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Sample records for acrylamides

  1. Acrylamide mitigation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palermo, M.; Gökmen, V.; Meulenaer, De B.; Ciesarová, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Pedreschi, F.; Fogliano, V.

    2016-01-01

    FoodDrinkEurope Federation recently released the latest version of the Acrylamide Toolbox to support manufacturers in acrylamide reduction activities giving indication about the possible mitigation strategies. The Toolbox is intended for small and medium size enterprises with limited R&D reso

  2. Acrylamide in Fried Potato Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, Pieternel; Sanny, Maimunah

    2016-01-01

    High acrylamide levels have been detected in fried potato products. Dietary intake studies observed large differences in acrylamide between single foodstuffs, within food categories, and within batches of similarly processed products. FAO/WHO emphasized that causes of variation need to be underst

  3. Phytoremediation potential of Arabidopsis with reference to acrylamide and microarray analysis of acrylamide-response genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian-Jie; Peng, Ri-He; Zhu, Bo; Wang, Bo; Wang, Li-Juan; Xu, Jing; Sun, Miao; Yao, Quan-Hong

    2015-10-01

    Acrylamide (ACR) is a widely used industrial chemical. However, it is a dangerous compound because it showed neurotoxic effects in humans and act as reproductive toxicant and carcinogen in many animal species. In the environment, acrylamide has high soil mobility and may travel via groundwater. Phytoremediation is an effective method to remove the environmental pollutants, but the mechanism of plant response to acrylamide remains unknown. With the purpose of assessing remediation potentials of plants for acrylamide, we have examined acrylamide uptake by the model plant Arabidopsis grown on contaminated substrates with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. The result revealed that acrylamide could be absorbed and degraded by Arabidopsis. Further microarray analysis showed that 527 transcripts were up-regulated within 2-days under acrylamide exposure condition. We have found many potential acrylamide-induced genes playing a major role in plant metabolism and phytoremediation.

  4. Dietary acrylamide intake and brain cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, J.G.F.; Schouten, L.J.; Konings, E.J.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2009-01-01

    Background: Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen, which is present in several heat-treatedfood s. In epidemiologic studies, positive associations with endometrial, ovarian, and renal cell cancer risk have been observed. The incidence of central nervous system tumors was increased upon acrylamid

  5. [Acrylamide content in potato crisps in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojska, Hanna; Gielecińska, Iwona; Szponar, Lucjan; Chajewska, Katarzyna

    2006-01-01

    The main source of acrylamide in the diet are thermally processed carbohydrate-rich products, mainly those obtained from potatoes. Acrylamide is a substance with neurotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic properties. The International Agency for Research on Cancer classified it as a potential human carcinogen in 1994. The purpose of this study was to assess acrylamide content in 24 samples of crisps randomly collected in Poland in 2004. Acrylamide was determined in the form of brominated derivatives by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The average acrylamide content in the crisp samples examined was 998 mg/kg of the product, ranging from 352 to 3647 microg/kg, depending on the type of the crisps. The factor determining the differences in acrylamide content in the product was also the manufacturer. The average content of acrylamide in the crisps produced by three different manufacturers (manufacturers 1-3) was ca. 600-900 microg/kg, and in the crisps produced by manufacturer 4 was ca. 3 times higher. Moreover, substantial differences were found between the same types of crisps produced by the same manufacturers but originating from different manufacturing batches. The results obtained suggest the effects of various technological processes and raw material types on the level of acrylamide in crisps.

  6. Formation of acrylamide in cheese bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Sobrinho, Luis Gualberto De Andrade; Granby, Kit

    2008-01-01

    Low addition of grated Mozzarella cheese (13.4 g/100 g dough) resulted after baking for 20 min at 200 degrees C in a moderate increase of acrylamide from 4 ppb in buns without cheese to 7 ppb in the cheese buns as analyzed by a LCMS/MS technique. The effect was strongly dependent on the amount...... of cheese added, and addition of 23.7 g cheese resulted in 958 ppb acrylamide. For an o/w rapeseed oil emulsion as a food model heated under conditions similar to those persisting inside bread during baking, it was further shown that acrylamide formation also occurred in absence of reducing sugars....... In contrast, acrylamide was not observed in Pao de queijo a traditional Brazilian bread product made from fermented cassava flour, fresh eggs and a mixture of Brazilian Gouda type cheese and Mozzarella cheese pointing towards a role of eggs in protection against acrylamide formation....

  7. A new photopolymerizable holographic recording material based on acrylamide and N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Qiao-Xia; Wang Su-Lian; Huang Ming-Ju; Gan Fu-Xi

    2005-01-01

    A new polyvinylalcohol-based photopolymeric holographic recording material has been developed. The recording is obtained by the copolymerization of acrylamide and N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide. Diffraction efficiencies near 50% are obtained with energetic exposure of 80m J/cm2. N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide can improve the optical quality of the film. With the increase of the concentration of N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide, the flatness of the film increases, scattering reduces and the straight image is clearer with a small distortion. The postexposure effect on the grating is also studied.The diffraction efficiency of grating increases further during postexposure, gradient of monomer exists after exposure.

  8. Role of plant polyphenols in acrylamide formation and elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanbing; Wang, Pengpu; Chen, Fang; Yuan, Yuan; Zhu, Yuchen; Yan, Haiyang; Hu, Xiaosong

    2015-11-01

    Acrylamide found in thermal-treated foods has led to an intensive and persistent research effort, since it is a neurotoxic, genotoxic and probable carcinogenic compound to humans. Plant polyphenols are the most abundant antioxidants in human diet. Several researches indicated that the polyphenols affected the acrylamide formation during heating. However, the controversial effects of the polyphenols on acrylamide formation were related to their structure, concentrations, and antioxidant capacity, as well as reaction condition. Polyphenols can inhibit acrylamide formation through trapping of carbonyl compounds and preventing against lipid oxidation, while some special polyphenols can enhance the acrylamide content by providing carbonyl groups, accelerating the conversion from 3-aminopropionamide (3-APA) to acrylamide and inhibiting acrylamide elimination. This review concludes the effects of polyphenols in the Maillard reaction and food systems conducted so far, aimed to give an overview on the role of plant polyphenols in acrylamide formation and elimination.

  9. Dietary acrylamide intake is not associated with gastrointestinal cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, J.G.F.; Schouten, L.J.; Konings, E.J.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2008-01-01

    Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen that was detected in several heat-treated foods, such as French fries and crisps, in 2002. Prospective studies are needed on acrylamide and human cancer risk. We prospectively investigated the association between acrylamide and gastrointestinal cancer risk.

  10. Processing treatments for mitigating acrylamide formation in sweetpotato French fries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acrylamide formation in sweetpotato French fries (SPFF) is likely a potential health concern as there is an increasing demand for good-quality fries from carotene-rich sweetpotatoes (SP). This is the first report on acrylamide formation in SPFF as affected by processing methods. Acrylamide levels in...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10073 - Modified alkyl acrylamide (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified alkyl acrylamide (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10073 Modified alkyl acrylamide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acrylamide (PMN P-05-536) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  12. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid...

  13. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section 176... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely used as components of articles intended for use in...

  14. Assessing phytoremediation potentials of selected tropical plants for acrylamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    In biotechnology, acrylamide is being used in DNA and RNA analysis using the polyacrylamide gel electrophoreses procedure. Polymerized acrylamide is degraded into acrylamide through time; it is converted into a hazardous contaminant that is carcinogenic and neurotoxic to animals and humans. Because ...

  15. Analysis of acrylamide in coffee and dietary exposure to acrylamide from coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granby, Kit; Fagt, Sisse

    2004-01-01

    An analytical method for analysing acrylamide in coffee was validated. The analysis of prepared coffee includes a comprehensive clean-up using multimode solid-phase extraction (SPE) by automatic SPE equipment and detection by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using electrospray...... in the positive mode. The recoveries of acrylamide in ready-to-drink coffee spiked with 5 and 10 mug l(-1) were 96 +/- 14% and 100 +/- 8%, respectively. Within laboratory reproducibility for the same spiking levels were 14% and 9%, respectively. Coffee samples (n = 25) prepared twice by coffee machines and twice...... by a French Press Cafetiere coffee maker contained 8 +/- 3 mug l(-1) and 9 +/- 3 mug l(-1) acrylamide. Five ready-to-drink instant coffee prepared twice contained 8 +/- 2 mug l(-1). Hence, the results do not show significant differences in the acrylamide contents in ready-to-drink coffee prepared by coffee...

  16. Sensitivity of several cell systems to acrylamide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooisma, J.; Groot, D.M.G.de; Magchielse, T.; Muijser, H.

    1980-01-01

    Chick spinal ganglia, chick muscle cells combined with mouse spinal cord explants, C1300 neuroblastoma cells, Chinese hamster ovary cells and newborn rat cerebral cells were exposed to various concentrations of acrylamide in culture. Four morphological and 1 electrophysiological parameter were appli

  17. Calculations of dietary exposure to acrylamide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, P.E.; Mul, de A.; Voet, van der H.; Donkersgoed, van G.; Brette, M.; Klaveren, van J.D.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we calculated the usual and acute exposure to acrylamide (AA) in the Dutch population and young children (1-6 years). For this AA levels of different food groups were used as collected by the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) of the European Commission's Directo

  18. Update on the National Acrylamide Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acrylamide, a suspected human carcinogen that may delay fetal development, is a Maillard reaction product that forms when carbohydrate-rich foods are cooked at high temperatures. Processed potato products, including French fries and potato chips, make a substantial contribution to total dietary acry...

  19. Acrylamide neurotoxicity on the cerebrum of weaning rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-min Tian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism underlying acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity remains controversial. Previous studies have focused on acrylamide-induced toxicity in adult rodents, but neurotoxicity in weaning rats has not been investigated. To explore the neurotoxic effect of acrylamide on the developing brain, weaning rats were gavaged with 0, 5, 15, and 30 mg/kg acrylamide for 4 consecutive weeks. No obvious neurotoxicity was observed in weaning rats in the low-dose acrylamide group (5 mg/kg. However, rats from the moderate- and high-dose acrylamide groups (15 and 30 mg/kg had an abnormal gait. Furthermore, biochemical tests in these rats demonstrated that glutamate concentration was significantly reduced, and γ-aminobutyric acid content was significantly increased and was dependent on acrylamide dose. Immunohistochemical staining showed that in the cerebral cortex, γ-aminobutyric acid, glutamic acid decarboxylase and glial fibrillary acidic protein expression increased remarkably in the moderate- and high-dose acrylamide groups. These results indicate that in weaning rats, acrylamide is positively associated with neurotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner, which may correlate with upregulation of γ-aminobutyric acid and subsequent neuronal degeneration after the initial acrylamide exposure.

  20. Acrylamide neurotoxicity on the cerebrum of weaning rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-min Tian; Yu-xin Ma; Jing Shi; Ting-ye Lou; Shuai-shuai Liu; Guo-ying Li

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism underlying acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity remains controversial. Previ-ous studies have focused on acrylamide-induced toxicity in adult rodents, but neurotoxicity in weaning rats has not been investigated. To explore the neurotoxic effect of acrylamide on the developing brain, weaning rats were gavaged with 0, 5, 15, and 30 mg/kg acrylamide for 4 consecutive weeks. No obvious neurotoxicity was observed in weaning rats in the low-dose acrylamide group (5 mg/kg). However, rats from the moderate- and high-dose acrylamide groups (15 and 30 mg/kg) had an abnormal gait. Furthermore, biochemical tests in these rats demonstrated that glutamate concentration was significantly reduced, and γ-aminobutyric acid content was signiifcantly increased and was dependent on acrylamide dose. Immunohis-tochemical staining showed that in the cerebral cortex,γ-aminobutyric acid, glutamic acid decarboxylase and glial ifbrillary acidic protein expression increased remarkably in the moder-ate-and high-dose acrylamide groups. These results indicate that in weaning rats, acrylamide is positively associated with neurotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner, which may correlate with upregulation of γ-aminobutyric acid and subsequent neuronal degeneration after the initial acrylamide exposure.

  1. An absorption study of dietary administered acrylamide in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aureli, Federica; Di Pasquale, Mauro; Lucchetti, Dario; Aureli, Paolo; Coni, Ettore

    2007-07-01

    Acrylamide is a food toxicant suspected to be carcinogenic to humans. It is formed in the heat processing of carbohydrate-rich food. A current issue in food safety is whether acrylamide actually represents a risk for human health. At present, available information is insufficient to reach any conclusions. Inter alias, a still unclear matter is the fraction of acrylamide ingested by food that is absorbed and metabolized. This study compared the in vivo relative absorption of acrylamide formed in cooked food with that of the pure compound dissolved in drinking water using the pig (25 Italian Large White females) as the animal model. Acrylamide intakes of about 0.8 and 8 microg kg(-1) pig body wt day(-1) equal to one and ten times, respectively, the maximum average acrylamide daily intake for humans from the diet (expressed on a body wt basis) in industrialized countries, were chosen for the study. Adducts with the N-terminal valine of haemoglobin formed by acrylamide and its epoxide metabolite glycidamide, were used as exposure markers. Analyses were carried out by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry following in-house method validation. Both for the low and the high dose regimen, the glycidamide adduct levels in swine globins were lower of the limit of quantification of the method. As concerns acrylamide adducts, it was found that the relative absorption of acrylamide from feed and water was the same and that there is a direct proportionality between the adduct concentration and acrylamide intake.

  2. Acrylamide in Food – EU versus FDA Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Mustăţea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Acrylamide is a versatile organic compound that finds its way into many products in our everyday life. The presence of acrylamide in foods dates from 2002, when a series of studies published in Sweden, confirmed its presence in high temperatures processed foods. At EU level, first adopted measure was Commission Recommendation on the monitoring of acrylamide levels in food, on May 2007, extended then by Commission Recommendation 2010/307/EU. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA then, collected and compiled data, each year (2007-2010, and published an annual report. On January 2011 was adopted the Recommendation on the investigations into the levels of acrylamide in food and then, on November 2013 was adopted Commission Recommendation 2013/647/EU on investigation into levels of acrylamide in food. Based on these, EFSA had published, in June 2015 a comprehensive risk assessment on acrylamide in food. The FDA first published a draft regarding Detection and Quantitation of Acrylamide in Foods, in 2003 followed in 2004 by the Action Plan for Acrylamide in Food. In 2006 FDA published Survey Data on Acrylamide in food then in 2009, in August (updated in November a Federal Register Notice entitled: Acrylamide in food: Request for comments and for scientific data and information. Their findings have been materialized, in November 2013, into a powerful tool for industry: Draft Guidance for industry: Acrylamide in Foods. Despite research implications that exposure to acrylamide from food is safe, some consumers may choose to take measures to further reduce their acrylamide exposure. 

  3. Dietary levels of acrylamide affect rat cardiomyocyte properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Brandan; Hariharan, Venkatesh; Huang, Hayden

    2014-09-01

    The toxic effects of acrylamide on cytoskeletal integrity and ion channel balance is well-established in many cell types, but there has been little examination regarding the effects of acrylamide on primary cardiomyocytes, despite the importance of such components in their function. Furthermore, acrylamide toxicity is generally examined using concentrations higher than those found in vivo under starch-rich diets. Accordingly, we sought to characterize the dose-dependent effects of acrylamide on various properties, including cell morphology, contraction patterns, and junctional connexin 43 staining, in primary cardiomyocytes. We show that several days exposure to 1-100 μM acrylamide resulted in altered morphology, irregular contraction patterns, and an increase in the amount of immunoreactive signal for connexin 43 at cell junctions. We conclude that dietary levels of acrylamide may alter cellular function with prolonged exposure, in primary cardiomyocytes.

  4. Toxicity of acrylamide and its metabolite – Glicydamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Pingot

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Acrylamide is a synthetic chemical compound commonly used in many branches of industry. It is mainly used in the synthesis of polyacrylamides, which are widely employed in plastics, paints, varnishes, adhesives and mortars production. Acrylamide is also applied in the cellulose-paper and cosmetic industries to produce toiletries and cosmetics. The interest in acrylamide increased in 2002, when Swedish scientists showed that a considerable amount of this substance is formed during frying and baking of various foods. Studies concerning toxicity of acrylamide and its metabolite - glicydamide showed their neurotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic effects. Neverthless, in humans only neurotoxic effect of acrylamide has been clearly evidenced. Genotoxic nature of acetylamide manifests itself mainly in its metabolic conversion to the epoxide derivative glicydamide. Carcinogenic effects of acrylamide have been shown in animal studies. Epidemiological studies have not provided explicit evidence that acrylamide supplied with the diet can initiate the formation of tumors in humans. Acrylamide exposure is assessed by measuring specific compounds (adducts formed during the reaction of acrylamide with hemoglobin and DNA. Med Pr 2013;64(2:259–271

  5. Dietary Exposure of the Chinese Population to Acrylamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ping Ping; ZHAO Yun Feng; LIU Hua Liang; MA Yong Jian; LI Xiao Wei; YANG Xin; WU Yong Ning

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the current status of the acrylamide in the Chinese food supply, the dietary acrylamide exposure in the Chinese population and to estimate the public health risks of the current consumption. Methods The acrylamide content in the total diet study (TDS) food samples was analyzed using an LC-MS/MS method. Based on the analytical results, the dietary exposure calculations were performed using a deterministic method, combining mean acrylamide concentrations from the food group composite with their associated food consumptions. Results Acrylamide was detected in 43.7% of all samples collected and acrylamide concentration varied from ND to 526.6 µg/kg. The estimated dietary intakes of acrylamide among Chinese general population given as the mean and the 95th percentile (P95) were 0.286 and 0.490 µg·kg-1 bw·day-1, respectively. The margins of exposure (MOEs) for the population calculated using both benchmark dose lower confidence limit for a 10%extra risk of tumors in animals (BMDL10) 0.31 and 0.18 µg·kg-1 bw·day-1, were 1069 and 621 for the mean dietary exposure, and 633 and 367 for the high dietary exposure respectively. Conclusion These MOE values might indicate a human health concern on acrylamide for Chinese population. Efforts should continue to reduce acrylamide levels in food in order to reduce the dietary risks to the human health.

  6. Acrylamide Mitigation Procedures in Fried Potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Kaack, Karl; Granby, Kit

    2008-01-01

    , potato slices were treated in one of the following ways: (i) blanched in hot water at six different time-temperature combinations (50 degrees C for 30 and 70 min; 70 degrees C for 8 and 40 min; 90 degrees C for 2 and 9 min); (ii) immersed in a citric acid solutions of 10 g/L for half an hour Potato...... surprisingly had a very low acrylamide content (28 mu m/kg) even when they were fried at 190 degrees C. Potato immersion in citric acid solution of 10 g/L reduced acrylamide formation by almost 70% for slices fried at 150 degrees C. Color represented by the parameters L* and a* showed high correlations (r(2...

  7. PHOTOSENSITIVITY OF CERIC ION INITIATED ACRYLAMIDE POLYMERIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Jianhua; QIU Kunyuan; FENG Xinde

    1992-01-01

    Polymerization of acrylamide initiated by ceric ammonium nitrate alone has been studied in aqueous medium. The effects of UV light irradiation on the initial rates of polymerization, the activation energy and on the polymer molecular weights have been investigated. Compared with that in the dark, the rate of polymerization under UV light was accelerated to eleven times higher, and the overall activation energy was lowered markedly.

  8. ACRYLAMIDE, FOOD AND EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES RECOMMENDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Carrabs

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The exposure, often deceitful, to the acrylamide has determined notable apprehension in many consumers, so much that the Committee of the European Communities has financed the project HEATOX and has emanated the recommendation 2007/331. It is ascertained that proposed strategies have not brought to great changes in the food process chains, and neither in the traditional catering and housewife, for which more incisive measures are wished.

  9. Acrylamide-quenching of Rhizomucor miehei lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobiecka, Agnieszka

    2005-07-01

    Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence-quenching measurements have been performed to study multitryptophan lipase from filamentous fungus Rhizomucor miehei. Using the steady-state acrylamide fluorescence quenching data and the fluorescence-quenching-resolved-spectra (FQRS) method, the total emission spectrum of native ("closed-lid") lipase has been decomposed into two distinct spectral components accessible to acrylamide. According to FQRS analysis, more quenchable component has a maximum of fluorescence emission at about 352 nm whereas less quenchable component emits at about 332 nm. The redder component participates in about 60-64% of the total lipase fluorescence and may be characterized by the dynamic and static quenching constants equal to K(1) = 3.75 M(-1) and V(1) = 1.12 M(-1), respectively. The bluer component is quenchable via dynamic mechanism with K(2) = 1.97 M(-1). Significant difference in the values of acrylamide bimolecular rate quenching constants estimated for redder and bluer component (i.e., k(q) = 1.2 x 10 (9) M(-1)s (-1) vs. k(q) = 4.3 x 10(8) M(-1) s(-1), respectively), suggests that tryptophan residues in fungal lipase are not uniformly exposed to the solvent.

  10. Assessment of acrylamide toxicity using a battery of standardised bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zovko, Mira; Vidaković-Cifrek, Željka; Cvetković, Želimira; Bošnir, Jasna; Šikić, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    Acrylamide is a monomer widely used as an intermediate in the production of organic chemicals, e.g. polyacrylamides (PAMs). Since PAMs are low cost chemicals with applications in various industries and waste- and drinking water treatment, a certain amount of non-polymerised acrylamide is expected to end up in waterways. PAMs are non-toxic but acrylamide induces neurotoxic effects in humans and genotoxic, reproductive, and carcinogenic effects in laboratory animals. In order to evaluate the effect of acrylamide on freshwater organisms, bioassays were conducted on four species: algae Desmodesmus subspicatus and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, duckweed Lemna minor and water flea Daphnia magna according to ISO (International Organization for Standardisation) standardised methods. This approach ensures the evaluation of acrylamide toxicity on organisms with different levels of organisation and the comparability of results, and it examines the value of using a battery of low-cost standardised bioassays in the monitoring of pollution and contamination of aquatic ecosystems. These results showed that EC50 values were lower for Desmodesmus subspicatus and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata than for Daphnia magna and Lemna minor, which suggests an increased sensitivity of algae to acrylamide. According to the toxic unit approach, the values estimated by the Lemna minor and Daphnia magna bioassays, classify acrylamide as slightly toxic (TU=0-1; Class 1). The results obtained from algal bioassays (Desmodesmus subspicatus and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) revealed the toxic effect of acrylamide (TU=1-10; Class 2) on these organisms.

  11. Acrylamide mitigation in potato chips by using NaCl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Risum, Jørgen; Granby, Kit

    2009-01-01

    Acrylamide is known to cause cancer in laboratory animals but there is no direct evidence that this substance causes cancer in humans. In April 2002, Swedish researchers shocked the world when they presented preliminary findings on the presence of acrylamide in fried and baked foods, most notably...

  12. Morita–Baylis–Hillman reaction of acrylamide with isatin derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhey M. Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Morita–Baylis–Hillman reaction of acrylamide, as an activated alkene, has seen little development due to its low reactivity. We have developed the reaction using isatin derivatives with acrylamide, DABCO as a promoter and phenol as an additive in acetonitrile. The corresponding aza version with acrylate and acrylonitrile has also been developed resulting in high product yields.

  13. Lung cancer risk in relation to dietary acrylamide intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, J.G.F.; Schouten, L.J.; Konings, E.J.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2009-01-01

    Background : Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen that is present in several heat-treated foods. In epidemiological studies, positive associations between dietary acrylamide intake and the risks of endometrial, ovarian, estrogen receptor-positive breast, and renal cell cancers have been observe

  14. Challenges in estimating the validity of dietary acrylamide measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Duell, Eric J.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lujan-Barroso, Leila; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Nailler, Laura; Polidoro, Silvia; Mattiello, Amalia; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Grioni, Sara; Knueppel, Sven; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Orfanos, Philippos; Katsoulis, Michail; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Ramon Quiros, Jose; Ardanaz, Eva; Maria Huerta, Jose; Amiano Etxezarreta, Pilar; Jose Sanchez, Maria; Crowe, Francesca; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Ocke, Marga; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Ericson, Ulrika; Wirfalt, Elisabet; Hallmans, Goeran; Johansson, Ingegerd; Engeset, Dagrun; Nicolas, Genevieve; Gallo, Valentina; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Slimani, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    Acrylamide is a chemical compound present in tobacco smoke and food, classified as a probable human carcinogen and a known human neurotoxin. Acrylamide is formed in foods, typically carbohydrate-rich and protein-poor plant foods, during high-temperature cooking or other thermal processing. The objec

  15. Acrylamide Homopolymers and Acrylamide-N-Isopropylacrylamide Block Copolymers by Atomic Transfer Radical Polymerization in Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, D. A. Z.; Raffa, P.; Picchioni, F.; Broekhuis, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    Atomic transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of acrylamide has been accomplished in aqueous media at room temperature. By using methyl 2-chloropropionate (MeClPr) as the initiator and tris[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-amine (Me6TREN)/copper halogenide (CuX) as the catalyst system, different linear polya

  16. A national effort to identify fry processing clones with low acrylamide-forming potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acrylamide is a suspected human carcinogen. Processed potato products, such as chips and fries, contribute to dietary intake of acrylamide. One of the most promising approaches to reducing acrylamide consumption is to develop and commercialize new potato varieties with low acrylamide-forming potenti...

  17. Analysis of acrylamide, a carcinogen formed in heated foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tareke, Eden; Rydberg, Per; Karlsson, Patrik; Eriksson, Sune; Törnqvist, Margareta

    2002-08-14

    Reaction products (adducts) of acrylamide with N termini of hemoglobin (Hb) are regularly observed in persons without known exposure. The average Hb adduct level measured in Swedish adults is preliminarily estimated to correspond to a daily intake approaching 100 microg of acrylamide. Because this uptake rate could be associated with a considerable cancer risk, it was considered important to identify its origin. It was hypothesized that acrylamide was formed at elevated temperatures in cooking, which was indicated in earlier studies of rats fed fried animal feed. This paper reports the analysis of acrylamide formed during heating of different human foodstuffs. Acrylamide levels in foodstuffs were analyzed by an improved gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) method after bromination of acrylamide and by a new method for measurement of the underivatized acrylamide by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), using the MS/MS mode. For both methods the reproducibility, given as coefficient of variation, was approximately 5%, and the recovery close to 100%. For the GC-MS method the achieved detection level of acrylamide was 5 microg/kg and for the LC-MS/MS method, 10 microg/kg. The analytic values obtained with the LC-MS/MS method were 0.99 (0.95-1.04; 95% confidence interval) of the GC-MS values. The LC-MS/MS method is simpler and preferable for most routine analyses. Taken together, the various analytic data should be considered as proof of the identity of acrylamide. Studies with laboratory-heated foods revealed a temperature dependence of acrylamide formation. Moderate levels of acrylamide (5-50 microg/kg) were measured in heated protein-rich foods and higher contents (150-4000 microg/kg) in carbohydrate-rich foods, such as potato, beetroot, and also certain heated commercial potato products and crispbread. Acrylamide could not be detected in unheated control or boiled foods (acrylamide levels in the studied heated foods could lead to a daily intake

  18. STUDY ON ACRYLAMIDE-SODIUM ACRYLATE COPOLYMER GELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Maotang; LI Qian; XU Jiping

    1990-01-01

    Acrylamide-sodium acrylate copolymer hydrogels have been obtained by radiation techniques.Two different methods have been used to introduce -COONa groups into polymer chains of the gels: (1) by partial hydrolysis of acrylamide homopolymer gel; (2) by direct copolymerization and crosslinking of acrylamide and sodium acrylate in aqueous solutions. It was found that the gels obtained in different ways had different properties, the swelling character of the gels obtained by partial hydrolysis were more sensitive to pH of swelling aqueous media. In order to explain these differences,13 C-NMR techniques were used to investigate the sequence distribution of monomer units of both gels.

  19. ZONE ELECTROPHORESIS OF HUMAN PAROTID SALIVA IN ACRYLAMIDE GEL,

    Science.gov (United States)

    anodically with generally better resolution than is evident for the cathodically-migrating components. Salivary amylase , a troublesome factor in the starch -gel electrophoresis of saliva proteins, does not attack acrylamide gel.

  20. Reproductive toxicity in acrylamide-treated female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Quanwei; Li, Jian; Li, Xingmei; Zhang, Lei; Shi, Fangxiong

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the reproductive toxicity of acrylamide in female mice. The results from immunohistochemistry provided evidence that nitric oxide synthase (NOS) signaling was involved in the process of follicular development and atresia. Oral administration of acrylamide to female mice led to significantly reduced body weights, organ weights and the number of corpora lutea (Pacrylamide; however, 17β-estradiol (E2) concentrations were unchanged with treatment. Measurement of NOS activities indicated that total NOS (TNOS), iNOS and eNOS activities were significantly increased (Pacrylamide. The results from in vitro study indicated that acrylamide reduced the viability of mouse granulosa cells in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, acrylamide affected bodily growth and development, as well as reproductive organs, the number of corpora lutea and progesterone production in female mice, possibly acting through the NOS signaling pathway.

  1. IRIS Toxicological Review for Acrylamide (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is releasing the draft report, Toxicological Review for Acrylamide, that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment Development Process<...

  2. Effects of Lipoic Acid on Acrylamide Induced Testicular Damage

    OpenAIRE

    Lebda, Mohamed; Gad, Shereen; Gaafar, Hossam

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Acrylamide is very toxic to various organs and associated with significant increase of oxidative stress and depletion of antioxidants. Alpha-lipoic acid enhances cellular antioxidant defense capacity, thereby protecting cells from oxidative stress. Aim of the study: This study aimed to evaluate the protective role of alpha-lipoic acid on the oxidative damage induced by acrylamide in testicular and epididymal tissues. Material and methods: Forty adult male rats were divided into ...

  3. Homopolymerization of N-pyrimidinyl acrylamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De Cheng Wan; Hong Ting Pu; Gen Jin Yang

    2007-01-01

    Homopolymerization of N-pyrimidinyl acrylamide (NPA) was reported for the first time. The polymer (polyNPA) was soluble only in acidic media and fluoroalcohols, and only in fluoroalcohol was homogeneous polymerization of NPA feasible. 1H NMR analysis proved that a 1:1 H-bonding complex could be formed between NPA and α,α-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl propan-2-ol (BTMP). Cumyl dithiobenzoate mediated reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization of NPA in BTMP was carried out. 1H NMR analyses proved that the molecular weight increased linearly with the monomer conversion. The polymer prepared in conventional solvents was atactic while in protic media the syndiotacticity was slightly enhanced.

  4. Study of acrylamide level in food from vending machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naceur Haouet

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Acrylamide is a by-product of the Maillard reaction and is potentially carcinogenic to humans. It is found in a number of foods with higher concentrations in carbohydrate-rich foods and moderate levels of protein-rich foods such as meat, fish and seafood. Acrylamide levels in food distributed in vending machines placed in public areas of the city of Perugia were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Samples included five different categories, depending on the characteristics of the products: i potato chips; ii salted bakery products; iii biscuits and wafers; iv sweet bakery products; v sandwiches. A high variability in acrylamide level among different foods and within the same category was detected. Potato chips showed the highest amount of acrylamide (1781±637 μg/kg followed by salted bakery products (211±245 μg/kg, biscuits and wafers (184±254 μg/kg, sweet bakery products (100±72 μg/kg and sandwiches (42±10 μg/kg. In the potato chips and sandwiches categories, all of the samples revealed the presence of acrylamide, while different prevalence was registered in the other foods considered. The data of this study highlight the presence of acrylamide in different foods sold in vending machines and this data could be useful to understand the contribution of this type of consumption to human exposure to this compound.

  5. A Comparative Cytotoxic Evaluation of Acrylamide and Diacetone Acrylamide to Investigate Their Suitability for Holographic Photopolymer Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dervil Cody

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The comparative cytotoxic evaluation of two monomers, diacetone acrylamide (DA and acrylamide (AA used in holographic photopolymer formulations, is reported. Two normal cell lines were used: BEAS-2B and HaCaT. Cellular viability was assessed using the MTT assay for three different exposure times. A difference of two orders of magnitude is observed in the lethal dose (LD50 concentrations of the two monomers. Diacetone acrylamide exhibits a significantly lower toxicity profile in comparison to acrylamide at all exposure times. This result justifies the replacement of acrylamide with diacetone acrylamide in the photopolymer formulation, with the view to reducing occupational hazard risks for large-scale holographic device fabrication. A comparative study investigating the holographic recording ability of the two photopolymers in transmission mode showed that the DA photopolymer is capable of reaching refractive index modulation values of 3.3×10-3, which is 80% of the refractive index modulation achieved by the AA photopolymer. This makes the DA-based photopolymers suitable for a wide range of applications.

  6. Dosimetry of Acrylamide and Glycidamide Over the Lifespan in a 2-Year Bioassay of Acrylamide in Wistar Han Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, Timothy R.; Snyder, Rodney; Hansen, Benjamin; Friedman, Marvin

    2015-01-01

    Acrylamide is an industrial chemical used to manufacture polymers, and is produced in foods during cooking at high heat. Hemoglobin adducts provide a long-lived dosimeter for acrylamide and glycidamide. This study determined acrylamide and glycidamide hemoglobin adducts (AAVal and GAVal) during a lifetime carcinogenesis bioassay. Exposure to acrylamide in drinking water began in utero in pregnant rats on gestation day 6. Dams were administered acrylamide until weaning, and male and female F1 rats were exposed for a further 104 weeks. Acrylamide concentration in drinking water was adjusted to provide a constant dose of 0.5, 1.5, and 3 mg/kg/day. Blood was collected from animals euthanized at 2, 60, 90, and 120 days and 53, 79, and 104 weeks after weaning. Low levels of AAVal and GAVal at postnatal day 24 suggested that little exposure to acrylamide occurred by placental or lactational transfer, and extensive metabolism to glycidamide occurred with a GAVal:AAVal ratio of 4. Adduct levels varied somewhat from 60 days to 2 years, with a GAVal:AAVal ratio of approximately 1. Adduct formation/day estimated at each timepoint at 3 mg/kg/day for AAVal was 1293 ± 220 and 1096 ± 338 fmol/mg/day for male and female rats, respectively. Adduct formation per day estimated at each timepoint at 3 mg/kg/day for GAVal was 827 ± 78 fmol/mg/day for male rats, and 982 ± 222 fmol/mg/day for female rats. The study has provided estimates of linearity for dose response, and variability in internal dose throughout an entire 2-year bioassay, including the early phases of pregnancy and lactation. PMID:26141391

  7. Dosimetry of Acrylamide and Glycidamide Over the Lifespan in a 2-Year Bioassay of Acrylamide in Wistar Han Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, Timothy R; Snyder, Rodney; Hansen, Benjamin; Friedman, Marvin

    2015-08-01

    Acrylamide is an industrial chemical used to manufacture polymers, and is produced in foods during cooking at high heat. Hemoglobin adducts provide a long-lived dosimeter for acrylamide and glycidamide. This study determined acrylamide and glycidamide hemoglobin adducts (AAVal and GAVal) during a lifetime carcinogenesis bioassay. Exposure to acrylamide in drinking water began in utero in pregnant rats on gestation day 6. Dams were administered acrylamide until weaning, and male and female F1 rats were exposed for a further 104 weeks. Acrylamide concentration in drinking water was adjusted to provide a constant dose of 0.5, 1.5, and 3 mg/kg/day. Blood was collected from animals euthanized at 2, 60, 90, and 120 days and 53, 79, and 104 weeks after weaning. Low levels of AAVal and GAVal at postnatal day 24 suggested that little exposure to acrylamide occurred by placental or lactational transfer, and extensive metabolism to glycidamide occurred with a GAVal:AAVal ratio of 4. Adduct levels varied somewhat from 60 days to 2 years, with a GAVal:AAVal ratio of approximately 1. Adduct formation/day estimated at each timepoint at 3 mg/kg/day for AAVal was 1293 ± 220 and 1096 ± 338 fmol/mg/day for male and female rats, respectively. Adduct formation per day estimated at each timepoint at 3 mg/kg/day for GAVal was 827 ± 78 fmol/mg/day for male rats, and 982 ± 222 fmol/mg/day for female rats. The study has provided estimates of linearity for dose response, and variability in internal dose throughout an entire 2-year bioassay, including the early phases of pregnancy and lactation.

  8. Acrylamide toxic effects on mouse oocyte quality and fertility in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xing; Wang, Qiao-Chu; Chen, Kun-Lin; Zhu, Cheng-Cheng; Liu, Jun; Sun, Shao-Chen

    2015-06-25

    Acrylamide is an industrial chemical that has attracted considerable attention due to its presumed carcinogenic, neurotoxic, and cytotoxic effects. In this study we investigated possible acrylamide reproductive toxic effects in female mice. Mice were fed an acrylamide-containing diet for 6 weeks. Our results showed the following effects of an acrylamide-containing diet. (1) Ovary weights were reduced in acrylamide-treated mice and oocyte developmental competence was also reduced, as shown by reduced GVBD and polar body extrusion rates. (2) Acrylamide feeding resulted in aberrant oocyte cytoskeletons, as shown by an increased abnormal spindle rate and confirmed by disrupted γ-tubulin and p-MAPK localization. (3) Acrylamide feeding resulted in oxidative stress and oocyte early stage apoptosis, as shown by increased ROS levels and p-MAPK expression. (4) Fluorescence intensity analysis showed that DNA methylation levels were reduced in acrylamide-treated oocytes and histone methylation levels were also altered, as H3K9me2, H3K9me3, H3K4me2, and H3K27me3 levels were reduced after acrylamide treatment. (5) After acrylamide feeding, the litter sizes of acrylamide-treated mice were significantly smaller compared to thus of control mice. Thus, our results indicated that acrylamide might affect oocyte quality through its effects on cytoskeletal integrity, ROS generation, apoptosis induction, and epigenetic modifications.

  9. Dietary acrylamide intake and estrogen and progesterone receptor-defined postmenopausal breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedersen, G.S.; Hogervorst, J.G.F.; Schouten, L.J.; Konings, E.J.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2010-01-01

    Acrylamide, a potential human carcinogen, has been discovered in a variety of heat-treated carbohydrate-rich food products. Previously, dietary acrylamide intake was shown to be associated with endocrine-related cancers in humans. We assessed the association between dietary acrylamide intake and ris

  10. 40 CFR 721.6520 - Acrylamide, polymer with substituted alkylacrylamide salt (generic name).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acrylamide, polymer with substituted... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6520 Acrylamide, polymer with substituted...) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylamide, polymer with substituted...

  11. Validation of a database on acrylamide for use in epidemiological studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, E.J.M.; Hogervorst, J.G.F.; Rooij, L. van; Schouten, L.J.; Sizoo, E.A.; Egmond, H.P. van; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2010-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Acrylamide, a probable human carcinogen, was detected in various heat-treated foods such as French fries and potato crisps. Recently, positive associations have been found between dietary acrylamide intakes, as estimated with a food frequency questionnaire using an acrylamide

  12. Kinetic modeling of acrylamide formation in aqueous reaction systems and potato crisps : Text & Figures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knol, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    Acrylamide can be formed in foods that have undergone a high temperature treatment (>120 °C) such as French fries, crisps, coffee and bread, due to the Maillard reaction. The evidence of acrylamide in foods posing a risk for different types of cancer has been strengthened. Mitigation of acrylamid

  13. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  14. Neurotoxicity of Acrylamide in Exposed Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Malaguarnera

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Acrylamide (ACR is a water-soluble chemical used in different industrial and laboratory processes. ACR monomer is neurotoxic in humans and laboratory animals. Subchronic exposure to this chemical causes neuropathies, hands and feet numbness, gait abnormalities, muscle weakness, ataxia, skin and in some cases, cerebellar alterations. ACR neurotoxicity involves mostly the peripheral but also the central nervous system, because of damage to the nerve terminal through membrane fusion mechanisms and tubulovescicular alterations. Nevertheless, the exact action mechanism is not completely elucidated. In this paper we have reviewed the current literature on its neurotoxicity connected to work-related ACR exposure. We have analyzed not only the different pathogenetic hypotheses focusing on possible neuropathological targets, but also the critical behavior of ACR poisoning. In addition we have evaluated the ACR-exposed workers case studies. Despite all the amount of work which have being carried out on this topic more studies are necessary to fully understand the pathogenetic mechanisms, in order to propose suitable therapies.

  15. Efficient synthesis of benzothiazine and acrylamide compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Ana Maria Alves; Walfrido, Simone Torres Padua; Leite, Lucia Fernanda Costa; Lima, Maria Carmo Alves; Galdino, Suely Lins; Pitta, Ivan Rocha [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Antibioticos; Barbosa Filho, Jose Maria [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Simone, Carlos Alberto de; Ellena, Javier Alcides, E-mail: irpitta@gmail.co [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2010-07-01

    This article describes the synthesis of the new (2Z)-2-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-6-nitro-4H -benzo[1,4]thiazine-3-one, (2Z)-2-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-4-methyl-6-nitro-4H-benzo[1,4]thiazine-3-one, (2Z)-6-amino-2-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-4H -benzo[1,4]thiazine-3-one, (2Z)-6-butylamino-2-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-4-methyl-4H-benzo[1,4] -thiazine-3-one and (2E)-N-alkyl-N-(2-hydroxy-5-nitrophenyl) -3-phenylacrylamides and the spectroscopic data. The arylidenebenzothiazine compounds were prepared using the Knoevenagel condensation with substituted benzaldehydes in the presence of sodium methoxide in DMF. The presence of a nitro substituent in the 4-position, water and a slightly acid reaction medium in this condensation caused the rupture of the benzothiazine ring and subsequent formation of the phenylacrylamide compounds. A crystallographic data was presented for (2E)-3-(4-bromophenyl)-N-dodecyl-N -(2-hydroxy-5-nitrophenyl) acrylamide. (author)

  16. Acrylamide levels in selected Colombian foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacetti, Deborah; Gil, Elizabeth; Frega, Natale G; Álvarez, Lina; Dueñas, Pilar; Garzón, Angélica; Lucci, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA) levels in conventional (n = 112) and traditional (n = 43) Colombian foods were analysed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) detection. Samples included: infant powdered formula, coffee and chocolate powders, corn snacks, bakery products and tuber-, meat- and vegetable-based foods. There was a wide variability in AA levels among different foods and within different brands of the same food, especially for coffee powder, breakfast cereals biscuits and French fries samples. Among the conventional foods tested, the highest mean AA value was found in bakery products, such as biscuit (1104 µg kg(-1)) and wafer (1449 µg kg(-1)), followed by potato chips (916 µg kg(-1)). On the other hand, among the traditional foods, higher AA amounts were detected in fried platano (2813 µg kg(-1)) and yuca (3755 µg kg(-1)) compared to other products. Interestingly, the arepa, a traditional Colombian bakery product made with corn flour, showed a lower AA content (< 75 µg kg(-1)) when compared with similar bakery products tested, such as soft bread (102-594 µg kg(-1)), which is a made with wheat flour.

  17. Acrylamide reduction under different pre-treatments in French fries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Kaack, Karl; Granby, Kit

    2007-01-01

    Acrylamide formation in French fries was investigated in relation under different processing conditions and the content of glucose and asparagine of the strips before frying. Potato strips (0.8 x 0.8 x 5 cm) of Bintje variety were fried at 150, 170 and 190 degrees C until reaching moisture contents...... of 10,g/L for an hour; (iii) blanched in hot water at six different time-temperature combinations (50 degrees C for 40 and 80 min; 70 degrees C for 10 and 45 min; 90 degrees C for 3 and 10 min). Acrylamide content was determined in French fries while the glucose and asparagine content in the potato...... color difference showed high correlation (r(2) of 0.854) with the acrylamide content of French fries....

  18. Risks of dietary acrylamide exposure: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riboldi, Bárbara Pelicioli; Vinhas, Álvaro Marchand; Moreira, Júlia Dubois

    2014-08-15

    Acrylamide (AA) is a probable human carcinogen found in carbohydrate-rich foods that have been heated to high temperatures. AA dietary exposure has been associated to development of health problems. We perform a systematic review to elucidate the association of dietary AA exposure and human health problems. Articles were screened by reading titles and abstracts before the full text of eligible articles was read (κ=0.824). Data were harvested by two reviewers and checked by a third. Forty-one articles were analyzed and assessment of dietary exposure proved to be far from uniform and suffered from limitations that possibly impact on the validity of outcomes with relation to human health. Risk assessment of dietary acrylamide exposure is in need of high quality methods for evaluating dietary exposure and validated acrylamide content databases.

  19. Towards a biological monitoring guidance value for acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams, C; Jones, K; Warren, N; Cocker, J; Bell, S; Bull, P; Cain, M

    2015-08-19

    Acrylamide is classified as a potential human carcinogen and neurotoxicant. Biological monitoring is a useful tool for monitoring worker exposure. However, other sources of exposure to acrylamide (including cigarette smoke and diet) also need to be considered. This study has performed repeat measurements of the urinary mercapturic acids of acrylamide (AAMA) and its metabolite glycidamide (GAMA) and determined globin adducts in 20 production-plant workers at a UK acrylamide production facility. The relationship between biomarker levels and environmental monitoring data (air levels and hand washes) was investigated. Good correlations were found between all of the biomarkers (r(2)=0.86-0.91) and moderate correlations were found between the biomarkers and air levels (r(2) = 0.56-0.65). Our data show that urinary AAMA is a reliable biomarker of acrylamide exposure. Occupational hygiene data showed that acrylamide exposure at the company was well within the current UK Workplace Exposure Limit. The 90th percentile of urinary AAMA in non-smoking production-plant workers (537 μmol/mol creatinine (n = 59 samples)) is proposed as a possible biological monitoring guidance value. This 90th percentile increased to 798 μmol/mol if smokers were included (n = 72 samples). These values would be expected following an airborne exposure of less than 0.07 mg/m(3), well below the current UK workplace exposure limit of 0.3mg/m(3). Comparison of biomarker levels in non-occupationally exposed individuals suggests regional variations (between UK and Germany), possibly due to differences in diet.

  20. Dietary acrylamide and cancer risk: an updated meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelucchi, Claudio; Bosetti, Cristina; Galeone, Carlotta; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2015-06-15

    The debate on the potential carcinogenic effect of dietary acrylamide is open. In consideration of the recent findings from large prospective investigations, we conducted an updated meta-analysis on acrylamide intake and the risk of cancer at several sites. Up to July 2014, we identified 32 publications. We performed meta-analyses to calculate the summary relative risk (RR) of each cancer site for the highest versus lowest level of intake and for an increment of 10 µg/day of dietary acrylamide, through fixed-effects or random-effects models, depending on the heterogeneity test. Fourteen cancer sites could be examined. No meaningful associations were found for most cancers considered. The summary RRs for high versus low acrylamide intake were 0.87 for oral and pharyngeal, 1.14 for esophageal, 1.03 for stomach, 0.94 for colorectal, 0.93 for pancreatic, 1.10 for laryngeal, 0.88 for lung, 0.96 for breast, 1.06 for endometrial, 1.12 for ovarian, 1.00 for prostate, 0.93 for bladder and 1.13 for lymphoid malignancies. The RR was of borderline significance only for kidney cancer (RR = 1.20; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.00-1.45). All the corresponding continuous estimates ranged between 0.95 and 1.03, and none of them was significant. Among never-smokers, borderline associations with dietary acrylamide emerged for endometrial (RR = 1.23; 95% CI, 1.00-1.51) and ovarian (RR = 1.39; 95% CI, 0.97-2.00) cancers. This systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies indicates that dietary acrylamide is not related to the risk of most common cancers. A modest association for kidney cancer, and for endometrial and ovarian cancers in never smokers only, cannot be excluded.

  1. GRAFT COPOLYMERIZATION OF ACRYLAMIDE ONTO POLYPROPYLENE FILMS BY PLASMA TECHNIQUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shicai; YE Mu; LU Lizhen; CHEN Jie

    1988-01-01

    The graft copolymerization of acrylamide onto polypropylene (PP) film was carried out by using a capacitively coupled rf plasma apparatus with external plate electrodes. The relationship between the surface structure of the Ar plasma-treated PP films and the extent of grafting of acrylamide on the films was studied through observing the effects of discharge power and exposure time on the relative content of free-radical on the film surface. Meanwhile, the wettability and surface energy of the PP film were measured.

  2. Liquid crystal of nanocellulose whiskers' grafted with acrylamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Yang; Dai Yong Ye

    2012-01-01

    12% acrylamide (AM) was grafted onto the surface of nanocellulose whiskers (NCW),which was self-assembled to be the chiral nematic suspension at 3% content.The acrylamide grafted NCW (AM-g-NCW) was characterized with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR).The grafting ratio was measured by elemental analysis.The degrees of crystallinity of the AM-g-NCW were measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD).The liquid crystalline properties of the AM-g-NCW were investigated by the polarizing optical microscopy (POM).The AM-g-NCW was found to self-assembly to be a lyotropic state.

  3. SYNTHESIS AND FLOCCULABILITY OF SODIUM ALGINATE GRAFTED WITH ACRYLAMIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaiqiang Xu; Xiongli Xu; Zhiji Ding; Meihua Zhou

    2006-01-01

    Graft copolymers of sodium alginate (SA) with acrylamide (AM) were synthesized using aceric ion initiated solution polymerization technique. The acrylamide conversions were studied by changing reaction conditions, such as temperature, molecular weight of sodium alginate and reaction time. The flocculation performance of the graft copolymer(SAG) was investigated in kaolin suspension and also in dyeing waste water. It was found that SAG is more efficient in flocculation behavior as compared to polyacrylamide and SA in kaolin suspension, and in removal capacities for CODCr and colority in dyeing wastewater.

  4. Curcumin and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate attenuate acrylamide-induced proliferation in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Xiaoyun; Li, Yuan; Meng, Xulian; Wang, Pengqi; Jiang, Pan; Feng, Qing

    2014-04-01

    Acrylamide, a proven rodent carcinogen, is present in carbohydrate-rich food heated at high temperatures. It can be metabolized into glycidamide mainly by cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1). The fact that acrylamide is a potential carcinogen to human-beings draws public attention recently. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of acrylamide at low doses on proliferation of HepG2 cells, and to test whether the two well-studied chemopreventive agents, curcumin and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), would have antagonistic effects against acrylamide. The results showed that lower concentration of acrylamide (⩽100μM) significantly increased the proliferation of HepG2 cells, but not of the other cancer cells (MDA-231, HeLa, A549, and PC-3). Only in HepG2 cells, low concentration of acrylamide was able to induce CYP2E1 expression significantly. Knockdown of CYP2E1 restrained acrylamide to increase viability of HepG2 cells. In addition, acrylamide raised expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), cyclin D1 and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), which contributed to cell proliferation. Both curcumin and EGCG effectively reduced acrylamide-induced proliferation, as well as protein expression of CYP2E1, EGFR, cyclin D1 and NF-κB. All these results suggest that low concentration of acrylamide may contribute to progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Curcumin or EGCG could prevent acrylamide triggering this effect.

  5. Application of muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) pomace extract to reduce carcinogenic acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Changmou; Yagiz, Yavuz; Marshall, Sara; Li, Zheng; Simonne, Amarat; Lu, Jiang; Marshall, Maurice R

    2015-09-01

    Acrylamide is a byproduct of the Maillard reaction and is formed in a variety of heat-treated commercial starchy foods. It is known to be toxic and potentially carcinogenic to humans. Muscadine grape polyphenols and standard phenolic compounds were examined on the reduction of acrylamide in an equimolar asparagine/glucose chemical model, a potato chip model, and a simulated physiological system. Polyphenols were found to significantly reduce acrylamide in the chemical model, with reduced rates higher than 90% at 100 μg/ml. In the potato chip model, grape polyphenols reduced the acrylamide level by 60.3% as concentration was increased to 0.1%. However, polyphenols exhibited no acrylamide reduction in the simulated physiological system. Results also indicated no significant correlation between the antioxidant activities of polyphenols and their acrylamide inhibition. This study demonstrated muscadine grape extract can mitigate acrylamide formation in the Maillard reaction, which provides a new value-added application for winery pomace waste.

  6. Analysis of acrylamide in green tea by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, Yuzo; Kohata, Katsunori; Yamaguchi, Yuichi; Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Sawai, Yusuke; Chuda, Yoshihiro; Ono, Hiroshi; Yada, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Mitsuru

    2006-09-20

    Optimization of the solid-phase extraction cleanup procedure enabled the GC-MS analysis of acrylamide in tea samples without the interference of bromination by tea catechins. Although polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) is available for removing tea catechins from tea extract, the peaks derived from PVPP had the same retention time as brominated acrylamide in mass chromatograms obtained by GC-MS. A considerable amount of acrylamide was formed at roasting temperatures of > or =120 degrees C; the highest acrylamide level was observed when tea samples were roasted at 180 degrees C for 10 min. Higher temperatures and longer processing times caused a decrease in the acrylamide content. Furthermore, an analysis of 82 tea samples showed that rather than the reducing sugar content, the asparagine content in tea leaves was a significant factor related to acrylamide formation in roasted products. The acrylamide level in roasted tea products was controlled by asparagine in the presence of reducing sugars.

  7. Alteration of Oxidative Status in Rats Following Administration of Acrylamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa H. El-Sayed1, Shawkia S. Abd El- Halim1,

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acrylamide (ACR is a known industrial neurotoxic and carcinogenic chemical in rodents. The recent discovery of acrylamide in wide variety of commonly consumed foods has energized research efforts worldwide to define toxic mechanisms. Objective: The present study is carried out to investigate the effect of acrylamide administration on in vivo malondialdehyde (MDA, a product of lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (GSH as well as copper and zinc superoxide dismutase enzyme activity (Cu/Zn SOD of rats. Material and Methods: Fourteen adult male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into two groups each containing "7" rats. Group 1 served as negative control fed on basal diet and group 2 (positive control received basal diet and acrylamide (0.34g/ kg diet for 11 days. Levels of MDA, GSH and activity of SOD were determined in liver, kidneys, brain, heart, testes, spleen and lungs of rats. Results: ACR treatment significantly increased MDA in all organs; the highest increase was detected in testis (87.9% and heart (71.5% while the lowest one was found in kidneys (28.2%. On the other hand, GSH levels and SOD activities were significantly reduced in ACR treated rats. However, the reduction of GSH level ranged from 10.2% to 36.5 %.The inhibition of SOD activities were higher in testis (57.3% and lungs (38.5%. Conclusion: The present study showed that ACR exerts deteriorated effects on oxidative status of rats

  8. Mechanism and Modeling for Polymerization of Acrylamide in Inverse Microemulsions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiXiao; ZhangWeiying; YuanHuigen

    2004-01-01

    After discussion on the mechanism of polymer particle nucleation and growth in inverse microemulsion polymerization, a schematic physical model for polymerization of acrylamide in inverse microemulsions was presented. Furthermore, several key problems in mathematically modeling of inverse microemulsion polymerization were pointed out.

  9. In vivo biocompatibility of radiation crosslinked acrylamide copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saraydin, Dursun E-mail: saraydin@cumhuriyet.edu.tr; Uenver-Saraydin, Serpil; Karadag, Erdener; Koptagel, Emel; Gueven, Olgun

    2004-04-01

    In vitro swelling and in vivo biocompatibility of radiation crosslinked acrylamide copolymers such as acrylamide/crotonic acid (AAm/CA) and acrylamide/itaconic acid (AAm/IA) were studied. The swelling kinetics of acrylamide copolymers were performed in distilled water, human serum and some simulated physiological fluids such as phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, glycine-HCl buffer, pH 1.1, physiological saline solution, and some swelling and diffusion parameters have been calculated. AAm/CA and AAm/IA hydrogels were subcutaneously implanted in rats for up to 10 weeks and the immediate short- and long-term tissue response to these implants were investigated. Histological analysis indicated that tissue reaction at the implant site progressed from an initial acute inflammatory response. No necrosis, tumorigenesis or infection was observed at the implant site up to 10 weeks. The radiation crosslinked AAm/CA and AAm/IA copolymers were found well tolerated, non-toxic and highly biocompatible. However, AAm/IA copolymer was not found to be compatible biomaterials, because one of the AAm/IA samples was disintegrated into small pieces in the rat.

  10. Reduction of acrylamide formation in potato slices during frying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Kaack, K.; Granby, Kit

    2004-01-01

    Reduction of acrylamide formation in potato chips was investigated in relation to frying temperature and three treatments before frying. Potato slices (Tivoli variety, diameter: 37 mm, width: 2.2 mm) were fried at 150degreesC, 170degreesC and 190degreesC until reaching moisture contents of simila...

  11. Acrylamide in bread. Effect of prooxidants and antioxidants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Granby, Kit; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    2008-01-01

    Addition of 1% aqueous rosemary extract with approximately 40 mg of gallic acid equivalents or comparable addition of rosemary oil or of dried rosemary leaves to wheat dough reduced the content of acrylamide in wheat buns by 62, 67 and 57%, respectively, compared to wheat buns without rosemary...

  12. IRIS Toxicological Review of Acrylamide (External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has conducted a peer review by EPA’s Science Advisory Board (SAB) of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of acrylamide that once finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. Peer review is m...

  13. Lipid Oxidation Promotes Acrylamide Formation in Fat-Rich Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capuano, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    Evidence from model systems suggests that lipid oxidation can contribute to acrylamide (AA) formation through the generation of secondary lipid oxidation carbonyl products, mainly aldehydes, which are able to degrade asparagine to AA. In this respect, factors affecting the extent of lipid oxidati

  14. New trends in quantification of acrylamide in food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oracz, Joanna; Nebesny, Ewa; Zyżelewicz, Dorota

    2011-10-30

    Methods applied in acrylamide quantification in foods have been reviewed in this paper. Novel analytical techniques like capillary electrophoresis (CE), immunoenzymatic test (ELISA) and electrochemical biosensors, which can replace traditional methods like high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC) were presented. Short time of analysis and high resolution power of electrophoretic techniques caused that they became routinely used in food analysis apart from high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography. Application of modern chromatography methods like ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) in acrylamide quantification considerably shortened the time of analysis and decreased the consumption of indispensable reagents. The most promising approaches to acrylamide quantification in foods are electrochemical biosensors and immunoenzymatic tests. In contrast to chromatography and electrophoretic methods they require neither expensive equipment nor time consuming sample preparation and allow for fast screening of numerous samples without the usage of sophisticated apparatuses. Because of many advantages such as miniaturization, rapid and simple analysis, and high sensitivity and selectivity, biosensors are thought to replace conventional methods of acrylamide quantification in food.

  15. Fluorescence determination of acrylamide in heat-processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Congcong; Luo, Feng; Chen, Dongmei; Qiu, Bin; Tang, Xinhua; Ke, Huixian; Chen, Xi

    2014-06-01

    A simple and rapid fluorescence method has been developed for the determination of acrylamide in heat-processed food samples. In the determination, acrylamide is degraded through Hofmann reaction to generate vinyl amine, and pyrrolinone is produced when the vinyl amine reacts with fluorescamine, resulting in a strong fluorescence emission at 480 nm. Hofmann reaction is a key step for the fluorescence determination of acrylaminde, and the reaction conditions are investigated and optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the fluorescence intensity increases with the increase of acrylamide concentrations. The linear range between the fluorescence intensity and the square-root of acrylamide concentrations is from 0.05 μg mL(-1) to 20 μg mL(-1) with the correlation coefficient R(2)=0.9935. The detection limit is 0.015 μg mL(-1) and the recovery for food samples is from 66.0% to 110.6%. In comparison with Specification of Entry&Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau of The People׳s Republic of China (SN/T 2281-2009), the method showed comparable results and demonstrated the accuracy of the method.

  16. Symposium on the Chemistry and Toxicology of Acrylamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acrylamide is used worldwide to synthesize polyacrylamide. The polymer has found many applications as a soil conditioner, in wastewater treatment, in the cosmetic, paper, and textile industries, and in the laboratory as a solid support for the separation of proteins by electrophoresis. Because of th...

  17. 21 CFR 173.5 - Acrylate-acrylamide resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... additive consists of one of the following: (1) Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin (hydrolyzed polyacrylamide) is... or cane sugar juice and liquor or corn starch hydrolyzate in an amount not to exceed 5 parts per million by weight of the juice or 10 parts per million by weight of the liquor or the corn...

  18. HIGH-STRENGTH POLY(METH)ACRYLAMIDE COPOLYMER HYDROGELS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIERSMA, JA; SOS, M; PENNINGS, AJ

    1994-01-01

    The hydrogels described here are copolymers of acrylamide and methacrylamide highly cross-linked with piperazine diacrylamide or 4,7,10-trioxa-1,13-tridecanediamine diacrylamide by radical polymerisation in highly concentrated aqueous and aqueous gelatin solutions. The hydrogels were characterised b

  19. Acrylamide inhibits nerve sprouting induced by botulinum toxin type A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Jiang; Yi Xiang; Xingyue Hu; Huaying Cai

    2014-01-01

    Botulinum toxin type A is a potent muscle relaxant that blocks the transmission and release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction. Intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin type A has served as an effective and safe therapy for strabismus and focal dystonia. However, muscular weakness is temporary and after 3-4 months, muscle strength usually recovers because function-al recovery is mediated by nerve sprouting and reconstruction of the neuromuscular junction. Acrylamide may produce neurotoxic substances that cause retrograde necrotizing neuropathy and inhibit nerve sprouting caused by botulinum toxin type A. This study investigated whether acrylamide inhibits nerve sprouting after intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin type A. A tibial nerve sprouting model was established through local injection of botulinum toxin type A into the right gastrocnemius muscle of Sprague-Dawley rats. Following intramuscular injection, rats were given intraperitoneal injection of 3%acrylamide every 3 days for 21 days. Nerve sprout-ing appeared 2 weeks after intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin type A and single-fiber electromyography revealed abnormal conduction at the neuromuscular junction 1 week after intra-muscular injection of botulinum toxin type A. Following intraperitoneal injection of acrylamide, the peak muscle ifber density decreased. Electromyography jitter value were restored to normal levels 6 weeks after injection. This indicates that the maximal decrease in ifber density and the time at which functional conduction of neuromuscular junction was restored were delayed. Addition-ally, the increase in tibial nerve ifbers was reduced. Acrylamide inhibits nerve sprouting caused by botulinum toxin type A and may be used to prolong the clinical dosage of botulinum toxin type A.

  20. Investigation of the reactions of acrylamide during in vitro multistep enzymatic digestion of thermally processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzalıoğlu, Aytül; Gökmen, Vural

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the fate of acrylamide in thermally processed foods after ingestion. An in vitro multistep enzymatic digestion system simulating gastric, duodenal and colon phases was used to understand the fate of acrylamide in bakery and fried potato products. Acrylamide levels gradually decreased through gastric, duodenal and colon phases during in vitro digestion of biscuits. At the end of digestion, acrylamide reduction was between 49.2% and 73.4% in biscuits. Binary model systems composed of acrylamide and amino acids were used to understand the mechanism of acrylamide reduction. High-resolution mass spectrometry analyses confirmed Michael addition of amino acids to acrylamide during digestion. In contrast to bakery products, acrylamide levels increased significantly during gastric digestion of fried potatoes. The Schiff base formed between reducing sugars and asparagine disappeared rapidly, whereas the acrylamide level increased during the gastric phase. This suggests that intermediates like the Schiff base that accumulate in potatoes during frying are potential precursors of acrylamide under gastric conditions.

  1. Influence of California-style black ripe olive processing on the formation of acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenprasert, Suthawan; Mitchell, Alyson

    2014-08-27

    Methods used in processing California-style black ripe olives generate acrylamide. California-style black ripe olives contain higher levels of acrylamide (409.67 ± 42.60-511.91 ± 34.08 μg kg(-1)) as compared to California-style green ripe olives (44.02 ± 3.55-105.79 ± 22.01 μg kg(-1)), Greek olives (acrylamide formation. Preprocessing brine storage influenced the formation of acrylamide in a time-dependent manner. Acrylamide increased during the first 30 days of storage. Longer brine storage times (>30 days) result in lower acrylamide levels in the finished product. The presence of calcium ions in the preprocessing brining solution results in higher levels of acrylamide in finished products. Air oxidation during lye processing and the neutralization of olives prior to sterilization significantly increase the formation of acrylamide in the finished products. Conversely, lye-processing decreases the levels of acrylamide in the final product. These results indicate that specific steps in the California-style black ripe olive processing may be manipulated to mitigate the formation of acrylamide in finished products.

  2. DETERMINATION OF ACRYLAMIDE IN FOOD BY GAS AND LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY

    OpenAIRE

    Michaela Vieriková; Miriam Vlčáková

    2010-01-01

     Acrylamide in food was determined by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after bromination of acrylamide and underivatized acrylamide was quantified by ultra performance liquid chromatography -mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS). Two different sample preparation methods were used and optimised. The GC-MS method was used for various food matrices like breads, potato crisps, potato crackers, french fries. The UPLC-MS method was used for analysis of coffee. The limit of detect...

  3. [Development of methods for determining acrylamide in food products by gas-liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessonov, V V; Malinkin, A D; Perederiaev, O I; Bogachuk, M N; Volkovich, S V; Medvedev, Iu V

    2011-01-01

    The method of determination of acrylamide in various food (milk powder, potato chips, instant coffee) by gas-liquid chromatography after pre-bromination was developed. Studies have shown the possibility of using bromination of acrylamide to give it the necessary properties for better extraction, purification and detection. Also revealed the possibility of qualitative and quantitative determine a acrylamide in food by gas-liquid chromatography with detection by electron capture detector.

  4. Quantification of acrylamide in foods selected by using gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Delević Veselin M.; Zejnilović Refik M.; Jančić-Stojanović Biljana S.; Đorđević Brižita I.; Tokić Zorana N.; Zrnić-Ćirić Milica D.; Stanković Ivan M.

    2016-01-01

    Acrylamide is toxic and probably carcinogenic compound, made as a result of high-temperature thermal treatment of carbohydrate-rich foodstuffs. In this article a method is improved for the extraction and quantitation of acrylamide in foods produced based on corn flour that are represented in our traditional diet. Acrylamide extraction was carried out using reduced volume of saturated solution of bromine water and the GC - MS method for the quantification wa...

  5. Comparison of estimated dietary intake of acrylamide with hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide and glycidamide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjellaas, Thomas; Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz;

    2007-01-01

    In a study comprising 50 subjects, we investigated the relationship between acrylamide (AA) intake from food using food frequency questionnaires and the concentration of hemoglobin (Hb) adducts of AA and its genotoxic metabolite glycidamide (GA) as a measure of the internal exposure. A method using...... solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography with negative electrospray tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) detection for the determination of the Hb adducts as phenylthiohydantoin derivatives in human blood was developed. The limit of quantification for AA- and GA-Hb adducts were 2 and 6 pmol....../day (4.1-30.2), respectively. Non-smokers had a median AA and GA adduct concentration of 36.8 (range 17.9-65.5) and 18.2 (range 6.7-45.6) pmol/g globin, respectively. In smokers, the values were 165.8 (98.8-211) and 83.2 (29.1-99.0) pmol/g globin, respectively. Using multiple linear regression analysis...

  6. Acrylamide decreased dopamine levels and increased 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) levels in PC 12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tareke, Eden; Lyn-Cook, Beverly D; Duhart, Helen; Newport, Glenn; Ali, Syed

    2009-07-17

    Acrylamide is a chemical known to produce neurotoxicity in animals, as well as in humans. The mechanism of acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity is not fully known. However, recent studies have revealed that acrylamide affects the dopaminergic system. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of acrylamide on dopamine (DA) and the metabolites, 3,4-dihydroxy phenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillicacid (HVA), levels in Pheochromocytoma (PC 12) cells. In addition, the generation of peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), measured by 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), was investigated as a possible mechanism in acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity. HPLC-coupled to electrochemical detection (ECD) was used to determine DA, DOPAC, HVA and 3-NT levels. Acrylamide (0.01-5mM) exposure produced a dose- and time (1-42h)-dependent decrease in DA levels. The decrease (P<0.05) in DA levels was noted at 24h after exposure to acrylamide. The study also revealed that 3-NT levels in PC 12 increased as a result of treatment with acrylamide. Thus, these data suggest that acrylamide-induced decrease in DA levels in PC 12 cells may be associated with peroxynitrite formation, measured as 3-NT levels.

  7. Acrylamide induces locomotor defects and degeneration of dopamine neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Li, Dan; Yang, Yongsheng; Xu, Tiantian; Li, Ping; He, Defu

    2016-01-01

    Acrylamide can form in foods during the cooking process and cause multiple adverse effects. However, the neurotoxicity and mechanisms of acrylamide have not been fully elucidated. In Caenorhabditis elegans, we showed that 48 h exposure to 10-625 mg l(-1) acrylamide resulted in a significant decline in locomotor frequency of body bending, head thrashing and pharynx pumping. In addition, acrylamide exposure reduced crawling speeds and changed angles of body bending. It indicates that acrylamide induces locomotor defects, along with parkinsonian-like movement impairment, including bradykinesia and hypokinesia. Acrylamide also affected chemotaxis plasticity and reduced learning ability. Using transgenic nematodes, we found that acrylamide induced downexpression of P(dat-1) and led to the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Moreover, the enhanced expression of unc-54, encoding a subunit of α-synuclein was found. It illustrates that acrylamide is efficient in inducing crucial parkinsonian pathology, including dopaminergic damage and α-synuclein aggregation. These findings suggest the acrylamide-induced locomotor defects and neurotoxicity are associated with Parkinson's disease.

  8. Acrylamide and polyacrylamide: a review of production, use, environmental fate and neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E A; Oehme, F W

    1991-01-01

    Acrylamide is a highly water soluble vinyl monomer formed from the hydration of acrylonitrile. The major commercial use of acrylamide is the formation of polymers. In the environment acrylamide has a high mobility in soil, may travel great distances in ground-water, is biodegradable, and is not absorbed by sediments or affected by water treatment. It is absorbed by all routes of animal exposure. The main metabolite is N-acetyl-S-(3-amino-3-oxypropyl)-cysteine and is excreted predominantly in the urine. Acrylamide produces an ascending central/peripheral axonopathy in man and animals. The major histological findings are swelling of axons and/or decrease in number of large diameter axons. Acrylamide axonopathy is reversible with time, but full recovery depends upon the severity of the intoxication. All reported cases of acrylamide toxicity have been attributed to handling the monomer. Polyacrylamide is non-toxic. Specific clinical features of acrylamide intoxication are more conclusive than electrophysiological, histological or biochemical laboratory tests for diagnosis. Acrylamide can be detected by titration, colorimetry, high performance chromatography, gas chromatography and polarography in air, water, biological fluids, tissues and polyacrylamides. Present research on the effects of acrylamide focuses on developmental and reproductive effects, genotoxicity and carcinogenicity.

  9. [Determination of acrylamide in fried starchy foods by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Weike; Chen, Dongdong; Yong, Wei; Liu, Zhiming; Qiu, Yueming; Tang, Yingzhang

    2005-05-01

    A method was developed for the determination of acrylamide in fried starchy foods using isotope dilution gas chromatograpy-selected mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The acrylamide was extracted from samples by water, then centrifuged and cleaned up by a column of graphitized carbon black. Acrylamide was derivatized through bromination at low pH and low temperature and determined by GC-MS. With the aid of the 13C-substituted acrylamide internal standard, the mass spectrum in GC-MS was interpreted, and the content of acrylamide was measured. The limit of quantitative detection (S/N > 10) was 5 microg/kg and the recovery was in the range of 90%-105% and relative standard deviation is 6.3%. The levels of acrylamide in some fried foodstuffs such as French fries was surveyed using the method. French fries were found to contain 278-4518 microg/kg acrylamide. It means that the content of acrylamide in French fries is 10,000 times higher than the drinking water guideline of World Health Organization for acrylamide.

  10. Color changes and acrylamide formation in fried potato slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Moyano, Pedro; Kaack, Karl;

    2005-01-01

    at 85degreesC for 3.5 min. Unblanched slices were used as the control. Control and blanched potato slices (Panda variety, diameter: 37 mm, width: 2.2 mm) were fried at 120, 150 and 180degreesC until reaching moisture contents of similar to1.8% (total basis) and their acrylamide content and final color...... were measured. Color changes were recorded at different sampling times during frying at the three mentioned temperatures using the chromatic redness parameter a(*). Experimental data of surface temperature, moisture content and color change in potato chips during frying were fit to empirical...... relationship with correlation coefficients greater than 90%. A first-order rate equation was used to model the kinetics of color change. In all case the Arrhenius activation energy decreases alongside with decreasing chip moisture content. Blanching reduced acrylamide formation in potato chips in similar to64...

  11. Porous poly(methylmethacrylate and poly(methylmethacrylate-co-acrylamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Ljubiša

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of two types of porous polymers: poly(methyl methacrylate and copolymers of methyl methacrylate and acrylamide were investigated in this study. Poly(methyl methacrylate was synthesized in suspension, using ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linking agent, poly(vinyl pyrrolidone as the protective colloid, and benzoyl peroxide as the initiator. The synthesis of poly(methyl methacrylate-co-acrylamide was initiated in emulsion in the presence of dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium salt, followed by a sol-gel process, and completely reacted to the solid state. Potassium persulfate was used as the initiator, and tetramethylol glycoluril as the cross-linking agent. Both types of syntheses were carried out in the presence of ethyl acetate. The porosity, specific surface and distribution of the pore sizes of the obtained polymers were determined by mercury porosimetry. The polymers were used as inert carriers for the immobilization of enzymes and whole cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast.

  12. Synthesis,Characterization and Biological Activities of Novel Acrylamide Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Liang-zhong; XU Zhong-jie; ZHANG Gong-sheng; ZHOU Kai; ZHAI Zhi-wei

    2008-01-01

    With dimethomorph and flumorph as the leading compounds,four novel acrylamide compounds with two types of structure were designed and synthesized by means of the method of"me too chemistry".The target compounds were characterized by 1H NMR,IR,MS,and elemental analysis.The influences of solvent and raw material on the yield were investigated and optimum processing conditions were determined.The results of preliminary biological tests show that all those compounds exhibit certain antifungal activities.

  13. Oil recovery with vinyl sulfonic acid-acrylamide copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, C.J.; Falk, D.O.

    1973-12-18

    An aqueous polymer flood containing sulfomethylated alkali metal vinyl sulfonate-acrylamide copolymers was proposed for use in secondary or tertiary enhanced oil recovery. The sulfonate groups on the copolymers sustain the viscosity of the flood in the presence of brine and lime. Injection of the copolymer solution into a waterflooded Berea core, produced 30.5 percent of the residual oil. It is preferred that the copolymers are partially hydrolyzed.

  14. Quartz Microbalance Sensor for the Detection of Acrylamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph A. Schalley

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Several macrocycles of the Hunter-Vögtle type have been identified as superior host compounds for the detection of small amounts of acrylamide. When coated onto the surface of a quartz microbalance, these compounds serve as highly sensitive and selective sensor-active layers for their use in electronic noses. In this study, differently substituted macrocycles were investigated including an open-chain analogue and a catenane. Their structure and functional groups are correlated with their observed affinities to acrylamide and related acids and amides. The much smaller response of the open-chain compound and the almost absent sensor response of the catenane suggest that binding occurs within the cavity of the macrocycle. Theoretical calculations agree well with the experimental data even though they do not yet take into account the arrangement of the macrocycles in the sensor-active layer. The lower detection limit of acrylamide is 10 parts per billion (ppb, which is impressively low for this type of sensor. Other related compounds such as acrylic acid, propionamide, or propionic acid show no or significantly lower affinities to the macrocycles in these concentration ranges.

  15. Preparation and characterisation of acrylamide/maleic acid hydrogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klinpituksa, P.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Acrylamide/maleic acid hydrogel, a superabsorbent polymer, was prepared by free radical polymerization in aqueous solution of acrylamide (AAm and maleic acid (MA : monomer and comonomer, respectively. Potassium persulfate and N,N,N’,N’-tetramethylethylenediamine were used as an initiator system. Also, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA and N,N’-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA were used as crosslinkers. Different compositions of acrylamide, maleic acid and crosslinkers were employed. Water swelling, equilibrium water content and swelling power of the hydrogel formed were determined. The result showed that the swelling in water at equilibrium of hydrogels was in the range of 8,420-10,300% and 3,160- 3,560%, equilibrium water content was in the range of 0.9880-0.9902 and 0.9630-0.9727 and swelling power was in the range of 84-103 and 31-36 using 1%EGDMA and 1%MBA as crosslinkers, respectively. The diffusion of water into hydrogel followed non-Fickian character based on swelling power.

  16. Multitriggered Shape-Memory Acrylamide-DNA Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chun-Hua; Guo, Weiwei; Hu, Yuwei; Qi, Xiu-Juan; Willner, Itamar

    2015-12-23

    Acrylamide-acrylamide nucleic acids are cross-linked by two cooperative functional motives to form shaped acrylamide-DNA hydrogels. One of the cross-linking motives responds to an external trigger, leading to the dissociation of one of the stimuli-responsive bridges, and to the transition of the stiff shaped hydrogels into soft shapeless states, where the residual bridging units, due to the chains entanglement, provide an intrinsic memory for the reshaping of the hydrogels. Subjecting the shapeless states to counter stimuli restores the dissociated bridges, and regenerates the original shape of the hydrogels. By the cyclic dissociation and reassembly of the stimuli-responsive bridges, the reversible switchable transitions of the hydrogels between stiff shaped hydrogel structures and soft shapeless states are demonstrated. Shaped hydrogels bridged by K(+)-stabilized G-quadruplexes/duplex units, by i-motif/duplex units, or by two different duplex bridges are described. The cyclic transitions of the hydrogels between shaped and shapeless states are stimulated, in the presence of appropriate triggers and counter triggers (K(+) ion/crown ether; pH = 5.0/8.0; fuel/antifuel strands). The shape-memory hydrogels are integrated into shaped two-hydrogel or three-hydrogel hybrid structures. The cyclic programmed transitions of selective domains of the hybrid structures between shaped hydrogel and shapeless states are demonstrated. The possible applications of the shape-memory hydrogels for sensing, inscription of information, and controlled release of loads are discussed.

  17. Review of methods for the reduction of dietary content and toxicity of acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mendel; Levin, Carol E

    2008-08-13

    Potentially toxic acrylamide is largely derived from heat-induced reactions between the amino group of the free amino acid asparagine and carbonyl groups of glucose and fructose in cereals, potatoes, and other plant-derived foods. This overview surveys and consolidates the following dietary aspects of acrylamide: distribution in food originating from different sources; consumption by diverse populations; reduction of the acrylamide content in the diet; and suppression of adverse effects in vivo. Methods to reduce adverse effects of dietary acrylamide include (a) selecting potato, cereal, and other plant varieties for dietary use that contain low levels of the acrylamide precursors, namely, asparagine and glucose; (b) removing precursors before processing; (c) using the enzyme asparaginase to hydrolyze asparagine to aspartic acid; (d) selecting processing conditions (pH, temperature, time, processing and storage atmosphere) that minimize acrylamide formation; (e) adding food ingredients (acidulants, amino acids, antioxidants, nonreducing carbohydrates, chitosan, garlic compounds, protein hydrolysates, proteins, metal salts) that have been reported to prevent acrylamide formation; (f) removing/trapping acrylamide after it is formed with the aid of chromatography, evaporation, polymerization, or reaction with other food ingredients; and (g) reducing in vivo toxicity. Research needs are suggested that may further facilitate reducing the acrylamide burden of the diet. Researchers are challenged to (a) apply the available methods and to minimize the acrylamide content of the diet without adversely affecting the nutritional quality, safety, and sensory attributes, including color and flavor, while maintaining consumer acceptance; and (b) educate commercial and home food processors and the public about available approaches to mitigating undesirable effects of dietary acrylamide.

  18. Silencing of vacuolar invertase and asparagine synthetase genes and its impact on acrylamide formation of fried potato products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acrylamide is produced in a wide variety of carbohydrate-rich foods during high temperature cooking. Dietary acrylamide is a suspected human carcinogen, and health concerns related to dietary acrylamide have been raised worldwide. French fries and potato chips contribute a significant proportion to ...

  19. 40 CFR 721.6620 - Alkanaminium, polyalkyl-[(2-methyl-1-oxo-2-propenyl)oxy] salt, polymer with acrylamide and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... with acrylamide and substituted alkyl methacrylate. 721.6620 Section 721.6620 Protection of Environment..., polymer with acrylamide and substituted alkyl methacrylate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new...- salt, polymer with acrylamide and substituted alkyl methacrylate (PMN P-87-252) is subject to...

  20. Acrylamide-forming potential and agronomic properties of elite US potato germplasm from the National Fry Processing Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Processed potato products, such as chips and fries, contribute to the dietary intake of acrylamide, a suspected human carcinogen. One of the most promising approaches for reducing acrylamide consumption is to develop and commercialize new potato varieties with low acrylamide-forming potential. To fa...

  1. Quantification of acrylamide in foods selected by using gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delević Veselin M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acrylamide is toxic and probably carcinogenic compound, made as a result of high-temperature thermal treatment of carbohydrate-rich foodstuffs. In this article a method is improved for the extraction and quantitation of acrylamide in foods produced based on corn flour that are represented in our traditional diet. Acrylamide extraction was carried out using reduced volume of saturated solution of bromine water and the GC - MS method for the quantification was shown. Quantification of acrylamide was preceded by: sample homogenization, acrylamide extraction using water, extract purification using solid phase extraction, bromination, using a reduced volume of bromine water solution, dehydrobromination with sodium thiosulfate and transformation of dibromopropenamide in 2,3- 2- bromopropenamide using triethylamine. Regression and correlation analysis were applied for the probability level of 0.05. Calibration is performed in the concentration range 5-80 ug/kg with a detection limit 6.86 mg / kg and the limits of quantification 10.78 ug/kg and the coefficient of determination R2 > 0.999. Calibration curve was obtained: y = 0,069x + 0,038. Recovery values were an average from 97 to 110%. Proposed GC-MS method is simple, precise and reliable for the determination of acrylamide in the samples of thermal treated foods. Our results show that the tested foods quantify the presence of acrylamide in concentrations of 18 to 77 mg/kg acrylamide depending on whether the food was prepared by cooking or baking.

  2. 78 FR 68852 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Acrylamide in Foods; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Acrylamide in Foods; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug...: Acrylamide in Foods.'' The draft guidance is intended to provide information that may help...

  3. Poly(acrylamide)-MWNTs hybrid hydrogel with extremely high mechanical strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, Huanhuan; Zheng, Tingting; Wang, Xuezhen; Wang, Huiliang

    2016-01-01

    Poly(acrylamide)-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (PAAm-MWNTs) hybrid hydrogels were prepared through the radiation-induced polymerization and crosslinking of the aqueous solution of acrylamide and well-dispersed MWNTs for the first time. The PAAm gels obtained by the radiation-induced polymerization

  4. Acrylamide exposure from foods of the Dutch population and an assessment of the consequent risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, E.J.M.; Baars, A.J.; Klaveren, van J.D.; Spanjer, M.C.; Rensen, P.M.; Hiemstra, M.; Kooij, van J.A.; Peters, P.W.J.

    2003-01-01

    At the end of April 2002, the Swedish Food Administration reported the presence of acrylamide in heat treated food products. Acrylamide has been shown to be toxic and carcinogenic in animals, and has been classified by the WHO/IARC among others as `probably carcinogenic for humans¿. The purposes of

  5. Evaluation of thermal processing variables for reducing acrylamide in canned black ripe olives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acrylamide formed in plant foods at elevated cooking temperatures has been identified as a probable carcinogen. A wide variation and high acrylamide concentration in commercial canned black ripe olives has been reported. The objective of this study was to determine if different safe sterilization co...

  6. Onderzoek naar de mutagene werking van acrylamide en methacrylamide bij Drosophila melanogaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramers PGN; Groot MG; Mout HCA; Verharen HW

    1989-01-01

    Acrylamide is mutageen in de somatische mutatie- en recombinatietest (SMART) met Drosphila melanogaster na behandeling van larven vanaf het 2e en 3e larvale stadium tot aan de verpopping, bij concentraties van 1,0 ; 1,5 en 2,0 mM in gedistilleerd water. Concentraties van 1,5 en 2,0 mM acrylamide v

  7. Assessment of acrylamide degradation potential of Pseudomonas aeruginosa BAC-6 isolated from industrial effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekar, Vijayashree; Chandrashekar, Chandrika; Shivakumar, Rajath; Bhattacharya, Sourav; Das, Arijit; Gouda, Bhaskar; Rajan, Subbaramiah Sundara

    2014-07-01

    Acrylamide finds diverse industrial applications but is considered an environmental threat because of its neurotoxic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic effects. Certain bacteria enzymatically degrade acrylamide to acrylic acid and ammonia. The present investigation was carried out to isolate and identify an acrylamide-degrading bacterium from industrial effluent. Bacterial growth and extent of acrylamide degradation in the presence of different acrylamide concentrations, nutrients, varied range of pH, and temperature were analyzed. Among the eight acrylamide-degrading isolates, isolate BAC-6 demonstrated the highest degradation, and based upon the partial 16S rDNA sequencing, it was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa BAC-6 grew over a wide range of acrylamide concentrations, but the highest degradation was recorded at 500 mg/L concentration with concomitant cell growth. Among the carbon supplements, mannitol supported the highest growth and degradation. Maximum degradation was reported at neutral pH. A mesophilic temperature range (25-40 °C) facilitated conducive bacterial growth followed by degradation. The highest degradation and bacterial growth were observed at 30 and 35 °C, respectively. Thus, it could be inferred from the present investigation that cultural conditions strongly affected the degradation potential of P. aeruginosa BAC-6 and advocated the utilization of the isolate in bioremediation of sites polluted with acrylamide.

  8. Model studies on acrylamide generation from glucose/asparagine in aqueous glycerol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Granby, Kit;

    2007-01-01

    Acrylamide formation from asparagine and glucose in different ratios in neutral glycerol/water mixtures was found to increase with decreasing water activity (0.33......Acrylamide formation from asparagine and glucose in different ratios in neutral glycerol/water mixtures was found to increase with decreasing water activity (0.33...

  9. 40 CFR 141.111 - Treatment techniques for acrylamide and epichlorohydrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Treatment techniques for acrylamide....111 Treatment techniques for acrylamide and epichlorohydrin. Each public water system must certify annually in writing to the State (using third party or manufacturer's certification) that when...

  10. Birth weight, head circumference, and prenatal exposure to acrylamide from maternal diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; von Stedingk, Hans; Botsivali, Maria;

    2012-01-01

    Acrylamide is a common dietary exposure that crosses the human placenta. It is classified as a probable human carcinogen, and developmental toxicity has been observed in rodents.......Acrylamide is a common dietary exposure that crosses the human placenta. It is classified as a probable human carcinogen, and developmental toxicity has been observed in rodents....

  11. Pre-diagnostic acrylamide exposure and survival after breast cancer among postmenopausal Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anja; Christensen, Jane; Outzen, Malene

    2012-01-01

    Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen, with industrial contact, tobacco smoking and foods processed at high temperatures as the main routes of exposure. In animal studies oral intake of acrylamide has been related to cancer development, with indications that the increased cancer occurrence...... especially regards endocrine related tumors. In human epidemiological studies, dietary exposure to acrylamide has also been suggested related to higher risk of endocrine related tumors, like estrogen sensitive breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate if pre-diagnostic acrylamide exposure......, measured by acrylamide and glycidamide hemoglobin adducts (AA-Hb and GA-Hb), were associated to mortality in breast cancer cases. Among 24,697 postmenopausal women included into a Danish cohort between 1993 and 1997, 420 developed breast cancer before 2001 and 110 died before 2009. AA-Hb and GA...

  12. Deep frying: the role of water from food being fried and acrylamide formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertz Christian

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The formation of acrylamide during food frying is generally influenced by food type, thermal treatment and equipment. The acrylamide concentration is increased when frying oils containing a higher level of polar materials or silicone or larger amounts of diglycerides. This effect may be caused by moisture escaping from food that has an enhancing effect on the heat transfer. It was noticed that if the moisture in the frying operation was bound by special adsorbents, the acrylamide content could be reduced by more than 50%. The effects of several additives like citric acid on the formation of acrylamide during frying of chips were also investigated. The mechanism of acrylamide formation in fried foods is discussed to explain these findings.

  13. Determination of acrylamide in local and commercial cultivar of potatoes from biological farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchettini, Nadia; Focardi, Silvia; Guarnieri, Massimo; Guerranti, Cristiana; Perra, Guido

    2013-02-15

    This paper reports the results of a preliminary study on the characterization of parameters influencing formation of acrylamide in fried potatoes, from biological cultivation. The formation of acrylamide was investigated in relation to frying in biological extra virgin olive oil and commercial seed oil. Three different cultivars (Rossa di Colfiorito, Quarantina bianca genovese and Kennebec) were chosen. Asparagine, glucose, fructose and sucrose concentrations were determined in potato slice before frying, while acrylamide content was analysed by LC-ESI-MS/MS in the slices fried in seed and extra virgin olive oil. The Kennebec cultivar showed differences in its potential for acrylamide formation, which was primarily related to its relatively high asparagine and reducing sugars contents, respect the other local cultivars (particulary Quarantina). Values of acrylamide below detection limit (LOD) were found in Quarantina bianca genovese cultivar samples fried in extra virgin olive oil and peanuts seed oil and higher in peanuts seed oil fried potatoes of Kennebec cultivar.

  14. Acrylamide formation in vegetable oils and animal fats during heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniali, G; Jinap, S; Hajeb, P; Sanny, M; Tan, C P

    2016-12-01

    The method of liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry was utilized and modified to confirm and quantify acrylamide in heating cooking oil and animal fat. Heating asparagine with various cooking oils and animal fat at 180°C produced varying amounts of acrylamide. The acrylamide in the different cooking oils and animal fat using a constant amount of asparagine was measured. Cooking oils were also examined for peroxide, anisidine and iodine values (or oxidation values). A direct correlation was observed between oxidation values and acrylamide formation in different cooking oils. Significantly less acrylamide was produced in saturated animal fat than in unsaturated cooking oil, with 366ng/g in lard and 211ng/g in ghee versus 2447ng/g in soy oil, followed by palm olein with 1442ng/g.

  15. Hydration of acrylonitrile to produce acrylamide using biocatalyst in a membrane dispersion microreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiahui; Chen, Jie; Wang, Yujun; Luo, Guangsheng; Yu, Huimin

    2014-10-01

    In this work, a membrane dispersion microreactor was utilized for the hydration of acrylonitrile to produce acrylamide. Through observation using a microscopy, it was found that the acrylonitrile was dispersed into the continuous phase (the aqueous phase contains nitrile hydratase (NHase)) as droplets with a diameter ranged from 25 to 35 μm, hence the mass transfer specific surface area was significantly increased, and the concentration of acrylamide reached 52.5 wt% within 50 min. By contrast, in stirred tanks, the concentration of acrylamide only got 39.5 wt% within 245 min. Moreover, only a few amounts of acrylonitrile were accumulated in this microreactor system. Through optimizing the flow rate, the concentration of acrylamide reached 45.8 wt% within 35 min, the short reaction time greatly weakened the inhibition of acrylonitrile and acrylamide on the enzyme activity, which is suitable for prolonging the life of free cell.

  16. Occurrence and analytical methods of acrylamide in heat-treated foods. Review and recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Genyi; Zhang, Ying

    2005-05-20

    In early 2002, Swedish National Food Administration (SNFA) and University of Stockholm together announced that certain foods that are processed or cooked at high temperature contain relatively high levels of acrylamide. The occurrence of acrylamide is derived from heat-induced reactions between the amino group of asparagine and the carbonyl group of reducing sugars during baking and frying. Corresponding chromatographic methods are used to determine various structural groups present during this process. Gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis are both acknowledged as the major useful and authoritative methods for the acrylamide determination and other chromatographic methods are also briefly introduced. The aim of this review is to summarize the state-of-the-art about the occurrence, analytical methods, and extraction and clean-up procedures of acrylamide. Special attention is given to chromatographic techniques applied for the occurrence and determination of acrylamide.

  17. Comparison of acrylamide intake from Western and guideline based diets using probabilistic techniques and linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Josh M; Winter, Carl K; Buttrey, Samuel E; Fadel, James G

    2012-03-01

    Western and guideline based diets were compared to determine if dietary improvements resulting from following dietary guidelines reduce acrylamide intake. Acrylamide forms in heat treated foods and is a human neurotoxin and animal carcinogen. Acrylamide intake from the Western diet was estimated with probabilistic techniques using teenage (13-19 years) National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) food consumption estimates combined with FDA data on the levels of acrylamide in a large number of foods. Guideline based diets were derived from NHANES data using linear programming techniques to comport to recommendations from the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2005. Whereas the guideline based diets were more properly balanced and rich in consumption of fruits, vegetables, and other dietary components than the Western diets, acrylamide intake (mean±SE) was significantly greater (Plinear programming and results demonstrate that linear programming techniques can be used to model specific diets for the assessment of toxicological and nutritional dietary components.

  18. Bioconversion of acrylonitrile to acrylamide using polyacrylamide entrapped cells of Rhodococcus rhodochrous PA-34.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, J; Prasad, S; Sharma, N N; Bhalla, T C

    2010-09-01

    The nitrile hydratase (NHase) of Rhodococcus rhodochrous PA-34 catalyzed the conversion of acrylonitrile to acrylamide. The resting cells (having NHase activity) (8 %; 1 mL corresponds to 22 mg dry cell mass, DCM) were immobilized in polyacrylamide gel containing 12.5 % acrylamide, 0.6 % bisacrylamide, 0.2 % diammonium persulfate and 0.4 % TEMED. The polyacrylamide entrapped cells (1.12 mg DCM/mL) completely converted acrylonitrile in 3 h at 10 °C, using 0.1 mol/L potassium phosphate buffer. In a partitioned fed batch reactor, 432 g/L acrylamide was accumulated after 1 d. The polyacrylamide discs were recycled up to 3×; 405, 210 and 170 g/L acrylamide was produced in 1st, 2nd and 3rd recycling reactions. In four cycles, a total of 1217 g acrylamide was produced by recycling the same mass of entrapped cells.

  19. A review of acrylamide: an industry perspective on research, analysis, formation, and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taeymans, Dominique; Wood, John; Ashby, Peter; Blank, Imre; Studer, Alfred; Stadler, Richard H; Gondé, Pierre; Van Eijck, Paul; Lalljie, Sam; Lingnert, Hans; Lindblom, Marianne; Matissek, Reinhard; Müller, Detflef; Tallmadge, Dan; O'Brien, John; Thompson, Sara; Silvani, David; Whitmore, Tricia

    2004-01-01

    Acrylamide is a synthetic monomer with a wide scope of industrial applications, mainly as a precursor in the production of several polymers, such as polyacrylamide. The main uses of polyacrylamides are in water and wastewater treatment processes, pulp and paper processing, and mining and mineral processing. The announcement by the Swedish National Food Administration in April 2002 of the presence of acrylamide predominantly in heat-treated carbohydrate-rich foods sparked intensive investigations into acrylamide, encompassing the occurrence, chemistry, agricultural practices, and toxicology, in order to establish if there is a potential risk to human health from the presence of this contaminant in the human diet. The link of acrylamide in foods to the Maillard reaction and, in particular, to the amino acid asparagine has been a major step forward in elucidating the first feasible chemical route of formation during the preparation and processing of food. Other probably minor pathways have also been proposed, including acrolein and acrylic acid. This review addresses the analytical and mechanistic aspects of the acrylamide issue and summarizes the progress made to date by the European food industries in these key areas. Essentially, it presents experimental results generated under laboratory model conditions, as well as under actual food processing conditions covering different food categories, such as potatoes, biscuits, cereals, and coffee. Since acrylamide formation is closely linked to food composition, factors such as the presence of sugars and availability of free amino acids are also considered. Many new findings that contribute towards a better understanding of the formation and presence of acrylamide in foods are presented. Many national authorities across the world are assessing the dietary exposure of consumers to acrylamide, and scientific projects have commenced to gather new information about the toxicology of acrylamide. These are expected to provide

  20. Detection of acrylamide in potato chips using a fluorescent sensing method based on acrylamide polymerization-induced distance increase between quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qinqin; Xu, Xiahong; Li, Zhanming; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Jianping; Fu, Yingchun; Li, Yanbin

    2014-04-15

    Acrylamide is a neurotoxin and potential carcinogen, but is found in various thermally processed foods such as potato chips, biscuits, and coffee. Simple and sensitive methods for on-line detection of acrylamide are needed to ensure food safety. In this paper, a novel fluorescent sensing method based on acrylamide polymerization-induced distance increase between quantum dots (QDs) was proposed for detecting acrylamide in potato chips. The functional QDs were prepared by their binding with N-acryloxysuccinimide (NAS), which was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FR-IR) spectra. The carbon-carbon double bonds of NAS modified QDs polymerized with assistance of photo initiator under UV irradiation, leading to QDs getting closer along with fluorescence intensity decreasing. Acrylamide in the sample participated in the polymerization and induced an increase of fluorescence intensity. This method possessed a linear range from 3.5×10(-5) to 3.5 g L(-1) (r(2)=0.94) and a limit of detection of 3.5×10(-5) g L(-1). Although the sensitivity and specificity cannot be compared with standard LC-MS/MS analysis, this new method requires much less time and cost, which is promising for on-line rapid detection of acrylamide in food processing.

  1. Structural Changes of Polyethylene Terephthalate Fibers Grafted by Acrylamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施琴芬; 戴礼兴

    2003-01-01

    A group of grafted PET fibers with different graft yield are formed by grafiing acrylamide onto the PET main chains. The structure of grafted fibers are studied by scanning electronic microscope ( SEM ), infra-red spectrophotometer (IR), and differential scanning calorimetry( DSC ). At the same time, the moisture regain, dyeability, strength, and elongation at break of the samples are measured and their relations with structural changes are discussed. Compared with ungrafted fiber, shape of the fiber cross-section, IR characteristic absorption peaks, and melting behavior of the grafted fibers have been changed, causing the fiber dyeability and moisture regain to be increased, and mechanical properties to be changed.

  2. Analytical methods used to measure acrylamide concentrations in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Laurence; Eriksson, Sune

    2005-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of analysis for acrylamide in food is reviewed. The majority of analytical methods adopts a similar approach: addition of internal standard to the specimen, extraction with water, purification of extract using a solid-phase extraction cartridge, and then determination using either gas chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) after bromination, or direct measurement with liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy (LC/MS). The available methods generally show good agreement and are likely to be accurate. However, improvements in precision (within-laboratory) and repeatability (between-laboratory) are needed by particular data users.

  3. Effects of Acrylamide Toxicity on Growth Performance and Serobiochemisty of Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almoeiz Y. Hammad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to obtain information on the effects of various dietary doses of the Acrylamide on Wistar rats. Emphasis was put on changes on growth and serobiochemical constituents of treated rats. Extra pure Acrylamide was fed to Wistar rats at 10, 30, 60 and 90 mg/kg, respectively of the standard diet for 6 weeks. Acrylamide was then withdrawn from the diet for four weeks. Incorporation in diet of the doses 10, 30, 60 and 90 mg/kg acrylamide was toxic to Wistar rats, but fatal only to those of group 5 fed on 90 mg/kg, where five rats (62.5% died on day 18 of the experimental period. Depression in growth was observed in rats that had been fed on the experimental doses for 6 weeks. Neurotoxicity was observed only in the rats fed on acrylamide at 10 (Group 2 and 60 mg/kg (Group 4. These findings were accompanied by alterations in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activities and albumin, globulin and cholesterol concentrations. The alteration on enzymes activities, urea and cholesterol remained even after the 4 weeks withdrawal of acrylamide, whereas, total protein, albumin, globulins and electrolytes concentration returned to their normal values. Acrylamide is considered neurotoxic at dietary levels of 10 and 60 mg/kg and enterohepatonephrotoxic to Wistar rats at dietary level of 10, 30, 60 and 90 mg/kg and fatal at the treatment dose of 90 mg/kg.

  4. IMPACT OF PRE-TREATMENTS ON THE ACRYLAMIDE FORMATION AND ORGANOLEPTIC EVOLUTION OF FRIED POTATO CHIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Abdel-Monem Ahmed Ismial

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this investigation was to study the effect of different pre-frying treatments on reduction of acrylamide formation of fried potato Moreover; the impact of different phenol compounds and leaves on acrylamide formation was evaluated. In addition, the effects of these treatments on the sensorial quality of fried potato chips were studied. Results showed that blanching process caused significant decreases in acrylamide content of fried potato. The highest decrease was observed for those samples blanched in MgCl2 (0.1 M, L-cysteine (0.05 M and 0.01 M of citric acid solutions, 97.97, 97.17 and 93.43%, respectively. Soaking of potato slices in water or different solutions significantly reduced the formation of acrylamide. The decreases in acrylamide content ranged from 61.61 to 97.47%. Soaking in crude, semi-purified asparaginase solutions, blanching in hot water plus immersing in the enzyme solutions and soaking in phenolic acid solutions caused significant reduction in the formation of acrylamide of potato chips. Addition of fresh leaves into frying oil significantly influenced acrylamide formation. Oregano, rosemary, bamboo, guava and olive leaves caused the greatest reductions. Potato slices blanched in distilled water at 65°C, NaCl, Mg Cl2 and 0.1 M glutamine had significantly the highest scores of overall acceptability.

  5. Transplacental transfer of acrylamide and glycidamide are comparable to that of antipyrine in perfused human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annola, Kirsi; Karttunen, Vesa; Keski-Rahkonen, Pekka; Myllynen, Päivi; Segerbäck, Dan; Heinonen, Seppo; Vähäkangas, Kirsi

    2008-11-10

    Most drugs can penetrate the placenta but there are only a few studies on placental transfer of environmental toxic compounds. In this study, we used dual recirculating human placental perfusion to determine the transfer rate through the placenta of a neurotoxic and carcinogenic compound found in food, acrylamide and its genotoxic metabolite glycidamide. Putative acrylamide metabolism into glycidamide during the 4-h perfusions and acrylamide-derived DNA adducts in placental DNA after perfusions were also analyzed. Placentas were collected immediately after delivery and kept physiologically functional as confirmed by antipyrine kinetics, glucose consumption and leak from fetal to maternal circulation. Acrylamide (5 or 10 microg/ml) or glycidamide (5 microg/ml), both with antipyrine (100 microg/ml), was added to maternal circulation. Acrylamide and glycidamide were analyzed in the perfusion medium by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Acrylamide and glycidamide crossed the placenta from maternal to fetal circulation with similar kinetics to antipyrine, suggesting fetal exposure if the mother is exposed. The concentrations in maternal and fetal circulations equilibrated within 2h for both studied compounds and with both concentrations. Acrylamide metabolism into glycidamide was not detected during the 4-h perfusions. Moreover, DNA adducts were undetectable in the placentas after perfusions. However, fetuses may be exposed to glycidamide after maternal metabolism. Although not found in placental tissue after 4h of perfusion, it is possible that glycidamide adducts are formed in fetal DNA.

  6. Occurrence and fate of acrylamide in water-recycling systems and sludge in aggregate industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqua, Guillaume; Spinelli, Sylvie; Gonzalez, Catherine

    2015-05-01

    Acrylamide is a hazardous substance having irritant and toxic properties as well as carcinogen, mutagen, and impaired fertility possible effects. Acrylamide might be found in the environment as a consequence of the use of polyacrylamides (PAMs) widely added as a flocculant for water treatment. Acrylamide is a monomer used to produce polyacrylamide (PAM) polymers. This reaction of polymerization can be incomplete, and acrylamide molecules can be present as traces in the commercial polymer. Thus, the use of PAMs may generate a release of acrylamide in the environment. In aggregate industries, PAM is widely involved in recycling process and water reuse (aggregate washing). Indeed, these industries consume large quantities of water. Thus, European and French regulations have favored loops of recycling of water in order to reduce water withdrawals. The main goal of this article is to study the occurrence and fate of acrylamide in water-recycling process as well as in the sludge produced by the flocculation treatment process in aggregate production plants. Moreover, to strengthen the relevance of this article, the objective is also to demonstrate if the recycling system leads to an accumulation effect in waters and sludge and if free acrylamide could be released by sludge during their storage. To reach this objective, water sampled at different steps of recycling water process has been analyzed as well as different sludge corresponding to various storage times. The obtained results reveal no accumulation effect in the water of the water-recycling system nor in the sludge.

  7. Acrylamide exposure among Turkish toddlers from selected cereal-based baby food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Mehmet Fatih; Gündüz, Cennet Pelin Boyacı

    2013-10-01

    In this study, acrylamide exposure from selected cereal-based baby food samples was investigated among toddlers aged 1-3 years in Turkey. The study contained three steps. The first step was collecting food consumption data and toddlers' physical properties, such as gender, age and body weight, using a questionnaire given to parents by a trained interviewer between January and March 2012. The second step was determining the acrylamide levels in food samples that were reported on by the parents in the questionnaire, using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. The last step was combining the determined acrylamide levels in selected food samples with individual food consumption and body weight data using a deterministic approach to estimate the acrylamide exposure levels. The mean acrylamide levels of baby biscuits, breads, baby bread-rusks, crackers, biscuits, breakfast cereals and powdered cereal-based baby foods were 153, 225, 121, 604, 495, 290 and 36 μg/kg, respectively. The minimum, mean and maximum acrylamide exposures were estimated to be 0.06, 1.43 and 6.41 μg/kg BW per day, respectively. The foods that contributed to acrylamide exposure were aligned from high to low as bread, crackers, biscuits, baby biscuits, powdered cereal-based baby foods, baby bread-rusks and breakfast cereals.

  8. Influence of processing conditions on acrylamide content in black ripe olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, Francisco J; Montaño, Alfredo

    2008-03-26

    The presence of acrylamide was investigated in different presentations of commercial black ripe olives, a well-known sterilized alkali-treated product. The analysis was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after bromination of acrylamide, using (13C3)acrylamide as internal standard. In-house validation data for commercial ripe olives showed good precision and accuracy of the method, with repeatability below 3% and recoveries between 94 and 105%. Acrylamide was detected in all samples, but its concentration varied significantly from 176 to 1578 microg/kg of pulp. The effects of different processing conditions (two preservation methods and three darkening methods), cultivar (Hojiblanca or Manzanilla), and presentation form (pitted or sliced olives) on acrylamide content were evaluated in experiments performed in an olive-processing plant. All canned samples were sterilized at 121 degrees C for 30 min. Statistical analysis of the data indicated that the effects of darkening method and olive cultivar were the most pronounced. Acrylamide contents did not significantly differ after 6 months of storage. The small amounts of free amino acids and reducing sugars found in olives before sterilization did not significantly correlate with the acrylamide formed.

  9. Acrylamide Mitigation in Potato Chips by Using NaCl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Granby, Kit; Risum, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    slices in a NaCl solution over the acrylamide formation in the resultant potato chips. Potato slices (Verdi variety, diameter 40 mm, width 2.0 mm) were fried at 170 °C for 5 min (final moisture content of ∼2.0%). Prior to frying, the potato slices were treated in one of the following ways: (1) control...... slices (unblanched or raw potato slices); (2) slices blanched at 90 °C for 5 min in water; (3) slices blanched at 90 °C for 5 min plus immersed in a 1 g/100 g NaCl solution at 25 °C for 5 min; (4) slices blanched at 90 °C for 5 min plus immersed in a 3 g/100 g NaCl solution at 25 °C for 5 min; (5) slices...... blanched at 90 °C for 5 min plus immersed in distilled water at 25 °C for 5 min; and (6) slices blanched at 90 °C for 5 min in a 3 g/100 g NaCl solution. Blanching followed by the immersion of potato slices in 1 g/100 g NaCl solution was effective in reducing acrylamide content in ∼62%; however, almost...

  10. Characterization of ultraviolet-photocured acrylamide based polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozi, Normazida; Hanifah, Sharina Abu; Heng, Lee Yook; Shyuan, Loh Kee

    2016-11-01

    Poly (acrylamide-co-ethyl methacrylate) (AAm-co-EMA) membrane was studied and compared with poly (acrylamide) (AAm). Poly (AAm-co-EMA) and poly (AAm) membranes were synthesized using photopolymerization technique. These membranes were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), swelling test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of these membranes to be used for enzyme immobilization. FTIR spectra exhibited peaks of -CO and -CH3 functional groups at 1166 cm-1 and 1377 cm-1 and confirmed that poly (AAm-co-EMA) was successfully formed. The equilibrium swelling percentage of poly (AAm) and poly (AAm-co-EMA) were 93.97 % and 96.24 %. It was found out that 10 % of EMA monomer was added to form the copolymer, the membrane produced a good hydrolytic stability copolymer in water and indicated its biocompatibility. This finding may be attributed by the morphology property as a semi porous surface of copolymer was formed. In conclusion, poly (AAM-co-EMA) was successfully synthesized and more suitable for enzyme immobilization.

  11. Pyrolytic acrylamide formation from purified wheat gluten and gluten-supplemented wheat bread rolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, Achim; Weisz, Georg M; Schieber, Andreas; Carle, Reinhold

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed different acrylamide formation mechanisms, e. g. from carnosine (N-beta-alanyl-L-histidine) and aminopropionamide as additional precursors. The occurrence of acrylamide in food matrices devoid of common precursors such as meat supports an additional formation pathway. Gluten was recovered from wheat flour by water extraction. Starch, reducing sugars and amino acids were removed using alpha-amylase and NaCl solution and were completely absent in the purified gluten fraction. The gluten was dry heated at temperatures ranging from 160 to 240 degrees C for 8 to 12 min and analyzed for acrylamide and cinnamic amide using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Acrylamide could be detected up to 3997 microg/kg gluten dry weight. Cinnamic amide was detected and unambiguously identified in the gluten samples, thus confirming the proposed formation of acrylamide from proteins. After gluten addition to bread roll dough, protein pyrolysis to form acrylamide in the complex food matrix was assessed. Contents of asparagine and reducing sugars were diminished due to the addition of the gluten. In contrast to the expectation with respect to the well-established common formation mechanism of acrylamide, it increased from 53.4 to 63.9 microg/kg (+20%), which was in good correlation with the higher proportion of gluten. As demonstrated by the t-test, the increase in acrylamide was significant when comparing 0 and 15% gluten addition. Additionally, cinnamic amide could be found in crusts of bread rolls. Thus, evidence for pyrolytic formation of acrylamide from wheat gluten was provided.

  12. Interference study on the free calcium in the human peripheral lymphocyte by acrylamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Yan Wang; Chun Gui Zhao; Ye Hong Zhou; Shao Min Shuang; Chuan Dong

    2008-01-01

    The role of acrylamide on the human peripheral lymphocytes was studied by laser scanning confocal microscopy technique and fluo-3. The calibration value of the apparent dissociation constant (Kd) of the fluo-3-Ca2+ complex was obtained as 4.83×10-7mol/L. Acrylamide (<54μg/mL) evoked a rise in free intracellular calcium concentration [Ca2+]I, in a dose dependent manner. Acrylamide induced the increase of [Ca+2]I was discussed in detail.

  13. Rheological properties of poly(acrylamide-co-sodium acrylate) and poly(acrylamide-co-sodium vinylsulfonate) solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹杰; 车玉菊; 曹绪龙; 张继超; 王洪艳; 谭业邦

    2008-01-01

    Poly(acrylamide-co-sodium acrylate)(PAM/AA-Na) and poly(acrylamide-co-sodium vinylsulfonate)(PAM/VSS-Na) were prepared by inverse emulsion polymerization.The effects of CaCl2 on PAM/VSS-Na or PAM/VSS-Na aqueous solutions were investigated by steady-flow experiments at 25,40,55 and 70 ℃.The results show that the apparent viscosities of both solutions decrease with addition of CaCl2 or increase of temperature and shear rates.PAM/VSS-Na solution has better performance on the salt tolerance,shear endurance and temperature resistance due to containing sulfonic group in the molecules.Ca2+ concentration can affect the viscous activation energy of both solutions and the reason may be that these interactions between Ca2+ and also copolymer molecules are related to temperature and competitive in solution.These results may offer the basic data for searching the flooding systems with the ability of temperature resistance,salt tolerance and shear endurance for tertiary oil recovery.

  14. PLENARY LECTURES-PL4 Acrylamide: the new dilemma in food safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S SRIANUJATA

    2006-01-01

    @@ Acrylamide has been brought to the world attention in 2002 with the information that it was found contaminated in many heat treated carbohydrate rich foods. This creates a lot of concern worldwide since the appearance of Aflatoxins many decades ago.

  15. SYNTHESIS,CHARACTERIZATION AND SELECTIVITY STUDIES OF POLY(ACRYLAMIDE)INCORPORATING SCHIFF BASES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nur(s)en Sarl; Serkan (O)zcan

    2009-01-01

    Three novel polymers incorporating Schiff bases,derived from condensation reactions of poly(acrylamide)with 5-chloro-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde,5-bromo-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde and 5-methyl-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde,have been synthesized,and their Cu(Ⅱ)and Ni(Ⅱ)complexes have been prepared.The 1H-NMR signals of the -CH=N- and -NH2 groups have been utilized to determine the relative abundances of Schiff base and acrylamide groups in the polymers containing Schiff bases.Poly(acrylamide)incorporating Schiff bases and metal complexes thereof have been characterized by molar conductance,magnetic susceptibility and electronic and IR spectral studies.The selectivity of poly(acrylamide)incorporating Schiff bases in forming Ni(Ⅱ)-aldehyde and Cu(Ⅱ)-aldehyde complexes has been studied.The Cu(Ⅱ)and Ni(Ⅱ)contents in the metal-bearing polymer complexes were determined by the ICP-MS technique.

  16. Studies on LCST of poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid-co-N-diacetone acrylamide)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Hua Ni; Xiao Xia Zhu; Qing Lan Wang; Xian Yu Zeng

    2007-01-01

    Linear copolymers from N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA), acrylic acid (AA) and diacetone acrylamide (DAA) have been prepared.The effect of composition, ionic strength and pH on their lower critical solution temperature (LCST) has been investigated.

  17. Contribution of peptides and polyphenols from olive water to acrylamide formation in sterilized table olives

    OpenAIRE

    Casado, Francisco Javier; Montaño, Alfredo; Carle, Reinhold

    2014-01-01

    To confirm the role of peptides as principal precursors of acrylamide formation in sterilized table olives, peptides from olive water were fractionated. After their partial fractionation by solid phase extraction (SPE) and ultrafiltration (

  18. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation during baking of biscuits: Part I: Effects of sugar type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha T; Van der Fels-Klerx, H J Ine; Peters, Ruud J B; Van Boekel, Martinus A J S

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of sugar type on the reaction mechanism for formation of acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) during the baking of biscuits at 200°C using multiresponse modelling. Four types of biscuits were prepared: (1) with sucrose, (2) with glucose and fructose, (3) with fructose only and (4) with glucose only. Experimental data showed that HMF concentration was highest in biscuits with glucose and fructose, whereas acrylamide concentration was highest in biscuits with glucose, also having the highest asparagine concentration. Proposed mechanistic models suggested that HMF is formed via caramelisation and that acrylamide formation follows the specific amino acid route, i.e., reducing sugars react with asparagine to form the Schiff base before decarboxylation, to generate acrylamide without the Amadori rearrangement product and sugar fragmentation. Study results contribute to understanding chemical reaction pathways in real food products.

  19. Acrylamide in Romanian food using HPLC-UV and a health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oroian, Mircea; Amariei, Sonia; Gutt, Gheorghe

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the level of acrylamide from coffee, potato chips and French fries in Romanian food. According to the European Food Safety Authority, coffee beans, potato chips and French fries have the highest levels of acrylamide. For this survey, 50 samples of coffee beans, 50 samples of potato chips and 25 samples of French fries were purchased from different producers from the Romanian market. Acrylamide levels have been quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method, using water as mobile phase. Health risk assessment was achieved by computing the average daily intake, hazard quotient, cumulative risk, carcinogenic risk and cancer risk. For coffee, potato chips and French fries, acrylamide was not shown to pose a health risk in Romanian food.

  20. Inhibition of neurosphere formation in neural stem/progenitor cells by acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jong-Hang; Lee, Don-Ching; Chen, Mei-Shu; Ko, Ying-Chin; Chiu, Ing-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies showed that transplantation of cultured neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) could improve functional recovery for various neurological diseases. This study aims to develop a stem cell-based model for predictive toxicology of development in the neurological system after acrylamide exposure. Treatment of mouse (KT98/F1B-GFP) and human (U-1240 MG/F1B-GFP) NSPCs with 0.5 mM acrylamide resulted in the inhibition of neurosphere formation (definition of self-renewal ability in NSPCs), but not inhibition of cell proliferation. Apoptosis and differentiation of KT98 (a precursor of KT98/F1B-GFP) and KT98/F1B-GFP are not observed in acrylamide-treated neurospheres. Analysis of secondary neurosphere formation and differentiation of neurons and glia illustrated that acrylamide-treated KT98 and KT98/F1B-GFP neurospheres retain the NSPC properties, such as self-renewal and differentiation capacity. Correlation of acrylamide-inhibited neurosphere formation with cell-cell adhesion was observed in mouse NSPCs by live cell image analysis and the presence of acrylamide. Protein expression levels of cell adhesion molecules [neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and N-cadherin] and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) in acrylamide-treated KT98/F1B-GFP and U-1240 MG/F1B-GFP neurospheres demonstrated that NCAM decreased and phospho-ERK (pERK) increased, whereas expression of N-cadherin remained unchanged. Analysis of AKT (protein kinase B, PKB)/β-catenin pathway showed decrease in phospho-AKT (p-AKT) and cyclin D1 expression in acrylamide-treated neurospheres of KT98/F1B-GFP. Furthermore, PD98059, an ERK phosphorylation inhibitor, attenuated acrylamide-induced ERK phosphorylation, indicating that pERK contributed to the cell proliferation, but not in neurosphere formation in mouse NSPCs. Coimmunoprecipitation results of KT98/F1B-GFP cell lysates showed that the complex of NCAM and fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) is present in the neurosphere, and the

  1. Dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of colorectal cancer with specific mutations in KRAS and APC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogervorst, Janneke G F; de Bruijn-Geraets, Daisy; Schouten, Leo J; van Engeland, Manon; de Kok, Theo M C M; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; van den Brandt, Piet A; Weijenberg, Matty P

    2014-05-01

    Acrylamide, a probable human carcinogen, is present in heat-treated carbohydrate-rich foods. Epidemiological studies have not shown a clear association between acrylamide intake and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. This may be due to the molecular heterogeneity in colorectal tumors, which was not taken into consideration before. Since the acrylamide metabolite glycidamide induces specific DNA mutations in rodents, we investigated whether acrylamide is associated with CRC risk characterized by mutations in Kirsten-ras (KRAS) and adenomatous polyposis coli (APC); key genes in colorectal carcinogenesis. This case-cohort analysis, within the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer, was based on 7.3 years of follow-up. Acrylamide intake was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Mutation analysis of codons 1286-1520 in exon 15 in APC and codons 12 and 13 in exon 1 in KRAS was performed on tumor tissue of 733 cases. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards analysis. Among men, acrylamide intake was statistically significantly associated with an increased risk of particularly tumors with an activating KRAS mutation {HR fourth versus first quartile: 2.12 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16-3.87], P trend: 0.01}. Among women, acrylamide intake was statistically significantly associated with a decreased risk of particularly tumors with a truncating APC mutation (fourth versus first quartile: 0.47 (95% CI: 0.23-0.94), P trend: 0.02), but only in the highest quartile of intake. This is the first study to show that acrylamide might be associated with CRC with specific somatic mutations, differentially in men and women. More research is needed to corroborate or refute these findings.

  2. Acrylamide content and color development in fried potato strips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, F.; Kaack, K.; Granby, Kit

    2006-01-01

    water/100 g (total basis). Prior to frying, potato strips were treated in one of the following ways: (i) immersed in distilled water for 0 min (control), 60 min and 120 min; (ii) blanched in hot water at six different time-temperature combinations (50 degrees C for 40 and 80 min; 70 degrees C for 10...... and 45 min; 90 degrees C for 3 and 10 min); (iii) immersed in a citric acid solution of 10 g/L for an hour; (iv) immersed in a sodium pyrophosphate solution of 10 g/L for an hour. Acrylamide content and color was determined in the potato strips after frying. Immersed strips in water for 120 min showed...

  3. Polymerisation by acrylamide and acrylic acid inverse suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Alejandro LLoreda Blanco

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This work describes polymerisation by inverse suspension of acrylamide monomers and acrylic acid for forming homopolymers or copolymers This type of polymersitaion's advantages are described and reasons given for why it should be studied. The article stresses the importance of these types of monomer for obtaining materials presenting great affinity for water, such as super-absorbents and controlled liberation mechanism. Important aspects are presented such as type of initiation, monomer composition and continuous phase composition; parameters are described offering an important basis for formulating a system leading to successfully obtaining the desired materials' most relevant characteristics such as particle distribution and size polymerisation kinetics, conversion and water absorption capacity respecting the system's modifiable parameters. The foregoing is important since the product can be modified, bestowing propierties on it which are suitable for its use.

  4. Acrylamide: formation, occurrence in food products, detection methods, and legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S; Dionisopoulou, Niki

    2014-01-01

    This review aims at summarizing the most recent updates in the field of acrylamide (AA) formation (mechanism, conditions) and the determination of AA in a number of foods (fried or baked potatoes, chips, coffee, bread, etc). The methods applied for AA detection [Capillary Electrophoresis-Mass Spectrometry (CE-MS), Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), Non-Aqueous Capillary Electrophoresis (NACE), High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-MS), Pressurized Fluid Extraction (PFE), Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion (MSPD), Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), Solid-Phase MicroExtraction-Gas Chromatography (SPME-GC), Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), and MicroEmulsion ElectroKinetic Chromatography (MEEKC) are presented and commented. Several informative figures and tables are included to show the effect of conditions (temperature, time) on the AA formation. A section is also included related to AA legislation in EU and US.

  5. Reactivity Ratios of Diethyldiallylammonium Chloride with Acrylamide or Acrylic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hua LIU; Zhi Qiang LIU; Zhu Qing GONG

    2006-01-01

    The compositions of copolymers of diethyldiallylammonium chloride (DEDAAC) with acrylamide (AM), acrylic acid (AA) or sodium acrylic acid (NaAA) at low conversion were determined by elemental analysis, and the reactivity ratios of monomers in copolymerization were obtained by Kelen-Tudos method. The results showed that the reactivity ratios rDE and rAM are 0.31 and 5.27 for DEDAAC with AM, rDE and rAA are 0.28 and 5.15 for DEDAAC with AA, and rDE and rNaAA are 0.40 and 3.97 for DEDAAC with NaAA, respectively. The copolymerizations for DEDAAC with AM, AA or NaAA are non-ideal copolymerization and the products are random copolymers.

  6. Acrylamide exposure and incidence of breast cancer among postmenopausal women in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Olsen, Anja; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    2008-01-01

    Acrylamide, a probable human carcinogen, is formed in several foods during high-temperature processing. So far, epidemiological studies have not shown any association between human cancer risk and dietary exposure to acrylamide. The purpose of this study was to conduct a nested case control study...... within a prospective cohort study on the association between breast cancer and exposure to acrylamide using biomarkers. N-terminal hemoglobin adduct levels of acrylamide and its genotoxic metabolite, glycidamide in red blood cells were analyzed (by LC/MS/MS) as biomarkers of exposure on 374 breast cancer...... cases and 374 controls from a cohort of postmenopausal women. The adduct levels of acrylamide and glycidamide were similar in cases and controls, with smokers having much higher levels (similar to 3 times) than nonsmokers. No association was seen between acrylamide-hemoglobin levels and breast cancer...

  7. Acrylamide: inhibition of formation in processed food and mitigation of toxicity in cells, animals, and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mendel

    2015-06-01

    Potentially toxic acrylamide is largely derived from the heat-inducing reactions between the amino group of the amino acid asparagine and carbonyl groups of glucose and fructose in plant-derived foods including cereals, coffees, almonds, olives, potatoes, and sweet potatoes. This review surveys and consolidates the following dietary aspects of acrylamide: distribution in food, exposure and consumption by diverse populations, reduction of the content in different food categories, and mitigation of adverse in vivo effects. Methods to reduce acrylamide levels include selecting commercial food with a low acrylamide content, selecting cereal and potato varieties with low levels of asparagine and reducing sugars, selecting processing conditions that minimize acrylamide formation, adding food-compatible compounds and plant extracts to food formulations before processing that inhibit acrylamide formation during processing of cereal products, coffees, teas, olives, almonds, and potato products, and reducing multiorgan toxicity (antifertility, carcinogenicity, neurotoxicity, teratogenicity). The herein described observations and recommendations are of scientific interest for food chemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology, but also have the potential to benefit nutrition, food safety, and human health.

  8. Biodegradation of acrylamide by Enterobacter aerogenes isolated from wastewater in Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kanokhathai Buranasilp; Jittima Charoenpanich

    2011-01-01

    A widespread use of acrylamide, probably a neurotoxicant and carcinogen, in various industrial processes has led to environmental contamination. Fortunately, some microorganisms are able to derive energy from acrylamide. In the present work, we reported the isolation and characterization of a novel acrylamide-degrading bacterium from domestic wastewater in Chonburi, Thailand. The strain grew well in the presence of acrylamide as 0.5% (W/V), at pH 6.0 to 9.0 and 25℃. Identification based on biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequence identified the strain as Enterobacter aerogenes. Degradation of acrylamide to acrylic acid started in the late logarithmic growth phase as a biomass-dependent pattern. Specificity of cell-free supernatant towards amides completely degraded butyramide and urea and 86% of lactamide. Moderate degradation took place in other amides with that by formamide > benzamide > acetamide > cyanoacetamide > propionamide. No degradation was detected in the reactions of N,N-methylene bisacrylamide, sodium azide, thioacetamide, and iodoacetamide. These results highlighted the potential of this bacterium in the cleanup of acrylamide/amide in the environment.

  9. Importance of a canteen lunch on the dietary intake of acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestdagh, Frédéric; Lachat, Carl; Baert, Katleen; Moons, Emmanuelle; Kolsteren, Patrick; Van Peteghem, Carlos; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2007-05-01

    A food and drink intake survey was carried out among university students and staff members. Consumption data were collected on days when the participants took hot lunch in a university canteen. The dietary acrylamide exposure was calculated through a probabilistic approach and revealed a median intake of 0.40 microg/kg bw/day [90% confidence interval: 0.36-0.44], which is in accordance with previous exposure calculations. Biscuits (35.4%), French fries (29.9%), bread (23.5%), and chocolate (11.2%) were identified to be the main sources of dietary acrylamide. Foodstuffs consumed in between the three main meals of the day (so called snack type foods) contributed the most to the intake (42.2%). The exposure was lower in an intervention group which received free portions of fruit and vegetables, indicating that a nutritionally balanced diet may contribute to a decreased acrylamide intake. French fries had a significant impact on the acrylamide intake, due to the frequent consumption in the canteen. This demonstrates the important responsibility of caterers and canteen kitchens in the mitigation of acrylamide exposure through reduction of acrylamide in their prepared products, in particular in French fries.

  10. Effects of low dose acrylamide on the rat reproductive organs structure, fertility and gene integrity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saleh Alkarim; Sufyan Elassouli; Soad Ali; Nasra Ayuob; Zaki Elassouli

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To assesses the effects of long term exposure to low dose of acrylamide (0.4 μg /g) in post-weaning Sprague-Dawley rats on the structure of the reproductive organ as well as DNA integrity. Methods:The histological changes in the male and female reproductive organs the morphological changes in sperms as well as the genotoxic effect of acrylamide were assessed. The effect acrylamide on pregnancy outcome was evaluated.Results:Testes of acrylamide-fed rats showed decreased number of seminiferous tubules containing mature sperms and degenerative changes in sperm germ cell layers. Some sperms of epididymal cauda showed head deformity. In female, acrylamide included cystic ovarian changes, degenerative changes of zona pelluida, granulosa cells and oocytes. Post implantation loss and decrease in the number of full term fetuses were detected. Resorption sites showed necrotic fetal tissue with vacuolation of amniotic cells.Conclusion:Acrylamide cause harmful effect on the reproductive organ structure, fertility and cause extensive DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes.

  11. Biodegradation of acrylamide by Enterobacter aerogenes isolated from wastewater in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buranasilp, Kanokhathai; Charoenpanich, Jittima

    2011-01-01

    A widespread use of acrylamide, probably a neurotoxicant and carcinogen, in various industrial processes has led to environmental contamination. Fortunately, some microorganisms are able to derive energy from acrylamide. In the present work, we reported the isolation and characterization of a novel acrylamide-degrading bacterium from domestic wastewater in Chonburi, Thailand. The strain grew well in the presence of acrylamide as 0.5% (W/V), at pH 6.0 to 9.0 and 25 degrees C. Identification based on biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequence identified the strain as Enterobacter aerogenes. Degradation of acrylamide to acrylic acid started in the late logarithmic growth phase as a biomass-dependent pattern. Specificity of cell-free supernatant towards amides completely degraded butyramide and urea and 86% of lactamide. Moderate degradation took place in other amides with that by formamide > benzamide > acetamide > cyanoacetamide > propionamide. No degradation was detected in the reactions of N,N-methylene bisacrylamide, sodium azide, thioacetamide, and iodoacetamide. These results highlighted the potential of this bacterium in the cleanup of acrylamide/amide in the environment.

  12. Validation of a novel derivatization method for GC-ECD determination of acrylamide in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notardonato, Ivan; Avino, Pasquale; Centola, Angela; Cinelli, Giuseppe; Russo, Mario Vincenzo

    2013-07-01

    This paper proposes a new method for quantitative analysis of acrylamide in cereal-based foods and potato chips. The method uses reaction with trifluoroacetic anhydride, and analyses the resulting derivative by use of gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). The effects of derivatization conditions, including temperature, reaction time, and catalyst, on the acylation reaction were evaluated. Chromatographic analysis was performed on an SE-54 capillary column. Under the optimum conditions, good retention and peak response were achieved for the acrylamide derivative. The analytical method was fully validated by assessment of LODs and LOQs (1 ng g(-1) and 25 ng g(-1), with relative standard deviations (RSD) 2.1 and 3.6, respectively), linearity (R = 0.9935 over the range 0.03-10 μg g(-1)), and extraction recovery (>96%, with RSD below 2.0, for acrylamide spiked at 1, 20, 50, and 100 ng g(-1); 99.8% for acrylamide content >1000 ng g(-1)). The method requires no clean-up of the acrylamide derivative before injection. The method has been successfully used to determine acrylamide levels in different commercial cereal-based foods, French fries, and potato chips.

  13. Rapid determination of acrylamide contaminant in conventional fried foods by gas chromatography with electron capture detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Dong, Yi; Ren, Yiping; Zhang, Ying

    2006-05-26

    Gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) was successfully developed and applied for the rapid determination of acrylamide in conventional fried foods, such as potato crisps, potato chips, and fried chicken wings. The method included defatting with n-hexane, extraction with aqueous solution of sodium chloride (NaCl), derivatization with potassium bromate (KBrO3) and potassium bromide (KBr), and liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. The final acrylamide extract was analyzed by GC-ECD for quantification and by GC-MS for confirmation. The chromatographic analysis was performed on the HP-INNOWax capillary column, and good retention and peak response of acrylamide were achieved under the optimal conditions (numbers of theoretical plates N = 83,815). The limit of detection (LOD) was estimated to be 0.1 microg kg(-1) on the basis of ECD technique. Recoveries of acrylamide from conventional samples spiked at levels of 150, 500 and 1000 microg kg(-1) (n = 4 for each level) ranged between 87 and 97% with relative standard deviations (RSD) of less than 4%. Furthermore, the GC-ECD method showed that no clean-up steps of acrylamide derivative would be performed prior to injection and was slightly more sensitive than the MS/MS-based methods. Validation and quantification results demonstrated that this method should be regarded as a new, low-cost, and robust alternative for conventional investigation of acrylamide.

  14. Occurrence of acrylamide carcinogen in Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea from Saudi Arabian market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Rizwan; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Naushad, Mu; Alomary, Ahmed Khodran; Alfadul, Sulaiman Mohammed; Alsohaimi, Ibrahim Hotan; Algamdi, Mohammad Saad

    2017-02-01

    The present work describes the outcomes of the assessment on acrylamide contents in a number of thermally treated foods (Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea) obtained from the Saudi Arabian markets. A total of 56 food samples of different brands and origin were studied, the amounts of acrylamide in Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea were obtained in the range of 10 to 682 μg kg‑1. In comparison to coffee (152–682 μg kg‑1), the Arabic coffee Qahwa (73–108 μg kg‑1) and tea (10–97 μg kg‑1) contain lower amounts of acrylamide. Among the analyzed samples, the green tea contained low amounts of acrylamide ranged from 10 to 18 μg kg‑1, and thus the green tea could be considered as a healthier hot drink. A great variation of acrylamide formation has been observed in these food products. This divergence may be due to the initial concentration of amino acids especially asparagines and reducing sugars in food products, in addition to roasting temperature and time, pH and water activity. The obtained data can also be used in epidemiological investigation to estimate the acrylamide exposure from nutritional survey.

  15. Determining the amount of Acrylamide in Potato Chips Using Xanthydrol as a Derivative Representative with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Zokaei; Marzieh Kamankesh; Saeideh Shojaei; Abdorreza Mohammadi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: In the production process of foods rich in carbohydrates and some other foods containing precursors of acrylamide formation, there is the possibility of acrylamide creation, which is a mutagen and carcinogen material. This study aims to introduce and optimize a new method for determining acrylamide in potato chips using xanthydrol as a derivative representative with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Materials and Methods: Important factors in the derivatizat...

  16. Radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylamide: Reverse osmosis properties of polyethylene-g-poly(acrylamide) membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessouki, Ahmed M.; Hegazy, El-Sayed A.; El-Assy, Nasef B.; El-Boohy, Hussein A.

    A study has been made of some properties of the graft copolymer obtained by direct radiation grafting of acrylamide (AAm) onto low density polyethylene (LDPE) films. The swelling behaviour was investigated for the grafted and alkali-treated graft copolymer and it was found that this depends mainly on the amount of hydrophilic groups and also on the type of electrolytes (K- or Nasalts). salts). Some other properties of the graft copolymer films such as dimensional change wet and dry, electrical conductivity, and mechanical properties were studied. A trial has been made of such membrane for reverse osmosis desalination of saline water. The effect of operating time, degree of grafting, applied pressure and feed concentration on the water flux and salt rejection was determined.

  17. Hapten synthesis and development of a competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for acrylamide in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Shen, Yu-Dong; Lei, Hong-Tao; Sun, Yuan-Ming; Yang, Jin-Yi; Xiao, Zhi-Li; Wang, Hong; Xu, Zhen-Lin

    2014-07-23

    The high level of acrylamide in widely consumed processed foods poses a potentially significant risk to human health, which has led to an increasing demand for rapid, simple, and selective analytical methods. In the present work, several haptens for acrylamide were designed in an attempt to prepare antibodies with acrylamide affinity, but they failed their purpose. However, a polyclonal antibody was produced against 4-mercaptophenylacetic acid (4-MPA)-derivatized acrylamide, which showed high binding affinity to the derivative. As acrylamide easily reacted with 4-MPA at high derivation yield, a competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ciELISA) for acrylamide via a preanalysis derivatization was developed. The derivatization and ELISA conditions were fully optimized to produce a method for acrylamide assay that exhibited an IC50 of 2.86 μg/kg, limit of detection at 0.036 μg/kg, and linear range of 0.25-24.15 μg/kg. The results of preanalysis recovery tests of acrylamide-spiked food samples and screening of blind food samples by both ciELISA and HPLC-MS/MS indicated the proposed ciELISA's good accuracy and reliability. This method was thus deemed suitable for routine acrylamide screening in food samples at low cost.

  18. Silylation of acrylamide for analysis by solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography/ion-trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagalante, Anthony F; Felter, Matthew A

    2004-06-16

    A method for quantitative analysis of acrylamide has been developed for use with headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME). In the method, acrylamide undergoes silylation with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) to form the volatile N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)acrylamide (BTMSA). Once formed, BTMSA is readily extracted from the headspace over the silylation reaction using a 100 microm poly(dimethylsiloxane) SPME fiber. A series of experiments was undertaken to optimize the amount of BSTFA, the silylation reaction temperature, the silylation reaction duration, and SPME sampling duration to maximize the analytical sensitivity for BTMSA. Acrylamide levels were quantified relative to a [13C3]-acrylamide internal standard using gas chromatography/ion-trap mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in the single ion monitoring mode. An analytical working curve was constructed and found to be linear over the 4 to 6700 ppb acrylamide range investigated with a limit of detection of 0.9 ppb. The native acrylamide levels of three commercial cereals were measured using the optimized analytical method. Quantitative standard additions of acrylamide to the cereal matrixes demonstrated complete recovery of the spiked acrylamide.

  19. Robust modelling of heat-induced reactions in an industrial food production process exemplified by acrylamide generation in breakfast cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bo Boye Busk; Lennox, Martin; Granby, Kit

    2008-01-01

    Data from an industrial case study of breakfast cereal production indicated that the generated amounts of acrylamide are greatly dependent upon the combined effects of temperature and heating time in a roasting step process. Two approaches to obtain process models for acrylamide generation were...... the importance of robustness in the developed models. The correlations obtained for predicting acrylamide generation in the case study present a useful tool for food processing industry to minimize acrylamide generation. In the present case it was possible by lowering process temperature and prolonging residence...

  20. Design, synthesis and evaluation of cationic poly(N-substituent acrylamide)s for in vitro gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Jin-He; Wei, Ming-Feng; Shieh, Ming-Jium; Young, Tai-Horng

    2011-01-01

    A series of poly(N-substituent acrylamide)s (PAms) that differ in alkylamine side-chain was synthesized via free radical polymerization. The PAms were designed to examine the effects of the methylene numbers (from 2 to 12) in the alkylamine side-chain on cytotoxicity, plasmid DNA (pDNA) binding affinity, cellular uptake efficiency and gene expression. The cytotoxicity of PAms evaluated in HEK293 cells using the MTT assay showed a trend of decreasing toxicity with increasing side-chain length and the IC50 values of all PAms were lower than that of polyethylenimine (PEI) control. The primary amine-based polymers were able to efficiently condense pDNA to form complexes with size ranging from 100 to 350 nm. The gene transfection ability of PAms is dominantly determined by the specific side-chain length that P8Am (with an octylamine side-chain) reveals higher gene expression than other PAms containing the same backbone structure. Although the gene transfection efficiency of PEI was better than all of PAms, PAms were found not to be uptake-limited. This was supported by the effect of chloroquine on transfection activity, based on the protease inhibition activity of chloroquine. Especially, complexes formed from P8Am displayed high uptake level relative to PEI, which was attributed to the proper structure of P8Am to compact pDNA to form stable nanoparticles in the heparin replacement assay. The present study offers the understanding to polymer structure that influences the transfection ability and gives useful information when designs efficient polymeric gene carrier.

  1. The National Fry Processing Trial (NFPT) and SCRI Acrylamide project: Comprehensive, coordinated evaluation of fry processing clones with low acrylamide-forming potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a pressing need for new fry processing varieties. Successful varieties need to satisfy customer requirements for finished product taste texture and color and must lessen health concerns related to dietary intake of acrylamide. Tuber shape and size distribution need to match processor requir...

  2. Update on acrylamide levels in food from monitoring years 2007 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Recommendations on the monitoring of acrylamide levels in food by the European Commission (EC were extended in 2010 (EC, 2010. The new Recommendation includes a revised categorisation of food products for monitoring purposes. This report describes the results of European acrylamide monitoring during the period from 2007 to 2010 using the revised product categorisation with 10 main food categories and an additional 26 sub-categories. Twenty-five European countries submitted a total of 13 162 acrylamide results for the four-year period including 2 200 results for the year 2010. During the monitoring period, time trends in acrylamide levels for the food categories were estimated. In 2010, middle bound mean acrylamide values ranged from 31 μg/kg for ‘other processed cereal based foods for infants and young children’ to 1 350 μg/kg for ‘coffee substitutes’. The highest 95th percentile value of 8 044 μg/kg was reported for ‘instant coffee’. The trend analysis showed only few changes in acrylamide levels from 2007 to 2010. At main food category level, a ‘common European trend’ was a decrease in acrylamide levels for ‘processed cereal based foods for infants and young children’ and an increase for ‘coffee and coffee substitutes’. As a ‘common European trend’ at sub-category level, acrylamide levels of ‘biscuits and rusks for infants and young children’ and ‘non-potato savoury snacks’ showed a decrease and an increase was seen for ‘crisp bread’. A marginal decrease was observed for the sub-category ‘other processed cereal based foods for infants and young children’ and a marginal increase was observed for ‘French fries from fresh potatoes’ as well as for ‘instant coffee’. Although only applicable from 2011, acrylamide levels were compared with indicative values recommended by the EC. Indicative values were exceeded in the case of 3-20 % of samples in different food categories based on

  3. Development and validation of a near-infrared spectroscopy method for the prediction of acrylamide content in French-fried potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the ability of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to predict acrylamide content in French-fried potato. Potato flour spiked with acrylamide (50-8000 µg/kg) was used to determine if acrylamide could be accurately predicted in a potato matrix. French fries produced with various ...

  4. Two-year carcinogenicity study of acrylamide in Wistar Han rats with in utero exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maronpot, R R; Thoolen, R J M M; Hansen, B

    2015-02-01

    Acrylamide is an important chemical with widespread industrial and other uses in addition to generalized population exposure from certain cooked foods. Previous rat studies to assess the carcinogenic potential of acrylamide have been carried out exclusively in the Fischer 344 rat with identification of a number of tumors amongst which mesotheliomas of the tunica vaginalis is an important tumor endpoint in the classification of acrylamide as a 'probably human carcinogen. In a rat carcinogenicity study to determine the human relevance of mesotheliomas Wistar Han rats were exposed to 0, 0.5, 1.5, or 3.0mg acrylamide/kg body weight/day in drinking water starting at gestation day 6. At the end of two years, mammary gland fibroadenomas in females and thyroid follicular cell tumors in both sexes were the only tumors increased in acrylamide treated rats. These tumor endpoints have rat-specific modes of action suggesting less likelihood of human cancer risk than previously estimated. This study demonstrates that tunica vaginalis mesotheliomas are strain specific and not likely of genotoxic origin.

  5. Determination of Residual Acrylamide in Medical Polyacrylamide Hydrogel by High Performance Liquid Chromatography tandem Mass Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI-WEI LI; HUI LI; ZHI-FEI LIU; QUN QIAO

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine residual acrylamide in medical polyacrylamide hydrogel by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (HPLC-MS). Methods After 13C3 labeled acrylamide was added, the sample was extracted with water and then cleaned up with ExtrelutTM 20. The polyaerylamide hydrogel sample and 20 clinical cases were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS and isotope dilution quantifying technique in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. Results Acrylamide was separated from polyacrylamide hydrogel. The concentration of acrylamide in polyacrylamide hydrogel ranged from 3.9×109 to 3.1×108g/L in the 20 clinical cases. The peak area was favorable linear and the range was up to 3 000 μg/L. The recovery rate was 103.1% with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 6.20%, when the mark level was 50 μg/L. Conclusion HPLC-MS is a rapid, accurate, and sensitive method for the determination of residual acrylamide in medical polyacrylamide hydrogel.

  6. Trace level determination of acrylamide in cereal-based foods by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittet, Alain; Périsset, Adrienne; Oberson, Jean-Marie

    2004-04-30

    A quantitative method has been developed for the determination of trace levels (acrylamide in cereal-based foods. The method is based on extraction of acrylamide with water, acidification and purification with Carrez I and II solutions, followed by bromination of the acrylamide double bond. The reaction product (2,3-dibromopropionamide) is extracted with ethyl acetate/hexane (4:1, v/v), dried over sodium sulfate, and cleaned up through a Florisil column. The derivative is then converted to 2-bromopropenamide by dehydrobromination with triethylamine and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), employing (13C3)acrylamide as internal standard. In-house validation data for commercial and experimental cereal products showed good precision of the method, with repeatability and intermediate reproducibility relative standard deviations below 10%. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation are estimated at 2 and 5 microg/kg, respectively, and recoveries of acrylamide from samples spiked at levels of 5-500 microg/kg ranged between 93 and 104% after correction of analyte loss by the internal standard. Finally, a comparative test organized with two independent laboratories provided additional confidence in the good performance of the method, particularly at very low concentration levels.

  7. [Determination of acrylamide in foods by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Weijian; Shen, Chongyu; Zhao, Zengyun; Chen, Huilan; Xu, Jinzhong

    2006-11-01

    A confirmatory method is presented for the determination of acrylamide in different food products by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The method is based on the extraction of acrylamide with and methanol, and purification with Carrez I zinc sulfate) and Carrez II (potassium hexacyanoferrate) solution, followed by bromination onto the acrylamide double bond. The derivative was extracted with ethyl acetate/hexane (4: 1, v/v), and converted to the stable 2-bromopropenamide by dehydrobromination using 10% triethylamine, then analyzed by GC-MS, employing 13C3-acrylamide as internal standard. In-house validation data for flour and bread showed good accuracy and precision of the method. The recoveries of acrylamide in the French fries and bread were all in the range from 80% to 110% after correction of analyte loss by the internal standard at three spike levels of 0.02, 0.05 and 0.2 mg/kg, and relative standard deviations (RSDs) no more than 12.7%. The limits of detection for flour and bread were estimated at 5 microg/kg.

  8. Acrylamide in Caribbean foods - residual levels and their relation to reducing sugar and asparagine content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Grace-Anne; Maragh, Paul; Dasgupta, Tara

    2012-07-15

    The acrylamide levels in commercial and homemade Caribbean foods were determined by pre-derivatisation of acrylamide to 2-bromopropenamide and analysed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric (GC/MS) detection. Over 100 Caribbean food samples were analysed for the presence of acrylamide. These samples include: biscuits, breakfast cereals, banana chips and home-prepared foods: breadfruit; Artocarpus altilis, banana fritters, and dumplings. The limit of detection (LOD) for the GC/MS method was found to be dependent on the type of column used for the GC/MS analysis. The DB-1701 and the DB-VRX columns gave LODs of 20 and 4 μg/kg, respectively. Acrylamide has not been found in raw foods or foods which have been cooked by boiling. Its content in all other foods had concentrations in the range, 65-3,640 μg/kg. The relationship between acrylamide levels and precursor concentration as well as the health implications of our findings are discussed.

  9. Determination of acrylamide in starch-based foods by HPLC with pre-column ultraviolet derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Zhiming; Wang, Peng; Liu, Aiming

    2011-01-01

    A new method is developed for the determination of acrylamide in starch-based foods. The method included the extraction of acrylamide with water, defatting with hexane, derivatization with potassium bromate (KBrO(3)) and potassium bromide (KBr), liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate-hexane (4:1), and concentration. The final analyte (2-bromopropenamide, 2-BPA) is analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection for quantification and by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry for confirmation. The chromatographic analysis is performed on an ODS-3 C(18) column, and good retention and peak response of acrylamide are achieved under the optimal conditions. The limit of detection and quantitation are estimated to be 15 and 50 μg/kg, respectively. The recoveries of acrylamide from the commercial samples are spiked at levels of 50-1000 μg/kg, and range between 89.6 and 102.0%. These results show that this method should be regarded as a new, low-cost, and robust alternative for conventional investigation of acrylamide.

  10. Reduction of acrylamide level in french fries by employing a temperature program during frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazoglu, T Koray; Gökmen, Vural

    2008-08-13

    In this study, the effect of employing an oil temperature program during frying on the acrylamide content of French fries was investigated. The frying conditions that could lead to lower acrylamide levels in French fries were first simulated by means of an experimentally validated frying model. Then, experiments were conducted to test the simulated conditions in real frying process. Different time/temperature combinations (4 min at 170 degrees C, 2 min at 170 degrees C + 2 min at 150 degrees C, 1 min at 170 degrees C + 3 min at 150 degrees C, 1 min at 190 degrees C + 3 min at 150 degrees C) were employed for frying potato strips (8.5 x 8.5 x 70 mm), and the resultant acrylamide levels were determined with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. The results indicated that acrylamide levels in French fries can be reduced by half if the final stage of the frying process employs a lower oil temperature. Therefore, the method appears to be an effective way of controlling the acrylamide level in the final product.

  11. Direct determination of acrylamide in food by gas chromatography with nitrogen chemiluminescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijun, Yao

    2015-07-01

    A method of gas chromatography with nitrogen chemiluminescence detection and using standard addition is described for the determination of acrylamide in heat-processed foods. Using a modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) sample preparation method removes the acrylamide precursors completely, and the risk of overestimating acrylamide concentration due to additional analyte formation in the hot gas chromatograph inlet is also avoided. Sample preparation is rapid and inexpensive. A Deans switch device is utilized to heart-cut acrylamide and to prevent interferences from the solvent and matrix from reaching the detector. The pre-column is backflushed at high temperature to maintain a clean baseline and shorten the cycle time compared to baking out the column. Quantitation using standard addition is employed for compensation of potential variability in the acrylamide extraction efficiency in acetonitrile. The limit of detection and the limit of the quantification obtained for this method are 27 and 81 μg/kg, respectively, in food samples (equivalent to 3.5 and 10.6 μg/L in acetonitrile, respectively), and the linear range is 76-9697 μg/kg in food samples (equivalent to 10-1280 μg/L in acetonitrile) with an R(2) value of 0.9999.

  12. Reduction of acrylamide formation by vanadium salt in potato French fries and chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Diganta; Jayanty, Sastry S

    2013-05-01

    The effects of vanadyl sulphate on the formation of acrylamide have been studied in fried potato products, such as French fries and chips. Acrylamide formation was inhibited by 30.3%, 53.3% and 89.3% when the sliced potato strips were soaked in 0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 M vanadyl sulphate (VOSO(4)) solutions, respectively, for 60 min before frying. Moreover, 57.7%, 71.4% and 92.5% inhibition of acrylamide formation was observed when chips were soaked in the respective vanadyl sulphate solution before frying. In a separate model reaction, a solution containing an equimolar concentration of L-asparagine and D-glucose showed a significant inhibition of acrylamide formation when heated at 150 °C for 30 min in the presence of vanadyl sulphate (VOSO(4)). The results indicate that the binding of VO(2+) to asparagine and the decrease in the pH of the potato samples resulted in a significant reduction of acrylamide formation in fried potato products.

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(2-Hydroxyethylethylmethacrylate-Co-Acrylamide Hydrogel for Intestinal Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi U. Trivedi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels, the swellable polymeric materials have been used widely as a carrier for drug delivery systems and have gained attention owing to their peculiar characteristics like swelling in aqueous medium, pH or temperature sensitivity or sensitivity towards external stimuli. Hydrogels being biocompatible due to their high water content and low interfacial tension with the biological fluids have been helpful as targetable carriers for bioactive drugs with tissue specificity. The purpose of research is to provide the targeted drug release in the intestine for a prolong period of time. pH sensitive hydrogel, 2-Hydroxyethylmethacrylate-co-acrylamide was prepared by polymerization in aqueous solution from 2-Hydroxyethlmethacrylate(2-HEMA and acrylamide monomers using N,N-Methylenebis(acrylamide as a cross linker. It was shown that the swelling behavior of 2-HEMA-co-acrylamide can be controlled by changing the molar concentration of acrylamide. The hydrogel was characterized by FT-IR, SEM, tests to assess swellability, drug loading and dissolution techniques.

  14. The influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms on the association between dietary acrylamide intake and endometrial cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogervorst, Janneke G. F.; van den Brandt, Piet A.; Godschalk, Roger W. L.; van Schooten, Frederik-Jan; Schouten, Leo J.

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear whether the association between dietary acrylamide intake and endometrial cancer risk as observed in some epidemiological studies reflects a causal relationship. We aimed at clarifying the causality by analyzing acrylamide-gene interactions for endometrial cancer risk. The prospective Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer includes 62,573 women, aged 55–69 years. At baseline, a random subcohort of 2589 women was selected for a case cohort analysis approach. Acrylamide intake of subcohort members and endometrial cancer cases (n = 315) was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes in acrylamide metabolism, sex steroid systems, oxidative stress and DNA repair were assessed through a MassARRAY iPLEX Platform. Interaction between acrylamide and SNPs was assessed with Cox proportional hazards analysis, based on 11.3 years of follow-up. Among the results for 57 SNPs and 2 gene deletions, there were no statistically significant interactions after adjustment for multiple testing. However, there were nominally statistically significant interactions for SNPs in acrylamide-metabolizing enzymes: CYP2E1 (rs915906 and rs2480258) and the deletions of GSTM1 and GSTT1. Although in need of confirmation, the interactions between acrylamide intake and CYP2E1 SNPs contribute to the evidence for a causal relationship between acrylamide and endometrial cancer risk. PMID:27713515

  15. Effects of variety and nutrient availability on the acrylamide-forming potential of rye grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postles, Jennifer; Powers, Stephen J; Elmore, J Stephen; Mottram, Donald S; Halford, Nigel G

    2013-05-01

    Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen that forms in plant-derived foods when free asparagine and reducing sugars react at high temperatures. The identification of rye varieties with low acrylamide-forming potential or agronomic conditions that produce raw material with low acrylamide precursor concentrations would reduce the acrylamide formed in baked rye foods without the need for additives or potentially costly changes to processes. This work compared five commercial rye varieties grown under a range of fertilisation regimes to investigate the effects of genotype and nutrient (nitrogen and sulphur) availability on the accumulation of acrylamide precursors. A strong correlation was established between the free asparagine concentration of grain and the acrylamide formed upon heating. The five rye varieties accumulated different concentrations of free asparagine in the grain, indicating that there is genetic control of this trait and that variety selection could be useful in reducing acrylamide levels in rye products. High levels of nitrogen fertilisation were found to increase the accumulation of free asparagine, showing that excessive nitrogen application should be avoided in order not to exacerbate the problem of acrylamide formation. This effect of nitrogen was mitigated in two of the varieties by the application of sulphur.

  16. Dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of head-neck and thyroid cancers : results from the netherlands cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, L.J.; Hogervorst, J.G.F.; Konings, E.J.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2009-01-01

    Acrylamide exposure has been related to an increased incidence of oral and thyroid tumors in animal studies. In 1986, 120,852 persons (aged 55-69 years) were included in the Netherlands Cohort Study. Dietary acrylamide intake was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire and was based on chemical

  17. Onderzoek naar de inductie van chromosoomafwijkingen en "sister- chromatid exchanges" door acrylamide met Chinese hamster cellen in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knaap; A.G.A.C.; Bergkamp; W.G.M.; Groot; M.G.

    1986-01-01

    Acrylamide bleek een clastogene werking te hebben in een test op chromosoomafwijkingen met Chinese hamster cellen in vitro vanaf 0,1 mg/ml (1,4 mmol/l), zowel in aan- als afwezigheid van een systeem voor metaboliosche activering (S9). Tevens induceerde acrylamide in deze cellen een significante

  18. Immunotoxicity of Acrylamide in Female BALB/c Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jin; LIANG Chun Lai; JIA Xu Dong; LI Ning

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the immunotoxicity of acrylamide (ACR) in female BALB/c mice. Methods A total of 200 female mice weighing 18-22 g were randomly divided into four clusters based on body weight, and each weight-based cluster included five groups (10 mice per group): negative control, positive control (cyclophosphamide), low, intermediate, and high dose ACR groups, and all the groups were administered ACR by gavage for 30 days. At the end of the study, the immunotoxicological effects of the ACR were evaluated through immunopathology, humoral immunity, cellular immunity, and non-specific immunity. Results The terminal body weight, spleen and thymus weights, lymphocyte counts in the ACR-H group were decreased, pathological changes were observed in lymph glands, thymus and spleen.%T cells in blood lymphocytes were significantly increased in all ACR-treated groups, and a significant reduction of% natural killer(NK) cells and increase of %Th cells were observed in the ACR-H group. interleukin-6(IL-6), Concanavalin A(ConA)-induced splenocyte proliferation and serum half hemolysis value (HC50) were also significantly suppressed in the ACR-H group. Conclusion ACR elicited an inhibitory effect on cellular and humoral immunity of mice after 30 day feeding.

  19. Burden of disease of dietary exposure to acrylamide in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Lea Sletting; Granby, Kit; Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard; Nauta, Maarten; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Poulsen, Morten

    2016-04-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is a process-contaminant that potentially increases the risk of developing cancer in humans. AA is formed during heat treatment of starchy foods and detected in a wide range of commonly consumed products. Increased focus on risk ranking and prioritization of major causes of disease makes it relevant to estimate the impact that exposure to chemical contaminants and other hazards in food have on health. In this study, we estimated the burden of disease (BoD) caused by dietary exposure to AA, using disability adjusted life years (DALY) as health metric. We applied an exposure-based approach and proposed a model of three components: an exposure, health-outcome, and DALY-module. We estimated BoD using two approaches for estimating cancer risk based on toxicological data and two approaches for estimating DALY. In Denmark, 1.8 healthy life years per 100.000 inhabitants are lost each year due to exposure to AA through foods, as estimated by the most conservative approach. This result should be used to inform risk management decisions and for comparison with BoD of other food-borne hazards for prioritizing policies. However, our study shows that careful evaluation of methodological choices and assumptions used in BoD studies is necessary before use in policy making.

  20. Acrylamide induces accelerated endothelial aging in a human cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellier, Cyril; Boulanger, Eric; Maladry, François; Tessier, Frédéric J; Lorenzi, Rodrigo; Nevière, Rémi; Desreumaux, Pierre; Beuscart, Jean-Baptiste; Puisieux, François; Grossin, Nicolas

    2015-09-01

    Acrylamide (AAM) has been recently discovered in food as a Maillard reaction product. AAM and glycidamide (GA), its metabolite, have been described as probably carcinogenic to humans. It is widely established that senescence and carcinogenicity are closely related. In vitro, endothelial aging is characterized by replicative senescence in which primary cells in culture lose their ability to divide. Our objective was to assess the effects of AAM and GA on human endothelial cell senescence. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) cultured in vitro were used as model. HUVECs were cultured over 3 months with AAM or GA (1, 10 or 100 μM) until growth arrest. To analyze senescence, β-galactosidase activity and telomere length of HUVECs were measured by cytometry and semi-quantitative PCR, respectively. At all tested concentrations, AAM or GA reduced cell population doubling compared to the control condition (p < 0.001). β-galactosidase activity in endothelial cells was increased when exposed to AAM (≥10 μM) or GA (≥1 μM) (p < 0.05). AAM (≥10 μM) or GA (100 μM) accelerated telomere shortening in HUVECs (p < 0.05). In conclusion, in vitro chronic exposure to AAM or GA at low concentrations induces accelerated senescence. This result suggests that an exposure to AAM might contribute to endothelial aging.

  1. In vivo genotoxicity assessment of acrylamide and glycidyl methacrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrovolsky, Vasily N; Pacheco-Martinez, M Monserrat; McDaniel, L Patrice; Pearce, Mason G; Ding, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Acrylamide (ACR) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) are structurally related compounds used for making polymers with various properties. Both chemicals can be present in food either as a byproduct of processing or a constituent of packaging. We performed a comprehensive evaluation of ACR and GMA genotoxicity in Fisher 344 rats using repeated gavage administrations. Clastogenicity was measured by scoring micronucleated (MN) erythrocytes from peripheral blood, DNA damage in liver, bone marrow and kidneys was measured using the Comet assay, and gene mutation was measured using the red blood cell (RBC) and reticulocyte Pig-a assay. A limited histopathology evaluation was performed in order to determine levels of cytotoxicity. Doses of up to 20 mg/kg/day of ACR and up to 250 mg/kg/day of GMA were used. ACR treatment resulted in DNA damage in the liver, but not in the bone marrow. While ACR was not a clastogen, it was a weak (equivocal) mutagen in the cells of bone marrow. GMA caused DNA damage in the cells of bone marrow, liver and kidney, and induced MN reticulocytes and Pig-a mutant RBCs in a dose-dependent manner. Collectively, our data suggest that both compounds are in vivo genotoxins, but the genotoxicity of ACR is tissue specific.

  2. Acrylamide content distribution and possible alternative ingredients for snack foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei Chih; Sun, De Chao; Chou, Shin Shou; Yeh, An I

    2012-12-01

    Acrylamide (AA) contents in 294 snack foods including cereal-based, root- and tuber-based, and seafood-based foods, nuts, dried beans, and dried fruits purchased in Taiwan were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in this study. The highest levels of average AA content were found in root- and tuber-based snack foods (435 μg/kg), followed by cereal-based snack foods (299 μg/kg). Rice flour-based, seafood-based, and dried fruit snack foods had the lowest average AA content (<50 μg/kg). This is the first large surveillance of AA content in snack foods in Taiwan. The results could provide important data regarding intake information from the snack foods. In addition, the results showed a great diversity of AA content in snack foods prepared from different ingredients. Rice- and seafood-based products had much lower AA than those made from other ingredients. This information could constitute a good reference for consumers to select products for healthy snacking.

  3. Influence of acrylamide on the gastric mucosa of adult albino rats and the possible protective role of rosemary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mehi, Abeer E; El-Sherif, Neveen M

    2015-06-01

    Acrylamide is a common chemical found in heated starchy foods especially potato products. We investigated, for the first time, the effect of acrylamide, alone or with rosemary, on the structure of gastric mucosa of adult male albino rats. Stomach sections were examined using light and scanning electron microscopy. Quantitative immmunohistochemical assessments of the expression of caspase-3, inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EPGR) were performed. Our results showed that acrylamide produced mucosal erosions and depletion of the protective surface mucus together with widespread inflammatory infiltration. In addition, there was significantly increased expression of caspase-3 and iNOS and weak expression of EPGR. Rosemary exerted a protective effect against acrylamide-induced gastric toxicity via reducing oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation as well as accelerating the healing process. The results of this work add to the known toxic effects of acrylamide and provide a new insight into the possible use of rosemary to ameliorate these effects.

  4. Structure-guided unravelling: Phenolic hydroxyls contribute to reduction of acrylamide using multiplex quantitative structure-activity relationship modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Huang, Mengmeng; Wang, Qiao; Cheng, Jun

    2016-05-15

    We reported a structure-activity relationship study on unravelling phenolic hydroxyls instead of alcoholic hydroxyls contribute to the reduction of acrylamide formation by flavonoids. The dose-dependent study shows a close correlation between the number of phenolic hydroxyls of flavonoids and their reduction effects. In view of positions of hydroxyls, the 3',4'(ortho)-dihydroxyls in B cycle, 3-hydroxyl or hydroxyls of 3-gallate in C cycle, and 5,7(meta)-dihydroxyls in A cycle of flavonoid structures play an important role in the reduction of acrylamide. Flavone C-glycosides are more effective at reducing the formation of acrylamide than flavone O-glycosides when sharing the same aglycone. The current multiplex quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) equations effectively predict the inhibitory rates of acrylamide using selected chemometric parameters (R(2): 0.835-0.938). This pioneer study opens a broad understanding on the chemoprevention of acrylamide contaminants on a structural basis.

  5. Preparation of lignosulfonate-acrylamide-chitosan ternary graft copolymer and its flocculation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kunpeng; Lou, Tao; Wang, Xuejun; Zhao, Wenhua

    2015-11-01

    As flocculant plays an important role in wastewater treatment, searching for high efficient and cost-effective flocculants has always become the challenge in chemical industry. In the current work, lignosulfonate-acrylamide-chitosan ternary copolymer was designed and prepared as a new kind of flocculant. The elemental analysis and structure characterization of FTIR and XRD showed that acrylamide successfully grafted onto the two natural polymers and amorphous macromolecules were formed. The natural polymers-based flocculant was water soluble and pH independent. As it had multiple functional groups from the raw materials, the amphoteric flocculant showed high color removal efficiency to anionic (acid blue 113, >95%), neutral (reactive black 5, >95%) and cationic dyes (methyl orange, >50%) in a wide range of flocculant dosage and pH windows. The ternary flocculant, based on lignosulfonate, chitosan, and acrylamide, might be a promising material in practical applications from the perspective of cost, source and performance.

  6. Water and acrylamide monomer transfer rates from a settling basin to groundwaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binet, Stéphane; Bru, Kathy; Klinka, Thomas; Touzé, Solène; Motelica-Heino, Mickael

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this paper was to estimate the potential leakage of acrylamide monomer, used for flocculation in a settling basin, towards the groundwaters. Surface-groundwater interactions were conceptualized with a groundwater transport model, using a transfer rate to describe the clogged properties of the interface. The change in the transfer rate as a function of the spreading of the clogged layer in the settling basin was characterized with respect to time. It is shown that the water and the Acrylamide transfer rate are not controlled by the spreading of the clogged layer until this layer fully covers the interface. When the clogged layer spreads out, the transfer rate remains in the same order of magnitude until the area covered reaches 80 %. The main flux takes place through bank seepage. In these early stage conditions of a working settling basin, the acrylamide flux towards groundwaters remains constant, at close to 10 g/year (±5).

  7. Rationalisation and Validation of an Acrylamide-Free Procedure in Three-Dimensional Histological Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hei Ming Lai

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional visualization of intact tissues is now being achieved by turning tissues transparent. CLARITY is a unique tissue clearing technique, which features the use of detergents to remove lipids from fixed tissues to achieve optical transparency. To preserve tissue integrity, an acrylamide-based hydrogel has been proposed to embed the tissue. In this study, we examined the rationale behind the use of acrylamide in CLARITY, and presented evidence to suggest that the omission of acrylamide-hydrogel embedding in CLARITY does not alter the preservation of tissue morphology and molecular information in fixed tissues. We therefore propose a novel and simplified workflow for formaldehyde-fixed tissue clearing, which will facilitate the laboratory implementation of this technique. Furthermore, we have investigated the basic tissue clearing process in detail and have highlighted some areas for targeted improvement of technologies essential for the emerging subject of three-dimensional histology.

  8. Analysis of acrylamide in cooked foods by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosén, Johan; Hellenäs, Karl-Erik

    2002-07-01

    A method using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) with electrospray for the analysis of acrylamide in foods is reported. The method comprises the addition of deuterium-labelled acrylamide-d3, extraction with water, mixed mode solid phase extraction, ultrafiltration and a graphitised carbon column for chromatography. The transitions m/z 72 > 55, 72 > 54, 72 > 44, 72 > 27, 72 > 72 and 75 > 58 were recorded in multiple reaction monitoring mode for identification and quantification. In-house validation data for products from potatoes and cereals (30 to 10,000 microg kg(-1)) are presented (accuracy 91 to 102%, relative standard deviation 3 to 21%). Interlaboratory validation data (comparison with gas chromatography mass spectrometry, 25 to 2000 microg kg(-1)) showed excellent results (r2 = 0.998).

  9. Monitoring of acrylamide concentrations in potato chips in Japan between 2006 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukakoshi, Yoshiki; Ono, Hiroshi; Kibune, Nobuyuki; Isagawa, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Kumiko; Watai, Masatoshi; Yoshida, Mitsuru

    2012-08-01

    Acrylamide levels in commercially available potato chips in Japan were monitored between August 2006 and June 2010 using the xanthydrol derivative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. Seasonal and annual changes in acrylamide concentrations were determined. Nationwide bimonthly sampling of potato chips was carried out using a four-level design, and seasonal variations were detected in which the minimum acrylamide concentration was observed in August, and the maximum between February and June. Seasonal variations became less apparent after August 2008 as a result of annual effects and/or mitigation measures taken by the potato chip producers. Sampling uncertainties were separated into time-to-time, city-to-city, and lot-to-lot variation, and the largest variation was shown to be lot-to-lot including bag-to-bag.

  10. Radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid onto polyethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grushevskaya, L. N.; Aliev, R. E.; Kabanov, V. Ya.

    The radiation-induced grafting of acrylamide onto low-density polyethylene by the different methods and under different conditions was investigated: by the direct liquid phase method from this monomer solution in water (in neutral and acid media) and acetone, and by the pre-irradiation method from aqueous solutions as well as from its sublimated vapour. The molecular masses of polyacrylamide homopolymers were determined. The discussion and comparison of different methods of acrylamide grafting are performed. The relationship between rates of graft polymerization onto polyethylene and homopolymerization of acrylic acid in the presence of metal ions is considered.

  11. GRAFT COPOLYMERIZATION OF ACRYLAMIDE ONTO POLY(N-PARA-TOLYLACRYLAMIDE) FILMS INITIATED BY CERIC ION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Kunyuan; SONG Ye

    1988-01-01

    Functional monomers having phenylcarbarnoyl and p-tolylcarbamoyl were synthesized. Binary initiation system consisted of Ce4+ andthese functional monomers could initiate acrylamide polymerization.It was found that acrylamide could graft copolymerize onto macromolecules having these functional monomers units. The formation of graft copolymer has been verified by its percentage of water absorption,contact angle with water, XPS and SEM photographs. The reaction mechanism was proposed and the main reactive site of graft copolymerization initiated by Ce4+ would take place predominantly at the functional pendant group.

  12. Amended final report on the safety assessment of polyacrylamide and acrylamide residues in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Polyacrylamide is a polymer of controllable molecular weight formed by the polymerization of acrylamide monomers available in one of three forms: solid (powder or micro beads), aqueous solution, or inverse emulsions (in water droplets coated with surfactant and suspended in mineral oil). Residual acrylamide monomer is likely an impurity in most Polyacrylamide preparations, ranging from cosmetic formulations, at concentrations ranging from 0.05% to 2.8%. Residual levels of acrylamide in Polyacrylamide can range from animal tests. No compound-related lesions were noted in a three-generation reproductive study in which rats were fed 500 or 2000 ppm Polyacrylamide in their diet. Polyacrylamide was not carcinogenic in several chronic animal studies. Human cutaneous tolerance tests performed to evaluate the irritation of 5% (w/w) Polyacrylamide indicated that the compound was well tolerated. Acrylamide monomer residues do penetrate the skin. Acrylamide tested in a two-generation reproductive study at concentrations up to 5 mg/kg day(- 1) in drinking water, was associated with prenatal lethality at the highest dose, with evidence of parental toxicity. The no adverse effects level was close to the 0.5 mg/kg day(- 1) dose. Acrylamide tested in a National Toxicology Program (NTP) reproductive and neurotoxicity study at 3, 10, and 30 ppm produced no developmental or female reproductive toxicity. However, impaired fertility in males was observed, as well as minimal neurotoxic effects. Acrylamide neurotoxicity occurs in both the central and peripheral nervous systems, likely through microtubule disruption, which has been suggested as a possible mechanism for genotoxic effects of acrylamide in mammalian systems. Acrylamide was genotoxic in mammalian in vitro and in vivo assays. Acrylamide was a tumor initiator, but not an initiator/promoter, in two different mouse strains at a total dose of 300 mg/kg (6 doses over 2 weeks) resulting in increased lung adenomas and carcinomas

  13. Alterations in nerve and muscle compound action potentials after acute acrylamide administration.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    The early deficits of neurotoxicity induced by acrylamide were examined in rats by comparing nerve and muscle action potentials before and 24 hr after exposure to acrylamide (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg). No changes were seen in the nerve action potential amplitude or duration. The 25 mg/kg dose produced a more variable nerve conduction velocity. There was also a significant broadening of the muscle compound action potential. Neither of these effects were seen in the fasted controls. However, the len...

  14. New corrosion inhibitor acrylamide methyl ether for mild steel in 1 M HCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xinyu; Jiang, Xiaohui; Xia, Shuwei; Shan, Mingli; Li, Xia; Yu, Liangmin; Tang, Qunwei

    2016-05-01

    Pursuit of good inhibition performance has been a persistent objective for advanced inhibitor industry. Here we demonstrate the experimental realization of a new corrosion inhibitor acrylamide methyl ether (AAME) from N-Methylol acrylamide (N-MAM) for mild steel in 1 M HCl. The resultant adsorption films have inhibition efficiency as high as 96.2%. Moreover, a theoretical investigation is also launched to demonstrate the potential mechanism behind the promising corrosion behaviors. This work represents a significant step forward, as it demonstrates how to make scalable AAME inhibitors as well as to enhance inhibition performances for high-efficiency and cost-effective corrosion inhibition platforms.

  15. Biomarkers of Human Exposure to Acrylamide and Relation to Polymorphisms in Metabolizing Genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duale, N.; Bjellaas, T.; Alexander, J.;

    2009-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is formed in heat treated carbohydrate rich foods in the so-called Maillard reaction. AA is readily absorbed in the body and converted to glycidamide (GA) by epoxidation by the CYP2E1 (cytochrome P450 2E) enzyme. Both AA and GA may be detoxified through direct conjunction to gluta......Acrylamide (AA) is formed in heat treated carbohydrate rich foods in the so-called Maillard reaction. AA is readily absorbed in the body and converted to glycidamide (GA) by epoxidation by the CYP2E1 (cytochrome P450 2E) enzyme. Both AA and GA may be detoxified through direct conjunction...

  16. Micellar copolymerization of associative polymers: study of the effect of acrylamide on sodium dodecyl sulfate-poly(propylene oxide) methacrylate mixed micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiat, Guillaume; Grassl, Bruno; François, Jeanne

    2005-09-15

    Mixed micelles of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and poly(propylene oxide) methacrylate (PPOMA) have been studied in the presence of acrylamide using conductimetry, fluorescence spectroscopy, and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) under the following conditions: (i) the SDS-acrylamide binary system in water; (ii) the SDS-acrylamide-PPOMA ternary system in water. The addition of acrylamide in SDS solutions perturbs the micellization of the surfactant by decreasing the aggregation number of the micelles and increasing their ionization degree. The variations of the various micellar parameters versus the weight ratio R=PPOMA/SDS are different in the presence of acrylamide or in pure water. These differences are much more pronounced for the lower than for the higher PPOMA concentrations. There is competition between acrylamide and PPOMA and at higher PPOMA concentration, acrylamide tends to be released from SDS micelles and is completely replaced by PPOMA.

  17. Acrylamide formation in plantain (Musa paradisiaca) chips influenced by different ripening stages: A correlation study with respect to reducing sugars, amino acids and phenolic content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamla, L; Nisha, P

    2017-05-01

    The effect of ripening on the formation of acrylamide in deep fried plantain chips made from Nendran variety (Musa paradisiaca) was investigated. The precursors of acrylamide formation, reducing sugars (glucose and fructose) and ten major amino acids, were quantified during different stages of ripening using HPLC and correlated with acrylamide formation. The total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were also estimated and correlated with acrylamide formation. Both glucose and fructose increased during ripening and demonstrated a positive correlation on formation of acrylamide (correlation coefficient of r=0.95 and 0.94 respectively (p0.05). The decreased levels of phenolic content during ripening of plantain were negatively correlated with acrylamide formation in the deep fried chips prepared. Thus the selection of proper ripening stage renders reduced formation of acrylamide in plantain chips to a reasonable extend.

  18. Molecular Mechanism of Acrylamide Neurotoxicity: Lessons Learned from Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, Terrence

    2012-01-01

    Background: Acrylamide (ACR) produces cumulative neurotoxicity in exposed humans and laboratory animals through a direct inhibitory effect on presynaptic function. Objectives: In this review, we delineate how knowledge of chemistry provided an unprecedented understanding of the ACR neurotoxic mechanism. We also show how application of the hard and soft, acids and bases (HSAB) theory led to the recognition that the α,β-unsaturated carbonyl structure of ACR is a soft electrophile that preferentially forms covalent bonds with soft nucleophiles. Methods: In vivo proteomic and in chemico studies demonstrated that ACR formed covalent adducts with highly nucleophilic cysteine thiolate groups located within active sites of presynaptic proteins. Additional research showed that resulting protein inactivation disrupted nerve terminal processes and impaired neurotransmission. Discussion: ACR is a type-2 alkene, a chemical class that includes structurally related electrophilic environmental pollutants (e.g., acrolein) and endogenous mediators of cellular oxidative stress (e.g., 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal). Members of this chemical family produce toxicity via a common molecular mechanism. Although individual environmental concentrations might not be toxicologically relevant, exposure to an ambient mixture of type-2 alkene pollutants could pose a significant risk to human health. Furthermore, environmentally derived type-2 alkenes might act synergistically with endogenously generated unsaturated aldehydes to amplify cellular damage and thereby accelerate human disease/injury processes that involve oxidative stress. Conclusions: These possibilities have substantial implications for environmental risk assessment and were realized through an understanding of ACR adduct chemistry. The approach delineated here can be broadly applied because many toxicants of different chemical classes are electrophiles that produce toxicity by interacting with cellular proteins. PMID:23060388

  19. Acrylamide inhibits cellular differentiation of human neuroblastoma and glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jong-Hang; Chou, Chin-Cheng

    2015-08-01

    This study explores human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) and human glioblastoma (U-1240 MG) cellular differentiation changes under exposure to acrylamide (ACR). Differentiation of SH-SY5Y and U-1240 MG cells were induced by retinoic acid (RA) and butyric acid (BA), respectively. Morphological observations and MTT assay showed that the induced cellular differentiation and cell proliferation were inhibited by ACR in a time- and dose-dependent manner. ACR co-treatment with RA attenuated SH-SY5Y expressions of neurofilament protein-L (NF-L), microtubule-associated protein 1b (MAP1b; 1.2 to 0.7, p < 0.001), MAP2c (2.2 to 0.8, p < 0.05), and Janus kinase1 (JAK1; 1.9 to 0.6, p < 0.001), while ACR co-treatment with BA attenuated U-1240 MG expressions of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), MAP1b (1.2 to 0.6, p < 0.001), MAP2c (1.5 to 0.7, p < 0.01), and JAK1 (2.1 to 0.5, p < 0.001), respectively. ACR also decreased the phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) in U-1240 MG cells, while caffeine reversed this suppression of ERK and JNK phosphorylation caused by ACR treatment. These results showed that RA-induced neurogenesis of SH-SY5Y and BA-induced astrogliogenesis of U-1240 MG cells were attenuated by ACR and were associated with down-regulation of MAPs expression and JAK-STAT signaling.

  20. Trigonella foenum-graecum ameliorates acrylamide-induced toxicity in rats: Roles of oxidative stress, proinflammatory cytokines, and DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M; Abd Eldaim, Mabrouk A; Hassan, Abeer G A

    2015-06-01

    Acrylamide is a hazardous substance inducing oxidative stress. Based on some evidence on the antioxidant properties of fenugreek, Trigonella foenum-graecum, this study was conducted to investigate the protective effect of fenugreek seed oil against acrylamide toxicity. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups. The control group was given normal saline. The second group was administered acrylamide (20 mg/kg bw orally). The third and fourth groups were administered acrylamide (20 mg/kg bw) and supplemented with 2.5% and 5% fenugreek seed oil in their diets, respectively. Acrylamide intoxication significantly increased serum levels of LDH, AST, ALT, APL, γ-GT, cholesterol, uric acid, urea, creatinine, 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine, interleukin 1 beta, interleukin 6, and tumor necrosis factor α. Moreover, it increased hepatic, renal, and brain lipid peroxidation, while it impaired the activities and concentrations of the antioxidant biomarkers. Fenugreek oil supplementation normalized the altered serum parameters, prevented lipid peroxidation, and enhanced the antioxidant biomarker concentrations and activities in the hepatic, renal, and brain tissues of acrylamide-intoxicated rats in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, these results indicate that Trigonella foenum-graecum oil has a protective effect against acrylamide-induced toxicity through its free radical scavenging and potent antioxidant activities.

  1. [Quantification of acrylamide in foods by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with pro-column derivatization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sichao; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Junhan; Chen, Fang

    2011-05-01

    The quantification of acrylamide in foods was investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In this method, (13)C3-acrylamide was used as an internal standard. The samples were homogenized, defatted with hexane and extracted with ethyl acetate for twice. The derivatization of acrylamide into 2-bromopropenamide (2-BPA) was done using potassium bromide/potassium bromate at 4 degrees C for 90 min. Selective ion monitoring mode was chosen to monitor objective chromatography. This method had a good linearity between 0.05-2.00 mg/kg (r2 = 0.9995), and the limits of detection and quantification were 3 microg/kg and 7 microg/kg, respectively. The recoveries of acrylamide were in the range of 62.7%-65.5%. In order to confirm this GC-MS method, the acrylamide in foods was also determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), which had been proved in our laboratory. The concentrations of acrylamide in the samples quantified by GC-MS were slightly higher than those detected by HPLC-MS/MS. This method can be used to quantify acrylamide in normal foods.

  2. Determining the amount of Acrylamide in Potato Chips Using Xanthydrol as a Derivative Representative with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Zokaei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: In the production process of foods rich in carbohydrates and some other foods containing precursors of acrylamide formation, there is the possibility of acrylamide creation, which is a mutagen and carcinogen material. This study aims to introduce and optimize a new method for determining acrylamide in potato chips using xanthydrol as a derivative representative with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Materials and Methods: Important factors in the derivatization and measurement processes were optimized using the one-factor-at-a-time method. The peak areas were assumed as the GC-MS response to evaluate the extraction efficiency of acrylamide, and optimization for all tests was performed two times. Figures of merit of the proposed method were evaluated. The amount of acrylamide in four potato chips samples, obtained from the market in Tehran city, was determined using the proposed method. Results: The optimum amounts of effective parameters, including derivatization temperature at 25oC, derivatization time (40 min, xanthydrol volume (40 µL, extracted solvent volume (500 µL and pH=7 were determined. The figures of merit for the proposed method were at the ideal range. The maximum and minimum amounts of acrylamide in the chip samples were also measured. Conclusions: The performance and reliability of proposed method as a simple, efficient and rapid method for determining acrylamide in potato chip samples were demonstrated.

  3. Dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of lymphatic malignancies: the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilda L Bongers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acrylamide, a probable human carcinogen, is present in many everyday foods. Since the finding of its presence in foods in 2002, epidemiological studies have found some suggestive associations between dietary acrylamide exposure and the risk of various cancers. The aim of this prospective study is to investigate for the first time the association between dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of several histological subtypes of lymphatic malignancies. METHODS: The Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer includes 120,852 men and women followed-up since September 1986. The number of person years at risk was estimated by using a random sample of participants from the total cohort that was chosen at baseline (n =5,000. Acrylamide intake was estimated from a food frequency questionnaire combined with acrylamide data for Dutch foods. Hazard ratios (HRs were calculated for acrylamide intake as a continuous variable as well as in categories (quintiles and tertiles, for men and women separately and for never-smokers, using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: After 16.3 years of follow-up, 1,233 microscopically confirmed cases of lymphatic malignancies were available for multivariable-adjusted analysis. For multiple myeloma and follicular lymphoma, HRs for men were 1.14 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.27 and 1.28 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.61 per 10 µg acrylamide/day increment, respectively. For never-smoking men, the HR for multiple myeloma was 1.98 (95% CI: 1.38, 2.85. No associations were observed for women. CONCLUSION: We found indications that acrylamide may increase the risk of multiple myeloma and follicular lymphoma in men. This is the first epidemiological study to investigate the association between dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of lymphatic malignancies, and more research into these observed associations is warranted.

  4. New acrylamide and oxazolidin derivatives from a termite-associated Streptomyces sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Shu Feng; Li, Fang; Song, Yong Chun; Tan, Ren Xiang; Ge, Hui Ming

    2011-03-01

    Two new compounds, named 2-formylpyrrole-4-acrylamide (1) and dihydrostreptazolin (2) were isolated from the fermentation broth of BY-4, an actinomycetes residing in the gut of Odontotermes formosanus. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by extensive spectral analysis (1H, 13C, 2D NMR, and HR-ESIMS). The isolated compounds were assayed for cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities.

  5. GRAFT COPOLYMERIZATION OF ACRYLAMIDE ONTO THE UV-RAY IRRADIATED FILM OF POLYESTER-POLYETHER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chuanfu; LI Xuefen; LI Zhifen

    1988-01-01

    In this paper the Ce(Ⅳ) salt initiated graft copolymerization of acrylamide onto the film of polyester-polyether block copolymer irradiated by UV-ray was reported. The UV-irradiation of the film and its graft process have been investigated by UV spectrum, ESR and ESCA and the influence of other factors on the graft copolymerization has been discussed.

  6. STUDY ON THE SYNTHESIS OF COPOLYMER CONTAINING N-SUBSTITUTED ACRYLAMIDE COMPONENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xuefen; WANG Shenguo; LI Zhifen

    1984-01-01

    In this paper the synthesis of linear and crosslinked N-substituted acrylamide copolymer is reported. In order to obtain the terpolymer with appropriate hydrophilicity, the conditions of aminolysis of St-MMA copolymer have been selected.It is shown that the copolymer with predictable hydrophilicity possesses good blood compatibility.

  7. Arylation of Acrylamide and Acrylonitrile with Arenediazonium Salts Catalyzed by Palladium Acetate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Arylation of acrylamide and acrylonitrile were carried out with various arenediazonium tetrafluoroborates in the presence of a catalytic amount of Pd(OAc)2 in ethanol and a variety of substituted (E)-cinnamamides and (E)-cinnamonitriles were obtained in high yields under mild reaction conditions.

  8. Impact of solvent selection on graft polymerization of acrylamide onto starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact on polymer properties [molecular weight, monomer conversion, graft content, graft efficiency and anhydroglucose units between grafts (AGU/graft)] that result from changing the solvent for the graft co-polymerization of acrylamide onto starch from water to dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) was eval...

  9. Michael addition reactions of cyclanones with acrylamides: Producing 2-carbamoylethyl derivatives or ene-lactams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The electron-withdrawing groups (EWGs) in the electrophilic alkenes employed in the Michael addition reaction are almost only CO2R, CN, COR, NO2, and SO2Ph. Although amides (CONR1R2) are also typical electron-withdrawing groups and are of great importance in organic synthesis, they are scarcely em-ployed as the EWGs of the electrophilic alkenes in the Michael addition reaction. In this work, the Mi-chael reactions of acrylamide and its derivatives with cyclanones were successfully carried out in the presence of enough radical inhibitors. The amide groups play a key role in producing the preferred products. The N-substituted acrylamides, including N-monosubstituted and N,N-disubstituted acryla-mides could react with cyclohexanone (CHn) to give the expected 2-carbamoylethyl derivatives; how-ever, acrylamide reacting with cyclohexanone only produced ene-lactam. Cyclanones also have effects on the products, while the ring size of cyclanones influences the reaction yield and the α-substituent decides the ratio of resulting isomeric ene-lactams.

  10. Patented Techniques for Acrylamide Mitigation in High-Temperature Processed Foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariotti, Salome; Pedreschi, Franco; Antonio Carrasco, José

    2011-01-01

    .g. time and temperature of cooking) which inhibits Maillard Reaction; (ii) Reducing acrylamide precursor levels in raw materials to be cooked at high temperatures (e.g. by using microor-ganisms, asparaginase, amino acids and saccharides, blanching, etc.). In this paper, most of the recent patents...

  11. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation during baking of biscuits: Part I: Effects of sugar type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.T.H.; Fels, van der H.J.; Peters, R.J.B.; Boekel, van T.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of sugar type on the reaction mechanism for formation of acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) during the baking of biscuits at 200 °C using multiresponse modelling. Four types of biscuits were prepared: (1) with sucrose, (2) with glucose and fructo

  12. Determination of acrylamide monomer in polyacrylamide degradation studies by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ver Vers, L M

    1999-12-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography method using C18 and ion-exchange columns in series is developed for the determination of acrylamide and acrylic acid monomers in polymeric samples. The C18 column acts as a guard column, trapping surfactants and impurities and retaining the nonionic species. The ion-exchange column then separates the monomers according to their respective ionic strengths. This method has been proven in the laboratory to work successfully for all types of acrylamide/acrylic acid polymers and matrices. Detection limits for both monomers can be achieved in the parts-per-billion range. The method is used to study the possible degradation of polyacrylamide to acrylamide monomer in the presence of glyphosate (a herbicide) and sunlight. Polyacrylamide is used as a spray drift reduction aid in combination with glyphosate. In normal applications, the polymer and herbicide are in contact with each other in the presence of sunlight. The results show that the polymer does not degrade to acrylamide in the presence of glyphosate or sunlight or any combination of the two. It is also observed that glyphosate influences the solubility of polyacrylamide, and care must be used when combining the two.

  13. Clastogene effecten van acrylamide, methacrylamide en methylmethacrylaat in de muis beenmerg micronucleustest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergkamp WGM; Taalman RDFM; Knaap AGAC

    1988-01-01

    Acrylamide bleek na een intraperitoneale dosis van 136 mg/kg (80% Ld-50) een statistisch significante toename van het aantal polychromatische erythrocyten (PCE) met micronuclei te induceren. Deze toename werd waargenomen zowel 24 als 48 uur na toediening, 72 uur na behandeling kon echter geen ve

  14. Comparison of Nerve Excitability Testing, Nerve Conduction Velocity, and Behavioral Observations for Acrylamide Induced Peripheral Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerve excitability (NE) testing is a sensitive method to test for peripheral neurotoxicity in humans,and may be more sensitive than compound nerve action potential (CNAP) or nerve conduction velocity (NCV).We used acrylamide to compare the NE and CNAP/NCV methods. Behavioral test...

  15. Quantitation of Acrylamide in Foods by High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troise, A.D.; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The use of liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) and direct analysis real-time high-resolution mass spectrometry (DART-HRMS) defines a new scenario in the analysis of thermal-induced toxicants, such as acrylamide. Several factors contribute to the definition of the com

  16. NTP-CERHR EXPERT PANEL REPORT ON THE REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF ACRYLAMIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Toxicology Program Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (NTP-CERHR) convened an expert panel in May 2004 to evaluate acrylamide. The report of the expert panel, prepared in accordance with CERHR Guidelines, provides a detailed summary of all publi...

  17. A review of the interactions between acrylamide, microorganisms and food components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda-Chodak, A; Wajda, Ł; Tarko, T; Sroka, P; Satora, P

    2016-03-01

    Acrylamide (AA) and its metabolites have been recognized as potential carcinogens, but also they can cause other negative symptoms in human or animal organisms and therefore this class of chemical compounds has attracted a lot of attention. These substances are usually formed when heating asparagine in the presence of compounds that have α-hydroxycarbonyl groups, α,β,γ,δ-diunsaturated carbonyl groups or α-dicarbonyl groups. The acrolein pathway and enzymatic decarboxylation of asparagine, as well as endogenic processes, are other alternative routes to AA formation. It has been demonstrated that the animal model used for examining AA toxicity may not be sufficient to investigate these changes in humans, therefore it is necessary to design an in vitro model, which could provide more accurate insights into the direction of these processes in human organisms. Acrylamide can be metabolized through both oxidative and reductive pathways; moreover, there is also a chance that some representatives of intestinal microbiota are able to transform acrylamide. It was shown that there are various microorganisms, mostly bacteria, that produce amidases, i.e. enzymes decomposing AA. Lactic acid bacteria also appear to demonstrate the ability to use acrylamide as a carbon source, but this still requires further investigation. Another way to prevent AA toxicity is related to the presence of some food compounds, such as certain proteins or polyphenols. There are still lot of gaps in the current knowledge related to AA toxicity, so future potential research directions are presented in this review as well.

  18. Analysis of volatile flavour compounds and acrylamide in roasted Malaysian tropical almond (Terminalia catappa) nuts using supercritical fluid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasekan, Ola; Abbas, Kassim

    2010-01-01

    Considering the importance of tropical almond nuts as a snack item, a study was conducted to identify the flavour volatiles and acrylamide generated during the roasting of the nuts. The supercritical fluid extracted flavour components revealed 74 aroma active compounds made up of 27 hydrocarbons, 12 aldehydes, 11 ketones, 7 acids, 4 esters, 3 alcohols, 5 furan derivatives a pyrazine, and 2 unknown compounds. While low levels of acrylamide (8-86 microg/kg) were obtained in the roasted nuts, significant (P0.05) concentration of acrylamide was generated with mild roasting and shorter roasting period.

  19. Analysis of hemoglobin adducts from acrylamide, glycidamide, and ethylene oxide in paired mother/cord blood samples from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Stedingk, Hans; Vikström, Anna C; Rydberg, Per

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge about fetal exposure to acrylamide/glycidamide from the maternal exposure through food is limited. Acrylamide, glycidamide, and ethylene oxide are electrophiles and form adducts with hemoglobin (Hb), which could be used for in vivo dose measurement. In this study, a method......, and ethylene oxide, were increased in tobacco smokers. Highly significant correlations were found between cord and maternal blood with regard to measured adduct levels of the three compounds. The mean cord/maternal hemoglobin adduct level ratios were 0.48 (range 0.27-0.86) for acrylamide, 0.38 (range 0.......20-0.73) for glycidamide, and 0.43 (range 0.17-1.34) for ethylene oxide. In vitro studies with acrylamide and glycidamide showed a lower (0.38-0.48) rate of adduct formation with Hb in cord blood than with Hb in maternal blood, which is compatible with the structural differences in fetal and adult Hb. Together...

  20. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of acrylamide and acetamide in cigarette mainstream smoke after on-column injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekmann, Joerg; Wittig, Arno; Stabbert, Regina

    2008-08-01

    A method is described for the simultaneous determination of two short-chained amides, acrylamide and acetamide (classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as probable and possible human carcinogens, respectively), in total particulate matter using gas chromatography-on-column injection and mass spectrometric detection. Sample preparation is kept to a minimum, and the proposed analytical procedure proves to be fast, sensitive, and precise. Validation studies show good linearity with a regression coefficient of r2=.000 for both compounds. Quantitation limits are 32 ng/mL for acrylamide and 70 ng/mL for acetamide. In the particulate phase of mainstream smoke from the University of Kentucky Reference Cigarette 2R4F, 2.3 microg/cig acrylamide and 4.7 microg/cig acetamide are found; no acetamide and only .0074 microg/cig acrylamide is found in the gas phase. Possible mechanisms of formation in cigarette smoke are discussed.

  1. Determination of acrylamide in Thai-conventional snacks from Nong Mon market, Chonburi using GC-MS technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komthong, P; Suriyaphan, O; Charoenpanich, J

    2012-01-01

    Acrylamide in Thai-conventional snacks was analysed by GC/MS with a linear response ranged of 5-50 µg and r² > 0.99. The limit of detection (s/n = 3) and limit of quantification (s/n = 10) were 4 and 15 µg kg⁻¹, respectively, and RSD snacks possessed low concentrations (habits by 400 tourists indicate a daily intake of acrylamide <150 ng, well below a toxic dose.

  2. Should veterinarians consider acrylamide that potentially occurs in starch-rich foodstuffs as a neurotoxin in dogs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Le Roux-Pullen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Three clinically healthy Labrador puppies developed ataxia, hypermetria and convulsions shortly after eating the burnt crust of maize porridge. Two of the puppies died. Acrylamide toxicity was considered based on the history of all 3 puppies developing nervous signs after being exposed to a starch-based foodstuff that was subjected to high temperature during preparation. Acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity is thought to partially result from a distal axonopathy.

  3. Dietary intake of acrylamide and epithelial ovarian cancer risk in the european prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obón-Santacana, Mireia; Peeters, Petra H M; Freisling, Heinz; Dossus, Laure; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Baglietto, Laura; Schock, Helena; Fortner, Renée T; Boeing, Heiner; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Menéndez, Virginia; Sanchez, Maria-José; Larrañaga, Nerea; Huerta Castaño, José María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Travis, Ruth C; Merritt, Melissa A; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Orfanos, Philippos; Masala, Giovanna; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Wirfält, Elisabeth; Stocks, Tanja; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Skeie, Guri; Gram, Inger T; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Riboli, Elio; Duell, Eric J

    2015-01-01

    Acrylamide, classified in 1994 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as "probably carcinogenic" to humans, was discovered in 2002 in some heat-treated, carbohydrate-rich foods. The association between dietary acrylamide intake and epithelial ovarian cancer risk (EOC) has been previously studied in one case-control and three prospective cohort studies which obtained inconsistent results and could not further examine histologic subtypes other than serous EOC. The present study was carried out in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) subcohort of women (n = 325,006). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association between questionnaire-based acrylamide intake and EOC risk. Acrylamide was energy-adjusted using the residual method and was evaluated both as a continuous variable (per 10 μg/d) and in quintiles; when subgroups by histologic EOC subtypes were analyzed, acrylamide intake was evaluated in quartiles. During a mean follow-up of 11 years, 1,191 incident EOC cases were diagnosed. At baseline, the median acrylamide intake in EPIC was 21.3 μg/d. No associations and no evidence for a dose-response were observed between energy-adjusted acrylamide intake and EOC risk (HR10μg/d,1.02; 95% CI, 0.96-1.09; HRQ5vsQ1, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.76-1.23). No differences were seen when invasive EOC subtypes (582 serous, 118 endometrioid, and 79 mucinous tumors) were analyzed separately. This study did not provide evidence that acrylamide intake, based on food intake questionnaires, was associated with risk for EOC in EPIC. Additional studies with more reliable estimates of exposure based on biomarkers may be needed.

  4. Acrylamide in potato crisps prepared from 20 UK-grown varieties: effects of variety and tuber storage time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, J Stephen; Briddon, Adrian; Dodson, Andrew T; Muttucumaru, Nira; Halford, Nigel G; Mottram, Donald S

    2015-09-01

    Twenty varieties of field-grown potato were stored for 2 months and 6 months at 8 °C. Mean acrylamide contents in crisps prepared from all varieties at both storage times ranged from 131 μg/kg in Verdi to 5360 μg/kg in Pentland Dell. In contrast to previous studies, the longer storage period did not affect acrylamide formation significantly for most varieties, the exceptions being Innovator, where acrylamide formation increased, and Saturna, where it decreased. Four of the five varieties designated as suitable for crisping produced crisps with acrylamide levels below the European Commission indicative value of 1000 μg/kg (Saturna, Lady Rosetta, Lady Claire, and Verdi); the exception was Hermes. Two varieties more often used for French fries, Markies and Fontane, also produced crisps with less than 1000 μg/kg acrylamide. Correlations between acrylamide, its precursors and crisp colour are described, and the implications of the results for production of potato crisps are discussed.

  5. Urinary mercapturic acids and a hemoglobin adduct for the dosimetry of acrylamide exposure in smokers and nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Michael; Kavvadias, Dominique; Riedel, Kirsten; Scherer, Gerhard; Tricker, Anthony R

    2006-09-01

    Acrylamide, used in the manufacture of polyacrylamide and grouting agents, is also present in the diet and tobacco smoke. It is a neurotoxin and a probable human carcinogen. Analytical methods were established to determine the mercapturic acids of acrylamide (N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-L-cysteine, AAMA) and its metabolite glycidamide (N-(R/S)-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine, GAMA) by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), as well as the N-terminal valine adduct of acrylamide (N-2-carbamoylethylvaline, AAVal) released by N-alkyl Edman degradation of hemoglobin by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Twenty-four-hour urine samples from 60 smokers and 60 nonsmokers were analyzed for AAMA and GAMA, and blood samples were analyzed for AAVal. Smokers excreted 2.5-fold higher amounts of AAMA and 1.7-fold higher amounts of GAMA in their urine and had 3-fold higher levels of AAVal in their blood. All three biomarkers of acrylamide exposure were strongly correlated with the smoking dose as determined by the daily cigarette consumption, nicotine equivalents (the molar sum of nicotine, cotinine, trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, and their respective glucuronides) in urine, salivary cotinine, and carbon monoxide in expired breath. In nonsmokers, a weak but significant correlation between AAMA and the estimated dietary intake of acrylamide was found. It is concluded that all three biomarkers of acrylamide are suitable for the determination of exposure in both smokers and nonsmokers.

  6. Pilot study on feasibility of application of gas chromatography for the assessment of acrylamide concentration in sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarczyk, Elżbieta; Próba, Marta; Wolny, Lidia; Wojtal, Łukasz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of using gas chromatography to measurement of the acrylamide concentration in sewage sludge. Acrylamide, as a toxic substance, is not indifferent to human health, but it is used in the production of plastics, dyes, adhesives, cosmetics, mortar, as well as a coagulant for water treatment, wastewater or sewage sludge conditioning. Determination of acrylamide by gas chromatography was based on standard: EPA Method 8032A "Acrylamid by gas chromatography." It consists of a bromination reaction of the compound in the presence of dibromopropendial derivative, a triple extraction with the ethyl acetate, a concentration of the eluate sample up to the 1 ml volume, and an analysis by the gas chromatography using an electron capture detector (ECD). The acrylamide concentration of was calculated according to the formula presented in the mentioned standard. All samples were performed twice (the difference between the results was not greater than 10%), and the average value of the four samples was 17.64 µg/L(-1). The presence of acrylamide in sewage sludge has been confirmed.

  7. Radiation-induced grafting of acrylamide onto guar gum in aqueous medium: Synthesis and characterization of grafted polymer guar-g-acrylamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Jayashree; Kumar, Virendra; Bhardwaj, Y. K.; Goel, N. K.; Dubey, K. A.; Chaudhari, C. V.; Sabharwal, S.

    2007-10-01

    Mutual radiation grafting technique has been applied to carry out grafting of acrylamide (AAm) onto guar gum (GG) using high-energy Co 60γ radiation to enhance its flocculating properties for industrial effluents. The grafted product was characterized using analytical probes like elemental analysis, thermal analysis, Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The grafting extent was observed to decrease with the dose rate and increase with the concentration of AAm. Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) of grafted and ungrafted samples indicated better stability of grafted product. γ and microwave radiation effect on grafted and virgin GG has also been reported.

  8. Radiation-induced grafting of acrylamide onto guar gum in aqueous medium: Synthesis and characterization of grafted polymer guar-g-acrylamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswal, Jayashree [Radiation Technology Development Section, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400 085 (India); Kumar, Virendra [Radiation Technology Development Section, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400 085 (India); Bhardwaj, Y.K. [Radiation Technology Development Section, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400 085 (India)]. E-mail: ykbhard@magnum.barc.ernet.in; Goel, N.K. [Radiation Technology Development Section, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400 085 (India); Dubey, K.A. [Radiation Technology Development Section, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400 085 (India); Chaudhari, C.V. [Radiation Technology Development Section, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400 085 (India); Sabharwal, S. [Radiation Technology Development Section, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400 085 (India)

    2007-10-15

    Mutual radiation grafting technique has been applied to carry out grafting of acrylamide (AAm) onto guar gum (GG) using high-energy Co{sup 60} {gamma} radiation to enhance its flocculating properties for industrial effluents. The grafted product was characterized using analytical probes like elemental analysis, thermal analysis, Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The grafting extent was observed to decrease with the dose rate and increase with the concentration of AAm. Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) of grafted and ungrafted samples indicated better stability of grafted product. {gamma} and microwave radiation effect on grafted and virgin GG has also been reported.

  9. Grafting of acrylamide onto kappa-carrageenan via {gamma}-irradiation: Optimization and swelling behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezanejade Bardajee, Ghasem [Department of Chemistry, Polymer Research Laboratory, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Ave., P.O. Box 11365-9516, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pourjavadi, Ali [Department of Chemistry, Polymer Research Laboratory, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Ave., P.O. Box 11365-9516, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: purjavad@sharif.edu; Sheikh, Nasrin [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Radiation Applications Research School, Kargar Avenue, P.O. Box 11365-3486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadegh Amini-Fazl, Mohammad [Department of Chemistry, Polymer Research Laboratory, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Ave., P.O. Box 11365-9516, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-02-15

    The Taguchi method, a robust experimental design for optimization, was used for the synthesis of a superabsorbent hydrogel network using {gamma}-rays as an initiator, energy source and crosslinker at the same time. Nine different samples of superabsorbent hydrogels were prepared in various conditions from kappa-carrageenan ({kappa}C) and acrylamide by {gamma}-irradiation at room temperature. Considering the results of nine trials and according to analysis of variance (ANOVA), a new experimental condition with the concentrations of {kappa}C and acrylamide 1.5 g and 0.028 mol (2 g in total volume of 50 mL H{sub 2}O), respectively, as well as {gamma}-ray at the optimum total dose (7 kGy) was proposed. After preparing the desired hydrogels according to optimum condition, the swelling behavior of hydrogels in different media was investigated.

  10. Poly(acrylamide-MWNTs hybrid hydrogel with extremely high mechanical strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Huanhuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(acrylamide-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (PAAm-MWNTs hybrid hydrogels were prepared through the radiation-induced polymerization and crosslinking of the aqueous solution of acrylamide and well-dispersed MWNTs for the first time. The PAAm gels obtained by the radiation-induced polymerization and cosslinking showed very high mechanical strengths, and the PAAm-MWNTs hybrid hydrogels had improved mechanical properties compared with the PAAm gels, and hence the PAAm-MWNTs hybrid hydrogels showed extremely high compressive and tensile strengths. The hybrid hydrogels with water contents more than 80 wt.% usually did not fracture even at compressive strengths close to or even more than 60 MPa and strains more than 97%. And the hybrid hydrogels had very high elongations (more than 2000% in some cases, especially when the water content was high. The tensile strengths were in sub-MPa. The hybrid PAAm-MWNTs hydrogel is one of the strongest hydrogel even made.

  11. Acrylamide inverse miniemulsion polymerization: in situ, real-time monitoring using nir spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. E. Colmán

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the ability of on-line NIR spectroscopy for the prediction of the evolution of monomer concentration, conversion and average particle diameter in acrylamide inverse miniemulsion polymerization was evaluated. The spectral ranges were chosen as those representing the decrease in concentration of monomer. An increase in the baseline shift indicated that the NIR spectra were affected by particle size. Multivariate partial least squares calibration models were developed to relate NIR spectra collected by the immersion probe with off-line conversion and polymer particle size data. The results showed good agreement between off-line data and values predicted by the NIR calibration models and these latter were also able to detect different types of operational disturbances. These results indicate that it is possible to monitor variables of interest during acrylamide inverse miniemulsion polymerizations.

  12. Studies on Biohemical Mechanism of Neurotoxicity Induced by Acrylamide in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HEXIWEN; LUJING; 等

    1992-01-01

    The effects of acrylamide on calmoduline(CaM),cAMP,cGMP,Ca2+,Mg2+-ATPase and 45Ca2+ uptake in nervous system were detrmined in Wistar rats(ip,10or 50mg·kg-1 for 12d),The results indicate that acrylamide caused an alteration in calcium homeostasis in rat brain by decreasing the Ca2+ -sequestering capacity of microsomes,and this may occur due to an efflux of calcium secondary to a microsomal structure damage.The changes of CaM in nervous system coupled with potential alteration in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration could affect many CaM-dependent enzymes(i.e.Ca2+,Mg2+-ATPase)and cyclic AMP system,and CaM or cAMP is known to be“toxicological second messenger”that could initiate neurotoxicity,though more work is needed to elucidate the details of the mechanism.

  13. Color development and acrylamide content of pre-dried potato chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; León, Jorge; Mery, Domingo

    2007-01-01

    dimensions were blanched as in the previous step, and then air-dried until reaching a moisture content of 60% (wet basis). These samples were called pre-dried potato slices. Potato slices were fried at 120 degrees C, 140 degrees C, 160 degrees C and 180 degrees C until reaching moisture contents of similar...... to 1.8% (total basis) for color quantification. Acrylamide concentration was determined only in final chips fried at 120 degrees C, 150 degrees C and 180 degrees C and compared with that of two brands of commercial chips produced in Chile (Moms and Frito Lay). Color values in L*a*b* units were recorded......%, 44% lower acrylamide content than that of the control, Moms and Frito Lay chips, respectively....

  14. Synthesis of Acrylamide Artificial Antigen and Preparation of Anti-Acrylamide Polyclonal Antibody%丙烯酰胺人工抗原的合成及其多克隆抗体的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红星; 高美琴; 张馨如; 刘慧

    2009-01-01

    利用偶联方法合成丙烯酰胺人工抗原,通过免疫方法获得抗丙烯酰胺多克隆抗体;应用戊二醛法将丙烯酰胺与牛血清白蛋白(BSA)进行偶联,并对这两种物质及其复合物进行紫外扫描,并用此复合物免疫兔子,利用间接酶联免疫吸附法测定抗体的效价;应用牛血清白蛋白与丙烯酰胺偶联人工抗体成功,抗体效价大于8100;应用人工抗原免疫成功制备抗丙烯酰胺多克隆抗体.%Artificial antigen of acrylamide was synthetized by couple method, and anti- acrylamide polyclonal antibody were obtained by immunizing method. The Glutaraldehyde method was used to conjugate Acrylamide to Bovine Serum albumin(BSA), and artificial antigen, acrylamide and BSA were respectively taken on UV spectrum scan. Rabbits had been immunized with artificial antigen, and the titer antiserum from those rabbits were testified by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results showed that artificial antigen was synthesized successfully between Acrylamide and BSA, and titer of anti-acrylamide serum was above 8100; Anti-Acrylamide polyclonal antibody was prepared by immunizing method of artificial antigen.

  15. Radiation-induced solid state polymerization of N-substituted acrylamides and methacrylamides at reduced temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurakowska-Orszagh, J.; Gumulka, A.; Bartnik, J. (Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1984-01-01

    Radiation-induced solid state in-source polymerization and post-polymerization at reduced temperature of a series of N-tert-alkylacrylamides and pairs of monomers of the acrylamide and methacrylamide series with identical aliphatic aromatic and alicyclic substituents has been studied. The effect of the changes in the structure of particular monomers on their reactivity at reduced temperature as compared with their reactivity at room temperature has been considered.

  16. Complexation of anionic copolymers of acrylamide and N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide with aminoglycoside antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovskii, M. V.; Tarabukina, E. B.; Amirova, A. I.; Zakharova, N. V.; Smirnova, M. Yu.; Gavrilova, I. I.

    2014-03-01

    The complexation of aminoglycoside antibiotics neomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, and amikacin in the form of free bases with carboxyl- and sulfo-containing copolymers of acrylamide and N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) in water and water-salt solutions is studied by means of viscometry, equilibrium dialysis, potentiometric titration, and molecular hydrodynamics. Factors influencing the stability of formed copolymer-antibiotic complexes and determinations of their toxicity are established.

  17. Optical Properties of Silica-MFI Doped Acrylamide-based Photopolymer

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The optical properties of acrylamide-based photopolymer doped with pure silica MFI-type zeolites are studied by refractometric and spectrophotometric means. Dynamic Light Scattering and Transmission Electron Microscopy are used for zeolite characterization and laser refractometry and White Light Interferometric profilometry are used for surface characterization of the composites. Refractive indices and absorption coefficients of composites are determined from their transmittance and reflectan...

  18. A Novel Sieving Medium for Separation of DNA Fragments- Poly(acrylamide-dimethylacrylamide)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A short chain poly (acrylamide-dimethylacrylamide) was synthesized in water phase using isopropanol as a chain transfer agent. This copolymer can form a stable dynamic coating on the inner surface of the capillary, thereby suppressing the electroosmotic flow and DNA-capillary wall interaction. The high efficient separation of DNA fragments and SSCP analysis were obtained in bare capillaries using this copolymer as a sieving medium.

  19. APPLICATION OF SURFACE GRAFTED POLY N-ISOPROPYL ACRYLAMIDE BY RADIATION TECHNOLOGY FOR PROTEIN SOLUTION CONCENTRATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yishi; LI Huaizhong; LIU Pengfei; HA Hongfei

    1991-01-01

    Poly N-isopropyl acrylamide (abbreviated as PNIPA) as a kind of thermally sensitive hydrogel is utilized to concentrate Bovin Serum Albumin (BSA) solution. In order to decrease its surface adsorption to BSA in aqueous solution, surface layer grafting of the gels by radiation technology was carried out. The results showed that hydroxyl propyl methacrylate (HPMA) grafted gel exhibited a low level of BSA adsorption and still kept the original thermally sensitive properties of PNIPA hydrogels.

  20. Dietary acrylamide intake and estrogen and progesterone receptor-defined postmenopausal breast cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Grete S; Hogervorst, Janneke G F; Schouten, Leo J

    2010-01-01

    ratios were 1.31 (95% CI: 0.87-1.97, P (trend) = 0.26) for ER+, 1.47 (0.86-2.51, P (trend) = 0.14) for PR+, and 1.43 (0.83-2.46, P (trend) = 0.16) for ER+PR+, when comparing women in the highest quintile of acrylamide intake (median 36.8 microg/day) to women in the lowest (median 9.5 microg...

  1. Quantitation of acrylamide in food products by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhart, B Loye; Ewald, Deborah K; Sanders, Robert A; Tallmadge, Daniel H; Zyzak, David V; Strothers, Melissa A

    2005-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) method was developed for the quantitation of acrylamide in various food products. The method involved spiking the isotope-substituted internal standard (1-C13 acrylamide) onto 6.00 g of the food product, adding 40 mL distilled/deionized water, and heating at 65 degrees C for 30 min. Afterwards, 10 mL ethylene dichloride was added and the mixture was homogenized for 30 s and centrifuged at 2700 x g for 30 min, and then 8 g supernatant was extracted with 10, 5, and 5 mL portions of ethyl acetate. The extracts were combined, dried with sodium sulfate, and concentrated to 100-200 microL. Acrylamide was determined by analysis of the final extract on a single quadrupole, bench-top mass spectrometer with electrospray ionization, using a 2 mm id C18 column and monitoring m/z = 72 (acrylamide) and m/z = 73 (internal standard). For difficult food matrixes, such as coffee and cocoa, a solid-phase extraction cleanup step was incorporated to improve both chromatography and column lifetime. The method had a limit of quantitation of 10 ppb, and coefficients of determination (r2) for calibration curves were typically better than 0.998. Acceptable spike recovery results were achieved in 11 different food matrixes. Precision in potato chip analyses was 5-8% (relative standard deviation). This method provides an LC/MS alternative to the current LC/MS/MS methods and derivatization gas chromatography/mass spectrometry methods, and is applicable to difficult food products such as coffee, cocoa, and high-salt foods.

  2. Helix-Sense-Selective Polymerization of N,N-Diphenyl(Meth)acrylamide by Anionic Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the helix-sense-selective polymerization of N,N-diphenyl acrylamide (DPAA) and N,N-diphenyl methacrylamide(DPMAA) were studied with living helix prepolymer as anionic initiator, and the chiral optical properties of the obtained polymers were investigated too.It was shown that optically active polymers of DPAA and DPMAA could be obtained under the experimental condition, and exhibited the same screw sense as that of the prepolymer.

  3. Silicone Doped Chitosan-Acrylamide Coencapsulated Urea Fertilizer: An Approach to Controlled Release Fertilizers

    OpenAIRE

    Sempeho Ibahati Siafu

    2017-01-01

    In the absence of special management practices, urea is known to undergo chemical transformations resulting in severe losses (≈60–70%) of total fertilizer applied. In an attempt to design urea controlled release fertilizers in order to counterbalance the 60–70% loss, urea was cross-linked with chitosan and acrylamide under refluxed in situ copolymerization technique; the procedures were repeated with silicone doping prior cross-linking with MBA. The particles were characterized with FTIR/ATR,...

  4. Preliminary study of acrylamide monomer decomposition during methane fermentation of dairy waste sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroczek, Ewelina; Konieczny, Piotr; Lewicki, Andrzej; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Dach, Jacek

    2016-07-01

    Polyacrylamide (PAM) used in sludge dewatering exists widely in high-solid anaerobic digestion. Acrylamide is registered in the list of chemicals demonstrating toxic, carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. Therefore, it is reasonable to ask about the mobility of such residual substances in the environment. The study was carried out to assess the impact of the mesophilic (39±1°C) and thermophilic (54±1°C) fermentation process on the level of acrylamide monomer (AMD) content in the dairy sludge. The material was analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for quantification of AMD. The results indicate that the process of methane fermentation continues regardless of the temperature effects on the degradation of AMD in dairy sludge. The degree of reduction of acrylamide monomer for thermophilic fermentation is 100%, while for mesophilic fermentation it is 91%. In practice, this means that biogas technology eliminates the risk of AMD migration to plant tissue. Moreover, it should be stressed that 90% of cumulative biogas and methane production was reached one week earlier under thermophilic conditions - the dynamics of the methanisation process were over 20% faster.

  5. The effects of phytic acid on the Maillard reaction and the formation of acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huan; Zhou, Yamin; Ma, Jimei; Zhou, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Hong

    2013-11-01

    Phytic acid, myo-inositol hexaphosphoric acid, exists in substantial (1-5%) amounts in edible plant seeds. In this study the effects of phytic acid on the Maillard reaction and the formation of acrylamide were investigated. Both phytic acid and phosphate enhanced browning in glucose/β-alanine system, but phytic acid was less effective than phosphate. Higher pH favoured the catalytic activities for both of them. The influence of the types of sugar and amino acid on the reaction was also examined. Browning was suppressed by the addition of calcium and magnesium ions, but an additive effect was observed for ferrous ions and phytic acid in glucose/β-alanine solution at pH 8.0. Both phytic acid and phosphate promoted the polymerisation of the reaction intermediates. The kinetics of Maillard reaction was first-ordered reaction in the presence of phytic acid. Phytic acid was less effective than phosphate in the formation of acrylamide. When potato slices were treated with sodium phytate and calcium chloride successively, the formation of acrylamide was greatly suppressed.

  6. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of acrylamide in typical Spanish products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudo, E; Moyano, E; Puignou, L; Galceran, M T

    2008-07-15

    This paper describes the use of liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of acrylamide in several typical foods produced and consumed in Spain. Christmas sweets, olives, traditionally made potato crisps, pastry products, sweet fritters ("churros") and one of Spain's most famous dishes, Spanish omelette, were selected. Using the mass spectra information provided by an ion trap analyzer in combination with the accurate mass measurements from time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometry a co-extractive interference present in some potato products was identified as valine. A porous graphitic carbon column, which enabled the co-extractive and acrylamide to be separated, and ion trap or triple quadrupole analyzers, depending on the acrylamide concentration, were used to determine this genotoxic compound in foodstuffs. The highest values were found in potato products, sweet fritters, Christmas sweets and pastry products, with values ranging between 70 and 2000 microg/g. Spanish omelette presented relatively low levels, similar to those obtained for dried fruits.

  7. Swelling characterization of gamma-radiation induced crosslinked acrylamide/maleic acid hydrogels in urea solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karadag, Erdener [Department of Chemistry, Fen-Edebiyat Faculty, Adnan Menderes University, TR09010 Aydin (Turkey)]. E-mail: ekaradag@adu.edu.tr; Uzuem, Omer Baris [Department of Chemistry, Fen-Edebiyat Faculty, Adnan Menderes University, TR09010 Aydin (Turkey); Saraydin, Dursun [Department of Chemistry, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Gueven, Olgun [Department of Chemistry, Hacettepe University, 06532 Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey)

    2006-07-01

    Swelling behaviors of crosslinked acrylamide/maleic acid (CAMA) hydrogels synthesized by gamma-radiation crosslinking of acrylamide and maleic acid in aqueous urea solutions were investigated. CAMA hydrogels containing different amounts of maleic acid were obtained in the form of rods via a radiation technique. Swelling experiments were performed in two different urea concentrations at 25 {sup o}C, gravimetrically. The hydrogels showed enormous swelling in aqueous medium and displayed swelling characteristics that were highly dependent on the chemical composition of the hydrogels and irradiation dose. Diffusion behavior and some swelling kinetics parameters were investigated. The values of the swelling percent of CAMA hydrogels were between 935% and 5212%, while the values of the swelling percent of acrylamide hydrogels were between 669% and 923%. The difference of the concentrations of urea solutions was not affected by the swelling properties of the hydrogel systems. Urea/water diffusion into hydrogels was found to be non-Fickian in character. Equilibrium urea/water contents of the hydrogel systems were changed between 0.8699 and 0.9812.

  8. Dietary exposure of acrylamide from the fifth Chinese Total Diet Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Zhao, Yunfeng; Zhu, Feng; Ma, Yongjian; Li, Xiaowei; Miao, Hong; Wu, Yongning

    2016-01-01

    The levels of acrylamide in 240 food composite samples from the 5th Chinese Total Diet Study (TDS) were measured using an LC-MS/MS method and the exposure estimates for the general population were evaluated. The samples were collected from 20 provinces in China, covering about two thirds of the Chinese population. Acrylamide was detected in 40.0% of composite samples with the concentrations ranged from 0.8 to 211.8 μg/kg. The average dietary intakes from the 5th Chinese TDS were 0.319 μg kg(-1) bw day(-1) and an increase with about 70% was observed from the 3rd Chinese TDS in 2000 to the 5th Chinese TDS between 2009 and 2012. The main food group contributors to acrylamide exposure were vegetables (35.2%), cereals (34.3%) and potatoes (15.7%). Based on the benchmark dose lower confidence limit at 10% risk (BMDL10) of 0.31 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for the induction of mammary tumors in rats and 0.18 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for Harderian gland tumors in mice, the margins of exposure (MOEs) were 973 and 565 for Chinese general population, respectively. These MOEs indicate a human health concern.

  9. High-level expression in Corynebacterium glutamicum of nitrile hydratase from Rhodococcus rhodochrous for acrylamide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Mi-Suk; Han, Sang-Soo; Kim, Mi-Young; Kim, Bu-Youn; Huh, Jong-Pil; Kim, Hak-Sung; Lee, Jin-Ho

    2014-05-01

    The nhhBAG gene of Rhodococcus rhodochrous M33 that encodes nitrile hydratase (NHase), converting acrylonitrile into acrylamide, was cloned and expressed in Corynebacterium glutamicum under the control of an ilvC promoter. The specific enzyme activity in recombinant C. glutamicum cells was about 13.6 μmol/min/mg dry cell weight (DCW). To overexpress the NHase, five types of plasmid variants were constructed by introducing mutations into 80 nucleotides near the translational initiation region (TIR) of nhhB. Of them, pNBM4 with seven mutations showed the highest NHase activity, exhibiting higher expression levels of NhhB and NhhA than wild-type pNBW33, mainly owing to decreased secondary-structure stability and an introduction of a conserved Shine-Dalgarno sequence in the translational initiation region. In a fed-batch culture of recombinant Corynebacterium cells harboring pNBM4, the cell density reached 53.4 g DCW/L within 18 h, and the specific and total enzyme activities were estimated to be 37.3 μmol/min/mg DCW and 1,992 μmol/min/mL, respectively. The use of recombinant Corynebacterium cells for the production of acrylamide from acrylonitrile resulted in a conversion yield of 93 % and a final acrylamide concentration of 42.5 % within 6 h when the total amount of fed acrylonitrile was 456 g.

  10. Modified Lipoproteins by Acrylamide Showed More Atherogenic Properties and Exposure of Acrylamide Induces Acute Hyperlipidemia and Fatty Liver Changes in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Min; Baek, Ji-Mi; Lim, So-Mang; Kim, Jae-Yong; Kim, Jihoe; Choi, Inho; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2015-10-01

    Acrylamide is a well-known potent carcinogen and neurotoxin that, until now, has not been sufficiently investigated with regard to its effects on lipid metabolism. We investigated physiological effects of acrylamide (AA) on lipoprotein metabolism using human macrophages, dermal cells, and zebrafish models. Functional and structural properties of lipoproteins were modified by AA (final concentration of 5-100 mM) with loss of antioxidant ability and multimerization of apoA-I in vitro. AA exacerbated LDL oxidation, degradation, and LDL uptake into macrophages with increased ROS production. In human cells, treatment of AA (1-100 μM) caused cellular senescence of dermal cells with severe cytotoxicity. Waterborne exposure of zebrafish in cage water containing AA (300 ppm) resulted in acute death within 26 h along with elevation of body weight, blood glucose, triglyceride, and hepatic inflammation. AA exposure caused fat accumulation in liver in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, AA affected lipoprotein metabolism to result exacerbation of atherosclerosis. Exposure of zebrafish to AA resulted in acute inflammatory death with hyperlipidemia.

  11. Distribution of /sup 14/C-labelled acrylamide and betaine in foetuses of rats, rabbits, beagle dogs and miniature pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, G.J.; Miller, E.; Sapienza, P.P.; Michel, T.C.; King, M.T.; Turner, V.A.; Blumenthal, H.; Jackson, W.E.; Levin, S.

    1983-02-01

    (/sup 14/C)Acrylamide and (/sup 14/C)betaine hydrochloride were administered in a single iv dose to pregnant rats, rabbits, beagle dogs and miniature pigs late in gestation (1-2 days before expected parturition). Dosages used were 10 mg/kg for rats and 5 mg/kg for the other species. The compounds were allowed to equilibrate in the animal (for 1 hr in rats and for 2 hr in the other species); the dam was then killed and the foetuses were removed by caesarean section. Each foetus was weighed and analysed for radioactivity, either by homogenization of the whole foetus (rat and rabbit) or by determining separately the radioactivity in individual organs and tissues (dog and pig). Foetal uptake of the polar compound betaine hydrochloride was much lower than that of the more lipophilic acrylamide. The sex of the foetus did not appear to affect uptake of either compound. There were no significant differences in total uptake of isotope attributable to the position of the foetus within the uterus in any of the four species given either acrylamide or betaine. Similarly, uterine position did not affect the uptake of acrylamide or betaine by individual tissues of foetal dogs or pigs. Since the distributions of /sup 14/C-labelled acrylamide and betaine hydrochloride were essentially uniform throughout a litter, it would not be necessary to sample all of the members of a litter to obtain a representative picture of foetal distribution.

  12. Effect of lactic acid fermentation of lupine wholemeal on acrylamide content and quality characteristics of wheat-lupine bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkiene, Elena; Jakobsone, Ida; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Vidmantiene, Daiva; Pugajeva, Iveta; Bartkevics, Vadims

    2013-11-01

    The effect of supplementing wheat flour at a level of 15% with lupine (Lupinus angustifolius L.) wholemeal fermented by different lactic acid bacteria on acrylamide content in bread crumb as well as on bread texture and sensory characteristics was analysed. The use of fermented lupine resulted in a lower specific volume and crumb porosity of bread on an average by 14.1% and 10.5%, respectively, while untreated lupine lowered the latter parameters at a higher level (30.8% and 20.7%, respectively). The addition of lupine resulted in a higher by 43.3% acrylamide content compared to wheat bread (19.4 µg/kg dry weight (d.w.)). Results showed that acrylamide was significantly reduced using proteolytic Lactobacillus sakei and Pediococcus pentosaceus 10 strains for lupine fermentation. Although the bread supplemented with lupine spontaneous sourdough had the lowest level of acrylamide (15.6 µg/kg d.w.), it had the malodorous flavour and was unacceptable to the consumers. The lactofermentation could increase the potential use of lupine as a food ingredient while reducing acrylamide formation and enriching bread with high quality proteins.

  13. Acrylamide synthesis using agar entrapped cells of Rhodococcus rhodochrous PA-34 in a partitioned fed batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Jog; Sharma, Nitya Nand; Prasad, Shreenath; Bhalla, Tek Chand

    2008-01-01

    The nitrile hydratase (Nhase) induced cells of Rhodococcus rhodochrous PA-34 catalyzed the conversion of acrylonitrile to acrylamide. The cells of R. rhodochrous PA-34 immobilized in 2% (w/v) agar (1.76 mg dcw/ml agar matrix) exhibited maximum Nhase activity (8.25 U/mg dcw) for conversion of acrylonitrile to acrylamide at 10 degrees C in the reaction mixture containing 0.1 M potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.5), 8% (w/v) acrylonitrile and immobilized cells equivalent to 1.12 mg dcw (dry cell weight) per ml. In a partitioned fed batch reaction at 10 degrees C, using 1.12 g dcw immobilized cells in a final volume of 1 l, a total of 372 g of acrylonitrile was completely hydrated to acrylamide (498 g) in 24 h. From the above reaction mixture 87% acrylamide (432 g) was recovered through crystallization at 4 degrees C. By recycling the immobilized biocatalyst (six times), a total of 2,115 g acrylamide was produced.

  14. Exploration of different methods to assess dietary acrylamide exposure in pregnant women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brantsaeter, A.L.; Haugen, M.; Mul, de A.; Bjellaas, T.; Becher, G.; Klaveren, van J.D.; Alexander, J.; Meltzer, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    We assessed dietary exposure to acrylamide in 119 pregnant Norwegian women. The aim of the study was to explore three different methods for estimation of long-term intake of acrylamide and whether it is possible by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to identify pregnant women with high exposure to

  15. L-cysteine, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, and glutathione protect xenopus laevis embryos against acrylamide-induced malformations and mortality in the frog embryo teratogenesis assay (FETAX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary acrylamide is largely derived from heat-induced reactions between the amino group of the free amino acid asparagine and carbonyl groups of glucose and fructose during heat processing (baking, frying) of plant-derived foods such as potato fries and cereals. After consumption, acrylamide is a...

  16. Hispidin derived from Phellinus linteus affords protection against acrylamide-induced oxidative stress in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Shen, Yang; Su, Hongming; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2014-08-05

    Acrylamide (AA), a well-known toxicant, has attracted numerous attentions for its presumably carcinogenesis, neurotoxicity and cytotoxicity. Oxidative stress was considered to be associated with acrylamide cytotoxicity, but the link between oxidative stress and acrylamide cytotoxicity is still unclear. In the present study, hispidin produced from the edible fungus Phellinus linteus displayed dramatically antioxidant activities against DPPH radicals, ABTS radicals, ferric reducing and hydroxyl radicals, as well as superoxide anion radicals. Moreover, the cytoprotective effect of hispidin against AA-induced oxidative stress was verified upon Caco-2 cells according to evaluate the cell viability, intracellular ROS, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and glutathione (GSH) in the presence or absence of AA (5 mM) in a dose-dependent manner. Collectively, our results demonstrated for the first time that hispidin was able to inhibit AA-induced oxidative stress, which might have implication for the dietary preventive application.

  17. Potential protective effect of L-cysteine against the toxicity of acrylamide and furan in exposed Xenopus laevis embryos: an interaction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John Russell; Rayburn, James R; Cline, George R; Sauterer, Roger; Friedman, Mendel

    2014-08-01

    The embryo toxicities of two food-processing-induced toxic compounds, acrylamide and furan, with and without added L-cysteine were examined individually and in mixtures using the frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus (FETAX). The following measures of developmental toxicity were used: (a) 96 h LC50, the median concentration causing 50% embryo lethality; (b) 96 h EC50, the median concentration causing 50% malformations of the surviving embryos; and (c) teratogenic index (96 h LC50/96 h EC50), an estimate of teratogenic risk. Calculations of toxic units (TU) were used to assess possible antagonism, synergism, or response addition of several mixtures. The evaluated compounds demonstrated counterintuitive effects. Furan had lower than expected toxicity in Xenopus embryos and, unlike acrylamide, does not seem to be teratogenic. However, the short duration of the tests may not show the full effects of furan if it is truly primarily genotoxic and carcinogenic. L-Cysteine showed unexpected properties in the delay of hatching of the embryos. The results from the interaction studies between combination of two or three components (acrylamide plus L-cysteine; furan plus L-cysteine; acrylamide plus furan; acrylamide plus furan and L-cysteine) show that furan and acrylamide seem to have less than response addition at 1:1 toxic unit ratio in lethality. Acrylamide and L-cysteine show severe antagonism even at low 19 acrylamide/1 L-cysteine TU ratios. Data from the mixture of acrylamide, furan, and L-cysteine show a slight antagonism, less than would have been expected from binary mixture exposures. Bioalkylation mechanisms and their prevention are discussed. There is a need to study the toxicological properties of mixtures of acrylamide and furan concurrently formed in heat-processed food.

  18. Development of a high-throughput enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the routine detection of the carcinogen acrylamide in food, via rapid derivatisation pre-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Andrew; Fodey, Terence; Elliott, Christopher

    2008-02-11

    The spontaneous formation of the neurotoxic carcinogen acrylamide in a wide range of cooked foods has recently been discovered. These foods include bread and other bakery products, crisps, chips, breakfast cereals, and coffee. To date, the diminutive size of acrylamide (71.08 Da) has prevented the development of screening immunoassays for this chemical. In this study, a polyclonal antibody capable of binding the carcinogen was produced by the synthesis of an immunogen comprising acrylamide derivatised with 3-mercaptobenzoic acid (3-MBA), and its conjugation to the carrier protein bovine thyroglobulin. Antiserum from the immunised rabbit was harvested and fully characterised. It displayed no binding affinity for acrylamide or 3-MBA but had a high affinity for 3-MBA-derivitised acrylamide. The antisera produced was utilised in the development of an ELISA based detection system for acrylamide. Spiked water samples were assayed for acrylamide content using a previously published extraction method validated for coffee, crispbread, potato, milk chocolate and potato crisp matrices. Extracted acrylamide was then subjected to a rapid 1-h derivatisation with 3-MBA, pre-analysis. The ELISA was shown to have a high specificity for acrylamide, with a limit of detection in water samples of 65.7 microgkg(-1), i.e. potentially suitable for acrylamide detection in a wide range of food commodities. Future development of this assay will increase sensitivity further. This is the first report of an immunoassay capable of detecting the carcinogen, as its small size has necessitated current analytical detection via expensive, slower, physico-chemical techniques such as Gas or Liquid Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry.

  19. Addition of antioxidant from bamboo leaves as an effective way to reduce the formation of acrylamide in fried chicken wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Xu, Weizhong; Wu, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Ying

    2007-03-01

    The efficiency of antioxidant from bamboo leaves on the reduction of acrylamide during thermal processing and optimization of levels of addition of antioxidant from bamboo leaves applied to fried chicken wings are reported. The authors optimized the method of the addition of antioxidant from bamboo leaves to fried chicken wings and the frying processing parameters, and also compared the relationship between the content of total flavonoids in three extracts (EBL(971), EBL(972) and antioxidant from bamboo leaves) and the extent of the reduction of acrylamide. The acrylamide levels were quantified by a validated liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry detection method and the sensory evaluation was performed in a double-blind manner. The results showed that nearly 57.8 and 59.0% of acrylamide in fried chicken wings were reduced when the antioxidant from bamboo leaves addition ratios were 0.1 and 0.5% (w/w), respectively. The maximum inhibitory rate was achieved when antioxidant from bamboo leaves was chosen as the additive with a total flavonoid content of 32% compared with other two extracts and antioxidant from bamboo leaves mixed with flour was selected as the method of addition. Sensory evaluation results showed that the odour and flavour of fried chicken wings with antioxidant from bamboo leaves treatments had no significant difference compared with normal food matrixes (p > 0.05) when the antioxidant from bamboo leaves addition ratio was Colour acceptability in the study of sensory evaluation was in good correspondence with colour formation of fried chicken wings in each test group. These results suggest that antioxidant from bamboo leaves could significantly reduce acrylamide formation in fried chicken wings and yet still retain the original flavour and odour of the fried products. This study could be regarded as a pioneer contribution to the reduction of acrylamide in various foods by natural antioxidants.

  20. New copolymer of acrylamide with allyl methacrylate and its capacity for the removal of azo dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeliz Yildirim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The copolymerization reactions of Acrylamide (AA with the different mole ratios of allyl methacrylate (AMA such as 25/75, 50/50 and 75/25 were studied by radical polymerization under argon atmosphere using 2,2’-Azobis (isobutyronitri1e (AIBN as initiator. The copolymers were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis (TG. FTIR spectra showed that the C=O, C-N and N-H groups in copolymers remained during the copolymerization. It is concluded from the thermograms that Poly(AA-co-AMA copolymers which contained different ratios of monomer and comonomer exhibit similar thermal behavior. Adsorption capacity, kinetic and isotherm studies of Direct Brown 2 onto the copolymers have been evaluated. Different factors such as the monomer ratio, pH, initial dye concentration, copolymer dosage and contact time affecting the removal process were studied. It was found that the adsorption process agreed with the Freundlich and Dubinin-Raduskevich model and the adsorption of Direct Brown 2 depended on the acrylamide content and pH of the solution. The standard Gibb’s free energy was determined as - 14.7 kJ/mol, which means that adsorption occurred spontaneously and the process is feasible. Increasing the acrylamide content led to increased adsorption of Direct Brown 2 on the copolymer. Moreover, adsorption kinetic studies showed that the adsorption followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model, indicating that the chemical adsorption was the rate-limiting step. These results show that Poly(AA-co-AMA can be used as adsorbent for water pollutants such as Direct Brown 2 and has potential applications in related industrial and environmental areas.

  1. Effect of ascorbic acid on the properties of ammonia caramel colorant additives and acrylamide formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongxing; Gu, Zhengbiao

    2014-09-01

    Ammonia caramels are among the most widely used colorant additives in the food industry. They are commonly prepared through the Maillard reaction and caramelization of mixtures of reducing sugars with ammonia or ammonium salts. Antioxidants are known to inhibit acrylamide formation during the Maillard reaction, and they may affect the properties of the ammonia caramel products. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the antioxidant ascorbic acid on the properties of ammonia caramel. A mixture of glucose and ammonia was allowed to react at 120 °C for 60 min in the presence of ascorbic acid at final concentrations of 0 to 0.08 M. The ammonia caramels obtained from these reactions were all positively charged. As the concentration of ascorbic acid increased, the color intensity of the ammonia caramel showed a decreasing trend, while the intensity of the fluorescence and total amount of pyrazines in the volatiles showed a tendency to increase. The addition of ascorbic acid did not result in obvious changes in the UV-visible spectra of the ammonia caramels and the types of pyrazines in the volatiles were also unchanged. It is noteworthy that the addition of 0.02 to 0.08 M ascorbic acid did reduce the formation of the by-product acrylamide, a harmful substance in food. When the concentration of ascorbic acid added reached 0.04 M, the content of acrylamide in the ammonia caramel was 20.53 μg/L, which was approximately 44% lower than that without ascorbic acid. As a result, ascorbic acid can be considered to improve the quality and safety of ammonia caramels.

  2. Effect of various initiators on molar mass determination of hydrolyzed potato starch-acrylamide graft copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Suzana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with synthesis, characterization and properties of graft copolymer produced from hydrolyzed potato starch and acrylamide using various initiators (azobisisobutyronitrile, potassium persulfate and benzoyl peroxide. Starch hydrolysis was performed in order to reduce molecular mass. Acrylamide was grafted on shorter starch macromolecules creating side branches on the main chain resulting in a product that could be used in textile finishing more successfully. Various initiators were used, primarily, to produce graft monomer on the starch and also to obtain thinner or thicker packaging of side chains that can have a great influence on the behavior of textile yarns impregnated with these copolymers. Benzoyl peroxide, as initiator, proved to be very successful in grafting of acrylamide on hydrolyzed starch, in terms of yield, graft percentage and efficiency results. Grafting in the presence of azobisisobutyronitrile and potassium persulfate as initiators has slightly better monomer to polymer conversion values. FTIR spectra of hydrolyzed and grafted starch confirm by their characteristic bands that grafting was successful. Residual amounts of monomer in copolymer and molar mass distribution were determined by chromatography. Results show that the highest quantity of monomer is found in the sample of hydrolyzed starch grafted in the presence of potassium persulfate. Molar masses of hydrolysate and copolymer show differences ranging from 1∙102 to 2∙107 g/mol. Results of sizing using grafted starch show that sized yarns had higher strength (tenacity and lower elongation. Grafted hydrolyzed starch, as an agent for cotton yarn sizing, gives better results than non grafted starch, especially regarding sizing uniformity, yarn mechanical parameters and easier removal in following desizing process.

  3. Potassium Iodide and Acrylamide Fluorescence Quenching Studies on Gamma-Crystallins of Human Lenses in Development and Aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    γ_1-γ_2-and γ_3-crystallin(corresponding to γs-,γC-and γD- crys-tallin respectively)of human fetal,2 year and 20~+ year old lenses areseparated by Sephadex gel chromatography.lodide and acrylamide are usedto quench the tryptophane fluorescence of sub-γ-crystalline fractions and Ksvand fa values are calculated.The results show that iodide has no clear quench-ing effects on all γ-crystallins,the quenching effects of acrylamide on the tryp-tophan fluorescences of γ1-γ2-and γ3-crystallin from lenses of the ...

  4. Reflection mode holographic recording in methylene blue-sensitized polyvinyl alcohol acrylamide films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C S Rajesh; R Anjana; S S Sreeroop; C Sudha Kartha

    2014-02-01

    Photopolymer systems can produce good image quality holograms that does not require any post-processing and are environmentally stable with good diffraction efficiency. The present work reports the development of a methylene blue-sensitized polyvinyl alcohol acrylamide (MBPVA/AA) photopolymer system for recording white light reflection holograms. Reflection gratings were recorded in the photopolymer films with different concentrations of methylene blue (MB). Various parameters affecting the holographic properties of the samples were also studied. The holographic performance of the material is found to depend on its chemical composition and the recording parameters.

  5. Radiation synthesis of acrylamide/N,N-(dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate grafted onto low density polyethylene films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Ghaffar, A. M.

    2011-02-01

    Radiation-induced graft copolymerization of acrylamide/N,N-(dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate (AAm/DMAEMA) onto low density polyethylene films was carried out. The effect of grafting conditions such as solvent type and comonomer composition were studied. Characterization of the prepared films was investigated by Fourier transform infrared. Some selected properties such as thermal stability and swelling behavior were determined. It was found that grafting efficiency, swelling behavior and thermal stability increased with increasing DMAEMA content. Scanning electron microscopy was used for predicting the change in surface morphology via the grafted films. The improvement in properties of the prepared films make it possible to use them in some practical applications.

  6. Development of solid radioactive sources in acrylamide; Desenvolvimento de fontes radioativas solidas em resina acrilamida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, I.M.; Koskinas, M.F.; Dias, M.S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro do Reator de Pesquisas; Andrade e Silva, L.G.; Vieira, J.M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes

    2004-07-01

    The development of water-equivalent solid sources of {sup 133} Ba prepared from an aqueous solution of acrylamide by polymerization by a high dose {sup 60}Co irradiation is described. The main resin characteristics were measured, such as: density, effective atomic number and uniformity. The variation of these parameters was in the range of 1,08 to 1,16 g.cm{sup -3} for density, 3.7 to 4.0 for effective atomic number and 2.8 to 7.2% for the uniformity. These values are in agreement with the literature. (author)

  7. STUDY ON SEQUENCE STRUCTURE OF ACRYLAMIDE-ACRYLATE COPOLYMERS BY 13C-NMR METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Dongwu; ZHU Shannong; YANG Xiaozhen

    1987-01-01

    Triad sequence distributions in a series of P(AM/AA) with different AA% were calculated from copolymerization reactivity ratio r1 and r2 based on first order Markov statistic model, and the calculated data compared with observed ones from 13C-NMR spectra showed good agreement with each other, The sequence distribution in P(AM/AA) obtained under our experimental conditions fits in with first order Markov statistic model. A significant sequence structure difference was observed between P(AM/AA) and alkaline hydrolyzed polyacrylamide, ABA triad (acrylate unit center), AAA and AAB triads (acrylamide unit center) dominated in hydrolyzed ones.

  8. Chemical and biochemical activities of sonochemically synthesized poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide)/silica nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Pranesh; Saha, Swadhin Kr; Guha, Arun; Saha, Samar Kr

    2012-11-01

    Poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPA) grafted mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MPSNP) leading to novel inorganic/organic core-shell nanocomposite has been synthesized sonochemically in an aqueous medium without additives like cross-linker, hydrophobic agent, organic solvent. The colloidal stability of MPSNP is enhanced significantly due to encapsulation of the polymer. The composites are characterized by TEM, FTIR and TGA. The chemical and biochemical activities of the sonochemically synthesized materials have been studied in the light of reaction with acid-base, protein adsorption, antimicrobial activity, biocompatibility and nonthrombogenic property. Advantages of sonochemical synthesis compared to other techniques have been evaluated.

  9. THE PHOTOPOLYMERIZATION KINETICS OF PHOTOSENSITIZED ACRYLAMIDE SYSTEM INDUCED BY He-Ne LASER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Minhui; LIANG Zhaoxi; CHEN Yonglie

    1991-01-01

    The kinetics of the photopolymerization of sensitized acrylamide (AM) system induced by He-Ne laser has been investigated. Using methylene blue (MB)-triethanolamine (TEOA) as the photosensitive system, the photopolymerization followed a nonsteady-state kinetic scheme in the initial period of polymerization (the monomer conversion C%<2%) and then followed a steady-state kinetic scheme (5%>C%>2%). According to the steady-state hypothesis, the mechanism of photopolymerization was proposed. The deduced kinetic equation of the photopolymerization of AM is in good coincidence with the experimental results.

  10. Synthesis of Fullerene-Acrylamide Copolymer Nanoball and Its Lubrication Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG,Gui-Chang(江贵长); GUAN,Wen-Chao(官文超); ZHENG,Qi-Xin(郑启新)

    2004-01-01

    A novel fullerene-acrylamide copolymer was synthesized via radical polymerization. It is soluble in polar solvents such as water, dimethyl sulfoxide etc. The product was characterized by FTIR, UV-Vis and GPC. TEM analysis shows that the average particle diameter is about 46 nm. Four-ball tests show that the addition of a certain concentration of the fullerene copolymer to base stock (2 wt% triethanolamine and 0.5 wt% OPZ aqueous solution) can effectively raise the load-carrying capacity (PB value) and the antiwear ability. SEM analysis shows that the addition results in reducing diameter of wear scar and decreasing wear.

  11. Current issues in dietary acrylamide:formation,mitigation and risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, F.; Salome Mariotti, M.; Granby, Kit

    2014-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is known as a neurotoxin in humans and it is classified as a probable human carcinogen by the International Agency of Research on Cancer. AA is produced as by-product of the Maillard reaction in starchy foods processed at high temperatures (>120 °C). This review includes...... of the final product. Sugars in potatoes may be reduced by blanching. Levels of AA in different foods show large variations and no general upper limit is easily applicable, since some formation will always occur. Current policy is that practical measures should be taken voluntarily to reduce AA formation...

  12. Determination of acrylamide formed in asparagine/D-glucose maillard model systems by using gas chromatography with headspace solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ghorab, Ahmed H; Fujioka, Kazutoshi; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2006-01-01

    A gas chromatographic method, along with a headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), was developed for the determination of acrylamide formed in Maillard reaction model systems. The developed method was validated by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. A headspace sample was collected from an aqueous acrylamide solution (100 microg/mL) by SPME and directly injected into a gas chromatograph equipped with a nitrogen-phosphorus detector. The recovery of acrylamide from an aqueous solution was satisfactory, i.e, >93% under the conditions used. Acrylamide formed in an asparagine/D-glucose (molar ratio, 1/2) Maillard reaction model system heated at 150 and 170 degrees C for 20 min was collected and analyzed by the newly developed method using gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection and HS-SPME. The amounts of acrylamide were 318 +/- 33 microg/g asparagine from a sample heated at 150 degrees C and 3329 +/- 176 microg/g asparagine from a sample heated at 170 degrees C. Addition of cysteamine or glutathione to the above model system reduced acrylamide formation. Acrylamide formation was not observed when cysteamine or glutathione was added to asparagine in the above model systems to obtain equimolar concentrations of both compounds. This newly developed method is simple and sensitive, and requires no solvent extraction.

  13. A sensitive gas chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric method for detection of alkylating agents in water: application to acrylamide in drinking water, coffee and snuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Hermes Licea; Osterman-Golkar, Siv

    2003-08-01

    A sensitive analytical method for the analysis of acrylamide and other electrophilic agents in water has been developed. The amino acid L-valine served as a nucleophilic trapping agent. The method was applied to the analysis of acrylamide in 0.2-1 mL samples of drinking water or Millipore-filtered water, brewed coffee, or water extracts of snuff. The reaction product, N-(2-carbamoylethyl)valine, was incubated with pentafluorophenyl isothiocyanate to give a pentafluorophenylthiohydantoin (PFPTH) derivative. This derivative was extracted with diethyl ether, separated from excess reagent and impurities by a simple extraction procedure, and analyzed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. (2H3)Acrylamide, added before the reaction with L-valine, was used as internal standard. Acrylamide and the related compound, N-methylolacrylamide, gave the same PFPTH derivative. The concentrations of acrylamides were acrylamide L(-1)) in water, 200 to 350 nmol L(-1) in brewed coffee, and 10 to 34 nmol g(-1) snuff in portion bags, respectively. The precision (the coefficient of variation was 5%) and accuracy of the method were good. The detection limit was considerably lower than that of previously published methods for the analysis of acrylamide.

  14. Development and Validation of a Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Method for the Prediction of Acrylamide Content in French-Fried Potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedipe, Oluwatosin E; Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D; Truong, Van-Den; Yencho, G Craig

    2016-03-02

    This study investigated the ability of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to predict acrylamide content in French-fried potato. Potato flour spiked with acrylamide (50-8000 μg/kg) was used to determine if acrylamide could be accurately predicted in a potato matrix. French fries produced with various pretreatments and cook times (n = 84) and obtained from quick-service restaurants (n = 64) were used for model development and validation. Acrylamide was quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and reflectance spectra (400-2500 nm) of each freeze-dried sample were captured on a Foss XDS Rapid Content Analyzer-NIR spectrometer. Partial least-squares (PLS) discriminant analysis and PLS regression modeling demonstrated that NIRS could accurately detect acrylamide content as low as 50 μg/kg in the model potato matrix. Prediction errors of 135 μg/kg (R(2) = 0.98) and 255 μg/kg (R(2) = 0.93) were achieved with the best PLS models for acrylamide prediction in Russet Norkotah French-fried potato and multiple samples of unknown varieties, respectively. The findings indicate that NIRS can be used as a screening tool in potato breeding and potato processing research to reduce acrylamide in the food supply.

  15. Color kinetics and acrylamide formation in NaCl soaked potato chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Bustos, Oscar; Mery, Domingo;

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the kinetics of color development in blanched and blanched-NaCl impregnated potato slices during frying by using the dynamic method and also to evaluate the effect of NaCl in reducing acrylamide formation in potato chips. The measurement of color was done...... by using an inexpensive computer vision technique which allowed quantifying in a more precise and representative way the color in L*a*b* units of complex surfaces such as those of potato slices during frying. The effect of potato slice soaking in NaCl was evaluated not only for color change but also......Cl solution of 0.02 g/l 5 min at 200 rpm of agitation. These samples were considered as NaCl soaked potato chips. Blanched and soaked slices were fried at 120, 140, 160 and 180 degrees C until reaching moisture contents of similar to 1.8% (total basis) for color evaluation. Acrylamide content was evaluated...

  16. Kinetics of formation of acrylamide and Schiff base intermediates from asparagine and glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Frandsen, Henrik; Skibsted, Leif H.

    2008-01-01

    From the concentration of glucose and asparagine as reactants and of acrylamide as product each determined by LC-MS during reaction in an acetonitrile/water (68:32) model system at pH 7.6 (0.04 M phosphate buffer) and from the relative concentration of the Schiff base intermediate......, the decarboxylated Schiff base intermediate, the Amadori product and aminopropionamide determined in the same reaction mixtures at 120 degrees C, 140 degrees C, 160 degrees C and 180 degrees C for up to 16 min, the energy of activation for formation of the Schiff base intermediate was found to have the value 50...... +/- 2 kJ mol(-1), while the apparent activation energy for formation of acrylamide was 64.4 +/- 0.6 kJ mol(-1), for formation of the decarboxylated Schiff base intermediate 92 +/- 2 kJ mol(-1), and for formation of the Amadori compound 59 +/- 4 kJ mol(-1), respectively. At high temperature conditions...

  17. Olive oil abrogates acrylamide induced nephrotoxicity by modulating biochemical and histological changes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbel, Imen; Elwej, Awatef; Fendri, Nesrine; Mnif, Héla; Jamoussi, Kamel; Boudawara, Tahia; Grati Kamoun, Naziha; Zeghal, Najiba

    2017-11-01

    Acrylamide (ACR) is one of the most important contaminants occurring in foods heated at high temperatures. The aim of this study is to investigate the protective efficacy of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), a main component of the Mediterranean diet, against nephrotoxicity induced by ACR. Rats have received by gavage during 21 days either ACR (40 mg/kg body weight) or ACR-associated with EVOO (300 μl) or only EVOO (300 μl). Acrylamide induced nephrotoxicity as evidenced by an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), protein carbonyls (PCOs) and a decrease in glutathione, non-protein thiols (NPSHs), and vitamin C levels. Activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were also decreased. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, creatinine, urea, and uric acid, urinary volume and creatinine clearance levels were modified. EVOO supplementation improved all the parameters indicated above. Kidney histoarchitecture confirmed the biochemical parameters and the beneficial role of EVOO. EVOO, when added to the diet, may have a beneficial role against kidney injury by scavenging free radicals and by its potent antioxidant power.

  18. A simple strategy to fabricate poly (acrylamide-co-alginate)/gold nanocomposites for inactivation of bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanan; Lou, Zhichao; Zhang, Xiaohong; Hu, Xiaodan; Zhang, Haiqian

    2014-12-01

    A facile and efficient approach to prepare uniform gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) in hybrid hydrogel consisting of acrylamide (AM) and alginate (SA) for antibacterial applications is reported. In this study, reduction of gold ions by acrylamide and alginate (AM-SA) occurred before the polymerization and as-obtained gold colloids are stabilized by AM-SA immediately in the absence of commonly used reducing agents and protective reagents. Via transmittance electron microscopy results, we can conclude that the obtained gold nanoparticles in hydrogel are well dispersed. Furthermore, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared and thermogravimetric analysis were used to characterize the structure and composition of the synthetic nanocomposites. Our approach provides well-dispersed nanoparticles around 8 mm in size. It is important to underline that nanoparticle aggregation was not observed during and after gel formation. The prepared Au NPs exhibited remarkable stability in the presence of high pH s, and a range of salt concentrations. Importantly, the hydrogel/gold nanocomposites showed a non-compromised activity to inhibit the growth of a model bacterium, Escherichia coli. With their excellent mechanical behavior, as well as the remained antibacterial activity, the nanocomposites should get various potential applications in the fields of pharmaceutical science and tissue engineering.

  19. Ion-responsive liquid crystals of cellulose nanowhiskers grafted with acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Daiyong; Yang, Jie

    2015-12-10

    In order to develop a novel application for cellulose nanowhiskers (CNW) produced from the sulfuric acid hydrolysis of cotton, acrylamide (AM) was grafted onto the CNW. The graft reaction of the acrylamide-grafted CNW (AM-g-CNW) was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and UV-vis spectroscopy. The carbon and nitrogen contents of the AM-g-CNW were measured by elemental analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The grafting ratios and average degrees of β-1,4-linked anhydro-D-glucose unit substitution were measured. The thermochemical properties of the AM-g-CNW were characterized using thermogravimetric analysis (TG). The glass transition temperatures were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The degrees of crystallinity were measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The liquid crystalline properties of AM-g-CNW were observed by polarizing optical microscopy (POM). AM-g-CNW had the best grafting ratio, 12.77%, when the AM/CNW molar ratio was 3, c(K2S2O8)/n(CNW) was 0.15, the reaction temperature was 70 °C, and the reaction time was 60 min. The birefringence of AM-g-CNW was responsive to hydroxide ions, which might be useful in applications that benefit from sensitivity towards different ionic species.

  20. Study of the prolonged release of theopylline from polymeric matrices based on grafted chitosan with acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, C; Costa, E; Terraza, C; Munita, A M; Yazdani-Pedram, M

    2002-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the performance of chitosan (CB) grafted with acrylamide (CB-g-A) as prolonged drug release matrix as compared with unmodified chitosan. A non-pH dependent swelling behaviour for the matrix tablets based on grafted chitosan was observed. The overlaping between degree of swelling measured by weighing (DSw) and measured by increase of diameter (DSd) up to 240 minutes showed that the swelling process could be isotropic. The non-pH dependent swelling behaviour of these matrices could be explained by the partial substitution of amine groups of the chitosan chain by acrylamide. The grafting reaction provides an ionizable amine group by a neutral amide group which make the matrix non pH-dependent. On the contrary, the matrix tablet based on chitosan showed a pH dependent swelling behaviour where the swelling process could be anisotropic. The higher degree of erosion and swelling of the formulation based on CB-g-A600 (%G = 600) compared with the formulation based on chitosan and CB-g-A418 (%G = 418) could explain the higher fraction of theopylline released. For all formulations studied in this work, the amount of theopylline released from the matrix tablets was found to be controlled by a combination of the diffusion process and relaxation of the polymeric structure. These results match with the controlled swelling behaviour and low degree of erosion observed for these systems.

  1. SWELLING BEHAVIOR OF ACRYLAMIDE HYDROGEL IN DIFFERENT SOLVENTS AND pHs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. F. Mina; M. M. Alam

    2005-01-01

    Swelling property of acrylamide hydrogels, prepared from aqueous solutions of acrylamide monomer having concentrations in the range of 10-60 wt% by γ-ray irradiation method using a Co-60 gamma radiation source at doses ranging 1-30.0 kGy, has been investigated under various swelling media. These swelling media were basically solvents (solutions), produced by dissolving methanol, ethanol, glucose, sucrose, sodium chloride and sodium persulfate individually with distilled water, and solutions prepared with phs = 3, 7 and 10. The investigation was performed in order to observe the effect of these solvents and phs as well as the influence of monomer concentrations, radiation doses and times on swelling behavior of hydrogels. Swelling values were found higher for hydrogels prepared with lower monomer concentrations (ca.20 wt%) and radiation doses (ca. 5 kGy) and showed a leveling off tendency within 24 h. The glucose solvent and the buffer solution of pH = 10 revealed significant increase of swelling of hydrogels as compared to other solutions. Results are explained based on crosslinking density in hydrogel, polymer-solvent/polymer-polymer interactions in solutions,permeability of molecules in solutions and ionization capacity of hydrogel in pH.

  2. Terahertz Absorption Spectroscopy of Benzamide, Acrylamide, Caprolactam, Salicylamide, and Sulfanilamide in the Solid State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Terahertz (THz absorption spectra of the similarly structured molecules with amide groups including benzamide, acrylamide, caprolactam, salicylamide, and sulfanilamide in the solid phase at room temperature and 7.8 K for salicylamide are reported and compared to infrared vibrational spectral calculations using density functional theory. The results of THz absorption spectra show that the molecules have characteristic bands in the region of 0.2–2.6 THz (~7–87 cm−1. THz technique can be used to distinguish different molecules with amide groups. In the THz region benzamide has three bands at 0.83, 1.63, and 1.73 THz; the bands are located at 1.44 and 2.00 THz for acrylamide; the bands at 1.24, 1.66 and 2.12 THz are observed for caprolactam. The absorption bands are located at 1.44, 1.63, and 2.39 THz at room temperature, and at 1.22, 1.46, 1.66, and 2.41 THz at low temperature for salicylamide. The bands at 1.63, 1.78, 2.00, and 2.20 THz appear for sulfanilamide. These bands in the THz region may be related to torsion, rocking, wagging, and other modes of different groups in the molecules.

  3. Determination of Acrylamide Metabolite ,Mercapturic Aicd by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUYi-Qun; YUAi-Ru; 等

    1993-01-01

    A HPLC Assay was developed to indentify and measure the metabolite of acrylamide,mercapturic acid,N-Acetyl-s-(propionamide)-cyteine(APC)in urine O-phthalaldehyde (OPA)was utilized as a precolumm derivatizing agent in the assay.This derivative was isolated with a good selectivity by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC)employing reversed phase ODS columns.The quantiation of the mercapturic acid derivative was reproducible and with a detection limit of 1 pmol.The average coefficient of variation for the runs carried out on the same day was approximately 4.6% at the range of 80-160μmol·l-1 of APC,and the mean analytical recovery from urine samples was 94%.The metabolite of urine of workers exposed to acrylamide was identified as N-acetyl-s-(propionamide)-cysteine by HPLC chromatography and fluorescence scan and HPLC-Mass spectra.All results were identical with the authentic synthesized compound.

  4. Microwave assisted synthesis and optimization of Aegle marmelos-g-poly(acrylamide): release kinetics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, A; Kumar, R

    2014-04-01

    Microwave assisted grafting of poly(acrylamide) on to Aegle marmelos gum was carried out employing 3-factor 3-level full factorial design. Microwave power, microwave exposure time and concentration of gum were selected as independent variable and grafting efficiency was taken as dependent variable. A. marmelos-g-poly(acrylamide) was characterized by FTIR, DSC, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Microwave power, microwave exposure time had synergistic effect on grafting efficiency where as concentration of the gum did not contributed much to grafting efficiency. Batch having microwave power - 80%, microwave exposure time -120 s and concentration of A. marmelos gum - 2% was selected as the optimized formulation. Comparative release behaviour of diclofenac sodium from the matrix tablets of A. marmelos gum and A. marmelos-g-polyacrylamide was evaluated. The results of kinetic studies revealed that the graft copolymer matrix, marketed tablets and polymer matrix tablets of A. marmelos gum released the drug by zero order kinetics and with n value greater than 1, indicating that the mechanism for release as super case II transport i.e. dominated by the erosion and swelling of the polymer.

  5. Swelling properties of cassava starch grafted with poly (potassium acrylate-co-acrylamide) superabsorbent hydrogel prepared by ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barleany, Dhena Ria, E-mail: dbarleany@yahoo.com; Ulfiyani, Fida; Istiqomah, Shafina; Rahmayetty [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa, Cilegon, Banten (Indonesia); Heriyanto, Heri; Erizal [Centre for Application of Isotopes and Radiation, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Natural and synthetic hydrophylic polymers can be phisically or chemically cross-linked in order to produce hydrogels. Starch based hydrogels grafted with copolymers from acrylic acid or acrylamide have become very popular for water absorbent application. Superabsorbent hydrogels made from Cassava starch grafted with poly (potassium acrylate-co-acrylamide) were prepared by using of ϒ-irradiation method. Various important parameters such as irradiation doses, monomer to Cassava starch ratio and acrylamide content were investigated. The addition of 7,5 % w w{sup −1} acrylamide into the reaction mixture generated a starch graft copolymer with a water absorption in distilled water as high as 460 g g{sup −1} of its dried weight. The effectivity of hydrogel as superabsorbent for aqueous solutions of NaCl and urea was evaluated. The obtained hydrogel showed the maximum absorptions of 317 g g{sup −1} and 523 g g{sup −1} for NaCl and urea solution, respectively (relative to its own dry weight). The structure of the graft copolymer was analyzed by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

  6. Dietary acrylamide intake of adults in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition differs greatly according to geographical region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freisling, Heinz; Moskal, Aurelie; Ferrari, Pietro; Nicolas, Genevieve; Knaze, Viktoria; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Nailler, Laura; Teucher, Birgit; Grote, Verena A.; Boeing, Heiner; Clemens, Matthias; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Ramon Quiros, J.; Duell, Eric J.; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Amiano, Pilar; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Crowe, Francesca L.; Gallo, Valentina; Oikonomou, Eleni; Naska, Androniki; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Tumino, Rosario; Polidoro, Silvia; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Ocke, Marga C.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Wirfalt, Elisabet; Ericson, Ulrika; Bergdahl, Ingvar A.; Johansson, Ingegerd; Hjartaker, Anette; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Riboli, Elio; Slimani, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    Methodological differences in assessing dietary acrylamide (AA) often hamper comparisons of intake across populations. Our aim was to describe the mean dietary AA intake in 27 centers of 10 European countries according to selected lifestyle characteristics and its contributing food sources in the Eu

  7. Diagnostic ions for the analysis of phenylalanine adducts of acrylamide and styrene by ESI-QTOF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Fong Lam; Sleno, Lekha; Yaylayan, Varoujan Antranik

    2013-10-30

    To facilitate the detection of acrylamide or styrene adduct of amino acids by mass spectrometry based techniques, phenylalanine was used as a representative amino acid and pyrolysis was employed in conjunction with isotope labeling technique as a microscale sample preparation tool to generate the reaction products. The residues remaining after the pyrolysis of phenylalanine/styrene, phenylalanine/acrylamide, and phenylalanine/glucose mixtures at 250 °C were analyzed by electrospray quadrupole time-of-flight (ESI-QqTOF) mass spectrometry to identify the adducts. The phenylalanine/acrylamide adduct was independently synthesized for confirmation. Characteristic product ions in the tandem mass spectra were found at m/z 191 for the acrylamide adduct and at m/z 262 and 190 for its double-addition product. On the other hand, an ion at m/z 224 was shown to be diagnostic of the styrene adduct. The ability of the m/z 224 ion to predict the presence of styrene adduct in a heated phenylalanine/glucose model system was tested and verified. Detailed isotope labeling analysis of the phenylalanine/glucose model further indicated the formation of a novel adduct that was consistent with the reaction of the Amadori product with styrene. Such diagnostic ions that are needed to develop MS/MS-based screening methodologies may accelerate in the future the detection of Michael-type adducts in food.

  8. Influences of Copolymer Composition upon the Behaviors of Poly(vinyl acetate-co-acrylamide) Sizing Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Zhi-feng; CHAI Yan

    2007-01-01

    A series of poly(vinyl acetate-co-acrylamide)copolymers with different mole ratios of vinyl acetateto acrylamide units were synthesized by emulsionpolymerization for investigating the influences of copolymercompostion upon the performance such as apparentviscosity, film behaviors, and adhesion capacity to fibers forwarp sizing operation. The mole ratios of vinyl acetate toacrylamide were varied from 0 to 4. By using animpregnated roving method, the adhesion was evaluated interms of the maximal strength and work to break of aslightly sized roving. The film behaviors included breakingstrength, breaking elongation, solution time and hygroscopiccapacity. It was found that the viscosity, adhesioncapability, glass transition temperature and film behaviorsof the copolymeric sizing agent strongly depended on themole ratio. Excessively increasing the amounts of vinylacetate or acrylamide units incorporated into the copolymericchains damages much of the performance. A favorable moleratio of vinyl acetate or acrylamide was found to be 45 : 55.Based on this mole ratio, the adhesion capability and filmbehaviors of the sizing agent reach their maximal valuessimultaneously. This demonstrates that the sizing agentshould be synthesized under this copolymer composition fromthe viewpoint of adhesion and film behaviors.

  9. Graft [partially carboxymethylated guar gum-g-poly N-(hydroxymethyl) acrylamide] copolymer: from synthesis to applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Vijay Shankar; Verma, Shiv Kumar; Behari, Kunj

    2014-09-22

    Graft copolymer of N-(hydroxymethyl) acrylamide with carboxymethylated guar gum was synthesized and the reaction conditions were optimized for better yield using potassium peroxymonosulfate and thiourea as a redox initiator. The optimum reaction conditions for grafting have also been determined by studying the effect of N-(hydroxymethyl) acrylamide, hydrogen ion, peroxymonosulphate, thiourea concentration and carboxymethylated guar gum along with time and temperature. Experimental results show that maximum grafting has been obtained at 1.4 g dm(-3) concentration of carboxymethylated guar gum and 16×10(-2) mol dm(-3) concentration of N-(hydroxymethyl) acrylamide. It has been observed that grafting ratio, add on, conversion, efficiency and rate of grafting increase up to 6.0×10(-3) mol dm(-3) of hydrogen ion, 2.4×10(-3) mol dm(-3) of thiourea, 14×10(-3) mol dm(-3) of peroxymonosulphate and 35°C of temperature. Grafted copolymer has been characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Water swelling, flocculating, and metal ion uptake properties of partially carboxymethylated guar gum-g-N-(hydroxymethyl) acrylamide have been determined.

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of the Terpolymer of Itaconic Acid with Acrylamide and 2-Acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The terpolymer of itaconic acid,acrylamide and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane sulfonic acid was synthesized through the free-radical polymerization.The IR spectra confirmed that there was no olefinic band,while the TGA results revealed that the terpolymer was of high thermal stability.

  11. Properties of Starch-Poly(acrylamide-co-2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) Graft Copolymers Prepared by Reactive Extrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graft copolymers of starch with acrylamide and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid (AMPS) were prepared by reactive extrusion in a twin-screw extruder. The weight ratio of total monomer to starch was fixed at 1:3, while the molar fraction of AMPS in the monomer feed ranged from 0 to 0.119. Mon...

  12. In depth study of acrylamide formation in coffee during roasting: role of sucrose decomposition and lipid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocadağlı, Tolgahan; Göncüoğlu, Neslihan; Hamzalıoğlu, Aytül; Gökmen, Vural

    2012-09-01

    Coffee, as a source of acrylamide, needs to be investigated in depth to understand the contribution of different precursors. This study aimed to investigate the contributions of sucrose decomposition and lipid oxidation on acrylamide formation in coffee during roasting. Coffee beans and model systems were used to monitor the accumulation of neo-formed carbonyls during heating through sucrose decomposition and lipid oxidation. High resolution mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the formation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and 3,4-dideoxyosone, which were identified as the major sugar decomposition products in both roasted coffee and model systems. Among others, 2-octenal, 2,4-decadienal, 2,4-heptadienal, 4-hydroxynonenal, and 4,5-epoxy-2-decenal were identified in relatively high quantities in roasted coffee. Formation and elimination of HMF in coffee during roasting had a kinetic pattern similar to those of acrylamide. Its concentration rapidly increased within 10 min followed by an exponential decrease afterward. The amount of lipid oxidation products tended to increase linearly during roasting. It was concluded from the results that roasting formed a pool of neo-formed carbonyls from sucrose decomposition and lipid oxidation, and they play certain role on acrylamide formation in coffee.

  13. Acrylamide in commercial potato crisps from Spanish market: Trends from 2004 to 2014 and assessment of the dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesías, Marta; Morales, Francisco J

    2015-07-01

    This research updates the acrylamide content of commercial potato crisps marketed in Spain with the aim to evaluate its trend since 2004. Two different batches of 40 potato crisps brands from 18 producers were analysed. Acrylamide content ranged from 108 to 2180 µg/kg, with an average value of 630 µg/kg and a median of 556 µg/kg. Data revealed a continuous decreased trend from 2004 to 2014. In 2014, potato crisps showed an average acrylamide content 14.6% lower than the previous report in 2009 and 57.6% lower than the first report in 2004. These data confirm the overall effectiveness in the mitigation strategies implemented by the Spanish industrial sector, although variations up to 80% were observed between a number of brands. However, 17.5% of the samples registered values higher than the indicative value recommended by European Commission for potato crisps. The dietary exposure of the Spanish population to this contaminant through potato crisps intake was estimated to be 0.035 µg/kg body weight/day. Although exposure has decreased over the last ten years, it is necessary to continue efforts to reduce acrylamide content in potato crisps since there is still margin for it.

  14. The intake of acrylamide, nitrate and ochratoxin A in people aged 7 to 69 living in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geraets L; te Biesebeek JD; van Donkersgoed G; Koopman N; Boon PE; VVH; V& Z

    2014-01-01

    De voeding van kinderen (7-15 jaar) en (jong) volwassenen (16-69 jaar) in Nederland is veilig wat betreft de inname van nitraat, dat vooral in groenten zit. De hoeveelheid acrylamide waaraan beide leeftijdsgroepen worden blootgesteld via de voeding zou mogelijk schadelijk kunnen zijn voor de gezondh

  15. Rapid sample preparation method for LC-MS/MS or GC-MS analysis of acrylamide in various food matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastovska, Katerina; Lehotay, Steven J

    2006-09-20

    A fast and easy sample preparation procedure for analysis of acrylamide in various food matrices was developed and optimized. In its first step, deuterated acrylamide internal standard is added to 1 g of homogenized sample together with 5 mL of hexane, 10 mL of water, 10 mL of acetonitrile, 4 g of MgSO4, and 0.5 g of NaCl. Water facilitates the extraction of acrylamide; hexane serves for sample defatting; and the salt combination induces separation of water and acetonitrile layers and forces the majority of acrylamide into the acetonitrile layer. After vigorous shaking of the extraction mixture for 1 min and centrifugation, the upper hexane layer is discarded and a 1 mL aliquot of the acetonitrile extract is cleaned up by dispersive solid-phase extraction using 50 mg of primary secondary amine sorbent and 150 mg of anhydrous MgSO4. The final extract is analyzed either by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry or by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (in positive chemical ionization mode) using the direct sample introduction technique for rugged large-volume injection.

  16. FT-IR and computer modeling study of hydrogen bonding in N-alkyl acrylamide-toluene binary mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumyantsev, Misha; Kazantsev, Oleg A.; Kamorina, Sofia I.; Kamorin, Denis M.; Sivokhin, Alexey P.

    2016-10-01

    Degree of hydrogen bonding driven self-association of N-(n-butyl)acrylamide, N-(n-octyl)acrylamide, N-(sec-octyl)acrylamide and N-(tert-octyl)acrylamide in toluene was investigated using IR spectroscopy and computer modeling methods. Consistent results were demonstrated in the treatment of the Amide-I (νC=O), Amide-II (δN-H and νC-N) and Amide-A (νN-H) absorption bands in IR spectra. Thus, the content of non-bonded (free) amide groups decreases from 83-98% to 8-20% and the content of linear polyassociates increases to 80-90% with an increase in monomer concentration from 0.5 wt% to 50 wt%. The content of cyclic dimers was equal to the value between 5 and 10% regardless of the initial monomer concentration. Dependences of the association degree and the content of the linear polyassociates on the concentration were found to be similar for all of the studied amides.

  17. 40 CFR 721.6540 - Acrylamide, polymers with tetraalkyl ammonium salt and polyalkyl, aminoalkyl meth-a-cryl-a-mide...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ammonium salt and polyalkyl, aminoalkyl meth-a-cryl-a-mide salt. 721.6540 Section 721.6540 Protection of... with tetraalkyl ammonium salt and polyalkyl, aminoalkyl meth-a-cryl-a-mide salt. (a) Chemical... as acrylamide, polymers with tetraalkyl ammonium salt and poly-al-kyl, amino alkyl...

  18. Swelling properties of cassava starch grafted with poly (potassium acrylate-co-acrylamide) superabsorbent hydrogel prepared by ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barleany, Dhena Ria; Ulfiyani, Fida; Istiqomah, Shafina; Heriyanto, Heri; Rahmayetty, Erizal

    2015-12-01

    Natural and synthetic hydrophylic polymers can be phisically or chemically cross-linked in order to produce hydrogels. Starch based hydrogels grafted with copolymers from acrylic acid or acrylamide have become very popular for water absorbent application. Superabsorbent hydrogels made from Cassava starch grafted with poly (potassium acrylate-co-acrylamide) were prepared by using of ϒ-irradiation method. Various important parameters such as irradiation doses, monomer to Cassava starch ratio and acrylamide content were investigated. The addition of 7,5 % w w-1 acrylamide into the reaction mixture generated a starch graft copolymer with a water absorption in distilled water as high as 460 g g-1 of its dried weight. The effectivity of hydrogel as superabsorbent for aqueous solutions of NaCl and urea was evaluated. The obtained hydrogel showed the maximum absorptions of 317 g g-1 and 523 g g-1 for NaCl and urea solution, respectively (relative to its own dry weight). The structure of the graft copolymer was analyzed by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM).

  19. 膨化食品及其丙烯酰股的研究进展%Research Progress in Studies on Puffing Food and its Acrylamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨波

    2011-01-01

    Research progress in studies on puffing food and analytical methods of its acrylamide were re- viewed. The debate on potential toxicity of acrylamide was summarized. The prospect of puffing food and the strategy for reducing its acrylamide content were suggested.%综述了膨化食品的研究进展以及丙烯酰胺的检测方法,介绍了关于丙烯酰胺潜在毒性存在的争议。提出了膨化食品的发展方向和减少丙烯酰胺的策略。

  20. Cytotoxicity of acrylamide and its epoxide glycidamide in CHO cells expressing human cytochrome P450 2E1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shoulin Wang; Xiaoyang He; Xinru Wang; Junyan Hong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether CYP2E1 is responsible for the acrylamide metabolic activation in Flp-In CHO cell system. Methods: CYP2E1 cDNA was subcloned from the human liver full-length cDNA library and subsequently transfected into the Flp-In CHO cells to generate the stable transfectant of CYP2E1. The CYP2E1 mRNA expression was determined by RT-PCR. Acrylamide and its epoxide glycidamide induced cytotoxicity and cell cycle arrest in G2/M were conducted using MTS assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Results: In the CHO cell stably expressing CYP2E1 (CHO-2E1), a ~1.5 kbsize of band was detected from the mRNA in the cells while no corresponding band in the CHO-vector cells, which indicated that CYP2E1 was successfully transfected in the CHO cells. Compared with the CHO-vector cells, acrylamide showed a concentrationdependent loss of viability in the CHO-2E1 cells but no significant change of G2/M arrest was found. As expected, glycidamide induced similar profile of cytotoxicity in both of the cells, and G2/M arrest presented a concentration-dependent increased in the CHO-2E1 cells. Conclusion: The result suggested that CYP2E1 might be responsible for the acrylamide metabolism, and its metabolite glycidamide was a direct cytotoxic and genotoxic agent. It should be further considered whether acrylamide-induced toxicity is through its epoxide glycidamide in the presence of CYP2E1.

  1. A new approach based on off-line coupling of high-performance liquid chromatography with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine acrylamide in coffee brew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch, Gracia Patricia; Morales, Francisco José; Moreno, Fernando de la Peña; del Castillo, María Luisa Ruiz

    2013-01-01

    A new method based on off-line coupling of LC with GC in replacement of conventional sample preparation techniques is proposed to analyze acrylamide in coffee brews. The method involves the preseparation of the sample by LC, the collection of the selected fraction, its concentration under nitrogen, and subsequent analysis by GC coupled with MS. The composition of the LC mobile phase and the flow rate were studied to select those conditions that allowed separation of acrylamide without coeluting compounds. Under the conditions selected recoveries close to 100% were achieved while LODs and LOQs equal to 5 and 10 μg/L for acrylamide in brewed coffee were obtained. The method developed enabled the reliable detection of acrylamide in spiked coffee beverage samples without further clean-up steps or sample manipulation.

  2. Tandem Extraction/Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Protocol for the Analysis of Acrylamide and Surfactant-Related Compounds in Complex Matrix Environmental Water Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethoxylated alcohols, alkylphenols, and acrylamide are emerging contaminants with many different routes into the environment. Ethoxylated alcohols are used ubiquitously as surfactants in both industrial and household products. The use of ethoxylated alcohols and alkylphenols as s...

  3. Tandem Extraction/Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Protocol for the Analysis of Acrylamide and Surfactant-related Compounds in Complex Aqueous Environmental Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of a liquid chromatography‐mass spectrometry (LC‐MS)‐based strategy for the detection and quantitation of acrylamide and surfactant‐related compounds in aqueous complex environmental samples.

  4. A new derivatization approach with D-cysteine for the sensitive and simple analysis of acrylamide in foods by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyun-Hee; Shin, Ho-Sang

    2014-09-26

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-MS/MS) was developed in order to determine the amount of acrylamide in foods after derivatization with d-cysteine. The sulfhydryl group of d-cysteine was added at the β-site double bond of acrylamide to form 2-amino-3-(3-amino-3-oxo-propyl)sulfanyl-propanoic acid. Deuterated acrylamide (acrylamide-d3) was chosen as the internal standard (IS) for analyzing the food samples. Acrylamide was extracted from 2.0 g of food sample with 6 mL of methylene chloride, and the organic extract was diluted with 3 mL of hexane, and then the analyte was back-extracted with 0.5 mL of pure water. The derivatization of acrylamide was performed in the water extract. The best reaction conditions (3.0mg of d-cysteine, a pH 6.5, a reaction temperature of 90°C, and a heating time of 50 min) were established by the variation of parameters. The formed derivative was injected into the LC-MS/MS without further extraction or purification procedures. Separation and detection were improved with the use of an ion-pairing reagent of perfluorooctanoic acid. Under the established conditions, the limits of detection and the limits of quantification were 0.04 μg/kg and 0.14 μg/kg, respectively, and the inter-day relative standard deviation was less than 8% at concentrations of 20 and 100 μg/kg. The method was successfully applied to determine the amount of acrylamide in potato chips, French fries, and coffee.

  5. The effect of heat treatments on the synthesis of acrylamide and its quantification by gas chromatography with a nitrogen-phosphorus detetector

    OpenAIRE

    Delević Veselin M.; Zejnilović Refik M.; Jančić-Stojanović Biljana S.; Zrnić-Ćirić Milica D.; Đorđević Brižita I.; Stanković Ivan M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of thermal treatment (cooking, baking and frying) on the content of acrylamide in potato was followed by gas chromatography with nitrogen - phosphorus detector (GC-NPD). Sample preparation was performed in the conventional manner, applying heat treatment as follows: in boiling water at 110 0C for 30 minutes, by baking in an oven for 30 minutes at 2200 C, and frying in oil for 15 minutes at 250 0C. Quantification of acrylamide ar...

  6. 食品中丙烯酰胺(Acrylamide)的特性及危害

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文友

    2002-01-01

    @@ 丙烯酰胺(Acrylamide)是因为2002年4月,瑞典国家食品安全局(NFA)首次报告在含淀粉类物质食品中如土豆、面包等,因高温烹调而产生高含量的丙烯酰胺,而引起WHO及有关国家和消费者极大关注的(SCCNFP,1999;CSTEE,2001;IARC,1994;US-EPA,1999).6月25~27日,FAO/WHO组织专家专门会议进行研究讨论.

  7. Novel composition of polymer gel dosimeters based on N-(Hydroxymethyl)acrylamide for radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basfar, Ahmed A.; Moftah, Belal; Rabaeh, Khalid A.; Almousa, Akram A.

    2015-07-01

    A new composition of polymer gel dosimeters is developed based on radiation induced polymerization of N-(Hydroxymethyl)acrylamide (NHMA) for radiotherapy treatment planning. The dosimeters were irradiated by 10 MV photon beam of a medical linear accelerator at a constant dose rate of 600 cGy/min with doses up to 20 Gy. The polymerization occurs and increases with increasing absorbed dose. The dose response of polymer gel dosimeters was studied using nuclear magnetic imaging (NMR) for relaxation rate (R2) of water proton. Dose rate, energy of radiation and the stability of the polymerization after irradiation were investigated. No appreciable effects of these parameters on the performance of the novel gel dosimeters were observed.

  8. Crystal morphology modification by the addition of tailor-made stereocontrolled poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Tommy; Baldursdottir, Stefania; Hietala, Sami

    2012-01-01

    . One such additive is the thermosensitive polymer poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAM). The use of PNIPAM as a crystallization additive provides a possibility to affect viscosity at separation temperatures and nucleation and growth rates at higher temperatures. In this study, novel PNIPAM derivatives...... composition. Optical light microscopy and Raman and FTIR spectroscopy were used to investigate the structure of the NF crystals and possible interaction with PNIPAM. A drastic change in the growth mechanism of nitrofurantoin crystals as monohydrate form II (NFMH-II) was observed in the presence of PNIPAM......; the morphology of crystals changed from needle to dendritic shape. Additionally, the amphiphilic nature of PNIPAM increased the solubility of nitrofurantoin in water. PNIPAMs with varying molecular weights and stereoregularities resulted in similar changes in the crystal habit of the drug regardless of whether...

  9. The acrylamide (S)-1 differentially affects Kv7 (KCNQ) potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Bo Hjorth; Schmitt, Nicole; Calloe, Kirstine;

    2006-01-01

    .g., retigabine) for treatment of epilepsy and neuropathic pain. We investigated the effect of a Bristol-Myers Squibb compound (S)-N-[1-(3-morpholin-4-yl-phenyl)-ethyl]-3-phenyl-acrylamide [(S)-1] on cloned human Kv7.1-5 potassium channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Using two-electrode voltage......-clamp recordings we found that (S)-1 blocks Kv7.1 and Kv7.1/KCNE1 currents. In contrast, (S)-1 produced a hyperpolarizing shift of the activation curve for Kv7.2, Kv7.2/Kv7.3, Kv7.4 and Kv7.5. Further, the compound enhanced the maximal current amplitude at all potentials for Kv7.4 and Kv7.5 whereas the combined...

  10. Enhanced protein retention on poly(caprolactone) via surface initiated polymerization of acrylamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuhao; Cai, Mengtan; He, Liu; Luo, Xianglin

    2016-01-01

    To enhance the biocompatibility or extend the biomedical application of poly(caprolactone) (PCL), protein retention on PCL surface is often required. In this study, poly(acrylamide) (PAAm) brushes were grown from PCL surface via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) and served as a protein-capturing platform. Grafted PAAm was densely packed on surface and exhibited superior protein retention ability. Captured protein was found to be resistant to washing under detergent environment. Furthermore, protein structure after being captured was investigated by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and the CD spectra verified that secondary structure of captured proteins was maintained, indicating no denaturation of protein happened for retention process.

  11. Phase behavior of the thermoresponsive polymer Poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) at variable pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Alfons; Claude, Kora-Lee; Pinzek, Simon; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter; Papadakis, Christine

    Stimuli-responsive such as Poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAM) exhibit lower critical solution temperature (LCST) behaviour. At ambient pressure it is associated with the release of water and coil to globule transition of the polymer chains, leading to phase separation. Using turbidimetry we measure the P-T phase diagram over an extended range of pressure (0.1 - 400 MPa) and temperature (-10 - 40 oC). The phase boundary shows an elliptic profile, i.e. the cloud point temperature first increases and then decreases with pressure. This is reflected in the change in Gibbs free energy, isothermal compressibility, and isobaric heat capacity. The role of solvent-solvent interaction and addition of co-solvents is discussed.

  12. Radiation-grafting of acrylamide onto silicone rubber films for diclofenac delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaña, Hector; Palomino, Kenia; Cornejo-Bravo, Jose M.; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen; Concheiro, Angel; Bucio, Emilio

    2015-02-01

    This work focuses on the pre-irradiation grafting of acrylamide (AAm) onto silicone rubber films (SR) and evaluates the effect of gamma-ray radiation conditions on the grafting yield, which in turn may influence the performance of the grafted materials as components of drug-eluting devices. Pristine and modified SR were characterized using FTIR-ATR, DSC, TGA, swelling, and water contact angle analysis in order to elucidate the effects of AAm grafting onto SR. Grafted films with content in AAm ranging from 0.81% to 22.20% showed excellent cytocompatibility against fibroblasts, and capability to uptake the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac. Amount of drug loaded directly correlated with the grafting degree of the films. Drug release studies were performed at pH 7.4 and 37 °C (physiological conditions). Most grafted films released the drug in a sustained way for at least three hours.

  13. Impact of volume transition on the net charge of poly-N -isopropyl acrylamide microgels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braibanti, M.; Haro-Pérez, C.; Quesada-Pérez, M.; Rojas-Ochoa, L. F.; Trappe, V.

    2016-09-01

    We explore the electrostatic properties of poly-N -isopropyl acrylamide microgels in dilute, quasi-de-ionized dispersions and show that the apparent net charge of these thermosensitive microgels is an increasing function of their size, the size being conveniently varied by temperature. Our experimental results obtained in a combination of light scattering, conductivity, and mobility experiments are consistent with those obtained in Poisson-Boltzmann cell model calculations, effectively indicating that upon shrinking the number of counterions entrapped within the microgels increases. Remarkably, this behavior shows that the electrostatic energy per particle remains constant upon swelling or deswelling the microgel, resulting in a square root dependence of the net charge on the particle radius.

  14. Influence of different media on micromorphology of radiation synthesized poly(acrylamide-sodium acrylate) hydrogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan Jun; Chen Jie [Tongji Univ., Shanghai, SH (China). Dept. of Chemistry; Liu Zhanjun

    1998-07-01

    Poly(acrylamide-sodium acrylate) hydrogels were synthesized by {sup 60}Co-{gamma} ray radiation polymerization in aqueous solutions. The micromorphology of hydrogel samples dehydrated in the different alcohol media such as methanol, ethyl alcohol, n-propyl alcohol, iso-propyl alcohol, and tert-butyl alcohol was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The critical concentrations at volume phase transition of the hydrogels in the different alcohol medium-water solutions were obtained. The results indicate that the hydrogel samples dehydrated in methanol and in ethyl alcohol display bubble-film network structures, and those in n-propyl alcohol and in iso-propyl alcohol and in tert-butyl alcohol demonstrate the porous structures including the dense phase. The reason is discussed from the critical concentrations and solubility parameters of different alcohol media. (author)

  15. Molecular Dynamics Study of Interaction between Acrylamide Copolymers and Alumina Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-he Wang; Feng-yun Wang; Xue-dong Gong

    2012-01-01

    Four acrylamide polymer flocculants,anionic polyacrylamide P(AA-co-AM),cationic polyacrylamide P(DMB-co-AM),nonionic polyacrylamide P(AM),and hydrophobical polyacrylamide P(OA-co-AM) have been prepared by copolymerizing with acrylic acid,cationic monomer dimethylethyl (acryloxyethyl) ammonium bromide (DMB) and hydrophobical monomer octadecyl acrylate with acrylamide.The interactions between the flocculants with the (012) surface of alumina crystal (Al2O3) have been simulated by molecular dynamics method.All the polymers can bind tightly with Al2O3 crystal,the interaction between the O of polymers and Al of the (012) surface of Al2O3 is significantly strong.The order of binding energy is as follows:P(DMB-co-AM)>P(OA-co-AM)>P(AA-co-AM)>P(AM),implying a better flocculation performance of P(DMB-co-AM) than the others.Analysis indicates that binding energy is mainly determined by Coulomb interaction.Bonds are found between the O atoms of the polymers and the AI atoms of Al2O3.The polymers' structures deform when they combine with Al2O3 crystal,but the deformation energies are low and far less than non-bonding energies.Flocculation experiments in suspension medium of l%Kaolin show a transmittancy of 90.8% for 6 mg/L P(DMB-co-AM) and 73.0% for P(AM).The sequence of flocculation performance of four polymers is P(DMB-co-AM)>P(OA-co-AM)>P(AA-co-AM)>P(AM),which is in excellent agreement with the simulation results of binding energy.

  16. Studying the Effects of Matrix Stiffness on Cellular Function using Acrylamide-based Hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretu, Alexandra; Castagnino, Paola; Assoian, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Tissue stiffness is an important determinant of cellular function, and changes in tissue stiffness are commonly associated with fibrosis, cancer and cardiovascular disease1-11. Traditional cell biological approaches to studying cellular function involve culturing cells on a rigid substratum (plastic dishes or glass coverslips) which cannot account for the effect of an elastic ECM or the variations in ECM stiffness between tissues. To model in vivo tissue compliance conditions in vitro, we and others use ECM-coated hydrogels. In our laboratory, the hydrogels are based on polyacrylamide which can mimic the range of tissue compliances seen biologically12. "Reactive" cover slips are generated by incubation with NaOH followed by addition of 3-APTMS. Glutaraldehyde is used to cross-link the 3-APTMS and the polyacrylamide gel. A solution of acrylamide (AC), bis-acrylamide (Bis-AC) and ammonium persulfate is used for the polymerization of the hydrogel. N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) is incorporated into the AC solution to crosslink ECM protein to the hydrogel. Following polymerization of the hydrogel, the gel surface is coated with an ECM protein of choice such as fibronectin, vitronectin, collagen, etc. The stiffness of a hydrogel can be determined by rheology or atomic force microscopy (AFM) and adjusted by varying the percentage of AC and/or bis-AC in the solution12. In this manner, substratum stiffness can be matched to the stiffness of biological tissues which can also be quantified using rheology or AFM. Cells can then be seeded on these hydrogels and cultured based upon the experimental conditions required. Imaging of the cells and their recovery for molecular analysis is straightforward. For this article, we define soft substrata as those having elastic moduli (E) 20,000 Pascal. PMID:20736914

  17. Silicone Doped Chitosan-Acrylamide Coencapsulated Urea Fertilizer: An Approach to Controlled Release Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sempeho Ibahati Siafu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of special management practices, urea is known to undergo chemical transformations resulting in severe losses (≈60–70% of total fertilizer applied. In an attempt to design urea controlled release fertilizers in order to counterbalance the 60–70% loss, urea was cross-linked with chitosan and acrylamide under refluxed in situ copolymerization technique; the procedures were repeated with silicone doping prior cross-linking with MBA. The particles were characterized with FTIR/ATR, EDX, XRD, and SEM. The IR bands observed within 3426–409 cm−1 revealed the formation of new bands after coencapsulation for the νγN-H, νβN-H, νOH, νsNH2, νCH2, νC=O, δ′NH2, νC=C, δNH2, νC-N, βCH3, $C-N, γNH2, νC=O, and $CH2. Crystallinity indices for urea with and without silicone doping were found to be 50.9% and 72.1%, respectively, with a distinctive split peak at (d 12.30°. The formation of Microdunes and Microballs 3D network sized 0.64 μm was noted. Release profiles demonstrated that 80% N was released in a period of 30 days at RT and pH 7. The release patterns exhibited linear and deformed sigmoid release models. Empirically, the findings demonstrated that it is possible to design urea controlled release fertilizers with varying particle sizes and morphologies by using chitosan-acrylamide coencapsulation.

  18. Development of a sensitive method for the determination of acrylamide in coffee using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a hybrid quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugajeva, Iveta; Jaunbergs, Janis; Bartkevics, Vadims

    2015-01-01

    The emerging trend towards high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) alternatives was evaluated by the application of Orbitrap MS for the determination of acrylamide in coffee samples. The high resolving power of the Orbitrap MS provided the high selectivity and sensitivity that enabled quantitative analysis of acrylamide in complex matrices, such as coffee. Several sample preparation methods and scanning modes of the MS (full MS, t-SIM, t-MS2) were assessed in order to optimise parameters of the analytical method. The final procedure involved the extraction of acrylamide with acetonitrile, solid-phase extraction with dispersive primary secondary amine (PSA) and amino columns, and the detection by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap MS (HPLC-Q-Orbitrap) operated in targeted MS2 scanning mode. The repeatability of the method at the lowest calibration level (10 μg kg(-1)), expressed as relative standard deviation, was 7.8% and the average recovery of acrylamide was 111%. The proposed method was applied to the determination of acrylamide in 22 samples of roasted coffee obtained from the Latvian retail market. Acrylamide concentration in coffee samples was in the range of 166-503 μg kg(-1).

  19. Simultaneous determination of acrylamide, its metabolite glycidamide and antipyrine in human placental perfusion fluid and placental tissue by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annola, Kirsi; Keski-Rahkonen, Pekka; Vähäkangas, Kirsi; Lehtonen, Marko

    2008-12-15

    A rapid and sensitive method using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed for the simultaneous determination of acrylamide (AA) and its genotoxic metabolite glycidamide (GA) with a test marker antipyrine (AP) in placental tissue and perfusion medium used in human placental perfusion studies. An internal standard ((13)C-acrylamide) was added to the samples which were then deproteinized with acetonitrile. Chromatographic separation was performed on a reversed phase column with a gradient elution of acetonitrile and 0.01% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. Detection and quantification of the analytes were carried out with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer using positive electrospray ionization (ESI) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The method was validated and linear over a concentration range of 0.5-20 microg/mL for acrylamide and glycidamide and 5-200 microg/mL for antipyrine. The lower limit of quantification for acrylamide and glycidamide was 0.5 microg/mL and for antipyrine 5 microg/mL. The method was selective, and good accuracy, precision, recovery, and stability were obtained for concentrations within the standard curve. The method was successfully used to analyze the placental perfusion medium and tissue samples in a toxicokinetic study for transplacental transfer of acrylamide and glycidamide. This is the first time that acrylamide, glycidamide and antipyrine are measured simultaneously.

  20. L-cysteine, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, and glutathione protect Xenopus laevis embryos against acrylamide-induced malformations and mortality in the frog embryo teratogenesis assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayburn, James R; Friedman, Mendel

    2010-10-27

    Dietary acrylamide is largely derived from heat-induced reactions between the amino group of the free amino acid asparagine and carbonyl groups of glucose and fructose during heat processing (baking, frying) of plant-derived foods such as potato fries and cereals. After consumption, acrylamide is absorbed into the circulation and is then distributed to various organs, where it can react with DNA, neurons, hemoglobin, and essential enzymes. In the present study, we explored the potential of L-cysteine (CySH), N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), reduced glutathione (GSH), and the amino acid glycine (Gly) to protect frog embryos against acrylamide-induced developmental toxicity in the frog embryo teratogenesis assay - Xenopus (FETAX). To test the antiteratogenic potential, based on concentration-response study ranging from 0.07 to 4.22 mM acrylamide in FETAX solution (pH 8.1), we selected concentrations of acrylamide that induced 100% malformations and mortality. At the end of 96 h, we counted survivors and malformed embryos and measured embryo length. The data show that CySH, NAC, and GSH protected the embryos against acrylamide induced malformations and mortality to different degrees. CySH and GSH protected the embryos against both malformations and mortality, whereas NAC protected only against mortality. Gly had no protective effect. Possible mechanisms of the protective effects and the dietary significance of the results of this and related studies for food safety and human health are discussed.

  1. Reduction of Saltiness and Acrylamide Levels in Palm Sugar-Like Flavouring through Buffer Modification and the Addition of Calcium Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Aida Wan Mustapha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Palm sugar-like flavouring (PSLF is a type of flavour product that is formed by heating amino acids and sugar under specific heating conditions. Unfortunately, PSLF has a salty taste and contains high amounts of acrylamide. Hence, the objective of this research was to reduce saltiness and acrylamide without negatively affecting the aroma properties of PSLF. A decrease in the sodium phosphate (NaHPO4 buffer concentration from 0.20 to 0.02 M was found to reduce sodium to approximately 15% of the level found in original PSLF. A further decrease (~25% in the sodium content was achieved by removing monobasic sodium phosphate (NaH2PO4 from the buffer system. Meanwhile, the addition of CaCl2 at 20–40 mg/L reduced the acrylamide content in PSLF by as much as 58%. A CaCl2 concentration of 20 mg/mL was most favourable as it most efficiently suppressed acrylamide formation while providing an acceptably high flavour yield in PSLF. In view of the high acrylamide content in PSLF, additional work is necessary to further reduce the amount of acrylamide by controlling the asparagine concentration in the precursor mixture.

  2. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of acrylamide (CASRN 79-06-1) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (feed and drinking water studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Acrylamide, a water-soluble α,β-unsaturated amide, is a contaminant in baked and fried starchy foods, including french fries, potato chips, and bread, as a result of Maillard reactions involving asparagine and reducing sugars. Additional sources of acrylamide exposure include cigarettes, laboratory procedures involving polyacrylamide gels, and various occupations (e.g, monomer production and polymerization processes). Acrylamide is carcinogenic in experimental animals. To obtain data for developing quantitative risk assessments for dietary exposures to acrylamide, the Food and Drug Administration nominated acrylamide for an in-depth toxicological evaluation by the National Toxicology Program. As part of this evaluation, male and female B6C3F1/Nctr (C57BL/6N x C3H/HeN MTV-) mice and male and female F344/N Nctr rats were exposed to acrylamide (at least 99.4% pure) in drinking water for 2 years. 2-WEEK STUDY IN RATS: Groups of four male and four female F344/N rats were administered 0, 0.14, 0.35, 0.70, 1.41, 3.52, or 7.03 mM acrylamide in the drinking water (0, 10, 25, 50, 100, 250, or 500 ppm acrylamide) or 0.0, 7.4, 18.5, 37, 74, 185, or 370 mg acrylamide per kg diet for 14 days. One male rat administered 7.03 mM acrylamide in the drinking water died on day 14. Male and female rats receiving 7.03 mM acrylamide weighed 56% and 64% of controls, respectively. Male and female rats fed 370 mg acrylamide per kg diet weighed 74% and 83% of controls, respectively. Female rats receiving 3.52 mM acrylamide in drinking water and male rats fed 185 mg acrylamide per kg diet weighed 85% and 89% of controls, respectively. Rats receiving 7.03 mM acrylamide in drinking water or 370 mg acrylamide per kg diet exhibited hind-leg paralysis on day 14. Mild to moderate dilatation of the urinary bladder was observed in all rats given 370 mg acrylamide per kg diet, and in three of four male rats and all four female rats given 7.03 mM acrylamide in drinking water, and in one of four male

  3. Improvement in the behavior of bromelain coupled to pNIPAm polymers containing acrylamide or acrylic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubab Mahmood

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Bromelain was coupled to N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAmpolymers, synthesized using NIPAm and various concentrations of acrylamide (Ac or acrylic acid (AAc. Incorporation of Ac/AAcinto the polymer increased the LCST (lower critical solutiontemperature in a concentration dependent manner but AAc wasmore effective in this regard; the LCST rose to 40°C when 6 percent AAc was used. Incorporation of Ac/AAc increased the coupling of enzyme to the polymer and the η (effectiveness factor of the coupled enzyme, moderately. Various studies indicate that such incorporation of hydrophilic monomers into the polymer does not impair its capacity to couple enzyme or expression of the activity of bound enzyme but seems to actually improve the stability of the enzyme against heat induced inactivation and alkaline pH.

  4. Effect of poly(vinyl acetate-acrylamide) microspheres properties and steric hindrance on the immobilization of Candida rugosa lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong-Hao; Yuwen, Li-Xia; Li, Chao; Li, Ya-Qiong

    2012-11-01

    Poly(vinyl acetate-acrylamide) microspheres were synthesized in the absence or presence of isooctane via suspension polymerization and utilized as carriers to immobilize Candida rugosa lipase. When the hydrophobic/hydrophilic surface characteristics of the microspheres were modified by changing the ratio of vinyl acetate (hydrophobic monomer) to acrylamide (hydrophilic monomer) from 50:50 to 86:24, the immobilization ratio changed from 45% to 92% and the activity of the immobilized lipase increased from 202.5 to 598.0 U/g microsphere. Excessive lipase loading caused intermolecular steric hindrance, which resulted in a decline in lipase activity. The maximum specific activity of the immobilized lipase (4.65 U/mg lipase) was higher than that of free lipase (3.00 U/mg lipase), indicating a high activity recovery during immobilization.

  5. Influence of acrylamide monomer addition to the acrylic denture-base resins on mechanical and physical properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elif Aydogan Ayaz; Rukiye Durkan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of adding acrylamide monomer (AAm) on the characterization, flexural strength, flexural modulus and thermal degradation temperature of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) denture-base resins. Specimens (n510) were fabricated from a conventional heat-activated QC-20 (Qc-) and a microwave heat-activated Acron MC (Ac-) PMMA resins. Powder/liquid ratio followed the manufacturer’s instructions for the control groups (Qc-c and Ac-c) and for the copolymer groups, the resins were prepared with 5%(25), 10%(210), 15%(215) and 20%(220) acrylamide contents, according to the molecular weight ratio, respectively. The flexural strength and flexural modulus were measured by a three-point bending test. The data obtained were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test (a50.05) to determine significant differences between the groups. The chemical structures of the resins were characterized by the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Thermal stabilities were determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) with a heating rate of 10 6C?min21 from 35 6C to 600 6C. Control groups from both acrylic resins showed the lowest flexural strength values. Qc-15 showed significant increase in the flexural strength when compared to Qc-c (P,0.01). Ac-10 and Ac-15 showed significance when compared to Ac-c (P,0.01). Acrylamide incorporation increased the elastic modulus in Qc-10, Qc-15 and Qc-20 when compared to Qc-c (P,0.01). Also significant increase was observed in Ac-10, Ac-15 and Ac-20 copolymer groups when compared to Ac-c (P,0.01). According to the 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) results, acrylamide copolymerization was confirmed in the experimental groups. TGA results showed that the thermal stability of PMMA is increased by the insertion of AAm.

  6. A facile metal-free "grafting-from" route from acrylamide-based substrate toward complex macromolecular combs

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Junpeng

    2013-01-01

    High-molecular-weight poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide-co-acrylamide) was used as a model functional substrate to investigate phosphazene base (t-BuP 4)-promoted metal-free anionic graft polymerization utilizing primary amide moieties as initiating sites. The (co)polymerization of epoxides was proven to be effective, leading to macromolecular combs with side chains being single- or double-graft homopolymer, block copolymer and statistical copolymer. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  7. IMMOBILIZATION OF Saccharomyces Cerevisiae USING POLY(ACRYLAMIDE) GEL FOR ASYMMETRIC SYNTHESIS OF R(-)-MANDELIC ACID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhongqin; GUO Daiping; HUANG Xinghua; YANG Kai; XU Xiaoping

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the poly(acrylamide) hydrogel used to immobilize saccharomyces cerevisiae for asymmetric synthesis of R(-)-mandelic acid was prepared with free radical ploymerization in deionized water at room temperature under nitrogen atmosphere. The influence of the composition of hydrogel, loading amount of cells and culture conditions on the asymmetric synthesis was investigated. Results show that PAAm hydrogel is a feasible carrier for immobilization of cells which is a potential alternative method to prepare enantiomerically pure R(-)-mandelic acid.

  8. Direct determination of acrylamide in food by gas chromatography-high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunovská, Lenka; Cajka, Tomás; Hajslová, Jana; Holadová, Katerina

    2006-09-25

    Simple and rapid gas chromatographic (GC) method employing a high-resolution time-of-flight mass analyzer that enables direct analysis (no derivatization) of acrylamide in various heat-processed foodstuffs has been developed and validated. Co-isolation of acrylamide precursors such as sugars and asparagine, constituting the risk of results overestimation due to additional formation of analyte in hot GC injector, is avoided by the extraction with n-propanol followed by solvent exchange to acetonitrile (MeCN). Introduction of a novel purification strategy, dispersive solid phase extraction, based on addition of primary-secondary amine (PSA) sorbent into deffated extract in MeCN, provides a significant reduction of some abundant matrix co-extracts (mainly free fatty acids). Isotope dilution technique (d3-acrylamide as an internal standard) is employed for compensation of potential target analyte losses and/or matrix-inducted chromatographic response enhancement. Limits of quantifications (LOQs) ranged between 15 and 40 microg kg(-1) and recoveries were between 97 and 108% depending on the examined food matrix. The repeatability of measurements (expressed as relative standard deviation, R.S.D.) was as low as 1.9% for potato crisps containing acrylamide at a level of 1 mg kg(-1). Slightly higher values (R.S.D.<4.0%) were achieved for breakfast cereals and crisp bread with approximately 10 times lower content of this processing contaminant. Trueness of results generated by this new method was demonstrated via FAPAS (Food Analysis Performance Assessment Scheme) interlaboratory proficiency tests.

  9. Direct determination of acrylamide in food by gas chromatography-high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunovska, Lenka [Institute of Chemical Technology, Department of Food Chemistry and Analysis, Technicka 3, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Cajka, Tomas [Institute of Chemical Technology, Department of Food Chemistry and Analysis, Technicka 3, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Hajslova, Jana [Institute of Chemical Technology, Department of Food Chemistry and Analysis, Technicka 3, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: jana.hajslova@vscht.cz; Holadova, Katerina [Institute of Chemical Technology, Department of Food Chemistry and Analysis, Technicka 3, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2006-09-25

    Simple and rapid gas chromatographic (GC) method employing a high-resolution time-of-flight mass analyzer that enables direct analysis (no derivatization) of acrylamide in various heat-processed foodstuffs has been developed and validated. Co-isolation of acrylamide precursors such as sugars and asparagine, constituting the risk of results overestimation due to additional formation of analyte in hot GC injector, is avoided by the extraction with n-propanol followed by solvent exchange to acetonitrile (MeCN). Introduction of a novel purification strategy, dispersive solid phase extraction, based on addition of primary-secondary amine (PSA) sorbent into deffated extract in MeCN, provides a significant reduction of some abundant matrix co-extracts (mainly free fatty acids). Isotope dilution technique (d{sub 3}-acrylamide as an internal standard) is employed for compensation of potential target analyte losses and/or matrix-inducted chromatographic response enhancement. Limits of quantifications (LOQs) ranged between 15 and 40 {mu}g kg{sup -1} and recoveries were between 97 and 108% depending on the examined food matrix. The repeatability of measurements (expressed as relative standard deviation, R.S.D.) was as low as 1.9% for potato crisps containing acrylamide at a level of 1 mg kg{sup -1}. Slightly higher values (R.S.D. < 4.0%) were achieved for breakfast cereals and crisp bread with approximately 10 times lower content of this processing contaminant. Trueness of results generated by this new method was demonstrated via FAPAS[reg] (Food Analysis Performance Assessment Scheme) interlaboratory proficiency tests.

  10. Helix—Sense—Selective Polymerization of N,N—Diphenyl (Meth) acrylamide by Anionic Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HongXUE; YongAnXU; 等

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the helix-sense-selective polymerization of N,N-diphenyl acrylamide (DPAA) and N,N-diphenyl methacrylamide (DPMAA) were studied with living helix prepolymer as anionic initiator, and the chiral optical properties of the obtained polymers were investigated too. It was shown that optically active polymers of DPAA and DPMAA could be obtained under the experimental condition, and exhibited the same screw sense as that of the prepolymer.

  11. Effect of radio frequency postdrying of partially baked cookies on acrylamide content, texture, and color of the final product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koray Palazoğlu, T; Coşkun, Yunus; Kocadağlı, Tolga; Gökmen, Vural

    2012-05-01

    Effect of radio frequency (RF) postdrying of partially baked cookies on acrylamide content, texture, and color of the final product was investigated in this study. Control cookies were prepared by baking in a conventional oven at 205 °C for 11 min. Cookies partially baked for 8 and 9 min were postdried in a 27.12 MHz RF tunnel oven until attainment of the moisture content of control cookies. Internal temperature of cookies was monitored during the experiments to better explain the results. Cookies were analyzed for acrylamide content using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method. Texture measurements were performed using a Texture Analyzer, while digital image analysis was used for color measurement. The results showed that RF postdrying of partially baked cookies resulted in lower acrylamide levels (107.3 ng/g for control cookies, 74.6 ng/g upon RF postdrying of cookies partially baked for 9 min, 51.1 ng/g upon RF postdrying of cookies partially baked for 8 min). Instrumental texture analysis showed no significant difference among the texture of cookies, whereas RF postdried samples had a lower degree of browning. According to sensory evaluation results, control had a more crumbly texture, and RF postdried sample that was conventionally baked for 8 min had a slightly uncooked flavor.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of acrylamide/acrylic acid hydrogel and its application for crystal violet dye adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaisuksan, Y.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Acrylamide/acrylic acid (AAm/AAc hydrogel was prepared by free radical polymerization in aqueous solution of acrylamide and acrylic acid as a comonomer using ammonium persulfate and N,N,N’,N’-tetramethylethylenediamine as an initiator system and N,N’-methylenebisacrylamide as a crosslinker at room temperature. The hydrogels were prepared from acrylamide/acrylic acid with the ratios of 2.5/97.5, 5/95, 10/90, 20/80, 30/70, 40/60 and 50/50. The swelling property and the equilibrium water content of the hydrogel were determined in distilled water and in a solution of pH 3, 5, 7 and 8 for 96 hours. The result showed that the maximum swelling and equilibrium water content of the hydrogel obtaining from AAm/ AAc in the ratio of 10/90 were found to be 3,945% and 0.9747 at pH 8, respectively. The adsorption capacity of AAm/AAc (10/90 for crystal violet was also investigated at pH 3, 5, 7, 8 and 9 for 48 hours. It was found that the optimum adsorption capacity of the hydrogel was in the range of 5-8. The adsorption rate was 90% of the sorption completion within 48 hours. The equilibrium data fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm with the maximum adsorption capacity of 116.28 mg/g at pH 7.

  13. Determination of acrylamide in Sudanese food by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Mei Musa Ali; Elbashir, Abdalla Ahmed; Schmitz, Oliver J

    2015-06-01

    A sample preparation method based on modified Quick, Easy, Cheap Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) with aluminum oxide (Al2O3) as dispersive solid phase extraction (dSPE) material and high performance liquid chromatography-linear trap quadruple-Orbitrap-mass spectrometry (HPLC LTQ-Orbitrap MS) was established. The performance of two analytical columns namely Kinetex C18 and Rezex ROA-organic acid was compared for acrylamide separation. The method was validated in term of matrix effect, linear range (standard addition method), limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), precision (RSD%) and recovery. Good linearity (r(2)>0.9979) was achieved using standard addition method in the concentration range 0-200μgkg(-1). The LOD is in the range from 2.91 to 4.04μgkg(-1) and 1.50 to 3.94μgkg(-1) for C18 and ROA columns, respectively. The precision of the method was ⩽7.3% and 5.6% for C18 and ROA columns, respectively. Recoveries of acrylamide ranging from 90% to 97%, (n=3) were obtained. The proposed Al2O3 dSPE method was successfully applied to the analysis of acrylamide in real food samples.

  14. Poly(N-Isopropylacrylamide)-co-Acrylamide Hydrogels for the Controlled Release of Bromelain from Agroindustrial Residues of Ananas comosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croisfelt, Fernanda; Martins, Bianca C; Rescolino, Robson; Coelho, Diego F; Zanchetta, Beatriz; Mazzola, Priscila G; Goulart, Luis Ricardo; Pessoa, Adalberto; Tambourgi, Elias B; Silveira, Edgar

    2015-12-01

    This works reports the purification of bromelain extracted from Ananas comosus industrial residues by ethanol purification, its partial characterization from the crude extract as well as the ethanol purified enzyme, and its application onto poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-co-acrylamide hydrogels. Bromelain was recovered within the 30-70 % ethanol fraction, which achieved a purification factor of 3.12-fold, and yielded more than 90 % of its initial activity. The resulting purified bromelain contained more than 360 U · mg(-1), with a maximum working temperature of 60 °C and pH of 8.0. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-co-acrylamide hydrogels presented a swelling rate of 125 %, which was capable of loading 56 % of bromelain from the solution, and was able to release up to 91 % of the retained bromelain. Ethanol precipitation is suitable for bromelain recovery and application onto poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-co-acrylamide hydrogels based on its processing time and the applied ethanol prices.

  15. Aluminium and Acrylamide Disrupt Cerebellum Redox States, Cholinergic Function and Membrane-Bound ATPase in Adult Rats and Their Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbel, Imen; Amara, Ibtissem Ben; Ktari, Naourez; Elwej, Awatef; Boudawara, Ons; Boudawara, Tahia; Zeghal, Najiba

    2016-12-01

    Accumulation of aluminium and acrylamide in food is a major source of human exposure. Their adverse effects are well documented, but there is no information about the health problems arising from their combined exposure. The aim of the present study was to examine the possible neurotoxic effects after co-exposure of pregnant and lactating rats to aluminium and acrylamide in order to evaluate redox state, cholinergic function and membrane-bound ATPases in the cerebellum of adult rats and their progeny. Pregnant female rats have received aluminium (50 mg/kg body weight) via drinking water and acrylamide (20 mg/kg body weight) by gavage, either individually or in combination from the 14th day of pregnancy until day 14 after delivery. Exposure to these toxicants provoked an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP) levels and a decrease in SOD, CAT, GPx, Na(+)K(+)-ATPase, Mg(2+)-ATPase and AChE activities in the cerebellum of mothers and their suckling pups. A reduction in GSH, NPSH and vitamin C levels was also observed. These changes were confirmed by histological results. Interestingly, co-exposure to these toxicants exhibited synergism based on physical and biochemical variables in the cerebellum of mothers and their progeny.

  16. The effect of heat treatments on the synthesis of acrylamide and its quantification by gas chromatography with a nitrogen-phosphorus detetector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delević Veselin M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the influence of thermal treatment (cooking, baking and frying on the content of acrylamide in potato was followed by gas chromatography with nitrogen - phosphorus detector (GC-NPD. Sample preparation was performed in the conventional manner, applying heat treatment as follows: in boiling water at 110 0C for 30 minutes, by baking in an oven for 30 minutes at 2200 C, and frying in oil for 15 minutes at 250 0C. Quantification of acrylamide are preceded: homogenization of the sample, extraction, and evaporation of the extract. The calibration is performed in the concentration range 0-10 mg/kg and obtained value for R2 was higher than 0,99. Llimit of detection and limit of quantification were determined and obtained values were 0,26 mg/kg and 0,41 mg/kg, respectively. Recovery values were ranged from 102% to 110% and confirmed that metod is accurate. The proposed GC-NPD method is simple, reliable, and accurate for determination of the content of acrylamide in food samples. Obtained results show that the content of acrylamide in potato prepared by heat-cooking were below LOD while for samples trathed by baking or frying were in range from 0,6 mg/kg to 2,7 mg/kg. By comparing the content of acrylamide in potato we concluded that heat treatment has a major impact on the synthesis of acrylamide and it would be desirable to develop a process for the preparation of French fries and potato chips with low or no acrylamide content with textured attractive for consummation.

  17. Simultaneous determination of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol and acrylamide in food by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry with coupled column separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-min; He, Hua-li; Zhu, Yan; Feng, Liang; Ying, Ying; Huang, Bai-fen; Shen, Hai-tao; Han, Jian-long; Ren, Yi-ping

    2013-01-14

    Both 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) and acrylamide are contaminants found in heat-processed foods and their related products. A quantitative method was developed for the simultaneous determination of both contaminants in food by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The analytes were purified and extracted by the matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction (MSPDE) technique with Extrelut NT. A coupled column (a 3 m Innowax combined with a 30 m DB-5 ms) was developed to separate both compounds efficiently without derivatization. Triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM) was applied to suppress matrix interference and obtain good sensitivity in the determination of both analytes. The limit of detection (LOD) in the sample matrix was 5 μg kg(-1) for 3-MCPD or acrylamide. The average recoveries for 3-MCPD and acrylamide in different food matrices were 90.5-107% and 81.9-95.7%, respectively, with the intraday relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 5.6-13.5% and 5.3-13.4%, respectively. The interday RSDs were 6.1-12.6% for 3-MCPD and were 5.0-12.8% for acrylamide. Both contaminants were found in samples of bread, fried chips, fried instant noodles, soy sauce, and instant noodle flavoring. Neither 3-MCPD nor acrylamide was detected in the samples of dairy products (solid or liquid samples) and non-fried instant noodles.

  18. Prediction of acrylamide formation in biscuits based on fingerprint data generated by ambient ionization mass spectrometry employing direct analysis in real time (DART) ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaclavik, Lukas; Capuano, Edoardo; Gökmen, Vural; Hajslova, Jana

    2015-04-15

    The objective of this study is the evaluation of the potential of high-throughput direct analysis in real time-high resolution mass spectrometry (DART-HRMS) fingerprinting and multivariate regression analysis in prediction of the extent of acrylamide formation in biscuit samples prepared by various recipes and baking conditions. Information-rich mass spectral fingerprints were obtained by analysis of biscuit extracts for preparation of which aqueous methanol was used. The principal component analysis (PCA) of the acquired data revealed an apparent clustering of samples according to the extent of heat-treatment applied during the baking of the biscuits. The regression model for prediction of acrylamide in biscuits was obtained by partial least square regression (PLSR) analysis of the data matrix representing combined positive and negative ionization mode fingerprints. The model provided a least root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) equal to an acrylamide concentration of 5.4 μg kg(-1) and standard error of prediction (SEP) of 14.8 μg kg(-1). The results obtained indicate that this strategy can be used to accurately predict the amounts of acrylamide formed during baking of biscuits. Such rapid estimation of acrylamide concentration can become a useful tool in evaluation of the effectivity of processes aiming at mitigation of this food processing contaminant. However, the robustness this approach with respect to variability in the chemical composition of ingredients used for preparation of biscuits should be tested further.

  19. 27. Molecular spectra of acrylamide-induced mutation at hprt locus in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 and NB4. cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘胜学; 曹佳; 杨梦苏; 方志俊; 安辉

    2001-01-01

    The genotoxicity of acrylamide was investigated by methods of single cell clone culturing, two-way screening count, multiplex PCR amplification and electrophoresis technique. Acrylamide only showed clear mutagenesis until dose raised 700 mg*L-1 in HL-60 cells. The most frequent spontaneous mutation were point mutation (≥90.0%) and acrylamide-induced mutation mainly included partial deletion and point mutation (respectively 40.0%~66.7%/33.3%~60.0%). Total gene deletion wasn't discovered in both of cells. There were deletion mutation in all exons of hprt gene(except 7/8 exon), and toward the 3' end of the hprt gene. The most frequent acrylamide-induced mutation were point mutation and single exon deletion (93.3%/86.1%). There were not clear difference in both of cells. The results suggest that the spectra of spontaneous and acrylamide-induced mutants were different. and the smaller changes in genetic structure have something to do with mechanism.

  20. Quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics modeling of covalent addition between EGFR-cysteine 797 and N-(4-anilinoquinazolin-6-yl) acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capoferri, Luigi; Lodola, Alessio; Rivara, Silvia; Mor, Marco

    2015-03-23

    Irreversible epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors can circumvent resistance to first-generation ATP-competitive inhibitors in the treatment of nonsmall-cell lung cancer. They covalently bind a noncatalytic cysteine (Cys797) at the surface of EGFR active site by an acrylamide warhead. Herein, we used a hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) potential in combination with umbrella sampling in the path-collective variable space to investigate the mechanism of alkylation of Cys797 by the prototypical covalent inhibitor N-(4-anilinoquinazolin-6-yl) acrylamide. Calculations show that Cys797 reacts with the acrylamide group of the inhibitor through a direct addition mechanism, with Asp800 acting as a general base/general acid in distinct steps of the reaction. The obtained reaction free energy is negative (ΔA = -12 kcal/mol) consistent with the spontaneous and irreversible alkylation of Cys797 by N-(4-anilinoquinazolin-6-yl) acrylamide. Our calculations identify desolvation of Cys797 thiolate anion as a key step of the alkylation process, indicating that changes in the intrinsic reactivity of the acrylamide would have only a minor impact on the inhibitor potency.

  1. Rapid and cost-effective determination of acrylamide in coffee by planar chromatography and fluorescence detection after derivatization with dansulfinic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpmann, Alexander; Morlock, Gertrud

    2009-01-01

    A new method has been developed for the determination of acrylamide in ground coffee by planar chromatography using prechromatographic in situ derivatization with dansulfinic acid. After pressurized fluid extraction of acrylamide from the coffee samples, the extracts were passed through activated carbon and concentrated. These extracts were applied onto a silica gel 60 HPTLC plate and oversprayed with dansulfinic acid. By heating the plate, acrylamide was derivatized into the fluorescent product dansylpropanamide. The chromatographic separation with ethyl acetate-tert.-butyl methyl ether (8 + 2, v/v) mobile phase was followed by densitometric quantification at 254/>400 nm using a 4 point calibration via the standard addition method over the whole system for which acrylamide was added at different concentrations at the beginning of the extraction process. The method was validated for commercial coffee. The linearity over the whole procedure showed determination coefficients between 0.9995 and 0.9825 (n = 6). Limit of quantitation at a signal-to-noise ratio of 10 was determined to be 48 microg/kg. The within-run precision (relative standard deviation, n = 6) of the chromatographic method was 3%. Commercial coffee samples analyzed showed acrylamide contents between 52 and 191 microg/kg, which was in correlation with amounts reported in previous publications.

  2. Controlled release of diclofenac sodium through acrylamide grafted hydroxyethyl cellulose and sodium alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kahtani, Ahmed A; Sherigara, B S

    2014-04-15

    To reinforce the hydroxyethyl cellulose for using it in biomedical and pharmaceutical applications as a drug delivery systems, the grafting of acrylamide onto hydroxyethyl cellulose (AAm-g-HEC) was achieved by Ce(IV) induced free radical polymerization. The AAm-g-HEC was then blended with sodium alginate (NaAlg) to prepare pH-sensitive interpenetrating network (IPN) microspheres (MPs) by emulsion-crosslinking method using glutaraldehyde (GA) as a crosslinking agent. The produced MPs are almost spherical in nature with smooth surfaces. Diclofenac sodium (DS), an anti-inflammatory drug, was successfully encapsulated into the MPs. The % encapsulation efficiency was found to vary between 54 and 67. The MPs were characterized by DSC, SEM and FTIR spectroscopy. In vitro release studies were carried out in simulated gastric fluid of pH 1.2 for 2h followed by simulated intestinal fluid of pH 7.4 at 37°C. The release data have been fitted to an empirical equation to investigate the diffusional exponent (n), which indicated that the release mechanism shifted from anomalous to the super Case-II transport.

  3. Linalool as a neuroprotective agent against acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehri, Soghra; Meshki, Mohammad Ali; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2015-04-01

    Acrylamide (ACR) is a water-soluble monomer which has broad application in different industries and also can form in food during heating process. This monomer is a potent neurotoxic and damages the central and the peripheral nervous system in human and animals. Oxidative stress has been mentioned as an important pathway in ACR neurotoxicity, therefore the purpose of the current study was evaluation of possible effects of linalool which is a naturally enantiomer monoterpene compound. Linalool has shown antioxidant properties in several studies. Male Wistar rats were treated with ACR (50 mg/kg ip) alone or with linalool (12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg ip) for 11 days. In another 2 groups rats were treated with linalool (12.5 mg/kg ip) 3 days after and before ACR administration. Then behavior index (gait score) was examined for rats. After that, rats were sacrified and molondialdehyde (MDA) as a marker of lipid peroxidation and glutathione (GSH) content were determined in brain tissue. Exposure to ACR led to severe gait abnormalities and treatment with linalool significantly reduced abnormalities. ACR reduced GSH content and increased level of MDA in cerebral cortex. Linalool increased GSH content while decreased ACR-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain tissue and the best protocols were initiation of supplementation before or simultaneous with ACR administration.

  4. Surface modification of polyethylene film by acrylamide graft and alcoholysis for improvement of antithrombogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guowei; Chen, Yashao; Wang, Xiaoli

    2007-03-01

    To improve antithrombogenicity of polyethylene (PE) films, the films pretreated by Ar plasma were radiated by ultraviolet light to initiate grafting polymerization with acrylamide (AAm) in absence of photo-initiator, then the AAm-grafted PE films (PE-g-AAm) were alcoholized with octadecyl alcohol. Effects of Ar plasma composite parameter ( W/ FM), pretreated time, AAm monomer concentration, and UV irradiation time on grafting rate were investigated systematically. AAm-grafted PE film and alcoholized PE film (PE-g-SAAm) were characterized by contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transfer infrared (ATR-FT-IR) spectroscopy and atomic force microscope (AFM), respectively. The results indicated that the moieties of AAm and stearyl were successively immobilized onto the PE surface. The platelet adhesion experiment showed that antithrombogenicity of the modified PE films was improved in comparison with PE films. The change in antithrombogenicity is attributed to the surface of the modified film in presence of tail-like structure which consists of polyacrylamide as spacer and stearyl as end groups.

  5. Experimental study of primary radical generation in polyvinylalcohol/acrylamide (PVA/AA) based photopolymer material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shui; Gleeson, Michael R.; Guo, Jinxin; Sheridan, John T.

    2010-05-01

    In the literature, several studies of the time varying photon absorption effects, which occur during the photo-initiation process in photopolymer materials, have been presented. Three primary mechanisms have been identified: (i) The photon absorption, (ii) the regeneration or recovery of the photosensitizer, and (iii) the photosensitizer bleaching. Based on the analysis of these mechanisms, the production of primary radicals can be physically described and modelled. In free radical photo-polymerization systems, the excited dye molecules induce the production of the primary radical, R•, which is a key factor that in determining how much monomer is polymerized. This in turn is closely related to the refractive index modulation, Δn, formed during holographic recording. In this article, by modifying the composition of a Polyvinylalcohol/Acrylamide (PVA/AA) based photopolymer material, i.e., excluding any co-initiator, the photo-kinetic behaviour of the material is greatly simplified, an experimental study is performed, which makes possible development and verification of a new model capable of accurately predicting the time varying concentration of primary radicals.

  6. Neuroprotective effect of thymoquinone in acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity in Wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehri, Soghra; Shahi, Mehran; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Hassani, Faezeh Vahdati; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Acrylamide (ACR) has broad applications in different industries. It also forms in food during heating process. Oxidative stress has a critical role in ACR-induced neurotoxicity in both in vitro and in vivo models; therefore, the aim of the current study was the evaluation of effects of thymoquinone, the main constituent of volatile oil from Nigella sativa seeds in ACR-induced neurotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were treated with ACR (50 mg/kg IP) alone or with thymoquinone (TQ) (2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg IP) for 11 days. Two protocols were used in this study, A: in this one TQ and ACR were used simultaneously, B: Administration of TQ was started 1 week before ACR treatment and continued during exposure to ACR. At the end of the treatment, behavioral index (gait score) was examined for rats. After that, rats were sacrificed and molondialdehyde (MDA) as a marker of lipid peroxidation and glutathione (GSH) content were determined in cerebral cortex. Results: Exposure to ACR led to severe gait abnormalities and treatment with TQ significantly decreased abnormalities. Level of MDA was elevated in cerebral cortex after exposure to ACR while TQ treatment significantly and in a dose-dependent manner reduced lipid peroxidation. Results clearly showed that there is no significant difference between two protocols of administration of TQ. Conclusion: It suggests the neuroprotective effect of TQ in this model in part, may be because of due the antioxidant activity of this natural compound. PMID:25859305

  7. Swelling and drug release properties of acrylamide/carboxymethyl cellulose networks formed by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nizam El-Din, Horia M. [Polymer Chemistry Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, P.O. Box 29, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); Abd Alla, Safaa G. [Radiation Chemistry Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, P.O. Box 29, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); El-Naggar, Abdel Wahab M., E-mail: ab_nagga@yahoo.co [Radiation Chemistry Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, P.O. Box 29, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)

    2010-06-15

    Hydrogels based on acrylamide monomer (AM) and different ratios (5-20 wt%) of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were synthesized by gamma irradiation. The hydrogels were characterized in terms of gel content, swelling and drug release characters. The effect of temperature and pH on the degree of swelling was also studied. The results showed that the gel fraction of AM/CMC hydrogels decreases greatly with increasing the contents of CMC in the initial feeding solution. The kinetic study showed that the swelling of all the hydrogels tends to reach the equilibrium state after 5 h. However, the swelling of AM/CMC hydrogels was greater than the hydrogel based on pure AM. On the other hand, it was found that the swelling of all the hydrogels changes within the temperature range 30-40 deg. C and within the pH range 4-8. The AM/CMC hydrogels was evaluated for the possible use in drug delivery systems. In this respect, the release properties of methylene blue indicator, as a drug model, was investigated. It was found that the percentage release from the hydrogels increase with time to reach approx80% after 3 h at pH of 2 compared to approx100% at pH of 8.

  8. Gamma radiation-induced grafting of acrylamide and dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride onto starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiaohua; Song, Weiqiang; Ti, Yongzhou; Qu, Lingbo; Zhao, Zhiwei; Zheng, Hongjuan

    2013-01-30

    Corn starch graft copolymers were prepared from acrylamide/dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride binary monomers (AM/DMDAAC) by a simultaneous radiation grafting method, and were characterized by FTIR and (1)H NMR techniques, weight measurement and titration method. The copolymers with high grafting ratio and high grafting efficiency of binary monomers were achieved at absorbed doses of 2 kGy and 3 kGy using a 6:9.8:4.2 (w/w/w) ratio of starch/AM/DMDAAC, but their cationic degrees were low. Grafting ratio, grafting efficiency and cationic degree of the copolymers increased with increasing AM content in comonomer mixtures and then decreased at 3kGy using a 6:14 ratio of starch:total comonomers, but their cationic degrees generally decreased with increasing AM content. The grafting ratio, the grafting efficiency and the cationic degree of the copolymers increased, but the grafting efficiency of DMDAAC decreased with varying starch/(AM+DMDAAC) ratio from 6:3 to 6:18 at 3 kGy by using a fixed 7:3 ratio of AM:DMDAAC.

  9. UV-induced Self-initiated Graft Polymerization of Acrylamide onto Poly(ether ether ketone)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Rui-chao; SUN Hui; LI Ang; XU Guo-zhi

    2012-01-01

    Photo-grafting of hydrophilic monomer was used to enhance the hydrophilicity of poly(ether ether ketone)(PEEK) with the aim of extending its applications to biological fields.PEEK sheets were surface modified by grafting of acrylamide(AAm) with ultraviolet(UV) irradiation in the presence or absence of benzophenone(BP).The effects of BP,irradiation time and monomer concentration on the surface wettability of PEEK were investigated.Characterization of modified PEEK using scanning electron microscopy(SEM),energy-disperse spectrometer(EDS) and water contact angle measurements shows that AAm was successfully grafted on PEEK surface both in presence and absence of BP.With the increase in irradiation time and monomer concentration,contact angles decrease to as low as 30°,demonstrating a significant improvement of surface hydrophilicity.In agreement with the decrease in contact angle,under identical conditions,the nitrogen concentration increases,suggesting the increase in grafting degree of the grafting polymerization.This investigation demonstrates a self-initiation of PEEK due to its BP-like structure in the backbone of the polymer.Though the graft polymerization proceeds more readily in the presence of BP,the self-initiated graft polymerization is clearly observed.

  10. Crystal structure of glycidamide: the mutagenic and genotoxic metabolite of acryl-amide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemgesberg, Melanie N; Bonck, Thorsten; Merz, Karl-Heinz; Sun, Yu; Schrenk, Dieter

    2016-08-01

    The title compound, glycidamide (systematic name: oxirane-2-carboxamide), C3H5NO2, is the mutagenic and genotoxic metabolite of acryl-amide, a food contaminant and industrial chemical that has been classified as being probably carcinogenic to humans. Synthesized via the reaction of acrylo-nitrile and hydrogen peroxide, it crystallizes with both enanti-omers occurring as two crystallographically independent mol-ecules (A and B) in the asymmetric unit. They have similar conformations with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.0809 Å for mol-ecule B inverted on mol-ecule A. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, which lead to the formation of β-sheet structures enclosing R 2 (2)(8) and R 4 (2)(8) loops. The β-sheets are linked by weaker C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a supra-molecular three-dimensional structure.

  11. Water absorption and moisture permeation properties of chitosan/poly(acrylamide-co-itaconic acid) IPC films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, M; Bajpai, S K; Jyotishi, Pooja

    2016-03-01

    In this work, aqueous solutions of chitosan (Ch) and [poly(acrylamide(AAm)-co-itaconicacid(IA)] have been mixed to yield Ch/poly(AAm-co-IA) Inter-polyelectrolyte complex (IPC) films. The films were characterized by FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). There was remarkable increase in the crystalline nature of IPC films. The films were investigated for their water absorption capacity in the physiological fluid (PF) of pH 7.4 at 37 °C. The amount of IA present in the film forming solutions affected the water absorption behavior of the resulting films. The dynamic water uptake data were interpreted by various kinetic models. The effect of pH on the swelling ratio (SR) indicated that the films showed highest swelling in lower as well as higher pH media. The water vapor transmission rates (WVTR) were obtained in the range of 6000-6645 g/m(2)/day.

  12. POLY(N-ISOPROPYL ACRYLAMIDE) MICROGEL DOPED WITH LUMINESCENT PBS QUANTUM DOTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHUCHI Sam

    2007-01-01

    Thiol-stabilized PbS quantum dots (QDs) with dimensions 3-5 nm capped with a mixture of 1-thioglycerol/dithioglycerol (TGL/DTG) were colloidally prepared at room temperature. Room temperature photoluminescence quantum efficiency of freshly prepared PbS QDs (7%-11%) remained higher than 5% upon aging for three weeks when the nanocrystals (NCs) were stored in an ice-bath in the dark, and higher than 5% for at least five weeks when extra DTG ligands were introduced into the nanocrystal solution followed by stirring every two weeks. Poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAM) microgels were produced via precipitation polymerization with dimensions of ca. 230 nm and polydispersity of 3-5%. Incorporation of PbS QDs into PNIPAM microgels indicated that PbS can be incorporated into the interior of microgel particles and not at the microgel interface. The combination of reasonable room temperature quantum efficiency and strong, efficient luminescence covering the 1.3-1.55 μm telecommunication window makes these nanoparticles promising materials in optical devices and telecommunications.

  13. Photoinitiated Polymerization of Cationic Acrylamide in Aqueous Solution: Synthesis, Characterization, and Sludge Dewatering Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaili Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A copolymer of acrylamide (AM with acryloyloxyethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (DAC as the cationic monomer was synthesized under the irradiation of high-pressure mercury lamp with 2,2-azobis(2-amidinopropane dihydrochloride (V-50 as the photoinitiator. The compositions of the photoinduced copolymer were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR, ultraviolet spectra (UV, and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The effects of 6 important factors, that is, photo-initiators concentration, monomers concentration, CO(NH22 (urea concentrations, pH value, mass ratio of AM to DAC, and irradiation time on the molecular weight and dissolving time, were investigated. The optimal reaction conditions were that the photo-initiators concentration was 0.3%, monomers concentration was 30 wt.%, irradiation time was 60 min, urea concentration was 0.4%, pH value was 5.0, and mass ratio of AM to DAC was 6 : 4. Its flocculation properties were evaluated with activated sludge using jar test. The zeta potential of supernatant at different cationic monomer contents was simultaneously measured. The results demonstrated the superiority of the copolymer over the commercial polyacrylamide as a flocculant.

  14. EFFECT OF GAMMA RAYS IN THE PREPARATION OF POLYMER AND HYDROGEL FROM ACRYLAMIDE MONOMER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. M. Alam; M. F. Mina; F. Akhtar

    2003-01-01

    The formation of polymer and hydrogel from aqueous solutions having 20, 30 and 40% concentrations of acrylamide monomer by γ-ray irradiation processing in the dose range 0.06-30 kGy using a Co-60 source and their characterization have been observed. Polymer conversion and gel fraction are found to depend on radiation doses. Polymer conversion increases with the increase of dose, depending on the solution concentration, where maximum conversion is achieved at 0.18, 0.16 and 0.10 kGy for 20%, 30% and 40% concentrations, respectively. On the other hand, gel fraction increases with dose from the gel point (0.12 kGy) for all concentrations, where 100% conversion of gel occurs at doses ≥ 5 kGy. Tensile strength, viscosity and molecular weight (Mw) of polymer samples increase with both the dose and the concentration, showing a high value of Mw up to ≈108. Swelling of hydrogels under water with respect to time varies due to the variation of cross-linking density formed in the gels and the maximum swelling mainly occurs within 24 h. A remarkable change of surface morphology reveals characteristic features of monomer, polymer and hydrogel films.

  15. OPTIMIZATION OF THE SYNTHESIS OF ACRYLAMIDE HYDROGEL BY γ-RAY IRRADIATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.A. Chowdhury; M.M. Alam; M.F. Mina; F. Akhtar; S.E. Kabir

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogels have been synthesized from 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% and 60% aqueous solutions of acrylamide monomer by gamma radiation employing doses in the range of 0.2-30 kGy from a Co-60 source. The effect of solution concentration, γ-ray dose, pH and time was studied in order to observe the optimizing conditions in the characterization of hydrogels. Gel fraction increases with dose for all concentrations indicating hundred-percentage conversion of gel at doses ≥5 kGy for homogenous solutions in the range of 20%-50% concentration. On the other hand, 10% solution provides conversion less than 86% even at 30 kGy, whereas 60% monomer makes an inhomogeneous solution which stile gives about 100% gel fraction. Swelling of hydrogels under water with respect to time varies with both the doses and concentrations due to the change of crosslinking density in the gels. The maximum volume change of hydrogels during swelling and water desorption mainly occurs within 24 h. Swelling is also enhanced with the rise of pH due to change of ionic content of the solvent. Considering the amount of gel fraction and the properties of hydrogel, the samples prepared from 20% solution at 5kGy show better results. Moreover, the effect of bacteria on hydrogel was found to be nil, suggesting a prohibition of growth of microorganism in it.

  16. Acrylamide alters glycogen content and enzyme activities in the liver of juvenile rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Renata; Rajkovic, Vesna; Koledin, Ivana; Matavulj, Milica

    2015-10-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is spontaneously formed in carbohydrate-rich food during high-temperature processing. It is neurotoxic and potentially cancer causing chemical. Its harmful effects on the liver, especially in a young organism, are still to be elucidated. The study aimed to examine main liver histology, its glycogen content and enzyme activities in juvenile rats treated with 25 or 50mg/kg bw of AA for 3 weeks. Liver samples were fixed in formalin, routinely processed for paraffin embedding, sectioning and histochemical staining. Examination of haematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained sections showed an increase in the volume of hepatocytes, their nuclei and cytoplasm in both AA-treated groups compared to the control. In Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-stained sections in low-dose group was noticed glycogen reduction, while in high-dose group was present its accumulation compared to the control, respectively. Serum analysis showed increased activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and decreased activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in both AA-treated groups, while the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was increased in low-dose, but decreased in high-dose group compared to the control, respectively. Present results suggest a prominent hepatotoxic potential of AA which might alter the microstructural features and functional status in hepatocytes of immature liver.

  17. Modeling and Investigation of the Swelling Kinetics of Acrylamide-Sodium Acrylate Hydrogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmi Seyhun Kipcak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The acrylamide-sodium acrylate hydrogel was synthesized by free radical polymerization of the method of solution polymerization. Dynamic swelling tests were conducted at 25, 40, and 60°C temperatures, in order to investigate the swelling properties of the synthesized hydrogel. The results have shown that swelling content and swelling rate of the hydrogel increase with increasing the swelling water temperature. The diffusivity values changed from 1.81×10-7 to 2.97×10-7 m2 s−1 over the temperature range. The activation energies were found as 3.56, 3.71, and 3.86 kJ mol−1 at 25, 40, and 60°C, respectively. The experimental drying curves obtained were fitted to a three different models, namely, Peleg’s, first-order absorption kinetic, and exponential association equation models. All the models applied provided a good agreement with the experimental data with high values of the coefficient of determination (R2, the least values of the reduced chi-square (χ2, and root mean square error (RMSE. Comparing the determination of coefficient, reduced chi-square, and root mean square error values of three models, it was concluded that the exponential association equation model represents swelling characteristics better than the others.

  18. STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF POLYSTYRENE SULFONIC ACID MACROMOLECULES ON THE POLYMERIZATION OF ACRYLAMIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shenguo; XI Fu; LI Zhifen

    1983-01-01

    The effect of polystyrene sulfonic acid (PSSA) macromolecules on the polymerization of acrylamide (AM) has been studied. It was found that the rates of polymerization of AM were greatly increased in the presence of PSSA in the polymerization system. The maximum value of the rate of polymerization of AM was obtained when the ratio of[-SO3H]: [AM] reached 3:1. When the insoluble crosslinked PSSA was used instead of the soluble one, this effect decreased considerably. The interaction between molecules of PSSA and AM was determined by infrared spectroscopy, elementary analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.The combination form, -SO3-NH3+ CO-, formed between sulfonic group and amide group was found to be existed since the infrared absorption band of -NH2 shifted from 3400 cm-1 to 3150cm-1, the binding energy of electron N1S changed from 399.7 eV to 401.3 eV, and the atomic ratio of N to S of the products was similar to the ratio of reagents. Based on these experimental results, the mechanism of AM polymerization in the presence of PSSA is proposed. The initial step is the combination of AM with sulfonic group to form -CONH3+, then followed by polymerization on the PSSA macromolecule. The role of PSSA on the polymerization of AM is discussed.

  19. Lack of preventive effects of dietary fibers or chlorophyllin against acrylamide toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Gye-Hyeong; Shibutani, Makoto; Kuroiwa, Keiko; Lee, Kyoung-Youl; Takahashi, Miwa; Inoue, Kaoru; Fujimoto, Hitoshi; Hirose, Masao

    2007-08-01

    Dietary fibers and chlorophyllin have shown to exert anti-carcinogenic effects against co-administered carcinogens. To test the possibility of chemoprevention by such dietary supplements on subacutely induced acrylamide (ACR) toxicity, Sprague-Dawley male rats were administered 2.5% sodium alginate, 5% glucomannan, 5% digestion resistant maltodextrin, 2.5% chitin or 1% chlorophyllin in the diet, and starting one week later, co-administered 0.02% ACR in the drinking water for 4 weeks. For comparison, untreated control animals given basal diet and tap water were also included. Neurotoxicity was examined with reference to gait abnormalities and by quantitative assessment of histopathological changes in the sciatic and trigeminal nerves, as well as aberrant dot-like immunoreactivity for synaptophysin in the cerebellar molecular layer. Testicular toxicity was assessed by quantitation of seminiferous tubules with exfoliation of germ cells into the lumen and cell debris in the ducts of the epididymides. Development of testicular toxicity as well as neurotoxicity was evident with ACR-treatment, but was not suppressed by dietary addition of fibers or chlorophyllin, suggesting no apparent beneficial influence of these dietary supplements on experimentally induced subacute ACR toxicity.

  20. Acrylamide analysis in food by liquid chromatographic and gas chromatographic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbashir, Abdalla A; Omar, Mei M Ali; Ibrahim, Wan Aini Wan; Schmitz, Oliver J; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2014-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is a compound classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. It was first discovered to be present in certain heated processed food by the Swedish National Food Administration (SNFA) and University of Stockholm in early 2002. The major pathway for AA formation in food is the Maillard reaction between reducing sugar and the amino acid asparagine at high temperature. Since the discovery of AA's presence in food, many analytical methods have been developed for determination of AA contents in different food matrices. Also, several studies have been conducted to develop extraction procedures for AA from difficult food matrices. AA is a small, highly polar molecule, which makes its extraction and analysis challenging. Many articles and reviews have been published dealing with AA in food. The aim of the review is to discuss AA formation in food, the factors affecting AA formation and removal, AA exposure assessment, AA extraction and cleanup from food samples, and analytical methods used in AA determination, such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC). Special attention is given to sample extraction and cleanup procedures and analytical techniques used for AA determination.

  1. POLY(N-ISOPROPYL ACRYLAMIDE) MICROGEL DOPED WITH LUMINESCENT PBS QUANTUM DOTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xusheng; GAN Jianqun; CHUCHI Sam; LIU Guanghua; CHEN Aimin

    2007-01-01

    Thiol-stabilized PbS quantum dots (QDs) with dimensions 3-5 nm capped with a mixture of 1-thioglycerol/dithioglycerol (TGL/DTG) were colloidally prepared at room temperature. Room temperature photoluminescence quantum efficiency of freshly prepared PbS QDs (7%-11%) remained higher than 5% upon aging for three weeks when the nanocrystals (NCs) were stored in an ice-bath in the dark, and higher than 5%for at least five weeks when extra DTG ligands were introduced into the nanocrystal solution followed by stirring every two weeks. Poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide)(PNIPAM) microgels were produced via precipitation polymerization with dimensions of ca. 230 nm and polydispersity of 3-5%. Incorporation of PbS QDs into PNIPAM microgels indicated that PbS can be incorporated into the interior of microgel particles and not at the microgel interface. The combination of reasonable room temperature quantum efficiency and strong, efficient luminescence covering the 1.3-1.55μm telecommunication window makes these nanoparticles promising materials in optical devices and telecommunications.

  2. Lipase immobilization on epoxy-activated poly(vinyl acetate-acrylamide) microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong-Hao; Peng, Li-Juan; Wang, Yun; Li, Ya-Qiong

    2015-05-01

    Poly(vinyl acetate-acrylamide) microspheres with an average diameter of 2-4μm were successfully prepared and characterized via SEM and FTIR. Then the microspheres were modified with epoxy groups through reacting with epichlorohydrin and used as carriers to covalently immobilize Candida rugosa lipase. The results revealed that agitation played an important role on epoxy activation and the immobilization ratio increased with the increase of the epoxy density. On the other hand, the specific activity of the immobilized lipase as well as the activity recovery declined gradually with the increase in the immobilization ratio from 72% to 93%, which were attributed to the steric hindrance effects caused by enzyme overloading. When epoxy density was 76μmol/g microsphere, the activity recovery reached the maximum at 47.5%, and the activity of the immobilized lipase was 261.3U/g microsphere. Moreover, the thermal stability of the immobilized lipase was much better than that of the free one, which indicated potential applications of the immobilized lipase.

  3. Graft Polymerization of Acrylic Acid and Acrylamide onto BOPET Corona Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jie; TIAN Hua-yu; BAI Yong-ping

    2004-01-01

    The graft polymerization of acrylic acid ( A ) and acrylamide (B) was carried out onto bi- ori ented polyester BOPET corona film. The influence of monomer concentration, reducer concentration and reaction time on the graft polymerization was investigated. The surface tension of the films increased with an increase of monomer concentration, till the concentration of monomer A reached 1.5 × 10-2 g/mL and the concentration of monomer B reached 4.0× 10-2 g/ mL. The surface tension of the films reached a maximum value at 7 × 10 4 M of reducer concentration and subsequently decreased with further increase in reducer concentration. The surface tension of the films increased with the increase of the reaction time apparently within 50min. The grafted corona BO PET films were characterized with IR and XPS. The presence of graft on the film surface was confirmed. The atten uation experiments on grafted corona BOPET films in air at 50℃ and in water were carried out to investigate the persistence of graft polymerization of acrylic acid and arylamide onto BOPET corona films.

  4. Chromosomal mosaicism in mouse two-cell embryos after paternal exposure to acrylamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, Francesco; Bishop, Jack; Lowe, Xiu; Wyrobek, Andrew J

    2008-10-14

    Chromosomal mosaicism in human preimplantation embryos is a common cause ofspontaneous abortions, however, our knowledge of its etiology is limited. We used multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) painting to investigate whether paternally-transmitted chromosomal aberrations result in mosaicism in mouse 2-cell embryos. Paternal exposure to acrylamide, an important industrial chemical also found in tobacco smoke and generated during the cooking process of starchy foods, produced significant increases in chromosomally defective 2-cell embryos, however, the effects were transient primarily affecting the postmeiotic stages of spermatogenesis. Comparisons with our previous study of zygotes demonstrated similar frequencies of chromosomally abnormal zygotes and 2-cell embryos suggesting that there was no apparent selection against numerical or structural chromosomal aberrations. However, the majority of affected 2-cell embryos were mosaics showing different chromosomal abnormalities in the two blastomeric metaphases. Analyses of chromosomal aberrations in zygotes and 2-cell embryos showed a tendency for loss of acentric fragments during the first mitotic division ofembryogenesis, while both dicentrics and translocations apparently underwent propersegregation. These results suggest that embryonic development can proceed up to the end of the second cell cycle of development in the presence of abnormal paternal chromosomes and that even dicentrics can persist through cell division. The high incidence of chromosomally mosaic 2-cell embryos suggests that the first mitotic division of embryogenesis is prone to missegregation errors and that paternally-transmitted chromosomal abnromalities increase the risk of missegregation leading to embryonic mosaicism.

  5. Gel formation driven by tunable hydrophobic domain: design of acrylamide macromonomer with oligo hydrophobic segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Kyohei; Miyake, Junpei; Watanabe, Junji; Ikeda, Yoshiyuki

    2012-04-09

    Nowadays, biomaterials with amphiphilic properties are undergoing remarkable development. Here, we present one such development, in which we prepared amphiphilic graft copolymers, with a main chain composed of hydroxyethyl acrylamide (HEAA), to introduce hydrophilicity, and a side chain composed of poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) to introduce tunable hydrophobicity. These macromonomers were created with a novel molecular design, which introduced a ring-opening polymerization by the hydroxyl end group of HEAA in the presence of 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene, and were analyzed by (1)H NMR and gel permeation chromatography. The amphiphilic graft copolymers were shown to form a hydrogel, the swelling ratio of which was greatly influenced by the number of trimethylene carbonate units. These copolymers also exhibited the Tyndall phenomenon in aqueous solution; they aggregated spontaneously due to hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions, and a sodium 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonate (ANS) fluorescence probe was introduced into the hydrophobic domain. The solution property of ANS in the polymer solution was analyzed by fluorescence measurement and (1)H NMR. The maximum fluorescence wavelength of ANS shifted to shorter wavelengths as the degree of polymerization of the hydrophobic PTMC, the composition of the macromonomer, and the concentration of the copolymer increased. The resulting copolymer formed a polymer micelle structure due to the tunable hydrophobic domain formation in selected solvents. Therefore, these amphiphilic graft copolymers containing a PTMC segment are excellent candidates for use as hydrophobic drug delivery carriers.

  6. Mitigation of the processing contaminant acrylamide in bread by reducing asparagine in the bread dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsaiti, Tatiana; Granby, Kit

    2016-09-01

    Over the past few years there has been an increasing awareness regarding acrylamide (AAM) content of various foods. Although there are several relevant articles on AAM mitigation in industrially prepared products, the literature regarding homemade preparations is rather scarce. The objective of this study is to mitigate the AAM formation in baked buns made with 1:1 sifted wheat/wholegrain flour through the depletion of asparagine (ASN) in the bread dough. Using a full-factorial design, the effect of four factors (yeast amount, fermentation time, fermentation temperature and yeast types) was tested. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used for AAM and its main precursor, ASN, determination. The resulting ASN depletion in the dough (68-89%) is significantly affected by fermentation time and yeast type, while AAM mitigation levels in the baked buns are significantly influenced by yeast amount, fermentation time and yeast type. The mean concentrations for each combination range between 5 and 15 µg kg(-)(1).

  7. A novel poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide)/diatomite composite flocculant with outstanding flocculation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kun; Liu, Yao; Wang, Yang; Tan, Ying; Liang, Xuecheng; Lu, Cuige; Wang, Haiwei; Liu, Xiusheng; Wang, Pixin

    2015-01-01

    Series of anionic flocculants with outstanding flocculation performance, poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide)/diatomite composite flocculants (PAAD) were successfully prepared through aqueous solution copolymerization and applied to flocculate from oil-field fracturing waste-water. The structure of PAAD was characterized by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray diffraction tests, and its properties were systematically evaluated by viscometer, thermogravimetry analysis and flocculation measurements. Furthermore, the influences of various reaction parameters on the apparent viscosity of flocculant solution were studied, and the optimum synthesis condition was determined. The novel composite flocculants exhibited outstanding flocculation properties. Specifically, the dosage of composite flocculants that could make the transmittance of treated wastewater exceed 90% was only approximately 12-35 ppm, which was far lower than that of conventional flocculants. Meanwhile, the settling time was lower than 5 s, which was similar to that of conventional flocculants. This was because PAAD flocculants had a higher absorption capacity, and larger chain extending space than conventional linear flocculants, which could refrain from the entanglement of linear polymer chains and significantly improve flocculation capacity.

  8. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous analysis of acrylamide and the precursors, asparagine and reducing sugars in bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N.J.; Granby, Kit; Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg

    2006-01-01

    L of methanol and 2 x 2 mL of water and subsequently flushed with sample solution before the actual analytical sample fractions were collected. Analytes were separated on a Hypercarb column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 5 mu m) and detected by tandem MS with electrospray ionisation. Acrylamide and saccharides were ionised......-112% for acrylamide spiked at 30, 250 mu g kg(-1) and 97-101% for asparagine spiked at 70, 140 mg kg(-1). Sorbitol was used as internal standard for fructose and glucose. Samples were diluted to obtain acceptable recoveries in saccharide analyses. LODs were 13 mu g kg(-1) for acrylamide and 2 mg kg(-1) for asparagine...

  9. Synthesis and Phase Behavior of Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-b- Poly(L-Lysine Hydrochloride and Poly(N-Isopropylacrylamide- co-Acrylamide-b-Poly(L-Lysine Hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Spasojević

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-b-poly(L-lysine and poly(N- isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylamide-b-poly(L-lysine copolymers was accomplished by combining atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP and ring opening polymerization (ROP. For this purpose, a di-functional initiator with protected amino group was successfully synthetized. The ATRP of N-isopropylacrylamide yielded narrowly dispersed polymers with consistent high yields (~80%. Lower yields (~50% were observed when narrowly dispersed random copolymers of N-isopropylacrylamide and acrylamide where synthesized. Amino-terminated poly(N-isopropylacrylamide and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide- co-acrylamide were successfully used as macroinitiators for ROP of N6-carbobenzoxy-L- lysine N-carboxyanhydride. The thermal behavior of the homopolymers and copolymers in aqueous solutions was studied by turbidimetry, dynamic light scattering (DLS and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR.

  10. Effect of different molecular weight chitosans on the mitigation of acrylamide formation and the functional properties of the resultant Maillard reaction products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Wei; Sung, Wen-Chieh; Chen, Jing-Yi

    2016-05-15

    Mitigation of acrylamide formation and the functional properties of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were investigated in a food model system. The system was composed of elements of mixtures and their combination including fructose, asparagine and different molecular weight chitosans. All solutions were heated, and then analyzed for acrylamide content, MRPs absorbance, pH, color, antioxidant capacity, antibacterial activity and kinematic viscosity. The fructose, asparagine and chitosan mixture had more MRPs compared to other mixtures. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-pricrylhydrazy (DPPH) radical scavenging activities, ferrous ion chelating abilities and reducing power results showed that all solutions containing a combination of two or three reactants had antioxidant capacities. Acrylamide content has a positive correlation with absorbance values at OD294 and OD420 but a negative correlation with the CIB L(∗) value of a solution (pacrylamide.

  11. Investigations on the effect of antioxidant type and concentration and model system matrix on acrylamide formation in model Maillard reaction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinou, Costas; Koutsidis, Georgios

    2016-04-15

    The formation of acrylamide in model Maillard reaction systems containing phenolic compounds was examined, with regards to phenolic type, concentration, and model system matrix. In dry glyoxal/asparagine waxy maize starch (WMS) systems, 9 out of 10 examined phenolics demonstrated an inhibiting effect, with the most significant reductions (55-60%) observed for caffeoylquinic acids. In WMS glucose/asparagine systems, examination of three different concentrations (0.1, 0.5 and 1 μmol/g WMS) suggested a 'minimum effective concentration' for epicatechin and caffeic acid, whilst addition of caffeoylquinic acids resulted in dose-dependent acrylamide reduction (25-75%). The discordant results of further studies utilising different matrices (dry and wet-to-dry) indicated that, apart from the nature and chemical reactivity, the matrix and the physical state of the reactants might be important for acrylamide formation.

  12. Determination of acrylamide in food by solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-positive chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Maw-Rong; Chang, Li-Yo; Dou, Jianpeng

    2007-01-16

    A method has been developed to determine acrylamide in aqueous matrices by using direct immersion solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-positive chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (GC-PCI-MS-MS) in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The optimized SPME experimental procedures to extract acrylamide in water solutions were: use of a carbowax/divinylbenzene (CW/DVB)-coated fiber at pH 7, extraction time of 20 min and analyte desorption at 210 degrees C for 3 min. A detection limit of 0.1 microg L(-1) was obtained. The linear range was 1-1000 microg L(-1). The relative standard deviation was 10.64% (n=7). The proposed analytical method was successfully used for the quantification of trace acrylamide in foodstuffs such as French fries (1.2 microg g(-1)) and potato crisps (2.2 microg g(-1)).

  13. Potential protective effects of extra virgin olive oil on the hepatotoxicity induced by co-exposure of adult rats to acrylamide and aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbel, Imen; Elwej, Awatef; Jamoussi, Kamel; Boudawara, Tahia; Kamoun, Naziha Grati; Zeghal, Najiba

    2015-04-01

    Extra virgin olive oil has been shown to be effective against oxidative stress associated diseases. In addition to the high quantities of oleic acid, it is rich in phenolic compounds. We investigated the protective efficacy of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) against the hepatotoxicity induced by both aluminum and acrylamide. Animals were divided into four groups containing six rats each: group 1, serving as controls, received distilled water; group 2 received drinking water containing aluminum chloride (50 mg kg(-1) body weight) and acrylamide (20 mg kg(-1) body weight) by gavage; group 3 received both aluminum and acrylamide in the same ways as well as EVOO (300 μl) by gavage; group 4 received only EVOO by gavage for 3 weeks. The rats exposed to both aluminum and acrylamide exhibited oxidative stress observed by an increase in MDA, AOPP and a decrease in GSH, NPSH and vitamin C levels. The activities of CAT and GPx were decreased, while SOD activity was increased. The liver metallothioneins, such as MT1 and MT2 genes expression, were also increased. EVOO supplementation improved all the parameters mentioned above. The plasma transaminases (AST and ALT), LDH activities, glucose and albumin levels, TC, LDL-C levels, TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios were increased, while high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and TG decreased. The co-administration of EVOO to acrylamide and aluminum treated rats restored their hepatic markers to near-normal values. Liver histological studies confirmed the biochemical parameters and the beneficial role of EVOO. These results suggest that extra virgin olive oil, when added to the diet, may have a beneficial role in decreasing the liver damage induced by both aluminum and acrylamide.

  14. Acrylamide and glycidamide hemoglobin adducts and epithelial ovarian cancer: a nested case-control study in non-smoking postmenopausal women from the EPIC cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obón-Santacana, Mireia; Lujan-Barroso, Leila; Travis, Ruth C.; Freisling, Heinz; Ferrari, Pietro; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fortner, Renée T.; Ose, Jennifer; Boeing, Heiner; Menéndez, Virginia; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Chamosa, Saioa; Huerta Castaño, José María; Ardanaz, Eva; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Merritt, Melissa A.; Gunter, Marc J.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Papatesta, Eleni-Maria; Klinaki, Eleni; Saieva, Calogero; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B.; Peeters, Petra H.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Vesper, Hubert W.; Riboli, Elio; Duell, Eric J

    2015-01-01

    Background Acrylamide was classified as ‘probably carcinogenic to humans (group 2A)’ by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the fourth cause of cancer mortality in women. Five epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between EOC risk and dietary acrylamide intake assessed using food frequency questionnaires, and one nested case-control study evaluated hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide (HbAA) and its metabolite glycidamide (HbGA) and EOC risk; the results of these studies were inconsistent. Methods A nested case-control study in non-smoking postmenopausal women (334 cases, 417 controls) was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between HbAA, HbGA, HbAA+HbGA, and HbGA/HbAA and EOC and invasive serous EOC risk. Results No overall associations were observed between biomarkers of acrylamide exposure analyzed in quintiles and EOC risk; however, positive associations were observed between some middle quintiles of HbGA and HbAA+HbGA. Elevated but non-statistically significant ORs for serous EOC were observed for HbGA and HbAA+HbGA (ORQ5vsQ1:1.91, 95%CI:0.96-3.81 and ORQ5vsQ1:1.90, 95%CI:0.94-3.83, respectively); however, no linear dose-response trends were observed. Conclusion This EPIC nested case-control study failed to observe a clear association between biomarkers of acrylamide exposure and the risk of EOC or invasive serous EOC. Impact It is unlikely that dietary acrylamide exposure increases ovarian cancer risk; however, additional studies with larger sample size should be performed to exclude any possible association with EOC risk. PMID:26376083

  15. Reduction of acrylamide level through blanching with treatment by an extremely thermostable L-asparaginase during French fries processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Shaohua; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Bo; Mu, Wanmeng

    2015-07-01

    Bacterial L-asparaginase catalyzes the hydrolysis of L-asparagine to L-aspartic acid. It is normally used as an antineoplastic drug applied in lymphoblastic leukemia chemotherapy and as a food processing aid in baked or fried food industry to inhibit the formation of acrylamide. The present study demonstrates cloning, expression, and characterization of a thermostable L-asparaginase from Thermococcus zilligii AN1 TziAN1_1 and also evaluates the potential for enzymatic acrylamide mitigation in French fries using this enzyme. The recombinant L-asparaginase was purified to homogeneity by nickel-affinity chromatography. The purified enzyme displayed the maximum activity at pH 8.5 and 90 °C, and the optimum temperature was the highest ever reported. The K m, k cat, and k cat/K m values toward L-asparagine were measured to be 6.08 mM, 3267 s(-1), and 537.3 mM(-1) s(-1), respectively. The enzyme retained 70 % of its original activity after 2 h of incubation at 85 °C. When potato samples were treated with 10 U/mL of L-asparaginase at 80 °C for only 4 min, the acrylamide content in final French fries was reduced by 80.5 % compared with the untreated control. Results of this study revealed that the enzyme was highly active at elevated temperatures, reflecting the potential of the T. zilligii L-asparaginase in the food processing industry.

  16. POLYMERIC IONIC CONDUCTORS MODIFIED WITH POLAR GROUPS:PART Ⅰ. IONIC CONDUCTION AND MECHANICAL PROPERTY OF LI-COMPLEX BASED ON ACRYLAMIDE- COPOLYMERIZED METHACRYLATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Zhenghua; XU Kang; WAN Guoxiang

    1992-01-01

    Acrylamide was introduced onto the chain of poly[oligo(oxyethylene) methacrylate] as a polar constituent, and the effect of its presence on the mechanical strength and ionic conduction properties of Li-salt complex based on the resultant copolymer was investigated. The introduction of the polar constituent raises chain rigidity, retards crystallization of oligo(oxyethylene) domain and promotes the dissociation of lithium salt. The factors work on the mechanical and conduction properties synergistically, therefore both of the properties are improved simultaneously as the consequence of acrylamide- introduction.

  17. Bio-rational design of photosystem Ⅱ inhibitors (Ⅷ)——Molecular design, synthesis and inhibitory activity of acrylates (acrylamides)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘华银; 沙印林; 谭惠芬; 杨华铮; 来鲁华

    1999-01-01

    Molecular modeling of acrylates (acrylamides) with D1 protein of Pisum sativum is presented. Studies show that the binding force mainly includes H-bond interaction, Van der Waals and π-ring stacking interaction. It was found that SER 268 in D1 protein might be an important binding site. It is important for high inhibitory activity of compounds whether an electronegative atom in alkyl of ester linkage could make H-bond interaction with SER 268 in D1 protein. Thus some new acrylates (acrylamides) were designed and synthesized, Bioassay indicated that these new compounds showed expected Hill reaction inhibitory activity.

  18. 化妆品中丙烯酰胺及其检测的研究进展%Research progress of acrylamide in cosmetics and its detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆兴毅

    2014-01-01

    丙烯酰胺是生产聚丙烯酰胺的原料,在化妆品中存在的微量丙烯酰胺是生产过程中添加聚丙烯酰胺引入的。由于丙烯酰胺具有神经毒性和潜在致癌性,已被列为化妆品中的限制使用成分,加强化妆品中丙烯酰胺的监测具有重要意义。本文综述了丙烯酰胺的来源、用途和危害性,总结了目前化妆品中丙烯酰胺测定的所用的样品前处理方法,以及丙烯酰胺气相色谱法、液相色谱法、液相色谱-串联质谱法等各种检测方法的最新研究进展,同时对化妆品样品中丙烯酰胺检测技术的发展趋势进行了展望,表明采用串联质谱技术(如GC-MS/MS、LC-MS/MS)对进行复杂样品中丙烯酰胺进行检测是未来的发展趋势。%Acrylamide is the raw material of production of polyacrylamide, trace amounts of acrylamide is introduced during cosmetic processing process. Acrylamide is a kind of prohibited substances in cosmetics due to the potential nerve toxicity and carcinogenicity, the quantity of acrylamide is also to be considered a marker of cosmetic quality. The properties, applications and toxicity of acrylamide in cosmetics are reviewed briefly. The sample pretreatment and determination methods of acrylamide in cosmetic, such as gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry are introduced. The tendency in the determination of acrylamide in cosmetic is predicted, Tandem mass spectrometry, such as GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS, will be the development of technology to determinate acrylamide in complicated cosmetic.

  19. PHOTO-INDUCED GRAFT POLYMERIZATION OF ACRYLAMIDE ON POLYPROPYLENE MEMBRANE SURFACE IN THE PRESENCE OF DIBENZYL TRITHIOCARBoNATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Yang; Jing Tian; Zhi-kang Xu

    2007-01-01

    Ultraviolet(UV)-induced graft polymerization of acrylamide(AAm)on polypropylene substrates was successfully conducted using dibenzyl trithiocarbonate(DBTTC)as photoinitiator.It was confirmed by chemical analysis and surface morphology observation with attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,and scanning electron microscopy.A possible mechanism for this graft process was presented,which suggested that,under UV irradiation,the C=S bond in DBTTC could split and abstract a hydrogen from the polypropylene surface and a surface free radical was then formed,and initiated the graft polymerization of AAm.

  20. GRAFT POLYMERIZATION OF ACRYLAMIDE ONTO HOMOPOLYMER OF 5-METHYL-5-HEXEN-2, 4-DIONE INITIATED BY CERIC ION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jingbo; ZHAO Tong; QIU Kunyuan

    1997-01-01

    The homopolymerization of 5-methyl-5-hexen-2,4-dione (methacryloylacetone, MAA),a vinyl monomer having β-diketone group, was carried out in the presence of benzophenone (BP)/N, N-dimenthyl-4-toluidine (DMT) system. Graft polymerization of acrylamide initiated by ceric ion onto the homopolymer film was investigated and the mechanism of the grafting reaction was proposed on the basis of ESR study. The grafted copolymer was characterized by means of grafting percentage, water absorption, XPS spectra and scanning electron photomicrographs.

  1. Terahertz Time Domain, Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy of Acrylamide, and the Application of Density Functional Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramzan Ullah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present terahertz time domain spectra of acrylamide in the frequency range from 0.2 to 2 THz with nearly constant refractive index having an average value of 1.33 and an absorption coefficient. Raman (95–3000 cm−1 and FTIR (450–4000 cm−1 spectra also show good agreement with density functional theory (DFT B3LYP 6-311G++ (3df 3pd calculations except C-H and N-H stretching frequencies even after scaling with scale factor of 0.9679. We use MOLVIB to rescale such frequencies to match experimental values.

  2. EFSA CONTAM Panel (EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain), 2015. Scientific Opinion on acrylamide in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    EFSA was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on acrylamide (AA) in food. AA has widespread uses as an industrial chemical. It is also formed when certain foods are prepared at temperatures above 120 °C and low moisture, especially in foods containing asparagine and reducing sugars. The CONTAM...... day and 0.6 to 3.4 µg/kg b.w. per day, respectively. The main contributor to total dietary exposure was generally the category ‘Potato fried products (except potato crisps and snacks)’. Preferences in home-cooking can have a substantial impact on human dietary AA exposure. Upon oral intake, AA...

  3. A Novel Category of Ionic Liquids Based on Diacetone Acrylamide Cation and Their Use as Esterification Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Qing-Hai; LU Bin; LI Jiang; YANG Xin; SHAN Yong-Kui

    2006-01-01

    A novel category of salts based on diacetone acrylamide cation (DA+) and the anions such as acetate (Ac-),trifluoroacetate (TF-), tetrafluoroborate (BF-), hexafluorophosphate (PF-), sulfate (SO-) and chloride (Cl-) were synthesized by usual neutralization of acids and bases at room temperature and characterized by IR, 1H NMR and elemental analysis (EA). The results show that these compounds possess the characteristic of ionic liquids. In addition, four of them, DABF, DACl, DASO and DAPF, were efficient catalysts for esterication of acetic acid with C1C6 alcohols and octanol.

  4. Morin hydrate attenuates the acrylamide-induced imbalance in antioxidant enzymes in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mahendra Pal; Jakhar, Rekha; Kang, Sun Chul

    2015-10-01

    Liver diseases are among the most serious health issues nowadays. Hepatocellular carcinoma, one of the most lethal types of cancer worldwide, can be caused by chemically-induced oxidative stress. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the protective effects of morin hydrate (MH) against acrylamide (AA)-induced hepatotoxicity in male ICR mice. The mice were randomly allocated into 4 groups [the control, the group subcutaneously injected with AA alone (50 mg/kg body weight), the group subcutaneously injected with AA (50 mg/kg body weight) and MH (5 mg/kg body weight) and the group subcutaneously injected with AA (50 mg/kg body weight) and MH (15 mg/kg body weight) for 5 consecutive days]. Histopathological evaluations were performed and the levels of serum hepatic enzymes were analyzed to determine initial liver injury, and the mice in the AA-treated groups were compared with the mice receiving no treatment and with the mice administered MH in combination with AA. Furthermore, oxidative stress, hepatic inflammation and the levels of DNA damage-related markers were evaluated to determine the extent of liver damage induced by AA within a short-term period. The subcutaneous administration of AA induced severe hepatic injury, and combined treatment with AA and MH resulted in a significant improvement in all evaluated parameters. This recovery was most obvious in the group receiving AA and 15 mg/kg body weight dose of MH. The findings of our study demonstrated that MH protected mice from severe hepatic injury induced by AA. Moreover, MH is a natural polyphenolic compound, and thus it has potential for use in the treatment of severe liver diseases, in place of many synthetic drugs.

  5. Effect of zeolite nanoparticles on the optical properties of diacetone acrylamide-based photopolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, D.; Mihaylova, E.; O'Neill, L.; Babeva, T.; Awala, H.; Retoux, R.; Mintova, S.; Naydenova, I.

    2014-11-01

    The effect of zeolite nanoparticles with BEA type framework structure on the optical properties of a diacetone acrylamide (DA)-based holographic photopolymer has been investigated. Both types of zeolite nanocrystals, as synthesized (BEA) and silver containing (BEA-Ag), are used for doping the DA photopolymer. Doping of the DA photopolymer with BEA zeolites results in an 11% decrease of the average refractive index of the nanocomposite layer, while the inclusion of BEA-Ag nanoparticles decreases the average refractive index by 3% only. This observation is in good agreement with the fact that the contrast in refractive index between the host photopolymer and nanoparticles is expected to be much lower for the BEA nanoparticles containing Ag in their pores. Doping of the DA photopolymer with pure BEA zeolite nanoparticles results in a significant increase in refractive index modulation due to holographic recording, Δn, of up to 91% at a concentration of 2 wt.% compared to un-doped layers. For the BEA-Ag zeolites, a maximum increase in Δn of up to 17% at a concentration of 0.5 wt.% is observed. The increase in Δn is attributed to the difference in n between the host photopolymer and nanoparticles and the redistribution of the nanoparticles during holographic recording. It is demonstrated that the DA photopolymer is compatible as a host material for the porous BEA nanoparticles. This is due to the large size of the DA monomer molecules, which restricts monomer migration into the zeolite pores and thus the pores of the Ag-free BEA nanoparticles remain empty, making them suitable for application in holographic sensors.

  6. Fluorescence lifetime and acrylamide quenching studies of the interactions between troponin subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavis, P C; Gowell, E; Tao, T

    1984-08-28

    Fluorescence lifetime and acrylamide quenching studies were carried out to characterize the interactions between the subunits of troponin under various conditions of metal ion binding. Troponin C was labeled at Cys-98 with N-(iodoacetyl)-N'-(5-sulfo-1-naphthyl)ethylenediamine. In the presence of Ca2+, the fluorescence decay of labeled troponin C (TnC*) was monoexponential, lifetime tau = 15.5 ns and quenching rate constant kq = 2.97 X 10(8) M-1 s-1. In the absence of Ca2+, the decay was resolvable into a major component with tau = 11.9 ns and a minor component with tau = 20.5 ns, with corresponding values of kq = 4.80 X 10(8) and 0.66 X 10(8) M-1 s-1, respectively. Upon the binding of either troponin I (TnI) or troponin T (TnT) in the presence of Ca2+, tau increased to approximately 18 ns, and kq decreased to approximately 0.8 X 10(8) M-1 s-1. For the Ca2+ form of the TnC*-TnI-TnT ternary complex, values of tau = 17.6 ns and kq = 1.73 X 10(8) M-1 s-1 were obtained. These values did not vary significantly when Ca2+ was removed, or when Mg2+ replaced Ca2+. These findings were interpreted as follows: the region around Cys-98 of TnC* adopts a looser conformation upon the removal of Ca2+ from the high-affinity sites. Both TnI and TnT bind to TnC* in the region containing Cys-98. The probe is shielded from the solvent to a greater extent in the binary complexes than in the ternary complex.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Mesoscopic simulation of a micellar poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide)-b-(polyethylene oxide) copolymer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Reyes, Rubén; Soto-Figueroa, César; Vicente, Luis

    2016-05-01

    In this article we studied the micellar formation of poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide)-b-polyethylene oxide (PNIPAM-b-PEO) copolymers in an aqueous system. From molecular simulations the dependence on temperature of the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter χ for PNIPAM and PEO in water is obtained and compared with available experimental results and values from other theoretical calculations. By means of dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) we then simulated the coil-globule transition for PNIPAM chains in water with a transition temperature of around 305 K. The simulations for PNIPAM-b-PEO copolymers showed that at room temperature the chains are miscible in an aqueous phase but with a temperature increase the system turns into micelles at T  =  305 K. The change in micelle anisotropy due to a different ratio PNIPAM/PEO of chains is also analyzed. What is observed is that for large PEO the large number of dissolved PEO chains gives a large corona size and the micelle is not spherical but obloide and as the number of PNIPAM is increased the micelle acquires a spherical shape. As an important application we considered the system micelle-water/anionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [BMIM]+[PF6]-). By increasing the temperature of the system from 306 K it is shown that at T  =  345 K there is a transfer of the micelle from water to the ionic liquid phase and this was due to the change in the relative affinity of PEO to water and ionic liquid expressed by the change in χ. All the simulation outcomes are qualitatively consistent with experimental results and thus to our knowledge we give the first set of χ values for the interaction between PNIPAM and water in a wide range of temperature values.

  8. In Vivo acrylamide exposure may cause severe toxicity to mouse oocytes through its metabolite glycidamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aras, Duru; Cakar, Zeynep; Ozkavukcu, Sinan; Can, Alp; Cinar, Ozgur

    2017-01-01

    High acrylamide (ACR) content in heat-processed carbohydrate-rich foods, as well as roasted products such as coffee, almonds etc., has been found to be as a risk factor for carcinogenicity and genotoxicity by The World Health Organization. Glycidamide (GLY), the epoxide metabolite of ACR, is processed by the cytochrome P-450 enzyme system and has also been found to be a genotoxic agent. The aim of this study was to determine whether ACR and/or GLY have any detrimental effect on the meiotic cell division of oocytes. For this purpose, germinal vesicle-stage mouse oocytes were treated with 0, 100, 500, or 1000 μM ACR or 0, 25, or 250 μM GLY in vitro. In vivo experiments were performed after an intraperitoneal injection of 25 mg/kg/day ACR of female BALB/c mice for 7 days. The majority of in vitro ACR-treated oocytes reached the metaphase-II stage following 18 hours of incubation, which was not significantly different from the control group. Maturation of the oocytes derived from in vivo ACR-treated mice was impaired significantly. Oocytes, reaching the M-II stage in the in vivo ACR-treated group, were characterized by a decrease in meiotic spindle mass and an increase in chromosomal disruption. In vitro GLY treatment resulted in the degeneration of all oocytes, indicating that ACR toxicity on female germ cells may occur through its metabolite, GLY. Thus, ACR exposure must be considered, together with its metabolite GLY, when female fertility is concerned. PMID:28182799

  9. Acrylamide induces mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in BV-2 microglial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhigang; Song, Ge; Zou, Chen; Liu, Gongguan; Wu, Wanqiang; Yuan, Tian; Liu, Xuebo

    2015-07-01

    Acrylamide (ACR), a potent neurotoxin, can be produced during food processing at high temperature. This study examined the redox-dependent apoptotic and inflammatory responses of ACR in an immortalized mouse microglia cell line BV2. The exposure of BV2 cells to ACR reduced cell viability and induced apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. ACR impaired cell energy metabolism by decreasing mitochondrial respiration, anaerobic glycolysis, and lowering expression of the complex I, III, and IV subunits. Mitochondrial dysfunction was associated with a decrease of the mitochondrial membrane potential and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, thus resulting in activation of the mitochondrion-driven apoptotic signaling. This was accompanied by (a) the modulation of redox-sensitive signaling, suppressed Akt activation and increased JNK and p38 activation, and (b) increased expression of NFκB and downstream inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitric oxide generation, thus supporting indirectly a proinflammatory effect of ACR. Nrf2 expression was also increased but not its translocation to the nucleus. Expectedly, the electrophilic attack of ACR on GSH resulted in substantial loss of GSH with a minor GSSG formation. These changes in the cell׳s redox status elicited by ACR resulted in increased H2O2 formation. The changes in mitochondrial functionality and complex subunit expression caused by ACR were reversed by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). Likewise, NAC restored the cell׳s redox status by increasing GSH levels with concomitant attenuation of H2O2 generation; these effects resulted in decreased apoptotic cell death and inflammatory responses. ACR-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction along with a more oxidized redox status seems to be critical events leading to activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and inflammatory responses.

  10. Life stage-related differences in susceptibility to acrylamide-induced neural and testicular toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Miwa; Inoue, Kaoru; Koyama, Naoki; Yoshida, Midori; Irie, Kaoru; Morikawa, Tomomi; Shibutani, Makoto; Honma, Masamitsu; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi

    2011-09-01

    In order to assess age-dependence of susceptibility to acrylamide (ACR)-induced neural and testicular toxicity, 3- and 7-week-old male SD rats were given ACR at 0, 50, 100, or 200 ppm in the drinking water for 4 weeks, and the nervous and male reproductive systems were examined histopathologically. Testicular genotoxicity was evaluated with the comet assay and the micronucleus (MN) test. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and glutathione (GSH) content in the liver and testis were also measured. In both young and adult animals, neurotoxicity was evident from 100 ppm and increased in proportion to ACR intake per body weight. In the testis, marked degeneration and exfoliation, mainly of spermatids, were observed from 100 ppm limited to young animals. The comet assay revealed ACR to significantly induce DNA damage from 100 ppm in both life stages, while MNs were found only in young rats from 100 ppm. The level of GST activity in the testis of young rats at the end of experiment was significantly lower than that of adult animals, regardless of the ACR treatment. There were no life stage-related differences in GSH contents in the liver and testis. These results suggest that susceptibility to neurotoxicity might not differ between young and adult rats when exposure levels are adjusted for body weight. Regarding testicular toxicity, young animals around puberty proved more susceptible than adult animals, possibly due to their lower level of testicular GST activity than that in adult animals.

  11. Acrylamide-induced prenatal programming of intestine structure in guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, E; Dobrowolski, P; Puzio, I; Prost, L; Kurlak, P; Sawczuk, P; Badzian, B; Hulas-Stasiak, M; Kostro, K

    2014-02-01

    Potential effects of prenatal administration of acrylamide (ACR) on postnatal development of the small intestine were not examined experimentally yet. The aim of this study was to establish changes of morphological parameters of the small intestine damaged by prenatal action of ACR in guinea pigs. The 3 mg/kg body weight of ACR was given in drinking water every day during the last 35 days of the pregnancy in guinea pigs. The histomorphometry of the duodenum and jejunum was determined. Immunohistochemical staining with anti cadherin antibody was performed. Maternal treatment with ACR led to the decrease of the expression of cadherin in the epithelium. Maternal ACR treatment increased the number of total, divided and inactive crypt, and the number of damaged villi in the duodenum and jejunum of newborn guinea pigs. The thickness of myenteron and submucosa, mucosa fractal dimension and the depth of crypts in the duodenum were increased by ACR. Additionally, in offspring born by mothers administered with ACR the decrease of villi epithelium thickness and active crypt number was observed. Moreover, ACR decreased goblet cells and inact villi number in the duodenum, mucosa thickness and crypts width in the jejunum. Intestine absorptive surface was affected by ACR in the jejunum as well. Results of measurements showed that maternal ACR treatment had negative influence on small intestine histomorphometry. ACR acting prenatally influenced small intestine nervous plexuses that became enlarged by 2.5 times compared with the control group. In conclusion, our results showed the negative impact of maternal ACR treatment on histological structure, integrity and innervation of small intestine wall as well as on absorptive function of small intestine mucosa.

  12. Simultaneous analysis of hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide and glycidamide by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, H L; Cheong, H K; Yang, J S; Osterman-Golkar, S

    1999-10-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is a carcinogen in experimental animals. Glycidamide (GA), formed by metabolic epoxidation of AA, is believed to be responsible for the carcinogenicity of AA. Occupational exposure to AA has been assessed earlier by measurement of its adducts with N-terminal valine in hemoglobin. A background of AA adducts [N-(2-carbamoylethyl)valine (AAVal), about 30 pmol/g globin] was found in individuals without known exposure to the compound. The method previously available for adducts of GA only allowed analysis of samples from highly exposed individuals and showed similar levels of AAVal and adducts of GA [N-(2-hydroxy-2-carbamoylethyl)valine (GAVal)]. We have developed a sensitive method for simultaneous quantification of adducts of GA and AA, which is suitable down to low exposure levels. The method is based on the so-called modified Edman method, where globin is reacted with pentafluorophenyl isothiocyanate under neutral conditions. The valine adducts are then extracted in the form of pentafluorophenylthiohydantoin (PFPTH) derivatives. The analytical procedure included reaction of the PFPTH derivatives with acetic anhydride in order to protect the hydroxyl group of GAVal. The PFPTH derivatives of AAVal and GAVal were analyzed by gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. ((2)H(3))AAVal-PFPTH was used as the internal standard. The method was applied to samples from 11 workers at an AA production plant, 1 nonexposed nonsmoker, and a few participants of a smoking cessation program. AAVal levels were in the range 27-1854 pmol/g globin. Recorded levels of GAVal were 3-12% of those of AAVal, suggesting that previous measurements of GAVal overestimate GAVal at low levels of exposure to AA.

  13. Influence of acrylamide monomer addition to the acrylic denture-base resins on mechanical and physical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogan Ayaz, Elif; Durkan, Rukiye

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of adding acrylamide monomer (AAm) on the characterization, flexural strength, flexural modulus and thermal degradation temperature of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) denture-base resins. Specimens (n=10) were fabricated from a conventional heat-activated QC-20 (Qc-) and a microwave heat-activated Acron MC (Ac-) PMMA resins. Powder/liquid ratio followed the manufacturer's instructions for the control groups (Qc-c and Ac-c) and for the copolymer groups, the resins were prepared with 5% (-5), 10% (-10), 15% (-15) and 20% (-20) acrylamide contents, according to the molecular weight ratio, respectively. The flexural strength and flexural modulus were measured by a three-point bending test. The data obtained were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test (α=0.05) to determine significant differences between the groups. The chemical structures of the resins were characterized by the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Thermal stabilities were determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) with a heating rate of 10 °C⋅min(-1) from 35 °C to 600 °C. Control groups from both acrylic resins showed the lowest flexural strength values. Qc-15 showed significant increase in the flexural strength when compared to Qc-c (PPMMA is increased by the insertion of AAm.

  14. Titanium Dioxide Photocatalytic Polymerization of Acrylamide for Gel Electrophoresis (TIPPAGE) of Proteins and Structural Identification by Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenyang; Yuan, Zhiwei; Huang, Lulu; Kang, Jie; Jiang, Ruowei; Zhong, Hongying

    2016-02-01

    Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) coupled with mass spectrometry has been well established for separating, identifying and quantifying protein mixtures from cell lines, tissues or other biological samples. The copolymerization process of acrylamide and bis-acrylamide is the key to mastering this powerful technique. In general, this is a vinyl addition reaction initiated by free radical-generating reagents such as ammonium persulfate (APS) and tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED) under basic pH and degassing experimental condition. We report herein a photocatalytic polymerization approach that is based on photo-generated hydroxyl radicals with nanoparticles of titanium dioxide. It was shown that the polymerization process is greatly accelerated in acidic condition when ultraviolet light shots on the gel solution containing TiO2 nanoparticles without degassing. This feature makes it very useful in preparing Triton X-100 acid urea (TAU) gel that has been developed for separating basic proteins such as histones and variants in acidic experimental condition. Additionally, the presence of titanium dioxide in the gel not only improves mechanistic property of gels but also changes the migration pattern of different proteins that have different affinities to titanium dioxide.

  15. Acrylamide analysis: assessment of results from six rounds of Food Analysis Performance Assessment Scheme (FAPAS) proficiency testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Linda M; Castle, Laurence; Kelly, Janet; Wilson, Lesley; Lloyd, Antony S

    2005-01-01

    Six proficiency tests have now been completed in an ongoing program of the UK Food Analysis Performance Assessment Scheme (FAPAS) for the analysis of acrylamide in a range of food matrixes. Homogeneous test material samples were requested by laboratories throughout the world, with 29 to 45 submitting results for each test. Results were analyzed by appropriate statistical procedures, and z-scores were awarded for reported values. In the absence of both legislation and collaborative trial data, the target standard deviation was derived from the Horwitz equation, although it is acknowledged that there is a need to establish a "fit for purpose" target standard deviation specifically for acrylamide analysis. Participants were encouraged to use the analytical method routinely used in their own laboratory and to provide details of their procedure. Close examination of the data submitted indicates that performance is generally acceptable in terms of accuracy. There is no significant difference between results submitted by gas chromatography and liquid chromatography (GC and LC) methods, and no method dependency on the use of internal standards or sample size. However, choice of extraction solvent may be important, with indications that plain water is an acceptable extraction method. There is evidence from the most recent test that direct (underivatized) GC methodology may present problems, but more data are required and this aspect will be monitored in the continuing proficiency testing program.

  16. Titanium Dioxide Photocatalytic Polymerization of Acrylamide for Gel Electrophoresis (TIPPAGE) of Proteins and Structural Identification by Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenyang; Yuan, Zhiwei; Huang, Lulu; Kang, Jie; Jiang, Ruowei; Zhong, Hongying

    2016-02-11

    Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) coupled with mass spectrometry has been well established for separating, identifying and quantifying protein mixtures from cell lines, tissues or other biological samples. The copolymerization process of acrylamide and bis-acrylamide is the key to mastering this powerful technique. In general, this is a vinyl addition reaction initiated by free radical-generating reagents such as ammonium persulfate (APS) and tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED) under basic pH and degassing experimental condition. We report herein a photocatalytic polymerization approach that is based on photo-generated hydroxyl radicals with nanoparticles of titanium dioxide. It was shown that the polymerization process is greatly accelerated in acidic condition when ultraviolet light shots on the gel solution containing TiO2 nanoparticles without degassing. This feature makes it very useful in preparing Triton X-100 acid urea (TAU) gel that has been developed for separating basic proteins such as histones and variants in acidic experimental condition. Additionally, the presence of titanium dioxide in the gel not only improves mechanistic property of gels but also changes the migration pattern of different proteins that have different affinities to titanium dioxide.

  17. Synthesis and colon-specific drug delivery of a poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide)/MBA nanosized hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Debajyoti; Mohapatra, Dillip K; Mohapatra, Ranjit K; Mohanta, Guru P; Sahoo, Prafulla K

    2008-01-01

    Intravenous administration of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) for colon cancer therapy produces severe systemic side-effects due to its cytotoxic effect on normal cells. The main objective of the present study was to develop novel oral site-specific delivery of 5-FU to the colon with less drug being released in the stomach or small intestine using biodegradable hydrogel, hydrogel nanoparticles and comparing the targeting efficiency of 5-FU to colon from both. Poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide) (P(AA-co-Am)) normal hydrogel and hydrogel nanoparticles (HN) were synthesized by free radical polymerization using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as cross-linker, potassium persulfate as reaction initiator and 5-FU was loaded. HN were found to be degradable in physiological medium and showed comparatively higher swelling in rat caecal medium (RCM). 5-FU entrapment was increased by increasing Am (wt%) monomer feed. In vitro release of 5-FU from normal hydrogel and HN in pH progressive medium, it was found that a AA/Am ratio of 25:75 showed higher release in RCM. The Higuchi model yielded good adjustment of in vitro release kinetics. A higher amount of 5-FU reached the colon in HN (61 +/- 2.1%) than normal hydrogel (40 +/- 3.6%) by organ biodistribution studies in albino rats.

  18. Histological, Scanning And Transmission Electron Microscopic Studies On The Possible Protective Role Of Ginger Extract Against AcrylamideInduced Intestinal Damage In Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Galal El-Tantawi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the protective effect of ginger Zingeber officinale extract (ZOE against the acrylamide (AC which is an industrial chemical used in water treatment and it is synthesized during cooking of starch food at high temperature. Method: Thirty adult male albino mice, each weighs 20-25 g were divided into three groups (10 mice/group: (Icontrol group. (IIacrylamide treated group. (III acrylamide & ginger group. Acrylamide was given to experimental animals in the drinking water at a non-lethal dose of 200 p.p.m for 10 weeks (3 days/week. Ginger extract was orally administrated at 50 mg/L (~5 ml/day for 10 weeks (3 days/week. The ileum samples were collected for light microscope study and for scanning and transmission electron microscope examination. Results: This study revealed that acrylamide induces pathological changes of the ileum of the treated mice specially the absorptive epithelial cells. The scanning electron microscopic study revealed damage of the ileal villi, some red blood corpuscles appeared at the site of damage. The transmission electron microscopic examination clearly demonstrated degeneration of most cell organelles as mitochondria, deterioration and degranulation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum, dilatation of Golgi apparatus. Conclusion: The administration of ginger extract decreased the histological alterations and ensuring the anti-inflammatory, and antitoxic effects of ZOE at its chosen dosage level

  19. Physicochemical and morphological properties of poly (acrylamide) and methylcellulose hydrogels: rffects of monomer, crosslinker and polysaccharide compositions, polymer engineering and science

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper describes the physicochemical (mechanical and swelling) and morphological characterization of poly (acrylamide) and methylcellulose (PAAm-MC) hydrogels synthesized with different formulations by the free radical polymerization method. The structure-property relationship of the PAAm-MC hyd...

  20. Potential protective effect of L-cysteine against the toxicity of acrylamide and furan in exposed Xenopus laevis embryos: an interaction study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The embryo toxicities of two food-processing-induced toxic compounds, acrylamide and furan, with and without added L-cysteine were examined individually and in mixtures using the frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus (FETAX). The following measures of developmental toxicity were used (a) 96-h LC5...

  1. Acrylamide-b-N-isopropylacrylamide block copolymers : Synthesis by atomic transfer radical polymerization in water and the effect of the hydrophilic-hydrophobic ratio on the solution properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, Diego Armando Z.; Ramalho, Graham; Picchioni, Francesco; Broekhuis, Antonius Augustinus

    2014-01-01

    A series of block copolymers of acrylamide and N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) characterized by different ratios between the length of the two blocks have been prepared through atomic transfer radical polymerization in water at room temperature. The solution properties of the block copolymers were cor

  2. Temperature-modulated quenching of quantum dots covalently coupled to chain ends of poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) brushes on gold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tagit, Oya; Tomczak, Nikodem; Benetti, Edmondo M.; Cesa, Yanina; Blum, Christian; Subramaniam, Vinod; Herek, Jennifer L.; Vancso, G. Julius

    2009-01-01

    A thermo-responsive polymer/quantum dot platform based on poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAM) brushes 'grafted from' a gold substrate and quantum dots (QDs) covalently attached to the PNIPAM layer is presented. The PNIPAM brushes are grafted from the gold surface using an iniferter-initiated contr

  3. Improved sample preparation to determine acrylamide in difficult matrixes such as chocolate powder, cocoa, and coffee by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delatour, Thierry; Périsset, Adrienne; Goldmann, Till; Riediker, Sonja; Stadler, Richard H

    2004-07-28

    An improved sample preparation (extraction and cleanup) is presented that enables the quantification of low levels of acrylamide in difficult matrixes, including soluble chocolate powder, cocoa, coffee, and coffee surrogate. Final analysis is done by isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using d3-acrylamide as internal standard. Sample pretreatment essentially encompasses (a) protein precipitation with Carrez I and II solutions, (b) extraction of the analyte into ethyl acetate, and (c) solid-phase extraction on a Multimode cartridge. The stability of acrylamide in final extracts and in certain commercial foods and beverages is also reported. This approach provided good performance in terms of linearity, accuracy and precision. Full validation was conducted in soluble chocolate powder, achieving a decision limit (CCalpha) and detection capability (CCbeta) of 9.2 and 12.5 microg/kg, respectively. The method was extended to the analysis of acrylamide in various foodstuffs such as mashed potatoes, crisp bread, and butter biscuit and cookies. Furthermore, the accuracy of the method is demonstrated by the results obtained in three inter-laboratory proficiency tests.

  4. Application of the standard addition method for the determination of acrylamide in heat-processed starchy foods by gas chromatography with electron capture detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yonghong; Li, Genrong; Duan, Yunpeng; Chen, Shiqi; Zhang, Chun; Li, Yanfei

    2008-08-15

    A gas chromatography electron capture detector (GC-ECD) using the standard addition method was developed for the determination of acrylamide in heat-processed foods. The method entails extraction of acrylamide with water, filtration, defatting with n-hexane, derivatization with hydrobromic acid and saturated bromine-water, and liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. The sample pretreatment required no SPE clean-up and concentration steps prior to injection. The final extract was analyzed by GC-ECD. The chromatographic analysis was performed on polar columns, e.g. Supelcowax-10 capillary column, and good retention and peak response of the analyte were achieved under the optimal conditions. The qualification of the analyte was by identifying the peak with same retention time as standard compound 2,3-DBPA and confirmed by GC-MS. GC-MS analysis confirmed that 2,3-DBPA was converted to 2-BPA nearly completely on the polar capillary column, whether or not treated with triethylamine. A four-point standard addition protocol was used to quantify acrylamide in food samples. The limit of detection (LOD) was estimated to be 0.6μg/kg on the basis of ECD technique. Validation and quantification results demonstrated that the method should be regarded as a low-cost, convenient, and reliable alternative for conventional investigation of acrylamide.

  5. Synthesis and Phase Behavior of Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-b-Poly(L-Lysine Hydrochloride) and Poly(N-Isopropylacrylamide-co-Acrylamide)-b-Poly(L-Lysine Hydrochloride)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spasojevic, Milica; Vorenkamp, Eltjo; Jansen, Mark R. P. A. C. S.; de Vos, Paul; Schouten, Arend Jan

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-b-poly(L-lysine) and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide- co-acrylamide)-b-poly(L-lysine) copolymers was accomplished by combining atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and ring opening polymerization (ROP). For this purpose, a di-functional initiator with p

  6. Bench-scale production of acrylamide using the resting cells of Brevibacterium sp. CH2 in a fed-batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C Y; Choi, S K; Chang, H N

    1993-11-01

    Effects of various organic acids and salts on the stabilization of nitrile hydratase were investigated. The stability of the nitrile hydratase of Brevibacterium CH2 during storage was greatly enhanced by the addition of n-butyric acid. Effects of temperature, pH, and concentrations of acrylonitrile and n-butyric acid on acrylamide production by the resting cells were also investigated. Acrylamide production per unit dry weight of the cells increased 1.33 times by the addition of 0.05% n-butyric acid. A 20% acrylamide solution was successfully produced in a bench-scale reactor (12 l) with only a trace amount of salts after 10 h of hydration reaction under optimum reaction conditions without using an isotonic substrate. The conversion yield was nearly 100%, and acrylic acid as a by-product was not produced. Final acrylamide production of 400 g g-1 cells and productivity of 20 g/(g cells l-1 x h-1) were obtained.

  7. Research status of acrylamide in roasted coffee%焙炒咖啡中丙烯酰胺的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许彤宇; 曾绍东; 王明月; 杨春亮

    2015-01-01

    Coffee can produce a certain amount of acrylamide which is potential carcinogenica during the process of roasting under high temperature (200~250℃ ). Experimental researches showed that short-term contact with a lot of acrylamide could damage nervous centralis of human beings and animals. If human beings were exposed to little doses of acrylamide in long-term, limb numbness and weakness would happen to them. Acrylamide from the process of roasting were created by either asparagine route or acrolein route. The types of coffee, the roasting temperature and the roasting time were the major factors in the formation of acrylamide during roasting coffee beans. The research progresses of controlling the ways of acrylamide formation were reviewed in this article, and suggestions for further researches on the formation of acrylamide were put forward.%咖啡在高温(200~250℃)焙炒加工过程中会产生一定量潜在的致癌物质丙烯酰胺。实验研究表明,短期接触大量丙烯酰胺会对人和动物的中枢神经造成损伤,人体长期小剂量接触丙烯酰胺会表现为四肢末端麻木、无力。咖啡焙炒加工过程中产生的丙烯酰胺除了通过天门冬酰胺途径生成以外,还可以由丙烯醛途径生成。其中影响咖啡中丙烯酰胺形成的主要因素有咖啡类型、咖啡的焙炒温度和时间。本文对控制丙烯酰胺形成途径的研究进展进行了相关阐述,并对焙炒咖啡中丙烯酰胺的进一步研究提出建议。

  8. An occupational hygiene investigation of exposure to acrylamide and the role for urinary S-carboxyethyl-cysteine (CEC) as a biological marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Peter J; Brooke, Richard K; Cocker, John; Jones, Katharine; Warren, Nicholas

    2005-11-01

    Acrylamide has a range of toxicological hazards including neurotoxicity and reproductive toxicity; however, occupational risk management is driven by its genotoxic and carcinogenic potential (it is classified within the EU as a Category 2 carcinogen, R45 and Category 2 mutagen, R46). Since there is the potential for skin absorption and systemic toxicity, biological monitoring may be a useful aid for the assessment of exposure via inhalation, ingestion and dermal absorption. However, there are currently no biological monitoring guidance values (BMGVs). This study describes an extensive survey of potential workplace exposure to acrylamide at the Ciba (Bradford) site to gather data suitable for a BMGV. This manufacturing site is typical within the industry as a whole and includes a cross section of activities and tasks representative of acrylamide exposure. Acrylamide is used in the manufacture of polyacrylamide based products for applications in water treatment; oil and mineral extraction; paper, paint and textile processes. Workers (62 plus 6 controls) with varying potential exposures provided a total of 275 pre shift and 247 post-shift urine samples along with 260 personal air samples. A small non-exposed control group was similarly monitored. Urine samples were analysed for S-carboxyethyl-cysteine (CEC). Airborne, surface and glove samples were analysed for acrylamide. Inhalation exposures were well controlled with values consistently below one-tenth of the UK Workplace Exposure Limit. Engineering controls, personal protective equipment and work practice, all contributed to good control of occupational exposure. CEC was found in urine samples from both exposed workers and non-occupationally exposed controls. At the low levels of exposure found, smoking made a significant contribution to urinary CEC levels. Nevertheless a correlation between urinary CEC and airborne acrylamide was found. A mixed effects model incorporating inhalation concentrations of acrylamide

  9. Using acrylamide-based photopolymers for fabrication of holographic optical elements in solar energy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Hoda; Naydenova, Izabela; Martin, Suzanne

    2014-03-01

    A holographic device is under development that aims to improve light collection in solar cells. The aim is to explore the potential of using photopolymer holographic optical elements (HOEs) to collect light from a moving source, such as the sun, and redirect it for concentration by a holographic lens. A working range of 45° is targeted for such a device to be useful in solar applications without tracking. A photopolymer HOE is capable of efficiently redirecting light, but the angular selectivity of a single grating is usually of the order of one degree at the thicknesses required for high efficiency. The challenge here is to increase the angular and wavelength range of the gratings so that a reasonable number may be multiplexed and/or combined to create a device that can concentrate light incident from a large range of angles. In this paper, low spatial frequency holographic recording is explored to increase the angular and wavelength range of an individual grating. Ultimately, a combination of gratings will be used so that a broad range of angles of incidence are accepted. A design is proposed for the combination of such elements into a holographic solar collector. The first step in achieving this is optimization of recording at low spatial frequency. This requires a photopolymer material with unique properties, such as a fast monomer diffusion rate. This paper reports results on the efficiency of holograms recorded in an acrylamide-based photopolymer at low spatial frequencies (100, 200, and 300  l/mm). The diffraction efficiency and angular selectivity of recorded holograms have been studied for various photopolymer layer thicknesses and different intensities of the recording beams. A diffraction efficiency of over 80% was achieved at a spatial frequency of 200  l/mm. The optimum intensity of recording at this spatial frequency was found to be 1  mW/cm2. Individual gratings and focusing elements with high efficiency and FWHM angles of 3° are

  10. Autoclave sterilization produces acrylamide in rodent diets: implications for toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twaddle, Nathan C; Churchwell, Mona I; McDaniel, L Patrice; Doerge, Daniel R

    2004-06-30

    Acrylamide (AA) is a neurotoxic and carcinogenic contaminant that is formed during the cooking of starchy foods. Assessment of human risks from toxicants is routinely performed using laboratory rodents, and such testing requires careful control of unintended exposures, particularly through the diet. This study describes an analytical method based on liquid chromatography with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry that was used to measure endogenous AA in rodent diets and to survey a number of commercial products for contamination. Method sensitivity permitted accurate quantification of endogenous levels of AA in raw diets below 20 ppb. Autoclaving a standard rodent diet (NIH-31) increased the AA content 14-fold, from 17 to 240 ppb. A nutritionally equivalent diet that was sterilized by irradiation was found to contain approximately 10 ppb of AA (NIH-31IR). A toxicokinetic study of AA and its epoxide metabolite, glycidamide, was performed by switching mice from NIH-31IR to the autoclaved diet for a 30 min feeding period (average AA dose administered was 4.5 microg/kg of body weight). The concentrations of AA and glycidamide were measured in serum collected at various times. The elimination half-lives and the areas under the respective concentration-time curves were similar for AA and glycidamide. Mice maintained on autoclaved NIH-31 diet, but otherwise untreated, showed elevated steady state levels of a glycidamide-derived DNA adduct in liver relative to mice maintained on the irradiated diet. This study demonstrates that a heat sterilization procedure used in laboratory animal husbandry (i.e., autoclaving) can lead to the formation of significant levels of AA in basal diets used for toxicity testing. AA in rodent diets is bioavailable, is distributed to tissues, and is metabolically activated to a genotoxic metabolite, which produces quantifiable cumulative DNA damage. Although the contribution of endogenous AA to the incidence of tumors in multiple organs of

  11. Human CYP2E1 mediates the formation of glycidamide from acrylamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Settels, Eva; Appel, Klaus E. [Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, Center for Experimental Toxicology, Berlin (Germany); Bernauer, Ulrike; Gundert-Remy, Ursula [Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, Department of Safety of Substances and Preparations, Berlin (Germany); Palavinskas, Richard; Klaffke, Horst S. [Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, Center for Analytical Chemistry, Berlin (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    Regarding the cancer risk assessment of acrylamide (AA) it is of basic interest to know, as to what amount of the absorbed AA is metabolized to glycidamide (GA) in humans, compared to what has been observed in laboratory animals. GA is suspected of being the ultimate carcinogenic metabolite of AA. From experiments with CYP2E1-deficient mice it can be concluded that AA is metabolized to GA primarily by CYP2E1. We therefore examined whether CYP2E1 is involved in GA formation in non-rodent species with the focus on humans by using human CYP2E1 supersomes trademark, marmoset and human liver microsomes and in addition, genetically engineered V79 cells expressing human CYP2E1 (V79h2E1 cells). Special emphasis was placed on the analytical detection of GA, which was performed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The results show that AA is metabolized to GA in human CYP2E1 supersomes trademark, in marmoset and human liver microsomes as well as in V79h2E1 cells. The activity of GA formation is highest in supersomes trademark; in human liver it is somewhat higher than in marmoset liver. A monoclonal CYP2E1 human selective antibody (MAB-2E1) and diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) were used as specific inhibitors of CYP2E1. The generation of GA could be inhibited by MAB-2E1 to about 80% in V79h2E1 cells and to about 90% in human and marmoset liver microsomes. Also DDC led to an inhibition of about 95%. In conclusion, AA is metabolized to GA by human CYP2E1. Overall, the present work describes (1) the application and refinement of a sensitive methodology in order to determine low amounts of GA, (2) the applicability of genetically modified V79 cell lines in order to investigate specific questions concerning metabolism and (3) the involvement, for the first time, of human CYP2E1 in the formation of GA from AA. Further studies will compare the activities of GA formation in genetically engineered V79 cells expressing CYP2E1 from different species. (orig.)

  12. Human CYP2E1 mediates the formation of glycidamide from acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settels, Eva; Bernauer, Ulrike; Palavinskas, Richard; Klaffke, Horst S; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Appel, Klaus E

    2008-10-01

    Regarding the cancer risk assessment of acrylamide (AA) it is of basic interest to know, as to what amount of the absorbed AA is metabolized to glycidamide (GA) in humans, compared to what has been observed in laboratory animals. GA is suspected of being the ultimate carcinogenic metabolite of AA. From experiments with CYP2E1-deficient mice it can be concluded that AA is metabolized to GA primarily by CYP2E1. We therefore examined whether CYP2E1 is involved in GA formation in non-rodent species with the focus on humans by using human CYP2E1 supersomes, marmoset and human liver microsomes and in addition, genetically engineered V79 cells expressing human CYP2E1 (V79h2E1 cells). Special emphasis was placed on the analytical detection of GA, which was performed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The results show that AA is metabolized to GA in human CYP2E1 supersomes, in marmoset and human liver microsomes as well as in V79h2E1 cells. The activity of GA formation is highest in supersomes; in human liver it is somewhat higher than in marmoset liver. A monoclonal CYP2E1 human selective antibody (MAB-2E1) and diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) were used as specific inhibitors of CYP2E1. The generation of GA could be inhibited by MAB-2E1 to about 80% in V79h2E1 cells and to about 90% in human and marmoset liver microsomes. Also DDC led to an inhibition of about 95%. In conclusion, AA is metabolized to GA by human CYP2E1. Overall, the present work describes (1) the application and refinement of a sensitive methodology in order to determine low amounts of GA, (2) the applicability of genetically modified V79 cell lines in order to investigate specific questions concerning metabolism and (3) the involvement, for the first time, of human CYP2E1 in the formation of GA from AA. Further studies will compare the activities of GA formation in genetically engineered V79 cells expressing CYP2E1 from different species.

  13. Acrilamida en patatas fritas y productos de aperitivo elaborados en la Comunidad Valenciana Acrylamide in potato crisps and snack foods produced in the autonomous Community of Valencia (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefa Gomar Fayos

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Evaluar el contenido de acrilamida en las patatas fritas y los productos de aperitivo elaborados en la Comunidad Valenciana y comparar los resultados con los de las principales organizaciones de seguridad alimentaria. Métodos: Se analizan 24 muestras de patatas fritas y 15 de productos de aperitivo. Se comparan los resultados con los procedentes de la Food and Drug Administration y de la Autoridad Europea de Seguridad Alimentaria. Resultados: El nivel medio (desviación estándar de acrilamida en las patatas fritas de la Comunidad Valenciana es de 916 (656 μg/kg y en los productos de aperitivo 262 (346 μg/kg. Hay diferencias significativas en las 3 poblaciones comparadas. Los niveles de acrilamida en las patatas fritas de la Comunidad Valenciana son los más elevados. Conclusiones: Hay una gran dispersión en el contenido de acrilamida para el mismo tipo de productos. Se requieren más investigaciones en métodos de muestreo y análisis y actuaciones para reducir los niveles de acrilamida.Objectives: To evaluate acrylamide content in potato crisps and snack foods produced in the Valencian Community and to compare the results with those published by the main food safety organizations. Methods: Twenty-four samples of potato crisps and 15 samples of snack foods were analyzed. The results were compared with those from the Food and Drug Administration and the European Food Safety Authority. Results: The mean (SD acrylamide level in the Valencian Community was 916 (656 μg/kg in potato crisps and 262 (346 μg/kg in snack foods. Significant differences were found in the 3 populations compared. Acrylamide levels in potato crisps in the Valencian Community were the highest. Conclusions: There was wide variation in acrylamide content for the same type of product. Further investigation into methods of sampling and analysis and steps to reduce acrylamide levels are required.

  14. Determination of acrylamide in brewed coffee and coffee powder using polymeric ionic liquid-based sorbent coatings in solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagliero, Cecilia; Ho, Tien D; Zhang, Cheng; Bicchi, Carlo; Anderson, Jared L

    2016-06-03

    This study describes a simple and rapid sampling method employing a polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) sorbent coating in direct immersion solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for the trace-level analysis of acrylamide in brewed coffee and coffee powder. The crosslinked PIL sorbent coating demonstrated superior sensitivity in the extraction of acrylamide compared to all commercially available SPME coatings. A spin coating method was developed to evenly distribute the PIL coating on the SPME support and reproducibly produce fibers with a large film thickness. Ninhydrin was employed as a quenching reagent during extraction to inhibit the production of interfering acrylamide. The PIL fiber produced a limit of quantitation for acrylamide of 10μgL(-1) and achieved comparable results to the ISO method in the analysis of six coffee powder samples.

  15. Comprehensive profiling of mercapturic acid metabolites from dietary acrylamide as short-term exposure biomarkers for evaluation of toxicokinetics in rats and daily internal exposure in humans using isotope dilution ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, Zhejiang (China); Zhejiang Key Laboratory for Agro-Food Processing, Zhejiang R & D Center for Food Technology and Equipment, Fuli Institute of Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, Zhejiang (China); Wang, Qiao; Cheng, Jun [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, Zhejiang (China); Zhang, Jingshun; Xu, Jiaojiao [Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou 310051, Zhejiang (China); Ren, Yiping, E-mail: renyiping@263.net [Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou 310051, Zhejiang (China)

    2015-09-24

    Mercapturic acid metabolites from dietary acrylamide are important short-term exposure biomarkers for evaluating the in vivo toxicity of acrylamide. Most of studies have focused on the measurement of two metabolites, N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-L-cysteine (AAMA) and N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine (GAMA). Thus, the comprehensive profile of acrylamide urinary metabolites cannot be fully understood. We developed an isotope dilution ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous determination of all four mercapturic acid adducts of acrylamide and its primary metabolite glycidamide under the electroscopy ionization negative (ESI-) mode in the present study. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of the analytes ranged 0.1–0.3 ng/mL and 0.4–1.0 ng/mL, respectively. The recovery rates with low, intermediate and high spiking levels were calculated as 95.5%–105.4%, 98.2%–114.0% and 92.2%–108.9%, respectively. Acceptable within-laboratory reproducibility (RSD < 7.0%) substantially supported the use of current method for robust analysis. Rapid pretreatment procedures and short run time (8 min per sample) ensured good efficiency of metabolism profiling, indicating a wide application for investigating short-term internal exposure of dietary acrylamide. Our proposed UHPLC-MS/MS method was successfully applied to the toxicokinetic study of acrylamide in rats. Meanwhile, results of human urine analysis indicated that the levels of N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-L-cysteine-sulfoxide (AAMA-sul), which did not appear in the mercapturic acid metabolites in rodents, were more than the sum of GAMA and N-acetyl-S-(1-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine (iso-GAMA). Thus, AAMA-sul may alternatively become a specific biomarker for investigating the acrylamide exposure in humans. Current proposed method provides a substantial methodology support for comprehensive

  16. Reduction of exposure to acrylamide: achievements, potential of optimization, and problems encountered from the perspectives of a Swiss enforcement laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Koni

    2005-01-01

    The most important initiatives taken in Switzerland to reduce exposure of consumers to acrylamide are the separate sale of potatoes low in reducing sugars for roasting and frying, the optimization of the raw material and preparation of french fries, and campaigns to implement suitable preparation methods in the gastronomy and homes. Industry works on improving a range of other products. Although these measures can reduce high exposures by some 80%, they have little effect on the background exposure resulting from coffee, bread, and numerous other products for which no substantial improvement is in sight. At this stage, improvements should be achieved by supporting voluntary activity rather than legal limits. Committed and consistent risk communication is key, and the support of improvements presupposes innovative approaches.

  17. Synthesis of porous poly(acrylamide hydrogels using calcium carbonate and its application for slow release of potassium nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Porous poly(acrylamide was synthesized using calcium carbonate microparticles and subsequent acid treatment to remove the calcium carbonate. Methylenebisacrylamide and ammonium persulfate/sodium metabisulfite were used as crosslinking agent and redox initiator, respectively. The porous structure of resulted hydrogels was confirmed using SEM micrographs. The effect of methylenebisacrylamide concentration and calcium carbonate amount on the swelling of the hydrogels was investigated. The results showed that the effect of methylenebisacrylamide and calcium carbonate variables on the swelling is reverse. The hydrogels were subsequently utilized for the loading of potassium nitrate. Potassium nitrate as active agent was loaded into hydrogels and subsequently the release of this active agent was investigated. In these series of investigation, the effect of content of loading, methylenebisacrylamide and calcium carbonate amount on the release of potassium nitrate from hydrogels was investigated.

  18. Determination of acrylamide in coffee and coffee products by GC-MS using an improved SPE clean-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, C; Cunha, S; Fernandes, J

    2006-12-01

    An improved gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method to determine acrylamide (AA) in coffee and coffee products was developed. The method was based on two main purification steps: the first with ethanol and Carrez solutions in order to precipitate polysaccharides and proteins, respectively; and the second with a layered solid-phase extraction (SPE) column which proved to be efficient in the elimination of the main chromatographic interferences. The method is applicable to a wide range of coffee products. Twenty-six samples of different coffee products were analysed. The levels of AA were in the range 11.4-36.2 microg l-1 for 'espresso coffee' and 200.8-229.4 microg l-1 for coffee blends with cereals. The results indicate that the presence of cereals significantly increased the levels of AA.

  19. Dispersive Stabilization of Liquid Crystal-in-Water with Acrylamide Copolymer/Surfactant Mixture: Nematic Curvilinear Aligned Phase Composite Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park; Lee

    1999-11-01

    The effect of nonionic surfactant, (H(OCH(2)-CH(2))(8)-OC(6)H(4)-C(9)H(19)), on the dispersion stabilization of liquid crystal (LC)-in-water with acrylamide copolymer containing the related nonylphenyl groups was studied. It was observed that the addition of nonionic surfactant increases the stability of LC dispersions and improves the electrooptical properties of the nematic curvilinear aligned phase (NCAP) composite film. On the basis of the surface tension, reduced viscosity, cloud point, and coalescence time measurements, it was proposed that formation of an integrated structure induced by interactions between hydrophobic groups in the polymer chains is probably important to fabrication of a polymer composite film made of LC and polymer matrix. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  20. Synthesis and Solution Properties of Zwitterionic Copolymer of Acrylamide with 3-[(2-Acrylamido)dimethylammonio]propanesulfonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Hui; Hu, Jing; Jin, Shuailin; Li, Rui Hai [Sichuan Univ., Chengdu (China)

    2013-09-15

    A novel zwitterionic monomer 3-[(2-acrylamido)dimethylammonio]propanesulfonate (DMADAS) was designed and synthesized in this study. Then it was polymerized with acrylamide (AM) by free radical polymerization in 0.5 mol/L NaCl solution with ammonium persulfate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8}) and sodium sulfate (NaHSO{sub 3}) as initiator. The structure and composition of DMADAS and acrylamide-3-[(2-acrylamido)-dimethylammonio]propanesulfonate copolymer (P-AM-DMADAS) were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, {sup 1}H NMR and elemental analyses. Isoelectric point (IEP) of P-AM-DMADAS was tested by nanoparticle size and potential analyzer. Solution properties of copolymer were studied by reduced viscosity. Antipolyelectrolyte behavior was observed and was found to be enhanced with increasing DMADAS content in copolymer. The results showed that the viscosity of P-AM-DMADAS is 5.472 dl/g in pure water. Electrolyte was added, which weakened the mutual attraction between sulfonic acid group and quaternary ammonium group. The conformation became loose, which led to the increase of reduced viscosity. The ability of monovalent and divalent cation influencing the viscosity of zwitterionic copolymer obeyed the following sequence: Li{sup +} < Na{sup +} < K{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+} < Ca{sup 2+} < Ba{sup 2+}, and that of anion is in the order: Cl{sup -} < Br{sup -} < I{sup -}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} > SO{sub 3}{sup 2-} ≅ SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}.

  1. Synthesis of polymer materials by low energy electron beam. IV. EB-polymerized urethane-acrylate, -methacrylate and -acrylamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Masayuki; Uryu, Toshiyuki

    The structure and properties before and after electron beam (EB) irradiation were investigated using urethane prepolymers with different terminal groups of 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide (HMAAm). The prepolymers were synthesized by reaction of HEA, HEMA and HMAAm with the isocyanate-capped intermediate, which was obtained by reaction of poly(butylene adipate)diol (PBAD) with 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate. The resulting urethane-acrylate (UA-251M), -methacrylate (UMA-251M) and -acrylamide (UNAA-251M) had the crystallinity arising from PBAD moieties, and UA-251M and UMA-251M had higher crystallinity than UNAA-251M. IR results indicated that UNAA-251M was larger in the fraction of free NH stretching absorption than UA-251M and UMA-251M regardless of the number of NH group per a molecule. Accordingly, it was assumed that the difference in crystallinity was attributed to the polarity of terminal group. Hence, the rate of gel formation for UA-251M and UMA-251M was higher than that of UNAA-251M. The crystallinity based on PBAD of the prepolymers was remained also after EB irradiation. Spherulitic texture was observed on the EB-polymerized gel film surfaces for UA-251M and UMA-251M, while it was almost destroyed for UNAA-251M. Mechanical properties of UA-251M and UMA-251M gel films were much superior to those of UNAA-251M gel film according to the phase structure. Especially, UMA-251M gel film represented most excellent mechanical properties. Schematic models of the phase structure for UA-251M, UMA-251M and UNAA-251M were suggested from all experimental results.

  2. Fabrication of chitosan-g-poly(acrylamide)/CuS nanocomposite for controlled drug delivery and antibacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pathania, Deepak, E-mail: dpathania74@gmail.com [School of Chemistry, Shoolini University of Biotechnology and Management Sciences, Solan, H.P. (India); Gupta, Divya [School of Chemistry, Shoolini University of Biotechnology and Management Sciences, Solan, H.P. (India); Agarwal, Shilpi [Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg (South Africa); Asif, M. [Chemical Engineering Department, King Suad University Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Gupta, Vinod Kumar [Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg (South Africa); Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667 (India)

    2016-07-01

    In present study, we reported the synthesis of chitosan-g-poly(acrylamide)/CuS (CPA/CS) nanocomposite for controlled delivery of ofloxacin. The CPA/CS nanocomposites were characterized by Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV–visible spectroscopy (UV), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. From the FTIR spectra, the various groups present in CPA/CS nanocomposite were monitored. The homogeneity, morphology and crystallinity of the CPA/CS nanocomposite were ascertained from SEM/EDX and XRD data, respectively. The kinetics of ofloxacin drug delivery was investigated at different pH. The drug released studies were investigated at different pH (2.2, 7.4 and 9.4) and time intervals (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 h). The drug release behavior depends upon the pH of medium and the nature of matrix. The maximum drug loading efficiency of 85% was recorded for CPA/CS. The maximum drug release of 76% was observed at 2.2. pH after 18 h onto CPA/CS. Nanocomposites were also tested for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli bacteria. About 97% killing of E. coli was observed after 24 h. - Highlights: • Chitosan-g-poly(acrylamide)/CuS (CPA/CS) nanocomposite has been synthesized in microwave reactor. • Different spectral techniques confirmed the formation of nanocomposite. • The drug release behavior of CPA/CS nanocomposites were studied at different pH and different time interval. • CPA/CS has been investigated for an excellent antibacterial activity against E. coli bacterial culture.

  3. Rapid and simple determination of acrylamide in conventional cereal-based foods and potato chips through conversion to 3-[bis(trifluoroethanoyl)amino]-3-oxopropyl trifluoroacetate by gas chromatography coupled with electron capture and ion trap mass spectrometry detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Mario Vincenzo; Avino, Pasquale; Centola, Angela; Notardonato, Ivan; Cinelli, Giuseppe

    2014-03-01

    A new, simple, rapid and fully validated method based on gas chromatography coupled with Electron capture and ion trap mass spectrometry detectors (GC-ECD and GC-IT/MS) is presented for quantitative analysis of acrylamide contaminant in conventional cereal-based foods and potato chips. Before analysis acrylamide was efficiently derivatized with trifluoroacetic anhydride, the effects of temperature, reaction time and catalyst on the acylation reaction were evaluated. Chromatographic analysis was performed on SE-54 capillary column; good retention and peak response of the acrylamide derivative achieved under the optimal conditions. The analytical method has been fully validated by assessment of the following parameters: LODs and LOQs (1 and 25ngg(-1) by GC-ECD and 2 and 36ngg(-1) by GC-IT/MS, with a Relative Standard Deviations acrylamide spiked at levels of 1, 20, 50 and 100ngg(-1)). Furthermore, the method proposed requires no clean-up step of the acrylamide derivative to be performed prior to injection. The developed method has been successfully applied to determine acrylamide in different commercial cereal-based foods (including French fries and potato chips).

  4. Neuroprotective Effect of Calpeptin on Acrylamide-Induced Neuropathy in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaomin; Yan, Fengfeng; E, Meng; Zhang, Cuili; Li, Guozhen; Yang, Xiwei; Zhang, Fengmei; Wang, Shue; Yu, Sufang

    2015-11-01

    Acrylamide (ACR) is a vinyl monomer with established human neurotoxic effects, which is characterized by the accumulation of neurofilaments (NFs) in the distal swellings of large axons in peripheral and central nervous systems. However, the mechanisms of neurotoxicity remain unclear. The objective is to investigate the neuroprotective effect of calpeptin (CP) on ACR-induced neuropathy and its mechanism. Female adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (control, CP, ACR, and ACR + CP group). Control group received 0.9 % saline, ACR and ACR + CP groups received 30 mg/kg ACR by intraperitoneal injection. In addition, CP and ACR + CP groups also received 200 µg/kg CP. Gait analysis and hind limb splay were measured weekly to analyze neurobehavioral changes. The calpain activity and the changes of NFs protein levels in spinal cord are determined. Compared with control group, body weight of rats in ACR group decreased by 11.3 % (P < 0.01), while in ACR + CP group body weight increased significantly by 8.3 % (P < 0.01) compared with ACR group by the end of the 4th week; gait score of rats in both ACR and ACR + CP groups increased significantly by 167 % and 100 % (P < 0.01) compared with control group, while it decreased significantly by 25.1 % (P < 0.01) in ACR + CP group compared with ACR group; the distance of hind limb splay in both ACR and ACR + CP groups increased by 76.7 % and 49.5 % (P < 0.01) compared with control group, while it decreased by 15.4 % (P < 0.01) in ACR + CP group compared with ACR group; calpain activity of spinal cord at ACR and ACR + CP groups increased significantly by 14.9 % and 10.0 % (P < 0.01) compared with control group, while it decreased 4.2 % (P < 0.01) in ACR + CP group compared with ACR group; compared with control group, the levels of light NF (NF-L), medium NF (NF-M) and heavy NF (NF-H) subunits increased by 81.2 %, 263.6 % and 22.6 % (P < 0.01) in the supernatant of ACR group in spinal cord tissue and increased by 28

  5. Acylation of Antioxidant of Bamboo Leaves with Fatty Acids by Lipase and the Acylated Derivatives' Efficiency in the Inhibition of Acrylamide Formation in Fried Potato Crisps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiang; Wang, Erpei; Lu, Yuyun; Wang, Yong; Ou, Shiyi; Yan, Rian

    2015-01-01

    This study selectively acylated the primary hydroxyl groups on flavonoids in antioxidant of bamboo leaves (AOB) using lauric acid with Candida antarctica lipase B in tert-amyl-alcohol. The separation and isolation of acylated derivatives were performed using silica gel column chromatography with a mixture of dichloromethane/diethyl ether/methanol as eluents. Both thin layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography analyses confirmed the high efficiency of the isolation process with the purified orientin-6″-laurate, isoorientin-6″-laurate, vitexin-6″-laurate, and isovitexin-6″-laurate that were obtained. The addition of AOB and acylated AOB reduced acrylamide formation in fried potato crisps. Results showed that 0.05% AOB and 0.05% and 0.1% acylated AOB groups significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the content of acrylamide in potato crisps by 30.7%, 44.5%, and 46.9%, respectively.

  6. Acylation of Antioxidant of Bamboo Leaves with Fatty Acids by Lipase and the Acylated Derivatives’ Efficiency in the Inhibition of Acrylamide Formation in Fried Potato Crisps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiang; Wang, Erpei; Lu, Yuyun; Wang, Yong; Ou, Shiyi; Yan, Rian

    2015-01-01

    This study selectively acylated the primary hydroxyl groups on flavonoids in antioxidant of bamboo leaves (AOB) using lauric acid with Candida antarctica lipase B in tert-amyl-alcohol. The separation and isolation of acylated derivatives were performed using silica gel column chromatography with a mixture of dichloromethane/diethyl ether/methanol as eluents. Both thin layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography analyses confirmed the high efficiency of the isolation process with the purified orientin-6″-laurate, isoorientin-6″-laurate, vitexin-6″-laurate, and isovitexin-6″-laurate that were obtained. The addition of AOB and acylated AOB reduced acrylamide formation in fried potato crisps. Results showed that 0.05% AOB and 0.05% and 0.1% acylated AOB groups significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the content of acrylamide in potato crisps by 30.7%, 44.5%, and 46.9%, respectively. PMID:26098744

  7. Immobilization of poly(acrylamide) brushes onto poly(caprolactone) surface by combining ATRP and "click" chemistry: Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of protein adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuhao; Bian, Xinxiu; He, Liu; Cai, Mengtan; Xie, Xiaoxiong; Luo, Xianglin

    2015-02-01

    Developments of poly(caprolactone) in blood-contacting applications are often restricted due to its intrinsic hydrophobicity. One common way to improve its hemocompatibility is to attach hydrophilic polymers. Here we developed a non-destructive method to graft hydrophilic poly(acrylamide) (PAAm) onto poly(caprolactone) (PCL) surface. In this strategy, azido-ended PCL with low molecular weights was synthesized and blended with PCL to create a surface with "clickable" property. Alkyne-ended poly(acrylamide)s with controlled chain lengths were then synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), and finally were immobilized onto PCL surface by "click" reaction. The occurrence of immobilization was verified qualitatively by water contact angle measurement and quantitatively by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The PAAm grafted surface exhibited fouling resistant properties, as demonstrated by reduced bovine serum albumin (BSA) and fibrinogen (Fg) adhesion.

  8. Acylation of Antioxidant of Bamboo Leaves with Fatty Acids by Lipase and the Acylated Derivatives' Efficiency in the Inhibition of Acrylamide Formation in Fried Potato Crisps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Ma

    Full Text Available This study selectively acylated the primary hydroxyl groups on flavonoids in antioxidant of bamboo leaves (AOB using lauric acid with Candida antarctica lipase B in tert-amyl-alcohol. The separation and isolation of acylated derivatives were performed using silica gel column chromatography with a mixture of dichloromethane/diethyl ether/methanol as eluents. Both thin layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography analyses confirmed the high efficiency of the isolation process with the purified orientin-6″-laurate, isoorientin-6″-laurate, vitexin-6″-laurate, and isovitexin-6″-laurate that were obtained. The addition of AOB and acylated AOB reduced acrylamide formation in fried potato crisps. Results showed that 0.05% AOB and 0.05% and 0.1% acylated AOB groups significantly (p < 0.05 reduced the content of acrylamide in potato crisps by 30.7%, 44.5%, and 46.9%, respectively.

  9. A Green Approach to Synthesize Silver Nanoparticles in Starch-co-Poly(acrylamide) Hydrogels by Tridax procumbens Leaf Extract and Their Antibacterial Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Siraj Shaik; Madhusudana Rao Kummara; Sudhakar Poluru; Chandrababu Allu; Jaffer Mohiddin Gooty; Chowdoji Rao Kashayi; Marata Chinna Subbarao Subha

    2013-01-01

    A series of starch-co-poly(acrylamide) (starch-co-PAAm) hydrogels were synthesized by employing free radical redox polymerization. A novel green approach, Tridax procumbens (TD) leaf extract, was used for reduction of silver ions (Ag+) into silver nanoparticles in the starch-co-PAAm hydrogel network. The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TE...

  10. Silica-Supported Arsine Palladium(0) Complex: a Highly Active and Stereoselective Catalyst for Arylation of Butyl Acrylate and Acrylamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡明中; 赵红; 胡文英

    2005-01-01

    A silica-supported arsine palladium(O) complex has been prepared from y-chloropropyltriethoxysilane via immobilization on fumed silica, followed by reaction with potassium diphenylarsenide and palladium chloride, and then reduction with hydrazine hydrate. The complex has been characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and it is a highly active and stereoselective catalyst for arylation of butyl acrylate and acrylamide with aryl halides, affording a variety of tram-butyl cinnamates and trans-cinnamamides in high yields.

  11. Effects of o-phenylenediamine on methylglyoxal generation from monosaccharide: Comment on "correlation of methylglyoxal with acrylamide formation in fructose/asparagine Maillard reaction model system".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Ho, Chi-Tang

    2008-07-01

    Methylglyoxal (MG), a reactive carbonyl compound, has recently garnered much attention because of its ability to modify proteins over time and yield advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that are thought to contribute to the development of diabetes mellitus and its complications. In a recent paper published in Food Chemistry by Yuan et al. [Yuan, Y., Zhao, G. H., Hu, X. S., Wu, J. H., Liu, J., & Chen, F. (2007a). Correlation of methylglyoxal with acrylamide formation in fructose/asparagines Maillard reaction model system. Food Chemistry, 108(3), 885-890] authors showed a high correlation between methylglyoxal formation and acrylamide formation. However, in their study, model systems of aqueous fructose/asparagines (Fru/Asn) and fructose/asparagines/o-phenylenediamine (Fru/Asn/OPD) heating at 150°C were used. The validity of these models relies on the assumption that OPD will only serve the role of a trapping agent for MG. In this short communication, we would like to call to attention that MG can also have a strong catalytic effect in the generation of MG from fructose. Therefore, it is concluded that the concentration of MG obtained in Fru/Asn/OPD model system cannot correspond to the total amount of MG formed by Maillard reaction of Fru and Asn as claimed by Yuan et al. [Yuan, Y., Zhao, G. H., Hu, X. S., Wu, J. H., Liu, J., & Chen, F. (2007a). Correlation of methylglyoxal with acrylamide formation in fructose/asparagines Maillard reaction model system. Food Chemistry, 108(3), 885-890, Yuan, Y., Zhao, G. H., Hu X. S., Wu, J. H., Liu, J., & Chen. F. (2007b). High correlation of methylglyoxal with acrylamide formation in glucose/asparagine Maillardreaction model. European Food Research and Technology. doi:10.1007/s00217-007-0658-0].

  12. Frozen concentration fluctuations in a poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) gel studied by neutron spin echo and small-angle neutron scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Koizumi, S; Richter, D; Schwahn, D; Faragó, B; Annaka, M

    2002-01-01

    By employing neutron spin echo and small-angle neutron scattering, we determined the structure factor of the frozen concentration fluctuations on nano-length scales in a swollen poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) gel. The frozen contribution, showing a plateau at the low scattering wavenumber q (0.02 A sup - sup 1), is intimately related to the abnormal butterfly scattering pattern appearing at low q under deformation. (orig.)

  13. Acrylamide and glycidamide hemoglobin adduct levels and endometrial cancer risk: A nested case-control study in nonsmoking postmenopausal women from the EPIC cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obón-Santacana, Mireia; Freisling, Heinz; Peeters, Petra H; Lujan-Barroso, Leila; Ferrari, Pietro; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Mesrine, Sylvie; Baglietto, Laura; Turzanski-Fortner, Renee; Katzke, Verena A; Boeing, Heiner; Quirós, J Ramón; Molina-Portillo, Elena; Larrañaga, Nerea; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Travis, Ruth C; Merritt, Melissa A; Gunter, Marc J; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Naska, Androniki; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Fiano, Valentina; Galassom, Rocco; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Vesper, Hubert; Riboli, Elio; Duell, Eric J

    2016-03-01

    Acrylamide, classified in 1994 by IARC as "probably carcinogenic to humans," was discovered in 2002 in some heat-treated, carbohydrate-rich foods. Four prospective studies have evaluated the association between dietary acrylamide intake and endometrial cancer (EC) risk with inconsistent results. The purpose of this nested case-control study, based on the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, was to evaluate, for the first time, the association between hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide (HbAA) and glycidamide (HbGA) and the risk of developing EC in non-smoking postmenopausal women. Hemoglobin adducts were measured in red blood cells by HPLC/MS/MS. Four exposure variables were evaluated: HbAA, HbGA, their sum (HbAA+HbGA), and their ratio (HbGA/HbAA). The association between hemoglobin adducts and EC was evaluated using unconditional multivariable logistic regression models, and included 383 EC cases (171 were type-I EC), and 385 controls. Exposure variables were analyzed in quintiles based on control distributions. None of the biomarker variables had an effect on overall EC (HRHbAA;Q5vsQ1 : 0.84, 95%CI: 0.49-1.48; HRHbGA;Q5vsQ1 : 0.94, 95%CI: 0.54-1.63) or type-I EC risk. Additionally, none of the subgroups investigated (BMI acrylamide or glycidamide were not associated with EC or type-I EC risk in 768 nonsmoking postmenopausal women from the EPIC cohort.

  14. Direct determination of acrylamide in potato chips by using headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiasvand, Ali Reza; Hajipour, Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Acrylamide is a potentially toxic and carcinogenic substance present in many high-consumption foods. Recently, this matter has been placed in category of "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen" by National Toxicology Program (NTP). Therefore, simple and cost-effective determination of acrylamide in food samples has attracted intense interest. The most reported techniques for this purpose are GC-MS and LC-MS, which are very expensive and available in few laboratories. In this research, for the first time, a rapid, easy and low-cost method is introduced for sensitive and precise determination of acrylamide in foodstuffs, using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) system after its direct trapping in the upper atmosphere of samples by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME). The effects of main experimental variables were studied and the optimized parameters were obtained as the type of fiber, carboxen/divinylbenzene/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/DVB/PDMS); extraction time, 30 min; extraction temperature, 60°C; moisture content, 10 µL water per 1g of sample; desorption time, 2 min; and desorption temperature, 230°C. The linear calibration graph was obtained in the range of 0.77-50 µg g(-1), with regression coefficient of 0.998. The detection and quantification limits of the proposed method were 0.22 and 0.77 µg g(-1), respectively. The recoveries, for different food samples, were 79.6-95.7%. The repeatability of measurements, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), were found to be 4.1-8.0% (n=9). The proposed HS-SPME-GC-FID method was successfully carried out for quantifying of trace levels of acrylamide in some processed food products (chips and French fries), sold in open local markets.

  15. A two-year investigation towards an effective quality control of incoming potatoes as an acrylamide mitigation strategy in french fries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros Vinci, Raquel; Mestdagh, Frédéric; Van Poucke, Christof; Van Peteghem, Carlos; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    The current entrance quality control used in the french fries industry is done based on colour evaluation with a United States Department of Agriculture/Munsell colour chart (after a short frying test, typically 180°C for 3 min). On the basis of a study carried out during two consecutive potato storage seasons, the possibility of a more effective entrance control of the raw potato tubers in order to identify batches of potatoes prone to acrylamide formation was evaluated. The current entrance control was compared to two other colour evaluation methods (CIE L*a*b* colour parameters and a process-specific Agtron analyser) and to reducing sugar content determination. Seasonal variability did not affect the slopes of the linear correlation models, for most of the parameters studied. The determination of colour formation measured by the Agtron methodology and reducing sugar content allowed a better identification of batches of potatoes prone to acrylamide formation compared with the current entrance control. Different scenarios represented by decision trees for quality control measures for incoming potatoes were evaluated while considering the investigation value of 600 µg kg⁻¹ for french fries recently prescribed by the European Commission. Samples were categorised based on predictions of threshold values and acrylamide levels in the final product.

  16. Immobilization of poly(acrylamide) brushes onto poly(caprolactone) surface by combining ATRP and “click” chemistry: Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of protein adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Yuhao; Bian, Xinxiu; He, Liu; Cai, Mengtan; Xie, Xiaoxiong [College of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Luo, Xianglin, E-mail: luoxl@scu.edu.cn [College of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); State Key Laboratory of Polymer Material and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2015-02-28

    Highlights: • Poly(caprolacone) (PCL) film surface was chemically modified by a novel method through combining ATRP and “click” chemistry. • Poly(acrylamide) (PAAm) of tailored chain length were synthesized and “clicked” onto PCL surface. • The modified PCL surface showed reduced BSA and Fg adsorption, and the protein resist ability in terms of chain length through its impact on grafting reaction and modified surface was investigated. - Abstract: Developments of poly(caprolactone) in blood-contacting applications are often restricted due to its intrinsic hydrophobicity. One common way to improve its hemocompatibility is to attach hydrophilic polymers. Here we developed a non-destructive method to graft hydrophilic poly(acrylamide) (PAAm) onto poly(caprolactone) (PCL) surface. In this strategy, azido-ended PCL with low molecular weights was synthesized and blended with PCL to create a surface with “clickable” property. Alkyne-ended poly(acrylamide)s with controlled chain lengths were then synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), and finally were immobilized onto PCL surface by “click” reaction. The occurrence of immobilization was verified qualitatively by water contact angle measurement and quantitatively by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The PAAm grafted surface exhibited fouling resistant properties, as demonstrated by reduced bovine serum albumin (BSA) and fibrinogen (Fg) adhesion.

  17. 淀粉-丙烯酰胺反相乳液聚合%Starch-acrylamide polymer was prepared by inverse emulsion polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武世新; 杨红丽

    2012-01-01

    采用反相乳液聚合,以淀粉、丙烯酰胺为原料,过硫酸铵为引发剂制备了淀粉丙烯酰胺聚合物.实验表明,最佳反应条件为:引发剂加量为单体总量的0.1%,油水体积比为1∶1,反应温度为60℃,反应时间为4h.淀粉丙烯酰胺聚合物的除浊率可达89%,吸水率达350%.%The polymer was prepared by inverse emulsion polymerization, starch and acrylamide as raw materials. Ammonium persulfate as the initiator prepared starch-acrylamide polymer. The experimental showed that the optimum reaction conditions were as follows:mass ratio of initiator to monomer is 0. 1% , oil to water volume ratio is 1:1, reaction temperature is 60 ℃ ,and reaction time is 4 h. The starch-acrylamide polymer turbidity removal rate up to 89% ,and water absorption up to 350%.

  18. Environmentally friendly method for the determination of acrylamide and trimethylolpropane in paper packaging materials by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fei; Li, Zhonghao; Bian, Zhaoyang; Tang, Gangling; Fan, Ziyan; Wang, Ying; Liu, ShanShan; Zhang, Hongfei

    2014-12-01

    A simple, rapid, and environmentally friendly method was developed for the determination of acrylamide and trimethylolpropane in paper packaging materials. No organic solvent was used and the matrix effect was investigated. The extract was directly analyzed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass chromatography for quantification and confirmation. The chromatographic separations were performed on a ZORBAX HILIC Plus (2.1 mm × 150 mm, 3μm; Agilent, USA) column with only one mobile phase (100% water). Calibration curves for acrylamide and trimethylopropane were achieved with concentrations ranging from 0.4 to 20 mg/kg and the corresponding r(2) values were 0.998 and 0.999, respectively. The recoveries were >85% with relative standard deviations paper packages. The concentrations of acrylamide and trimethylolpropane ranged from 0.41 to 7.5 and 0.50 to 8.8 mg/kg, respectively. The results of this study revealed that this method could be used accurately and precisely.

  19. Disruption of erythrocyte antioxidant defense system, hematological parameters, induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and DNA damage in liver of co-exposed rats to aluminium and acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbel, Imen; Maktouf, Sameh; Kallel, Choumous; Ellouze Chaabouni, Semia; Boudawara, Tahia; Zeghal, Najiba

    2015-07-05

    The individual toxic effects of aluminium and acrylamide are well known but there are no data on their combined effects. The present study was undertaken to determine (i) hematological parameters during individual and combined chronic exposure to aluminium and acrylamide (ii) correlation of oxidative stress in erythrocytes with pro-inflammatory cytokines expression, DNA damage and histopathological changes in the liver. Rats were exposed to aluminium (50 mg/kg body weight) in drinking water and acrylamide (20 mg/kg body weight) by gavage, either individually or in combination for 3 weeks. Exposure rats to AlCl3 or/and ACR provoked an increase in MDA, AOPP, H2O2 and a decrease in GSH and NPSH levels in erythrocytes. Activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase were decreased in all treated rats. Our results showed that all treatments induced an increase in WBC, erythrocyte osmotic fragility and a decrease in RBC, Hb and Ht. While MCV, MCH, MCHC remained unchanged. Hepatic pro-inflammatory cytokines expression including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, interleukin-1β was increased suggesting leucocytes infiltration in the liver. A random DNA degradation was observed on agarose gel only in the liver of co-exposed rats to AlCl3 and ACR treatment. Interestingly, co-exposure to these toxicants exhibited synergism based on physical and biochemical variables in erythrocytes, pro-inflammatory cytokines and DNA damage in liver.

  20. Determination of acrylamide in dried fruits and edible seeds using QuEChERS extraction and LC separation with MS detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paola, Eleonora Laura; Montevecchi, Giuseppe; Masino, Francesca; Garbini, Davide; Barbanera, Martino; Antonelli, Andrea

    2017-02-15

    Acrylamide is a carcinogenic and neurotoxic process contaminant that is generated from food components during heat treatment, while it is absent in raw foodstuffs. Its level in food arouses great concern. A method for acrylamide extraction and determination in dried fruits (dried prunes and raisins) and edible seeds (almonds, hazelnuts, peanuts, pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts) using a QuEChERS-LC-ESI-MS-Triple Quadrupole approach was set up. Linearity, sensitivity, accuracy, and precision of the method were satisfactory. Dried prunes and peanuts were the only samples appreciably contaminated, 14.7-124.3 and 10.0-42.9μg/kg, respectively, as a consequence of the drying process. In fact, prunes are dried at 70-80°C for a quite long time (24-36h), while peanuts undergo a roasting process at 160-180°C for 25-30min. The relative standard deviations, accuracy, LOD, and LOQ show that the method provides a reliable approach to acrylamide determination in different matrices.

  1. 焙烤小麦胚芽中丙烯酰胺含量测定分析%A STUDY ON DETERMINATION OF ACRYLAMIDE IN BAKED WHEAT GERM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾志成; 任文明

    2011-01-01

    利用气相色谱对焙烤小麦胚芽中丙烯酰胺的浓度进行了测定,并比较不同焙烤条件下麦芽中丙烯酰胺含量,结果显示丙烯酰胺在0.125μg,/ml 1mL-2.0μ,g/ml 1mL浓度范围内具有良好的线性(R2 =0.999),加标平均回收率在88.1% ~ 104.6%之间,相对标准偏差(RSD)小于6.7%;焙烤温度相同时,麦芽中丙烯酰胺含量会随着焙烤时间的增加而变大,焙烤时间相同,当焙烤温度在170℃ ~ 200℃范围内时,麦芽中丙烯酰胺含量随着温度的升高而不断减少.%The wheat germ was used as sample, setting 140 ℃ , 170 ℃ , 200 ℃ as the baking temperature, and each temperature level was matched with different process time (The times are 10,15 and 20 min) for baking. After adding methacrylami as the internal standard,the sample was extracted by water and then deproteinized by carrez solution and defatted by n - hexane, extracted with ethyl acetate, then evaporated to 1 m 1. The concentration of acrylamide is determined by gas chromatography to compare the content of ac-rylamide of baked germ at different baking conditions. Results were shown The linear ranges of concentration of acrylamide was 0. 125μg/mL~2.0 μg/mL(R2 =0.999). The average recoveries from 88. 1% to 104.6% , and the relative standard derivations were lower than 6.7% ; When the baking temperature is the same, the content of acrylamide in wheat will improve with the increase of bakmg time. When baking time duration was the same, the content level of acrylamide decreased with the increase of baking temperature (170℃ ~200℃).

  2. Radiation initiated graft copolymerization of N-vinylpyrrolidone and acrylamide onto low density polyethylene films by individual and binary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taher, N. H.; Dessuoki, A. M.; El-Arnaouty, M. B.

    1998-10-01

    A study has been made for the preparation of membranes by the direct radiation grafting of N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP), acrylamide (AAm) and its comonomer onto low density polyethylene (LDPE) films. The factors affecting the grafting process such as solvent, inhibitor, radiation dose, dose rate, monomer and comonomer concentrations on the grafting yield were studied. Dioxane was chosen as a diluent and the addition of any inhibitor failed in this grafting system. The optimum comonomer composition at which the highest grafting yield was obtained, was found to be (20/80 wt% of AAm/NVP) comonomer. The dependence of the grafting rate upon NVP, AAm and its comonomer concentration for comonomer composition (50/50 and 20/80 AAm/NVP) was found to be 1.7, 1.44, 1.9 and 1.7 order, respectively. Some selective properties of the graft copolymers such as, swelling behaviour, electrical and mechanical properties were investigated. On the other hand, the thermal stability of these membranes was measured by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). An improvement of these properties was observed which makes possible the use of these membranes in some practical applications such as the removal of some heavy metals from waste water.

  3. Olive oil hydroxytyrosol reduces toxicity evoked by acrylamide in human Caco-2 cells by preventing oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ramiro, Ildefonso; Martín, María Ángeles; Ramos, Sonia; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis

    2011-10-09

    Humans are exposed to dietary acrylamide (AA) during their lifetime, it is therefore necessary to investigate the mechanisms associated with AA-induced toxic effects. Accumulating evidence indicates that oxidative stress contributes to AA cytotoxicity, thus, dietary antioxidants might have a protective role in colonic cells against AA toxicity. We have recently reported that hydroxytyrosol (HTy), a natural antioxidant abundant in olive oil, is able to enhance the cellular antioxidant defence capacity, thereby protecting cells from oxidative stress. In this study, we evaluate the protective role of HTy on alterations of the redox balance induced by AA in Caco-2 intestinal cells. AA cytotoxicity was counteracted by HTy by powerfully reducing ROS generation, recovering the excited enzyme antioxidant defences and decreasing phospho-Jun kinase concentration and caspase-3 activity induced by AA. Therefore, AA-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis are closely related to oxidative stress in Caco-2 cells and the olive oil natural dietary antioxidant HTy was able to contain AA toxicity by improving the redox status of Caco-2 cells and by partly restraining the apoptotic pathway activated by AA.

  4. Dissemination of acrylamide monomer from polyacrylamide-based flocculant use--sand and gravel quarry case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touzé, Solene; Guerin, Valérie; Guezennec, Anne-Gwenaëlle; Binet, Stéphane; Togola, Anne

    2015-05-01

    Aggregate quarries play a major role in land settlement. However, like all industrial operations, they can have impacts on the environment, notably due to the use of polyacrylamide (PAM)-based flocculants, which contain residual acrylamide (AMD), a carcinogenic, mutagenic, and reprotoxic monomer. In this study, the dissemination of AMD throughout the environment has been investigated in a French quarry. The presence of AMD has been determined in the process water and in the sludge, as well as in the surrounding surface water and groundwater. From the results of several sampling campaigns carried out on this case study, we can (a) confirm that the AMD contained in the commercial product is found in the quarry's water circuit (0.41 to 5.66 μg/l); (b) show that AMD is transported to the surrounding environment, as confirmed by the contamination of a pond near the installation (0.07 to 0.08 μg/l) and the presence of AMD in groundwater (0.01 to 0.02 μg/l); and (c) show that the sludge in both the current and former settling basins contains AMD (between 4 and 26 μg/kg of dry sludge). Therefore, we demonstrated in this case study that using PAM-based flocculants leads to the release of AMD to the environment beyond the treatment plant and creates a reserve of AMD in sludge basins.

  5. Thermo-responsive, UV-active poly(phenyl acrylate-b-poly(diethyl acrylamide block copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maric

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The homopolymerization of phenyl acrylate (PA was investigated for the first time by nitroxide mediated polymerization (NMP with the succinimidyl form of the SG1-based unimolecular initiator 2-[N-tert-butyl-2,2-(dimethylpropyl-aminooxy]propionic acid (BlocBuilder MA. The control of PPA homopolymerization was improved by the use of 15 mol% additional free nitroxide SG1 ([tert-butyl[1-(diethoxyphosphoryl-2,2-dimethylpropyl]amino]oxidanyl and dispersities, Mw/Mn, of around 1.2 were achieved. A PPA homopolymer was then successfully chain-extended with diethyl acrylamide (DEAAm to form a block copolymer of PPA-b-PDEAAm where the PDEAAm segment is thermo-responsive, while the PPA block is potentially UV-active. The thermo-responsive behavior of the block copolymer in 0.5 wt% aqueous solution was studied by UV-Vis spectrometry and dynamic light scattering (DLS, indicating cloud point temperatures of 26–30°C, close to that reported for PDEAAm homopolymers.

  6. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion promotes the protective effect of blackberry extract against acrylamide-induced oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Su, Hongming; Xu, Yang; Jin, Chao

    2017-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA)-induced toxicity has been associated with accumulation of excessive reactive oxygen species. The present study was therefore undertaken to investigate the protective effect of blackberry digests produced after (BBD) in vitro gastrointestinal (GI) digestion against AA-induced oxidative damage. The results indicated that the BBD (0.5 mg/mL) pretreatment significantly suppressed AA-induced intracellular ROS generation (56.6 ± 2.9% of AA treatment), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) decrease (297 ± 18% of AA treatment) and glutathione (GSH) depletion (307 ± 23% of AA treatment), thereby ameliorating cytotoxicity. Furthermore, LC/MS/MS analysis identified eight phenolic compounds with high contents in BBD, including ellagic acid, ellagic acid pentoside, ellagic acid glucuronoside, methyl-ellagic acid pentoside, methyl-ellagic acid glucuronoside, cyanidin glucoside, gallic acid and galloyl esters, as primary active compounds responsible for antioxidant action. Collectively, our study uncovered that the protective effect of blackberry was reserved after gastrointestinal digestion in combating exogenous pollutant-induced oxidative stress.

  7. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion promotes the protective effect of blackberry extract against acrylamide-induced oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Su, Hongming; Xu, Yang; Jin, Chao

    2017-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA)-induced toxicity has been associated with accumulation of excessive reactive oxygen species. The present study was therefore undertaken to investigate the protective effect of blackberry digests produced after (BBD) in vitro gastrointestinal (GI) digestion against AA-induced oxidative damage. The results indicated that the BBD (0.5 mg/mL) pretreatment significantly suppressed AA-induced intracellular ROS generation (56.6 ± 2.9% of AA treatment), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) decrease (297 ± 18% of AA treatment) and glutathione (GSH) depletion (307 ± 23% of AA treatment), thereby ameliorating cytotoxicity. Furthermore, LC/MS/MS analysis identified eight phenolic compounds with high contents in BBD, including ellagic acid, ellagic acid pentoside, ellagic acid glucuronoside, methyl-ellagic acid pentoside, methyl-ellagic acid glucuronoside, cyanidin glucoside, gallic acid and galloyl esters, as primary active compounds responsible for antioxidant action. Collectively, our study uncovered that the protective effect of blackberry was reserved after gastrointestinal digestion in combating exogenous pollutant-induced oxidative stress. PMID:28084406

  8. Water absorbency studies of γ-radiation crosslinked poly(acrylamide-co-2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid) hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadaǧ, Erdener; Saraydin, Dursun; Güven, Olgun

    2004-10-01

    Water absorbency behavior of acrylamide (AAm)/2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid (DBA) hydrogels synthesized by γ-radiation crosslinking of AAm and DBA in an aqueous solution was investigated. Different amounts of DBA containing AAm/DBA hydrogels were obtained in the form of rods via a radiation technique. Swelling experiments were performed in water at 25 °C, gravimetrically. The influence of absorbed dose and DBA content of the hydrogels on swelling properties were examined. The hydrogels showed enormous swelling in an aqueous medium and displayed swelling characteristics which were highly dependent on the chemical composition of the hydrogels and irradiation dose. Diffusion behavior and some swelling kinetic parameters were investigated. The values of the weight swelling ratio of AAm/DBA hydrogels were between 8.34 and 15.16, while the values of the weight swelling ratio of pure AAm hydrogels were between 7.58 and 8.28. Water diffusion into hydrogels was found to be non-Fickian in character. Equilibrium water contents of the hydrogel systems were changed between 0.8681 and 0.9340.

  9. Water absorbency studies of {gamma}-radiation crosslinked poly(acrylamide-co-2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid) hydrogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karadag, Erdener E-mail: ekaradag@adu.edu.tr; Saraydin, Dursun; Gueven, Olgun

    2004-10-01

    Water absorbency behavior of acrylamide (AAm)/2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid (DBA) hydrogels synthesized by {gamma}-radiation crosslinking of AAm and DBA in an aqueous solution was investigated. Different amounts of DBA containing AAm/DBA hydrogels were obtained in the form of rods via a radiation technique. Swelling experiments were performed in water at 25 deg. C, gravimetrically. The influence of absorbed dose and DBA content of the hydrogels on swelling properties were examined. The hydrogels showed enormous swelling in an aqueous medium and displayed swelling characteristics which were highly dependent on the chemical composition of the hydrogels and irradiation dose. Diffusion behavior and some swelling kinetic parameters were investigated. The values of the weight swelling ratio of AAm/DBA hydrogels were between 8.34 and 15.16, while the values of the weight swelling ratio of pure AAm hydrogels were between 7.58 and 8.28. Water diffusion into hydrogels was found to be non-Fickian in character. Equilibrium water contents of the hydrogel systems were changed between 0.8681 and 0.9340.

  10. Synthesis and Performance of an Acrylamide Copolymer Containing Nano-SiO2 as Enhanced Oil Recovery Chemical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongbin Ye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel copolymer containing nano-SiO2 was synthesized by free radical polymerization using acrylamide (AM, acrylic acid (AA, and nano-SiO2 functional monomer (NSFM as raw materials under mild conditions. The AM/AA/NSFM copolymer was characterized by infrared (IR spectroscopy, 1H NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and scanning electron microscope (SEM. It was found that the AM/AA/NSFM copolymer exhibited higher viscosity than the AM/AA copolymer at 500 s−1 shear rate (18.6 mPa·s versus 8.7 mPa·s. It was also found that AM/AA/NSFM could achieve up to 43.7% viscosity retention rate at 95°C. Mobility control results indicated that AM/AA/NSFM could establish much higher resistance factor (RF and residual resistance factor (RRF than AM/AA under the same conditions (RF: 16.52 versus 12.17, RRF: 3.63 versus 2.59. At last, the enhanced oil recovery (EOR of AM/AA/NSFM was up to 20.10% by core flooding experiments at 65°C.

  11. Biphasic Equilibrium Dialysis of Poly(N-Isopropyl Acrylamide Nanogels Synthesized at Decreased Temperatures for Targeted Delivery of Thermosensitive Bioactives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Musial

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogel nanoparticles, referred to also as nanogels, are of special interest for medical and pharmaceutical applications. Due to small size in the range below the diameter of the capillaries, they are proposed as drug delivery carriers. The aim of the study was to estimate the influence of composition and reaction conditions during synthesis of poly-N-isopropyl acrylamide cross-linked by polyethylene glycol diacrylate on the purification rates of the polymer. Six types of thermosensitive nanogels were prepared by surfactant-free dispersion polymerization and assessed in terms of process yield, composition, and size at temperatures below and over volume phase temperature. During the diffusion of impurities, in the course of dialysis, assessed by the conductometric method, the remarkable influence of temperature and initiator concentration on the process was revealed. The release rates varied in the range between 9.63 · 10−2 and 1.39 · 10−1 h−1 in the first stage of the process, whereas in the second stage they were between 2.09 · 10−2 and 6.28 · 10−2 h−1. The evaluated time to obtain acceptable purity of the preparation was estimated to be in the range of 18 days. More detailed research should be directed towards the influence of the structure of obtained material on the purification process.

  12. Evaluation of protective effect of freeze-dried strawberry, grape, and blueberry powder on acrylamide toxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mengyao; Liu, Xin; Luo, Yinghua; Guo, Huan; Hu, Xiaosong; Chen, Fang

    2015-04-01

    Berries are dietary plants with high antioxidant activity. The aim of this study is to investigate the protective effect of berries (strawberry, grape, and blueberry) against the acrylamide (AA)-induced general toxicity, genotoxicity, and reproductive toxicity in mice model, respectively. Mice were treated with 50 mg/kg b.w./day AA intraperitoneal injection for 5 d after feeding control diet or diet containing freeze-dried strawberry, grape, and blueberry powder. The results showed that AA induced a significant general toxicity, genotoxicity, and reproductive toxicity in mice. Compared with the control diet, the diets containing berries could reverse the AA-induced alterations in liver antioxidant enzymes activities (P < 0.05). Moreover, the AA-induced genotoxicity could be prevented by the diet containing berries. The DNA damage in the lymphocyte and liver cells and the micronucleus formation in bone marrow cell were significantly alleviated (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the mice fed with diets containing berries showed a recovery in the sperm count, the sperm activity rate, sperm motility parameters, and the abnormal sperm rate (P < 0.05). Berry powders have remarkable intervention against the AA-induced general toxicity, genotoxicity, reproductive toxicity. Abundant phenolics, especially anthocyanins, may contribute to the intervention.

  13. Acrylamide increases dopamine levels by affecting dopamine transport and metabolism related genes in the striatal dopaminergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaoqi; Guo, Xiongxiong; Xiong, Fei; Cheng, Guihong; Lu, Qing; Yan, Hong

    2015-07-01

    Dopaminergic system dysfunction is proved to be a possible mechanism in acrylamide (ACR) -induced neurotoxicity. The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) has an increasingly important role in the dopaminergic system. Thus, the goal of this study is to evaluate effects of ACR on dopamine and its metabolite levels, dopamine transport and metabolic gene expression in dopaminergic neurons. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were dosed orally with ACR at 0 (saline), 20, 30, and 40 mg/kg/day for 20 days. Splayed hind limbs, reduced tail flick time and abnormal gait which preceded other neurologic parameters were observed in the above rats. ACR significantly increased dopamine levels, decreased 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanilic acid (HVA) contents in an area dependent manner in rat striatum. Immunohistochemical staining of the striatum revealed that the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive cells significantly increased, while monoamine oxidase (MAO) positive cells were drastically reduced, which was consistent with changes in their mRNA and protein expressions. In addition, dopamine transporter (DAT) and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) expression levels were both down-regulated in the striatum. These results suggest that dopamine levels increase significantly in response to ACR, presumably due to changes in the dopamine transport and metabolism related genes expression in the striatal dopaminergic neurons.

  14. Swelling of Superabsorbent Poly(Sodium-Acrylate Acrylamide) Hydrogels and Influence of Chemical Structure on Internally Cured Mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafcik, Matthew J.; Erk, Kendra A.

    Superabsorbent hydrogel particles show promise as internal curing agents for high performance concrete (HPC). These gels can absorb and release large volumes of water and offer a solution to the problem of self-dessication in HPC. However, the gels are sensitive to ions naturally present in concrete. This research connects swelling behavior with gel-ion interactions to optimize hydrogel performance for internal curing, reducing the chance of early-age cracking and increasing the durability of HPC. Four different hydrogels of poly(sodium-acrylate acrylamide) are synthesized and characterized with swelling tests in different salt solutions. Depending on solution pH, ionic character, and gel composition, diffrerent swelling behaviors are observed. As weight percent of acrylic acid increases, gels demonstrate higher swelling ratios in reverse osmosis water, but showed substantially decreased swelling when aqueous cations are present. Additionally, in multivalent cation solutions, overshoot peaks are present, whereby the gels have a peak swelling ratio but then deswell. Multivalent cations interact with deprotonated carboxylic acid groups, constricting the gel and expelling water. Mortar containing hydrogels showed reduced autogenous shrinkage and increased relative humidity.

  15. Farnesol quells oxidative stress, reactive gliosis and inflammation during acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity: Behavioral and biochemical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanasabapathy, R; Vasudevan, S; Anupriya, K; Pabitha, R; Sudhandiran, G

    2015-11-12

    Acrylamide (ACR) is an industrial pollutant, to which humans are exposed through chemicals associated with day to day human life and contributes to neurological disorders. The role of reactive gliosis upon toxic insults remains paradoxical, and the immunomodulatory events during ACR intoxication remain obscure. In view of this, the present study investigated ACR-induced (20mg/kgb.wt for 4weeks) neurodegeneration in the context of oxidative stress and associated inflammatory events and the ability of farnesol, a sesquiterpene, to mitigate reactive gliosis in the brain of Swiss albino mice. Farnesol supplementation (100mg/kgb.wt.) showed a marked improvement in gait performance, neuromuscular function and fine motor coordination and attenuated ACR-induced diminution in glutathione (GSH) with parallel reduction in lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein carbonyls, hydroxide, hydroperoxide and nitrite levels. Farnesol treatment significantly ameliorated ACR-mediated histological aberrations and reactive gliosis by downregulating Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and Ionizsed calcium-binding adapter molecule-1 ​(Iba-1) in the cortex, hippocampus and striatum. Further, ACR stimulated increase in levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were considerably decreased by farnesol. In conclusion, our findings indicate that farnesol exerts neuroprotective efficacy during ACR-induced neuropathology by suppressing reactive gliosis and associated inflammatory events.

  16. Results from two interlaboratory comparison tests organized in Germany and at the EU level for analysis of acrylamide in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaffke, Horst; Fauhl, Carsten; Mathar, Wolfgang; Palavinskas, Richard; Wittkowski, Reiner; Wenzl, Thomas; Anklam, Elke

    2005-01-01

    After the publication of high levels of acrylamide (AA) in food, many research activities started all over the world in order to determine the occurrence and the concentration of this substance in various types of food. As no validated methods were available at that time, interlaboratory studies on the determination of AA in food were of the highest priority. Under the boundary conditions of applying well-established evaluation schemes, the results of 2 studies conducted by the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) in Germany and by the European Commission's Directorate General Joint Research Center (JRC) exhibited an overall acceptable performance of the participants in these studies. Nevertheless, many laboratories showed problems in determining AA in food with a complex matrix such as cocoa. The results of analysis also showed a broader variation of AA for samples with low AA concentrations and indicated a bias of the results obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry without derivatization. Improvements of the performance of some laboratories appeared to be necessary.

  17. Evaluation of acrylamide-removing properties of two Lactobacillus strains under simulated gastrointestinal conditions using a dynamic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Jimenez, L; Ramírez-Ortiz, K; González-Córdova, A F; Vallejo-Cordoba, B; Garcia, H S; Hernandez-Mendoza, A

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the capability of Lactobacillus reuteri NRRL 14171 and Lactobacillus casei Shirota to remove dietary acrylamide (AA) under simulated gastrointestinal conditions using a dynamic system. The effects of different AA levels or bacteria concentration on toxin removal by Lactobacillus strains were assessed. Thereafter, AA-removing capability of bacteria strains under either fasting or postprandial simulated gastrointestinal conditions was evaluated. Commercial potato chips were analyzed for their AA content, and then used as a food model. Average AA content (34,162μg/kg) in potato chips exceeded by ca. 34-fold the indicative values recommended by the EU. Toxin removal ability was dependent on AA content and bacterial cell concentration. A reduction on bacterial viability was observed in the food model and at the end of both digestive processes evaluated. However, bacteria survived in enough concentrations to remove part of the toxin (32-73%). Both bacterial strains were able to remove AA under different simulated gastrointestinal conditions, being L. casei Shirota the most effective (ca. 70% removal). These findings confirmed the risk of potato chips as dietary AA exposure for consumers, and that strains of the genus Lactobacillus could be employed to reduce the bioavailability of dietary AA.

  18. Two-way shift of wavelength in holographic sensing of organic vapor in nanozeolites dispersed acrylamide photopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Dongyao; Geng, Yaohui; Liu, Hongpeng; Zhou, Ke; Xian, Lihong; Yu, Dan

    2016-08-10

    Holographic sensing of alcohol organic vapor is characterized in detail at transmission and reflection geometries in Y nanozeolites dispersed acrylamide photopolymer. The two-way shift of the diffraction spectrum and its temporal evolution with various vapor concentrations are measured. Obvious blueshifts of diffraction spectrum peaks are observed and analyzed in two recording geometries. The competition mechanism between decreasing the average refractive index and swelling the grating fringe space is proposed for exploring the wavelength shift mechanism. In the reflection grating, as organic vapor increases, the redshift after the blueshift of the wavelength peaks are observed clearly. We further demonstrate the significance of this competition mechanism. In the low concentration region, at transmission blueshift of the wavelength is a significant factor in identifying an organic vapor with a low refractive index. These experimental results provide a probability for improving the applicability of a holographic sensor. This work can accelerate the development of the holographic sensing strategy and provide a novel identification method for organic vapor.

  19. Poly(acrylic acid)-grafted poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) networks: preparation, characterization and hydrogel behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rentong; Zheng, Sixun

    2011-01-01

    Poly(acrylic acid)-grafted poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) co-polymer networks (PNIPAAm-g-PAA) were prepared via the reversible addition-fragmentation transfer (RAFT) polymerization of N-isopropyl- acrylamide (NIPAAm) with trithiocarbonate-terminated PAA as a macromolecular chain-transfer agent in the presence of N,N-methylenebisacrylamide. The PNIPAAm-g-PAA co-polymer networks were characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and small-angle X-ray scattering. It is found that the PNIPAAm-g-PAA co-polymer networks were microphase-separated, in which the microdomains of PNIPAAm-PAA interpolymer complexes were dispersed into the PNIPAAm matrix. The PNIPAAm-g-PAA hydrogels displayed a dual response to temperature and pH values. The thermoresponsive properties of PNIPAAm-g-PAA networks were investigated. Below the volume phase transition temperatures, the PNIPAAm-g-PAA hydrogels possessed much higher swelling ratios than control PNIPAAm hydrogel. In terms of swelling, deswelling and reswelling tests, it is judged that the PNIPAAm-g-PAA hydrogels displayed faster response to the external temperature changes than control PNIPAAm hydrogel. The improved thermoresponsive properties of hydrogels are ascribed to the formation of PAA-grafted PNIPAAm networks, in which the water-soluble PAA chains behave as the hydrophiphilic tunnels and allow water molecules to go through and, thus, to accelerate the diffusion of water molecules.

  20. Collaborative trial validation study of two methods, one based on high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of acrylamide in bakery and potato products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzl, Thomas; Karasek, Lubomir; Rosen, Johan; Hellenaes, Karl-Erik; Crews, Colin; Castle, Laurence; Anklam, Elke

    2006-11-03

    A European inter-laboratory study was conducted to validate two analytical procedures for the determination of acrylamide in bakery ware (crispbreads, biscuits) and potato products (chips), within a concentration range from about 20 microg/kg to about 9000 microgg/kg. The methods are based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of the derivatised analyte and on high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) of native acrylamide. Isotope dilution with isotopically labelled acrylamide was an integral part of both methods. The study was evaluated according to internationally accepted guidelines. The performance of the HPLC-MS/MS method was found to be superior to that of the GC-MS method and to be fit-for-the-purpose.

  1. Comprehensive profiling of mercapturic acid metabolites from dietary acrylamide as short-term exposure biomarkers for evaluation of toxicokinetics in rats and daily internal exposure in humans using isotope dilution ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Wang, Qiao; Cheng, Jun; Zhang, Jingshun; Xu, Jiaojiao; Ren, Yiping

    2015-09-24

    Mercapturic acid metabolites from dietary acrylamide are important short-term exposure biomarkers for evaluating the in vivo toxicity of acrylamide. Most of studies have focused on the measurement of two metabolites, N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-L-cysteine (AAMA) and N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine (GAMA). Thus, the comprehensive profile of acrylamide urinary metabolites cannot be fully understood. We developed an isotope dilution ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous determination of all four mercapturic acid adducts of acrylamide and its primary metabolite glycidamide under the electroscopy ionization negative (ESI-) mode in the present study. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of the analytes ranged 0.1-0.3 ng/mL and 0.4-1.0 ng/mL, respectively. The recovery rates with low, intermediate and high spiking levels were calculated as 95.5%-105.4%, 98.2%-114.0% and 92.2%-108.9%, respectively. Acceptable within-laboratory reproducibility (RSDrats. Meanwhile, results of human urine analysis indicated that the levels of N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-L-cysteine-sulfoxide (AAMA-sul), which did not appear in the mercapturic acid metabolites in rodents, were more than the sum of GAMA and N-acetyl-S-(1-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine (iso-GAMA). Thus, AAMA-sul may alternatively become a specific biomarker for investigating the acrylamide exposure in humans. Current proposed method provides a substantial methodology support for comprehensive profiling of toxicokinetics and daily internal exposure evaluations of acrylamide in vivo.

  2. Associative polymers for mobility control in enhanced oil recovery: First annual report for the period October 1985-October 1986. [Copolymers of acrylamide with analogs of 3-acrylamide-3-methylbutanoate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, C.L.; Hester, R.D.

    1987-02-01

    Research during FY-86 has been centered on synthesis, characterization, and rheology of copolymers of acrylamide (AM) with analogs of 3-acrylamido-3-methylbutanoate (AMB). Emphasis during the initial phase of this work has been directed toward placement of hydrophobic substituents along the polymer backbone which would allow intermolecular associations to occur at low polymer concentration. Comparisons of N-substituted AMB and unsubstituted copolymers prepared under a previous grant are being made. Of special interest are the viscosity behavior and the electrolyte tolerance. Rheological, potentiometry, and ion binding studies of the substituted models indicate less tolerance to calcium ions than the NaAMB/AM system and support the proposed intramolecular chelation we suggested previously (DOE/BC/10321-20). Solution behavior has been studied as a function of microstructure and molecular weight for N-substituted AMB/AM copolymers utilizing potentiometry, turbidimetry in conjunction with C-13 NMR and low angle laser light scattering. N-propyl-substituted NaAMB/AM copolymers have shown surfactant-like characteristics including the ability to emulsify hydrocarbons and greatly enhance solution viscosity in aqueous solution. Further studies on these and other N-substituted acrylamido systems are planned for FY-87. We have continued to advance our EOR polymer characterization capability. A new variable angle laser light scattering apparatus has been designed and is presently being assembled. In the past, we were restricted to a technically obsolete low angle laser light scattering spectrophotometer. The new scattering device should provide a much higher signal to noise ratio, and thus, provide more accurate EOR polymer characterization.

  3. Support vector regression-guided unravelling: antioxidant capacity and quantitative structure-activity relationship predict reduction and promotion effects of flavonoids on acrylamide formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mengmeng; Wei, Yan; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Yu

    2016-09-01

    We used the support vector regression (SVR) approach to predict and unravel reduction/promotion effect of characteristic flavonoids on the acrylamide formation under a low-moisture Maillard reaction system. Results demonstrated the reduction/promotion effects by flavonoids at addition levels of 1-10000 μmol/L. The maximal inhibition rates (51.7%, 68.8% and 26.1%) and promote rates (57.7%, 178.8% and 27.5%) caused by flavones, flavonols and isoflavones were observed at addition levels of 100 μmol/L and 10000 μmol/L, respectively. The reduction/promotion effects were closely related to the change of trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (ΔTEAC) and well predicted by triple ΔTEAC measurements via SVR models (R: 0.633-0.900). Flavonols exhibit stronger effects on the acrylamide formation than flavones and isoflavones as well as their O-glycosides derivatives, which may be attributed to the number and position of phenolic and 3-enolic hydroxyls. The reduction/promotion effects were well predicted by using optimized quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) descriptors and SVR models (R: 0.926-0.994). Compared to artificial neural network and multi-linear regression models, SVR models exhibited better fitting performance for both TEAC-dependent and QSAR descriptor-dependent predicting work. These observations demonstrated that the SVR models are competent for predicting our understanding on the future use of natural antioxidants for decreasing the acrylamide formation.

  4. 复配氨基酸对丙烯酰胺抑制研究%Reserch on inhibitory of complex amino acids on acrylamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范云露; 陆启玉

    2013-01-01

    Acrylamide (Acrylamide, AA) exist in high temperature fried or baked goods. Add complex amino acid:Taurine(Tau)+Glycine(Gly),Taurine+L-Glutamine(L-Glu),Taurine+L-cysteine (L-Cys),Study their effects on the inhibition of acrylamide and using Response Surface Methodology on reaction time,temperature,proportion of complex amino acids were optimized. The results showed that three kinds of complex amino acid suppression system can effectively inhibit the AA content, which Tau/Cys complex best,but its inhibitory mechanism and in food processing applications for further study.%丙烯酰胺(Acrylamide,AA)存在于高温煎炸或焙烤食品中,该文添加复配氨基酸:牛磺酸(Taurine,Tau)+甘氨酸(Glycine,Gly),牛磺酸+L-谷氨酰胺(L-Glutamin,L-Glu),牛磺酸+半胱氨酸(L-Cysteine,L-Cys),研究其对丙烯酰胺(Acrylamide,AA)抑制作用,并利用响应面RSM(Response Surface Methodology)对反应时间、温度、复配氨基酸比例等条件进行优化。结果表明,三种复配氨基酸抑制体系均可有效抑制AA含量,其中又以Tau/Cys复配效果最好,但其抑制机理及在食品加工中应用有待进一步研究。

  5. Synthesis, characterization and application of poly(acrylamide-co-methylenbisacrylamide) nanocomposite as a colorimetric chemosensor for visual detection of trace levels of Hg and Pb ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedghi, Roya, E-mail: r_sedghi@sbu.ac.ir; Heidari, Bahareh; Behbahani, Mohammad

    2015-03-21

    Highlights: • Poly(acrylamide-co-methylenbisacrylamide) nanocomposite. • Colorimetric chemosensor. • Determination of trace levels of Hg and Pb ions. • Environmental samples. - Abstract: In this study, a new colorimetric chemosensor based on TiO{sub 2}/poly(acrylamide-co-methylenbisacrylamide) nanocomposites was designed for determination of mercury and lead ions at trace levels in environmental samples. The removal and preconcentration of lead and mercury ions on the sorbent was achieved due to sharing an electron pair of N and O groups of polymer chains with the mentioned heavy metal ions. The hydrogel sensor was designed by surface modification of a synthesized TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles using methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilan (MAPTMS), which provided a reactive C=C bond that polymerized the acrylamide and methylenbisacrylamide. The sorbent was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscope (SEM), EDS analysis and Fourier transform in frared (FT-IR) spectrometer. This nanostructured composite with polymer shell was developed as a sensitive and selective sorbent for adsorption of mercury and lead ions from aqueous solution at optimized condition. This method involves two-steps: (1) preconcentration of mercury and lead ions by the synthesized sorbent and (2) its selective monitoring of the target ions by complexation with dithizone (DZ). The color of the sorbent in the absence and presence of mercury and lead ions shifts from white to violet and red, respectively. The detection limit of the synthesized nanochemosensor for mercury and lead ions was 1 and 10 μg L{sup −1}, respectively. The method was successfully applied for trace detection of mercury and lead ions in tap, river, and sea water samples.

  6. Determination of trace acrylamide in starchy foodstuffs by HPLC using a novel mixed-mode functionalized calixarene sorbent for solid-phase extraction cleanup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenfen; Deng, Zhifen; Zhao, Wenjie; Guo, Ling; Tang, Wei; Du, Huifang; Lin, Lin; Jiang, Qiong; Yu, Ajuan; He, Lijun; Zhang, Shusheng

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, a rapid and effective HPLC method, using tetraazacalix[2]arene[2]triazine-modified silica gel (NCSi) as solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbent, was developed for the purification and determination of trace acrylamide in starchy foodstuffs. The main influence factors of SPE including amount of NCSi sorbent, sample flow rate, and volume and composition of washing solution were investigated and evaluated in the sample pretreatment step. The optimized purification effect was achieved at the sample flow rate of 3 mL/min with 100 mg of NCSi and 2 mL of washing solution (water, 100%). The HPLC separation was carried out on a C18 column (250×4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm) with a mobile phase of methanol/water (10:90, v/v). The linear range of the calibration curve was 4-4000 ng/mL with s correlation coefficient of >0.9999. The intraday and interday RSDs (n=5) of peak areas of acrylamide were 0.22 and 0.90% and the intraday and interday RSDs (n=5) of retention times were 0.50 and 1.63%, respectively. In addition, overall recoveries through the extraction and NCSi-SPE purification ranged from 73.13 to 98%. Compared with the commercial SPE sorbents, NCSi featured excellent selectivity to retain polar and nonpolar interferences in the sample matrices. The improved method was simple, rapid, accurate, and promising for the determination of trace acrylamide in starchy foods with a complex matrix.

  7. Determination of Acrylamide in Water by Gas Chromatography%水中丙烯酰胺气相色谱测定方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽莉; 王美飞; 胡恩宇; 沈敏

    2012-01-01

    研究建立了大口径毛细管柱气相色谱法测定水中丙烯酰胺的方法.优化了水中丙烯酰胺的衍生化条件,用乙酸乙酯和正己烷混合溶剂萃取衍生产物,萃取后直接进行色谱分离分析,水中丙烯酰胺的最低检测浓度为0.05μg/L,回收率在94.5%~113%之间;进行6次平行精密度试验,相对标准偏差低于11.5%.研究建立的气相色谱法简便、快速、准确、重现性好,定量、定性准确可靠,适合水中丙烯酰胺的分析测定.%A new .simple, quick and effective determination method of Acrylamide in water sample has been established. The compound in water sample (20ml) was reacted with KBr:KBrO3 solution and the Brominated derivatives was extracted with Ethyl actate: Hexcane(9:l ,2. 0ml) , 2. 0μl of the extracted solution was injected on a SPB608 (30m X 0. 53mm x 0. 50μm) capillary column and determined by GC-ECD. The average recoveries and relative standard deviations of Acrylamide were 95. 4% ~ 113% and less than 11.5% respectively. The detected limits were less than 0. 05μg/L. The method is simple, fast, sensitive and accurate for Acrylamide determination of lots of water samples.

  8. Technical Report, Outcome of the public consultation on the draft Scientific Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Contaminants on the Food Chain (CONTAM) on acrylamide in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    The EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel) has endorsed its draft Scientific Opinion on the risks to public health related to the presence of acrylamide (AA) in food. The opinion has undergone a public consultation from 1 July 2014 to 15 September 2014. Overall, EFSA has...... received 120 comments from various interested parties including national agencies, academia, industry and individuals in their private capacity. This report summarises the outcome of the public consultation, and lists and provides a brief summary of the comments received and how they were taken...

  9. Synthesis and characterization of Ce_(0.8)Sm_(0.2)O_(1.9) nanopowders using an acrylamide polymerization process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑颖平; 王绍荣; 王振荣; 邬理伟; 孙岳明

    2010-01-01

    Ce0.8Sm0.2O1.9(SDC) nanopowders were synthesized by an acrylamide polymerization process.The XRD results showed that SDC powders prepared at 700 °C possessed a cubic fluorite structure.Transmission electron microscopy(TEM) indicated that the particle sizes of powders were in the range of 10-15 nm.A 98.3% of theoretical density was obtained when the SDC pellets were sintered at 1350 °C for 5 h,indicating that the powders had good sinterability.The conductivity of the sintered SDC ceramics was 0.019 S/cm at 6...

  10. Application of an Accurate and Validated Method for Identification and Quantification of Acrylamide in Bread, Biscuits and Other Bakery Products Using GC-MS/MS System

    OpenAIRE

    Negoiță,Mioara; Culețu,Alina

    2016-01-01

    A gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry has been developed and validated for the separation, detection, identification and quantification of acrylamide in bread, biscuits and similar products. The method showed good precision with values lower than 6%. A good sensitivity was achieved for bread with 2.41 and 7.23 µg kg-1 limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ), respectively, while for biscuits, LOD and LOQ were 4.63 and 13.89 µg kg-1, respectively. Accuracy obtained th...

  11. 食品中丙烯酰胺检测方法研究进展%Progress in determination of acrylamide in food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费永乐; 王丽然; 李书国

    2015-01-01

    丙烯酰胺是一种可能的致癌物,广泛存在于各种食品中,如焙烤类食物、油炸薯条和烤肉等。丙烯酰胺定量检测方法对于准确评估其对人体危害十分必要。综述了食品中丙烯酰胺的检测技术与方法如液质联用技术、液相色谱法、气相色谱法、毛细管电泳法、酶联免疫分析法(ELISA)和生物传感器法等,而酶联免疫分析法(ELISA)和生物传感器法具有快速方便、样品预处理程序简单、可实现批量样品快速检测等优点,将逐渐代替气相色谱和液相色谱法等传统方法,成为食品中丙烯酰胺检测的快速、便捷检测技术方法。%Acrylamide,as probably carcinogen to human beings,exists widely in foods,such as baked foods,deep fried potatoes and barbecue. It is necessary to accurately assess the harm of acrylamide by quantitative determining acrylamide in food. The methods to detect acrylamide in foods,such as LC-MS,liquid chromatography,gas chromatography,capillary electrophoresis,enzyme-linked immunoas-say(ELISA)and by biosensor,were summarized. Detecting by ELISA and biosensor possessed the virtue of rapidness and convenience,simplicity of sample pretreatment and determining samples in batch,which should replace conventional methods,such as gas chromatography or liquid chromatography,become the main quantification methods.

  12. Synthesis of Starch Grafted Acrylamide Copolymers and its Mechanism%淀粉接枝丙烯酰胺絮凝剂合成及机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹文仲; 王磊; 田伟威; 钟宏

    2012-01-01

    应用水溶液聚合法合成淀粉接枝丙烯酰胺聚合物,研究了聚合反应机制.以过硫酸铵为引发剂,淀粉与丙烯酰胺在水溶液中进行接枝共聚反应,研究了反应温度、淀粉种类、糊化、pH值对接枝反应的单体转化率、接枝率、接枝效率以及产品支链聚合物相对分子质量的影响.结果表明:在反应温度50℃、丙烯酰胺与淀粉的质量比2∶1的条件下,产品接枝率71%,单体转化率97%,支链聚合物的相对分子质量700万.用偏光显微镜、扫描电镜分析等手段表征了淀粉及其接枝共聚物的形态结构.结果显示:合成的淀粉接枝共聚物保持团粒结构,表面接枝丙烯酰胺均聚物低;糊化的淀粉接枝后,形成了均匀的淀粉接枝共聚物.%Starch grafted acrylamide copolymer was synthesized using starch and acrylamide as raw materials and ammonium persulfate as initiator, respectively. The polymerization mechanism was also discussed. The influences of temperature, types of starch and gelatinization on monomer conversion rate, grafting ratio, graft efficiency and the molecular weight of polyacrylamide grafted, were investigated during the synthesized processes. The results showed that the grafting ratio, the monomer conversion rate, and the molecular weight of polyacrylamide grafted on starch is 71% ,97% ,and 7 million, respectively, when the reaction temperature was 50℃ and the mass ratio of acrylamide to starch was 2:1. The morphology of starch graft copolymers were characterized by polarizing microscope and SEM. After the graft reaction of ungelatinized starch,the morphology of the copolymers kept the aggregate structure , and acrylamide copolymer is grafted on the surface of starch; The gelatinized starch forms homogeneous polymer, which is totally different from ungelatinized products.

  13. Study of poly (acrylamide-co-2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid) hydrogel using gamma radiation initiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, C.; Easteal, A.J. [The University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand). Department of Chemistry

    1998-12-31

    Full text: Poly (acrylamide-co-2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid ) (PAAM-co-AMPS) polyelectrolyte hydrogels were formed by using {gamma}-radiation to initiate polymerization and cross-linking. The dependence of chain growth and cross-linking of liquid-like gel on absorbed dose was observed by viscosity measurement. It was found that the viscosity of liquid-like gel increased non-linearly with increasing radiation dose. Crosslinking took place at about 2,300 Gy. It was noted that an ageing effect occurred, such that the viscosity of liquid-like gels decreased significantly on standing. X-ray diffraction revealed that after dehydration the dried gels were amorphous, suggesting that radiation polymerization occurs by random initiation and propagation. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) indicated a clear distinction between the thermal behaviour of the homopolymer gels formed by irradiation, and the behaviour of the copolymer gels. PAAM-co-AMPS gels have enhanced thermal stability in comparison to PAAM and PAMPS. The melting points of water in the gels initially increase with increasing dose, and decrease slightly at very high radiation dose. Those trends can be explained by the variation in the numbers of solute molecules or ions in the gels with absorbed dose. Melting points of water in gels can be used for observation of the polymerization process associated with irradiation. Copolymer composition (expressed by either f{sub 1} (AAM molal fraction ) or f{sub 2} (AMPS molal fraction) ) associated with radiation dose was determined by both elemental analysis and FTIR. Both methods show that f{sub 1} increases to a maximum with increasing dose, and subsequently decreases. It is concluded that PAAM-co-AMPS hydrogels were synthesised successfully by gamma radiation initiation, and that copolymer compositions are dependent on radiation dose

  14. Mechanical and swelling characterization of poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide -co- methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate) sol-gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Jacob F; Healy, Kevin E

    2010-04-01

    The dimensional stability and rheological properties of a series of comb-like copolymers of N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAAm) and methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (mPEGMA), poly(NIPAAm-co-mPEGMA), with varying poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) graft densities and molecular weights were studied. The thermoresponsive character of the copolymer solutions was investigated by kinetic and equilibrium swelling, as well as by static and dynamic mechanical analysis. Surface response mapping was employed to target particular compositions and concentrations with excellent dimensional stability and a relatively large change in dynamic mechanical properties upon thermoreversible gelation. The mechanical characteristics of the gels depended strongly upon concentration of total polymer and less so upon copolymer ratio. Increased PEG graft density was shown to slow the deswelling rate and increase the equilibrium water content of the gels. Upon gelation at sol concentrations of 1-20 wt.% the materials underwent no deswelling or syneresis and maintained stable gels with a large elastic regime and high yield strain (i.e. elastic and soft but tough), even within the Pascal range of complex shear moduli. These materials are unique in that they maintained a physiologically useful lower critical solution temperature (approximately 33 degrees C), despite having a high PEG content. Copolymers with a high PEG content and low polymer fraction were conveniently transparent in the gel phase, allowing visualization of cellular activity without disrupting the microenvironment. Mesenchymal stem cells showed good viability and proliferation in three-dimensional culture within the gels, despite the lack of ligand incorporation to promote cellular interaction. Multi-component matrices can be created through simple mixing of copolymer solutions and peptide-conjugated linear polymers and proteins to produce combinatorial microenvironments with the potential for use in cell biology, tissue

  15. Role of cytochrome P450 2E1 in the metabolism of acrylamide and acrylonitrile in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, S C; Fennell, T R; Moore, T A; Chanas, B; Gonzalez, F; Ghanayem, B I

    1999-11-01

    Acrylonitrile (AN) and acrylamide (AM) are commonly used in the synthesis of plastics and polymers. In rodents, AM and AN are metabolized to the epoxides glycidamide and cyanoethylene oxide, respectively. The aim of this study was to determine the role of cytochrome P450 in the metabolism of AM and AN in vivo. Wild-type (WT) mice, WT mice pretreated with aminobenzotriazole (ABT, 50 mg/kg ip, 2 h pre-exposure), and mice devoid of cytochrome P450 2E1 (P450 2E1-null) were treated with 50 mg/kg [(13)C]AM po. WT mice and P450 2E1-null mice were treated with 2.5 or 10 mg/kg [(13)C]AN po. Urine was collected for 24 h, and metabolites were characterized using (13)C NMR. WT mice excreted metabolites derived from the epoxides and from direct GSH conjugation with AM or AN. Only metabolites derived from direct GSH conjugation with AM or AN were observed in the urine from ABT-pretreated WT mice and P450 2E1-null mice. On the basis of evaluation of urinary metabolites at these doses, these data suggest that P450 2E1 is possibly the only cytochrome P450 enzyme involved in the metabolism of AM and AN in mice, that inhibiting total P450 activity does not result in new pathways of non-P450 metabolism of AM, and that mice devoid of P450 2E1 do not excrete metabolites of AM or AN that would be produced by oxidation by other cytochrome P450s. P450 2E1-null mice may be an appropriate model for the investigation of the role of oxidative metabolism in the toxicity or carcinogenicity of these compounds.

  16. Biochemical characterization of a novel L-asparaginase from Paenibacillus barengoltzii being suitable for acrylamide reduction in potato chips and mooncakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ran; Liu, Yu; Mu, Qing; Jiang, Zhengqiang; Yang, Shaoqing

    2017-03-01

    A novel L-asparaginase gene (PbAsnase) from Paenibaeillus barengoltzii CAU904 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The L-asparaginase gene was 1011bp encoding 336 amino acids. Multiple sequence alignment of PbAsnase with other known L-asparaginases revealed that the enzyme showed high similarities with some Rhizobial-type L-asparaginases, sharing the highest identity of 32% with a characterized L-asparaginase from Rhizobium etli CFN 42, suggesting that it should be a novel L-asparaginase. The recombinant L-asparaginase (PbAsnase) was purified to homogeneity and biochemically characterized. The purified enzyme was optimally active at pH 8.5 and 45°C, respectively. It was stable within pH 5.5-10.0 and at temperatures below 55°C. PbAsnase exhibited strict substrate specificity towards L-asparagine (35.2U/mg), with Km and Vmax values of 3.6mM and 162.2μmol/min/mg, respectively, but displayed trace activity towards L-glutamine. Moreover, the application potential of PbAsnase on acrylamide migration in potato chips and mooncakes was evaluated. The pretreatment by PbAsnase significantly decreased the acrylamide contents in potato chips and mooncakes by 86% and 52%, respectively. The unique properties of PbAsnase may make it a good candidate in industries, especially in food safety.

  17. Selective adsorption of Pb (II) ions by amylopectin-g-poly (acrylamide-co-acrylic acid): A bio-degradable graft copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasmal, Dinabandhu; Maity, Jayanta; Kolya, Haradhan; Tripathy, Tridib

    2017-04-01

    Amylopectin-g-poly (acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) [AP-g-poly (AM-co-AA)] was synthesised in water medium by using potassium perdisulphate as an initiator. The graft copolymer was characterized by molecular weight determination by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies, thermal analysis, measurement of neutralisation equivalent and biodegradation studies. The graft copolymer was used for Pb (II) ion removal from aqueous solution. The Pb (II) ion removal capacity of the graft copolymer was also compared with another laboratory developed graft copolymer Amylopectin-g-poly (acrylamide) (AP-g-PAM). Both the graft copolymers were also used for the competitive metal ions removal with Pb (II)/Cd (II), Pb (II)/Zn (II), Pb (II)/Ni (II), Pb (II)/Cu (II) pairs separately under similar conditions. AP-g-poly (AM-co-AA) showed better Pb (II) ion adsorbing power over AP-g-PAM and also much selective towards Pb (II) ions. The adsorption follows a second order rate equation and Langmuir isotherm model.

  18. SYNTHESIS OF POLYMERICβ-CYCLODEXTRIN SUPPORTED BY CROSSLINKED POLY(ACRYLAMIDE-co-VINYLAMINE) AND ITS CATALYSIS OF THE HYDROLYSIS OF p-NITROPHENYL ACETATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-jun Wang; Jian-biao Ma; Bing-lin He

    2000-01-01

    Polymeric β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) supported by crosslinked poly(acrylamide-co-vinylamine) was synthesized as an artificial analog of hydrolytic enzyme and its catalysis of the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl acetate (p-NPA) was then investigated. The result showed that the polymer-supported β-CD could accelerate the hydrolytic reaction of p-NPA more quickly than β-CD itself and crosslinked poly(acrylamide-co-vinylamine) alone. The acceleration rate of the polymersupported β-CD was about 10 times as fast as that of free β-CD in 0.01 mol/L phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) containing 32%DMSO at 37±0.1℃ when the molar amount of β-CD units in the polymer was equal to that of free β-CD in the experiments.The enhanced acceleration of the polymer-supported β-CD should be ascribed to the cooperative contribution of the inclusion effect of β-CD ring and the nucleophilic effect of amino groups on the polymeric support.

  19. Immobilization of Styrene-acrylamide Co-polymer on Either Silica Particles or Inner Surface of Silica Capillary for the Separation of D-Glucose Anomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Faiz; Kim, Yune Sung; Cheong, Won Jo [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    Styrene-acrylamide co-polymer was immobilized on porous partially sub-2 μm silica monolith particles and inner surface of fused silica capillary (50 μm ID and 28 cm length) to result in μLC and CEC stationary phases, respectively, for separation of anomeric D-glucose derivatives. Reversed addition-fragmentation transfer (RAFT) polymerization was incorporated to induce surface polymerization. Acrylamide was employed to incorporate amide-functionality in the stationary phase. The resultant μLC and CEC stationary phases were able to separate isomers of D-glucose derivatives with high selectivity and efficiency. The mobile phase of 75/ 25 (v/v) acetonitrile (ACN)/water with 0.1% TFA, was used for HPLC with a packed column (1 mm ID, 300 mm length). The effects of pH and ACN composition on anomeric separation of D-glucose in CEC have been examined. A mobile phase of 85/15 (v/v) ACN/30 mM sodium acetate pH 6.7 was found the optimized mobile phase for CEC. The CEC stationary phase also gave good separation of other saccharides such as maltotriose and Dextran 1500 (MW∼1500) with good separation efficiency (number of theoretical plates ∼300,000/m)

  20. Grafting N-Isopropyl Acrylamide) from Poly(vinylidene Fluoride) Mirofiltration, Membranes via Direct Surface-Initiated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization, and Temperature Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiwang; Xiao, Jichun; Zhou, Weihua; Deng, Qilan; Nie, Huarong; Wan, Meixiang; Bai, Fenglian

    Well-defined poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAAm) brushes on commercial hydrophobic poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) microfiltration membrane surfaces were prepared, via direct atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) with the secondary fluorinated site of PVDF as initiator and water as solvent at 80°C. The effect of solvents on the ATRP was studied in detail. The water as reaction solvent was in favor of surface-initiated ATRP of N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAAm) from secondary fluoride of PVDF membranes. The chemical composition and structure of the modified PVDF membrane surfaces were determined by attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The surface and cross-section morphology of membranes were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The pore sizes of the pristine PVDF membrane and the PNIPAAm-grafted PVDF membranes were measured using micro-image analysis and process software. The introduction of the well-defined PNIPAAm on the PVDF membrane gave rise to hydrophilicity. Water contact angles of PVDF membranes reduced after the surface grafting of PNIPAAm. Water fluxes and protein solution permeation experiments revealed that the PNIPAAm-grafted PVDF membranes exhibited temperature-responsive permeability. The unique microstructure of PNIPAAm brushes facilitated hydrophilicity below the lower critical solution temperature.

  1. Surface modification of poly(ethylene terephthalate) angioplasty balloons with a hydrophilic poly(acrylamide-co-ethylene glycol) interpenetrating polymer network coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S; Bearinger, J P; Lautenschlager, E P; Castner, D G; Healy, K E

    2000-09-01

    An interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) of poly(acrylamide-co-ethylene glycol) (p(AAm-co-EG)) hydrogel was covalently grafted to polyethylene terephthalate (PET) angioplasty balloons to increase surface hydrophilicity and improve lubricity. A 2-step graft polymerization protocol was followed to first polymerize and cross-link acrylamide onto the substrate with a photosensitizer and/or oxygen plasma pretreatment. The effects of varying photo-initiation and plasma exposure times were investigated separately and conjunctively using water contact angles to obtain optimal coating deposition parameters. A poly(ethylene glycol) network was then grafted by swelling the preexisting polyacrylamide network to allow inter-diffusion of the monomer and cross-linker, which were then polymerized by photo-initiation. When the photo-initiation time was long enough to reach near gelation, pretreatment of PET with oxygen plasma did not offer significant benefit. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the presence of both polymer layers, and composition depth profiles supported the assessment that an interpenetrating network was formed. Tensile testing and application of Weibull statistics on unmodified and modified films indicated that the surface modification approach did not significantly alter the mechanical integrity of the material. These findings indicate that a p(AAm-co-EG) coating can be effectively deposited on PET surfaces without compromising the structural integrity of the substrate.

  2. Determination of Trace Acrylamide in Tap-water by GC-MS%GC-MS测定自来水中痕量丙烯酰胺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳; 王亚宁

    2015-01-01

    We determined trace acrylamide in tap water by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The sample pretreatment was bromide derivatization method with m/z152,150,108 as the characteristic fragment ion and the SIM scanning method for quantitative analysis. The accuracy and reproducibility of the method were good and the sensitivity was higher,and it was suitable for the determination of trace acrylamide in tap water.%建立自来水中痕量丙烯酰胺的气相色谱-质谱测定法.样品前处理采用溴化衍生法,以m/z152,150,108 为特征碎片离子,SIM 的扫描方式进行定量痕量分析.该方法的准确性、重现性较好,灵敏度更高,适用于自来水中痕量丙烯酰胺的测定.

  3. Direct measurement of tubulin and bulk message distributions on polysomes of growing, starved and deciliated Tetrahymena using RNA gel blots of sucrose gradients containing acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzone, F J; Callahan, R; Gorovsky, M A

    1988-10-25

    A method was developed using sucrose gradients containing acrylamide which greatly simplifies the measurement of the polysomal distribution of messages. After centrifugation, the acrylamide was polymerized, forming a "polysome gel". RNA gel blots of polysome gels were used to determine the polysomal distributions of alpha-tubulin and total polyadenylated mRNA in growing, starved (nongrowing) and starved-deciliated Tetrahymena and the number of messages loaded onto polysomes was calculated. These measurements indicated that the translational efficiencies of alpha-tubulin mRNA and total polyadenylated mRNA are largely unaffected when the rates of tubulin and total protein synthesis vary dramatically. Thus, differential regulation of alpha-tubulin mRNA translation initiation does not contribute to the greater than 100-fold induction of tubulin synthesis observed during cilia regeneration and in growing cells. The major translation-level process regulating tubulin synthesis in Tetrahymena appears to be a change in message loading mediated by a non-specific message recruitment or unmasking factor.

  4. Improved polymers for enhanced oil recovery: synthesis and rheology. Final report. [Copolymers of acrylamide with sodium-3-acrylamido-3-methyl-butanoate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, C.L.; Hester, R.D.

    1985-10-01

    Research during FY-84 was centered on synthesis, characterization, and rheological behavior of copolymers of acrylamide (AM) with sodium-3-acrylamido-3-methyl-butanoate (NaAMB). Reactivity ratios were determined and copolymers with designated microstructures were synthesized in order to assess solution properties. Polymers were characterized by C-13 NMR and Infrared Spectroscopy, low angle laser light scattering, quasielastic light scattering, viscometry, turbidimetry, and potentiometric titration. New light scattering and size exclusion chromatographic (SEC) techniques have been developed for more accurately measuring molecular size of high molecular weight, water-soluble copolymers. The improved sensitivity of SEC methods is attributable to the development of a new syringe pump, a sensitive pressure detector, and deconvolution techniques in conjuction with the utilization of efficient column packing materials. The AM/NaAMB copolymers show immense potential for use as mobility control agents in enhanced oil recovery due to their remarkable calcium tolerance and unusually high molecular weights as compared to conventional acrylamide-sodium acrylate copolymers of similar microstructure. 133 refs., 34 figs., 26 tabs.

  5. Poly (Acrylamide-co-Acrylic Acid) Hydrogel Induced by Glow-Discharge Electrolysis Plasma and Its Adsorption Properties for Cationic Dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Yang, Gege; Pan, Yuanpei; Lu, Quanfang; Yang, Wu; Gao, Jinzhang

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, poly (acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) (P(AM-co-AA)) hydrogel was prepared in an aqueous solution by using glow-discharge electrolysis plasma (GDEP) induced copolymerization of acrylamide (AM) and acrylic acid (AA), in which N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) was used as a crosslinker. A mechanism for the synthesis of P(AM-co-AA) hydrogel was proposed. To optimize the synthesis condition, the following parameters were examined in detail: the discharge voltage, discharge time, the content of the crosslinker, and the mass ratio of AM to AA. The results showed that the optimum pH range for cationic dyes removal was found to be 5.0-10.0. The P(AM-co-AA) hydrogel exhibits a very high adsorption potential and the experimental adsorption capacities for Crystal violet (CV) and Methylene blue (MB) were 2974.3 mg/g and 2303.6 mg/g, respectively. The adsorption process follows a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. In addition, the adsorption mechanism of P(AM-co-AA) hydrogel for cationic dyes was also discussed.

  6. Acrylamide-induced carcinogenicity in mouse lung involves mutagenicity: cII gene mutations in the lung of big blue mice exposed to acrylamide and glycidamide for up to 4 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjanatha, Mugimane G; Guo, Li-Wu; Shelton, Sharon D; Doerge, Daniel R

    2015-06-01

    Potential health risks for humans from exposure to acrylamide (AA) and its epoxide metabolite glycidamide (GA) have garnered much attention lately because substantial amounts of AA are present in a variety of fried and baked starchy foods. AA is tumorigenic in rodents, and a large number of in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that AA is genotoxic. A recent cancer bioassay on AA demonstrated that the lung was one of the target organs for tumor induction in mice; however, the mutagenicity of AA in this tissue is unclear. Therefore, to investigate whether or not gene mutation is involved in the etiology of AA- or GA-induced mouse lung carcinogenicity, we screened for cII mutant frequency (MF) in lungs from male and female Big Blue (BB) mice administered 0, 1.4, and 7.0 mM AA or GA in drinking water for up to 4 weeks (19-111 mg/kg bw/days). Both doses of AA and GA produced significant increases in cII MFs, with the high doses producing responses 2.7-5.6-fold higher than the corresponding controls (P ≤ 0.05; control MFs = 17.2 ± 2.2 and 15.8 ± 3.5 × 10(-6) in males and females, respectively). Molecular analysis of the mutants from high doses indicated that AA and GA produced similar mutation spectra and that these spectra were significantly different from the spectra in control mice (P ≤ 0.01). The predominant types of mutations in the lung cII gene from AA- and GA-treated mice were A:T → T:A, and G:C → C:G transversions, and -1/+1 frameshifts at a homopolymeric run of Gs. The MFs and types of mutations induced by AA and GA in the lung are consistent with AA exerting its genotoxicity via metabolism to GA. These results suggest that AA is a mutagenic carcinogen in mouse lungs and therefore further studies on its potential health risk to humans are warranted. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 56:446-456, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Sol-gel hybrid methyltrimethoxysilane-tetraethoxysilane as a new dispersive solid-phase extraction material for acrylamide determination in food with direct gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Mei Musa Ali; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Aini; Elbashir, Abdalla Ahmed

    2014-09-01

    A sol-gel hybrid sorbent, methyltrimethoxysilane-tetraethoxysilane (MTMOS-TEOS) was successfully used as new dispersive solid phase extraction (dSPE) sorbent material in the determination of acrylamide in several Sudanese foods and analysis using GC-MS. Several important dSPE parameters were optimised. Under the optimised conditions, excellent linearity (r(2)>0.9998) was achieved using matrix matched standard calibration in the concentration range 50-1000 μg kg(-1). The limits of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification ranged from 9.1 to 12.8 μg/kg and 27.8-38.9 μg/kg, respectively. The precision (RSD%) of the method was ⩽6.6% and recoveries of acrylamide obtained were in the range of 88-103%, (n=3). The LOD obtained is comparable with the LODs of primary secondary amine dSPE. The proposed MTMOS-TEOS dSPE method is direct and safe for acrylamide analysis, showed reliable method validation performances and good cleanup effects. It was successfully applied to the analysis of acrylamide in real food samples.

  8. The acrylamide (S-2 as a positive and negative modulator of Kv7 channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrid Marie Blom

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Activation of voltage-gated potassium channels of the Kv7 (KCNQ family reduces cellular excitability. These channels are therefore attractive targets for treatment of diseases characterized by hyperexcitability, such as epilepsy, migraine and neuropathic pain. Retigabine, which opens Kv7.2-5, is now in clinical trial phase III for the treatment of partial onset seizures. One of the main obstacles in developing Kv7 channel active drugs has been to identify compounds that can discriminate between the neuronal subtypes, a feature that could help diminish side effects and increase the potential of drugs for particular indications. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study we have made a thorough investigation of the Bristol-Myers Squibb compound (S-N-[1-(4-Cyclopropylmethyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[1], [4]oxazin-6-yl-ethyl]-3-(2-fluoro-phenyl-acrylamide [(S-2] on human Kv7.1-5 channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. We found that the compound was a weak inhibitor of Kv7.1. In contrast, (S-2 efficiently opened Kv7.2-5 by producing hyperpolarizing shifts in the voltage-dependence of activation and enhancing the maximal current amplitude. Further, it reduced inactivation, accelerated activation kinetics and slowed deactivation kinetics. The mechanisms of action varied between the subtypes. The enhancing effects of (S-2 were critically dependent on a tryptophan residue in S5 also known to be crucial for the effects of retigabine, (S-1 and BMS-204352. However, while (S-2 did not at all affect a mutant Kv7.4 with a leucine in this position (Kv7.4-W242L, a Kv7.2 with the same mutation (Kv7.2-W236L was inhibited by the compound, showing that (S-2 displays a subtype-selective interaction with in the Kv7 family. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results offer further insight into pharmacological activation of Kv7 channels, add to the understanding of small molecule interactions with the channels and may contribute to the design of

  9. Inulin supplementation during gestation mitigates acrylamide-induced maternal and fetal brain oxidative dysfunctions and neurotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Gokul; Muralidhara

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the developing brain is more susceptible to a variety of chemicals. Recent studies have shown a link between the enteric microbiota and brain function. While supplementation of non-digestible oligosaccharides during pregnancy has been demonstrated to positively influence human health mediated through stimulation of beneficial microbiota, our understanding on their neuromodulatory propensity is limited. In the present study, our primary focus was to examine whether supplementation of inulin (a well known fructan) during gestation can abrogate acrylamide (ACR)-induced oxidative impairments and neurotoxicity in maternal and fetal brain of rats. Initially, in a dose-determinative study, we recapitulated the impact of ACR exposure during gestation days (GD 6-19) on gestational parameters, extent of oxidative impairments in brain (maternal/fetal), cholinergic function and neurotoxicity. Subsequently, pregnant rats orally (gavage) administered with inulin (IN, 2 g/kg/day in two equal installments) supplements during gestation days (GD 0-19) were exposed to ACR (200 ppm) in drinking water. IN supplements significantly attenuated ACR-induced changes in exploratory activity (reduced open field exploration) measured on GD 14. Further, IN restored the placental weights among ACR exposed dams. Analysis of biochemical markers revealed that IN supplements effectively offset ACR associated oxidative stress not only in the maternal brain, but in the fetal brain as well. Elevated levels of protein carbonyls in maternal brain regions were completely normalized with IN supplements. More importantly, IN supplements significantly augmented the number of Bifidobacteria in the cecum of ACR rats which correlated well with the neurorestorative effect as evidenced by restored dopamine levels in the maternal cortex and fetal brain acetylcholinesterase activity among ACR-exposed dams. Further, IN supplements also conferred significant protection against

  10. Determination of acrylamide in Chinese traditional carbohydrate-rich foods using gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detector and isotope dilution liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yu [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, Zhejiang Province (China); Ren Yiping [Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Hangzhou 310009, Zhejiang Province (China); Zhao Hangmei [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, Zhejiang Province (China); Zhang Ying [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, Zhejiang Province (China)]. E-mail: y_zhang@zju.edu.cn

    2007-02-19

    The present study developed two analytical methods for quantification of acrylamide in complex food matrixes, such as Chinese traditional carbohydrate-rich foods. One is based on derivatization with potassium bromate and potassium bromide without clean-up prior to gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detector (GC-MECD). Alternatively, the underivatized acrylamide was detected by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) in the positive electrospray ionization mode. For both methods, the Chinese carbohydrate-rich samples were homogenized, defatted with petroleum ether and extracted with aqueous solution of sodium chloride. Recovery rates for acrylamide from spiked Chinese style foods with the spiking level of 50, 500 and 1000 {mu}g kg{sup -1} were in the range of 79-93% for the GC-MECD including derivatization and 84-97% for the HPLC-MS/MS method. Typical quantification limits of the HPLC-MSMS method were 4 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for acrylamide. The GC-MECD method achieved quantification limits of 10 {mu}g kg{sup -1} in Chinese style foods. Thirty-eight Chinese traditional foods purchased from different manufacturers were analyzed and compared with four Western style foods. Acrylamide contaminant was found in all of samples at the concentration up to 771.1 and 734.5 {mu}g kg{sup -1} detected by the GC and HPLC method, respectively. The concentrations determined with the two different quantitative methods corresponded well with each other. A convenient and fast pretreatment procedure will be optimized in order to satisfy further investigation of hundreds of samples.

  11. Determination of acrylamide in Chinese traditional carbohydrate-rich foods using gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detector and isotope dilution liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Ren, Yiping; Zhao, Hangmei; Zhang, Ying

    2007-02-19

    The present study developed two analytical methods for quantification of acrylamide in complex food matrixes, such as Chinese traditional carbohydrate-rich foods. One is based on derivatization with potassium bromate and potassium bromide without clean-up prior to gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detector (GC-MECD). Alternatively, the underivatized acrylamide was detected by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) in the positive electrospray ionization mode. For both methods, the Chinese carbohydrate-rich samples were homogenized, defatted with petroleum ether and extracted with aqueous solution of sodium chloride. Recovery rates for acrylamide from spiked Chinese style foods with the spiking level of 50, 500 and 1000 microg kg(-1) were in the range of 79-93% for the GC-MECD including derivatization and 84-97% for the HPLC-MS/MS method. Typical quantification limits of the HPLC-MSMS method were 4 microg kg(-1) for acrylamide. The GC-MECD method achieved quantification limits of 10 microg kg(-1) in Chinese style foods. Thirty-eight Chinese traditional foods purchased from different manufacturers were analyzed and compared with four Western style foods. Acrylamide contaminant was found in all of samples at the concentration up to 771.1 and 734.5 microg kg(-1) detected by the GC and HPLC method, respectively. The concentrations determined with the two different quantitative methods corresponded well with each other. A convenient and fast pretreatment procedure will be optimized in order to satisfy further investigation of hundreds of samples.

  12. Matrix-compatible sorbent coatings based on structurally-tuned polymeric ionic liquids for the determination of acrylamide in brewed coffee and coffee powder using solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagliero, Cecilia; Nan, He; Bicchi, Carlo; Anderson, Jared L

    2016-08-12

    Nine crosslinked polymeric ionic liquid (PIL)-based SPME sorbent coatings were designed and screened in this study for the trace level determination of acrylamide in brewed coffee and coffee powder using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The structure of the ionic liquid (IL) monomer was tailored by introducing different functional groups to the cation and the nature of the IL crosslinker was designed by altering both the structure of the cation as well as counteranions. The extraction efficiency of the new PIL coatings towards acrylamide was investigated and compared to a previously reported PIL sorbent coating. All PIL fibers exhibited excellent analytical precision and linearity. The PIL fiber coating consisting of 50% 1,12-di(3-vinylbenzylbenzimidazolium)dodecane dibis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide as IL crosslinker in 1-vinyl-3-(10-hydroxydecyl)imidazolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide IL monomer resulted in a limit of quantitation of 0.5μgL(-1) with in-solution SPME sampling. The hydroxyl moiety appended to the IL cation was observed to significantly increase the sensitivity of the PIL coating toward acrylamide. The quantitation of acrylamide in brewed coffee and coffee powder was performed using the different PIL-based fibers by the method of standard addition after a quenching reaction using ninhydrin to inhibit the formation of interfering acrylamide in the GC inlet, mainly by asparagine thermal degradation. Excellent repeatability with relative standard deviations below 10% were obtained on the real coffee samples and the structure of the coatings appeared intact by scanning electron microscopy after coffee sampling proving the matrix-compatibility of the PIL sorbent coatings.

  13. The effect of thermal processing in oil on the macromolecular integrity and acrylamide formation from starch of three potato cultivars organically fertilized

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo Varzakas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Starches from three organically produced cultivars of potato tuber (Lady Rosetta, Spunta and Voyager have been studied in relation to (i acrylamide production (ii macromolecular integrity after frying with extra virgin olive oil, soybean oil and corn oil. During cultivation, a treatment involving the combination of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilization under organic farming was applied (N1, P2, K1 where Ν1 = 1.3 g Ν per plant, P2 = 5.2 g P2O5 per plant, Κ1 = 4.0 g K2O per plant. Potatoes fried in olive oil retained the highest glucose concentrations for all cultivars 0.85 ± 0.2 mmol/kg, followed by 0.48 ± 0.2 for those fried in corn oil and 0.40 ± 0.1 mmol/kg for those fried in soybean oil. The highest average fructose concentration was recorded for the samples fried in corn oil as 0.81 ± 0.2, followed by 0.80 ± 0.2 and 0.68 ± 0.3 mmol/kg for the samples fried in olive and soybean oils, respectively. Asparagine was the most abundant free amino acid in the three varieties tested, followed by glutamine and aspartic acid. The mean initial concentration of asparagine in raw potatoes tubers was 42.8 ± 1.6 mmoles kg−1 for Lady Rosetta, 34.6 ± 1.2 mmoles kg−1 (dry weight for Spunta and 36.2 ± 2.0 mmoles kg−1 for Voyager. Lady Rosetta contained a significantly higher concentration of asparagine compared to the other two varieties (p < 0.05. The greatest quantity of acrylamide was observed in French fries derived from the potato variety Lady Rosetta when fried in soybean oil and it was 2,600 ± 440 μg/kg, followed by Spunta which was 2,280 ± 340 μg/kg and Voyager 1,120 ± 220 μg/kg. There is a significant reduction in the formation of acrylamide in the variety Voyager compared to the others (p = 0.05.

  14. STUDY ON THE IMMOBILIZATION OF PAPAIN WITH A MACROPOROUS BEAD CARRIER OF COPOLYMER CONTAINING MONOMER UNITS OF N-AMINOETHYL ACRYLAMIDE AND VINYL ALCOHOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-feng Li; Jun-rong Li; Lian-di Fu; Yao-zeng Li

    2000-01-01

    A kind of macroporous bead carrier of copolymer containing monomer units ofN-aminoethyl acrylamide and vinyl alcohol was synthesized, i.e. the MR-AA carrier. Papain was immobilized on the carrier using glutaraldehyde as the coupling agent. The enzymatic activity of the immobilized papain was compared with free papain using casein as a substrate, and the effects of glutaraldehyde concentration, pH, temperature, time and papain amount added on the activity recovery were also investigated. The results show that the MR-AA carrier contains reactive primary amine groups, hydrophilic amido links and hydroxyl groups, as well as macroporous structures based on its matrix (MR-AV matrix), furthermore, the activity recovery of papain in the immobilization could reach 48%~58%. In comparison with free papain, the resulting immobilized papain exhibits a remarkable thermostability and better reusability.

  15. Theoretical investigation on the non-linear optical properties, vibrational spectroscopy and frontier molecular orbital of (E)-2-cyano-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)acrylamide molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao-Hong, Li; Hong-Ling, Cui; Rui-Zhou, Zhang; Xian-Zhou, Zhang

    2015-02-25

    The vibrational frequencies of (E)-2-cyano-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)acrylamide (HB-CA) in the ground state have been calculated using density functional method (B3LYP) with B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The analysis of natural bond orbital was also performed. The IR spectra were obtained and interpreted by means of potential energies distributions (PEDs) using MOLVIB program. In addition, the results show that there exists C-H⋯O hydrogen bond in the title compound, which is confirmed by the natural bond orbital analysis. The predicted NLO properties show that the title compound is a good candidate as nonlinear optical material. The analysis of frontier molecular orbitals shows that HB-CA has high excitation energies, good stability and high chemical hardness. The analysis of MEP map shows the negative and the positive potential sites.

  16. Protective effect of wild raspberry (Rubus hirsutus Thunb.) extract against acrylamide-induced oxidative damage is potentiated after simulated gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Su, Hongming; Xu, Yang; Bao, Tao; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2016-04-01

    Raspberry is well known as rich source of antioxidants, such as polyphenols and flavonoids. However, after consumption, the antioxidants are subjected to digestive conditions within the gastrointestinal tract that may result in structural and functional alterations. Our previous study indicated that acrylamide (AA)-induced cytotoxicity was associated with oxidative stress. However, the protective effect of wild raspberry extract produced before and after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion against AA-induced oxidative damage is unclear. In the present study, we found that wild raspberry extract produced after digestion (RD) had a pronounced protective effect against AA-induced cytotoxicity compared with that produced before digestion (RE). Further investigation indicated that RD significantly inhibited AA-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) collapse and glutathione (GSH) depletion. Moreover, LC-MS analysis revealed that wild raspberry underwent gastrointestinal digestion significantly increased the contents of esculin, kaempferol hexoside and pelargonidin hexoside.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of superabsorbent polymer prepared by radiation-induced graft copolymerization of acrylamide onto carboxymethyl cellulose for controlled release of agrochemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemvichian, Kasinee; Chanthawong, Auraruk; Suwanmala, Phiriyatorn

    2014-10-01

    Superabsorbent polymer (SAP) was synthesized by radiation-induced grafting of acrylamide (AM) onto carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) in the presence of a crosslinking agent, N,N‧-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA). The effects of various parameters, such as dose, the amount of CMC, AM, MBA and ionic strength on the swelling ratio were investigated. In order to evaluate its controlled release potential, SAP was loaded with potassium nitrate (KNO3) as an agrochemical model and its potential for controlled release of KNO3 was studied. The amount of released KNO3 was analyzed by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results from controlled release experiment agreed very well with the results from swelling experiment. The synthesized SAP was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The obtained SAP exhibited a swelling ratio of 190 g/g of dry gel.

  18. Theoretical investigation on the non-linear optical properties, vibrational spectroscopy and frontier molecular orbital of (E)-2-cyano-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)acrylamide molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao-Hong, Li; Hong-Ling, Cui; Rui-Zhou, Zhang; Xian-Zhou, Zhang

    2015-02-01

    The vibrational frequencies of (E)-2-cyano-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)acrylamide (HB-CA) in the ground state have been calculated using density functional method (B3LYP) with B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The analysis of natural bond orbital was also performed. The IR spectra were obtained and interpreted by means of potential energies distributions (PEDs) using MOLVIB program. In addition, the results show that there exists Csbnd H⋯O hydrogen bond in the title compound, which is confirmed by the natural bond orbital analysis. The predicted NLO properties show that the title compound is a good candidate as nonlinear optical material. The analysis of frontier molecular orbitals shows that HB-CA has high excitation energies, good stability and high chemical hardness. The analysis of MEP map shows the negative and the positive potential sites.

  19. Establishment of a model to select acrylamide inhibitor%一种用于筛选丙烯酰胺抑制剂的模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄滟波; 魏东乏

    2012-01-01

    本文建立了模拟丙烯酰胺形成的化学模型和食品模型,分别研究了150℃和170℃条件下2~10min范围内不同加热时间对上述模型中丙烯酰胺产生量及产物颜色的影响。确定的化学模型条件为:0.050g天冬酰胺、0.060g葡萄糖及3mL去离子水,于不锈钢密封管中170℃油浴加热5min;食品模型条件为:约2mm厚薯片,在蒸馏水或抑制剂溶液中浸泡3min后,于170℃油炸5min。%Chemical model and food model systems which could simulate the produce process of acrylamide were established in this paper.The effects of different heating time between 2-10min and temperature in 150℃ and 170% on acrylamide production and the color change of model outcomes were investigated.As a result, taking 0.050g Asn,0.060g Glu and 3mL deionized water into stainless steel tube heating in 170℃ oil bath for 5min as chemical model system,taking potato crisps of about 2mm thickness blanched in distill water for 3min and fried in 170℃ soy oil as food model system.

  20. A novel photo-grafting of acrylamide onto carboxymethyl starch. 1. Utilization of CMS-g-PAAm in easy care finishing of cotton fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Manal A

    2016-11-05

    The photosensitized grafting of vinyl monomers onto a range of polymeric substrates has been the subject of particular interest in the recent past. Carboxymethyl starch (CMS)-poly acrylamide (PAAm) graft copolymer (CMS-g-PAAm) with high graft yield was successfully prepared by grafting of acrylamide onto CMS using UV irradiation in the presence of the water soluble 4-(trimethyl ammoniummethyl) benzophenone chloride photoinitiator. CMS-g-PAAm with nitrogen content of 8.3% and grafting efficiency up to 98.9% was obtained using 100% AAm, a material: liquor ratio of 1:14 and 1% photinitiator at 30°C for 1h of UV irradiation. The synthesis of CMS-g-PAAm was confirmed by FTIR and Nitrogen content (%). Surface morphology of CMS and surface morphological changes of CMS after grafting with AAm were studied using SEM. Thermal properties of both CMS and CMS-g-PAAm were studied using TGA and DSC. To impart easy care finishing to cotton fabrics, aqueous formulations of: CMS-g-PAAm, dimethylol dihydroxy ethylene urea (DMDHEU), CMS-g-PAAm-DMDHEU mixture or methylolated CMS-g-PAAm were used. Cotton fabrics were padded in these formulations, squeezed to a wet pick up 100%, dried at 100°C for 5min, cured at 150°C for 5min, washed at 50°C for 10min and air-dried. CRA (crease recovery angle) of untreated fabrics and fabrics finished with a mixture of 2% CMS-g-PAAm and 10% DMDHEU or methylolated CMS-g-PAAm (10% formaldehyde) were: 136°, 190°, 288° respectively. Increasing the number of washing cycles up to five cycles results in an insignificant decrease in the CRA and a significant decrease in RF (releasable formaldehyde) of finished fabric samples. The morphologies of the finished and unfinished cotton fabrics were performed by SEM.