WorldWideScience

Sample records for acrylates

  1. Radiation sensitive acrylate composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This application relates to radiation-sensitive compositions and more particularly to such compositions comprising acrylated esters. As used in this specification, the term acrylated esters refers to either acrylic or methacrylic acid resins. 3 tabs

  2. Synthesis of acrylic prepolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An acrylic prepolymer was synthesized from glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), butyl methacrylate (BMA), methyl methacrylate (MMA) and acrylic acid (AA). Butyl acetate (BAc), benzoyl peroxide (BzO), 4-methoxyphenol (MPh) and triethylamine (TEA) were used as solvent, initiator, inhibitor and catalyst respectively. Observations of the synthesis leading to the formation of acrylic prepolymer are described. (author)

  3. Silicone/Acrylate Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    Two-step process forms silicone/acrylate copolymers. Resulting acrylate functional fluid is reacted with other ingredients to produce copolymer. Films of polymer were formed by simply pouring or spraying mixture and allowing solvent to evaporate. Films showed good weatherability. Durable, clear polymer films protect photovoltaic cells.

  4. Acrylic purification and coatings

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2012-01-01

    Radon (Rn) and its decay daughters are a well-known source of background in direct WIMP detection experiments, as either a Rn decay daughter or an alpha particle emitted from a thin inner surface layer of a detector could produce a WIMP-like signal. Different surface treatment and cleaning techniques have been employed in the past to remove this type of contamination. A new method of dealing with the problem has been proposed and used for a prototype acrylic DEAP-1 detector. Inner surfaces of the detector were coated with a layer of ultra pure acrylic, meant to shield the active volume from alphas and recoiling nuclei. An acrylic purification technique and two coating techniques are described: a solvent-borne (tested on DEAP-1) and solvent-less (being developed for the full scale DEAP-3600 detector).

  5. Hyperbranched urethane-acrylates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasić Srba

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis, characterization and UV-curing of hyperbranched urethaneacrylates (HB-UA were investigated in this study. They were evaluated as oli-gomers in model UV curable coatings. HB-UAs were synthesized by reaction of an aliphatic hyperbranched polyester of the second generation (HBRG2 and an isocyanate adduct, obtained by the reaction of isophoronediisocyana-te and different hydroxy alkyl acrylates. Their thermal properties and viscosities depend on the degree of modification of HBRG2 and the type of hydroxy alkyl acrylate used. The introduction of a flexible alkoxylated spacer between the HBP core and acrylate end groups reduces steric hindrance by moving the cross linkable acrylate groups away from the HBP core and increase its reactivity. Due to the presence of abstractable H-atoms in the α-position to the ether links, HB-UAs based on poly(ethylene oxide monoacrylate are very reactive and do not show oxygen inhibition. The obtained coatings combine a high cross linking density with flexible segments between the cross links, which results in a good compromise between hardness and flexibility and have the potential to be used in different UV-curing applications.

  6. [Acrylic resin removable partial dentures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baat, C. de; Witter, D.J.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    An acrylic resin removable partial denture is distinguished from other types of removable partial dentures by an all-acrylic resin base which is, in principle, solely supported by the edentulous regions of the tooth arch and in the maxilla also by the hard palate. When compared to the other types of

  7. Acrylic Acid and Esters Will Be Oversupply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Chengwang

    2007-01-01

    @@ Drastic capacity growth The production capacity of acrylic acid in China has grown drastically in recent years. With the completion of the 80 thousand t/a acrylic acid and 130 thous and t/a acrylic ester project in Shenyang Paraffin Chemical Industrial Co., Ltd., (CCR2006,No. 31) the capacity of acrylic acid in China has reached 882 thousand t/a.

  8. Bonding auto-polymerising acrylic resin to acrylic denture teeth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nagle, Susan

    2009-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of surface treatments on the shear bond strength of an auto-polymerising acrylic resin cured to acrylic denture teeth. The surface treatments included a combination of grit-blasting and\\/or wetting the surface with monomer. Samples were prepared and then stored in water prior to shear testing. The results indicated that the application of monomer to the surface prior to bonding did not influence the bond strength. Grit blasting was found to significantly increase the bond strength.

  9. SYNTHESIS OF SOAP-FREE ACRYLIC HYDROSOLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jia; Zong-hui Liu; De-qing Wei

    2002-01-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate/ethyl acrylate/acrylic acid) hydrosols were prepared by employing soap-freepolymerization, and (acrylic acid/butyl acrylate) oligomer was used as the polymeric surfactant. The effect of reactioncondition on the morphology and particle size of the hydrosols was investigated. The minimum amount of acrylic acid in thehydrosols is 2%. The maximum weight average molecular weight (Mw) of polymer that assures soap-free emulsionconversion into hydrosol is about 1.2 × 105-1.3 × 105. The particle transforming process was investigated, and an obviouschange of particle diameter and morphology was observed.

  10. Vinyl Acetate/butyl acrylate/acrylate Research of Ternary Soap-free Emulsion Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Li-guang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Through the vinyl acetate/butyl acrylate/acrylic acrylic emulsion preparation without soap vinegar, with solid content, gel, emulsion stability and film forming properties and tensile strength as the main index to study the effect of raw materials on the properties of emulsion. Through the infrared spectrometer soap-free emulsion for microscopic analysis research. Study of the ternary soap-free vinegar acrylic emulsion with good performance.

  11. Radiation curing applications of palm oil acrylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various palm oil based urethan acrylate prepolymers (UP) were prepared from palm oil based polyols, diisocyanate compounds and hydroxyl terminated acrylate monomers by following procedure derived from established methods. The products were compared with each other in term of their molecular weights (MW), viscosities, curing speed by UV irradiation, gel contents and film hardness. The molecular structure of diisocyanate compounds and hydroxyl acrylate monomers were tend to determine the molecular weights and hence viscosities of the final products of urethan acrylate prepolymers (UP), whereas, the MW of the UP has no direct effects on the UV curing properties of the prepolymers. (author)

  12. Acrylates and methacrylates of formal-glycerine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted acrylates and methacrylates of formal-glycerine. The formal-glycerine was obtained in the form of mixture of isomers 1.2 and 1.3 from glycerine and paraform with hydrochloric acid. The structure of obtained acrylates and methacrylates is studied by means of molecular refraction, element analysis and infrared spectroscopy.

  13. Radiopurity measurement of acrylic for DEAP-3600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spherical acrylic vessel that contains the liquid argon target is the most critical detector component in the DEAP-3600 dark matter experiment. Alpha decays near the inner surface of the acrylic vessel are one of the main sources of background in the detector. A fraction of the alpha energy, or the recoiling nucleus from the alpha decay, could misreconstruct in the fiducial volume and result in a false candidate dark matter event. Acrylic has low levels of inherent contamination from 238U and 232Th. Another background of particular concern is diffusion of 222Rn during manufacturing, leading to 210Pb contamination. The maximum acceptable concentrations in the DEAP-3600 acrylic vessel are ppt levels of 238U and 232Th equivalent, and 10−8 ppt 210Pb. The impurities in the bulk acrylic will be measured by vaporizing a large quantity of acrylic and counting the concentrated residue with ultra-low background HPGe detectors and a low background alpha spectrometer. An overview of the acrylic assay technique is presented

  14. Radiopurity measurement of acrylic for DEAP-3600

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nantais, C. M.; Boulay, M. G. [Department of Physics, Engineering Physics, and Astronomy, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada); Cleveland, B. T. [SNOLAB, Lively, Ontario P3Y 1N2 Canada and Department of Physics, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C6 (Canada)

    2013-08-08

    The spherical acrylic vessel that contains the liquid argon target is the most critical detector component in the DEAP-3600 dark matter experiment. Alpha decays near the inner surface of the acrylic vessel are one of the main sources of background in the detector. A fraction of the alpha energy, or the recoiling nucleus from the alpha decay, could misreconstruct in the fiducial volume and result in a false candidate dark matter event. Acrylic has low levels of inherent contamination from {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th. Another background of particular concern is diffusion of {sup 222}Rn during manufacturing, leading to {sup 210}Pb contamination. The maximum acceptable concentrations in the DEAP-3600 acrylic vessel are ppt levels of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th equivalent, and 10{sup −8} ppt {sup 210}Pb. The impurities in the bulk acrylic will be measured by vaporizing a large quantity of acrylic and counting the concentrated residue with ultra-low background HPGe detectors and a low background alpha spectrometer. An overview of the acrylic assay technique is presented.

  15. Occupational respiratory disease caused by acrylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savonius, B; Keskinen, H; Tuppurainen, M; Kanerva, L

    1993-05-01

    Acrylates are compounds used in a variety of industrial fields and their use is increasing. They have many features which make them superior to formerly used chemicals, regarding both their industrial use and their possible health effects. Contact sensitization is, however, one of their well known adverse health effects but they may also cause respiratory symptoms. We report on 18 cases of respiratory disease, mainly asthma, caused by different acrylates, 10 cases caused by cyanoacrylates, four by methacrylates and two cases by other acrylates. PMID:8334539

  16. Crystal structure transformation in potassium acrylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai Verneker, V. R.; Vasanthakumari, R.

    1983-10-01

    Potassium acrylate undergoes a reversible phase transformation around 335°K with an activation energy of 133 kcal/mole. Differential scanning calorimetry and high temperature X-ray powder diffraction techniques have been used to probe this phenomenon.

  17. Characterization of electron beam cured epoxy acrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epoxy resin has wide application in various industrial fields because of their good mechanical strength, superiority adhesion and low shrinkage etc. And the typical curing method for epoxy resins is thermal and press compaction. However, a curing method was used electron beam process in this study. Epoxy acrylate was fabricated from mixture of epoxy, acrylic acid, tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) and hydroquinone monomethyl ether (MEHQ) with mole ratios. Then electron beam irradiation effect on the curing of the epoxy acrylate resin was investigated various absorption dose in nitrogen atmospheres at room temperature. The dynamic mechanical and thermal properties of the irradiated epoxy acrylate resins were characterized using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). And the tensile and flexural strength were measured by an universal tensile machine (UTM)

  18. Resistance of acrylic vessel to gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Andre Cavalcanti; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Pereira, Marcio Tadeu; Rocha, Nirlando Antonio; Vilela, Jefferson Jose, E-mail: andreccarneiro@gmail.com, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br, E-mail: mtp@cdtn.br, E-mail: nar@cdtn.br, E-mail: jjv@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Braga, Mario Roberto Martins S.S., E-mail: mariomartins@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the preliminary studies made in acrylic material in order to verify the effects of radiolysis in acrylic recipients in which the uranium ore standards are conditioned and check if the material is able to keep the {sup 222}Rn inside the vessel. The preliminary results after gamma irradiation of two kinds of recipients indicate no differences between the vessels irradiated and the ones no irradiated, related to color changes and tension resistance. (author)

  19. Rapid Output Growth of Special Acrylic Esters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lianzhi

    2007-01-01

    @@ Acrylic esters are usually classified into general-purpose varieties and special varieties. The production and application of general-purpose varieties is already quite matured in the world and their output growth tends to be flat. Owing to the development of coatings, electronics, automobiles,textiles, printing and construction sectors, especially the application of radiation curing technology in various sectors, special acrylic esters have developed rapidly.

  20. Gel time of calcium acrylate grouting material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tong-Chun

    2004-08-01

    Calcium acrylate is a polymerized grout, and can polymerize in an aqueous solution. The polymerization reaction utilizes ammonium persulfate as a catalyst and sodium thiosulfate as the activator. Based on the theory of reaction kinetics, this study on the relation between gel time and concentration of activator and catalyst showed that gel time of calcium acrylate is inversely proportional to activator and catalyst concentration. A formula of gel time is proposed, and an example is provided to verify the proposed formula. PMID:15236477

  1. Gel time of calcium acrylate grouting material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩同春

    2004-01-01

    Calcium acrylate is a polymerized grout, and can polymerize in an aqueous solution. The polymerization reaction utilizes ammonium persulfate as a catalyst and sodium thiosulfate as the activator. Based on the theory of reaction kinetics, this study on the relation between gel time and concentration of activator and catalyst showed that gel time of calcium acrylate is inversely proportional to activator and catalyst concentration. A formula of gel time is proposed, and an example is provided to verify the proposed formula.

  2. Gel time of calcium acrylate grouting material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩同春

    2004-01-01

    Calcium acrylate is a polymerized grout, and can polymerize in an aqueous solution. The polymerizationreaction utilizes ammonium persulfate as a catalyst and sodium thiosulfate as the activator. Based on the theory of reactionkinetics, this study on the relation between gel time and concentration of activator and catalyst showed that gel time ofcalcium acrylate is inversely proportional to activator and catalyst concentration. A formula of gel time is proposed, and anexample is provided to verify the proposed formula.

  3. Occupational fingertip eczema from acrylates in a manicurist

    OpenAIRE

    Denitza Zheleva; Razvigor Darlenski

    2015-01-01

    Occupational hand eczema due to acrylates present in the workplace is a disease frequently reported among dentists, printers, and fiberglass workers. Acrylate monomers are used in the production of a great variety of polymers, including nail cosmetics. Our case report demonstrates a rare clinical presentations of allergic contact dermatitis from acrylic nails. Our patient was working as a manicurist and the diagnostic analyses revealed sensitation to some of the (meth) acrylate compounds of h...

  4. Concepts for stereoselective acrylate insertion

    KAUST Repository

    Neuwald, Boris

    2013-01-23

    Various phosphinesulfonato ligands and the corresponding palladium complexes [{((PaO)PdMeCl)-μ-M}n] ([{( X1-Cl)-μ-M}n], (PaO) = κ2- P,O-Ar2PC6H4SO2O) with symmetric (Ar = 2-MeOC6H4, 2-CF3C6H4, 2,6-(MeO)2C6H3, 2,6-(iPrO)2C 6H3, 2-(2′,6′-(MeO)2C 6H3)C6H4) and asymmetric substituted phosphorus atoms (Ar1 = 2,6-(MeO)2C6H 3, Ar2 = 2′-(2,6-(MeO)2C 6H3)C6H4; Ar1 = 2,6-(MeO)2C6H3, Ar2 = 2-cHexOC 6H4) were synthesized. Analyses of molecular motions and dynamics by variable temperature NMR studies and line shape analysis were performed for the free ligands and the complexes. The highest barriers of ΔGa = 44-64 kJ/mol were assigned to an aryl rotation process, and the flexibility of the ligand framework was found to be a key obstacle to a more effective stereocontrol. An increase of steric bulk at the aryl substituents raises the motional barriers but diminishes insertion rates and regioselectivity. The stereoselectivity of the first and the second methyl acrylate (MA) insertion into the Pd-Me bond of in situ generated complexes X1 was investigated by NMR and DFT methods. The substitution pattern of the ligand clearly affects the first MA insertion, resulting in a stereoselectivity of up to 6:1 for complexes with an asymmetric substituted phosphorus. In the consecutive insertion, the stereoselectivity is diminished in all cases. DFT analysis of the corresponding insertion transition states revealed that a selectivity for the first insertion with asymmetric (P aO) complexes is diminished in the consecutive insertions due to uncooperatively working enantiomorphic and chain end stereocontrol. From these observations, further concepts are developed. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  5. SYNTHESIS OF BIOCOMPATIBLE ACRYLIC POLYMERS HAVING ASPIRIN-MOIETIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fumian; GU Zhongwei; FENG Xinde(S. T. Voong)

    1983-01-01

    Several new monomers, β-(acetylsalicylyloxy)ethyl methacrylate, β-(acetylsalicylyloxy)propyl methacrylate, β-(acetylsalicylyloxy)ethyl acrylate, β-hydroxy-γ-(acetylsalicylyloxy)propyl methacrylate, β-hydroxy-γ-(acetylsalicylyloxy)propyl acrylate have been synthesized from aspirin with corresponding hydroxyalkyl or glycidyl acrylates, and then polymerized by free radical initiator.

  6. 40 CFR 721.5325 - Nickel acrylate complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nickel acrylate complex. 721.5325... Substances § 721.5325 Nickel acrylate complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance nickel acrylate complex (PMN P-85-1034) is subject to reporting...

  7. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylate ester copolymer coating. 175.210 Section... COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.210 Acrylate ester copolymer coating. Acrylate ester copolymer coating may safely be used as a food-contact surface of articles intended for...

  8. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid...

  9. Investigation of Acrylic Acid at High Pressure using Neutron Diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnston, Blair F.; Marshall, William G.; Parsons, Simon;

    2014-01-01

    This article details the exploration of perdeuterated acrylic acid at high pressure using neutron diffraction. The structural changes that occur in acrylic acid-d4 are followed via diffraction and rationalised using the Pixel method. Acrylic acid undergoes a reconstructive phase transition to a n...

  10. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section 176... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely used as components of articles intended for use in...

  11. 40 CFR 721.324 - Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic... Substances § 721.324 Alkoxylated acrylate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkoxylated acrylate...

  12. Amylase catalyzed synthesis of glycosyl acrylates and their polymerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterman, Wouter M.J.; Jovanovic, Danijela; Brouwer, Sander; Loos, Katja

    2014-01-01

    The enzymatic synthesis of novel (di)saccharide acrylates from starch and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and 4-hydroxybutyl acrylate (2-HEA, 2-HEMA and 4-HBA) catalyzed by various commercially available amylase preparations is demonstrated. Both liquefaction and saccharificatio

  13. Poly(lauryl acrylate) and poly(stearyl acrylate) grafted multiwalled carbon nanotubes for polypropylene composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Anders Egede; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Hvilsted, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Two new polymer grafts on an industrial grade multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) were prepared through a non-oxidative pathway employing controlled free radical polymerization for surface initiated polymer grafting. After photochemical introduction of an ATRP initiator onto the MWCNT......, polymerizations of lauryl or stearyl acrylate were performed, resulting in two novel polymer modifications on the MWCNT (poly(lauryl acrylate) or poly(stearyl acrylate)). The method was found to give time dependent loading of polymers as a function of time (up to 38 wt% for both acrylates), and showed a plateau...... in loading after 12 h of polymerization. The modified nanomaterials were melt mixed into polypropylene composites with very low filler loading (0.3 wt%), whereafter both the thermal and electrical properties were investigated by DSC and dielectric resonance spectroscopy. The electrical properties were found...

  14. Acrylic Tanks for Stunning Chemical Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirholm, Alexander; Ellervik, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    We describe the use of acrylic tanks (400 x 450 x 27 mm) for visualization of chemical demonstrations in aqueous solutions. Examples of well-suited demonstrations are oscillating reactions, pH indicators, photochemical reduction of Lauth's violet, and chemoluminiscent reactions. (Contains 1 figure.)

  15. Large Acrylic Spherical Windows In Hyperbaric Underwater Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lones, Joe J.; Stachiw, Jerry D.

    1983-10-01

    Both acrylic plastic and glass are common materials for hyperbaric optical windows. Although glass continues to be used occasionally for small windows, virtually all large viewports are made of acrylic. It is easy to uderstand the wide use of acrylic when comparing design properties of this plastic with those of glass, and glass windows are relatively more difficult to fabricate and use. in addition there are published guides for the design and fabrication of acrylic windows to be used in the hyperbaric environment of hydrospace. Although these procedures for fabricating the acrylic windows are somewhat involved, the results are extremely reliable. Acrylic viewports are now fabricated to very large sizes for manned observation or optical quality instrumen tation as illustrated by the numerous acrylic submersible vehicle hulls for hu, an occupancy currently in operation and a 3600 large optical window recently developed for the Walt Disney Circle Vision under-water camera housing.

  16. METHACRYLATE AND ACRYLATE ALLERGY IN DENTAL STUDENTS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Lyapina

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A multitude of acrylic monomers is used in dentistry, and when dental personnel, patients or students of dental medicine become sensitized, it is of great importance to identify the dental ;acrylic preparations to which the sensitized individual can be exposed. Numerous studies confirm high incidence of sensitization to (meth acrylates in dentatal professionals, as well as in patients undergoing dental treatment and exposed to resin-based materials. Quite a few studies are available aiming to evaluate the incidence of sensitization in students of dental medicineThe purpose of the study is to evaluate the incidence of contact sensitization to some (meth acrylates in students of dental medicine at the time of their education, in dental professionals (dentists, nurses and attendants and in patients, the manifestation of co-reactivity.A total of 139 participants were included in the study, divided into four groups: occupationally exposed to (methacrylates and acrylic monomers dental professionals, 3-4 year-of-education students of dental medicine, 6th year–of-education students of dental medicine and patients with suspected or established sensitization to acrylates, without occupational exposure. All of them were patch-tested with methyl methacrylate (MMA, triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TREGDMA, ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA, 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy phenyl]propane (bis-GMA, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA, and tetrahidrofurfuril metacrylate. The overall sensitization rates to methacrylates in the studied population are comparative high – from 25.9% for MMA to 31.7% for TREGDMA. Significantly higher incidence of sensitization in the group of 3-4 course students compared to the one in the group of dental professionals for MMA and TREGDMA was observed. Highest was the incidence of sensitization to ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate, BIS-GMA, 2-HEMA and tetrahydrofurfuryl methacrylate in the group of patients, with

  17. Intercalation of acrylic acid and sodium acrylate into kaolinite and their in situ polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Li, Yanfeng; Pan, Xiaobing; Jia, Xin; Wang, Xiaolong

    2007-02-01

    Novel nano-composites of poly (acrylic acid)-kaolinite were prepared, and intercalation and in situ polymerization were used in this process. The nano-composites were obtained by in situ polymerization of acrylic acid (AA) and sodium acrylate (AANa) intercalated into organo-kaolinite, which was obtained by refining and chemically modifying with solution intercalation step in order to increase the basal plane distance of the original clay. The modification was completed by using dimethyl-sulfoxide (DMSO)/methanol and potassium acetate (KAc)/water systems step by step. The materials were characterized with the help of XRD, FT-IR and TEM; the results confirmed that poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(sodium acrylate) (PAANa) were intercalated into the interlamellar spaces of kaolinite, the resulting copolymer composites (CC0 : copolymer crude kaolinite composite, CC1 : copolymer DMSO kaolinite composite, CC2 : copolymer KAc kaolinite composite) of CC2 exhibited a lamellar nano-composite with a mixed nano-morphology, and partial exfoliation of the intercalating clay platelets should be the main morphology. Finally, the effect of neutralization degree on the intercalation behavior was also investigated.

  18. Acrylic Bone Cements Modified with Starch

    OpenAIRE

    Krilova, V; Vītiņš, V

    2010-01-01

    The successful result of restorative and replacement surgical operation depends significantly on properties of used bone cement. Acrylic bone cements are usually based on methylmethacrylate polymer, while monomer polymerization begins after mixing of components in mixing device and terminates in living tissue. Polymerization of methylmethacrylate is exothermic process, and temperature increase might cause tissue necrosis with concomitant implant aseptic loosening. Developed non-ionogenic and ...

  19. Performance comparison of acrylic and thiol-acrylic resins in two-photon polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lijia; Xiong, Wei; Zhou, Yushen; Liu, Ying; Huang, Xi; Li, Dawei; Baldacchini, Tommaso; Jiang, Lan; Lu, Yongfeng

    2016-06-13

    Microfabrication by two-photon polymerization is investigated using resins based on thiol-ene chemistry. In particular, resins containing different amounts of a tetrafunctional acrylic monomer and a tetrafunctional thiol molecule are used to create complex microstructures. We observe the enhancement of several characteristics of two-photon polymerization when using thiol-acrylic resins. Specifically, microfabrication is carried out using higher writing velocities and it produces stronger polymeric microstructures. Furthermore, the amount of shrinkage typically observed in the production of three-dimensional microstructures is reduced also. By means of microspectrometry, we confirm that the thiol-acrylate mixture in TPP resins promote monomer conversion inducing a higher degree of cross-linked network formation. PMID:27410383

  20. Palladium (II) catalyized polymerization of norbornene and acrylates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Ayusman; Kacker, Smita; Hennis, April; Polley, Jennifer D.

    2000-08-29

    Homopolymers or copolymers of acrylates, homopolymers or copolymers of norbornenes, and copolymers of acrylates with norbornenes, may be prepared by contacting acrylate and/or norbornene monomer reactant under polymerization conditions and in the presence of a solvent with a catalyst system consisting essentially of a Pd(II) dimer component having the formula: [(L)Pd(R)(X)].sub.2, where L is a monodentate phosphorus or nitrogen ligand, X is an anionic group, and R is an alkyl or aryl group.

  1. Palladium (Ii) Catalyzed Polymerization Of Norbornene And Acrylates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Ayusman; Kacker, Smita; Hennis, April; Polley, Jennifer D.

    2001-10-09

    Homopolymers or copolymers of acrylates, homopolymers or copolymers of norbornenes, and copolymers of acrylates with norbornenes, may be prepared by contacting acrylate and/or norbornene monomer reactant under polymerization conditions and in the presence of a solvent with a catalyst system consisting essentially of a Pd(II) dimer component having the formula: where L is a monodentate phosphorus or nitrogen ligand, X is an anionic group, and R is an alkyl or aryl group.

  2. Pulse radiolysis of aqueous solutions of ethyl acrylate and hydroxy ethyl acrylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safrany, A.; Biro, A.; Wojnarovits, L.

    1993-10-01

    Ethyl- and hydroxy ethyl acrylate show high reactivities with hydrated electron and hydroxyl radical intermediates of water radiolysis. The electron adduct reversibly protonate with pK values of 5.7 and 7.3. The adducts may take part in irreversible protonation at the β carbon atom forming α-carboxyl alkyl radicals. Same type of radical forms in reaction of acrylates with OH: at low concentration the adduct mainly disappear in self termination reactions. Above 5 mmol dm -1 the signals showed the startup of oligomerization.

  3. Palm oil based polyols for acrylated polyurethane production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm oil becomes important renewable resources for the production of polyols for the polyurethane manufacturing industry. The main raw materials used for the production of acrylated polyurethane are polyols, isocyanates and hydroxyl terminated acrylate compounds. In these studies, polyurethane based natural polymer (palm oil), i.e., POBUA (Palm Oil Based Urethane Acrylate) were prepared from three different types of palm oil based polyols i.e., epoxidised palm oil (EPOP), palm oil oleic acid and refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm olein based polyols. The performances of these three acrylated polyurethanes when used for coatings and adhesives were determined and compared with each other. (Author)

  4. Severe Onychodystrophy due to Allergic Contact Dermatitis from Acrylic Nails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos Simoes Mendonca, Marcela; LaSenna, Charlotte; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-09-01

    Acrylic nails, including sculptured nails and the new ultraviolet-curable gel polish lacquers, have been associated with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). We report 2 cases of ACD to acrylic nails with severe onychodystrophy and psoriasiform changes including onycholysis and subungual hyperkeratosis. In both cases, the patients did not realize the association between the use of acrylate-based manicures and nail changes. One patient had been previously misdiagnosed and treated unsuccessfully for nail psoriasis. The informed clinician should elicit a history of acrylic manicure in patients with these nail changes, especially in cases of suspected nail psoriasis refractory to treatment. Patch testing is a useful tool in confirming diagnosis. PMID:27170940

  5. Comparison of classical dermatoscopy and acrylic globe magnifier dermatoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Henrik F; Eefsen, Rikke Løvendahl; Weismann, Kaare

    2008-01-01

    to histopathology diagnoses, assessed dermatoscopic and acrylic globe magnifier photo-slides according to the dermoscopic risk stratification. The observed agreement over all categories between acrylic globe magnifier dermatoscopy and classical dermatoscopy was 94% and Cohen's kappa coefficient was 90% (95...

  6. 40 CFR 721.8082 - Polyester polyurethane acrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyester polyurethane acrylate. 721... Substances § 721.8082 Polyester polyurethane acrylate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyester polyurethane...

  7. Artificial saliva effect on toxic substances release from acrylic resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Milena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Acrylic-based resins are intensively used in dentistry practice as restorative or denture-base materials. The purpose of this study was to analyze the surface structure of denture base resins and the amount of released potentially toxic substances (PTS immediately upon polymerization and incubation in different types of artificial saliva. Methods. Storage of acrylic samples in two models of artificial saliva were performed in a water bath at the temperature of 37 ± 1°C. Analysis of the surface structure of samples was carried out using scanning electronic microscopy analysis immediately after polymerization and after the 30-day incubation. The amounts of PTS per day, week and month extracts were measured using high-pressure liquid chromatography. Results. Surface design and amount of PTS in acrylic materials were different and depended on the types and duration of polymerization. The surfaces of tested acrylates became flatter after immersing in solutions of artificial saliva. The degree of acrylic materials release was not dependent on the applied model of artificial saliva. Conclusion. In order to improve biological features of acrylic resin materials, it was recommended that dentures lined with soft or hard coldpolymerized acrylates should be kept at least 1 to 7 days in water before being given to a patient. So, as to reach high degree of biocompatibility preparation of prosthetic restorations from heat-polymerized acrylate was unnecessary. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 41017

  8. Occupational fingertip eczema from acrylates in a manicurist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denitza Zheleva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Occupational hand eczema due to acrylates present in the workplace is a disease frequently reported among dentists, printers, and fiberglass workers. Acrylate monomers are used in the production of a great variety of polymers, including nail cosmetics. Our case report demonstrates a rare clinical presentations of allergic contact dermatitis from acrylic nails. Our patient was working as a manicurist and the diagnostic analyses revealed sensitation to some of the (meth acrylate compounds of her new nail cosmetics. Sculptured artificial acrylic and UV-hardened nails s are widely used in developed countries and they are gaining more and more popularity. We expect an increase in the number of cases of contact allergic dermatitis among manicurists and customers.

  9. Biocompatibility of acrylic resin after being soaked in sodium hypochlorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nike Hendrijatini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acrylic resin as basic material for denture will stay on oral mucosa for a very long time. The polymerization of acrylic resin can be performed by conventional method and microwave, both produce different residual monomer at different toxicity. Acrylic resin can absorb solution, porous and possibly absorb disinfectantt as well, that may have toxic reaction with the tissue. Sodium Hypochlorite as removable denture disinfectant can be expected to be biocompatible to human body. The problem is how biocompatible acrylic resin which has been processed by conventional method and microwave method after being soaked in sodium hypochlorite solution. Purpose: The aim of this study was to understand in vitro biocompatibility of acrylic resin which has polimerated by conventional method and microwave after being soaked in sodium hypochlorite using tissue culture. Methods: Four groups of acrylic resin plate were produced, the first group was acrylic resin plate with microwave polymeration and soaked in sodium hypochlorite, the second group was acrylic resin plate with microwave polymeration but not soaked, the thirdwas one with conventional method and soaked and the last group was one with conventional method but not soaked, and in 1 control group. Each group consists of 7 plates. Biocompatibility test was performed in-vitro on each material using fibroblast tissue culture (BHK-21 cell-line. Result: The percentage between living cells and dead cells from materials which was given acrylic plate was wounted. The data was analyzed statistically with T test. Conclusion: The average value of living cells is higher in acrylic resin poimerization using microwave method compared to conventional method, in both soaked and non soaked (by sodium hypochlorite group. This means that sodium hypochlorite 0.5% was biocompatible to the mouth mucosa as removable denture disinfectant for 10 minutes soaking and washing afterwards.

  10. Comparison of the Retinal Straylight in Pseudophakic Eyes with PMMA, Hydrophobic Acrylic, and Hydrophilic Acrylic Spherical Intraocular Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-wen Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the intraocular straylight value after cataract surgery. Methods. In this study, 76 eyes from 62 patients were subdivided into three groups. A hydrophobic acrylic, a hydrophilic acrylic, and a PMMA IOL were respectively, implanted in 24 eyes, 28 eyes, and 24 eyes. Straylight was measured using C-Quant at 1 week and 1 month postoperatively in natural and dilated pupils. Results. The hydrophilic acrylic IOLs showed significantly lower straylight values than those of the hydrophobic acrylic IOLs in dilated pupils at 1 week and 1 month after surgery (P0.05. Moreover, no significant difference was found in straylight between natural and dilated pupils in each group at 1 week and 1 month postoperatively (P>0.05. Conclusions. Although the hydrophobic acrylic IOL induced more intraocular straylight, straylight differences among the 3 IOLs were minimal. Pupil size showed no effect on intraocular straylight; the intraocular straylight was stable 1 week after surgery.

  11. Hyperbranched Acrylated Aromatic Polyester Used as a Modifier in UV-Curable Epoxy Acrylate Resins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOU,Hui-Guang; ASIF,Anila; SHI,Wen-Fang

    2003-01-01

    The viscosity, the shrinkage degree and the photoplymerization rate of the epoxy acrylate (EB600 ) blended with hyperbranched acrylated aromatic polyester ( HAAPE ) were investigated. The addition of HAAPE into EB600 largely reduces the viscosity of the blend formulation and the shrinkage degree. For example, EB600resin with 50% weight fraction of HAAPE has the 1250 cps of the viscosity and 2.0% of shrinkage degree, while the pure EB600 resin has 3000 cps of the viscosity and 10.5% of shrinkage degree. The photopolymerization rate of the rein is also promoted by HAAPE addition. The good miscibility between HAAPE and EB600 was also observed from the dynamic mechanical analysis. The tensile, flexural and compressive strength, and the thermal properties of the UVcured films are greatly improved.

  12. Use of Acrylic Acid Sodium Acrylate Polymer to Maintain Cocoa Seed Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudji Rahardjo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The main problem of cocoa seed storage is moisture content of the seeds because cocoa seeds will germinate if cocoa seeds moisture content is high. The objective of this research is to maintain the cocoa seeds viability in storage using acrylic acid sodium acrylate polymer (AASAP. The function of AASAP is to absorb humidity in storage due to their ability to retain water and to prevent water loss. The experiment was conducted in a laboratory of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute and in Kaliwining Experimental Garden. This experiment was arranged by factorial randomized complete design, in wich AASAP dosages 0%; 0.1% (0.1 g/100 seeds; 0.2% (0.2 g/100 seeds, 0.3% (0.3 g/100 seeds, 0,4% (0,4g/100 seeds, combined with seeds storage period 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks. The experiment used 3 replications and each repli cation used 100 seeds. Parameter of observation consisted of percentage of seeds germinated in storage, percentage of seeds infected by fungi in storage, seeds moisture content, percentage of seeds germination after storage, and early growth of cocoa seedlings. The results of the experiment showed that AASAP application with some dosages cocoa seeds storage cause to germinate in storage during 2 weeks. AASAP application with some dosages in cocoa seeds storage for 2 weeks would not result in infection by fungi and did not significantly affect seed germination after storage for 1, 2 and 4 weeks, and percentage of germination of cocoa seed after storage for 3 weeks decreased with increase dosage of AASAP. Higher dosage of AASAP would reduce early growth of cocoa seedling. Key words : Theobroma cacao, seed, acrylic acid sodium acrylate, seed storage, viabilty.

  13. Chemo-enzymatic synthesis route to poly(glucosyl-acrylates) using glucosidase from almonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterman, Wouter M. J.; Roest, Steven; Priatna, Siti R.; Stavila, Erythrina; Loos, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Novel types of glucosyl-acrylate monomers are obtained by beta-glucosidase from almond catalyzed glycosidation reaction. The saccharide-acrylate monomers were synthesized by reaction of D-glucose with hydroxyl functional acrylates: 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (2-HEA), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA

  14. PHOTOINITIATED INVERSE EMULSION POLYMERIZATION OF SODIUM ACRYLATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lian-ying Liu; Zhi-xing Zhang; Wan-tai Yang

    2005-01-01

    Photoinitiated inverse emulsion polymerization of sodium acrylate (AANa) in kerosene was carried out at room or lower temperature, using 2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone (DMPA) as the initiator. Kinetic investigations indicated that the polymerization could be completed in about 30 min and produce polymer with high molecular weight (106~107). It was found that monomer droplets are the main sites for the polymerization (nucleation). With the increase of DMPA concentration, polymerization rate (Rp) reaches a maximum value while molecular weight of the produced polymer has an adverse result, but the dependence of Rp on incident light intensity is similar. Influences of other parameters such as monomer concentration, emulsifier content and reaction temperature, etc. were also studied. At lower pH values of water phase, Rp depends strongly on the pH due to the electrostatic interaction between the ionized radicals and the monomer. At higher pH, Rp shows a slight dependence on pH.

  15. Electrochemical characterization of aminated acrylic conducting polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Norma Mohammad [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Lestari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Heng, Lee Yook [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Lestari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Southeast Asia Disaster Prevention Research Initiative, Lestari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Ling, Tan Ling [Southeast Asia Disaster Prevention Research Initiative, Lestari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    New attempt has been made to synthesize aminated acrylic conducting polymer (AACP) using precursor of phenylvinylsulfoxide (PVS). The process was conducted via the integration of microemulsion and photopolymerization techniques. It has been utilized for covalent immobilization of amino groups by the adding of N-achryiloxisuccinimide (NAS). Thermal eliminating of benzene sulfenic acids from PVS has been done at 250 °C to form electroactive polyacetylene (PA) segment. Characterization of AACP has been conducted using fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and linear sweep cyclic voltammetry (CV). A range of 0.3-1.25μm particle size obtained from SEM characterization. A quasi-reversible system performed as shown in electrochemical study.

  16. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol and Butyl Acrylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binder, Thomas [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Erpelding, Michael [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Schmid, Josef [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Chin, Andrew [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Sammons, Rhea [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Rockafellow, Erin [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States)

    2015-04-10

    Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol and Butyl Acrylate. The purpose of Archer Daniels Midlands Integrated Biorefinery (IBR) was to demonstrate a modified acetosolv process on corn stover. It would show the fractionation of crop residue to distinct fractions of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The cellulose and hemicellulose fractions would be further converted to ethanol as the primary product and a fraction of the sugars would be catalytically converted to acrylic acid, with butyl acrylate the final product. These primary steps have been demonstrated.

  17. COMPLEX OXIDE CATALYSTS OF ACRYLIC ACID OBTAINING BY ALDOL CONDENSATION METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    Nebesnyi, R.

    2015-01-01

    The present work is dedicated to solving the problem of diversification of the raw materials base for acrylate monomers obtaining,  first of all acrylic acid. Acrylic acid and its derivatives are bulk products of organic synthesis with a wide range of applications. The main industrial method of acrylic acid production is  propylene oxidation. But this method has instable economic indicators as propylene is petroleum origin raw material.It is possible to expand the resource base of acrylic aci...

  18. Performance behavior of modified cellulosic fabrics using polyurethane acrylate copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Mohammad; Shah, Sayyed Asim Ali; Jamil, Tahir; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan

    2014-06-01

    The surface of the cellulosic fabrics was modified using self-prepared emulsions of polyurethane acrylate copolymers (PUACs). PUACs were prepared by varying the molecular weight of polycaprolactone diol (PCL). The PCL was reacted with isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) and chain was extended with 2-hydroxy ethyl acrylate (HEA) to form vinyl terminated polyurethane (VTPU) preploymer. The VTPU was further co-polymerized through free radical polymerization with butyl acrylate in different proportions. The FT-IR spectra of monomers, prepolymers and copolymers assured the formation of proposed PUACs structure. The various concentrations of prepared PUACs were applied onto the different fabric samples using dip-padding techniques. The results revealed that the application of polyurethane butyl acrylate copolymer showed a pronounced effect on the tear strength and pilling resistance of the treated fabrics.

  19. Rare linking hydrogels based on acrylic acid and carbohydrate esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Akhmedov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The process of copolymerization of acrylic acid and esters poliallil sucrose; pentaerythritol and sorbitol, some of its laws are identified. The kinetic regularities of copolymerization and the optimum conditions of synthesis was established.

  20. [Reaction of 1,8-naphthyridine azides with ethyl acrylate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livi, O; Ferrarini, P L; Bertini, D; Tonetti, I

    1975-12-01

    The reaction of 1,8-naphthyridine azides with ethyl acrylate leads to the formation of 2-pyrazolines instead of 1,2,3-triazolines. Some of the compounds obtained have undergone pharmacological and microbiological (antibacterial) testing. PMID:1204828

  1. Performance behavior of modified cellulosic fabrics using polyurethane acrylate copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Mohammad; Shah, Sayyed Asim Ali; Jamil, Tahir; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan

    2014-06-01

    The surface of the cellulosic fabrics was modified using self-prepared emulsions of polyurethane acrylate copolymers (PUACs). PUACs were prepared by varying the molecular weight of polycaprolactone diol (PCL). The PCL was reacted with isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) and chain was extended with 2-hydroxy ethyl acrylate (HEA) to form vinyl terminated polyurethane (VTPU) preploymer. The VTPU was further co-polymerized through free radical polymerization with butyl acrylate in different proportions. The FT-IR spectra of monomers, prepolymers and copolymers assured the formation of proposed PUACs structure. The various concentrations of prepared PUACs were applied onto the different fabric samples using dip-padding techniques. The results revealed that the application of polyurethane butyl acrylate copolymer showed a pronounced effect on the tear strength and pilling resistance of the treated fabrics. PMID:24661889

  2. [Treatment of acrylate wastewater by electrocatalytic reduction process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Li-Na; Song, Yu-Dong; Zhou, Yue-Xi; Zhu, Shu-Quan; Zheng, Sheng-Zhi; Ll, Si-Min

    2011-10-01

    High-concentration acrylate wastewater was treated by an electrocatalytic reduction process. The effects of the cation exchange membrane (CEM) and cathode materials on acrylate reduction were investigated. It indicated that the acrylate could be reduced to propionate acid efficiently by the electrocatalytic reduction process. The addition of CEM to separator with the cathode and anode could significantly improve current efficiency. The cathode materials had significant effect on the reduction of acrylate. The current efficiency by Pd/Nickel foam, was greater than 90%, while those by nickel foam, the carbon fibers and the stainless steel decreased successively. Toxicity of the wastewater decreased considerably and methane production rate in the biochemical methane potential (BMP) test increased greatly after the electrocatalytic reduction process. PMID:22279908

  3. BARRIER PROPERTY AND STRUCTURE OF ACRYLONITRILE/ACRYLIC COPOLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhenghua; LI Yuesheng

    1997-01-01

    A series of acrylonitrile (AN) copolymers with methyl acrylate (MA) or ethyl acrylate (EA) as comonomer (5-23 wt%) was prepared by free-radical copolymerization. The permeability coefficients of the copolymers to oxygen and carbon dioxide were measured at 1.0 MPa and at 30 ℃, and those to water vapor also measured at 100% relative humidity and at 30 ℃. All the AN/acrylic copolymers are semicrystalline. As the acrylate content increase, the permeability coefficients of the copolymers to oxygen and carbon dioxide are increased progressively, but those to water vapor are decreased progressively. The gas permeability coefficients of the polymers were correlated with free-volume fractions or the ratio of free volume to cohesive energy.

  4. Synthesis of highly carboxylate acrylic resins for leather impregnation

    OpenAIRE

    Ollé Otero, Lluís; Solé, M.M.; Shendrik, Alexander; Labastida, L.; Bacardit Dalmases, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This work describes the synthesis of new leather finishing acrylic resins. Four resins ware synthesized varying the concentration of ethyl acrylate, and metracrylic acid. Sodium lauryl sulphate was used as emulsifying system. By means of an experimental design, an optimal resin for leather impregnation was defined. The results obtained indicated that the variation of the monomer concentration influences the resin properties, the hardness of the film, and the penetration into the leather. Most...

  5. Antimicrobial activity of poly(acrylic acid) block copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gratzl, Günther, E-mail: guenther.gratzl@jku.at [Johannes Kepler University Linz, Institute for Chemical Technology of Organic Materials, Altenberger Str. 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Paulik, Christian [Johannes Kepler University Linz, Institute for Chemical Technology of Organic Materials, Altenberger Str. 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Hild, Sabine [Johannes Kepler University Linz, Institute of Polymer Science, Altenberger Str. 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Guggenbichler, Josef P.; Lackner, Maximilian [AMiSTec GmbH and Co. KG, Leitweg 13, 6345 Kössen, Tirol (Austria)

    2014-05-01

    The increasing number of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains has developed into a major health problem. In particular, biofilms are the main reason for hospital-acquired infections and diseases. Once formed, biofilms are difficult to remove as they have specific defense mechanisms against antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial surfaces must therefore kill or repel bacteria before they can settle to form a biofilm. In this study, we describe that poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) containing diblock copolymers can kill bacteria and prevent from biofilm formation. The PAA diblock copolymers with poly(styrene) and poly(methyl methacrylate) were synthesized via anionic polymerization of tert-butyl acrylate with styrene or methyl methacrylate and subsequent acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of the tert-butyl ester. The copolymers were characterized via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), elemental analysis, and acid–base titrations. Copolymer films with a variety of acrylic acid contents were produced by solvent casting, characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and tested for their antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antimicrobial activity of the acidic diblock copolymers increased with increasing acrylic acid content, independent of the copolymer-partner, the chain length and the nanostructure. - Highlights: • Acrylic acid diblock copolymers are antimicrobially active. • The antimicrobial activity depends on the acrylic acid content in the copolymer. • No salts, metals or other antimicrobial agents are needed.

  6. Application of reactive acrylate microgels in water-base coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SA Sheng-shu; ZHANG Bao-hua; YANG Qing; WANG Xia-qin; MAO Zhi-ping

    2009-01-01

    Reactive acrylate microgels with different reactive groups such as carboxyl, hydroxide groups had excellent prop-erties such as quick-dry, low viscosity, high adhesion and hardness, which made them extensively used in preparing paints or in coating-modification. Reactive acrylate microgels were prepared by emulsion co-polymerization with zwitterions surfactant, anionic surfactant and nonionic surfactant as co-emulsifier. The water-base baking paints made from reactive acrylate micro-gels and melamine-formaldehyde resin had excellent combination properties. The aluminium powder can be well-dispersed in the paints. The influences of monomer components on the properties of the water-base baking paints were discussed in this paper. And the baking paints were also compared with the marketing solvent acrylate baking paints. It was found that the water-base acrylate amino baking paints had better combination properties than the organic solvent acrylate baking paints, which means that the water-base baking paints had a bright marketing future.

  7. Stabilizing effects of estertins mercaptide (methyl acrylate) for PVC degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S. H.; Liu, T. M.; Li, J. L.; Wang, C. R.; Li, C.; Wang, Z. Q.

    2016-07-01

    The thermal and UV light (ultraviolet light) stability of PVC films with estertins mercaptide (methyl acrylate), methyltins mercaptide and the compound consisted of estertins mercaptide (methyl acrylate) and hydrotalcite (2:2.5) were investigated by ageing in a circulation oven at 190 °C and irradiating with 72W UV light for 96h, respectively, and then the yellowness and transmission rate were tested by Color Quest XE. Hydrotalcite was proved to have good synergies with estertins mercaptide (methyl acrylate) on improving the thermal stability and UV light stability. The retarding effects of the heat stabilizers to PVC degradation were tested by TGA from 50°C to 600°C. The results show that temperature of HCl evolution from PVC film was improved obviously by compounding with estertins mercaptide(methyl acrylate) and hydrotalcite and estertins mercaptide(methyl acrylate) was found to have a better long term stability. Sn4+ consistence of water and seawater in which films before and after UV light irradiation were soaked for 60 days was analyzed by ICP; the results indicate that the Sn4+ consistence from the films with estertins mercaptide(methyl acrylate) as thermal stabilizer was lower than that from the film with methyltins mercaptide. The crosslink moderately by UV irradiation for PVC films can hold back the dissolution of organotin heat stabilizers from PVC products into water and seawater.

  8. Advances in acrylic-alkyd hybrid synthesis and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziczkowski, Jamie

    2008-10-01

    In situ graft acrylic-alkyd hybrid resins were formed by polymerizing acrylic and acrylic-mixed monomers in the presence of alkyds by introduction of a free radical initiator to promote graft formation. Two-dimensional NMR, specifically gradient heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence (gHMQC), was used to clarify specific graft sites of the hybrid materials. Both individual and mixed-monomer systems were produced to determine any individual monomer preferences and to model current acrylic-alkyd systems. Different classes of initiators were used to determine any initiator effects on graft location. The 2D-NMR results confirm grafting at doubly allylic hydrogens located on the fatty acid chains and the polyol segment of the alkyd backbone. The gHMQC spectra show no evidence of grafting across double bonds on either pendant fatty acid groups or THPA unsaturation sites for any of the monomer or mixed monomer systems. It was also determined that choice of initiator has no effect on graft location. In addition, a design of experiments using response surface methodology was utilized to obtain a better understanding of this commercially available class of materials and relate both the chemical and physical properties to one another. A Box-Behnkin design was used, varying the oil length of the alkyd phase, the degree of unsaturation in the polyester backbone, and acrylic to alkyd ratio. Acrylic-alkyd hybrid resins were reduced with an amine/water mixture. Hydrolytic stability was tested and viscoelastic properties were obtained to determine crosslink density. Cured films were prepared and basic coatings properties were evaluated. It was found that the oil length of the alkyd is the most dominant factor for final coatings properties of the resins. Acrylic to alkyd ratio mainly influences the resin properties such as acid number, average molecular weight, and hydrolytic stability. The degree of unsaturation in the alkyd backbone has minimal effects on resin and film

  9. Impact Delamination and Fracture in Aluminum/Acrylic Sandwich Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Benjamin; Zeichner, Glenn; Liu, Yanxiong; Bowles, Kenneth J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Impact-induced delamination and fracture in 6061-T6 aluminum/cast acrylic sandwich plates adhered by epoxy were generated in an instrumented drop-weight impact machine. Although only a small dent was produced on the aluminum side when a hemispherical penetrator tup was dropped onto it from a couple of inches, a large ring of delamination at the interface was observed. The delamination damage was often accompanied by severe shattering in the acrylic substratum. Damage patterns in the acrylic layer include radial and ring cracks and, together with delamination at the interface, may cause peeling-off of acrylic material from the sandwich plate. Theory of stress-wave propagation can be used to explain these damage patterns. The impact tests were conducted at various temperatures. The results also show clearly that temperature effect is very important in impact damage. For pure cast acrylic nil-ductile transition (NDT) occurs between 185-195 F. Excessive impact energy was dissipated into fracture energy when tested at temperature below this range or through plastic deformation when tested at temperature above the NDT temperature. Results from this study will be used as baseline data for studying fiber-metal laminates, such as GLARE and ARALL for advanced aeronautical and astronautical applications.

  10. Elastic modulus and flexural strength comparisons of high-impact and traditional denture base acrylic resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour M. Ajaj-ALKordy

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that the high-impact acrylic resin is a suitable denture base material for patients with clinical fracture of the acrylic denture.

  11. Neutral, anionic, cationic, and zwitterionic diblock copolymers featuring poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) hydrophobic segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javakhishvili, Irakli; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Hvilsted, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Amphiphilic diblock copolymers incorporating hydrophobic poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (PMEA) and hydrophilic neutral poly(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether (mPEG), anionic poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA), cationic poly(2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA...

  12. Tensile bond strength between auto-polymerized acrylic resin and acrylic denture teeth treated with MF-MA solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE This study evaluated the effect of chemical surface treatment using methyl formate-methyl acetate (MF-MA) solution on the tensile bond strength between acrylic denture teeth and auto-polymerized acrylic resin. MATERIALS AND METHODS Seventy maxillary central incisor acrylic denture teeth for each of three different brands (Yamahachi New Ace; Major Dent; Cosmo HXL) were embedded with incisal edge downwards in auto-polymerized resin in polyethylene pipes and ground with silicone carbide paper on their ridge lap surfaces. The teeth of each brand were divided into seven groups (n=10): no surface treatment (control group), MF-MA solution at a ratio of 25:75 (v/v) for 15 seconds, 30 seconds, 60 seconds, 120 seconds, 180 seconds, and MMA for 180 seconds. Auto-polymerized acrylic resin (Unifast Trad) was applied to the ground surface and polymerized in a pressure cooker. A tensile strength test was performed with a universal testing machine. Statistical analysis of the results was performed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post-hoc Dunnett T3 test (α=.05). RESULTS The surface treatment groups had significantly higher mean tensile bond strengths compared with the control group (P.05), except for the Yamahachi New Ace MF-MA 180-second group (Pteeth with auto-polymerized acrylic resin, for both conventional and cross-linked teeth. PMID:27555897

  13. Biocatalytic functionalization of hydroxyalkyl acrylates and phenoxyethanol via phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasnádi, Gábor; Hall, Mélanie; Baldenius, Kai; Ditrich, Klaus; Faber, Kurt

    2016-09-10

    The enzymatic phosphorylation of phenoxyethanol, 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate and 4-hydroxybutyl acrylate catalyzed by acid phosphatases PhoN-Sf and PiACP at the expense of inorganic di-, tri-, hexameta- or polyphosphate was applied to the preparative-scale synthesis of phosphorylated compounds. The reaction conditions were optimized with respect to enzyme immobilization, substrate concentration, pH and type of phosphate donor. The mild reaction conditions prevented undesired polymerization and hydrolysis of the acrylate ester moiety. Application of a continuous flow system allowed facile scale-up and mono-phosphates were obtained in up to 26% isolated yield with space-time yields of 0.89kgL(-1)h(-1). PMID:27422352

  14. Lightweight bonded acrylic facing at the Vitra VSL Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Corresponding author: Matthias Michel, E-mail: michel@imagine-structure.eu Acrylic glass is omnipresent in the industrialised world; but as a building material most architects, facade planners and engineers are still unfamiliar with this material. In most cases it is applied as a substitute for glass which leads to inappropriate joints and fixtures. During the years of the path toward the digital era, the authors were in the fortunate position to be involved in several unconventional glass and acrylic glass projects. On the basis of their most recent project, the facade of the Vitra VSL Factory by SANAA Architekten, they describe the development of a facade for which they chose acrylic glass not as a substitute for glass but rather as a conscious material choice. Since the entire facade is it was possible to apply the manufacturing technology of deep-drawing, allowing for very thin wall thicknesses.

  15. Synthesis and Demulsibility of the Terpolymer Demulsifier of Acryl Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG,Wan-Li; MENG,Ling-Wei; ZHANG,Hong-Yan; LIU,Shu-Ren

    2008-01-01

    Terpolymer demulsifier of acryl resin has been synthesized through solution polymerization with water as a dissolvent,potassium persulfate as an initiator and the monomers of methyl methacrylate,butyl acrylate and acrylic acid as starting materials.The effects of the reaction temperature,dripping time,the amount of monomers and initiator on the dehydration rate of the demulsifier were investigated by an orthogonal experiment.It shows that the stronger influence on the dehydration rate among six factors is reaction temperature,dripping time,and amount of catalyst,while monomer has weak influence.The performance of the demulsifier was evaluated under different demulsification time,temperatures and concentrations of the screened demulsifiers.The result shows that the dehydration rate of the demulsifier can reach over 67%,which is better than that by the emulsion polymerization way.

  16. Nucleophilic addition of reactive dyes on amidoximated acrylic fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shishtawy, Reda M; El-Zawahry, Manal M; Abdelghaffar, Fatma; Ahmed, Nahed S E

    2014-01-01

    Seven reactive dyes judiciously selected based on chemical structures and fixation mechanisms were applied at 2% of of shade on amidoximated acrylic fabrics. Amidoximated acrylic fabric has been obtained by a viable amidoximation process. The dyeability of these fabrics was evaluated with respect to the dye exhaustion, fixation, and colour strength under different conditions of temperature and dyeing time. Nucleophilic addition type reactive dyes show higher colour data compared to nucleophilic substitution ones. FTIR studies further implicate the binding of reactive dyes on these fabrics. A tentative mechanism is proposed to rationalize the high fixation yield obtained using nucleophilic addition type reactive dyes. Also, the levelling and fastness properties were evaluated for all dyes used. Excellent to good fastness and levelling properties were obtained for all samples irrespective of the dye used. The result of investigation offers a new method for a viable reactive dyeing of amidoximated acrylic fabrics.

  17. Nucleophilic Addition of Reactive Dyes on Amidoximated Acrylic Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda M. El-Shishtawy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven reactive dyes judiciously selected based on chemical structures and fixation mechanisms were applied at 2% owf of shade on amidoximated acrylic fabrics. Amidoximated acrylic fabric has been obtained by a viable amidoximation process. The dyeability of these fabrics was evaluated with respect to the dye exhaustion, fixation, and colour strength under different conditions of temperature and dyeing time. Nucleophilic addition type reactive dyes show higher colour data compared to nucleophilic substitution ones. FTIR studies further implicate the binding of reactive dyes on these fabrics. A tentative mechanism is proposed to rationalize the high fixation yield obtained using nucleophilic addition type reactive dyes. Also, the levelling and fastness properties were evaluated for all dyes used. Excellent to good fastness and levelling properties were obtained for all samples irrespective of the dye used. The result of investigation offers a new method for a viable reactive dyeing of amidoximated acrylic fabrics.

  18. Positron annihilation study of acryl amide/poly (metha acrylic acid) membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Hady, E E; Abdel-Hamed, M O; Hammam, A M; Elsharkawy, M R M [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Minia University, Minia (Egypt); Eltoony, M M, E-mail: esamhady@yahoo.com [Chemistry Department, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo 11115 (Egypt)

    2011-01-01

    Gamma irradiation posses a serious role for casting the membranes. Acryl amide /poly (methacrylic acid) membrane was synthesized under {gamma}-radiation effect. The structure of the membrane was characterized by FTIR, thermo-gravimetric analysis and the scanning electron microscope. The properties of the membranes were also investigated in terms of proton conductivity and positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) parameters. On the basis of the values of the long-lived components in the lifetime spectra, the size of the free volume and their intensity were calculated. The positron lifetime study on these irradiated casted membranes shows that the cross-linking and degradation within the membrane matrix affect the free volume content and hence the microstructure.

  19. Ultrasonic velocities, densities, and excess molar volumes of binary mixtures of N,N-dimethyl formamide with methyl acrylate, or ethyl acrylate, or butyl acrylate, or 2-ethyl hexyl acrylate at T = 308.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondaiah, M. [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar 522510, Andhra Pradesh (India); Sravana Kumar, D. [Dr. V.S. Krishna Govt. Degree College, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh (India); Sreekanth, K. [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar 522510, Andhra Pradesh (India); Krishna Rao, D., E-mail: krdhanekula@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar 522510, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: > Positive values of V{sub m}{sup E}, indicate dispersion forces between acrylic esters and DMF. > V{sub m}{sup E} values compared with Redlich-Kister polynomial. > Partial molar volumes data conclude that weak interactions exist in the systems. > Measured velocity values compared with theoretical values obtained by polynomials. - Abstract: Ultrasonic velocities, u, densities, {rho}, of binary mixtures of N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF) with methyl acrylate (MA), ethyl acrylate (EA), butyl acrylate (BA), and 2-ethyl hexyl acrylate (EHA), including pure liquids, over the entire composition range have been measured at T = 308.15 K. Using the experimental results, the excess molar volume, V{sub m}{sup E}, partial molar volumes, V-bar {sub m,1}, V-bar{sub m,2}, and excess partial molar volumes, V-bar{sub m,1}{sup E}, V-bar{sub m,2}{sup E} have been calculated. Molecular interactions in the systems have been studied in the light of variation of excess values of calculated properties. The excess properties have been fitted to Redlich-Kister type polynomial and the corresponding standard deviations have been calculated. The positive values of V{sub m}{sup E} indicate the presence of dispersion forces between the DMF and acrylic ester molecules. Further theoretical values of sound velocity in the mixtures have been evaluated using various theories and have been compared with experimental sound velocities to verify the applicability of such theories to the systems studied. Theoretical ultrasonic velocity data have been used to study molecular interactions in the binary systems investigated.

  20. Technology and the use of acrylics for provisional dentine protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapusevska, Biljana; Dereban, Nikola; Popovska, Mirjana; Nikolovska, Julijana; Radojkova Nikolovska, Vеrа; Zabokova Bilbilova, Efka; Mijoska, Aneta

    2013-01-01

    Acrylics are compounds polymerized from monomers of acrylic, metacrylic acid or acrylonitrates. The purpose of this paper is to present the technology and use of acrylics for provisional dentine protection in the practice of dental prosthodontics. For this reason, we followed 120 clinical cases from the everyday clinical practice, divided into 4 groups of 30 patients who needed prosthetic reconstruction. The first group included cases in which we applied celluloid crowns for dentine protection, for the second group we used acrylic teeth from a set of teeth for complete dentures; in the third and fourth groups the fabrication was done with the system of an impression matrix and the acrylic resin block technique respectively. In all the examined patients, the gingival index by Silness and Loe and the vitality of the dental pulp were verified clinically, after preparation and 8 days from the placement of the provisional crown. The value for dental sensitivity measured after preparation was 2.59, and 8 days after the placement of the provisional crown it bwas 3.1. From these results we can conclude that after the 8th day from the placement of the provisional crown, there was an adaptation period, characterized by a decrease in the painful sensations. The value of the Silness and Loe gingival index measured after the preparation was 1.34, and 8 days from the placement of the provisional crown was 0.94. The results inclined us to the fact that the provisional acrylic crowns facilitated the reparation of the periodontal tissue. PMID:24566021

  1. The Evaluation of Water Sorption/Solubility on Various Acrylic Resins

    OpenAIRE

    Tuna, Suleyman Hakan; Keyf, Filiz; Gumus, Hasan Onder; Uzun, Cengiz

    2008-01-01

    Objectives The absorption of water by acrylic resins is a phenomenon of considerable importance since it is accompanied by dimensional changes, a further undesirable effect of absorbed water in acrylic resins to reduce the tensile strength of the material. Solubility is also an important property because it represents the mass of soluble materials from the polymers. Methods Ten acrylic resin-based materials were evaluated: two heat cure acrylic resins (De Trey QC-20, Meliodent Heat Cure) and ...

  2. STUDY ON ACRYLAMIDE-SODIUM ACRYLATE COPOLYMER GELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Maotang; LI Qian; XU Jiping

    1990-01-01

    Acrylamide-sodium acrylate copolymer hydrogels have been obtained by radiation techniques.Two different methods have been used to introduce -COONa groups into polymer chains of the gels: (1) by partial hydrolysis of acrylamide homopolymer gel; (2) by direct copolymerization and crosslinking of acrylamide and sodium acrylate in aqueous solutions. It was found that the gels obtained in different ways had different properties, the swelling character of the gels obtained by partial hydrolysis were more sensitive to pH of swelling aqueous media. In order to explain these differences,13 C-NMR techniques were used to investigate the sequence distribution of monomer units of both gels.

  3. Triphenylphosphine-Catalyzed Michael Addition of Alcohols to Acrylic Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU, Hai-Ling; JIANG, Huan-Feng; WANG, Yu-Gang

    2007-01-01

    A facile triphenylphosphine-catalyzed Michael addition of alcohols to acrylic compounds was described. The reaction was carried out in open air at refluxing temperature in the presence of 10 mol% PPh3. Michael addition of saturated and unsaturated alcohols to acrylonitrile or acrylates has been examined. The reaction gaveβ-alkoxy derivatives with isolated yields of 5%-79%. PPh3 is cheaper and more stable than those trialkylphosphines previously used for the similar reactions, and the products can be easily separated from the reaction mixture via distillation.

  4. The creep behavior of acrylic denture base resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiku, E R; Biotidara, F O

    1996-01-01

    The creep behavior of acrylic dental base resins, at room temperature and at different loading conditions, has been examined. The behaviors of these resins are similar to that of "commercial perspex" at room temperature over a period of 1000 seconds. The pseudo-elastic moduli of the blends of PMMA VC show a significant increase compared with PMMA alone. The addition of the PVC powder to the heat-cured acrylic resin increased the time-dependent elastic modulus. This increase in elastic modulus is advantageous in the production of denture based resins of improv mechanical properties.

  5. Cardiovascular effects of acrylic bone cement in rabbits and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelling, D; Butterworth, K R

    1973-06-16

    The cardiovascular responses to forcing acrylic bone cement, Plasticine, or soft paraffin wax into the medullary cavity of the femur have been studied in rabbits and cats. An acute fall in blood pressure, occurring within a few seconds of insertion, was demonstrated with each substance. In a few of the animals the blood pressure response had a second more protracted component and it is suggested that more than one mechanism is involved. The cardiovascular effects that have been observed in man when acrylic cement is used in prosthetic hip surgery also may be due to more than one mechanism. PMID:4714847

  6. Preparations and applications in UV curing coatings of epoxy acrylates containing carboxyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces preparations of epoxy acrylates containing carboxyl through the reactions of epoxy acrylates with butanedioic anhydride, pentanedioic anhydride, cis-butenedioic anhydride, phthalic anhydride, tetrabromophthalic anhydride and -tetrahydrophthalic anhydride. These epoxy acrylates containing carboxyl have been applied to UV-curing coatings and their effects on properties of UV-curing coatings have been studied

  7. 40 CFR 721.10192 - Amides, coco, N-[3-(dibutylamino)propyl], acrylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amides, coco, N- , acrylates. 721... Substances § 721.10192 Amides, coco, N- , acrylates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amides, coco, N- , acrylates (PMN...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  9. The effect of acrylic resin functionality on the curing process and properties of acrylic-hexamethoxymethylmelamine coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prendžov Slobodan J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the effect of the functionality of synthesized thermosetting acrylic resins (with hydroxy and carboxy groups and the cure temperature on the process of crosslinking and properties of the coatings was investigated. Methylated melamine resin, characterized by 1H and C NMR was used as the crosslinking agent. The degree of crosslinking was studied by infrared spectroscopy by determining the conversion of functional groups and the sol fraction. On the basis of the results obtained it was found that compositions with lower functionality of the acrylic resin had a higher conversion of functional groups, during which cocondensation reactions occurred (acrylic melamine crosslinks in a wide temperature crosslinking range. Consequently better control of the coating properties was achieved. The degree of crosslinking was in good correlation to the sol fraction content and the resin hardness.

  10. Decarboxylation-based traceless linking with aroyl acrylic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John

    1998-01-01

    beta-Keto carboxylic acids are known to decarboxylate readily. In our pursuit to synthesize beta-indolinyl propiophenones, we have exploited this chemistry as a mean of establishing a traceless handle. 2-Aroyl acrylic acids have been esterified to a trityl resin, after which Michael-type addition...

  11. Design and Synthesis of Novel Fluorine-containing Acrylates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A series of novel fluorine-containing acrylates 6a-6g were synthesized via the condensation of ethyl cyanoacetate and trifluoroacetic anhydride, followed by chloridization and the coupling reaction with amines. These new compounds exhibited some biological activity as preliminary bioassay indicated. A plausible reaction mechanism was outlined and discussed.

  12. Calibration of an Electron Linear Accelerator using an acrylic puppet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The finality of this work is to find the dose for electron beams using acrylic puppets and inter comparing with the measurements in water, found also its respective conversion factor. With base in this, its may be realize interesting measurements for the good performance of a linear accelerator and special clinical treatments in less time. (Author)

  13. Oil-acrylic hybrid latexes as binders for waterborne coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamersveld, van E.M.S.; Es, van J.; German, A.L.; Cuperus, F.P.; Weissenborn, P.; Hellgren, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    The combination of the characteristics of oil, or alkyd, emulsions and acrylic latexes in a waterborne binder has been the object of various studies in the past. Strategies for combining the positive properties of alkyds, e.g. autoxidative curing, gloss and penetration in wood, with the fast drying

  14. Simultaneous production of biobased styrene and acrylates using ethenolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spekreijse, J.; Notre, le J.E.L.; Haveren, van J.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Phenylalanine (1), which could be potentially obtained from biofuel waste streams, is a precursor of cinnamic acid (2) that can be converted into two bulk chemicals, styrene (3) and acrylic acid (4), via an atom efficient pathway. With 5 mol% of Hoveyda–Grubbs 2nd generation catalyst, 1 bar of ethyl

  15. Microstructure and properties of styrene acrylate polymer cement concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao Su

    1995-01-01

    The paper systematically describes the evolution of the microstructure of a styrene acrylate polymer cement concrete in relation to its mechanical properties and durability. The results presented and discussed at the present paper involve the interaction of the polymer dispersion with portland cemen

  16. Bond strength between acrylic resin and maxillofacial silicone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Filié Haddad

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of implant dentistry improved the possibilities of rehabilitation with maxillofacial prosthesis. However, clinically it is difficult to bond the silicone to the attachment system. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of an adhesive system on the bond strength between acrylic resin and facial silicone. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 120 samples were fabricated with auto-polymerized acrylic resin and MDX 4-4210 facial silicone. Both materials were bonded through mechanical retentions and/or application of primers (DC 1205 primer and Sofreliner primer S and adhesive (Silastic Medical Adhesive Type A or not (control group. Samples were divided into 12 groups according to the method used to attach the silicone to the acrylic resin. All samples were subjected to a T-peel test in a universal testing machine. Failures were classified as adhesive, cohesive or mixed. The data were evaluated by the analysis of variance (ANOVA and the Tukey's HSD test (α=.05. RESULTS: The highest bond strength values (5.95 N/mm; 3.07 N/mm; 4.75 N/mm were recorded for the samples that received a Sofreliner primer application. These values were significantly higher when the samples had no scratches and did not receive the application of Silastic Medical Adhesive Type A. CONCLUSIONS: The most common type of failure was adhesive. The use of Sofreliner primer increased the bond strength between the auto-polymerized acrylic resin and the Silastic MDX 4-4210 facial silicone.

  17. SYNTHESIS OF ACRYLIC ESTERS IN PTC: KINETICS AND ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Torosyan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of esters of acrylic acids, which are applied for synthesis of polymeric materials by phase transfer catalysis were discussed (PTC, which is very useful for reduction of reaction consumption of materials and power.This method has substantial advantages including high speed of the process, soft condition of reaction and reduced pollution.

  18. Humidity-responsive starch-poly (methyl acrylate) films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blown films prepared from starch-poly(methyl acrylate) graft copolymers plasticized with urea and water display shrinkage at relative humidities greater than 50%. Shrinkage at relative humidities below approximately 75% is strongly correlated with the urea/starch weight ratio, which controls the eq...

  19. Analysis and Testing of Bisphenol A—Free Bio-Based Tannin Epoxy-Acrylic Adhesives

    OpenAIRE

    Shayesteh Jahanshahi; Antonio Pizzi; Ali Abdulkhani; Alireza Shakeri

    2016-01-01

    A tannin-based epoxy acrylate resin was prepared from glycidyl ether tannin (GET) and acrylic acid. The influence of the reaction condition for producing tannin epoxy acrylate was studied by FT-MIR, 13C-NMR, MALDI-TOF spectroscopy and shear strength. The best reaction conditions for producing tannin epoxy acrylate resin without bisphenol A was by reaction between GET and acrylic acid in the presence of a catalyst and hydroquinone at 95 °C for 12 h. FT-MIR, 13C-NMR and MALDI-TOF analysis have...

  20. Poly (ethylene oxide)-block-poly (n-butyl acrylate)-blockpoly (acrylic acid) triblock terpolymers with highly asymmetric hydrophilic blocks: synthesis and aqueous solution properties

    OpenAIRE

    Petrov, P; Yoncheva, K. (Krassimira); Mokreva, P. (Pavlina); Konstantinov, S.; J M Irache; Müller, A.H.E. (Axel H.E.)

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis and aggregation behaviour in aqueous media of novel amphiphilic poly(ethylene oxide)- block-poly(n-butyl acrylate)-block-poly(acrylic acid) (PEO–PnBA–PAA) triblock terpolymers were studied. Terpolymers composed of two highly asymmetric hydrophilic PEO (113 monomer units) and PAA (10–17 units) blocks, and a longer soft hydrophobic PnBA block (163 or 223 units) were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerisation (ATRP) of n-butyl acrylate and tert-butyl acrylate ...

  1. Effects of composition and layer thickness of a butyl acrylate/acrylic acid copolymer on the adhesion properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghim, Deoukchen; Kim, Jung Hyeun [University of Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Acrylic pressure-sensitive adhesives are synthesized by solution copolymerization using n-butyl acrylate and acrylic acid (AA) in ethyl acetate anhydrous. The copolymer composition is controlled for good adhesive properties by varying AA content. The monomer conversion is measured by the gravimetric method and FTIR technique. The adhesive layer thickness is measured by scanning electron microscopy, and the adhesive properties are evaluated with loop tack, 180 .deg. peel, and holding time measurements. The peel force increases with increasing the AA content up to 3 wt% and decreases at the AA content higher than 3 wt%, but the tack force decreases with increasing the AA content. The holding time increases with increasing the AA content, and it shows a similar trend with the T{sub g} of adhesives. The increase of layer thickness improves tack and peel forces, but it weakens the holding power. A tape thickness of about 20 μm shows well-balanced properties at 3 wt% AA content in the acrylic copolymer system.

  2. Surface modification of nanoparticles for radiation curable acrylate clear coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, F.; Gläsel, H.-J.; Hartmann, E.; Bilz, E.; Mehnert, R.

    2003-08-01

    To obtain transparent, scratch and abrasion resistant coatings a high content of nanosized silica and alumina filler was embedded in radiation-curable acrylate formulations by acid catalyzed silylation using trialkoxysilanes. 29SiMAS NMR and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry were employed to elucidate the structure of the surface-grafted methacryloxypropyl-, vinyl- and n-propyl-trimethoxysilane. In accordance with NMR findings, MALDI-TOF MS showed highly condensed oligomeric siloxanes of more than 20 monomeric silane units. A ladder-like structure of bound polysiloxanes is proposed rather than a simplified picture of tridentate silane bonding. Hence, silane coupling agents do not only modify the chemical nature of the filler surface but also strongly effect the rheological properties of the acrylate nanodispersions.

  3. Reactivity Ratios of Diethyldiallylammonium Chloride with Acrylamide or Acrylic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hua LIU; Zhi Qiang LIU; Zhu Qing GONG

    2006-01-01

    The compositions of copolymers of diethyldiallylammonium chloride (DEDAAC) with acrylamide (AM), acrylic acid (AA) or sodium acrylic acid (NaAA) at low conversion were determined by elemental analysis, and the reactivity ratios of monomers in copolymerization were obtained by Kelen-Tudos method. The results showed that the reactivity ratios rDE and rAM are 0.31 and 5.27 for DEDAAC with AM, rDE and rAA are 0.28 and 5.15 for DEDAAC with AA, and rDE and rNaAA are 0.40 and 3.97 for DEDAAC with NaAA, respectively. The copolymerizations for DEDAAC with AM, AA or NaAA are non-ideal copolymerization and the products are random copolymers.

  4. A New Process for Acrylic Acid Synthesis by Fermentative Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunelli, B. H.; Duarte, E. R.; de Toledo, E. C. Vasco; Wolf Maciel, M. R.; Maciel Filho, R.

    With the synthesis of chemical products through biotechnological processes, it is possible to discover and to explore innumerable routes that can be used to obtain products of high addes value. Each route may have particular advantages in obtaining a desired product, compared with others, especially in terms of yield, productivity, easiness to separate the product, economy, and environmental impact. The purpose of this work is the development of a deterministic model for the biochemical synthesis of acrylic acid in order to explore an alternative process. The model is built-up with the tubular reactor equations together with the kinetic representation based on the structured model. The proposed process makes possible to obtain acrylic acid continuously from the sugar cane fermentation.

  5. Plant oil-based shape memory polymer using acrylic monolith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tsujimoto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the synthesis of a plant oil-based material using acrylic monolith. An acrylic monolith bearing oxirane groups was prepared via simple technique that involved the dissolution of poly(glycidyl methacrylate-comethyl methacrylate (PGMA in ethanolic – aqueous solution by heating and subsequent cooling. The PGMA monolith had topologically porous structure, which was attributed to the phase separation of the polymer solution. The PGMA monolith was impregnated by epoxidized soybean oil (ESO containing thermally-latent catalyst, and the subsequent curing produced a crosslinked material with relatively good transparency. The Young’s modulus and the tensile strength of polyESO/PGMA increased compared with the ESO homopolymer. The strain at break of polyESO/PGMA was larger than that of the ESO homopolymer and crosslinked PGMA. Furthermore, polyESO/PGMA exhibited good shape memory-recovery behavior.

  6. Late opacification of a hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Bdour Muawyah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation is considered to be a safe procedure in most cases. However, the new advances in the surgical technique namely phacoemulsification and hence the increased use of foldable intraocular lenses have given rise to new complications including late opacification of intraocular lenses. In this case we report late opacification of a foldable hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens and the surgical technique for its exchange.

  7. Softec HD hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens: biocompatibility and precision

    OpenAIRE

    Ladan Espandar; Shameema Sikder; Majid Moshirfar

    2011-01-01

    Ladan Espandar1, Shameema Sikder2, Majid Moshirfar31Department of Ophthalmology, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA; 2Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3John A Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USAAbstract: Intraocular lens development is driven by higher patient expectations for ideal visual outcomes. The recently US Food and Drug Administration-approved Softec HD™ lens is an aspheric, hydrophilic acrylic intraocular le...

  8. Acrylate Functionalized Tetraalkylammonium Salts with Ionic Liquid Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Janietz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Acrylate functionalized ionic liquids based on tetraalkylammonium salts with terminal acrylates- and methylacrylates were synthesized. Melting points and ionic conductivity of twenty compounds in six groups were determined. Within one group the effect of three different counterions was investigated and discussed. The groups differ in cationic structure elements because of their functional groups such as acrylate and methacrylate, alkyl residues at the nitrogen and number of quaternary ammonium atoms within the organic cation. The effect of these cationic structure elements has been examined concerning the compiled parameters with a view to qualifying them as components for solid state electrolytes. The newly synthesized ionic liquids were characterized by NMR and FTIR analysis. The exchange of halide ions like bromide as counter ions to weakly coordinating [PF6], [OTf] or [TFSI] reduces the melting points significantly and leads to an ion conductivity of about 10−4 S/cm at room temperature. In the case of the dicationic ionic liquid, an ion conductivity of about 10−3 S/cm was observed.

  9. Acrylic microspheres-based optosensor for visual detection of nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Nur Syarmim Mohamed; Tan, Ling Ling; Heng, Lee Yook; Chong, Kwok Feng; Tajuddin, Saiful Nizam

    2016-09-15

    A new optosensor for visual quantitation of nitrite (NO2(-)) ion has been fabricated by physically immobilizing Safranine O (SO) reagent onto a self-adhesive poly(n-butyl acrylate) [poly(nBA)] microspheres matrix, which was synthesized via facile microemulsion UV lithography technique. Evaluation and optimization of the optical NO2(-) ion sensor was performed with a fiber optic reflectance spectrophotometer. Scanning electron micrograph showed well-shaped and smooth spherical morphology of the poly(nBA) microspheres with a narrow particles size distribution from 0.6 μm up to 1.8 μm. The uniform size distribution of the acrylic microspheres promoted homogeneity of the immobilized SO reagent molecules on the microspheres' surfaces, thereby enhanced the sensing response reproducibility (<5% RSD) with a linear range obtained from 10 to 100 ppm NO2(-) ion. The micro-sized acrylic immobilization matrix demonstrated no significant barrier for diffusion of reactant and product, and served as a good solid state ion transport medium for reflectometric nitrite determination in food samples. PMID:27080889

  10. Synthesis and properties of acrylic copolymers for ocular implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboul, Adam C.

    There is a need for flexible polymers with higher refractive index and extended UV absorbing properties for improved intraocular lenses (IOLs). This research was devoted to the synthesis of new acrylic copolymers for foldable IOLs and to studies concerning IOL polymer properties. New polymers were synthesized from phenylated acrylates copolymerized with N-vinyl carbazole derivatives using bulk free radical addition methods. The copolymers had low Tg values, high refractive index, and were flexible. The N-vinyl carbazole derivatives were characterized by NMR and copolymers were characterized by DSC, UV-Vis, and refractometry. New phenothiazine based UV absorbers with high extinction coefficients were also synthesized for incorporation into ocular materials. Patent disclosures on UV absorbers and high refractive index polymers were prepared. A so called "glistening" phenomenon that occurs in all foldable intraocular lenses currently in clinical use is poorly understood and was studied. Research on this microvoid forming behavior included studies and development of methods to inhibit glistening in low Tg acrylic based copolymers. Glistenings were characterized using SEM and optical microscopy. A novel technique for inhibiting glistening was found and a patent disclosure was prepared.

  11. Acrylic interpenetrating polymer network dielectric elastomers for energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochu, Paul; Niu, Xiaofan; Pei, Qibing

    2011-04-01

    Dielectric elastomer energy harvesters are an emerging technology that promise high power density, low cost, scalability, and the capability of fitting niche markets that have yet to be exploited. To date, materials issues that limit their overall performance have hampered the full potential of these devices. In order to supplant existing technologies, even in niche markets, dielectric elastomer generators must increase their reliability and energy density. Previous work has indicated that stiffer elastomers should be capable of higher energy densities; the increased stiffness of the elastomer films should results in lower Maxwell pressure induced strains, and thus allow the elastomer to relax further, resulting in a larger swing in capacitance and larger energy gains. In this paper we examine the use of VHB-based acrylic interpenetrating polymer network dielectric elastomers with a trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate additive network for energy harvesting purposes. We test films with varying additive content and compare their performance with highly prestrained VHB acrylic elastomers. We show that by increasing additive content, Maxwell induced strains can be suppressed and larger energy gains can be achieved at higher bias fields. Moreover, the introduction of the additive network stabilizes the highly prestrained acrylic elastomers mechanically, thereby increasing their mechanical robustness. However, the interpenetrating polymer network films suffer from an increase in viscoelastic behavior that hinders their overall performance.

  12. Preparation and properties of UV curable acrylic PSA by vinyl bonded graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Beili; Ryu, Chong-Min; Jin, Xin; Kim, Hyung-Il

    2013-11-01

    Acrylic pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) with higher thermal stability for thin wafer handling were successfully prepared by forming composite with the graphene oxide (GO) nanoparticles modified to have vinyl groups via subsequent reaction with isophorone diisocyanate and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate. The acrylic copolymer was synthesized as a base resin for PSAs by solution radical polymerization of ethyl acrylate, 2-ethylhexyl acrylate, and acrylic acid followed by further modification with GMA to have the vinyl groups available for UV curing. The peel strength of PSA decreased with the increase of gel content which was dependent on both modified GO content and UV dose. Thermal stability of UV-cured PSA was improved noticeably with increasing the modified GO content mainly due to the strong and extensive interfacial bonding formed between the acrylic copolymer matrix and GO fillers

  13. Analysis and Testing of Bisphenol A—Free Bio-Based Tannin Epoxy-Acrylic Adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayesteh Jahanshahi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A tannin-based epoxy acrylate resin was prepared from glycidyl ether tannin (GET and acrylic acid. The influence of the reaction condition for producing tannin epoxy acrylate was studied by FT-MIR, 13C-NMR, MALDI-TOF spectroscopy and shear strength. The best reaction conditions for producing tannin epoxy acrylate resin without bisphenol A was by reaction between GET and acrylic acid in the presence of a catalyst and hydroquinone at 95 °C for 12 h. FT-MIR, 13C-NMR and MALDI-TOF analysis have confirmed that the resin has been prepared under these conditions. The joints bonded with this resin were tested for block shear strength. The results obtained indicated that the best strength performance was obtained by the bioepoxy-acrylate adhesive resin prepared at 95 °C for a 12-h reaction.

  14. PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF THERMOSETTING ACRYLIC COATINGS USING TITANIUM-OXO-CLUSTER AS A CURING AGENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Xu; Shu-xue Zhou; Li-min Wu

    2009-01-01

    Thermosetting acrylic coatings were prepared by using carboxyl acid group-containing acrylic oligomer and curing with titanium-oxo-clusters which were first pre-hydrolyzed from titanium n-butoxide. The curing ability of the titanium-oxo-cluster was examined using a microdielectric analytical (DEA) curing monitor, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Soxhlet extraction experiments, and the properties of the resulted coatings were investigated with pendulum hardness tester, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and ultraviolet-visible spectrometer. The effect of titania-oxo-cluster in leading acrylic oligomers to form thermosetting acrylic coatings was confirmed. An increasing pendulum hardness and modulus of acrylic coatings with increasing titania content was observed, which resulted from the increment of crosslinking degree rather than of the titania content. The thermosetting acrylic/titania coatings also showed better thermal stability and higher UV-blocking properties than those coatings using organic curing agent.

  15. Epoxy-acrylic core-shell particles by seeded emulsion polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Hong, Liang; Lin, Jui-Ching; Meyers, Greg; Harris, Joseph; Radler, Michael

    2016-07-01

    We developed a novel method for synthesizing epoxy-acrylic hybrid latexes. We first prepared an aqueous dispersion of high molecular weight solid epoxy prepolymers using a mechanical dispersion process at elevated temperatures, and we subsequently used the epoxy dispersion as a seed in the emulsion polymerization of acrylic monomers comprising methyl methacrylate (MMA) and methacrylic acid (MAA). Advanced analytical techniques, such as scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and peak force tapping atomic force microscopy (PFT-AFM), have elucidated a unique core-shell morphology of the epoxy-acrylic hybrid particles. Moreover, the formation of the core-shell morphology in the seeded emulsion polymerization process is primarily attributed to kinetic trapping of the acrylic phase at the exterior of the epoxy particles. By this new method, we are able to design the epoxy and acrylic polymers in two separate steps, and we can potentially synthesize epoxy-acrylic hybrid latexes with a broad range of compositions.

  16. Development of palm oil-based UV-curable epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins for wood coating application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajau, Rida; Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi; Salleh, Mek Zah; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik [Radiation Processing Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Ibrahim, Mohammad Izzat [Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (UM), 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Yunus, Nurulhuda Mohd [Faculty of Science and Technology, National University Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-02-12

    The trend of using renewable sources such as palm oil as raw material in radiation curing is growing due to the demand from the market to produce a more environmental friendly product. In this study, the radiation curable process was done using epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins which are known as epoxidised palm olein acrylate (EPOLA) and palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA), respectively. The purpose of the study was to investigate curing properties and the application of this UV-curable palm oil resins for wood coating. Furthermore, the properties of palm oil based coatings are compared with the petrochemical-based compound such as ebecryl (EB) i.e. EB264 and EB830. From the experiment done, the resins from petrochemical-based compounds resulted higher degree of crosslinking (up to 80%) than the palm oil based compounds (up to 70%), where the different is around 10-15%. The hardness property from this two type coatings can reached until 50% at the lower percentage of the oligomer. However, the coatings from petrochemical-based have a high scratch resistance as it can withstand at least up to 3.0 Newtons (N) compared to the palm oil-based compounds which are difficult to withstand the load up to 1.0 N. Finally, the test on the rubber wood substrate showed that the coatings containing benzophenone photoinitiator give higher adhesion property and their also showed a higher glosiness property on the glass substrate compared to the coatings containing irgacure-819 photoinitiator. This study showed that the palm oil coatings can be a suitable for the replacement of petrochemicals compound for wood coating. The palm oil coatings can be more competitive in the market if the problems of using high percentage palm oil oligomer can be overcome as the palm oil price is cheap enough.

  17. Development of palm oil-based UV-curable epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins for wood coating application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full-text: The trend of using renewable sources such as palm oil as raw material in radiation curing is growing due to the demand from the market to produce a more environmental friendly product. In this study, the radiation curable process was done using epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins which are known as epoxidized palm olein acrylate (EPOLA) and palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA), respectively. The purpose of the study was to investigate curing properties and the application of this UV-curable palm oil resins for wood coating. Furthermore, the properties of palm oil based coatings are compared with the petrochemical-based compound such as ebecryl (EB) for example EB264 and EB830. From the experiment done, the resins from petrochemical-based compounds resulted higher degree of crosslinking (up to 80 %) than the palm oil based compounds (up to 70 %), where the different is around 10-15 %. The hardness property from this two type coatings can reached until 50 % at the lower percentage of the oligomer. However, the coatings from petrochemical-based have a high scratch resistance as it can withstand at least up to 3.0 Newton's (N) compared to the palm oil-based compounds which are difficult to withstand the load up to 1.0 N. Finally, the test on the rubber wood substrate showed that the coatings containing benzophenone photo initiator give higher adhesion property and their also showed a higher glossiness property on the glass substrate compared to the coatings containing irgacure-819 photo initiator. This study showed that the palm oil coatings can be a suitable for the replacement of petrochemicals compound for wood coating. The palm oil coatings can be more competitive in the market if the problems of using high percentage palm oil oligomer can be overcome as the palm oil price is cheap enough. (author)

  18. Development of palm oil-based UV-curable epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins for wood coating application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The trend of using renewable sources such as palm oil as raw material in radiation curing is growing due to the demand from the market to produce a more environmental friendly product. In this study, the radiation curable process was done using epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins which are known as epoxidised palm olein acrylate (EPOLA) and palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA), respectively. The purpose of the study was to investigate curing properties and the application of this UV-curable palm oil resins for wood coating. Furthermore, the properties of palm oil based coatings are compared with the petrochemical-based compound such as ebecryl (EB) i.e. EB264 and EB830. From the experiment done, the resins from petrochemical-based compounds resulted higher degree of crosslinking (up to 80%) than the palm oil based compounds (up to 70%), where the different is around 10-15%. The hardness property from this two type coatings can reached until 50% at the lower percentage of the oligomer. However, the coatings from petrochemical-based have a high scratch resistance as it can withstand at least up to 3.0 Newtons (N) compared to the palm oil-based compounds which are difficult to withstand the load up to 1.0 N. Finally, the test on the rubber wood substrate showed that the coatings containing benzophenone photoinitiator give higher adhesion property and their also showed a higher glosiness property on the glass substrate compared to the coatings containing irgacure-819 photoinitiator. This study showed that the palm oil coatings can be a suitable for the replacement of petrochemicals compound for wood coating. The palm oil coatings can be more competitive in the market if the problems of using high percentage palm oil oligomer can be overcome as the palm oil price is cheap enough

  19. Late Transition Metal and Aluminum Complexes for the Polymerization of Ethene and Acrylates

    OpenAIRE

    YliheikkilÀ, Katariina

    2006-01-01

    Polyethene, polyacrylates and polymethyl acrylates are versatile materials that find wide variety of applications in several areas. Therefore, polymerization of ethene, acrylates and methacrylates has achieved a lot attention during past years. Numbers of metal catalysts have been introduced in order to control the polymerization and to produce tailored polymer structures. Herein an overview on the possible polymerization pathways for ethene, acrylates and methacrylates is presented. In ...

  20. Effect of Nanoclay on Thermal Conductivity and Flexural Strength of Polymethyl Methacrylate Acrylic Resin

    OpenAIRE

    Tahereh Ghaffari; Ali Barzegar; Fahimeh Hamedi Rad; Elnaz Moslehifard

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: The mechanical and thermal properties of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) acrylic resin should be improved to counterweigh its structural deficiencies. Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the flexural strength and thermal conductivity of conventional acrylic resin and acrylic resin loaded with nanoclay. Materials and Method: The methacrylate monomer containing the 0.5, 1 and 2 wt% of nanoclay was placed in an ultrasonic probe and mixed with the PMMA p...

  1. Effect of Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharge Treatment on Polymerization of Acrylic Fabric and Its Printing Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D M El-Zeer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Acrylic fibers have been treated by atmospheric pressure glow discharge (APGD plasma in open air to enhance surface antistatic properties. The treated surfaces are investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier-Transition Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM. Plasma treatment of acrylic fabric has been found to increase the surface roughness, modify the nature and density of surface functionalities, and drastically improve the wettability and antistatic ability of acrylic fibers.

  2. Studies on the hydrolysis of biocompatible acrylic polymers having aspirin-moieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Z W; Li, F M; Feng, X D; Voong, S T

    1983-01-01

    Both the homogeneous and heterogeneous hydrolysis of five new acrylic polymers having aspirin-moieties, i.e. polymers of beta-(acetylsalicylyloxy)ethyl methacrylate, beta-(acetylsalicylyloxy) propyl methacrylate,beta-(acetylsalicylyloxy) ethyl acrylate, beta-hydroxy-gamma-(acetylsalicylyloxy) propyl methacrylate, beta-hydroxy-gamma-(acetylsalicylyloxy) propyl acrylate were investigated in acidic or alkaline medium at 30 degrees C or 60 degrees C, respectively. It was observed that the chief hydrolyzed product is always aspirin with minor amount of salicylic acid.

  3. Optimization of cellulose acrylate and grafted 4-vinylpyridine and 1-vinylimidazole synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Bojanić Vaso

    2010-01-01

    Optimization of cellulose acrylate synthesis by reaction with sodium cellulosate and acryloyl chloride was carried out. Optimal conditions for conducting the synthesis reaction of cellulose acrylate were as follows: the molar ratio of cellulose/potassium-t-butoxide/acryloyl chloride was 1:3:10 and the optimal reaction time was 10 h. On the basis of elemental analysis with optimal conditions for conducting the reaction of cellulose acrylate, the percentage of substitution of glucose units in c...

  4. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substance, acrylic acid, sodium salt, co-polymer with acrylic acid, methyl ester, methacrylic acid, 2 hydroxypropylester, and acrylic acid cross-linked for use in active food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of the acrylic acid, sodium salt, co-polymer with acrylic acid, methyl ester, methacrylic acid, 2 hydroxypropylester, and acrylic acid cross-linked (CAS No. 117675-55-5, FCM Substance No 1022, to be used as liquid absorber in the form of fibres in absorbent pads for the packaging of fresh or frozen meat, poultry, and fish as well as fresh fruits and vegetables. The Panel considered that migration is not expected when the absorption capacity of the pads is not exceeded. Therefore no exposure from the consumption of the packed food is expected. The Panel also considered that none of these starting substances and the cross-linked polymer gives rise to concern for genotoxicity. Therefore the CEF Panel concluded that the use of the substance acrylic acid, sodium salt, co-polymer with acrylic acid, methyl ester, methacrylic acid, 2 hydroxypropylester, and acrylic acid cross-linked does not raise a safety concern when used as fibres in absorber pads for the packaging of fresh or frozen meat, poultry, fish, fruits and vegetables under conditions under which the absorption capacity of the pads is not exceeded and mechanical release of the fibres from the pads is excluded.

  5. DSC analysis of EB-cured polyurethane-acrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gel films obtained by electron beam (EB) solid-state polymerization of urethane-acrylate prepolymers were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Two kinds of urethane-acrylates were synthesized by reaction of poly(butylene adipate)diol (PBAD), 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA) for this purpose. One is a semicrystalline prepolymer (UA-251M) with a number average molecular weight (M-barn) of 3200, and the other is an amorphous one (UA-071M) with M-barn of 1450. The M-barn varied by changing M-barn of PBAD. UA-251M gel film decreased in glass transition temperature (Tg) and increased in heat capacity change (ΔCp) at Tg with increasing irradiation dose, while the Tg and ΔCp values of UA-071M gel film changed in the opposite way to those of UA-251M gel film. Above 5 Mrad, gel fraction reached more than 90 %, and the Tg and ΔCp values changed steeply for both prepolymers. This steep change in Tg and ΔCp was attributed to the crosslinking of PBAD chains as well as of terminal acryloyl groups. Since the Tg change of UA-071M gel film depends merely on the crosslinking, the crosslinking structure was evaluated using two equations which relate the shift in Tg to crosslinking. The molecular weight between crosslinking junctions was found to be larger than the M-barn of the prepolymer. The crosslinking by the EB polymerization restricted the mobility of the polymer chain less strongly than the crosslinking by the three-functional isocyanate and α,ω-dihydroxy(polypropylene oxide) with a molecular weight of 1000 did. (author)

  6. DSC analysis of EB-cured polyurethane-acrylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Masayuki; Uryu, Toshiyuki

    1987-10-01

    The gel films obtained by electron beam (EB) solid-state polymerization of urethane-acrylate prepolymers were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Two kinds of urethane-acrylates were synthesized by reaction of poly(butylene adipate)diol (PBAD), 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA) for this purpose. One is a semicrystalline prepolymer (UA-251M) with a number average molecular weight (M-bar/sub n/) of 3200, and the other is an amorphous one (UA-071M) with M-bar/sub n/ of 1450. The M-bar/sub n/ varied by changing M-bar/sub n/ of PBAD. UA-251M gel film decreased in glass transition temperature (T/sub g/) and increased in heat capacity change (..delta..C/sub p/) at T/sub g/ with increasing irradiation dose, while the T/sub g/ and ..delta..C/sub p/ values of UA-071M gel film changed in the opposite way to those of UA-251M gel film. Above 5 Mrad, gel fraction reached more than 90 %, and the T/sub g/ and ..delta..C/sub p/ values changed steeply for both prepolymers. This steep change in T/sub g/ and ..delta..C/sub p/ was attributed to the crosslinking of PBAD chains as well as of terminal acryloyl groups. Since the T/sub g/ change of UA-071M gel film depends merely on the crosslinking, the crosslinking structure was evaluated using two equations which relate the shift in T/sub g/ to crosslinking. The molecular weight between crosslinking junctions was found to be larger than the M-bar/sub n/ of the prepolymer. The crosslinking by the EB polymerization restricted the mobility of the polymer chain less strongly than the crosslinking by the three-functional isocyanate and ..cap alpha..,..omega..-dihydroxy(polypropylene oxide) with a molecular weight of 1000 did.

  7. INCIDENCE AND CAUSES OF FRACTURE OF ACRYLIC RESIN COMPLETE DENTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT (BACKGROUND: Replacement of missing teeth and the associated structures are done with the help of artificial prosthesis. Acrylic resin, by virtue of its excellent properties is widely used as a material of choice for fabrication of denture base. In spite of its higher esthetic quality, tissue compatibility and ease of manipulation, it has an inherent deficiency of proneness to fracture. AIMS: The present study was being undertaken to find out the incidence of fracture of acrylic resin base of complete denture and analyze the cause, so that suitable remedial measures might be suggested to reduce the frequency of denture fracture. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: The present study was conducted over a period of 18 months in the Prosthetic Department of Dr R Ahmed Dental College & Hospital, Kolkata. METHODS AND MATERIAL: The 81 reported fracture cases out of 646 complete dentures were selected for this study. Formally consent followed by detailed history was taken. After intra-oral and physical examination, the dentures were repaired following text book recommended procedure using cold cure acrylic resin and prepared for last phase of survey, which was the intra oral examination like adaptation, retention and stability of the repaired dentures in the second visit of the patients. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The data were subjected to SPSS, version 16, and statistically analyzed using cross tab. RESULTS: In the present survey, 81 cases of complete denture fractures have been reported within the survey period. CONCLUSIONS: It appears from the present study, the rate of lower complete denture fracture is more common than upper complete denture fracture

  8. Stiffness and strength of composite acrylic bone cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Knets

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Different acrylic bone cements based upon PMMA-MMA system are applicable for implant fixation inbone tissue. The aim of present study is the optimisation of the structure of some new bone acrylic cements madeon the basis of PMMA-ethylmethacrylate-triethyleneglycoldimethacrylate and bone cements having additives (HAand radio pacifier, and the finding of the effect of these modifications on the flexural strength and stiffness.Design/methodology/approach: Different new bone cements on the basis of PMMA-EMA-TEGDMA system(ABC were developed experimentally. The stiffness and strength of the samples of these modified cements weredetermined in the special three point bending equipment.Findings: A comparison of the flexural properties of new PMMA-EMA-TEGDMA cements and commercialavailable PMMA-MMA cement showed that commercial bone cement had larger values of ultimate strengthand modulus of elasticity, but the difference is not very important. As concerns the polymerisation peaktemperature, then there is a significant difference between commercial PMMA-MMA cement (~ 800C andPMMA-EMA-TEGDMA modified cements (50 – 600C. The introduction of 10% and 18% of HA into solidphase does not influence essentially strength and modulus of elasticity of the PMMA-EMA-TEGDMA bonecements. The introduction of radio pacifier BaSO4 into bone cement leads to flexural strength diminishing.Low polymerisation peak temperature and appropriate mechanical properties of bone cements developed allowsregarding new 3-D structure acrylic bone cements as promising biomaterials.Research limitations/implications: It is supposed to carry out animal testing to learn more about reaction ofmodified implanted material on the biological environment.Practical implications: The new materials could be efficiently used as bone cements because they will notdamage surrounding biological tissue during curing.Originality/value: Paper is providing the new information about possibilities to

  9. PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF SILICONE-ACRYLATE COPOLYMER LATEX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu-jie Yang; Wei Zhang

    2004-01-01

    Silicone-acrylate copolymer latex was prepared through three different polymerization processes, i.e., the batch process, preemulsified monomer addition and the monomer addition process. The results revealed that the monomer addition process is a desirable approach to produce narrow particle size distribution latex with higher polymerization conversion and less amount of coagulum. The effect of silicone content on the glossiness and water absorption of latex film was investigated and the results showed that the glossiness of latex film is improved up to a silicone content of 10% of total monomers, but becomes impaired thereafter, whereas water absorption is reduced accordingly.

  10. Poly(styrene-acrylic acid) magnetic polymer microspheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanling CHENG; Liuqiang MA; Ruohui LI

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic polymer microspheres have been considered as a kind of new biopolymer materials with great advantages in bioseparation engineering and biome-dicine engineering because they have not only polymer functional groups but also magnetic characteristics. Styrene-acrylic acid copolymer (p(S-AA)) magnetic microspheres were synthesized by dispersion polymeriza-tion with Fe3O4 as core and p(S-AA) as shell. The micro-spheres were characterized by SEM, size analysis, molecular weight and solid content measurement. All of them indicate that the microspheres are small in size, nar-row in distribution, stable in chemistry and rich in func-tional groups on their surface.

  11. BARRIER PROPERTIES OF VINYLIDENE CHLORIDE/METHYL ACRYLATE COPOLYMER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yuesheng; WENG Zhixue; PAN Zuren

    1997-01-01

    A series of vinylidene dichloride (VDC) copolymers with methyl acrylate (MA) as comonomer (3-12 wt%), was prepared by free-radical suspension copolymerization. The permeability coefficients of the copolymers to oxygen and carbon dioxide were measured at1.0 MPa and at 30℃, and those to water vapor were measured at 30℃ and 100% relative humidity. All the VDC/MA copolymers studied are semicrystalline. As the MA content increases, the permeability coefficients of the copolymers to oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor are progressively increased, caused by decrease in crystalline fraction and increase in free volume of VDC/MA copolymers.

  12. Photostabilization of polymeric materials by photoset acrylate coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, C.; Zahouily, K.

    2002-01-01

    Different types of polymeric materials have been made more resistant to photodegradation by protecting their surface with a UV-cured coating containing a HALS radical scavenger and a phenyltriazine UV absorber. The tridimensional polymer network formed by photopolymerization of an aliphatic polyurethane-acrylate telechelic oligomer proved to be very resistant to accelerated weathering in the presence of these light stabilizers. The chemical modifications occurring upon QUV-ageing were monitored by infrared spectroscopy, a very sensitive technique well suited for quantitative analysis at an early stage of the photodegradation.

  13. A Study of an Acrylic Cerenkov Radiation Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Porter, B; De Barbaro, P; Bodek, Arie; Budd, H S

    1999-01-01

    An experiment investigating the angle of Cerenkov light emitted by 3-MeV electrons traversing an acrylic detector has been developed for use in the advanced physics laboratory course at the University of Rochester. In addition to exploring the experimental phenomena of Cerenkov radiation and total internal reflection, the experiment introduces students to several experimental techniques used in actual high energy and nuclear physics experiments, as well as to analysis techniques involving Poisson statistics. [to be published in Am. J. Phys. 67 (Oct/Nov 1999).

  14. Conformational Transition of Poly (Acrylic Acid) Detected by Microcantilever Sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Kai; LIU Hong; ZHANG Qing-Chuan; XUE Chang-Guo; WU Xiao-Ping

    2007-01-01

    Poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) chains are grafted on one side of a microcantilever by the self-assembled method and the deflections of the microcantilever are detected as a function of medium pH from 3 to 11. It is found that when the pH varies, the microcantilever deflects because of the changing surface stress. By analysing the electrostatic repulsive effect, the surface stress change is related to the conformation transition of PAA from a collapse state to a swelling state. This method offers the interaction information among the polymer chains during the conformational transition and affords an alternative way to study conformational change of polymers.

  15. 133Xe labelling of acrylate for catheter embolisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for radio-nucleide labelling of histo-acryl/lipiodol with 133Xe gas is described. The method consists of disolving the gas in lipiodol under sterile conditions. After embolisation and angiography, the localisation of the embolising material can be determined by means of a scintillation camera. The labelling method was used in 15 patients. In all patients the position of the embolising material, as demonstrated by scintigraphy, corresponded with the radiological findings. It was not possible to demonstrate escape of the material by scintigraphy. (orig.)

  16. Contact-killing of adhering streptococci by a quaternary ammonium compound incorporated in an acrylic resin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mei, Li; Ren, Yijin; Loontjens, Ton J. A.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Acrylates for bonding of joint prostheses and stainless-steel brackets in orthopedics and orthodontics are prone to bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation, respectively, leading to serious infectious complications. Here we describe the preparation of a contact-killing acrylic resin by inc

  17. SYNTHESIS AND PROPERTIES OF POLYURETHANE ACRYLATE/EPOXY RESIN INTERPENETRATING POLYMER NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Youheng; NIE Xuzong

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, a series of interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) based on polyurethane acrylate and epoxy resin was prepared by simultaneous photoinitiating by both free-radical and cationic polymerization.The effects of the polyurethane acrylate prepolymer's molecular weight, various components ratio and polymerization methods on IPN's dynamic mechanical and mechanical properties were investigated.

  18. Preparation and properties of acrylic resin coating modified by functional graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Rui; Liu, Lili

    2016-04-01

    To improve the dispersion and the strength of filler-matrix interface in acrylic resin, the functional graphene oxide (FGO) was obtained by surface modification of graphene oxide (GO) by γ-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane (KH-570) and then the acrylic nanocomposites containing different loadings of GO and FGO were prepared. The structure, morphology and dispersion/exfoliation of the FGO were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, Raman, XPS, SEM and TEM. The results demonstrated that the KH-570 was successfully grafted onto the surface of GO sheets. Furthermore, the corresponding thermal, mechanical and chemical resistance properties of the acrylic nanocomposites filled with the FGO were studied and compared with those of neat acrylic and GO/acrylic nanocomposites. The results revealed that the loading of FGO effectively enhanced various properties of acrylic resin. These findings confirmed that the dispersion and interfacial interaction were greatly improved by incorporation of FGO, which might be the result of covalent bonds between the FGO and the acrylic matrix. This work demonstrates an in situ polymerization method to construct a flexible interphase structure, strong interfacial interaction and good dispersion of FGO in acrylic nanocomposites, which can reinforce the polymer properties and be applied in research and industrial areas.

  19. Formation of Methyl Acrylate from CO 2 and Ethylene via Methylation of Nickelalactones

    KAUST Repository

    Bruckmeier, Christian

    2010-05-24

    The nickel-induced coupling of ethylene and CO2 represents a promising pathway toward acrylates. To overcome the high bond dissociation energies of the M-O moieties, we worked out an in situ methylation of nickelalactones to realize the β-hydride elimination and the liberation of the acrylate species. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  20. Synthesis of Radiation Curable Palm Oil–Based Epoxy Acrylate: NMR and FTIR Spectroscopic Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf M. Salih

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, there has been an increasing demand for bio-based polymers and resins in industrial applications, due to their potential lower cost and environmental impact compared with petroleum-based counterparts. The present research concerns the synthesis of epoxidized palm oil acrylate (EPOLA from an epoxidized palm oil product (EPOP as environmentally friendly material. EPOP was acrylated by acrylic acid via a ring opening reaction. The kinetics of the acrylation reaction were monitored throughout the reaction course and the acid value of the reaction mixture reached 10 mg KOH/g after 16 h, indicating the consumption of the acrylic acid. The obtained epoxy acrylate was investigated intensively by means of FTIR and NMR spectroscopy, and the results revealed that the ring opening reaction was completed successfully with an acrylation yield about 82%. The UV free radical polymerization of EPOLA was carried out using two types of photoinitiators. The radiation curing behavior was determined by following the conversion of the acrylate groups. The cross-linking density and the hardness of the cured EPOLA films were measured to evaluate the effect of the photoinitiator on the solid film characteristics, besides, the thermal and mechanical properties were also evaluated.

  1. Enzyme-Catalyzed Synthesis of Saccharide Acrylate Monomers from Nonedible Biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterman, Wouter M. J.; Brouwer, Sander; Loos, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Various cellulase preparations were found to catalyze the transglycosidation between cotton linters and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate. The conversion and enzyme activity were found to be optimal in reaction mixtures that contained 5 vol% of the acrylate. The structures of the products were revealed by usi

  2. Biocatalytic Synthesis of Maltodextrin-Based Acrylates from Starch and alpha-Cyclodextrin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterman, Wouter M. J.; Spoelstra-van Dijk, Gerda; Loos, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Novel 2-(beta-maltooligooxy)-ethyl (meth) acrylate monomers are successfully synthesized by CGTase from Bacillus macerans catalyzed coupling of 2-(beta-glucosyloxy)-ethyl acrylate and methacrylate with a-cyclodextrin or starch. HPLC-UV analysis shows that the CGTase catalyzed reaction yields 2-(beta

  3. Development of radiation curable surface coating based on soybean oil. part I. preparation and characterization of acrylated oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An epoxy acrylate was synthesized from epoxidized soybean oil (ESOL) by using acrylic acid monomer. Triethyl amine (TEA) and hydroquinone were used as catalyst and inhibitor respectively. The epoxidized soybean oil acrylate (ESOLA) is done by introducing acrylic acid into oxirane groups of the epoxidized oil (ESOL). This reaction was confirmed by analytical data in terms of oxirane oxygen content, acid value, viscosity and spectroscopically analysis

  4. Synthesis and Thermal Properties of Acrylonitrile/Butyl Acrylate/Fumaronitrile and Acrylonitrile/Ethyl Hexyl Acrylate/Fumaronitrile Terpolymers as a Potential Precursor for Carbon Fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Nurul Ain Md Jamil; Rusli Daik; Ishak Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    A synthesis of acrylonitrile (AN)/butyl acrylate (BA)/fumaronitrile (FN) and AN/EHA (ethyl hexyl acrylate)/FN terpolymers was carried out by redox polymerization using sodium bisulfite (SBS) and potassium persulphate (KPS) as initiator at 40 °C. The effect of comonomers, BA and EHA and termonomer, FN on the glass transition temperature (Tg) and stabilization temperature was studied using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The degradation behavior and char yield were obtained by Thermog...

  5. Effect of Beverages on the Hardness and Tensile Bond Strength of Temporary Acrylic Soft Liners to Acrylic Resin Denture Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safari A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Two potential problems commonly identified with a denture base incorporating a resilient liner are failure of the bond between acrylic resin and soft liner material, and loss of resiliency of the soft liner over time. Since patients may drink different beverages, it is important to evaluate their effects on physical properties of soft lining materials.Purpose: The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of different beverages on the hardness of two temporary acrylic-based soft lining materials and their bond strength to the denture base resin.Materials and Method: For the hardness test; a total of 80 rectangular specimens (40mm×10mm×3mm were fabricated from a heat-polymerized polymethylmethacrylate. Two commercially auto-polymerized acrylic resin-based resilient liners; Coe-Soft and Visco-gel were prepared according to the manufacturers’ instructions and applied on the specimens. For the tensile test, 160 cylindrical specimens (30mm×10mm were prepared. The liners were added between specimens with a thickness of 3 mm. The specimens of both soft liners were divided into 4 groups (n=10 and immersed in distilled water as the control group, Coca-Cola, 8% and 50% ethanol. All groups were stored in separate containers at 37oC for 12 days. All beverages were changed daily. The hardness was determined using a Shore A durometer and tensile bond strength was determined in a ZwickRoell testing machine at a cross-head speed of 5mm/min. The results were analyzed using two-way ANOVA.Results: There was no significant interaction between the soft liners and the drinks for both hardness (p= 0.748 and bond strength (p= 0.902. There were statistically signifi-cant differences between all drinks for both hardness (p< 0.001 and bond strength (p< 0.05.Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it seems that drinking Coca-Cola and alcoholic beverages would not be potentially causing any problems for the temporary

  6. Plasma polymerization of acrylic acid onto polystyrene by cyclonic plasma at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Jan; Lin, Chin-Ho; Huang, Chun

    2016-01-01

    The cyclonic atmospheric-pressure plasma is developed for chamberless deposition of poly(acrylic acid) film from argon/acrylic acid mixtures. The photoemission plasma species in atmospheric-pressure plasma polymerization was identified by optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The OES diagnosis data and deposition results indicated that in glow discharge, the CH and C2 species resulted from low-energy electron-impact dissociation that creates deposition species, but the strong CO emission lines are related to nondeposition species. The acrylic acid flow rate is seen as the key factor affecting the film growth. The film surface analysis results indicate that a smooth, continuous, and uniform surface of poly(acrylic acid) films can be formed at a relatively low plasma power input. This study reveals the potential of chamberless film growth at atmospheric pressure for large-area deposition of poly(acrylic acid) films.

  7. The transverse strength of acrylic resin after Coleus amboinicus, Lour extract solution immersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Rianti

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A laboratoric experimental study was conducted on the transverse strength of acrylic resin after Coleus amboinicus, Lour extract solution immersion. The aim of this study is to know the difference of acrylic resin transverse strengths caused by immersion time variations in a concentrate solution. The study was carried out on unpolished acrylic resin plates with 65 × 10 × 2,5 mm dimension; solution with 15% Coleus amboinicus, Lour extract, and 30, 60, 90 days immersion times to measure the transverse strength and sterilized aquadest was used as control. Acrylic resin plates transverse strength was measured using Autograph AG-10 TE. The data was analyzed using One-Way Anova and LSD with 5% degree of significance. The result showed that longer immersion time will decrease the transverse strength of the acrylic resin plates. After 90 days immersion time, the transverse strength decrease is still above the recommended standard transverse strength.

  8. Influence of Sea Water Aging on the Mechanical Behaviour of Acrylic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, P.; Le Gac, P.-Y.; Le Gall, M.

    2016-07-01

    A new matrix resin was recently introduced for composite materials, based on acrylic resin chemistry allowing standard room temperature infusion techniques to be used to produce recyclable thermoplastic composites. This is a significant advance, particularly for more environmentally-friendly production of large marine structures such as boats. However, for such applications it is essential to demonstrate that composites produced with these resins resist sea water exposure in service. This paper presents results from a wet aging study of unreinforced acrylic and glass and carbon fibre reinforced acrylic composites. It is shown that the acrylic matrix resin is very stable in seawater, showing lower property losses after seawater aging than those of a commonly-used epoxy matrix resin. Carbon fibre reinforced acrylic also shows good property retention after aging, while reductions in glass fibre reinforced composite strengths suggest that specific glass fibre sizing may be required for optimum durability.

  9. The study of synthesis and photocuring behaviors of organic silicon modified methylacrylate and acrylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Si-yuan; Zou, Ying-quan

    2012-03-01

    Ten different silicon-containing methyl acrylate and acrylate monomers were synthesized by the substitution reaction of chlorosilanes or chlorosiloxanes with 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate or 2-Hydroxyethyl acrylate. Using triethylamine as the catalytic agent, tetrahydrofuran as the solvent, pure products can be obtained with one-step reaction after reduced pressure distillation or column chromatography via controlling raw ratio and reaction time. In this study, one to four silicon contained methyl acrylate and acrylate monomers were synthesized with simple methd and high yield. Monomers' properties were characterized through IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and their viscosity and thermostability were also characterized. The polymers' have good performance on UV-curing and low surface energy.

  10. Biocompatibility of alendronate-loaded acrylic cement for vertebroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Calvo-Fernández

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a biological evaluation of a non-resorbable acrylic cement loaded with alendronate for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. The cement formulation was based on polymethyl methacrylate and acrylic monomers; one of these had covalently linked vitamin E residues. The same cement in the absence of alendronate was used as a control. The setting of the charged cement presented a maximum polymerization temperature of 44ºC, a setting time of 24 min, a residual monomer content lower than 3 wt.%, a compressive strength of 99±10 MPa and an elastic modulus of 1.2±0.2 GPa. Cytotoxicity studies using human osteoblast cultures revealed that the leachable substances of the alendronate loaded cement collected between 1 and 7 days decreased cell viability to values lower than 80%. However, morphological changes and cellular damage in cells produced by the extracts decreased with the leak time. Cell adhesion and growth on charged cement was significantly lower than on the control. Implantation of the cement paste in the intra-femoral cavity of rabbits showed that initially the osteogenic activity was evident for the cement charged with alendronate, and the osteosynthesis process took place mainly in the trabeculae and was manifested by the presence of a non-mineralised osseous spicule. The interface between material and adjacent bone tissue was initially characterized by a variable fibrous response that in many cases it appeared reduced to thin connective tissue after a 24-week-period.

  11. Characteristics and mechanisms of acrylate polymer damage to maize seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xian; Mao, Xiaoyun; Lu, Qin; Liao, Zongwen; He, Zhenli

    2016-07-01

    Superabsorbent acrylate polymers (SAPs) have been widely used to maintain soil moisture in agricultural management, but they may cause damage to plants, and the mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, seed germination, soil pot culture, hydroponic experiments, and SAPs degradation were conducted to investigate damage characteristics and mechanisms associated with SAPs application. The Results showed that SAPs inhibited maize growth and altered root morphology (irregular and loose arrangement of cells and breakage of cortex parenchyma), and the inhibitory effects were enhanced at higher SAPs rates. After 1h SAP hydrogels treatment, root malondialdehyde (MDA) content was significantly increased, while superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) content were significantly decreased. Hydroponics experiment indicated that root and shoot growth was inhibited at 2.5mgL(-1) acrylic acid (AA), and the inhibition was enhanced with increasing AA rates. This effect was exacerbated by the presence of Na(+) at a high concentration in the hydrogels. Release and degradation of AA were enhanced at higher soil moisture levels. A complete degradation of AA occurred between 15 and 20 days after incubation (DAI), but it took longer for Na(+) concentration to decrease to a safe level. These results indicate that high concentration of both AA and Na(+) present in the SAPs inhibits plant growth. The finding of this study may provide a guideline for appropriate application of SAPs in agriculture. PMID:27057990

  12. Graft copolymerization of acrylic acid onto polyamide fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhlouf, Chahira; Marais, Stéphane; Roudesli, Sadok

    2007-04-01

    The grafting of acrylic acid (AA) monomer (CH 2dbnd CH sbnd COOH) on polyamide 6.6 monofilaments (PA 6.6) using benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as initiator was carried out in order to enhance the hydrophilic nature of fibers. The grafting rate depends on the AA concentration, the BPO concentration, the time and the temperature of reaction. The best conditions for optimum rate of grafting were obtained with a AA concentration of 0.5 M, a BPO concentration of 0.03 M, a reaction temperature of T = 85 °C and a reaction time of 120 mn. The fiber surface has been investigated by many experimental techniques of characterization such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), calorimetric analysis (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and contact angle measurements. The effect of grafting of acrylic acid onto PA 6.6 fibers on their moisture and mechanical resistances was analyzed from water sorption and elongation at break measurements. The analysis of the experimental data shows clearly the efficiency of the grafting reaction used, leading to a significant increase of the hydrophilic character of the PA 6.6 surface.

  13. Desorption of biocides from renders modified with acrylate and silicone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styszko, Katarzyna; Bollmann, Ulla E; Wangler, Timothy P; Bester, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Biocides are used in the building industry to prevent algal, bacterial and fungal growth on polymericrenders and thus to protect buildings. However, these biocides are leached into the environment. To better understand this leaching, the sorption/desorption of biocides in polymeric renders was assessed. In this study the desorption constants of cybutryn, carbendazim, iodocarb, isoproturon, diuron, dichloro-N-octylisothiazolinone and tebuconazole towards acrylate and silicone based renders were assessed at different pH values. At pH 9.5 (porewater) the constants for an acrylate based render varied between 8 (isoproturon) and 9634 (iodocarb) and 3750 (dichloro-N-octylisothiazolinone), respectively. The values changed drastically with pH value. The results for the silicone based renders were in a similar range and usually the compounds with high sorption constants for one polymer also had high values for the other polymer. Comparison of the octanol water partitioning constants (Kow) with the render/water partitioning constants (Kd) revealed similarities, but no strong correlation. Adding higher amounts of polymer to the render material changed the equilibria for dichloro-N-octylisothiazolinone, tebuconazole, cybutryn, carbendazim but not for isoproturon and diuron. PMID:24059976

  14. Bond strength of acrylic teeth to denture base resin after various surface conditioning methods before and after thermocycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saavedra, Guilherme; Valandro, Luz Felipe; Leite, Fabiola Pessoa; Amaral, Regina; Oezcan, Mutlu; Bottino, Marco A.; Kimpara, Estevao T.

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the durability of adhesion between acrylic teeth and denture base acrylic resin. The base surfaces of 24 acrylic teeth were flatted and submitted to 4 surface treatment methods: SM1 (control): No SM; SM2: application of a methyl methacrylate-based bonding agent (Vitacol)

  15. Enzyme-catalyzed synthesis of saccharide acrylate monomers from nonedible biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloosterman, Wouter M J; Brouwer, Sander G M; Loos, Katja

    2014-08-01

    Various cellulase preparations were found to catalyze the transglycosidation between cotton linters and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate. The conversion and enzyme activity were found to be optimal in reaction mixtures that contained 5 vol % of the acrylate. The structures of the products were revealed by using TLC and (1) H and (13) C NMR spectroscopy. The enzyme-catalyzed reaction resulted in two products. The minor product originated from transglycosidation to hemicellulose and was found to be 2-(β-xylosyloxy)-ethyl acrylate. The major product was identified as 2-(β-glucosyloxy)-ethyl acrylate and the yield of the product was 5 wt % based on the amount of consumed cellulose. Glycosidation products with oligosaccharide moieties could not be detected in the reaction mixture. This result can be explained by the hydrolytic activities of the used cellulase preparation. Cellulase from Trichoderma reesei was found to possess, in addition to endoglucanase activity, cellobiosidase and β-glucosidase activities. Five other cellulase preparations from different origins were tested as well for catalysis of oligosaccharide acrylate synthesis. For most cellulase preparations the major transglycosidation product appeared to be 2-(β-glucosyloxy)-ethyl acrylate. Nevertheless, the endo-β-(1,4)-glucanase from Trichoderma longibrachiatum was found to catalyze the synthesis of 2-(β-cellobiosyloxy)-ethyl acrylate. Unlike the other cellulase preparations, endo-β-(1,4)-glucanase from T. longibrachiatum showed no detectable β-glucosidase activity and therefore oligosaccharide acrylate monomers were not further hydrolyzed into the monosaccharide acrylate 2-(β-glucosyloxy)-ethyl acrylate. PMID:24866837

  16. Synthesis of Highly Porous Poly(tert-butyl acrylate)-b-polysulfone-b-poly(tert-butyl acrylate) Asymmetric Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Yihui

    2016-03-24

    For the first time, self-assembly and non-solvent induced phase separation was applied to polysulfone-based linear block copolymers, reaching mechanical stability much higher than other block copolymers membranes used in this method, which were mainly based on polystyrene blocks. Poly(tert-butyl acrylate)-b-polysulfone-b-poly(tert-butyl acrylate) (PtBA30k-b-PSU14k-b-PtBA30k) with a low polydispersity of 1.4 was synthesized by combining step-growth condensation and RAFT polymerization. Various advanced electron microscopies revealed that PtBA30k-b-PSU14k-b-PtBA30k assembles into worm-like cylindrical micelles in DMAc and adopts a “flower-like” arrangement with the PSU central block forming the shell. Computational modeling described the mechanism of micelle formation and morphological transition. Asymmetric nanostructured membranes were obtained with a highly porous interconnected skin layer and a sublayer with finger-like macrovoids. Ultrafiltration tests confirmed a water permeance of 555 L m-2 h-1 bar-1 with molecular weight cut-off of 28 kg/mol. PtBA segments on the membrane surface were then hydrolyzed and complexed with metals, leading to cross-linking and enhancement of antibacterial capability.

  17. Gel polymer electrolytes based on nanofibrous polyacrylonitrile–acrylate for lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dul-Sun [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Research Institute for Green Energy Convergence Technology, Gyeongsang National University, 900 Gajwa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Jang Chang [Department of Textile Engineering, Inha University, 100 Inharo, Nam-gu Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Youk, Ji Ho, E-mail: youk@inha.ac.kr [Department of Textile Engineering, Inha University, 100 Inharo, Nam-gu Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Manuel, James [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Research Institute for Green Energy Convergence Technology, Gyeongsang National University, 900 Gajwa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jou-Hyeon, E-mail: jhahn@gnu.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Research Institute for Green Energy Convergence Technology, Gyeongsang National University, 900 Gajwa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Engineering and Convergence Technology, Gyeongsang National University, 900 Gajwa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nanofibrous polyacrylonitrile–acrylate membranes were prepared by electrospinning. • Trimethylolpropane triacrylate was used as a crosslinking agent of fibers. • The GPE based on PAN–acrylate (1/0.5) showed good electrochemical properties. - Abstract: Nanofibrous membranes for gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) were prepared by electrospinning a mixture of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) at weight ratios of 1/0.5 and 1/1. TMPTA is used to achieve crosslinking of fibers thereby improving mechanical strength. The average fiber diameters increased with increasing TMPTA concentration and the mechanical strength was also improved due to the enhanced crosslinking of fibers. GPEs based on electrospun membranes were prepared by soaking them in a liquid electrolyte of 1 M LiPF{sub 6} in ethylene carbonate (EC)/dimethyl carbonate (DMC) (1:1, v/v). The electrolyte uptake and ionic conductivity of GPEs based on PAN and PAN–acrylate (weight ratio; 1/1 and 1/0.5) were investigated. Ionic conductivity of GPEs based on PAN–acrylate was the highest for PAN/acrylate (1/0.5) due to the proper swelling of fibers and good affinity with liquid electrolyte. Both GPEs based on PAN and PAN–acrylate membranes show good oxidation stability, >5.0 V vs. Li/Li{sup +}. Cells with GPEs based on PAN–acrylate (1/0.5) showed remarkable cycle performance with high initial discharge capacity and low capacity fading.

  18. The photocatalytic enhancement of acrylic and PET solar water disinfection (SODIS) bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, J M; Perez, T M; Arsiaga, E G; Loetscher, L H; Boyd, J E

    2011-01-01

    The solar water disinfection method (SODIS) was modified by the addition of a photocatalytic layer of titania on the interior surface of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and acrylic bottles. Titania was solvent deposited on the interior of commercially available PET bottles, as well as bottles that were constructed from acrylic. Uncoated and titania-coated acrylic bottles removed 3,000,000-5,000,000 colony forming units per milliliter of K12 E. coli from 670 mL of contaminated water in 40 min of solar irradiance. After five hours of sunlight exposure, the concentration of 10 ppm methyl orange (a representative organic water contaminant), was reduced by 61% using the titania-coated acrylic bottles. The concentration of 87 ppb microcystin-LR (a representative algal toxin) was reduced by 70% after 7 hours of sunlight exposure in the titania-coated acrylic bottles. Acrylic is an effective alternative to PET for use in the SODIS method due to its greater UV transparency. The addition of titania to PET and acrylic bottles confers the ability to remove chemical contaminants in addition to inactivating microbiological contaminants.

  19. Optimization of cellulose acrylate and grafted 4-vinylpyridine and 1-vinylimidazole synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojanić Vaso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of cellulose acrylate synthesis by reaction with sodium cellulosate and acryloyl chloride was carried out. Optimal conditions for conducting the synthesis reaction of cellulose acrylate were as follows: the molar ratio of cellulose/potassium-t-butoxide/acryloyl chloride was 1:3:10 and the optimal reaction time was 10 h. On the basis of elemental analysis with optimal conditions for conducting the reaction of cellulose acrylate, the percentage of substitution of glucose units in cellulose Y = 80.7%, and the degree of substitution of cellulose acrylate DS = 2.4 was determined. The grafting reaction of acrylate vinyl monomers onto cellulose in acetonitrile with initiator azoisobutyronitrile (AIBN in a nitrogen atmosphere was performed, by mixing for 5 h at acetonitrile boiling temperature. Radical copolymerization of synthesized cellulose acrylate and 4-vinylpyridine, 1-vinylimidazole, 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone and 9-vinylcarbazole, cellulose-poly-4-vinylpyridine (Cell-PVP, cellulose-poly-1- vinylimidazole (Cell-PVIm and cellulose-poly-1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone (Cell-P1V2P and cellulose-poly-9-vinylcarbazole (Cell-P9VK were synthesized. Acrylate cellulose and cellulose grafted copolymers were confirmed by IR spectroscopy, based on elementary analysis and the characteristics of grafted copolymers of cellulose were determined. The mass share of grafted copolymers, X, the relationship of derivative parts/cellulose vinyl group, Z, and the degree of grafting copolymers of cellulose (mass% were determined. In reaction of methyl iodide and cellulose-poly-4-vinylpyridine (Cell-PVP the cellulose-1-methyl-poly-4-vinylpyridine iodide (Cell-1-Me-PVPJ was synthesized. Cellulose acrylate and grafted copolymers were obtained with better thermal, electrochemical and ion-emulation properties for bonding of noble metals Au, Pt, Pd from water solutions. The synthesis optimization of cellulose acrylate was applied as a model for the synthesis of grafted

  20. Mutagenicity assessment of acrylate and methacrylate compounds and implications for regulatory toxicology requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsen, F R; Vogt, Barbara; Waite, Maureen; Deskin, Randy

    2008-04-01

    Esters of acrylic acid and methacrylic acid, more commonly known as acrylates and methacrylates, respectively, are key raw materials in the coatings and printing industry, with several of its chemical class used in food packaging. The results of over 200 short-term in vitro and in vivo mutagenicity studies available in the open literature have been evaluated. Despite differences in acrylate or methacrylate functionality or in the number of functional groups, a consistent pattern of test response was seen in a typical regulatory battery of mutagenicity tests. No evidence of point mutations was observed when acrylic acid or over 60 acrylates and methacrylates were investigated in Salmonella bacterial tests or in hprt mutation tests mammalian cells, and no evidence of a mutagenic effect was seen when tested in whole animal clastogenicity and/or aneuploidy (chromosomal aberration/micronucleus) studies. Consistent with the in vivo testing results, acrylic acid exhibited no evidence of carcinogenicity in chronic rodent cancer bioassays. In contrast, acrylic acid and the entire acrylate and methacrylate chemical class produced a consistently positive response when tested in the mouse lymphoma assay and/or other in vitro mammalian cell assays designed to detect clastogenicity. The biological relevance of this in vitro response is questioned based on the non-concordance of in vitro results with those of in vivo studies addressing the same mutagenic endpoint (clastogenicity). Thus, in short-term mutagenicity tests, the acrylates and methacrylates behave as a single chemical category, and genotoxicity behavior of a similar chemical can be predicted with confidence by inclusion within this chemical class, thus avoiding unnecessary testing. PMID:18346829

  1. New initiation system for polymerization of acryl acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hai-pu; ZHONG Hong; CHEN Qi-yuan; YIN Zhou-lan

    2005-01-01

    The redox initiation system for polyacrylate sodium of high molecular mass was designed and its effect with varying component dosage on the degree of polymerization was investigated. The results show that the proper type and amount of inorganic salt, as well as amine initiator, are conductive to the increase of degree of polymerization. The fine ingredient of the initiation system is as follows:the dosages of amine, persulphate and inorganic salt are 0.75%, 0.10% and 1.00% by mass based on acryl acid respectively, the molar ratio of sulphite to the persulphate is 1:1. Under such conditions the degree of polyacrylate can reach 7.43×107 with a acceptable polymerization time for industrial production.

  2. GROUP TRANSFER POLYMERIZATION OF ETHYL ACRYLATE WITH LEWIS ACID CATALYST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Linyun; Wang Lei

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports the kinetics of group transfer polymerization (GTP) of ethyl acrylate (EA) with zinc iodide catalyst in 1,2- dichloroethane using dimethyl ketene methyl trimethylsilyl acetal ( MTS ) as initiator at 0 ℃ and above 0 ℃ . The amount of catalyst used was studied. When zinc iodide catalyst used is more than 10mol% relative to monomer, the rate of polymerization is proportional to the concentration of monomer, whereas zinc iodide catalyst used is less than 10 mol% of the monomer, the rate of polymerization is independent of the monomer concentration. In the GTP of EA an induction period was observed when the zinc iodide contents are less than 10 mol%. If the reaction temperature is over 0 ℃ , living species become unstable and diminish, leading to incomplete monomer conversion. The reaction curves equations are obtained. The polymers have narrow molecular weight distributions which are not changed as decreasing zinc iodide contents. The polydispersity is about 1.2.

  3. PREPARATION AND SURFACE PROPERTIES OF ACRYLIC COPOLYMERS CONTAINING FLUORINATED MONOMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tai-jiang Gui; Hao Wei; Ying Zhao; Xiu-lin Wang; Du-jin Wang; Duan-fu Xu

    2006-01-01

    A series of copolymers comprising butylmethacrylate, styrene, butylacrylate, hydroxypropyl acrylate and perfluoroalkyl methacrylate were synthesized by the free radical polymerization using BPO as an initiator. The surface property of the copolymer films was subsequently characterized. The contact angle measurements and energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX) show that the length and content ofperfluoroalkyl side chains in the copolymers are crucial for the preparation of the film with low surface energy. At a given content of fluorinated monomers in the copolymers, the longer the perfluoroalkyl side chain, the larger the water contact angle of the copolymer films will be. On the other hand, the higher the content of fluorinated monomers, the lower the surface energy is. The water contact angle increases with the increase of the fluorinated monomer content and reaches a plateau at 3 wt% of fluorinated monomer content.

  4. Surface cross-linked humic acid - polysodium acrylate superabsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, M.; Zhu, S.; Li, H.; Huang, Z.; Zhang, X. [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China)

    2005-03-01

    A novel composite super-absorbent of humic acid-polysodium acrylate was invented by surface cross-linking reaction of lignite humic acid and poly. Humic acid was abstracted from leonardite and poly was synthesized by solution polymerization. Water absorbing mechanism of composite superabsorbent was explored based on FTIR and SEM. The effect of surface cross-linking reaction conditions, such as the ratio of methanol to water, cross-linking agent concentration, and the amount of humic acid on water absorbing were investigated. Experiments show that the water absorbency of superabsorbent can be greatly improved by humic acid. When the mass fraction of humic acid is 10%, the ratio of cross-linking agent to PSA is 0.2%, and the ratio of methanol to water is 1.8, the water absorbency is the best: 750 g/g for deionied water and 260 g/g for running. water. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Laboratory analyses of two explanted hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhai Dai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two three-piece hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs were explanted from two patients at 7 and 9 years, respectively, after implantation, because of poor fundus visualisation and/or a clinically significant decrease in visual acuity related to their opacified IOLs. In addition to light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy was used for the first time to observe the explanted IOLs. The clinical aspect seemed to correspond to the phenomenon of surface light scattering, while laboratory analyses showed dense glistenings in the central layer of the IOL optic, which had no change next to the surface. Further studies on these phenomena are needed.

  6. [Acrylic resin reinforcement with metallic and nonmetallic inserts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preoteasa, Elena; Murariu, Cătălina Măgureanu; Ionescu, Ecaterina; Preoteasa, Cristina Teodora

    2007-01-01

    In the current use of acrylic resin for removable dentures and orthodontic treatments we are frequently facing the fact of base fracture. The repairing of this, determine most of the time, discomfort of the patient, by excluding the prosthetic device, affecting the treatment, loosing patient's time, doctor's time, implying the dental laboratory and extra expenses. The causes of fractures are many, from clinical cases with some specific anatomic and functional particularities, or parafunctional, to the incorrect designing, manufacturing or wearing of the prosthetic part, being connected with the materials characteristics. The consequences and costs of these fractures are leading to unsatisfying results in some of the clinical cases, in presence of parafunctions like bruxism or clenching and specifically for the new types of prosthetic rehabilitation, on natural teeth or implants. PMID:17983190

  7. Radiation curable coatings from palm oil acrylated polyester prepolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation (ultra-violet, UV) curable coatings were prepared by using palm oil acrylated polyester prepolymer (PEPP-1) in combination with different reactive diluents in the presence of photoinitiator Irgacure 184 (Irg184). The effects of viscosity of coating materials, radiation dose and curing behavior were investigated. The UV cured polymeric films properties such as pendulum hardness, wettability (contact angle), gel ,content, swelling character, tensile strength, elongation at break, and deformation stability were then determined. The optimum formulations were also coated on wood substrates after which the gloss and hardness of the cured film on the wood substrate were measured. Some formulations showed promising coatings properties and has a good potential application for the wood coating industry. (Author)

  8. Thermal Stability of Poly (acrylonitrile-methyl acrylate) Copolymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Na; ZHANG Xing-xiang; WANG Xue-chen

    2008-01-01

    Poly (acrylonitrile-methyl acrylate) copolymer was synthesized by water depositing polymerization and has a typical feed ratio of 85/15. And then 1 - 3 wt% lauryl alcohol maleic anhydride (LAM) was adopted as stabilizer to mix with the acrylonitrile based copolymer. The mixtures were characterized by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR ), Gel Permeation Chromatography ( GPC ), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), optic microscope and Ubbelohde viscosimetryr etc. The melting point (Tm) and glass transition temperature (Tg) of the 85/15 AN/MA copolymer mixed with LAM all decrease with the increase of stabilizer content. The lowest Tg and Tm were 116.1 ℃ and 209. 1℃ respectively at the heating rate of 100℃/min when the content of LAM is 2 wt%. The 85°/15 AN/MA copolymer mixed with 1 - 3 w t% LAM possess good thermal stability up to 30 min at 220 ℃.

  9. Temperature dependence of the dielectric constant of acrylic dielectric elastomer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Junjie; Chen, Hualing; Li, Bo; Chang, Longfei [Xi' an Jiaotong University, State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi' an (China); Xi' an Jiaotong University, School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi' an (China)

    2013-02-15

    The dielectric constant is an essential electrical parameter to the achievable voltage-induced deformation of the dielectric elastomer. This paper primarily focuses on the temperature dependence of the dielectric constant (within the range of 173 K to 373 K) for the most widely used acrylic dielectric elastomer (VHB 4910). First the dielectric constant was investigated experimentally with the broadband dielectric spectrometer (BDS). Results showed that the dielectric constant first increased with temperature up to a peak value and then dropped to a relative small value. Then by analyzing the fitted curves, the Cole-Cole dispersion equation was found better to characterize the rising process before the peak values than the Debye dispersion equation, while the decrease process afterward can be well described by the simple Debye model. Finally, a mathematical model of dielectric constant of VHB 4910 was obtained from the fitted results which can be used to further probe the electromechanical stability of the dielectric elastomers. (orig.)

  10. Polymerisation by acrylamide and acrylic acid inverse suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Alejandro LLoreda Blanco

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This work describes polymerisation by inverse suspension of acrylamide monomers and acrylic acid for forming homopolymers or copolymers This type of polymersitaion's advantages are described and reasons given for why it should be studied. The article stresses the importance of these types of monomer for obtaining materials presenting great affinity for water, such as super-absorbents and controlled liberation mechanism. Important aspects are presented such as type of initiation, monomer composition and continuous phase composition; parameters are described offering an important basis for formulating a system leading to successfully obtaining the desired materials' most relevant characteristics such as particle distribution and size polymerisation kinetics, conversion and water absorption capacity respecting the system's modifiable parameters. The foregoing is important since the product can be modified, bestowing propierties on it which are suitable for its use.

  11. Swelling Behaviors of Polyaniline-Poly(Acrylic Acid) Hydrogels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG You-wei; ZHAO Jiong-xin; LI Xiao-feng; TAO Yong; WU Cheng-xun

    2005-01-01

    Using poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) aqueous solution, NaOH aqueous solution, aniline(An) and ammonim persulfate(APS), PAn-PAA hydrogels with a semi-interpenetrating structure connected by physical interlocks, chemical ion bonds and hydrogen bonds wcre prepared. The swelling properties of the hydrogels in solutions of different pH values(adjusted by adding NaOH or HCl) were studied. All the hydrogels prepared have similar swelling curves (the curves of equilibrium swelling ratio vs. pH value) and reach their maximum swelling at pH of 8 - 10. The maximum swelling ratio of the hydrogels is dependent on composition, including molecular weight of PAA, polymer content of the hydrogel,and molar ratios of AA to An, APS to An, and NaOH to AA.And the compositional dependence of the swelling capacity of PAn-PAA hydrogels was also studied.

  12. Solubility of dense CO2 in two biocompatible acrylate copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. C. Duarte

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Biocompatible polymers and copolymers are frequently being used as part of controlled delivery systems. These systems can be prepared using a "clean and environment friendly" technology like supercritical fluids. One great advantage of this process is that compressed carbon dioxide has excellent plasticizing properties and can swell most biocompatible polymeric matrixes, thus promoting drug impregnation processes. Mass sorption of two acrylate biocompatible copolymers contact with supercritical carbon dioxide is reported. Equilibrium solubility of dense carbon dioxide in poly(methylmethacrylate-co-ethylhexylacrylate and poly(methylmethacrylate-co-ethylhexylacrylate-co-ethyleneglycoldimethacrylate was studied by a static method at 10.0 MPa and 313 K. The reticulated copolymer had Fickean behavior and its diffusion coefficient was calculated, under operating conditions.

  13. Flexural strength of acrylic resins polymerized by different cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Barros Barbosa

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the large number of studies addressing the effect of microwave polymerization on the properties of acrylic resin, this method has received limited clinical acceptance. This study evaluated the influence of microwave polymerization on the flexural strength of a denture base resin. A conventional heat-polymerized (Clássico, a microwave-polymerized (Onda-Cryl and a autopolymerizing acrylic (Jet resins were used. Five groups were established, according to polymerization cycles: A, B and C (Onda-Cryl, short cycle - 500W/3 min, long - 90W/13 min + 500W/90 sec, and manufacturing microwave cycle - 320W/3 min + 0W/3 min + 720W/3 min; T (Clássico, water bath cycle - 74ºC/9h and Q (Jet, press chamber cycle - 50ºC/15 min at 2 bar. Ten specimens (65 x 10 x 3.3mm were prepared for each cycle. The flexural strength of the five groups was measured using a three-point bending test at a cross-head speed of 5 mm/min. Flexural strength values were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and the Tukey's test was performed to identify the groups that were significantly different at 5% level. The microwave-polymerized groups showed the highest means (p<0.05 for flexural strength (MPa (A = 106.97 ± 5.31; B = 107.57 ± 3.99; C = 109.63 ± 5.19, and there were no significant differences among them. The heat-polymerized group (T showed the lowest flexural strength means (84.40 ± 1.68, and differ significantly from all groups. The specimens of a microwavable denture base resin could be polymerized by different microwave cycles without risk of decreasing the flexural strength.

  14. Synthesis and Properties of Poly (n-Octyl Acrylate) with Uniform Polystyrene Grafts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Poly (n-octyl acrylate) with uniform polystyrene grafts (POA-g-PS) was obtained by radical copolymerization of n-octyl acrylate (OA) with PS macromer, in solution. The reactivity ratio and effects of copolymerization conditions on grafting efficiency were studied. The crude products were purified by extraction with cyclohexane and n-butanol successively. POA-g-PS exhibited a very good compatibilizing effect on the acrylic rubber/polystyrene blends. 2%-3% of the graft copolymer was enough for enhancing the tensile strength of the blends. DSC and SEM demonstrated the enhancement of compatibility in the presence of the graft copolymer.

  15. Electron beam curable branched chain polyurethane acrylates for magnetic media coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron beam curable binder resins have been studied to realize the high quality magnetic coatings. It was supposed that resins with a higher crosslink density could lead to magnetic coatings with higher abrasion resistance. Branched chain polyurethane acrylates show a higher degree of cure by irradiation with an electron beam in comparison with linear polyurethane acrylates. This paper describes the potential wear resistance between properties of magnetic coatings and the physical properties of the cured unpigmented branched chain polyurethane acrylates that were used as the binder resins. (author)

  16. Assessment of the flexural strength of two heat-curing acrylic resins for artificial eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Úrsula Rocha Fernandes; Aline Portugal; Letícia Rocha Veloso; Marcelo Coelho Goiato; Daniela Micheline dos Santos

    2009-01-01

    Prosthetic eyes are artificial substitutes for the eyeball, made of heat-curing acrylic resin, serving to improve the esthetic appearance of the mutilated patient and his/her inclusion in society. The aim of this study was to assess the flexural strength of two heat-curing acrylic resins used for manufacturing prosthetic eyes. Thirty-six specimens measuring 64 x 10 x 3.3 mm were obtained and divided into four groups: acrylic resin for artificial sclera N1 (Artigos Odontológicos Clássico, São ...

  17. CROSS-REACTION PATTERNS IN GUINEA-PIGS SENSITIZED TO ACRYLIC-MONOMERS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, S.

    1984-01-01

    The cross-reaction patterns of selected acrylate and methacrylate esters were investigated using the guinea pig maximization test. Methacrylates were less potent sensitizers than acrylates. Cross-sensitization was found between (meth)acrylates with closely related core structures, most extensively...... between hydroxyethyl and hydroxypropyl congeners. The importance of considering not only the functional group but also the core structure when assessing potential interactions was emphasized as butanedioldiglycidylether, hexamethylenediisocyanate and hexanedioldiacrylate - all with linear 6-atom cores...... and different functional groups - cross-reacted....

  18. Effect of silver nanoparticles incorporation on viscoelastic properties of acrylic resin denture base material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahross, Hamada Zaki; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to investigate the effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) incorporation on viscoelastic properties of acrylic resin denture base material. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 specimens (60 × 10 × 2 mm) of heat cured acrylic resin were constructed and divided into four groups (five for each), according to the concentration of AgNPs (1%, 2%, and 5% vol.) which incorporated into the liquid of acrylic resin material and one group without additives (control group). The dynamic viscoelastic test for the test specimens was performed using the computerized material testing system. The resulting deflection curves were analyzed by material testing software NEXYGEN MT. Results: The 5% nanoparticles of silver (NAg) had significantly highest mean storage modulus E’ and loss tangent Tan δ values followed by 2% NAg (P 0.05). Conclusion: The AgNPs incorporation within the acrylic denture base material can improve its viscoelastic properties. PMID:26038651

  19. Effect of microwave cured acrylic resin on candidal growth in complete denture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of heat-cured acrylic resin denture base and microwave-cured acrylic resin denture base on candidal growth . Seven completely edentulous male patients with on history of denture wearing participated in this study. all the selected patients were re-habilitated by mucosa supported complete dentures .The dentures were constructed from conventional heat-cured acrylic resin denture base following monoplane concept of occlusion. Before dismissing the patients and one month after denture insertion, salivary samples were collected according to oral rinse technique. one month resting period was allowed so as candidal count can reach to normal, then dentures were re based using microwave-cured acrylic denture base, before denture insertion and one month after denture insertion, salivary sample were collected before and one month following the same oral rinse technique.

  20. CATALYTIC HYDROGENATION OF ACRYLATE ASMMETRIC Dd(Ⅱ)—CHELATING RESINS CONTAINING AMINO ACID LIGANDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wangying; WangHongzuo; 等

    1995-01-01

    The catalytic hydrogenation of palladium chelating resins containing chiral amino acid ligands based on lower crosslinked poly(chloroethyl acrylate) and some effects on the rate of hydrogenation were studied.

  1. Studies on LCST of poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid-co-N-diacetone acrylamide)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Hua Ni; Xiao Xia Zhu; Qing Lan Wang; Xian Yu Zeng

    2007-01-01

    Linear copolymers from N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA), acrylic acid (AA) and diacetone acrylamide (DAA) have been prepared.The effect of composition, ionic strength and pH on their lower critical solution temperature (LCST) has been investigated.

  2. Regiospecific Addition of Uracil to Acrylates Catalyzed by Alkaline Protease from Bacillus subtilis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying CAI; Jian Yi WU; Na WANG; Xiao Feng SUN; Xian Fu LIN

    2004-01-01

    Michael addition reactions of uracil to acrylates were catalyzed by an alkaline protease from Bacillus subtilis in dimethyl sulfoxide at 55 ℃ for 72 h. The adducts were determined by TLC, IR and 1H NMR.

  3. Biobased composites from thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer and cross-linked acrylated-epoxidized soybean oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean oil is an important sustainable material. Crosslinked acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) is brittle without flexibility and the incorporation of thermoplastic polyurethane improves its toughness for industrial applications. The hydrophilic functional groups from both oil and polyurethan...

  4. Ligand switch in photoinduced copper-mediated polymerization: synthesis of methacrylate-acrylate block copolymers

    OpenAIRE

    CHUANG, Ya-Mi; Wenn, Benjamin; Gielen, Sam; Ethirajan, Anitha; Junkers, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The use of photo-induced copper-mediated radical polymerization (photoCMP) to synthesize mixed acrylate/methacrylate (methyl acrylate, MA and methyl methacrylate, MMA) block copolymers is investigated. Reactions in which only one type of ligand (Me6TREN) is used lead to unsuccessful outcomes of polymerization due to a mismatch in reactivity of the two monomers. A ligand exchange to PMDETA for methacrylate is required to obtain good block structures. Due to insufficient re-initiation of polyac...

  5. Silver hollow optical fibers with acrylic silicone resin coating as buffer layer for sturdy structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Katsumasa; Takaku, Hiroyuki; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Shi, Yi-Wei; Zhu, Xiao-Song; Matsuura, Yuji

    2016-03-01

    For sturdy silver hollow optical fibers, acrylic silicone resin is newly used as a buffer layer between an inner silver layer and a silica capillary. This acrylic silicone resin film prevents the glass surface from chemical and mechanical micro damages during silver plating process, which deteriorate mechanical strength of the hollow fibers. In addition, it keeps high adhesion of the silver layer with the glass surface. We discuss improvement of mechanical strength of the hollow glass fibers without deterioration of optical properties.

  6. FT-RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY FOR MONITORING THE POLYMERIZATION OF ACRYLIC ACID IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Yu; Hui-zhou Liu; Jia-yong Chen

    1999-01-01

    FT-Raman spectroscopy was used to monitor the polymerization of acrylic acid in aqueous solution. A simple method to avoid the noise in the background during the signal processing via Fourier transformation was used in this work. The effects of the amount of initiator used on the polymerization are studied. When the amount of the initiator in the polymerization was increased, both the rate and extent of polymerization of acrylic acid will be increased.

  7. EFFECTS OF PHENOL RESIN ADDITIVE ON DYNAMIC MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ACRYLATE RUBBER AND ITS BLENDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi-fei Wu

    2003-01-01

    The dynamic mechanical properties of a new blend system consisting of phenol resin and polar polymer (acrylate rubber and/or chlorinated polypropylene) were investigated. It was found that the addition of phenol resin to acrylate rubber and its incompatible blend can cause a remarkable improvement in the temperature dependence of the loss tangent. As a result, the present blends are very good damping materials.

  8. Synthesis, Characterization, and Aqueous Lubricating Properties of Amphiphilic Graft Copolymers Comprising 2-Methoxyethyl Acrylate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javakhishvili, Irakli; Røn, Troels; Jankova Atanasova, Katja;

    2014-01-01

    reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization, copper-mediated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), and a selective deprotection reaction. Initially, multifunctional ATRP macroinitiators based on PHEMA backbone are prepared by RAFT polymerization. Then ATRP......Amphiphilic anionic and cationic graft copolymers possessing poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) backbone and poly(methacrylic acid), poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate-co-methacrylic acid), and poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate-co-2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) grafts are constructed by merging...

  9. Synthesis and Characterization of Core-Shell Acrylate Based Latex and Study of Its Reactive Blends

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Nie; Min-Feng Tang; Xiao-Dong Fan; Xiang Liu

    2008-01-01

    Techniques in resin blending are simple and efficient method for improving the properties of polymers, and have been used widely in polymer modification field. However, polymer latex blends such as the combination of latexes, especially the latexes with water-soluble polymers, were rarely reported. Here, we report a core-shell composite latex synthesized using methyl methacrylate (MMA), butyl acrylate (BA), 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) as monomers and ammonium p...

  10. Acrylic acid obtaining from methanol and acetic acid in the presence of complex oxide catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Небесний, Роман Володимирович; Піх, Зорян Григорович; Шпирка, Ірина Іванівна; Івасів, Володимир Васильович; Небесна, Юлія Віталіївна; Фуч, Уляна Василівна

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to research process of single-stage acrylic acid obtaining from methanol and acetic acid, namely: to develop effective catalysts for the process of methanol oxidation to formaldehyde with its further aldol condensation with acetic acid to acrylic acid, and to determine optimum conditions for the process. Complex oxide catalysts consisting of oxides of boron, phosphorus, tungsten and vanadium supported on the silica gel have been investigated. The effect of vanadium...

  11. Effect of nanosilver on thermal and mechanical properties of acrylic base complete dentures.

    OpenAIRE

    Fahimeh Hamedi-Rad; Tahereh Ghaffari; Farzad Rezaii; Ali Ramazani

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), widely used as a prosthodontic base, has many disadvantages, including a high thermal expansion coefficient and low thermal conductivity, a low elasticity coefficient, low impact strength and low resistance to fatigue. This study aimed to make an in vitro comparison of the thermal conductivity, compressive strength, and tensile strength of the acrylic base of complete dentures with those of acrylic reinforced with nanosilver. Materials and Methods: F...

  12. Do flexible acrylic resin lingual flanges improve retention of mandibular complete dentures?

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Elmorsy, Ayman Elmorsy; Ahmed Ibraheem, Eman Mostafa; Ela, Alaa Aboul; Fahmy, Ahmed; Nassani, Mohammad Zakaria

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the retention of conventional mandibular complete dentures with that of mandibular complete dentures having lingual flanges constructed with flexible acrylic resin “Versacryl.” Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised 10 completely edentulous patients. Each patient received one maxillary complete denture and two mandibular complete dentures. One mandibular denture was made of conventional heat-cured acrylic resin and the other had its ...

  13. In vitro cytotoxicity of self-curing acrylic resins of different colors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Borges Retamoso

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro cytotoxicity of acrylic resins of different colors over time. METHODS: Specimens were divided into 4 groups (n = 6 according to the color of the acrylic resin (Orto Class, Clássico, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil: Group 1: clear acrylic resin; group 2: pink acrylic resin; group 3: blue acrylic resin and group 4: green acrylic resin. All specimens were fabricated according to the mass manipulation technique and submitted to mechanical polishing protocol. The control was performed with an amalgam specimen (C+, a glass specimen (C- and cell control (CC. Specimens were immersed in Minimum Eagle's Medium (MEM and incubated for 24 h at 37o C. The extracts from the experimental material were filtered and mixed with L929 fibroblast. Cytotoxicity was evaluated at 4 different times, 24, 48, 72 and 168 h. After contact, cells were incubated for 24 h and added to 100 µ of 0.01% neutral red dye. The cells were incubated for 3 h for pigment incorporation and fixed. Cells viability was determined by a spectroscopic (BioTek, Winooski, Vermont, USA with a 492-nm wavelength λ=492 nm. RESULTS: There were no statistical differences between the experimental groups and the CC and C- groups. CONCLUSION: Clear, pink, blue and green self-curing acrylic resins fabricated by means of the mass manipulation technique and mechanically polished are not cytotoxic. Neither the pigment added to the self-curing acrylic resin nor the factor of time influenced the cytotoxicity of the material.

  14. Synthesis and Properties of IPN Hydrogels Based on Konjac Glucomannan and Poly(acrylic acid)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing LIU; Zhi Lan LIU; Ren Xi ZHUO

    2006-01-01

    Novel interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) hydrogels based on konjac glucomannan (KGM) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) were prepared by polymerization and cross-linking of acrylic acid (AA) in the pre-fabricated KGM gel. The IPN gel was analyzed by FT-IR. The studies on the equilibrium swelling ratio of IPN hydrogels revealed their sensitive response to environmental pH value. The results of in vitro degradation showed that the IPN hydrogels retain the enzymatic degradation character of KGM.

  15. Radiopurity measurement of acrylic for the DEAP-3600 dark matter experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantais, Corina Michelle

    2014-05-01

    The liquid argon target of the DEAP-3600 dark matter detector is contained by an extremely radiopure acrylic vessel. Alpha decays from the inner surface of the acrylic vessel are a source of background. If a fraction of the alpha energy is observed, or if the recoiling nucleus from the alpha decay is observed, the event will not be separated from a dark matter candidate event. In addition to the low level of inherent contamination from uranium and thorium, the Pb-210 from Rn-222 diffusion during manufacturing must be measured. The limit for the DEAP-3600 acrylic vessel is 1.1 x 10-20 g/g Pb-210. By vaporizing a large quantity of acrylic and counting the concentrated residue with an ultralow background HPGe well detector and a low background alpha spectrometer, the bulk acrylic was found to have an upper limit of 10 -19 g/g Pb-210. The design, installation, commissioning, operation, and analysis for various aspects of the acrylic assay are described.

  16. Dimensional change of acrylic resin plate after the reinforcement of glass fibre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwiyanti Feriana Ratwita

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of fibre reinforcement of polymethyl methacrylate was investigated. Glass fibres have been studied as strengthening material added to polymethyl methacrylate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate dimensional change of acrylic resin plate after glass fibre reinforcement. As a research subject is an acrylic resin plate of 65 × 10 × 2.5 mm with the number of 32 samples were distributed randomly in 4 experimental groups. Each group consisted of 8 samples and control groups. Group 1: acrylic resin plate and 1 sheet glass fibre; group 2: acrylic resin plate and 2 sheet glass fibre; group 3: acrylic resin plate and 3 sheet glass fibre. Control group which was not given treatment. Dimensional change was measured by profile projector. The data was analyzed by One-Way ANOVA and LSD test showed that there was significant difference in dimensional change (p < 0.005. The conclusion suggested that dimensional change of the acrylic resin plates after glass fibre reinforcement minimally done 1 sheet glass fibre.

  17. Radiation-induced grafting of acrylic acid onto polypropylene film and its biodegradability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Dev K.; Bhunia, Haripada; Bajpai, Pramod K.; Chaudhari, C. V.; Dubey, K. A.; Varshney, L.

    2016-06-01

    Polypropylene based commodity polyolefins are widely used in packaging, manufacturing, electrical, pharmaceutical and other applications. The aim of the present work is to study the effect of grafting of acrylic acid on the biodegradability of acrylic acid grafted polypropylene. The effect of different conditions showed that grafting percentage increased with increase in monomer concentration, radiation dose and inhibitor concentration but decreased with increase in radiation dose rate. The maximum grafting of 159.4% could be achieved at optimum conditions. The structure of grafted polypropylene films at different degree of grafting was characterized by EDS, FTIR, TGA, DSC, SEM and XRD. EDS studies showed that the increase in acrylic acid grafting percentage increased the hydrophilicity of the grafted films. FTIR studies indicated the presence of acrylic acid on the surface of polypropylene film. TGA studies revealed that thermal stability decreased with increase in grafting percentage. DSC studies showed that melting temperature and crystallinity of the grafted polypropylene films lower than polypropylene film. SEM studies indicated that increase in acrylic acid grafting percentage increased the wrinkles in the grafted films. The maximum biodegradability could be achieved to 6.85% for 90.5% grafting. This suggested that microorganisms present in the compost could biodegrade acrylic acid grafted polypropylene.

  18. Allergic contact dermatitis from sculptured acrylic nails: special presentation with an airborne pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Maio

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Methylmethacrylate was first reported in 1941 as a cause of contact dermatitis. Since then, occupational contact allergies to acrylates in dentistry, orthopedic surgery, printing industry and industry have been reported, but few reports are found in the literature as a consequence of the contact with sculptured artificial acrylic nails which are increasingly popular. We describe here 3 patients with contact allergy to acrylates in artificial sculptured nails. Patch tests were performed with the Portuguese baseline series of contact allergens and an extended series of acrylates were applied. In particular, we tested three female patients with allergic contact dermatitis from sculptured acrylic nails. Two of these patients were both customers and also technical nail beauticians. Two patients developed periungual eczema; one presented only with face and eyelid dermatitis had no other lesions. The tests showed positive reaction to 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (2-HEMA and 2-hydroxypropylmethacrylate (2-HPMA in all the three patients. Our cases demonstrate the variety of clinical presentations of allergic contact dermatitis from acrylic sculptured nails. They show the need to warn patients of persistent and sometimes permanent side effects of these products. They also emphasize the importance of cosmetic ingredient labeling.

  19. Studies on thin film materials on acrylics for optical applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Narasimha Rao

    2003-02-01

    Deposition of durable thin film coatings by vacuum evaporation on acrylic substrates for optical applications is a challenging job. Films crack upon deposition due to internal stresses and leads to performance degradation. In this investigation, we report the preparation and characterization of single and multi-layer films of TiO2, CeO2, Substance2 (E Merck, Germany), Al2O3, SiO2 and MgF2 by electron beam evaporation on both glass and PMMA substrates. Optical micrographs taken on single layer films deposited on PMMA substrates did not reveal any cracks. Cracks in films were observed on PMMA substrates when the substrate temperature exceeded 80°C. Antireflection coatings of 3 and 4 layers have been deposited and characterized. Antireflection coatings made on PMMA substrate using Substance2 (H2) and SiO2 combination showed very fine cracks when observed under microscope. Optical performance of the coatings has been explained with the help of optical micrographs.

  20. Aqueous Tape Casting Process with Styrene-acrylic Latex Binder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Xue-min; OUYANG Shi-xi; HUANG Yong; YU Zhi-yong; ZHAO Shi-ke; WANG Chang-an

    2004-01-01

    A commercial styrene-acrylic latex binder has been investigated as a good binder for aqueous Al2O3 suspensions tape-casting process. This paper focuses on the forming film mechanism of latex binder, the rheological behaviors of the suspensions, physical properties of green tapes and drying process of aqueous slurries with latex binder system. The drying process of the alumina suspensions is shown to follow a two-stage mechanism (the first stage: evaporation controlled process; and the second stage: diffusion controlled process). During the drying stage of the suspensions, the compressive force presses the latex particles and makes them be distorted, which results in cross-linking structure in contacted latex particles of the solidified tapes.A smooth-surface and high-strength green tape was fabricated by aqueous tape casting with latex binder system. The results from the SEM images of the crossing section microstructure of green tapes show that the latex is a very suitable binder for aqueous tape casting.

  1. [Adaptation of acrylic resin dentures polymerized using various activation modes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamata, T; Inoue, Y; Hashimoto, K; Sugitou, S; Arakawa, H; Kurasawa, I

    1989-12-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the dimensional accuracy of maxillary dentures made using a conventional heat-activated PMMA resin, a pour resin, a visible light-activated resin, and a microwave-activated acrylic resin. Two simple methods for measuring dimensional accuracy were used: (1) weight of impression material entrapped between the base and master die and (2) measurement of the posterior border gap at five locations. The volume of space between the denture base and the master die was determined by (1) computation and (2) estimation. Statistical analysis (Bartlett, ANOVA and Tukey's Tests) supported the following conclusions: (1) all groups showed a processing contraction, most apparent from buccal flange to buccal flange, (2) the poorest fitting group was processed in a brass flask and a water bath at a temperature which rose from 70 to 100 degrees C, using a heat activated resin (Acron), (3) the visible light activated resin (Triad) produced dentures of intermediate accuracy, as did Acupac 20 when either heat or microwave activated, (4) the two best fitting groups were prepared from a chemically activated resin system using pressure at low heat (PER form), and the resin developed for microwave activation (Acron MC).

  2. Rat hindlimb joint immobilization with acrylic resin orthoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. da Silva

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to propose an orthosis of light material that would be functional for the animal and that would maintain only the ankle joint immobilized. Male Wistar rats (3 to 4 months old, 250-300 g were divided into 2 groups (N = 6: control and immobilized for 7 days. Rats were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital (40 mg/kg weight and the left hindlimb was immobilized with the orthoses composed of acrylic resin model, abdominal belt and lateral supports. The following analyses were performed: glycogen content of the soleus, extensor digitorum longus, white gastrocnemius, red gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior muscles by the phenol sulfuric method, and the weight, fiber area and intramuscular connective tissue of the soleus by the planimetric system. Data were analyzed statistically by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Student t and Wilcoxon tests. Immobilization decreased glycogen in all muscles (P < 0.05; soleus: 31.6%, white gastrocnemius: 56.6%, red gastrocnemius: 39%, extensor digitorum longus: 41.7%, tibialis anterior: 45.2% in addition to reducing soleus weight by 34% (P < 0.05. Furthermore, immobilization promoted reduction of the fiber area (43%, P < 0.05 and increased the connective tissue (200%, P < 0.05. The orthosis model was efficient comparing with another alternative immobilization model, like plaster casts, in promoting skeletal muscle alterations, indicating that it could be used as a new model in other studies related to muscle disuse.

  3. Interaction of photosensitive surfactant with DNA and poly acrylic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakrevskyy, Yuriy, E-mail: yuriy.zakrevskyy@fh-koeln.de; Paasche, Jens; Lomadze, Nino; Santer, Svetlana, E-mail: santer@uni-potsdam.de [Experimental Physics, Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Cywinski, Piotr; Cywinska, Magdalena; Reich, Oliver; Löhmannsröben, Hans-Gerd [Physical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany)

    2014-01-28

    In this paper, we investigate interactions and phase transitions in polyelectrolyte-surfactant complexes formed between a cationic azobenzene-containing surfactant and two types of polyelectrolytes: natural (DNA) or synthetic (PAA: poly acrylic acid). The construction of a phase diagram allowed distancing between four major phases: extended coil conformation, colloidally stable compacted globules, colloidal instability range, and surfactant-stabilized compact state. Investigation on the complexes’ properties in different phases and under irradiation with UV light provides information about the role of the surfactant's hydrophobic trans isomers both in the formation and destruction of DNA and PAA globules as well as in their colloidal stabilization. The trans isomer shows much stronger affinity to the polyelectrolytes than the hydrophilic cis counterpart. There is no need for complete compensation of the polyelectrolyte charges to reach the complete compaction. On contrary to the findings previously reported in the literature, we demonstrate – for the first time – complete polyelectrolyte compaction which occurs already at 20% of DNA (and at 50% of PAA) charge compensation. The trans isomer plays the main role in the compaction. The aggregation between azobenzene units in the photosensitive surfactant is a driving force of this process. The decompaction can be realized during UV light irradiation and is strongly influenced by the interplay between surfactant-surfactant and surfactant-DNA interactions in the compacted globules.

  4. Effect of cationic monomer on properties of fluorinated acrylate latex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jun Chen

    2012-01-01

    Cationic fluorinated acrylate latex was prepared via semi-continuous emulsion copolymerization of cationic monomer and other monomers.The resultant latex and its film were characterized with dynamic light scattering detector and contact angle meter.Influences of amount of DMDAAC on the properties of resultant latex and its film were investigated in detail.Results show that the particle size of the latex has the minimum value and the zeta potential of the latex is increased when the amount of DMDAAC is increased.In addition,the particle size of the latex is unimodal distribution when the amount of DMDAAC is not more than 2.5%.However,the particle size of the latex is bimodal distribution when the amount of DMDAAC is more than 2.5%.The contact angle is varied slightly with the increase of amount of DMDAAC when it is not more than 2.5%.Nevertheless,the contact angle is decreased with the increase of the amount of DMDAAC when it is more than 25%.

  5. MODIFIED ULTRAVIOLET-CURABLE WATER DISPERSIBLE POLYURETHANE-ACRYLATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-wen Yang; Zhi-ming Wang; Zhao-hua Zeng; Hui-ya Yuan; Yong-lie Chen

    2001-01-01

    Three kinds of UV-curable self-emulsified polyurethane-acrylate (PUA) prepolymer, i.e., conventional, chain extended and grafted PUAs, were prepared. The relatively small particle size of the PUA dispersions indicates that the PUA prepolymers exhibit sufficient aqueous dispersibility. The PUA prepolymers can substantially lower the interfacial tension of water. Chain-extended PUA dispersions exhibit pseudoplastic behavior and thixotropy to a greater extent than do their conventional counterpart. The chain-extended and grafted PUA photocure to higher conversion than do the conventional PU equivalent. The results of DSC measurement suggest that there exists phase mixing between the hard and the soft segment phases for the PUAs based on PEG 400 that is the comparatively short soft segment in the prepolymer. For the PUA prepolvmers based on PEG having higher Mn values, chain-extending and grafting could impede the phase separation between the hard and the soft segment domains. The adhesion, impact strength and flexibility of the photocured films were tested.

  6. Acrylic bone cement in total joint arthroplasty: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Khaled J; El Othmani, Mouhanad M; Tzeng, Tony H; Mihalko, William M; Chambers, Monique C; Grupp, Thomas M

    2016-05-01

    Acrylic bone cement has a variety of applications in orthopedic surgery. Primary uses in total arthroplasties are limited to prostheses fixation and antibiotic delivery. With the large number of total joint arthroplasties expected to continue to rise, understanding the role bone cement plays in the success of total joint arthroplasty can have a significant impact on daily practice. The literature is inconclusive on whether cemented or cementless fixation technique is superior, and choice of fixation type is mainly determined by surgeon preference and experience. Surgeons should understand that if poor techniques exist, short-term outcomes of the replaced joint may be at risk. Statement of clinical significance: This article attempts to clarify some points of bone cement use through a review of the mechanical properties related to bone cement, a comparison to alternative materials, influence of additives, and the effects on surgical outcomes. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:737-744, 2016. PMID:26852143

  7. Synthesis of acrylates and methacrylates from coal-derived syngas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spivey, J.J.; Gogate, M.R.; Jang, B.W.L. [Bechtel, San Francisco, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Acrylates and methacrylates are among the most widely used chemical intermediates in the world. One of the key chemicals of this type is methyl methacrylate. Of the 4 billion pounds produced each year, roughly 85% is made using the acetone-cyanohydrin process, which requires handling of large quantities of hydrogen cyanide and produces ammonium sulfate wastes that pose an environmental disposal challenge. The U.S. Department of Energy and Eastman Chemical Company are sharing the cost of research to develop an alternative process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate from syngas. Research Triangle Institute is focusing on the synthesis and testing of active catalysts for the condensation reactions, and Bechtel is analyzing the costs to determine the competitiveness of several process alternatives. Results thus far show that the catalysts for the condensation of formaldehyde and the propionate are key to selectively producing the desired product, methacrylic acid, with a high yield. These condensation catalysts have both acid and base functions and the strength and distribution of these acid-base sites controls the product selectivity and yield.

  8. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of important heterocyclic acrylic copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The acrylate monomer, 7-acryloyloxy-4-methyl coumarin (AMC has been synthesized by reacting 7-hydroxy-4-methyl coumarin, with acryloyl chloride in the presence of NaOH at 0–5°C. Copolymers of 7-acryloyloxy-4-methyl coumarin (AMC with vinyl acetate (VAc were synthesized in DMF (dimethyl formamide solution at 70±1°C using 2,2′-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN as an initiator with different monomer-to-monomer ratios in the feed. The copolymers were characterized by Fourier transform infra red (FTIR spectroscopy. The copolymer composition was evaluated by 1H-NMR (proton nuclear magnetic resonance and was further used to determine reactivity ratios. The monomer reactivity ratios for AMC (M1-VAc (M2 pair were determined by the application of conventional linearization methods such as Fineman-Ross (r1 = 0.6924; r2 = 0.6431, Kelen-Tüdõs (r1 = 0.6776; r2 = 0.6374 and extended Kelen-Tüdõs (r1 = 0.6657; r2 = 0.6256. Thermo gravimetric analysis showed that thermal decomposition of the copolymers occurred in single stage in the temperature range of 263–458°C. The molecular weights of the polymers were determined using gel permeation chromatography. The homo and copolymers were tested for their antimicrobial properties against selected microorganisms.

  9. Acrylic Target Vessels for a High-Precision Measurement of theta13 with the Daya Bay Antineutrino Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Band, H R; Cherwinka, J; Cao, J; Chang, Y; Edwards, B; He, W; Heeger, K M; Heng, Y; Ho, T; Hsiung, B; Greenler, L; Kettell, S; Lewis, C; Luk, K B; Li, X; Littlejohn, B R; Pagac, A; Wang, C H; Wang, W; Wang, Y; Wise, T; Xiao, Q; Yeh, M; Zhuang, H

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes in detail the acrylic target vessels used to encapsulate the target and gamma catcher regions in the Daya Bay experiment's first pair of antineutrino detectors. We give an overview of the design, fabrication, shipping, and installation of the acrylic target vessels and their liquid overflow tanks. The acrylic quality assurance program and vessel characterization, which measures all geometric, optical, and material properties relevant to {\

  10. [Comparative analysis of tissue reaction to acrylic resin materials in studies on Wistar strain rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolewska, E

    1999-01-01

    The study takes up the issue of assessing rat tissue reaction to operatively inserted implants of different acrylic resin materials used in prosthetic dentistry. The materials subjected to analysis were polyacrylics: Vertex Soft, Vertex R.S., Vertex S.C., Superacryl and silicone material Molloplast B. The prolongation of life and the dynamic development of prosthetic treatment have caused removable dentures to be used longer and among more people. Polymerised acrylic resin material of these dentures is a potential pathogenic factor to the oral cavity mucosa which is in contact with it. As many as 20 to 70% of patients using removable acrylic dentures suffer from prosthetic stomatopathy. It is considered that the mucosa irritation may be caused by denture trauma, a mycotic infection or toxic action of some components of acrylic materials. Therefore the use of new generation acrylic materials in producing prosthetic dentures needs a precise assessment of undesirable local and systemic effects. A comparative analysis of the effect of correctly polymerised acrylic material on rat mucosa, parotid glands and lymphatic nodes was carried out. Systemic toxicity of these materials was assessed. Acrylic plates were prepared from the most often used acrylic resin materials in the Department of Prosthetic Dentistry PAM and a silicone material (these materials were polymerised precisely according to the producers instruction). Before implantation the plates underwent a thermodynamic analysis in order to ensure that the polymerisation process was carried out correctly and to determine thermal resistance of particular materials. Next sterile acrylic plates were implanted in rats under general anaesthesia. The animals were divided into 6 groups, 10 rats each. In four groups acrylic plates were implanted, in one group silicone material plates were implanted and it represented the comparative group, in one control group an incision of the buccal mucosa was made. The rats were

  11. Findings of an experimental study in a rabbit model on posterior capsule opacification after implantation of hydrophobic acrylic and hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Trakos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nikolaos Trakos1, Elli Ioachim2, Elena Tsanou2, Miltiadis Aspiotis1, Konstantinos Psilas1, Chris Kalogeropoulos11University Eye Clinic of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece; 2Pathology Department, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, GreecePurpose: Study on cell growth on the posterior capsule after implantation of hydrophobic acrylic (Acrysof SA 60 AT and hydrophilic acrylic (Akreos Disc intraocular lenses (IOL in a rabbit model and comparison of posterior capsule opacification (PCO.Methods: Phacoemulsification was performed in 22 rabbit eyes, and two different IOL types (Acrysof SA60 AT and Akreos Disc were implanted. These IOLs had the same optic geometry (square edged but different material and design. Central PCO (CPCO, peripheral PCO (PPCO, Sommering’s ring (SR formation, type of growth, extension of PCO, cell type, inhibition, and fibrosis were evaluated three weeks after surgery. Histological sections of each globe were prepared to document the evaluation of PCO.Results: No statistically significant difference was observed between a hydrophobic acrylic IOL and a hydrophilic acrylic IOL in relation to the CPCO, PPCO, type of growth, extension, cell type, inhibition, and fibrosis. Statistically significant difference was observed in relation to the formation of SR with Acrysof SA 60 AT group presenting more SR than Akreos Disc group.Conclusion: PCO was not influenced by the material of the IOL or the design of the haptics of the IOLs we studied.Keywords: posterior capsule opacification, intraocular lenses, rabbit model

  12. Effect of repeated immersion solution cycles on the color stability of denture tooth acrylic resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Maurício Batista da Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Chemical solutions have been widely used for disinfection of dentures, but their effect on color stability of denture tooth acrylic resins after repeated procedures is still unclear. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate whether repeated cycles of chemical disinfectants affected the color stability of two denture tooth acrylic resins. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty disc-shaped specimens (40 mm x 3 mm were fabricated from two different brands (Artiplus and Trilux of denture tooth acrylic resin. The specimens from each brand (n=30 were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=5 and immersed in the following solutions: distilled water (control group and 5 disinfecting solutions (1% sodium hypochlorite, 2% sodium hypochlorite, 5.25% sodium hypochlorite, 2% glutaraldehyde, and 4% chlorhexidine gluconate. Tooth color measurements were made by spectrophotometry. Before disinfection, the initial color of each tooth was recorded. Further color measurements were determined after subjecting the specimens to 7, 21, 30, 45, 60, and 90 immersion cycles in each tested solution. Color differences (ΔE* were determined using the CIE L*a*b* color system. Data were analyzed using two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Tukey tests. The significance level was set at 5%. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences in ΔE* among the 5 disinfectants and water during the 90 cycles of immersion for both denture tooth acrylic resins. Distilled water promoted the greatest color change in both denture tooth acrylic resins, nevertheless none of tested disinfectants promoted ΔE* values higher than 1.0 on these acrylic materials during the 90 cycles of disinfection. CONCLUSIONS: Repeated immersion cycles in disinfecting solutions alter ΔE* values, however these values do not compromise the color of the tested denture tooth acrylic resins because they are imperceptible to the human eye.

  13. Thermo-Optic Coefficient of Different Photosensitive Acrylate Polymers for Optical Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, N.; Mohamed, R.; Ehsan, A. A.; Kuang, C. S.; Shaari, S.

    Thermo-optic (TO) effect in materials can be exploited in the fabrication of optical devices such as optical switches and couplers. These optical devices play a key function in communication networks because by changing the temperature they have control over the optical path. Recently, polymer materials have begun to receive attention for the application of the TO switch in integrated optics. The polymers exploited for the variation of refractive index with temperature in our work involve the use of cyclomer acrylate, which is compared to the fluorinated acrylate available in the market. We focus the on cyclomer acrylate resin potential to be employed in fabricating optical devices especially the optical waveguide and optical switch. Formerly, this polymer is used as an adhesive and coating only. Different acrylate formulations from cyclomer acrylates have been exploited. Both acrylates show negative TO effects with temperature i.e. decrease of refractive index result in the increase in temperature. This is expected as the refractive index of the polymers are reduced, as density typically decreases with increasing temperature. This is in accordance to the dependence of polarizability and density of a particular material, to its refractive index. For both types of polymers, the change of the refractive index as a function of temperature is linear. The slope can give the dn/dT of the film. The dn/dT of polymers are as high as the order of 10-4, which is comparable to those of optical polymers. Higher values are shown by the cyclomer acrylate compared to the fluorinated type.

  14. The development of palm oil based acrylated resins and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since Malaysia provides 57 and 75% of the world's production and exports of palm oil respectively, it is natural that we should be in the forefront of the research of widening the use of palm oil in oleochemicals industry, which are currently increase in popularity. The presence of unsaturation in the fatty acids of vegetable oils such as palm oil, technically paves the way for the production of acrylated resins. The more unsaturated the oil, the better it will perform in the radiation curing related applications. The first acrylated palm oil was synthesised in early 1989, through acrylation process, whereby, acrylic acid is introduced into oxirane group of the epoxidised palm oil products, EPOP, at 100-130 deg C in the presence of triethylamine, TEA, as a catalyst and 4-methoxyphenol as an inhibitor. The acrylated products namely epoxidised palm oil (olein) acrylate, EPOLA/EPOPA, was found curable when subjected to UV or EB irradiations. The EPOLA based formulated resins were satisfactorily been used as radiation curable coating materials on various substrates such as woods, bamboos, glass, ceramics and metals without any major defects at reasonably fast cure rate. Preliminary investigations also revealed their potentials as radiation curable pressure sensitive adhesives and printing inks. Isocyanation of EPOLAs at 50 to 90deg C with the presence of 1% inhibitor such as 4-methoxyphenol resulted in resins called Palm oil based urethane acrylates, POBUA. This newly synthesised resins possess certain advantages over EPOLA such as higher molecular weight, better crosslinking density, abrasion resistance, tensile properties and also pendulum hardness. Early results might suggest that POBUA is in a better position to be used as resins for radiation curing of surface coating applications

  15. Effect of light-curing, pressure, oxygen inhibition, and heat on shear bond strength between bis-acryl provisional restoration and bis-acryl repair materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Ji-Suk; Lee, Jeong-Yol; Choi, Yeon-Jo; Shin, Sang-Wan

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE This study aimed to discover a way to increase the bond strength between bis-acryl resins, using a comparison of the shear bond strengths attained from bis-acryl resins treated with light curing, pressure, oxygen inhibition, and heat. MATERIALS AND METHODS Self-cured bis-acryl resin was used as both a base material and as a repair material. Seventy specimens were distributed into seven groups according to treatment methods: pressure - stored in a pressure cooker at 0.2 Mpa; oxygen inhibition- applied an oxygen inhibitor around the repaired material,; heat treatment - performed heat treatment in a dry oven at 60℃, 100℃, or 140℃. The shear bond strength was measured with a universal testing machine, and the shear bond strength (MPa) was calculated from the peak load of failure. A comparison of the bond strength between the repaired specimens was conducted using one-way ANOVA and Tukey multiple comparison tests (α=.05). RESULTS There were no statistically significant differences in the shear bond strength between the control group and the light curing, pressure, and oxygen inhibition groups. However, the heat treatment groups showed statistically higher bond strengths than the groups treated without heat, and the groups treated at a higher temperature resulted in higher bond strengths. Statistically significant differences were seen between groups after different degrees of heat treatment, except in groups heated at 100℃ and 140℃. CONCLUSION Strong bonding can be achieved between a bis-acryl base and bis-acryl repair material after heat treatment. PMID:25722837

  16. Comparative evaluation of surface porosities in conventional heat polymerized acrylic resin cured by water bath and microwave energy with microwavable acrylic resin cured by microwave energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunint Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conventional heat cure poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA is the most commonly used denture base resin despite having some short comings. Lengthy polymerization time being one of them and in order to overcome this fact microwave curing method was recommended. Unavailability of specially designed microwavable acrylic resin made it unpopular. Therefore, in this study, conventional heat cure PMMA was polymerized by microwave energy. Aim and Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the surface porosities in PMMA cured by conventional water bath and microwave energy and compare it with microwavable acrylic resin cured by microwave energy. Materials and Methods: Wax samples were obtained by pouring molten wax into a metal mold of 25 mm × 12 mm × 3 mm dimensions. These samples were divided into three groups namely C, CM, and M. Group C denotes conventional heat cure PMMA cured by water bath method, CM denotes conventional heat cure PMMA cured by microwave energy, M denotes specially designed microwavable acrylic denture base resin cured by microwave energy. After polymerization, each sample was scanned in three pre-marked areas for surface porosities using the optical microscope. As per the literature available, this instrument is being used for the first time to measure the porosity in acrylic resin. It is a reliable method of measuring area of surface pores. Portion of the sample being scanned is displayed on the computer and with the help of software area of each pore was measured and data were analyzed. Results: Conventional heat cure PMMA samples cured by microwave energy showed maximum porosities than the samples cured by conventional water bath method and microwavable acrylic resin cured by microwave energy. Higher percentage of porosities was statistically significant, but well within the range to be clinically acceptable. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this in-vitro study, conventional heat cure PMMA can be cured by

  17. Acrylic Rubber Latex in Ferrocement for Strengthening Reinforced Concrete Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In India, the early deterioration of reinforced concrete structures has become a big social problem in recent years. An essential research is needed for the development of effective repair materials and their execution systems comes to an important issue from the viewpoint of the longevity of infrastructures at present. Ferrocement laminates are introduced to enhance the overall performance of Reinforced Concrete (RC structures and these days the use of it is a promising technology for increasing the flexural strength of deficient reinforced concrete members. Approach: The repair system aims to provide quantitative repair enhancement as well as extending the life of deteriorated concrete members. This research in particular inspired the initiation of the present work which aimed to develop a material with unique properties and a very wide range of practical applications. The mechanical properties of mortar through difference in polymer content with Acrilic Latex by ferrocement among three different volume fractions of mesh reinforcement were studied. Following the encouraging progress made in the formulation and evaluation of the polymer modified repair mortar, tests were carried out involving the application of the reinforced repair material to the soffit of the reinforced concrete beams of 3 m length. Results: The levels of damage of the original beams prior to repair did not affect the ultimate load of the strengthened beams tested. The performance of the strengthened beams was compared to the control beams with respect to cracking, deflection and ultimate strength which confirm preeminent results. Conclusion: This accomplished the fact that acrylic rubber latex modified ferrocement is a doable alternative strengthening component for the rehabilitation of reinforced concrete structures. Further developments in these systems will create dramatic improvement into the field of rehabilitation of old privileged structures.

  18. Synthesis of Acrylate Microemulsion Modified by Alkoxy Silane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Zhijuan; ZHANG Xinya; HUANG Hong; FU Heqing; CHEN Huanqin

    2008-01-01

    An acrylate emulsion was modified by adding vinyltriisopropoxy silane (trade name C-1706).By adding the multiple emulsifier which consists of an anionic emulsifier, sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate(SDBS) and nonionic emulsifier, octyl phenolic divinyl oxide (OP-10), the acryiosilane microemulsiun was synthesized by seeded emulsion polymerization. The influential factors including the kind and the adding amount of emulsifiers and the monomer variety of alkoxy silane and the added methods which influence on the properties of the microemulsion were investigated. It is found that SDBS and OP-10 as multiple emulsifiers with mass ratio of hl and the adding amount of 2.5%-3.5% can act on co-effect for emulsion polymerization. The C-1706 possesses bulky isopropoxy substituent that can reduce hydrolysis reactivity during the polymerization process, So as to not only make the process smoothly but also advance the store stability of the emulsion.Moreover, the latter-addition mode of C-1706 can restrain its hydrolysis activity and polycondensation reaction during the polymerization process of the emulsion. The structure, the film cross section, the particle size and its distribution of the microemulsion were analyzed by the Fourier Transform Infrared Ray Spectrum (FT-IR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and a particle size analyzer, respectively. The results show that the particle diameter of the modified microemulsion can be controlled between 50 and 70 nm and its film hardness is 7.3. Only adding 1.5% of C-1706 into the system of emulsion polymerization can apparently improve the weathering resistance of the microemulsion, which undergo degradation with chromatism(△E) is 1.6 after 3 600 hours of QUV-aging.

  19. Effects of Chairside Polishing and Brushing on Surface Roughness of Acrylic Denture Base Resins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seung-Kyun Kim; Ju-Mi Park; Min-Ho Lee; Jae-Youn Jung; Shipu Li; Xinyu Wang

    2009-01-01

    The effects of 3 chairside polishing kits and mechanical brushing on the surface roughness of 3 different acrylic denture base resins were compared. Acrylic denture base resins (auto-polymerizing, heat-polymerizing, injected heat-polymerizing resins) were examined after a tungsten carbide bur, and after chairside polishing using 3 polishing kits and pumice. The specimens were subjected to mechanical brushing using a wear tester to simulate 30 000 strokes of brushing. The surface roughness of the acrylic denture base resin specimens was measured using a contact pro-filometer. After the test, the random polished acrylic resins were evaluated by scanning electron mi-croscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Acrylic denture base resins polished using the 3 types of polishing kits had a smoother surface than those finished with the tungsten carbide bur (p <0.05). The surface of the resin polished by a TC cutter exceeded the Ra of 0.2 μm (p<0.05). The auto-polymerizing resin showed a significantly higher surface roughness than the heat-polymerizing resin and injected heat-polymerizing resin (p>0.05). In the case of polishing step wise, there was almost no change in surface roughness after brushing (p>0.05).

  20. Surface morphology changes of acrylic resins during finishing and polishing phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucio Serra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The finishing and polishing phases are essential to improve smoothness and shining on the surface of acrylic resins used to make removable orthodontic appliances. A good surface finishing reduces roughness, which facilitates hygiene, prevents staining and provides greater comfort to the patients. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to analyze the changes on surface morphology of acrylic resins during finishing and polishing phases. METHODS: Thirty discs (10 mm in diameter and 5 mm in length were made with acrylic resin and randomly divided into ten groups. The control group did not receive any treatment while the other groups received gradual finishing and polishing. The last group received the entire finishing and polishing procedures. Surface morphology was qualitatively analyzed through scanning electron microscopy and quantitatively analyzed through a laser profilometer test. RESULTS: The acrylic resin surfaces without treatment showed bubbles which were not observed in the subsequent phases. Wearing out with multilaminated burs, finishing with wood sandpaper and finishing with water sandpaper resulted in surfaces with decreasing irregularities. The surfaces that were polished with pumice and with low abrasive liquids showed high superficial smoothness. CONCLUSION: Highly smooth acrylic resin surfaces can be obtained after mechanical finishing and polishing performed with multilaminated burs, wood sandpaper, water sandpaper, pumice and low abrasive liquids.

  1. Synthesis by Solution Polymerization of Polybehenyl Acrylate as Pour Point Depressant for Crude Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Zhaozheng; Ge Jijiang

    2004-01-01

    Behenyl acrylate is a kind of highly efficient pour point depressants. In order to promote the application of the pour pint depressant in transportation of crude oils, polybehenyl acrylate was synthesized by solution polymerization. These conclusions can be drawn from the experimental results that the sequence of chain transfer constants of four solvents is arranged in the following decreasing order: carbon tetrachloride (6.0×10-5)>chloroform (2.8×10-5)>methylbenzene (2.5×10-5)>tetrachloroethane (1.6×10-5). The average molecular weight of polybehenyl acrylate mainly depends on the chain transfer constant of the solvents. However, if the monomer conversion was higher than 35%, an abnormal phenomenon occurred, resulting in higher average molecular weight of polybehenyl acrylate obtained in methylbenzene solution compared to that obtained in tetrachloroethane solution. It was attributed to the influence of gelation on the average molecular weight of polybehenyl acrylate, which was stronger than the impact of chain transfer in methylbenzene.

  2. Direct Synthesis of Hyperbranched Poly(acrylic acid-co-3-hydroxypropionate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efkan Çatıker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperbranched poly(acrylic acid-co-3-hydroxypropionate (PAcHP was synthesized by base-catalyzed hydrogen transfer polymerization of acrylic acid through one step. The copolymers obtained through solution and bulk polymerization were insoluble in water and all organic solvents tried. Structural and compositional characterizations of hyperbranched PAcHP were performed by using FTIR, solid 13C-NMR, TGA, and titrimetric analysis. Acrylate fraction of the hyperbranched PAcHP obtained via bulk polymerization was determined as 60–65% by comparing TGA curves of hyperbranched PAcHP and pure poly(3-hydroxy propionate (PHP. However, analytical titration of the same sample revealed that acrylic acid units were about 47.3%. The results obtained from TGA and analytical titration were used to evaluate the chemical structure of the copolymer. Hyperbranched PAcHP exhibited hydrogel properties. Swelling behavior of the copolymer was investigated at a wide pH range and ionic strength. The dynamic swelling profiles of hyperbranched PAcHP exhibited a fast swelling behavior in the first hour and achieved the equilibrium state within 12 h in PBS. Depending on the conditions, the copolymers exhibited swelling ratios up to 2100%. As the copolymer has easily biodegradable propionate and versatile functional acrylic acid units, it can be used as not only biodegradable material in medical applications but also raw material in personal care commodities.

  3. Radiation modification of water absorption of cassava starch by acrylic acid/acrylamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graft co polymerizations of acrylamide and/or acrylic acid onto cassava starch by a simultaneous irradiation technique using gamma-rays as the initiator were studied with regard to various parameters of importance: the monomer-to-cassava starch ratio, total dose (kGy), dose rate (kGy h-1), acrylamide-to-acrylic acid ratio, and the addition of nitric acid and maleic acid as the additives. Grafting parameters were determined in relation to the water absorption of the saponified graft copolymer. The water absorption of the saponified graft copolymer in salt and buffer solutions of different ionic strengths was also measured, from which the super absorbent properties are found to be P H sensitive. The starch graft copolymers of acrylamide and acrylic acid give higher water absorption than the starch graft copolymers of either acrylamide or acrylic acid alone. The porosity of the saponified starch graft copolymers prepared by the acrylamide/acrylic acid ratios of 70:30 and 50:50 was much higher than the porosity of copolymers in terms of fine networks. Ionic strength and multi-oxidation states of the saline and buffer solutions markedly decreased the water absorption of the saponified cassava starch grafted super absorbent polymers.

  4. The electrospinning of the copolymer of styrene and butyl acrylate for its application as oil absorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Naiku; Cao, Jipeng; Lu, Yuyao

    2016-01-01

    Electrospun polystyrene materials have been employed as oil absorbents, but they have visible drawbacks such as poor strength at low temperature and unreliable integrity because of brittleness and insufficient cohesive force among fibers. Butyl acrylate can polymerize into flexible chains, and its polymer can be used as elastomer and adhesive material. Thereby it is possible to obtain the material that has better performance in comparison with electrospun polystyrene material through the electrospinning of the copolymer of styrene and butyl acrylate. In this work, a polymer was synthesized through suspension polymerization by using styrene and butyl acrylate as comonomers. The synthesis of the copolymer of styrene and butyl acrylate was verified through dissolution and hydrolysis experimental data; as well through nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. The viscous flow activation energy of the solution consisting of copolymer and N, N-dimethylformamide was determined via viscosity method and then adopted to establish the entanglement characteristics of butyl acrylate's chain segments. Finally, in order to electrospin the copolymer solution into fibrous membrane, the effects of monomer feed ratio and spinning parameters were investigated. The prepared fibrous membrane was found to have a potential use as oil absorbent. PMID:27610302

  5. Applications of Blue Light-curing Acrylic Resin to Forensic Sample Preparation and Microtomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Ethan; Palenik, Christopher S

    2016-03-01

    This study discusses the results of an evaluation of a one-part blue light-curing acrylic resin for embedding trace evidence prior to the preparation of thin sections with a microtome. Through a comparison to several epoxy resins, the physical properties relevant to both trace evidence examination and analytical microscopy in general, including as viscosity, clarity, color, hardness, and cure speed, were explored. Finally, thin sections from paint samples embedded in this acrylic resin were evaluated to determine if, through smearing or impregnation, the resin contributed to the infrared spectra. The results of this study show that blue light-curing acrylic resins provide the desired properties of an embedding medium, generate high-quality thin sections, and can significantly simplify the preparation of paint chips, fibers and a multitude of other types of microscopic samples in the forensic trace evidence laboratory. PMID:27404623

  6. Investigation of UV curing reaction of dicyclopentadienyl acrylate by FT-IR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicyclopentadienyl acrylate (DCPA) is characterized by low odor, low volatility, high flash point, low toxicity and low shrinkage on cure. Another advantage of DCPA is its insensitiveness to the inhibiting effect of oxygen. DCPA have wide industrial applications. It was used for the preparation of adhesives, UV-curable coatings and polymer concreted). The advantages of DCPA result from its particular structure. There are two unsaturated bonds, one acrylic double bond and one cyclic double bond, in each DCPA molecule. But, few reports on reaction behavior of the two type double bonds were issued up to date. In this paper, reaction behavior of the acrylic and the cyclic double bond of DCPA during and after LTV-curing were investigated by Fourier Transform-Infrared(FT-IR)

  7. Catalytic production of methyl acrylates by gold-mediated cross coupling of unsaturated aldehydes with methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakalos, Stavros; Zugic, Branko; Stowers, Kara J.; Biener, Monika M.; Biener, Juergen; Friend, Cynthia M.; Madix, Robert J.

    2016-10-01

    Modern methods of esterification, one of the most important reactions in organic synthesis, are reaching their limits, as far as waste and expense are concerned. Novel chemical approaches to ester formation are therefore of importance. Here we report a simple procedure free of caustic reagents or byproducts for the facile direct oxidative methyl esterification of aldehydes over nanoporous Au catalysts. Complementary model studies on single crystal gold surfaces establish the fundamental reactions involved. We find that methanol more readily reacts with adsorbed active oxygen than do the aldehydes, but that once the aldehydes do react, they form strongly-bound acrylates that block reactive sites and decrease the yields of acrylic esters under steady flow conditions at 420 K. Significant improvements in yield can be achieved by operating at higher temperatures, which render the site-blocking acrylates unstable.

  8. Haptic Breakage after Transscleral Fixation of a Single-Piece Acrylic Intraocular Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Tanaka

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the case of a patient with a damaged haptic of an acrylic intraocular lens (IOL after transscleral IOL fixation. Methods: This is a retrospective and descriptive case report. Results: A 40-year-old man presented with sudden visual loss in the left eye. He had undergone phacoemulsification/aspiration and IOL implantation 3 years previously and IOL repositioning with transscleral fixation 2 years before the initial visit. His visual acuity was 0.3 in the left eye due to corneal edema caused by a foreign body, i.e., the severed haptic tip of the single-piece acrylic IOL, which was surgically removed. The IOL itself was tilted and therefore explanted. The surface of the tip of the haptic suggested that the monofilament suture thread had exerted continuous force across the haptic. Conclusions: The haptics of acrylic IOLs can be damaged after transscleral fixation.

  9. Synthesis of acrylic and allylic bifunctional cross-linking monomers derived from PET waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Aguilar, A.; Herrera-González, A. M.; Vázquez-García, R. A.; Navarro-Rodríguez, D.; Coreño, J.

    2013-06-01

    An acrylic and two novel allylic monomers synthesized from bis (hydroxyethyl) terephthalate, BHET, are reported. This was obtained by glycolysis of post-consumer PET with boiling ethylene glycol. The bifunctional monomer bis(2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl) terephthalate was obtained from acryloyl chloride, while the allylic monomers 2-(((allyloxi)carbonyl)oxy) ethyl (2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalate and bis(2-(((allyloxi)carbonyl)oxy)ethyl) terephthalate, from allyl chloroformate. Cross-linking was studied in bulk polymerization using two different thermal initiators. Monomers were analyzed by means of 1H NMR and the cross-linked polymers by infrared spectroscopy. Gel content higher than 90% was obtained for the acrylic monomer. In the case of the mixture of the allylic monomers, the cross-linked polymer was 80 % using BPO initiator, being this mixture 24 times less reactive than the acrylic monomer.

  10. Optical contouring of an acrylic surface for non-intrusive diagnostics in pipe-flow investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Witt, Benjamin J.; Coronado-Diaz, Haydee; Hugo, Ronald J.

    2008-07-01

    In this work, an acrylic surface was optically contoured to correct for the optical distortion caused by a transparent pipe wall. This method can be applied to non-invasive viewing/imaging techniques for fluid flow experiments. Software tools were developed to aid in the design of an optically contoured acrylic test section for pipe-flow experiments. Numerical models were computed for a standard acrylic pipe, inner diameter 57.15 mm, with water enclosed. An optical contour prototype was machined on a 5-axis CNC machine, and polished with 1-15 μm diamond paste, alleviating any surface imperfections without significantly altering the contoured surface. Experiments were then performed to measure the emerging optical wavefront and was found to emerge planar when utilizing the optical contour. It was determined that the wavefront was corrected to within ten wavelengths of a Helium-Neon (He-Ne) laser beam.

  11. Long-Term Testing and Properties of Acrylic for the Daya Bay Antineutrino Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Krohn, M; Heeger, K M

    2012-01-01

    The Daya Bay reactor antineutrino experiment has recently measured the neutrino mixing parameter sin22{\\theta}13 by observing electron antineutrino disappearance over kilometer-scale baselines using six antineutrino detectors at near and far distances from reactor cores at the Daya Bay nuclear power complex. Liquid scintillator contained in transparent target vessels is used to detect electron antineutrinos via the inverse beta-decay reaction. The Daya Bay experiment will operate for about five years yielding a precision measurement of sin22{\\theta}13. We report on long-term studies of poly(methyl methacrylate) known as acrylic, which is the primary material used in the fabrication of the target vessels for the experiment's antineutrino detectors. In these studies, acrylic samples are subjected to gaseous and liquid environmental conditions similar to those experienced during construction, transport, and operation of the Daya Bay acrylic target vessels and detectors. Mechanical and optical stability of the ac...

  12. Radiation synthesis of superabsorbent poly(acrylic acid)-carrageenan hydrogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, Sanju; Kumar, Manmohan; Varshney, Lalit E-mail: lalitv@magnum.barc.ernet.in

    2004-04-01

    A series of superabsorbent hydrogels were prepared from carrageenan and partially neutralized acrylic acid by gamma irradiation at room temperature. The gel fraction, swelling kinetics and the equilibrium degree of swelling (EDS) of the hydrogels were studied. It was found that the incorporation of even 1% carrageenan (sodium salt) increases the EDS of the hydrogels from {approx}320 to {approx}800 g/g. Thermal analysis were carried out to determine the amount of free water and bound water in the hydrogels. Under optimum conditions, poly(acrylic acid)-carrageenan hydrogels with high gel fraction ({approx}80%) and very high EDS ({approx}800 g/g) were prepared gamma radiolytically from aqueous solution containing 15% partially neutralized acrylic acid and 1-5% carrageenan. The hydrogels were also found to be sensitive to the pH and the ionic strength of the medium.

  13. [MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF RAT MUCOUS MEMBRANE OF THE TONGUE EARLY AFFECTED BY ACRYLIC RESIN MONOMER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydenko, V; Nidzelskiy, M; Starchenko, I; Davydenko, A; Kuznetsov, V

    2016-03-01

    Base materials, made on the basis of various derivatives of acrylic and methacrylic acids, have been widely used in prosthetic dentistry. Free monomer, affecting the tissues of prosthetic bed and the whole body, is always found in dentures. Therefore, study of the effect of acrylic resins' monomer on mucous membrane of the tongue is crucial. Rat tongue is very similar to human tongue, and this fact has become the basis for selecting these animals to be involved into the experiment. The paper presents the findings related to the effect of "Ftoraks" base acrylic resin monomer on the state of rat mucous membrane of the tongue and its regeneration. The microscopy has found that the greatest changes in the mucous membrane of the tongue occur on day 3 and 7 day after applying the monomer and are of erosive and inflammatory nature. Regeneration of tongue epithelium slows down. PMID:27119844

  14. Preparation and characteristics of acrylic acid/styrene composite plasma polymerized membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma polymerization has gained increasing interest for the deposition of functional plasma-polymerized membranes suitable for a wide range of applications on account of its advantageous features. In this work, acrylic acid/styrene composite plasma polymerized membranes were synthesized by plasma polymerization of a mixture of acrylic acid and styrene monomers in a low-frequency after-glow capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) discharge process. The structure and composition of the plasma polymerized membranes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that the partial pressure ratio between acrylic acid (AA) and styrene (St), applied discharge power and the energy of the extracted particles have considerable effects on the structure and the content of functional groups of the deposited membranes.

  15. New blends of ethylene-butyl acrylate copolymers with thermoplastic starch. Characterization and bacterial biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morro, A; Catalina, F; Corrales, T; Pablos, J L; Marin, I; Abrusci, C

    2016-09-20

    Ethylene-butyl acrylate copolymer (EBA) with 13% of butyl acrylate content was used to produce blends with 10, 30 and 60% of thermoplastic starch (TPS) plasticized with glycerol. Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymer (EAA) was used as compatibilizer at 20% content with respect to EBA. The blends were characterized by X-ray diffraction, ATR-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), water-Contact Angle measurements (CA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Stress-strain mechanical tests. Initiated autoxidation of the polymer blends was studied by chemiluminescence (CL) confirming that the presence of the polyolefin-TPS interphase did not substantially affect the oxidative thermostability of the materials. Three bacterial species have been isolated from the blend films buried in soil and identified as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus borstelensis and Bacillus licheniformis. Biodegradation of the blends (28days at 45°C) was evaluated by carbon dioxide measurement using the indirect impedance technique. PMID:27261731

  16. Adherence of Candida albicans to denture base acrylics and silicone-based resilient liner materials with different surface finishes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nevzatoglu, Erdem U.; Ozcan, Mutlu; Kulak-Ozkan, Yasemin; Kadir, Tanju

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the surface roughness and Candida albicans adherence on denture base acrylic resins and silicone-based resilient liners with different surface finishes. Four commercial denture base acrylic resins ( three heat polymerized and one room temperature polymerized) and five silicone-b

  17. Real-time monitoring of the penetration of amphiphilic acrylate copolymer in leather using a fluorescent copolymer as tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jin-Xia; Shi, Lu; Peng, Bi-Yu

    2015-12-01

    A fluorescent tracer, poly (acrylic-co-stearyl acrylate-co-3-acryloyl fluorescein) [poly (AA-co-SA-co-Ac-Flu)], used for real-time monitoring the penetration of amphiphilic acrylate copolymer, poly (acrylic-co-stearyl acrylate) [poly (AA-co-SA)], in leather was synthesized by radical polymerization of acrylic, stearyl acrylate and fluorescent monomer, 3-acryloyl fluorescein (Ac-Flu). The structure, molecular weight, introduced fluorescent group content and fluorescent characteristics of the fluorescent tracer and target copolymer, amphiphilic acrylate copolymer, were also characterized. The results show that the tracer presents the similar structural characteristics to the target and enough fluorescence intensity with 1.68 wt % of the fluorescent monomer introduced amount. The vertical section of the leather treated with the target copolymer mixing with 7% of the tracer exhibits evident fluorescence, and the change of fluorescence intensity along with the vertical section with treating time increasing can reflect the penetration depth of the target copolymer. The introduction of the fluorescent group in polymer structure through copolymerization with a limited amount of fluorescent monomer, Ac-Flu, is an effective way to make a tracer to monitor the penetration of the target in leather, which provides a new thought for the penetration research of syntans such as vinyl copolymer materials in leather manufacture.

  18. The influence of ultrasound on the release of gentamicin from antibiotic-loaded acrylic beads and bone cements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ensing, GT; Hendriks, JGE; Jongsma, JE; van Horn, [No Value; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    2005-01-01

    Gentamicin-loaded acrylic beads are loosely placed in infected bone cavities, whereas gentamicin-loaded acrylic bone cement is used as a mechanical filler in bone to anchor prosthetic components. Both drug delivery systems are used to decrease infection rates by gentamicin release. The objective of

  19. Electroactive behavior assessment of poly(acrylic acid)-graphene oxide composite hydrogel in the detection of cadmium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bejarano-Jimenez, A.; Escobar-Barrios, V.A.; Kleijn, J.M.; Oritz-Ledon, C.A.; Chazaro-Ruiz, L.F.

    2014-01-01

    Super absorbent polymers of acrylic acid-graphene oxide (PAA-GO) were synthesized with different percentage of chemical neutralization (0, 10, and 20%) of the acrylic acid monomer before its polymerization. The influence of their swelling and adsorption/desorption capacity of cadmium ions in aqueous

  20. SYNTHESIS OF 2—HYDROXYETHYL ACRYLATE BY USING STRONG ACIDIC CATION ION EXCHANGE RESIN AS CATALYST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAODabin

    1992-01-01

    2-Hydroxyethyl acrylate is synthesized from acrylic acid and ethylene glycol under a simple and mild condition by using strong acidic cation ion exchange resin as a catalyst,which could be recycled as long as 10 times with high activation.

  1. Patients' adherence to hard acrylic interocclusal appliance treatment in general dental practice in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindfors, Erik; Helkimo, Martti; Magnusson, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate patient adherence to treatment with hard acrylic interocclusal appliance in general dentistry in Sweden and to see if some general factors could predict patient adherence or non-adherence. During the period January - May 2009 a postal questionnaire was sent to all adult patients (> or = 20 years of age) that had received a hard acrylic interocclusal appliance from the public dental health service in the County of Uppsala during 2007 (n=388). The same questionnaire was also sent to all adult patients that had received a hard acrylic interocclusal appliance at a specialist clinic during the same year (n=69). The response rate in general dental practice was 71% and at the specialist clinic the response rate was 91%. In general dental practice, 97% of the hard acrylic interocclusal appliances were stabilisation appliances. At the specialist clinic other types of interocclusal appliances was used to a greater extent. A vast majority of patients in both general dental practice and at the specialist clinic experienced that the interocclusal appliance had a positive treatment effect. In general dental practice, 73% of the patients still used their interocclusal appliances 1 1/2-2 years after they had received them. The corresponding figure at the specialist clinic was 54%. The main reasons for not using the interocclusal appliance, besides disappearance/reduction of TMD symptoms, were different kinds of comfort problems. From the results of this study it is concluded that the patient adherence to hard acrylic stabilisation appliances made in general dental practice in Sweden is good. It can also be concluded that a perceived good treatment effect, as well as treatment of more long-term conditions, predicted a better patient adherence to hard acrylic stabilisation appliances. More studies concerning factors affecting patient adherence in TMD therapy are warranted.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of poly acrylic acid/graphite oxide nanocomposite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡源; 丁溶芳; 徐加艳; 王清安; 陈祖耀; 范维澄

    2003-01-01

    Acrylic acid-intercalated graphite oxide and poly acrylic acid (PAA)-intercalated graphite oxide were prepared and characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) and high resolution electronic microscope (HREM). Results show that the intercalation process is not only a physical diffusion process but also mainly a chemical reaction process. The high resolution electronic microscope results also reveal that the Ic value of PAA-intercalated graphite oxide (GO) could change widely from 1.6nm to 4.0nm.

  3. The influence of Copolimers Acrylic Acid onto Poli(Etilene Terephthalate)woven fabric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To improve suitability of wearing poli etilene terephthalate (PET) wovenfabric, it need to enhance the ability in absorbing of water vapour. For theabove reason acrylic acid (AA) has been grafted onto PET wovenfabric(PET-g-AA). Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) data show that poly(acrylic acid) have grafted onto PET woven fabric. Thermal propertiesobtained from DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimeter) measurements of PET-g-AA show that the grafting does not affect bulk properties of PET. Thedecrease of the tensile strength had occurred to PET-g-MMA, however it ratherinfluenced by the reaction time than the initial concentration of acrylicacid. (author)

  4. Synthesis of Acrylic Acid/Kaoline Powder Superabsorbent Composite by Inverse-suspending Polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Jin-feng; XUE Yi-ming; WU Ji-huai; LIN Jian-ming; WEI Yue-lin

    2004-01-01

    An acrylic acid/kaoline powder superabsorbent composite with a water absorbency of the superabsorbent composite about 1/800 was synthesized by inverse-suspending polymerization reaction between acrylic acid monomer and kaoline ultrafine powder. The influence of the dispersant agent on the configuration of the products in the inverse suspension polymerization is investigated. The influences of the kaoline powder, cross-linker, initiator, neutralization degree and the volume ratio of oil to water phase on the water absorbency of the superabsorbent composites are discussed in the paper.

  5. Radioluminescence of polyester resin modified with acrylic acid and its salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalińska, H.; Wypych, M.; Pietrzak, M.; Szadkowska-Nicze, M.

    Polimal-109 polyester resin and its compounds containing acrylic acid and its salts such as: sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, barium, iron, cobalt, copper and manganese acrylates were studied by the radioluminescence method, including isothermal luminescence (ITL) at a radiation temperature of 77 K, thermoluminescence (RTL) and spectral distributions of isothermal luminescence. Measurements of optical absorption at 77 K before and after irradiation of the investigated samples were also carried out. The results obtained have shown that metal ions play a significant part in the processes taking place in the polyester matrix under the influence of γ 60Co radiation.

  6. Graft Copolymerization of Acrylic Acid onto Fungal Cell Wall Structural Polysaccharide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Acrylic acid was graft-copolymerized onto Rhi. oryzae's cell wall structural polysacchaxide directly and efficiently in aqueous solution with ceric ammonium nitrate as initiator. The maximal grafting percentage of 135.5% was obtained under the condition of [Ce4+]=5mmol.L-1, [AA]=1mol.L-1, T=60°C and t=3h. Graft copolymerization was suggested to proceed through free radical reaction mechanism. Grafting occurred primarily on chitosan. Acrylic acid was also attempted to be grafted onto Asp. niger cell wall structural polysaccharide, and only 44.2% of grafting percentage was resulted.

  7. Modelling and manufacture of regular microstructures with high aspect ratio in acrylic plastic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of manufacture of microstructures with high aspect ratio in industrial acrylic plastic by the method of deep X-ray lithography is investigated. A characteristic dependence of the rate of dissolution of the polymer on the dose of the radiation absorbed is obtained. Processing regimes for the formation of deep structures were selected. A model for computation of the profile of development of structures in view of large exhibition depth was suggested. 25x25 μm through channels were obtained in sheet acrylic plastic 1000 μm thick

  8. Covalent Functionalization of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes with Poly(acrylic acid)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU, Yan-Xin; DU, Zhong-Jie; LI, Yan; ZHANG, Chen; LI, Hang-Quan

    2006-01-01

    Covalent functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) with poly(acrylic acid) has been successfully achieved via grafting of poly(acryloyl chloride) on nanotube surface by esterification reaction of acyl chloride-bound polymer with hydroxyl functional groups present on acid-oxidized MWNT and hydrolysis of polymer attached to nanotubes. Polymer-functionalized MWNT could possess remarkably high solubility in water, and their aqueous solution was very stable without any observable black deposit for a long time. Characterizations of such functionalized MWNT samples using Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, transmission electron microscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques indicated that poly(acrylic acid) was covalently attached to the surface of MWNT.

  9. Hydrophobically Modified Polyelectrolytes: V. Interaction of Fluorocarbon Modified Poly (acrylic acid) with Various Added Surfactants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU,Hui(周晖); SONG,Guo-Qaiang(宋国强); GUO,Jin-Feng(郭金峰); ZHANG,Yun-xiang (章云祥); DIEING,Reinhold; MA,Lian(马莲); HAEUSSLING,Lukas

    2001-01-01

    The interactions between fiuorocarbon-medified pol(sodium acrylate) and various kinds of added surfactant have been studied by means of viscometric measurement. Association behavior was found in both hydrogenated and fluorinated anionic, nonionic and cationic surfactants. Among them, the interactions between fluorocarbon-modified poly ( sodium acrylate) and cationic surfactants are the strongest, owing to the cooperation of both electrostatic attractions and hydrophobic associations. The anionic surfactants have the weakest effects on the solution properties because of the existence of unfavorable electrostatic repulsion. The hydrophobic interactions between copolymers and fluorinated surfactants are much stronger than those between copolymers and hydrogenated surfactants.

  10. Chemical Fixation of CO{sub 2} to Acrylates Using Low-Valent Molybdenum Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernskoetter, Wesley

    2013-09-30

    The kinetic, mechanistic, and reactivity experiments to access the viability and possible reaction design of coupling of carbon dioxide and ethylene at a zerovalent molybdenum for the production of acrylates are described. A general model of the reaction mechanism has been outlined, including assessment of the rate limiting step in the reaction. Kinetic and computational data have valuated the influence of a range of tridentate ligand platforms on the rate of coupling. An in situ reduction and acrylate formation activity screen protocol has also been developed to aid in the technology development of this process. Portions of descriptions of the research products presented here have also been adapted with permission from journal publications.

  11. The Modification of the Acrylate Emulsion for Water-Based Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Wei-Feng; Fa-Ai Zhang

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction The developments of the environment friendly materials and technology are largely promoted recently.There also come some new kinds of coatings including water-based coating, powder coating, high-solid coating and UV-cured coating[1]. The emulsion polymerization is the main method for preparing the polymer for coatings. One of the most widely used polymers is acrylate resin which is not well in some properties, such as weather resistance, endurance and water resistance[2]. We hope to improve the various properties of the acrylic emulsion by adding silicone made from tetraethyl orthosilicate(TEOS), making it better applied in coating field.

  12. Miconazole activity against Candida biofilms developed on acrylic discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremedhin, S; Dorocka-Bobkowska, B; Prylinski, M; Konopka, K; Duzgunes, N

    2014-08-01

    Oral candidiasis in the form of Candida-associated denture stomatitis (CaDS) is associated with Candida adhesion and biofilm formation on the fitting surface of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) dentures. Candida biofilms show considerable resistance to most conventional antifungal agents, a phenomenon that is considered a developmental-phase-specific event that may help explain the high recurrence rates associated with CaDS. The aim of this study was to examine the activity of miconazole towards in vitro-grown mature Candida biofilms formed on heat-cured PMMA discs as a standardized model. The effect of miconazole nitrate on Candida biofilms developed on acrylic discs was determined for C. albicans MYA-2732 (ATCC), C. glabrata MYA-275 (ATCC), and clinical isolates, C. albicans 6122/06, C. glabrata 7531/06, C. tropicalis 8122/06, and C. parapsilosis 11375/07. Candida biofilms were developed on heat-cured poly(methyl methacrylate) discs and treated with miconazole (0.5 - 96 μg/ml). The metabolic activity of the biofilms was measured by the XTT reduction assay. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of miconazole against Candida species were determined by the microdilution method. The MICs for miconazole for the investigated strains ranged from 0.016-32 μg/ml. Treatment with miconazole resulted in a significant reduction of biofilm metabolic activity for all strains. The highest inhibition was observed at 96 μg/ml miconazole. In the case of C. glabrata MYA-275 and C. tropicalis 8122/06 this corresponded to 83.7% and 75.4% inhibition, respectively. The lowest reduction was observed for C. parapsilosis 11375/07-46.1%. For all Candida strains there was a strong correlation between MIC values and miconazole concentrations corresponding to a reduction of metabolic activity of the biofilm by 50%. Miconazole exhibits high antifungal activity against Candida biofilms developed on the surface of PMMA discs. The study provides support for the use of miconazole as an

  13. Cytocompatible antifungal acrylic resin containing silver nanoparticles for dentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acosta-Torres LS

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Laura Susana Acosta-Torres,1 Irasema Mendieta,2 Rosa Elvira Nuñez-Anita,3 Marcos Cajero-Juárez,3 Víctor M Castaño41National School of Higher Education, School of Dentistry - Leon Unit, National Autonomus University of Mexico (UNAM, Leon, Guanajuato, 2Neurobiology Institute, National Autonomus University of Mexico (UNAM, Juriquilla, Queretaro, 3Animal Biotechnology Laboratory, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine at San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Michoacán University, Michoacán, 4Molecular Materials Department, Applied Physics and Advanced Technology Center, National Autonomus University of Mexico (UNAM, Juriquilla, Queretaro, MexicoBackground: Inhibition of Candida albicans on denture resins could play a significant role in preventing the development of denture stomatitis. The safety of a new dental material with antifungal properties was analyzed in this work.Methods: Poly(methyl methacrylate [PMMA] discs and PMMA-silver nanoparticle discs were formulated, with the commercial acrylic resin, Nature-CrylTM, used as a control. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, dispersive Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The antifungal effect was assessed using a luminescent microbial cell viability assay. Biocompatibility tests were carried out using NIH-3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts and a Jurkat human lymphocyte cell line. Cells were cultured for 24 or 72 hours in the presence or absence of the polymer formulations and analyzed using three different tests, ie, cellular viability by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay, and cell proliferation by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay BrdU, and genomic DNA damage (Comet assay. Finally, the samples were evaluated mechanically, and the polymer-bearing silver nanoparticles were analyzed microscopically to evaluate dispersion of the nanoparticles.Results: The results show that PMMA-silver nanoparticle discs

  14. Proton Exchange Membrane from the Blend of Copolymers of Vinyl Acetate- Acrylic Ester and Styrene-Acrylic Ester for Power Generation Using Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Realpe

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Proton exchange membranes for fuel cells were synthesized from the blend of copolymers of vinyl acetate-acrylic ester and styrene-acrylic ester, which were modified by sulfonation and addition of silica gel. Water uptake, ion exchange capacity, infrared spectroscopy and tensile tests were applied to characterize the prepared membranes. The results show that the prepared membranes with the processes of sulfonation and loaded with silica have the highest water uptake (92,7%. On the other hand, the sulfonation process lead to membranes with high ion exchange capacity and high mechanical strength (0,68 meq/g and 1,29 MPa, respectively. Therefore, the sulfonated membrane represents an alternative for the application as proton exchange membrane in fuel cells.

  15. Characterisation of UV-cured acrylate networks by means of hydrolysis followed by aqueous size-exclusion combined with reversed-phase chromatography.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Peters; V.M. Litvinov; P. Steeman; A.A. Dias; Y. Mengerink; R. van Benthem; C.G. de Koster; S. van der Wal; P.J. Schoenmakers

    2007-01-01

    UV-cured networks prepared from mixtures of di-functional (polyethylene-glycol di-acrylate) and mono-functional (2-ethylhexyl acrylate) acrylates were analysed after hydrolysis, by aqueous size-exclusion chromatography coupled to on-line reversed-phase liquid-chromatography. The mean network density

  16. Assembly of Hydrophobically Modified Poly(acrylic acid) with Cyclodextrins%Assembly of Hydrophobically Modified Poly(acrylic acid) with Cyclodextrins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Hydrophobically modified poly(acrylic acid)s (HMPAA) with alkyl (C12 or C18) substitution degree ranging from 3% to 10% were synthesized. Their rheological properties in aqueous solutions can be controlled by adding native cyclodextrins (CD) and surfactant SDS. Upon addition of CD, the viscosity of HMPAA solution was reduced significantly because of the destruction of hydrophobic associations by capping the hydrophobic alkyl groups by CD due to the host-guest complexation.

  17. Assessment of the flexural strength of two heat-curing acrylic resins for artificial eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Aline Ursula Rocha; Portugal, Aline; Veloso, Letícia Rocha; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Santos, Daniela Micheline dos

    2009-01-01

    Prosthetic eyes are artificial substitutes for the eyeball, made of heat-curing acrylic resin, serving to improve the esthetic appearance of the mutilated patient and his/her inclusion in society. The aim of this study was to assess the flexural strength of two heat-curing acrylic resins used for manufacturing prosthetic eyes. Thirty-six specimens measuring 64 x 10 x 3.3 mm were obtained and divided into four groups: acrylic resin for artificial sclera N1 (Artigos Odontológicos Clássico, São Paulo, SP, Brazil), heat-cure water technique (GI) and microwave-cured (GII); colorless acrylic resin for prosthetic eyes (Artigos Odontológicos Clássico, São Paulo, SP, Brazil), heat-cure water technique (GIII) and microwave-cured (GIV). Mechanical tests using three point loads were performed in a test machine (EMIC, São José dos Pinhais, PR, Brazil). The analysis of variance and the Tukey test were used to identify significant differences (p < 0.01). Groups GII and GIV presented, respectively, the highest (98.70 +/- 11.90 MPa) and lowest means (71.07 +/- 8.93 MPa), with a statistically significant difference. The cure method used for the prosthetic eye resins did not interfere in their flexural strength. It was concluded that all the resins assessed presented sufficient flexural strength values to be recommended for the manufacture of prosthetic eyes. PMID:19893960

  18. Effect of Nanoclay on Thermal Conductivity and Flexural Strength of Polymethyl Methacrylate Acrylic Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Ghaffari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: The mechanical and thermal properties of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA acrylic resin should be improved to counterweigh its structural deficiencies. Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the flexural strength and thermal conductivity of conventional acrylic resin and acrylic resin loaded with nanoclay. Materials and Method: The methacrylate monomer containing the 0.5, 1 and 2 wt% of nanoclay was placed in an ultrasonic probe and mixed with the PMMA powder. Scanning electron microscopy was used to verify homogeneous distribution of particles. Twenty-four 20×20×200-mm cubic samples were prepared for flexural strength test; 18 samples containing nanoclay and 6 samples for the control group. Another 24 cylindrical samples of 38×25 mm were prepared for thermal conductivity test. One-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis, followed by multiple-comparison test (Scheffé’s test. Statistical significance was set at p< 0.05. Results: Increasing the concentration of nanoclay incorporated into the acrylic resin samples increased thermal conductivity but decreased flexural strength (p< 0.05. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, adding nanoclay particles to PMMA improved its thermal conductivity, while it had a negative effect on the flexural strength.

  19. Delamination of layered double hydroxides in polar monomers: new LDH-acrylate nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Shane; O'Hare, Dermot; Seeley, Gordon

    2002-07-21

    The layered double hydroxide Mg2Al(OH)6(C12H25SO4) was delaminated to give high levels of inclusion in acrylate monomers; subsequent polymerisation of the monomers containing the LDH dispersion gave polyacrylates with the inorganic component still in the delaminated form. PMID:12189866

  20. Novel Polymers Based on Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization of 2-Methoxyethyl Acrylate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bednarek, Melania; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Hvilsted, Søren

    2007-01-01

    Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) has been employed in the polymerization of 2-methoxyethyl acrylate (MEA) initiated by ethyl 2-bromoisobutyrate in bulk or in toluene solution at 90– 95 C with the catalytic systems Cu(I)Br/PMDETA or HMTETA. Kinetics investigations revealed that ATRP of...

  1. Inhibition of candida adhesion to denture acrylic byBoesenbergia pandurata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thaweboon Sroisiri; Thaweboon Boonyanit

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To investigate effect ofBoesenbergia pandurata (B. pandurata) rhizome extract on adhesion ofCandida albicans (C. albicans) to acrylic surface.Methods: Transparent acrylic strips were prepared and divided into three groups with pretreatment by extract solution ofB. pandurata rhizome at concentration of 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL, respectively. After washing, the strips were then inoculated with two strains ofC. albicans (ATCC13803 and the clinical isolate) (107cells/mL). Normal saline solution and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. Stained the strips with modified Gram stain without counterstain. Adherent yeast cells were direct counted under microscope (Olympus-CX31, Japan) in 20 randomly selected fields on each strip. The statistical significance was calculated by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney non-parametric tests at a significance level ofP < 0.05.Results: Pretreatment withB. pandurata extract significantly reduced the adhesion of both strains ofC. albicans to acrylic surfaces in a dose dependent manner.Conclusions:This observation indicates thatB. pandurata extract has an inhibitory effect on the ability ofC. albicans to adhere to denture acrylic and could be employed as an antifungal agent for preventing denture stomatitis.

  2. The application of FT-IR spectrum method in photocuring process for polyester acrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes that the UV curing process of polyester acrylate can be monitored by measuring the degree of double bonds conversion with FT-IR spectroscopy. The various factors effect the UV curing rate. The relation between the curing rate and the concentration of photoinitiator, crosslinking agent, UV light intensity was discussed. (author)

  3. New hybrid latexes from a soybean oil-based waterborne polyurethane and acrylics via emulsion polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yongshang; Larock, Richard C

    2007-10-01

    A series of new waterborne polyurethane (PU)/acrylic hybrid latexes have been successfully synthesized by the emulsion polymerization of acrylic monomers (butyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate) in the presence of a soybean oil-based waterborne PU dispersion using potassium persulfate as an initiator. The waterborne PU dispersion has been synthesized by a polyaddition reaction of toluene 2,4-diisocyanate and a soybean oil-based polyol (SOL). The resulting hybrid latexes, containing 15-60 wt % SOL as a renewable resource, are very stable and exhibit uniform particle sizes of 125 +/- 20 nm as determined by transmittance electronic microscopy. The structure, thermal, and mechanical properties of the resulting hybrid latex films have been investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, solid state 13C NMR spectroscopy, dynamic mechanical analysis, extraction, and mechanical testing. Grafting copolymerization of the acrylic monomers onto the PU network occurs during the emulsion polymerization, leading to a significant increase in the thermal and mechanical properties of the resulting hybrid latexes. This work provides a new way of utilizing renewable resources to prepare environmentally friendly hybrid latexes with high performance for coating applications. PMID:17877401

  4. Polymer coating comprising 2-methoxyethyl acrylate units synthesized by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Source: US2012184029A The present invention relates to preparation of a polymer coating comprising or consisting of polymer chains comprising or consisting of units of 2-methoxyethyl acrylate synthesized by Surface-Initiated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (SI ATRP) such as ARGET SI ATRP or...

  5. Evaluation of thermal conductivity of heat-cured acrylic resin mixed with A1203

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebadian B.

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important characteristics of denture base is thermal conductivity. This property has a major role in secretions of salivary glands and their enzymes, taste of the food and gustatory response. Polymethyl methacrylate used in prosthodontics is relatively an insulator. Different materials such as metal fillers and ceramics have been used to solve this problem. The aim of this study was the evaluation of AI2O3 effect on thermal conductivity of heat-cured acrylic resin. Acrylic resin was mixed with AI2O3 in two different weight rates (15 and 20 % of weight. So, group 1 and 2 were divided on this basis. Samples with pure acrylic resin were considered as control group. 18 cylindrical patterns were made in 9x9 mm dimensions and thermocouple wires embedded in each sample to act as conductor. The specimens were put in water with 70±1°C thermal range for 10 minutes. Then, thermal conductivity was measured. The results were analyzed with variance analysis and Dunken test. There was significant difference between thermal conductivity of all groups in all period times. It the first seconds, thermal conductivity in groups 1 and 2 were more than control group. Therefore, for developing of thermal conductivity of acrylic resin, A1203 can be used. Certainly, other characteristic of new resin should be evaluated.

  6. Gold Nanoparticles Protected with Thiol-Derivatized Amphiphilic Poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-b-poly(acrylic acid)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javakhishvili, Irakli; Hvilsted, Søren

    2009-01-01

    Amphiphilic poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-b-poly(acrylic acid) (HS-PCL-b-PAA) with a thiol functionality in the PCL terminal has been prepared in a novel synthetic cascade. Initially, living anionic ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of epsilon-caprolactone (epsilon-CL) employing the difunctional...

  7. 21 CFR 177.2000 - Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... methacrylate polymers. 177.2000 Section 177.2000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.2000 Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers. The vinylidene chloride/methyl...

  8. Polymorphism and polymerisation of acrylic and methacrylic acid at high pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oswald, Iain D. H.; Urquhart, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    The polymorphism and polymerisation of two related acids have been investigated under high pressure conditions. Acrylic acid crystallises as a new polymorph at 0.65 GPa whilst methacrylic acid crystallises in a new polymorph at a higher pressure of 1.5 GPa. Both these new polymorphs exhibit similar...

  9. Selective oxidation of propane to acrylic acid over mixed metal oxide catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zheng; Zhenxing Yu; Ping Zhang; Yuhang Zhang; Hongying Fu; Xiaoli Zhang; Qiquan Sun; Xinguo Hu

    2008-01-01

    The effects of metal atomic ratio, water content, oxygen content, and calcination temperature on the catalytic perfor-mances of MoVTeNbO mixed oxide catalyst system for the selective oxidation of propane to acrylic acid have been investigated and discussed. Among the catalysts studied, it was found that the MoVTeNbO catalyst calcined at a temperature of 600 ℃ showed the best performance in terms of propane conversion and selectivity for acrylic acid under an atmosphere of nitrogen. An effective MoVTeNbO oxide catalyst for propane selective oxidation to acrylic acid was obtained with a combination of a preferred metal atomic ratio (Mo1 V0.31Te0.23Nb0.12). The optimum reaction condition for the selective oxidation of propane was the molar ratio of C3H81 :O2 : H2O : N1 = 4.4 : 12.8 : 15.3 : 36.9. Under such conditions, the conversion of propane and the maximum yield of acrylic acid reached about 50% and 21%, respectively.

  10. Propagation of ultrasonic guided waves in an acrylic plate as a cortical-bone-mimicking phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Il [Kangwon National University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Bok Kyoung [Maritime Security Research Center, KIOST, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    The present study aims to investigate the propagation of ultrasonic guided waves in an acrylic plate as a cortical-bone-mimicking phantom. The velocities of the guided waves in a 5-mm-thick acrylic plate were measured by using the axial transmission technique. A pure A0 Lamb mode could be successfully launched in the 5-mm-thick acrylic plate through a time reversal process of Lamb waves, consistent with the fact that the time reversal process can automatically compensate for the dispersive nature of Lamb waves. The experimental velocities of the slow guided wave (SGW) and the time-reversed Lamb wave were found to be in reasonable agreement with the theoretical group velocity of the A0 Lamb mode, suggesting that both the SGW and the time-reversed Lamb wave excited in the 5-mm-thick acrylic plate correspond to the A0 Lamb mode. These results suggest that the time reversal process of Lamb waves can be usefully applied to noninvasive characterization of long cortical bones.

  11. STUDY OF OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF ACRYLIC HYDROGEL USED IN POLLUTANTS DISPLAY SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    ITIN ALEKSEY L.; LUKIN SERGEY B.; USPENSKAYA MAYA V.; SOLOVIEV VALERY S.

    2012-01-01

    Results of investigations of optical properties of acrylic hydrogel used as a sensitive element in optoelectronic systems of pollutants display are presented. Spectral features and functions of the hydrogel refractive index variation under exposure to different pollutants are measured at various concentrations of polyvalent metals at room temperature.

  12. Morphological alteration of microwave disinfected acrylic resins used for dental prostheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, M. C.; Bita, B. I.; Avram, A. M.; Tucureanu, V.; Schiopu, P.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we aim to perform a cross section morphological characterization of an acrylic polymer used for dental prostheses subjected to microwave disinfection. The method was largely investigated and the microbiological effectiveness is well established, but there are some issues regarding the in-depth alteration of the material. In our research, the surface roughness is insignificant and the samples were not polished or refined by any means. Two groups of 7 acrylic discs (20 mm diameter, 2 mm thickness) were prepared from a heat-cured powder. Half of the samples embedded a stainless steel reinforcement, in order to observe the changes at the interfaces between the polymer and metallic wire. After the gradual wet microwave treatment, the specimens - including the controls - were frozen in liquid nitrogen and broken into pieces. Fragments were selected for gold metallization to ensure a good contrast for SEM imaging. We examined the samples in cross section employing a high resolution SEM. We have observed the alterations occurred at the surface of the acrylic sample and at the interface with the metallic wire along with the increase of the power and exposure time. The bond configuration of acrylate samples was analysed by FTIR spectrometry.

  13. In vitro release of doxycycline from bioabsorbable materials and acrylic strips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T

    1990-01-01

    Treatment of marginal periodontitis may include use of local antibiotics. In the present in vitro study the bioabsorbable materials Surgicel, Tissell, and CollaCote and acrylic strips were examined for release of doxycycline into liquids and residual antibacterial activity of the materials. Piece...

  14. Effect of tyrosol on adhesion of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata to acrylic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Douglas Roberto; Feresin, Leonardo Perina; Arias, Laís Salomão; Barão, Valentim Adelino Ricardo; Barbosa, Debora Barros; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo

    2015-09-01

    The prevention of adhesion of Candida cells to acrylic surfaces can be regarded as an alternative to prevent denture stomatitis. The use of quorum sensing molecules, such as tyrosol, could potentially interfere with the adhesion process. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of tyrosol on adhesion of single and mixed cultures of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata to acrylic resin surfaces. Tyrosol was diluted in each yeast inoculum (10(7) cells/ml in artificial saliva) at 25, 50, 100, and 200 mM. Then, each dilution was added to wells of 24-well plates containing the acrylic specimens, and the plates were incubated at 37°C for 2 h. After, the effect of tyrosol was determined by total biomass quantification, metabolic activity of the cells and colony-forming unit counting. Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) was used as a positive control. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Holm-Sidak post hoc test (α = 0.05). The results of total biomass quantification and metabolic activity revealed that the tyrosol promoted significant reductions (ranging from 22.32 to 86.16%) on single C. albicans and mixed cultures. Moreover, tyrosol at 200 mM and CHG significantly reduced (p Candida adhesion to acrylic resin, and further investigations are warranted to clarify its potential against Candida infections.

  15. Effect of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. on candida adhesion to oral epithelium and denture acrylic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Boonyanit Thaweboon; Sroisiri Thaweboon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of Phyllanthus emblica (P. emblica) Linn. ethanolic extract on the adhesion of Candida albicans (C. albicans) to human buccal epithelial cells (BECs) and denture acrylic surfaces. Methods: Human BECs and transparent acrylic strips were pretreated with ethanolic extract solution of P. emblica fruits at concentration ranged from 18.7 to 300 mg/mL. After washing BECs and the strips were inoculated with three strains of C. albicans (ATCC 10281 and two clinical isolates) (107 cells/mL). Normal saline solution (NSS) and 0.2%chlorhexidine gluconate were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. BECs were harvested on 12 μm-polycarbonate filters (Millipore, USA). The membrane filters and the strips were stained with Gram stain. Adherent yeast cells on 100 randomly selected epithelial cells and 20 randomly selected fields on each strip were counted under microscope. The statistical significance was calculated by Kruskal-Wallis and Tukey tests at a significant level of P< 0.05.Results:Significant lower numbers of all strains of yeasts adhering to BECs and acrylic strips were observed after exposure to 75-300 mg/mL of plant extract compared with NSS. Conclusions:The present study demonstrates that P. emblica ethanolic extract interferes with the adhesion of C.albicans to BECs and denture acrylic surfaces in vitro.

  16. Deep UV patterning of acrylic masters for molding biomimetic dry adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sameoto, D.; Menon, C.

    2010-11-01

    We present a novel fabrication method for the production of biomimetic dry adhesives that allows enormous variation in fiber shapes and sizes. The technology is based on deep-UV patterning of commercial acrylic with semi-collimated light available from germicidal lamps, and combined careful processing conditions, material selection and novel developer choices to produce relatively high-aspect-ratio fibers with overhanging caps on large areas. These acrylic fibers are used as a master mold for subsequent silicone rubber negative mold casting. Because the bulk acrylic demonstrates little inherent adhesion to silicone rubbers, the master molds created in this process do not require any surface treatments to achieve high-yield demolding of interlocked structures. Multiple polymers can be cast from silicone rubber negative molds and this process could be used to structure smart materials on areas over multiple square feet. Using direct photopatterning of acrylic allows many of the desired structures for biomimetic dry adhesives to be produced with relative ease compared to silicon-based molding processes, including angled fibers and hierarchical structures. Optimized fiber shapes for a variety of polymers can be produced using this process, and adhesion measurements on a well-characterized polyurethane, ST-1060, are used to determine the effect of fiber geometry on adhesion performance.

  17. Polypyrrole-coated styrene-butyl acrylate copolymer composite particles with tunable conductivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Liyan; HOU Wenbo; LIU Zhengping; ZHANG Qingyue

    2005-01-01

    A series of near or monodisperse styrene-butyl acrylate (SBA) copolymer latex particles with different butyl acrylate contents were coated with polypyrrole. The structure of the SBA/PPy composites was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and standard four-probe method. The core-shell morphology of the SBA/PPy composite particles was confirmed. The result of DSC showed that Tg of the composite is mainly determined by the core component. The effects of the concentration of polypyrrole, the butyl acrylate content in SBA copolymer and the nature of the counter-anion on the electrical conductivity of compression-moulded samples were studied. It was first found that the electrical conductivity of the samples can be tuned by varying the butyl acrylate content in SBA copolymer and the highest conductivity of the core-shell composite was 0.17 S·cm-1.

  18. Effect of Microwave Cured Acrylic Resin on Candidal Growth in Complete denture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of heat-cured acrylic resin denture base and microwave-cured acrylic resin denture base on Candidal growth. Seven completely edentulous male patients with no history of denture wearing participated in this study. All the selected patients were re-habilitated by mucosa supported complete dentures. The dentures were constructed from conventional heat-cured acrylic resin denture base following monoplane concept of occlusion. Before dismissing the patients and one month after denture insertion, salivary samples were collected according to oral rinse technique. One month resting period was allowed so as Candidal count can reach to normal. Then dentures were re based using microwave-cured acrylic denture base, before denture insertion and one month after denture insertion, salivary sample were collected before and one month following the same oral rinse technique. In the oral rinse technique, the patients were instructed to rinse their mouths with 10 mL of sterile phosphate buffered saline for 60 seconds. The rinse was then expectorated into a universal container and immediately transported to the laboratory for concentration by centrifugation, then cultured on sabouraud's dextrose agar plates which were incubated at 37 degree C for 48 hours. Microscopic examination and germ tube test were carried out for laboratory investigations. In addition, the morphological features of the isolated Candida from the samples tested in this study, were investigated using the scanning electron microscope(SEM)

  19. Epoxy and acrylate stereolithography resins: In-situ measurements of cure shrinkage and stress relaxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guess, T.R.; Chambers, R.S.; Hinnerichs, T.D.; McCarty, G.D.; Shagam, R.N.

    1995-03-01

    Cross-sections of resin strands. Techniques were developed to make in situ measurements of gelled resin to determine linear shrinkage, stress-strain response and stress relaxation of single strands of SL 5170 epoxy and SL 5149 photocurable resins. Epoxy strands shrank approximately 1.4% and the acrylate strands about 1.0% after a single exposure. No forces were measured during cure shrinkage of strands following the first laser exposure. In multiple laser exposures, the acrylate continues to shrink; whereas (University of Dayton data) no additional shrinkage is observed in epoxy strands on a second hit. In force relaxation tests, a strand is drawn and then a 0.5% step strain is applied after different elapsed times. The epoxy initial modulus evolves (increases) with elapsed time following draw of the strand, and this evolution in modulus occurs after linear shrinkage has stopped. On the other hand, acrylates show no evolution of modulus with elapsed time following a single laser draw; i.e., once shrinkage stops after one laser hit, the initial modulus remains stable with elapsed time. Finally, relaxation response times of epoxy strands get larger with increasing elapsed time after laser draw. In acrylate strands there was no evolution in initial modulus with elapsed time after a single draw so relaxation times are not a function of elapsed time after a single hit with the laser.

  20. Monitor of Polymerization of Inverse Microemulsions Containing Methyl Methacrylate and Acrylic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao LI; Sheng Ping XIA; Wei Jie ZENG; Wei Ying ZHANG; Sheng Xiong DONG

    2006-01-01

    The polymerization of the inverse microemulsions composed of methyl methacrylate,acrylic acid, sodium dodecyl sulfate and water was monitored by refractometer, conductometer and time-resolved light scattering device. The results showed that refractive index, conductivity or intensity distribution of scattered light changed along with polymerization, and different processes of polymerization could be identified.

  1. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Study on Corrosion Protection of Acrylate Nanocomposite on Mild Steel Doped Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, M. R.; Akhir, M. M.; Shamsudin, M. S.; Afaah, A. N.; Aadila, A.; Asib, N. A. M.; Alrokayan, Salman A. H.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Harun, M. K.; Rusop, M.; Abdullah, S.

    2015-05-01

    Acrylate:carbon nanotubes (A:CNTs) nanocomposite thin film was prepared by sol- gel technique. The corrosion coating protection of acrylate:carbon nanotubes (CNTs) nanocomposite thin film has been coated on mild steel characterised by electrochemical impedance spectrometer (EIS) measurement and equivalent circuit model are employed to analyse coating impedance for corrosion protection. In this study, 3.5 w/v % sodium chloride (NaCl) solution was immersed the acrylate:carbon nanotubes nanocomposite thin film. As the results, the surface morphology were found that there formation of carbon nanotubes with good distribution on acrylate-based coating. From EIS measurement, A:CNTs nanocomposite thin film with 0.4 w/v % contain of CNTs was exhibited the highest coating impedance from Nyquist graph after immersed in sodium chloride solution and may provide the excellent corrosion protection. The Bode plots have shown the impedance is high at the beginning from the time at high frequency and slightly decreases with value of frequency become smaller.

  2. The use of epoxidised palm oil products (EPOP) for the synthesis of radiation curable resins 1. Synthesis of epoxidised RBD palm olein acrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of acrylated olein utilizing epoxidised refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm olein has been carried out by acrylation reaction. This is done by the introduction of acrylic acid into oxirane group of the epoxidised RBD palm olein. The reaction was confirmed by analytical data i.e. oxirane oxygen content, iodine value and acid value and IR spectrophotometric method. It was found that, oxirane group in triglyceride molecule of epoxidised RBD palm olein (EPOL) is attacked by acrylic acid to yield epoxidised RBD palm olein acrylate (EPOLA). The EPOLA was found curable when subjected to ultraviolet radiation

  3. Transdermal thiol-acrylate polyethylene glycol hydrogel synthesis using near infrared light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Solchan; Lee, Hwangjae; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Kim, Min-Gon; Lee, Luke P.; Lee, Jae Young

    2016-07-01

    Light-induced polymerization has been widely applied for hydrogel synthesis, which conventionally involves the use of ultraviolet or visible light to activate a photoinitiator for polymerization. However, with these light sources, transdermal gelation is not efficient and feasible due to their substantial interactions with biological systems, and thus a high power is required. In this study, we used biocompatible and tissue-penetrating near infrared (NIR) light to remotely trigger a thiol-acrylate reaction for efficient in vivo gelation with good controllability. Our gelation system includes gold nanorods as a photothermal agent, a thermal initiator, diacrylate polyethylene glycol (PEG), and thiolated PEG. Irradiation with a low-power NIR laser (0.3 W cm-2) could induce gelation via a mixed-mode reaction with a small increase in temperature (~5 °C) under the optimized conditions. We also achieved successful transdermal gelation via the NIR-assisted photothermal thiol-acryl reactions. This new type of NIR-assisted thiol-acrylate polymerization provides new opportunities for in situ hydrogel formation for injectable hydrogels and delivery of drugs/cells for various biomedical applications.Light-induced polymerization has been widely applied for hydrogel synthesis, which conventionally involves the use of ultraviolet or visible light to activate a photoinitiator for polymerization. However, with these light sources, transdermal gelation is not efficient and feasible due to their substantial interactions with biological systems, and thus a high power is required. In this study, we used biocompatible and tissue-penetrating near infrared (NIR) light to remotely trigger a thiol-acrylate reaction for efficient in vivo gelation with good controllability. Our gelation system includes gold nanorods as a photothermal agent, a thermal initiator, diacrylate polyethylene glycol (PEG), and thiolated PEG. Irradiation with a low-power NIR laser (0.3 W cm-2) could induce gelation

  4. Cisplatin-incorporated nanoparticles of poly(acrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate copolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee KD

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Kyung Dong Lee,1,* Young-Il Jeong,2,* Da Hye Kim,3,4 Gyun-Taek Lim,2 Ki-Choon Choi5 1Department of Oriental Medicine Materials, Dongshin University, Naju, South Korea; 2Department of Polymer Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, South Korea; 3Faculty of Life and Environmental Science, Shimane University, Matsue, Japan; 4United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Tottori University, Tottori, Japan; 5Grassland and Forages Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, Cheonan, South Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Although cisplatin is extensively used in the clinical field, its intrinsic toxicity limits its clinical use. We investigated nanoparticle formations of poly(acrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate (PAA-MMA incorporating cisplatin and their antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo. Methods: Cisplatin-incorporated nanoparticles were prepared through the ion-complex formation between acrylic acid and cisplatin. The anticancer activity of cisplatin-incorporated nanoparticles was assessed with CT26 colorectal carcinoma cells. Results: Cisplatin-incorporated nanoparticles have small particle sizes of less than 200 nm with spherical shapes. Drug content was increased according to the increase of the feeding amount of cisplatin and acrylic acid content in the copolymer. The higher acrylic acid content in the copolymer induced increase of particle size and decrease of zeta potential. Cisplatin-incorporated nanoparticles showed a similar growth-inhibitory effect against CT26 tumor cells in vitro. However, cisplatin-incorporated nanoparticles showed improved antitumor activity against an animal tumor xenograft model. Conclusion: We suggest that PAA-MMA nanoparticles incorporating cisplatin are promising carriers for an antitumor drug-delivery system. Keywords: cisplatin, nanoparticle, poly(acrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate, ion complexes

  5. Influence of ozone and paracetic acid disinfection on adhesion of resilient liners to acrylic resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of paracetic acid (PAA) and ozone disinfection on the tensile bond strength (TBS) of silicone-based resilient liners to acrylic resins. MATERIALS AND METHODS One hundred and twenty dumbbell shaped heat-polymerized acrylic resins were prepared. From the mid segment of the specimens, 3 mm of acrylic were grinded off and separated parts were reattached by resilient liners. The specimens were divided into 2 control (control1, control7) and 4 test groups of PAA and ozone disinfection (PAA1, PAA7, ozone1 and ozone7; n=10). While control groups were immersed in distilled water for 10 min (control1) and 7 days (control7), test groups were subjected to PAA (16 g/L) or ozone rich water (4 mg/L) for 1 cycle (10 min for PAA and 60 min for ozone) per day for 7 days prior to tensile tests. Measurements of the TBS were analyzed using 3-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test. RESULTS Adhesive strength of Mollosil decreased significantly by application of ozone disinfection. PAA disinfection had no negative effect on the TBS values of Mollosil and Molloplast B to acrylic resin. Single application of ozone disinfection did not have any negative effect on TBS values of Molloplast B, but prolonged exposure to ozone decreased its adhesive strength. CONCLUSION The adhesion of resilient liners to acrylic was not adversely affected by PAA disinfection. Immersion in ozonated water significantly decreased TBS of Mollosil. Prolonged exposure to ozone negatively affects adhesion of Molloplast B to denture base materials. PMID:27555898

  6. Adsorption of uranium ions by crosslinked polyester resin functionalized with acrylic acid from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the crosslinked polyester resin containing acrylic acid functional groups was used for the adsorption of uranium ions from aqueous solutions. For this purpose, the crosslinked polyester resin of unsaturated polyester in styrene monomer (Polipol 353, Poliya) and acrylic acid as weight percentage at 80 and 20%, respectively was synthesized by using methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKp, Butanox M60, Azo Nobel)-cobalt octoate initiator system. The adsorption of uranium ions on the sample (0.05 g copolymer and 5 mL of U(VI) solution were mixed) of the crosslinked polyester resin functionalized with acrylic acid was carried out in a batch reactor. The effects of adsorption parameters of the contact time, temperature, pH of solution and initial uranium(VI) concentration for U(VI) adsorption on the crosslinked polyester resin functionalized with acrylic acid were investigated. The adsorption data obtained from experimental results depending on the initial U(VI) concentration were analyzed by the Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) adsorption isotherms. The adsorption capacity and free energy change were determined by using D-R isotherm. The obtained experimental adsorption data depending on temperature were evaluated to calculate the thermodynamic parameters of enthalpy (ΔHo), entropy (ΔSo) and free energy change (ΔGo) for the U(VI) adsorption on the crosslinked polyester resin functionalized with acrylic acid from aqueous solutions. The obtained adsorption data depending on contact time were analyzed by using adsorption models such as the modified Freundlich, Elovich, pseudo-first order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. (author)

  7. EFFECTS OF THERMOCYCLING AND VARIOUS DRINKS ON THE COLOR STABILITY OF HEAT-POLYMERIZED ACRYLIC RESIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar ALTINCI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The discoloration of acrylic resin denture bases may lead to significant esthetic problems. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the effects of frequently consumed drinks on the color changes of fresh and aged, heat-polymerized, conventional acrylic resin. Materials and Methods: Eighty-four, heat-polymerized acrylic resin specimens (4 mm x 5 mm x 30 mm were fabricated. Half of the specimens were aged by thermal cycling (between 5°C and 55°C, 60-second dwell time, 3000 cycles. The specimens were stored at 37°C in different drinks as non-aged and aged subgroups including water (control group, black tea, green tea, sour cherry juice, coke and coffee (n=7. The discoloration of each specimen after 1 and 7 days storage in the drinks were measured by a colorimeter based on CIE Lab system. The data of colour differences (ΔE were analyzed by ANOVA and Dunnet’s tests. Results: Thermal cycling and storage in water induced a slight color change. The highest ΔE values were observed in the aged groups, which was also noticeable for black tea and sour cherry juice after 7 days of storage (ΔE>1.5 (p<0.05. The ΔE values of all test groups were detected within the acceptable clinical limits (ΔE<3.5. Conclusion: These results suggest that the color stability of denture base acrylic resins is influenced by ageing. Black tea, sour cherry juice and coke can cause significant discolorations on acrylic resin denture bases.

  8. Pre-irradiation induced emulsion co-graft polymerization of acrylonitrile and acrylic acid onto a polyethylene nonwoven fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanzhou; Yu, Ming; Ma, Hongjuan; Wang, Ziqiang; Li, Linfan; Li, Jingye

    2014-01-01

    A pre-irradiation induced emulsion co-graft polymerization method was used to introduce acrylonitrile and acrylic acid onto a PE nonwoven fabric. The use of acrylic acid is meant to improve the hydrophilicity of the modified fabric. The kinetics of co-graft polymerization were studied. The existence of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) graft chains was proven by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The existence of the nitrile groups in the graft chains indicates that they are ready for further amidoximation and adsorption of heavy metal ions.

  9. Separation of water and oil by poly (acrylic acid)-coated stainless steel mesh prepared by radiation crosslinking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nho, Young Chang; Shin, Jung Woong; Park, Jong Seok; Lim, Young Mook; Jeun, Joon Pyo; Kang, Phil Hyun [Research Division for Industry and Environment, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The stainless steel mesh coated with poly(acrylic acid) hydrogel was fabricated and applied for the separation of water and oil. The stainless steel mesh was immersed in aqueous poly (acrylic acid) solution, and then irradiated by radiation to introduce poly(acrylic acid) hydrogel on the surface of mesh by crosslinking. It was possible to separate oil and water from mixtures of oil/water effectively using the hydrogel-coated mesh. The effect of irradiation dose, coating thickness, size of mesh on the separation efficiency was examined.

  10. Hierarchically organized architecture of potassium hydrogen phthalate and poly(acrylic acid): toward a general strategy for biomimetic crystal design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaki, Yuya; Imai, Hiroaki

    2005-12-28

    A hierarchically organized architecture in multiple scales was generated from potassium hydrogen phthalate crystals and poly(acrylic acid) based on our novel biomimetic approach with an exquisite association of polymers on crystallization. PMID:16333511

  11. Preparation and evaluation of chitosan-poly (acrylic acid hydrogels as stomach specific delivery for amoxicillin and metronidazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Yadav K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to develop stomach specific delivery systems for amoxicillin and metronidazole using chitosan and poly(acrylic acid hydrogels. Chitosan and poly(acrylic acid hydrogels were prepared with different composition of copolymers. The hydrogels were evaluated for swelling studies, mucoadhesive studies, in vitro drug release, scanning electron microscopic and FTIR analysis. The effect of chitosan and poly (acrylic acid on swelling and in vitro drug release was carried out. The n value calculated was < 0.5 for all the formulations containing amoxicillin and metronidazole indicating Fickian diffusion mechanism. The hydrogels with chitosan and poly (acrylic acid ratio of 0.25:1 showed greater mucoadhesive property, maximum swelling and complete release of drugs, hence can be used for stomach specific delivery of drugs.

  12. A comparison of shear bond strength of ceramic and resin denture teeth on different acrylic resin bases

    OpenAIRE

    Corsalini, Massimo; Venere, Daniela Di; Pettini, Francesco; Stefanachi, Gianluca; Catapano, Santo; Boccaccio, Antonio; Lamberti, Luciano; Pappalettere, Carmine; Carossa, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the shear bond strength of different resin bases and artificial teeth made of ceramic or acrylic resin materials and whether tooth-base interface may be treated with aluminium oxide sandblasting. Experimental measurements were carried on 80 specimens consisting of a cylinder of acrylic resin into which a single tooth is inserted. An ad hoc metallic frame was realized to measure the shear bond strength at the tooth-base interface. A complete factorial pl...

  13. A comparative Study of the Masticatory Efficiency in Complete Dentures Using Acrylic and Metal Occlusal Posterior Teeth—Photocolorimetric Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Awinashe, Vaibhav N.; Nagda, Suhasini J.

    2010-01-01

    Masticatory efficiency is always compromised in complete denture patients. The denture teeth with compromised occlusal anatomy and material further compound the inherent limitations of complete dentures. To compare the masticatory efficiency of patients with complete denture using acrylic and metal occlusal posterior teeth. Ten edentulous patients with well-formed ridges were selected. Complete dentures using acrylic and metal occlusal posterior teeth were fabricated. The masticatory efficien...

  14. Real-time monitoring of graphene oxide reduction in acrylic printable composite inks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porro, S.; Giardi, R.; Chiolerio, A.

    2014-06-01

    This work reports the electrical characterization of a water-based graphene oxide/acrylic composite material, which was directly inkjet printed to fabricate dissipative patterns. The graphene oxide filler, which is strongly hydrophilic due to its heavily oxygenated surface and can be readily dispersed in water, was reduced by UV irradiation during photo-curing of the polymeric matrix. The concurrent polymerization of the acrylic matrix and reduction of graphene oxide filler was demonstrated by real-time resistance measurements during UV light irradiation. The presence of graphene filler allowed decreasing the resistance of the pure polymeric matrix by nearly five orders of magnitude. This was explained by the fact that clusters of reduced graphene oxide inside the polymer matrix act as preferential pathways for the mobility of charge carriers, thus leading to an overall decrease of the material's resistance.

  15. CURING KINETICS AND PROPERTIES OF ACRYLIC RESIN CURED WITH AZIRIDINE CROSSLINKER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Xie; Zong-hui Liu; De-qing Wei

    2002-01-01

    A kind of aziridine crosslinkers was synthesized and used to crosslink acrylate copolymers. The crosslinking properties and curing kinetics of the resin were studied. It was found that with the increase of the content of crosslinker in the emulsion, the mechanical properties and solvent resistance of the resin will be apparently improved, but its glass transition temperature (Tg) is very low. The lowest amount of crosslinker used in the acrylic resin emulsion is 0.25%. Curing kinetics studied by DSC show that this curing reaction occurs readily because the apparent activation energy of the reaction is low(65.1 KJ/mol). These results demonstrate that the aziridine crosslinker is indeed a low temperature crosslinking agent and can be used at room temperature.

  16. Preparation of Styrene-acrylate Latex Used in Ultra-low VOC Building Internal Wall Coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lijun; WU Fengqin; ZHUANG Xinyu; YANG Jian; LI Rongxian

    2008-01-01

    Styrene-acrylate latex with high glass transition temperature(Tg),low minimum film forming temperature(MFT)and good stability was prepared via core-shell emulsion polymerization.With semicontinuous process,high conversion rate of monomer and low gel rate were achieved.The weight ratio of core monomer to shell monomer was approximately 1.35.It is found that many factors such as emulsifiers,initiators,reaction temperature,pH value and polymerization technology have influences on the permormance of styrene-acrylate latex.The prepared latex was characterized by TEM and FTIR.The obtained latex with T of20.57℃,MFT of 5.0℃,and good stability,had good stability of film forming.

  17. Copolymerization of Indene with Acrylic Acid, Itaconic Acid and Acrylonitrile: Characterization and Reactivity Ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Random copolymers of indene (In) with acrylic acid (AA), itaconic acid (IA) and acrylonitrile (AN) were synthesized by free radical polymerization in dioxane in the presence of azobisisobutyronitrile as an initiator at 60 degree C. The homopolymer of indene and acrylonitrile was prepared using K2MnO4 and sulphuric acid as an initiator, while acrylic acid and itaconic acid were prepared using K2S2O8 solution. The reactivity ratios of the monomers were calculated by different methods. X-ray diffraction as well as thermal analyses were studied. The latter was studied via thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis. The complexation with metal ions such as Cu+2 and Fe+2 was investigated. The copolymerization and the complexation processes were confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy. Also the activation energy of the prepared copolymers was determined

  18. Application of waterborne acrylic emulsions in coated controlled release fertilizer using reacted layer technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yazhen Shen; Cong Zhao; Jianmin Zhou; Changwen Du

    2015-01-01

    Waterborne acrylic emulsions modified with organic siloxanes and aziridine crosslinker were synthesized and applied as coating of controlled release fertilizer. The free films were characterized and the nutrient release pro-files of the coated fertilizers were determined. The results show that methyl silicone oil and methylsilanolate so-dium could not improve water resistance performance and glass transition temperature Tg of coatings, while the firmness is enhanced. Aziridine crosslinker improves the water resistance performance, firmness and Tg. Incorpo-ration of methyl silicone oil and aziridine crosslinker gives an excellent aqueous acrylic emulsion for coated con-trol ed release fertilizer, with the 30-day cumulative nutrient release reduced to 16%and an estimated nutrient release duration over 190 days. Therefore, this waterborne coating is promising to meet the requirements for controlled release of nutrient and environmental protection.

  19. Characterization and copolymerization of cardanyl acrylate from cardanol extracted from cashew nut shell liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardanyl acrylate (CA) and its model compounds (hydrogenated cardanyl acrylate (HCA) and cardanyl acetate (Cace)) based on cardanol, a natural alkyl phenol from cashew nut shell liquid, were synthesized. The copolymerization of CA and styrene (S) with methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP) and cobalt salt as the initiator was studied by means of dynamic and isothermal DSC, FTIR and rheometry. The kinetic parameters for the copolymerization such as heat of reactions, activation energy and reaction orders were evaluated. The Mayo-Lewis, Fineman-Ross and Kelen-Tuedos methods were used to determine the reactivity ratios for the copolymerization of the model compounds. All the calculated results obtained from the three methods are in good agreement. Afterwards, a ternary copolymer model has been built for the copolymerization of CA and styrene. The gel point of the copolymerization was determined by rheological measurements. The thermal behaviour of the copolymers of CA and styrene were also studied. (author)

  20. Applications of Acrylate-based Polymer and Silicone Resin on LPFG-based Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Both acrylate-based polymer and silicone resin are proposed as recoating materials surrounding LPFGs for purposes of different applications. For the LPFG recoated with a thin layer of acrylate-based polymer, the range of wavelength shift as much as 60nm is expected when temperature changes from 0~100℃. As for that with surrounding material of silicone resin, the temperature stability is greatly improved depicted as the maximum wavelength shift of about 0.6nm with the same temperature variation. The former is potentially a broadband tunable band rejection filter or temperature sensor with enhanced sensitivity. And the latter could be applied as temperature insensitive filter, demultiplexer or strain sensor.

  1. Investigation of ultraviolet curable waterborne polyurethane acrylate dispersion based on hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Zhenbin; ZHANG Xingyuan; DAI Jiabing; ZHANG Heping

    2007-01-01

    A new kind of ultraviolet (UV) curable waterborne polyurethane acrylate dispersion was synthesized based on hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB),poly(propylene glycol) (PPG),isophorene diisocyanate (IPDI),2-hydroxy ethyl acrylate (HEA) and dimethylol propionic acid (DMPA) after neutralizing by triethylamine (TEA).2-Hydroxy- 1-[4-(2-hydroxyethoxy) phenyl]-2-methyl-1-propanone (Irgacure 2959) was used as a photoinitiator and deionized water as a diluent.Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis was used to identify the chain structure of the UV-curable polyurethane prepolymer based on HTPB and the curing process.Effects of relative content of HTPB and PPG on emulsion stability,resistance to water and ethanol,thermal stability,compatibility of soft and hard segment,as well as the mechanical property of the cured film were investigated.

  2. Oxidative dehydration of glycerol to acrylic acid over vanadium-impregnated zeolite beta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oxidative dehydration of glycerol to acrylic acid was studied over vanadium-impregnated zeolite Beta. Catalysts were prepared by wet impregnation of ammonium metavanadate over ammonium-exchanged zeolite Beta, followed by air calcination at 823 K. Impregnation reduced the specific surface area, but did not significantly affected the acidity (Bronsted and Lewis) of the zeolites. The catalytic evaluation was carried out in a fixed bed flow reactor using air as the carrier and injecting glycerol by means of a syringe pump. Acrolein was the main product, with acetaldehyde and hydroxy-acetone (acetol) being also formed. Acrylic acid was formed with approximately 25% selectivity at 548 K over the impregnated zeolites. The result can be explained by XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) measurements, which indicated a good dispersion of the vanadium inside the pores. (author)

  3. Acrylate intercalation and in situ polymerization in iron-, cobalt-, or manganese-substituted nickel hydroxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaysse, C; Guerlou-Demourgues, L; Duguet, E; Delmas, C

    2003-07-28

    A chimie douce route based on successive redox and exchange reactions has allowed us to prepare new hybrid organic-inorganic materials, composed of polyacrylate macromolecules intercalated into layered double hydroxides (LDHs), deriving from Ni(OH)(2). Monomer intercalation and in situ polymerization mechanisms have appeared to be strongly dependent upon the nature of the substituting cation in the slabs. In the case of iron-based LDHs, a phase containing acrylate monomeric intercalates has been isolated and identified by X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. Second, interslab free-radical polymerization of acrylate anions has been successfully initiated using potassium persulfate. In cobalt- or manganese-based LDHs, one-step polymerization has been observed, leading directly to a material containing polyacrylate intercalate. PMID:12870945

  4. Phase Transition of Poly(acrylic acid-co-N-isopropylacrylamide) Core-shell Nanogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-bing; Zhou, Jian-feng; Ye, Xiao-dong

    2012-08-01

    A series of poly(acrylic acid) macromolecular chain transfer agents with different molecular weights were synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization and characterized by 1H NMR and gel permeation chromatography. Multiresponsive core-shell nanogels were prepared by dispersion polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide in water using these poly(potassium acrylate) macro-RAFT agents as the electrosteric stabilizer. The size of the nanogels decreases with the amount of the macro-RAFT agent, indicating that the surface area occupied by per polyelectrolyte group is a critical parameter for stabilizing the nanogels. The volume phase transition and the zeta potentials of the nanogels in aqueous solutions were studied by dynamic light scattering and zetasizer analyzer, respectively.

  5. Time-related surface modification of denture base acrylic resin treated by atmospheric pressure cold plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Kun; Pan, Hong; Li, Yinglong; Wang, Guomin; Zhang, Jue; Pan, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The changes of denture base acrylic resin surface properties under cold plasma and the relationships with time were investigated. Cold plasma treated the specimens for 30 s, 60 s, 90 s, and 120 s, respectively. Water contact angles were measured immediately after the treatment, 48 h, 15 days and 30 days later. Surface roughness was measured with 3-D laser scanning microscope. Candida albicans adherence was evaluated by CFU counting. Chemical composition was monitored by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. Water contact angle reduced after treated for 30 s. No changes were observed with time prolonged, except the durability. There were no differences in roughness among all groups. However, treatment groups showed significantly lower C. albicans adherence. XPS demonstrated a decrease in C/O, and this reduction was affected by treatment time. Cold plasma was an effective means of increasing hydrophilicity of acrylic resin and reducing C. albicans adherence without affecting physical properties.

  6. (E)-Methyl 3-(10-bromo­anthracen-9-yl)acrylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugenhagen, Bernhard; Al Jasem, Yosef; Hindawi, Bassam al; Al Rawashdeh, Nathir; Thiemann, Thies

    2013-01-01

    In the title mol­ecule, C18H13BrO2, the anthracene unit forms an angle of 46.91 (2)° with the mean plane of the methyl acrylate moiety. In the crystal, the mol­ecules arrange themselves into strands parallel to [010] and, due to the crystal symmetry, there are eight strands crossing the unit cell. In each strand, mol­ecules form short C—H⋯O and C—H⋯π contacts and have their anthracene groups parallel to each other. Neighboring strands, related by a c-glide operation, are connected via C—H⋯O inter­actions and form a layer parallel to (100). The arrangement of the acrylate and anthracene groups in the crystal do not allow for [2 + 2] or [4 + 4] cyclo­addition. PMID:24046689

  7. Removal of Dyes from Aqueous Solutions Using Radiation Synthesized (2-Hydroxyethyl Methacrylate/Acrylic acid) Hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acrylic acid/2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate super absorbent hydrogels (AAc/ HEMA) were prepared by γ-radiation copolymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and acrylic acid (AAc). Characterization of AAc/HEMA hydrogel was done by FTIR, TGA, SEM and XRD. The swelling properties were studied as a function of time, ph and irradiation dose. The diffusion behavior of water into these hydrogels followed the Fickian character at all investigated irradiation doses. The adsorption of Direct Congo Red and Direct Blue dyes onto the AAc/ HEMA hydrogel was studied. Physico-chemical parameters like dye concentration, solution ph and temperature were varied to characterize the adsorption phenomenon. Experimental data were modeled by Freundlich isotherm. Thermodynamic parameters ( ΔHo, ΔGo and ΔSo ) were evaluated for the dyes adsorbent systems, which suggest that the adsorption process is a typical physical process and endothermic in nature

  8. Determination of Crosslinking and Grafting in Polyurethane-acrylic Hybrid Material and Their Theoretical Calculations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xu-bao; ZHU Xiao-li; ZHANG Zhi-guo; KONG Xiang-zheng; TAN Ye-bang

    2011-01-01

    A theoretical method to calculate the mode of polyurethane(PU) prepolymers grafted to polyacrylic(PAC) was presented. Using hydroxyethyl acrylate(HEA) as coupling agent, polyurethane-acrylics(PU-AC) hybrid latexes were prepared with varying HEA level and the reaction of HEA with PU prepolymers at different temperatures, and PU grafted to PAC was experimentally determined. The results show that PU grafted to PAC regularly increased, and the non-grafted and linear free PU regularly decreased with increase in HEA/NCO(isocyanate group). The grafted PU on PAC was not proportional to HEA. More than half of linear PU prepolymers were grafted to PAC when HEA was at a low level with HEA/NCO at 0.33. While grafted PU increased to 84.80% (mass fraction), when HEA/NCO increased to 1.0. The results were interpreted based on the theoretical calculation of PU grafted to PAC by the present method.

  9. Preparation of poly (acrylic acid)-modified chitosan amphiphilic gels by γ-rays irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly (acrylic acid)-modified chitosan amphiphilic gels were prepared via O-maleoyl-N-phthaloyl- chitosan as an intermediate by grafting with poly (acrylic acid). The reaction was carried out in a homogeneous sys- tem by γ-ray irradiation. Evidence of grafting was obtained from FTIR spectroscopy. The effects for grafting reaction were investigated systematically. Results show that the grafting degree depends on monomer concentration and ab- sorbed dose. The swelling behavior of chitosan samples with different grafting degree was studied in different buffers as a function of pH. It can be found that all the samples swollen slightly at low pH but very well at high pH. More- over, the swelling behavior of chitosan samples in DMF has been evaluated. (authors)

  10. Peel/seal properties of poly(ethylene methyl acrylate)/polybutene-1 blend films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammdi, Seyedeh Raziyeh; Ajji, Abdellah; Tabatabaei, Seyed H. [Department of Chemical Engineering, École Polytechnique de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, H3C3A7 (Canada)

    2015-05-22

    Nowadays, the possibility to easy open a food package is of great interest both from the consumer and food producers’ perspective. In this study, the peel/seal properties of poly (ethylene methyl acrylate) (EMA)/polybutene-1 (PB-1) blend films were investigated. Three blends of EMA/PB-1 with different methyl acrylate (MA) content were prepared using cast extrusion process. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was used to investigate the thermal behavior as well as the crystalinity of the blends. The effect of polymer matrix on the crystalline structure of PB-1 was studied using Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction (WAXD) and DSC. T-peel tests were carried out on the heat sealed films at various seal temperatures. The effect of MA content and heat seal temperature on peel/seal properties (i.e. peel initiation temperature, temperature window of sealability and peel strength) of the films were studied.

  11. Flexural strength of acrylic resin denture bases processed by two different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharechahi, Jafar; Asadzadeh, Nafiseh; Shahabian, Foad; Gharechahi, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. The aim of this study was to compare flexural strength of specimens processed by conventional and injection-molding techniques. Materials and methods. Conventional pressure-packed PMMA was used for conventional pressure-packed and injection-molded PMMA was used for injection-molding techniques. After processing, 15 specimens were stored in distilled water at room temperature until measured. Three-point flexural strength test was carried out. Statistical analysis was carried out by SPSS using t-test. Statistical significance was defined at P<0.05. Results. Flexural strength of injection-polymerized acrylic resin specimens was higher than that of the conventional method (P=0.006). This difference was statistically significant (P=0.006). Conclusion. Within the limitations of this study, flexural strength of acrylic resin specimens was influenced by the molding technique.

  12. Oxidative dehydration of glycerol to acrylic acid over vanadium-impregnated zeolite beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestana, Carolina F.M.; Guerra, Antonio C.O.; Turci, Cassia C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Ferreira, Glaucio B. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Mota, Claudio J.A., E-mail: cmota@iq.ufrj.br [INCT Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-01-15

    The oxidative dehydration of glycerol to acrylic acid was studied over vanadium-impregnated zeolite Beta. Catalysts were prepared by wet impregnation of ammonium metavanadate over ammonium-exchanged zeolite Beta, followed by air calcination at 823 K. Impregnation reduced the specific surface area, but did not significantly affected the acidity (Bronsted and Lewis) of the zeolites. The catalytic evaluation was carried out in a fixed bed flow reactor using air as the carrier and injecting glycerol by means of a syringe pump. Acrolein was the main product, with acetaldehyde and hydroxy-acetone (acetol) being also formed. Acrylic acid was formed with approximately 25% selectivity at 548 K over the impregnated zeolites. The result can be explained by XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) measurements, which indicated a good dispersion of the vanadium inside the pores. (author)

  13. In Vitro Study on the Adhesion and Colonization of Candida Albicans on Metal and Acrylic Piercings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenov N.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Oral/perioral piercing may provide an ideal environment for adhesion and colonization of microorganisms. The aim of this study is to perform an “in vitro” research on the capabilities of adhesion of Candida albicans on oral piercings made of plastic and metal. Acrylic and metal piercings were incubated with Candida albicans and then were observed using scanning electron microscopy under different magnifications. A lot of irregularities and roughness were observed on the surface of the plastic piercing unlike the surface of the metal one, which is not so rough. Nevertheless, the number of Candida albicans colonies was considerably larger on the scanned metal surface in comparison to the plastic surface. In vitro the metal surface of the piercing creates better environment for the adhesion and colonization of microorganisms than the acrylic. This could be attributed to the electrostatic forces that most likely attract Candida albicans to the metal piercing in the early stages of biofilm formation.

  14. The effect of acrylic latex-based polymer on cow blood adhesive resins for wood composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, J.; Lin, H. L.; Feng, G. Z.; Gunasekaran, S.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, alkali-modified cow blood adhesive (BA) and blood adhesive/acrylic latex-based adhesive (BA/ALB) were prepared. The physicochemical and adhesion properties of cow blood adhesive such as UV- visible spectra, particle size, viscosity were evaluated; share strength, water resistance were tested. UV- visible spectra indicates that the strong bonding strength of BA/ALB appeared after incorporating; the particle size of adhesive decreased with the increase of ALB concentration, by mixing ALB and BA, hydrophilic polymer tends locate or extand the protein chains and provide stability of the particles; viscosity decreased as shear rate increased in concordance with a pseudoplastic behavior; both at dry and soak conditions, BA and ALB/BA show significant difference changes when mass fraction of ALB in blend adhesive was over 30% (p cow blood and acrylic latex-based adhesive significantly increased the strength and water resistance of the resulting wood.

  15. Preparation of Conductive Coating Solutions by Blending Waterborne Acrylic Polyurethane Dispersion with Carbon Nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterborne polyurethane dispersion (WPUD) was synthesized from polycarbonate diol (PCD), isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) and dimethylol propionic acid (DMPA) as starting materials. Then, waterborne acrylic polyurethane dispersion (AUD) was synthesized by reacting the WPUD with an acrylate monomer, methyl methacrylate (MMA). Subsequently, the AUD was mixed with multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) to yield a conductive coating solution, and the mixture was coated on the polycarbonate substrate. With increasing the amount of MMA in the AUD, the pencil hardness, abrasion resistance and chemical resistance of the coating films were improved, but the electrical conductivity of the coating films was decreased. On the other hand, the pencil hardness, abrasion resistance and chemical resistance of coating films were decreased, but the electrical conductivity was enhanced with increasing the amount of MWCNT in the conductive coating solutions

  16. Preparation of metal adsorbent from poly(methyl acrylate)-grafted-cassava starch via gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwanmala, Phiriyatorn; Hemvichian, Kasinee; Hoshina, Hiroyuki; Srinuttrakul, Wannee; Seko, Noriaki

    2012-08-01

    Metal adsorbent containing hydroxamic acid groups was successfully synthesized by radiation-induced graft copolymerization of methyl acrylate (MA) onto cassava starch. The optimum conditions for grafting were studied in terms of % degree of grafting (Dg). Conversion of the ester groups present in poly(methyl acrylate)-grafted-cassava starch copolymer into hydroxamic acid was carried out by treatment with hydroxylamine (HA) in the presence of alkaline solution. The maximum percentage conversion of the ester groups of the grafted copolymer, % Dg=191 (7.63 mmol/g of MA), into the hydroxamic groups was 70% (5.35 mmol/g of MA) at the optimum condition. The adsorbent of 191%Dg had total adsorption capacities of 2.6, 1.46, 1.36, 1.15 and 1.6 mmol/g-adsorbent for Cd2+, Al3+, UO22+, V5+ and Pb2+, respectively, in the batch mode adsorption.

  17. Super absorbent Prepared by Radiation Induced Graft Copolymerization of Acrylic Acid onto Cassava Starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Super absorbent was synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylic acid onto cassava starch. Parameters such as the absorbed dose and the amount of monomer were investigated in order to determine the optimum conditions for the grafting polymerization. Water retention, germination percentage and germination energy were determined in order to evaluate the possibility of super absorbent in agricultural applications, especially in arid regions. The graft copolymer was characterized by FTIR. Results indicated that the sand mixed with 0.1%wt super absorbent can absorb more water than the sand without super absorbent. The germination energy of corn seeds mixed with 0.5% super absorbent was obviously higher than those without super absorbent. These experimental results showed that the super absorbent has considerable effect on seed germination and the growth of young plants. Keywords: Super absorbent, Radiation, Acrylic acid, Cassava starch

  18. Effect of water-aging on the antimicrobial activities of an ORMOSIL-containing orthodontic acrylic resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Shi-Qiang; Epasinghe, D Jeevanie; Zhou, Bin; Niu, Li-Na; Kimmerling, Kirk A; Rueggeberg, Frederick A; Yiu, Cynthia K Y; Mao, Jing; Pashley, David H; Tay, Franklin R

    2013-06-01

    Quaternary ammonium methacryloxy silicate (QAMS), an organically modified silicate (ORMOSIL) functionalized with polymerizable methacrylate groups and an antimicrobial agent with a long lipophilic alkyl chain quaternary ammonium group, was synthesized through a silane-based sol-gel route. By dissolving QAMS in methyl methacrylate monomer, this ORMOSIL molecule was incorporated into an auto-polymerizing, powder/liquid orthodontic acrylic resin system, yielding QAMS-containing poly(methyl methacrylate). The QAMS-containing acrylic resin showed a predominant contact-killing effect on Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 35668) and Actinomyces naeslundii (ATCC 12104) biofilms, while inhibiting adhesion of Candida albicans (ATCC 90028) on the acrylic surface. The antimicrobial activities of QAMS-containing acrylic resin were maintained after a 3month water-aging period. Bromophenol blue assay showed minimal leaching of quaternary ammonium species when an appropriate amount of QAMS (<4wt.%) was incorporated into the acrylic resin. The results suggest that QAMS is predominantly co-polymerized with the poly(methyl methacrylate) network, and only a minuscule amount of free QAMS molecules is present within the polymer network after water-aging. Acrylic resin with persistent antimicrobial activities represents a promising method for preventing bacteria- and fungus-induced stomatitis, an infectious disease commonly associated with the wearing of removable orthodontic appliances. PMID:23485857

  19. The transversal strength of acrylic resin plate after being immersed soaking in noni fruit (Morinda citrifolia Linn. juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Redjeki Indiani

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The disadvantages of acrylic resin plate are liquid absorption and porosity, allowing microorganisms to grow and multiply resulting in inflammation in the oral cavity. The juice of the noni fruit (Morinda citrifolia Linn. contains active flavonoid and atsiri oil. Flavonoid is a phenol substance that degrades acrylic resin plate in prolonged contact. The purpose of this study was to examine the transversal strength of acrylic resin plate after being immersed in noni fruit juice. An acrylic resin plate of 65 × 10 × 2.5 mm was immersed in 4%, 6%, 8%, 10%, and 12% concentrations of noni fruit juice and distilled water in a control group for 31, 46, and 61 days. The transversal strength of acrylic resin plate was tested using an autograph with a crosshead speed of 1/10mm/second; the distance for the two supporting parts was 50 mm. The data was analyzed by using a One–Way ANOVA test. There was no significant difference in the transversal strength of the plate after being soaked for 31, 46, and 61 days in 4%, 6%, 8%, 10%, and 12% concentrations of the juice. This study showed that the soaking of acrylic resin plate for 31, 46, and 61 days in 4%, 6%, 8%, 10%, and 12% concentrations of noni fruit juice does not decrease the transversal strength.

  20. Tuning of thermally induced sol-to-gel transitions of moderately concentrated aqueous solutions of doubly thermosensitive hydrophilic diblock copolymers poly(methoxytri(ethylene glycol) acrylate)-b-poly(ethoxydi(ethylene glycol) acrylate-co-acrylic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Naixiong; Zhang, Hao; Jin, Shi; Dadmun, Mark D; Zhao, Bin

    2012-03-15

    We report in this article a method to tune the sol-to-gel transitions of moderately concentrated aqueous solutions of doubly thermosensitive hydrophilic diblock copolymers that consist of two blocks exhibiting distinct lower critical solution temperatures (LCSTs) in water. A small amount of weak acid groups is statistically incorporated into the lower LCST block so that its LCST can be tuned by varying solution pH. Well-defined diblock copolymers, poly(methoxytri(ethylene glycol) acrylate)-b-poly(ethoxydi(ethylene glycol) acrylate-co-acrylic acid) (PTEGMA-b-P(DEGEA-co-AA)), were prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization and postpolymerization modification. PTEGMA and PDEGEA are thermosensitive water-soluble polymers with LCSTs of 58 and 9 °C, respectively, in water. A 25 wt % aqueous solution of PTEGMA-b-P(DEGEA-co-AA) with a molar ratio of DEGEA to AA units of 100:5.2 at pH = 3.24 underwent multiple phase transitions upon heating, from a clear, free-flowing liquid (sol-to-gel transition temperature (T(sol-gel)) shifted to higher values, while the gel-to-sol transition (T(gel-sol)) and the clouding temperature (T(clouding)) of the sample remained essentially the same. These transitions and the tunability of T(sol-gel) originated from the thermosensitive properties of two blocks of the diblock copolymer and the pH dependence of the LCST of P(DEGEA-co-AA), which were confirmed by dynamic light scattering and differential scanning calorimetry studies. Using the vial inversion test method, we mapped out the C-shaped sol-gel phase diagrams of the diblock copolymer in aqueous buffers in the moderate concentration range at three different pH values (3.24, 5.58, and 5.82, all measured at ~0 °C). While the upper temperature boundaries overlapped, the lower temperature boundary shifted upward and the critical gelation concentration increased with the increase of pH. The AA content in PTEGMA-b-P(DEGEA-co-AA) was found to have a significant

  1. Synthesis and characterization of thermal energy storage microencapsulated n-dodecanol with acrylic polymer shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two kinds of (microencapsulated phase change materials) MicroPCMs with acrylic-based copolymer as shell and n-dodecanol as core were successfully fabricated via suspension-like polymerization and photo-induced microencapsulation, respectively. Morphology and core–shell structure were observed by (field emission scanning electron microscope) FE-SEM. Thermal properties of the microencapsulated n-dodecanol were investigated by (differential scanning calorimeter) DSC and (thermogravimetric analysis) TGA. The results indicate that the mass ratio of core to shell has great influence on the morphology, inner structure, microencapsulated efficiency and durability of the microcapsules. Besides, the effects of various solvents and UV irridiation time on the microcapsule surface were discussed as well. In the experiment carried out, metal-ion complexation was conducted by the reaction between Mn ion and carboxyl groups on copolymer shell to enhance the performance of the microcapsules with n-dodecanol encapsulated. As the results indicate, the physicochemical properties and thermal conductivity of the shell were improved after Mn ion complexation reaction. Supercooling phenomenon of n-dodecanol was depressed to some extent. In the end, the thermo-regulated fiber containing acrylic-based copolymer microcapsules was fabricated, and thermo-regulated performance test of the fiber was also conducted. - Graphical abstract: (a)∼(d) schematic diagram of microencapsulation and (e) microcapsule with core–shell structure. - Highlights: • Microencapsulated n-dodecanol with acrylic polymer shell. • Microencapsulated n-dodecanol was fabricated by photo-induced microencapsulation. • Acrylic-based copolymer microcapsules with manganese-ion complexation

  2. Catalytic routes towards acrylic acid, adipic acid and epsilon-caprolactam starting from biorenewables

    OpenAIRE

    Beerthuis, R.; Rothenberg, G.; Shiju, N.R.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of bulk chemicals are derived from crude oil, but the move to biorenewable resources is gaining both societal and commercial interest. Reviewing this transition, we first summarise the types of today's biomass sources and their economical relevance. Then, we assess the biobased productions of three important bulk chemicals: acrylic acid, adipic acid and epsilon-caprolactam. These are the key monomers for high-end polymers (polyacrylates, nylon 6.6 and nylon 6, respectively) and a...

  3. Biodegradation kinetic of organic compounds of acrylic fiber wastewater in biofilm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ya-lei; ZHAO Jian-fu; GU Guo-wei

    2003-01-01

    A group function relation curve between flux (J) and bulk phase concentration of substrate ( S ) was set up. The biodegradation kinetic of organic compounds of acrylic fiber wastewater in biofilm is studied ( the treatment technology is coagulation/sedimentation-anoxic/aerobic biofilm process), and the results showed that the concentration of non-degradation pollutants in effluent is 77 mg/L. In aerobic zone,corresponds to the fact that there are some biorefractory compounds in the wastewater.

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF RADIATION GRAFTING DEGREE OF POLYSTYRENE g-ACRYLIC ACID BY XPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHE Jitai; ZHANG Wanxi

    1990-01-01

    It this work, characterization of radiation grafting degree of polystyrene-g-acrylic acid by XPS was studied. It is found that along with the main peak C1s there is a photoelectron peak at 289.0 eV that appears to be C1s of -C(=O)-OH group and shows the presence ofpolyacrylic acid grafted on the polystyrene.The grafting degree obtained by XPS is in agreement with that from the gravimetric method.

  5. A temporary space maintainer using acrylic resin teeth and a composite resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochavi, D; Stern, N; Grajower, R

    1977-05-01

    A one-session technique for preparing a temporary space maintainer has been described. The technique consists of attaching an acrylic resin pontic to etched surfaces of natural adjacent teeth by means of a composite resin. The main advantages of this technique are elimination of premature tooth preparation, good esthetics, fair strength, low cost, and rapid completion of the restoration without the need of a dental laboratory.

  6. Transformation of Nickelalactones to Methyl Acrylate: On the Way to a Catalytic Conversion of Carbon Dioxide

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, S. Y. Tina

    2011-08-26

    Mu-nick: The methyl iodide-mediated ring opening of nickelalactones, which can be formed by oxidative coupling of carbon dioxide and ethylene at Ni 0 complexes, induces β-H elimination, producing methyl acrylate in yields of up to 56 %. This reaction is found to be very sensitive to the ligands coordinated to the central nickel atom. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Ethyl 3-(4-hydroxy-phen-oxy)-2-(4-methoxy-phen-yl)acrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jin

    2008-11-08

    In the title compound, C(18)H(18)O(5), the dihedral angle between the two benzene rings is 55.2 (3)°. The ethyl acrylate linkage is planar and forms dihedral angles of 21.3 (3) and 41.0 (3)°, respectively, with the hydroxy-phenyl and methoxy-phenyl rings. In the crystal structure, mol-ecules are linked into zigzag chains along the b axis by O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds.

  8. Preparation and Properties of Triethoxyvinylsilane-Modified Styrene - Butyl Acrylate Emulsion Copolymers

    OpenAIRE

    NAGHASH, Hamid Javaherian; KARIMZADEH, Akram; MOMENI, Ahmad Reza

    2007-01-01

    The copolymers of triethoxyvinylsilane (TEVS) with styrene (St), butyl acrylate (BA), and methacrylic acid (MAA) were prepared by emulsion polymerization. The copolymerization was carried out by using auxiliary agents at 90 °C in the presence of potassium peroxodisulfate (KPS) as the initiator. Nonylphenol ethylene oxide -- 40 units (NP-40) and sodium lauryl sulfoacetate (SLSA) were used as nonionic and anionic emulsifiers, respectively. The resulting copolymers were characterized b...

  9. Surgical treatment of neurological scoliosis using hybrid construct (lumbar transpedicular screws plus thoracic sublaminar acrylic loops)

    OpenAIRE

    La Rosa, Guido; Giglio, Giancarlo; Oggiano, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    In the nineties, most spinal surgeons supported the validity of segmental spine instrumentation, but this procedure has progressively been abandoned because difficult and with a high risk of neurological complications, in favor of the Cotrel-Dobousset (CD). The CD instrumentation is based on segmentation of curves, thus improving the angular correction and actuates sagittal profile. Sublaminar acrylic loops (Universal Clamp) shows the same resistance to stress as steel or titanium alloy subla...

  10. Loading rate effects on the fracture of Ni/Au nano-coated acrylic particles

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Z. L.; He, J. Y.; Nagao, S; Kristiansen, H.

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical failure of monodisperse Ni/Au coated acrylic particles has been investigated by individual compression tests using nanoindentation-based technique equipped with a flat diamond punch. We have found that both fracture property and morphology of particles depend on the compression loading rate. The breaking strain of the metal coating decreases with increasing loading rate, while the breaking stress increases. Two obvious fracture patterns with cracking in meridian or latitude directi...

  11. Flocculation Efficiency of Poly(Acrylamide-Co-Acrylic Acid) Obtained by Electron Beam Irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Craciun; Elena Manaila; Maria-Daniela Stelescu

    2013-01-01

    A correlation between physicochemical characteristics of flocculants obtained by electron beam irradiation and their efficiency for wastewater treatment is presented. For real wastewater treatment, our interest was focused upon total suspended solids, fatty matter, and chemical oxygen demand. Flocculation studies were carried out using a standard jar test. A treatment option based on poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) for wastewater taken from a slaughterhouse plant is presented.

  12. Permittivity and Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Investigations of Activated Charcoal Loaded Acrylic Coating Compositions

    OpenAIRE

    Sharief ud Din Khan; Manju Arora; Wahab, M. A.; Parveen Saini

    2014-01-01

    Acrylic resin (AR) based electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding composites have been prepared by incorporation of up to 30 wt% activated charcoal (AC) in AR matrix. These composites have been characterized by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, dielectric, and EMI shielding measurement techniques. XRD patterns and Raman studies confirm the incorporation of AC particles inside AR matrix and suggest possible interactions between phases. The SEM images show that incorpo...

  13. Synthesis, Characterization and Evaluation of the Transformations in Hibiscus sabdariffa-graft-poly(butyl acrylate)

    OpenAIRE

    Kaith, B. S.; Chauhan, Aashish

    2008-01-01

    Different reaction parameters for the graft copolymerization of butyl acrylate onto Hibiscus sabdariffa fiber were optimized. Graft copolymers thus obtained were subjected to characterization using XRD, TGA, DTA, SEM and FTIR techniques and were evaluated for physio-chemical changes in the behavior. The percentage crystallinity and crystallinity index were found to decrease with increase in grafting while there was reduction in moisture absorption and increase in chemical, thermal resistance ...

  14. Inhibitory Effect of Alpha-Mangostin on Adhesion of Candida albicans to Denture Acrylic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaomongkolgit, Ruchadaporn; Jamdee, Kusuma

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Candida-associated denture stomatitis is a very common disease affecting denture wearers. It is characterized by the presence of yeast biofilm on the denture, primarily associated with C. albicans. The investigation of agents that can reduce C. albicans adhesion may represent a significant advancement in the prevention and treatment of this disease. This study aims to investigate the effect of alpha-mangostin on the in vitro adhesion of C. albicans to denture acrylic and germ tube formation by C. albicans and to compare its activity with clotrimazole which is a topical antifungal agent commonly used for the treatment of Candida-associated denture stomatitis. Materials and Methodology: Alpha-mangostin was extracted by thin layer chromatography. The effect of alpha-mangostin on adhesion of C. albicans to denture acrylic was determined by using a colorimetric tetrazolium assay and germ tube formation by C. albicans was determined by using the counting chamber. Results: A significant reduction of C. albicans adhesion to denture acrylic was evident after exposure to 2,000 µg/ml of alpha-mangostin for only 15 min. In addition, the 2,000 µg/ml of the alpha-mangostin-treated C. albicans had a reduced ability for germ tube formation. These inhibitory effects of alpha-mangostin were as effective as clotrimazole. Conclusion: Alpha-mangostin has antifungal property against C. albicans by inhibiting the adhesion to denture acrylic and germ tube formation in vitro. These results suggest the potential application of alpha-mangostin as a topical medication or a natural oral hygiene product for treatment of Candida-associated denture stomatitis. PMID:26962371

  15. Microencapsulation of 2-octylcyanoacrylate tissue adhesive for self-healing acrylic bone cement

    OpenAIRE

    Brochu, Alice B. W.; Chyan, William J.; Reichert, William M

    2012-01-01

    Here, we report the first phase of developing self-healing acrylic bone cement: the preparation and characterization of polyurethane (PUR) microcapsules containing a medical cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive. Capsules were prepared by interfacial polymerization of a toluene-2,4-diisocyanate-based polyurethane prepolymer with 1,4-butanediol to encapsulate 2-octylcyanoacrylate (OCA). Various capsule characteristics, including: resultant morphology, average size and size distribution, shell thicknes...

  16. The adsorption of an epoxy acrylate resin on aluminium alloy conversion coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Grilli, R; Abel, ML; Baker, MA; Dunn, B.; Watts, JF

    2011-01-01

    A thermodynamic study of the adsorption of an epoxy acrylate resin used for UV-cured coatings on two different anticorrosion pretreatments on aluminium alloys relevant to aerospace industry has been undertaken. Aluminium alloy Al2219 specimens, treated with an inorganic chromate based conversion coating (Alodine 1200S) and an organic titanium based conversion coating (Nabutan STI/310), were immersed in solutions of different concentrations of the resin and adsorption isotherms were determined...

  17. New UV-curable acrylated polyester prepolymers from palm oil based products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acrylated polyester prepolymers (PEPP-1 and PEPP-2) were synthesized from palm oil and its products. UV-curing and characteristic properties of UV-cured films of synthesized polyester resins were studied. The characteristic properties studied include pendulum hardness, gel content, FT-IR analysis, tensile strength and elongation at break. The materials have good potential for the production of radiation curable coating applications

  18. Comparative study between novel self cross-linking and conventional fluorinated acrylic latex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jun Chen

    2011-01-01

    Novel self cross-linking fluorinated acrylic latex (SCLFAL) has been successfully prepared via starved seeded semi-batch emulsion polymerization. The resultant SCLFAL is characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTTR) spectrometry. Contact angle (CA) and glass transition temperature (Tg) of the film are investigated. Results show that CA and Tg of the film can be improved when the moderate amount of HPMA is introduced into the mixed monomers.

  19. Effect of different solutions on color stability of acrylic resin-based dentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Coelho Goiato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of thermocycling and immersion in mouthwash or beverage solutions on the color stability of four different acrylic resin-based dentures (Onda Cryl, OC; QC20, QC; Classico, CL; and Lucitone, LU. The factors evaluated were type of acrylic resin, immersion time, and solution (mouthwash or beverage. A total of 224 denture samples were fabricated. For each type of resin, eight samples were immersed in mouthwashes (Plax-Colgate, PC; Listerine, LI; and Oral-B, OB, beverages (coffee, CP; cola, C; and wine, W, and artificial saliva (AS; control. The color change (DE was evaluated before (baseline and after thermocycling (T1, and after immersion in solution for 1 h (T2, 3 h (T3, 24 h (T4, 48 h (T5, and 96 h (T6. The CIE Lab system was used to determine the color changes. The thermocycling test was performed for 5000 cycles. Data were submitted to three-way repeated-measures analysis of variance and Tukey's test (p < 0.05. When the samples were immersed in each mouthwash, all assessed factors, associated or not, significantly influenced the color change values, except there was no association between the mouthwash and acrylic resin. Similarly, when the samples were immersed in each beverage, all studied factors influenced the color change values. In general, regardless of the solution, LU exhibited the greatest DE values in the period from T1 to T5; and QC presented the greatest DE values at T6. Thus, thermocycling and immersion in the various solutions influenced the color stability of acrylic resins and QC showed the greatest color alteration.

  20. The Effect of Reactives Diluents to the Physical Properties of Acrylated Palm Oil Based Polyurethane Coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Onn Munirah; Mohd Ahmad Faiza; Yhaya Mohd Firdaus

    2016-01-01

    The development of polyurethane with hydroxyl access in a molecule leads to a new alternative of low toxicity green product. Palm oil is one of the major commodities in Malaysia. The potential of palm oil to be used as coatings raw material such as alkyd is limited due to low unsaturated side on fatty acid chains. To overcome this limitation, palm oil was modified through transesterification process to produce polyol. Acrylated isocyanate (urethane oligomer) was then grafted onto polyol to pr...

  1. Evaluation of in vitro glistening formation in hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses

    OpenAIRE

    Thomes BE; Callaghan TA

    2013-01-01

    Brett E Thomes, Thomas A CallaghanAlcon Research Ltd (A Novartis Company), Fort Worth, TX, USAPurpose: To evaluate the impact of continuous manufacturing process improvements on glistening formation in AcrySof hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs) by comparing lenses manufactured in 2003 with lenses manufactured in 2012.Methods: Glistenings were experimentally created as aqueous-filled microvacuoles utilizing an accelerated laboratory method by immersing the lens in water at 45&de...

  2. Use of an acrylic painting to increase the durability of reinforced concrete in a seawater environment

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar, J. L. Barroso de; Sousa, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    One of the most aggressive environments for reinforced concrete is the contact with seawater. The chlorides present in seawater penetrate into the concrete and the possibility to armatures corrosion increases significantly. In this study an acrylic painting was used to protect the concrete and decrease the diffusion of chlorides. We used two concretes with different compositions. One composition respects the exigencies of European standardisation for this environment and the other one no. The...

  3. Design and Characterization of Diclofenac Diethylamine Transdermal Patch using Silicone and Acrylic Adhesives Combination

    OpenAIRE

    Panchaxari Dandigi M; Pampana Sowjanya; Pal Tapas; Devabhaktuni Bhavana; Aravapalli Anil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background and purpose of the study The objective of the study was to develop and characterize Diclofenac Diethylamine (DDEA) transdermal patch using Silicone and acrylic adhesives combination. Methods Modified solvent evaporation method was employed for casting of film over Fluoropolymer coated polyester release liner. Initial studies included solubilization of drug in the polymers using solubilizers. The formulations with combination of adhesives were attempted to combine the desir...

  4. Synthesis and Application of a New Acrylic Ester Resin for Recycling SIPA from its Water Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A new acrylic ester polymer YWB-7 resin was prepared and characterized. The properties of YWB-7 resin were compared with those of the commercial Amberlite XAD-7, Diaion HP2MG and hypercrosslinked macroporous polymer NDA-150 resins. Both surface area and micropore area of YWB-7 resin were bigger than those of XAD-7 resin and HP2MG resin. The YWB-7 resin was successfully employed to recycle 5-sodiosulfoisophthalic acids (SIPA) from its solutions with and without methanol.

  5. Study of physico-chemical properties of the new film-type material based on ethyl acrylate and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raykhan Rakhmetullaeva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During recent years the complexes based on water swellable hydrophilic polymers with the drugs and preparation of the film materials used in medicine have attracted attention of researchers. Due to the controlled release of drugs and low toxicity, the polymeric film materials are used as drug delivery systems and dressings. Polymeric film materials for drug delivery were obtained first time by grafting 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA and ethyl acrylate (EA monomers onto polyvinyl alcohol (PVA. In this study, it was found that the films obtained without thermal treatment are soluble in an aqueous medium. Thus, they were heat treated in the range of 1-15 hours at 90-150ºC. Physico-chemical properties of the films have been studied depending on environmental effects as well as methods of obtaining films have been investigated. An increase of the thermal treatment time leads to a decrease in the degree of swelling and reduces the solubility properties of com­posite materials. The surface morphology and thermal properties of films based on HEA-EA were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimet­ric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. It was shown that the surface of obtained films were homogeneous without any bubbles.

  6. Effect of C-Tetramethyl Calix[4]resorcinarene Acrylate on Curing Behavior and Film Properties of Thiol-acrylate Coating System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Qi; SHI Wen-fang

    2009-01-01

    An octa-fiinctional acrylate of C-tetramethyl calix[4]resorcinarene(CMC-4-RA) was facilely synthesized and characterized with ~1H NMR, ~(13)C NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. The CMC-4-RA was added to a thiol-acrylate system with different mass ratios, and exposed to a middle pressure mercury lamp. The maximum photopolymeriza-tion rate and final vinyl group conversion in the cured film increased greatly along with CMC-4-RA addition that was monitored with Photo-DSC. The tensile strength and pendulum hardness were improved significantly after the addition of CMC-4-RA. With increasing the content of CMC-4-RA to 60%(mass fraction), the glass transition temperature increased from 34.2℃ to 84.1℃; the cross-link density was calculated to be increased from 23.83 mmol/cm3 to 82.40 mmol/cm3 according to dynamic mechanical thermal analysis; the thermostability was greatly improved.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of kappaphycus seaweed-poly (acrylic) acid superabsorbent hydrogel for agricultural use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this research is to synthesize and characterize kappaphycus seaweed-poly (acrylic) acid superabsorbent hydrogel for agricultural use. The superabsorbent polymers (SAPs), KCSW: PAA hydrogels were synthesized by using gamma radiation technique from Cobalt-60 source at absorbed dose 0f 5, 10 and 15 kGy. The effect of absorbed dose, seaweed concentration, and concentration of acrylic acid on the degree of swelling was studied and optimum swelling conditions were established. Irradiated samples of 3% KCSW, 50% neutralized AAC at an absorbed dose of 10kGy gave the highest degree of swelling and gel fraction and were found to be suitable for application in the agriculture. Samples with different concentrations of acrylic acid were characterized using FTIR and TGA. The water retention experiment in sandy soil showed high water retention capacity of KCSW: PAA hydrogel at a value of 92% for a period of 7 days. Effect of the germination of mung bean showed very promising result of 78% germination.(author)

  8. Aluminum nanoparticle/acrylate copolymer nanocomposites for dielectric elastomers with high dielectric constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Zhang, Suki N.; Niu, Xiaofan; Liu, Chao; Pei, Qibing

    2014-03-01

    Dielectric elastomers are useful for large-strain actuation and energy harvesting. Their application has been limited by their low dielectric constants and consequently high driving voltage. Various fillers with high dielectric constants have been incorporated into different elastomer systems to improve the actuation strain, force output and energy density of the compliant actuators and generators. However, agglomeration may happen in these nanocomposites, resulting in a decrease of dielectric strength, an increase of leakage current, and in many instances the degree of enhancement of the dielectric constant. In this work, we investigated aluminum nanoparticles as nanofillers for acrylate copolymers. This metallic nanoparticle was chosen because the availability of free electrons could potentially provide an infinite value of dielectric constant as opposed to dielectric materials including ferroelectric nanocrystals. Moreover, aluminum nanoparticles have a self-passivated oxide shell effectively preventing the formation of conductive path. The surfaces of the aluminum nanoparticles were functionalized with methacrylate groups to assist the uniform dispersion in organic solutions and additionally enable copolymerization with acrylate copolymer matrix during bulk polymerization, and thus to suppress large range drifting of the nanoparticles. The resulting Al nanoparticle-acrylate copolymer nanocomposites were found to exhibit higher dielectric constant and increased stiffness. The leakage current under high electric fields were significantly lower than nanocomposites synthesized without proper nanoparticle surface modification. The dielectric strengths of the composites were comparable with the pristine polymers. In dielectric actuation evaluation, the actuation force output and energy specific work density were enhanced in the nanocomposites compared to the pristine copolymer.

  9. Electron beam curing of acrylated epoxy resins for anisotropic conductive film application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation curable acrylated epoxy oligomer was found to be an effective resin system for application to electron beams (EB) on curing of anisotropic conducting film. To study curing degree as a function of EB dosage, we irradiated bisphenol-A type acrylate epoxy oligomer samples with doses of 5 to 600 kGy of EB. To investigate the effect of a metal barrier for potential industrial application, a 3 mm thick Al plate was placed in front of the samples, and the curing parameters were compared with the ones irradiated without an Al plate. As the dosage of the EB irradiation was increased, the glass transition temperature of the sample ranged from 46.8 to 62.2 °C for the epoxy composites without placing an Al plate, and from 46.4 to 64.1 °C for their counterparts with a 3 mm thick Al plate. These results confirm that enhancement of the curing degree with increasing EB irradiation is possible even in the presence of a metal plate. The scanning electron microscope images of the fracture surfaces are presented as evidence of the morphological changes of the EB cured epoxy samples. - Highlights: ► Acrylated epoxy oligomer was cured by irradiation of the electron beam. ► Curing degree was increased with increasing dosage of the electron beam. ► Electron beam can be used for the bonding of anisotropic conducting films

  10. SYNTHESIS OF ACRYLIC ESTERS IN PHASE TRANSFER CATALYSIS: KINETICS AND ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAGIK TOROSYAN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Phase-Transfer Catalysis (PTC technology is used in the commercial manufacture and also in pollution mitigation treatment processes. In the paper is demonstrated the synthesis of esters of acrylic and metacrylic acids, which have wide applications in the industry for the synthesis of unique polymeric materials, by phase transfer catalysis method. It is necessary to notice that the synthesis of acrylic acids in PTC medium is more important because that compounds are more sensitive at acidic and basic conditions. Here is shown that the offered method has more advantages in comparison with the traditional methods. PTC is characterized by a higher degree of conversion of raw materials into useful products, smaller material and power resources consumption. The offered method for acrylic ester synthesis in comparison with the traditional methods has more advantages: higher process rates, mild reaction conditions, allowing lower energy costs, the complete elimination of hazardous and dangerous organic solvents, all leading to a sharp reduction of air pollution, and volume of generated wastewaters.

  11. Properties of solvent-borne acrylic pressure-sensitive adhesives synthesized by a simple approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Acrylic polymers are widely used for fabricating pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs with the inherent unique advantages of transparency and superior intrinsic adhesive properties over other polymer-based adhesives. In this study, we have developed and evaluated a method of obtaining by radical copolymerization PSAs for liquid crystalline (LCD applications. Various factors including the amount of monomers, amount of cross-linker, coating weight, dwell time and thermal treatment are investigated for further optimizing the properties of acrylic polymer based PSAs to meet the emerging strict requirements for practical uses related mainly to holding powder and peel strength. The results illustrate that novel crosslinking reagents coupled with the thermal treatment at 70°C can make the resultant PSAs with the improved adhesive properties. The coating weight variation from 10 to 40 g/m2 can significantly enhance the peel strength from 4.0 g/25 mm to 12.5 g/25 mm with about 310% increment. If the dwell time of PSAs with cross-linking reagent is more than 10 hrs, the peel strength can be reduced down to a suitable value to meet the criterion for use. Therefore, acrylic PSAs with peel strength less than 20 g/25 mm and holding power above 120 hrs were successfully synthesized by elaborately designing the reaction system, which are practically applicable for advanced industrial applications.

  12. Synthesis, characterization, swelling and dye adsorption properties of starch incorporated acrylic gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Bidyadhar; Ray, Samit Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Several hydrogels were prepared by a free radical polymerization of acrylic acid (AA), sodium acrylate (SA) and AA/hydroxy ethyl methacrylate (HEMA) in the presence of starch in water. These starch incorporated acrylic gels were prepared by varying the concentration of the initiator, monomer, crosslinker and the starch. The resulting gels were characterized by FTIR, SEM, XRD, DTA-TGA, pH at point zero charge (PZC), swelling and the diffusion in water. The gels showed high adsorption and removal% of Safranine T (ST) and Brilliant Cresyl Blue (BCB) dyes from water. The swelling and the adsorption data were fitted to different kinetic models and isotherms. Amongst the three kinds of gels, the starch incorporated sodium polyacrylate gel showed the highest adsorption of 9.7-85.3mg/L (97-61% removal) of BCB dye and 9.1-83mg/L (91-60% removal) of ST dye for a feed dye concentration of 10-140mg/L.

  13. Acrylic acid polymerization and its graft copolymerization to poly(ethylene oxide) by gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochberg, A.

    1984-01-01

    Free radical initiated polymerization of acrylic acid was investigated in methanol-water solutions with and without poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). The formation of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) initiated both by gamma irradiation and water soluble azo initiators was found to follow classical free radical kinetics. A significant increase in the rate of the propagation step (together with the degree of polymerization) was observed as the water fraction of the medium increased. During homogeneous polymerization of acrylic acid in methanol-water solutions containing poly(ethylene oxide), PAA grafting efficiency was found to be 67% and independent of initiation rate and yield. A mechanism of grafting to poly(ethylene oxide) was proposed. Chain transfer to PEO (K/sub tr/ = 6.5 x 10/sup -5/) was found to be the dominant mechanism for graft formation. Drag reduction characteristics of these PEO-PAA graft copolymers were measured in dilute aqueous solutions as a function of Reynolds number and solution pH. PEO graft copolymers containing 45% by mole PAA graft had, in neutral and basic solutions, drag reduction characteristics equivalent on a mass basis to the initial PEO. However at low pH, drag reduction characteristics disappeared as the PEO-PAA coacervate formed.

  14. The Effect of Using Modified Flask on the Porosity of Processed Heat- Cure Acrylic Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed T. Al-Khafagy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Porosity is an important property of acrylic resin material because it affect other properties like strength, esthetic and cause bacterial or fungal growth lead to unhealthy dentures. This paper Study the possibility of reducing the porosity of heat- cure acrylic resin by making a modification in the flask of processing .The processing flask was modified by constructing a tongue like projection fixed to the upper half of the flask in order to spread the high temperature occurred in the center of the muffle. In the this research; forty lower denture base with bite rim samples were prepared from heat-cure acrylic resin denture base. The study include 4 testing groups depending on the type of curing cycle and using of ordinary traditional and modified flask in curing process, each group contain 10 samples. One way ANOVA with Tukey's test between tested groups in regarding the type of flasking and curing cycle are indicated, the results revealed a significant difference at (P=0.05 when compare between group 2(I.I.O.Fand 3(S.C.M.F and between group2and 4(S.C.O.F, and also between group 3and 4. While there was a non significant differences between group 1,2 and1,3 and finally between group1and4. Less Porosity was observed in the group of samples that cured with slow curing cycle in modified flask when compare with other groups.

  15. Preparation and characterization of poly(acrylic acid)-hydroxyethyl cellulose graft copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Halim, E S

    2012-10-01

    Poly(acrylic acid) hydroxyethyl cellulose [poly(AA)-HEC] graft copolymer was prepared by polymerizing acrylic acid (AA) with hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) using potassium bromate/thiourea dioxide (KBrO(3)/TUD) as redox initiation system. The polymerization reaction was carried out under a variety of conditions including concentrations of AA, KBrO(3) and TUD, material to liquor ratio and polymerization temperature. The polymerization reaction was monitored by withdrawing samples from the reaction medium and measuring the total conversion. The rheological properties of the poly(AA)-HEC graft copolymer were investigated. The total conversion and rheological properties of the graft copolymer depended on the ratio of KBrO(3) to TUD and on acrylic acid concentration as well as temperature and material to liquor ratio. Optimum conditions of the graft copolymer preparation were 30 mmol KBrO(3) and 30 mmol TUD/100g HEC, 100% AA (based on weight of HEC), duration 2h at temperature 50 °C using a material to liquor ratio of 1:10. PMID:22840022

  16. Synthesis, characterization, swelling and dye adsorption properties of starch incorporated acrylic gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Bidyadhar; Ray, Samit Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Several hydrogels were prepared by a free radical polymerization of acrylic acid (AA), sodium acrylate (SA) and AA/hydroxy ethyl methacrylate (HEMA) in the presence of starch in water. These starch incorporated acrylic gels were prepared by varying the concentration of the initiator, monomer, crosslinker and the starch. The resulting gels were characterized by FTIR, SEM, XRD, DTA-TGA, pH at point zero charge (PZC), swelling and the diffusion in water. The gels showed high adsorption and removal% of Safranine T (ST) and Brilliant Cresyl Blue (BCB) dyes from water. The swelling and the adsorption data were fitted to different kinetic models and isotherms. Amongst the three kinds of gels, the starch incorporated sodium polyacrylate gel showed the highest adsorption of 9.7-85.3mg/L (97-61% removal) of BCB dye and 9.1-83mg/L (91-60% removal) of ST dye for a feed dye concentration of 10-140mg/L. PMID:26318665

  17. Biocompatible Metal-Oxide Nanoparticles: Nanotechnology Improvement of Conventional Prosthetic Acrylic Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura S. Acosta-Torres

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, most products for dental restoration are produced from acrylic resins based on heat-cured Poly(Methyl MethAcrylate (PMMA. The addition of metal nanoparticles to organic materials is known to increase the surface hydrophobicity and to reduce adherence to biomolecules. This paper describes the use of nanostructured materials, TiO2 and Fe2O3, for simultaneously coloring and/or improving the antimicrobial properties of PMMA resins. Nanoparticles of metal oxides were included during suspension polymerization to produce hybrid metal oxides-alginate-containing PMMA. Metal oxide nanoparticles were characterized by dynamic light scattering, and X-ray diffraction. Physicochemical characterization of synthesized resins was assessed by a combination of spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, viscometry, porosity, and mechanical tests. Adherence of Candida albicans cells and cellular compatibility assays were performed to explore biocompatibility and microbial adhesion of standard and novel materials. Our results show that introduction of biocompatible metal nanoparticles is a suitable means for the improvement of conventional acrylic dental resins.

  18. A Potentiometric Formaldehyde Biosensor Based on Immobilization of Alcohol Oxidase on Acryloxysuccinimide-modified Acrylic Microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Yook Heng

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A new alcohol oxidase (AOX enzyme-based formaldehyde biosensor based on acrylic microspheres has been developed. Hydrophobic poly(n-butyl acrylate-N-acryloxy-succinimide [poly(nBA-NAS] microspheres, an enzyme immobilization matrix, was synthesized using photopolymerization in an emulsion form. AOX-poly(nBA-NAS microspheres were deposited on a pH transducer made from a layer of photocured and self-plasticized polyacrylate membrane with an entrapped pH ionophore coated on a Ag/AgCl screen printed electrode (SPE. Oxidation of formaldehyde by the immobilized AOX resulted in the production of protons, which can be determined via the pH transducer. Effects of buffer concentrations, pH and different amount of immobilization matrix towards the biosensor’s analytical performance were investigated. The formaldehyde biosensor exhibited a dynamic linear response range to formaldehyde from 0.3–316.2 mM and a sensitivity of 59.41 ± 0.66 mV/decade (R2 = 0.9776, n = 3. The lower detection limit of the biosensor was 0.3 mM, while reproducibility and repeatability were 3.16% RSD (relative standard deviation and 1.11% RSD, respectively (n = 3. The use of acrylic microspheres in the potentiometric formaldehyde biosensor improved the biosensor’s performance in terms of response time, linear response range and long term stability when compared with thick film immobilization methods.

  19. Dimensional changes of acrylic resin denture bases: conventional versus injection-molding technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Gharechahi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Acrylic resin denture bases undergo dimensional changes during polymerization. Injection molding techniques are reported to reduce these changes and thereby improve physical properties of denture bases. The aim of this study was to compare dimensional changes of specimens processed by conventional and injection-molding techniques.SR-Ivocap Triplex Hot resin was used for conventional pressure-packed and SR-Ivocap High Impact was used for injection-molding techniques. After processing, all the specimens were stored in distilled water at room temperature until measured. For dimensional accuracy evaluation, measurements were recorded at 24-hour, 48-hour and 12-day intervals using a digital caliper with an accuracy of 0.01 mm. Statistical analysis was carried out by SPSS (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA using t-test and repeated-measures ANOVA. Statistical significance was defined at P<0.05.After each water storage period, the acrylic specimens produced by injection exhibited less dimensional changes compared to those produced by the conventional technique. Curing shrinkage was compensated by water sorption with an increase in water storage time decreasing dimensional changes.Within the limitations of this study, dimensional changes of acrylic resin specimens were influenced by the molding technique used and SR-Ivocap injection procedure exhibited higher dimensional accuracy compared to conventional molding.

  20. Preparation and characterization of high salts polymer electrolyte based on poly(lithium acrylate)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Ai-dong; HUANG Ke-long; PAN Chun-yue; LU Cui-hong

    2005-01-01

    Novel polymer electrolytes were prepared by highly mixing poly(lithium acrylate)(PPALi) with eutectic lithium salts of lithium acetate and lithium nitrate.Poly(lithium acrylate) was preparaed by inverse emulsion polymerization from crylic acid and LiOH.Phase transition temperatures were measured for all the eutectic lithium of binary system samples as a function of the concentration of Li(CH3 COO),and the mixtures exhibit the lowest phase transition temperatures of (448±2) K at about 50% (mass fraction) Li(CH3 COO).Thermogravimetry(TG)and X-ray diffraction(XRD) analysis indicate the formation of a novel polymer-salt complex.The highest conductivity(approximately 4.97 ×10-5S·cm-1) is found at room temperature with the electrolyte composition of eutectic mixture of about 80% (mass fraction),poly(lithium acrylate) 20% under quickly cooling condition,which is 150%higher than that under natural cooling condition.

  1. [Capability and microbial community analysis of a membrane bioreactor for acrylic fiber wastewater treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jian; Song, Yong-Huil; Zhao, Le

    2014-12-01

    Sequencing batch membrane bioreactor (SBMBR) was used for the treatment of acrylic fiber polymerization wastewater and acrylonitrile wastewater. The operation efficiencies of SBMBR under different wastewater ratios and operation conditions were investigated, and the microbial community structure of the SBMBR system was analyzed by using PCR-DGGE technology. The results showed that SBMBR had a high removal efficiency on pollutants in acrylic fiber wastewater, and the lacking of carbon source and alkalinity were the main limiting factors for nitrogen removal. Under the designed operation conditions of 90 min anoxic/150 min aerobic cyclic operation and HRT of 24 h, the average COD, NH4(+) -N and TN removal efficiencies were 82.5%, 98.7% and 74.6%, respectively. The effluent of the SBMBR could steadily meet the Grade I standards of the Wastewater Comprehensive Discharge Standard of China (GB 8978-1996). The PCR-DGGE analyses showed that the microbial communities in SBMBR had a significant shift with the changes of influent characteristics and operation conditions. By cloning and sequencing analyses of selected dominant bacteria, 22 16S rDNA sequence were successfully identified from 9 sludge samples, from which 7 dominant functional microorganisms for the degradation of organic pollutants in acrylic fiber wastewater were screened out. PMID:25826932

  2. Transdermal thiol-acrylate polyethylene glycol hydrogel synthesis using near infrared light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Solchan; Lee, Hwangjae; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Kim, Min-Gon; Lee, Luke P; Lee, Jae Young

    2016-08-01

    Light-induced polymerization has been widely applied for hydrogel synthesis, which conventionally involves the use of ultraviolet or visible light to activate a photoinitiator for polymerization. However, with these light sources, transdermal gelation is not efficient and feasible due to their substantial interactions with biological systems, and thus a high power is required. In this study, we used biocompatible and tissue-penetrating near infrared (NIR) light to remotely trigger a thiol-acrylate reaction for efficient in vivo gelation with good controllability. Our gelation system includes gold nanorods as a photothermal agent, a thermal initiator, diacrylate polyethylene glycol (PEG), and thiolated PEG. Irradiation with a low-power NIR laser (0.3 W cm(-2)) could induce gelation via a mixed-mode reaction with a small increase in temperature (∼5 °C) under the optimized conditions. We also achieved successful transdermal gelation via the NIR-assisted photothermal thiol-acryl reactions. This new type of NIR-assisted thiol-acrylate polymerization provides new opportunities for in situ hydrogel formation for injectable hydrogels and delivery of drugs/cells for various biomedical applications. PMID:27389611

  3. Water Sorption and Flexural Strength of Thermoplastic and Conventional Heat-Polymerized Acrylic Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Mohammad Ali; Vafaee, Fariborz

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess and compare the water sorption and flexural strength of thermoplastic and conventional acrylic resins. Materials and Methods: Water sorption and flexural strength were compared between a thermoplastic modified polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) denture base resin (group A) and a heat-polymerized PMMA acrylic resin (group B) as the control group (n=10). A three-point bending test was carried out for flexural strength testing. For water sorption test, 10 disc-shaped samples were prepared. After desiccating, the samples were weighed and immersed in distilled water for seven days. Then, they were weighed again, and desiccated for the second and third times. Differences between the mean values in the two groups were analyzed using Student’s t-test. Results: The mean value of water sorption was 14.74±1.36 μg/mm3 in group A, and 19.11±0.90 μg/mm3 in group B; this difference was statistically significant (PPMMA acrylic resins as denture base materials. PMID:26877737

  4. Preparation of self-crosslinked acrylate emulsion with high elasticity and its rheological properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Li-jun; WU Feng-qin; LI Dong-shuang; YANG Jian; LI Rong-xian

    2008-01-01

    Using butyl acrylate (BA), methyl methacrylate (MMA), methacrylic acid (MAA) and mixed emulsifier as raw materials, the self-crosslinked emulsion was prepared via pre-emulsified and semi-continuous seeded emulsion polymerization technology in the presence of N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide and poly solidum maleate. The influence of mass ratio of BA to MMA, amount of N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide and poly solidum maleate on the rheological properties of the self-crosslinked emulsion was studied. Possible cross-linked mechanism of self-crosslinked monomer was investigated. And the relationship between emulsion viscosity and shear rate was investigated. The results show that the self-crosslinked acrylate emulsion with high elasticity can be synthesized when the mass fractions of BA is 60%, MMA is 40%, and added amount of N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide is 2.5%-3.0% and added amount of poly solidum maleate is 0.3%-0.4%. The self-crosslinkage process of N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide involves two steps. One is copolymer zation of N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide and acrylate, the other is cross-linkage among polymer molecules via condensation reaction of methylol. The emulsion is of rheological properties of pseudo-plastic fluid and belongs to non-Newtonian fluid.

  5. Effect of nanosilver on thermal and mechanical properties of acrylic base complete dentures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Hamedi-Rad

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA, widely used as a prosthodontic base, has many disadvantages, including a high thermal expansion coefficient and low thermal conductivity, a low elasticity coefficient, low impact strength and low resistance to fatigue. This study aimed to make an in vitro comparison of the thermal conductivity, compressive strength, and tensile strength of the acrylic base of complete dentures with those of acrylic reinforced with nanosilver.For this study, 36 specimens were prepared. The specimens were divided into three groups of 12; which were further divided into two subgroups of control (unmodified PMMA and test (PMMA mixed with 5 weight% nanosilver.The results were analysed by Independent t-test.This study showed that the mean thermal conductivity and compressive strength of PMMA reinforced with nanosilver were significantly higher than the unmodified PMMA (P<0.05, while the tensile strength decreased significantly after the incorporation of nanosilver (P<0.05.Considering our results suggesting the favorable effect of silver nanoparticles on improving the thermal conductivity and compressive strength of PMMA, use of this material in the palatal area of maxillary acrylic resin dentures is recommended.

  6. Adsorption of surfactants onto acrylic ester resins with different pore size distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Weiben; LI Aimin; CAI Jianguo; MENG Guanhua; ZHANG Quanxing

    2006-01-01

    In this study, a series of acrylic ester resins with different pore size distribution were prepared successfully by varying the type and the amount of pore-forming agents. In order to investigate the adsorption behavior and mechanism of surfactants on acrylic ester resins, three kinds of surfactants were utilized as adsorbates that were sodium 6-dodecyl benzenesulfonate (6-NaDBS),sodium 1-dodecyl benzene sulfonate (1-NaDBS) and sodium 1-dodecyl sulfonate, respectively. It was observed that the surface area was available in a particular pore size and an appropriate pore size of resins appeared to be more important for the adsorption of surfactants. As compared to commercial acrylic ester resins XAD-7 and HP2MG, 50# and 38# resins exhibited more excellent adsorption properties toward 1-NaDBS and 6-NaDBS. The experimental equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir, and double-Langmuir models. Two models provided very good fittings for all resins over the temperature range studied. The investigation dicated that electrostatic attraction and hydrogen bond between resins and surfactants were the main forces and had an obvious effect on adsorption process.

  7. Determination of acrylamide and acrylic acid by isocratic liquid chromatography with pulsed electrochemical detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Innocenzo G; Pierri, Marianna; Contursi, Michela

    2006-02-24

    The electrochemical behaviour of the polycrystalline platinum electrode towards the oxidation/reduction of short-chain unsaturated aliphatic molecules such as acrylamide and acrylic acid was investigated in acidic solutions. Analytes were separated by reverse phase liquid chromatographic and quantified using a pulsed amperometric detection. A new two-step waveform, is introduced for detection of acrylamide and acrylic acid. Detection limits (LOD) of 20 nM (1. 4 microg/kg) and 45 nM (3.2 microg/kg) were determined in water solutions containing acrylamide and acrylic acid, respectively. Compared to the classical three-step waveform, the proposed two-step waveform shows favourable analytical performance in terms of LOD, linear range, precision and improved long-term reproducibility. The proposed analytical method combined with clean-up procedure accomplished by Carrez clearing reagent and subsequent extraction with a strong cation exchanger cartridges (SPE), was successfully used for the quantification of low concentrations of acrylamide in foodstuffs such as coffee and potato fries. PMID:16426623

  8. Effect of deep-freezing on some properties of acrylic resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, Gul; Harrison, Alan

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of freezing the acrylic resin polymer/monomer dough mix on a range of properties of the polymerized denture base material. Powder and liquid of acrylic resin were mixed and at the dough stage transferred to a deep freezer and frozen for periods of 24 h, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months. At the end of the storage time, sufficient dough was removed, thawed, packed, and polymerized, and specimens were prepared from the polymerized plates. A control series was prepared from dough which had followed conventional mixing and packing procedures without freezing. The strength properties, hardness, and flash thickness were examined. Statistical analysis was carried out using ANOVA (one-way and two-way) with multiple range tests. The flexural strength was significantly (p=0.03) increased and the impact strength, hardness, and flash thickness were not affected by freezing the material during the dough stage. The flexural modulus was significantly (p=0.0001) reduced when the storage time in the freezer was increased to 3 months. Six months' frozen material proved to be unpackable. It was concluded that the acrylic resin polymer/monomer dough mix can be stored in the freezer for up to 1 month without any statistically significant effect on the properties of the polymerized denture base material. PMID:16191909

  9. Thermodynamic Interactions between Polystyrene and Long-Chain Poly(n-Alkyl Acrylates) Derived from Plant Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu; Robertson, Megan L

    2015-06-10

    Vegetable oils and their fatty acids are promising sources for the derivation of polymers. Long-chain poly(n-alkyl acrylates) and poly(n-alkyl methacrylates) are readily derived from fatty acids through conversion of the carboxylic acid end-group to an acrylate or methacrylate group. The resulting polymers contain long alkyl side-chains with around 10-22 carbon atoms. Regardless of the monomer source, the presence of alkyl side-chains in poly(n-alkyl acrylates) and poly(n-alkyl methacrylates) provides a convenient mechanism for tuning their physical properties. The development of structured multicomponent materials, including block copolymers and blends, containing poly(n-alkyl acrylates) and poly(n-alkyl methacrylates) requires knowledge of the thermodynamic interactions governing their self-assembly, typically described by the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter χ. We have investigated the χ parameter between polystyrene and long-chain poly(n-alkyl acrylate) homopolymers and copolymers: specifically we have included poly(stearyl acrylate), poly(lauryl acrylate), and their random copolymers. Lauryl and stearyl acrylate were chosen as model alkyl acrylates derived from vegetable oils and have alkyl side-chain lengths of 12 and 18 carbon atoms, respectively. Polystyrene is included in this study as a model petroleum-sourced polymer, which has wide applicability in commercially relevant multicomponent polymeric materials. Two independent methods were employed to measure the χ parameter: cloud point measurements on binary blends and characterization of the order-disorder transition of triblock copolymers, which were in relatively good agreement with one another. The χ parameter was found to be independent of the alkyl side-chain length (n) for large values of n (i.e., n > 10). This behavior is in stark contrast to the n-dependence of the χ parameter predicted from solubility parameter theory. Our study complements prior work investigating the interactions between

  10. Thermodynamic Interactions between Polystyrene and Long-Chain Poly(n-Alkyl Acrylates) Derived from Plant Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu; Robertson, Megan L

    2015-06-10

    Vegetable oils and their fatty acids are promising sources for the derivation of polymers. Long-chain poly(n-alkyl acrylates) and poly(n-alkyl methacrylates) are readily derived from fatty acids through conversion of the carboxylic acid end-group to an acrylate or methacrylate group. The resulting polymers contain long alkyl side-chains with around 10-22 carbon atoms. Regardless of the monomer source, the presence of alkyl side-chains in poly(n-alkyl acrylates) and poly(n-alkyl methacrylates) provides a convenient mechanism for tuning their physical properties. The development of structured multicomponent materials, including block copolymers and blends, containing poly(n-alkyl acrylates) and poly(n-alkyl methacrylates) requires knowledge of the thermodynamic interactions governing their self-assembly, typically described by the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter χ. We have investigated the χ parameter between polystyrene and long-chain poly(n-alkyl acrylate) homopolymers and copolymers: specifically we have included poly(stearyl acrylate), poly(lauryl acrylate), and their random copolymers. Lauryl and stearyl acrylate were chosen as model alkyl acrylates derived from vegetable oils and have alkyl side-chain lengths of 12 and 18 carbon atoms, respectively. Polystyrene is included in this study as a model petroleum-sourced polymer, which has wide applicability in commercially relevant multicomponent polymeric materials. Two independent methods were employed to measure the χ parameter: cloud point measurements on binary blends and characterization of the order-disorder transition of triblock copolymers, which were in relatively good agreement with one another. The χ parameter was found to be independent of the alkyl side-chain length (n) for large values of n (i.e., n > 10). This behavior is in stark contrast to the n-dependence of the χ parameter predicted from solubility parameter theory. Our study complements prior work investigating the interactions between

  11. Candida albicans adherence on acrylic resin plates immersed in black tea steeping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soebagio Soebagio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Black tea or Cournelia sinensis is one of known tea varieties in Indonesia. Actually, black tea is consumed daily as beverage that can function as antiseptics and fungicides. Black tea containing antibacterial and fungicide properties can reduce the number of Candida albicans (C. albicans colony attachment on the surface of acrylic resin plates. Purpose: This study was done to determine the effective concentration of black tea steeping used as the immersion material of acrylic resin plates towards the number of Candida albicans colonies. Methods: In this study, acrylic resin plates with the size of 10 × 20 × 1 mm were immersed in black tea steeping with the following concentrations, 3.33%, 6.66%, and 13.33%, for one hour. The growth of C. albicans colonies were then detected by counting the number of colonies growing on Sabouraud’s dextrose medium. Data was analyzed by using both One-Way ANOVA with the significance level of 5%, and Tuckey’s multiple comparison tests (Tuckey’s HSD test. Results: There were significant differences in the number of C. albicans colonies in acrylic resin plates immersed in black tea with the concentration of 3.33%, 6.66%, and 13.33%. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the higher concentration of black tea (13.33% used to immerse acrylic resin plates, the greater the decreased number of C. albicans colonies.Latar belakang: Teh hitam atau Cournelia sinensis adalah salah satu macam teh yang dikenal di Indonesia. Teh hitam seringkali dipakai sebagai minuman sehari- hari dan berkhasiat sebagai antiseptik maupun fungisid. Teh hitam yang mengandung sifat antibakteri dan fungisid dapat menurunkan jumlah koloni Candida albicans (C. albicans yang melekat pada permukaan lempeng resin akrilik. Tujuan: Untuk mengetahui konsentrasi efektif seduhan teh hitam sebagai bahan perendam lempeng resin akrilik terhadap jumlah koloni C. albicans. Metode: Pada penelitian ini lempeng resin akrilik ukuran 10 × 20 × 1 mm

  12. An in vitro study on effect of Delmopinol application on Candida albicans adherence on heat cured denture base acrylic resin: A thorough study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshraj Jain

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Heat-cured acrylic resin shows greater reduction in adherence of Candida albicans by contamination after Delmopinol application as compared with contamination before Delmopinol application.

  13. Synthesis and Thermal Properties of Acrylonitrile/Butyl Acrylate/Fumaronitrile and Acrylonitrile/Ethyl Hexyl Acrylate/Fumaronitrile Terpolymers as a Potential Precursor for Carbon Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nurul Ain Md Jamil

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A synthesis of acrylonitrile (AN/butyl acrylate (BA/fumaronitrile (FN and AN/EHA (ethyl hexyl acrylate/FN terpolymers was carried out by redox polymerization using sodium bisulfite (SBS and potassium persulphate (KPS as initiator at 40 °C. The effect of comonomers, BA and EHA and termonomer, FN on the glass transition temperature (Tg and stabilization temperature was studied using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC. The degradation behavior and char yield were obtained by Thermogravimetric Analysis. The conversions of AN, comonomers (BA and EHA and FN were 55%–71%, 85%–91% and 76%–79%, respectively. It was found that with the same comonomer feed (10%, the Tg of AN/EHA copolymer was lower at 63 °C compared to AN/BA copolymer (70 °C. AN/EHA/FN terpolymer also exhibited a lower Tg at 63 °C when compared to that of the AN/BA/FN terpolymer (67 °C. By incorporating BA and EHA into a PAN system, the char yield was reduced to ~38.0% compared to that of AN (~47.7%. It was found that FN reduced the initial cyclization temperature of AN/BA/FN and AN/EHA/FN terpolymers to 228 and 221 °C, respectively, in comparison to that of AN/BA and AN/EHA copolymers (~260 °C. In addition, FN reduced the heat liberation per unit time during the stabilization process that consequently reduced the emission of volatile group during this process. As a result, the char yields of AN/BA/FN and AN/EHA/FN terpolymers are higher at ~45.1% and ~43.9%, respectively, as compared to those of AN/BA copolymer (37.1% and AN/EHA copolymer (38.0%.

  14. Synthesis of superabsorbent hydrogel by radiation crosslinking of acrylic acid, semi-refined kappa-carrageenan and sugarcane bagasse blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superabsorbent hydrogels have three-dimensional networks that enable it to exhibit great water absorption capacity leading to its promising applications. However, existing commercial hydrogels are mainly acrylic acid which causes environmental problems. In this study, the incorporation of agricultural waste as filler and polysaccharide from natural sources as binder for the production of superabsorbent hydrogel was done to reduce the use of acrylic acid as well as its environmental impact while adding value to the incorporated materials. A series of superabsorbent hydrogel with the blend of acrylic acid, semi-refined kappa carrageenan and sugarcane bagasse were synthesized by radiation crosslinking. The gel fraction and swelling capacity of the hydrogels were determined and studied. The characterizations were facilitated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique (FTIR) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). In the results obtained from analyses, the characteristic peaks of acrylic acid and sugarcane bagasse were observed in the FTIR spectra and the three step peaks if synthesized hydrogel in its TGA implies an improvement in thermal stability of the product. The synthesized superabsorbent hydrogel blends had exhibited comparable gel fraction to that of the polyacrylic acid hydrogel, had great swelling capacity, and achieved equilibrium degree of swelling within 72-96 hours. The optimum synthesized superabsorbent hydrogel is 3% semi-refined kappa-carrageenan, 3% sugarcane bagasse, 15% acrylic acid neutralize up to 50% and irradiated at 15kGy dose which exhibited a swelling of 599.53 and gel fraction of 39.73. (author)

  15. A Canvas of Acrylic Painting from Pig Leather%用猪革作丙烯画底材

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁鹏; 许娄金; 谢鸣

    2012-01-01

    Acrylic painting is painted on various base materials by plying leather as base material for acrylic painting is nearly as that of requests for base material of acrylic: painting, pig hide was adopted as ufaeturing technique were applied, including special treatment before bined with low -dosage mimosa tanning, etc. So that the pig leather acrylic pigments instead of oil pigments. The process of ap- finishing leather with acrylic resin. According to the special raw materials and a relatively easy, convenient leather man- tanning, wet - white pre - tanning by aluminum salt com- base material suiting for acrylic painting was developed.%丙烯画是用丙烯颜料在各种底材上绘制的画。以真皮为底材制作丙烯画,与用丙烯酸树脂涂饰皮革有相似之处。根据丙烯画底材的特殊要求,以猪皮为原料,采用有针对性而且相对简捷的生产工艺,包括有针对性的鞣前处理工艺、铝预鞣白湿皮工艺并结合少用量的荆树皮栲胶植鞣工艺等,试制出了适宜于绘制丙烯画的猪革底材。

  16. Property Research of Instant Polymerization Acrylate Size Mixture%瞬时聚合丙烯酸酯浆料的性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴长春; 武海良; 沈艳琴; 杨微

    2011-01-01

    探讨在采用瞬时聚合法直接合成固体丙烯酸酯浆料的过程中,疏水性单体丙烯酸丁酯用量对所生成丙烯酸酯浆料性能的影响.测试了不同丙烯酸丁酯用量下反应生成物的水溶性、水溶液黏度及对涤棉粗纱黏附性,并对合成的固体丙烯酸浆料进行红外表征.结果表明:在丙烯酸的中和度为50%、氧化还原引发体系中引发剂为单体量的6%时,丙烯酸丁酯为单体量的25%时合成的浆料性能最好,所生产的浆料为丙烯酸-丙烯酸钠盐-丙烯酸丁酯共聚物.%Effect of hydrophobic monomer butyl acrylate amount on acrylate size mixture property in the process of compounding solid acrylate size mixture directly by instant polymerization was discussed. Water-soluble, solution viscosity and adhesion to polyester cotton roving of polymer were tested in condition of different butyl acrylate amount. Infrared spectroscopy was done on solid acrylate size mixture. The result shows that property of the acrylate size mixture is the best,the size mixture is acrylate,acrylic acid,butyl acrylate copolymer when acrylic acid neutralization degree is 50% ,initiator content in redox initiation system is 6% ,butyl acrylate is 25%.

  17. Crystal structures of (E)-3-(furan-2-yl)-2-phenyl-N-tosyl­acryl­amide and (E)-3-phenyl-2-(m-tol­yl)-N-tosyl­acryl­amide

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Dong; Meng, Xiangzhen; Sheng, Zeyuan; Wang, Shuangming; Duan, Yuanyuan; Li, Ziqian

    2016-01-01

    In the title N-tosyl­acryl­amide compounds, C20H17NO4S, (I), and C23H21NO3S, (II), the conformation about the C=C bond is E. The acryl­amide groups, [–NH—C(=O)—C=C–], are almost planar, with the N—C—C=C torsion angle being −170.18 (14)° in (I) and −168.01 (17)° in (II). In (I), the furan, phenyl and 4-methyl­benzene rings are inclined to the acryl­amide mean plane by 26.47 (11), 69.01 (8) and 82.49 (9)°, respectively. In (II), the phenyl, 3-methyl­benzene and 4-methyl­benzene rings are inclin...

  18. Biocompatibility and other properties of acrylic bone cements prepared with antiseptic activators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, B; Fernández, M; Vázquez, B; Collía, F; de Pedro, J A; López-Bravo, A; San Román, J

    2003-08-15

    Acrylic bone cements prepared with activators of reduced toxicity have been formulated with the aim of improving the biocompatibility of the final material. The activators used were N,N-dimethylaminobenzyl alcohol (DMOH) and 4,4'-dimethylamino benzydrol (BZN). The toxicity, cytotoxicity, and antiseptic action of these activators were first studied. DMOH and BZN presented LD50 values 3-4 times higher than DMT, were less cytotoxic against polymorphonuclear leucocytes, and possessed an antimicrobial character, with a high activity against the most representative microorganisms involved in postoperative infections. The properties of the acrylic bone cements formulated with DMOH and BZN were evaluated to determine the influence of these activators on the curing process and the physicochemical characteristics of the cements. A decrease of the peak temperature was observed for the curing with DMOH or BZN with respect to that of one commercially available formulation (CMW 3). However, residual monomer content and mechanical properties in tension and compression were comparable to those of CMW 3. The biocompatibility of acrylic bone cements containing DMOH or BZN was studied and compared with CMW 3. To that end, intramuscular and intraosseous implantation procedures were carried out and the results were obtained from the histological analysis of the surrounding tissues at different periods of time. Implantation of rods of cement into the dorsal muscle of rats showed the presence of a membrane of connective tissue, which increased in collagen fibers with time of implantation, for all formulations. The intraosseous implantation of the cements in the dough state in the femur of rabbits, revealed a higher and early osseous neoformation, with the presence of osteoid material surrounding the rest of the cured material, for the cement prepared with the activator BZN in comparison with that obtained following the implantation of the cement cured with DMOH or DMT (CMW 3).

  19. In vitro antifungal action of different substances over microwaved-cured acrylic resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Montagner

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The presence of Candida albicans on the surfaces of denture-base acrylic resins is strongly related to the development of oral stomatitis. This study evaluated the antifungal action of different agents over microwave-cured acrylic resin without polishing specimens previously contaminated with Candida albicans. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty specimens were immersed in BHI broth previously inoculated with the yeast and stored for 3 h at 37ºC. They were divided into 5 experimental groups (n=10: G1: 2% chlorhexidine solution (10 min; G2: 0.5% sodium hypochlorite (10 min; G3: modified sodium hypochlorite (10 min; G4: effervescent agent (5 min; G5: hydrogen peroxide 10v (30 min. The specimens of the control group 1 (C1 were not disinfected. Ten additional specimens of the control group 2 (C2 were not infected with the yeast, aiming to check the asepsis during the experiment. The disinfection agents were neutralized and the acrylic resin specimens were immersed in BHI Broth for 24 h. Culture media turbidity was evaluated spectrophotometrically according to the transmittance degree, i.e. the higher the transmittance the stronger the antimicrobial action. Statistical analysis was performed (Kruskal-Wallis Test, p<0.05. RESULTS: The results, represented by the medians, were: G1 = 40; G2 = 100; G3 = 100; G4 = 90; G5 = 100; C1 = 40; C2 = 100. CONCLUSIONS: This in vitro study suggested that sodium hypochlorite-based substances and hydrogen peroxide are more efficient disinfectants against C. albicans than 2% chlorhexidine solution and the effervescent agent.

  20. Water Sorption and Flexural Strength of Thermoplastic and Conventional Heat-Polymerized Acrylic Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Hemmati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess and compare the water sorption and flexural strength of thermoplastic and conventional acrylic resins.Materials and Methods: Water sorption and flexural strength were compared between a thermoplastic modified polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA denture base resin (group A and a heat-polymerized PMMA acrylic resin (group B as the control group (n=10. A three-point bending test was carried out for flexural strength testing. For water sorption test, 10 disc-shaped samples were prepared. After desiccating, the samples were weighed and immersed in distilled water for seven days. Then, they were weighed again, and desiccated for the second and third times. Differences between the mean values in the two groups were analyzed using Student's t-test.Results: The mean value of water sorption was 14.74±1.36 μg/mm3 in group A, and 19.11±0.90 μg/mm3 in group B; this difference was statistically significant (P< 0.001. The mean value of flexural strength was 88.21±8.63 MPa in group A and 77.77±9.49 MPa in group B. A significant difference was observed between the two groups (P= 0.019.Conclusion: Flexural strength of group A was significantly higher than that of group B, and its water sorption was significantly lower. Thus, thermoplastic resins can be a suitable alternative to conventional PMMA acrylic resins as denture base materials.

  1. Minocycline-loaded cellulose nano whiskers/poly(sodium acrylate) composite hydrogel films as wound dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, S K; Pathak, V; Soni, Bhawna

    2015-08-01

    In this work, antibiotic drug Minocycline (Mic) loaded cellulose nano-whiskers (CNWs)/poly(sodium acrylate) hydrogel films were prepared and investigated for their drug releasing capacity in physiological buffer solution (PBS) at 37 °C. The (CNWs)/poly(sodium acrylate) film, containing 9.7% (w/w) of CNWs, demonstrated Mic release of 2500 μg/g while the plain poly(acrylate) film showed 3100 μg/g of drug release. In addition, with the increase in the concentration of cross-linker N,N'-methylene bisacrylamide (MB) from to, the drug release from the resulting films decreased from 507 to 191 μg/g. The release exponent 'n' for films with different compositions was found in the range of 0.45 to 0.89, thus indicating non-Fickian release mechanism. The Schott model was employed to interpret the kinetic drug release data successfully. The film samples poly(SA) and CNWs/poly(SA) (both not containing drug) showed thrombus formation of 0.010±0.001 g and 0.007±0.001 g, respectively, thus showing the non-thrombogenic behavior. In percent Hemolysis, both of the film samples of 1.136±0.012 and 0.5±0.020, respectively, thus indicating non-hemolytic behavior. In addition, both of the film samples demonstrated protein adsorption of 49.02±0.59μ g/μL and 51.20±0.51 μg/μL per cm(2), thus revealing a fair degree of protein adsorption. Finally, the Mic-loaded films showed fair anti-fungal and antibacterial properties.

  2. Effect of an acrylic resin combined with an antimicrobial polymer on biofilm formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliê Marra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of an acrylic resin combined with an antimicrobial polymer poly (2-tert-butylaminoethyl methacrylate (PTBAEMA to inhibit Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans biofilm formation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Discs of a heat-polymerized acrylic resin were produced and divided according to PTBAEMA concentration: 0 (control, 10 and 25%. The specimens were inoculated (10(7 CFU/mL and incubated at 37ºC for 48 h. After incubation, the wells were washed and each specimen was sonicated for 20 min. Replicate aliquots of resultant suspensions were plated at dilutions at 37ºC for 48 h. The number of colony-forming units (CFU was counted and expressed as log (CFU+1/mL and analyzed statistically with α=.05. RESULTS: The results showed that 25% PTBAEMA completely inhibited S. aureus and S. mutans biofilm formation. A significant reduction of log (CFU+1/mL in count of S. aureus (control: 7.9±0.8A; 10%: 3.8±3.3B and S. mutans (control: 7.5±0.7A; 10%: 5.1±2.7B was observed for the group containing 10% PTBAEMA (Mann-Whitney, p0.05, P=0.079. CONCLUSIONS: Acrylic resin combined with 10 and 25% of PTBAEMA showed significant antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and S. mutans biofilm, but it was inactive against the C. albicans biofilm.

  3. Antibacterial activity of chitosan and the interpolyelectrolyte complexes of poly(acrylic acid-chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hortensia Ortega-Ortiz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of chitosan and water soluble interpolyelectrolyte complexes of poly(acrylic acid-chitosan was studied. Chitosans of two different molecular weights were tested at different concentration for 0.5 to 5 g·L-1 as antimicrobial agents against P. aeruginosa and P. oleovorans. In both cases, the best microbial inhibition was obtained with the concentration of 5 g·L-1. However, the interpolyelectrolyte complexes of poly(acrylic acid-chitosan with composition φ =2 produced higher antibacterial activity than the two chitosans at the concentration of 0.5 g·L-1. The NPEC2 complex was more effective than chitosans. This could be attributed to the number of moles of the amino groups of chitosan and the carboxylic acid groups of the interpolyelectrolyte complexes poly(acrylic acid.A atividade antimicrobiana de quitosana e complexos interpolieletrolíticos hidrossoluvéis de poli(ácido acrílico-quitosana foi estudada. Quitosanas de dois diferentes pesos moleculares foram testados em diferentes concentrações, 0,5 a 5 g • L-1, como agentes antimicrobianos nas P. aeruginosa e P. oleovorans. Em ambos os casos, obteu-se a melhor inibição microbiana com a concentração de 5 g • L-1, no entanto os complexos interpolieletrolíticos de poli (ácido acrílico-quitosana com composição φ = 2 apresentaram maior atividade antibacteriana do que os dois quitosans na concentração de 0,5 g • L-1. O complexo NPEC2 foi mais eficaz do que as quitosanas, sendo que o resultado pode ser atribuído ao número de moles dos grupos aminos da quitosana e aos grupos carboxílicos dos complexos de poli(ácido acrílico.

  4. Properties of Low Surface Energy Fluorocarbon Polymers with Fluoro-acrylic Resins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiusheng; WANG Can; LIU Lanxuan; LI Jian; GAO Wanzhen

    2008-01-01

    The low surface energy fluorocarbon polymer from the synthesized fluoro-acrylic resins was developed. Then the molecule orientation principle of nonpolar and polar functional groups in the polymers was analyzed. And the contact angles of pure water drops on the surfaces of various fluoro-monomer homopolymers and interpolymers were measured. So the relation of polymers' fluoro-content with the surface energy was determined. The distribution of fluoric functional groups in the polymers was investigated. And the test results show that though the total fluorine content of the fluorocarbon polymers is relative few, their surface energy is really low due to the enrichment of fluoro-chains on the polymers surface.

  5. Effects of Sonication Conditions on Ultrasonic Dispersion of Inorganic Particles in Acrylic Resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuziuti, Toru; Yasui, Kyuichi; Towata, Atsuya; Kato, Kazumi

    2011-07-01

    The effects of sonication conditions on the ultrasonic dispersion of titanium dioxide particles in acrylic resin are investigated. Pulsing operation at appropriate on-off duty cycles enables us to attain a particle size smaller than that at a continuous wave (CW) at the same net time of sonication between operations. It is useful that frequency-sweep operation attains almost the same particle size as that at CW, which can provide a constant dispersion of particles even if the resonant frequency used to effectively drive an ultrasonic transducer changes with liquid conditions, such as the temperature and acoustic impedance of a liquid.

  6. Behaviour of alkaline cement mortars reinforced with acrylic and polypropylene fibres

    OpenAIRE

    Puertas, P.; Amat, T.; Vázquez, T.

    2000-01-01

    In the present work, the behaviour of alkaline cement mortars reinforced with fibres of different nature (acrylic and polypropylene fibres) is studied. Also the chemical stability of those fibres in strong alkaline medium has been investigated. Three different matrixes have been used: glass blast furnace slag activated with NaOH 2M (room temperature, 22 ºC); fly ash activated with NaOH 8M, cured at 85ºC during 24 hours and 50% fly ash / 50% slag activated with NaOH 8M, room temperature. The f...

  7. Radiation Induced Formation of Acrylated Palm Oil Nanoparticles using Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide Microemulsion System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we report the preparation of Acrylated Palm Oil (APO) nanoparticles using aqueous Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) microemulsion system. This microemulsion system which contains the dispersed APO nano droplets was subjected to the gamma irradiation to induce the formation of the crosslinked APO nanoparticle. After irradiation at higher doses, the size of APO nanoparticles was transformed from a submicron-sized to a nano-sized of the particles. Size decreasing might be due to the intermolecular and the intramolecular crosslinking reactions of the APO nanoparticles during the irradiation process. (author)

  8. Mechanism of catalytic alkylation of 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol by methyl acrylate

    OpenAIRE

    Volod´kin, Alexander; Zaikov, Gennady

    2012-01-01

    The determining factor of the reaction of 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol with alkaline metal hydroxides is temperature, depending on which two types of potassium or sodium 2,6-di-tert-butyl phenoxides are formed with different catalytic activity in the alkylation of 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol with methyl acrylate. More active forms of 2,6-But2C6H3OK or 2,6-But2C6H3ONa are synthesized at temperatures higher than 433 K and represent predominantly monomers of 2,6-di-tert-butyl phenoxides producing dimers ...

  9. ESTERIFICATION OF ACRYLIC ACID WITH 1-BUTANOL IN LIQUID PHASE CATALYZED WITH AL-MCM-41

    OpenAIRE

    Edson Avellaneda Maytán; Gustavo Paim Valença

    2010-01-01

    This work studies the esterification of acrylic acid with 1-butanol using Al-MCM-41 as catalyst with different degrees of acidity at different temperatures. Al-MCM-41 synthesis was made from bromate Cetyl trimethyl ammonium using as router agent, NH4OH (25%), deionized H2O and Al2(SO4)3. Catalytic tests were carried out by groups and worked with temperature ranges among (333 to 348) K and a small sample was collected at predetermined intervals of time for subsequent gas chromatography analysi...

  10. (E)-Methyl 3-(10-bromo­anthracen-9-yl)acrylate

    OpenAIRE

    Bernhard Bugenhagen; Yosef Al Jasem; Bassam al Hindawi; Nathir Al Rawashdeh; Thies Thiemann

    2013-01-01

    In the title molecule, C18H13BrO2, the anthracene unit forms an angle of 46.91 (2)° with the mean plane of the methyl acrylate moiety. In the crystal, the molecules arrange themselves into strands parallel to [010] and, due to the crystal symmetry, there are eight strands crossing the unit cell. In each strand, molecules form short C—H...O and C—H...π contacts and have their anthracene groups parallel to each other. Neighboring strands, related by a c-glide operati...

  11. Ultra-Thin Films of Poly(acrylic acid)/Silver Nanocomposite Coatings for Antimicrobial Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Alaa Fahmy; Eisa, Wael H.; Mohamed Yosef; Ali Hassan

    2016-01-01

    In this work not only colloids of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) embedded with silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) but thin films (10 nm) also were deposited using electrospray deposition technique (ESD). A mixture of sodium borohydride (NaBH4) and ascorbic acid (AA) were utilized to reduce the silver ions to generate Ag-NPs in the PAA matrix. Moreover, sodium tricitrate was used to stabilize the prepared colloids. The obtained colloids and films were characterized using UV-visible, transmission electron...

  12. Towards control of viscous effects in acrylic-based actuator applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thylander, S.; Menzel, A.; Ristinmaa, M.

    2016-09-01

    Dielectric elastomers offer clear advantages over more traditional and conventional materials when soft, lightweight, noiseless actuator applications with large deformations are considered. However, the viscous time-dependent behaviour associated with most elastomers limit the number of possible applications. For this purpose, the possibility of controlling the viscous response by regulating the applied electric potential is explored. The constitutive model chosen is calibrated to fit the electro-viscoelastic response of an acrylic elastomer often used in dielectric elastomer actuators. The response of both homogeneous deformation examples and inhomogeneous finite element boundary value problems, chosen to mimic existing applications, are presented. Control of both force and displacement quantities are successfully achieved.

  13. Incorporation of antimicrobial macromolecules in acrylic denture base resins: a research composition and update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Indumathi; Arunachalam, Kuthalingam Subbiah; Sajjan, Suresh; Ramaraju, Alluri Venkata; Rao, Bheemalingeshwara; Kamaraj, Bindu

    2014-06-01

    Contemporary research in acrylic denture base materials focuses on the development of a novel poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) resin with antimicrobial properties. Although PMMA resin has fulfilled all the requirements of an ideal denture base material, its susceptibility to microbial colonization in the oral environment is a formidable concern to clinicians. Many mechanisms including the absence of ionic charge in the methyl methacrylate resins, hydrophobic interactions, electrostatic interactions, and mechanical attachment have been found to contribute to the formation of biofilm. The present article outlines the basic categories of potential antimicrobial polymer (polymeric biocides) formulations (modified PMMA resins) and considers their applicability, biological status, and usage potential over the coming years.

  14. STUDY ON SEQUENCE STRUCTURE OF ACRYLAMIDE-ACRYLATE COPOLYMERS BY 13C-NMR METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Dongwu; ZHU Shannong; YANG Xiaozhen

    1987-01-01

    Triad sequence distributions in a series of P(AM/AA) with different AA% were calculated from copolymerization reactivity ratio r1 and r2 based on first order Markov statistic model, and the calculated data compared with observed ones from 13C-NMR spectra showed good agreement with each other, The sequence distribution in P(AM/AA) obtained under our experimental conditions fits in with first order Markov statistic model. A significant sequence structure difference was observed between P(AM/AA) and alkaline hydrolyzed polyacrylamide, ABA triad (acrylate unit center), AAA and AAB triads (acrylamide unit center) dominated in hydrolyzed ones.

  15. A Simple Method for Making Diagnostic Casts for Dental Implants Using Acrylic Abutments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Siadat

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of multiple implants in the same jaw requires a detailed knowledge of abutment angulation. The position and angulation of the abutments play an important role in treatment planning and fabrication of the custom tray. Therefore diagnostic casts thatcontain cover screws may cause problems during implant therapy.The current article describes a technique for making a preliminary cast with acrylic custom abutments in order to help the clinician select an appropriate impression technique and evaluate the location and angulations of the implant bodies. This method can also aid the technician to provide adequate and proper space for the fabrication of an open custom tray.

  16. Acidic polyanion poly(acrylic acid) prevents calcium oxalate crystal deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinman, Jack G.; Alatalo, Laura J.; Beshensky, Ann M.; Wesson, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    Acidic macromolecules inhibit calcium oxalate nucleation, growth, aggregation and attachment to cells in vitro. To test for such an effect in vivo we used osmotic minipumps to continuously infuse several doses of the 5.1 kDa poly(acrylic acid) (pAA5.1) into rats fed a diet which causes renal calcium oxalate crystal deposition. Although kidneys of rats receiving the saline control contained calcium oxalate crystals, measured by polarized light microscopy, those of animals given pAA5.1 had sign...

  17. Modification of hydrophobic polypeptide-based film by blending with hydrophilic poly(acrylic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoquan Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a series of poly(γ-benzyl L-glutamate/poly(acrylic acid (PBLG/PAA polymer blend films were prepared by casting the polymer blend solution in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO. The structure and morphology of the polymer blend film were investigated by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties of PBLG/PAA polymer blend films were studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, Thermogravimetric (TG Analysis, Tensile Tests, and measurements of Surface Contact Angles. The results revealed that the introduction of PAA could exert great effects on the structure and properties of the polypeptide films.

  18. Synthesis of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) model compounds for filtration experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinge, Mogens; Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Scales, Peter;

    2005-01-01

    is investigated by titration, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and capillary rheometry. The titration experiments indicates that the polymerization is a block copolymerization and the DSC result show that the blocks of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) are not randomly distributed in the microgels. Capillary...... concentrations of acrylic acid as co-monomer. The microgels have a charge density between 0.2 and 0.9 mmol/g.   Preliminary filtration experiments show that filtration properties of the microgel model system significantly differs from the properties for inorganic colloidals such as titaniumdioxid....

  19. Synthesis of hemicellulose-acrylic acid graft copolymer super water absorbent resin by ultrasonic irradiation technology

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Fangfang; Conghui DU; Linya ZHANG

    2015-01-01

    The hemicellulose super water absorbent resin is prepared by using ultrasonic irradiation technology, with the waste liquid produced during the preparation of viscose fiber which contains a large amount of hemicellulose as raw material, acrylic acid as graft monomer, N,N’-methylene bis acrylamide (NMBA) as cross linking agent, and (NH4)2S2O8-NaHSO3 as the redox initiation system. The synthesis conditions, structure and water absorption ability of resin are discussed. The results indicate that...

  20. Depletion of abundant plasma proteins by poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-acrylic acid) hydrogel particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Such-Sanmartín, Gerard; Ventura-Espejo, Estela; Jensen, Ole N

    2014-01-01

    the application of pH-sensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-acrylic acid) hydrogel particles for removal of abundant plasma proteins, prior to proteome analysis by MS. Protein depletion occurs by two separate mechanisms: (1) hydrogel particles incubated with low concentrations of plasma capture abundant proteins...... at higher efficiency than low abundance proteins, which are enriched in the supernatants, whereas (2) hydrogel particles incubated with high concentrations of plasma capture and irreversibly trap abundant proteins. During the elution step, irreversibly trapped proteins remain captured while low abundance...... (SRM) liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS. This novel use of hydrogel particles opens new perspectives for biomarker analysis based on mass spectrometry....

  1. Synthesis of carboxymethylcellulose/acrylic acid hydrogels with superabsorbent properties by radiation-initiated crosslinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Tamás; Borsa, Judit; Takács, Erzsébet; Wojnárovits, László

    2016-07-01

    Superabsorbent hydrogels were prepared by gamma irradiation from aqueous solutions of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and acrylic acid (AAc) with varying CMC:AAc ratio. By partially replacing the CMC with AAc the gelation increased and led to a higher gel fraction and lower water uptake. Moreover, the gelation required significantly milder synthesis conditions. Decreasing both the dose and the solute concentration in the presence of AAc led to gels with higher gel fraction and higher degree of swelling compared to pure CMC gels. Increasing the AAc content up to 10% proved to be very effective, while very high AAc content (over 50%) hindered the gelation process.

  2. Fibre reinforcement enhances bonding of soft lining to acrylic dental and maxillofacial prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatamleh, Muhanad Moh'd; Watts, David Christopher

    2008-09-01

    This study evaluated shear bond strength between Molloplast-B and different acrylic surfaces; smooth (group1), rough (group2) and Stick net fibre-reinforced interfaces (group 3). Shear tests were conducted with a universal testing machine. Bond failure categories were adhesive, cohesive and mixed failures. Mean bond strengths (SD) in MPa were Group 1, 0.59 (0.08); Group 2, 0.61 (0.08) and Group 3, 0.70 (0.09). There was statistically signiicant difference (p reinforced surfaces exhibited stronger bond to Molloplast-B over non-reinforced interfaces, indicating promising clinical implications. PMID:19051553

  3. GRAFTING ONTO WOOL V. RADIATION-INITIATED GRAFTING OF ACRYLIC ACID ONTO WOOL FIBER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xin; LI Cui; ZHOU Zixiong; WANG Tiandiao; CHEN Shanming

    1994-01-01

    This paper deals with graft copolymerization of acrylic acid (AA) onto Xinjiang fine wool fiber in aqueous medium initiated by gamma rays. Graft copolymerization was carried out by the mutual irradiation method in limited air. Percent grafting and percent efficiency have been determined as a function of total dose, dose rate, concentration of monomer, wool weight and reaction temperature. Graft copolymers are characterized with infrared (IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffractometer. Properties of the grafts were studied, and compared with the virgin fiber.

  4. A silver bullet: elemental silver as an efficient reducing agent for atom transfer radical polymerization of acrylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Valerie A; Ribelli, Thomas G; Chmielarz, Pawel; Park, Sangwoo; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof

    2015-02-01

    Elemental silver was used as a reducing agent in the atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of acrylates. Silver wire, in conjunction with a CuBr(2)/TPMA catalyst, enabled the controlled, rapid preparation of polyacrylates with dispersity values down to Đ = 1.03. The silver wire in these reactions was reused several times in sequential reactions without a decline in performance, and the amount of copper catalyst used was reduced to 10 ppm without a large decrease in control. A poly(n-butyl acrylate)-block-poly(tert-butyl acrylate) diblock copolymer was synthesized with a molecular weight of 91 400 and Đ = 1.04, demonstrating good retention of chain-end functionality and a high degree of livingness in this ATRP system. PMID:25599253

  5. Decolourization performance in C. I. Vat Yellow 1 aqueous suspension using hydrophobically modified poly(acrylic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J; Chen, M C

    2011-01-01

    A series of hydrophobically modified poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), poly(2-phenoxyethyl acrylate-co-acrylic acid) (poly(PHEA-co-AA)), have been synthesized and characterized by Ubbelohde type viscometry, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR) spectrometry and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The shear thinning Non-Newtonian fluid behavior of their aqueous solution and the dependence on pH and hydrophobic group contents were found through apparent viscosity and rheological property investigating. Decolourization performance in C. I. Vat Yellow 1 aqueous suspension was evaluated through visible absorbance data. Decolourization performance of hydrophobically associated polymer indicates two times better than that of PAA. The quantitative relationship was mainly studied. PMID:21866762

  6. Physicochemical and electrochemical characterization of battery separator prepared by radiation induced grafting of acrylic acid onto microporous polypropylene membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Mutual radiation grafting technique was used to graft acrylic acid on micrometer thick micro-porous polypropylene membrane using high-energy gamma radiation. Grafting could not be achieved in aqueous acrylic acid solution. The presence of Mohr’s salt effectively retarded the homopolymerization of acrylic acid but did not lead to grafting enhancement. Mohr’s salt in presence of acids was found to be effective in enhancing the grafting yield. Contact angle measurement studies of the grafted and radiation treated polypropylene showed that initial grafting as well as radiation treatment of poly(propylene in aqueous medium and in presence of Mohr’s salt enhances its affinity towards the grafting solution. The enhancement in the polar component of surface energy of treated polypropylene membrane is the primary cause of grafting enhancement. The membranes grafted to an extent of ~20% were found to perform comparably with the battery separator presently being used by battery industry.

  7. Synthesis of Hydrophobically Modified Poly(acrylic acid) Gels and Interaction of the Gels with Cationic/Anionic Surfactants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN,Qin(田琴); TANG,Xiao-Zhen(唐小真); ZHUANG,Dong-Qing(庄东青); ZHANG,Yun-Xiang(章云祥)

    2002-01-01

    Poly( acrylic acid) (PAA) gel network with only chemical crosslinking and hydrophobically modified PAA (HM-PAA)gels with both chemical and physical crosslinking were synthesized by radical polymerization in tert-butanol, using ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as crosslinker, and 2-(Nethylperfiuorooctanesulfoamido) ethyl methacrylate ( FMA ),stearyl acrylate (SA) or lauryl acrylate (LA) as hydrophobic comonomer respectively. The effect of the fractions and the species of the hydrophobes on swelling properties of HM-PAA gels and the interaction of gels and surfactants were studied.The results showed that the swelling ratio of HM-PAA gels exhibited a sharp decrease with increasing hydrophobic comonomer concentration, which could be ascribed to the formation of strong hydrophobic association among hydrophobic groups. It was proved that two kinds of binding mechanisms of surfactant/gel and different kinds of hydrophobic dusters existed in gels containing both physical and chemical networks.

  8. Synthesis of Hydrophobically Modified Poly(acrylic acid) gels and Interaction of the gels with Cationic/Anionic Surfactants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田琴; 唐小真; 庄东青; 章云祥

    2002-01-01

    Poly(acrylic acid)(PAA) gel network with only chemical crosslinking and hydorophobically modified PAA(HM-PAA)gels with both chemical and physical crosslinking were synthesized by radical polymerization in tert-butanol,using ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as crossliker,and 2-(N-ethylperfluorooctanesulfoamido)ethyl methacrylate (FMA),stearyl acrylate (SA) or lauryl acrylate (LA) as Hydrophobic comonomer respectively.The effcet of the fractions and the species of the hydrophobes on swelling properties of HM-PAA gels and the interaction of gels and surfactants were studied.The results showed that the swelling ratio of HM-PAA gels exhibited a sharp decrease with increasing hydrophobic comomomer comcentration,Which Could be sacribed to the formation of strong hydrophobic association among hydrophobic groups.It was proved that two kinds of binding mechanisms of surfactan/gel and different kinds of hydrophobic clusters existed in gels containing both physical and chemical networks.

  9. Effect of cervical relining of acrylic resin copings on the accuracy of stone dies obtained using a polyether impression material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Tomazini Gomes de Sá

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the respective dies after polyether elastomeric procedure in the presence or absence of cervical contact of the acrylic resin shell with the cervical region, establishing a comparison to dies obtained with stock trays. This study consisted of three groups with 10 specimens each: 1 acrylic copings without cervical contact, (cn; 2 acrylic copings with cervical contact (cc; 3 perforated stock tray, (st. The accuracy of the resulting dies was verified with the aid of a master crown, precisely fit to the master steel die. ANOVA test found statistically significant differences among groups (p<0.001. Tukey's test found that the smallest discrepancy occurred in group cn, followed by cc, while the st group presented the highest difference (cc x cn: p=0.007; st x cn: p<0.001; st x cc: p<0.001.

  10. Selective modification of polylactide by introducing acrylate groups: IR spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography, and differential thermal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashkova, V. T.; Matveeva, I. A.; Glagolev, N. N.; Zarkhina, T. S.; Timashev, P. S.; Bagratashvili, V. N.; Solov'eva, A. B.

    2016-10-01

    One-stage modification of polylactide has been performed to obtain the acrylate derivatives of the polymer capable of further polymerization and preparation of cross-linked polymer materials suitable for creating implants. The reaction mechanism was determined by IR spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography, and differential thermal analysis. It was shown for the first time that the reaction path changes depending on the ratio of components so that the desired product polylactide acrylate forms with a ~90% yield only in the presence of large (approximately tenfold) excesses of the isocyanate and acrylate components; at the equimolar ratio of components generally used in urethane formation, a mixture of the desired product (~30%), oligourethane diacrylates, and unchanged polylactide forms.

  11. Corrosion Inhibitive Evaluation of an Environmentally Friendly Water-Base Acrylic Terpolymer on Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azghandi, Mojtaba Vakili; Davoodi, Ali; Farzi, Gholam Ali; Kosari, Ali

    2013-12-01

    The corrosion inhibitive performance of an environmentally friendly water-base acrylic terpolymer [methyl methacrylate/Butyl Acrylate/Acrylic acid (ATP)] on mild steel in 1 M HCl was investigated by alternating current and direct current electrochemical techniques and the quantum chemical method. An efficiency of more than 97 pct was obtained with 0.8 mmol/L ATP. The increase in inhibitor concentration and immersion time has a positive effect, while the temperature influence is negligible on the inhibitor efficiency. The present terpolymer obeys the Langmuir isotherm, and thermodynamic calculation reveals a chemisorption type on the surface. Density functional calculations showed that the lone pairs of electrons of oxygen in the structure of three monomers are suitable sites to adsorb onto the metal surface. Finally, in the presence of ATP, a decrease in surface roughness and corrosion attacks was demonstrated by atomic force microscopy and optical microscopy examinations, respectively.

  12. Radiation-curing of acrylate composites including carbon fibres: A customized surface modification for improving mechanical performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Arnaud; Pietras-Ozga, Dorota; Ponsaud, Philippe; Kowandy, Christelle; Barczak, Mariusz; Defoort, Brigitte; Coqueret, Xavier

    2014-12-01

    The lower transverse mechanical properties of radiation-cured acrylate-based composites reinforced with carbon-fibre with respect to the thermosettable analogues was investigated from the viewpoint of chemical interactions at the interface between the matrix and the carbon material. XPS analysis of representative commercial carbon fibres revealed the presence of a significant amount of chemical functions potentially exerting an adverse effect on the initiation and propagation of the free radical polymerization initiated under high energy radiation. The EB-induced polymerization of n-butyl acrylate as a simple model monomer was conducted in the presence of various aromatic additives exhibiting a strong inhibiting effect, whereas thiols efficiently sensitize the initiation mechanism and undergo transfer reactions. A method based on the surface modification of sized fibres by thiomalic acid is proposed for overcoming the localized inhibition phenomenon and for improving the mechanical properties of the resulting acrylate-based composites.

  13. Characterization of acrylic resins used for restoration of artworks by pyrolysis-silylation-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with hexamethyldisilazane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osete-Cortina, Laura; Doménech-Carbó, María Teresa

    2006-09-15

    A procedure based on the technique of the pyrolysis-GC/MS has been applied, in this work, in order to determine the composition of synthetic acrylic resins employed in artworks. The method is based on the on line derivatization of these resins using hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS). Results obtained have been compared with those others from direct pyrolysis and in situ thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH). Sensitivity using HMDS as derivatising reagent is found similar to that from direct pyrolysis and methylation with TMAH. Better resolution of the most representative peaks has been also obtained. Additionally, this method reduces the formation of free acrylic acid molecules during the pyrolysis process and, in consequence, more simplified and well-resolved chromatograms are obtained. Finally, the reported procedure has been successfully used for characterizing several acrylic-based varnishes and binding media currently used in Fine Arts and real pictorial samples from graffiti performed on a Middle Ages bridge. PMID:16797558

  14. Poly(acrylic acid) to induce competitive crystallization of a theophylline/oxalic acid cocrystal and a theophylline polymorph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jisun; Kim, Il Won

    2016-01-01

    Polymeric additives to induce competitive crystallization of pharmaceutical compounds were explored. A cocrystal of theophylline and oxalic acid was used as a model system, and poly(acrylic acid), poly(caprolactone), and poly(ethylene glycol) were the additives. The cocrystal formation was selectively hindered with addition of poly(acrylic acid). First the size of the cocrystals were reduced, and eventually the cocrystallization was inhibited to generate neat theophylline crystals. The theophylline crystals were of a distinctively different crystal structure from known polymorphs, based on powder X-ray diffraction. They were also obtained in nanoscale size, when millimeter-scale crystals formed without poly(acrylic acid). Polymeric additives that could form specific interactions with crystallizing compounds seem to be useful tools for the phase and size control of pharmaceutical crystals.

  15. Acrylic and Methacrylic Acids Obtaining by Gas-Phase Aldol Condensation of Carbonyl Compounds on B2O3?P2O5?WO3?V2O5/SiO2 Catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Nebesnyi, Roman; Petelka, Oksana; Shpyrka, Iryna

    2013-01-01

    Prospects of acrylic acid obtaining by acetic acid aldol condensation with formaldehyde are considered. Complex oxide catalysts of the process have been developed. It is shown that raw materials costs in case of acrylic acid production by the condensation method are commeasurable with those in case of its production by oxidation method (main industrial method of acrylic acid production).This method of acrylic acid obtaining may be used as an alternative and enables diversifying the raw materi...

  16. Perubahan warna lempeng resin akrilik yang direndam dalam larutan desinfektan sodium hipoklorit dan klorhexidin (The color changes of acrylic resins denture base material which are immersed in Sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine)

    OpenAIRE

    David David; Elly Munadziroh

    2006-01-01

    One of the acrylic resins properties is the water absorption including color fluids and chemically fluids that affect on the color changes of the acrylic resins. This laboratory experiments studied sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine effect on the color changes of acrylic denture base resins material. The study was conducted by immersing heat cured acrylic plate samples of 26 mm of diameter and 0.4 mm of thickness in sodium hypochlorite for 10; 70 and 140 minutes and chlorhexidine for 15; 1...

  17. Perubahan suhu transisi kaca dan massa resin akrilik heat cured akibat kelembaban dan lama penyimpanan (Changes in glass transition temperature and heat cured acrylic resin mass due to moisture and storage time)

    OpenAIRE

    Sherman Salim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Acrylic resins, especially poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) was introduced in 1937. Acrylic resin has favorable properties, among others, aesthetic, color and texture similar to that of the gingival aesthetic in the mouth, relatively low water absorption and dimensional changes. However, some studies suggest that the duration of storage of acrylic resin will affect the changes in the glass transition temperature and the mass of acrylic resin. Purpose: The objective of this research...

  18. Acrylate metathesis via the second-generation Grubbs catalyst: unexpected pathways enabled by a PCy3-generated enolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Gwendolyn A; Fogg, Deryn E

    2015-06-17

    The diverse applications of acrylate metathesis range from synthesis of high-value α,β-unsaturated esters to depolymerization of unsaturated polymers. Examined here are unexpected side reactions promoted by the important Grubbs catalyst GII. Evidence is presented for attack of PCy3 on the acrylate olefin to generate a reactive carbanion, which participates in multiple pathways, including further Michael addition, proton abstraction, and catalyst deactivation. Related chemistry may be anticipated whenever labile metal-phosphine complexes are used to catalyze reactions of substrates bearing an electron-deficient olefin. PMID:26030596

  19. Novel Routes for the Design of Poly((meth)acrylic acid) Containing Polymer Structures by Controlled Radical Polymerization

    OpenAIRE

    Van Camp, W

    2007-01-01

    Easy preparation of specialty polymers containing poly((meth)acrylic acid) Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) are well-known polymers in a high number of applications because of their pH-responsive nature, their hydrophylic characteristics and for their interaction with metal ions. PAA, high tech material An increasing part of high tech polymer materials introduce P(M)AA as segments in well-defined polymer structures. These can be block copolymers, polymer brushes, sta...

  20. Evaluation of shrinkage polymerization and temperature of different acrylic resins used to splinting transfer copings in indirect impression technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Ana Paula G. O.; Karam, Leandro Z.; Galvão, José R.; Kalinowski, Hypolito J.

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was evaluate the shrinkage polymerization and temperature of different acrylic resins used to splinting transfer copings in indirect impression technique. Two implants were placed in an artificial bone, with the two transfer copings joined with dental floss and acrylic resins; two dental resins are used. Measurements of deformation and temperature were performed with Fiber Braggs grating sensor for 17 minutes. The results revealed that one type of resin shows greater values of polymerization shrinkage than the other. Pattern resins did not present lower values of shrinkage, as usually reported by the manufacturer.

  1. HYDROLYSIS TRANSFORMATION OF A POLYSTYRENE-b-POLY(tert-BUTYL ACRYLATE)COPOLYMER AND MICELLIZATION PROPERTIES OF THE HYDROLYZED COPOLYMER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A very mild and extremely efficient hydrolysis method for transformation of polystyrene-b-poly(tert-butyl acrylate) (PS-b-PtBA) to polystyrene-b-poly(acrylic acid) (PS-b-PAA)was designed and carried out using more convenient and inexpensive chlorotrimethylsilane/sodium iodide as reagents. The hydrolysis product can self-assemble in aqueous media to give regular micelles with PS block forming the core and PAL4 block forming the corona, or in tetrahydrofuran (THF) to give reverse micelles with the hydrophilic block in the core.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of organometallic copolymers of acrylic acid g-polyethylene, with Mo, Fe, Co, Zn and Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the preparation of a series of low density polyethylenes grafted with acrylic acid is presented. The grafting reactions were initiated by different doses of γ radiation; it was observed that grafting increased with the doses of radiation. The prepared copolymers were coordinated with different metals, as Mo, Fe, Co, Zn and Ni. The amount of metal supported on the polymer was determined by atomic absorption. Infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis confirmed the metal chelation on the graft copolymer. The film surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscopy. positron annihilation spectroscopy revealed a decrease on the free volume in the low density polyethylene after the grafting with acrylic acid. (Author)

  3. Poly (acrylic acid sodium) grafted carboxymethyl cellulose as a high performance polymer binder for silicon anode in lithium ion batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Liangming Wei; Changxin Chen; Zhongyu Hou; Hao Wei

    2016-01-01

    The design of novel binder systems is required for the high capacity silicon (Si) anodes which usually undergo huge volume change during the charge/discharge cycling. Here, we introduce a poly (acrylic acid sodium)-grafted-carboxymethyl cellulose (NaPAA-g-CMC) copolymer as an excellent binder for Si anode in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The NaPAA-g-CMC copolymer was prepared via a free radical graft polymerization method by using CMC and acrylic acid as precursors. Unlike the linear, one-dim...

  4. The Reinforcement Effect of Nano-Zirconia on the Transverse Strength of Repaired Acrylic Denture Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    ArRejaie, Aws S.; Abdel-Halim, Mohamed Saber; Rahoma, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of incorporation of glass fiber, zirconia, and nano-zirconia on the transverse strength of repaired denture base. Materials and Methods. Eighty specimens of heat polymerized acrylic resin were prepared and randomly divided into eight groups (n = 10): one intact group (control) and seven repaired groups. One group was repaired with autopolymerized resin while the other six groups were repaired using autopolymerized resin reinforced with 2 wt% or 5 wt% glass fiber, zirconia, or nano-zirconia particles. A three-point bending test was used to measure the transverse strength. The results were analyzed using SPSS and repeated measure ANOVA and post hoc least significance (LSD) test (P ≤ 0.05). Results. Among repaired groups it was found that autopolymerized resin reinforced with 2 or 5 wt% nano-zirconia showed the highest transverse strength (P ≤ 0.05). Repairs with autopolymerized acrylic resin reinforced with 5 wt% zirconia showed the lowest transverse strength value. There was no significant difference between the groups repaired with repair resin without reinforcement, 2 wt% zirconia, and glass fiber reinforced resin. Conclusion. Reinforcing of repair material with nano-zirconia may significantly improve the transverse strength of some fractured denture base polymers. PMID:27366150

  5. Acrylic coatings exhibiting improved hardness, solvent resistance and glossiness by using silica nano-composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashtizadeh, Ahmad; Abdouss, Majid; Mahdavi, Hossein; Khorassani, Manuchehr

    2011-01-01

    To prepare nano-composite emulsion acrylic resins with improved surface hardness and solvent resistance, nano-silica particles were treated with surfactants. The monomers of methyl methacrylate/butylacrylate were co-polymerized on the surface of dispersed silica particles. Several emulsions with different silica contents and copolymer mole fractions were prepared. Finally the emulsions were modified to water-based acrylic coatings and improved properties such as surface hardness, solvent resistance and glossiness were determined. The study of coatings was directed to find the improved resin by optimum surface properties. Size distribution and morphology of latexes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The glass transition temperature of nano-composites was measured and discussed its relation with silica contents, monomer mole fractions and improved properties of coatings. The optimum pendulum hardness of coatings was on 0.46 methyl methacrylate mole fraction and 120 g silica content. An increase in pendulum hardness of nano-composites with the addition of modified silica was observed. DLS and TEM studies indicate that silica particles were dispersed homogenously through the polymer matrix.

  6. The Effect of Silver Nano Particles on Candida Albicans and Streptococcus Mutans in Denture Acrylic Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghahremanloo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Denture stomatitis is a common complication in patients wearing dentures and preventing the proliferation of related microorganisms and their induced infections is noteworthy. The aim of the present study was to assess the antimicrobial effect of acrylic resins containing various concentrations of silver nanoparticles, on Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, the effect of four different concentrations of silver nanoparticles in 160 acrylic samples (10mm *4mm on standard and hospital isolated strains of two different microorganisms were investigated. The samples were soaked (containing silver nanoparticles and control in bacterial suspension and the antimicrobial tests were performed after 0, 1, 6 and 24 hours. Mean and standard deviation were used to describe the data and one-way variance analysis test was performed to compare groups. Results: Results have shown that in concentration of 2.5% the highest mean difference for standard S. mutans, after 24h of exposure was 540.0±14.4 (P

  7. Interactions between nanostructured calcium hydroxide and acrylate copolymers: implications in cultural heritage conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretti, Emiliano; Chelazzi, David; Rocchigiani, Giulia; Baglioni, Piero; Poggi, Giovanna; Dei, Luigi

    2013-08-01

    The interactions between an acrylic copolymer, poly ethylmethacrylate/methylacrylate (70:30) (Poly(EMA/MA), and Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles were investigated in order to establish the reciprocal influence of these two compounds on their peculiar properties. The carbonation kinetics of Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles by atmospheric CO2 was investigated by FTIR and SEM measurements and compared to that of a nanocomposite film. CaCO3 formation occurred even in the presence of the copolymer, but only after an induction period of ca. 200 h and with a lower reaction rate. Some implications in cultural heritage conservation dealing with application of nanolime on artifacts previously treated with acrylic copolymers were discussed. Contact angle measurements, mechanical cohesion properties, and water vapor permeability allowed us to conclude that the optimum behavior of nanolime with respect to transpiration was not compromised by the presence of the copolymer, and the behavior in terms of mechanical properties recovery by the application of Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles remained excellent even in the presence of poly(EMA/MA).

  8. Revisiting the origin of the preferential {pi}-{pi} stacking conformation of the (+)-8-phenylmenthyl acrylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capim, Saulo L.; Santana, Sidney R.; Oliveira, Boaz G. de; Rocha, Gerd B.; Vasconcellos, Mario L.A.A, E-mail: mlaav@quimica.ufpb.b, E-mail: gbr@quimica.ufpb.b [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    In this paper we report a theoretical study aiming to revisit the origin of the preferential {pi}-{pi} stacking conformation of the (+)-8-phenylmenthyl acrylate (2). For this, we have applied several DFT and ab initio methods to calculate local minimum geometries, vibrational frequencies, thermochemical properties and {sup 1}H NMR chemical shifts for 2 and the model compound 3-phenylpropyl acrylate (3). We have observed that the MPW1B95 functional was the most suitable method to explain {sup 1}H NMR experimental data which show the stacking conformation of 2 (2S) is more stable that trans conformation (2T) and the stacking conformation of 3 (3S) is less stable that trans conformation (3T). After that, geometrical and energetic features of the intermolecular complex benzene...methylacrylate (4) have also been studied using MPW1B95 method. From our results, we have noticed that both steric and dispersion effects play a key role in the conformational equilibrium of 2. (author)

  9. Influencing solvent miscibility and aqueous stability of aluminum nanoparticles through surface functionalization with acrylic monomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouse, Christopher A; Pierce, Christian J; Spowart, Jonathan E

    2010-09-01

    With growing interest in the development of new composite systems for a variety of applications that require easily processable materials and adequate structural properties with high energy densities, we have pursued the chemical functionalization of oxide-passivated aluminum nanoparticles (nAl) using three acrylic monomers, 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS), 2-carboxyethyl acrylate (CEA), and phosphonic acid 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate ester (PAM), to provide chemical compatibility within various solvent and polymeric systems. Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggest that attachment of MPS and PAM monomers occurs through the formation of bonds directly to the passivated oxide surface upon reaction with surface hydroxyls, whereas CEA monomers interact through the formation of ionic carboxylate binding to aluminum atoms within the oxide. The coated particles demonstrate enhanced miscibility in common organic solvents and monomers; MPS and PAM coatings are additionally shown to inhibit oxidation of the aluminum particles when exposed to aqueous environments at room temperature, and PAM coatings are stable at even elevated temperatures. PMID:20795650

  10. Antimicrobial and Thermal Properties of Metal Complexes of Grafted Fabrics with Acrylic Acid by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton, cotton/PET blend and PET fabrics were treated against microbial effect by radiation - induced grafting of acrylic acid followed by metal complexation with some divalent transition metal ions Co (II), Ni (II) and Cu (II). The microbial resistance was evaluated by testing the mechanical properties of the treated fabrics after burring for one and two weeks in a moist soil reach with microorganisms. Also, the growth of microorganisms was examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Moreover, the effect of this treatment on the thermal decomposition behavior was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). On the basis of microbial studies, it was found that the metal complexation of the grafted fabrics with acrylic acid enhanced the antimicrobial resistance of the fabrics and the antimicrobial resistance could be arranged according to the metal ions as follows: copper> nickel> cobalt. Also, the thermal stability of different fabrics could be arranged as follow: grafted fabrics complexed with Cu (II) > grafted fabrics complexed with Ni (II) > grafted fabrics complexed with Co (II)

  11. Microbubble enhanced ozonation process for advanced treatment of wastewater produced in acrylic fiber manufacturing industry

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Tianlong

    2015-02-02

    This work investigated microbubble-ozonation for the treatment of a refractory wet-spun acrylic fiber wastewater in comparison to macrobubble-ozonation. CODcr, NH3-N, and UV254 of the wastewater were removed by 42%, 21%, and 42%, respectively in the microbubble-ozonation, being 25%, 9%, and 35% higher than the removal rates achieved by macrobubble-ozonation at the same ozone dose. The microbubbles (with average diameter of 45μm) had a high concentration of 3.9×105 counts/mL at a gas flow rate of 0.5L/min. The gas holdup, total ozone mass-transfer coefficient, and average ozone utilization efficiency in the microbubble-ozonation were 6.6, 2.2, and 1.5 times higher than those of the macrobubble-ozonation. Greater generation of hydroxyl radicals and a higher zeta potential of the bubbles were also observed in the microbubble ozonation process. The biodegradability of the wastewater was also significantly improved by microbubble-ozonation, which was ascribed to the enhanced degradation of alkanes, aromatic compounds, and the many other bio-refractory organic compounds in the wastewater. Microbubble-ozonation can thus be a more effective treatment process than traditional macrobubble-ozonation for refractory wastewater produced by the acrylic fiber manufacturing industry.

  12. The Reinforcement Effect of Nano-Zirconia on the Transverse Strength of Repaired Acrylic Denture Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, Mohammed; ArRejaie, Aws S; Abdel-Halim, Mohamed Saber; Rahoma, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of incorporation of glass fiber, zirconia, and nano-zirconia on the transverse strength of repaired denture base. Materials and Methods. Eighty specimens of heat polymerized acrylic resin were prepared and randomly divided into eight groups (n = 10): one intact group (control) and seven repaired groups. One group was repaired with autopolymerized resin while the other six groups were repaired using autopolymerized resin reinforced with 2 wt% or 5 wt% glass fiber, zirconia, or nano-zirconia particles. A three-point bending test was used to measure the transverse strength. The results were analyzed using SPSS and repeated measure ANOVA and post hoc least significance (LSD) test (P ≤ 0.05). Results. Among repaired groups it was found that autopolymerized resin reinforced with 2 or 5 wt% nano-zirconia showed the highest transverse strength (P ≤ 0.05). Repairs with autopolymerized acrylic resin reinforced with 5 wt% zirconia showed the lowest transverse strength value. There was no significant difference between the groups repaired with repair resin without reinforcement, 2 wt% zirconia, and glass fiber reinforced resin. Conclusion. Reinforcing of repair material with nano-zirconia may significantly improve the transverse strength of some fractured denture base polymers. PMID:27366150

  13. Investigation of small molecular weight poly(acrylic acid) adsorption on γ-alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Lei; Luo, Shi-Zhong [College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610065 (China); Wang, Bin, E-mail: bin_wang@scu.edu.cn [College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610065 (China); Guo, ZhanHu [Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Highlights: • Small molecular weight poly(acrylic acid) incorporated on γ-alumina. • PAA adsorbed primarily on outer surface of alumina at low pH. • PAA infiltrated inside alumina pore at high pH. • Polymer chain reptation motion during the infiltration. - Abstract: The interactions between poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and alumina have been widely investigated. In this study, the pattern of small molecular weight PAA (M{sub W} 3000) interaction with γ-alumina has been dissected. The alumina/PAA hybrids were prepared at pH 4.0, 5.5, and 7.0, respectively. Nitrogen absorption–desorption analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and elemental analysis were conducted to illustrate the characteristics of the hybrids. At pH 4.0, the coiled PAA conformation yielded polymer adsorption primarily on alumina outer surface. At higher pH values, the more stretched PAA molecules were able to infiltrate inside the alumina pores. The phenomenon is explained by the polymer chain reptation motion model. Coiled polymer chains are not oriented enough to penetrate the oxide pore channels. In contrary, stretched polymer chains are more likely to move along the pore channels.

  14. A green approach to prepare silver nanoparticles loaded gum acacia/poly(acrylate) hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, S K; Kumari, Mamta

    2015-09-01

    In this work, gum acacia (GA)/poly(sodium acrylate) semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (Semi-IPN) have been fabricated via free radical initiated aqueous polymerization of monomer sodium acrylate (SA) in the presence of dissolved Gum acacia (GA), using N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MB) as cross-linker and potassium persulphate (KPS) as initiator. The semi-IPNs, synthesized, were characterized by various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The dynamic water uptake behavior of semi-IPNs was investigated and the data were interpreted by various kinetic models. The equilibrium swelling data were used to evaluate various network parameters. The semi-IPNs were used as template for the in situ preparation of silver nanoparticles using extract of Syzygium aromaticum (clove). The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR), XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Finally, the antibacterial activity of GA/poly(SA)/silver nanocomposites was tested against E. coli. PMID:26123815

  15. A Hydrogen Ion-Selective Sensor Based on Non-Plasticised Methacrylic-acrylic Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Ahmad

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A methacrylic-acrylic polymer was synthesised for use as a non-plasticised membrane for hydrogen ion-selective sensor incorporating tridodecylamine as an ionophore. The copolymer consisted of methyl methacrylate and n-butyl acrylate monomers in a ratio of 2:8. Characterisation of the copolymer using FTNMR demonstrated that the amount of each monomer incorporated during solution polymerisation was found to be similar to the amount used in the feed before polymerisation. The glass transition temperature of the copolymer determined by differential scanning calorimetry was -30.9 ºC. Potentiometric measurements conducted showed a linear pH response range of 4.3 – 9.6 with the response slope of 56.7 mV/decade. The selectivity of the sensors towards hydrogen ions was similar to other plasticiser based membrane electrodes and the logarithmic selectivity coefficients for discrimination against interference cations is close to –9.7. However, the incorporation of a lipophilic anion as membrane additive is essential in ensuring optimum performance of the hydrogen ion sensor.

  16. 4D printing smart biomedical scaffolds with novel soybean oil epoxidized acrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Shida; Zhu, Wei; Castro, Nathan J; Nowicki, Margaret; Zhou, Xuan; Cui, Haitao; Fisher, John P; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-01-01

    Photocurable, biocompatible liquid resins are highly desired for 3D stereolithography based bioprinting. Here we solidified a novel renewable soybean oil epoxidized acrylate, using a 3D laser printing technique, into smart and highly biocompatible scaffolds capable of supporting growth of multipotent human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Porous scaffolds were readily fabricated by simply adjusting the printer infill density; superficial structures of the polymerized soybean oil epoxidized acrylate were significantly affected by laser frequency and printing speed. Shape memory tests confirmed that the scaffold fixed a temporary shape at -18 °C and fully recovered its original shape at human body temperature (37 °C), which indicated the great potential for 4D printing applications. Cytotoxicity analysis proved that the printed scaffolds had significant higher hMSC adhesion and proliferation than traditional polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA), and had no statistical difference from poly lactic acid (PLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL). This research is believed to significantly advance the development of biomedical scaffolds with renewable plant oils and advanced 3D fabrication techniques. PMID:27251982

  17. The effect of disinfectant solutions on the hardness of acrylic resin denture teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavarina, A C; Vergani, C E; Machado, A L; Giampaolo, E T; Teraoka, M T

    2003-07-01

    This investigation studied the effects of disinfectant solutions on the hardness of acrylic resin denture teeth. The occlusal surfaces of 64 resin denture teeth were ground flat with abrasives up to 400-grit silicon carbide paper. Measurements were made after polishing and after the specimens were stored in water at 37 degrees C for 48 h. The specimens were then divided into four groups and immersed in chemical disinfectants (4% chlorhexidine; 1% sodium hypochlorite and sodium perborate) for 10 min. The disinfection methods were performed twice to simulate clinical conditions and hardness measurements were made. Specimens tested as controls were immersed in water during the same disinfection time. Eight specimens were produced for each group. After desinfection procedures, testing of hardness was also performed after the samples were stored at 37 degrees C for 7, 30, 60, 90 and 120 days. Data were analysed using two-way analysis of variance (anova) and Tukey's test at 95% confidence level. According to the results, no significant differences were found between materials and immersion solutions (P > 0.05). However, a continuous decrease in hardness was noticed after ageing (P < 0.05). It was conclude that the surfaces of both acrylic resin denture teeth softened upon immersion in water regardless the disinfecting solution.

  18. Detection of Defects in Acrylic and Steel Inclusions in Gypsum Using Compton Backscattered Gamma Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldo, Emerson M.; Appoloni, Carlos R.

    2011-08-01

    Compton scattering of gamma radiation is a nondestructive technique used for the detection of defects and inclusions in materials. The methodology allows one-side inspection of large structures, is relatively inexpensive and can be portable. The number of photons inelastically scattered within a well-defined volume element is linearly proportional to the electron density of the material. Targeting a sample with a collimated beam of gamma rays, the energy spectrum of backscattered photons can be used to determine local density perturbations. In this work we used the Compton backscattering technique to detection of small collinear defects in acrylic blocks and steel rods inclusions in gypsum blocks samples. The samples were irradiated with gamma rays from a O/2 mm collimated 241Am (100 mCi) source and the inelastically scattered photons were collected at an angle of 135° by a CdTe detector with a O/7 mm×30 mm collimation. Scanning was achieved by lateral movement of the sample blocks across the source and detector field of view in steps of 1 mm. The results showed that defects in the acrylic samples as small as 3 mm in size were visible in the intensity versus energy spectrum. The tests on gypsum blocks with steel rods inclusions suggest that, for a low energy and activity source, the effects of beam attenuation are more decisive to the scattered intensity than increasing of material density. An analysis of the density contrast is also presented.

  19. Clinical properties of a novel, glistening-free, single-piece, hydrophobic acrylic IOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Packer M

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Mark Packer,1 Mohan Rajan,2 Edoardo Ligabue,3 Peter Heiner4 1Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USA; 2Rajan Eye Care Hospital Pvt Ltd, Chennai, India; 3Ophthalmology Department, Centro Diagnostico Italiano, Milan, Italy; 4Bond University Medical School, Robina, QLD, Australia Abstract: A new, single-piece, hydrophobic acrylic lens – the first constructed with a lens optic and haptics comprised of a hydroxyethyl methacrylate-polyethylene glycol phenyl ether acrylate–styrene copolymer, cross-linked with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, and labeled as "glistening-free" – was recently introduced globally. Glistenings have been a significant source of clinical concern with previous hydrophobic lens designs. This new monofocal lens provides enhanced, clear optics for lens-based surgery. The superior optical clarity of this lens is achieved through the elimination of glistenings, enhanced surface durability, high refractive index, a high Abbe number, and an aspheric design. Additionally, the lens design reduces the risk of developing posterior capsule opacification. Keywords: glistenings, monofocal hydrophobic acrylic, IOL, aspheric

  20. Synthesis and properties of collagen-g-poly(sodium acrylate-co-2-hydroxyethylacrylate superabsorbent hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sadeghi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Novel biopolymer-based superabsorbent hydrogels were prepared by grafting crosslinked poly(acrylic acid-co-2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (PAA-co-PHEA chains onto collagen backbones through a free radical polymerization method. The graft copolymerization reaction was carried out in a homogeneous medium and in the presence of ammonium persulfate (APS as initiator and N,N '-methylene bisacrylamide (MBA as crosslinker. A proposed mechanism for collagen-g-(PAA-co-PHEA formation was suggested and the hydrogel structure was confirmed using FTIR spectroscopy and TGA thermal analysis. Moreover, the morphology of the samples was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The effect of concentration of MBA as well as AA/HEA weight ratio on the swelling capacity of the hydrogel was also studied. Furthermore, the water absorbency of hydrogels was measured in solutions with pH ranging 1 to 13. The collagen-based hydrogel exhibited a pH-responsive character, so that a swelling-deswelling pulsatile behavior was recorded at pHs 2 and 8. Preliminary swelling and deswelling behaviors of the hydrogels were also studied. Additionally, the hydrogels exhibited salt-sensitivity and cation exchange properties.

  1. Effects of gas atmospheres on poly(lactic acid) film in acrylic acid plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yun; Fina, Alberto; Venturello, Alberto; Geobaldo, Francesco

    2013-10-01

    Plasma polymerized acrylic acid (AA) coatings were deposited on poly(lactic acid) (PLA) films in various gas atmospheres during the pre-treatment of PLA and the deposition of AA, respectively. Therefore, this work was twofold: the argon pretreated PLA films followed by a deposition in argon were investigated against the mixture of argon and oxygen pretreated ones under the same deposition conditions; the plasma deposition of AA operating in different atmospheres (argon, oxygen and nitrogen) was employed to modify the pretreated PLA in oxygen. Chemical and physical changes on the plasma-treated surfaces were examined using contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-FTIR) analysis. The results showed that the discharge gas can have a significant influence on the chemical composition of the PLA surfaces: oxygen plasmas introduced oxygen-containing groups in company with surface etching in pretreatment and deposition, while argon discharges was able to achieve much better hydrophilic behavior and high retention ratio of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) coating before and after washing in water.

  2. Evaluation of surface physical properties of acrylic resins for provisional prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Paulo Hilgenberg

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Acrylic resins used for provisional prostheses should have satisfactory superficial characteristics in order to ensure gingival health and low bacterial attachment. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the superficial roughness and contact angle after two types of polishing and the Vickers hardness of three acrylic resins (Duralay - G1, Dencrilay - G2, and Dencor - G3, all shade 66, indicated for provisional fixed prostheses. Five 20 x 3 ± 1 mm diameter discoid specimens were obtained for each group. One side of the specimens was subjected to standard polishing (pumice and whiting slurry, and the opposite side was polished with special tips. The mean roughness and contact angles of the materials were measured. The specimens were subjected to the Vickers microhardness test, which indicated that standard polishing produced a surface roughness equivalent to that of the special tips. The contact angles obtained with the standard polishing were equivalent to those observed in the special tips group. The microhardness of G1 and G3 resins showed statistical differences.

  3. Effects of gas atmospheres on poly(lactic acid) film in acrylic acid plasma treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yun, E-mail: yun.zhaotju@yahoo.com [Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy); Fina, Alberto [Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia, Politecnico di Torino – sede di Alessandria, V. T. Michel 5, 15121 Alessandria (Italy); Venturello, Alberto; Geobaldo, Francesco [Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    Plasma polymerized acrylic acid (AA) coatings were deposited on poly(lactic acid) (PLA) films in various gas atmospheres during the pre-treatment of PLA and the deposition of AA, respectively. Therefore, this work was twofold: the argon pretreated PLA films followed by a deposition in argon were investigated against the mixture of argon and oxygen pretreated ones under the same deposition conditions; the plasma deposition of AA operating in different atmospheres (argon, oxygen and nitrogen) was employed to modify the pretreated PLA in oxygen. Chemical and physical changes on the plasma-treated surfaces were examined using contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-FTIR) analysis. The results showed that the discharge gas can have a significant influence on the chemical composition of the PLA surfaces: oxygen plasmas introduced oxygen-containing groups in company with surface etching in pretreatment and deposition, while argon discharges was able to achieve much better hydrophilic behavior and high retention ratio of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) coating before and after washing in water.

  4. Nonionic Polymerizable Emulsifier in High-Solids-Content Acrylate Emulsion Polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Deping; HUANG Hongzhi; SHEN Ling; XIE Jin; GUAN Rong

    2012-01-01

    Stable high-solids-content acrylate emulsion were obtained with a nonionic polymerizable emulsifier allyloxy nonylphenoxy poly (ethyleneoxy) (10) ether (ANPEO10),and a conventional emulsifier OP-10 as a reference sample.1H NMR proves that the polymerizable emulsifier ANPEO10 has been incorporated into the resulted acrylate polymers.TEM demonstrates that there are some differences in the particle morphologies.AFM proves that the polymerizable emulsifier ANPEO10 migrating to the surface of the emulsion film was much less than the conventional emulsifier OP-10.The polymerizable emulsifier ANPEO10 can enhance the adhesion with glass plate compared to the conventional emulsifier.Furthermore,with increasing amount of emulsifier,the surface free energy of the films first decreased and then increased,and the adhesion with glass plate is initially enhanced and then attenuated.The water-resistance and solvent-resistance of the films prepared by the polymerizable emulsifier ANPEO10 are superior to those prepared by the conventional emulsifier OP-10.

  5. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes/polymer composites in absence and presence of acrylic elastomer (ACM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S; Rath, T; Mahaling, R N; Mukherjee, M; Khatua, B B; Das, C K

    2009-05-01

    Polyetherimide/Multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNTs) nanocomposites containing as-received and modified (COOH-MWNT) carbon nanotubes were prepared through melt process in extruder and then compression molded. Thermal properties of the composites were characterized by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images showed that the MWNTs were well dispersed and formed an intimate contact with the polymer matrix without any agglomeration. However the incorporation of modified carbon nanotubes formed fascinating, highly crosslinked, and compact network structure throughout the polymer matrix. This showed the increased adhesion of PEI with modified MWNTs. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) also showed high degree of dispersion of modified MWNTs along with broken ends. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) results showed a marginal increase in storage modulus (E') and glass transition temperature (T(g)) with the addition of MWNTs. Increase in tensile strength and impact strength of composites confirmed the use the MWNTs as possible reinforcement agent. Both thermal and electrical conductivity of composites increased, but effect is more pronounced on modification due to formation of network of carbon nanotubes. Addition of acrylic elastomer to developed PEI/MWNTs (modified) nanocomposites resulted in the further increase in thermal and electrical properties due to the formation of additional bond between MWNTs and acrylic elastomers at the interface. All the results presented are well corroborated by SEM and FESEM studies. PMID:19452959

  6. Influence of Initiator on Synthesis and Properties of Polyurethane-acrylate Hybrid Emulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Guowen; SHEN Huifang; FIU Heqing; CHEN Huanqin

    2008-01-01

    The prepolymer polyurethanes(PUs)based on isophorone diisocyanate(IPDI),poly(propylene glycol)(PPG),1,4-butanedioi(BDO)and dimethylopropionic acid(DMPA)were synthesized at 75-80℃ for 7-8 hours,using dibutyltin dilauate(DBTDL)as catalyzer,and polyturethane-acrylate hybrid emulsion was prepared after methyl methacrylate(MMA)was polymerized,using potassium persulfate and azobisisobutyronitrile(AIBN)as initiator,respectively.The influences of these factors such as the kind of initiator,the feed method of initiator and the addition of initiator on properties of polyurethane-acrylate were studied.The FTIR and GPC of aqueous polyurethane were analyzed.The FTIR spectra show that the degree of microphase-separate between the soft segments and rigid segments is high.The analysis of molecular weights stated that molecular weights increased most significantly after amine was added.The experimental results reveal that the appearance of emulsion is excellent,the film is harder and the water absorption radio of the film is less when oil-solubility AIBN is used as initiator.The semi-continuous can increase the molecular weight of polymer and the optimum amount of the initiator was 3% for MMA.

  7. Feasibility of Crosslinked Acrylic Shape Memory Polymer for a Thrombectomy Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea D. Muschenborn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the feasibility of utilizing a system of SMP acrylates for a thrombectomy device by determining an optimal crosslink density that provides both adequate recovery stress for blood clot removal and sufficient strain capacity to enable catheter delivery. Methods. Four thermoset acrylic copolymers containing benzyl methacrylate (BzMA and bisphenol A ethoxylate diacrylate (Mn∼512, BPA were designed with differing thermomechanical properties. Finite element analysis (FEA was performed to ensure that the materials were able to undergo the strains imposed by crimping, and fabricated devices were subjected to force-monitored crimping, constrained recovery, and bench-top thrombectomy. Results. Devices with 25 and 35 mole% BPA exhibited the highest recovery stress and the highest brittle response as they broke upon constrained recovery. On the contrary, the 15 mole% BPA devices endured all testing and their recovery stress (5 kPa enabled successful bench-top thrombectomy in 2/3 times, compared to 0/3 for the devices with the lowest BPA content. Conclusion. While the 15 mole% BPA devices provided the best trade-off between device integrity and performance, other SMP systems that offer recovery stresses above 5 kPa without increasing brittleness to the point of causing device failure would be more suitable for this application.

  8. High Methane Storage Working Capacity in Metal-Organic Frameworks with Acrylate Links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Juncong; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Zhang, Yue-Biao; Yaghi, Omar M

    2016-08-17

    High methane storage capacity in porous materials is important for the design and manufacture of vehicles powered by natural gas. Here, we report the synthesis, crystal structures and methane adsorption properties of five new zinc metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), MOF-905, MOF-905-Me2, MOF-905-Naph, MOF-905-NO2, and MOF-950. All these MOFs consist of the Zn4O(-CO2)6 secondary building units (SBUs) and benzene-1,3,5-tri-β-acrylate, BTAC. The permanent porosity of all five materials was confirmed, and their methane adsorption measured up to 80 bar to reveal that MOF-905 is among the best performing methane storage materials with a volumetric working capacity (desorption at 5 bar) of 203 cm(3) cm(-3) at 80 bar and 298 K, a value rivaling that of HKUST-1 (200 cm(3) cm(-3)), the benchmark compound for methane storage in MOFs. This study expands the scope of MOF materials with ultrahigh working capacity to include linkers having the common acrylate connectivity. PMID:27442620

  9. Enhancing dry adhesives and replica molding with ethyl cyano-acrylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovero, E.; Menon, C.

    2014-08-01

    The use of cyano-acrylate to improve the performance of dry adhesives and their method of fabrication is investigated. Specifically, the contributions of this work are: (1) a new adhesion method to adhere to a large variety of surfaces, (2) a strategy to increase the compliance of dry adhesives, and (3) an improved fabrication process for micro-structured dry adhesives based on replica molding. For the first contribution, the adhesion method consists of anchoring a micro-structured dry adhesive to a surface through a layer of hardened ethyl cyano-acrylate (ECA). This method increases the adhesion of the orders of magnitude at the expense of leaving residue after detachment. However, this method preserves reusability. For the second contribution, a double-sided dry adhesive is obtained by introducing a substrate with a millimeter-sized pillar structure, which enabled further increasing adhesion. For the third contribution, an ECA layer is used as a mold for the fabrication of new adhesives. These new types of molds proved able to produce dry adhesives with high reproducibility and low degradation.

  10. Development of UV Curable Overprint Varnishes (OPV) Formulation from Epoxidized Palm Olein Acrylated (EPOLA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis procedure of Epoxidized Palm Olein Acrylated (EPOLA) has been established by Radiation Curing and Synthesis Group. The quality control test such as acid value, oxirane oxygen content and Fourier- Transform Infra Red (FTIR) were done to monitor the synthesis process. The completion of synthesis process was observed via FTIR with the presence of hydroxyl (-OH) absorption between 3440-3480 cm-1 and an absorption of acrylate groups at 819 cm-1. The EPOLA was then coated on glass plate and irradiated with UV light. It was found that EPOLA is curable under exposure of UV light and has potential in the application of Overprint Varnishes (OPV). Several formulations have been developed which basically consist of oligomer, monomer, photo initiator EPOLA and additives. The formulations were then coated on black and white paper and irradiated under UV light. The speed of the conveyer was set at 5 m/ min and 20 m/ min during irradiation and the number of passes for the coated substrate to be cured is recorded. The physical characterization such as adhesion and curing rate were observed compared with desirable finished products. (author)

  11. A Biosensor for Urea from Succinimide-Modified Acrylic Microspheres Based on Reflectance Transduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Ahmad

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available New acrylic microspheres were synthesised by photopolymerisation where the succinimide functional group was incorporated during the microsphere preparation. An optical biosensor for urea based on reflectance transduction with a large linear response range to urea was successfully developed using this material. The biosensor utilized succinimide-modified acrylic microspheres immobilized with a Nile blue chromoionophore (ETH 5294 for optical detection and urease enzyme was immobilized on the surface of the microspheres via the succinimide groups. No leaching of the enzyme or chromoionophore was observed. Hydrolysis of the urea by urease changes the pH and leads to a color change of the immobilized chromoionophore. When the color change was monitored by reflectance spectrophotometry, the linear response range of the biosensor to urea was from 0.01 to 1,000 mM (R2 = 0.97 with a limit of detection of 9.97 mM. The biosensor response showed good reproducibility (relative standard deviation = 1.43%, n = 5 with no interference by major cations such as Na+, K+, NH4+ and Mg2+. The use of reflectance as a transduction method led to a large linear response range that is better than that of many urea biosensors based on other optical transduction methods.

  12. Graft Polymerization of Acrylic Acid and Acrylamide onto BOPET Corona Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jie; TIAN Hua-yu; BAI Yong-ping

    2004-01-01

    The graft polymerization of acrylic acid ( A ) and acrylamide (B) was carried out onto bi- ori ented polyester BOPET corona film. The influence of monomer concentration, reducer concentration and reaction time on the graft polymerization was investigated. The surface tension of the films increased with an increase of monomer concentration, till the concentration of monomer A reached 1.5 × 10-2 g/mL and the concentration of monomer B reached 4.0× 10-2 g/ mL. The surface tension of the films reached a maximum value at 7 × 10 4 M of reducer concentration and subsequently decreased with further increase in reducer concentration. The surface tension of the films increased with the increase of the reaction time apparently within 50min. The grafted corona BO PET films were characterized with IR and XPS. The presence of graft on the film surface was confirmed. The atten uation experiments on grafted corona BOPET films in air at 50℃ and in water were carried out to investigate the persistence of graft polymerization of acrylic acid and arylamide onto BOPET corona films.

  13. Acrylic acid grafted cellulosic Luffa cylindrical fiber for the removal of dye and metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Agarwal, Shilpi; Singh, Prerna; Pathania, Deepak

    2013-10-15

    Acrylic acid grafted cellulosic Luffa cylindrical fiber was utilized for the removal of methylene blue and metal ions from the water system using batch process. The grafted sample used was found to demonstrate a maximum grafting efficiency of 90.8% under concentrations of 0.432×10(-3) mol/L, temperature of 35 °C, time of 60 min and pH of 7.0 respectively. The remarkable improvement in thermal properties of the grafted sample was observed. The formation of new bands in FTIR spectra of grafted sample confirmed the grafting of acrylic acid onto the cellulosic fiber. The maximum adsorption capacity of dye onto adsorbent was observed to be 62.15 mg g(-1) at 175 min. A maximum removal of 45.8% was observed for Mg(2+) as compared to other metal ions. High values of correlation coefficient for methylene blue (0.995) and metal ions such as Mg(2+) (0.996), Ni(2+) (0.995), Zn(2+) (0.996) confirmed the applicability of Langmuir isotherm that assumed a monolayer coverage and uniform activity distribution on the adsorbent surface.

  14. Residual monomer content determination in some acrylic denture base materials and possibilities of its reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Milena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Polymethyl methacrylate is used for producing a denture basis. It is a material made by the polymerization process of methyl methacrylate. Despite of the polymerization type, there is a certain amount of free methyl methacrylate (residual monomer incorporated in the denture, which can cause irritation of the oral mucosa. The aim of this study was to determine the amount of residual monomer in four different denture base acrylic resins by liquid chromatography and the possibility of its reduction. Methods. After the polymerization, a postpolymerization treatment was performed in three different ways: in boiling water for thirty minutes, with 500 W microwaves for three minutes and in steam bath at 22º C for one to thirty days. Results. The obtained results showed that the amount of residual monomer is significantly higher in cold polymerizing acrylates (9.1-11%. The amount of residual monomer after hot polymerization was in the tolerance range (0.59- 0.86%. Conclusion. The obtained results denote a low content of residual monomer in the samples which have undergone postpolymerization treatment. A lower percent of residual monomer is established in samples undergone a hot polymerization.

  15. Brown Coal Dewatering Using Poly (Acrylamide-Co-Potassium Acrylic Based Super Absorbent Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Devasahayam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available With the rising cost of energy and fuel oils, clean coal technologies will continue to play an important role during the transition to a clean energy future. Victorian brown coals have high oxygen and moisture contents and hence low calorific value. This paper presents an alternative non evaporative drying technology for high moisture brown coals based on osmotic dewatering. This involves contacting and mixing brown coal with anionic super absorbent polymers (SAP which are highly crossed linked synthetic co-polymers based on a cross-linked copolymer of acryl amide and potassium acrylate. The paper focuses on evaluating the water absorption potential of SAP in contact with 61% moisture Loy Yang brown coal, under varying SAP dosages for different contact times and conditions. The amount of water present in Loy Yang coal was reduced by approximately 57% during four hours of SAP contact. The extent of SAP brown coal drying is directly proportional to the SAP/coal weight ratio. It is observed that moisture content of fine brown coal can readily be reduced from about 59% to 38% in four hours at a 20% SAP/coal ratio.

  16. Studies on the kinetics of gel formation in polyurethane acrylate cured by UV-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the kinetics of gel formation in polyurethane acrylate initiated by UV-radiation was investigated with the help of IR spectra, in which benzophenone/benzoic ethyl ether was a mixed photo sensitizer. The reaction degrees of double-bonds changing at 1408 cm-1 of acrylates in IR were detected in the different UV exposure time. The relationship between reaction degree Pc-c = 0.325 t0.135. After a critical geloint, the reaction degrees of double-bonds existed: Pc=c (gel) > Pc=c > Pc=c(sol) and besides there was a distributional relation between gel and sol fractions in the whole processing. The critical gel point was obtained with the extrapolation method, and its experimental gel point and the theoretical modeling one were quite close to each other. The experimental curves of Pc=c, Pc=c(gel) and Pc=c(sol) functions related to gel fractions were in fairly good agreement with their theoretical modeling ones in both shape and tendency

  17. 4D printing smart biomedical scaffolds with novel soybean oil epoxidized acrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Shida; Zhu, Wei; Castro, Nathan J; Nowicki, Margaret; Zhou, Xuan; Cui, Haitao; Fisher, John P; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-06-02

    Photocurable, biocompatible liquid resins are highly desired for 3D stereolithography based bioprinting. Here we solidified a novel renewable soybean oil epoxidized acrylate, using a 3D laser printing technique, into smart and highly biocompatible scaffolds capable of supporting growth of multipotent human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Porous scaffolds were readily fabricated by simply adjusting the printer infill density; superficial structures of the polymerized soybean oil epoxidized acrylate were significantly affected by laser frequency and printing speed. Shape memory tests confirmed that the scaffold fixed a temporary shape at -18 °C and fully recovered its original shape at human body temperature (37 °C), which indicated the great potential for 4D printing applications. Cytotoxicity analysis proved that the printed scaffolds had significant higher hMSC adhesion and proliferation than traditional polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA), and had no statistical difference from poly lactic acid (PLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL). This research is believed to significantly advance the development of biomedical scaffolds with renewable plant oils and advanced 3D fabrication techniques.

  18. The Effect of Reactives Diluents to the Physical Properties of Acrylated Palm Oil Based Polyurethane Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onn Munirah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of polyurethane with hydroxyl access in a molecule leads to a new alternative of low toxicity green product. Palm oil is one of the major commodities in Malaysia. The potential of palm oil to be used as coatings raw material such as alkyd is limited due to low unsaturated side on fatty acid chains. To overcome this limitation, palm oil was modified through transesterification process to produce polyol. Acrylated isocyanate (urethane oligomer was then grafted onto polyol to produce polyurethane with vinylic ends. The polyurethane was formulated with different cross-linkers (reactive diluents and cured under UV radiation. The effect of three different diluents; monoacrylate, diacrylate and triacrylate on the properties of cured polymer were studied in this research. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR, Hydroxyl Value Titration, Gel Content, and Volatile Organic Compound (VOC were used for characterization. Physical testing performed were Pencil Hardness and Pull-Off Adhesion test. Novel palm oil-based polyurethane coatings have been found to have good properties with mono acrylate functionality.

  19. Radiation synthesis of chitosan beads grafted with acrylic acid for metal ions sorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benamer, S., E-mail: benamers@yahoo.fr [Division of Nuclear Applications, Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger, BP-399 Alger-Gare (Algeria); Mahlous, M.; Tahtat, D.; Nacer-Khodja, A.; Arabi, M. [Division of Nuclear Applications, Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger, BP-399 Alger-Gare (Algeria); Lounici, H.; Mameri, N. [Ecole Nationale Polytechnique d' El-Harrach Alger (Algeria)

    2011-12-15

    Radiation-induced grafting of acrylic acid onto chitosan beads was performed in solution at a dose rate of 20.6 Gy/min of cobalt-60 gamma rays. The effect of absorbed dose on grafting yield was investigated. The characterization of the grafted material was performed by FTIR spectroscopy and the swelling measurements at different pHs. The grafting yield increased with the increase in dose, it reached 80% at 40 kGy irradiation dose. The removal of Pb and Cd ions from aqueous solutions was investigated with both ungrafted and grafted chitosan beads. The sorption behavior of the sorbents was examined through pH, kinetics and equilibrium measurements. Grafted chitosan beads presented higher sorption capacity for both metal ions than unmodified chitosan beads. - Highlights: > Pb and Cd ions are removed from aqueous solution by adsorption on chitosan beads. > Crosslinking process improves chemical stability of chitosan beads. > Radiation grafting of acrylic acid onto chitosan improves its metal adsorption capacity. > Increase in grafting degree enhances the adsorption capacity of the material. > Gamma radiation is a powerful tool for an accurate control of the grafting yield.

  20. Radiation synthesis of chitosan beads grafted with acrylic acid for metal ions sorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced grafting of acrylic acid onto chitosan beads was performed in solution at a dose rate of 20.6 Gy/min of cobalt-60 gamma rays. The effect of absorbed dose on grafting yield was investigated. The characterization of the grafted material was performed by FTIR spectroscopy and the swelling measurements at different pHs. The grafting yield increased with the increase in dose, it reached 80% at 40 kGy irradiation dose. The removal of Pb and Cd ions from aqueous solutions was investigated with both ungrafted and grafted chitosan beads. The sorption behavior of the sorbents was examined through pH, kinetics and equilibrium measurements. Grafted chitosan beads presented higher sorption capacity for both metal ions than unmodified chitosan beads. - Highlights: → Pb and Cd ions are removed from aqueous solution by adsorption on chitosan beads. → Crosslinking process improves chemical stability of chitosan beads. → Radiation grafting of acrylic acid onto chitosan improves its metal adsorption capacity. → Increase in grafting degree enhances the adsorption capacity of the material. → Gamma radiation is a powerful tool for an accurate control of the grafting yield.

  1. 4D printing smart biomedical scaffolds with novel soybean oil epoxidized acrylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Shida; Zhu, Wei; Castro, Nathan J.; Nowicki, Margaret; Zhou, Xuan; Cui, Haitao; Fisher, John P.; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-01-01

    Photocurable, biocompatible liquid resins are highly desired for 3D stereolithography based bioprinting. Here we solidified a novel renewable soybean oil epoxidized acrylate, using a 3D laser printing technique, into smart and highly biocompatible scaffolds capable of supporting growth of multipotent human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Porous scaffolds were readily fabricated by simply adjusting the printer infill density; superficial structures of the polymerized soybean oil epoxidized acrylate were significantly affected by laser frequency and printing speed. Shape memory tests confirmed that the scaffold fixed a temporary shape at −18 °C and fully recovered its original shape at human body temperature (37 °C), which indicated the great potential for 4D printing applications. Cytotoxicity analysis proved that the printed scaffolds had significant higher hMSC adhesion and proliferation than traditional polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA), and had no statistical difference from poly lactic acid (PLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL). This research is believed to significantly advance the development of biomedical scaffolds with renewable plant oils and advanced 3D fabrication techniques. PMID:27251982

  2. Prediction of the "in vivo" mechanical behavior of biointegrable acrylic macroporous scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikingsson, L; Antolinos-Turpin, C M; Gómez-Tejedor, J A; Gallego Ferrer, G; Gómez Ribelles, J L

    2016-04-01

    This study examines a biocompatible scaffold series of random copolymer networks P(EA-HEA) made of Ethyl Acrylate, EA, and 2-Hydroxyl Ethyl Acrylate, HEA. The P(EA-HEA) scaffolds have been synthesized with varying crosslinking density and filled with a Poly(Vinyl Alcohol), PVA, to mimic the growing cartilaginous tissue during tissue repair. In cartilage regeneration the scaffold needs to have sufficient mechanical properties to sustain the compression in the joint and, at the same time, transmit mechanical signals to the cells for chondrogenic differentiation. Mechanical tests show that the elastic modulus increases with increasing crosslinking density of P(EA-HEA) scaffolds. The water plays an important role in the mechanical behavior of the scaffold, but highly depends on the crosslinking density of the proper polymer. Furthermore, when the scaffold with hydrogel is tested it can be seen that the modulus increases with increasing hydrogel density. Even so, the mechanical properties are inferior than those of the scaffolds with water filling the pores. The hydrogel inside the pores of the scaffolds facilitates the expulsion of water during compression and lowers the mechanical modulus of the scaffold. The P(EA-HEA) with PVA shows to be a good artificial cartilage model with mechanical properties close to native articular cartilage.

  3. Preparation of metal adsorbent from poly(methyl acrylate)-grafted-cassava starch via gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal adsorbent containing hydroxamic acid groups was successfully synthesized by radiation-induced graft copolymerization of methyl acrylate (MA) onto cassava starch. The optimum conditions for grafting were studied in terms of % degree of grafting (Dg). Conversion of the ester groups present in poly(methyl acrylate)-grafted-cassava starch copolymer into hydroxamic acid was carried out by treatment with hydroxylamine (HA) in the presence of alkaline solution. The maximum percentage conversion of the ester groups of the grafted copolymer, % Dg=191 (7.63 mmol/g of MA), into the hydroxamic groups was 70% (5.35 mmol/g of MA) at the optimum condition. The adsorbent of 191%Dg had total adsorption capacities of 2.6, 1.46, 1.36, 1.15 and 1.6 mmol/g-adsorbent for Cd2+, Al3+, UO22+, V5+ and Pb2+, respectively, in the batch mode adsorption. - Highlights: ► Adsorbent containing hydroxamic acid group was prepared by radiation-induced grafting. ► The adsorbent exhibited a remarkable % adsorption for Cd2+, Al3+, UO22+, V5+ and Pb2+. ► The selectivity of adsorbent towards metal ions used is in this order: Cd2+>Pb2+> Al3+> UO22+ > V5+.

  4. Salicylic acid-releasing polyurethane acrylate polymers as anti-biofilm urological catheter coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowatzki, Paul J; Koepsel, Richard R; Stoodley, Paul; Min, Ke; Harper, Alan; Murata, Hironobu; Donfack, Joseph; Hortelano, Edwin R; Ehrlich, Garth D; Russell, Alan J

    2012-05-01

    Biofilm-associated infections are a major complication of implanted and indwelling medical devices like urological and venous catheters. They commonly persist even in the presence of an oral or intravenous antibiotic regimen, often resulting in chronic illness. We have developed a new approach to inhibiting biofilm growth on synthetic materials through controlled release of salicylic acid from a polymeric coating. Herein we report the synthesis and testing of a ultraviolet-cured polyurethane acrylate polymer composed, in part, of salicyl acrylate, which hydrolyzes upon exposure to aqueous conditions, releasing salicylic acid while leaving the polymer backbone intact. The salicylic acid release rate was tuned by adjusting the polymer composition. Anti-biofilm performance of the coatings was assessed under several biofilm forming conditions using a novel combination of the MBEC Assay™ biofilm multi-peg growth system and bioluminescence monitoring for live cell quantification. Films of the salicylic acid-releasing polymers were found to inhibit biofilm formation, as shown by bioluminescent and GFP reporter strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. Urinary catheters coated on their inner lumens with the salicylic acid-releasing polymer significantly reduced biofilm formation by E. coli for up to 5 days under conditions that simulated physiological urine flow.

  5. Using Latex Balls and Acrylic Resin Plates to Investigate the Stacking Arrangement and Packing Efficiency of Metal Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    A high-school third-year or undergraduate first-semester general chemistry laboratory experiment introducing simple-cubic, face-centered cubic, body-centered cubic, and hexagonal closest packing unit cells is presented. Latex balls and acrylic resin plates are employed to make each atomic arrangement. The volume of the vacant space in each cell is…

  6. A facile one pot strategy for the synthesis of well-defined polyacrylates from acrylic acid via RAFT polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qianbiao; Wang, Taisheng; Dai, Jingwen; Ma, Chao; Jin, Bangkun; Bai, Ruke

    2014-03-28

    A facile one pot strategy for the preparation of linear and hyperbranched polyacrylates has been successfully developed by the combination of in situ esterification of acrylic acid with halogenated compounds promoted by 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine (TMG) and RAFT polymerization. PMID:24534953

  7. Structure-function properties of amylose-oleic acid inclusion complexes grafted with poly(methyl acrylate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spherulites, produced by steam jet-cooking high-amylose starch and oleic acid, were grafted with methyl acrylate, both before and after removal of un-complexed amylopectin. For comparison, granular high-amylose corn starch was graft polymerized in a similar manner. The amount of grafted and ungrafte...

  8. On the effect of treating poly(acrylic acid) with argon and tetrafluoromethane plasmas: Kinetics and degradation mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terlingen, Johannes G.A.; Takens, Gijsbert A.J.; Gaag, van der Frederik J.; Hoffman, Allan S.; Feijen, Jan

    1994-01-01

    Poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) films were treated with either an argon or a tetrafluoromethane (CF4) plasma and subsequently analyzed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). PAAc films were decarboxylated during both types of plasma treatments. In addition, during the CF4 plasma treatment, the PAAc

  9. Novel acrylic resin denture base with enhanced mechanical properties by the incorporation of PMMA-modified hydroxyapatite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingying Pan; Fengwei Liu; Dan Xu; Xiaoze Jiang; Hao Yu; Meifang Zhu

    2013-01-01

    A kind of novel acrylic resin denture base enhanced by PMMA-modified hydroxyapatite (M-HAP) was prepared and the modification effect of HAP on the mechanical properties of denture base material was investigated in the present study. HAP whiskers were prepared by hydrothermal homogeneous precipitation process and were silanized by the coupling agent, 3-methacryloxy propyl trimethoxyl silane (g-MPS), to induce the vinyl groups onto its surface. Methyl methacrylate (MMA) were then modified outside the vinyl functionalized HAP via polymerization to build a similar chemical structure with the acrylic matrix. A novel acrylic resin denture base was obtained through self-curing process with the incorporation of this PMMA-modified HAP, and the content of which ranged from 0 wt% to 0.8 wt%. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and universal testing apparatus were used to characterize M-HAP and corresponding denture base. The results showed that PMMA were successfully grafted onto the surface of HAP whiskers with up to 15 wt% and the modification turned out to be useful for the dispersion and compatibility of whiskers in the acrylic resin matrix. The mechanical properties of the prepared denture base samples were enhanced greatly after incorporating with M-HAP fillers. The optimal incorporated content of M-HAP was also investigated.

  10. Effect of SiO2-acryl nanohybrid coating layers on transparent conducting oxide-poly(ethylene terephthalate) superstrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Y T; Kang, D P; Kang, D J; Chung, I D

    2013-05-01

    SiO2-acryl nanohybrid coating layers were produced by hybridizing acrylic resin and surface-modified colloidal silica (CS) nanoparticles. First, CS nanoparticles were modified with methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) and vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMS) by a sol-gel process. The surface-modified CS nanoparticles were then solvent-exchanged to be homogeneous in acrylic resin. The Hybrid materials were mixed in variation with the amount of surface-modified CS nanoparticles, coated with poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), then finally cured by UV light to obtain a hybrid coating layer. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), particle size analysis (using a Zetasizer), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were performed to determine the morphology of the hybrid thin-films. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to investigate the thermal properties. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), ultraviolet-visible (UVNis) spectroscopies, and pencil hardness were used to obtain the details of chemical structures, optical properties, and hardness, respectively. The hybrid thin films had shown to be enhanced properties compared to their urethane acrylate prepolymer (UAP) coating film.

  11. Acrylic-based 1×2 Y-Branch POF coupler with high index contrast waveguide taper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan, A. A.; Abd Rahman, M. K.

    2011-01-01

    An acrylic-based 1x2 Y-Branch POF coupler consists of input POF waveguide, a middle high index contrast waveguide taper and output POF waveguides has been developed. The optical device is based on a 1x2 Y-branch coupler design with a middle high index contrast waveguide taper. Device modeling has been performed using non-sequential ray tracing with an insertion loss of 4.68 dB and coupling ratio of 50:50. Low cost acrylic material has been used for the device substrate. This middle waveguide taper region is constructed on the acrylic block itself without using any additional optical waveguiding medium injected into the engraved taper region. Fabrication of the devices is done by producing the device structures on an acrylic block using high speed CNC machining tool. Input and output POF fibers are inserted in to this device structure in such a way that they are passively aligned to the middle waveguide taper structure. The measured insertion loss is 7.5 dB and with a splitting ratio of 50:50.

  12. UV-induced graft polymerization of acrylic acid in the sub-micronchannels of oxidized PET track-etched membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolkov, Ilya V.; Mashentseva, Anastassiya A.; Güven, Olgun; Taltenov, Abzal A.

    2015-12-01

    In this article, we report on functionalization of track-etched membrane based on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET TeMs) oxidized by advanced oxidation systems and by grafting of acrylic acid using photochemical initiation technique for the purpose of increasing functionality thus expanding its practical application. Among advanced oxidation processes (H2O2/UV) system had been chosen to introduce maximum concentration of carboxylic acid groups. Benzophenone (BP) photo-initiator was first immobilized on the surfaces of cylindrical pores which were later filled with aq. acrylic acid solution. UV-irradiation from both sides of PET TeMs has led to the formation of grafted poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) chains inside the membrane sub-micronchannels. Effect of oxygen-rich surface of PET TeMs on BP adsorption and subsequent process of photo-induced graft polymerization of acrylic acid (AA) were studied by ESR. The surface of oxidized and AA grafted PET TeMs was characterized by UV-vis, ATR-FTIR, XPS spectroscopies and by SEM.

  13. Techno-economic and carbon footprint assessment of methyl crotonate and methyl acrylate production from wastewater-based polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Dacosta, C.; Posada, John A.; Ramirez, C.A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper assesses whether a cleaner and more sustainable production of the chemical building blocks methyl crotonate (MC) and methyl acrylate (MA) can be obtained in an innovative process in which resource consumption, waste generation and environmental impacts are minimized by using polyhydroxybu

  14. Comparison of various models to describe the charge-pH dependence of poly(acrylic acid)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lützenkirchen, J.; Male, van J.; Leermakers, F.A.M.; Sjöberg, S.

    2011-01-01

    The charge of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) in dilute aqueous solutions depends on pH and ionic strength. We report new experimental data and test various models to describe the deprotonation of PAA in three different NaCl concentrations. A simple surface complexation approach is found to be very success

  15. In Situ Synthesis of Reduced Graphene Oxide-Reinforced Silicone-Acrylate Resin Composite Films Applied in Erosion Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The reduced graphene oxide reinforced silicone-acrylate resin composite films (rGO/SAR composite films were prepared by in situ synthesis method. The structure of rGO/SAR composite films was characterized by Raman spectrum, atomic force microscope, scanning electron microscopy, and thermogravimetric analyzer. The results showed that the rGO were uniformly dispersed in silicone-acrylate resin matrix. Furthermore, the effect of rGO loading on mechanical properties of composite films was investigated by bulge test. A significant enhancement (ca. 290% and 320% in Young’s modulus and yield stress was obtained by adding the rGO to silicone-acrylate resin. At the same time, the adhesive energy between the composite films and metal substrate was also improved to be about 200%. Moreover, the erosion resistance of the composite films was also investigated as function of rGO loading. The rGO had great effect on the erosion resistance of the composite films, in which the Rcorr (ca. 0.8 mm/year of composite film was far lower than that (28.7 mm/year of pure silicone-acrylate resin film. Thus, this approach provides a novel route to investigate mechanical stability of polymer composite films and improve erosion resistance of polymer coating, which are very important to be used in mechanical-corrosion coupling environments.

  16. Influence of load on the dry frictional performance of alkyl acrylate copolymer elastomers coated with diamond-like carbon films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez, D. Martinez; Nohava, Jiri; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the influence of applied load on the frictional behavior of alkyl acrylate copolymer elastomers coated with diamond- like carbon films is studied at dry conditions. The performance of two coatings with very different microstructure (patched vs. continuous film) is compared with the unc

  17. Synthesis of Graft Copolymers Based on Poly(2‐Methoxyethyl Acrylate) and Investigation of the Associated Water Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javakhishvili, Irakli; Tanaka, Masaru; Ogura, Keiko;

    2012-01-01

    of 2‐methoxyethyl acrylate (MEA) and 2‐(bromoisobutyryloxy)ethyl methacrylate (BriBuEMA) as well as 2‐hydroxyethyl methacrylate and BriBuEMA in a controlled manner . MEA is then grafted from the linear macroinitiators by Cu (I)‐mediated ATRP. Fairly high molecular weights (>120 000 Da) and low...

  18. RAFT copolymerization of itaconic anhydride and 2-methoxyethyl acrylate: a multifunctional scaffold for preparation of “clickable” gold nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javakhishvili, Irakli; Kasama, Takeshi; Jankova, Katja Atanasova;

    2013-01-01

    RAFT copolymerization of 2-methoxyethyl acrylate and itaconic anhydride – a monomer derived from renewable resources – is carried out in a controlled fashion. The copolymer allows preparation of gold nanoparticles with abundant surficial carboxyl and alkyne functional groups that are dendronized ...... via Cu(i)-mediated “click” reaction....

  19. Preparation and Application of Crosslinked Poly(sodium acrylate-Coated Magnetite Nanoparticles as Corrosion Inhibitors for Carbon Steel Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman M. Atta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a new method to prepare poly(sodium acrylate magnetite composite nanoparticles. Core/shell type magnetite nanocomposites were synthesized using sodium acrylate as monomer and N,N-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA as crosslinker. Microemulsion polymerization was used for constructing core/shell structures with magnetite nanoparticles as core and poly(sodium acrylate as shell. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR was employed to characterize the nanocomposite chemical structure. Transmittance electron microscopy (TEM was used to examine the morphology of the modified poly(sodium acrylate magnetite composite nanoparticles. These particle will be evaluated for effective anticorrosion behavior as a hydrophobic surface on stainless steel. The composite nanoparticles has been designed by dispersing nanocomposites which act as a corrosion inhibitor. The inhibition effect of AA-Na/magnetite composites on steel corrosion in 1 M HCl solution was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. Polarization measurements indicated that the studied inhibitor acts as mixed type corrosion inhibitor. EIS spectra exhibit one capacitive loop. The different techniques confirmed that the inhibition efficiency reaches 99% at 50 ppm concentration. This study has led to a better understanding of active anticorrosive magnetite nanoparticles with embedded nanocomposites and the factors influencing their anticorrosion performance.

  20. Preparation and application of crosslinked poly(sodium acrylate)--coated magnetite nanoparticles as corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta, Ayman M; El-Mahdy, Gamal A; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A; El-Saeed, Ashraf M

    2015-01-14

    This work presents a new method to prepare poly(sodium acrylate) magnetite composite nanoparticles. Core/shell type magnetite nanocomposites were synthesized using sodium acrylate as monomer and N,N-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as crosslinker. Microemulsion polymerization was used for constructing core/shell structures with magnetite nanoparticles as core and poly(sodium acrylate) as shell. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was employed to characterize the nanocomposite chemical structure. Transmittance electron microscopy (TEM) was used to examine the morphology of the modified poly(sodium acrylate) magnetite composite nanoparticles. These particle will be evaluated for effective anticorrosion behavior as a hydrophobic surface on stainless steel. The composite nanoparticles has been designed by dispersing nanocomposites which act as a corrosion inhibitor. The inhibition effect of AA-Na/magnetite composites on steel corrosion in 1 M HCl solution was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Polarization measurements indicated that the studied inhibitor acts as mixed type corrosion inhibitor. EIS spectra exhibit one capacitive loop. The different techniques confirmed that the inhibition efficiency reaches 99% at 50 ppm concentration. This study has led to a better understanding of active anticorrosive magnetite nanoparticles with embedded nanocomposites and the factors influencing their anticorrosion performance.

  1. Novel one-dimensional lanthanide acrylic acid complexes: an alternative chain constructed by hydrogen bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Hu, Chang Wen

    2004-12-01

    Novel one-dimensional (1D) chains of three lanthanide complexes La(L 1) 3(CH 3OH)]·CH 3OH (L 1=(E)-3-(2-hydroxyl-phenyl)-acrylic acid) 1, La(L 2) 3(H 2O) 2]·2.75H 2O (L 2=(E)-3-(3-hydroxyl-phenyl)-acrylic acid) 2, and La(L 3) 3(CH 3OH) 2(H 2O)]·CH 3OH (L 3=(E)-3-(4-hydroxyl-phenyl)-acrylic acid) 3 are reported. The crystal structure data are as follows for 1: C 29H 29LaO 11, monoclinic, P2 1/ n, a=15.4289(12) Å, b=7.9585(6) Å, c=23.041(2) Å, β=99.657(2)°, Z=4, R1=0.0637, w R2=0.0919; for 2: C 27H 30.50LaO 13.75, triclinic, P-1, a=8.4719(17) Å, b=13.719(3) Å, c=14.570(3) Å, α=62.19(3)°, β=99.657(2)°, γ=78.22(3)°, Z=2, R1=0.0384, w R2=0.0820; and for 3: C 30H 35LaO 13, monoclinic, P2(1)/ c, a=9.5667(6) Å, b=24.3911(15) Å, c=14.0448(9) Å, β=109.245(2)°, Z=4, R1=0.0374, w R2=0.0630. All the three structure data were collected using graphite monochromated molybdenum Kα radiation and refined using full-matrix least-squares techniques on F 2. These structures show that four kinds of the carboxylato bridge modes are included in these chains to link the La(III) ions. It is the first time that it has been found that the intra-chain hydrogen bonding can construct an alternative chain even, when the coordination bridge mode is the same along the chain (complex 2). There are 2D and 3D hydrogen bonding in the crystal lattices of complexes 1- 3.

  2. Regulation of the Contribution of Integrin to Cell Attachment on Poly(2-Methoxyethyl Acrylate (PMEA Analogous Polymers for Attachment-Based Cell Enrichment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Hoshiba

    Full Text Available Cell enrichment is currently in high demand in medical engineering. We have reported that non-blood cells can attach to a blood-compatible poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate (PMEA substrate through integrin-dependent and integrin-independent mechanisms because the PMEA substrate suppresses protein adsorption. Therefore, we assumed that PMEA analogous polymers can change the contribution of integrin to cell attachment through the regulation of protein adsorption. In the present study, we investigated protein adsorption, cell attachment profiles, and attachment mechanisms on PMEA analogous polymer substrates. Additionally, we demonstrated the possibility of attachment-based cell enrichment on PMEA analogous polymer substrates. HT-1080 and MDA-MB-231 cells started to attach to poly(butyl acrylate (PBA and poly(tetrahydrofurfuryl acrylate (PTHFA, on which proteins could adsorb well, within 1 h. HepG2 cells started to attach after 1 h. HT-1080, MDA-MB-231, and HepG2 cells started to attach within 30 min to PMEA, poly(2-(2-methoxyethoxy ethyl acrylate-co-butyl acrylate (30:70 mol%, PMe2A and poly(2-(2-methoxyethoxy ethoxy ethyl acrylate-co-butyl acrylate (30:70 mol%, PMe3A, which suppress protein adsorption. Moreover, the ratio of attached cells from a cell mixture can be changed on PMEA analogous polymers. These findings suggested that PMEA analogous polymers can be used for attachment-based cell enrichment.

  3. Kekuatan transversa resin akrilik hybrid setelah penambahan glass fiber dengan metode berbeda (The transverse strength of the hybrid acrylic resin after glass fiber reinforcement with different method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Nirwana

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Different types of fibers have been added to acrylic resin materials to improve their mechanical properties. The purpose of this study was to know the transverse strength of the hybrid acrylic resins after glass fiber reinforcement with difference method. This study used rectangular specimens of 65 mm in length, 10 mm in width and 2.5 mm in thickness. There were 3 groups consisting of 6 specimens each, hybrid acrylic resin without glass fiber (control, glass fibers dipped in methyl methacrylate monomer for 15 minutes before being reinforced into hybrid acrylic resin (first method, glass fibers reinforced into a mixture of polymer powder and monomer liquid after the hybrid acrylic resin was mixed directly (second method. All of the specimens were cured for 20 minutes at 100° C. Transverse strength was measured using Autograph. The statistical analyses using one way ANOVA and LSD test showed that there were significant differences in transverse strength (p < 0.05 among the groups. The means of transverse strength were 94,94; 118,27; and 116,34 MPa. It meant that glass fibers reinforcement into hybrid acrylic resin enhanced their transverse strength compared with control. Glass fiber reinforcement into hybrid acrylic resin with differenciate method didn’t enhance their transverse strength.

  4. Thiomers: Influence of molecular mass and thiol group content of poly(acrylic acid) on efflux pump inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabovac, Vjera; Laffleur, Flavia; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2015-09-30

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of molecular mass and thiol group content of poly(acrylic acid)-cysteine conjugates on the permeation of sulforhodamine 101 and penicillin G. acting as substrates for multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 efflux pump. Poly(acrylic acids) of 2 kDa, 100 kDa, 250 kDa, 450 kDa and 3000 kDa were conjugated with cysteine. The thiol group content of all these polymers was in the range from 343.3 ± 48.4 μmol/g to 450.3 ± 76.1 μmol/g. Transport studies were performed on rat small intestine mounted in Ussing-type chambers. Since 250 kDa poly(acrylic acid) showed the highest permeation enhancing effect, additionally thiolated 250 kDa polyacrylates displaying 157.2 μmol/g, 223.0 ± 18.1 and 355.9 μmol/g thiol groups were synthesized in order to investigate the influence of thiol group content on the permeation enhancement. The permeation of sulforhodamine was 3.93- and 3.85-fold improved using 250 kDa poly(acrylic acid)-cysteine conjugate exhibiting 355.9 ± 39.5 μmol/g and 223.0 ± 18.1 μmol/g thiol groups. Using the same conjugates the permeation of penicillin G was 1.70- and 1.59-fold improved, respectively. The study demonstrates that thiolated poly(acrylic acid) inhibits Mrp2 mediated transport and that the extent of inhibition depends on the molecular mass and degree of thiolation of the polymer. PMID:26238816

  5. Antifungal Effect of Henna against Candida albicans Adhered to Acrylic Resin as a Possible Method for Prevention of Denture Stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawasrah, Amal; AlNimr, Amani; Ali, Aiman A

    2016-05-23

    Denture stomatitis is a very common disease affecting the oral mucosa of denture wearers. The aim of this study was to measure the antifungal effect of henna against Candida albicans adhered to acrylic resin as a possible method for prevention of denture stomatitis. One-hundred-eighty acrylic plates were prepared of heat-cured acrylic denture resin. The specimens were divided into six groups of 30 samples each. The first group was only polymer and monomer following the conventional manufacturer instruction for processing complete dentures. The other five groups were processed by adding different concentration of Yamani henna powder (Harazi) to the polymer in a concentration of henna: polymer 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10%, respectively. Samples were incubated in artificial saliva rich with Candida albicans at 37 °C, and the effect of henna on Candida albicans was evaluated in two different methods: semi-quantitative slide count and a culture-based quantitative assay (quantitative). Variation in the number of live Candida was observed with the increase in the concentration of Yamani henna powder. It was observed that the variation in live Candida, between control group and group B (concentration of Yamani henna powder was 1%), was statistically significant with a p-value of 0.0001. Similarly, variations in live Candida were significant, when the concentration of powder was 7.5% or 10% in contrast with control group and p-values were 0.0001 and 0.001 respectively. Adding henna to acrylic resin denture could be effective in controlling Candida albicans proliferation on the denture surface; however, its effects on the physical properties of acrylic resin denture need further studies.

  6. Antifungal Effect of Henna against Candida albicans Adhered to Acrylic Resin as a Possible Method for Prevention of Denture Stomatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Nawasrah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Denture stomatitis is a very common disease affecting the oral mucosa of denture wearers. The aim of this study was to measure the antifungal effect of henna against Candida albicans adhered to acrylic resin as a possible method for prevention of denture stomatitis. One-hundred-eighty acrylic plates were prepared of heat-cured acrylic denture resin. The specimens were divided into six groups of 30 samples each. The first group was only polymer and monomer following the conventional manufacturer instruction for processing complete dentures. The other five groups were processed by adding different concentration of Yamani henna powder (Harazi to the polymer in a concentration of henna: polymer 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10%, respectively. Samples were incubated in artificial saliva rich with Candida albicans at 37 °C, and the effect of henna on Candida albicans was evaluated in two different methods: semi-quantitative slide count and a culture-based quantitative assay (quantitative. Variation in the number of live Candida was observed with the increase in the concentration of Yamani henna powder. It was observed that the variation in live Candida, between control group and group B (concentration of Yamani henna powder was 1%, was statistically significant with a p-value of 0.0001. Similarly, variations in live Candida were significant, when the concentration of powder was 7.5% or 10% in contrast with control group and p-values were 0.0001 and 0.001 respectively. Adding henna to acrylic resin denture could be effective in controlling Candida albicans proliferation on the denture surface; however, its effects on the physical properties of acrylic resin denture need further studies.

  7. The Use of Micro and Nano Particulate Fillers to Modify the Mechanical and Material Properties of Acrylic Bone Cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slane, Joshua A.

    Acrylic bone cement (polymethyl methacrylate) is widely used in total joint replacements to provide long-term fixation of implants. In essence, bone cement acts as a grout by filling in the voids left between the implant and the patient's bone, forming a mechanical interlock. While bone cement is considered the `gold standard' for implant fixation, issues such as mechanical failure of the cement mantle (aseptic loosening) and the development of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) still plague joint replacement procedures and often necessitate revision arthroplasty. In an effort to address these failures, various modifications are commonly made to bone cement such as mechanical reinforcement with particles/fibers and the addition of antibiotics to mitigate PJI. Despite these attempts, issues such as poor particle interfacial adhesion, inadequate drug release, and the development of multidrug resistant bacteria limit the effectiveness of bone cement modifications. Therefore, the overall goal of this work was to use micro and nanoparticles to enhance the properties of acrylic bone cement, with particular emphasis placed on improving the mechanical properties, cumulative antibiotic release, and antimicrobial properties. An acrylic bone cement (Palacos R) was modified with three types of particles in various loading ratios: mesoporous silica nanoparticles (for mechanical reinforcement), xylitol microparticles (for increased antibiotic release), and silver nanoparticles (as an antimicrobial agent). These particles were used as sole modifications, not in tandem with one another. The resulting cement composites were characterized using a variety of mechanical (macro to nano, fatigue, fracture, and dynamic), imaging, chemical, thermal, biological, and antimicrobial testing techniques. The primary outcomes of this dissertation demonstrate that: (1) mesoporous silica, as used in this work, is a poor reinforcement phase for acrylic bone cement, (2) xylitol can significantly

  8. Antifungal Effect of Henna against Candida albicans Adhered to Acrylic Resin as a Possible Method for Prevention of Denture Stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawasrah, Amal; AlNimr, Amani; Ali, Aiman A

    2016-01-01

    Denture stomatitis is a very common disease affecting the oral mucosa of denture wearers. The aim of this study was to measure the antifungal effect of henna against Candida albicans adhered to acrylic resin as a possible method for prevention of denture stomatitis. One-hundred-eighty acrylic plates were prepared of heat-cured acrylic denture resin. The specimens were divided into six groups of 30 samples each. The first group was only polymer and monomer following the conventional manufacturer instruction for processing complete dentures. The other five groups were processed by adding different concentration of Yamani henna powder (Harazi) to the polymer in a concentration of henna: polymer 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10%, respectively. Samples were incubated in artificial saliva rich with Candida albicans at 37 °C, and the effect of henna on Candida albicans was evaluated in two different methods: semi-quantitative slide count and a culture-based quantitative assay (quantitative). Variation in the number of live Candida was observed with the increase in the concentration of Yamani henna powder. It was observed that the variation in live Candida, between control group and group B (concentration of Yamani henna powder was 1%), was statistically significant with a p-value of 0.0001. Similarly, variations in live Candida were significant, when the concentration of powder was 7.5% or 10% in contrast with control group and p-values were 0.0001 and 0.001 respectively. Adding henna to acrylic resin denture could be effective in controlling Candida albicans proliferation on the denture surface; however, its effects on the physical properties of acrylic resin denture need further studies. PMID:27223294

  9. The feasibility of producing patient-specific acrylic cranioplasty implants with a low-cost 3D printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Eddie T W; Ling, Ji Min; Dinesh, Shree Kumar

    2016-05-01

    OBJECT Commercially available, preformed patient-specific cranioplasty implants are anatomically accurate but costly. Acrylic bone cement is a commonly used alternative. However, the manual shaping of the bone cement is difficult and may not lead to a satisfactory implant in some cases. The object of this study was to determine the feasibility of fabricating molds using a commercial low-cost 3D printer for the purpose of producing patient-specific acrylic cranioplasty implants. METHODS Using data from a high-resolution brain CT scan of a patient with a calvarial defect posthemicraniectomy, a skull phantom and a mold were generated with computer software and fabricated with the 3D printer using the fused deposition modeling method. The mold was used as a template to shape the acrylic implant, which was formed via a polymerization reaction. The resulting implant was fitted to the skull phantom and the cranial index of symmetry was determined. RESULTS The skull phantom and mold were successfully fabricated with the 3D printer. The application of acrylic bone cement to the mold was simple and straightforward. The resulting implant did not require further adjustment or drilling prior to being fitted to the skull phantom. The cranial index of symmetry was 96.2% (the cranial index of symmetry is 100% for a perfectly symmetrical skull). CONCLUSIONS This study showed that it is feasible to produce patient-specific acrylic cranioplasty implants with a low-cost 3D printer. Further studies are required to determine applicability in the clinical setting. This promising technique has the potential to bring personalized medicine to more patients around the world. PMID:26566203

  10. Surface modification of fluorosilicone acrylate RGP contact lens via low-temperature argon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin Shiheng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Analytical and Testing Center, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wang Yingjun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ren Li [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)], E-mail: psliren@scut.edu.cn; Zhao Lianna [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Kuang Tongchun [Analytical and Testing Center, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Chen Hao [Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035 (China)], E-mail: chenhao823@mail.wz.zj.cn; Qu Jia [Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035 (China)

    2008-11-15

    A fluorosilicone acrylate rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lens was modified via argon plasma to improve surface hydrophilicity and resistance to protein deposition. The influence of plasma treatment on surface chemical structure, hydrophilicity and morphology of RGP lens was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), contact angle measurements and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. The contact angle results showed that the hydrophilicity of the contact lens was improved after plasma treatment. XPS results indicated that the incorporation of oxygen-containing groups on surface and the transformation of silicone into hydrophilic silicate after plasma treatment are the main reasons for the surface hydrophilicity improvement. SEM results showed that argon plasma with higher power could lead to surface etching.

  11. Poly-Acrylic Acid Derivatives as Diesel Flow Improver for Paraffin-Based Daqing Diesel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cuiyu Jiang; Ming Xu; Xiaoli Xi; Panlun Qi; Hongyan Shang

    2006-01-01

    Since the diesel products from paraffin-based Daqing crude oil showed low sensitivity to certain commercial diesel pour point depressant (PPDs) that resulted from the high content of paraffin, certain poly-acrylic acid derivatives (PADE) with-COOR,-COOH,-CONHR, and -COO-NH3+R groups by molecular design on the mechanics of diesel; PPDs were synthesized and evaluated as cold flow improver for Daqing 0# diesel in this paper. The pure PADE was superior to the commercial PPDs and displayed a substantial ability of wax crystals dispersion. There was a synergistic effect among the PADE and T1804 and secondary amine. The synergism clearly improved the low temperature performance of Daqing diesel products and could reduce the cold filter plugging point of 0# diesel by 6-7 ℃.

  12. Thermal degradation of biopolymer binders: the example of starch-poly(acrylic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Grabowska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To characterise a polymer, it is of fundamental importance to determine its parameters, like the temperatures of destruction, vitrification, melting point, specific mass losses or polymorphic transformations, which frequently determine the quality of the product and its applications. Thermal analyses were conducted of samples of a biopolymer binder: a starch-poly(acrylic acid composition and a moulding sand with a biopolymer binder previously hardened with microwaves. In order to determine the thermal stability of the examined samples by determining the destruction temperature and the thermal effects of transformations taking place during heating, FTIR spectroscopy and thermal analysis (DSC, DTG, TG methods were used. In addition, volatile products of degradation were analysed using the thermogravimetry (TG method coupled online with mass spectrometry (MS. These examinations were also aimed at identifying the changes that can take place in the moulding sand when it comes into contact with liquid metal.

  13. Prediction of capacity factors for aqueous organic solutes adsorbed on a porous acrylic resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, E.M.

    1978-01-01

    The capacity factors of 20 aromatic, allphatic, and allcycllc organic solutes with carboxyl, hydroxyl, amine, and methyl functional groups were determined on Amberlite XAD-8, a porous acrylic resin. The logarithm of the capacity factor, k???, correlated inversely with the logarithm of the aqueous molar solubility with significance of less than 0.001. The log k???-log solubility relationship may be used to predict the capacity of any organic solute for XAD-8 using only the solubility of the solute. The prediction is useful as a guide for determining the proper ratio of sample to column size In the preconcentration of organic solutes from water. The inverse relationship of solubility and capacity is due to the unfavorable entropy of solution of organic solutes which affects both solubility and sorption.

  14. Designing of superporous cross-linked hydrogels containing acrylic-based polymer network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Debajyoti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable cross-linked polymer, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid was synthesized by free radical polymerization technique using N,N"-methylene-bis-acrylamide as cross-linker and benzoyl peroxide as reaction initiator. FT-IR, 1 H-NMR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA studies of the copolymer along with homopolymers were carried out. FT-IR studies showed no interactions on copolymerization. SEM studies of the copolymer were carried out and mean particle size was found to be 50 µm. TGA analysis indicated an increase in thermal stability by cross-linking the polymer network. Swelling behavior of the copolymer showed more swelling by increasing pH of the medum and the prepared polymer was found to be biodegradable. The prepared cross-linked polymer system holds good for further drug delivery studies in connection to its super swelling and biodegradability.

  15. Modelling and simulation of acrylic bone cement injection and curing within the framework of vertebroplasty

    CERN Document Server

    Landgraf, Ralf; Kolmeder, Sebastian; Lion, Alexander; Lebsack, Helena; Kober, Cornelia

    2013-01-01

    The minimal invasive procedure of vertebroplasty is a surgical technique to treat compression fractures of vertebral bodies. During the treatment liquid bone cement gets injected into the affected vertebral body and therein cures to a solid. In order to investigate the treatment and the impact of injected bone cement on the vertebra, an integrated modelling and simulation framework has been developed. The framework includes (i) the generation of computer models based on microCT images of human cancellous bone, (ii) CFD simulations of bone cement injection into the trabecular structure of a vertebral body as well as (iii) non-linear FEM simulations of the bone cement curing. Thereby, microstructural models of trabecular bone structures are employed. Furthermore, a detailed description of the material behaviour of acrylic bone cements is provided. More precisely, a non-linear fluid flow model is chosen for the representation of the bone cement behaviour during injection and a non-linear viscoelastic material mo...

  16. Synthesis of acrylic copolymers consisting of multiple amine pendants for dispersing pigment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Min; Hsu, Ru-Siou; Lin, Hsiao-Chu; Chang, Shinn-Jen; Chen, Shih-Chun; Lin, Jiang-Jen

    2009-06-01

    A class of acrylic copolymers with narrow molecular weight distribution from butyl methacrylate and glycidyl methacrylate comonomers via atom transfer radical polymerization was synthesized. Various types of polarities including hydroxyl-amines, glycols, and carboxylic acids were then grafted onto the oxirane side groups. The resultant comb-like copolymers with different polar pendants were tested for homogenizing a representative Yellow pigment in 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate medium. Specifically, the polyacrylates with 1,3-diamine pendants (7-10 multiplicity on each polymer strain) enabled to homogeneously disperse the pigment than the analogous copolymers with hydroxyl or carboxylic acid groups. Ultimately, the pigment dispersion with an average size of ca. 20 nm in diameter, high transmittance and low viscosity was achieved. Furthermore, the pigment dispersion was allowed to UV-cure into a film, and for the first time, the primary structures of the pigment particles (ca. 50 nm in diameter) were observed by transmission electronic microscope. PMID:19364609

  17. Well-Defined Triblock Copolymer Containing Perfluoro- cyclobutyl Aryl Ether and Poly(acrylic acid) Segments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆国林; 张森; 李永军; 黄晓宇

    2011-01-01

    A novel well-defined triblock copolymer containing perfluorocyclobutyl group was prepared by the combination of mechanism transformation strategy, thermal cycloaddition [2π+2π] polymerization and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Firstly, a macroinitiator with two ATRP initiating end groups was synthesized by thermal polymerization of 4,4'-bis-(trifluorovinyloxy)biphenyl (BTFVBP) and sequential end-capping with a difunctional compound containing trifluorovinyl and ATRP initiation group. Secondly, this macroinitiator initiated ATRP of t-butyl acrylate to synthesize PtBA-b-PBTFVBP-b-PtBA triblock copolymer. This copolymer was hydrolyzed to afford PAA-b-PBTFVBP-b-PAA amphiphilic triblock copolymer. This kind of fluorine-containing well-defined structure should benefit the study of self-assembly behaviors.

  18. Carbon nanotubes and carbon onions for modification of styrene-acrylate copolymer based nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merijs-Meri, Remo; Zicans, Janis; Ivanova, Tatjana; Bitenieks, Juris [Institute of Polymer Materials, Riga Technical University, Azenes street 14/24, LV-1048, Riga (Latvia); Kuzhir, Polina; Maksimenko, Sergey [Institute of Nuclear Problems, Belarus State University, Bobruiskaya str. 11, 220030, Minsk (Belarus); Kuznetsov, Vladimir; Moseenkov, Sergey [Boreskov Institute of Catalyst Siberian branch of RAS, pr. Lavrentieva 5, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-05-15

    Styrene acrylate polymer (SAC) nanocomposites with various carbon nanofillers (multiwalled carbon nanotubes MWCNTs and onion like carbon OLC) are manufactured by means of latex based routes. Concentration of the carbon nanofillers is changed in a broad interval starting from 0.01 up to 10 wt. %. Elastic, dielectric and electromagnetic properties of SAC nanocomposites are investigated. Elastic modulus, electrical conductivity and electromagnetic radiation absorption of the investigated SAC nanocomposites increase along with rising nanofiller content. The effect of the addition of anisometric MWCNTs on the elastic properties of the composite is higher than in the case of the addition of OLC. Higher electrical conductivity of the OLC containing nanocomposites is explained with the fact that reasonable agglomeration of the nanofiller can promote the development of electrically conductive network. Efficiency of the absorption of electromagnetic radiation depends on the development of conductive network within the SAC matrix.

  19. Dielectric properties of solution-grown-undoped and acrylic-acid-doped ethyl cellulose

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Khare; Sandeep K Jain

    2000-02-01

    Dielectric capacities and losses were measured, in the temperature (50–170°C) and frequency (01–100 kHz range), for undoped and acrylic acid (AA) doped ethyl cellulose (EC) films (thickness about 20 m) with progressive increase in the concentration of dopant in the polymer matrix. The variation of capacity with temperature is attributed to thermal expansion in the lower temperature region to the orientation of dipolar molecules in the neighbourhood of glass transition temperature () and random thermal motion of molecules above . The dielectric losses exhibit a broad peak. Doping with AA is found to affect the magnitude and position of the peak. AA is found to have a two-fold action. Firstly, it enhances the chain mobility and secondly, it increases the dielectric loss by forming charge transfer complexes.

  20. The change of temperature on the shear strength of permanent soft-liner on acrylic resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waloejo Noegroho

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of dental material such as solubility and water resorption, the use of adhesive, storage condition or used as thermo cycling or elevated-temperature are factors that can effect bond strength. The purpose of this study was to investigate the change of temperature on the shear strength of permanent soft liner on acrylic resin. Twenty-four specimens were divided into 3 groups and immersed in water at: 5 °C, 37 °C and 55 °C. Autograph AG 10 TE Shimadzu was used to determine the shear strength. The statistical test (ANOVA and LSD; showed that there were significant differences between temperature groups. The shear strength of 37 °C was higher than the temperature of 5 °C and 55 °C.