydrogel and its application in enviromental pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宪华; 郭永存; 朱涛

    2013-01-01

    Pb2+离子是一种重要的污染源,因此有效的移走不仅是对环境更是对人类健康具有重要意义.我们利用pH响应型聚丙烯腈-丙烯酰胺-丙烯酸多孔水凝胶作为吸附剂来移走Pb2+离子.探讨了时间、pH和温度对吸附能力的影响.结果表明在pH为5,温度为25℃时,有最大的吸附能力,达到了1.578mg.更为有趣的是可以通过改变pH来改变聚合物链相变的办法实现水凝胶的重复利用.

  15. Determination of Reactivity Ratio of Free Radical Copolymerization of Macrocyclic Monoazacrown Ether and Acrylonitrile and Study on Its Copolymer Thermoproperty%大环单氮杂冠醚与丙烯腈的自由基共聚反应竞聚率的测定及其共聚物的热力学性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯瑞斌; 陈铁; 金龙一

    2008-01-01

    利用Fineman-Ross方法,在甲苯溶剂中测定了大环N-(4-乙烯基苄基)-1-单氮杂-m-亚苯基-34-冠-11单体与丙烯腈的共聚合反应的单体竞聚率,其值分别为3.99和0.19,并采用TGA和DSC简略地研究了共聚物的热力学性质.

  16. 纳米氧化镁对甲基丙烯酸-丙烯腈共聚体系竞聚率的影响%Impact of nano-sized magnesium oxide on the reactivity ratios of methacrylic acid-acrylonitrile copolymerization system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺海龙; 李玲

    2013-01-01

      要: 以偶氮二异丁腈(AIBN)为引发剂,引发甲基丙烯酸(MAA)和丙烯腈(AN)本体聚合.采用滴定法和称重法测定了在低转化率(小于10%)下不同单体配比的共聚物组成,并采用Fineman-Ross法及Kelen-Tudos法计算、作图得到两种单体的竞聚率,它们的最大差值为0.09,说明滴定法和称重法具有一定的可信度.用上述方法测定了反应体系在纳米MgO存在下共聚单体竞聚率的变化,结果表明:加入纳米MgO,MAA和AN的竞聚率均下降.%The copolymer of methacrylic acid (MAA) and acrylonitrile (AN) was synthesized by using azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as initiator via bulk polymerization. The composition of the copolymer with mono-mers in different ratios were determined by titration and gravimetric method at a low conversion rate (less than 10%), and the reactivity ratios of the two monomers were calculated with Fineman-Ross (FR) and Kelen-Tudos (KT) method. The maximum difference in reactivity ratio between FR and KT method was 0.09, indicat-ing that titration and gravimetric method both had certain credibility. The changes of the reactivity ratios of the monomers were determined with the mentioned methods in the presence of nano-sized magnesium oxide in the system. The results showed that nano-sized magnesium oxide made both of the two monomers′ reactivity ratios decline.

  17. 32 CFR 187.6 - Information requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... from public dissemination in accordance with Department of Defense procedures (32 CFR part 159... in the category of “prohibited or strictly regulated” are the following: asbestos, vinyl chloride, acrylonitrile, isocyanates, polychlorinated biphenyls, mercury, beryllium, arsenic, cadmium, and benzene....

  18. MW-assisted synthesis of carboxymethyl tamarind kernel polysaccharide-g-polyacrylonitrile: optimization and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meenkashi; Ahuja, Munish; Verma, Purnima

    2014-11-26

    Microwave-assisted synthesis of graft copolymer of carboxymethyl tamarind seed polysaccharide and polyacrylonitrile was carried out. The effect of formulation and process variables on grafting efficiency of carboxymethyl tamarind kernel polysaccharide-g-poly(acrylonitrile) was studied using response surface methodology. The results revealed that the significant factors affecting grafting efficiency were concentrations of ammonium persulphate, acrylonitrile and interaction effects of ammonium persulphate and acrylonitrile concentrations. The optimal calculated parameters were found to be microwave exposure time-99.48 s, microwave exposure power-160 W, concentration of acrylonitrile-0.10% (w/v), concentration of ammonium persulphate--40 mmol/l, which provided graft copolymer with grafting efficiency of 96%. The formation of graft copolymer was confirmed by FT-IR studies and validated by scanning electron micrographs. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated higher thermal stability of graft copolymer and X-ray diffraction study revealed increase in crystallinity on graft polymerization. Further, the graft copolymer showed pH dependant swelling.

  19. 40 CFR 61.01 - Lists of pollutants and applicability of part 61.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cancer, from ambient air exposure to the substance. Acrylonitrile (50 FR 24319; June 10, 1985) 1,3...) Chromium (50 FR 24317; June 10, 1985) Copper (52 FR 5496; Feb. 23, 1987) Epichlorohydrin (50 FR 24575;...

  20. Recycling of engineering plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipments: influence of virgin polycarbonate and impact modifier on the final performance of blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, V; Biswal, Manoranjan; Mohanty, Smita; Nayak, Sanjay K

    2014-05-01

    This study is focused on the recovery and recycling of plastics waste, primarily polycarbonate, poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) and high impact polystyrene, from end-of-life waste electrical and electronic equipments. Recycling of used polycarbonate, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, polycarbonate/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene/high impact polystrene material was carried out using material recycling through a melt blending process. An optimized blend composition was formulated to achieve desired properties from different plastics present in the waste electrical and electronic equipments. The toughness of blended plastics was improved with the addition of 10 wt% of virgin polycarbonate and impact modifier (ethylene-acrylic ester-glycidyl methacrylate). The mechanical, thermal, dynamic-mechanical and morphological properties of recycled blend were investigated. Improved properties of blended plastics indicate better miscibility in the presence of a compatibilizer suitable for high-end application.

  1. Cobalt mediated radical polymerization (CMRP) using bis(acetylacetonato)cobalt(II): a unique tool for controlling the radical polymerization of conjugated and unconjugated vinyl monomers

    OpenAIRE

    Hurtgen, Marie; Debuigne, Antoine; Jérôme, Christine; Detrembleur, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    Cobalt-Mediated Radical Polymerization (CMRP) imparts a high level of control on the polymerization of acrylic and vinylic esters, acrylic acid and acrylonitrile. However, each class of monomers appears to be controlled by one class of cobalt complexes. For example, the polymerization of acrylates and acrylic acid is mediated by cobalt porphyrin complexes while vinyl acetate (VAc) and acrylonitrile are efficiently controlled by bis(acetylacetonato)cobalt(II) (Co(acac)2). Therefore, a challeng...

  2. Synthesis and thermal behavior of polyacrylonitrile/vinylidene chloride copolymer

    OpenAIRE

    Robson Fleming; Luiz Claudio Pardini; Nilton Alves; Elson Garcia; Carlos Brito Júnior

    2014-01-01

    Polyacrylonitrile fiber encompasses a broad range of products based on acrylonitrile (AN) which is readily copolymerized with a wide range of ethylenic unsaturated monomers giving rise to polymers with different characteristics and applications. Such products can be designed for cost-effective, flame and heat resistant solutions for the textile industry, aircraft and automotive markets. In the present work acrylonitrile was copolymerized with vinylidene chloride (VDC) by conventional suspensi...

  3. 丙烯腈对大鼠脑组织和神经胶质细胞中核因子-kB信号传导通路活性及相关基因表达的影响%Effects of acrylonitrile on the activation of nuclear factor-kB signaling pathways and related gene expression in rat brain and rat glial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦振泉; 裴晓燕; 郭云昌; 徐勇

    2008-01-01

    目的 丙烯腈(ACN)对大鼠脑组织和大鼠神经胶质细胞中核因子KB(NF-kB)信号传导通路活性及相关基因表达的影响.方法 利用micorarray和EMSA实验测定了SD大鼠经0和200mg/kg ACN分别作用14、28和90天后,大鼠脑组织NF-kB信号传导通路活性的变化及相关基因表达的变化;大鼠神经胶质细胞经0、25、50和75μg/ml ACN作用4和24h后细胞NF-kB信号传导通路活性的变化及相关基因表达的变化.结果 ACN促进大鼠脑组织(体内)和神经胶质细胞(体外)NF-kB信号传导通路相关基因(NIK、IKK、NF-kB1、NF-KB2、IkBa和c-myc)的表达.EMSA实验也进一步证实了ACN可激活大鼠脑组织和大鼠神经胶质细胞中NF-kB信号传导通路.结论 ACN诱导的氧化应激和ACN激活NF-kB信号传导通路具有一定的关系.

  4. STUDY ON THE SYNTHESIS AND STRUCTURE OF MACRORETICULAR BEAD PAN/PVC IPN RESINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yanfeng; ZHUO Renxi

    1993-01-01

    Macroreticular bead PAN/PVC IPN reans with cyano and chloro groups were synthesized by interpenetrating polymerization of acrylonitrile, or acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene into a macroporous polyvinyl chloride bead. The composition and structure of the bead IPN resins have been investigated by means of FT-IR, NMR, SEM, mercury porosimetry and elemental analysis. During the process of interpenetrating polymerization, the chain propagation obeys Bernoullian statistical law, and no grafting polymerization has been observed. The content of cyano group in the resulting IPN resins can be adjusted by the amount of acrylonitrile added. The morphology of the IPN resins basically resembles that of the polyvinyl chloride bead,whereas the pore structures vary to a certain degree

  5. Regioselective Synthesis of Some Pyrazole Scaffolds Attached to Benzothiazole and Benzimidazole Moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila A. Kheder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Condensation of 2-(benzothiazol-2-ylacetonitrile (1 or 2-(1-methyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-ylacetonitrile (2 with thiophene-2-carbaldehyde afforded the corresponding acrylonitrile derivatives 3 or 4, respectively. The 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of the acrylonitrile 3 or 4 with nitrile-imine 6 gave novel pyrazole derivatives pendant to benzothiazole and benzimidazole. The pyrazoline derivative 7 was converted into the corresponding pyrazole derivative 11 via thermal elimination of hydrogen cyanide upon heating in sodium ethoxide solution. The structures of the synthesized products were confirmed by IR, 1H NMR, and mass spectral techniques.

  6. Morphology of a silver/polyacrylonitrile nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryashov, M. A.; Mashin, A. I.; Tyurin, A. S.; Fedosov, A. E.; Chidichimo, G.; De Filpo, G.

    2011-01-01

    Silver/polyacrylonitrile (Ag/PAN) nanocomposites are synthesized at the stage of simultaneous acrylonitrile polymerization and the reduction of silver ions from a mixture of silver nitrate AgNO3, acrylonitrile, and a photoinitiator. The synthesized films are transparent in the visible region and are characterized by a uniform dispersion of silver nanoparticles in a PAN matrix without any macroscopic agglomeration. The effects of the metal salt and photoinitiator concentrations on the size and density of metal nanoparticles in a composite are revealed.

  7. 铸造技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A new polymer electrolyte poly(acrylonitrile)-dimethylsulphoxide-salt for electrochemical capacitors,A study ofyttria stabilized zirconia sheets fabricated,An investigation on fine-grain formation and structuralcharacter in cast IN718 superalloy,Automobile components made of magncsium-aluminium composites.

  8. A method for the production of weakly acidic cation exchange resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, H.; Werner, F.; Mitschker, A.; Diehl, H. V.; Schaefer, A.

    1991-12-01

    The invention relates to a nonpolluting method for the production of weakly acidic cation exchange resins by saponification of cross-linked acrylonitrile bead polymers, with an alkaline saponification agent at elevated temperature, according to which method the bead polymer and alkaline saponification agent are jointly added only at elevated temperature.

  9. Rapid prototyping of polymeric microstructures with a UV laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin F.; McCormack, John E.; Helbo, Bjarne;

    2003-01-01

    ion implantation of the master tool to prolong the lifetime has also been investigated. For injection moulding, where the pressure and temperature is higher than in hot embossing a positive laser ablated Acrylonitrile-butadien-styrene co-polymer (ABS) structure was used, which subsequently has been...

  10. Preparation of carboxy-group-contained polyvinyl alcohol amidoxime chelate fiber by preirradiation grafting and its adsorbability for Au(III) ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao Lei; Xu Jun; Xie Wenbing; Yao Jinyu [Academia Sinica, Changchun, JL (China). Changchun Inst. of Applied Chemistry

    1995-03-01

    Carboxy-group-contained polyvinyl alcohol amidoxime chelate fiber (PVAAO-AAc) was synthesized by preirradiation graft copolymerization and amidoximation. The radiation dose and ratio of monomers, acrylonitrile and acrylic acid, influence the value of grafting rate, amidoxime group component and adsorption capacity. The properties of adsorbing Au(III) ions was systematic studied in the paper. (author).

  11. Powder diffraction in structural characterization of dienediaminoketones of the indolin-3-one series

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vladimir V Chernyshev; Natalia S Monakhova

    2010-09-01

    Crystal structures of five derivatives of dienediaminoketones - 3-amino-3-(dimethylamino)-2-[(3-oxo-1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-ylidene)methyl]acrylonitrile (1); 3-amino-2-[(3-oxo-1,3-dihydro-2Hindol-2-ylidene)methyl]-3-pyperidin-1-ylacrylonitrile (2); 3-amino-3-morpholin-4-yl-2-[(3-oxo-1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-ylidene)methyl]acrylonitrile (3); 3-amino-3-[(4-methoxyphenyl)amino]-2-[(3-oxo-1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-ylidene)methyl]acrylonitrile (4) and 3-amino-3-(benzylamino)-2-[(3-oxo-1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-ylidene)methyl]acrylonitrile (5) - were determined from powder patterns measured with the laboratory powder diffractometer. The single crystal structure of the hydrate of ethanol solvate of 3 - 3·0.33C2H6O·0.33H2O (3a) - is also presented. The hydrogen-bonding patterns of all compounds are discussed.

  12. 32 CFR Enclosure 2 - Requirements for Environmental Considerations-Foreign Nations and Protected Global Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in the category of “prohibited or strictly regulated” are the following: asbestos, vinyl chloride, acrylonitrile, isocyanates, polychlorinated biphenyls, mercury, beryllium, arsenic, cadmium, and benzene. c... disclosure in accordance with the Department of Defense procedures (32 CFR 159) established for...

  13. Morita–Baylis–Hillman reaction of acrylamide with isatin derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhey M. Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Morita–Baylis–Hillman reaction of acrylamide, as an activated alkene, has seen little development due to its low reactivity. We have developed the reaction using isatin derivatives with acrylamide, DABCO as a promoter and phenol as an additive in acetonitrile. The corresponding aza version with acrylate and acrylonitrile has also been developed resulting in high product yields.

  14. 40 CFR 180.960 - Polymers; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... specified for defining a low-risk polymer in 40 CFR 723.250, as an inert ingredient in a pesticide chemical... Acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer conforming to 21 CFR 180.22, minimum average molecular weight (in amu), 1,000... Federal Register citations affecting § 180.960, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears...

  15. Selective Oxidative Decarboxylation of Amino Acids to Produce Industrially Relevant Nitriles by Vanadium Chloroperoxidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    But, A.; Notre, le J.E.L.; Scott, E.L.; Wever, R.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Industrial nitriles from biomass: Vanadium-chloroperoxidase is successfully used to transform selectively glutamic acid into 3-cyanopropanoic acid, a key intermediate for the synthesis of bio-succinonitrile and bio-acrylonitrile, by using a catalytic amount of a halide salt. This clean oxidative dec

  16. 21 CFR 173.5 - Acrylate-acrylamide resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... produced by the polymerization of acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of acrylamide... polyacrylate-acrylamide resin is produced by the polymerization and subsequent hydrolysis of acrylonitrile in a... or cane sugar juice and liquor or corn starch hydrolyzate in an amount not to exceed 5 parts...

  17. Insight into the transport of hexane-solute systems through tailor-made composite membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stafie, N.; Stamatialis, D.F.; Wessling, M.

    2004-01-01

    This work presents composite membranes comprising poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN) as the support and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as the selective top layer. For sunflower oil/hexane and polyisobutylene (PIB)/hexane, the permeation characteristics of these membranes for various feed concentrations and pres

  18. 40 CFR Table 8 to Subpart Ggg of... - Fraction Measured (Fm) for HAP Compounds in Wastewater Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Compounds in Wastewater Streams 8 Table 8 to Subpart GGG of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Streams Chemical name CAS No. a Fm Acetaldehyde 75070 1.00 Acetonitrile 75058 0.99 Acetophenone 98862 0.31 Acrolein 107028 1.00 Acrylonitrile 107131 1.00 Allyl chloride 107051 1.00 Benzene 71432 1.00...

  19. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Partially Soluble HAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in § 63.11498(a), you must comply with emission limits for wastewater streams that contain the...-Dichloroethylene (vinylidene chloride) 75354 5. 1,2-Dibromoethane 106934 6. 1,2-Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride.... Acrolein 107028 15. Acrylonitrile 107131 16. Allyl chloride 107051 17. Benzene 71432 18. Benzyl...

  20. 40 CFR Table 34 to Subpart G of... - Fraction Measured (Fm) and Fraction Emitted (Fe) For HAP Compounds in Wastewater Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Emitted (Fe) For HAP Compounds in Wastewater Streams 34 Table 34 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of...—Fraction Measured (Fm) and Fraction Emitted (Fe) For HAP Compounds in Wastewater Streams Chemical name CAS... Acrolein 107028 1.00 0.43 Acrylonitrile 107131 1.00 0.43 Allyl chloride 107051 1.00 0.89 Benzene 71432...

  1. Thermosensitive copolymeric hydrogels with the regulated temperature of a phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work is devoted to the methods of obtaining the thermosensitive copolymeric hydrogels based on the NIPAAm with acrylic acid and its derivatives such as acrylamide, acrylonitrile, and methylacrylate. The mechanisms of thermoinitiated phase transitions in hydrogel matrices and the regularities of the thermoinitiated release of model compounds and drugs (aniline, novocaine, and sodium diclofenac) from copolymeric hydrogel are investigated.

  2. Media surface properties and the development of nitrifying biofilms in mixed cultures for wastewater treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Stephenson, Tom; Reid, E.; Avery, L. M.; Jefferson, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Plastic was tested to select biofilm support media that would enhance nitrification in the presence of heterotrophs. Eight different types (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, nylon, polycarbonate, polyethylene, polypropylene, polytetraflouroethylene (PTFE), polyvinyl chloride and tufnol) were immersed in an aerobic fed-batch reactor receiving domestic settled wastewater. Nitrification rates did not correlate with biomass concentrations, nor surface roughness of the plastics as measured by atomi...

  3. Inducing Expression and Reaction Characteristic of Nitrile Hydratase from Rhodococcus sp. SHZ-1%Rhodococcus sp.SHZ-1腈水合酶的诱导表达和稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超; 张根林; 徐小琳; 李春

    2007-01-01

    Inducing expression and the reaction characteristic of nitrile hydratase (NHase) from Rhodococcus sp.SHZ-1 were investigated. The results showed that the expression of NHase was greatly enhanced with the cooperation of acrylonitrile and ammonium chloride as inducer in the medium and the specific activity of NHase was increased of 44%. Then the temperature, pH, concentration of acrylonitrile and acrylamide were evaluated, which affected the activity and reaction characteristic of NHase. It was found that the temperature and concentration of acrylamide were the most important factors for the catalyzation of NHase. The optimal catalysis temperature of NHase from Rhodococcus sp. SHZ-1 was 30℃, and the activation energy of the hydration of NHase was 90.2kJ·mol-1 in the temperature range from 5℃ to 30℃. Km of NHase was 0.095mol.L-1 using acrylonitrile(AN)as substrate, and NHase activity was inhibited seriously when acrylonitrile concentration was up to 40g·L-1, the substrate inhibition constant Ki is 0.283mol·L-1. Moreover, the NHase from Rhodococcus sp. SHZ-1 had very strong tolerance to acrylamide, in which the final concentration of acrylamide reached to 642g·L-1 and the residual activity of NHase still maintained 8.6% of the initial enzyme activity.

  4. Syntheses and Surface Properties of Polyacrylonitrile-based Copolymer Membranes Containing Sugar Moieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xiao-jun; WAN Ling-shu; DAI Zheng-wei; KOU Rui-qiang; XU Zhi-kang

    2005-01-01

    To improve the hydrophilicity of polyacrylonitrile-based membranes, sugar moieties were incorporated into acrylonitrile-based copolymers via the radical copolymerization of α-allyl glucoside(AG) with acrylonitrile(AN) with 2,2'-azobis-iso-butyronitrile(AIBN) as the initiator in dimethyl sulphoxide(DMSO). It was found that the yield increased with the increase of the initiator concentration and reaction time, while it decreased with the increase of the monomer molar ratio of AG to AN. Raising the AG proportion in the monomer mixture resulted in the increase of the AG content in the copolymer. Mv of the copolymers decreased with increasing the AG monomer fraction in feed. The copolymers were fabricated into dense membranes and their surface properties were studied by means of the water contact angle measurement and platelet adhesion tests. It was found that the static water contact angle on the membrane decreased significantly from 70° to 33° with the increase of the AG content. The adhesive number of platelets on the membrane surface also decreased significantly with increasing AG content in the copolymers. These results demonstrate that the hydrophilicity and biocompatibility of the acrylonitrile-based copolymer membranes could be improved efficiently by the copolymerization of acrylonitrile with vinyl carbohydrates.

  5. MW-assisted synthesis of carboxymethyl tamarind kernel polysaccharide-g-polyacrylonitrile: optimization and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meenkashi; Ahuja, Munish; Verma, Purnima

    2014-11-26

    Microwave-assisted synthesis of graft copolymer of carboxymethyl tamarind seed polysaccharide and polyacrylonitrile was carried out. The effect of formulation and process variables on grafting efficiency of carboxymethyl tamarind kernel polysaccharide-g-poly(acrylonitrile) was studied using response surface methodology. The results revealed that the significant factors affecting grafting efficiency were concentrations of ammonium persulphate, acrylonitrile and interaction effects of ammonium persulphate and acrylonitrile concentrations. The optimal calculated parameters were found to be microwave exposure time-99.48 s, microwave exposure power-160 W, concentration of acrylonitrile-0.10% (w/v), concentration of ammonium persulphate--40 mmol/l, which provided graft copolymer with grafting efficiency of 96%. The formation of graft copolymer was confirmed by FT-IR studies and validated by scanning electron micrographs. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated higher thermal stability of graft copolymer and X-ray diffraction study revealed increase in crystallinity on graft polymerization. Further, the graft copolymer showed pH dependant swelling. PMID:25256516

  6. NBR Demand Up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yuying

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 Output decreased in 2006 By the end of 2006 the capacity of to make NBR (acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber) in China was still maintained at 49.5 thousand t/a, but the output was only 35 thousand tons in 2006, a drop of 9.9% from 2005.

  7. 40 CFR Table 9 to Subpart G of... - Organic HAP's Subject to the Wastewater Provisions for Process Units at New and Existing Sources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... isobutyl ketone (Hexone) 108101 0.99 Methyl methacrylate 80626 0.98 Methyl tert-butyl ether 1634044 0.99... 107028 0.96 Acrylonitrile 107131 0.96 Allyl chloride 107051 0.99 Benzene 71432 0.99 Benzyl chloride...) 106898 0.91 Ethyl acrylate 140885 0.99 Ethylbenzene 100414 0.99 Ethyl chloride (Chloroethane) 75003...

  8. 46 CFR Table I to Part 150 - Alphabetical List of Cargoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... solution 7 Glycol diacetate, see Ethylene glycol diacetate EGY Glycolic acid solution 4 GLC Glyoxal... No. Foot-note CHRIS Code Related CHRIS Codes Acetaldehyde 19 AAD Acetic acid 4 2 AAC Acetic anhydride... Acetophenone 18 ACP Acrolein 19 2 ARL Acrylamide solution 10 AAM Acrylic acid 4 2 ACR Acrylonitrile 15 2...

  9. Towards developing an efficient sensitive element for trinitrotoluene detection: TiO2 thin films functionalized with molecularly imprinted copolymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazau, Carmen; Iordache, Tanta-Verona; Florea, Ana-Mihaela; Orha, Corina; Bandas, Cornelia; Radu, Anita-Laura; Sarbu, Andrei; Rotariu, Traian

    2016-10-01

    In this study, TiO2 films were successfully grown in-situ onto a FTO substrate by a hydrothermal method, using TiCl4 as Ti precursor, and further on functionalized with a 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene-molecularly imprinted polymer (TNT-MIP) film as a preliminary step in developing a trinitrotoluene (TNT) reusable sensor to overcome the international security issues. For investigating the TiO2 film thickness, crystalline structure and morphology, the films were autoclaved at 200 °C at different times. The X-ray diffraction showed that TiO2 films possessed a rutile structure, with no cracks visible by atomic force microscopy (AFM), and the films morphology observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was highly dependent upon the hydrothermal treatment time. Yet, the TiO2 films with a more porous surface were more suitable for TNT-MIP film deposit. Rheology of precursor polymer film solutions, based on poly (acrylonitrile-co-acrylic acid), poly (acrylonitrile-co-methacrylic acid) or poly (acrylonitrile- co-itaconic acid), and the structure and adherence of TNT-MIP films were investigated in order to establish the correct recipe of the MIP. The removal yield of TNT from the imprinted films, the thickness, the porosity and the compatibility with the inorganic TiO2 film were adequate for the poly (acrylonitrile-co-acrylic acid) system with an acrylonitrile: acrylic acid practical ratio of 86.1:13.9 (wt./wt.). Farmore, AFM morphology corroborated with SEM results highlighted the effect of TNT imprinting in the copolymer matrix as the surface of the imprinted layer was quite different from that of the non-imprinted layer.

  10. Preparation and characterization of poly(lithium acrylate-arcylonitrile)/LiClO4-LiNO3-LiBr solid polymer electrolytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Chun-yue; YUAN Yun-lan; CHEN Zhen-hua; XU Xian-hua; ZHANG Jian

    2005-01-01

    Through orthogonal experiment, a new type of LiClO4-LiNO3-LiBr eutectic salt with optimum mole ratio of n(LiClO4):n(LiNO3):n(LiBr)=1.6:3.8:1.0 was prepared. The poly(lithium acrylate-acrylonitrile)/LiClO4-LiNO3-LiBr solid polymer electrolytes were prepared with poly(lithium acrylate-acrylonitrile) and LiClO4-LiNO3-LiBr eutectic salts. The effect of LiClO4-LiNO3-LiBr eutectic salts content on the conductivity of solid polymer electrolytes was studied by alternating current impedance method, and the structures of eutectic salts and solid polymer electrolytes were characterized by differential thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry. The results show that the room temperature conductivity of LiClO4-LiNO3-LiBr eutectic salts reaches 3.11×10-4 S·cm-1. The poly(lithium acrylate-acrylonitrile)/LiClO4-LiNO3-LiBr solid polymer electrolytes possess the highest room temperature conductivity at 70% LiClO4-LiNO3-LiBr eutectic salts content, and exhibit lower glass transition temperature of 75 ℃ compared with that of poly(lithium acrylate-acrylonitrile) of 105 ℃. A complex may be formed in the solid polymer electrolytes from the differential thermal analysis and infrared spectroscopy analysis. X-ray diffraction results show that the poly(lithium acrylate-acrylonitrile) can suppress the crystallization of eutectic salts in this system.

  11. Novel nanosized water soluble fluorescent micelles with embedded perylene diimide fluorophores for potential biomedical applications: cell permeability, localization and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryaskova, Rayna; Georgiev, Nikolai I; Dimov, Stefan M; Tzoneva, Rumiana; Detrembleur, Christophe; Asiri, Abdullah M; Alamry, Khalid A; Bojinov, Vladimir B

    2015-06-01

    Novel biocompatible water-soluble fluorescent micelles with embedded perylene diimides (PDI) for intracellular applications have been prepared by self assembling of amphiphilic poly(vinyl alcohol)-b-poly(acrylonitrile) (PVA-b-PAN) copolymers in the presence of synthesized fluorophores. Amphiphilic PVA-b-PAN copolymers were obtained by selective hydrolysis of well-defined poly(vinyl acetate)-b-poly(acrylonitrile) (PVAc-b-PAN) copolymer. The preparation of the novel fluorescence micelles consisting of PVA hydrophilic shell and PAN hydrophobic core with incorporated PDI fluorophores has been confirmed by DLS and TEM analysis. The cytotoxicity of the water-soluble fluorophores and their internalization into living cells depending on the micellar concentration have been tested. It was shown that they could successfully enter in living cells without destroying their morphology. The results obtained indicate that the novel water-soluble fluorescent micelles with embedded PDI fluorophores would be suitable for potential intracellular biomedical applications. PMID:25842102

  12. The polymer-like organic material in the Orgueil meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandurski, E. L.; Nagy, B.

    1976-01-01

    Results are reported for analysis of polymeric organic material contained in powder from the Orgueil chondrite, using a stepwise high-vacuum pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique. Pyrolysis products obtained include a series of alkanes and alkenes to C8, an extensive series of alkylbenzene isomers, thiophene, alkylthiophenes, benzothiophene, acetonitrile, acrylonitrile, benzonitrile, acetone, and phenol. Most of these products are shown to be similar both qualitatively and quantitatively to those previously obtained from solvent-extracted Allende powder, indicating a basically aromatic and heteroaromatic polymer matrix with short aliphatic bridges or side chains. The production of acrylonitrile, acetonitrile, and benzonitrile (common breakdown products of amino acids) from the insoluble organic material is taken to suggest that amino acids exist in an insoluble form, perhaps as peptides, in the meteorite's polymeric component. Similarities between the structure of the Orgueil polymeric material and terrestrial kerogen are discussed which raise the possibility that both might have been produced in part by similar reactions.

  13. Rubber curing chemistry governing the orientation of layered silicate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of curing systems on the orientation and the dispersion of the layered silicates in acrylonitrile butadiene rubber nanocomposite is reported. Significant differences in X-ray diffraction pattern between peroxide curing and sulfur curing was observed. Intense X-ray scattering values in the XRD experiments from peroxide cured vulcanizates indicate an orientation of the layers in a preferred direction as evinced by transmission electron micrographs. However, sulfur cured vulcanizates show no preferential orientation of the silicate particles. Nevertheless, a closer inspection of transmission electron microscopy (TEM images of peroxide and sulfur cured samples shows exfoliated silicate layers in the acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR matrix. It was revealed in the prevailing study that the use of an excess amount of stearic acid in the formulation of the sulfur curing package leads to almost exfoliated type X-ray scattering pattern.

  14. Treatment of Some Hazardous Industrial Pollutants by Simple Oxidation Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central treatment of Industrial wastewater requires pretreatment of some specific pollutants which may be not effectively degraded in down stream processes in central treatment unit. Some of the hazardous pollutants in industrial wastewater including acrylonitrile, pesticides and some commonly used dyes (active and acid dyes) have been subjected individually to oxidation using hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by ferrous ions in acidic solution. Treatment efficiency was monitored by chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal using a specially developed concentration/COD curves. Initial concentrations (in terms of COD) were 910 PPM, 1348 and 530 ppm and the respective COD reductions were 91, 98 and 99%, for the pesticide, acrylonitrile and the reactive dye. Oxidative degradation of polared and acid green also reduced COD by 99 and 100% respectively. The obtained results confirm the appropriateness of oxidative degradation as a pretreatment for some hazardous pollutants prior to treatment in central facilities or municipal activated sludge stations

  15. Synthesis of quaternary derivatives of ortho-coco di-amido toluene and investigation of these compounds as cationic bitumen emulsifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassanzadeh, Masoumeh; Tayebi, Leila; Dezfouli, Hedieh; Kambarani, Masoud; Avval, Parviz Ahmadi [Tehran Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). ACECR, Designing Chemical Process Research Group

    2012-05-15

    Bitumen emulsions are preferred over conventional pavement systems due to their biologically and environmentally acceptable formulation, safety, low viscosity, storage stability, and cost effectiveness. The present investigation deals with the systematic study to synthesize ortho-cocodi-amido toluene and four quaternary derivatives by amidation of coconut oil and ortho toluene diamine (OTD), followed by quaternization with formaldehyde, formic acid mixture, and acrylonitrile, resulted in a new quaternary compound useful as cationic emulsifier in bitumen emulsions. The roles of temperature and reaction time in determining optimum conditions were investigated as well. Emulsifying behavior of these quaternary compounds was studied by sieve residue test, settlement and storage stability test of emulsified asphalt, and water solubility. The results show that the acrylonitrile imidazolinium derivative of o-cocodi-amido toluene (VI) can be used as a rapid-medium setting emulsifier. (orig.)

  16. The Surface Properties of PAVAc Prepared by Dispersion Polymerization in ScCO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ya-jun; WANG Zi; HU Chun-pu; DONG Qing-zhi

    2008-01-01

    Dispersion copolymerization of acrylonitrile-vinyl acetate (AN-VAc) has been successfully performed in supercritical carbon dioxide (ScCO2) with a series of lipophilic/CO2-philic diblock copolymers, such as poly (styrener-acrylonitrile)-b-poly (1, 1, 2, 2-tetrahydroperfluorooctyl methacrylate) (PSAN-b-PFOMA), as steric stabilizers. The structure and the particle morphology of the product were characterised by FT-IR and SEM. In addition, the effects of the stabilizer on the surface properties of the products were investigated in detail. Results indicate that the surface free energy of the poly (AN-r-VAc) (PAVAc) film decreases dramatically because of the existence of the stabilizer. And, when the initial concentration of the monomer was 10% (the mass (g) of monomer to the volume (mL) of ScCO2) the optimal concentration of the stabilizer is about 5% (w/w% to monomers).

  17. Positron annihilation lifetime study of interfaces in ternary polymer blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghala, D.; Ramya, P.; Pasang, T.; Raj, J. M.; Ranganathaiah, C.; Williams, J. F.

    2013-06-01

    A new method based on positron lifetime spectroscopy is developed to characterize individual interfaces in ternary polymer blends and hence determine the composition dependent miscibility level. The method owes its origin to the Kirkwood-Risemann-Zimm (KRZ) model for the evaluation of the hydrodynamic interaction parameters (αij) which was used successfully for a binary blend with a single interface. The model was revised for the present work for ternary polymer blends to account for three interfaces. The efficacy of this method is shown for two ternary blends namely poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)/poly (ethylene-co-vinylacetate)/poly(vinyl chloride) (SAN/EVA/PVC) and polycaprolactone /poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)/poly(vinyl chloride) (PCL/SAN/PVC) at different compositions. An effective hydrodynamic interaction parameter, αeff, was introduced to predict the overall miscibility of ternary blends.

  18. Polybenzoxazole-filled nitrile butadiene rubber compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajiwala, Himansu M. (Inventor); Guillot, David G. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An insulation composition that comprises at least one nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) having an acrylonitrile content that ranges from approximately 26% by weight to approximately 35% by weight and polybenzoxazole (PBO) fibers. The NBR may be a copolymer of acrylonitrile and butadiene and may be present in the insulation composition in a range of from approximately 45% by weight to approximately 56% by weight of a total weight of the insulation composition. The PBO fibers may be present in a range of from approximately 3% by weight to approximately 10% by weight of a total weight of the insulation composition. A rocket motor including the insulation composition and a method of insulating a rocket motor are also disclosed.

  19. Modification of the dyeing and finishing properties of polyester fabrics via gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile (ACN), styrene (S) and their binary mixtures with acrylamide onto polyester fiber by the direct method has been investigated. The effect of different factors that my influence the graft yield was studied to obtain the suitable conditions that improve the physical and chemical properties of polyester fabric. It was found that the solvent composition and comonomer mixture play an important role during graft copolymerization. The physical and chemical properties of the resulted graft copolymers were evaluated in terms of mechanical, thermal properties and dye ability with deferent classes of dyestuffs. The results revealed that the graft copolymerization enhances to a great extent the dye affinity particularly for basic dyes. Moreover, the thermal stability of polyester fabric was improved by graft copolymerization with polystyrene and the comonomer mixture of acrylonitrile and styrene.16 tabs.,44 figs.,86 refs

  20. Particle size tuning in silver-polyacrylonitrile nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Silver-polyacrylonitrile (Ag-PAN nanocomposites were in situ synthesized by simultaneous polymerization of acrylonitrile and reduction of silver ions, starting from mixtures of silver nitrate (AgNO3, acrylonitrile (AN, and UV photoinitiator (IN. The films obtained proved to be transparent and were characterized by a homogeneous dispersion of Ag nanoparticles within the PAN matrix without any macroscopic agglomeration. The particle size and number density were found to depend on both precursor salt and UV photoinitiator weight percentages. Optical and electrical properties were investigated as a function of both AgNO3 and IN amounts, too. We found that it is possible to finely tailor the metal nanoparticle size and number density and, consequently, the film optical and electrical response by adjusting the amounts of precursor salt and UV photoinitiator in the initial mixtures.

  1. Styrene-Based Copolymer for Polymer Membrane Modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsha Srivastava

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Poly(vinylidene fluoride (PVDF was modified with a styrene-based copolymer. The crystalline behavior, phase, thermal stability, and surface morphology of the modified membranes were analyzed. The membrane surface roughness showed a strong dependence on the styrene-acrylonitrile content and was reduced to 34% for a PVDF/styrene-acrylonitrile blend membrane with a 40/60 ratio. The thermal and crystalline behavior confirmed the blend miscibility of both polymers. It was observed in X-ray diffraction (XRD experiments that the modified PVDF membranes show a drastic reduction in their crystallinity. The neat PVDF membrane has the highest degradation rate, which decreased with the addition of the styrene-based copolymer.

  2. Preparation of n-tetradecane-containing microcapsules with different shell materials by phase separation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Rui [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Qingwu [Department of Chemical Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China); Wang, Xin; Zhang, Yinping [Department of Building Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2009-10-15

    Microcapsules for thermal energy storage and heat-transfer enhancement have attracted great attention. Microencapsulation of n-tetradecane with different shell materials was carried out by phase separation method in this paper. Acrylonitrile-styrene copolymer (AS), acrylonitrile-styrene-butadiene copolymer (ABS) and polycarbonate (PC) were used as the shell materials. The structures, morphologies and the thermal capacities of the microcapsules were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The ternary phase diagrams showed the potential encapsulation capabilities of the three shell materials. The effects of the shell/core ratio and the molecular weight of the shell material on the encapsulation efficiency and the thermal capacity of the microcapsules were also discussed. Microcapsules with melting enthalpy > 100 J/g, encapsulation efficiency 66-75%, particle size<1 {mu}m were obtained for all three shell materials. (author)

  3. Entwicklung von Polymermembranen für die Abtrennung von Kohlendioxid aus Gasströmen

    OpenAIRE

    Ballhorn, Michael

    2000-01-01

    The development of new polymers for selective separation of carbon dioxide with polymeric membranes is based upon the fact that amino groups in aqueous matrices facilitate the transportation of carbon dioxide. Therefore polymethacrylates and polyacrylates with different amino groups in side chains, polymers based on 4-vinylpyrridin and co-polymers of each with acrylonitrile were synthesised. Gas separation properties were tested for the gases H2, He, N2, O2, CO2 and CH4. The influence of the ...

  4. Вивчення епоксидних новолачних смол на основі карданолу та їх сумішей

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Ranjana; Srivastava, Deepak

    2008-01-01

    Cardanol-based novolac-type phenolic resin was synthesized with a mole ratio 1.0:0.5 of cardanol-toformaldehyde using a dicarboxylic acid catalyst such as succinic acid. The cardanol-based novolac-type phenolic resin may further be modified by epoxidation with epichlorohydrin excess at 393 K in a basic medium to duplicate the performance of such phenolic-type novolacs. Carboxyl-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile copolymer (CTBN) has been studied by various researches with diglycidyl ether ...

  5. Development of a rubber toughened epoxy adhesive loaded with carbon nanotubes, for aluminium – polymer bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Salinas-Ruiz , Maria del Mar

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes the formulation of a ternary thermosetting adhesive which consists of a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) epoxy resin cured with 3,3’-diamino diphenyl sulphone (3,3’-DDS) hardener and modified through the addition of carboxyl- terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile (CTBN) rubber and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Processing implications of the novel adhesive in the film form are considered in order to manufacture bonded specimens for characteris...

  6. Rheology of ABS and binary of organo clay nanocomposites; Reologia de nanocompositos de ABS e mistura binaria de argilas montmorilonita organofilicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvan, Danieli; Mazzucco, Mateus; Carneiro, Fabio; Bartoli, Julio R.; Morales, Ana Rita, E-mail: bartoli@unicamp.br [Fac. de Engenharia Quimica/Universidade Estadual de Campinas-DTP/FEQ/UNICAMP-, SP (Brazil); D' Avila, Marcos A. [Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica/Universidade Estadual de Campinas - DEMA/FEM/UNICAMP, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    nanocomposites of poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) and organically modified montmorillonite clays by melt intercalation on a co-rotating twin-screw extruder were prepared and characterized. It was studied the effects of screw torque and a binary mixture of organically modified montmorillonites on the intercalation/exfoliation of organoclays in the polymer matrix, characterized by X-ray diffraction morphological analyses and by capillary and parallel plates rheological analyses. (author)

  7. Rheology of ABS and binary of organo clay nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    nanocomposites of poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) and organically modified montmorillonite clays by melt intercalation on a co-rotating twin-screw extruder were prepared and characterized. It was studied the effects of screw torque and a binary mixture of organically modified montmorillonites on the intercalation/exfoliation of organoclays in the polymer matrix, characterized by X-ray diffraction morphological analyses and by capillary and parallel plates rheological analyses. (author)

  8. Influence of the morphology on mechanical properties of toughened epoxies with CTBN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Presents a toughened-epoxy risen based on diglycidylether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) cured with ethylene-diamine (EDA) and modified with a carboxyl-terminated acrylonitrile-butadiene (CTBN), studies morphologies with different rubber content and analyses the influence of rubber-phase morphology corresponding to different rubber contents on mechanical properties (elastic modulus, uniaxial compression yield stress, shearing strength, uneven tensile strength, critical stress intensity factor Kic and strain energy release rate Gic) of toughened epoxies.

  9. WOOD - PLASTIC COMPOSITES FROM WASTE MATERIALS RESULTED IN THE FURNITURE MANUFACTURING PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Camelia COŞEREANU; Dumitru LICA

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the application of waste materials resulted in the furniture manufacturing process as components for wood-plastic composites. The composites are produced from industrial byproducts, such as shavings and ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene), without coupling agent. The two components are derived from industrial processes of furniture manufacturing: the first one consists of wood residues resulted from planing machine as planer shavings, and the second one from ABS edge band...

  10. ECOLOGICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF MATERIALS FOR 3D-PRINTING

    OpenAIRE

    Є.О. Бовсуновський; Зінченко, Р. О.

    2016-01-01

    The article analyzes the main materials used for 3D-printing. Particular attention is paid to the study of ecological and technological analysis of the effects of the most widely used material: Polylactic Acid and Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene, as well as their professional series and Nylon, Polyethylene Terephthalate, TPE on the environment. The article deals with the characteristic features of the physical properties of materials (material) for their intended purpose, according sharing al...

  11. Functionalization of Magnetite Nanoparticles as Oil Spill Collector

    OpenAIRE

    Atta, Ayman M.; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A.; Sami A. Al-Hussain

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a new magnetic powder based on magnetite can be used as a petroleum crude oil collector. Amidoximes based on rosin as a natural product can be prepared from a reaction between hydroxylamine and rosin/acrylonitrile adducts. The produced rosin amidoximes were used as capping agents for magnetite nanoparticles to prepare hydrophobic coated magnetic powders. A new class of monodisperse hydrophobic magnetite nanoparticles was prepared by a simple and inexpensive co-precipitat...

  12. Effects of melt blended poss nanofillers on pom and ABS thermal stability

    OpenAIRE

    Vilà Ramírez, Narciso

    2014-01-01

    This PhD thesis investigated the incorporation of Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes (POSS) in thermoplastic base materials via melt-blending procedures. Particularly, a focus is taken on the enhancement of the thermal resistance through the addition of different types of POSS on two popular engineering plastics known by their low thermal stability, one being a semi-crystalline copolymer i.e. polyoxymethylene (POM) and the other an amorphous copolymer i.e. acrylonitrile butadiene styren...

  13. APPLICATION OF TIME-TEMPERATURE SUPERPOSITION PRINCIPLE TO EVALUATION OF SCATTERING INTENSITY EVOLUTION IN PHASE SEPARATION FOR PMMA/SAN BLENDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Peng; Qiang Zheng

    2000-01-01

    Spinodal phase separation behavior of poly(methyl methacrylate)/poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) (PMMA/SAN)blends was investigated by the time-resolved small angle light scattering (SALS) technique. It was found that the influence of temperature on the scattering intensity evolution followed the time-temperature superposition principle. The relationship between temperature and the relaxation time of scattering intensity I(t) can be well described by the Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) function.

  14. PHOTOCOPOLYMERIZATION OF MALEIC ANHYDRIDE AND VINYL ACETATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaofang; LI Shanjun; QIN Anwei; YU Tongyin

    1990-01-01

    The charge-transfer complex of maleic anhydride and vinyl acetate was copolymerized under UV light. The chain composition and structure of the copolymer were analyzed with conductometry and NMR, and the chain sequence was determined as alternating. The copolymerization rates at different feed ratios, temperatures and in different solvents were investigated, giving evidence to the very active involvement of the CT complexes in the copolymerization. Terpolymerization with acrylonitrile also showed that the complex mechanism was a proper one for this system.

  15. Three-dimensional heterostructure of metallic nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes as potential nanofiller

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Whi Dong; Huh, Jun Young; Ahn, Ji Young; Lee, Jae Beom; Lee, Dongyun; Hong, Suck Won; Kim, Soo Hyung

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the dimensionality of metallic nanoparticle-and carbon nanotube-based fillers on the mechanical properties of an acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) polymer matrix was examined. ABS composite films, reinforced with low dimensional metallic nanoparticles (MNPs, 0-D) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs, 1-D) as nanofillers, were fabricated by a combination of wet phase inversion and hot pressing. The tensile strength and elongation of the ABS composite were increased by 39% and 6%, respe...

  16. Développement des procédés "verts" pour modifier la surface d'ABS avant sa métallisation

    OpenAIRE

    Magallon Cacho, Lorena

    2009-01-01

    The ABS is a copolymer formed by Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene used in industry whose surface can be coated with a metallic deposit. The traditional process for depositing metallic films in an auto-catalytic way is know as "Electroless", However, this process uses a sulfo-chromic mixture in the preliminary stage of the surface treatment containing Cr (VI) which is a toxic, polluting agent that needs to be replaced. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new surface modification procedures wi...

  17. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN TABRIZ PETROCHEMICAL COMPLEX

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Abduli, M. Abbasi, T. Nasrabadi, H. Hoveidi, N. Razmkhah

    2006-01-01

    Tabriz petrochemical complex is located in the northwest of Iran. Major products of this industry include raw plastics like, polyethylene, polystyrene, acrylonitrile, butadiene, styrene, etc. Sources of waste generation include service units, health and cure units, water, power, steam and industrial processes units. In this study, different types of solid waste including hazardous and non hazardous solid wastes were investigated separately. The aim of the study was to focus on the management ...

  18. Microwave Study of Recycled ABS Resins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A; M; Hasna

    2002-01-01

    This article provides a review of the research unde rt aken in order to determine the suitability of utilizing microwave technology in the production of Recycled ABS Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene resin for mouldin gs. The experimental investigation determined the suitability of the existing re cycled ABS material, the mould material used with respect to performance and lon gevity, potential commercial plant and equipment, end mould compression. Introduction Frequency Characterization of ABS The first ...

  19. Smart Card: Turning Point of Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Abhishek Mahajan; Akash Verma; Dhruv Pahuja

    2014-01-01

    A smart card, chip card, or integrated circuit card (icc) is any pocket-sized card with embedded integrated circuits. Smart Cards are secure portable storage devices used for several applications especially security related ones involving access to system’s database either online or offline. Smart cards are made of plastic, generally polyvinyl chloride, but sometimes polyethylene terephthalate based polyesters, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene orpolycarbonate. This research is chie...

  20. Complex-mediated microwave-assisted synthesis of polyacrylonitrile nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Trinath Biswal; Ramakanta Samal; Prafulla K. Sahoo

    2010-01-01

    Trinath Biswal, Ramakanta Samal, Prafulla K SahooDepartment of Chemistry, Utkal University, Vani Vihar, Bhubaneswar 751004, IndiaAbstract: The polymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) is efficiently, easily, and quickly achieved in the presence of trans-[Co(III)en2Cl2]Cl complex in a domestic microwave (MW) oven. MW irradiation notably promoted the polymerization reaction; this phenomenon is ascribed to the acceleration of the initiator, ammonium persulfate (APS), decomposition by microwave irrad...

  1. Synthesis and characterization of polyacrylonitrile-silver nanocomposites by {gamma}-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Huarong E-mail: hrliu@ustc.edu.cn; Ge Xuewu; Ni Yonghong; Ye Qiang; Zhang Zhicheng

    2001-04-01

    The nanocomposites of stable nanosilver particles embedded in polyacrylonitrile matrix were synthesized by {gamma}-irradiation, in which the monomer acrylonitrile was polymerized and the silver ions were reduced simultaneously by {gamma}-irradiation to form composites in situ. The strong interactions between silver ions with -CN groups of polyacrylonitrile are found, which were confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction, IR spectrum and absorption spectra.

  2. Uses of 2-Ethoxy-4(3H) quinazolinone in Synthesis of Quinazoline and Quinazolinone Derivatives of Antimicrobial Activity: The Solvent Effect

    OpenAIRE

    El-Hashash, Maher A.; Rizk, Sameh A.; El-Bassiouny, Fakhry A.; Darwish, Khalid M

    2012-01-01

    2- Ethoxy-4(3H) quinazolinone 1 was synthesized and allowed to react with various halides, namely: alkyl, benzyl, allyl, acyl, haloacetyl, crotonyl, benzoyl, 2-furoyl and 1-naphthalenesulphonyl halides affording quinazoline and quinazolinone derivatives. The reactions of compound 1 with phosphorus oxychloride, phosphorus pentasulfide, ethyl chloroformate, ethyl chloroacetate, α-bromoglucose tetraacetate, p-acylaminobenzenesulfonyl chloride, acrylonitrile, chalcone and chalcone oxide were also...

  3. Charpy Impact Test on Polymeric Molded Parts

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Raicu

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the Charpy impact tests on the AcrylonitrileButadiene-Styrene (ABS) polymeric material parts. The Charpy impact test, also known as the Charpy V-notch test, is a standardized strain rate test which determines the amount of energy absorbed by a material during fracture. This is a typical method described in ASTM Standard D 6110. We use for testing an Instron - Dynatup equipment which have a fully integrated hardware and software package that let us capture ...

  4. 共聚物-深剂体系的气液平衡:新UNIFAC基团热力学模型与实验研究%Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium of Copolymer+solvent Systems:Experimental Data and Thermodynamic Modeling with New UNIFAC groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rogério A.G. Sé; Martín Aznar

    2008-01-01

    Vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE)data for copolymer solutions are necessary for several chemical processes.However,VLE data for copolymer solutions in the published report are rare.In this study.experimental VLE data for binary systems copolymer+solvent were obtained using a gravimetric-sorption apparatus.The studied systems were hexane+poly(21%acrylonitrile-co-butadiene),hexanc+poly(33%acrylonitrile-co-butadiene),hexane+poly(51%acrylonitrile-co-butadiene),hexanc+poly(23%styrene-co-butadiene),hexane+poly(45%styrene-co-butadiene),and benzene+poly(44%styrene-co-methyl methacrylate)in the range 50-70℃.The experimental data were correlated with the UNIFAC and Elbro-FV group contribution models for the activity coefficient.Two sets of functional groups had been used to represent the monomers in copolymers:literature groups and new proposed groups.The mean deviations between experimental and calculated mass fractions about 2.4%with ElbroFV and 13.3%witll Zhong were observed when the groups proposed in this study were USed.and of 3.5%for E1bro-FV and 13.2%for Zhong when literature groups were used.

  5. Enhancement of the grafting performance and of the water absorption of cassava starch graft copolymer by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enhancement of the gamma radiation grafting of acrylonitrile onto gelatinized cassava starch was investigated. Infrared spectrometry was used to follow the chemical changes in the grafting reaction and from saponification. The saponified starch-g-PAN (HSPAN) was then characterized in terms of grafting parameters to provide a guide for the optimum total dose (kGy) and the appropriate ratio of starch/acrylonitrile for a fixed dose rate of 2.5 x 10-1 kGy/min. Other dose rates were also carried out to obtain the appropriate result of grafting copolymerization and of water absorption. A thin aluminium foil, covering the inner wall of the reaction vessel, was found to be far more effective than any other metal films in the enhancement of the grafting reaction and the water absorption as well. Nitric acid in the medium increases the grafting yield and the water absorption. Methyl ether hydroquinone inhibitor was evaluated for its ability to increase homopolymerization and decrease graft reaction. When styrene was used as a comonomer, it hampered the grafting of acrylonitrile onto starch backbone. The water absorption capacity was improved by freeze-drying the HSPAN. The treatment of the HSPAN with aluminium trichloride hexahydrate was found to enhance the degree of wicking, but to decrease the water absorbency. (author)

  6. Enhancement of the grafting performance and of the water absorption of cassava starch graft copolymer by gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiatkamjornwong, Suda; Meechai, Nispa [Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok (Thailand)

    1997-06-01

    Enhancement of the gamma radiation grafting of acrylonitrile onto gelatinized cassava starch was investigated. Infrared spectrometry was used to follow the chemical changes in the grafting reaction and from saponification. The saponified starch-g-PAN (HSPAN) was then characterized in terms of grafting parameters to provide a guide for the optimum total dose (kGy) and the appropriate ratio of starch/acrylonitrile for a fixed dose rate of 2.5 x 10{sup -1} kGy/min. Other dose rates were also carried out to obtain the appropriate result of grafting copolymerization and of water absorption. A thin aluminium foil, covering the inner wall of the reaction vessel, was found to be far more effective than any other metal films in the enhancement of the grafting reaction and the water absorption as well. Nitric acid in the medium increases the grafting yield and the water absorption. Methyl ether hydroquinone inhibitor was evaluated for its ability to increase homopolymerization and decrease graft reaction. When styrene was used as a comonomer, it hampered the grafting of acrylonitrile onto starch backbone. The water absorption capacity was improved by freeze-drying the HSPAN. The treatment of the HSPAN with aluminium trichloride hexahydrate was found to enhance the degree of wicking, but to decrease the water absorbency. (author).

  7. Synthesis and thermal behavior of polyacrylonitrile/vinylidene chloride copolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Fleming

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Polyacrylonitrile fiber encompasses a broad range of products based on acrylonitrile (AN which is readily copolymerized with a wide range of ethylenic unsaturated monomers giving rise to polymers with different characteristics and applications. Such products can be designed for cost-effective, flame and heat resistant solutions for the textile industry, aircraft and automotive markets. In the present work acrylonitrile was copolymerized with vinylidene chloride (VDC by conventional suspension polymerization process via redox system, with an initial content of 10%/mass of the VDC monomer. The copolymer average molecular weight was obtained by Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC and by intrinsic viscosity analysis. To control the polymerization process continuously, qualitative and quantitative analysis of the chloride content in the PAN AN/VDC copolymer structure was accomplished by using X-ray fluorescence and potentiometric titration techniques. A good correlation was found between these two techniques, leading to a straightforward verification of VDC in the polymer structure. The thermal behavior of PAN AN/VDC copolymer was performed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA. The results showed that VDC monomers exhibited a nearly stoichiometric reaction with acrylonitrile, copolymerizing about 90% of its initial mass. VDC changed significantly the polyacrylonitrile thermal behavior, decreasing the polymer degradation temperature by about 40-50°C.

  8. [The novel copolymer coated capillary columns of electrophoresis and their applications to separation of proteins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, G; Gao, D; Gu, J; Fu, R; Li, F; Zhang, H

    1999-01-01

    The copolymer of acrylonitrile, methyl acrylate, hydroxy ethyl acrylate (ZB-004), the copolymer of acrylonitrile, methyl acrylate, hydroxy ethyl acrylate, acrylamide (ZB-014) and the copolymer of acrylonitrile, hydroxy ethyl acrylate (ZB-016) were coated on the inner surface of fused-silica capillaries by just filling the capillary with solutions containing these copolymers followed by flushing the capillary with nitrogen. The physically adsorbed layer can reduce both protein adsorption and electroosmotic flow in the pH range of 3-5. Electroosmotic flow decreased by raising the concentrations of the copolymers. Separation performance of ZB-004 layer is better than those of other two layers due to its low hydrophilicity, but with higher pH values, appreciable peak deformation and increase in electroosmosis were observed. The intra day and inter day migration reproducibility were investigated in terms of relative standard deviation (RSD) with four basic proteins at pH 4.0. The RSDs of the intra day migration times were less than 2%. The RSDs of the inter day migration times were less than 4%. At pH 5.0, the RSDs of the migration times in two ZB-004-coated capillaries made on two different days were less than 1%. Separation efficiencies of four basic proteins in a ZB-004-coated capillary which stored in a buffer (pH 4.0) for fifteen days after being used for 14 days decreased 15%. These coatings were stable and exhibited reproducible separations from intra day, inter day and inter column under acidic conditions.

  9. Influence of Layer Thickness and Raster Angle on the Mechanical Properties of 3D-Printed PEEK and a Comparative Mechanical Study between PEEK and ABS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzheng Wu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fused deposition modeling (FDM is a rapidly growing 3D printing technology. However, printing materials are restricted to acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS or poly (lactic acid (PLA in most Fused deposition modeling (FDM equipment. Here, we report on a new high-performance printing material, polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK, which could surmount these shortcomings. This paper is devoted to studying the influence of layer thickness and raster angle on the mechanical properties of 3D-printed PEEK. Samples with three different layer thicknesses (200, 300 and 400 μm and raster angles (0°, 30° and 45° were built using a polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK 3D printing system and their tensile, compressive and bending strengths were tested. The optimal mechanical properties of polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK samples were found at a layer thickness of 300 μm and a raster angle of 0°. To evaluate the printing performance of polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK samples, a comparison was made between the mechanical properties of 3D-printed polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS parts. The results suggest that the average tensile strengths of polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK parts were 108% higher than those for acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS, and compressive strengths were 114% and bending strengths were 115%. However, the modulus of elasticity for both materials was similar. These results indicate that the mechanical properties of 3D-printed polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK are superior to 3D-printed ABS.

  10. Graft copolymerization of acrylo–nitrile onto delignified native bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris cellulosic and its utilization potential for heavy metal uptake from aqueous medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O. EKEBAFE

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Graft polymerization of acrylonitrile onto delingnified cellulosic material obtained from Nigeria grown bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris could be initiated by a ceric ammonium nitrate redox system. Optimization of grafting of acrylonitrile onto cellulosic material was performed by varying the reaction conditions, such as the duration of soaking of cellulosic material in ceric ammonium nitrate solution, concentration of ceric ammonium nitrate solution, polymerization time, temperature of reaction, and acrylonitrile concentration and saponification time, in order to study their influence on percent grafting yield and grafting efficiency. The resulting cellulosic-g-polyacrylonitrile (PAN copolymers were fractionated by extraction at 33 C with N,N’-dimethylformamide. Fractions were characterized by determining both the % add-on and the free polymer. Saponification of grafted copolymer was done by reaction with sodium hydroxide followed by methanol precipitation. The absorbent polymer so produced gave fair water retention values. The optimum reaction conditions obtained were: 20 mmol/L ceric ammonium nitrate solution in 1% nitric acid, soaking duration of 0.5 h at 40 C for a polymerization time of 2 h and saponification time of 3 h. The percent grafting was 167.89%, grafting efficiency was 93.52% and water retention value was 389 g/g. The grafting was confirmed using FTIR. Sorption of different metal ions in the mixture, e.g. Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu and Pb, by grafted cellulosic and the hydrogel was also investigated. Hydrolysis increases the sorption affinity of grafted cellulose toward water and metal ions.

  11. Use of anions of C{sub 60} as electrogenerated bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niyazymbetov, M.E.; Evans, D.H. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry

    1995-08-01

    C{sub 60} was reduced in the mixed solvent acetonitrile-toluene (2:3) to form a series of three electrogenerated bases of successively increasing basicity. These were the radical anion, the dianion, and the radical trianion of the fullerene. Cyclic voltammograms indicated that the radical anion was capable of deprotonating the relatively strong C-H acid, ethyl nitroacetate. The weaker acid, diethyl malonate, required the stronger base C{sub 60}{sup 2{minus}} in order to observe deprotonation on the voltammetric time scale. Other weak acids that react with C{sub 60}{sup 2{minus}} include diethyl methylalonate, 2-nitropropane, and n-octanethiol. The anionic electrogenerated bases were used to carry out efficient base-catalyzed synthetic reactions. These included the C{sub 60}{sup {minus}{sm_bullet}}-catalyzed reaction of ethyl nitroacetate with ethyl acrylate and acrylonitrile to form double addition products. The dianion promoted reaction of nitromethane with ethyl acrylate to form a triple addition product in good yield, as well as the reaction of diethyl malonate with acrylonitrile to give a double addition product. In this case it was demonstrated that the fullerene probase may be recycled at least two times. The dianion was also used to catalyze the addition of n-octanethiol to styrene oxide. The reactions of still weaker acids could be promoted by the highly basic C{sub 60}{sup 3{minus}}. These included the addition of pyrrole to acrylonitrile and the Wittig-Horner reaction of diethyl benzylphosphonate with benzaldehyde.

  12. Experimental study on nanofiltration treatment of high-concentration acryionitrile industrial wastewater%纳滤处理高浓度丙烯腈工业废水的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李薇; 展侠; 李继定; 郑冬菊

    2011-01-01

    The existing treatment technologies for high concentration acrylonitrile industrial wastewater are unsatisfactory. Aiming at the high concentration acrylonitrile industrial wastewater, the flocculation effects of five different flocculants were experimented by flocculation and nanofiltration processing. The optimal flocculant and amount were chosen, and the effect of nanofiltration was investigated. About 20% CODCr in the wastewater was removed through the flocculation process, and about 70% CODCr was removed through nanofiltration process. After nanofiltration in twice, the colourity and turbidity of wastewater come up to standard, which is very important for the circulating utilization of acrylonitrile industrial wastewater.%高浓度丙烯腈工业废水的处理技术在工业生产中都不理想,针对高浓度丙烯腈工业废水,采用絮凝和纳滤进行处理,测试了5种不同的絮凝剂的絮凝效果,选择最佳的絮凝剂及其用量,考察了纳滤处理高浓度丙烯腈废水的效果.经过絮凝过程除去废水中约20%的CODcr,纳滤过程除去约70%的CODcr,经过二次纳滤,废水出水色度、浊度已经达到出水指标,为实现丙烯腈生产中工业废水的绿色循环利用和零排放奠定了基础.

  13. Preparation of Impact and Weather Resistant Copolymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG; Tao

    2001-01-01

    Synthesis method of the resin is that crosslinked polybutyl acrylate latex is used as base latex. Styrene (St) and acrylonitrile (AN) are grafted onto polybutyl acrylate latex particle and turn into core-shell copolymer. The resin is a good resin's impact modifier. There are study of influence regularity about additive emulsifier, initiator, monomer concentration, the ratio of St to AN, chain transfer to graft polymerization. A kind of core-shell resin used as impact modifier is obtained. (A) Preparation of Crosslinked Butyl Acrylate Rubber Latex  ……

  14. Preparation of Impact and Weather Resistant Copolymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Synthesis method of the resin is that crosslinked polybutyl acrylate latex is used as base latex. Styrene (St) and acrylonitrile (AN) are grafted onto polybutyl acrylate latex particle and turn into core-shell copolymer. The resin is a good resin's impact modifier. There are study of influence regularity about additive emulsifier, initiator, monomer concentration, the ratio of St to AN, chain transfer to graft polymerization. A kind of core-shell resin used as impact modifier is obtained. (A) Preparation of Crosslinked Butyl Acrylate Rubber Latex

  15. Synthesis and characterization of castor oil based polyurethane–polyacrylonitrile interpenetrating polymer networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Mallu; Siddaramaiah; R Somashekar

    2000-10-01

    A series of interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) of castor oil based polyurethane/polyacrylonitrile (PU/PAN: 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60 and 20/80) were synthesized by condensation reaction of castor oil with methylene diisocyanate and acrylonitrile, employing benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and ethylene glycol dimethylacrylate (EGDM) as initiator and crosslinkers respectively. The physical, chemical, optical and some of the mechanical properties of PU/PAN were studied. Phase stabilization in IPNs was investigated by wide angle X-ray (WAXS) profile analysis. Variation of crystal size distribution was studied in these polymer networks.

  16. Crystal structure of 2-(4-chlorophenyl-3-(4-methoxyphenyl-3-(methylsulfanylacrylonitrile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamantha Kumar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C17H14ClNOS, the aromatic rings are inclined to one another by 64.22 (9°. The acrylonitrile group (C=C—C[triple-bond]N is planar to within 0.003 (2 Å, with the S atom and the methyl C atom displaced from this plane by 0.2317 (6 and −0.637 (2 Å, respectively. In the crystal, molecules are linked via pairs of C—H...π interactions, forming inversion dimers. There are no other significant intermolecular interactions present.

  17. Preparation of amidoximated polymer composite based on CMK-3 for selective separation of uranium from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of amidoximated mesoporous carbon (AO/CMK-3) by in situ polymerizing acrylonitrile onto the surface of mesoporous carbon (CMK-3) and reducing with hydroxylamine hydrochloride had been explored for the removal and recovery of uranium from aqueous solutions. The monolayer maximum capacity of AO/CMK-3 was improved from 69.20 of CMK-3 to 238.7 mg/g at 298 K. Calculated thermodynamic parameters showed endothermic property of the adsorption process, while kinetic parameters indicated that the interaction followed pseudo-second kinetic model. Selective separation of U(VI) from effluent by AO/CMK-3 was achieved. (author)

  18. A -cyanostilbene-modified Schiff base as efficient turn-on fluorescent chemosensor for Zn2+

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aixiang Ding; Fang Tang; Tao Wang; Xutang Tao; Jiaxiang Yang

    2015-03-01

    A novel Schiff base derivative (Z)-3-(4-(hexyloxy)phenyl)-2-(4-((E)-2-hydroxybenzylidene amino)phenyl)acrylonitrile (L) was designed, synthesized and characterized. L was used as a Zn2+ selective, turn-on, fluorescent chemosensor with a detection limit of 0.1M in DMF. 1:1 stoichiometric complex formation of L wih Zn2+ was confirmed through fluorescent titration experiments and Job’s plot. The enhancement of fluorescence intensity of L with addition of Zn2+ is the consequence of the inhibited isomerization of the C=N bond, namely chelation-enhanced fluorescence (CHEF) effect.

  19. The cross linking of EPDM and NBR rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samardžija-Jovanović Suzana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the process of macromolecule cross linking, the choice of type and quantity of the components and the experimental conditions are important to obtain the new cross linked materials with better mechanical and chemical characteristics. The cross linking method depends on the rubber type and structure. Intermolecular cross linking results in the formation elastomer network. The basis of the cross linking process, between ethylene propylene diene rubber (EPDM and acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR, is a chemical reaction. Fillers and other additives are present in different mass ratios in the material. The exploitation properties of the cross linked materials depend on the quantity of additive in the cross linked systems.

  20. Self-Assembled Organic Single Crystalline Nanosheet for Solution Processed High-Performance n-Channel Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hong; Park, Sang Kyu; Kim, Jong H; Whang, Dong Ryeol; Yoon, Won Sik; Park, Soo Young

    2016-07-01

    Submillimeter sized n-channel organic single crystalline nanosheet based on dicyanodistyrylbenzene derivative, (2E,2'E)-3,3'-(2,5-dimethoxy-1,4-pheny-lene)bis(2-(5-(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)thiophen-2-yl)acrylonitrile) (Me-4-TFPTA), is developed. Strong π-π interaction, hydrogen bonding interactions derived from cyano group (CN) as well as solvent inclusion along the lateral direction play a key role in forming nanosheet morphology. Me-4-TFPTA nanosheets exhibit excellent field-effect electron mobility of up to 7.81 cm(2) v(-1) s(-1) . PMID:27165653

  1. Development of recycled plastic composites for structural applications from CEA plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Agrim

    Plastic waste from consumer electronic appliances (CEAs) such as computer and printer parts including Polystyrene (PS), Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS), Polystyrene (PS) and PC/ABS were collected using handheld FTIR Spectrophotometer. The blends of these plastics with High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) are manufactured under special processing conditions in a single screw compounding injection molding machine. The blends are thermoplastics have high stiffness and strength, which may enhance the mechanical properties of HDPE like tensile modulus, ultimate tensile strength, tensile break and tensile yield. These composites have a potential to be used for the future application of recycled plastic lumber, thus replacing the traditional wood lumber.

  2. Sensitive on-chip methane detection with a cryptophane-A cladded Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    OpenAIRE

    Dullo, Firehun Tsige; Lindecrantz, Susan; Jagerska, Jana; Hansen, Jørn H; Engqvist, Stig Olov Magnus; Solbø, Stian; Hellesø, Olav Gaute

    2015-01-01

    Published version. Source at http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.23.031564. We report a methane sensor based on an integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer, which is cladded by a styrene-acrylonitrile film incorporating cryptophane-A. Cryptophane-A is a supramolecular compound able to selectively trap methane, and its presence in the cladding leads to a 17-fold sensitivity enhancement. Our approach, based on 3 cm-long low-loss Si3N4 rib waveguides, results in a detection limit as low as 17 ppm. Thi...

  3. Adsorption of hazardous ions from radioactive waste on chelating cloth filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, Sameh H. [Second Research Reactor, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo P.O. 13759 (Egypt)]. E-mail: othman_sameh@yahoo.com; Sohsah, Mustfa A. [Second Research Reactor, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo P.O. 13759 (Egypt); Ghoneim, Mohammad M. [Second Research Reactor, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo P.O. 13759 (Egypt); Sokkar, Hesham H. [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority (Egypt); Badawy, Sayed M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University (Egypt); El-Anadouli, Bahgat E. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University (Egypt)

    2006-02-15

    A cloth filter was synthesized by grafting of acrylonitrile/methacylic acid (AN/MAA {approx}80%/20% molar ratio) onto cotton cloth using a radiation-induced technique followed by amidoximation reaction. The fate of adsorption of radionuclide (e.g. U(VI)) on chelating cloth filter (CCF) from radioactive waste was investigated. The adsorption ability of the CCF increases as pH increases from 6 to 10. The predominant composition of the resulting complex was determined. A chemical adsorption mechanism was confirmed by examining the relationships between the adsorbed amount of radionuclide and the contact time.

  4. Adsorption of hazardous ions from radioactive waste on chelating cloth filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cloth filter was synthesized by grafting of acrylonitrile/methacylic acid (AN/MAA ∼80%/20% molar ratio) onto cotton cloth using a radiation-induced technique followed by amidoximation reaction. The fate of adsorption of radionuclide (e.g. U(VI)) on chelating cloth filter (CCF) from radioactive waste was investigated. The adsorption ability of the CCF increases as pH increases from 6 to 10. The predominant composition of the resulting complex was determined. A chemical adsorption mechanism was confirmed by examining the relationships between the adsorbed amount of radionuclide and the contact time

  5. The effects of hazardous ions adsorption on the morphological and chemical properties of reactive cloth filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, Sameh H. [Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority (Egypt)], E-mail: othman_sameh@yahoo.com; Sohsah, Moustfa A.; Ghoneim, Mohammad M. [Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority (Egypt)

    2009-11-15

    Reactive cloth filter is fabricated by grafting of acrylonitrile/methacrylic acid onto cotton cloth, using mutual irradiation technique and the subsequent amidoximation of the reactive intermediate nitrile groups. The incorporation of the amidoxime/carboxyl groups was confirmed by different techniques. The effect of the hazardous ions chelation from radioactive waste on the morphological and chemical structure was studied. The cloth filter possessed good morphological and chemical stability suitable for practical use. The fabricated cloth filter can be used for low-level radioactive waste treatments.

  6. The effects of hazardous ions adsorption on the morphological and chemical properties of reactive cloth filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactive cloth filter is fabricated by grafting of acrylonitrile/methacrylic acid onto cotton cloth, using mutual irradiation technique and the subsequent amidoximation of the reactive intermediate nitrile groups. The incorporation of the amidoxime/carboxyl groups was confirmed by different techniques. The effect of the hazardous ions chelation from radioactive waste on the morphological and chemical structure was studied. The cloth filter possessed good morphological and chemical stability suitable for practical use. The fabricated cloth filter can be used for low-level radioactive waste treatments.

  7. A low-cost lead-acid battery with high specific-energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Martha; B Hariprakash; S A Gaffoor; D C Trivedi; A K Shukla

    2006-01-01

    Lightweight grids for lead-acid battery grids have been prepared from acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) copolymer followed by coating with lead. Subsequently, the grids have been electrochemically coated with a conductive and corrosion-resistant layer of polyaniline. These grids are about 75% lighter than those employed in conventional lead-acid batteries. Commercial-grade 6V/3.5Ah (C20-rate) lead-acid batteries have been assembled and characterized employing positive and negative plates constituting these grids. The specific energy of such a lead-acid battery is about 50 Wh/kg. The batteries can withstand fast charge-discharge duty cycles.

  8. Cooling simulation of plastic injection molding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Analyses the cooling of mold and plastic part during injectionmolding and the continued cooling of plastic part after being ejected from mold using the heat transfer theory and Boundary Element Method (BEM) to predict the temperature distribution in both mold and plastic part,and presents the experiments carried out with plates of ABS (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene) to verify the validity of the cooling analysis software used to simulate the temperature distribution in ABS plate parts, and concludes that the analysis software agree qualitatively well with actual experimental findings.

  9. Charpy Impact Test on Polymeric Molded Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Raicu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the Charpy impact tests on the AcrylonitrileButadiene-Styrene (ABS polymeric material parts. The Charpy impact test, also known as the Charpy V-notch test, is a standardized strain rate test which determines the amount of energy absorbed by a material during fracture. This is a typical method described in ASTM Standard D 6110. We use for testing an Instron - Dynatup equipment which have a fully integrated hardware and software package that let us capture load information at very high speed from the impact tests.

  10. Short Fibre and Particulate-reinforced Rubber Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Agarwal

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Particulate fillers (carbon black and silica and short fibre (aromatic polyamide, Kevlar have been utilised to produce rubber composites based on acrylonitrile-co-butadiene rubber (NBR. Mechanical properties of these composites have been determined and compared with unfilled rubber vulcanisate. The effect of surface treatment on the improvement of strength, in case of Kevlar, has also been considered. The influence of elevated temperature on tear strength, an important failure criterion, has been evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy has been used as a tool to correlate the topographical features associated with changes in the tear strength of the composites.

  11. Modification of polymer membranes for lipase immobilization and application of lipase-membrane bioreactors%固定化脂肪酶聚合物膜的改性及脂肪酶膜反应器的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭立凤; 刘新喜; 杨国营; 高文玲; 谭天伟

    2001-01-01

    综述了在聚合物膜上固定化脂肪酶的方法及脂肪酶膜反应器的应用.重点讨论了纤维素膜、聚丙烯腈膜和聚砜膜表面的化学改性途径及其与脂肪酶的偶联方法.%The immobilization of lipases onto polymer membranes and the applications of lipase-membrane bioreactors were reviewed. The chemical modification of cellulose, acrylonitrile polymer and polysulfone membranes and their binding with lipase was especially discussed.

  12. Effect of Pd ions in the chemical etching solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guixiang Wang; Ning Li; Deyu Li

    2007-01-01

    The acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) surface was etched by dipping it into chromic acid-sulfuric acid containing a trace amount of palladium. The surface roughness, activity, and valence bond were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that with the increase of Pd concentration in the etching solution the ABS surface roughness reduced. The ratio of O to C increases and forms a large amount of O=C-O functional groups by dipping into Pd contained etching solution, thus the amount of colloids palladium adsorption increases. The carboxyl group acts as the adsorption site for the Pd/Sn catalyst.

  13. Reinforcement of hydrogenated carboxylated nitrile-butadiene rubber by multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogenated carboxylated acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (HXNBR) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) composites were prepared. The dispersion of MWCNT in HXNBR matrix was evaluated by field emission scanning electron microscopy. HXNBR/MWCNT composite had shorter scorch time and optimum curing time compared with that of unfilled HXNBR. The tensile strength and modulus of HXNBR/MWCNT composites increased with increasing MWCNT content. Mooney-Rivlin equation was used to describe the stress-strain behavior of unfilled HXNBR and the strain amplification factor was taken into account for HXNBR/MWCNT composites. The Mullins effect and dynamic mechanical properties of HXNBR/MWCNT composite were also investigated.

  14. Triphenylphosphine-Catalyzed Michael Addition of Alcohols to Acrylic Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU, Hai-Ling; JIANG, Huan-Feng; WANG, Yu-Gang

    2007-01-01

    A facile triphenylphosphine-catalyzed Michael addition of alcohols to acrylic compounds was described. The reaction was carried out in open air at refluxing temperature in the presence of 10 mol% PPh3. Michael addition of saturated and unsaturated alcohols to acrylonitrile or acrylates has been examined. The reaction gaveβ-alkoxy derivatives with isolated yields of 5%-79%. PPh3 is cheaper and more stable than those trialkylphosphines previously used for the similar reactions, and the products can be easily separated from the reaction mixture via distillation.

  15. Substrate-controlled switchable asymmetric annulations to access polyheterocyclic skeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai-Kai; Wang, Pan; Ouyang, Qin; Du, Wei; Chen, Ying-Chun

    2016-09-25

    An unexpected domino process from Morita-Baylis-Hillman carbonates of isatins and acrylate and α-cyano-α,β-unsaturated ketones to deliver highly enantioenriched tetrahydrofuro[2',3':4,5]pyrano[2,3-b]indoles catalysed by cinchona-derived tertiary amines, involving α-regioselective cyclopropanation, ring-opening, and ring-closure cascade reactions, was disclosed. In contrast, spirooxindoles incorporating a cyclopentene motif were produced through [3+2] annulations by employing Morita-Baylis-Hillman carbonates from isatins and acrylonitrile under similar catalytic conditions. Density functional theory calculations were conducted to elucidate the novel domino process and the switchable annulation reactions. PMID:27546091

  16. OPTIMIZATION AND APPLICATIONS OF REVERSE-FLOW CYCLONES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guogang; Sun; Jianyi; Chen; Mingxian; Shi

    2005-01-01

    An optimum design approach to reverse-flow cyclones based on the concept of optimizing cyclone dimensions is introduced in this paper. This approach involves optimizing cyclone dimensions by categories, calculating cyclone performance by correlating similitude numbers and optimizing the combination of four cyclone parameters, D, KA,(-d- and vi, which has been proven to be applicable not only for single-stage cyclone, but also for multistage cyclone separators. Applications of the designed cyclones in FCC units and acrylonitrile reactors are also presented.

  17. Production of super-smooth articles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchane, D.V.

    1981-05-29

    Super-smooth rounded or formed articles made of thermoplastic materials including various poly(methyl methacrylate) or acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymers are produced by immersing the articles into a bath, the composition of which is slowly changed with time. The starting composition of the bath is made up of at least one solvent for the polymer and a diluent made up of at least one nonsolvent for the polymer and optional materials which are soluble in the bath. The resulting extremely smooth articles are useful as mandrels for laser fusion and should be useful for a wide variety of other purposes, for example lenses.

  18. Preparation and characterizations of nano-TiO2 modified with polyacrylonitrile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yazhen; Chen, Guoli; Yue, Cheng'e.; Ao, Lin; Sun, Zhaoyang; Zhang, Yongsheng; Lan, Tianyu; Zu, Liwu

    2015-07-01

    Nanometer-sized titanium dioxide (TiO2) was pretreated by 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS). The TiO2 particles coated with grafted polyacrylonitrile(TiO2(MPS)-g-AN) were prepared. The analysis of infrared spectra confirms that nanometer-sized TiO2 was successfully modified with MPS and polyacrylonitrile. Thermal gravimetric (TG) as well as Kjeldahl methods were used to measure the coating rate of TiO2 modified with MPS and the grafting rate of acrylonitrile to nanometer titanium dioxide, respectively.

  19. STUDY OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF WOOD POLYACRYLONITRILE COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abid Ali

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Wood polyacrolonitrile composite (WPC from neem ,mango andcork wood was synthesized. The process was carried out through benzoyl peroxide(0.05mol/lcatalyzed impregnation polymerization of acrylonitrile,4mol/l,6mol/l into cork woodand mango wood in benzene medium at 75+-10c.The properties of WPCs over untreated woods were evaluated in terms of compressive test ,hardness of wood were improvedwith impregnation of polyacrylonitrile .Impregnation of polyacyrlonitrile (PAN into neem wood,mango wood and cork woods were was confirmed through scanning electron microscope.

  20. Fabrication of CdS/polyacrylonitrile nanocomposites by {gamma}-irradiation in an ethanol solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni Yonghong [Department of Macromolecular Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, Anhui (China) and College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Solids, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000 (China)]. E-mail: niyh@mail.ahnu.edu.cn; Ge Xuewu [Department of Macromolecular Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, Anhui (China); Zhang Zhicheng [Department of Macromolecular Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, Anhui (China)

    2006-06-15

    The present work reported the successful preparation of CdS/polyacrylonitrile (CdS/PAN) nanocomposites in an ethanol solution via using {gamma}-irradiation technique at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Acrylonitrile (AN), CS{sub 2} and CdCl{sub 2}.2.5H{sub 2}O were used as raw materials. Ethanol is chosen as the solvent. XRD analyses showed that the crystallinity of CdS was affected by some factors such as the amount of the organic component in the composites and the dose of irradiation. The optical properties of nanocomposites were also investigated.

  1. STUDY ON STABILITY OF STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF TIOPC/SAN PHOTOCONDUCTIVE COMPOSITES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Zheng; Li-fang Tong; Li-wei Li; Mang Wang

    2003-01-01

    The influence of the condensed structure of poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) (SAN) and traces of tetrahydrofuran (THF) that remained in titanyl phthalocyanine (TiOPc)/SAN films after fabrication on the photoconductive stability of TiOPc/SAN composites is studied. The results reveal that the existence of traces of THF results in the increase of the photoconductivity and the charging voltage. The main factors responsible for the unstable photoconductivity of the photoconductors are believed to be the relaxation of SAN and the slow volatilization of THF.

  2. Aza-Michael Mono-addition Using Acidic Alumina under Solventless Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Bosica

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aza-Michael reactions between primary aliphatic and aromatic amines and various Michael acceptors have been performed under environmentally-friendly solventless conditions using acidic alumina as a heterogeneous catalyst to selectively obtain the corresponding mono-adducts in high yields. Ethyl acrylate was the main acceptor used, although others such as acrylonitrile, methyl acrylate and acrylamide were also utilized successfully. Bi-functional amines also gave the mono-adducts in good to excellent yields. Such compounds can serve as intermediates for the synthesis of anti-cancer and antibiotic drugs.

  3. Characterization of nanoclays dispersion in NBR nanocomposites by X-ray diffractograms;Caracterizacao da dispersao de nanoargilas em nanocompositos de NBR por difratografias de raios-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Fabiula D.B.; Scuracchio, Carlos H.; Mantovani, Gerson L., E-mail: fabiulasousa@gmail.co [Universidade Federal do ABC (CECS/UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Modelagem e Ciencias Sociais Aplicadas

    2009-07-01

    The main objective of this work is the study of nanoclays dispersion in NBR nanocomposites by X-ray diffraction. Nitrile rubbers NBR 3330 and NBR 3350 were used, both with 33%wt of acrylonitrile and with different Mooney viscosity. The nanoclays were bentonite, organically modified montmorillonite (Cloisite 30B{sup R}) and sodic montmorillonite. The results showed that the intercalation state of the filler had influence of both, the type of treatment at which clay was submitted and the molar mass of the polymer. (author)

  4. 3D‐Printing inside the Glovebox: A Versatile Tool for Inert‐Gas Chemistry Combined with Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Lederle, Felix; Kaldun, Christian; Namyslo, Jan C.; Hübner, Eike G.

    2016-01-01

    3D‐Printing with the well‐established ‘Fused Deposition Modeling’ technology was used to print totally gas‐tight reaction vessels, combined with printed cuvettes, inside the inert‐gas atmosphere of a glovebox. During pauses of the print, the reaction flasks out of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene were filled with various reactants. After the basic test reactions to proof the oxygen tightness and investigations of the influence of printing within an inert‐gas atmosphere, scope and limitations o...

  5. Experimental toxicology of pyrolysis and combustion hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, H H; Hahn, K J; Barth, M L

    1975-06-01

    Data are presented on the acute toxicity (mortality only) of the thermal degradation products of polymers obtained by two methods of degradation. One system utilized a slowly increasing temperature (5 degrees C/min) and gradual degradation of the polymer with the rats being exposed to degradation products as they were evolved. In this system the more toxic polymers included wool, polypropylene, poly(vinyl chloride), and urethane foam. The second system utilized conditions of rapid combustion and exposure of rats to the total products of combustion for a period of 4 hr. In this system the more toxic materials included red oak, cotton, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), and styrene-acrylonitrile. It is of interest to note that the natural product wool is among the least toxic under these rapid combustion conditions and among the most toxic under slow pyrolysis conditions. Other materials also vary in the comparative toxicity of their thermal degradation products, depending upon the conditions of degradation and animal exposure. The two experimental techniques presented here may well represent the two extreme conditions of rapid combustion versus slow pyrolysis. Intermediate types of fire situations might be expected to result in relative acute toxicities somewhere between these two extremes. This report deals with acute toxicity on the basis of mortality data only and does not include other parameters of toxicity such as organ weights and histopathology.

  6. SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF 3-AMINO-2-CYANO-5- (SUBSTITUTED AMINO-4-[(UN SUBSTITUTEDPHENYL] THIOPHENES AS ANTI-TUBERCULAR AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapupara Pankaj P

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis, due to its relentless nature, is now a major public health threat. The concomitant resurgence of TB with the MDR- or XDR-TB and HIV/AIDS pandemic has exposed the frailties of the current drug armatorium. Based on good structural similarity between BM-212, a novel antimycobacterial agent undergoing clinical trials, and diaryl thiophenes, we have designed novel diaryl thiophenes. Alkyl or aryl isothiocyanates were reacted with substituted phenylacetonitrile in the presence of NaH to afforded 3-mercapto-3-(substitutedamino-2- [(unsubstitutedphenyl]acrylonitrile (5a-h. The designed molecules, 3-amino-2-cyano-5-(substitutedamino-4- [(unsubstitutedphenyl]thiophenes (6a-h were synthesized by cyclocondention of 3-mercapto-3-(substitutedamino- 2-[(unsubstitutedphenyl]acrylonitrile (5a-h with chloroacetonitrile in ethanol. All the compounds were screened for their antimycobacterial activity on mycobacterium tuberculosis using H37Rv strain by 1% proportion method. Some of the synthesized compounds exhibited potent antimycobacterial activity with MIC values in the range of 12.5-100 µg/mL.

  7. Milestone Report - Complete New Adsorbent Materials for Marine Testing to Demonstrate 4.5 g-U/kg Adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janke, Christopher James [ORNL; Das, Sadananda [ORNL; Oyola, Yatsandra [ORNL; Mayes, Richard T. [ORNL; Saito, Tomonori [ORNL; Brown, Suree [ORNL; Gill, Gary [PNNL; Kuo, Li-Jung [PNNL; Wood, Jordana [PNNL

    2014-08-01

    This report describes work on the successful completion of Milestone M2FT-14OR03100115 (8/20/2014) entitled, “Complete new adsorbent materials for marine testing to demonstrate 4.5 g-U/kg adsorbent”. This effort is part of the Seawater Uranium Recovery Program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, and involved the development of new adsorbent materials at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and marine testing at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). ORNL has recently developed two new families of fiber adsorbents that have demonstrated uranium adsorption capacities greater than 4.5 g-U/kg adsorbent after marine testing at PNNL. One adsorbent was synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization of itaconic acid and acrylonitrile onto high surface area polyethylene fibers followed by amidoximation and base conditioning. This fiber showed a capacity of 4.6 g-U/kg adsorbent in marine testing at PNNL. The second adsorbent was prepared by atom-transfer radical polymerization of t-butyl acrylate and acrylonitrile onto halide-functionalized round fibers followed by amidoximation and base hydrolysis. This fiber demonstrated uranium adsorption capacity of 5.4 g-U/kg adsorbent in marine testing at PNNL.

  8. Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of volatile organic compounds emitted from different plastic solid waste recycling workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhigui; Li, Guiying; Chen, Jiangyao; Huang, Yong; An, Taicheng; Zhang, Chaosheng

    2015-04-01

    The pollution profiles of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from different recycling workshops processing different types of plastic solid waste (PSW) and their health risks were investigated. A total of 64 VOCs including alkanes, alkenes, monoaromatics, oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs), chlorinated VOCs (ClVOCs) and acrylonitrile during the melting extrusion procedure were identified and quantified. The highest concentration of total VOCs (TVOC) occurred in the poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene styrene) (ABS) recycling workshop, followed by the polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), polyamide (PA), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene (PE) and polycarbonate (PC) workshops. Monoaromatics were found as the major component emitted from the ABS and PS recycling workshops, while alkanes were mainly emitted from the PE and PP recycling processes, and OVOCs from the PVC and PA recycling workshops. According to the occupational exposure limits' (OEL) assessment, the workers suffered acute and chronic health risks in the ABS and PS recycling workshops. Meanwhile, it was found that most VOCs in the indoor microenvironments were originated from the melting extrusion process, while the highest TVOC concentration was observed in the PS rather than in the ABS recycling workshop. Non-cancer hazard indices (HIs) of all individual VOCs were recycling workshop was 1.9, posing an adverse chronic health threat. Lifetime cancer risk assessment suggested that the residents also suffered from definite cancer risk in the PS, PA, ABS and PVC recycling workshops.

  9. 顶空-GC/FID测定水中乙醛丙烯腈吡啶

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琢; 谷宇

    2015-01-01

    We successfully build a standard analytical method for the detection of acetaldehyde, acrylonitrile, and pyridine in water using gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID).Three samples with concentration of 0.005 mg/L, 0.05 mg/L and 0.50mg/L were analyzed and showed a high recovery rate between 82%and 98%and a low relative standard deviation from 2.4%to 5.0%. These results confirm that this method has high accuracy, high precision and high reproducibility, which, consequently, is appropriate for detecting and analyzing acetaldehyde, acrylonitrile, and pyridine in water.%建立了顶空-气相色谱-氢火焰离子化检测器(GC-FID)检测水中乙醛丙烯腈吡啶的方法。根据加标浓度为0.005mg/L、0.05mg/L和0.50mg/L,回收率在82-98%之间,相对标准偏差为2.4-5.0%之间的测定结果,说明该方法准确度高、精确性高、重现性良好,符合水质测定乙醛丙烯腈吡啶的分析。

  10. Study on Refining Technology of Main Raw of Producing Acrylamide in Chemical Process%化学法丙烯酰胺生产中原料精制工艺技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春辉

    2011-01-01

    Anionic exchang resin was chosen to adsorb hydrogen cyande from acrylonitrile.The adsorption capacity of resin was 37.08 mg/g.The adsorpion rate was above 99 % and desorpion rate was 100 %.By adding refining process of anionic exchang resin,hydrogen cyande in acrylonitrile was controling in 1 mg/g and product of acrylamide is improved.%采用阴离子交换树脂去除生产丙烯酰胺的主要原料丙烯腈中的氢氰酸,该树脂的吸附量为37.08 mg/g,氢氰酸的吸附率达99%以上,脱附率可达100%。在丙烯酰胺生产工艺中,增加离子交换树脂吸附氢氰酸精制工艺部分,可使主要原料丙烯腈氢氰酸的含量控制在1 mg/g以下,可以降低原料丙烯腈中氢氰酸对生产丙烯酰胺产品质量的影响。

  11. Surface Termination of M1 Phase and Rational Design of Propane Ammoxidation Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guliants, Vadim

    2015-02-16

    This final report describes major accomplishments in this research project which has demonstrated that the M1 phase is the only crystalline phase required for propane ammoxidation to acrylonitrile and that a surface monolayer terminating the ab planes of the M1 phase is responsible for their activity and selectivity in this reaction. Fundamental studies of the topmost surface chemistry and mechanism of propane ammoxidation over the Mo-V-(Te,Sb)-(Nb,Ta)-O M1 and M2 phases resulted in the development of quantitative understanding of the surface molecular structure – reactivity relationships for this unique catalytic system. These oxides possess unique catalytic properties among mixed metal oxides, because they selectively catalyze three alkane transformation reactions, namely propane ammoxidation to acrylonitrile, propane oxidation to acrylic acid and ethane oxidative dehydrogenation, all of considerable economic significance. Therefore, the larger goal of this research was to expand this catalysis to other alkanes of commercial interest, and more broadly, demonstrate successful approaches to rational design of improved catalysts that can be applied to other selective (amm)oxidation processes.

  12. Synthesis and thermal characterization of xylan-graft-polyacrylonitrile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünlü, Cüneyt H; Öztekin, N Simge; Atıcı, Oya Galioğlu

    2012-10-01

    In this study emulsion polymerization of acrylonitrile using xylan from agricultural waste material (corn cob) and cerium ammonium nitrate was investigated in terms of catalyst acid. Stock ceric solutions were prepared using either nitric or perchloric acid as catalyst. Optimum conditions were determined using different parameters such as reaction time, temperature, and component concentrations. Nitric acid catalyzed reactions resulted in maximum conversion ratio (96%) at 50°C, 1 h where ceric ion, acrylonitrile, xylan, and catalyst concentrations were 21.7 mmol l(-1), 0.5 mol l(-1), 0.2% (w/v), and 0.1 mol l(-1), respectively. However, 83% conversion was obtained with perchloric acid catalysis at 27 °C, 1 h where concentrations were 5.4 mmol l(-1), 0.8 mol l(-1), 0.5% (w/v), and 0.2 mol l(-1), respectively. Copolymer synthesis using perchloric acid was realized at milder conditions than using nitric acid. Thermal analyses of obtained polymers were conducted to characterize copolymers. Results showed that calculated activation energy, maximum degradation temperature, and heat of thermal decomposition changed relying mainly on molecular weight. PMID:22840048

  13. Preparation of Polyacrylonitrile-Kapok Hollow Microtubes Decorated with Cu Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agcaoili Apollo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel copper (Cu nanoparticle carrier was fabricated using kapok natural microtubes as a substrate. Cu nanoparticles were grown on a thin polymer film on the surface of the kapok fibers. The polymer film was deposited on the surface of the microtube using a surfactant-assisted polymerization of acrylonitrile monomers. Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB was used surfactant. The contact angle decreased from 120.5 to 0 after polyacrylonitrile coating (PAN, which suggests improved hydrophilicity of the kapok fibers. Addition of 1.5 mL acrylonitrile and 0.020 – 0.035 g CTAB yielded evenly coated kapok fibers. Cu nanoparticles, with diameters of 82-186 nm, were formed on the surface of the composite by reducing 0.16 M copper sulphate (CuSO4 with hydrazine (N2H4 at 70°C. EDX reveals that more Cu nanoparticles formed on the surface of PAN-kapok composites with 0.035g CTAB due to thicker PAN coating.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of polyacrylonitrile nanoparticles by dispersion/emulsion polymerization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boguslavsky, Lior; Baruch, Sigal; Margel, Shlomo

    2005-09-01

    Polyacrylonitrile nanoparticles in sizes ranging from approximately 35 to 270 nm were prepared by dispersion/emulsion polymerization of acrylonitrile in a continuous aqueous phase in the presence of potassium persulfate as initiator and various alkyl-sulfate and sulfonate surfactants. The influence of various polymerization parameters (e.g., concentration of monomer and initiator, type and concentration of surfactant, temperature and time of polymerization, ionic strength, pH and co-solvent concentration) on the properties (e.g., size and size distribution, yield, stability, etc.) of the particles has been investigated. The polymerization of acrylonitrile may occur in two major locations: in the aqueous continuous phase (dispersion polymerization) and/or within the surfactant micelles (emulsion polymerization). A discussion concerning the role of these two mechanisms under different conditions, including comparison with previous literature, is also presented. Surface and bulk characterizations of the particles were performed by methods such as transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, zeta potential, and gravimetric measurements. PMID:16009219

  15. Synthesis and Analysis of Cyanoethyl Hexamethylenediamine%氰乙基己二胺化合物合成及其组成分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵飞明; 汪树军

    2001-01-01

    用丙烯睛和己二胺可合成环氧树脂固化剂。借助核磁共振(NMR)、红外光谱(IR)、质谱(MS)分析该固化剂组成。结果表明:当己二胺(HMD)、丙烯睛(AN)按摩尔比为1:1反应时,除主要产物氰乙基己二胺外,产物中同时存在二氰乙基己二胺。%The curing agent for epoxy is synthesized by reacting hexamethylenediamine with acrylonitrile.Synthesis method has been improved.The compositions of the curing agent are analyzed with infrared spectroscopy,mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance.It is found that when.the reaction between hexamethylenediamine and acrylonitrile is carried out in the mole ratio of 1: 1,main product of the mono-cyanoethylation hexamethylenediamine and by-product of the bicyanoethylation hexamethylenediamine is produced at same time.

  16. STUDIES ON MOLECULAR WEIGHT DISTRIBUTION OF CARBON FIBER POLYMER PRECURSORS SYNTHESIZED USING MIXED SOLVENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.Santhana Krishnan; A.Burkanudeen; N.Murali; Hemant Phadnis

    2012-01-01

    The molecular weight distributions were estimated for carbon fiber polymer precursors such as poly(acrylonitrileco-itaconic acid) synthesized by semi batch solution polymerization in mixed solvents media with the azonitrile compounds as initiator under the different ratios of solvent and non solvent from 0.75 to 2.5 in weight.The copolymer was characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) analyses.The molecular weight distributions were evaluated by Mv/Mn ratios estimated from viscosity and osmotic measurements,and Mw/Mn estimated from size exclusion chromatography.The molecular weight distributions of these polymers as determined from Mv/Mn and Mw/Mn are 2.9 to 3.2 and 2.0 to 2.5 respectively.The molecular distributions were close to a narrow distribution of 2.0 when the solvent/non-solvent ratio was varied between 1.4 and 2.0.Intrinsic viscosity [η] as a function of molecular weight of poly(acrylonitrile-co-itaconic acid) was evaluated by means of low angle laser light scattering with size exclusion chromatography (SEC-LALLS) and viscometry with SEC (SEC-VISCO).The relationship between [η] and Mw for poly(acrylonitrile-co-itaconic acid) in DMF at 50℃ was [η] =1.1 × 10-5 Mw0.79,where [η] is obtained in dL/g.

  17. Chemical Reaction Route Selection Based on Green Chemical Engineering%基于绿色化工的化学反应路径选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何潮洪; 葛挺峰; S.H.Yang; D.W.Edwards

    2004-01-01

    In the preliminary stage of chemical process design, the choice of chemical reaction route is the key design decision, and the concepts of atom utilization and environmental quotient have become extremely useful tools. However, the waste quality such as chemical toxicity and other engineering factors have not been taken into account. Therefore, a synthetic route selection index, Iroute, is proposed to determine the suitability of a chemical route in this paper. Iroute considers the effects of "extended atom economy", material renewability, chemical characteristics and some engineering factors. The extended atom economy concept regards not only the value of the desired product but also the value of byproducts. The methodology by using Iroute to compare different routes is illustrated in case study of cyclohexanone oxime and acrylonitrile manufacture.

  18. A small biomimetic quadruped robot driven by multistacked dielectric elastomer actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Canh Toan; Phung, Hoa; Dat Nguyen, Tien; Lee, Choonghan; Kim, Uikyum; Lee, Donghyouk; Moon, Hyungpil; Koo, Jachoon; Nam, Jae-do; Ryeol Choi, Hyouk

    2014-06-01

    A kind of dielectric elastomer (DE) material, called ‘synthetic elastomer’, has been developed based on acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) to be used as a dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA). By stacking single layers of synthetic elastomer, a linear actuator, called a multistacked actuator, is produced, and used by mechatronic and robotic systems to generate linear motion. In this paper, we demonstrate the application of the multistacked dielectric elastomer actuator in a biomimetic legged robot. A miniature robot driven by a biomimetic actuation system with four 2-DOF (two-degree-of-freedom) legged mechanisms is realized. Based on the experimental results, we evaluate the performance of the proposed robot and validate the feasibility of the multistacked actuator in a locomotion system as a replacement for conventional actuators.

  19. Feasibility of the recovery of uranium from alkaline waste by amidoximated grafted polypropylene polymer matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amidoximated grafted polypropylene polymer matrix was prepared by post irradiation grafting of acrylonitrile (AN) onto thermally bonded non-woven matrix of poly(propylene) sheet using electron beams. This precursor polymer was reacted with hydroxylamine to convert AN to poly(acrylamidoxime) (AO) groups, and conditioned by treating them with 2.5 % KOH at 80 deg C for 1 h. The polymer matrix was having the degree of AN grafting ∼106 wt% and its subsequent conversion to AO groups ∼70 %. The water uptake capacity of AO polymer matrix were found to be 100 ± 5 % (w/w). Quantitative recovery of uranium from alkaline waste (ammonium diuranate supernatant) solution was achieved by this polymer matrix. The other radionuclides present in the waste solution were not extracted by the polymer matrix. For all other radionuclides, the uptake was found to be <6 %. (author)

  20. Polymer thin-film transistor based on a high dielectric constant gate insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Wen; Peng, Jun-Biao; Yang, Kai-Xia; Lan, Lin-Feng; Niu, Qiao-Li; Cao, Yong

    2007-04-01

    In this paper full polymer thin-film transistors (PTFTs) based on Poly (acrylonitrile) (PAN) as the gate dielectric and poly (2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene-vinylene) (MEH-PPV) as the semiconductor layer were investigated by using different channel width/length ratios. Relatively high dielectric constant of the polymer dielectric layer (6.27) can remarkably reduce the threshold voltage of the transistors to below -3 V. Hole field-effect mobility of MEH-PPV of the PTFTs was about 4.8×10-4cm2/Vs, and on/off current ratio was larger than 102, which was comparable with that of transistors with widely used Poly (4-vinyl phenol) (PVP) or SiO2 as gate dielectrics.

  1. VINYL RADICAL POLYMERIZATION INITIATED WITH CERIC ION AND ETHYL N,N-DIETHYLDITHIOCARBAMYL ACETATE SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shoujun; QIU Kunyuan

    1997-01-01

    Acrylamide polymerization initiated with a redox initiation system consisting of ceric ion and ethyl N, N-diethyldithiocarbamyl acetate (EDCA) has been studied. It was found that the polymerization rate equation is in good agreement with that of a redox initiated polymerization, and the overall activation energy of the polymerization was determined to be 25.2 kJ·mol-1. Accordingly, the system belongs to a redox initiator. The initiation mechanism was proposed based on the end group analysis using FT-IR, UV spectroscopies.Analysis results revealed that the N, N-diethyldithiocarbamyl radical produced from the redox reaction of EDCA with ceric ion can initiate acrylonitrile (AN) polymerization and form the end group on PAN. The resulting PAN was photopolymerized with butyl acrylate (BA) to form PAN-b-PBA block copolymer.

  2. Synthesis of Gemcitabine-13C, 15N2 and Gemcitabine-13C, 15N2 Metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHU Cheng-gu;YANG Shao-zu;YAN Sheng-wang;FANG Ning-jing;CAI Ding-long;LI Gang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Homemade urea-13C, 15N2 was used to react with 3-methyl acrylonitrile closure to form cytosine-13C, 15N2 (2,which was protected by trimethylsilylation with BSA and condensed with 2-deoxy-2,2-difluoro-D-erythro-pentofuranose-3,5-dibenzoate-1-methanesulfonate at 120 ℃ to afford blocked gemcitabine-13C, 15N2. Hydrolytic removal of the blocking groups of gemcitabine-13C, 15N2 with NaOH gave gemcitabine-13C, 15N2, and its metabolite was obtained by further hydrolytic deamination of gemcitabine-13C, 15N2. The final products were characterized and detected by HPLC, LC-MS and NMR, and confirmed that the chemical purities were higher than 98%, isotopic abundances were 99% 13C, 98% 15N, and they were suitable for drug metabolism studies.

  3. Study of processing conditions on properties of ABS and clay organically modified nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanocomposites of poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) and organically modified montmorillonite clay were prepared by melt intercalation on a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. The independent variables studied were the kind of organoclay (Cloisite 20A and Cloisite 30B) and the screw torque at levels of 45 and 70%. The effect of these variables on the intercalation/exfoliation were accessed by means of the morphological characteristics using X-ray diffraction and the mechanical properties of uniaxial tensile test. The experimental results showed that the incorporation of clay in the polymeric matrix improved the mechanical properties of elastic modulus, yield stress and tensile strength of nanocomposites, being more significant for that containing Cloisite 30B. Torque was also a significant variable for the responses studied. (author)

  4. Macromolecular peroxo complexes of Vanadium(V) and Molybdenum(VI): Catalytic activities and biochemical relevance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nashreen S Islam; Jeena Jyoti Boruah

    2015-05-01

    Our recent achievements concerning the synthesis and characterization of water soluble peroxo complexes of V(V) and Mo(VI) in macroligand environment, as well as some key features of biological relevance of these compounds, such as their hydrolytic stability, activity with phosphohydrolase enzyme vis-à-vis free peroxovanadium (pV) or peroxomolybdenum (pMo) complexes, and their activity in biomimetic oxidative bromination are presented here. Immobilization of pMo species on insoluble polymer matrices viz., amino acid functionalized Merrifield resins and poly(acrylonitrile) on the other hand, afforded a set of heterogeneous catalysts highly effective in facile organic transformations such as selective oxidation of organic sulfides and oxidative bromination of aromatic substrates by H2O2, at ambient temperature. The methodologies are straightforward, high-yielding, halogen-free and the catalysts afford easy regeneration. Our findings illustrate the various features which make the procedures sustainable and synthetically useful.

  5. Effect of TiO2 nano fillers on the electrical conductivity of PSAN/TiO2 polymer nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningaraju, S.; Munirathnamma, L. M.; Kumar, K. V. Aneesh; Ravikumar, H. B.

    2016-05-01

    The microstructural characterization of Polystyrene co-acrylonitrile and Titanium dioxide (PSAN/TiO2) nanocomposites has been performed by Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy. The decrease of positron lifetime parameters viz. o-Ps lifetime (τ3) and free volume size (Vf) up to 0.6 wt% of TiO2 is attributed to the filling of free volume holes by TiO2 nanoparticles. The increased free volume size (Vf) after 0.6 wt% of TiO2 indicates the formation of interface due to TiO2 nanoclusters. The variation of electrical conductivity at the lower and higher concentration of TiO2 in (PSAN/TiO2) nanocomposites is attributed to the blocking effect and space charge effect respectively.

  6. Effect of Reprocessing and Accelerated Weathering on Impact-Modified Recycled Blend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, V.; Mohanty, Smita; Biswal, Manoranjan; Nayak, Sanjay K.

    2015-12-01

    Recovery of recycled polycarbonate, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, high-impact polystyrene, and its blends from waste electrical and electronic equipment plastics products properties were enhanced by the addition of virgin polycarbonate and impact modifier. The optimized blend formulation was processed through five cycles, at processing temperature, 220-240 °C and accelerated weathering up to 700 h. Moreover, the effect of reprocessing and accelerated weathering in the physical properties of the modified blends was investigated by mechanical, thermal, rheological, and morphological studies. The results show that in each reprocessing cycle, the tensile strength and impact strength decreased significantly and the similar behavior has been observed from accelerated weathering. Subsequently, the viscosity decreases and this decrease becomes the effect of thermal and photo-oxidative degradation. This can be correlated with FTIR analysis.

  7. Experimental validation of a simple, low-cost, T-junction droplet generator fabricated through 3D printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three-dimensional printing has been recently proposed and assessed for continuous flow microfluidic devices. In this paper the focus is on a new application of this rapid and low cost method for microfluidic device prototyping: droplets production through a T-junction generator. The feasibility of this new methodology is assessed by means of an experimental study in which the statistical parameters which characterize the production of droplets are analyzed. Furthermore, this study assesses the validity of previous theoretical and experimental results, obtained for a PDMS T-junction droplet generator, also in the case of a 3D printed Acrylonitrile microfluidic chip. Finally, the feasibility of producing monodisperse droplets by analyzing the polydispersity index of the prepared droplets is demonstrated. (paper)

  8. Preparation and characterization of chelating fibers based on natural wool for removal of Hg(II), Cu(II) and Co(II) metal ions from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) onto natural wool fibers initiated by KMnO4 and oxalic acid combined redox initiator system in limited aqueous medium was carried out in heterogeneous media. Moreover, modification of the grafted wool fibers was done by changing the nitrile group (-CN) into cyano-acetic acid α-amino-acrylic-hydrazide through the reaction with hydrazine hydrate followed by ethylcyanoacetate which eventually produce wool-grafted-poly(cyano-acetic acid α-amino-acrylic-hydrazide) (wool-g-PCAH) chelating fibers. The application of the modified fibers for metal ion uptake was studied using Hg2+, Cu2+ and Co2+. The modified chelating fibers were characterized using FTIR spectroscopy, SEM and X-ray diffraction.

  9. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of 2 beta-alkenyl penam sulfone acids as inhibitors of beta-lactamases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, H G; Angehrn, P; Hubschwerlen, C; Kania, M; Page, M G; Specklin, J L; Winkler, F K

    1996-09-13

    A general method for synthesis of 2 beta-alkenyl penam sulfones has been developed. The new compounds inhibited most of the common types of beta-lactamase. The level of activity depended very strongly on the nature of the substituent in the 2 beta-alkenyl group. The inhibited species formed with the beta-lactamase from Citrobacter freundii 1205 was sufficiently stable for X-ray crystallographic studies. These, together with UV absorption spectroscopy and studies of chemical degradation, suggested a novel reaction mechanism for the new inhibitors that might account for their broad spectrum of action. The (Z)-2 beta-acrylonitrile penam sulfone Ro 48-1220 was the most active inhibitor from this class of compound. The inhibitor enhanced the action of, for example, ceftriaxone against a broad selection of organisms producing beta-lactamases. The organisms included strains of Enterobacteriaceae that produce cephalosporinases, which is an exceptional activity for penam sulfones.

  10. SIMULATION OF ELECTRICAL FIELD FOR THE FORMATION MECHANISM OF BIRD'S NEST PATTERNED STRUCTURES BY ELECTROSPINNING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-yu Ye; Yi-ning Jin; Xiao-jun Huang; Lei Luo; Zhi-kang Xu

    2013-01-01

    In our previous work,it was found that large Bird's Nest patterned nanofibrous membranes can be simply electrospun from chlorinated polypropylene solution doped with an ionic liquid,and a plausible formation mechanism of Bird's Nest patterned architectures was proposed.Here,we use Ansoft Maxwell version 12 software (3D,electrostatic solver) to simulate the electrical field distribution of the electrospirming setup,and to clarify the rationality of proposed formation mechanism.Calculation results clearly show that the introduction of charged nanofibrous bundles would produce a similar patterned electrical field distribution,which definitely confirms the important role of surface residual charges.The proposed mechanism can be well extended to other polymer systems including polystyrene,poly(acrylonitrile-co-acrylic acid) and chitosan/poly(ethvlene oxide).

  11. Adsorption Profile of Basic Dye onto Novel Fabricated Carboxylated Functionalized Co-Polymer Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa F. Elkady

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Acrylonitrile-Styrene co-polymer was prepared by solution polymerization and fabricated into nanofibers using the electrospinning technique. The nanofiber polarization was enhanced through its surface functionalization with carboxylic acid groups by simple chemical modification. The carboxylic groups’ presence was dedicated using the FT-IR technique. SEM showed that the nanofiber attains a uniform and porous structure. The equilibrium and kinetic behaviors of basic violet 14 dye sorption onto the nanofibers were examined. Both Langmuir and Temkin models are capable of expressing the dye sorption process at equilibrium. The intraparticle diffusion and Boyd kinetic models specified that the intraparticle diffusion step was the main decolorization rate controlling the process.

  12. Ultrasound promoted N-alkylation of pyrrole using potassium superoxide as base in crown ether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, E S; Park, M K; Han, B H

    1997-04-01

    Ultrasound accelerates the N-alkylation of pyrrole by alkylating reagents using potassium superoxide as base in the presence of 18-crown-6. A much lower yield of N-alkylated pyrrole was realized in the absence of ultrasound. N-alkylating reagents employed for pyrrole are methyl iodide, ethyl bromide, benzyl bromide, as well as acrylonitrile allyl cyanide and methyl acrylate. In an extension of this work, we have found that ultrasound was not necessary for the N-alkylation of indole and alkyl amine, such as diphenyl amine and piperidine with alkyl halides using our reagents. In all cases we observed that the 18-crown-6 catalyzed N-alkylation reaction gives higher yields of N-alkylated products than that without crown ether, when potassium superoxide was used as base. These observations are probably due to the potassium-crown complex which can be released when the reaction goes to completion. PMID:11237050

  13. Effect of the structure of ethylene-propylene-diene-graft-polystyrene graft copolymers on morphology and mechanical properties of SAN/EPDM blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene-propylene-diene-graft-polystyrene (EPDM-g-PS copolymers were synthesized to obtain different structures of graft copolymers with different graft lengths and graft densities. The structure of synthesized EPDM-g-PS copolymers was characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC and by Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. These presynthesized graft copolymers were added (5 phr to styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN and ethylene-propylene-diene (EPDM blends, prepared to maintain the following SAN/EPDM ratios a 95/5 and b 90/10. SAN/EPDM blends were characterized by the determination of mechanical properties (tensile strength, elongation at break while their morphology was inspected by scanning electronic microscopy, SEM. The obtained results show that various structures of EPDM-g-PS copolymers influence the miscibility in SAN/EPDM blends. Optimal concentration of side branches of graft copolymers provide the finest morphology and enhance mechanical properties.

  14. Advances in DCC Process and Catalyst for Propylene Production from Heavy Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Chaogang; Gao Yongcan

    2008-01-01

    Deep Catalytic Cracking (DCC) developed by RIPP (Research Institute of Petroleum Processing),SINOPEC is a catalytic conversion process derived from the FCC process using heavy feedstocks for producing raw materials used in the petrochemical industry,such as ethylene and propylene.It was firstly demonstrated in 1990 and has been commercialized since 1994.Up to now,seven units have been put into production inside and outside China,and many other DCC units are under construction and in the phase of design now.Products of propylene and ethylene from DCCU have been used as feedstock for manufacturing high quality polypropylene,polyethylene and acrylonitrile.Many innovations on technological process,and preparation of catalytic materials used in the DCC process will be presented in this paper.

  15. Fast Quantum Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Simple Organic Liquids under Shock Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawkwell, Marc; Niklasson, Anders; Manner, Virginia; McGrane, Shawn; Dattelbaum, Dana

    2013-06-01

    The responses of liquid formic acid, acrylonitrile, and nitromethane to shock compression have been studied using quantum-based molecular dynamics simulations with the self-consistent tight-binding code LATTE. Microcanonical Born-Oppenheimer trajectories with precise energy conservation were computed without relying on an iterative self-consistent field optimization of the electronic degrees of freedom at each time step via the Fast Quantum Mechanical Molecular Dynamics formalism. The input shock pressures required to initiate chemistry in our simulations agree very well with recent laser- and flyer-plate-driven shock compression experiments. On-the-fly analysis of the electronic structure of the liquids over hundreds of picoseconds after dynamic compression revealed that their reactivity is strongly correlated with the temperature and pressure dependence of their HOMO-LUMO gap.

  16. Kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of aliphatic alcohols by tetrabutylammonium tribromide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manju Baghmar; Pradeep K Sharma

    2001-04-01

    Oxidation of nine primary aliphatic alcohols by tetrabutylammonium tribromide (TBATB) in aqueous acetic acid leads to the formation of the corresponding aldehydes. The reaction is first order with respect to TBATB. Michaelis-Menten type kinetics is observed with respect to alcohols. The reaction failed to induce the polymerization of acrylonitrile. Tetrabutylammonium chloride has no effect on the reaction rate. The proposed reactive oxidizing species is the tribromide ion. The oxidation of [1,1-2H2]ethanol exhibits a substantial kinetic isotope effect. The effect of solvent composition indicates that the rate increases with increase in the polarity of the solvent. The reaction is susceptible to both polar and steric effects of substituents. A mechanism involving transfer of a hydride ion in the ratedetermining step has been proposed.

  17. Payne effect in NBR nanocomposites with organophilic montmorillonite; Efeito Payne em nanocompositos de NBR com montmorilonita organofilica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezerra, Fernando de O. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Rio de Janeiro (IFRJ), Campus Realengo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nunes, Regina C.R.; Gomes, Ailton S., E-mail: rcnunes@ima.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMA/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano; Oliveira, Marcia G. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ito, Edson N. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this work the Payne effect was evaluated as a measure of the filler-filler and filler-polymer interactions in nanocomposites of organo montmorillonite (MMTorg) on acrylonitrile-butadiene-rubber (NBR) by using the Rubber Process Analyzer – RPA 2000. The nanocomposites of NBR and MMTorg were prepared on a Berstorff two-roll mill and the evaluation of the Payne effect was carried out in unvulcanized pure gum and varying the MMTorg content from 5, 10, 15 and 20 phr. The composition with 5 phr of MMTorg showed the best filler-polymer interaction as a consequence of the smaller amount of agglomerates of the filler in the elastomeric matrix. (author)

  18. Study of processing conditions on properties of ABS and clay organically modified nanocomposites; Estudo das condicoes de processamento nas propriedades de nanocompositos de ABS e argilas organofilicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvan, Danieli; Massucato, Felipe; Bartoli, Julio R., E-mail: bartoli@feq.unicamp.br [Fac. de Engenharia Quimica/Universidade Estadual de Campinas - DTP/FEQ/UNICAMP, Campinas, SP (Brazil); D' Avila, Marcos A. [Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica/Universidade Estadual de Campinas - DEMA/FEM/UNICAMP, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Fernandes, Elizabeth G. [Tezca P and D Celulas Solares, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Nanocomposites of poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) and organically modified montmorillonite clay were prepared by melt intercalation on a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. The independent variables studied were the kind of organoclay (Cloisite 20A and Cloisite 30B) and the screw torque at levels of 45 and 70%. The effect of these variables on the intercalation/exfoliation were accessed by means of the morphological characteristics using X-ray diffraction and the mechanical properties of uniaxial tensile test. The experimental results showed that the incorporation of clay in the polymeric matrix improved the mechanical properties of elastic modulus, yield stress and tensile strength of nanocomposites, being more significant for that containing Cloisite 30B. Torque was also a significant variable for the responses studied. (author)

  19. Kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of chloramphenicol by 1-chlorobenzotriazole in acidic medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R C Hiremath; R V Jagadeesh; Puttaswamy; S M Mayanna

    2005-07-01

    Chloramphenicol (CAP) is an antibiotic drug having a wide spectrum of activity. The kinetics of oxidation of chloramphenicol by 1-chlorobenzotriazole (CBT) in HClO4 medium over the temperature range 293-323 K has been investigated. The reaction exhibits first-order kinetics with respect to [CBT]o and zero-order with respect to [CAP]o. The fractional-order dependence of rate on [H+] suggests complex formation between CBT and H+. It fails to induce polymerization of acrylonitrile under the experimental conditions employed. Activation parameters are evaluated. The observed solvent isotope effect indicates the absence of hydride transfer during oxidation. Effects of dielectric constant and ionic strength of the medium on the reaction rate have been studied. Oxidation products are identified. A suitable reaction scheme is proposed and an appropriate rate law is deduced to account for the observed kinetic data.

  20. Cloth filter for recovery of uranium from radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badawy, Sayed M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt)]. E-mail: sayedbadawy@hotmail.com; Sokker, Hesham H. [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Cairo (Egypt); Othman, Sameh H. [Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority (Egypt); Hashem, Ali [Textile Research Division, National Research Center (Egypt)

    2005-06-01

    A cloth filter incorporated with amidoxime/carboxyl groups was synthesized for recovery of uranium from radioactive waste obtained from nuclear fuel fabrication laboratories. The cloth filter was synthesized by radiation-induced grafting of acrylonitrile/methacrylic acid (AN/MA) onto a cotton cloth and followed by amidoximation reaction at a weight ratio of AN to MA of 80/20. The effect of comonomer composition on the grafting ratio and AN composition in the graft chain was studied. The reactivity of AN for grafting into the cotton cloth was found to be less than that of the MA acid. The incorporation of the functional groups was confirmed by FT-IR spectra. The cloth filter possessed good mechanical properties and thermal and chemical stability suitable for practical use. The uranium uptake ratio reached 95% at 298 K and pH 9-9.5.

  1. Investigation of the interfacial bonding in composite propellants. 1,3,5-Trisubstituted isocyanurates as universal bonding agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GORDANA S. USCUMLIC

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available A series of 1,3,5-trisubstituted isocyanurates (substituents: CH2CH2OH, CH2CH=CH2 and CH2CH2COOH was synthesized according to a modified literature procedure. Experimental investigations included modification of the synthetic procedure in terms of the starting materials, solvents, temperature, isolation techniques, as well as purification and identification of the products. All the synthesized isocyanurates were identified by their melting point and FTIR, 1H NMR and UV spectroscopic data. Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry was also used to study the interaction between ammonium perchlorate, hydroxyl terminated poly(butadiene, carboxyl terminated poly(butadiene, poly(butadiene-co-acrylonitrile, poly(propylene ether, cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine and the compounds synthesized in this work, which can serve as bonding agents. The results show that tris(2-hydroxyethylisocyanurate is a universal bonding agent for the ammonium perchlorate/carboxyl terminated poly(butadiene/cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine composite propellant system.

  2. Amine and Titanium (IV Chloride, Boron (III Chloride or Zirconium (IV Chloride-Promoted Baylis-Hillman Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Cong Cui

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The Baylis-Hillman reactions of various aryl aldehydes with methyl vinyl ketone at temperatures below -20oC using Lewis acids such as titanium (IV chloride, boron (III chloride or zirconium (IV chloride in the presence of a catalytic amount of selected amines used as a Lewis bases afford the chlorinated compounds 1 as the major product in very high yields. Acrylonitrile can also undergo the same reaction to give the corresponding chlorinated product in moderate yield. A plausible reaction mechanism is proposed. However, if the reaction was carried out at room temperature (ca. 20oC, then the Z-configuration of the elimination product 3, derived from 1, was formed as the major product.

  3. HBS-1: A Modular Child-Size 3D Printed Humanoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianjun Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An affordable, highly articulated, child-size humanoid robot could potentially be used for various purposes, widening the design space of humanoids for further study. Several findings indicated that normal children and children with autism interact well with humanoids. This paper presents a child-sized humanoid robot (HBS-1 intended primarily for children’s education and rehabilitation. The design approach is based on the design for manufacturing (DFM and the design for assembly (DFA philosophies to realize the robot fully using additive manufacturing. Most parts of the robot are fabricated with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS using rapid prototyping technology. Servomotors and shape memory alloy actuators are used as actuating mechanisms. The mechanical design, analysis and characterization of the robot are presented in both theoretical and experimental frameworks.

  4. Polymer thin-film transistor based on a high dielectric constant gate insulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lü Wen; Peng Jun-Biao; Yang Kai-Xia; Lan Lin-Feng; Niu Qiao-Li; Cao Yong

    2007-01-01

    In this paper full polymer thin-film transistors (PTFTs) based on Poly (acrylonitrile) (PAN) as the gate dielectric and poly (2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene-vinylene) (MEH-PPV) as the semiconductor layer were investigated by using different channel width/length ratios. Relatively high dielectric constant of the polymer dielectric layer (6.27) can remarkably reduce the threshold voltage of the transistors to below-3 V. Hole field-effect mobility of MEH-PPV of the PTFTs was about 4.8 × 10-4 cm2/Vs, and on/off current ratio was larger than 102, which was comparable with that of transistors with widely used Poly (4-vinyl phenol) (PVP) or SiO2 as gate dielectrics.

  5. Study on Reaction of Tolylene Diisocyanate with Polyolefine Polyols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang; Fa-Ai

    2001-01-01

    Polyurethane(PU) has been used widely. It is produced by polyisocyanate with polyol. There are many polyisocyanates and polyols. For polyols it is mainly concentrated on polyester and polyether, there is any study on polyolefine polyol. The paper mainly discuss it.By using tolylene diisocyanate(TDI,C6H4CH3(NCO)2) to react with hydroxyterminated polybutadiene(HTPB,HO-[-CH2-CH=CH-CH2-]n-OH,Mn=3805,) and hydroxy-terminated poly(butadiene-co-acrylonitrile)(HTBN, HO-[(-CH2-CH=CHCH2-)x-(-CHCN-CH2)y-]n-OH,Mn=2267), various NCO/OH equivalent ratio NCOterminated polyurethane(PU) prepolymers are synthesized.  ……

  6. Study on Reaction of Tolylene Diisocyanate with Polyolefine Polyols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Polyurethane(PU) has been used widely. It is produced by polyisocyanate with polyol. There are many polyisocyanates and polyols. For polyols it is mainly concentrated on polyester and polyether, there is any study on polyolefine polyol. The paper mainly discuss it.By using tolylene diisocyanate(TDI,C6H4CH3(NCO)2) to react with hydroxyterminated polybutadiene(HTPB,HO-[-CH2-CH=CH-CH2-]n-OH,Mn=3805,) and hydroxy-terminated poly(butadiene-co-acrylonitrile)(HTBN, HO-[(-CH2-CH=CHCH2-)x-(-CHCN-CH2)y-]n-OH,Mn=2267), various NCO/OH equivalent ratio NCOterminated polyurethane(PU) prepolymers are synthesized.

  7. Tensile deformation mechanisms of ABS/PMMA/EMA blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S. H.; Gao, J.; Lin, S. X.; Zhang, P.; Huang, J.; Xu, L. L.

    2014-08-01

    The tensile deformation mechanisms of acrylonitrile - butadiene - styrene (ABS) / polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) blends toughened by ethylene methacrylate (EMA) copolymer was investigated by analysing the fracture morphology. ABS/PMMA was blended with EMA copolymer by melt mixing technique using co-rotating twin extruder. Tensile tests show that the elongation at break of ABS/PMMA blends can be efficiently improved with the increase in EMA content. Fracture morphology of ABS/PMMA/EMA blends reveals that the material yield induced by hollowing-out of EMA particles and its propagation into yield zone is the main toughening mechanism. Moreover, the appearance that EMA particles in the central area are given priority to hollowing-out may be related to the skin-core structure of the injection moulded parts caused by the different cooling rate between surface and inside in the process of injection moulding.

  8. The use of white-rot fungi as active biofilters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun-Luellemann, A.; Johannes, C.; Majcherczyk, A.; Huettermann, A. [Univ. Goettingen (Germany). Forstbotanisches Inst.

    1995-12-31

    White-rot fungi, growing on lignocellulosic substrates, have been successfully used as active organisms in biofilters. Filters using these fungi have a very high biological active surface area, allowing for high degrees of retention, a comparatively low pressure drop, and a high physical stability. The unspecific action of the extracellular enzymes of the white-rot fungi allows for the degradation of a wide variety of substances by the same organism. Degradation of several compounds in the gas phase by the white-rot fungi Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Bjerkandera adusta, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium was tested. Among the aromatic solvents, styrene was the compound that was most readily degraded, followed by ethylbenzene, xylenes, and toluene. Tetrahydrofuran and dichloromethane were also degraded, whereas dioxane could not be attacked by fungi under the conditions used. Acrylonitrile and aniline were degraded very well, whereas pyridine was resistant to degradation. The process for removing styrene is now in the scaling-up stage.

  9. SYNTHESIS AND PRELIMINARY CHARACTERIZATION OF A NEW HEXADENTATE SEQUESTRANT IN THE ETHYLENEDIAMINETETRAPROPIONIC ACID CLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Cazacu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA (E-385 as such and/or derivatized (salified occupies a separate chapter, of wide interest in food sciences, because of its coordinating (sequestering competences towards various organic and/or inorganic structures (especially metal cations with small geometric dimensions. This paper aims to diversify the structural range of these hexadentate ligands, by accessing a synthetic protocol different from the classic one, the cyanoethylation of primary amine functional groups of ethylenediamine (ED. In this paper are considered the main dependences of the yields of nucleophilic addition of the amino groups to the activated double bond in acrylonitrile (AN monomer, on the operating parameters (temperature, processing time, molar ratio of reactants, and finally the preliminary data on the coordinating (sequestering competence of ethylenediaminetetrapropionic acid (EDTP. The conclusions drawn support further research to extend the area of hexadentate sequestering structures.

  10. On the Strain Rate Sensitivity of Abs and Abs Plus Fused Deposition Modeling Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vairis, A.; Petousis, M.; Vidakis, N.; Savvakis, K.

    2016-06-01

    In this work the effect of strain rate on the tensile strength of fused deposition modeling parts built with Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and ABS plus material is presented. ASTM D638-02a specimens were built with ABS and ABS plus and they were tested on a Schenck Trebel Co. tensile test machine at three different test speeds, equal, lower, and higher to the test speed required by the ASTM D638-02a standard. The experimental tensile strength results were compared and evaluated. The fracture surfaces of selected specimens were examined with a scanning electron microscope, to determine failure mode of the filament strands. It was found that, as the test speed increases, specimens develop higher tensile strength and have higher elastic modulus. Specimens tested in the highest speed of the experiment had on average about 10% higher elastic modulus and developed on average about 11% higher tensile strength.

  11. Impact of polymer matrix on the electromagnetic interference shielding performance for single-walled carbon nanotubes-based composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jiajie; Huang, Yi; Li, Ning; Bai, Gang; Liu, Zunfeng; Du, Feng; Li, Feifei; Ma, Yanfeng; Chen, Yongsheng

    2013-02-01

    Composites of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), epoxy and soluble cross-linked polyurethane (SCPU) with various loadings of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were prepared. Their electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness (SE) in the frequency range of 8.2-12.4 GHz (X band) was studied. Well-dispersed SWCNT composites were created in these three representative polymer matrixes. The choice of polymer matrix greatly affects the conductivity, percolation threshold, and EMI shielding properties of the SWCNT/polymer composites. Enhanced EMI SE performances were observed for the composites with better dispersed SWCNTs. Moreover, the EMI SE performances strongly correlated with SWCNT loading in the polymer matrix. The best SWCNT dispersion was achieved in the epoxy matrix: 20-30 dB EMI SE was obtained with 15 wt% SWCNTs. PMID:23646584

  12. Some Investigations on Hardness of Investment Casting Process After Advancements in Shell Moulding for Reduction in Cycle Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R.; Mahajan, V.

    2014-07-01

    In the present work surface hardness investigations have been made on acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) pattern based investment castings after advancements in shell moulding for replication of biomedical implants. For the present study, a hip joint, made of ABS material, was fabricated as a master pattern by fused deposition modelling (FDM). After preparation of master pattern, mold was prepared by deposition of primary (1°), secondary (2°) and tertiary (3°) coatings with the addition of nylon fibre (1-2 cm in length of 1.5D). This study outlines the surface hardness mechanism for cast component prepared from ABS master pattern after advancement in shell moulding. The results of study highlight that during shell production, fibre modified shells have a much reduced drain time. Further the results are supported by cooling rate and micro structure analysis of casting.

  13. Erosive Burning Study Utilizing Ultrasonic Measurement Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furfaro, James A.

    2003-01-01

    A 6-segment subscale motor was developed to generate a range of internal environments from which multiple propellants could be characterized for erosive burning. The motor test bed was designed to provide a high Mach number, high mass flux environment. Propellant regression rates were monitored for each segment utilizing ultrasonic measurement techniques. These data were obtained for three propellants RSRM, ETM- 03, and Castor@ IVA, which span two propellant types, PBAN (polybutadiene acrylonitrile) and HTPB (hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene). The characterization of these propellants indicates a remarkably similar erosive burning response to the induced flow environment. Propellant burnrates for each type had a conventional response with respect to pressure up to a bulk flow velocity threshold. Each propellant, however, had a unique threshold at which it would experience an increase in observed propellant burn rate. Above the observed threshold each propellant again demonstrated a similar enhanced burn rate response corresponding to the local flow environment.

  14. Comparison of Selected Methods for Individual Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Capoun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the individual decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWA and other hazardous substances. The individual decontamination applies to contaminated body surfaces, protective clothing and objects immediately after contamination, performed individually or by mutual assistance using prescribed or improvised devices. The article evaluates the importance of individual decontamination, security level for Fire and Rescue Service Units of the Czech Republic (FRS CR and demonstrates some of the devices. The decontamination efficiency of selected methods (sorbent, glove and sponge, two-chamber foam device and wiping with alcohol was evaluated for protective clothing and painted steel plate contaminated with O-ethyl-S-(diisopropylaminoethyl-methylthiophosphonate (VX, sulfur mustard, o-cresol and acrylonitrile. The methods were assessed from an economic point of view and with regard to specific user parameters, such as the decontamination of surfaces or materials with poor accessibility and vertical surfaces, the need for a water rinse as well as toxic waste and its disposal.

  15. Diode laser welding of ABS: Experiments and process modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Ilie, Mariana; Mattei, Simone; Cicala, Eugen; Stoica, Virgil; 10.1016/j.optlastec.2008.10.005

    2010-01-01

    The laser beam weldability of acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene (ABS) plates is determined by combining both experimental and theoretical aspects. In modeling the process, an optical model is used to determine how the laser beam is attenuated by the first material and to obtain the laser beam profile at the interface. Using this information as the input data to a thermal model, the evolution of the temperature field within the two components can be estimated. The thermal model is based on the first principles of heat transfer and utilizes the temperature variation laws of material properties. Corroborating the numerical results with the experimental results, some important insights concerning the fundamental phenomena that govern the process could be extracted. This approach proved to be an efficient tool in determining the weldability of polimeric materials and assures a significant reduction of time and costs with the experimental exploration.

  16. New trends in biotechnology. Biotechnology no atarashii choryu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karube, I. (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology)

    1993-11-30

    This paper focuses on application of the recent biotechnology and introduces its new trends. What has triggered the boom in the application is when the technology has been applied to medicines in the 1970's. Beginning with insulin and interferon, various fibrinolytic agents including tPA and monoclonals have been put on markets one after another in 1991. Progress in humangenomic analysis has led to implementation of gene therapies and diagnoses using genes on gene diseases. Sweeteners used in a large quantity in the foodstuff field are fructoses made by isomerizing glucose produced by using enzymatic bioreactors. Needless to say about production of amino acid, organic acids, saccharides, antibiotics, steroids, and nucleic acid-based compounds by using enzymatic bioreactors, chemicals including acrylic amide from acrylonitrile, enzyme detergents, and bio-herbicides are available commercially. Progress in the technology is seen in all of the fields, including electronics industry and environmental preservation. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Investigating the Influence of Electroplating Layer Thickness on the Tensile Strength for Fused Deposition Processed ABS Thermoplastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Kannan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM is a kind of Rapid prototyping (RP technique, which allows direct transformation of CAD files into physical models. This paper attempts to identify and study the influence of electroplating layer thickness on the mechanical strength of Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS samples developed from the FDM process. The study is conducted on the tensile test samples of ABS, built on Stratasys FDM vantage SE machine, and tested under IS specified test conditions. The electroplated samples were also subjected to acetic acid tests and surface roughness measurements to check for proper adhesion of plating. The electroplating thickness adopted was 60, 70 and 80 μm. The electroplated tensile samples indicated an increase in the tensile strength with the corresponding increase in the plating thickness. 60 μm sample exhibited lower ductility and 70, 80 μm samples exhibited enhanced ductility.

  18. Catalytic oxidative conversion of alkanes to olefines and oxygenates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baerns, M. [Institut fuer Angewandte Chemie Berlin-Adlershof e.V., Berlin (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    All of the direct reaction schemes described and the corresponding process schemes are still in an exploratory state. Ethylene by oxidative coupling of methane could become competitive if process schemes are developed with significantly less expenditures for separation of the product from unconverted feed. No encouragement for formaldehyde from methane can be presently derived from the existing knowledge. Liquid-phase oxidation of methane to methanol appears to be attractive but no final judgement is possible at present. Oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylene and propane look promising although further catalyst improvement is required. Acetic acid from ethane and acrylonitrile from propane have a certain potential as an alternative to present technology. The outlook for acrolein and acrylic acid from propane is less favourable; new concepts for catalyst design are necessary. (orig.)

  19. The influence of carbon black on curing kinetics and thermal aging of acrylonitrile–butadiene rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Budinski-Simendić

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Elastomers based on a copolymer of butadiene and acrylonitrile (NBR have excellent oil resistance but are very sensitive for degradation at very high temperatures. The aim of this applicative contribution was to determine the effect of high abrasion furnace carbon black with primary particle size 46 nm on aging properties of elastomeric materials based on NBR as network precursor. The curing kinetics was determined using the rheometer with an oscillating disk, in which the network formation process is registered by the torque variation during time. The vulcanizates were obtained in a hydraulic press at 150 °C. The mechanical properties of elastomeric composites were determined before and after thermal aging in an air circulating oven. The reinforcing effect of the filler particles was assessed according to mechanical properties before and after aging.

  20. Adsorption of Heavy Metal Ions from Aqueous Media Using Amidoximated Jute Fibres: A Comparative Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jute Fibres were grafted with acrylonitrile (AN) induced by direct gamma irradiation. All the factors which affect the grafting process were investigated. The grafting at the optimum conditions was followed by amidoximation reaction. The conversion of AN into acryl amidoxime was studied by fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The treated Jute fibres were used as an adsorbent substrate for heavy metal ions such as Pb2+, Cu2+, Ni2+ and Fe2+ from their solutions. The different factors which affect the adsorption capacity of heavy metal ions, such as pH, contact time, metal ions concentrations were studied and the Langmuir adsorption isotherm was highlighted. It was found that the adsorption capacity was enhanced at acidic medium of pH 4 and increased with increasing of contact time.

  1. Preparation and characterization of chelating fibers based on natural wool for removal of Hg(II), Cu(II) and Co(II) metal ions from aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monier, M., E-mail: monierchem@yahoo.com [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, 35516 (Egypt); Nawar, N., E-mail: nnawar@mans.edu.eg [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, 35516 (Egypt); Abdel-Latif, D.A. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, 35516 (Egypt)

    2010-12-15

    The graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) onto natural wool fibers initiated by KMnO{sub 4} and oxalic acid combined redox initiator system in limited aqueous medium was carried out in heterogeneous media. Moreover, modification of the grafted wool fibers was done by changing the nitrile group (-CN) into cyano-acetic acid {alpha}-amino-acrylic-hydrazide through the reaction with hydrazine hydrate followed by ethylcyanoacetate which eventually produce wool-grafted-poly(cyano-acetic acid {alpha}-amino-acrylic-hydrazide) (wool-g-PCAH) chelating fibers. The application of the modified fibers for metal ion uptake was studied using Hg{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+} and Co{sup 2+}. The modified chelating fibers were characterized using FTIR spectroscopy, SEM and X-ray diffraction.

  2. Preparation and characterization of chelating fibers based on natural wool for removal of Hg(II), Cu(II) and Co(II) metal ions from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monier, M; Nawar, N; Abdel-Latif, D A

    2010-12-15

    The graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) onto natural wool fibers initiated by KMnO(4) and oxalic acid combined redox initiator system in limited aqueous medium was carried out in heterogeneous media. Moreover, modification of the grafted wool fibers was done by changing the nitrile group (-CN) into cyano-acetic acid α-amino-acrylic-hydrazide through the reaction with hydrazine hydrate followed by ethylcyanoacetate which eventually produce wool-grafted-poly(cyano-acetic acid α-amino-acrylic-hydrazide) (wool-g-PCAH) chelating fibers. The application of the modified fibers for metal ion uptake was studied using Hg(2+), Cu(2+) and Co(2+). The modified chelating fibers were characterized using FTIR spectroscopy, SEM and X-ray diffraction. PMID:20810212

  3. Kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of some neutral and acidic -amino acids by tetrabutylammonium tribromide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Raghvendra Shukla; Pradeep K Sharma; Kalyan K Banerji

    2004-03-01

    The oxidation of eleven amino acids by tetrabutylammonium tribromide (TBATB) in aqueous acetic acid results in the formation of the corresponding carbonyl compounds and ammonia. The reaction is first order with respect to TBATB. Michaelis-Menten type kinetics is observed with some of the amino acids while others exhibit second-order dependence. It failed to induce polymerization of acrylonitrile. The effect of solvent composition indicate that the rate of reaction increases with increase in the polarity of the medium. Addition of tetrabutylammonium chloride has no effect on the rate of oxidation. Addition of bromide ion causes decrease in the oxidation rate but only to a limiting value. The reaction is susceptible to both polar and steric effects of the substituents. A suitable mechanism has been proposed.

  4. OPTIMIZATION STUDY IN MANUFACTURING PROCESS FOR PC/ABS BLENDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Chenghung; Fung Chinping; Chang Shihhsing; Hwang Jiunren; Doong Jiliang

    2003-01-01

    The optimization of injection molding process for polycarbonate/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (PC/ABS) blends is studied using Taguchi method and principal component analysis (PCA). Four controllable process factors are studied at three levels each in the manufacturing process. The L9 orthogonal array is conducted to determine the optimum process factor/level combination for single quality of mechanical properties. In addition, the principal component analysis is employed to transform the correlated mechanical properties to a set of uncorrelated components and to evaluate a comprehensive index for multi-response cases. Then the optimum process factor/level combination for multiple qualities can be determined. Finally, the analysis of variance is used to find out the most influential injection molding parameter for single and multiple qualities problems.

  5. Energetics and Compatibility of Plasticizers in Composite Solid Propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rm. Muthiah

    1989-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a comparative analysis on the energetics of ester type plasticizers such as dioctyl adipate (DOA, dioctyl phthalate (DOP,dibutyl sebacate (DBS, isodecyl pelargonate (IDP, trioctylphosphate (TOF, diethyl phthalate (DEP, tricresyl phosphate (TCPand dibutyl phthalate (DBP and hydrocarbon type plasticizers such as polybutene (PB, spindle oil, naphthenic oil, polymer extender oil(PEO and poly isobutylene (PIB and the impact of some of the plasticizers on the work ability, pot life and mechanical properties of propellants based on two selected polymeric binders namely polybutadiene-acrylic acid-acrylonitrile (PBAN ter polymer andhydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB have been reported. The compatibility of all the plasticizers on HTPB binder was also studied at different concentration levels and temperatures using Brookfield viscometer and reported. The mechanism of plasticization is also reviewed.

  6. Heat sterilizable solid-propellant development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalfayan, S. H.

    1981-01-01

    The binders tested were polyurethanes made from two hydroxy-terminated polybutadienes, R-45 and Butarez HT, one hydroxy-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer, Hycar 1300X 17, and a hydroxy-terminated prepolymer, Esterdiol 560, made from the dimerized fatty acid Empol 1010. The isocyanates used most extensively were isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) and a polymeric diisocyanate, DDI. Stress relaxation was used to examine the chemical changes that took place in the binder when subjected to the sterilization temperatures. The thermal stability of the oxidizer, ammonium perchlorate (AP), was tested by thermogravimetry in the isothermal and nonisothermal modes. The effect of particle size, recrystallization, moisture content, and doping on the heat stability of AP could be evaluated by this method. The volatile degradation products, obtained when AP samples were aged at 135 C for prolonged periods, were analyzed by mass spectroscopy.

  7. Sorption of 2-Chlorophenol from aqueous solutions by functionalized cross-linked polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Martins Fráguas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript describes the synthesis of three polymers based on styrene (STY, divinylbenzene (DVB and two different vinyl monomers: methyl methacrylate (MMA and acrylonitrile (AN. The STY-DVB, STY-DVB-MMA and STY-DVB-AN polymers were synthesized employing the aqueous suspension technique. Reaction yields were 73%, 81% and 75%, respectively. They were morphological and chemically characterized using different techniques. The extraction capacity of the polymers was evaluated using 2-chlorophenol. The polymer extraction capacities were evaluated varying contact time the (1 h, 3 h and 5 h, temperature (30 °C, 35 °C and 40 °C, and pH (3, 5.6 and 8. The STY-DVB-AN polymer was the most efficient; it removed around 95% of the analyte using a contact time 50 h.

  8. Mechanism of Surface Modification for Sericite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Surface modification of sericite by wet method was conducted with the addition of 1.0% (w/w) silane. The resulting wetting contact angle and activity ratio of sericite were 130° and 98% respectively.Good pre-evaluation indexes of oil value (40.8%) and dispersivity (14.0 mL) were obtained. When 30% of sericite was filled into acrylonitrile butadiene styrene(ABS) plastic, the bending strength and tensile strength of the composite material were reduced by 7% and 14.3% in comparison to those of pure ABS plastic, while the rigidity was increased by 3 times, and the impact strength and breaking elongation were reduced significantly.The mechanism of surface modification was investigated and the configuration of silane coupling agent on the surface of sericite was given. Infrared (IR) spectroscopic analysis indicates that the adsorption of silane on the surface of sericite belongs to chemical adsorption.

  9. Copolymerization of polyketones catalyzed by polyacrylonitrile resin-supported palladium acetate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The crosslinked polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was synthesized by suspension polymerization using acrylonitrile (ANT) and divinylbenzene (DVB).Effects of a variety of conditions on the polymerization of PAN particle size and stiffness were investigated.Polyketone was prepared by the copolymerization of carbon monoxide (CO) and styrene (ST) catalyzed by PAN resin-supported palladium acetate.The resin-supported catalyst and the copolymerization product were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).Effects of the components of a catalytic system and reaction time on the catalytic activity were studied.The reusability of the resin-supported catalyst was also investigated.Results indicated that the resin-supported catalyst has excellent catalytic property.The yield of polyketone was 6.2348 g when using 1 g of resin and 22.4 mg of palladium acetate.

  10. Preparation and performances of porous polyacrylonitrile-methyl methacrylate membrane for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, D.Y.; Wang, G.Z.; Tan, C.L.; Rao, M.M.; Liao, Y.H. [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Li, W.S.; Li, G.L. [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Key Lab of Technology on Electrochemical Energy Storage and Power Generation in Guangdong Universities, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2008-10-01

    A copolymer, polyacrylonitrile-methyl methacrylate P(AN-MMA), was synthesized by suspension polymerization with acrylonitrile (AN) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) as monomers. With this copolymer, polymer membrane was prepared by phase inversion. The performances of the polymer were characterized by FTIR, SEM, DSC/TG, EIS and LSV. The copolymer contains CH{sub 2}, CN and CO bonds, and shows its thermal stability up to 300 C. The polymer membrane has a porous structure with an average pore diameter of 0.5 {mu}m. The conductivity of the polymer electrolyte is 1.25 mS cm{sup -1} at room temperature, and it is electrochemically stable up to 5 V (vs. Li). Using the polymer electrolyte as the gel polymer electrolyte (GPE), the cell Li/GPE/LiCoO{sub 2} shows its cyclic stability as good as the cell with liquid electrolyte. (author)

  11. SUPPRESSION OF CELL ADHESION ON POLYACRYLONITRILE-BASED MEMBRANES BY THE ANCHORING OF PHOSPHOLIPID MOIETIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-jun Huang; Xiao-dan Huang; Ai-fu Che; Zhi-kang Xu; Ke Yao

    2006-01-01

    In this work, the membrane surface of poly(acrylonitrile-co-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PANCHEMA) waschemically modified by anchoring of phospholipid moieties. The process involved the reaction of hydroxyl groups on the membrane surface with 2-chloro-2-oxo-1,3,2-dioxaphospholane (COP) followed by the ring-opening reaction of COP with trimethylamine. Chemical differences between the original and the modified membranes were characterized by FT-IR and XPS. It was found that the amount of macrophage adhered on the modified membrane surface is substantially lower than that on polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and PANCHEMA membranes under the same condition. The morphological change of the adherent cell is also suppressed by the generation ofphospholipid moieties on the membrane surface.

  12. Sweet potato starch residue as starting material to prepare polyacrylonitrile adsorbent via SI-SET-LRP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhihai; Wang, Dongju; Chen, Hou; Sun, Jinming; Xu, Yuanyuan

    2014-02-26

    Sweet potato starch residue (SPSR) was used as starting material to prepare an eco-friendly adsorbent. SPSR was modified by bromoacetyl bromide to obtain a macroinitiator for surface-initiated single electron transfer-living radical polymerization (SI-SET-LRP) of acrylonitrile (AN) catalyzed by La(0)/hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) in the presence of ascorbic acid (VC). The amidoxime (AO) adsorbent was prepared by the reaction of the graft copolymer bromoactylated sweet potato starch (BSPS)/polyacrylonitrile (BSPS-g-PAN) with hydroxylamine. The maximum adsorption capacity for Hg(II) was 4.03 mmol·g(-1). This simple method provided a novel approach to recycle and reuse agricultural residues for controlling heavy metal pollution. PMID:24512626

  13. Optimization of amine-terminated polyacrylonitrile synthesis and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H. El-Newehy

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Amine-terminated PANs were prepared in two steps. The first step includes free radical polymerization of acrylonitrile (AN using initiator pair of ammonium persulfate and sodium thiosulfate as redox system. In the second step, the amino groups were introduced through the reaction of polyacrylonitrile with excess of different diamines (10-fold including ethylenediamine (EDA, hexamethylenediamine (HMDA and octamethylenediamine (OMDA, to yield PAN–EDA, PAN–HMDA and PAN–OMDA, respectively. Optimization of the amine-terminated PANs synthesis was carried out at different temperatures (30–90 °C and different time intervals (4–24 h. In addition, the introduction of the amino group was followed by the piperidine test and recording of the FT-IR spectra. All polymers were characterized by, 1H NMR spectra, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and FT-IR spectra.

  14. In situ growth of polymer electrolytes on lithium ion electrode surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Enany, Gaber; Lacey, Matthew J.; Johns, Phil A.; Owen, John R. [School of Chemistry, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ Southampton, Hants (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) films were grown on glassy carbon, nickel foam and MnO{sub 2} substrates by cathodic electropolymerisation of acrylonitrile in acetonitrile with tetrabutylammonium perchlorate (TBAP) as the supporting electrolyte. The electronic barrier properties of the films were confirmed by impedance spectroscopy of carbon vertical stroke PAN vertical stroke Hg cells while the ionic resistance of the films varied from 200 k{omega} cm{sup 2} in the dry state to 1.4 {omega} cm{sup 2} when plasticised with 1 M LiPF{sub 6} in propylene carbonate. A galvanic cell was prepared by successive electrodepositions of MnO{sub 2} and PAN on a carbon substrate, using liquid lithium amalgam as the top contact. The cell showed a stable open circuit potential and behaved normally under the galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT). (author)

  15. 碳纤维用聚丙烯腈聚合的研究进展%The Research Progress on Polymerization of Polyacrylonitrile for Carbon Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋会青; 刘化虎; 吴伟; 陈群; 安涛; 郭光

    2011-01-01

    详细综述了丙烯腈的均相溶液聚合、水相悬浮聚合、水相沉淀聚合、混合溶剂聚合及其他聚合方法,介绍了丙烯腈共聚单体的选择和工艺条件对聚合过程的影响.%The preparation of spinning solution was a crucial step in the production of high-performance carbon fibers. Water-phase solution polymerization, water-phase suspention polymerization, water-phase precipitation polymerization, blend solvent polymerization and other polymerization methods of acrylonitrile were presented in detail. The influence of comonomer selection and process conditions on polymerization were also introduced.

  16. Preparation of novel network nanostructured sulfur composite cathode with enhanced stable cycle performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongguang; Zhao, Yan; Bakenov, Zhumabay; Konarov, Aishuak; Chen, P.

    2014-12-01

    In situ polymerization of acrylonitrile with nano-sulfur particles has been developed as a synthetic route to prepare sulfur/polyacrylonitrile (S/pPAN) composite as a cathode material for lithium/sulfur battery. Transmission electronic microscopy revealed the formation of a highly developed network structure consisting of PAN and sulfur homogeneous mixing at nanosized level, providing the "buffering" space to accommodate the volume change of sulfur upon cycling and retaining the structural integrity preventing the material agglomeration and degradation. Benefiting from this unique structure, the S/pPAN composite cathode demonstrated enhanced reversibility, resulting in a discharge capacity of 1177 mAh g-1 at the second cycle and retained about 100% of this value over 100 cycles at 0.5C. Furthermore, the S/pPAN composite cathode delivered a discharge capacity of 981 mAh g-1 at the 100th cycle at 1C.

  17. A low volume 3D-printed temperature-controllable cuvette for UV visible spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisaruka, Jelena; Dymond, Marcus K

    2016-10-01

    We report the fabrication of a 3D-printed water-heated cuvette that fits into a standard UV visible spectrophotometer. Full 3D-printable designs are provided and 3D-printing conditions have been optimised to provide options to print the cuvette in either acrylonitrile butadiene styrene or polylactic acid polymers, extending the range of solvents that are compatible with the design. We demonstrate the efficacy of the cuvette by determining the critical micelle concentration of sodium dodecyl sulphate at 40 °C, the molar extinction coefficients of cobalt nitrate and dsDNA and by reproducing the thermochromic UV visible spectrum of a mixture of cobalt chloride, water and propan-2-ol. PMID:27443958

  18. Structural and Electrochemical Analysis of PMMA Based Gel Electrolyte Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chithra M. Mathew

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available New gel polymer electrolytes containing poly(vinylidene chloride-co-acrylonitrile and poly(methyl methacrylate are prepared by solution casting method. With the addition of 60 wt.% of EC to PVdC-AN/PMMA blend, ionic conductivity value 0.398×10-6 S cm−1 has been achieved. XRD and FT-IR studies have been conducted to investigate the structure and complexation in the polymer gel electrolytes. The FT-IR spectra show that the functional groups C=O and C≡N play major role in ion conduction. Thermal stability of the prepared membranes is found to be about 180°C.

  19. Effect of surface modification of Grewia optiva fibres on their physicochemical and thermal properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amar S Singha; Ashvinder K Rana

    2012-12-01

    This paper deals with the surface modification of Grewia optiva fibre through benzoylation and graft copolymerization process. Benzoylation of Grewia optiva fibre has been carried out on mercerized fibre with varying concentrations of benzoyl chloride solution. Graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) onto Grewia optiva fibre was carried out with ceric ammonium nitrate as the redox initiator in aqueous medium under the influence of microwave radiation. Raw, graft copolymerized and benzoylated fibres were subjected to evaluation of some of their properties like swelling behaviour, moisture absorbance and chemical resistance behaviour. It has been observed that 5% benzoyl chloride treated and graft copolymerized Grewia optiva show more resistance towards moisture, water and chemicals when compared with that of raw fibre. Further morphological, structural changes, thermal stability and crystallinity of raw, graft copolymerized, pretreated and benzoylated fibres have also been studied by SEM, FTIR, TGA and XRD techniques.

  20. Graft-copolymerization of hydrophilic monomers onto irradiated polypropylene fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of graft-copolymerization of hydrophilic monomers such as 1-vinyl-2 pyrolidone, acrylonitrile, acrylic acid and acrylamide onto irradiated polypropylene fibers has been studied. Gamma ray as well as electron beam were employed for the irradiation processes. Graft copolymerization kinetics and the properties of grafted fibers have been investigated. Moisture regain, dyes absorption and the melting point of the grafted fibers increased with the increase of the degree of grafting. Polypropilen 1-vinyl-2 pyrrolidone grafted fibers showed excellent dyes absorption of almost all kinds of dyes such as direct, basic, acid, reactive, dispers, and naphtol. However for polypropylene acrylic acid grafted fibers, the colour fastness to washing was found to be unsatisfactory. The colourfastness to washing for polypropylene grafted fibers was found to be fairly good for certain dyes such as v and naphtol dyes

  1. Synthesis and characterization of poly(styrene-co-methyl methacrylate); Sintese e caracterizacao do poli(estireno-co-metacrilato de metila)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustinho, Tiago R.; Abarca, Silvia A.C.; Machado, Ricardo A.F. [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica e Alimentos - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina - UFSC, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Polystyrene (PS) is nowadays commonly used due its advantages over competitors. PS presents a lower cost when compared with Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) and with Polyethylene Tere-phthalate (PET), and can be easier processed than polypropylene (PP). At expandable form (EPS), can be used as projective equipment, thermal insulation, floating boards, refrigerators, isothermal, and low cost applications such as packaging and disposable material. Searching for more resistant materials and with a low cost, researches with copolymers materials are being developed. In this study, copolymerization reactions were carried out by suspension polymerization using monomers styrene and methyl methacrylate (MMA) with styrene. Styrene was in the highest percentage in relation to the MMA. The MMA was selected because is a monomer that presents a higher resistance than PS. The copolymerization was confirmed by performing infrared spectroscopy (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance of hydrogen (RMN{sup 1}H), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TGA). (author)

  2. A small biomimetic quadruped robot driven by multistacked dielectric elastomer actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A kind of dielectric elastomer (DE) material, called ‘synthetic elastomer’, has been developed based on acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) to be used as a dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA). By stacking single layers of synthetic elastomer, a linear actuator, called a multistacked actuator, is produced, and used by mechatronic and robotic systems to generate linear motion. In this paper, we demonstrate the application of the multistacked dielectric elastomer actuator in a biomimetic legged robot. A miniature robot driven by a biomimetic actuation system with four 2-DOF (two-degree-of-freedom) legged mechanisms is realized. Based on the experimental results, we evaluate the performance of the proposed robot and validate the feasibility of the multistacked actuator in a locomotion system as a replacement for conventional actuators. (paper)

  3. Puncture-Healing Thermoplastic Resin Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Keith L. (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Grimsley, Brian W. (Inventor); Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor); Czabaj, Michael W. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A composite comprising a combination of a self-healing polymer matrix and a carbon fiber reinforcement is described. In one embodiment, the matrix is a polybutadiene graft copolymer matrix, such as polybutadiene graft copolymer comprising poly(butadiene)-graft-poly(methyl acrylate-co-acrylonitrile). A method of fabricating the composite is also described, comprising the steps of manufacturing a pre-impregnated unidirectional carbon fiber preform by wetting a plurality of carbon fibers with a solution, the solution comprising a self-healing polymer and a solvent, and curing the preform. A method of repairing a structure made from the composite of the invention is described. A novel prepreg material used to manufacture the composite of the invention is described.

  4. Biosensor for Pesticides Based on Valerolacton Copolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yotova L.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A construction of amperometric biosensor based on immobilized acetycholinesterase and cholin oxidase is described and its application in the detection of organophosphate pesticides through enzyme inhibition measurements is discussed. The bioactive component of the sensor consists of acetycholinesterase or cholin oxidase covalently immobilized on two types new polymeric synthetic membranes. Two types of the copolymers were used for the synthesis of membranes - the copolymer of polyacrylamide and acrylonitrile and the new copolymer of poly- (hexanlactam-co-block-poly-(delta-valerolactone with aliphatic polyester. It is investigated the technical characteristics of biosensor like, response time, linear range and operating stability. The factors affecting the inhibition and reactivation processes were investigated too.

  5. A fabrication method of unique Nafion® shapes by painting for ionic polymer–metal composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabia, Sarah; Hwang, Taeseon; Kim, Kwang J.

    2016-08-01

    Ionic polymer–metal composites (IPMC) are useful actuators because of their ability to be fabricated in different shapes and move in various ways. However, producing unique or intricate shapes can be difficult based upon the current fabrication techniques. Presented here is a fabrication method of producing the Nafion® membrane or thin film through a painting method. Using an airbrush, a Nafion water dispersion is sprayed onto an acrylonitrile butadiene styrene surface with a stencil of the desired shape. To verify that this method of fabrication produces a Nafion membrane similar to that which is commercially available, a sample that was made using the painting method and Nafion 117 purchased from DuPont™ were tested for various characteristics and compared. The results show promising similarities. The painted Nafion sample was chemically plated with platinum and compared with a traditional IPMC for its displacement and blocking force capabilities. The painted IPMC sample showed comparable results.

  6. Fabrication of polystyrene/agave particle biocomposites using compression molding technique: evaluation of flammability, biodegradability, mechanical and thermal behaviour

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A S Singha; Raj K Rana

    2013-12-01

    Polystyrene (PS) composites reinforced with ungrafted and acrylonitrile (AN) grafted agave particles (AgP) have been prepared with 10–30% particle content by weight using compression molding technique. The composite specimens thus prepared were subjected to the evaluation of mechanical, chemical, flammability and biodegradability properties. PS composites with 20% particle loading exhibited optimum mechanical properties. AN grafted AgP/PS composites exhibited higher mechanical strength as compared to ungrafted AgP/PS composites. Further AN grafted AgP/PS composites exhibited better thermal properties and biodegradability as compared to PS matrix. Addition of fire retardant fillers such as magnesium hydroxide Mg(OH)2 and zinc borate lowered burning rate of PS composites considerably. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of tensile fracture surfaces of AN grafted AgP/PS composites showed better particle/matrix adhesion.

  7. Trends in petrochemical technology. The impact of the energy crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brownstein, A.M.

    1976-01-01

    Existing petrochemicals and their basic building blocks, and most important, the economics of processing and product qualities are discussed. Petrochemicals are presented in their respective groups indicating the relationship between fossil fuels and petrochemicals. A critique of current process economics is provided, and potential competitive technology is described. Individual chapters included are: (1) Energy-analysis of the oil producing countries; (2) Aromatics Production-catalytic reforming processes; leaded and unleaded gasoline; (3) Olefins Production-feedstock trends, ethylene production economics; (4) Coal, ammonia and methanol-US reserves, coal gasification and liquefaction processes; ammonia and methanol processes and economics; (5) Olefin Derivatives-polyethylenes, ethylene oxide and glycol, propylene oxide, vinyl chloride, vinyl acetate, acrylonitrile, acrylates, methacrylates, acetaldehyde, acetic acid; and (6) Aromatics Derivatives-impact of raw materials costs; comparative economics of processes-tolylene diisocyanate, styrene, ethylbenzene, phenol, adipic acid, hexamethylenediamine, caprolactam, terephthalic acid, phthalic anhydride, Maleic anhydride and butadiene as a competitive raw material for aromatics. (DP)

  8. WATER RESISTANCE OF WOOD - PLASTIC COMPOSITES MADE FROM WASTE MATERIALS RESULTED IN THE FURNITURE MANUFACTURING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia COŞEREANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present innovative wood-plastic composites made from waste materials such as ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene and wood shavings resulted in the furniture manufacturing process. From previous investigations (with regard to physical integrity and compactness of the panels, only mixtures ranging from a ratio of 100% ABS: 0% shavings to 80% ABS: 20% shavings were selected for water resistance testing. Swelling in thickness and water absorption for 2h and 24h were determined for the proposed wood-plastic composites. The results have shown that only a participation of up to 10% of wood shavings in the tested panels conducted to a good performance

  9. High temperature chemically resistant polymer concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.

    High temperature chemically resistant, non-aqueous polymer concrete composites consist of about 12 to 20% by weight of a water-insoluble polymer binder. The binder is polymerized in situ from a liquid vinyl-type monomer or mixture of vinyl containing monomers such as triallylcyanurate, styrene, acrylonitrile, acrylamide, methacrylamide, methyl-methacrylate, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate and divinyl benzene. About 5 to 40% by weight of a reactive inorganic filler selected from the group consisting of tricalcium silicate and dicalcium silicate and mixtures containing less than 2% free lime, and about 48 to 83% by weight of silica sand/ and a free radical initiator such as di-tert-butyl peroxide, azobisisobutyronitrile, benzoyl peroxide, lauryl peroxide, other orgaic peroxides and combinations to initiate polymerization of the monomer in the presence of the inorganic filers are used.

  10. Polymer concrete composites for the production of high strength pipe and linings in high temperature corrosive environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeldin, A.; Carciello, N.; Fontana, J.; Kukacka, L.

    High temperature corrosive resistant, non-aqueous polymer concrete composites are described. They comprise about 12 to 20% by weight of a water-insoluble polymer binder polymerized in situ from a liquid monomer mixture consisting essentially of about 40 to 70% by weight of styrene, about 25 to 45% by weight acrylonitrile and about 2.5 to 7.5% by weight acrylamide or methacrylamide and about 1 to 10% by weight of a crosslinking agent. This agent is selected from the group consisting of trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate and divinyl benzene; and about 80 to 88% by weight of an inert inorganic filler system containing silica sand and portland cement, and optionally Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ or carbon black or mica. A free radical initiator such as di-tert-butyl peroxide, azobisisobutyronitrile, benzoyl peroxide, lauryl peroxide, other organic peroxides and combinations thereof to initiate crosspolymerization of the monomer mixture in the presence of said inorganic filler.

  11. Preparation of thin film nanofibrous composite NF membrane based on EDC/NHS modified PAN-AA nanofibrous substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Wang, X.; Hsiao, B. S.

    2016-07-01

    A novel kind of thin-film nanofibrous composite (TFNC) nanofiltration (NF) membranes consisting of a polyamide (PA) barrier layer were successfully fabricated by interfacial polymerization (IFP) based on electrospun double-layer nanofibrous substrates, which have an ultrathin poly (acrylonitrile-co-acrylic acid) (PAN-AA) nanofibrous layer as top layer and a thicker polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofiber layer as bottom porous support layer. Immersing PAN/PAN-AA nanofibrous substrates into 1-ethyl-(3-3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride/N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS) aqueous solution and piperazine (PIP) aqueous solution (0.20 wt%) sequentially for a period of time, the carboxyl groups on PAN-AA nanofibers were activated by carbodiimide and then reacted with the amide groups. The as prepared composite membrane has an integrated structure with high rejection rate (98.0%); high permeate flux (40.4 L/m2h) for MgSO4 aqueous solution (2 g/L).

  12. Assessment of Exposure to VOCs among Pregnant Women in the National Children’s Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Elizabeth Barksdale; Viet, Susan M.; Wright, David J.; Merrill, Lori S.; Alwis, K. Udeni; Blount, Benjamin C.; Mortensen, Mary E.; Moye, John; Dellarco, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies can measure exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using environmental samples, biomarkers, questionnaires, or observations. These different exposure assessment approaches each have advantages and disadvantages; thus, evaluating relationships is an important consideration. In the National Children’s Vanguard Study from 2009 to 2010, participants completed questionnaires and data collectors observed VOC exposure sources and collected urine samples from 488 third trimester pregnant women at in-person study visits. From urine, we simultaneously quantified 28 VOC metabolites of exposure to acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, benzene, 1-bromopropane, 1,3-butadiene, carbon disulfide, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, N,N-dimethylformamide, ethylbenzene, ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, styrene, tetrachloroethylene, toluene, trichloroethylene, vinyl chloride, and xylene exposures using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI/MSMS) method. Urinary thiocyanate was measured using an ion chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method (IC-ESI/MSMS). We modeled the relationship between urinary VOC metabolite concentrations and sources of VOC exposure. Sources of exposure were assessed by participant report via questionnaire (use of air fresheners, aerosols, paint or varnish, organic solvents, and passive/active smoking) and by observations by a trained data collector (presence of scented products in homes). We found several significant (p < 0.01) relationships between the urinary metabolites of VOCs and sources of VOC exposure. Smoking was positively associated with metabolites of the tobacco constituents acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, ethylene oxide, N,N-dimethylformamide, propylene oxide, styrene, and xylene. Study location was negatively associated with the toluene metabolite N

  13. Use of Liquid Rubber and Epoxy Resins in the Formulation of Sealants%液体端氨基丁腈橡胶和环氧树脂制备的密封胶及性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊生; 陈庆民

    2011-01-01

    The performance of sealants based on liquid Amine-Terminated Butadiene Acrylonitrile (ATBN) and epoxy was outlined. The sealants have inherent resistance to high temperature and, in addition, exhibit high flexibility at temperatures as low as 253K due to their chemical structure the ATBN. Sealants based on this technology possess more excellent physical properties than traditional sealants such as low-molecular-weight polysulfide (Thiokols LP) sealants or silicon sealant. Dynamic mechanical analysis shows ATBN and epoxy form two phases in the sealants. The tensile strength and the ultimate elongation increase with increasing content of acrylonitrile of ATBN. Sealants based on ATBN show good properties on resistance to compression.%利用端氨基丁腈橡胶(ATBN)和韧性环氧树脂制备了一系列高力学强度的密封胶.力学性能测试结果表明,调节固化剂和补强填料的用量,可以得到一系列拉伸强度在5.6MPa~11.2MPa,伸长率在150%~550%之间的密封胶.丁腈橡胶中丙烯腈的含量越高,密封胶的断裂伸长率也越高,拉伸强度则在增加到一定程度后,基本保持不变.动态力学分析研究显示,该密封肢体系在软硬段的作用下,存在着两相结构.该密封胶具有优良的耐高低温和耐压缩性能.

  14. Some effects of multiple injection moulding on selected properties of ABS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Żenkiewicz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this work was to investigate the influence of multiple (up to 10 times injection moulding of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS on some properties of the obtained moulded pieces.Design/methodology/approach: The investigated samples were obtained during the industrial injection moulding. There were determined the sample mechanical properties (by a tensile test, melt flow rate, temperatures of phase transitions (by differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, temperatures of thermal degradation (by thermogravimetric analysis, TGA, as well as storage modulus and damping coefficient (both by dynamic mechanical analysis, DMA.Findings: After the first injection mouldings, minor decreases (ca. 2.0 % in the tensile strength were observed. After the next injection mouldings, this quantity did not change much. The melt flow rate increased along with the number of injection mouldings. The glass transition temperatures (from DSC of butadiene and acrylonitrile styrene fractions don’t vary with the number of injection mouldings and are ca. 61 and +104ºC, respectively.Research limitations/implications: In order to confirm that degradation process occurs in ABS during injection mouldings, further investigation is necessary, mostly that on variations in the mean molecular weight of ABS.Practical implications: The studies carried out by now indicate that there are no arguments not to subject the ABS technological waste to the management by material recycling.Originality/value: It has been observed that the largest changes in the tensile strength and melt flow rate of ABS occur during its first injection moulding and a melt flow rate increases slightly with the number of injection mouldings. The temperatures of phase transitions and thermal as well as the storage modulus and damping coefficient of ABS do not essentially change after repeated injection mouldings.

  15. 静态顶空气相色谱法对土壤中乙醛等物质分析及研究%Analysis and Research of the Substances in Soils Such as Acetaldehyde by Static Headspace-Gas Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭艳

    2015-01-01

    In this research, static headspace technology is used for preliminary treatment of soils and a detection and analysis method of determination of acetaldehyde, acrolein, acrylonitrile and pyridine in soils is set up by static headspace–gas chromatography. Under a certain condition of static headspace-gas chromatography, time and temperature for static headspace is optimized and detection limits for determination of acetaldehyde, acrolein, acrylonitrile, and pyridine in soils by static headspace–gas chromatography are identified, with satisfactory separation efect, linear regression equation, precision and accuracy achieved. The results indicate that analysis of the target compounds in soils by headspace-gas chromatography can reduce the loss of the organic matter in soils to be determined and improve sensitivity and accuracy of the experimentalanalysis.%研究用静态顶空技术处理土壤,从而建立了静态顶空-气相色谱(GC-FID)测定土壤中的乙醛、丙烯醛、丙烯腈和吡啶的检测分析方法。在一定的静态顶空和气相色谱条件下,进行了顶空的时间和温度优化,确定了静态顶空气相色谱法测定土壤中乙醛、丙烯醛、丙烯腈和吡啶方法的检出限,并取得了满意的分离效果、线性回归方程、精密度和准确度。结果表明:用顶空气相色谱法处理土壤样品,可以减少土壤中待测有机物的损失,提高实验分析的灵敏度和准确度。

  16. The emissions of monoaromatic hydrocarbons from small polymeric toys placed in chocolate food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marć, Mariusz; Formela, Krzysztof; Klein, Marek; Namieśnik, Jacek; Zabiegała, Bożena

    2015-10-15

    The article presents findings on the emissions of selected monoaromatic hydrocarbons from children's toys placed in chocolate food products. The emission test system involved the application of a new type of microscale stationary emission chamber, μ-CTE™ 250. In order to determine the type of the applied polymer in the manufacture of the tested toys, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis coupled with differential scanning calorimetry were used. It was found that the tested toy components or the whole toys (figurines) are made of two main types of polymers: polyamide and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer. Total number of studied small polymeric toys was 52. The average emissions of selected monoaromatic hydrocarbons from studied toys made of polyamide were as follows: benzene: 0.45 ± 0.33 ng/g; toluene: 3.3 ± 2.6 ng/g; ethylbenzene: 1.4 ± 1.4 ng/g; p,m-xylene: 2.5 ± 4.5 ng/g; and styrene: 8.2 ± 9.9 ng/g. In the case of studied toys made of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer the average emissions of benzene, toluene, ethylbeznene, p,m-xylene and styrene were: 0.31 ± 0.29 ng/g; 2.5 ± 1.4 ng/g; 4.6 ± 8.9 ng/g; 1.4 ± 1.1 ng/g; and 36 ± 44 ng/g, respectively.

  17. New phosphine-diamine and phosphine-amino-alcohol tridentate ligands for ruthenium catalysed enantioselective hydrogenation of ketones and a concise lactone synthesis enabled by asymmetric reduction of cyano-ketones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuentes José A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Enantioselective hydrogenation of ketones is a key reaction in organic chemistry. In the past, we have attempted to deal with some unsolved challenges in this arena by introducing chiral tridentate phosphine-diamine/Ru catalysts. New catalysts and new applications are presented here, including the synthesis of phosphine-amino-alcohol P,N,OH ligands derived from (R,S-1-amino-2-indanol, (S,S-1-amino-2-indanol and a new chiral P,N,N ligand derived from (R,R-1,2-diphenylethylenediamine. Ruthenium pre-catalysts of type [RuCl2(L(DMSO] were isolated and then examined in the hydrogenation of ketones. While the new P,N,OH ligand based catalysts are poor, the new P,N,N system gives up to 98% e.e. on substrates that do not react at all with most catalysts. A preliminary attempt at realising a new delta lactone synthesis by organocatalytic Michael addition between acetophenone and acrylonitrile, followed by asymmetric hydrogenation of the nitrile functionalised ketone is challenging in part due to the Michael addition chemistry, but also since Noyori pressure hydrogenation catalysts gave massively reduced reactivity relative to their performance for other acetophenone derivatives. The Ru phosphine-diamine system allowed quantitative conversion and around 50% e.e. The product can be converted into a delta lactone by treatment with KOH with complete retention of enantiomeric excess. This approach potentially offers access to this class of chiral molecules in three steps from the extremely cheap building blocks acrylonitrile and methyl-ketones; we encourage researchers to improve on our efforts in this potentially useful but currently flawed process.

  18. Recycling of mixed plastic waste from electrical and electronic equipment. Added value by compatibilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Yamila V; Barbosa, Silvia E

    2016-07-01

    Plastic waste from electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) grows up exponentially fast in the last two decades. Either consumption increase of technological products, like cellphones or computers, or the short lifetime of this products contributes to this rise generating an accumulation of specific plastic materials such ABS (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene), HIPS (High impact Polystyrene), PC (Polycarbonate), among others. All of they can be recycled by themselves. However, to separate them by type is neither easy nor economically viable, then an alternative is recycling them together as a blend. Taking into account that could be a deterioration in final properties, to enhance phase adhesion and add value to a new plastic WEEE blend a compatibilization is needed. In this work, a systematical study of different compatibilizers for blends of HIPS and ABS from WEEE was performed. A screening analysis was carried out by adding two different compatibilizer concentration (2wt% and 20wt%) on a HIPS/ABS physical blend 80/20 proportion from plastic e-waste. Three copolymers were selected as possible compatibilizers by their possible affinity with initial plastic WEEE. A complete characterization of each WEEE was performed and compatibilization efficiency was evaluated by comparing either mechanical or morphological blends aspects. Considering blends analyzed in this work, the best performance was achieved by using 2% of styrene-acrylonitrile rubber, obtaining a compatibilized blend with double ultimate strength and modulus respect to the physical blend, and also improve mechanical properties of initial WEEE plastics. The proposed way is a promise route to improve benefit of e-scrap with sustainable, low costs and easy handling process. Consequently, social recycling interest will be encouraged by both ecological and economical points of view.

  19. Assessment of Exposure to VOCs among Pregnant Women in the National Children's Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Elizabeth Barksdale; Viet, Susan M; Wright, David J; Merrill, Lori S; Alwis, K Udeni; Blount, Benjamin C; Mortensen, Mary E; Moye, John; Dellarco, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Epidemiologic studies can measure exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using environmental samples, biomarkers, questionnaires, or observations. These different exposure assessment approaches each have advantages and disadvantages; thus, evaluating relationships is an important consideration. In the National Children's Vanguard Study from 2009 to 2010, participants completed questionnaires and data collectors observed VOC exposure sources and collected urine samples from 488 third trimester pregnant women at in-person study visits. From urine, we simultaneously quantified 28 VOC metabolites of exposure to acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, benzene, 1-bromopropane, 1,3-butadiene, carbon disulfide, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, N,N-dimethylformamide, ethylbenzene, ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, styrene, tetrachloroethylene, toluene, trichloroethylene, vinyl chloride, and xylene exposures using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI/MSMS) method. Urinary thiocyanate was measured using an ion chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method (IC-ESI/MSMS). We modeled the relationship between urinary VOC metabolite concentrations and sources of VOC exposure. Sources of exposure were assessed by participant report via questionnaire (use of air fresheners, aerosols, paint or varnish, organic solvents, and passive/active smoking) and by observations by a trained data collector (presence of scented products in homes). We found several significant (p Smoking was positively associated with metabolites of the tobacco constituents acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, ethylene oxide, N,N-dimethylformamide, propylene oxide, styrene, and xylene. Study location was negatively associated with the toluene metabolite N-acetyl-S-(benzyl)-L-cysteine (BMA), and paint use was positively associated with the xylene metabolites

  20. The Chemical Aquatic Fate and Effects database (CAFE), a tool that supports assessments of chemical spills in aquatic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Adriana C; Farr, James K; Jenne, Polly; Chu, Valerie; Hielscher, Al

    2016-06-01

    The Chemical Aquatic Fate and Effects (CAFE) database is a centralized repository that allows for rapid and unrestricted access to data. Information in CAFE is integrated into a user-friendly tool with modules containing fate and effects data for 32 377 and 4498 chemicals, respectively. Toxicity data are summarized in the form of species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) with associated 1st and 5th percentile hazard concentrations (HCs). An assessment of data availability relative to reported chemical incidents showed that CAFE had fate and toxicity data for 32 and 20 chemicals, respectively, of 55 chemicals reported in the US National Response Center database (2000-2014), and fate and toxicity data for 86 and 103, respectively, of 205 chemicals reported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (2003-2014). Modeled environmental concentrations of 2 hypothetical spills (acrylonitrile, 625 barrels; and denatured ethanol, 857 barrels) were used to demonstrate CAFE's practical application. Most species in the 24-h SSD could be potentially impacted by acrylonitrile and denatured ethanol during the first 35 min and 15 h post spill, respectively, with concentrations falling below their HC5s (17 mg/L and 2676 mg/L) at 45 min and 60 h post spill, respectively. Comparisons of CAFE-based versus published HC5 values for 100 chemicals showed that nearly half of values were within a 2-fold difference, with a relatively small number of comparisons exceeding a 10-fold difference. The development of CAFE facilitates access to relevant environmental information, with potential uses likely expanding beyond those related to assessment of spills in aquatic environments. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1576-1586. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26497000

  1. Assessment of Exposure to VOCs among Pregnant Women in the National Children’s Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Barksdale Boyle

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies can measure exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs using environmental samples, biomarkers, questionnaires, or observations. These different exposure assessment approaches each have advantages and disadvantages; thus, evaluating relationships is an important consideration. In the National Children’s Vanguard Study from 2009 to 2010, participants completed questionnaires and data collectors observed VOC exposure sources and collected urine samples from 488 third trimester pregnant women at in-person study visits. From urine, we simultaneously quantified 28 VOC metabolites of exposure to acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, benzene, 1-bromopropane, 1,3-butadiene, carbon disulfide, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, N,N-dimethylformamide, ethylbenzene, ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, styrene, tetrachloroethylene, toluene, trichloroethylene, vinyl chloride, and xylene exposures using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI/MSMS method. Urinary thiocyanate was measured using an ion chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method (IC-ESI/MSMS. We modeled the relationship between urinary VOC metabolite concentrations and sources of VOC exposure. Sources of exposure were assessed by participant report via questionnaire (use of air fresheners, aerosols, paint or varnish, organic solvents, and passive/active smoking and by observations by a trained data collector (presence of scented products in homes. We found several significant (p < 0.01 relationships between the urinary metabolites of VOCs and sources of VOC exposure. Smoking was positively associated with metabolites of the tobacco constituents acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, ethylene oxide, N,N-dimethylformamide, propylene oxide, styrene, and xylene. Study location was negatively associated with the toluene metabolite

  2. Radiation synthesis of a new amidoximated UHMWPE fibrous adsorbent with high adsorption selectivity for uranium over vanadium in simulated seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qianhong; Hu, Jiangtao; Li, Rong; Xing, Zhe; Xu, Lu; Wang, Mouhua; Guo, Xiaojing; Wu, Guozhong

    2016-05-01

    A new kind of highly efficient adsorbent material has been fabricated in this study for the purpose of extracting uranium from seawater. Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fiber was used as a trunk material for the adsorbent, which was prepared by a series of modification reactions, as follows: (1) grafting of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and methyl acrylate (MA) onto UHMWPE fibers via 60Co γ-ray pre-irradiation; (2) aminolyzation of UHMWPE fiber by the ring-opening reaction between of epoxy groups PGMA and ethylene diamine (EDA); (3) Michael addition of amino groups with acrylonitrile (AN) to yield nitrile groups; (4) amidoximation of the attached nitrile moieties by hydroxylamine in dimethyl sulfoxide-water mixture. Modified UHMWPE fibers were characterized by means of attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to confirm the attachment of amidoxime (AO) groups onto the UHMWPE fibers. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and single fiber tensile strength verified that the modified UHMWPE fiber retained excellent mechanical properties at a low absorbed radiation dose. The adsorption performance of the UHMWPE fibrous adsorbent was evaluated by subjecting it to an adsorption test in simulated seawater using a continuous-flow mode. The amount of uranium adsorbed by this AO-based UHMWPE fibrous adsorbent was 1.97 mg-U/g after 42 days. This new adsorbent also showed high selectivity for the uranyl ion, and its selectivity for metal ions was found to decrease in the following order: U>Cu>Fe>Ca>Mg>Ni>Zn>Pb>V>Co. The adsorption selectivity for uranium is significantly higher than that for vanadium. In addition, preparation of this modified adsorbent consumes much smaller amounts of the toxic acrylonitrile monomer than the conventional preparation methods of AO-based polyethylene fibers.

  3. [Preparation of polyacrylonitrile/natural sand composite materials and analysis of adsorption properties of Pb(II) on it by FAAS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduwayit, Medine; Nurulla, Ismayil; Abliz, Shawket

    2015-02-01

    Surfaces of natural sand particles were modified with (3-chloropropyl) trichlorosilane, so that bridging groups were introduced on the surfaces of natural sand particles; By grafting polyacrylonitrile onto the modified surfaces of the natural sand particles, a novelpolyacrylonitrile/natural sand composite material was prepared from the acrylonitrile, the azobisisobutyronitrile, the divinylbenzene and the modified natural sand particles, which are as functional monomer, initiator, either skeleton monomer or cross-linking agent and carrier respectively; the composite materials were characterized by using infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy; On the FTIR spectrum, the main characteristic peaks of various functional groups including nitrile, benzene ring, and silicon hydroxyl, which were from functional monomer, cross-linking agent and carrier respectively, were observed. On the SEM, two different cross section morphologies having different density which were from acrylonitrile and modified sand particles were observed; This proved that the polyacrylonitrile was decorated on modified sand particles during our preparation process. After preparing the composite materials, micro-column of separation and preconcentration was prepared using the composite materials as filler; the adsorption of some toxic heavy metal ions onto the composite materials was observed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS); The results show that the adsorption of Pb2+ onto the composite materials was more stronger than the absorption of other toxic heavy metal ions, therefore, in this paper, the adsorption of Pb2+ onto the composite materials was mainly studied, at room temperature, when pH and flow rate of solution were 5. 4 and 4 mL x min(-1) respectively, the trace Pb(II) ions could be quantitatively adsorbed onto the composite materials; the maximum adsorption capacity of Pb(II) on the composite materials can reach 62.9 mg x g(-1). The column was eluted by 0.5 mol x L

  4. Recycling of mixed plastic waste from electrical and electronic equipment. Added value by compatibilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Yamila V; Barbosa, Silvia E

    2016-07-01

    Plastic waste from electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) grows up exponentially fast in the last two decades. Either consumption increase of technological products, like cellphones or computers, or the short lifetime of this products contributes to this rise generating an accumulation of specific plastic materials such ABS (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene), HIPS (High impact Polystyrene), PC (Polycarbonate), among others. All of they can be recycled by themselves. However, to separate them by type is neither easy nor economically viable, then an alternative is recycling them together as a blend. Taking into account that could be a deterioration in final properties, to enhance phase adhesion and add value to a new plastic WEEE blend a compatibilization is needed. In this work, a systematical study of different compatibilizers for blends of HIPS and ABS from WEEE was performed. A screening analysis was carried out by adding two different compatibilizer concentration (2wt% and 20wt%) on a HIPS/ABS physical blend 80/20 proportion from plastic e-waste. Three copolymers were selected as possible compatibilizers by their possible affinity with initial plastic WEEE. A complete characterization of each WEEE was performed and compatibilization efficiency was evaluated by comparing either mechanical or morphological blends aspects. Considering blends analyzed in this work, the best performance was achieved by using 2% of styrene-acrylonitrile rubber, obtaining a compatibilized blend with double ultimate strength and modulus respect to the physical blend, and also improve mechanical properties of initial WEEE plastics. The proposed way is a promise route to improve benefit of e-scrap with sustainable, low costs and easy handling process. Consequently, social recycling interest will be encouraged by both ecological and economical points of view. PMID:27140655

  5. 大尺寸大孔径C/SiO2复合导电材料的制备%Preparation of large-sized C/SiO2 macroporous conducting materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙能兵; 王秋景; 张瑞丰

    2011-01-01

    以大尺寸大孔径SiO2为模板,通过丙烯腈溶液浸渍、原位聚合、溶剂蒸发制备出聚丙烯腈(PAN)/SiO2复合物,再经800℃真空炭化处理得到大尺寸大孔径的C/SiO2复合材料。用SEM、FTIR、XPS和粉末XRD对样品结构进行表征。结果表明:SiO2模板特有的毛细管效应使复合物中PAN以薄膜形式包覆在SiO2材料的三维薄层上,且PAN膜的厚度可以通过调整聚合溶液中丙烯腈浓度及聚合物填充次数进行控制,炭膜的厚度与C/SiO2复合材料的表观电导率呈现一定的依赖关系。当聚合溶液中丙烯腈质量分数为33%时,经过两次原位聚合,所得到的C/SiO2复合材料的体积电阻为16Ω.cm,炭膜的平均厚度为16 nm,比表面积约为93 m2.g-1。%Polyacrylonitrile(PAN)/SiO2 composites were prepared by using large-sized macroporous silica as template,in which acrylonitrile solution was filled to perform in-situ polymerization followed by solvent evaporation.The PAN/SiO2 composites were carbonized in vacuum at 800 ℃ to obtain C/SiO2 composites.The samples were characterized by SEM,FTIR,XPS and XRD.The results show that the silica template has a strong capillarity effect,which makes PAN coated on the 3D silica layer as thin films.The thickness of the PAN film can be adjusted by changing the concentration of acrylonitrile in the polymerizing solution or the repeating times of the coating.The dependence of conductivity on the thickness of carbon film has also been observed.When the silica template is coated twice by a solution containing 33% mass fraction of acrylonitrile,the obtained C/SiO2 composites exhibit the volume resistance of 16 Ω·cm,and the average thickness of carbon film is 16 nm,while the BET surface area is 93 m2·g-1.

  6. Preparation of WPU-g-SAN and Its Coating on HNIW%WPU-g-SAN的合成及其对HNIW的包覆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖肃然; 罗运军; 孙杰; 谭惠民

    2012-01-01

    为了降低六硝基六氮杂异伍兹烷( HNIW,CL-20)的撞击感度,利用原位种子乳液聚合,以异佛尔酮二异氰酸酯(IPDI)、甲基丙烯酸-β-羟乙酯(HEMA)、苯乙烯(S)、丙烯腈(AN)等为原料合成了用于降感的接枝型水性聚氨酯(WPU-g-SAN),采用红外光谱(FTIR)、核磁共振(1H NMR)、X-射线衍射(WAXD)及动态力学分析(DMA)对产物结构进行表征.结果显示所得产物为非晶结构,且存在微相分离.用制备的产物对HNIW进行包覆,通过X-射线光电子能谱(XPS)、扫描电镜(SEM)对包覆效果进行评价,并用GJB772A-1997方法测试了HNIW包覆前后的撞击感度.结果表明,包覆后的HNIW的特性落高H50由13.6cm提高到28.5 cm.%In order to reduce the sensitivity of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (HNIW), the waterborne polyurethane grafted styrene and acrylonitrile copolymer (WPU-g-SAN) were synthesized from isophorone diisocyanate- ( IPDI), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), styrene (S) and acrylonitrile (AN) as raw materials by seeded emulsion polymerization in situ. The cast films obtained from WPU-g-SAN were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), nuclear magnetic resonance ('H NMR) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The results showed that the title copolymer was amorphous and exhibited a certain degree of phase separation. HNIW and HNIW coated with the WPU-g-SAN were examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The impact sensitivity was tested by method of CJB772A -1997. The experimental results indicated that the characteristic height H50 of HNIW coated with WPU-g-SAN increases from 13.6 cm to 28.5 cm.

  7. The inverse agonist DG172 triggers a PPARβ/δ-independent myeloid lineage shift and promotes GM-CSF/IL-4-induced dendritic cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieber, Sonja; Scheer, Frithjof; Finkernagel, Florian; Meissner, Wolfgang; Giehl, Gavin; Brendel, Cornelia; Diederich, Wibke E; Müller-Brüsselbach, Sabine; Müller, Rolf

    2015-02-01

    The stilbene derivative (Z)-2-(2-bromophenyl)-3-{[4-(1-methylpiperazine)amino]phenyl}acrylonitrile (DG172) was developed as a highly selective inhibitory peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)β/δ ligand. Here, we describe a novel PPARβ/δ-independent, yet highly specific, effect of DG172 on the differentiation of bone marrow cells (BMCs). DG172 strongly augmented granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-induced differentiation of primary BMCs from Ppard null mice into two specific populations, characterized as mature (CD11c(hi)MHCII(hi)) and immature (CD11c(hi)MHCII(lo)) dendritic cells (DCs). IL-4 synergized with DG172 to shift the differentiation from MHCII(lo) cells to mature DCs in vitro. The promotion of DC differentiation occurred at the expense of differentiation to granulocytic Gr1(+)Ly6B(+) cells. In agreement with these findings, transcriptome analyses showed a strong DG172-mediated repression of genes encoding neutrophilic markers in both differentiating wild-type and Ppard null cells, while macrophage/DC marker genes were up-regulated. DG172 also inhibited the expression of transcription factors driving granulocytic differentiation (Cebpe, Gfi1, and Klf5), and increased the levels of transcription factors promoting macrophage/DC differentiation (Irf4, Irf8, Spib, and Spic). DG172 exerted these effects only at an early stage of BMC differentiation induced by GM-CSF, did not affect macrophage-colony-stimulating factor-triggered differentiation to macrophages and had no detectable PPARβ/δ-independent effect on other cell types tested. Structure-function analyses demonstrated that the 4-methylpiperazine moiety in DG172 is required for its effect on DC differentiation, but is dispensable for PPARβ/δ binding. Based on these data we developed a new compound, (Z)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-[4-(4-methylpiperazine-1-yl)phenyl]acrylonitrile (DG228), which enhances DC differentiation in the absence of significant PPARβ/δ binding. PMID

  8. Toxicological responses in SW mice exposed to inhaled pyrolysates of polymer/tobacco mixtures and blended tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werley, Michael S; Lee, K Monika; Lemus-Olalde, Ranulfo

    2009-12-01

    Modern cigarette manufacturing is highly automated and produces millions of cigarettes per day. The potential for small inclusions of non-cigarette materials such as wood, cardboard packaging, plastic, and other materials exists as a result of bulk handling and high-speed processing of tobacco. Many non-tobacco inclusions such as wood, paper, and cardboard would be expected to yield similar pyrolysis products as a burning cigarette. The aircraft industry has developed an extensive literature on the pyrolysis products of plastics, however, that have been reported to yield toxic by-products upon burning, by-products that have been lethal in animals and humans upon acute exposure under some exposure conditions. Some of these smoke constituents have also been reported in cigarette smoke. Five synthetic polymers, nylon 6, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), nylon 12, nylon 6,6, and acrylonitrile-butadiene (AB), and the natural polymer wool were evaluated by adding them to tobacco at a 3, 10, and 30% inclusion level and then pyrolyzing the mixture. The validated smoke generation and exposure system have been described previously. We used the DIN 53-436 tube furnace and nose-only exposure chamber in combination to conduct exposures in Swiss-Webster mice. Potentially useful biological endpoints for predicting hazards in humans included sensory irritation and pulmonary irritation, respiratory function, clinical signs, body weights, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid analysis, carboxyhemoglogin, blood cyanide concentrations, and histopathology of the respiratory tract. Chemical analysis of selected smoke constituents in the test atmosphere was also performed in order to compare the toxicological responses with exposure to the test atmospheres. Under the conditions of these studies, biological responses considered relevant and useful for prediction of effects in humans were found for sensory irritation, body weights, BAL fluid analysis, and histopathology of the nose

  9. Controlled Unusual Stiffness of Mechanical Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wooju; Kang, Da-Young; Song, Jihwan; Moon, Jun Hyuk; Kim, Dongchoul

    2016-02-01

    Mechanical metamaterials that are engineered with sub-unit structures present unusual mechanical properties depending on the loading direction. Although they show promise, their practical utility has so far been somewhat limited because, to the best of our knowledge, no study about the potential of mechanical metamaterials made from sophisticatedly tailored sub-unit structures has been made. Here, we present a mechanical metamaterial whose mechanical properties can be systematically designed without changing its chemical composition or weight. We study the mechanical properties of triply periodic bicontinuous structures whose detailed sub-unit structure can be precisely fabricated using various sub-micron fabrication methods. Simulation results show that the effective wave velocity of the structures along with different directions can be designed to introduce the anisotropy of stiffness by changing a volume fraction and aspect ratio. The ratio of Young’s modulus to shear modulus can be increased by up to at least 100, which is a 3500% increase over that of isotropic material (2.8, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene). Furthermore, Poisson’s ratio of the constituent material changes the ratio while Young’s modulus does not influence it. This study presents the promising potential of mechanical metamaterials for versatile industrial and biomedical applications.

  10. Exploring the tensile strain energy absorption of hybrid modified epoxies containing soft particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Two epoxy systems have been modified by combination of fine and coarse modifiers. → While both hybrid systems reveal synergistic KIC, no synergism is observed in tensile test. → It is found that coarse particles induce stress concentration in hybrid samples. → Stress concentration leads to fracture of samples at lower energy absorption levels. -- Abstract: In this paper, tensile strain energy absorption of two different hybrid modified epoxies has been systematically investigated. In one system, epoxy has been modified by amine-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile (ATBN) and hollow glass spheres as fine and coarse modifiers, respectively. The other hybrid epoxy has been modified by the combination of ATBN and recycled Tire particles. The results of fracture toughness measurement of blends revealed synergistic toughening for both hybrid systems in some formulations. However, no evidence of synergism is observed in tensile test of hybrid samples. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission optical microscope (TOM) and finite element (FEM) simulation were utilized to study deformation mechanisms of hybrid systems in tensile test. It is found that coarse particles induce stress concentration in hybrid samples. This produces non-uniform strain localized regions which lead to fracture of hybrid samples at lower tensile loading and energy absorption levels.

  11. Metallization on FDM Parts Using the Chemical Deposition Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar Equbal

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Metallization of ABS (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene parts has been studied on flat part surfaces. These parts are fabricated on an FDM (fused deposition modeling machine using the layer-wise deposition principle using ABS as a part material. Electroless copper deposition on ABS parts was performed using two different surface preparation processes, namely ABS parts prepared using chromic acid for etching and ABS parts prepared using a solution mixture of sulphuric acid and hydrogen peroxide (H2SO4/H2O2 for etching. After surface preparations using these routes, copper (Cu is deposited electrolessly using four different acidic baths. The acidic baths used are 5 wt% CuSO4 (copper sulfate with 15 wt% of individual acids, namely HF (hydrofluoric acid, H2SO4 (sulphuric acid, H3PO4 (phosphoric acid and CH3COOH (acetic acid. Cu deposition under different acidic baths used for both the routes is presented and compared based on their electrical performance, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS. The result shows that chromic acid etched samples show better electrical performance and Cu deposition in comparison to samples etched via H2SO4/H2O2.

  12. Noble metal/functionalized cellulose nanofiber composites for catalytic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopiraman, Mayakrishnan; Bang, Hyunsik; Yuan, Guohao; Yin, Chuan; Song, Kyung-Hun; Lee, Jung Soon; Chung, Ill Min; Karvembu, Ramasamy; Kim, Ick Soo

    2015-11-01

    In this study, cellulose acetate nanofibers (CANFs) with a mean diameter of 325 ± 2.0 nm were electrospun followed by deacetylation and functionalization to produce anionic cellulose nanofibers (f-CNFs). The noble metal nanoparticles (RuNPs and AgNPs) were successfully decorated on the f-CNFs by a simple wet reduction method using NaBH4 as a reducing agent. TEM and SEM images of the nanocomposites (RuNPs/CNFs and AgNPs/CNFs) confirmed that the very fine RuNPs or AgNPs were homogeneously dispersed on the surface of f-CNFs. The weight percentage of the Ru and Ag in the nanocomposites was found to be 13.29 wt% and 22.60 wt% respectively; as confirmed by SEM-EDS analysis. The metallic state of the Ru and Ag in the nanocomposites was confirmed by XPS and XRD analyses. The usefulness of these nanocomposites was realized from their superior catalytic activity. In the aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde, the RuNPs/CNFs system gave a better yield of 89% with 100% selectivity. Similarly, the AgNPs/CNFs produced an excellent yield of 99% (100% selectivity) in the aza-Michael reaction of 1-phenylpiperazine with acrylonitrile. Mechanism has been proposed for the catalytic systems. PMID:26256382

  13. Toxic Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs in the Atmospheric Environment: Regulatory Aspects and Monitoring in Japan and Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tien Tsai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, so-called air toxics or toxic air pollutants, have been detected in the atmospheric air at low concentration levels, causing public concern about the adverse effect of long-term exposure to HAPs on human health. Most HAPs belong to volatile organic compounds (VOCs. More seriously, most of them are known carcinogens or probably carcinogenic to humans. The objectives of this paper were to report the regulatory aspects and environmental monitoring management of toxic VOCs designated by Japan and Korea under the Air Pollution Control Act, and the Clean Air Conservation Act, respectively. It can be found that the environmental quality standards and environmental monitoring of priority VOCs (i.e., benzene, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and dichloromethane have been set and taken by the state and local governments of Japan since the early 2000, but not completely established in Korea. On the other hand, the significant progress in reducing the emissions of some toxic VOCs, including acrylonitrile, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, 1,2-dichloroethane, dichloromethane, chloroform, tetrachloroethylene, and trichloroethylene in Japan was also described as a case study in the brief report paper.

  14. Microwave irradiation induced modifications on the interfaces in SAN/EVA/PVC and PVAc/BPA/PVP ternary polymer blends: Positron lifetime study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesh, Meghala; Chikkakuntappa, Ranganathaiah

    2013-09-01

    Ternary polymer blends of poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)/poly(ethylene-co-vinylacetate)/poly(vinyl chloride) (SAN/EVA/PVC) and poly(vinyl acetate)/bisphenol A/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVAc/BPA/PVP) with different compositions have been prepared by solvent casting method and characterized by positron lifetime spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry DSC. Phase modifications have been induced by irradiating the blends with microwave radiation. These changes have been monitored by measuring the free-volume content in the blends. The results clearly show improved interactions between the constituent polymers of the blends upon microwave irradiation. However, the free-volume data and DSC measurements are found to be inadequate to reveal the changes at the interfaces and the interfaces determine the final properties of the blend. For this we have used hydrodynamic interaction (αij) approach developed by us to measure strength of hydrodynamic interaction at the interfaces. These results show that microwave irradiation stabilizes the interfaces if the blend contains strong polar groups. SAN/EVA/PVC blend shows an increased effective hydrodynamic interaction from -3.18 to -4.85 at composition 50/35/15 upon microwave irradiation and PVAc/BPA/PVP blend shows an increased effective hydrodynamic interaction from -3.81 to -7.57 at composition 20/50/30 after irradiation.

  15. Microwave irradiation induced modifications on the interfaces in SAN/EVA/PVC and PVAc/BPA/PVP ternary polymer blends: Positron lifetime study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinesh, Meghala; Chikkakuntappa, Ranganathaiah, E-mail: crang1@rediffmail.com

    2013-09-01

    Ternary polymer blends of poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)/poly(ethylene-co-vinylacetate)/poly(vinyl chloride) (SAN/EVA/PVC) and poly(vinyl acetate)/bisphenol A/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVAc/BPA/PVP) with different compositions have been prepared by solvent casting method and characterized by positron lifetime spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry DSC. Phase modifications have been induced by irradiating the blends with microwave radiation. These changes have been monitored by measuring the free-volume content in the blends. The results clearly show improved interactions between the constituent polymers of the blends upon microwave irradiation. However, the free-volume data and DSC measurements are found to be inadequate to reveal the changes at the interfaces and the interfaces determine the final properties of the blend. For this we have used hydrodynamic interaction (α{sub ij}) approach developed by us to measure strength of hydrodynamic interaction at the interfaces. These results show that microwave irradiation stabilizes the interfaces if the blend contains strong polar groups. SAN/EVA/PVC blend shows an increased effective hydrodynamic interaction from −3.18 to −4.85 at composition 50/35/15 upon microwave irradiation and PVAc/BPA/PVP blend shows an increased effective hydrodynamic interaction from −3.81 to −7.57 at composition 20/50/30 after irradiation.

  16. Investigation of hydrocyclones for the separation of shredded fridge plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, R D

    2006-01-01

    The recycling of fridges produces a mixed plastic product of limited value. In order to maximise its value, the separation of the individual polymers that include high impact polystyrene (HIPS), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyethylene (PE) must take place. The effectiveness of a hydrocyclone system for the separation of these plastics, using both water and calcium chloride solutions, has been investigated. In addition a qualitative procedure for the determination of the HIPS content of a mixed ABS/HIPS product, by selective dissolution in R-limonene, has been developed. It was found that the effective density of separation depended on the particle size and aspect ratio. As the particle size and aspect ratio decreased, the separation became more efficient and the offset between separation density and hydrocyclone medium density decreased. This suggests that, for efficient density separation, closely sized, fine plastic fractions are required. Using these criteria, it was found that the removal of high density plastic such as PVC was readily achieved using a hydrocyclone. A partial separation of HIPS from ABS was found to be possible, taking advantage of a small density difference, using a hydrocyclone medium density of 1035kgm(-3). PMID:16169209

  17. Occurrence of brominated flame retardants in black thermo cups and selected kitchen utensils purchased on the European market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonek, J; Puype, F

    2013-01-01

    In order to screen for the presence of a recycled polymer waste stream from waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE), a market survey was conducted on black plastic food-contact articles (FCA). An analytical method was applied combining X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) with thermal desorption gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (thermal desorption GC-MS). Firstly, XRF spectrometry was applied to distinguish bromine-positive samples. Secondly, bromine-positive samples were submitted for identification by thermal desorption GC-MS. Generally, the bromine-positive samples contained mainly technical decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE). Newer types of BFRs such as tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), tetrabromobisphenol A bis(2,3-dibromopropyl), ether (TBBPA-BDBPE) and decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE), replacing the polybrominated diphenyleters (PBDEs) and polybrominated diphenyls (PBBs), were also identified. In none of the tested samples were PBBs or hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) found. Polymer identification was carried out using Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy measurement (FTIR) on all samples. The results indicate that polypropylene-polyethylene copolymers (PP-PE) and mainly styrene-based food-contact materials, such as acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) have the highest risk of containing BFRs. PMID:24040839

  18. A comparison between nickel and palladium precatalysts of 1,2,4-triazole based N-heterocyclic carbenes in hydroamination of activated olefins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Chandrakanta; Shaikh, Mobin M; Butcher, Ray J; Ghosh, Prasenjit

    2010-03-14

    A comparison is drawn between the nickel and palladium precatalysts of 1,2,4-triazole based N-heterocyclic carbenes in the hydroamination of activated olefins. Though all of the newly designed nickel and palladium precatalysts, trans-[1-i-propyl-4-R-1,2,4-triazol-5-ylidene](2)MBr(2) [R = Et, M = Ni (1b); R = Et, M = Pd (1c); R = CH(2)CH=CH(2), M = Ni (2b) and R = CH(2)CH=CH(2), M = Pd (2c)], are moderately active for hydroamination reaction of a variety of secondary amines viz. morpholine, piperidine, pyrrolidine and diethylamine with activated olefins like, acrylonitrile, methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate and t-butyl acrylate at room temperature in 1 hour, the nickel complexes (1b and 2b) exhibited superior activity compared to its palladium counterparts (1c and 2c). The better performance of the nickel complexes has been correlated to the more electron deficient metal center in the nickel 1b and 2b complexes than in the palladium 1c and 2c analogs based on the density functional theory studies. The 1b-c and 2b-c complexes were synthesized by the reaction of 1-i-propyl-4-R-1,2,4-triazolium bromide [R = Et (1a) and R = CH(2)CH=CH(2) (2a)] with MCl(2) [M = Ni, Pd] in presence of NEt(3) as a base. PMID:20179844

  19. Production of reagents for cleaning fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunberg, I.V.; Korostyleva, R.N.; Pytel, S.P.; Spasskii, P.I.; Titarenko, N.K.; Trachtenberg, S.I.; Yushkevich, V.I.

    1980-10-25

    A method for producing reagents for cleaning fluids is proposed using polymerization of acrylonitril, metachrylate or a mixture of the two in water and saponification of the polymers with alakali. To reduce the consumption of monomers and increase the quality of the reagents, 0.4-1.0 parts humic substances, 0.2-1.0 parts hydrolizate from tanning waste products and 1.2-4.0 parts monomers are added to the reaction medium, followed by copolymerization in an acid medium. The proposed method ensures quality reagents which combine lower water yield with a moderate increase in viscosity when acting on clay solutions. Compared with the current method, this method lowers the consumption of an expensive and hard-to-find monomer 1.2-1.4X for one ton of reagent, which lowers the cost of raw material by 1.3-1.7X. This results in a savings of 195-385 rubles per ton of reagent, 600-1200 thousand at 3000 tons/yr.

  20. Use of 3D printers to create a patient-specific 3D bolus for external beam therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleson, Sarah; Baker, Jamie; Hsia, An Ting; Xu, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that an inexpensive 3D printer can be used to manufacture patient-specific bolus for external beam therapy, and to show we can accurately model this printed bolus in our treatment planning system for accurate treatment delivery. Percent depth-dose measurements and tissue maximum ratios were used to determine the characteristics of the printing materials, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene and polylactic acid, as bolus material with physical density of 1.04 and 1.2 g/cm3, and electron density of 3.38 × 10²³ electrons/cm3 and 3.80 × 10²³ electrons/ cm3, respectively. Dose plane comparisons using Gafchromic EBT2 film and the RANDO phantom were used to verify accurate treatment planning. We accurately modeled a printing material in Eclipse treatment planning system, assigning it a Hounsfield unit of 260. We were also able to verify accurate treatment planning using gamma analysis for dose plane comparisons. With gamma criteria of 5% dose difference and 2 mm DTA, we were able to have 86.5% points passing, and with gamma criteria of 5% dose difference and 3 mm DTA, we were able to have 95% points passing. We were able to create a patient-specific bolus using an inexpensive 3D printer and model it in our treatment planning system for accurate treatment delivery. PMID:26103485

  1. Physical model of granule adhesion to the belt-electrodes of a tribo-aero-electrostatic separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of tribo-aero-electrostatic separation technologies, which consist in the selective sorting of mixed granular insulating materials in a fluidized bed affected by an electric field orthogonally oriented to the direction of the fluidization air. The aim of the present paper is to put the theoretical bases for the optimization of this process, i. e. maximize the total mass of the granules collected at the two electrodes that generate the electric field. The various forces that drive a granule of given mass and electric charge through the electric field and make it stick to an electrode are expressed as functions of the several input variables and parameters of the process, such as the applied high-voltage or the surface roughness, the size and the position of the electrodes. The concepts of 'critical electrostatic field' and 'virtual climbing distance' are introduced. The prediction of the theoretical model are confirmed by the results of three sets of experiments, carried out on samples of a granular mixture consisting of 50% Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) and 50% High Impact Polystyrene (HIPS), originating from the recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment. Higher separation efficiency was obtained when the electric field in the active zone was intensified by the use of an additional electrode connected to the ground and when the collecting electrodes were covered by a thin insulating layer.

  2. 环氧树脂阳离子无皂苯丙乳液用于纸张的表面施胶%Application of Cationic Styrene-Acrylic Emulsion Modified by Epoxy Resin on Surface Sizing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王西锋; 张光华; 牛恒

    2011-01-01

    以丙烯腈改性淀粉为分散剂,苯乙烯(St)、丙烯酸丁酯(BA)、甲基丙烯酸二甲基氨基乙酯(DM)为单体,丙烯酰胺(AM)为交联单体,环氧树脂(E-44)为功能单体,过硫酸钾(K2S2O3)为引发剂,采用无皂乳液聚合技术合成了一种阳离子苯丙乳液表面施胶剂,并对文化纸进行表面施胶。最佳合成工艺是:w(DM)=3%,m(St):m(BA)=3,w(AM)=4%,w(E=44)=0.3%,w(K2S2O8)=0.5%。%The cationic surface sizing of styrene-acrylic polymers were synthesized by soap-free emulsion technology, using acrylonitrile modified starch as dispersant, dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate, styrene and butyl acrylate as monomers, acrylamide as cross-link

  3. Composition of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) by direct sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinho, Graça; Pires, Ana; Saraiva, Luanha; Ribeiro, Rita

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes a direct analysis study carried out in a recycling unit for waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in Portugal to characterize the plastic constituents of WEEE. Approximately 3400 items, including cooling appliances, small WEEE, printers, copying equipment, central processing units, cathode ray tube (CRT) monitors and CRT televisions were characterized, with the analysis finding around 6000 kg of plastics with several polymer types. The most common polymers are polystyrene, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, polycarbonate blends, high-impact polystyrene and polypropylene. Additives to darken color are common contaminants in these plastics when used in CRT televisions and small WEEE. These additives can make plastic identification difficult, along with missing polymer identification and flame retardant identification marks. These drawbacks contribute to the inefficiency of manual dismantling of WEEE, which is the typical recycling process in Portugal. The information found here can be used to set a baseline for the plastics recycling industry and provide information for ecodesign in electrical and electronic equipment production. PMID:22424707

  4. PLANTAGO PSYLLIUM-GRAFTED-POLYACRYLONITRILE: SYNTHESIS,CHARACTERIZATION AND ITS USE FOR SOLID REMOVAL FROM SEWAGE WASTEWATER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anuradha Mishra; Alpa Yadav; Monika Agarwal; Rajani Srinivasan

    2005-01-01

    Plantago psyllium mucilage (PSY), an anionic natural polysaccharide consisting of pentosan and uronic acid obtained from the seeds of Plantago psyllium (Plantago family), was grafted with acrylonitrile (AN). Graft copolymers were prepared by ceric ion initiated solution polymerization technique and were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. These copolymers are good flocculating agents for removal of suspended (SS) and total dissolved solid (TDS) in sewage wastewater treatment. The effects of copolymer dose, pH and contact time on flocculation capacity of one selected copolymer sample were studied by jar test method. The suitable pH range for maximum solid removal was 7.0 to 9.2 and the optimum copolymer dose was 1.2 mg/L. The overall process for solid removal took 4 h. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of grafted copolymer, PSY grafted polyacrylonitrile (PSY-g-PAN)and solid waste, before and after treatment are used to suggest the interaction of the solid waste with PSY-g-PAN copolymer.

  5. Lipoproteins tethered dendrimeric nanoconstructs for effective targeting to cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Anupriya; Jain, Keerti, E-mail: keertijain02@gmail.com; Mehra, Neelesh Kumar, E-mail: neelesh81mph@gmail.com; Jain, N. K., E-mail: dr.jnarendr@gmail.com [Dr. H. S. Gour University, Pharmaceutics Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences (India)

    2013-10-15

    In the present investigation, poly (propylene imine) dendrimers up to fifth generation (PPI G5.0) were synthesized using ethylene diamine and acrylonitrile. Lipoproteins (high-density lipoprotein; HDL and low-density lipoprotein; LDL) were isolated from human plasma by discontinuous density gradient ultracentrifugation, characterized and tethered to G5.0 PPI dendrimers to construct LDL- and HDL-conjugated dendrimeric nanoconstructs for tumor-specific delivery of docetaxel. Developed formulations showed sustained release characteristics in in vitro drug release and in vivo pharmacokinetic studies. The cancer targeting potential of lipoprotein coupled dendrimers was investigated by ex vivo cytotoxicity and cell uptake studies using human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines (HepG2 cells) and biodistribution studies in albino rats of Sprague-Dawley strain. Lipoprotein anchored dendrimeric nanoconstructs showed significant uptake by cancer cells as well as higher biodistribution of docetaxel to liver and spleen. It is concluded that these precisely synthesized engineered dendrimeric nanoconstructs could serve as promising drug carrier for fighting with the fatal disease, i.e., cancer, attributed to their defined targeting and therapeutic potential.

  6. Physical model of granule adhesion to the belt-electrodes of a tribo-aero-electrostatic separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Dascalescu, Lucian; Miloudi, Mohamed; Bilici, Mihai; Xu, Zhenming

    2013-03-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of tribo-aero-electrostatic separation technologies, which consist in the selective sorting of mixed granular insulating materials in a fluidized bed affected by an electric field orthogonally oriented to the direction of the fluidization air. The aim of the present paper is to put the theoretical bases for the optimization of this process, i. e. maximize the total mass of the granules collected at the two electrodes that generate the electric field. The various forces that drive a granule of given mass and electric charge through the electric field and make it stick to an electrode are expressed as functions of the several input variables and parameters of the process, such as the applied high-voltage or the surface roughness, the size and the position of the electrodes. The concepts of "critical electrostatic field" and "virtual climbing distance" are introduced. The prediction of the theoretical model are confirmed by the results of three sets of experiments, carried out on samples of a granular mixture consisting of 50% Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) and 50% High Impact Polystyrene (HIPS), originating from the recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment. Higher separation efficiency was obtained when the electric field in the active zone was intensified by the use of an additional electrode connected to the ground and when the collecting electrodes were covered by a thin insulating layer.

  7. Influence of impurities on the performances of HIPS recycled from Waste Electric and Electronic Equipment (WEEE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Didier; Mantaux, Olivier; Ienny, Patrick; Léger, Romain; Dumon, Michel; Lopez-Cuesta, José-Marie

    2016-10-01

    In order to produce a high quality recycled material from real deposits of electric and electronic equipment, the rate of impurities in different blended grades of reclaimed materials has to be reduced. Setting up industrial recycling procedures requires to deal with the main types of polymers presents in WEEE (Waste Electric and Electronic Equipment), particularly High Impact Polystyrene (HIPS) as well as other styrenic polymers such as Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS), Polystyrene (PS) but also polyolefin which are present into WEEE deposit as Polypropylene (PP). The production of a substantial quantity of recycled materials implies to improve and master the compatibility of different HIPS grades. The influence of polymeric impurities has to be studied since automatic sorting techniques are not able to remove completely these fractions. Investigation of the influence of minor ABS, PS and PP polymer fractions as impurities has been done on microstructure and mechanical properties of HIPS using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) in order to determine the maximum tolerated rate for each of them into HIPS after sorting and recycling operations.

  8. Electrostatic separator for micronized mixtures of metals and plastics originating from waste electric and electronic equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messal, Sara; Corondan, Razvan; Chetan, Ionut; Ouiddir, Rabah; Medles, Karim; Dascalescu, Lucian

    2015-10-01

    In spite of their extensive use for processing mixtures of granules exceeding 1 mm in size, very few industrial electrostatic separators are capable of handling micronized metals and plastics originating from waste electric and electronic equipment. The aim of the present work is to validate the possibility of using a novel belt-type electrostatic separator for the selective sorting of such particulate mixtures, the dimensions of which are in the order of 0.1 mm. In this type of separator, the metal particles get charged by electrostatic induction in contact with the grounded metal belt electrode, while the plastics remain uncharged in the electric field and are collected separately. The experiments are performed with 2-g samples of a mixture composed in equal proportions (50% - 50%) of Aluminium and Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) particles of average diameter ranging between 125 μm and 250 μm. They enabled the evaluation of the effects and the interaction of two control variables of the process: the angle of inclination of the roll-type electrode and the high voltage applied to it.

  9. Mixed waste chemical compatibility with packaging components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a chemical compatibility testing program for packaging of mixed wastes at will be described. We will discuss the choice of four y-radiation doses, four time durations, four temperatures and four waste solutions to simulate the hazardous waste components of mixed wastes for testing materials compatibility of polymers. The selected simulant wastes are (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. A selection of 10 polymers with anticipated high resistance to one or more of these types of environments are proposed for testing as potential liner or seal materials. These polymers are butadiene acrylonitrile copolymer, cross-linked polyethylene, epichlorhyarin, ethylene-propylene rubber, fluorocarbon, glass-filled tetrafluoroethylene, high-density poly-ethylene, isobutylene-isoprene copolymer, polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber. We will describe the elements of the testing plan along with a metric for establishing time resistance of the packaging materials to radiation and chemicals

  10. High surface-area amidoxime-based polymer fibers co-grafted with various acid monomers yielding increased adsorption capacity for the extraction of uranium from seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyola, Yatsandra; Dai, Sheng

    2016-06-01

    Uranium is dissolved in the ocean at a uniform concentration of 3.34 ppb, which translates to approximately 4-5 billion tons of uranium. The development of adsorbents that can extract uranium from seawater has been a long term goal, but the extremely dilute uranium concentration along with the competition of other metal salts (which are at higher concentrations) has hindered the development of an economical adsorption process. Several acid monomers were co-grafted with acrylonitrile (AN) to help increase the hydrophilicity of the adsorbent to improve access to the metal adsorption sites. Grafting various acid monomers on PE fibers was found to significantly affect the uranium adsorption in simulated seawater in the following order: acrylic acid (AA) uranium adsorption capacity significantly increased when Mohr's salt was added with acrylic acid, most likely due to the reduction of co-polymerization of the monomers. When testing under more realistic conditions, the acid-grafted PE fiber adsorbents were exposed to natural seawater (more dilute uranium), the uranium adsorption capacity increased in the following order: MAA uranium adsorption capacity with each acid monomer was related to higher grafting of AN and therefore a higher conversion to amidoxime (AO). PMID:27145863

  11. Enhancement of uranium extraction from seawater using chromic-acid-treated amidoxime adsorbent prepared by simultaneous irradiation grafting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enhancement of uranium extraction from seawater using chromic-acid-treated amidoxime adsorbent was studied. Chromic-acid-treated amidoxime fibers were synthesized based on the simultaneous irradiation grafting method at a low temperature. Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) fibers were treated with chromic acid for up to 90 minutes. After the treatment, the fibers were submerged in 60:40 acrylonitrile:methacrylic acid monomer by volume and irradiated with 40 kGy γ-ray. The maximum grafting efficiency of about 90% occurred at 20 minutes of acid treatment time, as a significant enhancement of 30% compared to the literature-reported value of about 70%. When submerged in shallow seawater with an average temperature of 30degC for 4 weeks, the amidoxime adsorbent exhibited the adsorption capacity of 2.06 g-U/kg-adsorbent, which was 37% higher than the literature-reported value. These significantly increased grafting and adsorption efficiencies were attributed to the increased surface area of chromic-acid-etched LDPE fibers. Moreover, for the submersion up to 8 weeks, the adsorption increased to 2.15 g-U/kg-adsorbent. The adsorption capacity was evaluated to reduce to about 65% after eight cycles of repeated usage. Uranium concentrations in Thailand's seawater collected at various depths and locations were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to be about 3 ppb everywhere. (author)

  12. Chemical vapor deposition graphene transfer process to a polymeric substrate assisted by a spin coater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Felipe; da Rocha, Caique O. C.; Medeiros, Gabriela S.; Fechine, Guilhermino J. M.

    2016-03-01

    A new method to transfer chemical vapor deposition graphene to polymeric substrates is demonstrated here, it is called direct dry transfer assisted by a spin coater (DDT-SC). Compared to the conventional method DDT, the improvement of the contact between graphene-polymer due to a very thin polymeric film deposited by spin coater before the transfer process prevented air bubbles and/or moisture and avoided molecular expansion on the graphene-polymer interface. An acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer, a high impact polystyrene, polybutadiene adipate-co-terephthalate, polylactide acid, and a styrene-butadiene-styrene copolymer are the polymers used for the transfers since they did not work very well by using the DDT process. Raman spectroscopy and optical microscopy were used to identify, to quantify, and to qualify graphene transferred to the polymer substrates. The quantity of graphene transferred was substantially increased for all polymers by using the DDT-SC method when compared with the DDT standard method. After the transfer, the intensity of the D band remained low, indicating low defect density and good quality of the transfer. The DDT-SC transfer process expands the number of graphene applications since the polymer substrate candidates are increased.

  13. Carbon Nanotube Chopped Fiber for Enhanced Properties in Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menchhofer, Paul A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Johnson, Joseph E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Lindahl, John M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division

    2016-06-06

    Nanocomp Technologies, Inc. is working with Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop carbon nanotube (CNT) composite materials and evaluate their use in additive manufacturing (3D printing). The first phase demonstrated feasibility and improvements for carbon nanotube (CNT)- acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) composite filaments use in additive manufacturing, with potential future work centering on further improvements. By focusing the initial phase on standard processing methods (developed mainly for the incorporation of carbon fibers in ABS) and characterization techniques, a basis of knowledge for the incorporation of CNTs in ABS was learned. The ability to understand the various processing variables is critical to the successful development of these composites. From the degradation effects on ABS (caused by excessive temperatures), to the length of time the ABS is in the melt state, to the order of addition of constituents, and also to the many possible mixing approaches, a workable flow sequence that addresses each processing step is critical to the final material properties. Although this initial phase could not deal with each of these variables in-depth, a future study is recommended that will build on the lessons learned for this effort.

  14. Synthesis of nano-CaCO3 composite particles and their application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wu; Xueqin Zhang; Jianfeng Chen; Shuling Shen

    2008-01-01

    Nano-calcium carbonate composite particles were synthesized by the soapless emulsion polymerization technique of dou-ble monomers. The composite particles formation mechanism was investigated. The effects of composite particles on the mechanical properties of nano-CaCO3-ABS (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer) composite material were studied. It was validated that the composite particles are made up of the nano-calcium carbonate cores and the shells of alternating copolymers of butyl acrylate (BA) and styrene (St). The shells are chemically grafted and physically wrapped on the surface of nano-calcium carbonate particles.When the composite particles were filled in ABS matrix, the CaCO3 particles are homogeneously dispersed in the composite material as nanoscales. The impact strength of the composite material is obviously enhanced after idling appropriate amounts of composite particles. It can be concluded that the soapless emulsion polymerization of double monomers is an effective method for nano-CaCO3 surface treatment.

  15. Studies on the runaway reaction of ABS polymerization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, K.-H. [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Jen-Teh Junior College of Medicine, Nursing and Management, Miaoli, Taiwan (China); Kao, C.-S. [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, National United University, Taiwan (China); Duh, Y.-S. [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Jen-Teh Junior College of Medicine, Nursing and Management, Miaoli, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: yihshingduh@yahoo.com.tw

    2008-11-15

    Taiwan has the largest acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) copolymer production in the world. Preventing on unexpected exothermic reactions and related emergency relief hazard is essential in the safety control of ABS emulsion polymerization. A VSP2 (Vent Sizing Package 2) apparatus is capable of studying both normal and abnormal conditions (e.g., cooling failure, mischarge, etc.) of industrial process. In this study, the scenarios were verified from the following abnormal conditions: loss of cooling, double charge of initiator, overcharge of monomer, without charge of solvent, and external fire. An external fire with constant heating will promote higher self-heat rate and this is recommended as the worst case scenario of emulsion polymerization on butadiene. Cooling failure coupled with bulk system of reactant was determined to be the credible worst case in ABS emulsion polymerization. Finally, the emergency vent sizing based on thermokinetics from VSP associated with DIERS methodology were used for evaluating the vent sizing and compared to that of the industrial plants.

  16. CARBON NANOTUBE CHOPPED FIBER FOR ENHANCIED PROPERTIES IN ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menchhofer, Paul A [ORNL; Lindahl, John M [ORNL; JohnsonPh.D., DR Joseph E. [Nanocomp Technologies, Inc.

    2016-08-01

    Nanocomp Technologies, Inc. is working with Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop carbon nanotube (CNT) composite materials and evaluate their use in additive manufacturing (3D printing). The first phase demonstrated feasibility and improvements for carbon nanotube (CNT)-acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) composite filaments use in additive manufacturing, with potential future work centering on further improvements. By focusing the initial phase on standard processing methods (developed mainly for the incorporation of carbon fibers in ABS) and characterization techniques, a basis of knowledge for the incorporation of CNTs in ABS was learned. The ability to understand the various processing variables is critical to the successful development of these composites. From the degradation effects on ABS (caused by excessive temperatures), to the length of time the ABS is in the melt state, to the order of addition of constituents, and also to the many possible mixing approaches, a workable flow sequence that addresses each processing step is critical to the final material properties. Although this initial phase could not deal with each of these variables in-depth, a future study is recommended that will build on the lessons learned for this effort.

  17. The effect of intermolecular interactions on photoluminescence of a porphyrin side-chain polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hui; Zhang Wei; Yu Han-Cheng; Huang Jin-Wang; Lin Wei-Zhu; Ji Liang-Nian

    2006-01-01

    Photoluminescence properties and exciton decay dynamics in a porphyrin side-chain polymer, poly[porphyrin acrylate- acrylonitrile (abbreviated p[(por)A-AN]), have been investigated by femtosecond time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. All the luminescences of p[(por)A-AN] films are due to the emissive decay of the photoexcited singlet excitons in the porphyrins. The luminescence efficiencies and lifetimes are increased for samples from pure films to dilute blend films. However, they are increased as the intrachain concentration of the porphyrin sidechain groups is decreased. The intrachain rotation motions of porphyrin sidechain groups result in the initial ultrafast luminescence decays, which are much faster than those due to the interchain interactions. All the samples show no significant red-shift and broadening of the transient luminescence spectra. The interchain and intrachain nonradiative exciton relaxation processes may play an important role in the luminescence dynamics in the p[(por)A-AN] films. The possible origin of different intrachain and interchain dynamic behaviours in p[(por)A-AN] films is discussed.

  18. Nanoimprinting ultrasmall and high-aspect-ratio structures by using rubber-toughened UV cured epoxy resist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Young Jae; Wu, Yi-Kuei; Guo, L. Jay

    2013-06-01

    A simple and robust scheme is proposed for the fabrication of nanoscale (20 nm line width) and high-aspect-ratio (9:1) structures by using modulus-tunable UV curable epoxy resists. Additionally, the ability to control the Young’s modulus of the imprinted material from hard to rigiflex using these epoxy resists is demonstrated. The physical properties of the new epoxy resists were controlled by adjusting the ratio of bisphenol F-type epoxy resin and acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber-based epoxy resin in the formulation of the resist. The mechanical properties of the resist were tuned to obtain various aspect ratios as well as mold flexibility for conformal contact over non-planar surfaces and large areas. In order to reduce the line width of the imprinted patterns, a process to conformally coat the mold structure by atomic layer deposition of alumina was also developed. Narrow lines with high-aspect-ratio features and with very low defect density were achieved via the new approach and the high mechanical strength of the new resist formulation.

  19. Hybrid self-healing matrix using core-shell nanofibers and capsuleless microdroplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Wook; An, Seongpil; Lee, Changmin; Liou, Minho; Yarin, Alexander L; Yoon, Sam S

    2014-07-01

    In this work, we developed novel self-healing anticorrosive hierarchical coatings that consist of several components. Namely, as a skeleton we prepared a core-shell nanofiber mat electrospun from emulsions of cure material (dimethyl methylhydrogen siloxane) in a poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN) solution in dimethylformamide. In these nanofibers, cure is in the core, while PAN is in the shell. The skeleton deposited on a protected surface is encased in an epoxy-based matrix, which contains emulsified liquid droplets of dimethylvinyl-terminated dimethylsiloxane resin monomer. When such hierarchical coatings are damaged, cure is released from the nanofiber cores and the resin monomer, released from the damaged matrix, is polymerized in the presence of cure. This polymerization and solidification process takes about 1-2 days and eventually heals the damaged material when solid poly(dimethylsiloxane) resin is formed. The self-healing effect was demonstrated using an electrochemical analogue of the scanning vibrating electrode technique. Damaged samples were left for 2 days. After that, the electric current through a damaged coating was found to be negligibly small for the samples with self-healing properties. On the other hand, for the samples without self-healing properties, the electric current was significant.

  20. In situ polymerized wood polymer composite: effect of additives and nanoclay on the thermal, mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devi, Rashmi R; Maji, Tarun K., E-mail: tkm@tezu.ernet.in [Department of Chemical Sciences, Tezpur University, Assam, (India)

    2013-11-01

    This study concerns the preparation and characterization of wood polymer nanocomposites based on impregnation of styrene acrylonitrile co-polymer-nanoclay intercalating system in presence of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), a cross linking agent, and vinyl trichloro silane (VTCS) as additives into Simul (Bombex ceiba, L.), a soft wood. The effect of nanoclay and VTCS on the properties of the resultant wood polymer nanocomposites (WPNC) has been evaluated. FTIR spectroscopy shows the interaction among wood, polymers, GMA, nanoclay and VTCS. The penetration of polymer and nanoclay into the wood cell wall is supported by SEM study. The distribution of nanoclay in the SAN polymer matrix present within the wood cell wall has been evidenced by TEM study. TGA results show an improvement in the thermostability of the resultant composites. The inclusion of VTCS enhances the self extinguishing behaviour of the WPNC as revealed by limiting oxygen index (LOI) test. Due to treatment, the resultant WPNC exhibits an improvement in all the properties like water repellency, dimensional stability, hardness, flexural, tensile and thermal stability compared to untreated wood. (author)

  1. 3D-Printed ABS and PLA Scaffolds for Cartilage and Nucleus Pulposus Tissue Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, Derek H; Carelli, Eric; Steffen, Thomas; Jarzem, Peter; Haglund, Lisbet

    2015-07-03

    Painful degeneration of soft tissues accounts for high socioeconomic costs. Tissue engineering aims to provide biomimetics recapitulating native tissues. Biocompatible thermoplastics for 3D printing can generate high-resolution structures resembling tissue extracellular matrix. Large-pore 3D-printed acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and polylactic acid (PLA) scaffolds were compared for cell ingrowth, viability, and tissue generation. Primary articular chondrocytes and nucleus pulposus (NP) cells were cultured on ABS and PLA scaffolds for three weeks. Both cell types proliferated well, showed high viability, and produced ample amounts of proteoglycan and collagen type II on both scaffolds. NP generated more matrix than chondrocytes; however, no difference was observed between scaffold types. Mechanical testing revealed sustained scaffold stability. This study demonstrates that chondrocytes and NP cells can proliferate on both ABS and PLA scaffolds printed with a simplistic, inexpensive desktop 3D printer. Moreover, NP cells produced more proteoglycan than chondrocytes, irrespective of thermoplastic type, indicating that cells maintain individual phenotype over the three-week culture period. Future scaffold designs covering larger pore sizes and better mimicking native tissue structure combined with more flexible or resorbable materials may provide implantable constructs with the proper structure, function, and cellularity necessary for potential cartilage and disc tissue repair in vivo.

  2. Mode-coupling theory and polynomial fitting functions: a complex-plane representation of dielectric data on polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliasson, H

    2001-07-01

    Recently, it has been shown that the higher-order A3 and A4 scenarios of the mode-coupling theory (MCT) are in many cases capable of providing a good description of the complicated dielectric spectra often encountered in polymeric systems. In this paper, more data from dielectric measurements on poly(ethylene terephthalate), poly(vinylidene fluoride), Nylon-66, poly(chlorotrifluoroethylene) (PCTFE), and the polymer gel system poly(acrylonitrile)-ethylene carbonate-propylene carbonate are evaluated within the A4 scenario of the MCT. For all these systems, very good agreement is found between the theoretical and experimental spectra. The data analysis is demonstrated to be facilitated considerably by plotting the data in the complex plane whereby the elliptic functions derived from the theory for the frequency-dependent dielectric function can be replaced by polynomials. For PCTFE, the scaling behavior predicted by the MCT could be verified and the temperature dependences of the extracted scaling parameters were found to be consistent with theory.

  3. Grafting of GMA and some comonomers onto chitosan for controlled release of diclofenac sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajeev Kr; Lalita; Singh, Anirudh P; Chauhan, Ghanshyam S

    2014-03-01

    In order to develop pH sensitive hydrogels for controlled drug release we have graft copolymerized glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) with comonomers acrylic acid, acrylamide and acrylonitrile, onto chitosan (Ch) by using potassium persulphate (KPS) as free radical initiator in aqueous solution. The optimum percent grafting for GMA was recorded for 1g chitosan at [KPS]=25.00 × 10(-3)mol/L, [GMA]=0.756 × 10(-3)mol/L, reaction temperature=60 °C and reaction time=1h in 20 mL H2O. Binary monomers were grafted for five different concentrations at optimum grafting conditions evaluated for GMA alone onto chitosan. The graft copolymers were characterized by FTIR, XRD, TGA and SEM. The swelling properties of chitosan and graft copolymers were investigated at different pH to define their end uses in sustained release of an anti-inflammatory drug, diclofenac sodium. Percent drug release w.r.t. drug loaded in polymeric sample was studied as function of time in buffer solutions of pH 2.0 and 7.4. In vitro release data was analyzed using Fick's Law. Chitosan grafted with binary monomers, GMA-co-AAm and GMA-co-AN showed very good results for sustained release of drug at 7.4 pH. PMID:24374084

  4. Microwave dielectric characterisation of 3D-printed BaTiO3/ABS polymer composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castles, F; Isakov, D; Lui, A; Lei, Q; Dancer, C E J; Wang, Y; Janurudin, J M; Speller, S C; Grovenor, C R M; Grant, P S

    2016-03-04

    3D printing is used extensively in product prototyping and continues to emerge as a viable option for the direct manufacture of final parts. It is known that dielectric materials with relatively high real permittivity-which are required in important technology sectors such as electronics and communications-may be 3D printed using a variety of techniques. Among these, the fused deposition of polymer composites is particularly straightforward but the range of dielectric permittivities available through commercial feedstock materials is limited. Here we report on the fabrication of a series of composites composed of various loadings of BaTiO3 microparticles in the polymer acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), which may be used with a commercial desktop 3D printer to produce printed parts containing user-defined regions with high permittivity. The microwave dielectric properties of printed parts with BaTiO3 loadings up to 70 wt% were characterised using a 15 GHz split post dielectric resonator and had real relative permittivities in the range 2.6-8.7 and loss tangents in the range 0.005-0.027. Permittivities were reproducible over the entire process, and matched those of bulk unprinted materials, to within ~1%, suggesting that the technique may be employed as a viable manufacturing process for dielectric composites.

  5. Laccase oxidation and removal of toxicants released during combustion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, Endry Nugroho; Semlitsch, Stefan; Nyanhongo, Gibson S; Lemmouchi, Yahia; Guebitz, Georg M

    2016-02-01

    This study reports for the first time the ability of laccases adsorbed on cellulose acetate to eliminate toxicants released during combustion processes. Laccases directly oxidized and eliminated more than 40% w/v of 14 mM of 1,4-dihydroxybenzene (hydroquinone); 2-methyl-1,4-benzenediol (methylhydroquinone); 1,4-dihydroxy-2,3,5-trimethylbenzene (trimethylhydroquinone); 3-methylphenol (m-cresol); 4-methylphenol (p-cresol); 2-methylphenol (o-cresol); 1,3-benzenediol (resorcinol); 1,2-dihydroxybenzene (catechol); 3,4-dihydroxytoluene (4-methylcatechol) and 2-naphthylamine. Further, laccase oxidized 2-naphthylamine, hydroquinone, catechol, methylhydroquinone and methylcatechol were also able to in turn mediate the elimination of >90% w/v of toxicants which are per-se non-laccase substrates such as 3-aminobiphenyl; 4-aminobiphenyl; benz[a]anthracene; 3-(1-nitrosopyrrolidin-2-yl) pyridine (NNN); formaldehyde; 4-(methyl-nitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK); 2-butenal (crotonaldehyde); nitric oxide and vinyl cyanide (acrylonitrile). These studies demonstrate the potential of laccase immobilized on solid supports to remove many structurally different toxicants released during combustion processes. This system has great potential application for in situ removal of toxicants in the manufacturing, food processing and food service industries. PMID:26408262

  6. Deposition of Antimicrobial Copper-Rich Coatings on Polymers by Atmospheric Pressure Jet Plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kredl

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Inanimate surfaces serve as a permanent reservoir for infectious microorganisms, which is a growing problem in areas in everyday life. Coating of surfaces with inorganic antimicrobials, such as copper, can contribute to reduce the adherence and growth of microorganisms. The use of a DC operated air plasma jet for the deposition of copper thin films on acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS substrates is reported. ABS is a widespread material used in consumer applications, including hospitals. The influence of gas flow rate and input current on thin film characteristics and its bactericidal effect have been studied. Results from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and atomic force microscopy confirmed the presence of thin copper layers on plasma-exposed ABS and the formation of copper particles with a size in the range from 20 to 100 nm, respectively. The bactericidal properties of the copper-coated surfaces were tested against Staphylococcus aureus. A reduction in growth by 93% compared with the attachment of bacteria on untreated samples was observed for coverage of the surface with 7 at. % copper.

  7. Functionalization of magnetite nanoparticles as oil spill collector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta, Ayman M; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A; Al-Hussain, Sami A

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a new magnetic powder based on magnetite can be used as a petroleum crude oil collector. Amidoximes based on rosin as a natural product can be prepared from a reaction between hydroxylamine and rosin/acrylonitrile adducts. The produced rosin amidoximes were used as capping agents for magnetite nanoparticles to prepare hydrophobic coated magnetic powders. A new class of monodisperse hydrophobic magnetite nanoparticles was prepared by a simple and inexpensive co-precipitation method. Iron ions and iodine were prepared by the reaction between ferric chloride and potassium iodide. The structure and morphology of magnetite capped with rosin amidoxime were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), zeta potential, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The magnetic properties were determined from vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) analyses. These prepared magnetite nanoparticles were tested as bioactive nanosystems and their antimicrobial effects were investigated. The prepared nanomaterials were examined as a crude oil collector using magnetic fields. The results show promising data for the separation of the petroleum crude oil from aqueous solution in environmental pollution cleanup. PMID:25822876

  8. Microwave dielectric characterisation of 3D-printed BaTiO3/ABS polymer composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castles, F; Isakov, D; Lui, A; Lei, Q; Dancer, C E J; Wang, Y; Janurudin, J M; Speller, S C; Grovenor, C R M; Grant, P S

    2016-01-01

    3D printing is used extensively in product prototyping and continues to emerge as a viable option for the direct manufacture of final parts. It is known that dielectric materials with relatively high real permittivity-which are required in important technology sectors such as electronics and communications-may be 3D printed using a variety of techniques. Among these, the fused deposition of polymer composites is particularly straightforward but the range of dielectric permittivities available through commercial feedstock materials is limited. Here we report on the fabrication of a series of composites composed of various loadings of BaTiO3 microparticles in the polymer acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), which may be used with a commercial desktop 3D printer to produce printed parts containing user-defined regions with high permittivity. The microwave dielectric properties of printed parts with BaTiO3 loadings up to 70 wt% were characterised using a 15 GHz split post dielectric resonator and had real relative permittivities in the range 2.6-8.7 and loss tangents in the range 0.005-0.027. Permittivities were reproducible over the entire process, and matched those of bulk unprinted materials, to within ~1%, suggesting that the technique may be employed as a viable manufacturing process for dielectric composites. PMID:26940381

  9. A 3D Microfluidic Chip for Electrochemical Detection of Hydrolysed Nucleic Bases by a Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Vlachova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modification of carbon materials, especially graphene-based materials, has wide applications in electrochemical detection such as electrochemical lab-on-chip devices. A glassy carbon electrode (GCE modified with chemically alternated graphene oxide was used as a working electrode (glassy carbon modified by graphene oxide with sulphur containing compounds and Nafion for detection of nucleobases in hydrolysed samples (HCl pH = 2.9, 100 °C, 1 h, neutralization by NaOH. It was found out that modification, especially with trithiocyanuric acid, increased the sensitivity of detection in comparison with pure GCE. All processes were finally implemented in a microfluidic chip formed with a 3D printer by fused deposition modelling technology. As a material for chip fabrication, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene was chosen because of its mechanical and chemical stability. The chip contained the one chamber for the hydrolysis of the nucleic acid and another for the electrochemical detection by the modified GCE. This chamber was fabricated to allow for replacement of the GCE.

  10. Analysis of P(VdCl-co-AN-co-MMA)-LiClO4-EC triblock copolymer electrolytes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Inbavalli; S Selvasekarapandian; C Sanjeeviraja; R Baskaran; S Nithya; Junichi Kawamura; Yoshitake Masuda

    2015-02-01

    The lithium ion conducting copolymer electrolytes based on poly(vinylidene chloride-co-acrylonitrileco- methyl methacrylate) P(VdCl-co-AN-co-MMA)-lithium per chlorate (LiClO4) (P(VdCl-co-AN-co-MMA): LiClO4) and poly(vinylidene chloride-co-acrylonitrile-co-methyl methacrylate)P(VdCl-co-AN-co-MMA)-lithium per chlorate (LiClO4)-ethylene carbonate (EC) (P(VdCl-co-AN-co-MMA):LiClO4:EC) of different compositions were prepared by solution-casting technique. Structural and surface morphological characterizations were studied by X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy measurements, respectively. Thermal and conductivity behaviour of copolymer–salt and copolymer–salt–plasticizer complexes were studied by employing differential scanning calorimetry and AC impedance measurements, respectively. The highest bulk conductivity was found to be 1.94 × 10-4 S cm-1 at 303 K for the plasticized sample. The dielectric behaviour and relaxation parameters of the samples have been presented and discussed.

  11. Kinetics and Mechanism of Micellar Catalyzed Oxidation of Dextrose by N-Bromosuccinimide in H2SO4 Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minu Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics and mechanism of micellar catalyzed N-bromosuccinimide oxidation of dextrose in H2SO4 medium was investigated under pseudo-first-order condition temperature of 40°C. The results of the reactions studied over a wide range of experimental conditions show that NBS shows a first order dependence, fractional order, on dextrose and negative fractional order dependence on sulfuric acid. The determined stoichiometric ratio was 1 : 1 (dextrose : N-bromosuccinimide. The variation of Hg(OAC2 and succinimide (reaction product has insignificant effect on reaction rate. Effects of surfactants, added acrylonitrile, added salts, and solvent composition variation have been studied. The Arrhenius activation energy and other thermodynamic activation parameters are evaluated. The rate law has been derived on the basis of obtained data. A plausible mechanism has been proposed from the results of kinetic studies, reaction stoichiometry, and product analysis. The role of anionic and nonionic micelle was best explained by the Berezin’s model.

  12. EFFECT OF TRIAXIAL STRESS CONSTRAINT ON THE DEFORMATION AND FRACTURE OF POLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王铁军; Kikno Kishimoto; Mitsuo Notomi

    2002-01-01

    One purpose of this paper is to give a brief overview on the researchstatus of deformation, fracture and toughening mechanisms of polymers, includingexperimental, theoretical and numerical studies. Emphasis is on the more recentprogresses of micromechanics of rubber particle cavitation and crazing, and the de-velopment of fracture criteria for ductile polymers.The other purpose is to study the effect of triaxial stress constraint on the deforma-tion and fracture behavior of polymers. Polycarbonate (PC), acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and PC/ABS alloy are considered in this investigation. A series ofcircumferentially blunt-notched bars are used to experimentally generate different tri-axial stress fields. The fracture surfaces of specimens with different notch radius areexamined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) to study the fracture and tough-ening mechanisms of polymer alloy. It is shown that the triaxial stress constrainthas a significant effect on the deformation, fracture and toughening of PC, ABS andPC/ABS alloy. We will also discuss the extent to which a micromechanics criterionproposed by the first author can serve as a fracture criterion for ductile polymers.A new ductile fracture parameter is emphasized, which can be employed to evaluatethe fracture ductility of polymers. Stress state independence of the parameter for thePC, ABS and PC/ABS alloy has been experimentally verified.

  13. Milestone Report - Demonstrate Braided Material with 3.5 g U/kg Sorption Capacity under Seawater Testing Condition (Milestone M2FT-15OR0310041 - 1/30/2015)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janke, Christopher James [ORNL; Das, Sadananda [ORNL; Oyola, Yatsandra [ORNL; Mayes, Richard T [ORNL; Gill, Gary [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Kuo, Li-Jung [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Wood, Jordana [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

    2015-01-01

    This report describes work on the successful completion of Milestone M2FT-15OR0310041 (1/30/2015) entitled, Demonstrate braided material with 3.5 g U/kg sorption capacity under seawater testing condition . This effort is part of the Seawater Uranium Recovery Program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, and involved the development of new adsorbent braided materials at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and marine testing at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). ORNL has recently developed four braided fiber adsorbents that have demonstrated uranium adsorption capacities greater than 3.5 g U/kg adsorbent after marine testing at PNNL. The braided adsorbents were synthesized by braiding or leno weaving high surface area polyethylene fibers and conducting radiation-induced graft polymerization of itaconic acid and acrylonitrile monomers onto the braided materials followed by amidoximation and base conditioning. The four braided adsorbents demonstrated capacity values ranging from 3.7 to 4.2 g U/kg adsorbent after 56 days of exposure in natural coastal seawater at 20 oC. All data are normalized to a salinity of 35 psu.

  14. Environmental impact of pyrolysis of mixed WEEE plastics part 1: Experimental pyrolysis data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Sue M; Clark, Allan D; Arnold, J Cris; Stein, Bridget K

    2011-11-01

    Growth in waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is posing increasing problems of waste management, partly resulting from its plastic content. WEEE plastics include a range of polymers, some of which can be sorted and extracted for recycling. However a nonrecyclable fraction remains containing a mixture of polymers contaminated with other materials, and pyrolysis is a potential means of recovering the energy content of this. In preparation for a life cycle assessment of this option, described in part 2 of this paper set, data were collected from trials using experimental pyrolysis equipment representative of a continuous commercial process operated at 800 °C. The feedstock contained acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and high impact polystyrene with high levels of additives, and dense polymers including polyvinylchloride, polycarbonate, polyphenylene oxide, and polymethyl methacrylate. On average 39% was converted to gases, 36% to oils, and 25% remained as residue. About 35% of the gas was methane and 42% carbon monoxide, plus other hydrocarbons, oxygen and carbon dioxide. The oils were almost all aromatic, forming a similar mixture to fuel oil. The residue was mainly carbon with inorganic compounds from the plastic additives and most of the chlorine from the feedstock. The results showed that the process produced around 70% of the original plastic weight as potential fuel. PMID:21939226

  15. Effect of template on chiral separation of phenylalanine using molecularly imprinted membrane in aqueous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wet phase inversion method was used to prepare L-Phenylalanine (L-Phe) and D-Phenylalanine (D-Phe) imprinted poly ((acrylonitrile)-co-(acrylic acid)) membranes for chiral separation. Ultrafiltration experiments were conducted to evaluate the chiral separation ability of the prepared membrane towards racemate aqueous solution of Phenylalanine. The continuous permselectivity was observed by novel membrane. The chiral resolution ability of L-Phe imprinted membrane was much better than that of D-Phe. It was observed that both membranes simultaneously, selectively reject, selectively adsorbed and selectively permeate solute. The achieved adsorption selectivities of L-Phe imprinted membrane (AlphaAds)L and D-Phe imprinted membrane (AlphaAds)D were 2.6 and 2.40 respectively. Permselectivity of L-Phe imprinted membrane (AlphaPerm)L was 2.56 while D-Phe imprinted membrane permselectivity (AlphaPerm)D was 2.03. The rejection selectivities of L-Phe and D-Phe imprinted membranes were (AlphaRej)L=0.32 and (AlphaRej)D =0.28 respectively. (author)

  16. Mechanical Properties of Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiro Okayasu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An examination has been made of the mechanical and failure properties of several composite materials, such as a short and a long carbon fiber reinforced plastic (short- and long-CFRP and metal based composite material. The short CFRP materials were used for a recycled CFRP which fabricated by the following process: the CFRP, consisting of epoxy resin with carbon fiber, is injected to a rectangular plate cavity after mixing with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene resin with different weight fractions of CFRP. The fatigue and ultimate tensile strength (UTS increased with increasing CFRP content. These correlations, however, break down, especially for tensile strength, as the CFPR content becomes more than 70%. Influence of sample temperature on the bending strength of the long-CFRP was investigated, and it appears that the strength slightly decreases with increasing the temperature, due to the weakness in the matrix. Broken fiber and pull-out or debonding between the fiber and matrix were related to the main failure of the short- and long-CFRP samples. Mechanical properties of metal based composite materials have been also investigated, where fiber-like high hardness CuAl2 structure is formed in aluminum matrix. Excellent mechanical properties were obtained in this alloy, e.g., the higher strength and the higher ductility, compared tothe same alloy without the fiber-like structure. There are strong anisotropic effects on the mechanical properties due to the fiber-like metal composite in a soft Al based matrix.

  17. Acute toxicity of some synthetic cyanogens in rats: time-dependent cyanide generation and cytochrome oxidase inhibition in soft tissues after sub-lethal oral intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Pooja; Singh, Poonam; Yadav, Shiv Kumar; Gujar, Niranjan L; Bhattacharya, Rahul

    2013-09-01

    Cyanogens include complex nitrile-containing compounds that can generate free cyanide of toxicological significance. Acute toxicity, time-dependent cyanide generation and cytochrome oxidase (CYTOX) inhibition in soft tissues, and urinary thiocyanate levels were measured after acute cyanogen intoxication in rats. Order of cyanogens in terms of LD₅₀ was: malononitrile (MCN)>propionitrile (PCN)≈sodium nitroprusside (SNP)>acrylonitrile (ACN)>succinonitrile (SCN)>acetonitrile (ATCN) for oral, and SNP>MCN>ACN>PCN>SCN>ATCN for intraperitoneal and subcutaneous routes. MCN was most toxic by oral (LD₅₀=66.4 mg/kg) and SNP by intraperitoneal (LD₅₀=16.7 mg/kg) and subcutaneous (LD₅₀=11.9 mg/kg) routes. Minimum survival time (25 min) was recorded after 4.0 LD₅₀ ATCN. Order of cyanogens (0.75 LD₅₀; oral) on the basis of maximum blood cyanide and time of peak cyanide generation were: ATCN>SNP>SCN>PCN>MCN>ACN, and MCN (30 min)PCN≈ACN (8h)

  18. Organic Ion Exchangers. Synthesis, Characterization and Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E. S. Dragan

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Organic ion exchangers in beads form are the most widely utilized materials in the purification, concentration and separation processes of inorganic and organic ions in many fields of science and industry[1,2]. Some original contributions in the preparation and characterization of porous organic ion exchangers will be summarized first. The main types of synthetic ion exchangers were obtained by polymer-analogous reactions performed on porous styrene-divinylbenzene copolymers (S-DVB)[3,4] and porous acrylonitrile-DVB copolymers (AN-DVB) [5,6]. Porous S-DVB copolymers were used as substrate for the synthesis of weak and strong base anion exchangers by chloromethylation reaction followed by the reaction with secondary or tertiary amines.Different chloromethylation agents were employed. Weak base anion exchangers with tertiary or primary amine groups were prepared starting from AN-DVB copolymers by aminolyse-hydrolyse reaction with asymmetrical diamines or ethylenediamine (EDA), respectively. Strong base anion exchangers were obtained by quaternization reaction with alkyl halides of the tertiary amine groups. Chelating ion exchangers with iminodiacetic groups were prepared by the carboxymethylation reaction of the primary amine groups above mentioned and of those contained in a vinylamine-ethylacrylate-DVB copolymer, vinylamine units being generated by a Hofmann degradation reaction of the primary amide groups contained in the acrylamide-ethylacrylate-DVB copolymerp[7]. An amphoteric ion exchanger was prepared by the hydrolysis of the ester groups after the Hofmann degradation.

  19. Acute toxicity of some synthetic cyanogens in rats and their response to oral treatment with alpha-ketoglutarate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, R; Satpute, R M; Hariharakrishnan, J; Tripathi, H; Saxena, P B

    2009-09-01

    Oral toxicity of several cyanogens and their reversal by alpha-ketoglutarate (A-KG; oral) were studied in rats. LD(50) of acetonitrile (ATCN), acrylonitrile (ACN), malononitrile (MCN), propionitrile (PCN), sodium nitroprusside (SNP), and succinonitrile (SCN) was 4891, 143.3, 69.8, 122.9, 69.8 and 488.7 mg/kg, respectively while the protection index of A-KG (ratio of LD(50) of cyanogens in the presence or absence of A-KG) was>2.0 against MCN (7.6), PCN (2.7) and SNP (3.6) only. We further studied the efficacy of A-KG against acute toxicity of these three cyanogens (0.75 LD(50)) on various hematological and biochemical variables in blood and soft tissues 24h post-exposure. We observed increase in white blood cells (SNP), plasma alanine (PCN, SNP) and aspartate (PCN) aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase (MCN, PCN, SNP), Na(+) (MCN, PCN) and cyanide (PCN), and decrease in K(+) (MCN, SNP) accompanied by an increase in brain, kidney and liver malondialdehyde (PCN), decrease in brain glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase (PCN, SNP), reduced glutathione (MCN, PCN, SNP) and cytochrome oxidase (PCN), liver rhodanese (PCN, SNP), and kidney cytochrome oxidase (PCN). The study indicates that (i) PCN was most toxic among all the cyanogens and (ii) beside cyanide, A-KG could be considered as an effective antidote for cyanogens.

  20. Study of the thermal properties of filaments for 3D printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trhlíková, Lucie; Zmeskal, Oldrich; Psencik, Petr; Florian, Pavel

    2016-07-01

    Various materials are used for 3D printing, most commonly Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), Polylactic acid (PLA), Polyethylene (PET) and Polypropylene (PP). These materials differ mainly in their melting point, which significantly influences the properties of the final products. Filaments are melted in the print head during the printing process. The temperature range is from 150 °C to 250 °C depending on the technology used. The optimum temperature for the cooling substrate on which printing is carried out is chosen so as to ensure uniform cooling and deformation. It generally varies between (40 - 100) °C. From the above it is clear that both temperatures can significantly affect the properties of the printed 3D object. It is therefore important to determine the thermal parameters (thermal conductivity, specific heat and thermal diffusivity) of the materials used across the entire range of temperatures. For evaluating the properties of different types of PLA materials, the step transient method was used, which allows determination of all required parameters using a fractal heat transfer model.