WorldWideScience

Sample records for acrylamides

  1. Acrylamide mitigation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palermo, M.; Gökmen, V.; Meulenaer, De B.; Ciesarová, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Pedreschi, F.; Fogliano, V.

    2016-01-01

    FoodDrinkEurope Federation recently released the latest version of the Acrylamide Toolbox to support manufacturers in acrylamide reduction activities giving indication about the possible mitigation strategies. The Toolbox is intended for small and medium size enterprises with limited R&D reso

  2. Acrylamide in processed potato products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trace amounts of acrylamide are found in many foods cooked at high temperatures. Acrylamide in processed potato products is formed from reducing sugars and asparagine and is a product of the Maillard reaction. Processed potato products including fries and chips are relatively high in acrylamide comp...

  3. Acrylamide in Fried Potato Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, Pieternel; Sanny, Maimunah

    2016-01-01

    High acrylamide levels have been detected in fried potato products. Dietary intake studies observed large differences in acrylamide between single foodstuffs, within food categories, and within batches of similarly processed products. FAO/WHO emphasized that causes of variation need to be underst

  4. Megaoesophagus due to acrylamide neuropathy.

    OpenAIRE

    Satchell, P M; McLeod, J G

    1981-01-01

    Greyhound dogs exposed to oral acrylamide for a period of eight weeks developed a sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy that had many features in common with acrylamide neuropathy seen in other species. Most of the animals also developed the clinical and radiological features of megaoesophagus. The association of neuropathy and megaoesophagus suggests that an axonopathy of the vagus may be an aetiological factor in this disorder.

  5. 40 CFR 721.323 - Substituted acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted acrylamide. 721.323... Substances § 721.323 Substituted acrylamide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as substituted acrylamide (PMN P-90-1687)...

  6. Phytoremediation potential of Arabidopsis with reference to acrylamide and microarray analysis of acrylamide-response genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian-Jie; Peng, Ri-He; Zhu, Bo; Wang, Bo; Wang, Li-Juan; Xu, Jing; Sun, Miao; Yao, Quan-Hong

    2015-10-01

    Acrylamide (ACR) is a widely used industrial chemical. However, it is a dangerous compound because it showed neurotoxic effects in humans and act as reproductive toxicant and carcinogen in many animal species. In the environment, acrylamide has high soil mobility and may travel via groundwater. Phytoremediation is an effective method to remove the environmental pollutants, but the mechanism of plant response to acrylamide remains unknown. With the purpose of assessing remediation potentials of plants for acrylamide, we have examined acrylamide uptake by the model plant Arabidopsis grown on contaminated substrates with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. The result revealed that acrylamide could be absorbed and degraded by Arabidopsis. Further microarray analysis showed that 527 transcripts were up-regulated within 2-days under acrylamide exposure condition. We have found many potential acrylamide-induced genes playing a major role in plant metabolism and phytoremediation.

  7. Dietary acrylamide intake and brain cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, J.G.F.; Schouten, L.J.; Konings, E.J.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2009-01-01

    Background: Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen, which is present in several heat-treatedfood s. In epidemiologic studies, positive associations with endometrial, ovarian, and renal cell cancer risk have been observed. The incidence of central nervous system tumors was increased upon acrylamid

  8. Formation of acrylamide in cheese bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Sobrinho, Luis Gualberto De Andrade; Granby, Kit;

    2008-01-01

    Low addition of grated Mozzarella cheese (13.4 g/100 g dough) resulted after baking for 20 min at 200 degrees C in a moderate increase of acrylamide from 4 ppb in buns without cheese to 7 ppb in the cheese buns as analyzed by a LCMS/MS technique. The effect was strongly dependent on the amount of....... In contrast, acrylamide was not observed in Pao de queijo a traditional Brazilian bread product made from fermented cassava flour, fresh eggs and a mixture of Brazilian Gouda type cheese and Mozzarella cheese pointing towards a role of eggs in protection against acrylamide formation....

  9. A new photopolymerizable holographic recording material based on acrylamide and N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Qiao-Xia; Wang Su-Lian; Huang Ming-Ju; Gan Fu-Xi

    2005-01-01

    A new polyvinylalcohol-based photopolymeric holographic recording material has been developed. The recording is obtained by the copolymerization of acrylamide and N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide. Diffraction efficiencies near 50% are obtained with energetic exposure of 80m J/cm2. N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide can improve the optical quality of the film. With the increase of the concentration of N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide, the flatness of the film increases, scattering reduces and the straight image is clearer with a small distortion. The postexposure effect on the grating is also studied.The diffraction efficiency of grating increases further during postexposure, gradient of monomer exists after exposure.

  10. Role of plant polyphenols in acrylamide formation and elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanbing; Wang, Pengpu; Chen, Fang; Yuan, Yuan; Zhu, Yuchen; Yan, Haiyang; Hu, Xiaosong

    2015-11-01

    Acrylamide found in thermal-treated foods has led to an intensive and persistent research effort, since it is a neurotoxic, genotoxic and probable carcinogenic compound to humans. Plant polyphenols are the most abundant antioxidants in human diet. Several researches indicated that the polyphenols affected the acrylamide formation during heating. However, the controversial effects of the polyphenols on acrylamide formation were related to their structure, concentrations, and antioxidant capacity, as well as reaction condition. Polyphenols can inhibit acrylamide formation through trapping of carbonyl compounds and preventing against lipid oxidation, while some special polyphenols can enhance the acrylamide content by providing carbonyl groups, accelerating the conversion from 3-aminopropionamide (3-APA) to acrylamide and inhibiting acrylamide elimination. This review concludes the effects of polyphenols in the Maillard reaction and food systems conducted so far, aimed to give an overview on the role of plant polyphenols in acrylamide formation and elimination.

  11. 21 CFR 173.5 - Acrylate-acrylamide resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... produced by the polymerization of acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of acrylamide... polyacrylate-acrylamide resin is produced by the polymerization and subsequent hydrolysis of acrylonitrile in a... or cane sugar juice and liquor or corn starch hydrolyzate in an amount not to exceed 5 parts...

  12. Dietary acrylamide intake is not associated with gastrointestinal cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, J.G.F.; Schouten, L.J.; Konings, E.J.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2008-01-01

    Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen that was detected in several heat-treated foods, such as French fries and crisps, in 2002. Prospective studies are needed on acrylamide and human cancer risk. We prospectively investigated the association between acrylamide and gastrointestinal cancer risk.

  13. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid...

  14. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section 176... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely used as components of articles intended for use in...

  15. Processing treatments for mitigating acrylamide formation in sweetpotato French fries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acrylamide formation in sweetpotato French fries (SPFF) is likely a potential health concern as there is an increasing demand for good-quality fries from carotene-rich sweetpotatoes (SP). This is the first report on acrylamide formation in SPFF as affected by processing methods. Acrylamide levels in...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10073 - Modified alkyl acrylamide (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified alkyl acrylamide (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10073 Modified alkyl acrylamide (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acrylamide (PMN P-05-536) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  17. 40 CFR 721.320 - Acrylamide-substituted epoxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acrylamide-substituted epoxy. 721.320... Substances § 721.320 Acrylamide-substituted epoxy. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylamide-substituted epoxy (PMN...

  18. Dietary acrylamide and risk of prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Kathryn M.; Giovannucci, Edward; Stampfer, Meir J.; Mucci, Lorelei A.

    2011-01-01

    Acrylamide has been designated by IARC as a “probable human carcinogen.” High levels are formed during cooking of many commonly consumed foods including French fries, potato chips, breakfast cereal, and coffee. Two prospective cohort studies and two case-control studies in Europe found no association between acrylamide intake and prostate cancer. We examined this association in a large prospective cohort of 47,896 U.S. men in the Health Professionals’ Follow-up Study, using updated dietary ac...

  19. Analysis of acrylamide in coffee and dietary exposure to acrylamide from coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granby, Kit; Fagt, Sisse

    2004-01-01

    An analytical method for analysing acrylamide in coffee was validated. The analysis of prepared coffee includes a comprehensive clean-up using multimode solid-phase extraction (SPE) by automatic SPE equipment and detection by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using electrospray...... in the positive mode. The recoveries of acrylamide in ready-to-drink coffee spiked with 5 and 10 mug l(-1) were 96 +/- 14% and 100 +/- 8%, respectively. Within laboratory reproducibility for the same spiking levels were 14% and 9%, respectively. Coffee samples (n = 25) prepared twice by coffee machines and twice...... by a French Press Cafetiere coffee maker contained 8 +/- 3 mug l(-1) and 9 +/- 3 mug l(-1) acrylamide. Five ready-to-drink instant coffee prepared twice contained 8 +/- 2 mug l(-1). Hence, the results do not show significant differences in the acrylamide contents in ready-to-drink coffee prepared by coffee...

  20. Update on the National Acrylamide Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acrylamide, a suspected human carcinogen that may delay fetal development, is a Maillard reaction product that forms when carbohydrate-rich foods are cooked at high temperatures. Processed potato products, including French fries and potato chips, make a substantial contribution to total dietary acry...

  1. Acrylamide neurotoxicity on the cerebrum of weaning rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-min Tian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism underlying acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity remains controversial. Previous studies have focused on acrylamide-induced toxicity in adult rodents, but neurotoxicity in weaning rats has not been investigated. To explore the neurotoxic effect of acrylamide on the developing brain, weaning rats were gavaged with 0, 5, 15, and 30 mg/kg acrylamide for 4 consecutive weeks. No obvious neurotoxicity was observed in weaning rats in the low-dose acrylamide group (5 mg/kg. However, rats from the moderate- and high-dose acrylamide groups (15 and 30 mg/kg had an abnormal gait. Furthermore, biochemical tests in these rats demonstrated that glutamate concentration was significantly reduced, and γ-aminobutyric acid content was significantly increased and was dependent on acrylamide dose. Immunohistochemical staining showed that in the cerebral cortex, γ-aminobutyric acid, glutamic acid decarboxylase and glial fibrillary acidic protein expression increased remarkably in the moderate- and high-dose acrylamide groups. These results indicate that in weaning rats, acrylamide is positively associated with neurotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner, which may correlate with upregulation of γ-aminobutyric acid and subsequent neuronal degeneration after the initial acrylamide exposure.

  2. Acrylamide neurotoxicity on the cerebrum of weaning rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-min Tian; Yu-xin Ma; Jing Shi; Ting-ye Lou; Shuai-shuai Liu; Guo-ying Li

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism underlying acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity remains controversial. Previ-ous studies have focused on acrylamide-induced toxicity in adult rodents, but neurotoxicity in weaning rats has not been investigated. To explore the neurotoxic effect of acrylamide on the developing brain, weaning rats were gavaged with 0, 5, 15, and 30 mg/kg acrylamide for 4 consecutive weeks. No obvious neurotoxicity was observed in weaning rats in the low-dose acrylamide group (5 mg/kg). However, rats from the moderate- and high-dose acrylamide groups (15 and 30 mg/kg) had an abnormal gait. Furthermore, biochemical tests in these rats demonstrated that glutamate concentration was significantly reduced, and γ-aminobutyric acid content was signiifcantly increased and was dependent on acrylamide dose. Immunohis-tochemical staining showed that in the cerebral cortex,γ-aminobutyric acid, glutamic acid decarboxylase and glial ifbrillary acidic protein expression increased remarkably in the moder-ate-and high-dose acrylamide groups. These results indicate that in weaning rats, acrylamide is positively associated with neurotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner, which may correlate with upregulation of γ-aminobutyric acid and subsequent neuronal degeneration after the initial acrylamide exposure.

  3. Acrylamide in Food – EU versus FDA Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Mustăţea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Acrylamide is a versatile organic compound that finds its way into many products in our everyday life. The presence of acrylamide in foods dates from 2002, when a series of studies published in Sweden, confirmed its presence in high temperatures processed foods. At EU level, first adopted measure was Commission Recommendation on the monitoring of acrylamide levels in food, on May 2007, extended then by Commission Recommendation 2010/307/EU. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA then, collected and compiled data, each year (2007-2010, and published an annual report. On January 2011 was adopted the Recommendation on the investigations into the levels of acrylamide in food and then, on November 2013 was adopted Commission Recommendation 2013/647/EU on investigation into levels of acrylamide in food. Based on these, EFSA had published, in June 2015 a comprehensive risk assessment on acrylamide in food. The FDA first published a draft regarding Detection and Quantitation of Acrylamide in Foods, in 2003 followed in 2004 by the Action Plan for Acrylamide in Food. In 2006 FDA published Survey Data on Acrylamide in food then in 2009, in August (updated in November a Federal Register Notice entitled: Acrylamide in food: Request for comments and for scientific data and information. Their findings have been materialized, in November 2013, into a powerful tool for industry: Draft Guidance for industry: Acrylamide in Foods. Despite research implications that exposure to acrylamide from food is safe, some consumers may choose to take measures to further reduce their acrylamide exposure. 

  4. Dietary levels of acrylamide affect rat cardiomyocyte properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Brandan; Hariharan, Venkatesh; Huang, Hayden

    2014-09-01

    The toxic effects of acrylamide on cytoskeletal integrity and ion channel balance is well-established in many cell types, but there has been little examination regarding the effects of acrylamide on primary cardiomyocytes, despite the importance of such components in their function. Furthermore, acrylamide toxicity is generally examined using concentrations higher than those found in vivo under starch-rich diets. Accordingly, we sought to characterize the dose-dependent effects of acrylamide on various properties, including cell morphology, contraction patterns, and junctional connexin 43 staining, in primary cardiomyocytes. We show that several days exposure to 1-100 μM acrylamide resulted in altered morphology, irregular contraction patterns, and an increase in the amount of immunoreactive signal for connexin 43 at cell junctions. We conclude that dietary levels of acrylamide may alter cellular function with prolonged exposure, in primary cardiomyocytes.

  5. Acrylamide exposure impairs blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier function

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Xue; Yan, Licheng; Yao, Lin; GUAN, Weijun; Zeng, Fanxu; Cao, Fuyuan; Zhang, Yanshu

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies show that chronic acrylamide exposure leads to central and peripheral neu-ropathy. However, the underlying mechanisms remained unclear. In this study, we examined the permeability of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier, and its ability to secrete transthyretin and transport leptin of rats exposed to acrylamide for 7, 14, 21 or 28 days. Transthyretin levels in cerebrospinal fluid began to decline on day 7 after acrylamide exposure. The sodium fluorescein level in cerebrospin...

  6. Toxicity of acrylamide and its metabolite – Glicydamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Pingot

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Acrylamide is a synthetic chemical compound commonly used in many branches of industry. It is mainly used in the synthesis of polyacrylamides, which are widely employed in plastics, paints, varnishes, adhesives and mortars production. Acrylamide is also applied in the cellulose-paper and cosmetic industries to produce toiletries and cosmetics. The interest in acrylamide increased in 2002, when Swedish scientists showed that a considerable amount of this substance is formed during frying and baking of various foods. Studies concerning toxicity of acrylamide and its metabolite - glicydamide showed their neurotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic effects. Neverthless, in humans only neurotoxic effect of acrylamide has been clearly evidenced. Genotoxic nature of acetylamide manifests itself mainly in its metabolic conversion to the epoxide derivative glicydamide. Carcinogenic effects of acrylamide have been shown in animal studies. Epidemiological studies have not provided explicit evidence that acrylamide supplied with the diet can initiate the formation of tumors in humans. Acrylamide exposure is assessed by measuring specific compounds (adducts formed during the reaction of acrylamide with hemoglobin and DNA. Med Pr 2013;64(2:259–271

  7. Dietary Exposure of the Chinese Population to Acrylamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ping Ping; ZHAO Yun Feng; LIU Hua Liang; MA Yong Jian; LI Xiao Wei; YANG Xin; WU Yong Ning

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the current status of the acrylamide in the Chinese food supply, the dietary acrylamide exposure in the Chinese population and to estimate the public health risks of the current consumption. Methods The acrylamide content in the total diet study (TDS) food samples was analyzed using an LC-MS/MS method. Based on the analytical results, the dietary exposure calculations were performed using a deterministic method, combining mean acrylamide concentrations from the food group composite with their associated food consumptions. Results Acrylamide was detected in 43.7% of all samples collected and acrylamide concentration varied from ND to 526.6 µg/kg. The estimated dietary intakes of acrylamide among Chinese general population given as the mean and the 95th percentile (P95) were 0.286 and 0.490 µg·kg-1 bw·day-1, respectively. The margins of exposure (MOEs) for the population calculated using both benchmark dose lower confidence limit for a 10%extra risk of tumors in animals (BMDL10) 0.31 and 0.18 µg·kg-1 bw·day-1, were 1069 and 621 for the mean dietary exposure, and 633 and 367 for the high dietary exposure respectively. Conclusion These MOE values might indicate a human health concern on acrylamide for Chinese population. Efforts should continue to reduce acrylamide levels in food in order to reduce the dietary risks to the human health.

  8. Acrylamide Mitigation Procedures in Fried Potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Kaack, Karl; Granby, Kit

    2008-01-01

    , potato slices were treated in one of the following ways: (i) blanched in hot water at six different time-temperature combinations (50 degrees C for 30 and 70 min; 70 degrees C for 8 and 40 min; 90 degrees C for 2 and 9 min); (ii) immersed in a citric acid solutions of 10 g/L for half an hour Potato...... surprisingly had a very low acrylamide content (28 mu m/kg) even when they were fried at 190 degrees C. Potato immersion in citric acid solution of 10 g/L reduced acrylamide formation by almost 70% for slices fried at 150 degrees C. Color represented by the parameters L* and a* showed high correlations (r(2...

  9. PHOTOSENSITIVITY OF CERIC ION INITIATED ACRYLAMIDE POLYMERIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Jianhua; QIU Kunyuan; FENG Xinde

    1992-01-01

    Polymerization of acrylamide initiated by ceric ammonium nitrate alone has been studied in aqueous medium. The effects of UV light irradiation on the initial rates of polymerization, the activation energy and on the polymer molecular weights have been investigated. Compared with that in the dark, the rate of polymerization under UV light was accelerated to eleven times higher, and the overall activation energy was lowered markedly.

  10. ACRYLAMIDE, FOOD AND EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES RECOMMENDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Carrabs

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The exposure, often deceitful, to the acrylamide has determined notable apprehension in many consumers, so much that the Committee of the European Communities has financed the project HEATOX and has emanated the recommendation 2007/331. It is ascertained that proposed strategies have not brought to great changes in the food process chains, and neither in the traditional catering and housewife, for which more incisive measures are wished.

  11. Assessment of acrylamide toxicity using a battery of standardised bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zovko, Mira; Vidaković-Cifrek, Željka; Cvetković, Želimira; Bošnir, Jasna; Šikić, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    Acrylamide is a monomer widely used as an intermediate in the production of organic chemicals, e.g. polyacrylamides (PAMs). Since PAMs are low cost chemicals with applications in various industries and waste- and drinking water treatment, a certain amount of non-polymerised acrylamide is expected to end up in waterways. PAMs are non-toxic but acrylamide induces neurotoxic effects in humans and genotoxic, reproductive, and carcinogenic effects in laboratory animals. In order to evaluate the effect of acrylamide on freshwater organisms, bioassays were conducted on four species: algae Desmodesmus subspicatus and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, duckweed Lemna minor and water flea Daphnia magna according to ISO (International Organization for Standardisation) standardised methods. This approach ensures the evaluation of acrylamide toxicity on organisms with different levels of organisation and the comparability of results, and it examines the value of using a battery of low-cost standardised bioassays in the monitoring of pollution and contamination of aquatic ecosystems. These results showed that EC50 values were lower for Desmodesmus subspicatus and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata than for Daphnia magna and Lemna minor, which suggests an increased sensitivity of algae to acrylamide. According to the toxic unit approach, the values estimated by the Lemna minor and Daphnia magna bioassays, classify acrylamide as slightly toxic (TU=0-1; Class 1). The results obtained from algal bioassays (Desmodesmus subspicatus and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) revealed the toxic effect of acrylamide (TU=1-10; Class 2) on these organisms.

  12. Morita–Baylis–Hillman reaction of acrylamide with isatin derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhey M. Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Morita–Baylis–Hillman reaction of acrylamide, as an activated alkene, has seen little development due to its low reactivity. We have developed the reaction using isatin derivatives with acrylamide, DABCO as a promoter and phenol as an additive in acetonitrile. The corresponding aza version with acrylate and acrylonitrile has also been developed resulting in high product yields.

  13. Assessment of acrylamide toxicity using a battery of standardised bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zovko, Mira; Vidaković-Cifrek, Željka; Cvetković, Želimira; Bošnir, Jasna; Šikić, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    Acrylamide is a monomer widely used as an intermediate in the production of organic chemicals, e.g. polyacrylamides (PAMs). Since PAMs are low cost chemicals with applications in various industries and waste- and drinking water treatment, a certain amount of non-polymerised acrylamide is expected to end up in waterways. PAMs are non-toxic but acrylamide induces neurotoxic effects in humans and genotoxic, reproductive, and carcinogenic effects in laboratory animals. In order to evaluate the effect of acrylamide on freshwater organisms, bioassays were conducted on four species: algae Desmodesmus subspicatus and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, duckweed Lemna minor and water flea Daphnia magna according to ISO (International Organization for Standardisation) standardised methods. This approach ensures the evaluation of acrylamide toxicity on organisms with different levels of organisation and the comparability of results, and it examines the value of using a battery of low-cost standardised bioassays in the monitoring of pollution and contamination of aquatic ecosystems. These results showed that EC50 values were lower for Desmodesmus subspicatus and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata than for Daphnia magna and Lemna minor, which suggests an increased sensitivity of algae to acrylamide. According to the toxic unit approach, the values estimated by the Lemna minor and Daphnia magna bioassays, classify acrylamide as slightly toxic (TU=0-1; Class 1). The results obtained from algal bioassays (Desmodesmus subspicatus and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) revealed the toxic effect of acrylamide (TU=1-10; Class 2) on these organisms. PMID:26751864

  14. Lung cancer risk in relation to dietary acrylamide intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, J.G.F.; Schouten, L.J.; Konings, E.J.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2009-01-01

    Background : Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen that is present in several heat-treated foods. In epidemiological studies, positive associations between dietary acrylamide intake and the risks of endometrial, ovarian, estrogen receptor-positive breast, and renal cell cancers have been observe

  15. Challenges in estimating the validity of dietary acrylamide measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Duell, Eric J.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lujan-Barroso, Leila; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Nailler, Laura; Polidoro, Silvia; Mattiello, Amalia; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Grioni, Sara; Knueppel, Sven; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Orfanos, Philippos; Katsoulis, Michail; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Ramon Quiros, Jose; Ardanaz, Eva; Maria Huerta, Jose; Amiano Etxezarreta, Pilar; Jose Sanchez, Maria; Crowe, Francesca; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Ocke, Marga; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Ericson, Ulrika; Wirfalt, Elisabet; Hallmans, Goeran; Johansson, Ingegerd; Engeset, Dagrun; Nicolas, Genevieve; Gallo, Valentina; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Slimani, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    Acrylamide is a chemical compound present in tobacco smoke and food, classified as a probable human carcinogen and a known human neurotoxin. Acrylamide is formed in foods, typically carbohydrate-rich and protein-poor plant foods, during high-temperature cooking or other thermal processing. The objec

  16. Acrylamide diminishing in potato chips by using commercial Asparaginase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Mariotti, Salomé; Granby, Kit;

    2011-01-01

    In April 2002, Swedish researchers shocked the food safety world when they presented preliminary findings of acrylamide in some fried and baked foods, most notably potato chips and French fries. Asparagine is an aminoacid precursor of acrylamide formation through Maillard reaction. Asparaginase e...

  17. Acrylamide Homopolymers and Acrylamide-N-Isopropylacrylamide Block Copolymers by Atomic Transfer Radical Polymerization in Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, D. A. Z.; Raffa, P.; Picchioni, F.; Broekhuis, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    Atomic transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of acrylamide has been accomplished in aqueous media at room temperature. By using methyl 2-chloropropionate (MeClPr) as the initiator and tris[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-amine (Me6TREN)/copper halogenide (CuX) as the catalyst system, different linear polya

  18. Acrylamide exposure impairs blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xue; Yan, Licheng; Yao, Lin; Guan, Weijun; Zeng, Fanxu; Cao, Fuyuan; Zhang, Yanshu

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies show that chronic acrylamide exposure leads to central and peripheral neu-ropathy. However, the underlying mechanisms remained unclear. In this study, we examined the permeability of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier, and its ability to secrete transthyretin and transport leptin of rats exposed to acrylamide for 7, 14, 21 or 28 days. Transthyretin levels in cerebrospinal fluid began to decline on day 7 after acrylamide exposure. The sodium fluorescein level in cerebrospinal fluid was increased on day 14 after exposure. Evans blue concentration in cerebrospinal fluid was increased and the cerebrospinal fluid/serum leptin ratio was decreased on days 21 and 28 after exposure. In comparison, the cerebrospinal fluid/serum albumin ratio was increased on day 28 after exposure. Our findings show that acrylamide exposure damages the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier and impairs secretory and transport functions. These changes may underlie acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:25206854

  19. 78 FR 68852 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Acrylamide in Foods; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Acrylamide in Foods...: Acrylamide in Foods.'' The draft guidance is intended to provide information that may help growers, manufacturers, and food service operators reduce acrylamide in certain foods. Acrylamide is a chemical that...

  20. A national effort to identify fry processing clones with low acrylamide-forming potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acrylamide is a suspected human carcinogen. Processed potato products, such as chips and fries, contribute to dietary intake of acrylamide. One of the most promising approaches to reducing acrylamide consumption is to develop and commercialize new potato varieties with low acrylamide-forming potenti...

  1. [Hydrodynamic properties of exopolysaccharide-acrylamide copolymer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votselko, S K

    2000-01-01

    The method for producing copolymer EPAA of exopolysaccharide (EPS)--polyacrylamide (PAA) has been presented which was based on microbial exopolysaccharides (enposane, xampane), their mixture and model EPS (xanthane sigma, rodopol P-23). The copolymer was produced by acrylamide polymerization in 1-2% water solutions of polysaccharides, the concentration of acrylamide in the reaction mixture being 4.7-2% and that of polysaccharides 0.1-1% of the weight. Hydrodynamic parameters of the studied polymers have been determined, their heterogenity as to molecular-weight characteristics has been demonstrated. Molecular-weight distribution of copolymers showed that the content of low-molecular fractions decreased, thus the Mw values were (0.08-0.2) x 10(6) Da in contrast to that of exopolysaccharides possessing Mw (1.2-0.4) x 10(6) Da and of polyacrylamide possessing Mw within (2-30) x 10(6) Da. The value of efficient viscosity of copolymers ranged from 120 to 131 mPa.s that was lower than that of polyacrylamide (500 mPa.s), and higher than that of exopolysaccharides (42 mPa.s), and it depended on the sample, raw material, production conditions. A possibility has been shown to produce a new copolymer based on microbial polysaccharides enposane and xampane in the process of acrylamide polymerization. It has been found out that the studied copolymers EPAA differ from initial ones as to their hydrodynamical properties, which determines their preference: better solubility, good glueing properties, prolonged term of preservation, resistance to bacterial pollution. PMID:11300081

  2. Science communication and the Swedish acrylamide "alarm".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofstedt, Ragnar E

    2003-01-01

    On April 24, 2002 the Swedish National Food Administration along with a group of researchers at the University of Stockholm raised an alarm regarding potential health risks associated with eating fried and baked foods such as potatoes and bread. Scientists had found high levels of acrylamide (up to 500 times more acrylamide than that allowed in drinking water by the World Health Organisation), a substance widely believed to cause cancer, in cooked high starch foods. The outcomes of this "alarm" were immediate. In Sweden sales of chips fell by 30-50 percent over a 3-day period following the press conference, and share prices among several fried food manufacturers fell substantially, as stock analysts were fearful that consumption of fried foods would decrease significantly. Four days after the press conference, however, consumers began eating fried food as normal and a number of researchers and journalists in Sweden and elsewhere took the view that the alarm had been both exaggerated and ill placed. In this study, I evaluate the science communication process associated with the scare, based on a content analysis of a select group of Swedish broad sheets from just previous to the April 2002 press conference to the present time (December 2002). In addition, the study is based on interviews with the various Swedish regulators involved in the process itself (in particular at the Swedish National Food Administration) as well as with the scientists responsible for the study at Stockholm University and relevant journalists and politicians.

  3. STUDY ON ACRYLAMIDE-SODIUM ACRYLATE COPOLYMER GELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Maotang; LI Qian; XU Jiping

    1990-01-01

    Acrylamide-sodium acrylate copolymer hydrogels have been obtained by radiation techniques.Two different methods have been used to introduce -COONa groups into polymer chains of the gels: (1) by partial hydrolysis of acrylamide homopolymer gel; (2) by direct copolymerization and crosslinking of acrylamide and sodium acrylate in aqueous solutions. It was found that the gels obtained in different ways had different properties, the swelling character of the gels obtained by partial hydrolysis were more sensitive to pH of swelling aqueous media. In order to explain these differences,13 C-NMR techniques were used to investigate the sequence distribution of monomer units of both gels.

  4. ATTEMPT TO REDUCE ACRYLAMIDE CONTENT IN ROASTED CHICORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Zięć

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to reduce the formation of acrylamide during roasting of chicory roots by soaking the fresh roots in a solution of calcium chloride, by the use of different temperature and time of roasting of dried roots, as well as by the addition of the enzyme (asparaginase during roasting of dried roots. It was shown, that with increasing roasting temperature of chicory roots from 100 - 175 ° C the acrylamide content also increased, while at a temperature of 210 ° C the growth was inhibited. Increasing roasting time from 10 - 25 minutes resulted in an increased acrylamide content. Soaking the roots in the CaCl2 solution for 20 minutes reduced the formation of acrylamide during the roasting approximately by 40%, similarly as the application of asparaginase to the dried roots during the roasting process.

  5. Reproductive toxicity in acrylamide-treated female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Quanwei; Li, Jian; Li, Xingmei; Zhang, Lei; Shi, Fangxiong

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the reproductive toxicity of acrylamide in female mice. The results from immunohistochemistry provided evidence that nitric oxide synthase (NOS) signaling was involved in the process of follicular development and atresia. Oral administration of acrylamide to female mice led to significantly reduced body weights, organ weights and the number of corpora lutea (Pacrylamide; however, 17β-estradiol (E2) concentrations were unchanged with treatment. Measurement of NOS activities indicated that total NOS (TNOS), iNOS and eNOS activities were significantly increased (Pacrylamide. The results from in vitro study indicated that acrylamide reduced the viability of mouse granulosa cells in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, acrylamide affected bodily growth and development, as well as reproductive organs, the number of corpora lutea and progesterone production in female mice, possibly acting through the NOS signaling pathway.

  6. IRIS Toxicological Review for Acrylamide (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is releasing the draft report, Toxicological Review for Acrylamide, that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment Development Process<...

  7. Acrylamide in bread. Effect of prooxidants and antioxidants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Granby, Kit; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz;

    2008-01-01

    . Increasing the addition of aqueous rosemary extract to 10% did not decrease the acrylamide content further compared to the addition of a 1% extract. The spice dittany showed less effect in wheat buns compared to rosemary and even increased acrylamide formation slightly. The effect of antioxidants...... on acrylamide formation was confirmed by addition of 1.0 mM (but not 0.1 mM) of the green tea flavonoids epicatechin or epigallocatechin gallate to an aqueous food model. Free radicals were detected by ESR using the spin trap alpha-(4-Pyridyl 1-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone (POBN) in an aqueous model system of 0......Addition of 1% aqueous rosemary extract with approximately 40 mg of gallic acid equivalents or comparable addition of rosemary oil or of dried rosemary leaves to wheat dough reduced the content of acrylamide in wheat buns by 62, 67 and 57%, respectively, compared to wheat buns without rosemary...

  8. Homopolymerization of N-pyrimidinyl acrylamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De Cheng Wan; Hong Ting Pu; Gen Jin Yang

    2007-01-01

    Homopolymerization of N-pyrimidinyl acrylamide (NPA) was reported for the first time. The polymer (polyNPA) was soluble only in acidic media and fluoroalcohols, and only in fluoroalcohol was homogeneous polymerization of NPA feasible. 1H NMR analysis proved that a 1:1 H-bonding complex could be formed between NPA and α,α-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl propan-2-ol (BTMP). Cumyl dithiobenzoate mediated reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization of NPA in BTMP was carried out. 1H NMR analyses proved that the molecular weight increased linearly with the monomer conversion. The polymer prepared in conventional solvents was atactic while in protic media the syndiotacticity was slightly enhanced.

  9. In Vivo Doses of Acrylamide and Glycidamide in Humans after Intake of Acrylamide-Rich Food

    OpenAIRE

    Vikström, Anna C.; Abramsson-Zetterberg, Lilianne; Naruszewicz, Marek; Athanassiadis, Ioannis; Granath, Fredrik N.; Törnqvist, Margareta A.

    2011-01-01

    For assessment of cancer risk from acrylamide (AA) exposure through food, the relation between intake from food in humans and the in vivo doses (area under the concentration-time curve, AUC) of AA (AUC-AA) and of its genotoxic metabolite glycidamide (GA) (AUC-GA) is used as a basis for extrapolation between exposure levels and between species. In this study, AA-rich foods were given to nonsmokers: a high intake of 11 mu g AA/kg body weight (bw) and day for 4 days or an extra (medium) intake o...

  10. Role of antioxidants and phytochemicals on acrylamide mitigation from food and reducing its toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Kahkeshani, Niloofar; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the presence of acrylamide in lots of fried and baked foods raises concerns due to its potential to cause toxicity and cancer in animals and human. Consequently, a number of papers have focused on evaluation of various chemicals in reduction of acrylamide in various food sources, as well as decreasing its related toxicities. In addition, plants are important sources of diverse metabolites demonstrating either possible effectiveness in acrylamide toxicity or reduction of acrylamide c...

  11. Dosimetry of Acrylamide and Glycidamide Over the Lifespan in a 2-Year Bioassay of Acrylamide in Wistar Han Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, Timothy R; Snyder, Rodney; Hansen, Benjamin; Friedman, Marvin

    2015-08-01

    Acrylamide is an industrial chemical used to manufacture polymers, and is produced in foods during cooking at high heat. Hemoglobin adducts provide a long-lived dosimeter for acrylamide and glycidamide. This study determined acrylamide and glycidamide hemoglobin adducts (AAVal and GAVal) during a lifetime carcinogenesis bioassay. Exposure to acrylamide in drinking water began in utero in pregnant rats on gestation day 6. Dams were administered acrylamide until weaning, and male and female F1 rats were exposed for a further 104 weeks. Acrylamide concentration in drinking water was adjusted to provide a constant dose of 0.5, 1.5, and 3 mg/kg/day. Blood was collected from animals euthanized at 2, 60, 90, and 120 days and 53, 79, and 104 weeks after weaning. Low levels of AAVal and GAVal at postnatal day 24 suggested that little exposure to acrylamide occurred by placental or lactational transfer, and extensive metabolism to glycidamide occurred with a GAVal:AAVal ratio of 4. Adduct levels varied somewhat from 60 days to 2 years, with a GAVal:AAVal ratio of approximately 1. Adduct formation/day estimated at each timepoint at 3 mg/kg/day for AAVal was 1293 ± 220 and 1096 ± 338 fmol/mg/day for male and female rats, respectively. Adduct formation per day estimated at each timepoint at 3 mg/kg/day for GAVal was 827 ± 78 fmol/mg/day for male rats, and 982 ± 222 fmol/mg/day for female rats. The study has provided estimates of linearity for dose response, and variability in internal dose throughout an entire 2-year bioassay, including the early phases of pregnancy and lactation.

  12. Acrylamide toxic effects on mouse oocyte quality and fertility in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xing; Wang, Qiao-Chu; Chen, Kun-Lin; Zhu, Cheng-Cheng; Liu, Jun; Sun, Shao-Chen

    2015-06-25

    Acrylamide is an industrial chemical that has attracted considerable attention due to its presumed carcinogenic, neurotoxic, and cytotoxic effects. In this study we investigated possible acrylamide reproductive toxic effects in female mice. Mice were fed an acrylamide-containing diet for 6 weeks. Our results showed the following effects of an acrylamide-containing diet. (1) Ovary weights were reduced in acrylamide-treated mice and oocyte developmental competence was also reduced, as shown by reduced GVBD and polar body extrusion rates. (2) Acrylamide feeding resulted in aberrant oocyte cytoskeletons, as shown by an increased abnormal spindle rate and confirmed by disrupted γ-tubulin and p-MAPK localization. (3) Acrylamide feeding resulted in oxidative stress and oocyte early stage apoptosis, as shown by increased ROS levels and p-MAPK expression. (4) Fluorescence intensity analysis showed that DNA methylation levels were reduced in acrylamide-treated oocytes and histone methylation levels were also altered, as H3K9me2, H3K9me3, H3K4me2, and H3K27me3 levels were reduced after acrylamide treatment. (5) After acrylamide feeding, the litter sizes of acrylamide-treated mice were significantly smaller compared to thus of control mice. Thus, our results indicated that acrylamide might affect oocyte quality through its effects on cytoskeletal integrity, ROS generation, apoptosis induction, and epigenetic modifications.

  13. Dietary acrylamide intake and estrogen and progesterone receptor-defined postmenopausal breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedersen, G.S.; Hogervorst, J.G.F.; Schouten, L.J.; Konings, E.J.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2010-01-01

    Acrylamide, a potential human carcinogen, has been discovered in a variety of heat-treated carbohydrate-rich food products. Previously, dietary acrylamide intake was shown to be associated with endocrine-related cancers in humans. We assessed the association between dietary acrylamide intake and ris

  14. 40 CFR 721.6520 - Acrylamide, polymer with substituted alkylacrylamide salt (generic name).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acrylamide, polymer with substituted... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6520 Acrylamide, polymer with substituted...) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylamide, polymer with substituted...

  15. Validation of a database on acrylamide for use in epidemiological studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, E.J.M.; Hogervorst, J.G.F.; Rooij, L. van; Schouten, L.J.; Sizoo, E.A.; Egmond, H.P. van; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2010-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Acrylamide, a probable human carcinogen, was detected in various heat-treated foods such as French fries and potato crisps. Recently, positive associations have been found between dietary acrylamide intakes, as estimated with a food frequency questionnaire using an acrylamide

  16. Kinetic modeling of acrylamide formation in aqueous reaction systems and potato crisps : Text & Figures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knol, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    Acrylamide can be formed in foods that have undergone a high temperature treatment (>120 °C) such as French fries, crisps, coffee and bread, due to the Maillard reaction. The evidence of acrylamide in foods posing a risk for different types of cancer has been strengthened. Mitigation of acrylamid

  17. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  18. Novel voltammetric biosensor for determining acrylamide in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobiecka, Agata; Radecka, Hanna; Radecki, Jerzy

    2007-04-15

    Recent findings showing that acrylamide is formed in heat-treated foods rich in asparagine and reducing sugars such as glucose, have accelerated the needs for the development of new analytical methods to determine this potential human carcinogen. Acrylamide forms adduct with hemoglobin (Hb) as a result of the reaction with the alpha-NH2 group of N-terminal valine of Hb. This interaction is the basis of a new voltammetric biosensor to detect acrylamide. The biosensor was constructed using a carbon-paste electrode modified with hemoglobin (Hb), which contains four prosthetic groups of heme--Fe(III). Such an electrode displays a reversible reduction/oxidation process of Hb-Fe(III)/Hb-Fe(II). Interaction between Hb and acrylamide was observed through decreasing of the peak current of Hb-Fe(III) reduction. The electrodes presented a very low detection limit (1.2 x 10(-10)M). The validation made in the matrix obtained by water extraction of potato chips showed that the electrodes presented are suitable for the direct determination of acrylamide in food samples.

  19. Acrylamide generation in pre-treated potato chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Kaack, Karl; Granby, Kit

    2008-01-01

    Acrylamide formation in potato slices fried at two different temperatures ( 170 and 190 degrees C) was investigated under different pre-processing conditions. Potato slices (Saturna variety, diameter: 37 mm, width: 2.2 mm) were either fried at 170 degrees C per 5 min or 190 degrees C per 3.5 min....... Acrylamide content in potato chips was determined after frying at 170 or 190 degrees C. Frying at 190 degrees C increased by almost 130 percent the acrylamide content of all the pre-treated samples ( average value) fried at 170 degrees C. Soaking of blanched potato slices in the 3 g/100 g of NaCl solution...... per 5 min at 25 degrees C, reduces acrylamide formation in potato chips by 11 percent after frying at 170 degrees C. However when the slices are blanched directly in the 3 g/100g of NaCl solution at 60 degrees C for 30 min, their acrylamide formation increased surprisingly by similar to 90 percent...

  20. Neurotoxicity of Acrylamide in Exposed Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Malaguarnera

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Acrylamide (ACR is a water-soluble chemical used in different industrial and laboratory processes. ACR monomer is neurotoxic in humans and laboratory animals. Subchronic exposure to this chemical causes neuropathies, hands and feet numbness, gait abnormalities, muscle weakness, ataxia, skin and in some cases, cerebellar alterations. ACR neurotoxicity involves mostly the peripheral but also the central nervous system, because of damage to the nerve terminal through membrane fusion mechanisms and tubulovescicular alterations. Nevertheless, the exact action mechanism is not completely elucidated. In this paper we have reviewed the current literature on its neurotoxicity connected to work-related ACR exposure. We have analyzed not only the different pathogenetic hypotheses focusing on possible neuropathological targets, but also the critical behavior of ACR poisoning. In addition we have evaluated the ACR-exposed workers case studies. Despite all the amount of work which have being carried out on this topic more studies are necessary to fully understand the pathogenetic mechanisms, in order to propose suitable therapies.

  1. Acrylamide content and color development in fried potato strips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, F.; Kaack, K.; Granby, Kit

    2006-01-01

    and 45 min; 90 degrees C for 3 and 10 min); (iii) immersed in a citric acid solution of 10 g/L for an hour; (iv) immersed in a sodium pyrophosphate solution of 10 g/L for an hour. Acrylamide content and color was determined in the potato strips after frying. Immersed strips in water for 120 min showed...... (13 5, 327 and 564 mu m acrylamide/kg for 150, 170 and 190 degrees C, respectively). Potato strip immersion in citric acid solution of 10 g/L reduced much more the acrylamide formation after frying than the strip immersion in sodium pyrophosphate solution of 10 g/L (53% vs. 17%, respectively, average...

  2. Risks of dietary acrylamide exposure: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riboldi, Bárbara Pelicioli; Vinhas, Álvaro Marchand; Moreira, Júlia Dubois

    2014-08-15

    Acrylamide (AA) is a probable human carcinogen found in carbohydrate-rich foods that have been heated to high temperatures. AA dietary exposure has been associated to development of health problems. We perform a systematic review to elucidate the association of dietary AA exposure and human health problems. Articles were screened by reading titles and abstracts before the full text of eligible articles was read (κ=0.824). Data were harvested by two reviewers and checked by a third. Forty-one articles were analyzed and assessment of dietary exposure proved to be far from uniform and suffered from limitations that possibly impact on the validity of outcomes with relation to human health. Risk assessment of dietary acrylamide exposure is in need of high quality methods for evaluating dietary exposure and validated acrylamide content databases.

  3. Color changes and acrylamide formation in fried potato slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Moyano, Pedro; Kaack, Karl;

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the kinetics of browning during deep-fat frying of blanched and unblanched potato chips by using the dynamic method and to find a relationship between browning development and acrylamide formation. Prior to frying, potato slices were blanched in hot water...... at 85degreesC for 3.5 min. Unblanched slices were used as the control. Control and blanched potato slices (Panda variety, diameter: 37 mm, width: 2.2 mm) were fried at 120, 150 and 180degreesC until reaching moisture contents of similar to1.8% (total basis) and their acrylamide content and final color...... relationship with correlation coefficients greater than 90%. A first-order rate equation was used to model the kinetics of color change. In all case the Arrhenius activation energy decreases alongside with decreasing chip moisture content. Blanching reduced acrylamide formation in potato chips in similar to64...

  4. Towards a biological monitoring guidance value for acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams, C; Jones, K; Warren, N; Cocker, J; Bell, S; Bull, P; Cain, M

    2015-08-19

    Acrylamide is classified as a potential human carcinogen and neurotoxicant. Biological monitoring is a useful tool for monitoring worker exposure. However, other sources of exposure to acrylamide (including cigarette smoke and diet) also need to be considered. This study has performed repeat measurements of the urinary mercapturic acids of acrylamide (AAMA) and its metabolite glycidamide (GAMA) and determined globin adducts in 20 production-plant workers at a UK acrylamide production facility. The relationship between biomarker levels and environmental monitoring data (air levels and hand washes) was investigated. Good correlations were found between all of the biomarkers (r(2)=0.86-0.91) and moderate correlations were found between the biomarkers and air levels (r(2) = 0.56-0.65). Our data show that urinary AAMA is a reliable biomarker of acrylamide exposure. Occupational hygiene data showed that acrylamide exposure at the company was well within the current UK Workplace Exposure Limit. The 90th percentile of urinary AAMA in non-smoking production-plant workers (537 μmol/mol creatinine (n = 59 samples)) is proposed as a possible biological monitoring guidance value. This 90th percentile increased to 798 μmol/mol if smokers were included (n = 72 samples). These values would be expected following an airborne exposure of less than 0.07 mg/m(3), well below the current UK workplace exposure limit of 0.3mg/m(3). Comparison of biomarker levels in non-occupationally exposed individuals suggests regional variations (between UK and Germany), possibly due to differences in diet.

  5. Dietary acrylamide and cancer risk: an updated meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelucchi, Claudio; Bosetti, Cristina; Galeone, Carlotta; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2015-06-15

    The debate on the potential carcinogenic effect of dietary acrylamide is open. In consideration of the recent findings from large prospective investigations, we conducted an updated meta-analysis on acrylamide intake and the risk of cancer at several sites. Up to July 2014, we identified 32 publications. We performed meta-analyses to calculate the summary relative risk (RR) of each cancer site for the highest versus lowest level of intake and for an increment of 10 µg/day of dietary acrylamide, through fixed-effects or random-effects models, depending on the heterogeneity test. Fourteen cancer sites could be examined. No meaningful associations were found for most cancers considered. The summary RRs for high versus low acrylamide intake were 0.87 for oral and pharyngeal, 1.14 for esophageal, 1.03 for stomach, 0.94 for colorectal, 0.93 for pancreatic, 1.10 for laryngeal, 0.88 for lung, 0.96 for breast, 1.06 for endometrial, 1.12 for ovarian, 1.00 for prostate, 0.93 for bladder and 1.13 for lymphoid malignancies. The RR was of borderline significance only for kidney cancer (RR = 1.20; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.00-1.45). All the corresponding continuous estimates ranged between 0.95 and 1.03, and none of them was significant. Among never-smokers, borderline associations with dietary acrylamide emerged for endometrial (RR = 1.23; 95% CI, 1.00-1.51) and ovarian (RR = 1.39; 95% CI, 0.97-2.00) cancers. This systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies indicates that dietary acrylamide is not related to the risk of most common cancers. A modest association for kidney cancer, and for endometrial and ovarian cancers in never smokers only, cannot be excluded.

  6. Kinetics for the distribution of acrylamide in French fries, fried oil and vapour during frying of potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hui-Tsung; Chen, Ming-Jen; Tseng, Tzu-Ping; Cheng, Li-Hsin; Huang, Li-Jen; Yeh, Tai-Sheng

    2016-11-15

    Kinetic analysis for the formation of acrylamide in heated foods has been typically performed using only measured data of acrylamide in foods; however, its possible loss caused by release from heated foods into fried oil and air has seldom been considered. The results obtained from the monitoring of acrylamide by frying French fries indicated that acrylamide is distributed in three phases: French fries, frying oil, and air. From the evolved gas analysis of acrylamide and the measured concentration profile of the total acrylamide amount present in these phases, the kinetic behaviour for acrylamide formation does not obey the commonly used model of two-step consecutive reactions during frying, while a lumped kinetic model was proposed for the total acrylamide amount. Moreover, a high acrylamide level in air was observed, implying that, apart from consumers of French fries, fast-food restaurant workers are potentially subject to occupational hazards from acrylamide inhalation. PMID:27283682

  7. Acrylamide reduction under different pre-treatments in French fries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Kaack, Karl; Granby, Kit;

    2007-01-01

    of similar to 40 g water/100 g (total basis). Prior to frying, potato strips were treated in one of the following ways: (i) immersed in distilled water for 0 min (control), 60 min and 120 min; (ii) immersed in a citric acid solution of 10 g/L for an hour; (iii) immersed in a sodium pyrophosphate solution...... compared against strips blanched at different conditions and fried at the same temperature (135, 327 and 564 mu m acrylamide/kg for 150, 170 and 190 degrees C, respectively). Potato strip immersion in citric acid solution of 10 g/L reduced much more the acrylamide formation after frying than the strip...

  8. SYNTHESIS AND FLOCCULABILITY OF SODIUM ALGINATE GRAFTED WITH ACRYLAMIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaiqiang Xu; Xiongli Xu; Zhiji Ding; Meihua Zhou

    2006-01-01

    Graft copolymers of sodium alginate (SA) with acrylamide (AM) were synthesized using aceric ion initiated solution polymerization technique. The acrylamide conversions were studied by changing reaction conditions, such as temperature, molecular weight of sodium alginate and reaction time. The flocculation performance of the graft copolymer(SAG) was investigated in kaolin suspension and also in dyeing waste water. It was found that SAG is more efficient in flocculation behavior as compared to polyacrylamide and SA in kaolin suspension, and in removal capacities for CODCr and colority in dyeing wastewater.

  9. Liquid crystal of nanocellulose whiskers' grafted with acrylamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Yang; Dai Yong Ye

    2012-01-01

    12% acrylamide (AM) was grafted onto the surface of nanocellulose whiskers (NCW),which was self-assembled to be the chiral nematic suspension at 3% content.The acrylamide grafted NCW (AM-g-NCW) was characterized with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR).The grafting ratio was measured by elemental analysis.The degrees of crystallinity of the AM-g-NCW were measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD).The liquid crystalline properties of the AM-g-NCW were investigated by the polarizing optical microscopy (POM).The AM-g-NCW was found to self-assembly to be a lyotropic state.

  10. GRAFT COPOLYMERIZATION OF ACRYLAMIDE ONTO POLYPROPYLENE FILMS BY PLASMA TECHNIQUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shicai; YE Mu; LU Lizhen; CHEN Jie

    1988-01-01

    The graft copolymerization of acrylamide onto polypropylene (PP) film was carried out by using a capacitively coupled rf plasma apparatus with external plate electrodes. The relationship between the surface structure of the Ar plasma-treated PP films and the extent of grafting of acrylamide on the films was studied through observing the effects of discharge power and exposure time on the relative content of free-radical on the film surface. Meanwhile, the wettability and surface energy of the PP film were measured.

  11. Curcumin and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate attenuate acrylamide-induced proliferation in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Xiaoyun; Li, Yuan; Meng, Xulian; Wang, Pengqi; Jiang, Pan; Feng, Qing

    2014-04-01

    Acrylamide, a proven rodent carcinogen, is present in carbohydrate-rich food heated at high temperatures. It can be metabolized into glycidamide mainly by cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1). The fact that acrylamide is a potential carcinogen to human-beings draws public attention recently. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of acrylamide at low doses on proliferation of HepG2 cells, and to test whether the two well-studied chemopreventive agents, curcumin and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), would have antagonistic effects against acrylamide. The results showed that lower concentration of acrylamide (⩽100μM) significantly increased the proliferation of HepG2 cells, but not of the other cancer cells (MDA-231, HeLa, A549, and PC-3). Only in HepG2 cells, low concentration of acrylamide was able to induce CYP2E1 expression significantly. Knockdown of CYP2E1 restrained acrylamide to increase viability of HepG2 cells. In addition, acrylamide raised expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), cyclin D1 and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), which contributed to cell proliferation. Both curcumin and EGCG effectively reduced acrylamide-induced proliferation, as well as protein expression of CYP2E1, EGFR, cyclin D1 and NF-κB. All these results suggest that low concentration of acrylamide may contribute to progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Curcumin or EGCG could prevent acrylamide triggering this effect.

  12. Application of muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) pomace extract to reduce carcinogenic acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Changmou; Yagiz, Yavuz; Marshall, Sara; Li, Zheng; Simonne, Amarat; Lu, Jiang; Marshall, Maurice R

    2015-09-01

    Acrylamide is a byproduct of the Maillard reaction and is formed in a variety of heat-treated commercial starchy foods. It is known to be toxic and potentially carcinogenic to humans. Muscadine grape polyphenols and standard phenolic compounds were examined on the reduction of acrylamide in an equimolar asparagine/glucose chemical model, a potato chip model, and a simulated physiological system. Polyphenols were found to significantly reduce acrylamide in the chemical model, with reduced rates higher than 90% at 100 μg/ml. In the potato chip model, grape polyphenols reduced the acrylamide level by 60.3% as concentration was increased to 0.1%. However, polyphenols exhibited no acrylamide reduction in the simulated physiological system. Results also indicated no significant correlation between the antioxidant activities of polyphenols and their acrylamide inhibition. This study demonstrated muscadine grape extract can mitigate acrylamide formation in the Maillard reaction, which provides a new value-added application for winery pomace waste.

  13. Mechanism and Modeling for Polymerization of Acrylamide in Inverse Microemulsions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiXiao; ZhangWeiying; YuanHuigen

    2004-01-01

    After discussion on the mechanism of polymer particle nucleation and growth in inverse microemulsion polymerization, a schematic physical model for polymerization of acrylamide in inverse microemulsions was presented. Furthermore, several key problems in mathematically modeling of inverse microemulsion polymerization were pointed out.

  14. Alteration of Oxidative Status in Rats Following Administration of Acrylamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa H. El-Sayed1, Shawkia S. Abd El- Halim1,

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acrylamide (ACR is a known industrial neurotoxic and carcinogenic chemical in rodents. The recent discovery of acrylamide in wide variety of commonly consumed foods has energized research efforts worldwide to define toxic mechanisms. Objective: The present study is carried out to investigate the effect of acrylamide administration on in vivo malondialdehyde (MDA, a product of lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (GSH as well as copper and zinc superoxide dismutase enzyme activity (Cu/Zn SOD of rats. Material and Methods: Fourteen adult male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into two groups each containing "7" rats. Group 1 served as negative control fed on basal diet and group 2 (positive control received basal diet and acrylamide (0.34g/ kg diet for 11 days. Levels of MDA, GSH and activity of SOD were determined in liver, kidneys, brain, heart, testes, spleen and lungs of rats. Results: ACR treatment significantly increased MDA in all organs; the highest increase was detected in testis (87.9% and heart (71.5% while the lowest one was found in kidneys (28.2%. On the other hand, GSH levels and SOD activities were significantly reduced in ACR treated rats. However, the reduction of GSH level ranged from 10.2% to 36.5 %.The inhibition of SOD activities were higher in testis (57.3% and lungs (38.5%. Conclusion: The present study showed that ACR exerts deteriorated effects on oxidative status of rats

  15. Fluorescence determination of acrylamide in heat-processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Congcong; Luo, Feng; Chen, Dongmei; Qiu, Bin; Tang, Xinhua; Ke, Huixian; Chen, Xi

    2014-06-01

    A simple and rapid fluorescence method has been developed for the determination of acrylamide in heat-processed food samples. In the determination, acrylamide is degraded through Hofmann reaction to generate vinyl amine, and pyrrolinone is produced when the vinyl amine reacts with fluorescamine, resulting in a strong fluorescence emission at 480 nm. Hofmann reaction is a key step for the fluorescence determination of acrylaminde, and the reaction conditions are investigated and optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the fluorescence intensity increases with the increase of acrylamide concentrations. The linear range between the fluorescence intensity and the square-root of acrylamide concentrations is from 0.05 μg mL(-1) to 20 μg mL(-1) with the correlation coefficient R(2)=0.9935. The detection limit is 0.015 μg mL(-1) and the recovery for food samples is from 66.0% to 110.6%. In comparison with Specification of Entry&Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau of The People׳s Republic of China (SN/T 2281-2009), the method showed comparable results and demonstrated the accuracy of the method.

  16. Acrylamide mitigation in potato chips by using NaCl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Risum, Jørgen; Granby, Kit

    2009-01-01

    Acrylamide is known to cause cancer in laboratory animals but there is no direct evidence that this substance causes cancer in humans. In April 2002, Swedish researchers shocked the world when they presented preliminary findings on the presence of acrylamide in fried and baked foods, most notably...... potato chips and French fries, at levels of 30-2300 ppb. The objective of this research was to study the effect of immersing potato slices in a NaCI solution in relation to acrylamide formation in the prepared potato chips. Potato slices (Verdi variety, diameter: 40 mm, width: 2.0 mm) were fried at 170......% NaCI solution at 25 °) for 5 min; (iv) Blan ching in hot water at 90°) for 5 min plus immersion in a distilled water at 25 °) for 5 min. Raw potato slices were used as control. Blanching reduced the acrylamide content of potato chips with 12 %. On the other hand, when potato slices were immersed...

  17. IRIS Toxicological Review of Acrylamide (External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has conducted a peer review by EPA’s Science Advisory Board (SAB) of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of acrylamide that once finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. Peer review is m...

  18. Lipid Oxidation Promotes Acrylamide Formation in Fat-Rich Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capuano, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    Evidence from model systems suggests that lipid oxidation can contribute to acrylamide (AA) formation through the generation of secondary lipid oxidation carbonyl products, mainly aldehydes, which are able to degrade asparagine to AA. In this respect, factors affecting the extent of lipid oxidati

  19. HIGH-STRENGTH POLY(METH)ACRYLAMIDE COPOLYMER HYDROGELS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIERSMA, JA; SOS, M; PENNINGS, AJ

    1994-01-01

    The hydrogels described here are copolymers of acrylamide and methacrylamide highly cross-linked with piperazine diacrylamide or 4,7,10-trioxa-1,13-tridecanediamine diacrylamide by radical polymerisation in highly concentrated aqueous and aqueous gelatin solutions. The hydrogels were characterised b

  20. Acrylamide inhibits nerve sprouting induced by botulinum toxin type A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Jiang; Yi Xiang; Xingyue Hu; Huaying Cai

    2014-01-01

    Botulinum toxin type A is a potent muscle relaxant that blocks the transmission and release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction. Intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin type A has served as an effective and safe therapy for strabismus and focal dystonia. However, muscular weakness is temporary and after 3-4 months, muscle strength usually recovers because function-al recovery is mediated by nerve sprouting and reconstruction of the neuromuscular junction. Acrylamide may produce neurotoxic substances that cause retrograde necrotizing neuropathy and inhibit nerve sprouting caused by botulinum toxin type A. This study investigated whether acrylamide inhibits nerve sprouting after intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin type A. A tibial nerve sprouting model was established through local injection of botulinum toxin type A into the right gastrocnemius muscle of Sprague-Dawley rats. Following intramuscular injection, rats were given intraperitoneal injection of 3%acrylamide every 3 days for 21 days. Nerve sprout-ing appeared 2 weeks after intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin type A and single-fiber electromyography revealed abnormal conduction at the neuromuscular junction 1 week after intra-muscular injection of botulinum toxin type A. Following intraperitoneal injection of acrylamide, the peak muscle ifber density decreased. Electromyography jitter value were restored to normal levels 6 weeks after injection. This indicates that the maximal decrease in ifber density and the time at which functional conduction of neuromuscular junction was restored were delayed. Addition-ally, the increase in tibial nerve ifbers was reduced. Acrylamide inhibits nerve sprouting caused by botulinum toxin type A and may be used to prolong the clinical dosage of botulinum toxin type A.

  1. Investigation of the reactions of acrylamide during in vitro multistep enzymatic digestion of thermally processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzalıoğlu, Aytül; Gökmen, Vural

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the fate of acrylamide in thermally processed foods after ingestion. An in vitro multistep enzymatic digestion system simulating gastric, duodenal and colon phases was used to understand the fate of acrylamide in bakery and fried potato products. Acrylamide levels gradually decreased through gastric, duodenal and colon phases during in vitro digestion of biscuits. At the end of digestion, acrylamide reduction was between 49.2% and 73.4% in biscuits. Binary model systems composed of acrylamide and amino acids were used to understand the mechanism of acrylamide reduction. High-resolution mass spectrometry analyses confirmed Michael addition of amino acids to acrylamide during digestion. In contrast to bakery products, acrylamide levels increased significantly during gastric digestion of fried potatoes. The Schiff base formed between reducing sugars and asparagine disappeared rapidly, whereas the acrylamide level increased during the gastric phase. This suggests that intermediates like the Schiff base that accumulate in potatoes during frying are potential precursors of acrylamide under gastric conditions.

  2. Influence of California-style black ripe olive processing on the formation of acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenprasert, Suthawan; Mitchell, Alyson

    2014-08-27

    Methods used in processing California-style black ripe olives generate acrylamide. California-style black ripe olives contain higher levels of acrylamide (409.67 ± 42.60-511.91 ± 34.08 μg kg(-1)) as compared to California-style green ripe olives (44.02 ± 3.55-105.79 ± 22.01 μg kg(-1)), Greek olives (acrylamide formation. Preprocessing brine storage influenced the formation of acrylamide in a time-dependent manner. Acrylamide increased during the first 30 days of storage. Longer brine storage times (>30 days) result in lower acrylamide levels in the finished product. The presence of calcium ions in the preprocessing brining solution results in higher levels of acrylamide in finished products. Air oxidation during lye processing and the neutralization of olives prior to sterilization significantly increase the formation of acrylamide in the finished products. Conversely, lye-processing decreases the levels of acrylamide in the final product. These results indicate that specific steps in the California-style black ripe olive processing may be manipulated to mitigate the formation of acrylamide in finished products.

  3. Acrylamide reduction in potato chips by using commercial asparaginase in combination with conventional blanching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Mariotti, Salomé; Granby, Kit;

    2011-01-01

    In this research acrylamide reduction in potato chips was investigated in relation to blanching and asparaginase immersion treatments before final frying. Potatoes slices (Verdi variety, diameter: 40 mm, thickness: 2.0 mm) were fried at 170 °C for 5 min (final moisture content of ∼2.0 g/100 g...... (control II). Blanching in hot water (ii) was almost as effective as asparaginase potato immersion (iii) in order to diminish acrylamide formation in potato chips (acrylamide reduction was ∼17% of the initial acrylamide concentration). When potato slices were blanched before asparaginase immersion......, the acrylamide content of the resultant potato chips was reduced considerably by almost 90%. We have demonstrated that blanching of potato slices plus asparaginase treatment is an effective combination for acrylamide mitigation during frying. It seems to be that blanching provokes changes in the microstructure...

  4. Application of handheld and portable spectrometers for screening acrylamide content in commercial potato chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayvaz, Huseyin; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis E

    2015-05-01

    The most common methods for acrylamide analysis in foods require the use of LC-MS/MS and GC-MS. Although these methods have great analytical performance, they need intensive sample preparation, highly specialised instrumentation, and are time consuming. In this study, portable and handheld infrared spectrometers were evaluated as rapid methods for screening acrylamide in potato chips and their performances were compared to those of benchtop infrared systems. The acrylamide content of 64 commercial potato chips (169-2453 μg/kg) was determined by LC-MS/MS. Spectral data were collected using mid-infrared (MIR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectrometers. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) calibration models were developed to predict acrylamide levels. Overall, good linear correlation was found between the predicted acrylamide levels and actual measured acrylamide concentrations by LC-MS/MS (rPred > 0.90 and SEP potato chips. PMID:25529665

  5. IMPACT OF PRE-TREATMENTS ON THE ACRYLAMIDE FORMATION AND ORGANOLEPTIC EVOLUTION OF FRIED POTATO CHIPS

    OpenAIRE

    Samir Abdel-Monem Ahmed Ismial; Rehab Farouk Mohammed Ali; Mohsen Askar; Wafaa Mahmoud Samy

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this investigation was to study the effect of different pre-frying treatments on reduction of acrylamide formation of fried potato Moreover; the impact of different phenol compounds and leaves on acrylamide formation was evaluated. In addition, the effects of these treatments on the sensorial quality of fried potato chips were studied. Results showed that blanching process caused significant decreases in acrylamide content of fried potato. The highest decrease was observ...

  6. Kinetic modeling of acrylamide formation in aqueous reaction systems and potato crisps : Text & Figures

    OpenAIRE

    Knol, J. J.

    2008-01-01

    Acrylamide can be formed in foods that have undergone a high temperature treatment (>120 °C) such as French fries, crisps, coffee and bread, due to the Maillard reaction. The evidence of acrylamide in foods posing a risk for different types of cancer has been strengthened. Mitigation of acrylamide formation in foods is, therefore, of great importance. The aim of this PhD study was to derive mathematical models that describe the formation of acrylamide as a function of product and processin...

  7. Acrylamide induces locomotor defects and degeneration of dopamine neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Li, Dan; Yang, Yongsheng; Xu, Tiantian; Li, Ping; He, Defu

    2016-01-01

    Acrylamide can form in foods during the cooking process and cause multiple adverse effects. However, the neurotoxicity and mechanisms of acrylamide have not been fully elucidated. In Caenorhabditis elegans, we showed that 48 h exposure to 10-625 mg l(-1) acrylamide resulted in a significant decline in locomotor frequency of body bending, head thrashing and pharynx pumping. In addition, acrylamide exposure reduced crawling speeds and changed angles of body bending. It indicates that acrylamide induces locomotor defects, along with parkinsonian-like movement impairment, including bradykinesia and hypokinesia. Acrylamide also affected chemotaxis plasticity and reduced learning ability. Using transgenic nematodes, we found that acrylamide induced downexpression of P(dat-1) and led to the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Moreover, the enhanced expression of unc-54, encoding a subunit of α-synuclein was found. It illustrates that acrylamide is efficient in inducing crucial parkinsonian pathology, including dopaminergic damage and α-synuclein aggregation. These findings suggest the acrylamide-induced locomotor defects and neurotoxicity are associated with Parkinson's disease.

  8. Reduction of acrylamide formation in potato slices during frying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Kaack, K.; Granby, Kit

    2004-01-01

    and 40 min; 90degreesC for 2 and 9 min); (iii) immersed in citric acid solutions of different concentrations (10 and 20 g/l) for half an hour. Glucose and asparagine concentration was determined in potato slices before frying, whereas acrylamide content was determined in the resultant fried potato chips...... on average 76% and 68% of the glucose and asparagine content compared to the control. Potato slices blanched at 50degreesC for 70 min surprisingly had a very low acrylamide content (28 mum/kg) even when they were fried at 190degreesC. Potato immersion in citric acid solutions of 10 and 20 g/l reduced...

  9. Characterization of Grafted Polypropylene-Acrylamide Films for Dye Removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The graft copolymerization of Acrylamide onto polypropylene film using the direct gamma irradiation technique was studied. The factors affecting the grafting process such as type of solvent, inhibitor, radiation dose, and monomer concentration on the grafting yield were studied. It was found that the additions of 0.5 wt % , Mohr's salt reduced effectively the homo polymerization of acrylamide. The change in chemical structural of the pp-films due to grafting was investigated using IR, X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimeterical analysis, and scanning electron microscope (SEM). PP-g-p(AAm) films were allowed to react with two ionic dyes; organic reactive blue dye (Remazol Brilliant Bright Blue) and organic reactive red dye (Drimarene Scarlet K-2 G). The sshas been analyzed with visible spectrophotometry at 460 nm for dyed grafted film by red dye and at 490 nm for dyed grafted film by blue dye

  10. Oil recovery with vinyl sulfonic acid-acrylamide copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, C.J.; Falk, D.O.

    1973-12-18

    An aqueous polymer flood containing sulfomethylated alkali metal vinyl sulfonate-acrylamide copolymers was proposed for use in secondary or tertiary enhanced oil recovery. The sulfonate groups on the copolymers sustain the viscosity of the flood in the presence of brine and lime. Injection of the copolymer solution into a waterflooded Berea core, produced 30.5 percent of the residual oil. It is preferred that the copolymers are partially hydrolyzed.

  11. Synthesis,Characterization and Biological Activities of Novel Acrylamide Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Liang-zhong; XU Zhong-jie; ZHANG Gong-sheng; ZHOU Kai; ZHAI Zhi-wei

    2008-01-01

    With dimethomorph and flumorph as the leading compounds,four novel acrylamide compounds with two types of structure were designed and synthesized by means of the method of"me too chemistry".The target compounds were characterized by 1H NMR,IR,MS,and elemental analysis.The influences of solvent and raw material on the yield were investigated and optimum processing conditions were determined.The results of preliminary biological tests show that all those compounds exhibit certain antifungal activities.

  12. Low-acrylamide French fries and potato chips

    OpenAIRE

    Rommens, Caius M; Yan, Hua; Swords, Kathy; Richael, Craig; Ye, Jingsong

    2008-01-01

    Acrylamide is produced in starchy foods that are baked, roasted or fried at high temperatures. Concerns about the potential health issues associated with the dietary intake of this reactive compound led us to reduce the accumulation of asparagine, one of its main precursors, in the tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum). This metabolic change was accomplished by silencing two asparagine synthetase genes through ‘all-native DNA’ transformation. Glasshouse-grown tubers of the transformed intragen...

  13. Preparation and characterisation of acrylamide/maleic acid hydrogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klinpituksa, P.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Acrylamide/maleic acid hydrogel, a superabsorbent polymer, was prepared by free radical polymerization in aqueous solution of acrylamide (AAm and maleic acid (MA : monomer and comonomer, respectively. Potassium persulfate and N,N,N’,N’-tetramethylethylenediamine were used as an initiator system. Also, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA and N,N’-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA were used as crosslinkers. Different compositions of acrylamide, maleic acid and crosslinkers were employed. Water swelling, equilibrium water content and swelling power of the hydrogel formed were determined. The result showed that the swelling in water at equilibrium of hydrogels was in the range of 8,420-10,300% and 3,160- 3,560%, equilibrium water content was in the range of 0.9880-0.9902 and 0.9630-0.9727 and swelling power was in the range of 84-103 and 31-36 using 1%EGDMA and 1%MBA as crosslinkers, respectively. The diffusion of water into hydrogel followed non-Fickian character based on swelling power.

  14. Quartz Microbalance Sensor for the Detection of Acrylamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph A. Schalley

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Several macrocycles of the Hunter-Vögtle type have been identified as superior host compounds for the detection of small amounts of acrylamide. When coated onto the surface of a quartz microbalance, these compounds serve as highly sensitive and selective sensor-active layers for their use in electronic noses. In this study, differently substituted macrocycles were investigated including an open-chain analogue and a catenane. Their structure and functional groups are correlated with their observed affinities to acrylamide and related acids and amides. The much smaller response of the open-chain compound and the almost absent sensor response of the catenane suggest that binding occurs within the cavity of the macrocycle. Theoretical calculations agree well with the experimental data even though they do not yet take into account the arrangement of the macrocycles in the sensor-active layer. The lower detection limit of acrylamide is 10 parts per billion (ppb, which is impressively low for this type of sensor. Other related compounds such as acrylic acid, propionamide, or propionic acid show no or significantly lower affinities to the macrocycles in these concentration ranges.

  15. Acrylamide Mitigation in Potato Chips by Using NaCl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Granby, Kit; Risum, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    In April 2002, Swedish researchers shocked the world when they presented preliminary findings on the presence of acrylamide in fried and baked foods, most notably potato chips and French fries, at levels of 30–2,300 ppb. The objective of this research was to study the effect of immersing potato...... slices in a NaCl solution over the acrylamide formation in the resultant potato chips. Potato slices (Verdi variety, diameter 40 mm, width 2.0 mm) were fried at 170 °C for 5 min (final moisture content of ∼2.0%). Prior to frying, the potato slices were treated in one of the following ways: (1) control...... blanched at 90 °C for 5 min plus immersed in distilled water at 25 °C for 5 min; and (6) slices blanched at 90 °C for 5 min in a 3 g/100 g NaCl solution. Blanching followed by the immersion of potato slices in 1 g/100 g NaCl solution was effective in reducing acrylamide content in ∼62%; however, almost...

  16. Silencing of vacuolar invertase and asparagine synthetase genes and its impact on acrylamide formation of fried potato products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acrylamide is produced in a wide variety of carbohydrate-rich foods during high temperature cooking. Dietary acrylamide is a suspected human carcinogen, and health concerns related to dietary acrylamide have been raised worldwide. French fries and potato chips contribute a significant proportion to ...

  17. 40 CFR 721.6620 - Alkanaminium, polyalkyl-[(2-methyl-1-oxo-2-propenyl)oxy] salt, polymer with acrylamide and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... with acrylamide and substituted alkyl methacrylate. 721.6620 Section 721.6620 Protection of Environment..., polymer with acrylamide and substituted alkyl methacrylate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new...- salt, polymer with acrylamide and substituted alkyl methacrylate (PMN P-87-252) is subject to...

  18. 40 CFR 721.6540 - Acrylamide, polymers with tetraalkyl ammonium salt and polyalkyl, aminoalkyl meth-a-cryl-a-mide...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acrylamide, polymers with tetraalkyl... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6540 Acrylamide, polymers... as acrylamide, polymers with tetraalkyl ammonium salt and poly-al-kyl, amino alkyl...

  19. Acrylamide-forming potential and agronomic properties of elite US potato germplasm from the National Fry Processing Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Processed potato products, such as chips and fries, contribute to the dietary intake of acrylamide, a suspected human carcinogen. One of the most promising approaches for reducing acrylamide consumption is to develop and commercialize new potato varieties with low acrylamide-forming potential. To fa...

  20. Metabolismus und Bioverfügbarkeit der Lebensmittelkontaminante Acrylamid in Ratte und Mensch

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Franz

    2010-01-01

    Bei Acrylamid handelt es sich um ein genotoxisches Kanzerogen, welches beim Erhitzen von Lebensmitteln gebildet wird. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurde untersucht, inwieweit spezifische Lebensmittelmatrices die Bioverfügbarkeit und den Metabolismus von Acrylamid beeinflussen. Lebkuchen als zuckerhaltiges, fettarmes und trockenes Lebensmittel auf Getreidebasis und Pommes frites (fett- und wasserreich; Kartoffelbasis) die entweder direkt aus der Kartoffel geschnitten (mit intakter Gewebestruktur) o...

  1. The carcinogenicity of dietary acrylamide intake: A comparative discussion of epidemiological and experimental animal research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, J.G.F.; Baars, B.-J.; Schouten, L.J.; Konings, E.J.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2010-01-01

    Since 2002, it is known that the probable human carcinogen acrylamide is present in commonly consumed carbohydrate-rich foods, such as French fries and potato chips. In this review, the authors discuss the body of evidence on acrylamide carcinogenicity from both epidemiological and rodent studies, i

  2. Effect of frying instructions for food handlers on acrylamide concentration in French Fries: an explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanny, M.A.I.; Luning, P.A.; Jinap, S.; Bakker, E.J.; Boekel, van T.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain insight into the effect of frying instructions on food handlers' control decisions in restaurants and to investigate the impact of control decisions on the variation and concentration of acrylamide in French fries. The concentrations of acrylamide and reduci

  3. Quantitation of Acrylamide in Foods by High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troise, A.D.; Fiore, A.; Fogliano, V.

    2014-01-01

    Acrylamide detection still represents one of the hottest topics in food chemistry. Solid phase cleanup coupled to liquid chromatography separation and tandem mass spectrometry detection along with GC-MS detection are nowadays the gold standard procedure for acrylamide quantitation thanks to high rep

  4. Acrylamide exposure from foods of the Dutch population and an assessment of the consequent risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, E.J.M.; Baars, A.J.; Klaveren, van J.D.; Spanjer, M.C.; Rensen, P.M.; Hiemstra, M.; Kooij, van J.A.; Peters, P.W.J.

    2003-01-01

    At the end of April 2002, the Swedish Food Administration reported the presence of acrylamide in heat treated food products. Acrylamide has been shown to be toxic and carcinogenic in animals, and has been classified by the WHO/IARC among others as `probably carcinogenic for humans¿. The purposes of

  5. Evaluation of thermal processing variables for reducing acrylamide in canned black ripe olives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acrylamide formed in plant foods at elevated cooking temperatures has been identified as a probable carcinogen. A wide variation and high acrylamide concentration in commercial canned black ripe olives has been reported. The objective of this study was to determine if different safe sterilization co...

  6. Onderzoek naar de mutagene werking van acrylamide en methacrylamide bij Drosophila melanogaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramers PGN; Groot MG; Mout HCA; Verharen HW

    1989-01-01

    Acrylamide is mutageen in de somatische mutatie- en recombinatietest (SMART) met Drosphila melanogaster na behandeling van larven vanaf het 2e en 3e larvale stadium tot aan de verpopping, bij concentraties van 1,0 ; 1,5 en 2,0 mM in gedistilleerd water. Concentraties van 1,5 en 2,0 mM acrylamide v

  7. Assessment of acrylamide degradation potential of Pseudomonas aeruginosa BAC-6 isolated from industrial effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekar, Vijayashree; Chandrashekar, Chandrika; Shivakumar, Rajath; Bhattacharya, Sourav; Das, Arijit; Gouda, Bhaskar; Rajan, Subbaramiah Sundara

    2014-07-01

    Acrylamide finds diverse industrial applications but is considered an environmental threat because of its neurotoxic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic effects. Certain bacteria enzymatically degrade acrylamide to acrylic acid and ammonia. The present investigation was carried out to isolate and identify an acrylamide-degrading bacterium from industrial effluent. Bacterial growth and extent of acrylamide degradation in the presence of different acrylamide concentrations, nutrients, varied range of pH, and temperature were analyzed. Among the eight acrylamide-degrading isolates, isolate BAC-6 demonstrated the highest degradation, and based upon the partial 16S rDNA sequencing, it was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa BAC-6 grew over a wide range of acrylamide concentrations, but the highest degradation was recorded at 500 mg/L concentration with concomitant cell growth. Among the carbon supplements, mannitol supported the highest growth and degradation. Maximum degradation was reported at neutral pH. A mesophilic temperature range (25-40 °C) facilitated conducive bacterial growth followed by degradation. The highest degradation and bacterial growth were observed at 30 and 35 °C, respectively. Thus, it could be inferred from the present investigation that cultural conditions strongly affected the degradation potential of P. aeruginosa BAC-6 and advocated the utilization of the isolate in bioremediation of sites polluted with acrylamide.

  8. Model studies on acrylamide generation from glucose/asparagine in aqueous glycerol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Granby, Kit;

    2007-01-01

    Acrylamide formation from asparagine and glucose in different ratios in neutral glycerol/water mixtures was found to increase with decreasing water activity (0.33......Acrylamide formation from asparagine and glucose in different ratios in neutral glycerol/water mixtures was found to increase with decreasing water activity (0.33...

  9. 40 CFR 141.111 - Treatment techniques for acrylamide and epichlorohydrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Treatment techniques for acrylamide....111 Treatment techniques for acrylamide and epichlorohydrin. Each public water system must certify annually in writing to the State (using third party or manufacturer's certification) that when...

  10. Birth weight, head circumference, and prenatal exposure to acrylamide from maternal diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; von Stedingk, Hans; Botsivali, Maria;

    2012-01-01

    Acrylamide is a common dietary exposure that crosses the human placenta. It is classified as a probable human carcinogen, and developmental toxicity has been observed in rodents.......Acrylamide is a common dietary exposure that crosses the human placenta. It is classified as a probable human carcinogen, and developmental toxicity has been observed in rodents....

  11. Quantification of acrylamide in foods selected by using gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delević Veselin M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acrylamide is toxic and probably carcinogenic compound, made as a result of high-temperature thermal treatment of carbohydrate-rich foodstuffs. In this article a method is improved for the extraction and quantitation of acrylamide in foods produced based on corn flour that are represented in our traditional diet. Acrylamide extraction was carried out using reduced volume of saturated solution of bromine water and the GC - MS method for the quantification was shown. Quantification of acrylamide was preceded by: sample homogenization, acrylamide extraction using water, extract purification using solid phase extraction, bromination, using a reduced volume of bromine water solution, dehydrobromination with sodium thiosulfate and transformation of dibromopropenamide in 2,3- 2- bromopropenamide using triethylamine. Regression and correlation analysis were applied for the probability level of 0.05. Calibration is performed in the concentration range 5-80 ug/kg with a detection limit 6.86 mg / kg and the limits of quantification 10.78 ug/kg and the coefficient of determination R2 > 0.999. Calibration curve was obtained: y = 0,069x + 0,038. Recovery values were an average from 97 to 110%. Proposed GC-MS method is simple, precise and reliable for the determination of acrylamide in the samples of thermal treated foods. Our results show that the tested foods quantify the presence of acrylamide in concentrations of 18 to 77 mg/kg acrylamide depending on whether the food was prepared by cooking or baking.

  12. Reducing the acrylamide content of processed potato products through germplasm improvement: opportunities, challenges and progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Processed potato products, including french fries and potato chips, make a substantial contribution to total dietary acrylamide. Health safety concerns raised by acrylamide in food increase financial risks to the potato industry and have encouraged industry to take a proactive response toward acryla...

  13. High-efficiency sample preparation approach to determine acrylamide levels in high-fat foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaodan; Li, Jinwei; Cao, Peirang; Liu, Yuanfa

    2016-08-01

    An improved sample preparation method was developed to enhance acrylamide recovery in high-fat foods. Prior to concentration, distilled deionized water was added to protect acrylamide from degradation, resulting in a higher acrylamide recovery rate from fried potato chips. A Chrome-Matrix C18 column (2.6 μm, 2.1 × 100 mm) was used for the first time to analyze acrylamide levels using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, displaying good separation of acrylamide from interference. A solid-phase extraction procedure was avoided, and an average recovery of >89.00% was achieved from different food matrices for three different acrylamide spiking levels. Good reproducibility was observed, with an intraday relative standard deviation of 0.04-2.38%, and an interday relative standard deviation of 2.34-3.26%. Thus, combining the improved sample preparation method for acrylamide analysis with the separation on a Chrome-Matrix C18 column (2.6 μm, 2.1 × 100 mm) using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry is highly useful for analyzing acrylamide levels in complex food matrices. PMID:27279364

  14. Acrylamide formation in vegetable oils and animal fats during heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniali, G; Jinap, S; Hajeb, P; Sanny, M; Tan, C P

    2016-12-01

    The method of liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry was utilized and modified to confirm and quantify acrylamide in heating cooking oil and animal fat. Heating asparagine with various cooking oils and animal fat at 180°C produced varying amounts of acrylamide. The acrylamide in the different cooking oils and animal fat using a constant amount of asparagine was measured. Cooking oils were also examined for peroxide, anisidine and iodine values (or oxidation values). A direct correlation was observed between oxidation values and acrylamide formation in different cooking oils. Significantly less acrylamide was produced in saturated animal fat than in unsaturated cooking oil, with 366ng/g in lard and 211ng/g in ghee versus 2447ng/g in soy oil, followed by palm olein with 1442ng/g. PMID:27374529

  15. Patented Techniques for Acrylamide Mitigation in High-Temperature Processed Foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariotti, Salome; Pedreschi, Franco; Antonio Carrasco, José;

    2011-01-01

    route for acrylamide for-mation between reducing sugars (glucose and fructose), sucrose, and the amino acid asparagine, and, consequently, a variety of technologies have been developed to reduce acrylamide concentration in thermally processed foods based ei-ther on: (i) Changing process parameters (e...... for acrylamide reduction in foods processed at high temperatures are mentioned and briefly analyzed in order to develop new mitigation techniques for acrylamide in different food matrixes.......Heating foods has many advantages since it adds taste, color, texture and minimizes harmful germs, among others. Flavor and aroma compounds are produced via the Maillard reaction, where various hazardous com-pounds may form as well, such as acrylamide. Maillard reaction is believed to be the main...

  16. Determination of acrylamide in local and commercial cultivar of potatoes from biological farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchettini, Nadia; Focardi, Silvia; Guarnieri, Massimo; Guerranti, Cristiana; Perra, Guido

    2013-02-15

    This paper reports the results of a preliminary study on the characterization of parameters influencing formation of acrylamide in fried potatoes, from biological cultivation. The formation of acrylamide was investigated in relation to frying in biological extra virgin olive oil and commercial seed oil. Three different cultivars (Rossa di Colfiorito, Quarantina bianca genovese and Kennebec) were chosen. Asparagine, glucose, fructose and sucrose concentrations were determined in potato slice before frying, while acrylamide content was analysed by LC-ESI-MS/MS in the slices fried in seed and extra virgin olive oil. The Kennebec cultivar showed differences in its potential for acrylamide formation, which was primarily related to its relatively high asparagine and reducing sugars contents, respect the other local cultivars (particulary Quarantina). Values of acrylamide below detection limit (LOD) were found in Quarantina bianca genovese cultivar samples fried in extra virgin olive oil and peanuts seed oil and higher in peanuts seed oil fried potatoes of Kennebec cultivar.

  17. Pre-diagnostic acrylamide exposure and survival after breast cancer among postmenopausal Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anja; Christensen, Jane; Outzen, Malene;

    2012-01-01

    Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen, with industrial contact, tobacco smoking and foods processed at high temperatures as the main routes of exposure. In animal studies oral intake of acrylamide has been related to cancer development, with indications that the increased cancer occurrence...... especially regards endocrine related tumors. In human epidemiological studies, dietary exposure to acrylamide has also been suggested related to higher risk of endocrine related tumors, like estrogen sensitive breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate if pre-diagnostic acrylamide exposure......, measured by acrylamide and glycidamide hemoglobin adducts (AA-Hb and GA-Hb), were associated to mortality in breast cancer cases. Among 24,697 postmenopausal women included into a Danish cohort between 1993 and 1997, 420 developed breast cancer before 2001 and 110 died before 2009. AA-Hb and GA...

  18. Dietary acrylamide intake and estrogen and progesterone receptor-defined postmenopausal breast cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Grete S; Hogervorst, Janneke G F; Schouten, Leo J;

    2010-01-01

    Acrylamide, a potential human carcinogen, has been discovered in a variety of heat-treated carbohydrate-rich food products. Previously, dietary acrylamide intake was shown to be associated with endocrine-related cancers in humans. We assessed the association between dietary acrylamide intake...... breast cancer cases were ascertained, with hormone receptor status information for 43%. Cox proportional hazards analysis was applied to determine hazard ratios in quintiles of dietary acrylamide intake stratifying on estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) and smoking status...... ratios were 1.31 (95% CI: 0.87-1.97, P (trend) = 0.26) for ER+, 1.47 (0.86-2.51, P (trend) = 0.14) for PR+, and 1.43 (0.83-2.46, P (trend) = 0.16) for ER+PR+, when comparing women in the highest quintile of acrylamide intake (median 36.8 microg/day) to women in the lowest (median 9.5 microg...

  19. Hydration of acrylonitrile to produce acrylamide using biocatalyst in a membrane dispersion microreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiahui; Chen, Jie; Wang, Yujun; Luo, Guangsheng; Yu, Huimin

    2014-10-01

    In this work, a membrane dispersion microreactor was utilized for the hydration of acrylonitrile to produce acrylamide. Through observation using a microscopy, it was found that the acrylonitrile was dispersed into the continuous phase (the aqueous phase contains nitrile hydratase (NHase)) as droplets with a diameter ranged from 25 to 35 μm, hence the mass transfer specific surface area was significantly increased, and the concentration of acrylamide reached 52.5 wt% within 50 min. By contrast, in stirred tanks, the concentration of acrylamide only got 39.5 wt% within 245 min. Moreover, only a few amounts of acrylonitrile were accumulated in this microreactor system. Through optimizing the flow rate, the concentration of acrylamide reached 45.8 wt% within 35 min, the short reaction time greatly weakened the inhibition of acrylonitrile and acrylamide on the enzyme activity, which is suitable for prolonging the life of free cell.

  20. Deep frying: the role of water from food being fried and acrylamide formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertz Christian

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The formation of acrylamide during food frying is generally influenced by food type, thermal treatment and equipment. The acrylamide concentration is increased when frying oils containing a higher level of polar materials or silicone or larger amounts of diglycerides. This effect may be caused by moisture escaping from food that has an enhancing effect on the heat transfer. It was noticed that if the moisture in the frying operation was bound by special adsorbents, the acrylamide content could be reduced by more than 50%. The effects of several additives like citric acid on the formation of acrylamide during frying of chips were also investigated. The mechanism of acrylamide formation in fried foods is discussed to explain these findings.

  1. A review of acrylamide: an industry perspective on research, analysis, formation, and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taeymans, Dominique; Wood, John; Ashby, Peter; Blank, Imre; Studer, Alfred; Stadler, Richard H; Gondé, Pierre; Van Eijck, Paul; Lalljie, Sam; Lingnert, Hans; Lindblom, Marianne; Matissek, Reinhard; Müller, Detflef; Tallmadge, Dan; O'Brien, John; Thompson, Sara; Silvani, David; Whitmore, Tricia

    2004-01-01

    Acrylamide is a synthetic monomer with a wide scope of industrial applications, mainly as a precursor in the production of several polymers, such as polyacrylamide. The main uses of polyacrylamides are in water and wastewater treatment processes, pulp and paper processing, and mining and mineral processing. The announcement by the Swedish National Food Administration in April 2002 of the presence of acrylamide predominantly in heat-treated carbohydrate-rich foods sparked intensive investigations into acrylamide, encompassing the occurrence, chemistry, agricultural practices, and toxicology, in order to establish if there is a potential risk to human health from the presence of this contaminant in the human diet. The link of acrylamide in foods to the Maillard reaction and, in particular, to the amino acid asparagine has been a major step forward in elucidating the first feasible chemical route of formation during the preparation and processing of food. Other probably minor pathways have also been proposed, including acrolein and acrylic acid. This review addresses the analytical and mechanistic aspects of the acrylamide issue and summarizes the progress made to date by the European food industries in these key areas. Essentially, it presents experimental results generated under laboratory model conditions, as well as under actual food processing conditions covering different food categories, such as potatoes, biscuits, cereals, and coffee. Since acrylamide formation is closely linked to food composition, factors such as the presence of sugars and availability of free amino acids are also considered. Many new findings that contribute towards a better understanding of the formation and presence of acrylamide in foods are presented. Many national authorities across the world are assessing the dietary exposure of consumers to acrylamide, and scientific projects have commenced to gather new information about the toxicology of acrylamide. These are expected to provide

  2. A review of acrylamide: an industry perspective on research, analysis, formation, and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taeymans, Dominique; Wood, John; Ashby, Peter; Blank, Imre; Studer, Alfred; Stadler, Richard H; Gondé, Pierre; Van Eijck, Paul; Lalljie, Sam; Lingnert, Hans; Lindblom, Marianne; Matissek, Reinhard; Müller, Detflef; Tallmadge, Dan; O'Brien, John; Thompson, Sara; Silvani, David; Whitmore, Tricia

    2004-01-01

    Acrylamide is a synthetic monomer with a wide scope of industrial applications, mainly as a precursor in the production of several polymers, such as polyacrylamide. The main uses of polyacrylamides are in water and wastewater treatment processes, pulp and paper processing, and mining and mineral processing. The announcement by the Swedish National Food Administration in April 2002 of the presence of acrylamide predominantly in heat-treated carbohydrate-rich foods sparked intensive investigations into acrylamide, encompassing the occurrence, chemistry, agricultural practices, and toxicology, in order to establish if there is a potential risk to human health from the presence of this contaminant in the human diet. The link of acrylamide in foods to the Maillard reaction and, in particular, to the amino acid asparagine has been a major step forward in elucidating the first feasible chemical route of formation during the preparation and processing of food. Other probably minor pathways have also been proposed, including acrolein and acrylic acid. This review addresses the analytical and mechanistic aspects of the acrylamide issue and summarizes the progress made to date by the European food industries in these key areas. Essentially, it presents experimental results generated under laboratory model conditions, as well as under actual food processing conditions covering different food categories, such as potatoes, biscuits, cereals, and coffee. Since acrylamide formation is closely linked to food composition, factors such as the presence of sugars and availability of free amino acids are also considered. Many new findings that contribute towards a better understanding of the formation and presence of acrylamide in foods are presented. Many national authorities across the world are assessing the dietary exposure of consumers to acrylamide, and scientific projects have commenced to gather new information about the toxicology of acrylamide. These are expected to provide

  3. Detection of acrylamide in potato chips using a fluorescent sensing method based on acrylamide polymerization-induced distance increase between quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qinqin; Xu, Xiahong; Li, Zhanming; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Jianping; Fu, Yingchun; Li, Yanbin

    2014-04-15

    Acrylamide is a neurotoxin and potential carcinogen, but is found in various thermally processed foods such as potato chips, biscuits, and coffee. Simple and sensitive methods for on-line detection of acrylamide are needed to ensure food safety. In this paper, a novel fluorescent sensing method based on acrylamide polymerization-induced distance increase between quantum dots (QDs) was proposed for detecting acrylamide in potato chips. The functional QDs were prepared by their binding with N-acryloxysuccinimide (NAS), which was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FR-IR) spectra. The carbon-carbon double bonds of NAS modified QDs polymerized with assistance of photo initiator under UV irradiation, leading to QDs getting closer along with fluorescence intensity decreasing. Acrylamide in the sample participated in the polymerization and induced an increase of fluorescence intensity. This method possessed a linear range from 3.5×10(-5) to 3.5 g L(-1) (r(2)=0.94) and a limit of detection of 3.5×10(-5) g L(-1). Although the sensitivity and specificity cannot be compared with standard LC-MS/MS analysis, this new method requires much less time and cost, which is promising for on-line rapid detection of acrylamide in food processing.

  4. Detection of acrylamide in potato chips using a fluorescent sensing method based on acrylamide polymerization-induced distance increase between quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qinqin; Xu, Xiahong; Li, Zhanming; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Jianping; Fu, Yingchun; Li, Yanbin

    2014-04-15

    Acrylamide is a neurotoxin and potential carcinogen, but is found in various thermally processed foods such as potato chips, biscuits, and coffee. Simple and sensitive methods for on-line detection of acrylamide are needed to ensure food safety. In this paper, a novel fluorescent sensing method based on acrylamide polymerization-induced distance increase between quantum dots (QDs) was proposed for detecting acrylamide in potato chips. The functional QDs were prepared by their binding with N-acryloxysuccinimide (NAS), which was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FR-IR) spectra. The carbon-carbon double bonds of NAS modified QDs polymerized with assistance of photo initiator under UV irradiation, leading to QDs getting closer along with fluorescence intensity decreasing. Acrylamide in the sample participated in the polymerization and induced an increase of fluorescence intensity. This method possessed a linear range from 3.5×10(-5) to 3.5 g L(-1) (r(2)=0.94) and a limit of detection of 3.5×10(-5) g L(-1). Although the sensitivity and specificity cannot be compared with standard LC-MS/MS analysis, this new method requires much less time and cost, which is promising for on-line rapid detection of acrylamide in food processing. PMID:24252761

  5. Structural Changes of Polyethylene Terephthalate Fibers Grafted by Acrylamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施琴芬; 戴礼兴

    2003-01-01

    A group of grafted PET fibers with different graft yield are formed by grafiing acrylamide onto the PET main chains. The structure of grafted fibers are studied by scanning electronic microscope ( SEM ), infra-red spectrophotometer (IR), and differential scanning calorimetry( DSC ). At the same time, the moisture regain, dyeability, strength, and elongation at break of the samples are measured and their relations with structural changes are discussed. Compared with ungrafted fiber, shape of the fiber cross-section, IR characteristic absorption peaks, and melting behavior of the grafted fibers have been changed, causing the fiber dyeability and moisture regain to be increased, and mechanical properties to be changed.

  6. Grafting copolymerization of acrylamides onto preirradiated PP films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Nho, Young Chang; Kwon, Oh Hyun; Hoffman, Allan S.

    1999-06-01

    Acrylamide (AAm), N,N-Dimethylacrylamide (DMAAm) and N-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl) methacrylamide (DMAPMAAm) were grafted onto polypropylene (PP) films by preirradiation grafting respectively. The effect of irradiation dose, solvent systems and reaction time on the degree of grafting were determined. The grafted sample films were verified by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in the attenuated total reflectance mode (ATR) and the determination of water contact angle. The blood compatibility of the grafted PP films were evaluated by the determination of platelet adsorption and thrombus. The blood compatibility of grafted PP films seems better than that of original PP films.

  7. IMPACT OF PRE-TREATMENTS ON THE ACRYLAMIDE FORMATION AND ORGANOLEPTIC EVOLUTION OF FRIED POTATO CHIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Abdel-Monem Ahmed Ismial

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this investigation was to study the effect of different pre-frying treatments on reduction of acrylamide formation of fried potato Moreover; the impact of different phenol compounds and leaves on acrylamide formation was evaluated. In addition, the effects of these treatments on the sensorial quality of fried potato chips were studied. Results showed that blanching process caused significant decreases in acrylamide content of fried potato. The highest decrease was observed for those samples blanched in MgCl2 (0.1 M, L-cysteine (0.05 M and 0.01 M of citric acid solutions, 97.97, 97.17 and 93.43%, respectively. Soaking of potato slices in water or different solutions significantly reduced the formation of acrylamide. The decreases in acrylamide content ranged from 61.61 to 97.47%. Soaking in crude, semi-purified asparaginase solutions, blanching in hot water plus immersing in the enzyme solutions and soaking in phenolic acid solutions caused significant reduction in the formation of acrylamide of potato chips. Addition of fresh leaves into frying oil significantly influenced acrylamide formation. Oregano, rosemary, bamboo, guava and olive leaves caused the greatest reductions. Potato slices blanched in distilled water at 65°C, NaCl, Mg Cl2 and 0.1 M glutamine had significantly the highest scores of overall acceptability.

  8. Influence of processing conditions on acrylamide content in black ripe olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, Francisco J; Montaño, Alfredo

    2008-03-26

    The presence of acrylamide was investigated in different presentations of commercial black ripe olives, a well-known sterilized alkali-treated product. The analysis was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after bromination of acrylamide, using (13C3)acrylamide as internal standard. In-house validation data for commercial ripe olives showed good precision and accuracy of the method, with repeatability below 3% and recoveries between 94 and 105%. Acrylamide was detected in all samples, but its concentration varied significantly from 176 to 1578 microg/kg of pulp. The effects of different processing conditions (two preservation methods and three darkening methods), cultivar (Hojiblanca or Manzanilla), and presentation form (pitted or sliced olives) on acrylamide content were evaluated in experiments performed in an olive-processing plant. All canned samples were sterilized at 121 degrees C for 30 min. Statistical analysis of the data indicated that the effects of darkening method and olive cultivar were the most pronounced. Acrylamide contents did not significantly differ after 6 months of storage. The small amounts of free amino acids and reducing sugars found in olives before sterilization did not significantly correlate with the acrylamide formed. PMID:18303816

  9. Effects of Acrylamide Toxicity on Growth Performance and Serobiochemisty of Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almoeiz Y. Hammad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to obtain information on the effects of various dietary doses of the Acrylamide on Wistar rats. Emphasis was put on changes on growth and serobiochemical constituents of treated rats. Extra pure Acrylamide was fed to Wistar rats at 10, 30, 60 and 90 mg/kg, respectively of the standard diet for 6 weeks. Acrylamide was then withdrawn from the diet for four weeks. Incorporation in diet of the doses 10, 30, 60 and 90 mg/kg acrylamide was toxic to Wistar rats, but fatal only to those of group 5 fed on 90 mg/kg, where five rats (62.5% died on day 18 of the experimental period. Depression in growth was observed in rats that had been fed on the experimental doses for 6 weeks. Neurotoxicity was observed only in the rats fed on acrylamide at 10 (Group 2 and 60 mg/kg (Group 4. These findings were accompanied by alterations in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activities and albumin, globulin and cholesterol concentrations. The alteration on enzymes activities, urea and cholesterol remained even after the 4 weeks withdrawal of acrylamide, whereas, total protein, albumin, globulins and electrolytes concentration returned to their normal values. Acrylamide is considered neurotoxic at dietary levels of 10 and 60 mg/kg and enterohepatonephrotoxic to Wistar rats at dietary level of 10, 30, 60 and 90 mg/kg and fatal at the treatment dose of 90 mg/kg.

  10. Transplacental transfer of acrylamide and glycidamide are comparable to that of antipyrine in perfused human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annola, Kirsi; Karttunen, Vesa; Keski-Rahkonen, Pekka; Myllynen, Päivi; Segerbäck, Dan; Heinonen, Seppo; Vähäkangas, Kirsi

    2008-11-10

    Most drugs can penetrate the placenta but there are only a few studies on placental transfer of environmental toxic compounds. In this study, we used dual recirculating human placental perfusion to determine the transfer rate through the placenta of a neurotoxic and carcinogenic compound found in food, acrylamide and its genotoxic metabolite glycidamide. Putative acrylamide metabolism into glycidamide during the 4-h perfusions and acrylamide-derived DNA adducts in placental DNA after perfusions were also analyzed. Placentas were collected immediately after delivery and kept physiologically functional as confirmed by antipyrine kinetics, glucose consumption and leak from fetal to maternal circulation. Acrylamide (5 or 10 microg/ml) or glycidamide (5 microg/ml), both with antipyrine (100 microg/ml), was added to maternal circulation. Acrylamide and glycidamide were analyzed in the perfusion medium by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Acrylamide and glycidamide crossed the placenta from maternal to fetal circulation with similar kinetics to antipyrine, suggesting fetal exposure if the mother is exposed. The concentrations in maternal and fetal circulations equilibrated within 2h for both studied compounds and with both concentrations. Acrylamide metabolism into glycidamide was not detected during the 4-h perfusions. Moreover, DNA adducts were undetectable in the placentas after perfusions. However, fetuses may be exposed to glycidamide after maternal metabolism. Although not found in placental tissue after 4h of perfusion, it is possible that glycidamide adducts are formed in fetal DNA.

  11. Occurrence and fate of acrylamide in water-recycling systems and sludge in aggregate industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqua, Guillaume; Spinelli, Sylvie; Gonzalez, Catherine

    2015-05-01

    Acrylamide is a hazardous substance having irritant and toxic properties as well as carcinogen, mutagen, and impaired fertility possible effects. Acrylamide might be found in the environment as a consequence of the use of polyacrylamides (PAMs) widely added as a flocculant for water treatment. Acrylamide is a monomer used to produce polyacrylamide (PAM) polymers. This reaction of polymerization can be incomplete, and acrylamide molecules can be present as traces in the commercial polymer. Thus, the use of PAMs may generate a release of acrylamide in the environment. In aggregate industries, PAM is widely involved in recycling process and water reuse (aggregate washing). Indeed, these industries consume large quantities of water. Thus, European and French regulations have favored loops of recycling of water in order to reduce water withdrawals. The main goal of this article is to study the occurrence and fate of acrylamide in water-recycling process as well as in the sludge produced by the flocculation treatment process in aggregate production plants. Moreover, to strengthen the relevance of this article, the objective is also to demonstrate if the recycling system leads to an accumulation effect in waters and sludge and if free acrylamide could be released by sludge during their storage. To reach this objective, water sampled at different steps of recycling water process has been analyzed as well as different sludge corresponding to various storage times. The obtained results reveal no accumulation effect in the water of the water-recycling system nor in the sludge.

  12. Acrylamide Reduction in Potato Chips by Selection of Potato Variety Grown in Iran and Processing Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Shojaee-Aliabadi, S.; Nikoopour, Hooshang; Kobarfard, Farzad; Parsapour, Mahdi; Moslehishad, Maryam; Hassanabadi, Hassan; Frias, Jesus Maria; Hashemi, Maryam; Dahaghin, Ezzat

    2013-01-01

    Background Acrylamide as a possible carcinogen is known to form in heated carbohydrate-rich food such as potato chips. In this study, the effect of three potato varieties (Agria, Sante and Savalan) and two blanching conditions ((75˚C for 9 min and 83˚C for 2.5 min) on the concentration of precursors and acrylamide reduction in potato chips was investigated. Results Results revealed that potato variety and blanching time-temperature ere important parameters for acrylamide formation in...

  13. Interference study on the free calcium in the human peripheral lymphocyte by acrylamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Yan Wang; Chun Gui Zhao; Ye Hong Zhou; Shao Min Shuang; Chuan Dong

    2008-01-01

    The role of acrylamide on the human peripheral lymphocytes was studied by laser scanning confocal microscopy technique and fluo-3. The calibration value of the apparent dissociation constant (Kd) of the fluo-3-Ca2+ complex was obtained as 4.83×10-7mol/L. Acrylamide (<54μg/mL) evoked a rise in free intracellular calcium concentration [Ca2+]I, in a dose dependent manner. Acrylamide induced the increase of [Ca+2]I was discussed in detail.

  14. Rheological properties of poly(acrylamide-co-sodium acrylate) and poly(acrylamide-co-sodium vinylsulfonate) solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹杰; 车玉菊; 曹绪龙; 张继超; 王洪艳; 谭业邦

    2008-01-01

    Poly(acrylamide-co-sodium acrylate)(PAM/AA-Na) and poly(acrylamide-co-sodium vinylsulfonate)(PAM/VSS-Na) were prepared by inverse emulsion polymerization.The effects of CaCl2 on PAM/VSS-Na or PAM/VSS-Na aqueous solutions were investigated by steady-flow experiments at 25,40,55 and 70 ℃.The results show that the apparent viscosities of both solutions decrease with addition of CaCl2 or increase of temperature and shear rates.PAM/VSS-Na solution has better performance on the salt tolerance,shear endurance and temperature resistance due to containing sulfonic group in the molecules.Ca2+ concentration can affect the viscous activation energy of both solutions and the reason may be that these interactions between Ca2+ and also copolymer molecules are related to temperature and competitive in solution.These results may offer the basic data for searching the flooding systems with the ability of temperature resistance,salt tolerance and shear endurance for tertiary oil recovery.

  15. Silencing of vacuolar invertase and asparagine synthetase genes and its impact on acrylamide formation of fried potato products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaobiao; Gong, Huiling; He, Qunyan; Zeng, Zixian; Busse, James S; Jin, Weiwei; Bethke, Paul C; Jiang, Jiming

    2016-02-01

    Acrylamide is produced in a wide variety of carbohydrate-rich foods during high-temperature cooking. Dietary acrylamide is a suspected human carcinogen, and health concerns related to dietary acrylamide have been raised worldwide. French fries and potato chips contribute a significant proportion to the average daily intake of acrylamide, especially in developed countries. One way to mitigate health concerns related to acrylamide is to develop potato cultivars that have reduced contents of the acrylamide precursors asparagine, glucose and fructose in tubers. We generated a large number of silencing lines of potato cultivar Russet Burbank by targeting the vacuolar invertase gene VInv and the asparagine synthetase genes StAS1 and StAS2 with a single RNA interference construct. The transcription levels of these three genes were correlated with reducing sugar (glucose and fructose) and asparagine content in tubers. Fried potato products from the best VInv/StAS1/StAS2-triple silencing lines contained only one-fifteenth of the acrylamide content of the controls. Interestingly, the extent of acrylamide reduction of the best triple silencing lines was similar to that of the best VInv-single silencing lines developed previously from the same potato cultivar Russet Burbank. These results show that an acrylamide mitigation strategy focused on developing potato cultivars with low reducing sugars is likely to be an effective and sufficient approach for minimizing the acrylamide-forming potential of French fry processing potatoes. PMID:26079224

  16. The use of asparaginase to reduce acrylamide levels in cooked food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Oruna-Concha, Maria-Jose; Elmore, J Stephen

    2016-11-01

    Strategies proposed for reducing the formation of the suspected carcinogen acrylamide in cooked foods often rely on a reduction in the extent of the Maillard reaction, in which acrylamide is formed from the reaction between asparagine and reducing sugars. However, the Maillard reaction also provides desirable sensory attributes of cooked foods. Mitigation procedures that modify the Maillard reaction may negatively affect flavour and colour. The use of asparaginase to convert asparagine to aspartic acid may provide a means to reduce acrylamide formation, while maintaining sensory quality. This review collates research on the use of enzymes, asparaginase in particular, to mitigate acrylamide formation. Asparaginase is a powerful tool for the food industry and it is likely that its use will increase. However, the potential adverse effects of asparaginase treatment on sensory properties of cooked foods and the need to achieve sufficient enzyme-substrate contact remain areas for future research. PMID:27211635

  17. PLENARY LECTURES-PL4 Acrylamide: the new dilemma in food safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S SRIANUJATA

    2006-01-01

    @@ Acrylamide has been brought to the world attention in 2002 with the information that it was found contaminated in many heat treated carbohydrate rich foods. This creates a lot of concern worldwide since the appearance of Aflatoxins many decades ago.

  18. DETERMINATION OF ACRYLAMIDE IN FOOD BY GAS AND LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Vieriková

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available  Acrylamide in food was determined by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS after bromination of acrylamide and underivatized acrylamide was quantified by ultra performance liquid chromatography -mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS. Two different sample preparation methods were used and optimised. The GC-MS method was used for various food matrices like breads, potato crisps, potato crackers, french fries. The UPLC-MS method was used for analysis of coffee. The limit of detection and limit of quantification for acrylamide were 7 µg.kg-1 and 20 µg.kg-1 by GC-MS, 9 µg.kg-1  and 30 µg.kg-1 by UPLC-MS. For both methods the reproducibility, given as relative standard deviation was    doi:10.5219/61  

  19. Studies on LCST of poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid-co-N-diacetone acrylamide)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Hua Ni; Xiao Xia Zhu; Qing Lan Wang; Xian Yu Zeng

    2007-01-01

    Linear copolymers from N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA), acrylic acid (AA) and diacetone acrylamide (DAA) have been prepared.The effect of composition, ionic strength and pH on their lower critical solution temperature (LCST) has been investigated.

  20. SYNTHESIS,CHARACTERIZATION AND SELECTIVITY STUDIES OF POLY(ACRYLAMIDE)INCORPORATING SCHIFF BASES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nur(s)en Sarl; Serkan (O)zcan

    2009-01-01

    Three novel polymers incorporating Schiff bases,derived from condensation reactions of poly(acrylamide)with 5-chloro-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde,5-bromo-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde and 5-methyl-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde,have been synthesized,and their Cu(Ⅱ)and Ni(Ⅱ)complexes have been prepared.The 1H-NMR signals of the -CH=N- and -NH2 groups have been utilized to determine the relative abundances of Schiff base and acrylamide groups in the polymers containing Schiff bases.Poly(acrylamide)incorporating Schiff bases and metal complexes thereof have been characterized by molar conductance,magnetic susceptibility and electronic and IR spectral studies.The selectivity of poly(acrylamide)incorporating Schiff bases in forming Ni(Ⅱ)-aldehyde and Cu(Ⅱ)-aldehyde complexes has been studied.The Cu(Ⅱ)and Ni(Ⅱ)contents in the metal-bearing polymer complexes were determined by the ICP-MS technique.

  1. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation during baking of biscuits: Part I: Effects of sugar type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha T; Van der Fels-Klerx, H J Ine; Peters, Ruud J B; Van Boekel, Martinus A J S

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of sugar type on the reaction mechanism for formation of acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) during the baking of biscuits at 200°C using multiresponse modelling. Four types of biscuits were prepared: (1) with sucrose, (2) with glucose and fructose, (3) with fructose only and (4) with glucose only. Experimental data showed that HMF concentration was highest in biscuits with glucose and fructose, whereas acrylamide concentration was highest in biscuits with glucose, also having the highest asparagine concentration. Proposed mechanistic models suggested that HMF is formed via caramelisation and that acrylamide formation follows the specific amino acid route, i.e., reducing sugars react with asparagine to form the Schiff base before decarboxylation, to generate acrylamide without the Amadori rearrangement product and sugar fragmentation. Study results contribute to understanding chemical reaction pathways in real food products.

  2. Acrylamide in Romanian food using HPLC-UV and a health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oroian, Mircea; Amariei, Sonia; Gutt, Gheorghe

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the level of acrylamide from coffee, potato chips and French fries in Romanian food. According to the European Food Safety Authority, coffee beans, potato chips and French fries have the highest levels of acrylamide. For this survey, 50 samples of coffee beans, 50 samples of potato chips and 25 samples of French fries were purchased from different producers from the Romanian market. Acrylamide levels have been quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method, using water as mobile phase. Health risk assessment was achieved by computing the average daily intake, hazard quotient, cumulative risk, carcinogenic risk and cancer risk. For coffee, potato chips and French fries, acrylamide was not shown to pose a health risk in Romanian food.

  3. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation during baking of biscuits: Part I: Effects of sugar type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha T; Van der Fels-Klerx, H J Ine; Peters, Ruud J B; Van Boekel, Martinus A J S

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of sugar type on the reaction mechanism for formation of acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) during the baking of biscuits at 200°C using multiresponse modelling. Four types of biscuits were prepared: (1) with sucrose, (2) with glucose and fructose, (3) with fructose only and (4) with glucose only. Experimental data showed that HMF concentration was highest in biscuits with glucose and fructose, whereas acrylamide concentration was highest in biscuits with glucose, also having the highest asparagine concentration. Proposed mechanistic models suggested that HMF is formed via caramelisation and that acrylamide formation follows the specific amino acid route, i.e., reducing sugars react with asparagine to form the Schiff base before decarboxylation, to generate acrylamide without the Amadori rearrangement product and sugar fragmentation. Study results contribute to understanding chemical reaction pathways in real food products. PMID:26304386

  4. Inhibition of neurosphere formation in neural stem/progenitor cells by acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jong-Hang; Lee, Don-Ching; Chen, Mei-Shu; Ko, Ying-Chin; Chiu, Ing-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies showed that transplantation of cultured neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) could improve functional recovery for various neurological diseases. This study aims to develop a stem cell-based model for predictive toxicology of development in the neurological system after acrylamide exposure. Treatment of mouse (KT98/F1B-GFP) and human (U-1240 MG/F1B-GFP) NSPCs with 0.5 mM acrylamide resulted in the inhibition of neurosphere formation (definition of self-renewal ability in NSPCs), but not inhibition of cell proliferation. Apoptosis and differentiation of KT98 (a precursor of KT98/F1B-GFP) and KT98/F1B-GFP are not observed in acrylamide-treated neurospheres. Analysis of secondary neurosphere formation and differentiation of neurons and glia illustrated that acrylamide-treated KT98 and KT98/F1B-GFP neurospheres retain the NSPC properties, such as self-renewal and differentiation capacity. Correlation of acrylamide-inhibited neurosphere formation with cell-cell adhesion was observed in mouse NSPCs by live cell image analysis and the presence of acrylamide. Protein expression levels of cell adhesion molecules [neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and N-cadherin] and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) in acrylamide-treated KT98/F1B-GFP and U-1240 MG/F1B-GFP neurospheres demonstrated that NCAM decreased and phospho-ERK (pERK) increased, whereas expression of N-cadherin remained unchanged. Analysis of AKT (protein kinase B, PKB)/β-catenin pathway showed decrease in phospho-AKT (p-AKT) and cyclin D1 expression in acrylamide-treated neurospheres of KT98/F1B-GFP. Furthermore, PD98059, an ERK phosphorylation inhibitor, attenuated acrylamide-induced ERK phosphorylation, indicating that pERK contributed to the cell proliferation, but not in neurosphere formation in mouse NSPCs. Coimmunoprecipitation results of KT98/F1B-GFP cell lysates showed that the complex of NCAM and fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) is present in the neurosphere, and the

  5. Charakterisierung der DNA-schädigenden Wirkung von Acrylamid in Lebensmitteln am Modell der Ratte

    OpenAIRE

    Feld, Julia

    2010-01-01

    Die alpha,beta-ungesättigte Carbonylverbindung Acrylamid entsteht beim Erhitzen von kohlenhydratreichen Lebensmitteln aus der Reaktion von Aminosäuren (hauptsächlich Asparagin) und reduzierenden Zuckern als Nebenprodukt der Maillard-Reaktion. In Langzeitstudien an Ratten wurde ein kanzerogenes Potential von Acrylamid nachgewiesen, was zu seiner Klassifizierung als „wahrscheinlich kanzerogen am Menschen“ (Kategorie 2a) durch die International Agency for Research on Cancer führte. Als Auslöser ...

  6. Potential Risk of Acrylamide Formation in Different Cultivars of Amaranth and Quinoa

    OpenAIRE

    Graeff, S.; Stockmann, F.; Weber, A.; Berhane, B; Mbeng, K.J.; Rohitrattana, R.; Salazar, P.; Shoko, P.; Kaul, H.-P.; W. Claupein

    2008-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA), a potential human carcinogen, is formed in strongly heated carbohydrate-rich food as a part of the Maillard-reaction. The amino acid asparagine (Asn) and reducing sugars are considered to be the main precursors for AA formation. So far, research in AA has mainly focused on potato and cereal products, indicating the relevance of species, cultivars, amount of N fertilizer, and climatic conditions. Potential additional sources of acrylamide in food products might be pseudocereal...

  7. Acrylamide mitigation strategies: critical appraisal of the FoodDrinkEurope toolbox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, M; Gökmen, V; De Meulenaer, B; Ciesarová, Z; Zhang, Y; Pedreschi, F; Fogliano, V

    2016-06-15

    FoodDrinkEurope Federation recently released the latest version of the Acrylamide Toolbox to support manufacturers in acrylamide reduction activities giving indication about the possible mitigation strategies. The Toolbox is intended for small and medium size enterprises with limited R&D resources, however no comments about the pro and cons of the different measures were provided to advise the potential users. Experts of the field are aware that not all the strategies proposed have equal value in terms of efficacy and cost/benefit ratio. This consideration prompted us to provide a qualitative science-based ranking of the mitigation strategies proposed in the acrylamide Toolbox, focusing on bakery and fried potato products. Five authors from different geographical areas having a publication record on acrylamide mitigation strategies worked independently ranking the efficacy of the acrylamide mitigation strategies taking into account three key parameters: (i) reduction rate; (ii) side effects; and (iii) applicability and economic impact. On the basis of their own experience and considering selected literature of the last ten years, the authors scored for each key parameter the acrylamide mitigation strategies proposed in the Toolbox. As expected, all strategies selected in the Toolbox turned out to be useful, however, not at the same level. The use of enzyme asparaginase and the selection of low sugar varieties were considered the best mitigation strategies in bakery and in potato products, respectively. According to authors' opinion most of the other mitigation strategies, although effective, either have relevant side effects on the sensory profile of the products, or they are not easy to implement in industrial production. The final outcome was a science based commented ranking which can enrich the acrylamide Toolbox supporting individual manufacturer in taking the best actions to reduce the acrylamide content in their specific production context. PMID:26666890

  8. Acrylamide formation in low-fat potato snacks and its correlation with color development

    OpenAIRE

    Majcher, Malgorzata A.; Jeleñ, Henryk H.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract In the Institute of Food Technology of Plant Origin at Agricultural University of Poznań a recipe and technological process of low-fat potato snacks (7% of fat) production, using a combination of extrusion and a roasting process was developed. Due to the character of the product obtained, the amount of acrylamide was analyzed. At the same time, influence of temperature and time of heating on acrylamide formation was verified as well as correlated with color developmen...

  9. Update on acrylamide levels in food from monitoring years 2007 to 2010

    OpenAIRE

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-01-01

    Recommendations on the monitoring of acrylamide levels in food by the European Commission (EC) were extended in 2010 (EC, 2010). The new Recommendation includes a revised categorisation of food products for monitoring purposes. This report describes the results of European acrylamide monitoring during the period from 2007 to 2010 using the revised product categorisation with 10 main food categories and an additional 26 sub-categories. Twenty-five European countries submitted a total ...

  10. Variation in acrylamide concentration in French fries : effects of control measures in food service establishments

    OpenAIRE

    Sanny, M.A.I.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was first to identify the major technological and managerial factors and to investigate their contribution to variation in acrylamide concentrations.  The second aim was to investigate the effect of technological and managerial control measures on the concentration and variation of acrylamide in the preparation of French fries in food service establishments (FSE).  The variation ininitial concentration of reducing sugars, variable frying conditions and food ha...

  11. Formation of magnetite nanoparticles in poly(acrylamide) gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starodubtsev, Sergey G [Physics Department, M V Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninsky Gory, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Saenko, Evheniy V [Physics Department, M V Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninsky Gory, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Dokukin, Maxim E [Physics Department, M V Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninsky Gory, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Aksenov, Viktor L [Physics Department, M V Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninsky Gory, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Klechkovskaya, Vera V [Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, 59 Leninsky Prospekt, Moscow 117333 (Russian Federation); Zanaveskina, Irina S [Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, 59 Leninsky Prospekt, Moscow 117333 (Russian Federation); Khokhlov, Alexei R [Physics Department, M V Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninsky Gory, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation)

    2005-03-16

    Magnetic gels with magnetite nanoparticles incorporated in a matrix of poly(acrylamide) gel were studied. Magnetite was synthesized through coprecipitation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) in the gel phase, in the solution of linear polymer and in aqueous solution without polymer in alkaline media. The effects of network structure and of the concentration of iron salts in the swollen networks on the composition, structure and properties of magnetic gels have been studied by electron diffraction, XRD, transmission electron microscopy and vibration sample magnetometry. The average size of magnetite nanoparticles, D, is of the order of 10 nm. It decreases with the increase of polymer concentration in the gel phase. In the dried gels the particles form spherical aggregates (diameter about 150 nm), whereas in the solution of linear polymer, in the aqueous solution of iron salts and in the gel with high content of polymer the aggregates have irregular shape.

  12. Synthesis and Flocculation Property of Chitosan-Acrylamide Graft Copolymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Liu-zhu; MAO Lu-yuan; WANG Xiu-li; YANG Yong; ZHUANG Yin-feng

    2004-01-01

    Chitosan, as a kind of natural polymer, has many advantages, such as abundant sources, biological degradation, no secondary contamination and facile modification. In this work, we prepared modified chitosan flocculants with double electrical behavior via polymerizing chitosan, acrylamide and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose together by using ammonium persulfate as the indicator in water. The product is a comb-type of chitosan copolymer and a polymeric ampholyte. And then we studied the product by FTIR, UV-Vis, TG, DSC spectrometeries and viscometry, etc. We also performed CACM′s water treat experiment. The effects of pH values, reaction time and dose of the new floccalant on treating various of waste water have been investigated, too.

  13. Reactivity Ratios of Diethyldiallylammonium Chloride with Acrylamide or Acrylic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hua LIU; Zhi Qiang LIU; Zhu Qing GONG

    2006-01-01

    The compositions of copolymers of diethyldiallylammonium chloride (DEDAAC) with acrylamide (AM), acrylic acid (AA) or sodium acrylic acid (NaAA) at low conversion were determined by elemental analysis, and the reactivity ratios of monomers in copolymerization were obtained by Kelen-Tudos method. The results showed that the reactivity ratios rDE and rAM are 0.31 and 5.27 for DEDAAC with AM, rDE and rAA are 0.28 and 5.15 for DEDAAC with AA, and rDE and rNaAA are 0.40 and 3.97 for DEDAAC with NaAA, respectively. The copolymerizations for DEDAAC with AM, AA or NaAA are non-ideal copolymerization and the products are random copolymers.

  14. Burden of disease of dietary exposure to acrylamide in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lea Sletting; Granby, Kit; Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard;

    2016-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is a process-contaminant that potentially increases the risk of developing cancer in humans. AA is formed during heat treatment of starchy foods and detected in a wide range of commonly consumed products. Increased focus on risk ranking and prioritization of major causes of disease...... makes it relevant to estimate the impact that exposure to chemical contaminants and other hazards in food have on health. In this study, we estimated the burden of disease (BoD) caused by dietary exposure to AA, using disability adjusted life years (DALY) as health metric.We applied an exposure...... due to exposure to AA through foods, as estimated by the most conservative approach.This result should be used to inform risk management decisions and for comparison with BoD of other food-borne hazards for prioritizing policies. However, our study shows that careful evaluation of methodological...

  15. Polymerisation by acrylamide and acrylic acid inverse suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Alejandro LLoreda Blanco

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This work describes polymerisation by inverse suspension of acrylamide monomers and acrylic acid for forming homopolymers or copolymers This type of polymersitaion's advantages are described and reasons given for why it should be studied. The article stresses the importance of these types of monomer for obtaining materials presenting great affinity for water, such as super-absorbents and controlled liberation mechanism. Important aspects are presented such as type of initiation, monomer composition and continuous phase composition; parameters are described offering an important basis for formulating a system leading to successfully obtaining the desired materials' most relevant characteristics such as particle distribution and size polymerisation kinetics, conversion and water absorption capacity respecting the system's modifiable parameters. The foregoing is important since the product can be modified, bestowing propierties on it which are suitable for its use.

  16. SYSTEME ACRYLAMIDE/4VP/BENTONITE,PROPRIETES ET APPLICATIONS.

    OpenAIRE

    BENZEMRA, NASSIBA

    2015-01-01

    nous avons réalisé la polymérisation radicalaire de l’acrylamide en solution aqueuse dans les conditions adiabatiques ,en utilisant le persulfate d'ammonium comme initiateur .Centre technique de polymérisation nous permet d'obtenir des polymères de trais grandes masses moléculaires .les produits obtenus ont été caractérisés . l'hydrolyse basique du polyamide en solution a 60°C est étudiée .les superpolyamides hydrolysés sont caractérisés par spectroscopie Infra-Rouge a transformée de fourr...

  17. Protective effect of rosemary on acrylamide motor neurotoxicity in spinal cord of rat offspring: postnatal follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gholam, Marwa A; Nooh, Hanaa Zakaria; El-Mehi, Abeer E; El-Barbary, Abd El-Moneum; Fokar, Ahmed Zo El

    2016-03-01

    The direct interactive effects of rosemary and acrylamide on the development of motor neurons in the spinal cord remains unknown. Our goal is to confirm the protective effects of rosemary against motor neuronal degeneration induced by acrylamide in the developing postnatal rat spinal cord using a postnatal rat model. We assigned the offspring of treated female rats into control, rosemary; acrylamide group; and recovery groups. This work depended on clinical, histopathological, morphometrically, immunohistochemical and genetic methods. In the acrylamide group, we observed oxidation, motor neuron degeneration, apoptosis, myelin degeneration, neurofilament reduction, reactive gliosis. Whoever, concomitant rosemary intake and withdrawal of acrylamide modulate these effects. These findings proof that dietary rosemary can directly protect motor neuron against acrylamide toxicity in the mammalian developing spinal cord. PMID:27051566

  18. Effects of low dose acrylamide on the rat reproductive organs structure, fertility and gene integrity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saleh Alkarim; Sufyan Elassouli; Soad Ali; Nasra Ayuob; Zaki Elassouli

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To assesses the effects of long term exposure to low dose of acrylamide (0.4 μg /g) in post-weaning Sprague-Dawley rats on the structure of the reproductive organ as well as DNA integrity. Methods:The histological changes in the male and female reproductive organs the morphological changes in sperms as well as the genotoxic effect of acrylamide were assessed. The effect acrylamide on pregnancy outcome was evaluated.Results:Testes of acrylamide-fed rats showed decreased number of seminiferous tubules containing mature sperms and degenerative changes in sperm germ cell layers. Some sperms of epididymal cauda showed head deformity. In female, acrylamide included cystic ovarian changes, degenerative changes of zona pelluida, granulosa cells and oocytes. Post implantation loss and decrease in the number of full term fetuses were detected. Resorption sites showed necrotic fetal tissue with vacuolation of amniotic cells.Conclusion:Acrylamide cause harmful effect on the reproductive organ structure, fertility and cause extensive DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes.

  19. Acrylamide: inhibition of formation in processed food and mitigation of toxicity in cells, animals, and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mendel

    2015-06-01

    Potentially toxic acrylamide is largely derived from the heat-inducing reactions between the amino group of the amino acid asparagine and carbonyl groups of glucose and fructose in plant-derived foods including cereals, coffees, almonds, olives, potatoes, and sweet potatoes. This review surveys and consolidates the following dietary aspects of acrylamide: distribution in food, exposure and consumption by diverse populations, reduction of the content in different food categories, and mitigation of adverse in vivo effects. Methods to reduce acrylamide levels include selecting commercial food with a low acrylamide content, selecting cereal and potato varieties with low levels of asparagine and reducing sugars, selecting processing conditions that minimize acrylamide formation, adding food-compatible compounds and plant extracts to food formulations before processing that inhibit acrylamide formation during processing of cereal products, coffees, teas, olives, almonds, and potato products, and reducing multiorgan toxicity (antifertility, carcinogenicity, neurotoxicity, teratogenicity). The herein described observations and recommendations are of scientific interest for food chemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology, but also have the potential to benefit nutrition, food safety, and human health.

  20. Biodegradation of acrylamide by Enterobacter aerogenes isolated from wastewater in Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kanokhathai Buranasilp; Jittima Charoenpanich

    2011-01-01

    A widespread use of acrylamide, probably a neurotoxicant and carcinogen, in various industrial processes has led to environmental contamination. Fortunately, some microorganisms are able to derive energy from acrylamide. In the present work, we reported the isolation and characterization of a novel acrylamide-degrading bacterium from domestic wastewater in Chonburi, Thailand. The strain grew well in the presence of acrylamide as 0.5% (W/V), at pH 6.0 to 9.0 and 25℃. Identification based on biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequence identified the strain as Enterobacter aerogenes. Degradation of acrylamide to acrylic acid started in the late logarithmic growth phase as a biomass-dependent pattern. Specificity of cell-free supernatant towards amides completely degraded butyramide and urea and 86% of lactamide. Moderate degradation took place in other amides with that by formamide > benzamide > acetamide > cyanoacetamide > propionamide. No degradation was detected in the reactions of N,N-methylene bisacrylamide, sodium azide, thioacetamide, and iodoacetamide. These results highlighted the potential of this bacterium in the cleanup of acrylamide/amide in the environment.

  1. Determining the amount of Acrylamide in Potato Chips Using Xanthydrol as a Derivative Representative with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Zokaei; Marzieh Kamankesh; Saeideh Shojaei; Abdorreza Mohammadi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: In the production process of foods rich in carbohydrates and some other foods containing precursors of acrylamide formation, there is the possibility of acrylamide creation, which is a mutagen and carcinogen material. This study aims to introduce and optimize a new method for determining acrylamide in potato chips using xanthydrol as a derivative representative with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Materials and Methods: Important factors in the derivatizat...

  2. Effective treatment for suppression of acrylamide formation in fried potato chips using L-asparaginase from Bacillus subtilis

    OpenAIRE

    Onishi, Yohei; Prihanto, Asep A.; Yano, Shigekazu; Takagi, Kazuyoshi; Umekawa, Midori; Wakayama, Mamoru

    2015-01-01

    It has been reported that acrylamide, a potential carcinogen, is formed from the reaction of L-asparagine (L-Asn) and reducing sugars contained in foods during heating processes and free asparagine is a limiting factor for acrylamide formation. It has been reported that potato products such as potato chips, which are made through heating processes, contain high levels of acrylamide. To decrease the amount of L-Asn in potatoes using L-asparaginase, effective treatment conditions of sliced pota...

  3. Radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylamide: Reverse osmosis properties of polyethylene-g-poly(acrylamide) membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessouki, Ahmed M.; Hegazy, El-Sayed A.; El-Assy, Nasef B.; El-Boohy, Hussein A.

    A study has been made of some properties of the graft copolymer obtained by direct radiation grafting of acrylamide (AAm) onto low density polyethylene (LDPE) films. The swelling behaviour was investigated for the grafted and alkali-treated graft copolymer and it was found that this depends mainly on the amount of hydrophilic groups and also on the type of electrolytes (K- or Nasalts). salts). Some other properties of the graft copolymer films such as dimensional change wet and dry, electrical conductivity, and mechanical properties were studied. A trial has been made of such membrane for reverse osmosis desalination of saline water. The effect of operating time, degree of grafting, applied pressure and feed concentration on the water flux and salt rejection was determined.

  4. Hapten synthesis and development of a competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for acrylamide in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Shen, Yu-Dong; Lei, Hong-Tao; Sun, Yuan-Ming; Yang, Jin-Yi; Xiao, Zhi-Li; Wang, Hong; Xu, Zhen-Lin

    2014-07-23

    The high level of acrylamide in widely consumed processed foods poses a potentially significant risk to human health, which has led to an increasing demand for rapid, simple, and selective analytical methods. In the present work, several haptens for acrylamide were designed in an attempt to prepare antibodies with acrylamide affinity, but they failed their purpose. However, a polyclonal antibody was produced against 4-mercaptophenylacetic acid (4-MPA)-derivatized acrylamide, which showed high binding affinity to the derivative. As acrylamide easily reacted with 4-MPA at high derivation yield, a competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ciELISA) for acrylamide via a preanalysis derivatization was developed. The derivatization and ELISA conditions were fully optimized to produce a method for acrylamide assay that exhibited an IC50 of 2.86 μg/kg, limit of detection at 0.036 μg/kg, and linear range of 0.25-24.15 μg/kg. The results of preanalysis recovery tests of acrylamide-spiked food samples and screening of blind food samples by both ciELISA and HPLC-MS/MS indicated the proposed ciELISA's good accuracy and reliability. This method was thus deemed suitable for routine acrylamide screening in food samples at low cost.

  5. Effect of prenatal and perinatal acrylamide on the biochemical and morphological changes in liver of developing albino rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Ahmed Aly; El-Ghareeb, Abdel Whaab; Abdul-Hamid, Manal; Bakery, Ahlam El; Gad, Mammoun; Sabri, Mohammad

    2010-02-01

    Acrylamide has been employed as an experimental probe to investigate biochemical and morphological changes in developing rat liver following toxin administration in pregnant rats. Non-anesthetized pregnant rats were given acrylamide by gastric intubation at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day. The pups were divided into three groups: Group A, mothers were treated with saline (control group); Group B, mothers were treated with acrylamide from day D7 of gestation till birth (prenatal intoxication); Group C, mothers were treated with acrylamide from D7 of gestation to D28 after birth (perinatal intoxication). Acrylamide-induced biochemical changes (in liver and serum) and morphological changes (in liver) were studied in control and acrylamide-treated developing pups. Prenatally and perinatally administered acrylamide significantly increased lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione and total thiol levels in liver. Significant inhibition of peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities was observed in liver tissue. Total lipids including cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly increased in the serum. Acrylamide treatment increased serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and inhibited alkaline phosphatase activity. Sodium and potassium concentrations were increased, but calcium, phosphorus and iron levels were significantly reduced in the serum. Acrylamide produced significant electrophoretic changes in serum proteins. The most noticeable change was splitting of beta-globulin into beta1- and beta2-globulins. Light microscopy showed acrylamide-induced fatty deposits, congested central vein, vacuolization and chromatolysis in hepatocytes. Ultrastructural studies revealed vacuolated cytoplasm, lipid droplets of variable size and mitochondria with damaged cristae and vacuolization. The nuclei in acrylamide-treated groups showed marked decrease in the staining of nuclear DNA. PMID:19862503

  6. The National Fry Processing Trial (NFPT) and SCRI Acrylamide project: Comprehensive, coordinated evaluation of fry processing clones with low acrylamide-forming potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a pressing need for new fry processing varieties. Successful varieties need to satisfy customer requirements for finished product taste texture and color and must lessen health concerns related to dietary intake of acrylamide. Tuber shape and size distribution need to match processor requir...

  7. Development and validation of a near-infrared spectroscopy method for the prediction of acrylamide content in French-fried potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the ability of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to predict acrylamide content in French-fried potato. Potato flour spiked with acrylamide (50-8000 µg/kg) was used to determine if acrylamide could be accurately predicted in a potato matrix. French fries produced with various ...

  8. Acrylamide formation and antioxidant level in biscuits related to recipe and baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, N U; Grothe, K-H; Matthäus, B; Vosmann, K; Lindhauer, M G

    2012-08-01

    Heated plant foods may contain compounds with adverse health effects (e.g. acrylamide). On the other hand, health-promoting compounds (e.g. antioxidants) have also been identified in such foods. Therefore, a baking experiment with biscuits was carried out to study the potential impact of both acrylamide and antioxidants in that food. Two different wheat flour types - wholemeal (WMF) and white flour type 550 (T550; 0.55% mineral content) - as well as recipe (fat and leavening agent) and thermal input (temperature × time) were changed. Furthermore, the effect of an enzymatic asparagine hydrolysation was tested. Antioxidants were determined with two independent procedures ABTS - (2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate)) and FRAP-assay (ferric reducing ability of plasma). WMF samples resulted in an unchanged acrylamide level, but in a significantly higher antioxidant concentration when compared with T550 samples (149 and 141 µg kg(-1) acrylamide and 9.1 and 5.1 mmol TE kg(-1) FW ABTS for WMF and T550, respectively). A reduced fat content yielded in an increased volume. Raising agents had no effect on acrylamide levels, but antioxidants were higher in samples with sodium bicarbonate (SBC) than with ammonium bicarbonate (ABC). Thermal input (temperature × time; 150°C × 25 min to 240°C × 9 min) indicated an exponential acrylamide increase especially at higher temperatures (from 75 to 236 µg kg(-1)), whereas antioxidant increase was linear (from 7.0 to 7.7 mmol TE kg(-1) FW, ABTS). FRAP and ABTS values were correlated on a low level, whereas acrylamide content of biscuits was correlated with FRAP and lightness (R (2 )= 0.62 and 0.47, and 0.71 and 0.85 for WMF and T550, respectively). The enzyme asparaginase reduced acrylamide formation by about 50% for both raising agents (SBC and ABC, respectively), whereas antioxidant levels were not affected. An evaluation of recipe variants with low acrylamide and high

  9. Update on acrylamide levels in food from monitoring years 2007 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Recommendations on the monitoring of acrylamide levels in food by the European Commission (EC were extended in 2010 (EC, 2010. The new Recommendation includes a revised categorisation of food products for monitoring purposes. This report describes the results of European acrylamide monitoring during the period from 2007 to 2010 using the revised product categorisation with 10 main food categories and an additional 26 sub-categories. Twenty-five European countries submitted a total of 13 162 acrylamide results for the four-year period including 2 200 results for the year 2010. During the monitoring period, time trends in acrylamide levels for the food categories were estimated. In 2010, middle bound mean acrylamide values ranged from 31 μg/kg for ‘other processed cereal based foods for infants and young children’ to 1 350 μg/kg for ‘coffee substitutes’. The highest 95th percentile value of 8 044 μg/kg was reported for ‘instant coffee’. The trend analysis showed only few changes in acrylamide levels from 2007 to 2010. At main food category level, a ‘common European trend’ was a decrease in acrylamide levels for ‘processed cereal based foods for infants and young children’ and an increase for ‘coffee and coffee substitutes’. As a ‘common European trend’ at sub-category level, acrylamide levels of ‘biscuits and rusks for infants and young children’ and ‘non-potato savoury snacks’ showed a decrease and an increase was seen for ‘crisp bread’. A marginal decrease was observed for the sub-category ‘other processed cereal based foods for infants and young children’ and a marginal increase was observed for ‘French fries from fresh potatoes’ as well as for ‘instant coffee’. Although only applicable from 2011, acrylamide levels were compared with indicative values recommended by the EC. Indicative values were exceeded in the case of 3-20 % of samples in different food categories based on

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(2-Hydroxyethylethylmethacrylate-Co-Acrylamide Hydrogel for Intestinal Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi U. Trivedi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels, the swellable polymeric materials have been used widely as a carrier for drug delivery systems and have gained attention owing to their peculiar characteristics like swelling in aqueous medium, pH or temperature sensitivity or sensitivity towards external stimuli. Hydrogels being biocompatible due to their high water content and low interfacial tension with the biological fluids have been helpful as targetable carriers for bioactive drugs with tissue specificity. The purpose of research is to provide the targeted drug release in the intestine for a prolong period of time. pH sensitive hydrogel, 2-Hydroxyethylmethacrylate-co-acrylamide was prepared by polymerization in aqueous solution from 2-Hydroxyethlmethacrylate(2-HEMA and acrylamide monomers using N,N-Methylenebis(acrylamide as a cross linker. It was shown that the swelling behavior of 2-HEMA-co-acrylamide can be controlled by changing the molar concentration of acrylamide. The hydrogel was characterized by FT-IR, SEM, tests to assess swellability, drug loading and dissolution techniques.

  11. Two-year carcinogenicity study of acrylamide in Wistar Han rats with in utero exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maronpot, R R; Thoolen, R J M M; Hansen, B

    2015-02-01

    Acrylamide is an important chemical with widespread industrial and other uses in addition to generalized population exposure from certain cooked foods. Previous rat studies to assess the carcinogenic potential of acrylamide have been carried out exclusively in the Fischer 344 rat with identification of a number of tumors amongst which mesotheliomas of the tunica vaginalis is an important tumor endpoint in the classification of acrylamide as a 'probably human carcinogen. In a rat carcinogenicity study to determine the human relevance of mesotheliomas Wistar Han rats were exposed to 0, 0.5, 1.5, or 3.0mg acrylamide/kg body weight/day in drinking water starting at gestation day 6. At the end of two years, mammary gland fibroadenomas in females and thyroid follicular cell tumors in both sexes were the only tumors increased in acrylamide treated rats. These tumor endpoints have rat-specific modes of action suggesting less likelihood of human cancer risk than previously estimated. This study demonstrates that tunica vaginalis mesotheliomas are strain specific and not likely of genotoxic origin.

  12. Effect of chitosan on the formation of acrylamide and hydroxymethylfurfural in model, biscuit and crust systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogol, Burçe Ataç; Gökmen, Vural

    2016-08-10

    Chitosan has been popular as a natural food preservative due to its antibacterial and antifungal activities. It may be used in thermally processed foods such as bread to delay staling and improve the microbial stability during the shelf-life. However, the thermal process could lead to the formation of harmful compounds in bakery products through chemical reactions, in which chitosan could take part. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the effect of chitosan on the formation of acrylamide and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in different model systems. Addition of acid to the asparagine-glucose model system decreased the initial rate of acrylamide formation to approx. 4-times. The chitosan included model system contained higher acrylamide than the asparagine-glucose-acid model but still lower than the asparagine-glucose model system. The HMF content was decreased in the presence of acid due to acid-catalyzed degradation. Additionally, HMF is a potent carbonyl source and utilized in the Maillard reaction. In biscuit samples, addition of acid or chitosan solution to the dough did not significantly affect the acrylamide formation (p > 0.05), however addition of acid increased the formed HMF. In crust samples, acrylamide formation was decreased by acid, while chitosan showed no additional decrease. No interaction was found between HMF and chitosan. The results suggest that the effect of chitosan should be carefully evaluated apart from the effect of acid, in which chitosan was solubilized. PMID:27406058

  13. A Monte Carlo risk assessment model for acrylamide formation in French fries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Enda; Butler, Francis; Gormley, Ronan; Brunton, Nigel

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the likely human exposure to the group 2a carcinogen, acrylamide, from French fries by Irish consumers by developing a quantitative risk assessment model using Monte Carlo simulation techniques. Various stages in the French-fry-making process were modeled from initial potato harvest, storage, and processing procedures. The model was developed in Microsoft Excel with the @Risk add-on package. The model was run for 10,000 iterations using Latin hypercube sampling. The simulated mean acrylamide level in French fries was calculated to be 317 microg/kg. It was found that females are exposed to smaller levels of acrylamide than males (mean exposure of 0.20 microg/kg bw/day and 0.27 microg/kg bw/day, respectively). Although the carcinogenic potency of acrylamide is not well known, the simulated probability of exceeding the average chronic human dietary intake of 1 microg/kg bw/day (as suggested by WHO) was 0.054 and 0.029 for males and females, respectively. A sensitivity analysis highlighted the importance of the selection of appropriate cultivars with known low reducing sugar levels for French fry production. Strict control of cooking conditions (correlation coefficient of 0.42 and 0.35 for frying time and temperature, respectively) and blanching procedures (correlation coefficient -0.25) were also found to be important in ensuring minimal acrylamide formation. PMID:19659557

  14. Determination of Residual Acrylamide in Medical Polyacrylamide Hydrogel by High Performance Liquid Chromatography tandem Mass Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI-WEI LI; HUI LI; ZHI-FEI LIU; QUN QIAO

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine residual acrylamide in medical polyacrylamide hydrogel by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (HPLC-MS). Methods After 13C3 labeled acrylamide was added, the sample was extracted with water and then cleaned up with ExtrelutTM 20. The polyaerylamide hydrogel sample and 20 clinical cases were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS and isotope dilution quantifying technique in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. Results Acrylamide was separated from polyacrylamide hydrogel. The concentration of acrylamide in polyacrylamide hydrogel ranged from 3.9×109 to 3.1×108g/L in the 20 clinical cases. The peak area was favorable linear and the range was up to 3 000 μg/L. The recovery rate was 103.1% with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 6.20%, when the mark level was 50 μg/L. Conclusion HPLC-MS is a rapid, accurate, and sensitive method for the determination of residual acrylamide in medical polyacrylamide hydrogel.

  15. Reduction of acrylamide formation by vanadium salt in potato French fries and chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Diganta; Jayanty, Sastry S

    2013-05-01

    The effects of vanadyl sulphate on the formation of acrylamide have been studied in fried potato products, such as French fries and chips. Acrylamide formation was inhibited by 30.3%, 53.3% and 89.3% when the sliced potato strips were soaked in 0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 M vanadyl sulphate (VOSO(4)) solutions, respectively, for 60 min before frying. Moreover, 57.7%, 71.4% and 92.5% inhibition of acrylamide formation was observed when chips were soaked in the respective vanadyl sulphate solution before frying. In a separate model reaction, a solution containing an equimolar concentration of L-asparagine and D-glucose showed a significant inhibition of acrylamide formation when heated at 150 °C for 30 min in the presence of vanadyl sulphate (VOSO(4)). The results indicate that the binding of VO(2+) to asparagine and the decrease in the pH of the potato samples resulted in a significant reduction of acrylamide formation in fried potato products.

  16. Radiation modification of water absorption of cassava starch by acrylic acid/acrylamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graft co polymerizations of acrylamide and/or acrylic acid onto cassava starch by a simultaneous irradiation technique using gamma-rays as the initiator were studied with regard to various parameters of importance: the monomer-to-cassava starch ratio, total dose (kGy), dose rate (kGy h-1), acrylamide-to-acrylic acid ratio, and the addition of nitric acid and maleic acid as the additives. Grafting parameters were determined in relation to the water absorption of the saponified graft copolymer. The water absorption of the saponified graft copolymer in salt and buffer solutions of different ionic strengths was also measured, from which the super absorbent properties are found to be P H sensitive. The starch graft copolymers of acrylamide and acrylic acid give higher water absorption than the starch graft copolymers of either acrylamide or acrylic acid alone. The porosity of the saponified starch graft copolymers prepared by the acrylamide/acrylic acid ratios of 70:30 and 50:50 was much higher than the porosity of copolymers in terms of fine networks. Ionic strength and multi-oxidation states of the saline and buffer solutions markedly decreased the water absorption of the saponified cassava starch grafted super absorbent polymers.

  17. The influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms on the association between dietary acrylamide intake and endometrial cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogervorst, Janneke G. F.; van den Brandt, Piet A.; Godschalk, Roger W. L.; van Schooten, Frederik-Jan; Schouten, Leo J.

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear whether the association between dietary acrylamide intake and endometrial cancer risk as observed in some epidemiological studies reflects a causal relationship. We aimed at clarifying the causality by analyzing acrylamide-gene interactions for endometrial cancer risk. The prospective Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer includes 62,573 women, aged 55–69 years. At baseline, a random subcohort of 2589 women was selected for a case cohort analysis approach. Acrylamide intake of subcohort members and endometrial cancer cases (n = 315) was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes in acrylamide metabolism, sex steroid systems, oxidative stress and DNA repair were assessed through a MassARRAY iPLEX Platform. Interaction between acrylamide and SNPs was assessed with Cox proportional hazards analysis, based on 11.3 years of follow-up. Among the results for 57 SNPs and 2 gene deletions, there were no statistically significant interactions after adjustment for multiple testing. However, there were nominally statistically significant interactions for SNPs in acrylamide-metabolizing enzymes: CYP2E1 (rs915906 and rs2480258) and the deletions of GSTM1 and GSTT1. Although in need of confirmation, the interactions between acrylamide intake and CYP2E1 SNPs contribute to the evidence for a causal relationship between acrylamide and endometrial cancer risk. PMID:27713515

  18. The volume of Purkinje cells decreases in the cerebellum of acrylamide-intoxicated rats, but no cells are lost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jytte Overgaard; Tandrup, T; Braendgaard, H

    1994-01-01

    The effects of acrylamide intoxication on the numbers of granule and Purkinje cells and the volume of Purkinje cell perikarya have been evaluated with stereological methods. The analysis was carried out in the cerebella of rats that had received a dose of 33.3 mg/kg acrylamide, twice a week, for 7...

  19. Onderzoek naar de inductie van chromosoomafwijkingen en "sister- chromatid exchanges" door acrylamide met Chinese hamster cellen in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knaap; A.G.A.C.; Bergkamp; W.G.M.; Groot; M.G.

    1986-01-01

    Acrylamide bleek een clastogene werking te hebben in een test op chromosoomafwijkingen met Chinese hamster cellen in vitro vanaf 0,1 mg/ml (1,4 mmol/l), zowel in aan- als afwezigheid van een systeem voor metaboliosche activering (S9). Tevens induceerde acrylamide in deze cellen een significante

  20. Dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of head-neck and thyroid cancers : results from the netherlands cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, L.J.; Hogervorst, J.G.F.; Konings, E.J.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2009-01-01

    Acrylamide exposure has been related to an increased incidence of oral and thyroid tumors in animal studies. In 1986, 120,852 persons (aged 55-69 years) were included in the Netherlands Cohort Study. Dietary acrylamide intake was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire and was based on chemical

  1. The influence of deep frying using various vegetable oils on acrylamide formation in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, P K; Jinap, S; Sanny, M; Tan, C P; Khatib, A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the precursors of acrylamide formation in sweet potato (SP) (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) chips and to determine the effect of different types of vegetable oils (VOs), that is, palm olein, coconut oil, canola oil, and soya bean oil, on acrylamide formation. The reducing sugars and amino acids in the SP slices were analyzed, and the acrylamide concentrations of SP chips were measured. SP chips that were fried in a lower degree of unsaturation oils contained a lower acrylamide concentration (1443 μg/kg), whereas those fried with higher degree of unsaturated oils contained a higher acrylamide concentration (2019 μg/kg). SP roots were found to contain acrylamide precursors, that is, 4.17 mg/g glucose and 5.05 mg/g fructose, and 1.63 mg/g free asparagine. The type of VO and condition used for frying, significantly influenced acrylamide formation. This study clearly indicates that the contribution of lipids in the formation of acrylamide should not be neglected. PMID:24344977

  2. Burden of disease of dietary exposure to acrylamide in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Lea Sletting; Granby, Kit; Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard; Nauta, Maarten; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Poulsen, Morten

    2016-04-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is a process-contaminant that potentially increases the risk of developing cancer in humans. AA is formed during heat treatment of starchy foods and detected in a wide range of commonly consumed products. Increased focus on risk ranking and prioritization of major causes of disease makes it relevant to estimate the impact that exposure to chemical contaminants and other hazards in food have on health. In this study, we estimated the burden of disease (BoD) caused by dietary exposure to AA, using disability adjusted life years (DALY) as health metric. We applied an exposure-based approach and proposed a model of three components: an exposure, health-outcome, and DALY-module. We estimated BoD using two approaches for estimating cancer risk based on toxicological data and two approaches for estimating DALY. In Denmark, 1.8 healthy life years per 100.000 inhabitants are lost each year due to exposure to AA through foods, as estimated by the most conservative approach. This result should be used to inform risk management decisions and for comparison with BoD of other food-borne hazards for prioritizing policies. However, our study shows that careful evaluation of methodological choices and assumptions used in BoD studies is necessary before use in policy making.

  3. Acrylamide induces accelerated endothelial aging in a human cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellier, Cyril; Boulanger, Eric; Maladry, François; Tessier, Frédéric J; Lorenzi, Rodrigo; Nevière, Rémi; Desreumaux, Pierre; Beuscart, Jean-Baptiste; Puisieux, François; Grossin, Nicolas

    2015-09-01

    Acrylamide (AAM) has been recently discovered in food as a Maillard reaction product. AAM and glycidamide (GA), its metabolite, have been described as probably carcinogenic to humans. It is widely established that senescence and carcinogenicity are closely related. In vitro, endothelial aging is characterized by replicative senescence in which primary cells in culture lose their ability to divide. Our objective was to assess the effects of AAM and GA on human endothelial cell senescence. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) cultured in vitro were used as model. HUVECs were cultured over 3 months with AAM or GA (1, 10 or 100 μM) until growth arrest. To analyze senescence, β-galactosidase activity and telomere length of HUVECs were measured by cytometry and semi-quantitative PCR, respectively. At all tested concentrations, AAM or GA reduced cell population doubling compared to the control condition (p < 0.001). β-galactosidase activity in endothelial cells was increased when exposed to AAM (≥10 μM) or GA (≥1 μM) (p < 0.05). AAM (≥10 μM) or GA (100 μM) accelerated telomere shortening in HUVECs (p < 0.05). In conclusion, in vitro chronic exposure to AAM or GA at low concentrations induces accelerated senescence. This result suggests that an exposure to AAM might contribute to endothelial aging.

  4. In vivo genotoxicity assessment of acrylamide and glycidyl methacrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrovolsky, Vasily N; Pacheco-Martinez, M Monserrat; McDaniel, L Patrice; Pearce, Mason G; Ding, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Acrylamide (ACR) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) are structurally related compounds used for making polymers with various properties. Both chemicals can be present in food either as a byproduct of processing or a constituent of packaging. We performed a comprehensive evaluation of ACR and GMA genotoxicity in Fisher 344 rats using repeated gavage administrations. Clastogenicity was measured by scoring micronucleated (MN) erythrocytes from peripheral blood, DNA damage in liver, bone marrow and kidneys was measured using the Comet assay, and gene mutation was measured using the red blood cell (RBC) and reticulocyte Pig-a assay. A limited histopathology evaluation was performed in order to determine levels of cytotoxicity. Doses of up to 20 mg/kg/day of ACR and up to 250 mg/kg/day of GMA were used. ACR treatment resulted in DNA damage in the liver, but not in the bone marrow. While ACR was not a clastogen, it was a weak (equivocal) mutagen in the cells of bone marrow. GMA caused DNA damage in the cells of bone marrow, liver and kidney, and induced MN reticulocytes and Pig-a mutant RBCs in a dose-dependent manner. Collectively, our data suggest that both compounds are in vivo genotoxins, but the genotoxicity of ACR is tissue specific.

  5. Immunotoxicity of Acrylamide in Female BALB/c Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jin; LIANG Chun Lai; JIA Xu Dong; LI Ning

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the immunotoxicity of acrylamide (ACR) in female BALB/c mice. Methods A total of 200 female mice weighing 18-22 g were randomly divided into four clusters based on body weight, and each weight-based cluster included five groups (10 mice per group): negative control, positive control (cyclophosphamide), low, intermediate, and high dose ACR groups, and all the groups were administered ACR by gavage for 30 days. At the end of the study, the immunotoxicological effects of the ACR were evaluated through immunopathology, humoral immunity, cellular immunity, and non-specific immunity. Results The terminal body weight, spleen and thymus weights, lymphocyte counts in the ACR-H group were decreased, pathological changes were observed in lymph glands, thymus and spleen.%T cells in blood lymphocytes were significantly increased in all ACR-treated groups, and a significant reduction of% natural killer(NK) cells and increase of %Th cells were observed in the ACR-H group. interleukin-6(IL-6), Concanavalin A(ConA)-induced splenocyte proliferation and serum half hemolysis value (HC50) were also significantly suppressed in the ACR-H group. Conclusion ACR elicited an inhibitory effect on cellular and humoral immunity of mice after 30 day feeding.

  6. Influence of acrylamide on the gastric mucosa of adult albino rats and the possible protective role of rosemary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mehi, Abeer E; El-Sherif, Neveen M

    2015-06-01

    Acrylamide is a common chemical found in heated starchy foods especially potato products. We investigated, for the first time, the effect of acrylamide, alone or with rosemary, on the structure of gastric mucosa of adult male albino rats. Stomach sections were examined using light and scanning electron microscopy. Quantitative immmunohistochemical assessments of the expression of caspase-3, inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EPGR) were performed. Our results showed that acrylamide produced mucosal erosions and depletion of the protective surface mucus together with widespread inflammatory infiltration. In addition, there was significantly increased expression of caspase-3 and iNOS and weak expression of EPGR. Rosemary exerted a protective effect against acrylamide-induced gastric toxicity via reducing oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation as well as accelerating the healing process. The results of this work add to the known toxic effects of acrylamide and provide a new insight into the possible use of rosemary to ameliorate these effects.

  7. Structure-guided unravelling: Phenolic hydroxyls contribute to reduction of acrylamide using multiplex quantitative structure-activity relationship modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Huang, Mengmeng; Wang, Qiao; Cheng, Jun

    2016-05-15

    We reported a structure-activity relationship study on unravelling phenolic hydroxyls instead of alcoholic hydroxyls contribute to the reduction of acrylamide formation by flavonoids. The dose-dependent study shows a close correlation between the number of phenolic hydroxyls of flavonoids and their reduction effects. In view of positions of hydroxyls, the 3',4'(ortho)-dihydroxyls in B cycle, 3-hydroxyl or hydroxyls of 3-gallate in C cycle, and 5,7(meta)-dihydroxyls in A cycle of flavonoid structures play an important role in the reduction of acrylamide. Flavone C-glycosides are more effective at reducing the formation of acrylamide than flavone O-glycosides when sharing the same aglycone. The current multiplex quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) equations effectively predict the inhibitory rates of acrylamide using selected chemometric parameters (R(2): 0.835-0.938). This pioneer study opens a broad understanding on the chemoprevention of acrylamide contaminants on a structural basis.

  8. Robust modelling of heat-induced reactions in an industrial food production process exemplified by acrylamide generation in breakfast cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bo Boye Busk; Lennox, Martin; Granby, Kit;

    2008-01-01

    Data from an industrial case study of breakfast cereal production indicated that the generated amounts of acrylamide are greatly dependent upon the combined effects of temperature and heating time in a roasting step process. Two approaches to obtain process models for acrylamide generation were...... tested. The first applied a pathway-based model. The second developed a simpler more robust model based on the integrated effects of time and temperature, where the generation of acrylamide was crudely fitted to an exponentially rising function. The development of the two models highlighted a number...... the importance of robustness in the developed models. The correlations obtained for predicting acrylamide generation in the case study present a useful tool for food processing industry to minimize acrylamide generation. In the present case it was possible by lowering process temperature and prolonging residence...

  9. Rationalisation and Validation of an Acrylamide-Free Procedure in Three-Dimensional Histological Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hei Ming Lai

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional visualization of intact tissues is now being achieved by turning tissues transparent. CLARITY is a unique tissue clearing technique, which features the use of detergents to remove lipids from fixed tissues to achieve optical transparency. To preserve tissue integrity, an acrylamide-based hydrogel has been proposed to embed the tissue. In this study, we examined the rationale behind the use of acrylamide in CLARITY, and presented evidence to suggest that the omission of acrylamide-hydrogel embedding in CLARITY does not alter the preservation of tissue morphology and molecular information in fixed tissues. We therefore propose a novel and simplified workflow for formaldehyde-fixed tissue clearing, which will facilitate the laboratory implementation of this technique. Furthermore, we have investigated the basic tissue clearing process in detail and have highlighted some areas for targeted improvement of technologies essential for the emerging subject of three-dimensional histology.

  10. Preparation of lignosulfonate-acrylamide-chitosan ternary graft copolymer and its flocculation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kunpeng; Lou, Tao; Wang, Xuejun; Zhao, Wenhua

    2015-11-01

    As flocculant plays an important role in wastewater treatment, searching for high efficient and cost-effective flocculants has always become the challenge in chemical industry. In the current work, lignosulfonate-acrylamide-chitosan ternary copolymer was designed and prepared as a new kind of flocculant. The elemental analysis and structure characterization of FTIR and XRD showed that acrylamide successfully grafted onto the two natural polymers and amorphous macromolecules were formed. The natural polymers-based flocculant was water soluble and pH independent. As it had multiple functional groups from the raw materials, the amphoteric flocculant showed high color removal efficiency to anionic (acid blue 113, >95%), neutral (reactive black 5, >95%) and cationic dyes (methyl orange, >50%) in a wide range of flocculant dosage and pH windows. The ternary flocculant, based on lignosulfonate, chitosan, and acrylamide, might be a promising material in practical applications from the perspective of cost, source and performance.

  11. Water and acrylamide monomer transfer rates from a settling basin to groundwaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binet, Stéphane; Bru, Kathy; Klinka, Thomas; Touzé, Solène; Motelica-Heino, Mickael

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this paper was to estimate the potential leakage of acrylamide monomer, used for flocculation in a settling basin, towards the groundwaters. Surface-groundwater interactions were conceptualized with a groundwater transport model, using a transfer rate to describe the clogged properties of the interface. The change in the transfer rate as a function of the spreading of the clogged layer in the settling basin was characterized with respect to time. It is shown that the water and the Acrylamide transfer rate are not controlled by the spreading of the clogged layer until this layer fully covers the interface. When the clogged layer spreads out, the transfer rate remains in the same order of magnitude until the area covered reaches 80 %. The main flux takes place through bank seepage. In these early stage conditions of a working settling basin, the acrylamide flux towards groundwaters remains constant, at close to 10 g/year (±5).

  12. GRAFT COPOLYMERIZATION OF ACRYLAMIDE ONTO POLY(N-PARA-TOLYLACRYLAMIDE) FILMS INITIATED BY CERIC ION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Kunyuan; SONG Ye

    1988-01-01

    Functional monomers having phenylcarbarnoyl and p-tolylcarbamoyl were synthesized. Binary initiation system consisted of Ce4+ andthese functional monomers could initiate acrylamide polymerization.It was found that acrylamide could graft copolymerize onto macromolecules having these functional monomers units. The formation of graft copolymer has been verified by its percentage of water absorption,contact angle with water, XPS and SEM photographs. The reaction mechanism was proposed and the main reactive site of graft copolymerization initiated by Ce4+ would take place predominantly at the functional pendant group.

  13. New corrosion inhibitor acrylamide methyl ether for mild steel in 1 M HCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xinyu; Jiang, Xiaohui; Xia, Shuwei; Shan, Mingli; Li, Xia; Yu, Liangmin; Tang, Qunwei

    2016-05-01

    Pursuit of good inhibition performance has been a persistent objective for advanced inhibitor industry. Here we demonstrate the experimental realization of a new corrosion inhibitor acrylamide methyl ether (AAME) from N-Methylol acrylamide (N-MAM) for mild steel in 1 M HCl. The resultant adsorption films have inhibition efficiency as high as 96.2%. Moreover, a theoretical investigation is also launched to demonstrate the potential mechanism behind the promising corrosion behaviors. This work represents a significant step forward, as it demonstrates how to make scalable AAME inhibitors as well as to enhance inhibition performances for high-efficiency and cost-effective corrosion inhibition platforms.

  14. Biomarkers of Human Exposure to Acrylamide and Relation to Polymorphisms in Metabolizing Genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duale, N.; Bjellaas, T.; Alexander, J.;

    2009-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is formed in heat treated carbohydrate rich foods in the so-called Maillard reaction. AA is readily absorbed in the body and converted to glycidamide (GA) by epoxidation by the CYP2E1 (cytochrome P450 2E) enzyme. Both AA and GA may be detoxified through direct conjunction to gluta......Acrylamide (AA) is formed in heat treated carbohydrate rich foods in the so-called Maillard reaction. AA is readily absorbed in the body and converted to glycidamide (GA) by epoxidation by the CYP2E1 (cytochrome P450 2E) enzyme. Both AA and GA may be detoxified through direct conjunction...

  15. Dietary acrylamide exposure among Finnish adults and children: The potential effect of reduction measures

    OpenAIRE

    Hirvonen, Tero; Jestoi, Marika; Tapanainen, Heli; Valsta, Liisa; Virtanen, Suvi M; Sinkko, Harri; Kronberg-Kippilä, Carina; Kontto, Jukka; Virtamo, Jarmo; Simell, Olli; Peltonen, Kimmo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A deterministic exposure assessment using the Nusser method that adjusts for within-subject variation and for nuisance effects among Finnish children and adults was carried out. The food consumption data covered 2,038 adults (25?74 years old) and 1,514 children of one, three, and six years of age, with the data on foods? acrylamide content obtained from published Finnish studies. We found that acrylamide exposure was highest among the three-year-old children (median: 1.01 ...

  16. Micellar copolymerization of associative polymers: study of the effect of acrylamide on sodium dodecyl sulfate-poly(propylene oxide) methacrylate mixed micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiat, Guillaume; Grassl, Bruno; François, Jeanne

    2005-09-15

    Mixed micelles of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and poly(propylene oxide) methacrylate (PPOMA) have been studied in the presence of acrylamide using conductimetry, fluorescence spectroscopy, and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) under the following conditions: (i) the SDS-acrylamide binary system in water; (ii) the SDS-acrylamide-PPOMA ternary system in water. The addition of acrylamide in SDS solutions perturbs the micellization of the surfactant by decreasing the aggregation number of the micelles and increasing their ionization degree. The variations of the various micellar parameters versus the weight ratio R=PPOMA/SDS are different in the presence of acrylamide or in pure water. These differences are much more pronounced for the lower than for the higher PPOMA concentrations. There is competition between acrylamide and PPOMA and at higher PPOMA concentration, acrylamide tends to be released from SDS micelles and is completely replaced by PPOMA.

  17. Molecular Mechanism of Acrylamide Neurotoxicity: Lessons Learned from Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, Terrence

    2012-01-01

    Background: Acrylamide (ACR) produces cumulative neurotoxicity in exposed humans and laboratory animals through a direct inhibitory effect on presynaptic function. Objectives: In this review, we delineate how knowledge of chemistry provided an unprecedented understanding of the ACR neurotoxic mechanism. We also show how application of the hard and soft, acids and bases (HSAB) theory led to the recognition that the α,β-unsaturated carbonyl structure of ACR is a soft electrophile that preferentially forms covalent bonds with soft nucleophiles. Methods: In vivo proteomic and in chemico studies demonstrated that ACR formed covalent adducts with highly nucleophilic cysteine thiolate groups located within active sites of presynaptic proteins. Additional research showed that resulting protein inactivation disrupted nerve terminal processes and impaired neurotransmission. Discussion: ACR is a type-2 alkene, a chemical class that includes structurally related electrophilic environmental pollutants (e.g., acrolein) and endogenous mediators of cellular oxidative stress (e.g., 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal). Members of this chemical family produce toxicity via a common molecular mechanism. Although individual environmental concentrations might not be toxicologically relevant, exposure to an ambient mixture of type-2 alkene pollutants could pose a significant risk to human health. Furthermore, environmentally derived type-2 alkenes might act synergistically with endogenously generated unsaturated aldehydes to amplify cellular damage and thereby accelerate human disease/injury processes that involve oxidative stress. Conclusions: These possibilities have substantial implications for environmental risk assessment and were realized through an understanding of ACR adduct chemistry. The approach delineated here can be broadly applied because many toxicants of different chemical classes are electrophiles that produce toxicity by interacting with cellular proteins. PMID:23060388

  18. Acrylamide inhibits cellular differentiation of human neuroblastoma and glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jong-Hang; Chou, Chin-Cheng

    2015-08-01

    This study explores human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) and human glioblastoma (U-1240 MG) cellular differentiation changes under exposure to acrylamide (ACR). Differentiation of SH-SY5Y and U-1240 MG cells were induced by retinoic acid (RA) and butyric acid (BA), respectively. Morphological observations and MTT assay showed that the induced cellular differentiation and cell proliferation were inhibited by ACR in a time- and dose-dependent manner. ACR co-treatment with RA attenuated SH-SY5Y expressions of neurofilament protein-L (NF-L), microtubule-associated protein 1b (MAP1b; 1.2 to 0.7, p < 0.001), MAP2c (2.2 to 0.8, p < 0.05), and Janus kinase1 (JAK1; 1.9 to 0.6, p < 0.001), while ACR co-treatment with BA attenuated U-1240 MG expressions of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), MAP1b (1.2 to 0.6, p < 0.001), MAP2c (1.5 to 0.7, p < 0.01), and JAK1 (2.1 to 0.5, p < 0.001), respectively. ACR also decreased the phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) in U-1240 MG cells, while caffeine reversed this suppression of ERK and JNK phosphorylation caused by ACR treatment. These results showed that RA-induced neurogenesis of SH-SY5Y and BA-induced astrogliogenesis of U-1240 MG cells were attenuated by ACR and were associated with down-regulation of MAPs expression and JAK-STAT signaling.

  19. Trigonella foenum-graecum ameliorates acrylamide-induced toxicity in rats: Roles of oxidative stress, proinflammatory cytokines, and DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M; Abd Eldaim, Mabrouk A; Hassan, Abeer G A

    2015-06-01

    Acrylamide is a hazardous substance inducing oxidative stress. Based on some evidence on the antioxidant properties of fenugreek, Trigonella foenum-graecum, this study was conducted to investigate the protective effect of fenugreek seed oil against acrylamide toxicity. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups. The control group was given normal saline. The second group was administered acrylamide (20 mg/kg bw orally). The third and fourth groups were administered acrylamide (20 mg/kg bw) and supplemented with 2.5% and 5% fenugreek seed oil in their diets, respectively. Acrylamide intoxication significantly increased serum levels of LDH, AST, ALT, APL, γ-GT, cholesterol, uric acid, urea, creatinine, 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine, interleukin 1 beta, interleukin 6, and tumor necrosis factor α. Moreover, it increased hepatic, renal, and brain lipid peroxidation, while it impaired the activities and concentrations of the antioxidant biomarkers. Fenugreek oil supplementation normalized the altered serum parameters, prevented lipid peroxidation, and enhanced the antioxidant biomarker concentrations and activities in the hepatic, renal, and brain tissues of acrylamide-intoxicated rats in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, these results indicate that Trigonella foenum-graecum oil has a protective effect against acrylamide-induced toxicity through its free radical scavenging and potent antioxidant activities.

  20. Determining the amount of Acrylamide in Potato Chips Using Xanthydrol as a Derivative Representative with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Zokaei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: In the production process of foods rich in carbohydrates and some other foods containing precursors of acrylamide formation, there is the possibility of acrylamide creation, which is a mutagen and carcinogen material. This study aims to introduce and optimize a new method for determining acrylamide in potato chips using xanthydrol as a derivative representative with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Materials and Methods: Important factors in the derivatization and measurement processes were optimized using the one-factor-at-a-time method. The peak areas were assumed as the GC-MS response to evaluate the extraction efficiency of acrylamide, and optimization for all tests was performed two times. Figures of merit of the proposed method were evaluated. The amount of acrylamide in four potato chips samples, obtained from the market in Tehran city, was determined using the proposed method. Results: The optimum amounts of effective parameters, including derivatization temperature at 25oC, derivatization time (40 min, xanthydrol volume (40 µL, extracted solvent volume (500 µL and pH=7 were determined. The figures of merit for the proposed method were at the ideal range. The maximum and minimum amounts of acrylamide in the chip samples were also measured. Conclusions: The performance and reliability of proposed method as a simple, efficient and rapid method for determining acrylamide in potato chip samples were demonstrated.

  1. Dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of lymphatic malignancies: the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilda L Bongers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acrylamide, a probable human carcinogen, is present in many everyday foods. Since the finding of its presence in foods in 2002, epidemiological studies have found some suggestive associations between dietary acrylamide exposure and the risk of various cancers. The aim of this prospective study is to investigate for the first time the association between dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of several histological subtypes of lymphatic malignancies. METHODS: The Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer includes 120,852 men and women followed-up since September 1986. The number of person years at risk was estimated by using a random sample of participants from the total cohort that was chosen at baseline (n =5,000. Acrylamide intake was estimated from a food frequency questionnaire combined with acrylamide data for Dutch foods. Hazard ratios (HRs were calculated for acrylamide intake as a continuous variable as well as in categories (quintiles and tertiles, for men and women separately and for never-smokers, using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: After 16.3 years of follow-up, 1,233 microscopically confirmed cases of lymphatic malignancies were available for multivariable-adjusted analysis. For multiple myeloma and follicular lymphoma, HRs for men were 1.14 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.27 and 1.28 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.61 per 10 µg acrylamide/day increment, respectively. For never-smoking men, the HR for multiple myeloma was 1.98 (95% CI: 1.38, 2.85. No associations were observed for women. CONCLUSION: We found indications that acrylamide may increase the risk of multiple myeloma and follicular lymphoma in men. This is the first epidemiological study to investigate the association between dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of lymphatic malignancies, and more research into these observed associations is warranted.

  2. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation during baking of biscuits: Part I: Effects of sugar type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.T.H.; Fels, van der H.J.; Peters, R.J.B.; Boekel, van T.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of sugar type on the reaction mechanism for formation of acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) during the baking of biscuits at 200 °C using multiresponse modelling. Four types of biscuits were prepared: (1) with sucrose, (2) with glucose and fructo

  3. Determination of acrylamide monomer in polyacrylamide degradation studies by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ver Vers, L M

    1999-12-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography method using C18 and ion-exchange columns in series is developed for the determination of acrylamide and acrylic acid monomers in polymeric samples. The C18 column acts as a guard column, trapping surfactants and impurities and retaining the nonionic species. The ion-exchange column then separates the monomers according to their respective ionic strengths. This method has been proven in the laboratory to work successfully for all types of acrylamide/acrylic acid polymers and matrices. Detection limits for both monomers can be achieved in the parts-per-billion range. The method is used to study the possible degradation of polyacrylamide to acrylamide monomer in the presence of glyphosate (a herbicide) and sunlight. Polyacrylamide is used as a spray drift reduction aid in combination with glyphosate. In normal applications, the polymer and herbicide are in contact with each other in the presence of sunlight. The results show that the polymer does not degrade to acrylamide in the presence of glyphosate or sunlight or any combination of the two. It is also observed that glyphosate influences the solubility of polyacrylamide, and care must be used when combining the two.

  4. Genetic, Physiological, and Environmental Factors Affecting Acrylamide Concentration in Fried Potato Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    The discovery of acrylamide in processed potato products has brought increased interest in the controlling Maillard reaction precursors (reducing sugars and amino acids) in potato tubers. Because of their effects on nonenzymatic browning of fried potato products, reducing sugars and amino acids have...

  5. Michael addition reactions of cyclanones with acrylamides: Producing 2-carbamoylethyl derivatives or ene-lactams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI WeiFeng; WANG ChaoHua; ZHANG Xi; ZHANG JinMing; LANG MeiDong

    2008-01-01

    The electron-withdrawing groups (EWGs) in the electrophilic alkenes employed in the Michael addition reaction are almost only CO2R, CN, COR, NO2, and SO2Ph. Although amides (CONR1R2) are also typical electron-withdrawing groups and are of great importance in organic synthesis, they are scarcely em-ployed as the EWGs of the electrophilic alkenes in the Michael addition reaction. In this work, the Mi-chael reactions of acrylamide and its derivatives with cyclanones were successfully carried out in the presence of enough radical inhibitors. The amide groups play a key role in producing the preferred products. The N-substituted acrylamides, including N-monosubstituted and N,N-disubstituted acryla-mides could react with cyclohexanone (CHn) to give the expected 2-carbamoylethyl derivatives; how-ever, acrylamide reacting with cyclohexanone only produced ene-lactam. Cyclanones also have effects on the products, while the ring size of cyclanones influences the reaction yield and the o-substituent decides the ratio of resulting isomeric ene-lactams.

  6. GRAFT COPOLYMERIZATION OF ACRYLAMIDE ONTO THE UV-RAY IRRADIATED FILM OF POLYESTER-POLYETHER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chuanfu; LI Xuefen; LI Zhifen

    1988-01-01

    In this paper the Ce(Ⅳ) salt initiated graft copolymerization of acrylamide onto the film of polyester-polyether block copolymer irradiated by UV-ray was reported. The UV-irradiation of the film and its graft process have been investigated by UV spectrum, ESR and ESCA and the influence of other factors on the graft copolymerization has been discussed.

  7. STUDY ON THE SYNTHESIS OF COPOLYMER CONTAINING N-SUBSTITUTED ACRYLAMIDE COMPONENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xuefen; WANG Shenguo; LI Zhifen

    1984-01-01

    In this paper the synthesis of linear and crosslinked N-substituted acrylamide copolymer is reported. In order to obtain the terpolymer with appropriate hydrophilicity, the conditions of aminolysis of St-MMA copolymer have been selected.It is shown that the copolymer with predictable hydrophilicity possesses good blood compatibility.

  8. Arylation of Acrylamide and Acrylonitrile with Arenediazonium Salts Catalyzed by Palladium Acetate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Arylation of acrylamide and acrylonitrile were carried out with various arenediazonium tetrafluoroborates in the presence of a catalytic amount of Pd(OAc)2 in ethanol and a variety of substituted (E)-cinnamamides and (E)-cinnamonitriles were obtained in high yields under mild reaction conditions.

  9. Impact of solvent selection on graft polymerization of acrylamide onto starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact on polymer properties [molecular weight, monomer conversion, graft content, graft efficiency and anhydroglucose units between grafts (AGU/graft)] that result from changing the solvent for the graft co-polymerization of acrylamide onto starch from water to dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) was eval...

  10. Clastogene effecten van acrylamide, methacrylamide en methylmethacrylaat in de muis beenmerg micronucleustest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergkamp WGM; Taalman RDFM; Knaap AGAC

    1988-01-01

    Acrylamide bleek na een intraperitoneale dosis van 136 mg/kg (80% Ld-50) een statistisch significante toename van het aantal polychromatische erythrocyten (PCE) met micronuclei te induceren. Deze toename werd waargenomen zowel 24 als 48 uur na toediening, 72 uur na behandeling kon echter geen ve

  11. Comparison of Nerve Excitability Testing, Nerve Conduction Velocity, and Behavioral Observations for Acrylamide Induced Peripheral Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerve excitability (NE) testing is a sensitive method to test for peripheral neurotoxicity in humans,and may be more sensitive than compound nerve action potential (CNAP) or nerve conduction velocity (NCV).We used acrylamide to compare the NE and CNAP/NCV methods. Behavioral test...

  12. Quantitation of Acrylamide in Foods by High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troise, A.D.; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The use of liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) and direct analysis real-time high-resolution mass spectrometry (DART-HRMS) defines a new scenario in the analysis of thermal-induced toxicants, such as acrylamide. Several factors contribute to the definition of the com

  13. Kinetics of formation of acrylamide and Schiff base intermediates from asparagine and glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Frandsen, Henrik; Skibsted, Leif H.

    2008-01-01

    From the concentration of glucose and asparagine as reactants and of acrylamide as product each determined by LC-MS during reaction in an acetonitrile/water (68:32) model system at pH 7.6 (0.04 M phosphate buffer) and from the relative concentration of the Schiff base intermediate, the decarboxyl......From the concentration of glucose and asparagine as reactants and of acrylamide as product each determined by LC-MS during reaction in an acetonitrile/water (68:32) model system at pH 7.6 (0.04 M phosphate buffer) and from the relative concentration of the Schiff base intermediate...... +/- 2 kJ mol(-1), while the apparent activation energy for formation of acrylamide was 64.4 +/- 0.6 kJ mol(-1), for formation of the decarboxylated Schiff base intermediate 92 +/- 2 kJ mol(-1), and for formation of the Amadori compound 59 +/- 4 kJ mol(-1), respectively. At high temperature conditions......, formation of the Schiff base is accordingly rate determining, while at lower temperatures, decarboxylation becomes rate determining. Aminopropionamide was only detected at reaction times at which acrylamide formation already is significant in favor of, a reaction path including direct formation...

  14. Mitigation of the processing contaminant acrylamide in bread by reducing asparagine in the bread dough

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katsaiti, Tatiana; Granby, Kit

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years there has been an increasing awareness regarding acrylamide (AAM) content of various foods. Although there are several relevant articles on AAM mitigation in industrially prepared products, the literature regarding homemade preparations is rather scarce. The objective...

  15. NTP-CERHR EXPERT PANEL REPORT ON THE REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF ACRYLAMIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Toxicology Program Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (NTP-CERHR) convened an expert panel in May 2004 to evaluate acrylamide. The report of the expert panel, prepared in accordance with CERHR Guidelines, provides a detailed summary of all publi...

  16. Michael addition reactions of cyclanones with acrylamides: Producing 2-carbamoylethyl derivatives or ene-lactams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The electron-withdrawing groups (EWGs) in the electrophilic alkenes employed in the Michael addition reaction are almost only CO2R, CN, COR, NO2, and SO2Ph. Although amides (CONR1R2) are also typical electron-withdrawing groups and are of great importance in organic synthesis, they are scarcely em-ployed as the EWGs of the electrophilic alkenes in the Michael addition reaction. In this work, the Mi-chael reactions of acrylamide and its derivatives with cyclanones were successfully carried out in the presence of enough radical inhibitors. The amide groups play a key role in producing the preferred products. The N-substituted acrylamides, including N-monosubstituted and N,N-disubstituted acryla-mides could react with cyclohexanone (CHn) to give the expected 2-carbamoylethyl derivatives; how-ever, acrylamide reacting with cyclohexanone only produced ene-lactam. Cyclanones also have effects on the products, while the ring size of cyclanones influences the reaction yield and the α-substituent decides the ratio of resulting isomeric ene-lactams.

  17. Lipid oxidation promotes acrylamide formation in fat-rich model systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capuano, E.; Oliviero, T.; Açar, Ö.; Gökmen, V.; Fogliano, V.

    2010-01-01

    Lipid oxidation is one of the major chemical reactions occurring during food processing or storage and may have a strong impact on the final quality of foods. A significant role of carbonyl compounds derived from lipid oxidation in acrylamide formation has been recently proposed. In this work, the e

  18. Determination of acrylamide and acrylic acid by isocratic liquid chromatography with pulsed electrochemical detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Innocenzo G; Pierri, Marianna; Contursi, Michela

    2006-02-24

    The electrochemical behaviour of the polycrystalline platinum electrode towards the oxidation/reduction of short-chain unsaturated aliphatic molecules such as acrylamide and acrylic acid was investigated in acidic solutions. Analytes were separated by reverse phase liquid chromatographic and quantified using a pulsed amperometric detection. A new two-step waveform, is introduced for detection of acrylamide and acrylic acid. Detection limits (LOD) of 20 nM (1. 4 microg/kg) and 45 nM (3.2 microg/kg) were determined in water solutions containing acrylamide and acrylic acid, respectively. Compared to the classical three-step waveform, the proposed two-step waveform shows favourable analytical performance in terms of LOD, linear range, precision and improved long-term reproducibility. The proposed analytical method combined with clean-up procedure accomplished by Carrez clearing reagent and subsequent extraction with a strong cation exchanger cartridges (SPE), was successfully used for the quantification of low concentrations of acrylamide in foodstuffs such as coffee and potato fries. PMID:16426623

  19. Analysis of volatile flavour compounds and acrylamide in roasted Malaysian tropical almond (Terminalia catappa) nuts using supercritical fluid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasekan, Ola; Abbas, Kassim

    2010-01-01

    Considering the importance of tropical almond nuts as a snack item, a study was conducted to identify the flavour volatiles and acrylamide generated during the roasting of the nuts. The supercritical fluid extracted flavour components revealed 74 aroma active compounds made up of 27 hydrocarbons, 12 aldehydes, 11 ketones, 7 acids, 4 esters, 3 alcohols, 5 furan derivatives a pyrazine, and 2 unknown compounds. While low levels of acrylamide (8-86 microg/kg) were obtained in the roasted nuts, significant (P0.05) concentration of acrylamide was generated with mild roasting and shorter roasting period.

  20. Evaluation of the Antitoxic Effect of Phthalides from Apium graveolens in Acrylamide Intoxication I. Evolution of the Hepatic Cytolysis and Proteosynthetic Parameters in Acrylamide Intoxication on the Background of Phthalide Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia PRISACARU

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Acrylamide is a toxic compound formed during thermical processing of foods that contain amino acids, mainly asparagine, and reducing sugars. The toxicodynamics of acrylamide, exerted mainly by its major metabolite glycidamide, is expressed by mutagenic, carcinogenic and imunosupressive effects. Due to its toxicity and its high prevalence in aliments, the present paper approaches a possible way of reducing the toxic effects of acrylamide by using phytotherapeutical means. In this direction, the antitoxic potential of some phytopreparates obtained from Apium graveolens (Apii aetheroleum, extractive solutions from A. radix, A. folium and A. semen were monitorized on the background of acrylamide intoxication. The antitoxic potential of phthalides has been evaluated by determining biochemical parameters: hepatic cytolysis parameters (aspartate aminotransferase, alanil aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and protesosynthesis parameters (colinesterase, total poteins, albumins. The biochemical investigation confirmed the antitoxic potential fo phthalides from celery, the highest protection being obtained for the phytopreparate from Apii semen.

  1. Titanium Dioxide Photocatalytic Polymerization of Acrylamide for Gel Electrophoresis (TIPPAGE) of Proteins and Structural Identification by Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Wenyang Zhang; Zhiwei Yuan; Lulu Huang; Jie Kang; Ruowei Jiang; Hongying Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) coupled with mass spectrometry has been well established for separating, identifying and quantifying protein mixtures from cell lines, tissues or other biological samples. The copolymerization process of acrylamide and bis-acrylamide is the key to mastering this powerful technique. In general, this is a vinyl addition reaction initiated by free radical-generating reagents such as ammonium persulfate (APS) and tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED) under b...

  2. Improvement in the behavior of bromelain coupled to pNIPAm polymers containing acrylamide or acrylic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Rubab Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Bromelain was coupled to N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAm)polymers, synthesized using NIPAm and various concentrations of acrylamide (Ac) or acrylic acid (AAc). Incorporation of Ac/AAcinto the polymer increased the LCST (lower critical solutiontemperature) in a concentration dependent manner but AAc wasmore effective in this regard; the LCST rose to 40°C when 6 percent AAc was used. Incorporation of Ac/AAc increased the coupling of enzyme to the polymer and the η (effectiveness factor) o...

  3. Should veterinarians consider acrylamide that potentially occurs in starch-rich foodstuffs as a neurotoxin in dogs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Le Roux-Pullen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Three clinically healthy Labrador puppies developed ataxia, hypermetria and convulsions shortly after eating the burnt crust of maize porridge. Two of the puppies died. Acrylamide toxicity was considered based on the history of all 3 puppies developing nervous signs after being exposed to a starch-based foodstuff that was subjected to high temperature during preparation. Acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity is thought to partially result from a distal axonopathy.

  4. Dietary intake of acrylamide and epithelial ovarian cancer risk in the european prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obón-Santacana, Mireia; Peeters, Petra H M; Freisling, Heinz; Dossus, Laure; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Baglietto, Laura; Schock, Helena; Fortner, Renée T; Boeing, Heiner; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Menéndez, Virginia; Sanchez, Maria-José; Larrañaga, Nerea; Huerta Castaño, José María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Travis, Ruth C; Merritt, Melissa A; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Orfanos, Philippos; Masala, Giovanna; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Wirfält, Elisabeth; Stocks, Tanja; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Skeie, Guri; Gram, Inger T; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Riboli, Elio; Duell, Eric J

    2015-01-01

    Acrylamide, classified in 1994 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as "probably carcinogenic" to humans, was discovered in 2002 in some heat-treated, carbohydrate-rich foods. The association between dietary acrylamide intake and epithelial ovarian cancer risk (EOC) has been previously studied in one case-control and three prospective cohort studies which obtained inconsistent results and could not further examine histologic subtypes other than serous EOC. The present study was carried out in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) subcohort of women (n = 325,006). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association between questionnaire-based acrylamide intake and EOC risk. Acrylamide was energy-adjusted using the residual method and was evaluated both as a continuous variable (per 10 μg/d) and in quintiles; when subgroups by histologic EOC subtypes were analyzed, acrylamide intake was evaluated in quartiles. During a mean follow-up of 11 years, 1,191 incident EOC cases were diagnosed. At baseline, the median acrylamide intake in EPIC was 21.3 μg/d. No associations and no evidence for a dose-response were observed between energy-adjusted acrylamide intake and EOC risk (HR10μg/d,1.02; 95% CI, 0.96-1.09; HRQ5vsQ1, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.76-1.23). No differences were seen when invasive EOC subtypes (582 serous, 118 endometrioid, and 79 mucinous tumors) were analyzed separately. This study did not provide evidence that acrylamide intake, based on food intake questionnaires, was associated with risk for EOC in EPIC. Additional studies with more reliable estimates of exposure based on biomarkers may be needed.

  5. Acrylamide in potato crisps prepared from 20 UK-grown varieties: effects of variety and tuber storage time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, J Stephen; Briddon, Adrian; Dodson, Andrew T; Muttucumaru, Nira; Halford, Nigel G; Mottram, Donald S

    2015-09-01

    Twenty varieties of field-grown potato were stored for 2 months and 6 months at 8 °C. Mean acrylamide contents in crisps prepared from all varieties at both storage times ranged from 131 μg/kg in Verdi to 5360 μg/kg in Pentland Dell. In contrast to previous studies, the longer storage period did not affect acrylamide formation significantly for most varieties, the exceptions being Innovator, where acrylamide formation increased, and Saturna, where it decreased. Four of the five varieties designated as suitable for crisping produced crisps with acrylamide levels below the European Commission indicative value of 1000 μg/kg (Saturna, Lady Rosetta, Lady Claire, and Verdi); the exception was Hermes. Two varieties more often used for French fries, Markies and Fontane, also produced crisps with less than 1000 μg/kg acrylamide. Correlations between acrylamide, its precursors and crisp colour are described, and the implications of the results for production of potato crisps are discussed.

  6. Color development and acrylamide content of pre-dried potato chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; León, Jorge; Mery, Domingo;

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the development of color formation in pre-dried potato slices during frying and acrylamide formation in the final potato chips. Color measurement was done by using an inexpensive computer vision technique which allowed quantifying representatively...... and precisely the color of complex surfaces such as those of potato chips in L*a*b* units from RGB images. Prior to frying, potato slices (Desiree variety, diameter: 37 mm, width: 2.2 mm) were blanched in hot water at 85 degrees C for 3.5 min. Unblanched slices were considered as the control. Slices of the same...... to 1.8% (total basis) for color quantification. Acrylamide concentration was determined only in final chips fried at 120 degrees C, 150 degrees C and 180 degrees C and compared with that of two brands of commercial chips produced in Chile (Moms and Frito Lay). Color values in L*a*b* units were recorded...

  7. Grafting of acrylamide onto kappa-carrageenan via {gamma}-irradiation: Optimization and swelling behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezanejade Bardajee, Ghasem [Department of Chemistry, Polymer Research Laboratory, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Ave., P.O. Box 11365-9516, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pourjavadi, Ali [Department of Chemistry, Polymer Research Laboratory, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Ave., P.O. Box 11365-9516, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: purjavad@sharif.edu; Sheikh, Nasrin [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Radiation Applications Research School, Kargar Avenue, P.O. Box 11365-3486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadegh Amini-Fazl, Mohammad [Department of Chemistry, Polymer Research Laboratory, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Ave., P.O. Box 11365-9516, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-02-15

    The Taguchi method, a robust experimental design for optimization, was used for the synthesis of a superabsorbent hydrogel network using {gamma}-rays as an initiator, energy source and crosslinker at the same time. Nine different samples of superabsorbent hydrogels were prepared in various conditions from kappa-carrageenan ({kappa}C) and acrylamide by {gamma}-irradiation at room temperature. Considering the results of nine trials and according to analysis of variance (ANOVA), a new experimental condition with the concentrations of {kappa}C and acrylamide 1.5 g and 0.028 mol (2 g in total volume of 50 mL H{sub 2}O), respectively, as well as {gamma}-ray at the optimum total dose (7 kGy) was proposed. After preparing the desired hydrogels according to optimum condition, the swelling behavior of hydrogels in different media was investigated.

  8. Studies on Biohemical Mechanism of Neurotoxicity Induced by Acrylamide in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HEXIWEN; LUJING; 等

    1992-01-01

    The effects of acrylamide on calmoduline(CaM),cAMP,cGMP,Ca2+,Mg2+-ATPase and 45Ca2+ uptake in nervous system were detrmined in Wistar rats(ip,10or 50mg·kg-1 for 12d),The results indicate that acrylamide caused an alteration in calcium homeostasis in rat brain by decreasing the Ca2+ -sequestering capacity of microsomes,and this may occur due to an efflux of calcium secondary to a microsomal structure damage.The changes of CaM in nervous system coupled with potential alteration in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration could affect many CaM-dependent enzymes(i.e.Ca2+,Mg2+-ATPase)and cyclic AMP system,and CaM or cAMP is known to be“toxicological second messenger”that could initiate neurotoxicity,though more work is needed to elucidate the details of the mechanism.

  9. Acrylamide inverse miniemulsion polymerization: in situ, real-time monitoring using nir spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. E. Colmán

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the ability of on-line NIR spectroscopy for the prediction of the evolution of monomer concentration, conversion and average particle diameter in acrylamide inverse miniemulsion polymerization was evaluated. The spectral ranges were chosen as those representing the decrease in concentration of monomer. An increase in the baseline shift indicated that the NIR spectra were affected by particle size. Multivariate partial least squares calibration models were developed to relate NIR spectra collected by the immersion probe with off-line conversion and polymer particle size data. The results showed good agreement between off-line data and values predicted by the NIR calibration models and these latter were also able to detect different types of operational disturbances. These results indicate that it is possible to monitor variables of interest during acrylamide inverse miniemulsion polymerizations.

  10. Some investigations on the post radiation grafting of acrylamide onto polyethylene films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, El-Sayed A.; El-Dessouky, Maher M.; El-Sharabasy, S. A.

    A study has been made on the post radiation grafting of aqueous acrylamide onto low density polyethylene film. It was found that the addition of 0.05 wt % Mohr's salt reduced effectively the homopolymerization of acrylamide and the grafting process was successfully achieved. The dependence of the grafting rate on the preirradiation dose and monomer concentration was found to be of 1.43 and 1.4 order, respectively. The overall activation energy for the graft polymerization was found to be 13.5 and 1.95 Kcal/mol below and above 45°C, respectively. Some properties of the graft copolymer such as swelling behaviour, electrical conductivity, and reverse osmosis desalination of saline water (water flux and salt rejection), were also investigated and the possibility of its uses in the practical applications was discussed.

  11. Synthesis of Acrylamide Artificial Antigen and Preparation of Anti-Acrylamide Polyclonal Antibody%丙烯酰胺人工抗原的合成及其多克隆抗体的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红星; 高美琴; 张馨如; 刘慧

    2009-01-01

    利用偶联方法合成丙烯酰胺人工抗原,通过免疫方法获得抗丙烯酰胺多克隆抗体;应用戊二醛法将丙烯酰胺与牛血清白蛋白(BSA)进行偶联,并对这两种物质及其复合物进行紫外扫描,并用此复合物免疫兔子,利用间接酶联免疫吸附法测定抗体的效价;应用牛血清白蛋白与丙烯酰胺偶联人工抗体成功,抗体效价大于8100;应用人工抗原免疫成功制备抗丙烯酰胺多克隆抗体.%Artificial antigen of acrylamide was synthetized by couple method, and anti- acrylamide polyclonal antibody were obtained by immunizing method. The Glutaraldehyde method was used to conjugate Acrylamide to Bovine Serum albumin(BSA), and artificial antigen, acrylamide and BSA were respectively taken on UV spectrum scan. Rabbits had been immunized with artificial antigen, and the titer antiserum from those rabbits were testified by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results showed that artificial antigen was synthesized successfully between Acrylamide and BSA, and titer of anti-acrylamide serum was above 8100; Anti-Acrylamide polyclonal antibody was prepared by immunizing method of artificial antigen.

  12. Effects of water availability on free amino acids, sugars, and acrylamide-forming potential in potato

    OpenAIRE

    Muttucumaru, Nira; Powers, Stephen J.; Elmore, J. Stephen; Mottram, Donald S.; Halford, Nigel G.

    2015-01-01

    Irrigation is used frequently in potato cultivation to maximize yield, but water availability may also affect the composition of the crop, with implications for processing properties and food safety. Five varieties of potatoes, including drought-tolerant and -sensitive types, which had been grown with and without irrigation, were analyzed to show the effect of water supply on concentrations of free asparagine, other free amino acids, and sugars and on the acrylamide-forming potential of the t...

  13. Flocculation Efficiency of Poly(Acrylamide-Co-Acrylic Acid) Obtained by Electron Beam Irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Craciun; Elena Manaila; Maria-Daniela Stelescu

    2013-01-01

    A correlation between physicochemical characteristics of flocculants obtained by electron beam irradiation and their efficiency for wastewater treatment is presented. For real wastewater treatment, our interest was focused upon total suspended solids, fatty matter, and chemical oxygen demand. Flocculation studies were carried out using a standard jar test. A treatment option based on poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) for wastewater taken from a slaughterhouse plant is presented.

  14. A Novel Sieving Medium for Separation of DNA Fragments- Poly(acrylamide-dimethylacrylamide)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A short chain poly (acrylamide-dimethylacrylamide) was synthesized in water phase using isopropanol as a chain transfer agent. This copolymer can form a stable dynamic coating on the inner surface of the capillary, thereby suppressing the electroosmotic flow and DNA-capillary wall interaction. The high efficient separation of DNA fragments and SSCP analysis were obtained in bare capillaries using this copolymer as a sieving medium.

  15. Helix-Sense-Selective Polymerization of N,N-Diphenyl(Meth)acrylamide by Anionic Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the helix-sense-selective polymerization of N,N-diphenyl acrylamide (DPAA) and N,N-diphenyl methacrylamide(DPMAA) were studied with living helix prepolymer as anionic initiator, and the chiral optical properties of the obtained polymers were investigated too.It was shown that optically active polymers of DPAA and DPMAA could be obtained under the experimental condition, and exhibited the same screw sense as that of the prepolymer.

  16. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation in reconstituted potato chips during frying

    OpenAIRE

    Miao, YuTian; Zhang, HuanJie; Zhang, LuLu; Wu, SiJia; Sun, Yijia; Shan, Yu; Yuan, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    In our present paper, the effect of water activity and processing conditions in reconstituted potato chips was considered as a model to investigate the changes of acrylamide (AA) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). The results suggested that the formation of AA and HMF was highly correlated with frying temperature and time. Water activity could also influence the formation of AA and HMF. Meanwhile, the formation of HMF has significant correlation with the formation of AA in reconstituted potat...

  17. APPLICATION OF SURFACE GRAFTED POLY N-ISOPROPYL ACRYLAMIDE BY RADIATION TECHNOLOGY FOR PROTEIN SOLUTION CONCENTRATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yishi; LI Huaizhong; LIU Pengfei; HA Hongfei

    1991-01-01

    Poly N-isopropyl acrylamide (abbreviated as PNIPA) as a kind of thermally sensitive hydrogel is utilized to concentrate Bovin Serum Albumin (BSA) solution. In order to decrease its surface adsorption to BSA in aqueous solution, surface layer grafting of the gels by radiation technology was carried out. The results showed that hydroxyl propyl methacrylate (HPMA) grafted gel exhibited a low level of BSA adsorption and still kept the original thermally sensitive properties of PNIPA hydrogels.

  18. Dietary exposure of acrylamide from the fifth Chinese Total Diet Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Zhao, Yunfeng; Zhu, Feng; Ma, Yongjian; Li, Xiaowei; Miao, Hong; Wu, Yongning

    2016-01-01

    The levels of acrylamide in 240 food composite samples from the 5th Chinese Total Diet Study (TDS) were measured using an LC-MS/MS method and the exposure estimates for the general population were evaluated. The samples were collected from 20 provinces in China, covering about two thirds of the Chinese population. Acrylamide was detected in 40.0% of composite samples with the concentrations ranged from 0.8 to 211.8 μg/kg. The average dietary intakes from the 5th Chinese TDS were 0.319 μg kg(-1) bw day(-1) and an increase with about 70% was observed from the 3rd Chinese TDS in 2000 to the 5th Chinese TDS between 2009 and 2012. The main food group contributors to acrylamide exposure were vegetables (35.2%), cereals (34.3%) and potatoes (15.7%). Based on the benchmark dose lower confidence limit at 10% risk (BMDL10) of 0.31 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for the induction of mammary tumors in rats and 0.18 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for Harderian gland tumors in mice, the margins of exposure (MOEs) were 973 and 565 for Chinese general population, respectively. These MOEs indicate a human health concern.

  19. Modified Lipoproteins by Acrylamide Showed More Atherogenic Properties and Exposure of Acrylamide Induces Acute Hyperlipidemia and Fatty Liver Changes in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Min; Baek, Ji-Mi; Lim, So-Mang; Kim, Jae-Yong; Kim, Jihoe; Choi, Inho; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2015-10-01

    Acrylamide is a well-known potent carcinogen and neurotoxin that, until now, has not been sufficiently investigated with regard to its effects on lipid metabolism. We investigated physiological effects of acrylamide (AA) on lipoprotein metabolism using human macrophages, dermal cells, and zebrafish models. Functional and structural properties of lipoproteins were modified by AA (final concentration of 5-100 mM) with loss of antioxidant ability and multimerization of apoA-I in vitro. AA exacerbated LDL oxidation, degradation, and LDL uptake into macrophages with increased ROS production. In human cells, treatment of AA (1-100 μM) caused cellular senescence of dermal cells with severe cytotoxicity. Waterborne exposure of zebrafish in cage water containing AA (300 ppm) resulted in acute death within 26 h along with elevation of body weight, blood glucose, triglyceride, and hepatic inflammation. AA exposure caused fat accumulation in liver in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, AA affected lipoprotein metabolism to result exacerbation of atherosclerosis. Exposure of zebrafish to AA resulted in acute inflammatory death with hyperlipidemia.

  20. Modification of HTPB-based polyurethane with temperature-sensitive poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) for biomaterial usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jen Ming; Yang, Shu Jyuan; Lin, Hao Tzu; Chen, Jan Kan

    2007-01-01

    Hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB)-based polyurethane with dimethyol propionic acid (DPA) as chain extender was synthesized by solution polymerization. The HTPB-based polyurethane was modified by UV radiation with N-isopropyl acrylamide monomer to get poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide)-modified polyurethane (PUDPANIPAAm). The cohesive energy (E(coh)), molar volume (V), solubility parameter (delta), molecular weight (W(M)), volume per gram (V(g)), and the density (1/V(g)) of PUDPANIPAAm were calculated by group contribution methods. To evaluate the application of PUDPANIPAAm for wound dressing and transplantation of cell sheet, the measurement of water content, water vapor transmission rate, and gas permeation on the PUDPANIPAAm membrane was evaluated. The biocompatibility of these membranes, cell adhesion, and proliferation assay were conducted in the cell culture. The effect of thermosensitivity of poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) on cell detachment was also evaluated in the primary study. The results showed that these PUDPANIPAAm membranes are thermosensitive. The modification of PU with poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) reduced the water vapor transmission rate and permeability of gas through PUDPANIPAAm membrane. PUDPANIPAAm membranes could support cell adhesion and growth. Owing to the thermosensitive nature of poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide), the relative cell numbers detached from PUDPANIPAAm membranes were larger than those detached from the polystyrene dish. PMID:16649182

  1. Effects of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization on free amino acids, sugars, and acrylamide-forming potential in potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muttucumaru, Nira; Powers, Stephen J; Elmore, J Stephen; Mottram, Donald S; Halford, Nigel G

    2013-07-10

    Nitrogen (N) fertilizer is used routinely in potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivation to maximize yield. However, it also affects sugar and free amino acid concentrations in potato tubers, and this has potential implications for food quality and safety because free amino acids and reducing sugars participate in the Maillard reaction during high-temperature cooking and processing. This results in the formation of color, aroma, and flavor compounds, but also some undesirable contaminants, including acrylamide, which forms when the amino acid that participates in the final stages of the reaction is asparagine. Another mineral, sulfur (S), also has profound effects on tuber composition. In this study, 13 varieties of potato were grown in a field trial in 2010 and treated with different combinations of N and S. Potatoes were analyzed immediately after harvest to show the effect of N and S fertilization on concentrations of free asparagine, other free amino acids, sugars, and acrylamide-forming potential. The study showed that N application can affect acrylamide-forming potential in potatoes but that the effect is type- (French fry, chipping, and boiling) and variety-dependent, with most varieties showing an increase in acrylamide formation in response to increased N but two showing a decrease. S application reduced glucose concentrations and mitigated the effect of high N application on the acrylamide-forming potential of some of the French fry-type potatoes. PMID:23768004

  2. Effect of lactic acid fermentation of lupine wholemeal on acrylamide content and quality characteristics of wheat-lupine bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkiene, Elena; Jakobsone, Ida; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Vidmantiene, Daiva; Pugajeva, Iveta; Bartkevics, Vadims

    2013-11-01

    The effect of supplementing wheat flour at a level of 15% with lupine (Lupinus angustifolius L.) wholemeal fermented by different lactic acid bacteria on acrylamide content in bread crumb as well as on bread texture and sensory characteristics was analysed. The use of fermented lupine resulted in a lower specific volume and crumb porosity of bread on an average by 14.1% and 10.5%, respectively, while untreated lupine lowered the latter parameters at a higher level (30.8% and 20.7%, respectively). The addition of lupine resulted in a higher by 43.3% acrylamide content compared to wheat bread (19.4 µg/kg dry weight (d.w.)). Results showed that acrylamide was significantly reduced using proteolytic Lactobacillus sakei and Pediococcus pentosaceus 10 strains for lupine fermentation. Although the bread supplemented with lupine spontaneous sourdough had the lowest level of acrylamide (15.6 µg/kg d.w.), it had the malodorous flavour and was unacceptable to the consumers. The lactofermentation could increase the potential use of lupine as a food ingredient while reducing acrylamide formation and enriching bread with high quality proteins.

  3. L-cysteine, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, and glutathione protect xenopus laevis embryos against acrylamide-induced malformations and mortality in the frog embryo teratogenesis assay (FETAX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary acrylamide is largely derived from heat-induced reactions between the amino group of the free amino acid asparagine and carbonyl groups of glucose and fructose during heat processing (baking, frying) of plant-derived foods such as potato fries and cereals. After consumption, acrylamide is a...

  4. Exploration of different methods to assess dietary acrylamide exposure in pregnant women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brantsaeter, A.L.; Haugen, M.; Mul, de A.; Bjellaas, T.; Becher, G.; Klaveren, van J.D.; Alexander, J.; Meltzer, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    We assessed dietary exposure to acrylamide in 119 pregnant Norwegian women. The aim of the study was to explore three different methods for estimation of long-term intake of acrylamide and whether it is possible by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to identify pregnant women with high exposure to

  5. A Voltammetric Biosensor Based on Glassy Carbon Electrodes Modified with Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes/Hemoglobin for Detection of Acrylamide in Water Extracts from Potato Crisps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Radecka

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of toxic acrylamide in a wide range of food products such as potato crisps, French fries or bread has been confirmed by Swedish scientists from Stockholm University. The neurotoxicity, possible carcinogenicity of this compound and its metabolites compels us to control them by quantitative and qualitative assays. Acrylamide forms adduct with hemoglobin (Hb as a result of the reaction the -NH2 group of the Nterminal valine with acrylamide. In this work we present the use of glassy carbon electrodes coated with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and Hb for voltammetric detection of acrylamide in water solutions. The electrodes presented a very low detection limit (1.0×10-9 M. The validation made in the matrix obtained by water extraction of potato crisps showed that the electrodes presented are suitable for the direct determination of acrylamide in food samples.

  6. Evaluating the potential for enzymatic acrylamide mitigation in a range of food products using an asparaginase from Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriksen, Hanne V; Kornbrust, Beate A; Østergaard, Peter R; Stringer, Mary A

    2009-05-27

    Asparaginase, an enzyme that hydrolyzes asparagine to aspartic acid, presents a potentially very effective means for reducing acrylamide formation in foods via removal of the precursor, asparagine, from the primary ingredients. An extracellular asparaginase amenable to industrial production was cloned and expressed in Aspergillus oryzae . This asparaginase was tested in a range of food products, including semisweet biscuits, ginger biscuits, crisp bread, French fries, and sliced potato chips. In dough-based applications, addition of asparaginase resulted in reduction of acrylamide content in the final products of 34-92%. Enzyme dose, dough resting time, and water content were identified as critical parameters. Treating French fries and sliced potato chips was more challenging as the solid nature of these whole-cut products limits enzyme-substrate contact. However, by treating potato pieces with asparaginase after blanching, the acrylamide levels in French fries could be lowered by 60-85% and that in potato chips by up to 60%.

  7. Hispidin derived from Phellinus linteus affords protection against acrylamide-induced oxidative stress in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Shen, Yang; Su, Hongming; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2014-08-01

    Acrylamide (AA), a well-known toxicant, has attracted numerous attentions for its presumably carcinogenesis, neurotoxicity and cytotoxicity. Oxidative stress was considered to be associated with acrylamide cytotoxicity, but the link between oxidative stress and acrylamide cytotoxicity is still unclear. In the present study, hispidin produced from the edible fungus Phellinus linteus displayed dramatically antioxidant activities against DPPH radicals, ABTS radicals, ferric reducing and hydroxyl radicals, as well as superoxide anion radicals. Moreover, the cytoprotective effect of hispidin against AA-induced oxidative stress was verified upon Caco-2 cells according to evaluate the cell viability, intracellular ROS, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and glutathione (GSH) in the presence or absence of AA (5 mM) in a dose-dependent manner. Collectively, our results demonstrated for the first time that hispidin was able to inhibit AA-induced oxidative stress, which might have implication for the dietary preventive application.

  8. The determination of acrylamide in environmental and drinking waters by large-volume injection - hydrophilic-interaction liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backe, Will J; Yingling, Virginia; Johnson, Todd

    2014-03-21

    A simple and sensitive analytical method was developed to quantify levels of acrylamide in environmental and drinking waters. The analytical method consisted of solvent exchanging acrylamide from 2mL of water into 2mL of dichloromethane using acetonitrile as an intermediate. The sample was then directly analyzed by large-volume (750μL) injection - hydrophilic-interaction liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. The method detection limit and reporting level were 2.4ng/L and 17ng/L of acrylamide, respectively. The recovery of acrylamide during solvent exchange was 95±2.8% and the matrix effects were 12±2.2% in river water. The use of atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization reduced matrix effects; however, it also reduced method sensitivity by a factor of 2.2 compared to electrospray ionization. Matrix effects were compensated for by the use of an isotopically-labeled internal standard and the method accuracy was 89±3.0% at 25ng/L of acrylamide and 102±2.6% at 250ng/L of acrylamide. The precision of the method was less than 6% relative standard deviation at both 25ng/L and 250ng/L of acrylamide. Samples from a sand-and-gravel mine and a drinking-water treatment plant were acquired to demonstrate the method. The concentrations of acrylamide at the sand-and-gravel mine were up to 280ng/L. In the drinking-water treatment plant, the concentration of acrylamide was approximately double in the finished drinking water when compared to other stages in the drinking-water treatment process. Disinfection or fluoridation may result in higher concentrations of acrylamide in finished drinking water; however, further research in this area is necessary. PMID:24582391

  9. Potential protective effect of L-cysteine against the toxicity of acrylamide and furan in exposed Xenopus laevis embryos: an interaction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John Russell; Rayburn, James R; Cline, George R; Sauterer, Roger; Friedman, Mendel

    2014-08-01

    The embryo toxicities of two food-processing-induced toxic compounds, acrylamide and furan, with and without added L-cysteine were examined individually and in mixtures using the frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus (FETAX). The following measures of developmental toxicity were used: (a) 96 h LC50, the median concentration causing 50% embryo lethality; (b) 96 h EC50, the median concentration causing 50% malformations of the surviving embryos; and (c) teratogenic index (96 h LC50/96 h EC50), an estimate of teratogenic risk. Calculations of toxic units (TU) were used to assess possible antagonism, synergism, or response addition of several mixtures. The evaluated compounds demonstrated counterintuitive effects. Furan had lower than expected toxicity in Xenopus embryos and, unlike acrylamide, does not seem to be teratogenic. However, the short duration of the tests may not show the full effects of furan if it is truly primarily genotoxic and carcinogenic. L-Cysteine showed unexpected properties in the delay of hatching of the embryos. The results from the interaction studies between combination of two or three components (acrylamide plus L-cysteine; furan plus L-cysteine; acrylamide plus furan; acrylamide plus furan and L-cysteine) show that furan and acrylamide seem to have less than response addition at 1:1 toxic unit ratio in lethality. Acrylamide and L-cysteine show severe antagonism even at low 19 acrylamide/1 L-cysteine TU ratios. Data from the mixture of acrylamide, furan, and L-cysteine show a slight antagonism, less than would have been expected from binary mixture exposures. Bioalkylation mechanisms and their prevention are discussed. There is a need to study the toxicological properties of mixtures of acrylamide and furan concurrently formed in heat-processed food.

  10. Potassium Iodide and Acrylamide Fluorescence Quenching Studies on Gamma-Crystallins of Human Lenses in Development and Aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    γ_1-γ_2-and γ_3-crystallin(corresponding to γs-,γC-and γD- crys-tallin respectively)of human fetal,2 year and 20~+ year old lenses areseparated by Sephadex gel chromatography.lodide and acrylamide are usedto quench the tryptophane fluorescence of sub-γ-crystalline fractions and Ksvand fa values are calculated.The results show that iodide has no clear quench-ing effects on all γ-crystallins,the quenching effects of acrylamide on the tryp-tophan fluorescences of γ1-γ2-and γ3-crystallin from lenses of the ...

  11. STUDY ON SEQUENCE STRUCTURE OF ACRYLAMIDE-ACRYLATE COPOLYMERS BY 13C-NMR METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Dongwu; ZHU Shannong; YANG Xiaozhen

    1987-01-01

    Triad sequence distributions in a series of P(AM/AA) with different AA% were calculated from copolymerization reactivity ratio r1 and r2 based on first order Markov statistic model, and the calculated data compared with observed ones from 13C-NMR spectra showed good agreement with each other, The sequence distribution in P(AM/AA) obtained under our experimental conditions fits in with first order Markov statistic model. A significant sequence structure difference was observed between P(AM/AA) and alkaline hydrolyzed polyacrylamide, ABA triad (acrylate unit center), AAA and AAB triads (acrylamide unit center) dominated in hydrolyzed ones.

  12. Development of solid radioactive sources in acrylamide; Desenvolvimento de fontes radioativas solidas em resina acrilamida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, I.M.; Koskinas, M.F.; Dias, M.S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro do Reator de Pesquisas; Andrade e Silva, L.G.; Vieira, J.M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes

    2004-07-01

    The development of water-equivalent solid sources of {sup 133} Ba prepared from an aqueous solution of acrylamide by polymerization by a high dose {sup 60}Co irradiation is described. The main resin characteristics were measured, such as: density, effective atomic number and uniformity. The variation of these parameters was in the range of 1,08 to 1,16 g.cm{sup -3} for density, 3.7 to 4.0 for effective atomic number and 2.8 to 7.2% for the uniformity. These values are in agreement with the literature. (author)

  13. Assessment of the acrylamide intake of the Belgian population and the effect of mitigation strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Claeys, Wendie Liliane; Baert, Katleen; Mestdagh, Frédéric; Vercammen, Jan; Daenens, Paul; Meulenaer, Bruno De; Maghuin-Rogister, Guy; Huyghebaert, André

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The acrylamide (AA) intake of the Belgian consumer was calculated based on AA monitoring data of the Belgian Federal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain (FASFC) and consumption data of the Belgian food consumption survey coordinated by the Scientific Institute for Public Health (3214 participants of 15 years or older). The average AA exposure, calculated probabilistically, was 0.4 ?g/kg bw/day (P97.5 = 1.6 ?g/kg bw/day) with as main contributors to the average intake c...

  14. Reflection mode holographic recording in methylene blue-sensitized polyvinyl alcohol acrylamide films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C S Rajesh; R Anjana; S S Sreeroop; C Sudha Kartha

    2014-02-01

    Photopolymer systems can produce good image quality holograms that does not require any post-processing and are environmentally stable with good diffraction efficiency. The present work reports the development of a methylene blue-sensitized polyvinyl alcohol acrylamide (MBPVA/AA) photopolymer system for recording white light reflection holograms. Reflection gratings were recorded in the photopolymer films with different concentrations of methylene blue (MB). Various parameters affecting the holographic properties of the samples were also studied. The holographic performance of the material is found to depend on its chemical composition and the recording parameters.

  15. Synthesis of Fullerene-Acrylamide Copolymer Nanoball and Its Lubrication Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG,Gui-Chang(江贵长); GUAN,Wen-Chao(官文超); ZHENG,Qi-Xin(郑启新)

    2004-01-01

    A novel fullerene-acrylamide copolymer was synthesized via radical polymerization. It is soluble in polar solvents such as water, dimethyl sulfoxide etc. The product was characterized by FTIR, UV-Vis and GPC. TEM analysis shows that the average particle diameter is about 46 nm. Four-ball tests show that the addition of a certain concentration of the fullerene copolymer to base stock (2 wt% triethanolamine and 0.5 wt% OPZ aqueous solution) can effectively raise the load-carrying capacity (PB value) and the antiwear ability. SEM analysis shows that the addition results in reducing diameter of wear scar and decreasing wear.

  16. THE PHOTOPOLYMERIZATION KINETICS OF PHOTOSENSITIZED ACRYLAMIDE SYSTEM INDUCED BY He-Ne LASER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Minhui; LIANG Zhaoxi; CHEN Yonglie

    1991-01-01

    The kinetics of the photopolymerization of sensitized acrylamide (AM) system induced by He-Ne laser has been investigated. Using methylene blue (MB)-triethanolamine (TEOA) as the photosensitive system, the photopolymerization followed a nonsteady-state kinetic scheme in the initial period of polymerization (the monomer conversion C%<2%) and then followed a steady-state kinetic scheme (5%>C%>2%). According to the steady-state hypothesis, the mechanism of photopolymerization was proposed. The deduced kinetic equation of the photopolymerization of AM is in good coincidence with the experimental results.

  17. Dependence of crystallinity degree with induced grafting by gamma radiation of N,N'-dimethyl acrylamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N,N' -dimethyl acrylamide (DMAA) graft copolymerization onto polyethylene films was carried out, using a organic solvent as a reaction medium and gamma rays from a 60 Co source for surface activation. Thermal analysis revealed the crystallinity and the grafting inversely proportional. The DSC curves fusion peaks decreased with grafting rate increase, the peak almost disappearing in the curve of PE 440% grafted. It was concluded that the graft occurs not only on the surface but also in the substrate bulk, being the PE absorption of DMAA an important factor for build up of grafted mass. (author)

  18. Adamantyl-group containing mixed-mode acrylamide-based continuous beds for capillary electrochromatography. Part I: study of a synthesis procedure including solubilization of N-adamantyl-acrylamide via complex formation with a water-soluble cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Massaedh, Ayat Allah; Pyell, Ute

    2013-04-19

    A new synthesis procedure for highly crosslinked macroporous amphiphilic N-adamantyl-functionalized mixed-mode acrylamide-based monolithic stationary phases for capillary electrochromatography (CEC) is investigated employing solubilization of the hydrophobic monomer by complexation with a cyclodextrin. N-(1-adamantyl)acrylamide is synthesized and characterized as a hydrophobic monomer forming a water soluble-inclusion complex with statistically methylated-β-cyclodextrin. The stoichiometry, the complex formation constant and the spatial arrangement of the formed complex are determined. Mixed-mode monolithic stationary phases are synthesized by in situ free radical copolymerization of cyclodextrin-solubilized N-adamantyl acrylamide, a water soluble crosslinker (piperazinediacrylamide), a hydrophilic monomer (methacrylamide), and a negatively charged monomer (vinylsulfonic acid) in aqueous medium in bind silane-pretreated fused silica capillaries. The synthesized monolithic stationary phases are amphiphilic and can be employed in the reversed- and in the normal-phase mode (depending on the composition of the mobile phase), which is demonstrated with polar and non-polar analytes. Observations made with polar analytes and polar mobile phase can only be explained by a mixed-mode retention mechanism. The influence of the total monomer concentration (%T) on the chromatographic properties, the electroosmotic mobility, and on the specific permeability is investigated. With a homologues series of alkylphenones it is confirmed that the hydrophobicity (methylene selectivity) of the stationary phase increases with increasing mass fraction of N-(1-adamantyl)acrylamide in the synthesis mixture. PMID:23489493

  19. Development and Validation of a Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Method for the Prediction of Acrylamide Content in French-Fried Potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedipe, Oluwatosin E; Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D; Truong, Van-Den; Yencho, G Craig

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the ability of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to predict acrylamide content in French-fried potato. Potato flour spiked with acrylamide (50-8000 μg/kg) was used to determine if acrylamide could be accurately predicted in a potato matrix. French fries produced with various pretreatments and cook times (n = 84) and obtained from quick-service restaurants (n = 64) were used for model development and validation. Acrylamide was quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and reflectance spectra (400-2500 nm) of each freeze-dried sample were captured on a Foss XDS Rapid Content Analyzer-NIR spectrometer. Partial least-squares (PLS) discriminant analysis and PLS regression modeling demonstrated that NIRS could accurately detect acrylamide content as low as 50 μg/kg in the model potato matrix. Prediction errors of 135 μg/kg (R(2) = 0.98) and 255 μg/kg (R(2) = 0.93) were achieved with the best PLS models for acrylamide prediction in Russet Norkotah French-fried potato and multiple samples of unknown varieties, respectively. The findings indicate that NIRS can be used as a screening tool in potato breeding and potato processing research to reduce acrylamide in the food supply.

  20. Color kinetics and acrylamide formation in NaCl soaked potato chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Bustos, Oscar; Mery, Domingo;

    2007-01-01

    by using an inexpensive computer vision technique which allowed quantifying in a more precise and representative way the color in L*a*b* units of complex surfaces such as those of potato slices during frying. The effect of potato slice soaking in NaCl was evaluated not only for color change but also......The objective of this work was to study the kinetics of color development in blanched and blanched-NaCl impregnated potato slices during frying by using the dynamic method and also to evaluate the effect of NaCl in reducing acrylamide formation in potato chips. The measurement of color was done......Cl solution of 0.02 g/l 5 min at 200 rpm of agitation. These samples were considered as NaCl soaked potato chips. Blanched and soaked slices were fried at 120, 140, 160 and 180 degrees C until reaching moisture contents of similar to 1.8% (total basis) for color evaluation. Acrylamide content was evaluated...

  1. Effects of water availability on free amino acids, sugars, and acrylamide-forming potential in potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muttucumaru, Nira; Powers, Stephen J; Elmore, J Stephen; Mottram, Donald S; Halford, Nigel G

    2015-03-11

    Irrigation is used frequently in potato cultivation to maximize yield, but water availability may also affect the composition of the crop, with implications for processing properties and food safety. Five varieties of potatoes, including drought-tolerant and -sensitive types, which had been grown with and without irrigation, were analyzed to show the effect of water supply on concentrations of free asparagine, other free amino acids, and sugars and on the acrylamide-forming potential of the tubers. Two varieties were also analyzed under more severe drought stress in a glasshouse. Water availability had profound effects on tuber free amino acid and sugar concentrations, and it was concluded that potato farmers should irrigate only if necessary to maintain the health and yield of the crop, because irrigation may increase the acrylamide-forming potential of potatoes. Even mild drought stress caused significant changes in composition, but these differed from those caused by more extreme drought stress. Free proline concentration, for example, increased in the field-grown potatoes of one variety from 7.02 mmol/kg with irrigation to 104.58 mmol/kg without irrigation, whereas free asparagine concentration was not affected significantly in the field but almost doubled from 132.03 to 242.26 mmol/kg in response to more severe drought stress in the glasshouse. Furthermore, the different genotypes were affected in dissimilar fashion by the same treatment, indicating that there is no single, unifying potato tuber drought stress response.

  2. Determination of Acrylamide Metabolite ,Mercapturic Aicd by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUYi-Qun; YUAi-Ru; 等

    1993-01-01

    A HPLC Assay was developed to indentify and measure the metabolite of acrylamide,mercapturic acid,N-Acetyl-s-(propionamide)-cyteine(APC)in urine O-phthalaldehyde (OPA)was utilized as a precolumm derivatizing agent in the assay.This derivative was isolated with a good selectivity by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC)employing reversed phase ODS columns.The quantiation of the mercapturic acid derivative was reproducible and with a detection limit of 1 pmol.The average coefficient of variation for the runs carried out on the same day was approximately 4.6% at the range of 80-160μmol·l-1 of APC,and the mean analytical recovery from urine samples was 94%.The metabolite of urine of workers exposed to acrylamide was identified as N-acetyl-s-(propionamide)-cysteine by HPLC chromatography and fluorescence scan and HPLC-Mass spectra.All results were identical with the authentic synthesized compound.

  3. Microwave assisted synthesis and optimization of Aegle marmelos-g-poly(acrylamide): release kinetics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, A; Kumar, R

    2014-04-01

    Microwave assisted grafting of poly(acrylamide) on to Aegle marmelos gum was carried out employing 3-factor 3-level full factorial design. Microwave power, microwave exposure time and concentration of gum were selected as independent variable and grafting efficiency was taken as dependent variable. A. marmelos-g-poly(acrylamide) was characterized by FTIR, DSC, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Microwave power, microwave exposure time had synergistic effect on grafting efficiency where as concentration of the gum did not contributed much to grafting efficiency. Batch having microwave power - 80%, microwave exposure time -120 s and concentration of A. marmelos gum - 2% was selected as the optimized formulation. Comparative release behaviour of diclofenac sodium from the matrix tablets of A. marmelos gum and A. marmelos-g-polyacrylamide was evaluated. The results of kinetic studies revealed that the graft copolymer matrix, marketed tablets and polymer matrix tablets of A. marmelos gum released the drug by zero order kinetics and with n value greater than 1, indicating that the mechanism for release as super case II transport i.e. dominated by the erosion and swelling of the polymer.

  4. Terahertz Absorption Spectroscopy of Benzamide, Acrylamide, Caprolactam, Salicylamide, and Sulfanilamide in the Solid State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Terahertz (THz absorption spectra of the similarly structured molecules with amide groups including benzamide, acrylamide, caprolactam, salicylamide, and sulfanilamide in the solid phase at room temperature and 7.8 K for salicylamide are reported and compared to infrared vibrational spectral calculations using density functional theory. The results of THz absorption spectra show that the molecules have characteristic bands in the region of 0.2–2.6 THz (~7–87 cm−1. THz technique can be used to distinguish different molecules with amide groups. In the THz region benzamide has three bands at 0.83, 1.63, and 1.73 THz; the bands are located at 1.44 and 2.00 THz for acrylamide; the bands at 1.24, 1.66 and 2.12 THz are observed for caprolactam. The absorption bands are located at 1.44, 1.63, and 2.39 THz at room temperature, and at 1.22, 1.46, 1.66, and 2.41 THz at low temperature for salicylamide. The bands at 1.63, 1.78, 2.00, and 2.20 THz appear for sulfanilamide. These bands in the THz region may be related to torsion, rocking, wagging, and other modes of different groups in the molecules.

  5. Ion-responsive liquid crystals of cellulose nanowhiskers grafted with acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Daiyong; Yang, Jie

    2015-12-10

    In order to develop a novel application for cellulose nanowhiskers (CNW) produced from the sulfuric acid hydrolysis of cotton, acrylamide (AM) was grafted onto the CNW. The graft reaction of the acrylamide-grafted CNW (AM-g-CNW) was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and UV-vis spectroscopy. The carbon and nitrogen contents of the AM-g-CNW were measured by elemental analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The grafting ratios and average degrees of β-1,4-linked anhydro-D-glucose unit substitution were measured. The thermochemical properties of the AM-g-CNW were characterized using thermogravimetric analysis (TG). The glass transition temperatures were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The degrees of crystallinity were measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The liquid crystalline properties of AM-g-CNW were observed by polarizing optical microscopy (POM). AM-g-CNW had the best grafting ratio, 12.77%, when the AM/CNW molar ratio was 3, c(K2S2O8)/n(CNW) was 0.15, the reaction temperature was 70 °C, and the reaction time was 60 min. The birefringence of AM-g-CNW was responsive to hydroxide ions, which might be useful in applications that benefit from sensitivity towards different ionic species.

  6. A simple strategy to fabricate poly (acrylamide-co-alginate)/gold nanocomposites for inactivation of bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanan; Lou, Zhichao; Zhang, Xiaohong; Hu, Xiaodan; Zhang, Haiqian

    2014-12-01

    A facile and efficient approach to prepare uniform gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) in hybrid hydrogel consisting of acrylamide (AM) and alginate (SA) for antibacterial applications is reported. In this study, reduction of gold ions by acrylamide and alginate (AM-SA) occurred before the polymerization and as-obtained gold colloids are stabilized by AM-SA immediately in the absence of commonly used reducing agents and protective reagents. Via transmittance electron microscopy results, we can conclude that the obtained gold nanoparticles in hydrogel are well dispersed. Furthermore, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared and thermogravimetric analysis were used to characterize the structure and composition of the synthetic nanocomposites. Our approach provides well-dispersed nanoparticles around 8 mm in size. It is important to underline that nanoparticle aggregation was not observed during and after gel formation. The prepared Au NPs exhibited remarkable stability in the presence of high pH s, and a range of salt concentrations. Importantly, the hydrogel/gold nanocomposites showed a non-compromised activity to inhibit the growth of a model bacterium, Escherichia coli. With their excellent mechanical behavior, as well as the remained antibacterial activity, the nanocomposites should get various potential applications in the fields of pharmaceutical science and tissue engineering.

  7. SWELLING BEHAVIOR OF ACRYLAMIDE HYDROGEL IN DIFFERENT SOLVENTS AND pHs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. F. Mina; M. M. Alam

    2005-01-01

    Swelling property of acrylamide hydrogels, prepared from aqueous solutions of acrylamide monomer having concentrations in the range of 10-60 wt% by γ-ray irradiation method using a Co-60 gamma radiation source at doses ranging 1-30.0 kGy, has been investigated under various swelling media. These swelling media were basically solvents (solutions), produced by dissolving methanol, ethanol, glucose, sucrose, sodium chloride and sodium persulfate individually with distilled water, and solutions prepared with phs = 3, 7 and 10. The investigation was performed in order to observe the effect of these solvents and phs as well as the influence of monomer concentrations, radiation doses and times on swelling behavior of hydrogels. Swelling values were found higher for hydrogels prepared with lower monomer concentrations (ca.20 wt%) and radiation doses (ca. 5 kGy) and showed a leveling off tendency within 24 h. The glucose solvent and the buffer solution of pH = 10 revealed significant increase of swelling of hydrogels as compared to other solutions. Results are explained based on crosslinking density in hydrogel, polymer-solvent/polymer-polymer interactions in solutions,permeability of molecules in solutions and ionization capacity of hydrogel in pH.

  8. Acrylamide exposure and incidence of breast cancer among postmenopausal women in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Olsen, Anja; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz;

    2008-01-01

    risk neither unadjusted nor adjusted for the potential confounders HRT duration, parity, BMI, alcohol intake and education. After adjustment for smoking behavior, however, a positive association was seen between acrylamide-hemoglobin levels and estrogen receptor positive breast cancer with an estimated...

  9. Diagnostic ions for the analysis of phenylalanine adducts of acrylamide and styrene by ESI-QTOF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Fong Lam; Sleno, Lekha; Yaylayan, Varoujan Antranik

    2013-10-30

    To facilitate the detection of acrylamide or styrene adduct of amino acids by mass spectrometry based techniques, phenylalanine was used as a representative amino acid and pyrolysis was employed in conjunction with isotope labeling technique as a microscale sample preparation tool to generate the reaction products. The residues remaining after the pyrolysis of phenylalanine/styrene, phenylalanine/acrylamide, and phenylalanine/glucose mixtures at 250 °C were analyzed by electrospray quadrupole time-of-flight (ESI-QqTOF) mass spectrometry to identify the adducts. The phenylalanine/acrylamide adduct was independently synthesized for confirmation. Characteristic product ions in the tandem mass spectra were found at m/z 191 for the acrylamide adduct and at m/z 262 and 190 for its double-addition product. On the other hand, an ion at m/z 224 was shown to be diagnostic of the styrene adduct. The ability of the m/z 224 ion to predict the presence of styrene adduct in a heated phenylalanine/glucose model system was tested and verified. Detailed isotope labeling analysis of the phenylalanine/glucose model further indicated the formation of a novel adduct that was consistent with the reaction of the Amadori product with styrene. Such diagnostic ions that are needed to develop MS/MS-based screening methodologies may accelerate in the future the detection of Michael-type adducts in food.

  10. The intake of acrylamide, nitrate and ochratoxin A in people aged 7 to 69 living in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geraets L; te Biesebeek JD; van Donkersgoed G; Koopman N; Boon PE; VVH; V& Z

    2014-01-01

    De voeding van kinderen (7-15 jaar) en (jong) volwassenen (16-69 jaar) in Nederland is veilig wat betreft de inname van nitraat, dat vooral in groenten zit. De hoeveelheid acrylamide waaraan beide leeftijdsgroepen worden blootgesteld via de voeding zou mogelijk schadelijk kunnen zijn voor de gezondh

  11. Effect of Lactobacillus casei- casei and Lactobacillus reuteri on acrylamide formation in flat bread and Bread roll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastmalchi, Farnaz; Razavi, Seyed Hadi; Faraji, Mohammad; Labbafi, Mohsen

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of fermentation by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) contains lactobacillus (L.) casei- casei and L. reuteri on acrylamide formation and physicochemical properties of the Iranian flat bread named, Sangak, and Bread roll. Sangak and Bread roll were made with whole and white wheat flour, respectively. Whole-wheat flour had upper content of protein, sugar, ash, fiber, damaged starch and the activity of amylase than the white wheat flour. After 24 h of fermentation, the pH values of the sourdoughs made from whole-wheat flour (3.00, 2.90) were lower, in compared to sourdoughs prepared from white wheat flour (3.60, 3.58). In addition, in Sangak bread, glucose, and fructose were completely utilized after fermentation, but in bread roll, the reduced sugar levels increased after fermentation and baking that represent microorganisms cannot be activated and utilized sugars. Acrylamide formation was impacted by pH of sourdough and total reducing sugar (r = 0.915, r = 0.885 respectively). Bread roll and Sangak bread were fermented by L. casei- casei contained lowest acrylamide content, in two bread types (219.1, 104.3 μg/kg respectively). As an important result, the acrylamide content of Sangak bread in all cases was lower than in the Bread roll. PMID:27570278

  12. Environmental risk assessment of acrylamide and methylolacrylamide from a grouting agent used in the tunnel construction of Romeriksporten, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weideborg, M; Källqvist, T; Odegård, K E; Sverdrup, L E; Vik, E A

    2001-08-01

    Increased focus on the possible evironmental risk associated with large-scale use of grouting agents has revealed that leakage of chemicals from grouting activities may cause harm to the environment. Chemical grouting agents are used to reduce water leakages in e.g. tunnel constructions. The present study focuses on monitoring results and environmental risk caused by releases of non-polymerised monomers during use of the acrylamide-based grouting agent Rhoca-Gil (Siprogel). Drainage water from the tunnel Romeriksporten was monitored with respect to acrylamide and methylolacrylamide, as leakage of these substances was observed earlier in connection with similar constructions where Rhoca-Gil was used. Concentrations of acrylamide and methylolacrylamide in the draining water showed that these substances leaked out both in connection with the injection of Rhoca-Gil and in connection with after-injection using other grouting agents. Gel formation studies with Rhoca-Gil showed that a low degree of polymerisation (and hence, large leakages of monomers) can be expected if the product is diluted with water. Results from investigation of the environmental fate of methylolacrylamide showed that this substance is chemically transformed at the high-pH conditions of the tunnel. Ecotoxicological testing of the substances and an environmental effects assessment for the receiving water (River Alna and the Oslofjord) showed that the discharge of acrylamide and methylolacrylamide may have caused effects on the aquatic life in the river and in a limited area of the fjord. PMID:11456163

  13. Influences of Copolymer Composition upon the Behaviors of Poly(vinyl acetate-co-acrylamide) Sizing Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Zhi-feng; CHAI Yan

    2007-01-01

    A series of poly(vinyl acetate-co-acrylamide)copolymers with different mole ratios of vinyl acetateto acrylamide units were synthesized by emulsionpolymerization for investigating the influences of copolymercompostion upon the performance such as apparentviscosity, film behaviors, and adhesion capacity to fibers forwarp sizing operation. The mole ratios of vinyl acetate toacrylamide were varied from 0 to 4. By using animpregnated roving method, the adhesion was evaluated interms of the maximal strength and work to break of aslightly sized roving. The film behaviors included breakingstrength, breaking elongation, solution time and hygroscopiccapacity. It was found that the viscosity, adhesioncapability, glass transition temperature and film behaviorsof the copolymeric sizing agent strongly depended on themole ratio. Excessively increasing the amounts of vinylacetate or acrylamide units incorporated into the copolymericchains damages much of the performance. A favorable moleratio of vinyl acetate or acrylamide was found to be 45 : 55.Based on this mole ratio, the adhesion capability and filmbehaviors of the sizing agent reach their maximal valuessimultaneously. This demonstrates that the sizing agentshould be synthesized under this copolymer composition fromthe viewpoint of adhesion and film behaviors.

  14. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation during baking of biscuits: NaCl and temperature-time profile effects and kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels, van der H.J.; Capuano, E.; Nguyen, H.T.; Mogol, B.A.; Kocadagli, T.; Goncuoglu Tas, N.; Hamzalioglu, A.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Gokmen, V.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of recipe and temperature–time on the formation of acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) during biscuit baking. Baking experiments were performed with biscuits of two different recipes, with and without NaCl, at 180 °C, 190 °C and 200 °C. Acry

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of the Terpolymer of Itaconic Acid with Acrylamide and 2-Acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The terpolymer of itaconic acid,acrylamide and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane sulfonic acid was synthesized through the free-radical polymerization.The IR spectra confirmed that there was no olefinic band,while the TGA results revealed that the terpolymer was of high thermal stability.

  16. Properties of Starch-Poly(acrylamide-co-2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) Graft Copolymers Prepared by Reactive Extrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graft copolymers of starch with acrylamide and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid (AMPS) were prepared by reactive extrusion in a twin-screw extruder. The weight ratio of total monomer to starch was fixed at 1:3, while the molar fraction of AMPS in the monomer feed ranged from 0 to 0.119. Mon...

  17. Graft [partially carboxymethylated guar gum-g-poly N-(hydroxymethyl) acrylamide] copolymer: from synthesis to applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Vijay Shankar; Verma, Shiv Kumar; Behari, Kunj

    2014-09-22

    Graft copolymer of N-(hydroxymethyl) acrylamide with carboxymethylated guar gum was synthesized and the reaction conditions were optimized for better yield using potassium peroxymonosulfate and thiourea as a redox initiator. The optimum reaction conditions for grafting have also been determined by studying the effect of N-(hydroxymethyl) acrylamide, hydrogen ion, peroxymonosulphate, thiourea concentration and carboxymethylated guar gum along with time and temperature. Experimental results show that maximum grafting has been obtained at 1.4 g dm(-3) concentration of carboxymethylated guar gum and 16×10(-2) mol dm(-3) concentration of N-(hydroxymethyl) acrylamide. It has been observed that grafting ratio, add on, conversion, efficiency and rate of grafting increase up to 6.0×10(-3) mol dm(-3) of hydrogen ion, 2.4×10(-3) mol dm(-3) of thiourea, 14×10(-3) mol dm(-3) of peroxymonosulphate and 35°C of temperature. Grafted copolymer has been characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Water swelling, flocculating, and metal ion uptake properties of partially carboxymethylated guar gum-g-N-(hydroxymethyl) acrylamide have been determined.

  18. FT-IR and computer modeling study of hydrogen bonding in N-alkyl acrylamide-toluene binary mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumyantsev, Misha; Kazantsev, Oleg A.; Kamorina, Sofia I.; Kamorin, Denis M.; Sivokhin, Alexey P.

    2016-10-01

    Degree of hydrogen bonding driven self-association of N-(n-butyl)acrylamide, N-(n-octyl)acrylamide, N-(sec-octyl)acrylamide and N-(tert-octyl)acrylamide in toluene was investigated using IR spectroscopy and computer modeling methods. Consistent results were demonstrated in the treatment of the Amide-I (νC=O), Amide-II (δN-H and νC-N) and Amide-A (νN-H) absorption bands in IR spectra. Thus, the content of non-bonded (free) amide groups decreases from 83-98% to 8-20% and the content of linear polyassociates increases to 80-90% with an increase in monomer concentration from 0.5 wt% to 50 wt%. The content of cyclic dimers was equal to the value between 5 and 10% regardless of the initial monomer concentration. Dependences of the association degree and the content of the linear polyassociates on the concentration were found to be similar for all of the studied amides.

  19. Acrylamide in commercial potato crisps from Spanish market: Trends from 2004 to 2014 and assessment of the dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesías, Marta; Morales, Francisco J

    2015-07-01

    This research updates the acrylamide content of commercial potato crisps marketed in Spain with the aim to evaluate its trend since 2004. Two different batches of 40 potato crisps brands from 18 producers were analysed. Acrylamide content ranged from 108 to 2180 µg/kg, with an average value of 630 µg/kg and a median of 556 µg/kg. Data revealed a continuous decreased trend from 2004 to 2014. In 2014, potato crisps showed an average acrylamide content 14.6% lower than the previous report in 2009 and 57.6% lower than the first report in 2004. These data confirm the overall effectiveness in the mitigation strategies implemented by the Spanish industrial sector, although variations up to 80% were observed between a number of brands. However, 17.5% of the samples registered values higher than the indicative value recommended by European Commission for potato crisps. The dietary exposure of the Spanish population to this contaminant through potato crisps intake was estimated to be 0.035 µg/kg body weight/day. Although exposure has decreased over the last ten years, it is necessary to continue efforts to reduce acrylamide content in potato crisps since there is still margin for it.

  20. Swelling properties of cassava starch grafted with poly (potassium acrylate-co-acrylamide) superabsorbent hydrogel prepared by ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barleany, Dhena Ria, E-mail: dbarleany@yahoo.com; Ulfiyani, Fida; Istiqomah, Shafina; Rahmayetty [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa, Cilegon, Banten (Indonesia); Heriyanto, Heri; Erizal [Centre for Application of Isotopes and Radiation, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Natural and synthetic hydrophylic polymers can be phisically or chemically cross-linked in order to produce hydrogels. Starch based hydrogels grafted with copolymers from acrylic acid or acrylamide have become very popular for water absorbent application. Superabsorbent hydrogels made from Cassava starch grafted with poly (potassium acrylate-co-acrylamide) were prepared by using of ϒ-irradiation method. Various important parameters such as irradiation doses, monomer to Cassava starch ratio and acrylamide content were investigated. The addition of 7,5 % w w{sup −1} acrylamide into the reaction mixture generated a starch graft copolymer with a water absorption in distilled water as high as 460 g g{sup −1} of its dried weight. The effectivity of hydrogel as superabsorbent for aqueous solutions of NaCl and urea was evaluated. The obtained hydrogel showed the maximum absorptions of 317 g g{sup −1} and 523 g g{sup −1} for NaCl and urea solution, respectively (relative to its own dry weight). The structure of the graft copolymer was analyzed by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

  1. Swelling properties of cassava starch grafted with poly (potassium acrylate-co-acrylamide) superabsorbent hydrogel prepared by ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barleany, Dhena Ria; Ulfiyani, Fida; Istiqomah, Shafina; Heriyanto, Heri; Rahmayetty, Erizal

    2015-12-01

    Natural and synthetic hydrophylic polymers can be phisically or chemically cross-linked in order to produce hydrogels. Starch based hydrogels grafted with copolymers from acrylic acid or acrylamide have become very popular for water absorbent application. Superabsorbent hydrogels made from Cassava starch grafted with poly (potassium acrylate-co-acrylamide) were prepared by using of ϒ-irradiation method. Various important parameters such as irradiation doses, monomer to Cassava starch ratio and acrylamide content were investigated. The addition of 7,5 % w w-1 acrylamide into the reaction mixture generated a starch graft copolymer with a water absorption in distilled water as high as 460 g g-1 of its dried weight. The effectivity of hydrogel as superabsorbent for aqueous solutions of NaCl and urea was evaluated. The obtained hydrogel showed the maximum absorptions of 317 g g-1 and 523 g g-1 for NaCl and urea solution, respectively (relative to its own dry weight). The structure of the graft copolymer was analyzed by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM).

  2. Swelling properties of cassava starch grafted with poly (potassium acrylate-co-acrylamide) superabsorbent hydrogel prepared by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural and synthetic hydrophylic polymers can be phisically or chemically cross-linked in order to produce hydrogels. Starch based hydrogels grafted with copolymers from acrylic acid or acrylamide have become very popular for water absorbent application. Superabsorbent hydrogels made from Cassava starch grafted with poly (potassium acrylate-co-acrylamide) were prepared by using of ϒ-irradiation method. Various important parameters such as irradiation doses, monomer to Cassava starch ratio and acrylamide content were investigated. The addition of 7,5 % w w−1 acrylamide into the reaction mixture generated a starch graft copolymer with a water absorption in distilled water as high as 460 g g−1 of its dried weight. The effectivity of hydrogel as superabsorbent for aqueous solutions of NaCl and urea was evaluated. The obtained hydrogel showed the maximum absorptions of 317 g g−1 and 523 g g−1 for NaCl and urea solution, respectively (relative to its own dry weight). The structure of the graft copolymer was analyzed by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

  3. 膨化食品及其丙烯酰股的研究进展%Research Progress in Studies on Puffing Food and its Acrylamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨波

    2011-01-01

    Research progress in studies on puffing food and analytical methods of its acrylamide were re- viewed. The debate on potential toxicity of acrylamide was summarized. The prospect of puffing food and the strategy for reducing its acrylamide content were suggested.%综述了膨化食品的研究进展以及丙烯酰胺的检测方法,介绍了关于丙烯酰胺潜在毒性存在的争议。提出了膨化食品的发展方向和减少丙烯酰胺的策略。

  4. Cytotoxicity of acrylamide and its epoxide glycidamide in CHO cells expressing human cytochrome P450 2E1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shoulin Wang; Xiaoyang He; Xinru Wang; Junyan Hong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether CYP2E1 is responsible for the acrylamide metabolic activation in Flp-In CHO cell system. Methods: CYP2E1 cDNA was subcloned from the human liver full-length cDNA library and subsequently transfected into the Flp-In CHO cells to generate the stable transfectant of CYP2E1. The CYP2E1 mRNA expression was determined by RT-PCR. Acrylamide and its epoxide glycidamide induced cytotoxicity and cell cycle arrest in G2/M were conducted using MTS assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Results: In the CHO cell stably expressing CYP2E1 (CHO-2E1), a ~1.5 kbsize of band was detected from the mRNA in the cells while no corresponding band in the CHO-vector cells, which indicated that CYP2E1 was successfully transfected in the CHO cells. Compared with the CHO-vector cells, acrylamide showed a concentrationdependent loss of viability in the CHO-2E1 cells but no significant change of G2/M arrest was found. As expected, glycidamide induced similar profile of cytotoxicity in both of the cells, and G2/M arrest presented a concentration-dependent increased in the CHO-2E1 cells. Conclusion: The result suggested that CYP2E1 might be responsible for the acrylamide metabolism, and its metabolite glycidamide was a direct cytotoxic and genotoxic agent. It should be further considered whether acrylamide-induced toxicity is through its epoxide glycidamide in the presence of CYP2E1.

  5. Tandem Extraction/Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Protocol for the Analysis of Acrylamide and Surfactant-Related Compounds in Complex Matrix Environmental Water Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethoxylated alcohols, alkylphenols, and acrylamide are emerging contaminants with many different routes into the environment. Ethoxylated alcohols are used ubiquitously as surfactants in both industrial and household products. The use of ethoxylated alcohols and alkylphenols as s...

  6. Tandem Extraction/Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Protocol for the Analysis of Acrylamide and Surfactant-related Compounds in Complex Aqueous Environmental Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of a liquid chromatography‐mass spectrometry (LC‐MS)‐based strategy for the detection and quantitation of acrylamide and surfactant‐related compounds in aqueous complex environmental samples.

  7. A new derivatization approach with D-cysteine for the sensitive and simple analysis of acrylamide in foods by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyun-Hee; Shin, Ho-Sang

    2014-09-26

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-MS/MS) was developed in order to determine the amount of acrylamide in foods after derivatization with d-cysteine. The sulfhydryl group of d-cysteine was added at the β-site double bond of acrylamide to form 2-amino-3-(3-amino-3-oxo-propyl)sulfanyl-propanoic acid. Deuterated acrylamide (acrylamide-d3) was chosen as the internal standard (IS) for analyzing the food samples. Acrylamide was extracted from 2.0 g of food sample with 6 mL of methylene chloride, and the organic extract was diluted with 3 mL of hexane, and then the analyte was back-extracted with 0.5 mL of pure water. The derivatization of acrylamide was performed in the water extract. The best reaction conditions (3.0mg of d-cysteine, a pH 6.5, a reaction temperature of 90°C, and a heating time of 50 min) were established by the variation of parameters. The formed derivative was injected into the LC-MS/MS without further extraction or purification procedures. Separation and detection were improved with the use of an ion-pairing reagent of perfluorooctanoic acid. Under the established conditions, the limits of detection and the limits of quantification were 0.04 μg/kg and 0.14 μg/kg, respectively, and the inter-day relative standard deviation was less than 8% at concentrations of 20 and 100 μg/kg. The method was successfully applied to determine the amount of acrylamide in potato chips, French fries, and coffee.

  8. Impact of volume transition on the net charge of poly-N -isopropyl acrylamide microgels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braibanti, M.; Haro-Pérez, C.; Quesada-Pérez, M.; Rojas-Ochoa, L. F.; Trappe, V.

    2016-09-01

    We explore the electrostatic properties of poly-N -isopropyl acrylamide microgels in dilute, quasi-de-ionized dispersions and show that the apparent net charge of these thermosensitive microgels is an increasing function of their size, the size being conveniently varied by temperature. Our experimental results obtained in a combination of light scattering, conductivity, and mobility experiments are consistent with those obtained in Poisson-Boltzmann cell model calculations, effectively indicating that upon shrinking the number of counterions entrapped within the microgels increases. Remarkably, this behavior shows that the electrostatic energy per particle remains constant upon swelling or deswelling the microgel, resulting in a square root dependence of the net charge on the particle radius.

  9. Rapid Synthesis of Superabsorbent Smart-Swelling Bacterial Cellulose/Acrylamide-Based Hydrogels for Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Pandey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of solubilized and dispersed bacterial cellulose (BC on the physicochemical characteristics and drug release profile of hydrogels synthesized using biopolymers. Superabsorbent hydrogels were synthesized by graft polymerization of acrylamide on BC solubilized in an NaOH/urea solvent system and on dispersed BC by using N,N′-methylenebisacrylamide as a crosslinker under microwave irradiation. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis of the resulting hydrogels confirmed the grafting, and an X-ray diffraction pattern showed a decrease in the crystallinity of BC after the grafting process. The hydrogels exhibited pH and ionic responsive swelling behavior, with hydrogels prepared using solubilized BC (SH having higher swelling ratios. Furthermore, compared to the hydrogels synthesized using dispersed BC, the hydrogels synthesized using solubilized BC showed higher porosity, drug loading efficiency, and release. These results suggest the superiority of the hydrogels prepared using solubilized BC and that they should be explored further for oral drug delivery.

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of Graft Copolymer Rice Straw Cellulose-Acrylamide Hydrogels Using Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice straw cellulose available as waste biomass was graft copolymerized with acrylamide monomer by simultaneous gamma irradiation as initiator. The effects of bleaching of cellulose and irradiation dose were evaluated. Evidence of grafting is obtained from comparison of Fourier Transfer Infrared (FTIR) of the cellulose and grafted cellulose. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that crystallinity was reduced through graft copolymerization. Kinetic investigations of the graft copolymerization were also carried out, and the rate constant parameter (kp/kt0.5) has been found to be 4.9922 l0.5. mol-0.5.s-0.5. The results show that for the same dose, grafting efficiency is higher with bleached cellulose form than with unbleached form. The grafting efficiency and the gel fraction increases with increasing total irradiation doses. At higher radiation doses crosslink density starts to increase considerably while swelling degree decreases with the increasing crosslink density. (author)

  11. 食品中丙烯酰胺(Acrylamide)的特性及危害

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文友

    2002-01-01

    @@ 丙烯酰胺(Acrylamide)是因为2002年4月,瑞典国家食品安全局(NFA)首次报告在含淀粉类物质食品中如土豆、面包等,因高温烹调而产生高含量的丙烯酰胺,而引起WHO及有关国家和消费者极大关注的(SCCNFP,1999;CSTEE,2001;IARC,1994;US-EPA,1999).6月25~27日,FAO/WHO组织专家专门会议进行研究讨论.

  12. Novel composition of polymer gel dosimeters based on N-(Hydroxymethyl)acrylamide for radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basfar, Ahmed A.; Moftah, Belal; Rabaeh, Khalid A.; Almousa, Akram A.

    2015-07-01

    A new composition of polymer gel dosimeters is developed based on radiation induced polymerization of N-(Hydroxymethyl)acrylamide (NHMA) for radiotherapy treatment planning. The dosimeters were irradiated by 10 MV photon beam of a medical linear accelerator at a constant dose rate of 600 cGy/min with doses up to 20 Gy. The polymerization occurs and increases with increasing absorbed dose. The dose response of polymer gel dosimeters was studied using nuclear magnetic imaging (NMR) for relaxation rate (R2) of water proton. Dose rate, energy of radiation and the stability of the polymerization after irradiation were investigated. No appreciable effects of these parameters on the performance of the novel gel dosimeters were observed.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of methacrylamidopropyltrimethylammonium chloride and N-substituted acrylamide ionomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Quaternary ammonium ionomers of Methacrylamidopropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride with N-substituted acrylamides were prepared at 55±1°C using azobiscyanovaleric acid (ACVA initiator. The monomers and ionomers were characterized by 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy and the copolymer composition was calculated from elemental analysis data. The reduced viscosity of ionomers in methanol behaves as non-polyelectrolytes at lower mole percentage and as polyelectrolyte at higher mole percentage. The molecular weights of ionomers were found to be high and the polydispersity index values indicate termination mainly by disproportionation. The glass transition temperature (Tg of ionomers were greater than those of the corresponding homopolymers, attributed to a reduction in segmental mobility. The initial decomposition temperature (IDT showed that the stability of ionomers increases with increasing mole percentage of ionic content.

  14. Enhanced protein retention on poly(caprolactone) via surface initiated polymerization of acrylamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuhao; Cai, Mengtan; He, Liu; Luo, Xianglin

    2016-01-01

    To enhance the biocompatibility or extend the biomedical application of poly(caprolactone) (PCL), protein retention on PCL surface is often required. In this study, poly(acrylamide) (PAAm) brushes were grown from PCL surface via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) and served as a protein-capturing platform. Grafted PAAm was densely packed on surface and exhibited superior protein retention ability. Captured protein was found to be resistant to washing under detergent environment. Furthermore, protein structure after being captured was investigated by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and the CD spectra verified that secondary structure of captured proteins was maintained, indicating no denaturation of protein happened for retention process.

  15. Phase behavior of the thermoresponsive polymer Poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) at variable pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Alfons; Claude, Kora-Lee; Pinzek, Simon; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter; Papadakis, Christine

    Stimuli-responsive such as Poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAM) exhibit lower critical solution temperature (LCST) behaviour. At ambient pressure it is associated with the release of water and coil to globule transition of the polymer chains, leading to phase separation. Using turbidimetry we measure the P-T phase diagram over an extended range of pressure (0.1 - 400 MPa) and temperature (-10 - 40 oC). The phase boundary shows an elliptic profile, i.e. the cloud point temperature first increases and then decreases with pressure. This is reflected in the change in Gibbs free energy, isothermal compressibility, and isobaric heat capacity. The role of solvent-solvent interaction and addition of co-solvents is discussed.

  16. Radiation-grafting of acrylamide onto silicone rubber films for diclofenac delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaña, Hector; Palomino, Kenia; Cornejo-Bravo, Jose M.; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen; Concheiro, Angel; Bucio, Emilio

    2015-02-01

    This work focuses on the pre-irradiation grafting of acrylamide (AAm) onto silicone rubber films (SR) and evaluates the effect of gamma-ray radiation conditions on the grafting yield, which in turn may influence the performance of the grafted materials as components of drug-eluting devices. Pristine and modified SR were characterized using FTIR-ATR, DSC, TGA, swelling, and water contact angle analysis in order to elucidate the effects of AAm grafting onto SR. Grafted films with content in AAm ranging from 0.81% to 22.20% showed excellent cytocompatibility against fibroblasts, and capability to uptake the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac. Amount of drug loaded directly correlated with the grafting degree of the films. Drug release studies were performed at pH 7.4 and 37 °C (physiological conditions). Most grafted films released the drug in a sustained way for at least three hours.

  17. The acrylamide (S)-1 differentially affects Kv7 (KCNQ) potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Bo Hjorth; Schmitt, Nicole; Calloe, Kirstine;

    2006-01-01

    The family of Kv7 (KCNQ) potassium channels consists of five members. Kv7.2 and 3 are the primary molecular correlates of the M-current, but also Kv7.4 and Kv7.5 display M-current characteristics. M-channel modulators include blockers (e.g., linopirdine) for cognition enhancement and openers (e.......g., retigabine) for treatment of epilepsy and neuropathic pain. We investigated the effect of a Bristol-Myers Squibb compound (S)-N-[1-(3-morpholin-4-yl-phenyl)-ethyl]-3-phenyl-acrylamide [(S)-1] on cloned human Kv7.1-5 potassium channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Using two-electrode voltage...

  18. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation in reconstituted potato chips during frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, YuTian; Zhang, HuanJie; Zhang, LuLu; Wu, SiJia; Sun, YiJia; Shan, Yu; Yuan, Yuan

    2014-12-01

    In our present paper, the effect of water activity and processing conditions in reconstituted potato chips was considered as a model to investigate the changes of acrylamide (AA) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). The results suggested that the formation of AA and HMF was highly correlated with frying temperature and time. Water activity could also influence the formation of AA and HMF. Meanwhile, the formation of HMF has significant correlation with the formation of AA in reconstituted potato chips. A typical exponential growth curve was observed by plotting AA levels vs HMF content which were all determined under different heating condition: [Formula: see text]. The model could be used as a tool for estimating the formation of AA when the content of HMF was known. PMID:25477673

  19. Studying the Effects of Matrix Stiffness on Cellular Function using Acrylamide-based Hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretu, Alexandra; Castagnino, Paola; Assoian, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Tissue stiffness is an important determinant of cellular function, and changes in tissue stiffness are commonly associated with fibrosis, cancer and cardiovascular disease1-11. Traditional cell biological approaches to studying cellular function involve culturing cells on a rigid substratum (plastic dishes or glass coverslips) which cannot account for the effect of an elastic ECM or the variations in ECM stiffness between tissues. To model in vivo tissue compliance conditions in vitro, we and others use ECM-coated hydrogels. In our laboratory, the hydrogels are based on polyacrylamide which can mimic the range of tissue compliances seen biologically12. "Reactive" cover slips are generated by incubation with NaOH followed by addition of 3-APTMS. Glutaraldehyde is used to cross-link the 3-APTMS and the polyacrylamide gel. A solution of acrylamide (AC), bis-acrylamide (Bis-AC) and ammonium persulfate is used for the polymerization of the hydrogel. N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) is incorporated into the AC solution to crosslink ECM protein to the hydrogel. Following polymerization of the hydrogel, the gel surface is coated with an ECM protein of choice such as fibronectin, vitronectin, collagen, etc. The stiffness of a hydrogel can be determined by rheology or atomic force microscopy (AFM) and adjusted by varying the percentage of AC and/or bis-AC in the solution12. In this manner, substratum stiffness can be matched to the stiffness of biological tissues which can also be quantified using rheology or AFM. Cells can then be seeded on these hydrogels and cultured based upon the experimental conditions required. Imaging of the cells and their recovery for molecular analysis is straightforward. For this article, we define soft substrata as those having elastic moduli (E) 20,000 Pascal. PMID:20736914

  20. Reduction of Saltiness and Acrylamide Levels in Palm Sugar-Like Flavouring through Buffer Modification and the Addition of Calcium Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Aida Wan Mustapha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Palm sugar-like flavouring (PSLF is a type of flavour product that is formed by heating amino acids and sugar under specific heating conditions. Unfortunately, PSLF has a salty taste and contains high amounts of acrylamide. Hence, the objective of this research was to reduce saltiness and acrylamide without negatively affecting the aroma properties of PSLF. A decrease in the sodium phosphate (NaHPO4 buffer concentration from 0.20 to 0.02 M was found to reduce sodium to approximately 15% of the level found in original PSLF. A further decrease (~25% in the sodium content was achieved by removing monobasic sodium phosphate (NaH2PO4 from the buffer system. Meanwhile, the addition of CaCl2 at 20–40 mg/L reduced the acrylamide content in PSLF by as much as 58%. A CaCl2 concentration of 20 mg/mL was most favourable as it most efficiently suppressed acrylamide formation while providing an acceptably high flavour yield in PSLF. In view of the high acrylamide content in PSLF, additional work is necessary to further reduce the amount of acrylamide by controlling the asparagine concentration in the precursor mixture.

  1. Development of a sensitive method for the determination of acrylamide in coffee using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a hybrid quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugajeva, Iveta; Jaunbergs, Janis; Bartkevics, Vadims

    2015-01-01

    The emerging trend towards high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) alternatives was evaluated by the application of Orbitrap MS for the determination of acrylamide in coffee samples. The high resolving power of the Orbitrap MS provided the high selectivity and sensitivity that enabled quantitative analysis of acrylamide in complex matrices, such as coffee. Several sample preparation methods and scanning modes of the MS (full MS, t-SIM, t-MS2) were assessed in order to optimise parameters of the analytical method. The final procedure involved the extraction of acrylamide with acetonitrile, solid-phase extraction with dispersive primary secondary amine (PSA) and amino columns, and the detection by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap MS (HPLC-Q-Orbitrap) operated in targeted MS2 scanning mode. The repeatability of the method at the lowest calibration level (10 μg kg(-1)), expressed as relative standard deviation, was 7.8% and the average recovery of acrylamide was 111%. The proposed method was applied to the determination of acrylamide in 22 samples of roasted coffee obtained from the Latvian retail market. Acrylamide concentration in coffee samples was in the range of 166-503 μg kg(-1).

  2. Simultaneous determination of acrylamide, its metabolite glycidamide and antipyrine in human placental perfusion fluid and placental tissue by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annola, Kirsi; Keski-Rahkonen, Pekka; Vähäkangas, Kirsi; Lehtonen, Marko

    2008-12-15

    A rapid and sensitive method using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed for the simultaneous determination of acrylamide (AA) and its genotoxic metabolite glycidamide (GA) with a test marker antipyrine (AP) in placental tissue and perfusion medium used in human placental perfusion studies. An internal standard ((13)C-acrylamide) was added to the samples which were then deproteinized with acetonitrile. Chromatographic separation was performed on a reversed phase column with a gradient elution of acetonitrile and 0.01% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. Detection and quantification of the analytes were carried out with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer using positive electrospray ionization (ESI) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The method was validated and linear over a concentration range of 0.5-20 microg/mL for acrylamide and glycidamide and 5-200 microg/mL for antipyrine. The lower limit of quantification for acrylamide and glycidamide was 0.5 microg/mL and for antipyrine 5 microg/mL. The method was selective, and good accuracy, precision, recovery, and stability were obtained for concentrations within the standard curve. The method was successfully used to analyze the placental perfusion medium and tissue samples in a toxicokinetic study for transplacental transfer of acrylamide and glycidamide. This is the first time that acrylamide, glycidamide and antipyrine are measured simultaneously.

  3. Analysis of hemoglobin adducts from acrylamide, glycidamide, and ethylene oxide in paired mother/cord blood samples from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Stedingk, Hans; Vikström, Anna C; Rydberg, Per;

    2011-01-01

    for analysis of Hb adducts by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, the adduct FIRE procedure, was applied to measurements of adducts from these compounds in maternal blood samples (n = 87) and umbilical cord blood samples (n = 219). The adduct levels from the three compounds, acrylamide, glycidamide.......20-0.73) for glycidamide, and 0.43 (range 0.17-1.34) for ethylene oxide. In vitro studies with acrylamide and glycidamide showed a lower (0.38-0.48) rate of adduct formation with Hb in cord blood than with Hb in maternal blood, which is compatible with the structural differences in fetal and adult Hb. Together...... of the measured adducts in cord blood with gestational age was observed, which may reflect the gestational age-related change of the cord blood Hb composition toward a higher content of adult Hb. The results suggest that the Hb adduct levels measured in cord blood reflect the exposure to the fetus during...

  4. RAFT Polymerization of N-[3-(Trimethoxysilyl)-propyl]acrylamide and Its Versatile Use in Silica Hybrid Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maçon, Anthony L B; Greasley, Sarah L; Becer, C Remzi; Jones, Julian R

    2015-12-01

    Reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization and characterization of an alkoxysilane acrylamide monomer using a trithiocarbonate chain transfer agent are described. Poly(N-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]acrylamide) (PTMSPAA) homopolymers are obtained with good control over the polymerization. A linear increase in the molecular weight is observed whereas the polydispersity values do not exceed 1.2 regardless of the monomer conversion. Moreover, PTMSPAA is used as a macro-RAFT agent to polymerize N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM). By varying the degree of polymerization of NIPAM within the block copolymer, different sizes of thermoresponsive particles are obtained. These particles are stabilized by the condensation of the alkoxysilane moieties of the polymers. Furthermore, a co-network of silica and PTMSPAA is prepared using the sol-gel process. After drying, transparent mesoporous hybrids are obtained with a surface area of up to 400 m(2) g(-1). PMID:26288010

  5. Improvement in the behavior of bromelain coupled to pNIPAm polymers containing acrylamide or acrylic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubab Mahmood

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Bromelain was coupled to N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAmpolymers, synthesized using NIPAm and various concentrations of acrylamide (Ac or acrylic acid (AAc. Incorporation of Ac/AAcinto the polymer increased the LCST (lower critical solutiontemperature in a concentration dependent manner but AAc wasmore effective in this regard; the LCST rose to 40°C when 6 percent AAc was used. Incorporation of Ac/AAc increased the coupling of enzyme to the polymer and the η (effectiveness factor of the coupled enzyme, moderately. Various studies indicate that such incorporation of hydrophilic monomers into the polymer does not impair its capacity to couple enzyme or expression of the activity of bound enzyme but seems to actually improve the stability of the enzyme against heat induced inactivation and alkaline pH.

  6. Electron Beam Synthesis and Characterization of Acrylamide/Acrylic Acid Hydrogels Using Trimethylolpropane Trimethacrylate as Cross-Linker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Craciun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to present the synthesis and characterization of hydrogels prepared by free-radical copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid in aqueous solutions using potassium persulfate as initiator and trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate as cross-linker, via the radiation technique. The samples were subjected to electron beam treatment in the dose range of 2 to 4 kGy and the influence of the absorbed dose and amount of cross-linker on the swelling properties, diffusion coefficient, and network parameters of hydrogels was investigated. A possible reaction mechanism for acrylamide/acrylic acid/trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate hydrogels was also suggested. The structure and morphology of hydrogels were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy.

  7. IMMOBILIZATION OF Saccharomyces Cerevisiae USING POLY(ACRYLAMIDE) GEL FOR ASYMMETRIC SYNTHESIS OF R(-)-MANDELIC ACID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhongqin; GUO Daiping; HUANG Xinghua; YANG Kai; XU Xiaoping

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the poly(acrylamide) hydrogel used to immobilize saccharomyces cerevisiae for asymmetric synthesis of R(-)-mandelic acid was prepared with free radical ploymerization in deionized water at room temperature under nitrogen atmosphere. The influence of the composition of hydrogel, loading amount of cells and culture conditions on the asymmetric synthesis was investigated. Results show that PAAm hydrogel is a feasible carrier for immobilization of cells which is a potential alternative method to prepare enantiomerically pure R(-)-mandelic acid.

  8. Direct determination of acrylamide in food by gas chromatography-high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simple and rapid gas chromatographic (GC) method employing a high-resolution time-of-flight mass analyzer that enables direct analysis (no derivatization) of acrylamide in various heat-processed foodstuffs has been developed and validated. Co-isolation of acrylamide precursors such as sugars and asparagine, constituting the risk of results overestimation due to additional formation of analyte in hot GC injector, is avoided by the extraction with n-propanol followed by solvent exchange to acetonitrile (MeCN). Introduction of a novel purification strategy, dispersive solid phase extraction, based on addition of primary-secondary amine (PSA) sorbent into deffated extract in MeCN, provides a significant reduction of some abundant matrix co-extracts (mainly free fatty acids). Isotope dilution technique (d3-acrylamide as an internal standard) is employed for compensation of potential target analyte losses and/or matrix-inducted chromatographic response enhancement. Limits of quantifications (LOQs) ranged between 15 and 40 μg kg-1 and recoveries were between 97 and 108% depending on the examined food matrix. The repeatability of measurements (expressed as relative standard deviation, R.S.D.) was as low as 1.9% for potato crisps containing acrylamide at a level of 1 mg kg-1. Slightly higher values (R.S.D. < 4.0%) were achieved for breakfast cereals and crisp bread with approximately 10 times lower content of this processing contaminant. Trueness of results generated by this new method was demonstrated via FAPAS[reg] (Food Analysis Performance Assessment Scheme) interlaboratory proficiency tests

  9. Influence of acrylamide monomer addition to the acrylic denture-base resins on mechanical and physical properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elif Aydogan Ayaz; Rukiye Durkan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of adding acrylamide monomer (AAm) on the characterization, flexural strength, flexural modulus and thermal degradation temperature of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) denture-base resins. Specimens (n510) were fabricated from a conventional heat-activated QC-20 (Qc-) and a microwave heat-activated Acron MC (Ac-) PMMA resins. Powder/liquid ratio followed the manufacturer’s instructions for the control groups (Qc-c and Ac-c) and for the copolymer groups, the resins were prepared with 5%(25), 10%(210), 15%(215) and 20%(220) acrylamide contents, according to the molecular weight ratio, respectively. The flexural strength and flexural modulus were measured by a three-point bending test. The data obtained were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test (a50.05) to determine significant differences between the groups. The chemical structures of the resins were characterized by the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Thermal stabilities were determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) with a heating rate of 10 6C?min21 from 35 6C to 600 6C. Control groups from both acrylic resins showed the lowest flexural strength values. Qc-15 showed significant increase in the flexural strength when compared to Qc-c (P,0.01). Ac-10 and Ac-15 showed significance when compared to Ac-c (P,0.01). Acrylamide incorporation increased the elastic modulus in Qc-10, Qc-15 and Qc-20 when compared to Qc-c (P,0.01). Also significant increase was observed in Ac-10, Ac-15 and Ac-20 copolymer groups when compared to Ac-c (P,0.01). According to the 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) results, acrylamide copolymerization was confirmed in the experimental groups. TGA results showed that the thermal stability of PMMA is increased by the insertion of AAm.

  10. Helix—Sense—Selective Polymerization of N,N—Diphenyl (Meth) acrylamide by Anionic Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HongXUE; YongAnXU; 等

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the helix-sense-selective polymerization of N,N-diphenyl acrylamide (DPAA) and N,N-diphenyl methacrylamide (DPMAA) were studied with living helix prepolymer as anionic initiator, and the chiral optical properties of the obtained polymers were investigated too. It was shown that optically active polymers of DPAA and DPMAA could be obtained under the experimental condition, and exhibited the same screw sense as that of the prepolymer.

  11. A facile metal-free "grafting-from" route from acrylamide-based substrate toward complex macromolecular combs

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Junpeng

    2013-01-01

    High-molecular-weight poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide-co-acrylamide) was used as a model functional substrate to investigate phosphazene base (t-BuP 4)-promoted metal-free anionic graft polymerization utilizing primary amide moieties as initiating sites. The (co)polymerization of epoxides was proven to be effective, leading to macromolecular combs with side chains being single- or double-graft homopolymer, block copolymer and statistical copolymer. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  12. EFSA CONTAM Panel (EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain), 2015. Scientific Opinion on acrylamide in food

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Annette

    2015-01-01

    EFSA was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on acrylamide (AA) in food. AA has widespread uses as an industrial chemical. It is also formed when certain foods are prepared at temperatures above 120 °C and low moisture, especially in foods containing asparagine and reducing sugars. The CONTAM Panel evaluated 43 419 analytical results from food commodities. AA was found at the highest levels in solid coffee substitutes and coffee, and in potato fried products. Mean and 95th percentile dietar...

  13. Evidence for the complex relationship between free amino acid and sugar concentrations and acrylamide-forming potential in potato

    OpenAIRE

    Muttucumaru, N.; Powers, S. J.; Elmore, J. S.; Briddon, A; Mottram, D. S.; Halford, N. G.

    2014-01-01

    Free amino acids and reducing sugars participate in the Maillard reaction during high-temperature cooking and processing. This results not only in the formation of colour, aroma and flavour compounds, but also undesirable contaminants, including acrylamide, which forms when the amino acid that participates in the reaction is asparagine. In this study, tubers of 13 varieties of potato (Solanum tuberosum), which had been produced in a field trial in 2010 and sampled immediately after harvest or...

  14. Poly(N-Isopropylacrylamide)-co-Acrylamide Hydrogels for the Controlled Release of Bromelain from Agroindustrial Residues of Ananas comosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croisfelt, Fernanda; Martins, Bianca C; Rescolino, Robson; Coelho, Diego F; Zanchetta, Beatriz; Mazzola, Priscila G; Goulart, Luis Ricardo; Pessoa, Adalberto; Tambourgi, Elias B; Silveira, Edgar

    2015-12-01

    This works reports the purification of bromelain extracted from Ananas comosus industrial residues by ethanol purification, its partial characterization from the crude extract as well as the ethanol purified enzyme, and its application onto poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-co-acrylamide hydrogels. Bromelain was recovered within the 30-70 % ethanol fraction, which achieved a purification factor of 3.12-fold, and yielded more than 90 % of its initial activity. The resulting purified bromelain contained more than 360 U · mg(-1), with a maximum working temperature of 60 °C and pH of 8.0. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-co-acrylamide hydrogels presented a swelling rate of 125 %, which was capable of loading 56 % of bromelain from the solution, and was able to release up to 91 % of the retained bromelain. Ethanol precipitation is suitable for bromelain recovery and application onto poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-co-acrylamide hydrogels based on its processing time and the applied ethanol prices. PMID:26287766

  15. Analysis of acrylamide in food products by microchip electrophoresis with on-line multiple-preconcentration techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Minglei; Chen, Wujuan; Wang, Guan; He, Pingang; Wang, Qingjiang

    2016-10-15

    In this paper, a microchip electrophoresis method based on on-line multiple-preconcentration techniques combining field-amplified sample stacking and reversed-field stacking was developed for highly efficient analysis of acrylamide in food products. The related mechanism as well as important parameters governing separation and preconcentration have been investigated in order to obtain maximum resolution and sensitivity. The best separation was achieved using a 100mM borate solution at pH 9.3 as running buffer, and a sensitivity enhancement factor of 432 was obtained using this concentration method under optimal conditions. The detection limit of acrylamide was 1ng/mL, which was comparable to those previously obtained using CE methods with on-line preconcentration techniques and was 41-700 times lower than those previously reported CE methods without concentration process. The proposed method also gave satisfactory and reliable results in the analysis of acrylamide in potato chips and French fries. PMID:27173547

  16. Poly(N-Isopropylacrylamide)-co-Acrylamide Hydrogels for the Controlled Release of Bromelain from Agroindustrial Residues of Ananas comosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croisfelt, Fernanda; Martins, Bianca C; Rescolino, Robson; Coelho, Diego F; Zanchetta, Beatriz; Mazzola, Priscila G; Goulart, Luis Ricardo; Pessoa, Adalberto; Tambourgi, Elias B; Silveira, Edgar

    2015-12-01

    This works reports the purification of bromelain extracted from Ananas comosus industrial residues by ethanol purification, its partial characterization from the crude extract as well as the ethanol purified enzyme, and its application onto poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-co-acrylamide hydrogels. Bromelain was recovered within the 30-70 % ethanol fraction, which achieved a purification factor of 3.12-fold, and yielded more than 90 % of its initial activity. The resulting purified bromelain contained more than 360 U · mg(-1), with a maximum working temperature of 60 °C and pH of 8.0. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-co-acrylamide hydrogels presented a swelling rate of 125 %, which was capable of loading 56 % of bromelain from the solution, and was able to release up to 91 % of the retained bromelain. Ethanol precipitation is suitable for bromelain recovery and application onto poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-co-acrylamide hydrogels based on its processing time and the applied ethanol prices.

  17. Determination of acrylamide in Sudanese food by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Mei Musa Ali; Elbashir, Abdalla Ahmed; Schmitz, Oliver J

    2015-06-01

    A sample preparation method based on modified Quick, Easy, Cheap Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) with aluminum oxide (Al2O3) as dispersive solid phase extraction (dSPE) material and high performance liquid chromatography-linear trap quadruple-Orbitrap-mass spectrometry (HPLC LTQ-Orbitrap MS) was established. The performance of two analytical columns namely Kinetex C18 and Rezex ROA-organic acid was compared for acrylamide separation. The method was validated in term of matrix effect, linear range (standard addition method), limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), precision (RSD%) and recovery. Good linearity (r(2)>0.9979) was achieved using standard addition method in the concentration range 0-200μgkg(-1). The LOD is in the range from 2.91 to 4.04μgkg(-1) and 1.50 to 3.94μgkg(-1) for C18 and ROA columns, respectively. The precision of the method was ⩽7.3% and 5.6% for C18 and ROA columns, respectively. Recoveries of acrylamide ranging from 90% to 97%, (n=3) were obtained. The proposed Al2O3 dSPE method was successfully applied to the analysis of acrylamide in real food samples.

  18. Effect of Storage on Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural Contents in Selected Processed Plant Products with Long Shelf-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Joanna; Gujska, Elżbieta; Czarnowska, Marta; Klepacka, Joanna; Nowak, Fabian

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of storage and temperature duration on the stability of acrylamide (AA) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in selected foods with long shelf-life. Products were analysed fresh and stored at temperatures of 4 and 25 °C after 6 and 12 months (with the exception of soft bread samples, which were analysed after 15 and 30 days). The AA and HMF contents were determined with RP-HPLC coupled to a diode array detector (DAD). AA and HMF were not stable in many processed plant products with a long shelf-life. The highest AA reduction and the largest increase in HMF content were observed in the samples stored at a higher temperature (25 °C) for 12 months. It was found that an initial water activity of 0.4 is favourable to HMF formation and that AA reduction may be considerably greater in stored products with a low initial water activity. The kind of product and its composition may also have a significant impact on acrylamide content in stored food. In the final period of storage at 25 °C, acrylamide content in 100% cocoa powder, instant baby foods, 20% cocoa powder and instant coffee was 51, 39, 35 and 33% lower than in products before storage, respectively. It was observed that a large quantity of ε-NH2 and SH groups of amino acids in some products can be assumed as the reason for the significant AA degradation. PMID:26768597

  19. The effect of heat treatments on the synthesis of acrylamide and its quantification by gas chromatography with a nitrogen-phosphorus detetector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delević Veselin M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the influence of thermal treatment (cooking, baking and frying on the content of acrylamide in potato was followed by gas chromatography with nitrogen - phosphorus detector (GC-NPD. Sample preparation was performed in the conventional manner, applying heat treatment as follows: in boiling water at 110 0C for 30 minutes, by baking in an oven for 30 minutes at 2200 C, and frying in oil for 15 minutes at 250 0C. Quantification of acrylamide are preceded: homogenization of the sample, extraction, and evaporation of the extract. The calibration is performed in the concentration range 0-10 mg/kg and obtained value for R2 was higher than 0,99. Llimit of detection and limit of quantification were determined and obtained values were 0,26 mg/kg and 0,41 mg/kg, respectively. Recovery values were ranged from 102% to 110% and confirmed that metod is accurate. The proposed GC-NPD method is simple, reliable, and accurate for determination of the content of acrylamide in food samples. Obtained results show that the content of acrylamide in potato prepared by heat-cooking were below LOD while for samples trathed by baking or frying were in range from 0,6 mg/kg to 2,7 mg/kg. By comparing the content of acrylamide in potato we concluded that heat treatment has a major impact on the synthesis of acrylamide and it would be desirable to develop a process for the preparation of French fries and potato chips with low or no acrylamide content with textured attractive for consummation.

  20. Analysis of hemoglobin adducts from acrylamide, glycidamide, and ethylene oxide in paired mother/cord blood samples from Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Stedingk, Hans; Vikström, Anna C; Rydberg, Per; Pedersen, Marie; Nielsen, Jeanette K S; Segerbäck, Dan; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Törnqvist, Margareta

    2011-11-21

    The knowledge about fetal exposure to acrylamide/glycidamide from the maternal exposure through food is limited. Acrylamide, glycidamide, and ethylene oxide are electrophiles and form adducts with hemoglobin (Hb), which could be used for in vivo dose measurement. In this study, a method for analysis of Hb adducts by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, the adduct FIRE procedure, was applied to measurements of adducts from these compounds in maternal blood samples (n = 87) and umbilical cord blood samples (n = 219). The adduct levels from the three compounds, acrylamide, glycidamide, and ethylene oxide, were increased in tobacco smokers. Highly significant correlations were found between cord and maternal blood with regard to measured adduct levels of the three compounds. The mean cord/maternal hemoglobin adduct level ratios were 0.48 (range 0.27-0.86) for acrylamide, 0.38 (range 0.20-0.73) for glycidamide, and 0.43 (range 0.17-1.34) for ethylene oxide. In vitro studies with acrylamide and glycidamide showed a lower (0.38-0.48) rate of adduct formation with Hb in cord blood than with Hb in maternal blood, which is compatible with the structural differences in fetal and adult Hb. Together, these results indicate a similar life span of fetal and maternal erythrocytes. The results showed that the in vivo dose in fetal and maternal blood is about the same and that the placenta gives negligible protection of the fetus to exposure from the investigated compounds. A trend of higher levels of the measured adducts in cord blood with gestational age was observed, which may reflect the gestational age-related change of the cord blood Hb composition toward a higher content of adult Hb. The results suggest that the Hb adduct levels measured in cord blood reflect the exposure to the fetus during the third trimester. The evaluation of the new analytical method showed that it is suitable for monitoring of background exposures of the investigated electrophilic compounds in large

  1. Acrylamide effects on kinesin-related proteins of the mitotic/meiotic spindle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microtubule (MT) motor protein kinesin is a vital component of cells and organs expressing acrylamide (ACR) toxicity. As a mechanism of its potential carcinogenicity, we determined whether kinesins involved in cell division are inhibited by ACR similar to neuronal kinesin [Sickles, D.W., Brady, S.T., Testino, A.R., Friedman, M.A., and Wrenn, R.A. (1996). Direct effect of the neurotoxicant acrylamide on kinesin-based microtubule motility. Journal of Neuroscience Research 46, 7-17.] Kinesin-related genes were isolated from rat testes [Navolanic, P.M., and Sperry, A.O. (2000). Identification of isoforms of a mitotic motor in mammalian spermatogenesis. Biology of Reproduction 62, 1360-1369.], their kinesin-like proteins expressed in bacteria using recombinant DNA techniques and the effects of ACR, glycidamide (GLY) and propionamide (a non-neurotoxic metabolite) on the function of two of the identified kinesin motors were tested. KIFC5A MT bundling activity, required for mitotic spindle formation, was measured in an MT-binding assay. Both ACR and GLY caused a similar concentration-dependent reduction in the binding of MT; concentrations of 100 μM ACR or GLY reduced its activity by 60%. KRP2 MT disassembling activity was assayed using the quantity of tubulin disassembled from taxol-stabilized MT. Both ACR and GLY inhibited KRP2-induced MT disassembly. GLY was substantially more potent; significant reductions of 60% were achieved by 500 μM, a comparable inhibition by ACR required a 5 mM concentration. Propionamide had no significant effect on either kinesin, except KRP2 at 10 mM. This is the first report of ACR inhibition of a mitotic/meiotic motor protein. ACR (or GLY) inhibition of kinesin may be an alternative mechanism to DNA adduction in the production of cell division defects and potential carcinogenicity. We conclude that ACR may act on multiple kinesin family members and produce toxicities in organs highly dependent on microtubule-based functions

  2. 27. Molecular spectra of acrylamide-induced mutation at hprt locus in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 and NB4. cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘胜学; 曹佳; 杨梦苏; 方志俊; 安辉

    2001-01-01

    The genotoxicity of acrylamide was investigated by methods of single cell clone culturing, two-way screening count, multiplex PCR amplification and electrophoresis technique. Acrylamide only showed clear mutagenesis until dose raised 700 mg*L-1 in HL-60 cells. The most frequent spontaneous mutation were point mutation (≥90.0%) and acrylamide-induced mutation mainly included partial deletion and point mutation (respectively 40.0%~66.7%/33.3%~60.0%). Total gene deletion wasn't discovered in both of cells. There were deletion mutation in all exons of hprt gene(except 7/8 exon), and toward the 3' end of the hprt gene. The most frequent acrylamide-induced mutation were point mutation and single exon deletion (93.3%/86.1%). There were not clear difference in both of cells. The results suggest that the spectra of spontaneous and acrylamide-induced mutants were different. and the smaller changes in genetic structure have something to do with mechanism.

  3. Prediction of acrylamide formation in biscuits based on fingerprint data generated by ambient ionization mass spectrometry employing direct analysis in real time (DART) ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaclavik, Lukas; Capuano, Edoardo; Gökmen, Vural; Hajslova, Jana

    2015-04-15

    The objective of this study is the evaluation of the potential of high-throughput direct analysis in real time-high resolution mass spectrometry (DART-HRMS) fingerprinting and multivariate regression analysis in prediction of the extent of acrylamide formation in biscuit samples prepared by various recipes and baking conditions. Information-rich mass spectral fingerprints were obtained by analysis of biscuit extracts for preparation of which aqueous methanol was used. The principal component analysis (PCA) of the acquired data revealed an apparent clustering of samples according to the extent of heat-treatment applied during the baking of the biscuits. The regression model for prediction of acrylamide in biscuits was obtained by partial least square regression (PLSR) analysis of the data matrix representing combined positive and negative ionization mode fingerprints. The model provided a least root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) equal to an acrylamide concentration of 5.4 μg kg(-1) and standard error of prediction (SEP) of 14.8 μg kg(-1). The results obtained indicate that this strategy can be used to accurately predict the amounts of acrylamide formed during baking of biscuits. Such rapid estimation of acrylamide concentration can become a useful tool in evaluation of the effectivity of processes aiming at mitigation of this food processing contaminant. However, the robustness this approach with respect to variability in the chemical composition of ingredients used for preparation of biscuits should be tested further.

  4. Chemoprevention of Barley and Sage against acrylamide-Induced genotoxic, biochemical and histopathological alterations in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekena, H. Abd El-Aziem1, Mosaad A. Abdel-Wahab2, Mahmoud A. M3Azza M

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Acrylamide (ACR has recently been found in fried and backed foods, suggesting widespread public exposure. ACR is an industrial chemical material that causes neurotoxicity in humans and was designated as a probable human carcinogen by IARC and USEPA. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects of barley and sage against ACR mutagenicity and biochemical and histopathological changes in rats. Forty mature male rats were divided into eight groups and were fed barley and/or sage-supplemented diet (5% with or without ACR (50 mg/kg b.w. The biochemical results revealed that ACR increased Alanine amino transferase (ALT, Aspartate amino transferase (AST, triglycerides (TG, cholesterol and uric acid. Micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes and chromosomal aberrations in somatic and germ cells were significantly increased in ACR-treated animals. Severe pathological lesions included testicular degeneration, oedema, spermatid giant cells formation and necrosis of spermatid cells were found in the testis of ACR-treated group. The kidney of this group showed degenerative changes. Cotreatment with barley and/or Sage and ACR resulted in a significant improvement in all the parameters tested. It could be concluded that these plants contain antioxidant compounds and may be useful when add as food additive to the food cooked on a higher temperature.

  5. Photoinitiated Polymerization of Cationic Acrylamide in Aqueous Solution: Synthesis, Characterization, and Sludge Dewatering Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaili Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A copolymer of acrylamide (AM with acryloyloxyethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (DAC as the cationic monomer was synthesized under the irradiation of high-pressure mercury lamp with 2,2-azobis(2-amidinopropane dihydrochloride (V-50 as the photoinitiator. The compositions of the photoinduced copolymer were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR, ultraviolet spectra (UV, and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The effects of 6 important factors, that is, photo-initiators concentration, monomers concentration, CO(NH22 (urea concentrations, pH value, mass ratio of AM to DAC, and irradiation time on the molecular weight and dissolving time, were investigated. The optimal reaction conditions were that the photo-initiators concentration was 0.3%, monomers concentration was 30 wt.%, irradiation time was 60 min, urea concentration was 0.4%, pH value was 5.0, and mass ratio of AM to DAC was 6 : 4. Its flocculation properties were evaluated with activated sludge using jar test. The zeta potential of supernatant at different cationic monomer contents was simultaneously measured. The results demonstrated the superiority of the copolymer over the commercial polyacrylamide as a flocculant.

  6. Linalool as a neuroprotective agent against acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehri, Soghra; Meshki, Mohammad Ali; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2015-04-01

    Acrylamide (ACR) is a water-soluble monomer which has broad application in different industries and also can form in food during heating process. This monomer is a potent neurotoxic and damages the central and the peripheral nervous system in human and animals. Oxidative stress has been mentioned as an important pathway in ACR neurotoxicity, therefore the purpose of the current study was evaluation of possible effects of linalool which is a naturally enantiomer monoterpene compound. Linalool has shown antioxidant properties in several studies. Male Wistar rats were treated with ACR (50 mg/kg ip) alone or with linalool (12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg ip) for 11 days. In another 2 groups rats were treated with linalool (12.5 mg/kg ip) 3 days after and before ACR administration. Then behavior index (gait score) was examined for rats. After that, rats were sacrified and molondialdehyde (MDA) as a marker of lipid peroxidation and glutathione (GSH) content were determined in brain tissue. Exposure to ACR led to severe gait abnormalities and treatment with linalool significantly reduced abnormalities. ACR reduced GSH content and increased level of MDA in cerebral cortex. Linalool increased GSH content while decreased ACR-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain tissue and the best protocols were initiation of supplementation before or simultaneous with ACR administration.

  7. Raman spectroscopy of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-acrylamide copolymer using gamma irradiation for crosslinking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goheen, Steven C.; Saunders, Rachel M.; Davis, Rachel M.; Harvey, Scott D.; Olsen, Peter C.

    2006-02-18

    A copolymer hydrogel was made by mixing acrylamide and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate monomers in water and polymerizing with gamma irradiation. The progress of polymerization and the vibrational structure of the hydrogel was examined using Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectra indicated that the co-polymer has a molecular structure different from polyacrylamide or the individual monomers. The Raman data also indicate the presence of crosslinking at the C=O, NH2 and OH side chains. The spectra further suggest the continuous lengthening of the backbone of the polymers with increasing gamma dose. This is shown as the increase in C-C modes as C=C vibrations decrease. Raman spectra changed most dramatically as the monomer mixture became a gel at a dose of approximately 320 Gy. Spectral differences were subtler with doses exceeding 640 Gy, although chain lengthening continued beyond 1500 Gy. Potential applications of the copolymer hydrogel include reconstructive tissue as well as a standard material for radiation protection dosimetry. Results are discussed in relation to other potential applications of this polymer and dose-dependent changes in the Raman spectrum.

  8. Chromosomal mosaicism in mouse two-cell embryos after paternal exposure to acrylamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, Francesco; Bishop, Jack; Lowe, Xiu; Wyrobek, Andrew J

    2008-10-14

    Chromosomal mosaicism in human preimplantation embryos is a common cause ofspontaneous abortions, however, our knowledge of its etiology is limited. We used multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) painting to investigate whether paternally-transmitted chromosomal aberrations result in mosaicism in mouse 2-cell embryos. Paternal exposure to acrylamide, an important industrial chemical also found in tobacco smoke and generated during the cooking process of starchy foods, produced significant increases in chromosomally defective 2-cell embryos, however, the effects were transient primarily affecting the postmeiotic stages of spermatogenesis. Comparisons with our previous study of zygotes demonstrated similar frequencies of chromosomally abnormal zygotes and 2-cell embryos suggesting that there was no apparent selection against numerical or structural chromosomal aberrations. However, the majority of affected 2-cell embryos were mosaics showing different chromosomal abnormalities in the two blastomeric metaphases. Analyses of chromosomal aberrations in zygotes and 2-cell embryos showed a tendency for loss of acentric fragments during the first mitotic division ofembryogenesis, while both dicentrics and translocations apparently underwent propersegregation. These results suggest that embryonic development can proceed up to the end of the second cell cycle of development in the presence of abnormal paternal chromosomes and that even dicentrics can persist through cell division. The high incidence of chromosomally mosaic 2-cell embryos suggests that the first mitotic division of embryogenesis is prone to missegregation errors and that paternally-transmitted chromosomal abnromalities increase the risk of missegregation leading to embryonic mosaicism.

  9. POLY(N-ISOPROPYL ACRYLAMIDE) MICROGEL DOPED WITH LUMINESCENT PBS QUANTUM DOTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xusheng; GAN Jianqun; CHUCHI Sam; LIU Guanghua; CHEN Aimin

    2007-01-01

    Thiol-stabilized PbS quantum dots (QDs) with dimensions 3-5 nm capped with a mixture of 1-thioglycerol/dithioglycerol (TGL/DTG) were colloidally prepared at room temperature. Room temperature photoluminescence quantum efficiency of freshly prepared PbS QDs (7%-11%) remained higher than 5% upon aging for three weeks when the nanocrystals (NCs) were stored in an ice-bath in the dark, and higher than 5%for at least five weeks when extra DTG ligands were introduced into the nanocrystal solution followed by stirring every two weeks. Poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide)(PNIPAM) microgels were produced via precipitation polymerization with dimensions of ca. 230 nm and polydispersity of 3-5%. Incorporation of PbS QDs into PNIPAM microgels indicated that PbS can be incorporated into the interior of microgel particles and not at the microgel interface. The combination of reasonable room temperature quantum efficiency and strong, efficient luminescence covering the 1.3-1.55μm telecommunication window makes these nanoparticles promising materials in optical devices and telecommunications.

  10. Acrylamide analysis in food by liquid chromatographic and gas chromatographic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbashir, Abdalla A; Omar, Mei M Ali; Ibrahim, Wan Aini Wan; Schmitz, Oliver J; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2014-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is a compound classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. It was first discovered to be present in certain heated processed food by the Swedish National Food Administration (SNFA) and University of Stockholm in early 2002. The major pathway for AA formation in food is the Maillard reaction between reducing sugar and the amino acid asparagine at high temperature. Since the discovery of AA's presence in food, many analytical methods have been developed for determination of AA contents in different food matrices. Also, several studies have been conducted to develop extraction procedures for AA from difficult food matrices. AA is a small, highly polar molecule, which makes its extraction and analysis challenging. Many articles and reviews have been published dealing with AA in food. The aim of the review is to discuss AA formation in food, the factors affecting AA formation and removal, AA exposure assessment, AA extraction and cleanup from food samples, and analytical methods used in AA determination, such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC). Special attention is given to sample extraction and cleanup procedures and analytical techniques used for AA determination.

  11. Removal of cationic dyes by poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) hydrogels in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid (poly(AAm-co-AAc)) hydrogels prepared by irradiating with γ-radiation were used in experiments on swelling, diffusion, and uptake of some cationic dyes such as Safranine-O (SO) and Magenta (M). Poly(AAm-co-AAc) hydrogels irradiated at 8.0 kGy have been used for swelling and diffusion studies in water and cationic dye solutions. The maximum swellings in water, and SO, and M solutions observed are 2700%, 3500%, and 4000%, respectively. Diffusions of water and cationic dyes within hydrogels have been found to be non-Fickian in character. Adsorption of the cationic dyes onto poly(AAm-co-AAc) hydrogels is studied by the batch adsorption technique. The adsorption type was found Langmuir type in the Giles classification system. The moles of adsorbed dye for SO and M per repeating unit in hydrogel (binding ratio, r) have been calculated as 3834x10-6 and 1323x10-6, respectively. These results show that poly(AAm-co-AAc) hydrogels can be used as adsorbent for water pollutants such as cationic dyes

  12. Relation between dietary acrylamide exposure and biomarkers of internal dose in Canadian teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisson, Benjamin; Ayotte, Pierre; Normandin, Louise; Gaudreau, Éric; Bienvenu, Jean-François; Fennell, Timothy R; Blanchet, Carole; Phaneuf, Denise; Lapointe, Caroline; Bonvalot, Yvette; Gagné, Michelle; Courteau, Marilène; Snyder, Rodney W; Bouchard, Michèle

    2014-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is a probable human carcinogen found in several foods. Little information is available regarding exposure of adolescents, a subgroup potentially consuming more AA-rich foods. We investigated the relationship between dietary AA intake and levels of biomarkers of exposure (urinary metabolites and hemoglobin adducts) in 195 non-smoking teenagers of Montreal Island aged 10-17 years. Dietary habits and personal characteristics were documented by questionnaire. AA and its metabolites were quantified in 12-h urine collections by LC-MS/MS. Hemoglobin adducts from 165 blood samples were also analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Most prevalent urinary metabolites were NACP and NACP-S, with respective geometric mean concentrations of 31.2 and 14.2 μmol/mol creatinine. Geometric mean concentrations of AAVal and GAVal (hemoglobin adducts of AA and glycidamide (GA) with N-terminal valine residues) were 45.4 and 45.6 pmol/g globin, respectively. AA intake during the 2 days before urine collection was a significant predictor of NACP+NACP-S urinary concentrations (P<0.0001). AA intakes during the month before blood collection (P<0.0001) and passive smoking (P<0.05) were associated with adduct levels. Levels of hemoglobin adducts were above biomonitoring equivalent values corresponding to a 1 × 10(-4) excess cancer risk, which may indicate the need to reduce AA exposure in the population. PMID:23756700

  13. Swelling and drug release properties of acrylamide/carboxymethyl cellulose networks formed by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nizam El-Din, Horia M. [Polymer Chemistry Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, P.O. Box 29, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); Abd Alla, Safaa G. [Radiation Chemistry Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, P.O. Box 29, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); El-Naggar, Abdel Wahab M., E-mail: ab_nagga@yahoo.co [Radiation Chemistry Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, P.O. Box 29, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)

    2010-06-15

    Hydrogels based on acrylamide monomer (AM) and different ratios (5-20 wt%) of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were synthesized by gamma irradiation. The hydrogels were characterized in terms of gel content, swelling and drug release characters. The effect of temperature and pH on the degree of swelling was also studied. The results showed that the gel fraction of AM/CMC hydrogels decreases greatly with increasing the contents of CMC in the initial feeding solution. The kinetic study showed that the swelling of all the hydrogels tends to reach the equilibrium state after 5 h. However, the swelling of AM/CMC hydrogels was greater than the hydrogel based on pure AM. On the other hand, it was found that the swelling of all the hydrogels changes within the temperature range 30-40 deg. C and within the pH range 4-8. The AM/CMC hydrogels was evaluated for the possible use in drug delivery systems. In this respect, the release properties of methylene blue indicator, as a drug model, was investigated. It was found that the percentage release from the hydrogels increase with time to reach approx80% after 3 h at pH of 2 compared to approx100% at pH of 8.

  14. POLY(N-ISOPROPYL ACRYLAMIDE) MICROGEL DOPED WITH LUMINESCENT PBS QUANTUM DOTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHUCHI Sam

    2007-01-01

    Thiol-stabilized PbS quantum dots (QDs) with dimensions 3-5 nm capped with a mixture of 1-thioglycerol/dithioglycerol (TGL/DTG) were colloidally prepared at room temperature. Room temperature photoluminescence quantum efficiency of freshly prepared PbS QDs (7%-11%) remained higher than 5% upon aging for three weeks when the nanocrystals (NCs) were stored in an ice-bath in the dark, and higher than 5% for at least five weeks when extra DTG ligands were introduced into the nanocrystal solution followed by stirring every two weeks. Poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAM) microgels were produced via precipitation polymerization with dimensions of ca. 230 nm and polydispersity of 3-5%. Incorporation of PbS QDs into PNIPAM microgels indicated that PbS can be incorporated into the interior of microgel particles and not at the microgel interface. The combination of reasonable room temperature quantum efficiency and strong, efficient luminescence covering the 1.3-1.55 μm telecommunication window makes these nanoparticles promising materials in optical devices and telecommunications.

  15. Graft Polymerization of Acrylic Acid and Acrylamide onto BOPET Corona Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jie; TIAN Hua-yu; BAI Yong-ping

    2004-01-01

    The graft polymerization of acrylic acid ( A ) and acrylamide (B) was carried out onto bi- ori ented polyester BOPET corona film. The influence of monomer concentration, reducer concentration and reaction time on the graft polymerization was investigated. The surface tension of the films increased with an increase of monomer concentration, till the concentration of monomer A reached 1.5 × 10-2 g/mL and the concentration of monomer B reached 4.0× 10-2 g/ mL. The surface tension of the films reached a maximum value at 7 × 10 4 M of reducer concentration and subsequently decreased with further increase in reducer concentration. The surface tension of the films increased with the increase of the reaction time apparently within 50min. The grafted corona BO PET films were characterized with IR and XPS. The presence of graft on the film surface was confirmed. The atten uation experiments on grafted corona BOPET films in air at 50℃ and in water were carried out to investigate the persistence of graft polymerization of acrylic acid and arylamide onto BOPET corona films.

  16. Acrylamide alters glycogen content and enzyme activities in the liver of juvenile rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Renata; Rajkovic, Vesna; Koledin, Ivana; Matavulj, Milica

    2015-10-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is spontaneously formed in carbohydrate-rich food during high-temperature processing. It is neurotoxic and potentially cancer causing chemical. Its harmful effects on the liver, especially in a young organism, are still to be elucidated. The study aimed to examine main liver histology, its glycogen content and enzyme activities in juvenile rats treated with 25 or 50mg/kg bw of AA for 3 weeks. Liver samples were fixed in formalin, routinely processed for paraffin embedding, sectioning and histochemical staining. Examination of haematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained sections showed an increase in the volume of hepatocytes, their nuclei and cytoplasm in both AA-treated groups compared to the control. In Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-stained sections in low-dose group was noticed glycogen reduction, while in high-dose group was present its accumulation compared to the control, respectively. Serum analysis showed increased activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and decreased activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in both AA-treated groups, while the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was increased in low-dose, but decreased in high-dose group compared to the control, respectively. Present results suggest a prominent hepatotoxic potential of AA which might alter the microstructural features and functional status in hepatocytes of immature liver.

  17. Modeling and Investigation of the Swelling Kinetics of Acrylamide-Sodium Acrylate Hydrogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmi Seyhun Kipcak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The acrylamide-sodium acrylate hydrogel was synthesized by free radical polymerization of the method of solution polymerization. Dynamic swelling tests were conducted at 25, 40, and 60°C temperatures, in order to investigate the swelling properties of the synthesized hydrogel. The results have shown that swelling content and swelling rate of the hydrogel increase with increasing the swelling water temperature. The diffusivity values changed from 1.81×10-7 to 2.97×10-7 m2 s−1 over the temperature range. The activation energies were found as 3.56, 3.71, and 3.86 kJ mol−1 at 25, 40, and 60°C, respectively. The experimental drying curves obtained were fitted to a three different models, namely, Peleg’s, first-order absorption kinetic, and exponential association equation models. All the models applied provided a good agreement with the experimental data with high values of the coefficient of determination (R2, the least values of the reduced chi-square (χ2, and root mean square error (RMSE. Comparing the determination of coefficient, reduced chi-square, and root mean square error values of three models, it was concluded that the exponential association equation model represents swelling characteristics better than the others.

  18. OPTIMIZATION OF THE SYNTHESIS OF ACRYLAMIDE HYDROGEL BY γ-RAY IRRADIATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.A. Chowdhury; M.M. Alam; M.F. Mina; F. Akhtar; S.E. Kabir

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogels have been synthesized from 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% and 60% aqueous solutions of acrylamide monomer by gamma radiation employing doses in the range of 0.2-30 kGy from a Co-60 source. The effect of solution concentration, γ-ray dose, pH and time was studied in order to observe the optimizing conditions in the characterization of hydrogels. Gel fraction increases with dose for all concentrations indicating hundred-percentage conversion of gel at doses ≥5 kGy for homogenous solutions in the range of 20%-50% concentration. On the other hand, 10% solution provides conversion less than 86% even at 30 kGy, whereas 60% monomer makes an inhomogeneous solution which stile gives about 100% gel fraction. Swelling of hydrogels under water with respect to time varies with both the doses and concentrations due to the change of crosslinking density in the gels. The maximum volume change of hydrogels during swelling and water desorption mainly occurs within 24 h. Swelling is also enhanced with the rise of pH due to change of ionic content of the solvent. Considering the amount of gel fraction and the properties of hydrogel, the samples prepared from 20% solution at 5kGy show better results. Moreover, the effect of bacteria on hydrogel was found to be nil, suggesting a prohibition of growth of microorganism in it.

  19. EFFECT OF GAMMA RAYS IN THE PREPARATION OF POLYMER AND HYDROGEL FROM ACRYLAMIDE MONOMER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. M. Alam; M. F. Mina; F. Akhtar

    2003-01-01

    The formation of polymer and hydrogel from aqueous solutions having 20, 30 and 40% concentrations of acrylamide monomer by γ-ray irradiation processing in the dose range 0.06-30 kGy using a Co-60 source and their characterization have been observed. Polymer conversion and gel fraction are found to depend on radiation doses. Polymer conversion increases with the increase of dose, depending on the solution concentration, where maximum conversion is achieved at 0.18, 0.16 and 0.10 kGy for 20%, 30% and 40% concentrations, respectively. On the other hand, gel fraction increases with dose from the gel point (0.12 kGy) for all concentrations, where 100% conversion of gel occurs at doses ≥ 5 kGy. Tensile strength, viscosity and molecular weight (Mw) of polymer samples increase with both the dose and the concentration, showing a high value of Mw up to ≈108. Swelling of hydrogels under water with respect to time varies due to the variation of cross-linking density formed in the gels and the maximum swelling mainly occurs within 24 h. A remarkable change of surface morphology reveals characteristic features of monomer, polymer and hydrogel films.

  20. Investigations on the effect of antioxidant type and concentration and model system matrix on acrylamide formation in model Maillard reaction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinou, Costas; Koutsidis, Georgios

    2016-04-15

    The formation of acrylamide in model Maillard reaction systems containing phenolic compounds was examined, with regards to phenolic type, concentration, and model system matrix. In dry glyoxal/asparagine waxy maize starch (WMS) systems, 9 out of 10 examined phenolics demonstrated an inhibiting effect, with the most significant reductions (55-60%) observed for caffeoylquinic acids. In WMS glucose/asparagine systems, examination of three different concentrations (0.1, 0.5 and 1 μmol/g WMS) suggested a 'minimum effective concentration' for epicatechin and caffeic acid, whilst addition of caffeoylquinic acids resulted in dose-dependent acrylamide reduction (25-75%). The discordant results of further studies utilising different matrices (dry and wet-to-dry) indicated that, apart from the nature and chemical reactivity, the matrix and the physical state of the reactants might be important for acrylamide formation. PMID:26617015

  1. Effect of different molecular weight chitosans on the mitigation of acrylamide formation and the functional properties of the resultant Maillard reaction products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Wei; Sung, Wen-Chieh; Chen, Jing-Yi

    2016-05-15

    Mitigation of acrylamide formation and the functional properties of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were investigated in a food model system. The system was composed of elements of mixtures and their combination including fructose, asparagine and different molecular weight chitosans. All solutions were heated, and then analyzed for acrylamide content, MRPs absorbance, pH, color, antioxidant capacity, antibacterial activity and kinematic viscosity. The fructose, asparagine and chitosan mixture had more MRPs compared to other mixtures. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-pricrylhydrazy (DPPH) radical scavenging activities, ferrous ion chelating abilities and reducing power results showed that all solutions containing a combination of two or three reactants had antioxidant capacities. Acrylamide content has a positive correlation with absorbance values at OD294 and OD420 but a negative correlation with the CIB L(∗) value of a solution (pacrylamide.

  2. Investigations on the effect of antioxidant type and concentration and model system matrix on acrylamide formation in model Maillard reaction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinou, Costas; Koutsidis, Georgios

    2016-04-15

    The formation of acrylamide in model Maillard reaction systems containing phenolic compounds was examined, with regards to phenolic type, concentration, and model system matrix. In dry glyoxal/asparagine waxy maize starch (WMS) systems, 9 out of 10 examined phenolics demonstrated an inhibiting effect, with the most significant reductions (55-60%) observed for caffeoylquinic acids. In WMS glucose/asparagine systems, examination of three different concentrations (0.1, 0.5 and 1 μmol/g WMS) suggested a 'minimum effective concentration' for epicatechin and caffeic acid, whilst addition of caffeoylquinic acids resulted in dose-dependent acrylamide reduction (25-75%). The discordant results of further studies utilising different matrices (dry and wet-to-dry) indicated that, apart from the nature and chemical reactivity, the matrix and the physical state of the reactants might be important for acrylamide formation.

  3. Synthesis and Phase Behavior of Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-b- Poly(L-Lysine Hydrochloride and Poly(N-Isopropylacrylamide- co-Acrylamide-b-Poly(L-Lysine Hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Spasojević

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-b-poly(L-lysine and poly(N- isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylamide-b-poly(L-lysine copolymers was accomplished by combining atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP and ring opening polymerization (ROP. For this purpose, a di-functional initiator with protected amino group was successfully synthetized. The ATRP of N-isopropylacrylamide yielded narrowly dispersed polymers with consistent high yields (~80%. Lower yields (~50% were observed when narrowly dispersed random copolymers of N-isopropylacrylamide and acrylamide where synthesized. Amino-terminated poly(N-isopropylacrylamide and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide- co-acrylamide were successfully used as macroinitiators for ROP of N6-carbobenzoxy-L- lysine N-carboxyanhydride. The thermal behavior of the homopolymers and copolymers in aqueous solutions was studied by turbidimetry, dynamic light scattering (DLS and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR.

  4. Acrylamide and glycidamide hemoglobin adducts and epithelial ovarian cancer: a nested case-control study in non-smoking postmenopausal women from the EPIC cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obón-Santacana, Mireia; Lujan-Barroso, Leila; Travis, Ruth C.; Freisling, Heinz; Ferrari, Pietro; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fortner, Renée T.; Ose, Jennifer; Boeing, Heiner; Menéndez, Virginia; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Chamosa, Saioa; Huerta Castaño, José María; Ardanaz, Eva; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Merritt, Melissa A.; Gunter, Marc J.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Papatesta, Eleni-Maria; Klinaki, Eleni; Saieva, Calogero; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B.; Peeters, Petra H.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Vesper, Hubert W.; Riboli, Elio; Duell, Eric J

    2015-01-01

    Background Acrylamide was classified as ‘probably carcinogenic to humans (group 2A)’ by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the fourth cause of cancer mortality in women. Five epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between EOC risk and dietary acrylamide intake assessed using food frequency questionnaires, and one nested case-control study evaluated hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide (HbAA) and its metabolite glycidamide (HbGA) and EOC risk; the results of these studies were inconsistent. Methods A nested case-control study in non-smoking postmenopausal women (334 cases, 417 controls) was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between HbAA, HbGA, HbAA+HbGA, and HbGA/HbAA and EOC and invasive serous EOC risk. Results No overall associations were observed between biomarkers of acrylamide exposure analyzed in quintiles and EOC risk; however, positive associations were observed between some middle quintiles of HbGA and HbAA+HbGA. Elevated but non-statistically significant ORs for serous EOC were observed for HbGA and HbAA+HbGA (ORQ5vsQ1:1.91, 95%CI:0.96-3.81 and ORQ5vsQ1:1.90, 95%CI:0.94-3.83, respectively); however, no linear dose-response trends were observed. Conclusion This EPIC nested case-control study failed to observe a clear association between biomarkers of acrylamide exposure and the risk of EOC or invasive serous EOC. Impact It is unlikely that dietary acrylamide exposure increases ovarian cancer risk; however, additional studies with larger sample size should be performed to exclude any possible association with EOC risk. PMID:26376083

  5. Co-exposure to aluminum and acrylamide disturbs expression of metallothionein, proinflammatory cytokines and induces genotoxicity: Biochemical and histopathological changes in the kidney of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbel, Imen; Maktouf, Sameh; Fendri, Nesrine; Jamoussi, Kamel; Ellouze Chaabouni, Semia; Boudawara, Tahia; Zeghal, Najiba

    2016-09-01

    The individual toxic effects of aluminum and acrylamide are known but there is no data on their combined effects. The present study investigates the toxic effects after combined exposure to these toxicants on: (i) oxidative stress during combined chronic exposure to aluminum and acrylamide on kidney function (ii) correlation of oxidative stress with metallothionein (MT) and inflammatory cytokines expression, DNA damage, and histopathological changes. Rats were exposed to aluminum (50 mg/kg body weight) in drinking water and acrylamide (20 mg/kg body weight) by gavage either individually or in combination for 3 weeks. Exposure rats to aluminum chloride or acrylamide alone and in combination induced nephrotoxicity, as evidenced by a decrease in the 24-h urine volume and uric acid levels in plasma and an increase of plasma creatinine, urea, and blood urea nitrogen levels. Nephrotoxicity was objectified by a significant increase in malondialdehyde level, advanced oxidation protein, and protein carbonyl contents, whereas reduced glutathione, nonprotein thiol, vitamin C levels, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities showed a significant decline. Superoxide dismutase activity and its gene expression were increased. Aluminum and acrylamide co-exposure exhibited synergism in various biochemical variables and also in DNA damage. Kidney total MT levels and genes expression of MT1, MT2, and proinflammatory cytokines were increased. All these changes were supported by histopathological observations. Co-exposure to aluminum and acrylamide exhibited synergism and more pronounced toxic effects compared with their individual effects based on various biochemical variables, genotoxic, and histopathological changes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1044-1058, 2016. PMID:25858877

  6. Potential protective effects of extra virgin olive oil on the hepatotoxicity induced by co-exposure of adult rats to acrylamide and aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbel, Imen; Elwej, Awatef; Jamoussi, Kamel; Boudawara, Tahia; Kamoun, Naziha Grati; Zeghal, Najiba

    2015-04-01

    Extra virgin olive oil has been shown to be effective against oxidative stress associated diseases. In addition to the high quantities of oleic acid, it is rich in phenolic compounds. We investigated the protective efficacy of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) against the hepatotoxicity induced by both aluminum and acrylamide. Animals were divided into four groups containing six rats each: group 1, serving as controls, received distilled water; group 2 received drinking water containing aluminum chloride (50 mg kg(-1) body weight) and acrylamide (20 mg kg(-1) body weight) by gavage; group 3 received both aluminum and acrylamide in the same ways as well as EVOO (300 μl) by gavage; group 4 received only EVOO by gavage for 3 weeks. The rats exposed to both aluminum and acrylamide exhibited oxidative stress observed by an increase in MDA, AOPP and a decrease in GSH, NPSH and vitamin C levels. The activities of CAT and GPx were decreased, while SOD activity was increased. The liver metallothioneins, such as MT1 and MT2 genes expression, were also increased. EVOO supplementation improved all the parameters mentioned above. The plasma transaminases (AST and ALT), LDH activities, glucose and albumin levels, TC, LDL-C levels, TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios were increased, while high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and TG decreased. The co-administration of EVOO to acrylamide and aluminum treated rats restored their hepatic markers to near-normal values. Liver histological studies confirmed the biochemical parameters and the beneficial role of EVOO. These results suggest that extra virgin olive oil, when added to the diet, may have a beneficial role in decreasing the liver damage induced by both aluminum and acrylamide.

  7. Reduction of acrylamide level through blanching with treatment by an extremely thermostable L-asparaginase during French fries processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Shaohua; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Bo; Mu, Wanmeng

    2015-07-01

    Bacterial L-asparaginase catalyzes the hydrolysis of L-asparagine to L-aspartic acid. It is normally used as an antineoplastic drug applied in lymphoblastic leukemia chemotherapy and as a food processing aid in baked or fried food industry to inhibit the formation of acrylamide. The present study demonstrates cloning, expression, and characterization of a thermostable L-asparaginase from Thermococcus zilligii AN1 TziAN1_1 and also evaluates the potential for enzymatic acrylamide mitigation in French fries using this enzyme. The recombinant L-asparaginase was purified to homogeneity by nickel-affinity chromatography. The purified enzyme displayed the maximum activity at pH 8.5 and 90 °C, and the optimum temperature was the highest ever reported. The K m, k cat, and k cat/K m values toward L-asparagine were measured to be 6.08 mM, 3267 s(-1), and 537.3 mM(-1) s(-1), respectively. The enzyme retained 70 % of its original activity after 2 h of incubation at 85 °C. When potato samples were treated with 10 U/mL of L-asparaginase at 80 °C for only 4 min, the acrylamide content in final French fries was reduced by 80.5 % compared with the untreated control. Results of this study revealed that the enzyme was highly active at elevated temperatures, reflecting the potential of the T. zilligii L-asparaginase in the food processing industry. PMID:26077968

  8. Reduction of acrylamide level through blanching with treatment by an extremely thermostable L-asparaginase during French fries processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Shaohua; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Bo; Mu, Wanmeng

    2015-07-01

    Bacterial L-asparaginase catalyzes the hydrolysis of L-asparagine to L-aspartic acid. It is normally used as an antineoplastic drug applied in lymphoblastic leukemia chemotherapy and as a food processing aid in baked or fried food industry to inhibit the formation of acrylamide. The present study demonstrates cloning, expression, and characterization of a thermostable L-asparaginase from Thermococcus zilligii AN1 TziAN1_1 and also evaluates the potential for enzymatic acrylamide mitigation in French fries using this enzyme. The recombinant L-asparaginase was purified to homogeneity by nickel-affinity chromatography. The purified enzyme displayed the maximum activity at pH 8.5 and 90 °C, and the optimum temperature was the highest ever reported. The K m, k cat, and k cat/K m values toward L-asparagine were measured to be 6.08 mM, 3267 s(-1), and 537.3 mM(-1) s(-1), respectively. The enzyme retained 70 % of its original activity after 2 h of incubation at 85 °C. When potato samples were treated with 10 U/mL of L-asparaginase at 80 °C for only 4 min, the acrylamide content in final French fries was reduced by 80.5 % compared with the untreated control. Results of this study revealed that the enzyme was highly active at elevated temperatures, reflecting the potential of the T. zilligii L-asparaginase in the food processing industry.

  9. POLYMERIC IONIC CONDUCTORS MODIFIED WITH POLAR GROUPS:PART Ⅰ. IONIC CONDUCTION AND MECHANICAL PROPERTY OF LI-COMPLEX BASED ON ACRYLAMIDE- COPOLYMERIZED METHACRYLATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Zhenghua; XU Kang; WAN Guoxiang

    1992-01-01

    Acrylamide was introduced onto the chain of poly[oligo(oxyethylene) methacrylate] as a polar constituent, and the effect of its presence on the mechanical strength and ionic conduction properties of Li-salt complex based on the resultant copolymer was investigated. The introduction of the polar constituent raises chain rigidity, retards crystallization of oligo(oxyethylene) domain and promotes the dissociation of lithium salt. The factors work on the mechanical and conduction properties synergistically, therefore both of the properties are improved simultaneously as the consequence of acrylamide- introduction.

  10. Bio-rational design of photosystem Ⅱ inhibitors (Ⅷ)——Molecular design, synthesis and inhibitory activity of acrylates (acrylamides)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘华银; 沙印林; 谭惠芬; 杨华铮; 来鲁华

    1999-01-01

    Molecular modeling of acrylates (acrylamides) with D1 protein of Pisum sativum is presented. Studies show that the binding force mainly includes H-bond interaction, Van der Waals and π-ring stacking interaction. It was found that SER 268 in D1 protein might be an important binding site. It is important for high inhibitory activity of compounds whether an electronegative atom in alkyl of ester linkage could make H-bond interaction with SER 268 in D1 protein. Thus some new acrylates (acrylamides) were designed and synthesized, Bioassay indicated that these new compounds showed expected Hill reaction inhibitory activity.

  11. Reduction of Saltiness and Acrylamide Levels in Palm Sugar-Like Flavouring through Buffer Modification and the Addition of Calcium Chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Wan Aida Wan Mustapha; Chun Wai Ho; Faridah Abas; Chin Ping Tan; Phui Yee Tan

    2013-01-01

    Palm sugar-like flavouring (PSLF) is a type of flavour product that is formed by heating amino acids and sugar under specific heating conditions. Unfortunately, PSLF has a salty taste and contains high amounts of acrylamide. Hence, the objective of this research was to reduce saltiness and acrylamide without negatively affecting the aroma properties of PSLF. A decrease in the sodium phosphate (NaHPO4) buffer concentration from 0.20 to 0.02 M was found to reduce sodium to approximately 15% of ...

  12. EFSA CONTAM Panel (EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain), 2015. Scientific Opinion on acrylamide in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    Panel evaluated 43 419 analytical results from food commodities. AA was found at the highest levels in solid coffee substitutes and coffee, and in potato fried products. Mean and 95th percentile dietary AA exposures across surveys and age groups were estimated at 0.4 to 1.9 µg/kg body weight (b.w.) per......EFSA was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on acrylamide (AA) in food. AA has widespread uses as an industrial chemical. It is also formed when certain foods are prepared at temperatures above 120 °C and low moisture, especially in foods containing asparagine and reducing sugars. The CONTAM...

  13. GRAFT POLYMERIZATION OF ACRYLAMIDE ONTO HOMOPOLYMER OF 5-METHYL-5-HEXEN-2, 4-DIONE INITIATED BY CERIC ION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jingbo; ZHAO Tong; QIU Kunyuan

    1997-01-01

    The homopolymerization of 5-methyl-5-hexen-2,4-dione (methacryloylacetone, MAA),a vinyl monomer having β-diketone group, was carried out in the presence of benzophenone (BP)/N, N-dimenthyl-4-toluidine (DMT) system. Graft polymerization of acrylamide initiated by ceric ion onto the homopolymer film was investigated and the mechanism of the grafting reaction was proposed on the basis of ESR study. The grafted copolymer was characterized by means of grafting percentage, water absorption, XPS spectra and scanning electron photomicrographs.

  14. A Novel Category of Ionic Liquids Based on Diacetone Acrylamide Cation and Their Use as Esterification Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Qing-Hai; LU Bin; LI Jiang; YANG Xin; SHAN Yong-Kui

    2006-01-01

    A novel category of salts based on diacetone acrylamide cation (DA+) and the anions such as acetate (Ac-),trifluoroacetate (TF-), tetrafluoroborate (BF-), hexafluorophosphate (PF-), sulfate (SO-) and chloride (Cl-) were synthesized by usual neutralization of acids and bases at room temperature and characterized by IR, 1H NMR and elemental analysis (EA). The results show that these compounds possess the characteristic of ionic liquids. In addition, four of them, DABF, DACl, DASO and DAPF, were efficient catalysts for esterication of acetic acid with C1C6 alcohols and octanol.

  15. PHOTO-INDUCED GRAFT POLYMERIZATION OF ACRYLAMIDE ON POLYPROPYLENE MEMBRANE SURFACE IN THE PRESENCE OF DIBENZYL TRITHIOCARBoNATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Yang; Jing Tian; Zhi-kang Xu

    2007-01-01

    Ultraviolet(UV)-induced graft polymerization of acrylamide(AAm)on polypropylene substrates was successfully conducted using dibenzyl trithiocarbonate(DBTTC)as photoinitiator.It was confirmed by chemical analysis and surface morphology observation with attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,and scanning electron microscopy.A possible mechanism for this graft process was presented,which suggested that,under UV irradiation,the C=S bond in DBTTC could split and abstract a hydrogen from the polypropylene surface and a surface free radical was then formed,and initiated the graft polymerization of AAm.

  16. Synthesis of nanosilver loaded chitosan/poly(acrylamide-co-itaconic acid) based inter-polyelectrolyte complex films for antimicrobial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, S K; Jyotishi, Pooja; Bajpai, M

    2016-12-10

    In the present work, AgNPs loaded chitosan/poly(acrylamide-co-itaconic acid) inter-polyelectrolyte complex (IPC) films have been prepared for antimicrobial applications. The AgNPs-loaded IPC films have been characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Particle size of synthesized AgNPs was found to be in the range 10-30nm. These films exhibited a remarkable antibacterial property against strong pathogen E.Coli, thus offering their candidature for antimicrobial applications. PMID:27577913

  17. Biodegradation of the cross-linked copolymer of acrylamide and potassium acrylate by soil bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksińska, Małgorzata P; Magnucka, Elżbieta G; Lejcuś, Krzysztof; Pietr, Stanisław J

    2016-03-01

    Chemical cross-linking and the high molecular weight of superabsorbent copolymers (SAPs) are the two main causes of their resistance to biodegradation. However, SAP particles are colonized by microorganisms. For the purposes of this study, the dry technical copolymer of acrylamide and potassium acrylate containing 5.28 % of unpolymerized monomers was wrapped in a geotextile and incubated in unsterile Haplic Luvisol soil as a water absorbing geocomposite. The highest number of soil bacteria that colonized the hydrated SAP and utilized it as the sole carbon and energy source was found after the first month of incubation in soil. It was equal to 7.21-7.49 log10 cfu g(-1) of water absorbed by the SAP and decreased by 1.35-1.61 log10 units within the next 8 months. During this time, the initial SAP water holding capacity of 1665.8 g has decreased by 24.40 %. Moreover, the 5 g of SAP dry mass has declined by 31.70 %. Two bacteria, Rhizobium radiobacter 28SG and Bacillus aryabhattai 31SG isolated from the watered SAP were found to be able to biodegrade this SAP in pure cultures. They destroyed 25.07 and 41.85 mg of 300 mg of the technical SAP during the 60-day growth in mineral Burk's salt medium, and biodegradation activity was equal to 2.95 and 6.72 μg of SAP μg(-1) of protein, respectively. B. aryabhattai 31SG and R. radiobacter 28SG were also able to degrade 9.99 and 29.70 mg of 82 mg of the ultra-pure SAP in synthetic root exudate medium during the 30-day growth, respectively. PMID:26817471

  18. Antibacterial activity of starch/acrylamide/allyl triphenyl phosphonium bromide copolymers synthesized by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starch/acrylamide/allyl triphenyl phosphonium bromide (St/AM/TP) copolymers were synthesized by simultaneous gamma irradiation and characterized by FTIR and 1H NMR techniques, weight measurement and titration method. Moreover, their antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus were explored by the viable cell counting method in sterile distilled water. At St/AM/TP 6:8.4:5.6 g, copolymers with higher graft ratio (G) and higher (AM+TP) graft efficiency (EAM+TP) were obtained at 3 and 6 kGy, while cationic degree (CD) and TP graft efficiency (ETP) continuously increased with absorbed dose from 1 to 6 kGy. All of the copolymers were capable of killing >99.75% of 107 CFU/ml S. aureus within 30 mins. Moreover, at 3 kGy, G, EAM+TP and ETP increased with AM/TP from 0:14 to 11.2:2.8 g at St/(AM+TP) 6:14 g, while the optimum CD and antibacterial activity were achieved at AM/TP 7:7 and 8.4:5.6 g. In addition, at 3 kGy, G, EAM+TP and CD increased with St/(AM+TP) from 6:3 to 6:18 g at AM/TP 8.4:5.6 g, while the optimum antibacterial activity was achieved at 6:10 to 6:18 g, and the optimum ETP was achieved at 6:14. - Highlights: • Cationic starch is prepared from AM and TP by Gamma irradiation. • Cationic starch is characterized by FTIR, NMR, weight method and titration method. • Grafting ratio and cationic degree depend on absorbed dose and composition. • Cationic starch shows good antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus

  19. Morin hydrate attenuates the acrylamide-induced imbalance in antioxidant enzymes in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mahendra Pal; Jakhar, Rekha; Kang, Sun Chul

    2015-10-01

    Liver diseases are among the most serious health issues nowadays. Hepatocellular carcinoma, one of the most lethal types of cancer worldwide, can be caused by chemically-induced oxidative stress. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the protective effects of morin hydrate (MH) against acrylamide (AA)-induced hepatotoxicity in male ICR mice. The mice were randomly allocated into 4 groups [the control, the group subcutaneously injected with AA alone (50 mg/kg body weight), the group subcutaneously injected with AA (50 mg/kg body weight) and MH (5 mg/kg body weight) and the group subcutaneously injected with AA (50 mg/kg body weight) and MH (15 mg/kg body weight) for 5 consecutive days]. Histopathological evaluations were performed and the levels of serum hepatic enzymes were analyzed to determine initial liver injury, and the mice in the AA-treated groups were compared with the mice receiving no treatment and with the mice administered MH in combination with AA. Furthermore, oxidative stress, hepatic inflammation and the levels of DNA damage-related markers were evaluated to determine the extent of liver damage induced by AA within a short-term period. The subcutaneous administration of AA induced severe hepatic injury, and combined treatment with AA and MH resulted in a significant improvement in all evaluated parameters. This recovery was most obvious in the group receiving AA and 15 mg/kg body weight dose of MH. The findings of our study demonstrated that MH protected mice from severe hepatic injury induced by AA. Moreover, MH is a natural polyphenolic compound, and thus it has potential for use in the treatment of severe liver diseases, in place of many synthetic drugs.

  20. Effect of zeolite nanoparticles on the optical properties of diacetone acrylamide-based photopolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, D.; Mihaylova, E.; O'Neill, L.; Babeva, T.; Awala, H.; Retoux, R.; Mintova, S.; Naydenova, I.

    2014-11-01

    The effect of zeolite nanoparticles with BEA type framework structure on the optical properties of a diacetone acrylamide (DA)-based holographic photopolymer has been investigated. Both types of zeolite nanocrystals, as synthesized (BEA) and silver containing (BEA-Ag), are used for doping the DA photopolymer. Doping of the DA photopolymer with BEA zeolites results in an 11% decrease of the average refractive index of the nanocomposite layer, while the inclusion of BEA-Ag nanoparticles decreases the average refractive index by 3% only. This observation is in good agreement with the fact that the contrast in refractive index between the host photopolymer and nanoparticles is expected to be much lower for the BEA nanoparticles containing Ag in their pores. Doping of the DA photopolymer with pure BEA zeolite nanoparticles results in a significant increase in refractive index modulation due to holographic recording, Δn, of up to 91% at a concentration of 2 wt.% compared to un-doped layers. For the BEA-Ag zeolites, a maximum increase in Δn of up to 17% at a concentration of 0.5 wt.% is observed. The increase in Δn is attributed to the difference in n between the host photopolymer and nanoparticles and the redistribution of the nanoparticles during holographic recording. It is demonstrated that the DA photopolymer is compatible as a host material for the porous BEA nanoparticles. This is due to the large size of the DA monomer molecules, which restricts monomer migration into the zeolite pores and thus the pores of the Ag-free BEA nanoparticles remain empty, making them suitable for application in holographic sensors.

  1. Preparation and Investigation of Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-acrylamide Membranes in Temperature Responsive Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Khodaverdi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sPhysiological changes in the body may be utilized as potential triggers for controlled drug delivery. Based on these mechanisms, stimulus–responsive drug delivery has been developed.Materials and MethodsIn this study, a kind of poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-acrylamide membrane was prepared by radical copolymerization. Changes in swelling ratios and diameters of the membrane were investigated in terms of temperature. On-off regulation of drug permeation through the membrane was then studied at temperatures below and above the phase transition temperature of the membrane. Two drugs, vitamin B12 and acetaminophen were chosen as models of high and low molecular weights here, respectively. ResultsIt was indicated that at temperatures below the phase transition temperature of the membrane, copolymer was in a swollen state. Above the phase transition temperature, water was partially expelled from the functional groups of the copolymer. Permeation of high molecular weight drug models such as vitamin B12 was shown to be much more distinct at temperatures below the phase transition temperature when the copolymer was in a swollen state. At higher temperatures when the copolymer was shrunken, drug permeation through the membrane was substantially decreased. However for acetaminophen, such a big change in drug permeation around the phase transition temperature of the membrane was not observed. ConclusionAccording to the pore mechanism of drug transport through hydrogels, permeability of solutes decreased with increasing molecular size. As a result, the relative permeability, around the phase transition temperature of the copolymer, was higher for solutes of high molecular weight.

  2. Mesoscopic simulation of a micellar poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide)-b-(polyethylene oxide) copolymer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Reyes, Rubén; Soto-Figueroa, César; Vicente, Luis

    2016-05-01

    In this article we studied the micellar formation of poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide)-b-polyethylene oxide (PNIPAM-b-PEO) copolymers in an aqueous system. From molecular simulations the dependence on temperature of the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter χ for PNIPAM and PEO in water is obtained and compared with available experimental results and values from other theoretical calculations. By means of dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) we then simulated the coil-globule transition for PNIPAM chains in water with a transition temperature of around 305 K. The simulations for PNIPAM-b-PEO copolymers showed that at room temperature the chains are miscible in an aqueous phase but with a temperature increase the system turns into micelles at T  =  305 K. The change in micelle anisotropy due to a different ratio PNIPAM/PEO of chains is also analyzed. What is observed is that for large PEO the large number of dissolved PEO chains gives a large corona size and the micelle is not spherical but obloide and as the number of PNIPAM is increased the micelle acquires a spherical shape. As an important application we considered the system micelle-water/anionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [BMIM]+[PF6]-). By increasing the temperature of the system from 306 K it is shown that at T  =  345 K there is a transfer of the micelle from water to the ionic liquid phase and this was due to the change in the relative affinity of PEO to water and ionic liquid expressed by the change in χ. All the simulation outcomes are qualitatively consistent with experimental results and thus to our knowledge we give the first set of χ values for the interaction between PNIPAM and water in a wide range of temperature values.

  3. Acrylamide induces mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in BV-2 microglial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhigang; Song, Ge; Zou, Chen; Liu, Gongguan; Wu, Wanqiang; Yuan, Tian; Liu, Xuebo

    2015-07-01

    Acrylamide (ACR), a potent neurotoxin, can be produced during food processing at high temperature. This study examined the redox-dependent apoptotic and inflammatory responses of ACR in an immortalized mouse microglia cell line BV2. The exposure of BV2 cells to ACR reduced cell viability and induced apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. ACR impaired cell energy metabolism by decreasing mitochondrial respiration, anaerobic glycolysis, and lowering expression of the complex I, III, and IV subunits. Mitochondrial dysfunction was associated with a decrease of the mitochondrial membrane potential and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, thus resulting in activation of the mitochondrion-driven apoptotic signaling. This was accompanied by (a) the modulation of redox-sensitive signaling, suppressed Akt activation and increased JNK and p38 activation, and (b) increased expression of NFκB and downstream inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitric oxide generation, thus supporting indirectly a proinflammatory effect of ACR. Nrf2 expression was also increased but not its translocation to the nucleus. Expectedly, the electrophilic attack of ACR on GSH resulted in substantial loss of GSH with a minor GSSG formation. These changes in the cell׳s redox status elicited by ACR resulted in increased H2O2 formation. The changes in mitochondrial functionality and complex subunit expression caused by ACR were reversed by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). Likewise, NAC restored the cell׳s redox status by increasing GSH levels with concomitant attenuation of H2O2 generation; these effects resulted in decreased apoptotic cell death and inflammatory responses. ACR-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction along with a more oxidized redox status seems to be critical events leading to activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and inflammatory responses.

  4. Titanium Dioxide Photocatalytic Polymerization of Acrylamide for Gel Electrophoresis (TIPPAGE) of Proteins and Structural Identification by Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenyang; Yuan, Zhiwei; Huang, Lulu; Kang, Jie; Jiang, Ruowei; Zhong, Hongying

    2016-02-11

    Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) coupled with mass spectrometry has been well established for separating, identifying and quantifying protein mixtures from cell lines, tissues or other biological samples. The copolymerization process of acrylamide and bis-acrylamide is the key to mastering this powerful technique. In general, this is a vinyl addition reaction initiated by free radical-generating reagents such as ammonium persulfate (APS) and tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED) under basic pH and degassing experimental condition. We report herein a photocatalytic polymerization approach that is based on photo-generated hydroxyl radicals with nanoparticles of titanium dioxide. It was shown that the polymerization process is greatly accelerated in acidic condition when ultraviolet light shots on the gel solution containing TiO2 nanoparticles without degassing. This feature makes it very useful in preparing Triton X-100 acid urea (TAU) gel that has been developed for separating basic proteins such as histones and variants in acidic experimental condition. Additionally, the presence of titanium dioxide in the gel not only improves mechanistic property of gels but also changes the migration pattern of different proteins that have different affinities to titanium dioxide.

  5. Preparation of poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid)-grafted gum and its flocculation and biodegradation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, H; Mishra, Shivani B; Mishra, A K; Kaith, B S; Jindal, R; Kalia, S

    2013-10-15

    Biodegradation studies of Gum ghatti (Gg) and acrylamide-co-acrylic acid based flocculants [Gg-cl-poly(AAm-co-AA)] have been reported using the soil composting method. Gg-cl-poly(AAm-co-AA) was found to degrade 89.76% within 60 days. The progress of biodegradation at each stage was monitored through FT-IR and SEM. Polymer was synthesized under pressure using potassium persulphate-ascorbic acid as a redox initiator and N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide as a crosslinker. Synthesized polymer was found to show pH, temperature and ionic strength of the cations dependent swelling behavior. Gg-cl-poly(AAm-co-AA) was utilized for the selective absorption of saline from different petroleum fraction-saline emulsions. The flocculation efficiency of the polymer was studied as a function of polymer dose, temperature and pH of the solution. Gg-cl-poly(AAm-co-AA) showed maximum flocculation efficiency with 20 mol L(-1) polymer dose in acidic medium at 50 °C. PMID:23987360

  6. Synthesis and colon-specific drug delivery of a poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide)/MBA nanosized hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Debajyoti; Mohapatra, Dillip K; Mohapatra, Ranjit K; Mohanta, Guru P; Sahoo, Prafulla K

    2008-01-01

    Intravenous administration of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) for colon cancer therapy produces severe systemic side-effects due to its cytotoxic effect on normal cells. The main objective of the present study was to develop novel oral site-specific delivery of 5-FU to the colon with less drug being released in the stomach or small intestine using biodegradable hydrogel, hydrogel nanoparticles and comparing the targeting efficiency of 5-FU to colon from both. Poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide) (P(AA-co-Am)) normal hydrogel and hydrogel nanoparticles (HN) were synthesized by free radical polymerization using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as cross-linker, potassium persulfate as reaction initiator and 5-FU was loaded. HN were found to be degradable in physiological medium and showed comparatively higher swelling in rat caecal medium (RCM). 5-FU entrapment was increased by increasing Am (wt%) monomer feed. In vitro release of 5-FU from normal hydrogel and HN in pH progressive medium, it was found that a AA/Am ratio of 25:75 showed higher release in RCM. The Higuchi model yielded good adjustment of in vitro release kinetics. A higher amount of 5-FU reached the colon in HN (61 +/- 2.1%) than normal hydrogel (40 +/- 3.6%) by organ biodistribution studies in albino rats. PMID:18973725

  7. Influence of acrylamide monomer addition to the acrylic denture-base resins on mechanical and physical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogan Ayaz, Elif; Durkan, Rukiye

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of adding acrylamide monomer (AAm) on the characterization, flexural strength, flexural modulus and thermal degradation temperature of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) denture-base resins. Specimens (n=10) were fabricated from a conventional heat-activated QC-20 (Qc-) and a microwave heat-activated Acron MC (Ac-) PMMA resins. Powder/liquid ratio followed the manufacturer's instructions for the control groups (Qc-c and Ac-c) and for the copolymer groups, the resins were prepared with 5% (-5), 10% (-10), 15% (-15) and 20% (-20) acrylamide contents, according to the molecular weight ratio, respectively. The flexural strength and flexural modulus were measured by a three-point bending test. The data obtained were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test (α=0.05) to determine significant differences between the groups. The chemical structures of the resins were characterized by the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Thermal stabilities were determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) with a heating rate of 10 °C⋅min(-1) from 35 °C to 600 °C. Control groups from both acrylic resins showed the lowest flexural strength values. Qc-15 showed significant increase in the flexural strength when compared to Qc-c (PPMMA is increased by the insertion of AAm.

  8. Titanium Dioxide Photocatalytic Polymerization of Acrylamide for Gel Electrophoresis (TIPPAGE) of Proteins and Structural Identification by Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenyang; Yuan, Zhiwei; Huang, Lulu; Kang, Jie; Jiang, Ruowei; Zhong, Hongying

    2016-02-01

    Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) coupled with mass spectrometry has been well established for separating, identifying and quantifying protein mixtures from cell lines, tissues or other biological samples. The copolymerization process of acrylamide and bis-acrylamide is the key to mastering this powerful technique. In general, this is a vinyl addition reaction initiated by free radical-generating reagents such as ammonium persulfate (APS) and tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED) under basic pH and degassing experimental condition. We report herein a photocatalytic polymerization approach that is based on photo-generated hydroxyl radicals with nanoparticles of titanium dioxide. It was shown that the polymerization process is greatly accelerated in acidic condition when ultraviolet light shots on the gel solution containing TiO2 nanoparticles without degassing. This feature makes it very useful in preparing Triton X-100 acid urea (TAU) gel that has been developed for separating basic proteins such as histones and variants in acidic experimental condition. Additionally, the presence of titanium dioxide in the gel not only improves mechanistic property of gels but also changes the migration pattern of different proteins that have different affinities to titanium dioxide.

  9. Synthesis and colon-specific drug delivery of a poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide)/MBA nanosized hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Debajyoti; Mohapatra, Dillip K; Mohapatra, Ranjit K; Mohanta, Guru P; Sahoo, Prafulla K

    2008-01-01

    Intravenous administration of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) for colon cancer therapy produces severe systemic side-effects due to its cytotoxic effect on normal cells. The main objective of the present study was to develop novel oral site-specific delivery of 5-FU to the colon with less drug being released in the stomach or small intestine using biodegradable hydrogel, hydrogel nanoparticles and comparing the targeting efficiency of 5-FU to colon from both. Poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide) (P(AA-co-Am)) normal hydrogel and hydrogel nanoparticles (HN) were synthesized by free radical polymerization using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as cross-linker, potassium persulfate as reaction initiator and 5-FU was loaded. HN were found to be degradable in physiological medium and showed comparatively higher swelling in rat caecal medium (RCM). 5-FU entrapment was increased by increasing Am (wt%) monomer feed. In vitro release of 5-FU from normal hydrogel and HN in pH progressive medium, it was found that a AA/Am ratio of 25:75 showed higher release in RCM. The Higuchi model yielded good adjustment of in vitro release kinetics. A higher amount of 5-FU reached the colon in HN (61 +/- 2.1%) than normal hydrogel (40 +/- 3.6%) by organ biodistribution studies in albino rats.

  10. Synthesis of poly(N-[tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl]acrylamide) functionalized porous silica for application in hydrophilic interaction chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Nhat Thi Hong; Jiang, Wen; Sparrman, Tobias; Irgum, Knut

    2012-12-01

    Porous silica coated by a highly hydrophilic and nonionic tentacle-type polymeric layer was synthesized by free radical "grafting from" polymerization of N-[2-hydroxy-1,1-bis(hydroxymethyl)ethyl]-2-propenamide (TRIS-acrylamide) in partly aqueous solutions. The radical initiator sites were incorporated on the silica surfaces via a two-step reaction comprising thionyl chloride activation and subsequent reaction with tert-butyl hydroperoxide. The surface-bound tert-butylperoxy groups were then used as thermally triggered initiators for graft polymerization of TRIS-acrylamide. The synthesized materials were characterized by diffusive reflectance Fourier transform infrared specotroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and CHN elemental analysis. Photon correlation spectroscopy was used to determine changes in ζ-potentials resulting from grafting, (29)Si magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MAS-NMR) spectroscopy was used to assess the ratio of silanol to siloxane groups in the substrate and the grafted material, and the changes in surface area and mesopore distribution were determined by nitrogen cryosorption. Chromatographic evaluation in hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) mode showed that the materials were suitable for use as stationary phases, featuring good separation efficiency, a comparatively high retention, and a selectivity that differed from most commercially available HILIC phases. A comparison of this neutral phase with a previously reported N-(2-hydroxypropyl)-linked TRIS-type hydrophilic tentacle phase with weak anion exchange functionality revealed substantial differences in retention patterns. PMID:23184369

  11. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous analysis of acrylamide and the precursors, asparagine and reducing sugars in bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N.J.; Granby, Kit; Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg;

    2006-01-01

    L of methanol and 2 x 2 mL of water and subsequently flushed with sample solution before the actual analytical sample fractions were collected. Analytes were separated on a Hypercarb column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 5 mu m) and detected by tandem MS with electrospray ionisation. Acrylamide and saccharides were ionised...

  12. Effect of different molecular weight chitosans on the mitigation of acrylamide formation and the functional properties of the resultant Maillard reaction products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Wei; Sung, Wen-Chieh; Chen, Jing-Yi

    2016-05-15

    Mitigation of acrylamide formation and the functional properties of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were investigated in a food model system. The system was composed of elements of mixtures and their combination including fructose, asparagine and different molecular weight chitosans. All solutions were heated, and then analyzed for acrylamide content, MRPs absorbance, pH, color, antioxidant capacity, antibacterial activity and kinematic viscosity. The fructose, asparagine and chitosan mixture had more MRPs compared to other mixtures. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-pricrylhydrazy (DPPH) radical scavenging activities, ferrous ion chelating abilities and reducing power results showed that all solutions containing a combination of two or three reactants had antioxidant capacities. Acrylamide content has a positive correlation with absorbance values at OD294 and OD420 but a negative correlation with the CIB L(∗) value of a solution (p<0.01). Experimental results evidenced that low molecular weight (50-190 kDa) chitosan can be used to mitigate the formation of acrylamide. PMID:26776011

  13. Nerve conduction, visual evoked responses and electroretinography in tunnel workers previously exposed to acrylamide and N-methylolacrylamide containing grouting agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffeng, Lars Ole; Heier, Mona Skard; Kjuus, Helge; Sjöholm, Hans; Sørensen, Kjell Aage; Skaug, Vidar

    2008-01-01

    The study examines possible persisting effects on the peripheral nervous system and visual system in tunnel workers previously exposed to acrylamide and N-methylolacrylamide during grouting work. We compared neurophysiological function in 44 tunnel workers previously exposed during grouting operations (2-10 years post exposure), with 49 tunnel workers with no history of exposure to acrylamide. Nerve conduction velocities (NCV), distal delay, F-response and amplitude in median and ulnar nerves of the right arm, peroneal, sural and tibial nerves of the right leg, visual evoked response (VER) and electroretinography (ERG) were measured. VER and ERG were also performed in 24 subjects more recently exposed to acrylamide grout (16 months post exposure). Exposure to acrylamide containing grouts was assessed by questionnaires. A statistically significant reduction in the mean sensory NCV of the sural nerve (p=0.005), as well as a non-significant reduction of sural amplitude was found in the previously exposed group compared to the control group. VER latencies to the onset of the occipital potential (N75) were prolonged in both exposed groups compared to the control group (pgrouting operations. PMID:18353610

  14. Technical Report, Outcome of the public consultation on the draft Scientific Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Contaminants on the Food Chain (CONTAM) on acrylamide in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    The EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel) has endorsed its draft Scientific Opinion on the risks to public health related to the presence of acrylamide (AA) in food. The opinion has undergone a public consultation from 1 July 2014 to 15 September 2014. Overall, EFSA has...

  15. Study on Improvement of Methods for Analysis of Acrylamide in Bread%面包中丙烯酰胺分析方法改进研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付苗苗

    2015-01-01

    面包经过高温烘烤会产生危害人体健康的丙烯酰胺。本文针对面包中丙烯酰胺分析方法的改进进行研究,建立一套简单实用的丙烯酰胺检测方法,希望为研究抑制食品中丙烯酰胺的产生提供依据,从而对于提高焙烤食品的安全性,降低消费者健康风险,起到积极意义。%After the high temperature baking, bread will cause harm to human health because of acrylamide. Aiming at the improvement of the methods for analysis of acrylamide in bread were studied , to establish a set of simple and practical test methods of acrylamide , hope to provide the basis for the study on inhibition of acrylamide in food, thus to improve the safety of baking food, reduce health risks to consumers, positive significance.

  16. Histological, Scanning And Transmission Electron Microscopic Studies On The Possible Protective Role Of Ginger Extract Against AcrylamideInduced Intestinal Damage In Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Galal El-Tantawi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the protective effect of ginger Zingeber officinale extract (ZOE against the acrylamide (AC which is an industrial chemical used in water treatment and it is synthesized during cooking of starch food at high temperature. Method: Thirty adult male albino mice, each weighs 20-25 g were divided into three groups (10 mice/group: (Icontrol group. (IIacrylamide treated group. (III acrylamide & ginger group. Acrylamide was given to experimental animals in the drinking water at a non-lethal dose of 200 p.p.m for 10 weeks (3 days/week. Ginger extract was orally administrated at 50 mg/L (~5 ml/day for 10 weeks (3 days/week. The ileum samples were collected for light microscope study and for scanning and transmission electron microscope examination. Results: This study revealed that acrylamide induces pathological changes of the ileum of the treated mice specially the absorptive epithelial cells. The scanning electron microscopic study revealed damage of the ileal villi, some red blood corpuscles appeared at the site of damage. The transmission electron microscopic examination clearly demonstrated degeneration of most cell organelles as mitochondria, deterioration and degranulation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum, dilatation of Golgi apparatus. Conclusion: The administration of ginger extract decreased the histological alterations and ensuring the anti-inflammatory, and antitoxic effects of ZOE at its chosen dosage level

  17. Research status of acrylamide in roasted coffee%焙炒咖啡中丙烯酰胺的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许彤宇; 曾绍东; 王明月; 杨春亮

    2015-01-01

    Coffee can produce a certain amount of acrylamide which is potential carcinogenica during the process of roasting under high temperature (200~250℃ ). Experimental researches showed that short-term contact with a lot of acrylamide could damage nervous centralis of human beings and animals. If human beings were exposed to little doses of acrylamide in long-term, limb numbness and weakness would happen to them. Acrylamide from the process of roasting were created by either asparagine route or acrolein route. The types of coffee, the roasting temperature and the roasting time were the major factors in the formation of acrylamide during roasting coffee beans. The research progresses of controlling the ways of acrylamide formation were reviewed in this article, and suggestions for further researches on the formation of acrylamide were put forward.%咖啡在高温(200~250℃)焙炒加工过程中会产生一定量潜在的致癌物质丙烯酰胺。实验研究表明,短期接触大量丙烯酰胺会对人和动物的中枢神经造成损伤,人体长期小剂量接触丙烯酰胺会表现为四肢末端麻木、无力。咖啡焙炒加工过程中产生的丙烯酰胺除了通过天门冬酰胺途径生成以外,还可以由丙烯醛途径生成。其中影响咖啡中丙烯酰胺形成的主要因素有咖啡类型、咖啡的焙炒温度和时间。本文对控制丙烯酰胺形成途径的研究进展进行了相关阐述,并对焙炒咖啡中丙烯酰胺的进一步研究提出建议。

  18. An occupational hygiene investigation of exposure to acrylamide and the role for urinary S-carboxyethyl-cysteine (CEC) as a biological marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Peter J; Brooke, Richard K; Cocker, John; Jones, Katharine; Warren, Nicholas

    2005-11-01

    Acrylamide has a range of toxicological hazards including neurotoxicity and reproductive toxicity; however, occupational risk management is driven by its genotoxic and carcinogenic potential (it is classified within the EU as a Category 2 carcinogen, R45 and Category 2 mutagen, R46). Since there is the potential for skin absorption and systemic toxicity, biological monitoring may be a useful aid for the assessment of exposure via inhalation, ingestion and dermal absorption. However, there are currently no biological monitoring guidance values (BMGVs). This study describes an extensive survey of potential workplace exposure to acrylamide at the Ciba (Bradford) site to gather data suitable for a BMGV. This manufacturing site is typical within the industry as a whole and includes a cross section of activities and tasks representative of acrylamide exposure. Acrylamide is used in the manufacture of polyacrylamide based products for applications in water treatment; oil and mineral extraction; paper, paint and textile processes. Workers (62 plus 6 controls) with varying potential exposures provided a total of 275 pre shift and 247 post-shift urine samples along with 260 personal air samples. A small non-exposed control group was similarly monitored. Urine samples were analysed for S-carboxyethyl-cysteine (CEC). Airborne, surface and glove samples were analysed for acrylamide. Inhalation exposures were well controlled with values consistently below one-tenth of the UK Workplace Exposure Limit. Engineering controls, personal protective equipment and work practice, all contributed to good control of occupational exposure. CEC was found in urine samples from both exposed workers and non-occupationally exposed controls. At the low levels of exposure found, smoking made a significant contribution to urinary CEC levels. Nevertheless a correlation between urinary CEC and airborne acrylamide was found. A mixed effects model incorporating inhalation concentrations of acrylamide

  19. The mRNA expression and histological integrity in rat forebrain motor and sensory regions are minimally affected by acrylamide exposure through drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was undertaken to determine whether alterations in the gene expression or overt histological signs of neurotoxicity in selected regions of the forebrain might occur from acrylamide exposure via drinking water. Gene expression at the mRNA level was evaluated by cDNA array and/or RT-PCR analysis in the striatum, substantia nigra and parietal cortex of rat after a 2-week acrylamide exposure. The highest dose tested (maximally tolerated) of approximately 44 mg/kg/day resulted in a significant decreased body weight, sluggishness, and locomotor activity reduction. These physiological effects were not accompanied by prominent changes in gene expression in the forebrain. All the expression changes seen in the 1200 genes that were evaluated in the three brain regions were ≤ 1.5-fold, and most not significant. Very few, if any, statistically significant changes were seen in mRNA levels of the more than 50 genes directly related to the cholinergic, noradrenergic, GABAergic or glutamatergic neurotransmitter systems in the striatum, substantia nigra or parietal cortex. All the expression changes observed in genes related to dopaminergic function were less than 1.5-fold and not statistically significant and the 5HT1b receptor was the only serotonin-related gene affected. Therefore, gene expression changes were few and modest in basal ganglia and sensory cortex at a time when the behavioral manifestations of acrylamide toxicity had become prominent. No histological evidence of axonal, dendritic or neuronal cell body damage was found in the forebrain due to the acrylamide exposure. As well, microglial activation was not present. These findings are consistent with the absence of expression changes in genes related to changes in neuroinflammation or neurotoxicity. Over all, these data suggest that oral ingestion of acrylamide in drinking water or food, even at maximally tolerable levels, induced neither marked changes in gene expression nor neurotoxicity in the motor and

  20. Acrilamida en patatas fritas y productos de aperitivo elaborados en la Comunidad Valenciana Acrylamide in potato crisps and snack foods produced in the autonomous Community of Valencia (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefa Gomar Fayos

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Evaluar el contenido de acrilamida en las patatas fritas y los productos de aperitivo elaborados en la Comunidad Valenciana y comparar los resultados con los de las principales organizaciones de seguridad alimentaria. Métodos: Se analizan 24 muestras de patatas fritas y 15 de productos de aperitivo. Se comparan los resultados con los procedentes de la Food and Drug Administration y de la Autoridad Europea de Seguridad Alimentaria. Resultados: El nivel medio (desviación estándar de acrilamida en las patatas fritas de la Comunidad Valenciana es de 916 (656 μg/kg y en los productos de aperitivo 262 (346 μg/kg. Hay diferencias significativas en las 3 poblaciones comparadas. Los niveles de acrilamida en las patatas fritas de la Comunidad Valenciana son los más elevados. Conclusiones: Hay una gran dispersión en el contenido de acrilamida para el mismo tipo de productos. Se requieren más investigaciones en métodos de muestreo y análisis y actuaciones para reducir los niveles de acrilamida.Objectives: To evaluate acrylamide content in potato crisps and snack foods produced in the Valencian Community and to compare the results with those published by the main food safety organizations. Methods: Twenty-four samples of potato crisps and 15 samples of snack foods were analyzed. The results were compared with those from the Food and Drug Administration and the European Food Safety Authority. Results: The mean (SD acrylamide level in the Valencian Community was 916 (656 μg/kg in potato crisps and 262 (346 μg/kg in snack foods. Significant differences were found in the 3 populations compared. Acrylamide levels in potato crisps in the Valencian Community were the highest. Conclusions: There was wide variation in acrylamide content for the same type of product. Further investigation into methods of sampling and analysis and steps to reduce acrylamide levels are required.

  1. Radiation-induced graft polymermization of acrylamide onto poly(tetrafluoroethylene/ Hexaflouropropylene/vinylidene fluoride) (TFB) films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessouki, A. M.; Taher, N. H.; El-Boohy, H. A.

    Radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylamide (AAm) onto poly(tetrafluoroethylene/ hexafluoropropylene/vinylidene fluoride) (TFB) films has been investigated. The appropriate reaction conditions at which the graft polymerization was carried out successfully were selected. It was observed that the grafting process was enhanced remarkably by using distilled water as diluent. In this grafting system ammonium ferrous sulphate (Mohr's salt) was used as inhibitor to minimize the homopolymerization of AAm and the suitable concentration of such inhibitor was found to be 3.5wt%. The dependence of the grafting rate on the monomer concentration was calculated to be 2.8 order. Some properties of the grafted films such as water uptake, electrical conductivity, mechanical properties and chemical and thermal stability were investigated. An improvement in these properties was observed which makes possible the use of these membranes in some practical applications.

  2. Synthesis, swelling and drug release behavior of poly(N,N-diethylacrylamide-co-N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide) hydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, poly(N,N-diethylacrylamide-co-N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide) (poly(DEA-co-NHMAA)) hydrogels were synthesized by changing the initial DEA/NHMAA mole ratio, N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide and total monomer concentration. The thermosensitive and mechanical performances were optimized by altering the above parameters. The hydrogels were characterized by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM). In comparison with the PDEA hydrogel, the equilibrium swelling ratio (ESR) and lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the hydrogels increased with the increase of NHMAA content in the feed. The swelling kinetics was also studied. The release behaviors of the model drug, aminophylline, are found dependent on hydrogel composition and environmental temperature, which suggests that these materials have potential application as intelligent drug carriers.

  3. Reduction of exposure to acrylamide: achievements, potential of optimization, and problems encountered from the perspectives of a Swiss enforcement laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Koni

    2005-01-01

    The most important initiatives taken in Switzerland to reduce exposure of consumers to acrylamide are the separate sale of potatoes low in reducing sugars for roasting and frying, the optimization of the raw material and preparation of french fries, and campaigns to implement suitable preparation methods in the gastronomy and homes. Industry works on improving a range of other products. Although these measures can reduce high exposures by some 80%, they have little effect on the background exposure resulting from coffee, bread, and numerous other products for which no substantial improvement is in sight. At this stage, improvements should be achieved by supporting voluntary activity rather than legal limits. Committed and consistent risk communication is key, and the support of improvements presupposes innovative approaches.

  4. Synthesis of porous poly(acrylamide hydrogels using calcium carbonate and its application for slow release of potassium nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Porous poly(acrylamide was synthesized using calcium carbonate microparticles and subsequent acid treatment to remove the calcium carbonate. Methylenebisacrylamide and ammonium persulfate/sodium metabisulfite were used as crosslinking agent and redox initiator, respectively. The porous structure of resulted hydrogels was confirmed using SEM micrographs. The effect of methylenebisacrylamide concentration and calcium carbonate amount on the swelling of the hydrogels was investigated. The results showed that the effect of methylenebisacrylamide and calcium carbonate variables on the swelling is reverse. The hydrogels were subsequently utilized for the loading of potassium nitrate. Potassium nitrate as active agent was loaded into hydrogels and subsequently the release of this active agent was investigated. In these series of investigation, the effect of content of loading, methylenebisacrylamide and calcium carbonate amount on the release of potassium nitrate from hydrogels was investigated.

  5. Physical properties of hemoglobin-poly(acrylamide) hydrogel-based oxygen carriers: effect of reaction pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Jaqunda N; Palmer, Andre F

    2006-02-28

    This work examines the physical properties of bovine hemoglobin (BHb) chemically cross-linked to a pH responsive polymer (poly(acrylamide)) with the goal of taking advantage of the polymer's pH sensitivity to generate low-P50 oxygen carriers for application in physiological conditions characterized by deviations from normal pH. BHb-hydrogel-based oxygen carriers encapsulating 10-16 g/dL BHb displayed P50s liposomes (i.e. Hb-LGs) and change conformations between the R and T states. The magnitude of the zeta potential of Hb-LGs and Hb-NHPs was shown to be within the range of stored red blood cells and within the range of limited flocculation. Taken together, this work describes the preparation and characterization of oxygen carriers with increased oxygen affinities compared to those of red blood cells. PMID:16489809

  6. Dispersive Stabilization of Liquid Crystal-in-Water with Acrylamide Copolymer/Surfactant Mixture: Nematic Curvilinear Aligned Phase Composite Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park; Lee

    1999-11-01

    The effect of nonionic surfactant, (H(OCH(2)-CH(2))(8)-OC(6)H(4)-C(9)H(19)), on the dispersion stabilization of liquid crystal (LC)-in-water with acrylamide copolymer containing the related nonylphenyl groups was studied. It was observed that the addition of nonionic surfactant increases the stability of LC dispersions and improves the electrooptical properties of the nematic curvilinear aligned phase (NCAP) composite film. On the basis of the surface tension, reduced viscosity, cloud point, and coalescence time measurements, it was proposed that formation of an integrated structure induced by interactions between hydrophobic groups in the polymer chains is probably important to fabrication of a polymer composite film made of LC and polymer matrix. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  7. Experimental Investigation of Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Silica Nanoparticle-Reinforced Poly(acrylamide Nanocomposite Hydrogels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josergio Zaragoza

    Full Text Available Current studies investigating properties of nanoparticle-reinforced polymers have shown that nanocomposites often exhibit improved properties compared to neat polymers. However, over two decades of research, using both experimental studies and modeling analyses, has not fully elucidated the mechanistic underpinnings behind these enhancements. Moreover, few studies have focused on developing an understanding among two or more polymer properties affected by incorporation of nanomaterials. In our study, we investigated the elastic and thermal properties of poly(acrylamide hydrogels containing silica nanoparticles. Both nanoparticle concentration and size affected hydrogel properties, with similar trends in enhancements observed for elastic modulus and thermal diffusivity. We also observed significantly lower swellability for hydrogel nanocomposites relative to neat hydrogels, consistent with previous work suggesting that nanoparticles can mediate pseudo crosslinking within polymer networks. Collectively, these results indicate the ability to develop next-generation composite materials with enhanced mechanical and thermal properties by increasing the average crosslinking density using nanoparticles.

  8. Studies on the grafting of acrylamide onto xanthan gum by co-irradiation and its application performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xanthan gum-graft-Acrylamide (XG-g-AM) was synthesized by 60Co γ-rays radiation. The effects of the different reaction conditions on the grafting degree and the grafting efficiency were explored. The structures of the grafted copolymers were characterized by means of Element Analysis (EA), Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) respectively. The experiment results show that the optimized grafting reaction parameters, XG concentration of 10 g/L, AM and XG Mass ratio of 3:1, the total absorption dose of 6.0 kGy can make the grafting degree up to 128.5 % and the grafting efficiency to 80.4 %. And the flocculation performance of XG-g-AM has been also confirmed. (authors)

  9. Synthesis and Solution Properties of Zwitterionic Copolymer of Acrylamide with 3-[(2-Acrylamido)dimethylammonio]propanesulfonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Hui; Hu, Jing; Jin, Shuailin; Li, Rui Hai [Sichuan Univ., Chengdu (China)

    2013-09-15

    A novel zwitterionic monomer 3-[(2-acrylamido)dimethylammonio]propanesulfonate (DMADAS) was designed and synthesized in this study. Then it was polymerized with acrylamide (AM) by free radical polymerization in 0.5 mol/L NaCl solution with ammonium persulfate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8}) and sodium sulfate (NaHSO{sub 3}) as initiator. The structure and composition of DMADAS and acrylamide-3-[(2-acrylamido)-dimethylammonio]propanesulfonate copolymer (P-AM-DMADAS) were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, {sup 1}H NMR and elemental analyses. Isoelectric point (IEP) of P-AM-DMADAS was tested by nanoparticle size and potential analyzer. Solution properties of copolymer were studied by reduced viscosity. Antipolyelectrolyte behavior was observed and was found to be enhanced with increasing DMADAS content in copolymer. The results showed that the viscosity of P-AM-DMADAS is 5.472 dl/g in pure water. Electrolyte was added, which weakened the mutual attraction between sulfonic acid group and quaternary ammonium group. The conformation became loose, which led to the increase of reduced viscosity. The ability of monovalent and divalent cation influencing the viscosity of zwitterionic copolymer obeyed the following sequence: Li{sup +} < Na{sup +} < K{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+} < Ca{sup 2+} < Ba{sup 2+}, and that of anion is in the order: Cl{sup -} < Br{sup -} < I{sup -}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} > SO{sub 3}{sup 2-} ≅ SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}.

  10. Neuroprotective Effect of Calpeptin on Acrylamide-Induced Neuropathy in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaomin; Yan, Fengfeng; E, Meng; Zhang, Cuili; Li, Guozhen; Yang, Xiwei; Zhang, Fengmei; Wang, Shue; Yu, Sufang

    2015-11-01

    Acrylamide (ACR) is a vinyl monomer with established human neurotoxic effects, which is characterized by the accumulation of neurofilaments (NFs) in the distal swellings of large axons in peripheral and central nervous systems. However, the mechanisms of neurotoxicity remain unclear. The objective is to investigate the neuroprotective effect of calpeptin (CP) on ACR-induced neuropathy and its mechanism. Female adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (control, CP, ACR, and ACR + CP group). Control group received 0.9 % saline, ACR and ACR + CP groups received 30 mg/kg ACR by intraperitoneal injection. In addition, CP and ACR + CP groups also received 200 µg/kg CP. Gait analysis and hind limb splay were measured weekly to analyze neurobehavioral changes. The calpain activity and the changes of NFs protein levels in spinal cord are determined. Compared with control group, body weight of rats in ACR group decreased by 11.3 % (P < 0.01), while in ACR + CP group body weight increased significantly by 8.3 % (P < 0.01) compared with ACR group by the end of the 4th week; gait score of rats in both ACR and ACR + CP groups increased significantly by 167 % and 100 % (P < 0.01) compared with control group, while it decreased significantly by 25.1 % (P < 0.01) in ACR + CP group compared with ACR group; the distance of hind limb splay in both ACR and ACR + CP groups increased by 76.7 % and 49.5 % (P < 0.01) compared with control group, while it decreased by 15.4 % (P < 0.01) in ACR + CP group compared with ACR group; calpain activity of spinal cord at ACR and ACR + CP groups increased significantly by 14.9 % and 10.0 % (P < 0.01) compared with control group, while it decreased 4.2 % (P < 0.01) in ACR + CP group compared with ACR group; compared with control group, the levels of light NF (NF-L), medium NF (NF-M) and heavy NF (NF-H) subunits increased by 81.2 %, 263.6 % and 22.6 % (P < 0.01) in the supernatant of ACR group in spinal cord tissue and increased by 28

  11. Acylation of Antioxidant of Bamboo Leaves with Fatty Acids by Lipase and the Acylated Derivatives' Efficiency in the Inhibition of Acrylamide Formation in Fried Potato Crisps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Ma

    Full Text Available This study selectively acylated the primary hydroxyl groups on flavonoids in antioxidant of bamboo leaves (AOB using lauric acid with Candida antarctica lipase B in tert-amyl-alcohol. The separation and isolation of acylated derivatives were performed using silica gel column chromatography with a mixture of dichloromethane/diethyl ether/methanol as eluents. Both thin layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography analyses confirmed the high efficiency of the isolation process with the purified orientin-6″-laurate, isoorientin-6″-laurate, vitexin-6″-laurate, and isovitexin-6″-laurate that were obtained. The addition of AOB and acylated AOB reduced acrylamide formation in fried potato crisps. Results showed that 0.05% AOB and 0.05% and 0.1% acylated AOB groups significantly (p < 0.05 reduced the content of acrylamide in potato crisps by 30.7%, 44.5%, and 46.9%, respectively.

  12. Immobilization of poly(acrylamide) brushes onto poly(caprolactone) surface by combining ATRP and "click" chemistry: Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of protein adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuhao; Bian, Xinxiu; He, Liu; Cai, Mengtan; Xie, Xiaoxiong; Luo, Xianglin

    2015-02-01

    Developments of poly(caprolactone) in blood-contacting applications are often restricted due to its intrinsic hydrophobicity. One common way to improve its hemocompatibility is to attach hydrophilic polymers. Here we developed a non-destructive method to graft hydrophilic poly(acrylamide) (PAAm) onto poly(caprolactone) (PCL) surface. In this strategy, azido-ended PCL with low molecular weights was synthesized and blended with PCL to create a surface with "clickable" property. Alkyne-ended poly(acrylamide)s with controlled chain lengths were then synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), and finally were immobilized onto PCL surface by "click" reaction. The occurrence of immobilization was verified qualitatively by water contact angle measurement and quantitatively by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The PAAm grafted surface exhibited fouling resistant properties, as demonstrated by reduced bovine serum albumin (BSA) and fibrinogen (Fg) adhesion.

  13. Development of dummy molecularly imprinted based on functionalized silica nanoparticles for determination of acrylamide in processed food by matrix solid phase dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabi, Maryam; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Ostovan, Abbas

    2016-11-01

    A novel technique was applied for the synthesis of dummy molecularly imprinted silica nanoparticles (DMISNPs). DMISNPs were characterized by Fourier transmission infrared spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope. The material was used as dispersant for the analysis of biscuit and bread samples using matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD). Of advantages of such approach may be counted as the simplicity of synthesis procedure, low consumption of organic solvent, mild working temperature during the synthesis, high binding capacity and affinity. The effect of various parameters such as sample-to-dispersant ratio and eluents volume on extraction recovery was investigated and optimized by central composite design under response surface methodology. It was proven that the proposed dispersant leads to high affinity toward acrylamide even in complicated matrices. Quantification of the acrylamide was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (HPLC-UV). PMID:27211623

  14. Effect of acid additives on graft copolymerization and water absorption of graft copolymers of cassava starch and acrylamide/acrylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelatinized cassava starch was radiation graft copolymerized with acrylamide or acrylic acid in the presence of sulfuric acid, nitric acid or maleic acid at a specific dose rate to a fixed total dose. Homopolymer or free copolymer was extracted by water to obtain the pure graft copolymer, which was subsequently saponified with 5% potassium hydroxide solution at room temperature for 90 min. The saponified graft copolymer was investigated for the effect of acid additives and water absorption. The addition of 2% maleic acid into the grafting reaction containing acrylamide-to-starch ratio of 2.5:1 can produce the superabsorbent copolymer having water absorption as high as 2,256 ± 25 g g-1. The effect of acid additive was explained. (author)

  15. A Green Approach to Synthesize Silver Nanoparticles in Starch-co-Poly(acrylamide) Hydrogels by Tridax procumbens Leaf Extract and Their Antibacterial Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Siraj Shaik; Madhusudana Rao Kummara; Sudhakar Poluru; Chandrababu Allu; Jaffer Mohiddin Gooty; Chowdoji Rao Kashayi; Marata Chinna Subbarao Subha

    2013-01-01

    A series of starch-co-poly(acrylamide) (starch-co-PAAm) hydrogels were synthesized by employing free radical redox polymerization. A novel green approach, Tridax procumbens (TD) leaf extract, was used for reduction of silver ions (Ag+) into silver nanoparticles in the starch-co-PAAm hydrogel network. The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TE...

  16. Poly(oligo(ethylene glycol)acrylamide) brushes by surface initiated polymerization: effect of macromonomer chain length on brush growth and protein adsorption from blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N; Janzen, Johan; Le, Yevgeniya; Kainthan, Rajesh K; Brooks, Donald E

    2009-04-01

    Three hydrolytically stable polyethyleneglycol (PEG)-based N-substituted acrylamide macromonomers, methoxypolyethyleneglycol (350) acrylamide (MPEG350Am) methoxypolyethyleneglycol (750) acrylamide(MPEG750Am) and methoxypolyethyleneglycol (2000)acrylamide (MPEG2000Am) with increasing PEG chain length were synthesized. Surface-initiated aqueous atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) using CuCl/1,1,4,7,10,10-hexamethyl triethylene tetramine (HMTETA) catalyst was utilized to generate dense polymer brushes from these monomers via an ester linker group on the surface of model polystyrene (PS) particles. The molecular weight, hydrodynamic thickness, and graft densities of the grafted polymer layers were controlled by changing the reaction parameters of monomer concentration, addition of Cu(II)Cl2, and sodium chloride. The graft densities of surface-grafted brushes decreased with increasing PEG macromonomer chain length, 350 > 750 > 2000, under similar experimental conditions. The molecular weight of grafts increased with increase in monomer concentration, and only selected conditions produced narrow distributed polymer chains. The molecular weight of grafted polymer chains differs significantly to those formed in solution. The hydrodynamic thicknesses of the grafted polymer layers were fitted to the Daoud and Cotton model (DCM) for brush height on spherical surfaces. The results show that the size of the pendent groups on the polymer chains has a profound effect on the hydrodynamic thickness of the brush for a given degree of polymerization. The new PEG-based surfaces show good protection against nonspecific protein adsorption from blood plasma compared to the bare surface. Protein adsorption decreased with increasing surface density of grafted polymer chains. Poly(MPEG750Am) brushes were more effective in preventing protein adsorption than poly(MPEG350Am) even at low graft densities, presumably due to the increase in PEG content in the grafted layer. PMID:19708153

  17. Direct determination of acrylamide in potato chips by using headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiasvand, Ali Reza; Hajipour, Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Acrylamide is a potentially toxic and carcinogenic substance present in many high-consumption foods. Recently, this matter has been placed in category of "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen" by National Toxicology Program (NTP). Therefore, simple and cost-effective determination of acrylamide in food samples has attracted intense interest. The most reported techniques for this purpose are GC-MS and LC-MS, which are very expensive and available in few laboratories. In this research, for the first time, a rapid, easy and low-cost method is introduced for sensitive and precise determination of acrylamide in foodstuffs, using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) system after its direct trapping in the upper atmosphere of samples by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME). The effects of main experimental variables were studied and the optimized parameters were obtained as the type of fiber, carboxen/divinylbenzene/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/DVB/PDMS); extraction time, 30 min; extraction temperature, 60°C; moisture content, 10 µL water per 1g of sample; desorption time, 2 min; and desorption temperature, 230°C. The linear calibration graph was obtained in the range of 0.77-50 µg g(-1), with regression coefficient of 0.998. The detection and quantification limits of the proposed method were 0.22 and 0.77 µg g(-1), respectively. The recoveries, for different food samples, were 79.6-95.7%. The repeatability of measurements, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), were found to be 4.1-8.0% (n=9). The proposed HS-SPME-GC-FID method was successfully carried out for quantifying of trace levels of acrylamide in some processed food products (chips and French fries), sold in open local markets. PMID:26695284

  18. Mixture Genotoxicity of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid, Acrylamide, and Maleic Hydrazide on Human Caco-2 Cells Assessed with Comet Assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syberg, Kristian; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Cedergreen, Nina;

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of genotoxic properties of chemicals is mainly conducted only for single chemicals, without taking mixture genotoxic effects into consideration. The current study assessed mixture effects of the three known genotoxic chemicals, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), acrylamide (AA), a......, but further investigations including in vivo studies are needed to clarify how important these more-than-additive effects are for risk assessment....

  19. Silica-Supported Arsine Palladium(0) Complex: a Highly Active and Stereoselective Catalyst for Arylation of Butyl Acrylate and Acrylamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡明中; 赵红; 胡文英

    2005-01-01

    A silica-supported arsine palladium(O) complex has been prepared from y-chloropropyltriethoxysilane via immobilization on fumed silica, followed by reaction with potassium diphenylarsenide and palladium chloride, and then reduction with hydrazine hydrate. The complex has been characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and it is a highly active and stereoselective catalyst for arylation of butyl acrylate and acrylamide with aryl halides, affording a variety of tram-butyl cinnamates and trans-cinnamamides in high yields.

  20. Frozen concentration fluctuations in a poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) gel studied by neutron spin echo and small-angle neutron scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Koizumi, S; Richter, D; Schwahn, D; Faragó, B; Annaka, M

    2002-01-01

    By employing neutron spin echo and small-angle neutron scattering, we determined the structure factor of the frozen concentration fluctuations on nano-length scales in a swollen poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) gel. The frozen contribution, showing a plateau at the low scattering wavenumber q (0.02 A sup - sup 1), is intimately related to the abnormal butterfly scattering pattern appearing at low q under deformation. (orig.)

  1. Direct determination of acrylamide in potato chips by using headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiasvand, Ali Reza; Hajipour, Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Acrylamide is a potentially toxic and carcinogenic substance present in many high-consumption foods. Recently, this matter has been placed in category of "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen" by National Toxicology Program (NTP). Therefore, simple and cost-effective determination of acrylamide in food samples has attracted intense interest. The most reported techniques for this purpose are GC-MS and LC-MS, which are very expensive and available in few laboratories. In this research, for the first time, a rapid, easy and low-cost method is introduced for sensitive and precise determination of acrylamide in foodstuffs, using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) system after its direct trapping in the upper atmosphere of samples by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME). The effects of main experimental variables were studied and the optimized parameters were obtained as the type of fiber, carboxen/divinylbenzene/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/DVB/PDMS); extraction time, 30 min; extraction temperature, 60°C; moisture content, 10 µL water per 1g of sample; desorption time, 2 min; and desorption temperature, 230°C. The linear calibration graph was obtained in the range of 0.77-50 µg g(-1), with regression coefficient of 0.998. The detection and quantification limits of the proposed method were 0.22 and 0.77 µg g(-1), respectively. The recoveries, for different food samples, were 79.6-95.7%. The repeatability of measurements, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), were found to be 4.1-8.0% (n=9). The proposed HS-SPME-GC-FID method was successfully carried out for quantifying of trace levels of acrylamide in some processed food products (chips and French fries), sold in open local markets.

  2. Acrylamide and glycidamide hemoglobin adduct levels and endometrial cancer risk: A nested case-control study in nonsmoking postmenopausal women from the EPIC cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obón-Santacana, Mireia; Freisling, Heinz; Peeters, Petra H; Lujan-Barroso, Leila; Ferrari, Pietro; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Mesrine, Sylvie; Baglietto, Laura; Turzanski-Fortner, Renee; Katzke, Verena A; Boeing, Heiner; Quirós, J Ramón; Molina-Portillo, Elena; Larrañaga, Nerea; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Travis, Ruth C; Merritt, Melissa A; Gunter, Marc J; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Naska, Androniki; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Fiano, Valentina; Galassom, Rocco; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Vesper, Hubert; Riboli, Elio; Duell, Eric J

    2016-03-01

    Acrylamide, classified in 1994 by IARC as "probably carcinogenic to humans," was discovered in 2002 in some heat-treated, carbohydrate-rich foods. Four prospective studies have evaluated the association between dietary acrylamide intake and endometrial cancer (EC) risk with inconsistent results. The purpose of this nested case-control study, based on the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, was to evaluate, for the first time, the association between hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide (HbAA) and glycidamide (HbGA) and the risk of developing EC in non-smoking postmenopausal women. Hemoglobin adducts were measured in red blood cells by HPLC/MS/MS. Four exposure variables were evaluated: HbAA, HbGA, their sum (HbAA+HbGA), and their ratio (HbGA/HbAA). The association between hemoglobin adducts and EC was evaluated using unconditional multivariable logistic regression models, and included 383 EC cases (171 were type-I EC), and 385 controls. Exposure variables were analyzed in quintiles based on control distributions. None of the biomarker variables had an effect on overall EC (HRHbAA;Q5vsQ1 : 0.84, 95%CI: 0.49-1.48; HRHbGA;Q5vsQ1 : 0.94, 95%CI: 0.54-1.63) or type-I EC risk. Additionally, none of the subgroups investigated (BMI acrylamide or glycidamide were not associated with EC or type-I EC risk in 768 nonsmoking postmenopausal women from the EPIC cohort.

  3. In-house–validated liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for survey of acrylamide in various processed foods from Korean market

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sanghee; Yoo, Miyoung; Koo, Minseon; Kim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Meehye; Park, Sung-Kug; Shin, Dongbin

    2013-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is a chemical found in starchy foods that have been cooked at high temperatures. The objective of this study is to monitor the levels of AA in a total of 274 samples of potato chips, chips (except potato chips), biscuits, French fries, breakfast cereals, chocolate products, tea, seasoned laver, and nut products sampled in Korean market. These processed foods include (1) potato chips, (2) chips (except potato chips), (3) biscuits, (4) French fries, (5) breakfast cereals, (6) ch...

  4. Immobilization of poly(acrylamide) brushes onto poly(caprolactone) surface by combining ATRP and “click” chemistry: Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of protein adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Yuhao; Bian, Xinxiu; He, Liu; Cai, Mengtan; Xie, Xiaoxiong [College of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Luo, Xianglin, E-mail: luoxl@scu.edu.cn [College of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); State Key Laboratory of Polymer Material and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2015-02-28

    Highlights: • Poly(caprolacone) (PCL) film surface was chemically modified by a novel method through combining ATRP and “click” chemistry. • Poly(acrylamide) (PAAm) of tailored chain length were synthesized and “clicked” onto PCL surface. • The modified PCL surface showed reduced BSA and Fg adsorption, and the protein resist ability in terms of chain length through its impact on grafting reaction and modified surface was investigated. - Abstract: Developments of poly(caprolactone) in blood-contacting applications are often restricted due to its intrinsic hydrophobicity. One common way to improve its hemocompatibility is to attach hydrophilic polymers. Here we developed a non-destructive method to graft hydrophilic poly(acrylamide) (PAAm) onto poly(caprolactone) (PCL) surface. In this strategy, azido-ended PCL with low molecular weights was synthesized and blended with PCL to create a surface with “clickable” property. Alkyne-ended poly(acrylamide)s with controlled chain lengths were then synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), and finally were immobilized onto PCL surface by “click” reaction. The occurrence of immobilization was verified qualitatively by water contact angle measurement and quantitatively by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The PAAm grafted surface exhibited fouling resistant properties, as demonstrated by reduced bovine serum albumin (BSA) and fibrinogen (Fg) adhesion.

  5. Disruption of erythrocyte antioxidant defense system, hematological parameters, induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and DNA damage in liver of co-exposed rats to aluminium and acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbel, Imen; Maktouf, Sameh; Kallel, Choumous; Ellouze Chaabouni, Semia; Boudawara, Tahia; Zeghal, Najiba

    2015-07-01

    The individual toxic effects of aluminium and acrylamide are well known but there are no data on their combined effects. The present study was undertaken to determine (i) hematological parameters during individual and combined chronic exposure to aluminium and acrylamide (ii) correlation of oxidative stress in erythrocytes with pro-inflammatory cytokines expression, DNA damage and histopathological changes in the liver. Rats were exposed to aluminium (50 mg/kg body weight) in drinking water and acrylamide (20 mg/kg body weight) by gavage, either individually or in combination for 3 weeks. Exposure rats to AlCl3 or/and ACR provoked an increase in MDA, AOPP, H2O2 and a decrease in GSH and NPSH levels in erythrocytes. Activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase were decreased in all treated rats. Our results showed that all treatments induced an increase in WBC, erythrocyte osmotic fragility and a decrease in RBC, Hb and Ht. While MCV, MCH, MCHC remained unchanged. Hepatic pro-inflammatory cytokines expression including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, interleukin-1β was increased suggesting leucocytes infiltration in the liver. A random DNA degradation was observed on agarose gel only in the liver of co-exposed rats to AlCl3 and ACR treatment. Interestingly, co-exposure to these toxicants exhibited synergism based on physical and biochemical variables in erythrocytes, pro-inflammatory cytokines and DNA damage in liver.

  6. Determination of acrylamide in dried fruits and edible seeds using QuEChERS extraction and LC separation with MS detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paola, Eleonora Laura; Montevecchi, Giuseppe; Masino, Francesca; Garbini, Davide; Barbanera, Martino; Antonelli, Andrea

    2017-02-15

    Acrylamide is a carcinogenic and neurotoxic process contaminant that is generated from food components during heat treatment, while it is absent in raw foodstuffs. Its level in food arouses great concern. A method for acrylamide extraction and determination in dried fruits (dried prunes and raisins) and edible seeds (almonds, hazelnuts, peanuts, pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts) using a QuEChERS-LC-ESI-MS-Triple Quadrupole approach was set up. Linearity, sensitivity, accuracy, and precision of the method were satisfactory. Dried prunes and peanuts were the only samples appreciably contaminated, 14.7-124.3 and 10.0-42.9μg/kg, respectively, as a consequence of the drying process. In fact, prunes are dried at 70-80°C for a quite long time (24-36h), while peanuts undergo a roasting process at 160-180°C for 25-30min. The relative standard deviations, accuracy, LOD, and LOQ show that the method provides a reliable approach to acrylamide determination in different matrices. PMID:27664625

  7. 淀粉-丙烯酰胺反相乳液聚合%Starch-acrylamide polymer was prepared by inverse emulsion polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武世新; 杨红丽

    2012-01-01

    采用反相乳液聚合,以淀粉、丙烯酰胺为原料,过硫酸铵为引发剂制备了淀粉丙烯酰胺聚合物.实验表明,最佳反应条件为:引发剂加量为单体总量的0.1%,油水体积比为1∶1,反应温度为60℃,反应时间为4h.淀粉丙烯酰胺聚合物的除浊率可达89%,吸水率达350%.%The polymer was prepared by inverse emulsion polymerization, starch and acrylamide as raw materials. Ammonium persulfate as the initiator prepared starch-acrylamide polymer. The experimental showed that the optimum reaction conditions were as follows:mass ratio of initiator to monomer is 0. 1% , oil to water volume ratio is 1:1, reaction temperature is 60 ℃ ,and reaction time is 4 h. The starch-acrylamide polymer turbidity removal rate up to 89% ,and water absorption up to 350%.

  8. Determination of acrylamide in dried fruits and edible seeds using QuEChERS extraction and LC separation with MS detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paola, Eleonora Laura; Montevecchi, Giuseppe; Masino, Francesca; Garbini, Davide; Barbanera, Martino; Antonelli, Andrea

    2017-02-15

    Acrylamide is a carcinogenic and neurotoxic process contaminant that is generated from food components during heat treatment, while it is absent in raw foodstuffs. Its level in food arouses great concern. A method for acrylamide extraction and determination in dried fruits (dried prunes and raisins) and edible seeds (almonds, hazelnuts, peanuts, pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts) using a QuEChERS-LC-ESI-MS-Triple Quadrupole approach was set up. Linearity, sensitivity, accuracy, and precision of the method were satisfactory. Dried prunes and peanuts were the only samples appreciably contaminated, 14.7-124.3 and 10.0-42.9μg/kg, respectively, as a consequence of the drying process. In fact, prunes are dried at 70-80°C for a quite long time (24-36h), while peanuts undergo a roasting process at 160-180°C for 25-30min. The relative standard deviations, accuracy, LOD, and LOQ show that the method provides a reliable approach to acrylamide determination in different matrices.

  9. 焙烤小麦胚芽中丙烯酰胺含量测定分析%A STUDY ON DETERMINATION OF ACRYLAMIDE IN BAKED WHEAT GERM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾志成; 任文明

    2011-01-01

    利用气相色谱对焙烤小麦胚芽中丙烯酰胺的浓度进行了测定,并比较不同焙烤条件下麦芽中丙烯酰胺含量,结果显示丙烯酰胺在0.125μg,/ml 1mL-2.0μ,g/ml 1mL浓度范围内具有良好的线性(R2 =0.999),加标平均回收率在88.1% ~ 104.6%之间,相对标准偏差(RSD)小于6.7%;焙烤温度相同时,麦芽中丙烯酰胺含量会随着焙烤时间的增加而变大,焙烤时间相同,当焙烤温度在170℃ ~ 200℃范围内时,麦芽中丙烯酰胺含量随着温度的升高而不断减少.%The wheat germ was used as sample, setting 140 ℃ , 170 ℃ , 200 ℃ as the baking temperature, and each temperature level was matched with different process time (The times are 10,15 and 20 min) for baking. After adding methacrylami as the internal standard,the sample was extracted by water and then deproteinized by carrez solution and defatted by n - hexane, extracted with ethyl acetate, then evaporated to 1 m 1. The concentration of acrylamide is determined by gas chromatography to compare the content of ac-rylamide of baked germ at different baking conditions. Results were shown The linear ranges of concentration of acrylamide was 0. 125μg/mL~2.0 μg/mL(R2 =0.999). The average recoveries from 88. 1% to 104.6% , and the relative standard derivations were lower than 6.7% ; When the baking temperature is the same, the content of acrylamide in wheat will improve with the increase of bakmg time. When baking time duration was the same, the content level of acrylamide decreased with the increase of baking temperature (170℃ ~200℃).

  10. The acrylamide (S)-2 as a positive and negative modulator of Kv7 channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom, Sigrid Marie; Schmitt, Nicole; Jensen, Henrik Sindal

    2009-01-01

    , accelerated activation kinetics and slowed deactivation kinetics. The mechanisms of action varied between the subtypes. The enhancing effects of (S)-2 were critically dependent on a tryptophan residue in S5 also known to be crucial for the effects of retigabine, (S)-1 and BMS-204352. However, while (S)-2 did...... the potential of drugs for particular indications. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study we have made a thorough investigation of the Bristol-Myers Squibb compound (S)-N-[1-(4-Cyclopropylmethyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[1], [4]oxazin-6-yl)-ethyl]-3-(2-fluoro-phenyl)-acrylamide [(S)-2] on human Kv7.......1-5 channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. We found that the compound was a weak inhibitor of Kv7.1. In contrast, (S)-2 efficiently opened Kv7.2-5 by producing hyperpolarizing shifts in the voltage-dependence of activation and enhancing the maximal current amplitude. Further, it reduced inactivation...

  11. Two-way shift of wavelength in holographic sensing of organic vapor in nanozeolites dispersed acrylamide photopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Dongyao; Geng, Yaohui; Liu, Hongpeng; Zhou, Ke; Xian, Lihong; Yu, Dan

    2016-08-10

    Holographic sensing of alcohol organic vapor is characterized in detail at transmission and reflection geometries in Y nanozeolites dispersed acrylamide photopolymer. The two-way shift of the diffraction spectrum and its temporal evolution with various vapor concentrations are measured. Obvious blueshifts of diffraction spectrum peaks are observed and analyzed in two recording geometries. The competition mechanism between decreasing the average refractive index and swelling the grating fringe space is proposed for exploring the wavelength shift mechanism. In the reflection grating, as organic vapor increases, the redshift after the blueshift of the wavelength peaks are observed clearly. We further demonstrate the significance of this competition mechanism. In the low concentration region, at transmission <700  ppm and reflection <400  ppm in nanozeolites dispersed polymer, the blueshift of the wavelength is a significant factor in identifying an organic vapor with a low refractive index. These experimental results provide a probability for improving the applicability of a holographic sensor. This work can accelerate the development of the holographic sensing strategy and provide a novel identification method for organic vapor. PMID:27534461

  12. Dissemination of acrylamide monomer from polyacrylamide-based flocculant use--sand and gravel quarry case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touzé, Solene; Guerin, Valérie; Guezennec, Anne-Gwenaëlle; Binet, Stéphane; Togola, Anne

    2015-05-01

    Aggregate quarries play a major role in land settlement. However, like all industrial operations, they can have impacts on the environment, notably due to the use of polyacrylamide (PAM)-based flocculants, which contain residual acrylamide (AMD), a carcinogenic, mutagenic, and reprotoxic monomer. In this study, the dissemination of AMD throughout the environment has been investigated in a French quarry. The presence of AMD has been determined in the process water and in the sludge, as well as in the surrounding surface water and groundwater. From the results of several sampling campaigns carried out on this case study, we can (a) confirm that the AMD contained in the commercial product is found in the quarry's water circuit (0.41 to 5.66 μg/l); (b) show that AMD is transported to the surrounding environment, as confirmed by the contamination of a pond near the installation (0.07 to 0.08 μg/l) and the presence of AMD in groundwater (0.01 to 0.02 μg/l); and (c) show that the sludge in both the current and former settling basins contains AMD (between 4 and 26 μg/kg of dry sludge). Therefore, we demonstrated in this case study that using PAM-based flocculants leads to the release of AMD to the environment beyond the treatment plant and creates a reserve of AMD in sludge basins.

  13. Fabrication of chitosan-g-poly(acrylamide)/CuS nanocomposite for controlled drug delivery and antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathania, Deepak; Gupta, Divya; Agarwal, Shilpi; Asif, M; Gupta, Vinod Kumar

    2016-07-01

    In present study, we reported the synthesis of chitosan-g-poly(acrylamide)/CuS (CPA/CS) nanocomposite for controlled delivery of ofloxacin. The CPA/CS nanocomposites were characterized by Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-visible spectroscopy (UV), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. From the FTIR spectra, the various groups present in CPA/CS nanocomposite were monitored. The homogeneity, morphology and crystallinity of the CPA/CS nanocomposite were ascertained from SEM/EDX and XRD data, respectively. The kinetics of ofloxacin drug delivery was investigated at different pH. The drug released studies were investigated at different pH (2.2, 7.4 and 9.4) and time intervals (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16h). The drug release behavior depends upon the pH of medium and the nature of matrix. The maximum drug loading efficiency of 85% was recorded for CPA/CS. The maximum drug release of 76% was observed at 2.2. pH after 18h onto CPA/CS. Nanocomposites were also tested for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli bacteria. About 97% killing of E. coli was observed after 24h. PMID:27127073

  14. Diffractive Optical Elements with a Large Angle of Operation Recorded in Acrylamide Based Photopolymer on Flexible Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Akbari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A holographic device characterised by a large angular range of operation is under development. The aim of this study is to increase the angular working range of the diffractive lens by stacking three layers of high efficiency optical elements on top of each other so that light is collected (and focussed from a broader range of angles. The angular range of each individual lens element is important, and work has already been done in an acrylamide-based photosensitive polymer to broaden the angular range of individual elements using holographic recording at a low spatial frequency. This paper reports new results on the angular selectivity of stacked diffractive lenses. A working range of 12° is achieved. The diffractive focussing elements were recorded holographically with a central spatial frequency of 300 l/mm using exposure energy of 60 mJ/cm2 at a range of recording angles. At this spatial frequency with layers of thickness 50 ± 5 µm, a diffraction efficiency of 80% and 50% was achieved in the single lens element and combined device, respectively. The optical recording process and the properties of the multilayer structure are described and discussed. Holographic recording of a single lens element is also successfully demonstrated on a flexible glass substrate (Corning(R Willow(R Glass for the first time.

  15. Evaluation of acrylamide-removing properties of two Lactobacillus strains under simulated gastrointestinal conditions using a dynamic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Jimenez, L; Ramírez-Ortiz, K; González-Córdova, A F; Vallejo-Cordoba, B; Garcia, H S; Hernandez-Mendoza, A

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the capability of Lactobacillus reuteri NRRL 14171 and Lactobacillus casei Shirota to remove dietary acrylamide (AA) under simulated gastrointestinal conditions using a dynamic system. The effects of different AA levels or bacteria concentration on toxin removal by Lactobacillus strains were assessed. Thereafter, AA-removing capability of bacteria strains under either fasting or postprandial simulated gastrointestinal conditions was evaluated. Commercial potato chips were analyzed for their AA content, and then used as a food model. Average AA content (34,162μg/kg) in potato chips exceeded by ca. 34-fold the indicative values recommended by the EU. Toxin removal ability was dependent on AA content and bacterial cell concentration. A reduction on bacterial viability was observed in the food model and at the end of both digestive processes evaluated. However, bacteria survived in enough concentrations to remove part of the toxin (32-73%). Both bacterial strains were able to remove AA under different simulated gastrointestinal conditions, being L. casei Shirota the most effective (ca. 70% removal). These findings confirmed the risk of potato chips as dietary AA exposure for consumers, and that strains of the genus Lactobacillus could be employed to reduce the bioavailability of dietary AA. PMID:27393995

  16. Thermo-responsive, UV-active poly(phenyl acrylate-b-poly(diethyl acrylamide block copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maric

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The homopolymerization of phenyl acrylate (PA was investigated for the first time by nitroxide mediated polymerization (NMP with the succinimidyl form of the SG1-based unimolecular initiator 2-[N-tert-butyl-2,2-(dimethylpropyl-aminooxy]propionic acid (BlocBuilder MA. The control of PPA homopolymerization was improved by the use of 15 mol% additional free nitroxide SG1 ([tert-butyl[1-(diethoxyphosphoryl-2,2-dimethylpropyl]amino]oxidanyl and dispersities, Mw/Mn, of around 1.2 were achieved. A PPA homopolymer was then successfully chain-extended with diethyl acrylamide (DEAAm to form a block copolymer of PPA-b-PDEAAm where the PDEAAm segment is thermo-responsive, while the PPA block is potentially UV-active. The thermo-responsive behavior of the block copolymer in 0.5 wt% aqueous solution was studied by UV-Vis spectrometry and dynamic light scattering (DLS, indicating cloud point temperatures of 26–30°C, close to that reported for PDEAAm homopolymers.

  17. Optimal Design for Reactivity Ratio Estimation: A Comparison of Techniques for AMPS/Acrylamide and AMPS/Acrylic Acid Copolymerizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison J. Scott

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Water-soluble polymers of acrylamide (AAm and acrylic acid (AAc have significant potential in enhanced oil recovery, as well as in other specialty applications. To improve the shear strength of the polymer, a third comonomer, 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS, can be added to the pre-polymerization mixture. Copolymerization kinetics of AAm/AAc are well studied, but little is known about the other comonomer pairs (AMPS/AAm and AMPS/AAc. Hence, reactivity ratios for AMPS/AAm and AMPS/AAc copolymerization must be established first. A key aspect in the estimation of reliable reactivity ratios is design of experiments, which minimizes the number of experiments and provides increased information content (resulting in more precise parameter estimates. However, design of experiments is hardly ever used during copolymerization parameter estimation schemes. In the current work, copolymerization experiments for both AMPS/AAm and AMPS/AAc are designed using two optimal techniques (Tidwell-Mortimer and the error-in-variables-model (EVM. From these optimally designed experiments, accurate reactivity ratio estimates are determined for AMPS/AAm (rAMPS = 0.18, rAAm = 0.85 and AMPS/AAc (rAMPS = 0.19, rAAc = 0.86.

  18. Biphasic Equilibrium Dialysis of Poly(N-Isopropyl Acrylamide Nanogels Synthesized at Decreased Temperatures for Targeted Delivery of Thermosensitive Bioactives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Musial

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogel nanoparticles, referred to also as nanogels, are of special interest for medical and pharmaceutical applications. Due to small size in the range below the diameter of the capillaries, they are proposed as drug delivery carriers. The aim of the study was to estimate the influence of composition and reaction conditions during synthesis of poly-N-isopropyl acrylamide cross-linked by polyethylene glycol diacrylate on the purification rates of the polymer. Six types of thermosensitive nanogels were prepared by surfactant-free dispersion polymerization and assessed in terms of process yield, composition, and size at temperatures below and over volume phase temperature. During the diffusion of impurities, in the course of dialysis, assessed by the conductometric method, the remarkable influence of temperature and initiator concentration on the process was revealed. The release rates varied in the range between 9.63 · 10−2 and 1.39 · 10−1 h−1 in the first stage of the process, whereas in the second stage they were between 2.09 · 10−2 and 6.28 · 10−2 h−1. The evaluated time to obtain acceptable purity of the preparation was estimated to be in the range of 18 days. More detailed research should be directed towards the influence of the structure of obtained material on the purification process.

  19. Evaluation of protective effect of freeze-dried strawberry, grape, and blueberry powder on acrylamide toxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mengyao; Liu, Xin; Luo, Yinghua; Guo, Huan; Hu, Xiaosong; Chen, Fang

    2015-04-01

    Berries are dietary plants with high antioxidant activity. The aim of this study is to investigate the protective effect of berries (strawberry, grape, and blueberry) against the acrylamide (AA)-induced general toxicity, genotoxicity, and reproductive toxicity in mice model, respectively. Mice were treated with 50 mg/kg b.w./day AA intraperitoneal injection for 5 d after feeding control diet or diet containing freeze-dried strawberry, grape, and blueberry powder. The results showed that AA induced a significant general toxicity, genotoxicity, and reproductive toxicity in mice. Compared with the control diet, the diets containing berries could reverse the AA-induced alterations in liver antioxidant enzymes activities (P < 0.05). Moreover, the AA-induced genotoxicity could be prevented by the diet containing berries. The DNA damage in the lymphocyte and liver cells and the micronucleus formation in bone marrow cell were significantly alleviated (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the mice fed with diets containing berries showed a recovery in the sperm count, the sperm activity rate, sperm motility parameters, and the abnormal sperm rate (P < 0.05). Berry powders have remarkable intervention against the AA-induced general toxicity, genotoxicity, reproductive toxicity. Abundant phenolics, especially anthocyanins, may contribute to the intervention.

  20. Acrylamide increases dopamine levels by affecting dopamine transport and metabolism related genes in the striatal dopaminergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaoqi; Guo, Xiongxiong; Xiong, Fei; Cheng, Guihong; Lu, Qing; Yan, Hong

    2015-07-01

    Dopaminergic system dysfunction is proved to be a possible mechanism in acrylamide (ACR) -induced neurotoxicity. The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) has an increasingly important role in the dopaminergic system. Thus, the goal of this study is to evaluate effects of ACR on dopamine and its metabolite levels, dopamine transport and metabolic gene expression in dopaminergic neurons. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were dosed orally with ACR at 0 (saline), 20, 30, and 40 mg/kg/day for 20 days. Splayed hind limbs, reduced tail flick time and abnormal gait which preceded other neurologic parameters were observed in the above rats. ACR significantly increased dopamine levels, decreased 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanilic acid (HVA) contents in an area dependent manner in rat striatum. Immunohistochemical staining of the striatum revealed that the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive cells significantly increased, while monoamine oxidase (MAO) positive cells were drastically reduced, which was consistent with changes in their mRNA and protein expressions. In addition, dopamine transporter (DAT) and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) expression levels were both down-regulated in the striatum. These results suggest that dopamine levels increase significantly in response to ACR, presumably due to changes in the dopamine transport and metabolism related genes expression in the striatal dopaminergic neurons.

  1. Synthesis and Performance of an Acrylamide Copolymer Containing Nano-SiO2 as Enhanced Oil Recovery Chemical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongbin Ye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel copolymer containing nano-SiO2 was synthesized by free radical polymerization using acrylamide (AM, acrylic acid (AA, and nano-SiO2 functional monomer (NSFM as raw materials under mild conditions. The AM/AA/NSFM copolymer was characterized by infrared (IR spectroscopy, 1H NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and scanning electron microscope (SEM. It was found that the AM/AA/NSFM copolymer exhibited higher viscosity than the AM/AA copolymer at 500 s−1 shear rate (18.6 mPa·s versus 8.7 mPa·s. It was also found that AM/AA/NSFM could achieve up to 43.7% viscosity retention rate at 95°C. Mobility control results indicated that AM/AA/NSFM could establish much higher resistance factor (RF and residual resistance factor (RRF than AM/AA under the same conditions (RF: 16.52 versus 12.17, RRF: 3.63 versus 2.59. At last, the enhanced oil recovery (EOR of AM/AA/NSFM was up to 20.10% by core flooding experiments at 65°C.

  2. Swelling of Superabsorbent Poly(Sodium-Acrylate Acrylamide) Hydrogels and Influence of Chemical Structure on Internally Cured Mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafcik, Matthew J.; Erk, Kendra A.

    Superabsorbent hydrogel particles show promise as internal curing agents for high performance concrete (HPC). These gels can absorb and release large volumes of water and offer a solution to the problem of self-dessication in HPC. However, the gels are sensitive to ions naturally present in concrete. This research connects swelling behavior with gel-ion interactions to optimize hydrogel performance for internal curing, reducing the chance of early-age cracking and increasing the durability of HPC. Four different hydrogels of poly(sodium-acrylate acrylamide) are synthesized and characterized with swelling tests in different salt solutions. Depending on solution pH, ionic character, and gel composition, diffrerent swelling behaviors are observed. As weight percent of acrylic acid increases, gels demonstrate higher swelling ratios in reverse osmosis water, but showed substantially decreased swelling when aqueous cations are present. Additionally, in multivalent cation solutions, overshoot peaks are present, whereby the gels have a peak swelling ratio but then deswell. Multivalent cations interact with deprotonated carboxylic acid groups, constricting the gel and expelling water. Mortar containing hydrogels showed reduced autogenous shrinkage and increased relative humidity.

  3. Farnesol quells oxidative stress, reactive gliosis and inflammation during acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity: Behavioral and biochemical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanasabapathy, R; Vasudevan, S; Anupriya, K; Pabitha, R; Sudhandiran, G

    2015-11-12

    Acrylamide (ACR) is an industrial pollutant, to which humans are exposed through chemicals associated with day to day human life and contributes to neurological disorders. The role of reactive gliosis upon toxic insults remains paradoxical, and the immunomodulatory events during ACR intoxication remain obscure. In view of this, the present study investigated ACR-induced (20mg/kgb.wt for 4weeks) neurodegeneration in the context of oxidative stress and associated inflammatory events and the ability of farnesol, a sesquiterpene, to mitigate reactive gliosis in the brain of Swiss albino mice. Farnesol supplementation (100mg/kgb.wt.) showed a marked improvement in gait performance, neuromuscular function and fine motor coordination and attenuated ACR-induced diminution in glutathione (GSH) with parallel reduction in lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein carbonyls, hydroxide, hydroperoxide and nitrite levels. Farnesol treatment significantly ameliorated ACR-mediated histological aberrations and reactive gliosis by downregulating Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and Ionizsed calcium-binding adapter molecule-1 ​(Iba-1) in the cortex, hippocampus and striatum. Further, ACR stimulated increase in levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were considerably decreased by farnesol. In conclusion, our findings indicate that farnesol exerts neuroprotective efficacy during ACR-induced neuropathology by suppressing reactive gliosis and associated inflammatory events.

  4. Ultravilolet-radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylamide onto the melt-blown polypropylene filter element by dynamic method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    By dynamic method under UV irradiation, commercial melt-blown polypropylene (PPMB) filter element was modified with acrylamide (AAm) using benzophenone (BP) as initiator. Attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope verified that polyacrylamide chain was grafted on the fiber surface of PPMB filter element. Elemental content analysis with energy dispersive X-ray of fibers revealed that the polymerization content in the inner part of filter element was relatively higher than that in the outer. Degree of grafting changed with initiator concentration, monomer concentration, reaction temperature and reached 2.6% at the reaction condition: CBP=0.06 mol/L, CAAm=2.0 mol/L, irradiation time: 80 min, 60℃. Relative water flux altered with the hydrophilicity and pore size of filter element. In the antifouling test, the modified filter gave greater flux recovery (approximately 70%) after filtration of the water extract of Liuweidihuang, suggesting that the fouling layer was more easily reversible due to the hydrophilic nature of the modified filter.

  5. A colorimetric detection of acrylamide in potato chips based on nucleophile-initiated thiol-ene Michael addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qinqin; Fu, Yingchun; Xu, Xiahong; Qiao, Zhaohui; Wang, Ronghui; Zhang, Ying; Li, Yanbin

    2016-02-01

    Acrylamide (AA), a neurotoxin and a potential carcinogen, has been found in various thermally processed foods such as potato chips, biscuits, and coffee. Simple, cost-effective, and sensitive methods for the rapid detection of AA are needed to ensure food safety. Herein, a novel colorimetric method was proposed for the visual detection of AA based on a nucleophile-initiated thiol-ene Michael addition reaction. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were aggregated by glutathione (GSH) because of a ligand-replacement, accompanied by a color change from red to purple. In the presence of AA, after the thiol-ene Michael addition reaction between GSH and AA with the catalysis of a nucleophile, the sulfhydryl group of GSH was consumed by AA, which hindered the subsequent ligand-replacement and the aggregation of AuNPs. Therefore, the concentration of AA could be determined by the visible color change caused by dispersion/aggregation of AuNPs. This new method showed high sensitivity with a linear range from 0.1 μmol L(-1) to 80 μmol L(-1) and a detection limit of 28.6 nmol L(-1), and especially revealed better selectivity than the fluorescence sensing method reported previously. Moreover, this new method was used to detect AA in potato chips with a satisfactory result in comparison with the standard methods based on chromatography, which indicated that the colorimetric method can be expanded for the rapid detection of AA in thermally processed foods. PMID:26699696

  6. Rapid and simple determination of acrylamide in conventional cereal-based foods and potato chips through conversion to 3-[bis(trifluoroethanoyl)amino]-3-oxopropyl trifluoroacetate by gas chromatography coupled with electron capture and ion trap mass spectrometry detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Mario Vincenzo; Avino, Pasquale; Centola, Angela; Notardonato, Ivan; Cinelli, Giuseppe

    2014-03-01

    A new, simple, rapid and fully validated method based on gas chromatography coupled with Electron capture and ion trap mass spectrometry detectors (GC-ECD and GC-IT/MS) is presented for quantitative analysis of acrylamide contaminant in conventional cereal-based foods and potato chips. Before analysis acrylamide was efficiently derivatized with trifluoroacetic anhydride, the effects of temperature, reaction time and catalyst on the acylation reaction were evaluated. Chromatographic analysis was performed on SE-54 capillary column; good retention and peak response of the acrylamide derivative achieved under the optimal conditions. The analytical method has been fully validated by assessment of the following parameters: LODs and LOQs (1 and 25ngg(-1) by GC-ECD and 2 and 36ngg(-1) by GC-IT/MS, with a Relative Standard Deviations potato chips). PMID:24176333

  7. Comprehensive profiling of mercapturic acid metabolites from dietary acrylamide as short-term exposure biomarkers for evaluation of toxicokinetics in rats and daily internal exposure in humans using isotope dilution ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Wang, Qiao; Cheng, Jun; Zhang, Jingshun; Xu, Jiaojiao; Ren, Yiping

    2015-09-24

    Mercapturic acid metabolites from dietary acrylamide are important short-term exposure biomarkers for evaluating the in vivo toxicity of acrylamide. Most of studies have focused on the measurement of two metabolites, N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-L-cysteine (AAMA) and N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine (GAMA). Thus, the comprehensive profile of acrylamide urinary metabolites cannot be fully understood. We developed an isotope dilution ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous determination of all four mercapturic acid adducts of acrylamide and its primary metabolite glycidamide under the electroscopy ionization negative (ESI-) mode in the present study. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of the analytes ranged 0.1-0.3 ng/mL and 0.4-1.0 ng/mL, respectively. The recovery rates with low, intermediate and high spiking levels were calculated as 95.5%-105.4%, 98.2%-114.0% and 92.2%-108.9%, respectively. Acceptable within-laboratory reproducibility (RSDrats. Meanwhile, results of human urine analysis indicated that the levels of N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-L-cysteine-sulfoxide (AAMA-sul), which did not appear in the mercapturic acid metabolites in rodents, were more than the sum of GAMA and N-acetyl-S-(1-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine (iso-GAMA). Thus, AAMA-sul may alternatively become a specific biomarker for investigating the acrylamide exposure in humans. Current proposed method provides a substantial methodology support for comprehensive profiling of toxicokinetics and daily internal exposure evaluations of acrylamide in vivo.

  8. Synthesis, characterization and application of poly(acrylamide-co-methylenbisacrylamide) nanocomposite as a colorimetric chemosensor for visual detection of trace levels of Hg and Pb ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Poly(acrylamide-co-methylenbisacrylamide) nanocomposite. • Colorimetric chemosensor. • Determination of trace levels of Hg and Pb ions. • Environmental samples. - Abstract: In this study, a new colorimetric chemosensor based on TiO2/poly(acrylamide-co-methylenbisacrylamide) nanocomposites was designed for determination of mercury and lead ions at trace levels in environmental samples. The removal and preconcentration of lead and mercury ions on the sorbent was achieved due to sharing an electron pair of N and O groups of polymer chains with the mentioned heavy metal ions. The hydrogel sensor was designed by surface modification of a synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles using methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilan (MAPTMS), which provided a reactive C=C bond that polymerized the acrylamide and methylenbisacrylamide. The sorbent was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscope (SEM), EDS analysis and Fourier transform in frared (FT-IR) spectrometer. This nanostructured composite with polymer shell was developed as a sensitive and selective sorbent for adsorption of mercury and lead ions from aqueous solution at optimized condition. This method involves two-steps: (1) preconcentration of mercury and lead ions by the synthesized sorbent and (2) its selective monitoring of the target ions by complexation with dithizone (DZ). The color of the sorbent in the absence and presence of mercury and lead ions shifts from white to violet and red, respectively. The detection limit of the synthesized nanochemosensor for mercury and lead ions was 1 and 10 μg L−1, respectively. The method was successfully applied for trace detection of mercury and lead ions in tap, river, and sea water samples

  9. 复配氨基酸对丙烯酰胺抑制研究%Reserch on inhibitory of complex amino acids on acrylamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范云露; 陆启玉

    2013-01-01

    Acrylamide (Acrylamide, AA) exist in high temperature fried or baked goods. Add complex amino acid:Taurine(Tau)+Glycine(Gly),Taurine+L-Glutamine(L-Glu),Taurine+L-cysteine (L-Cys),Study their effects on the inhibition of acrylamide and using Response Surface Methodology on reaction time,temperature,proportion of complex amino acids were optimized. The results showed that three kinds of complex amino acid suppression system can effectively inhibit the AA content, which Tau/Cys complex best,but its inhibitory mechanism and in food processing applications for further study.%丙烯酰胺(Acrylamide,AA)存在于高温煎炸或焙烤食品中,该文添加复配氨基酸:牛磺酸(Taurine,Tau)+甘氨酸(Glycine,Gly),牛磺酸+L-谷氨酰胺(L-Glutamin,L-Glu),牛磺酸+半胱氨酸(L-Cysteine,L-Cys),研究其对丙烯酰胺(Acrylamide,AA)抑制作用,并利用响应面RSM(Response Surface Methodology)对反应时间、温度、复配氨基酸比例等条件进行优化。结果表明,三种复配氨基酸抑制体系均可有效抑制AA含量,其中又以Tau/Cys复配效果最好,但其抑制机理及在食品加工中应用有待进一步研究。

  10. Synthesis, characterization and application of poly(acrylamide-co-methylenbisacrylamide) nanocomposite as a colorimetric chemosensor for visual detection of trace levels of Hg and Pb ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedghi, Roya, E-mail: r_sedghi@sbu.ac.ir; Heidari, Bahareh; Behbahani, Mohammad

    2015-03-21

    Highlights: • Poly(acrylamide-co-methylenbisacrylamide) nanocomposite. • Colorimetric chemosensor. • Determination of trace levels of Hg and Pb ions. • Environmental samples. - Abstract: In this study, a new colorimetric chemosensor based on TiO{sub 2}/poly(acrylamide-co-methylenbisacrylamide) nanocomposites was designed for determination of mercury and lead ions at trace levels in environmental samples. The removal and preconcentration of lead and mercury ions on the sorbent was achieved due to sharing an electron pair of N and O groups of polymer chains with the mentioned heavy metal ions. The hydrogel sensor was designed by surface modification of a synthesized TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles using methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilan (MAPTMS), which provided a reactive C=C bond that polymerized the acrylamide and methylenbisacrylamide. The sorbent was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscope (SEM), EDS analysis and Fourier transform in frared (FT-IR) spectrometer. This nanostructured composite with polymer shell was developed as a sensitive and selective sorbent for adsorption of mercury and lead ions from aqueous solution at optimized condition. This method involves two-steps: (1) preconcentration of mercury and lead ions by the synthesized sorbent and (2) its selective monitoring of the target ions by complexation with dithizone (DZ). The color of the sorbent in the absence and presence of mercury and lead ions shifts from white to violet and red, respectively. The detection limit of the synthesized nanochemosensor for mercury and lead ions was 1 and 10 μg L{sup −1}, respectively. The method was successfully applied for trace detection of mercury and lead ions in tap, river, and sea water samples.

  11. Determination of trace acrylamide in starchy foodstuffs by HPLC using a novel mixed-mode functionalized calixarene sorbent for solid-phase extraction cleanup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenfen; Deng, Zhifen; Zhao, Wenjie; Guo, Ling; Tang, Wei; Du, Huifang; Lin, Lin; Jiang, Qiong; Yu, Ajuan; He, Lijun; Zhang, Shusheng

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, a rapid and effective HPLC method, using tetraazacalix[2]arene[2]triazine-modified silica gel (NCSi) as solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbent, was developed for the purification and determination of trace acrylamide in starchy foodstuffs. The main influence factors of SPE including amount of NCSi sorbent, sample flow rate, and volume and composition of washing solution were investigated and evaluated in the sample pretreatment step. The optimized purification effect was achieved at the sample flow rate of 3 mL/min with 100 mg of NCSi and 2 mL of washing solution (water, 100%). The HPLC separation was carried out on a C18 column (250×4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm) with a mobile phase of methanol/water (10:90, v/v). The linear range of the calibration curve was 4-4000 ng/mL with s correlation coefficient of >0.9999. The intraday and interday RSDs (n=5) of peak areas of acrylamide were 0.22 and 0.90% and the intraday and interday RSDs (n=5) of retention times were 0.50 and 1.63%, respectively. In addition, overall recoveries through the extraction and NCSi-SPE purification ranged from 73.13 to 98%. Compared with the commercial SPE sorbents, NCSi featured excellent selectivity to retain polar and nonpolar interferences in the sample matrices. The improved method was simple, rapid, accurate, and promising for the determination of trace acrylamide in starchy foods with a complex matrix.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of Ce_(0.8)Sm_(0.2)O_(1.9) nanopowders using an acrylamide polymerization process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑颖平; 王绍荣; 王振荣; 邬理伟; 孙岳明

    2010-01-01

    Ce0.8Sm0.2O1.9(SDC) nanopowders were synthesized by an acrylamide polymerization process.The XRD results showed that SDC powders prepared at 700 °C possessed a cubic fluorite structure.Transmission electron microscopy(TEM) indicated that the particle sizes of powders were in the range of 10-15 nm.A 98.3% of theoretical density was obtained when the SDC pellets were sintered at 1350 °C for 5 h,indicating that the powders had good sinterability.The conductivity of the sintered SDC ceramics was 0.019 S/cm at 6...

  13. Mechanical and swelling characterization of poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide -co- methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate) sol-gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Jacob F; Healy, Kevin E

    2010-04-01

    The dimensional stability and rheological properties of a series of comb-like copolymers of N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAAm) and methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (mPEGMA), poly(NIPAAm-co-mPEGMA), with varying poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) graft densities and molecular weights were studied. The thermoresponsive character of the copolymer solutions was investigated by kinetic and equilibrium swelling, as well as by static and dynamic mechanical analysis. Surface response mapping was employed to target particular compositions and concentrations with excellent dimensional stability and a relatively large change in dynamic mechanical properties upon thermoreversible gelation. The mechanical characteristics of the gels depended strongly upon concentration of total polymer and less so upon copolymer ratio. Increased PEG graft density was shown to slow the deswelling rate and increase the equilibrium water content of the gels. Upon gelation at sol concentrations of 1-20 wt.% the materials underwent no deswelling or syneresis and maintained stable gels with a large elastic regime and high yield strain (i.e. elastic and soft but tough), even within the Pascal range of complex shear moduli. These materials are unique in that they maintained a physiologically useful lower critical solution temperature (approximately 33 degrees C), despite having a high PEG content. Copolymers with a high PEG content and low polymer fraction were conveniently transparent in the gel phase, allowing visualization of cellular activity without disrupting the microenvironment. Mesenchymal stem cells showed good viability and proliferation in three-dimensional culture within the gels, despite the lack of ligand incorporation to promote cellular interaction. Multi-component matrices can be created through simple mixing of copolymer solutions and peptide-conjugated linear polymers and proteins to produce combinatorial microenvironments with the potential for use in cell biology, tissue

  14. Anti-infective Activity of 2-Cyano-3-Acrylamide Inhibitors with Improved Drug-Like Properties against Two Intracellular Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passalacqua, Karla D; Charbonneau, Marie-Eve; Donato, Nicholas J; Showalter, Hollis D; Sun, Duxin; Wen, Bo; He, Miao; Sun, Hanshi; O'Riordan, Mary X D; Wobus, Christiane E

    2016-07-01

    Due to the rise of antibiotic resistance and the small number of effective antiviral drugs, new approaches for treating infectious diseases are urgently needed. Identifying targets for host-based therapies represents an emerging strategy for drug discovery. The ubiquitin-proteasome system is a central mode of signaling in the eukaryotic cell and may be a promising target for therapies that bolster the host's ability to control infection. Deubiquitinase (DUB) enzymes are key regulators of the host inflammatory response, and we previously demonstrated that a selective DUB inhibitor and its derivative promote anti-infective activities in host cells. To find compounds with anti-infective efficacy but improved toxicity profiles, we tested a library of predominantly 2-cyano-3-acrylamide small-molecule DUB inhibitors for anti-infective activity in macrophages against two intracellular pathogens: murine norovirus (MNV) and Listeria monocytogenes We identified compound C6, which inhibited DUB activity in human and murine cells and reduced intracellular replication of both pathogens with minimal toxicity in cell culture. Treatment with C6 did not significantly affect the ability of macrophages to internalize virus, suggesting that the anti-infective activity interferes with postentry stages of the MNV life cycle. Metabolic stability and pharmacokinetic assays showed that C6 has a half-life in mouse liver microsomes of ∼20 min and has a half-life of approximately 4 h in mice when administered intravenously. Our results provide a framework for targeting the host ubiquitin system in the development of host-based therapies for infectious disease. Compound C6 represents a promising tool with which to elucidate the role of DUBs in the macrophage response to infection. PMID:27139470

  15. Adamantyl-group containing mixed-mode acrylamide-based continuous beds for capillary electrochromatography. Part III. Optimization of the chromatographic efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Massaedh, Ayat Allah; Pyell, Ute

    2014-01-17

    In a previous article we described the synthesis of amphiphilic monolithic stationary phases by in situ free radical copolymerization of cyclodextrin-solubilized N-adamantyl acrylamide, piperazinediacrylamide, methacrylamide and vinylsulfonic acid in aqueous medium in pre-treated fused silica capillaries of 100μ.m I.D. In this work, a series of N-adamantyl-group containing acrylamide-based continuous beds is synthesized under variation of different synthesis parameters. The studied synthesis parameters are (i) concentration of the lyotropic salt ammonium sulfate, (ii) concentration of the initiator ammonium persulfate, and (iii) concentration of the negatively charged monomer vinylsulfonic acid in the polymerization mixture. The influence of the synthesis parameters on the chromatographic efficiency is studied under isocratic conditions for a homologues series of alkylphenones in the reversed-phase mode at constant composition of the mobile phase via capillary electrochromatography with varied electric field strength. With varied concentration of the lyotropic salt ammonium sulfate or varied concentration of the initiator ammonium persulfate in the polymerization mixture, a strong impact on the chromatographic efficiency is observed, while there is only a minor influence when varying the molar fraction of the charged monomer VSA. The absence of a significant influence of extra-column band broadening effects on the determined efficiency is confirmed. There is a good repeatability (with respect to capillary-to-capillary variation and run-to-run variation) reached for the theoretical plate heights obtained for DMF and selected alkylphenones in the reversed-phase mode. PMID:24296296

  16. Direct measurement of tubulin and bulk message distributions on polysomes of growing, starved and deciliated Tetrahymena using RNA gel blots of sucrose gradients containing acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzone, F J; Callahan, R; Gorovsky, M A

    1988-10-25

    A method was developed using sucrose gradients containing acrylamide which greatly simplifies the measurement of the polysomal distribution of messages. After centrifugation, the acrylamide was polymerized, forming a "polysome gel". RNA gel blots of polysome gels were used to determine the polysomal distributions of alpha-tubulin and total polyadenylated mRNA in growing, starved (nongrowing) and starved-deciliated Tetrahymena and the number of messages loaded onto polysomes was calculated. These measurements indicated that the translational efficiencies of alpha-tubulin mRNA and total polyadenylated mRNA are largely unaffected when the rates of tubulin and total protein synthesis vary dramatically. Thus, differential regulation of alpha-tubulin mRNA translation initiation does not contribute to the greater than 100-fold induction of tubulin synthesis observed during cilia regeneration and in growing cells. The major translation-level process regulating tubulin synthesis in Tetrahymena appears to be a change in message loading mediated by a non-specific message recruitment or unmasking factor.

  17. Synthesis of Sodium Humate-Acrylamide Graft Copolymer%腐植酸钠-丙烯酰胺接枝共聚物的合成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马淑清; 生金峰; 张荣明

    2011-01-01

    Graft copolymerization of sodium humate onto acrylamide initiated by potassium peroxydisulfate was studied through aqueous solution polymerization method. The influential factors, such as reaction temperature, reaction time, initiator amount and reactant mass ratio were explored. The optimum conditions were obtained as follows:reaction temperature of 70℃, reaction time of 6 h, initiator amount of 2. 5% ,the mass ratio of acrylamide to sodium humate(g :g) of 50: 1. The structure of product was characterized by IR.%采用水溶液聚合方法,以过硫酸钾为引发剂,以腐植酸钠、丙烯酰胺为原料进行接枝共聚反应.考察了引发剂用量、物料比、反应温度和反应时间等因素对合成腐植酸钠—丙烯酰胺接枝共聚物的影响.确定最佳聚合工艺条件为:反应温度70℃、反应时间6h、引发剂用量2.5%、丙烯酰胺与腐植酸钠质量比(g:g)50:1.通过红外光谱对共聚物的结构进行了表征.

  18. Determination of Trace Acrylamide in Tap-water by GC-MS%GC-MS测定自来水中痕量丙烯酰胺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳; 王亚宁

    2015-01-01

    We determined trace acrylamide in tap water by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The sample pretreatment was bromide derivatization method with m/z152,150,108 as the characteristic fragment ion and the SIM scanning method for quantitative analysis. The accuracy and reproducibility of the method were good and the sensitivity was higher,and it was suitable for the determination of trace acrylamide in tap water.%建立自来水中痕量丙烯酰胺的气相色谱-质谱测定法.样品前处理采用溴化衍生法,以m/z152,150,108 为特征碎片离子,SIM 的扫描方式进行定量痕量分析.该方法的准确性、重现性较好,灵敏度更高,适用于自来水中痕量丙烯酰胺的测定.

  19. Synthesis, characterization and application of poly(acrylamide-co-methylenbisacrylamide) nanocomposite as a colorimetric chemosensor for visual detection of trace levels of Hg and Pb ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedghi, Roya; Heidari, Bahareh; Behbahani, Mohammad

    2015-03-21

    In this study, a new colorimetric chemosensor based on TiO2/poly(acrylamide-co-methylenbisacrylamide) nanocomposites was designed for determination of mercury and lead ions at trace levels in environmental samples. The removal and preconcentration of lead and mercury ions on the sorbent was achieved due to sharing an electron pair of N and O groups of polymer chains with the mentioned heavy metal ions. The hydrogel sensor was designed by surface modification of a synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles using methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilan (MAPTMS), which provided a reactive C=C bond that polymerized the acrylamide and methylenbisacrylamide. The sorbent was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscope (SEM), EDS analysis and Fourier transform in frared (FT-IR) spectrometer. This nanostructured composite with polymer shell was developed as a sensitive and selective sorbent for adsorption of mercury and lead ions from aqueous solution at optimized condition. This method involves two-steps: (1) preconcentration of mercury and lead ions by the synthesized sorbent and (2) its selective monitoring of the target ions by complexation with dithizone (DZ). The color of the sorbent in the absence and presence of mercury and lead ions shifts from white to violet and red, respectively. The detection limit of the synthesized nanochemosensor for mercury and lead ions was 1 and 10 μg L(-1), respectively. The method was successfully applied for trace detection of mercury and lead ions in tap, river, and sea water samples. PMID:25497023

  20. SYNTHESIS OF POLYMERICβ-CYCLODEXTRIN SUPPORTED BY CROSSLINKED POLY(ACRYLAMIDE-co-VINYLAMINE) AND ITS CATALYSIS OF THE HYDROLYSIS OF p-NITROPHENYL ACETATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-jun Wang; Jian-biao Ma; Bing-lin He

    2000-01-01

    Polymeric β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) supported by crosslinked poly(acrylamide-co-vinylamine) was synthesized as an artificial analog of hydrolytic enzyme and its catalysis of the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl acetate (p-NPA) was then investigated. The result showed that the polymer-supported β-CD could accelerate the hydrolytic reaction of p-NPA more quickly than β-CD itself and crosslinked poly(acrylamide-co-vinylamine) alone. The acceleration rate of the polymersupported β-CD was about 10 times as fast as that of free β-CD in 0.01 mol/L phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) containing 32%DMSO at 37±0.1℃ when the molar amount of β-CD units in the polymer was equal to that of free β-CD in the experiments.The enhanced acceleration of the polymer-supported β-CD should be ascribed to the cooperative contribution of the inclusion effect of β-CD ring and the nucleophilic effect of amino groups on the polymeric support.

  1. Immobilization of Styrene-acrylamide Co-polymer on Either Silica Particles or Inner Surface of Silica Capillary for the Separation of D-Glucose Anomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Faiz; Kim, Yune Sung; Cheong, Won Jo [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    Styrene-acrylamide co-polymer was immobilized on porous partially sub-2 μm silica monolith particles and inner surface of fused silica capillary (50 μm ID and 28 cm length) to result in μLC and CEC stationary phases, respectively, for separation of anomeric D-glucose derivatives. Reversed addition-fragmentation transfer (RAFT) polymerization was incorporated to induce surface polymerization. Acrylamide was employed to incorporate amide-functionality in the stationary phase. The resultant μLC and CEC stationary phases were able to separate isomers of D-glucose derivatives with high selectivity and efficiency. The mobile phase of 75/ 25 (v/v) acetonitrile (ACN)/water with 0.1% TFA, was used for HPLC with a packed column (1 mm ID, 300 mm length). The effects of pH and ACN composition on anomeric separation of D-glucose in CEC have been examined. A mobile phase of 85/15 (v/v) ACN/30 mM sodium acetate pH 6.7 was found the optimized mobile phase for CEC. The CEC stationary phase also gave good separation of other saccharides such as maltotriose and Dextran 1500 (MW∼1500) with good separation efficiency (number of theoretical plates ∼300,000/m)

  2. Concentration of bulk solution and initiator volume in polymerization of acrylamide aqueous solution%丙烯酰胺水溶液聚合中本体溶液浓度和引发剂量的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾亚宁

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the preparation for concentration of bulk solution in polymerization of acrylamide aqueous solution as well as initiator volume.%本文对丙烯酰胺水溶液聚合本体溶液浓度和引发剂量进行了研究.

  3. Sol-gel hybrid methyltrimethoxysilane-tetraethoxysilane as a new dispersive solid-phase extraction material for acrylamide determination in food with direct gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Mei Musa Ali; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Aini; Elbashir, Abdalla Ahmed

    2014-09-01

    A sol-gel hybrid sorbent, methyltrimethoxysilane-tetraethoxysilane (MTMOS-TEOS) was successfully used as new dispersive solid phase extraction (dSPE) sorbent material in the determination of acrylamide in several Sudanese foods and analysis using GC-MS. Several important dSPE parameters were optimised. Under the optimised conditions, excellent linearity (r(2)>0.9998) was achieved using matrix matched standard calibration in the concentration range 50-1000 μg kg(-1). The limits of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification ranged from 9.1 to 12.8 μg/kg and 27.8-38.9 μg/kg, respectively. The precision (RSD%) of the method was ⩽6.6% and recoveries of acrylamide obtained were in the range of 88-103%, (n=3). The LOD obtained is comparable with the LODs of primary secondary amine dSPE. The proposed MTMOS-TEOS dSPE method is direct and safe for acrylamide analysis, showed reliable method validation performances and good cleanup effects. It was successfully applied to the analysis of acrylamide in real food samples.

  4. Discovery of (S,E)-3-(2-fluorophenyl)-N-(1-(3-(pyridin-3-yloxy)phenyl)ethyl)-acrylamide as a potent and efficacious KCNQ2 (Kv7.2) opener for the treatment of neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yong-Jin; Conway, Charles M; Sun, Li-Qiang; Machet, Frederic; Chen, Jie; Chen, Ping; He, Huan; Bourin, Clotilde; Calandra, Vincenzo; Polino, Joseph L; Davis, Carl D; Heman, Karen; Gribkoff, Valentin K; Boissard, Christopher G; Knox, Ronald J; Thompson, Mark W; Fitzpatrick, William; Weaver, David; Harden, David G; Natale, Joanne; Dworetzky, Steven I; Starrett, John E

    2013-11-15

    Acrylamide (S)-6, a potent and efficacious KCNQ2 (Kv7.2) opener, demonstrated significant activity in two models of neuropathic pain and in the formalin test, suggesting that KCNQ2 openers may be useful in the treatment of neuropathic pain including diabetic neuropathy.

  5. Inulin supplementation during gestation mitigates acrylamide-induced maternal and fetal brain oxidative dysfunctions and neurotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Gokul; Muralidhara

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the developing brain is more susceptible to a variety of chemicals. Recent studies have shown a link between the enteric microbiota and brain function. While supplementation of non-digestible oligosaccharides during pregnancy has been demonstrated to positively influence human health mediated through stimulation of beneficial microbiota, our understanding on their neuromodulatory propensity is limited. In the present study, our primary focus was to examine whether supplementation of inulin (a well known fructan) during gestation can abrogate acrylamide (ACR)-induced oxidative impairments and neurotoxicity in maternal and fetal brain of rats. Initially, in a dose-determinative study, we recapitulated the impact of ACR exposure during gestation days (GD 6-19) on gestational parameters, extent of oxidative impairments in brain (maternal/fetal), cholinergic function and neurotoxicity. Subsequently, pregnant rats orally (gavage) administered with inulin (IN, 2 g/kg/day in two equal installments) supplements during gestation days (GD 0-19) were exposed to ACR (200 ppm) in drinking water. IN supplements significantly attenuated ACR-induced changes in exploratory activity (reduced open field exploration) measured on GD 14. Further, IN restored the placental weights among ACR exposed dams. Analysis of biochemical markers revealed that IN supplements effectively offset ACR associated oxidative stress not only in the maternal brain, but in the fetal brain as well. Elevated levels of protein carbonyls in maternal brain regions were completely normalized with IN supplements. More importantly, IN supplements significantly augmented the number of Bifidobacteria in the cecum of ACR rats which correlated well with the neurorestorative effect as evidenced by restored dopamine levels in the maternal cortex and fetal brain acetylcholinesterase activity among ACR-exposed dams. Further, IN supplements also conferred significant protection against

  6. Matrix-compatible sorbent coatings based on structurally-tuned polymeric ionic liquids for the determination of acrylamide in brewed coffee and coffee powder using solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagliero, Cecilia; Nan, He; Bicchi, Carlo; Anderson, Jared L

    2016-08-12

    Nine crosslinked polymeric ionic liquid (PIL)-based SPME sorbent coatings were designed and screened in this study for the trace level determination of acrylamide in brewed coffee and coffee powder using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The structure of the ionic liquid (IL) monomer was tailored by introducing different functional groups to the cation and the nature of the IL crosslinker was designed by altering both the structure of the cation as well as counteranions. The extraction efficiency of the new PIL coatings towards acrylamide was investigated and compared to a previously reported PIL sorbent coating. All PIL fibers exhibited excellent analytical precision and linearity. The PIL fiber coating consisting of 50% 1,12-di(3-vinylbenzylbenzimidazolium)dodecane dibis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide as IL crosslinker in 1-vinyl-3-(10-hydroxydecyl)imidazolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide IL monomer resulted in a limit of quantitation of 0.5μgL(-1) with in-solution SPME sampling. The hydroxyl moiety appended to the IL cation was observed to significantly increase the sensitivity of the PIL coating toward acrylamide. The quantitation of acrylamide in brewed coffee and coffee powder was performed using the different PIL-based fibers by the method of standard addition after a quenching reaction using ninhydrin to inhibit the formation of interfering acrylamide in the GC inlet, mainly by asparagine thermal degradation. Excellent repeatability with relative standard deviations below 10% were obtained on the real coffee samples and the structure of the coatings appeared intact by scanning electron microscopy after coffee sampling proving the matrix-compatibility of the PIL sorbent coatings. PMID:27423776

  7. The effect of thermal processing in oil on the macromolecular integrity and acrylamide formation from starch of three potato cultivars organically fertilized

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo Varzakas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Starches from three organically produced cultivars of potato tuber (Lady Rosetta, Spunta and Voyager have been studied in relation to (i acrylamide production (ii macromolecular integrity after frying with extra virgin olive oil, soybean oil and corn oil. During cultivation, a treatment involving the combination of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilization under organic farming was applied (N1, P2, K1 where Ν1 = 1.3 g Ν per plant, P2 = 5.2 g P2O5 per plant, Κ1 = 4.0 g K2O per plant. Potatoes fried in olive oil retained the highest glucose concentrations for all cultivars 0.85 ± 0.2 mmol/kg, followed by 0.48 ± 0.2 for those fried in corn oil and 0.40 ± 0.1 mmol/kg for those fried in soybean oil. The highest average fructose concentration was recorded for the samples fried in corn oil as 0.81 ± 0.2, followed by 0.80 ± 0.2 and 0.68 ± 0.3 mmol/kg for the samples fried in olive and soybean oils, respectively. Asparagine was the most abundant free amino acid in the three varieties tested, followed by glutamine and aspartic acid. The mean initial concentration of asparagine in raw potatoes tubers was 42.8 ± 1.6 mmoles kg−1 for Lady Rosetta, 34.6 ± 1.2 mmoles kg−1 (dry weight for Spunta and 36.2 ± 2.0 mmoles kg−1 for Voyager. Lady Rosetta contained a significantly higher concentration of asparagine compared to the other two varieties (p < 0.05. The greatest quantity of acrylamide was observed in French fries derived from the potato variety Lady Rosetta when fried in soybean oil and it was 2,600 ± 440 μg/kg, followed by Spunta which was 2,280 ± 340 μg/kg and Voyager 1,120 ± 220 μg/kg. There is a significant reduction in the formation of acrylamide in the variety Voyager compared to the others (p = 0.05.

  8. STUDY ON THE IMMOBILIZATION OF PAPAIN WITH A MACROPOROUS BEAD CARRIER OF COPOLYMER CONTAINING MONOMER UNITS OF N-AMINOETHYL ACRYLAMIDE AND VINYL ALCOHOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-feng Li; Jun-rong Li; Lian-di Fu; Yao-zeng Li

    2000-01-01

    A kind of macroporous bead carrier of copolymer containing monomer units ofN-aminoethyl acrylamide and vinyl alcohol was synthesized, i.e. the MR-AA carrier. Papain was immobilized on the carrier using glutaraldehyde as the coupling agent. The enzymatic activity of the immobilized papain was compared with free papain using casein as a substrate, and the effects of glutaraldehyde concentration, pH, temperature, time and papain amount added on the activity recovery were also investigated. The results show that the MR-AA carrier contains reactive primary amine groups, hydrophilic amido links and hydroxyl groups, as well as macroporous structures based on its matrix (MR-AV matrix), furthermore, the activity recovery of papain in the immobilization could reach 48%~58%. In comparison with free papain, the resulting immobilized papain exhibits a remarkable thermostability and better reusability.

  9. Vibrational Spectroscopic Study of (E)-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-N-[4-(phenylamino) quinazoline-7-yl] Acrylamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hui-Ming; ZHANG Yang; CHEN Jie

    2012-01-01

    Geometry optimization and subsequent harmonic vibration calculations of prior synthesized (E)-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-N-[4-(phenyl-amino) quinazoline-7-yl] acrylamide were carried out by DFT/B3LYP method with both 6-31G and 6-311G basis sets.The Infrared (IR) spectrum of the title compound was recorded in the field of 400-4000 cm 1 and then assigned.The correlation analyses between the scaled theoretical vibration frequencies and the experimental ones indicate that there exist good linearity relationships since the correlation coefficients R 2 are larger than 0.999.The intramolecular interactions existed in the title molecule were confirmed by the Atoms in molecules (AIM) method,and their influences on the absorption frequency were also investigated.

  10. Preparation of poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate -co-acrylamide) hydrogels by gamma radiation: sol-gel analysis, swelling kinetic and mechanical behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2 hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) / acrylamide (Am) hydrogels were prepared by simultaneous radiation induced cross linking copolymerization. The G values of cross linking and degradation, gelation dose and further radiation parameters were estimated by sol/gel analysis. The dynamic swelling behaviour at 37 grade centigrade of these kind of materials was studied. The influence of the absorbed dose on the swelling degree at different pH was studied. It was observed that the kinetics is in good agreement with the second order diffusion kinetics proposed by Schott. The degree of cross linking was found to increase with the adsorbed dose and influence the mechanical properties to some extend. The molar mass of chain between the network cross links was estimated

  11. Temperature-modulated quenching of quantum dots covalently coupled to chain ends of poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) brushes on gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thermo-responsive polymer/quantum dot platform based on poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAM) brushes 'grafted from' a gold substrate and quantum dots (QDs) covalently attached to the PNIPAM layer is presented. The PNIPAM brushes are grafted from the gold surface using an iniferter-initiated controlled radical polymerization. The PNIPAM chain ends are functionalized with amine groups for coupling to water-dispersible COOH-functionalized QDs. Upon increasing the temperature above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of PNIPAM the QD luminescence is quenched. The luminescence was observed to recover upon decreasing the temperature below the LCTS. The data obtained are consistent with temperature-modulated thickness changes of the PNIPAM layer and quenching of the QDs by the gold surface via nonradiative energy transfer.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of superabsorbent polymer prepared by radiation-induced graft copolymerization of acrylamide onto carboxymethyl cellulose for controlled release of agrochemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemvichian, Kasinee; Chanthawong, Auraruk; Suwanmala, Phiriyatorn

    2014-10-01

    Superabsorbent polymer (SAP) was synthesized by radiation-induced grafting of acrylamide (AM) onto carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) in the presence of a crosslinking agent, N,N‧-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA). The effects of various parameters, such as dose, the amount of CMC, AM, MBA and ionic strength on the swelling ratio were investigated. In order to evaluate its controlled release potential, SAP was loaded with potassium nitrate (KNO3) as an agrochemical model and its potential for controlled release of KNO3 was studied. The amount of released KNO3 was analyzed by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results from controlled release experiment agreed very well with the results from swelling experiment. The synthesized SAP was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The obtained SAP exhibited a swelling ratio of 190 g/g of dry gel.

  13. Theoretical investigation on the non-linear optical properties, vibrational spectroscopy and frontier molecular orbital of (E)-2-cyano-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)acrylamide molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao-Hong, Li; Hong-Ling, Cui; Rui-Zhou, Zhang; Xian-Zhou, Zhang

    2015-02-01

    The vibrational frequencies of (E)-2-cyano-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)acrylamide (HB-CA) in the ground state have been calculated using density functional method (B3LYP) with B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The analysis of natural bond orbital was also performed. The IR spectra were obtained and interpreted by means of potential energies distributions (PEDs) using MOLVIB program. In addition, the results show that there exists Csbnd H⋯O hydrogen bond in the title compound, which is confirmed by the natural bond orbital analysis. The predicted NLO properties show that the title compound is a good candidate as nonlinear optical material. The analysis of frontier molecular orbitals shows that HB-CA has high excitation energies, good stability and high chemical hardness. The analysis of MEP map shows the negative and the positive potential sites.

  14. Protective effect of wild raspberry (Rubus hirsutus Thunb.) extract against acrylamide-induced oxidative damage is potentiated after simulated gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Su, Hongming; Xu, Yang; Bao, Tao; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2016-04-01

    Raspberry is well known as rich source of antioxidants, such as polyphenols and flavonoids. However, after consumption, the antioxidants are subjected to digestive conditions within the gastrointestinal tract that may result in structural and functional alterations. Our previous study indicated that acrylamide (AA)-induced cytotoxicity was associated with oxidative stress. However, the protective effect of wild raspberry extract produced before and after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion against AA-induced oxidative damage is unclear. In the present study, we found that wild raspberry extract produced after digestion (RD) had a pronounced protective effect against AA-induced cytotoxicity compared with that produced before digestion (RE). Further investigation indicated that RD significantly inhibited AA-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) collapse and glutathione (GSH) depletion. Moreover, LC-MS analysis revealed that wild raspberry underwent gastrointestinal digestion significantly increased the contents of esculin, kaempferol hexoside and pelargonidin hexoside.

  15. A novel photo-grafting of acrylamide onto carboxymethyl starch. 1. Utilization of CMS-g-PAAm in easy care finishing of cotton fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Manal A

    2016-11-01

    The photosensitized grafting of vinyl monomers onto a range of polymeric substrates has been the subject of particular interest in the recent past. Carboxymethyl starch (CMS)-poly acrylamide (PAAm) graft copolymer (CMS-g-PAAm) with high graft yield was successfully prepared by grafting of acrylamide onto CMS using UV irradiation in the presence of the water soluble 4-(trimethyl ammoniummethyl) benzophenone chloride photoinitiator. CMS-g-PAAm with nitrogen content of 8.3% and grafting efficiency up to 98.9% was obtained using 100% AAm, a material: liquor ratio of 1:14 and 1% photinitiator at 30°C for 1h of UV irradiation. The synthesis of CMS-g-PAAm was confirmed by FTIR and Nitrogen content (%). Surface morphology of CMS and surface morphological changes of CMS after grafting with AAm were studied using SEM. Thermal properties of both CMS and CMS-g-PAAm were studied using TGA and DSC. To impart easy care finishing to cotton fabrics, aqueous formulations of: CMS-g-PAAm, dimethylol dihydroxy ethylene urea (DMDHEU), CMS-g-PAAm-DMDHEU mixture or methylolated CMS-g-PAAm were used. Cotton fabrics were padded in these formulations, squeezed to a wet pick up 100%, dried at 100°C for 5min, cured at 150°C for 5min, washed at 50°C for 10min and air-dried. CRA (crease recovery angle) of untreated fabrics and fabrics finished with a mixture of 2% CMS-g-PAAm and 10% DMDHEU or methylolated CMS-g-PAAm (10% formaldehyde) were: 136°, 190°, 288° respectively. Increasing the number of washing cycles up to five cycles results in an insignificant decrease in the CRA and a significant decrease in RF (releasable formaldehyde) of finished fabric samples. The morphologies of the finished and unfinished cotton fabrics were performed by SEM. PMID:27516255

  16. Establishment of a model to select acrylamide inhibitor%一种用于筛选丙烯酰胺抑制剂的模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄滟波; 魏东乏

    2012-01-01

    本文建立了模拟丙烯酰胺形成的化学模型和食品模型,分别研究了150℃和170℃条件下2~10min范围内不同加热时间对上述模型中丙烯酰胺产生量及产物颜色的影响。确定的化学模型条件为:0.050g天冬酰胺、0.060g葡萄糖及3mL去离子水,于不锈钢密封管中170℃油浴加热5min;食品模型条件为:约2mm厚薯片,在蒸馏水或抑制剂溶液中浸泡3min后,于170℃油炸5min。%Chemical model and food model systems which could simulate the produce process of acrylamide were established in this paper.The effects of different heating time between 2-10min and temperature in 150℃ and 170% on acrylamide production and the color change of model outcomes were investigated.As a result, taking 0.050g Asn,0.060g Glu and 3mL deionized water into stainless steel tube heating in 170℃ oil bath for 5min as chemical model system,taking potato crisps of about 2mm thickness blanched in distill water for 3min and fried in 170℃ soy oil as food model system.

  17. Inverse microemulsion system of Span 80-Tween 80/liquid paraffin/acrylamide-H2O%Span 80-Tween 80/液体石蜡/AM-H2O反相微乳液体系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王风贺; 夏明珠; 雷武; 魏运洋; 王风云

    2005-01-01

    The reverse microemulsion system of Span 80-Tween 80/liquid paraffin/acrylamide-H2O was prepared, and the effects of n-butanol, NaC1, NaAc were studied with the conductivity method. The stability of reverse microemulsion was reflected, and the information of its dynamic process was obtained by measuring its state changes continuously through testing its electronic conductivity by using electrochemistry. The results showed that the Span 80-Tween 80/liquid paraffin/acrylamide-H2O system was most stable when the HLB value approached 7.5, and its stability was enhanced when 5.0% (mass) NaCl or 10% (mass) NaAc was added into this systerm.

  18. 咸阳市居民丙烯酰胺膳食暴露水平调查%Survey on the Level of Dietary Exposure to Acrylamide in Residents of Xianyang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟娟娟; 宁鸿珍; 李茂静; 齐宝宁; 陈振飞; 刘英莉; 毛立超

    2012-01-01

    目的 通过对咸阳市居民进行问卷调查,估计咸阳市居民丙烯酰胺膳食暴露水平.方法 根据预调查结果,选定28种咸阳市居民经常食用的油炸、烘烤食品作为被调查食品,用国标方法测定被调查食品中丙烯酰胺的含量,并依据检测结果计算咸阳市居民丙烯酰胺的膳食暴露水平.结果 咸阳市居民丙烯酰胺的平均摄入量为26.68μg/d,平均暴露水平为0.46μg/kg bw·d.不同性别及不同地区间差异无统计学意义;不同年龄差异有统计学意义;各年龄组人群丙烯酰胺暴露贡献较高的食品分别为<10和10~岁组为薯片、饼干、烤馍片和烤饼;20~、30~和40~岁组为薯片、饼干、烤饼和炸饼;50~和≥60岁组为饼干和烤饼.结论 被调查居民每天通过食品摄入一定量的丙烯酰胺,其主要食物来源是薯片、饼干、烤饼、炸饼和烤馍片.%Objective To assess the level of dietary exposure to acrylamide among the residents of Xianyang City through questionnaire survey. Methods According to the results of the pretest, 28 types of fried and baked foods were selected to serve as the surveyed samples. The exposure assessment was performed by combining the levels of acrylamide determined with the national standard method and individual food consumption data. Results The mean intake of acrylamide in the residents of Xianyang City was 26.68 μg/d, the average level of acrylamide exposure was 0.46μg/kg bw·d. No statistically significant difference was found in the level of acrylamide exposure in different gendere and regions, but there were statistically significant differences among the age groups. The foods that contributed most to acrylamide exposure were potato chips, biscuits, baked steamed bread slices and scones in the age groups of < 10 and 10~ years, potato chips, biscuits, scones and fried cakes in the age groups of 20~, 30~ and 40~ years, and biscuits and scones in the age groups of 50

  19. 固相萃取-高效液相色谱法测定面粉类食品中丙烯酰胺%Determination of acrylamide in wheaten foods by solid-phase extraction and HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶艳芬; 徐立恒

    2013-01-01

    建立了基于固相萃取-高效液相色谱法的面粉类食品中丙烯酰胺的检测方法,该方法的加标回收率在88.1%~93.8%之间,日内标准偏差小于2.7%,可以满足食品中丙烯酰胺测定的要求.采用该方法对市售饼干样品进行测定,结果表明,饼干中普遍存在丙烯酰胺,其含量约为WHO推荐饮用水中限值的200到800倍.%A method for determining acrylamide in wheaten foods was established by solid-phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).The recoveries of acrylamide from spiked samples by this method were within 88.1% ~ 93.8%,and the relative standard deviations were lower than 2.7%.This method has the advantages of convenient operation,excellent accuracy and good reproducibility,and it is suitable for the determination of acrylamide in wheaten foods.The cracker samples obtained from markets were determined by this method,and it was shown that acrylamide contents in cracker were about 200 ~800 times as many as the WHO guidelines for drinking water quality.

  20. A Review of Low Molecular Additives to Lower Acrylamide Content in Bakeries%低分子添加剂法抑制焙烤食品中丙烯酰胺的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李飞; 李想

    2012-01-01

    Acrylamide is classified as " probably carcinogenic to humans", and it mainly occurred during Mail- lard reaction. Most current research about acrylamide are focused on the fried food, and little has been done for bakery products, such as bread, cracker, or cake. Moreover, since the process and components of fried food and bakery food are different, methods used in fried food can not be applied to bakery food. However, using low molecule additives can effectively lower the acrylamide in both fried and baked products, with little impacts on taste. This review summarized the research on lowering the acrylamide in bakery products by low molecular additives in recent years.%丙烯酰胺属于对人可能致癌物质,其主要产生于食品加工过程中的Maillard反应。目前,关于丙烯酰胺的研究主要集中于油炸食品,但关于焙烤食品如面包、饼干、蛋糕等方面的研究较少,而且由于工艺的不同,油炸食品中可行的方法并不能直接应用于焙烤食品。使用低分子添加剂是目前较为新兴的抑制丙烯酰胺的方法,其在油炸食品及焙烤食品中均具有良好的效果,且对产品风味的影响较小。本文总结了近些年学者们通过使用低分子添加剂降低焙烤食品中丙烯酰胺含量的实践及研究。

  1. 外源添加剂对油炸薯条中丙烯酰胺抑制作用研究%Effect of inhibition of additives on the acrylamide in chips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金旺; 于帆; 唐清华; 徐志祥

    2015-01-01

    采用不同种类、不同浓度的添加剂对油炸薯条进行前处理,探索控制油炸薯条中丙烯酰胺的方法。用绿茶、大蒜浸提液等四种添加剂浸泡薯条后高温油炸,用气相色谱—电子捕获检测器(GC-ECD)方法进行定性定量分析。结果表明:四种添加剂均能有效抑制丙烯酰胺的产生;当绿茶浸提液添加量为5 g/100 mL,浸泡时间为60 min,对丙烯酰胺抑制率达到49.53%。%In order to find a way to inhibit formation of acrylamide during deep frying chips,four additives such as green tea and garlic with different levels were used to soak potato strips before frying.The acryl-amide in chips was quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed by GC-ECD.The results showed that all of the four additives had inhibition on acrylamide formation.The inhibition rate of green tea reached 49.53% when the concentration was 5 g/100 mL and soaked for 60 min.

  2. 死亡受体途径在丙烯酰胺致PC12细胞凋亡中的影响%EFFECT OF DEATH RECEPTOR PATHWAY IN APOPTOSIS OF NEUROCYTES INDUCED BY ACRYLAMIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘燕群; 吴丽娜; 鲁雄兵; 宋文剑; 乐明

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To explore the potential mechanisms of neural apoptosis induced by acrylamide. [Methods] After PC12 cells were exposed to acrylamide with different concentrations (0.5mmol/L, 1mmol/L, 5mmoVL and 10mmol/L) , Fas,Fas-L and TNFR1 protein in PC12 cells were qualitatively determined by immunocytochemistry Fas, FasL and TNFR1 protein were indirectly marked with flow cytometry. Meanwhile the apoptosis of PC12 cells was studied using flow cytometry with PI staining at 24 hours after acrylamide treatment. [ Results] The expressions of Fas, Fas-L and TNFR1 and apoptosis rate in acrylamide treated group were sigificantly higher than those in control group (P < 0.05). [Conclusion] Apoptosis of PC12 cells induced by acrylamide may be mediated by death receptor Fas.%[目的] 研究丙烯酰胺诱导神经细胞凋亡及其神经毒作用机制.[方法] 不同浓度水平(0.5 mmol/L,1mmol/L,5 mmol/L,10 mmol/L)的丙烯酰胺染毒后,用免疫细胞化学法检测PC12细胞Fas、Fas-L、TNFR1蛋白表达情况;流式细胞仪定量检测Fas、Fas-L、TNFR1蛋白含量及PC12细胞凋亡情况.[结果] 丙烯酰胺各剂量染毒后PC12细胞凋亡率及Fas、Fas-L、TNFR1蛋白表达与对照组比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).[结论] 丙烯酰胺可能通过死亡受体Fas诱导PC12细胞调亡.

  3. 丙烯酰胺对NB-1细胞钙稳态的影响%Effect of acrylamide exposure on calcium homeostasis in NB-1 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冲; 王茜; 曹燕花; 刘楠; 关维俊; 王学生; 肖经纬; 李斌; 李忠生

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of acrylamide (AM) on calcium homeostasis in mature neurons for exploring the possible mechanisms of nerotoxicity by acrylamide. Methods Human neuroblastoma cells (NB-1) induced to differentiated mature neurons with db-cAMP were exposed to different concentration of AM, then, detect their cell death rate with thiazolyl blue exlusion-MTT assay, and the activities of Ca2+-ATPase and Na+ -K+ -ATPase by ATPase kits. Meantime, laser confocal scanning microscope was used for intracellular calcium level measurement. Results The results showed that the survival rate, the activities of Ca2+-ATPase and Na+-K+ -ATPase were all obviously decreased in AM exposed groups (P <0. 05) ; meanwhile , 30 minutes exposure to AM might induce a rapid rise of intracellular calcium. Conclusion The results suggested that AM has obvious neurotoxicity, the disturbance of calcium homeostasis may involved in the mechanism of its neurotoxicity.%目的 研究丙烯酰胺(AM)对神经细胞钙稳态的影响,探讨AM致神经损伤的可能机制.方法 将人神经母细胞瘤(NB-1)细胞诱导分化成熟后,以不同浓度AM进行体外染毒,采用噻唑蓝(MTT)比色法检测神经元损伤程度,并应用ATP酶检测试剂盒测定不同损伤程度的细胞Ca2 -ATP酶和Na+ -K+ -ATP酶活力的变化.以Fluo-3/AM为荧光指示剂,用激光共聚焦方法检测细胞内游离钙离子浓度的瞬时变化情况.结果 AM染毒组成熟NB-1细胞存活率有明显下降,提示AM对神经细胞有毒性作用;AM染毒组Ca2+-ATP酶和Na+-K+-ATP酶活力值也均下降,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);AM作用于成熟NB-1细胞可立即引起细胞内钙离子浓度升高.结论 AM可能通过影响神经细胞钙稳态产生毒性作用.

  4. Microbial aerobic and anaerobic degradation of acrylamide in sludge and water under environmental conditions--case study in a sand and gravel quarry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guezennec, A G; Michel, C; Ozturk, S; Togola, A; Guzzo, J; Desroche, N

    2015-05-01

    Polyacrylamides (PAMs) are used in sand and gravel quarries as water purification flocculants for recycling process water in a recycling loop system where the flocculants remove fine particles in the form of sludge. The PAM-based flocculants, however, contain residual amounts of acrylamide (AMD) that did not react during the polymerization process. This acrylamide is released into the environment when the sludge is discharged into a settling basin. Here, we explore the microbial diversity and the potential for AMD biodegradation in water and sludge samples collected in a quarry site submitted to low AMD concentrations. The microbial diversity, analyzed by culture-dependent methods and the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis approach, reveals the presence of Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, and Actinobacteria, among which some species are known to have an AMD biodegradation activity. Results also show that the two main parts of the water recycling loop-the washing process and the settling basin-display significantly different bacterial profiles. The exposure time with residual AMD could, thus, be one of the parameters that lead to a selection of specific bacterial species. AMD degradation experiments with 0.5 g L(-1) AMD showed a high potential for biodegradation in all parts of the washing process, except the make-up water. The AMD biodegradation potential in samples collected from the washing process and settling basin was also analyzed taking into account on-site conditions: low (12 °C) and high (25 °C) temperatures reflecting the winter and summer seasons, and AMD concentrations of 50 μg L(-1). Batch tests showed rapid (as little as 18 h) AMD biodegradation under aerobic and anaerobic conditions at both the winter and summer temperatures, although there was a greater lag time before activity started with the AMD biodegradation at 12 °C. This study, thus, demonstrates that bacteria present in sludge and water samples exert an in situ and rapid

  5. Study of polymerization of acrylamide initiated by atmospheric pressure plasma%常压等离子体引发丙烯酰胺聚合研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余冬冬; 王明洋; 王升高

    2011-01-01

    In this study, super absorbent polyacrylamide was prepared by the cold are Ar plasma which initiated polymerization of Acrylamide.The effects of the discharge time, the polymerization temperature and the monomer concentration on the absorption of the polymer were studied.Result showed that the absorption of the polymer is 340(g/g) under the conditions of the 90 s discharge time,the 30 ℃ polymerization temperature, the 30% monomer concentration and the 24 h polymerization time.%利用Ar冷弧等离子体对丙烯酰胺单体进行处理并引发聚合,制备出高吸水性聚丙烯酰胺.研究了放电时间、聚合温度、单体质量分数等对聚合产物吸水性能的影响,实验结果表明在放电时间为90 s,聚合温度为30℃,单体质量分数为30%,后聚合时间为24 h的聚合条件下聚合物的吸水率为340(g/g).

  6. New polymer for removal of wine phenolics: Poly(N-(3-(N-isobutyrylisobutyramido)-3-oxopropyl)acrylamide) (P-NIOA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Ricardo I; Forero-Doria, Oscar; Guzmán, Luis; Laurie, V Felipe; Valdés, Oscar; Ávila-Salas, Fabián; López-Cortés, Xaviera; Santos, Leonardo S

    2016-12-15

    The phenolic compounds of wine contribute to color and astringency, also are responsible for the oxidation state and bitterness. Due the importance of these molecules, different techniques have been used to modulate their concentration such as natural or synthetic polymeric agents. Among the polymeric agents, PVPP is one of the most used, but lacks of selectivity and has a limited pH range. Therefore, the aim of this study was the synthesis of a new polymer, poly(N-(3-(N-isobutyrylisobutyramido)-3-oxopropyl)acrylamide) (P-NIOA), for removal of phenolic compounds, as a potential agent for the fining of wine. The new polymer affinity was studied using HPLC-DAD for different polyphenols using PVPP as a control. The results showed that the new polymer has a similar removal as PVPP, but with lower affinity to resveratrol. The interactions established between polymers and polyphenols were studied using computational chemistry methods demonstrating a direct correlation with the experimental affinity data. PMID:27451217

  7. Radiation graft copolymerization of butyl methacrylate and acrylamide onto low density polyethylene and polypropylene films, and its application in wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Ghaffar, A. M.; El-Arnaouty, M. B.; Aboulfotouh, Maysara E.; Taher, N. H.; Taha, Ahmed A.

    2014-09-01

    Butyl methacrylate and acrylamide (BMA/AAm) comonomers were grafted onto low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and polypropylene (PP) films using the mutual gamma radiation grafting technique. The influences of grafting conditions such as solvent, monomer concentration, monomer composition, and irradiation dose on the grafting yield were determined. It was found that using dimethyl formamide as a solvent enhanced the copolymerization process. The grafting yield increases as the comonomer concentration increases up to 60%. Also it was found that the degree of grafting of BMA/AAm onto both LDPE and PP films increases as the AAm content increases till an optimum value at 50:50 wt%. The grafting yield of the comonomers was found to increase with increase in the radiation dose. It was observed that the degree of grafting of polyethylene films is higher than that of polypropylene (PP) films at the same conditions. Some selected properties of the graft copolymers, such as water uptake and thermal properties, were determined using thermogravimetric analysis. The morphology and structure of the grafted films were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, infra-red, and X-ray diffraction. Improvement in such properties of the prepared copolymers was observed which offers possible uses in some practical applications such as the removal of some heavy metals from wastewater. It was found that the maximum metal uptake by the copolymer followed the order Cu2+>Co2+>Ni2+ ions.

  8. The use of new modified poly(acrylamide chelating resin with pendent benzothiazole groups containing donor atoms in the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semmedu Selvaraj Kalaivani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption studies of poly(6-(ethoxybenzothiazole acrylamide (PEBTA, for Cu(II and Zn(II metal ions removal from an aqueous solution have been investigated, as a function of solution pH, adsorbent dose, contact time, initial metal ion concentration and temperature. The chemical and structural characteristics of the adsorbent were determined by the FT-IR, 1H-NMR, TGA, SEM, and EDAX analysis. The maximum adsorption capacities of the adsorbent for Cu(II and Zn(II ions, as calculated from the Langmuir isotherm model, were 273.5 and 216.4 mg/g, respectively. The adsorption kinetic studies show that the adsorption of Cu(II and Zn(II ions onto PEBTA follows the pseudo second order kinetic model. Thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° were also evaluated, and it has been found that the adsorption process is feasible, spontaneous and exothermic in nature. Desorption studies were carried out using 0.3 N HCl, and it revealed that the adsorbed Cu(II and Zn(II ions can be easily removed. The adsorption–desorption process is reversible, and this indicates that PEBTA is an effective adsorbent for the removal of heavy metal ions from an aqueous medium.

  9. (E)-2-Cyano-3-(substituted phenyl)acrylamide analogs as potent inhibitors of tyrosinase: A linear β-phenyl-α,β-unsaturated carbonyl scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Sujin; Kim, Haewon; Yun, Hwi Young; Kim, Do Hyun; Ullah, Sultan; Kim, Seong Jin; Kim, Yeon-Jeong; Kim, Min-Soo; Yoo, Jin-Wook; Chun, Pusoon; Moon, Hyung Ryong

    2015-12-15

    In this study, we synthesized (E)-2-cyano-3-(substituted phenyl)acrylamide (CPA) derivatives which possess a linear β-phenyl-α,β-unsaturated carbonyl scaffold and examined their inhibitory activities against tyrosinase. CPA analogs exerted inhibitory activity against mushroom tyrosinase. Results from the docking simulation indicated that CPA2 could bind directly to the active site of mushroom tyrosinase and the binding affinity of CPA2 for tyrosinase might be higher than that of kojic acid, a well-known potent tyrosinase inhibitor. In B16F10 cells, CPA2 significantly suppressed tyrosinase activity and melanogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. At the concentration of 25μM, CPA2 exhibited tyrosinase inhibitory activity comparable to that of kojic acid with no cytotoxic effect. Results from the present study suggest that CPA2 bearing a linear β-phenyl-α,β-unsaturated carbonyl scaffold may be the potential candidate for treatment of diseases associated with hyperpigmentation and that a linear β-phenyl-α,β-unsaturated carbonyl scaffold might be closely related to potent tyrosinase inhibition.

  10. Determination of acrylamide and glycidamide in various biological matrices by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hwan; Shin, Soyoung; Kim, Kyu Bong; Seo, Won Sik; Shin, Jeong Cheol; Choi, Jin Ho; Weon, Kwon-Yeon; Joo, Sang Hoon; Jeong, Seok Won; Shin, Beom Soo

    2015-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is a heat-generated food toxicant formed when starchy foods are fried or baked. This study describes a simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay for the simultaneous quantification of AA and its active metabolite, glycidamide (GA) in rat plasma, urine, and 14 different tissues. The assay utilized a simple method of protein precipitation and achieved a lower limit of quantification of 5, 10 and 25 ng/mL of AA and 10, 20 and 100 ng/mL of GA for plasma, tissues and urine, respectively. The assay was fully validated to demonstrate the linearity, sensitivity, accuracy, precision, process recovery, and stability using matrix matched quality control samples. The mean intra- and inter-day assay accuracy was 91.6-110% for AA and 92.0-109% for GA, and the mean intra- and inter-day assay precisions were ≤ 10.9% for AA and ≤ 8.60% for GA. The developed method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of AA and GA following intravenous and oral administration of AA in rats. Tissue distribution characteristics of AA and GA were also determined under steady-state conditions.

  11. Influence of the ionic character of a drug on its release rate from hydrogels based on 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate and acrylamide synthesized by photopolymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Gomez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the ionic character of a specific drug on its release rate from a hydrogel based on 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA and acrylamide (AAm is analyzed. The hydrogel was synthesized by photopolymerization employing visible light, safranine O (Saf, as sensitizer, and a silsesquioxane functionalized with amine and methacrylate groups (SFMA, as co-initiator and crosslinker. Safranine O (Saf was employed as a model of a cationic drug and the anionic form of resorufin (Rf as a model of an anionic drug. Saf exhibited a larger affinity with functional groups of the hydrogel than that of Rf. This produced a lower loading and a faster release rate of Rf with respect to Saf. Besides, the release rate of Rf followed a Fickian behavior, while that of Saf exhibited a non-Fickian behavior. By hydrolyzing the hydrogel at pH = 13, amide groups supplied by AAm were irreversibly converted into carboxylic acid groups. Higher loadings and slower release rates of Saf from the hydrolyzed hydrogels were observed, making them particularly suitable for the slow drug-delivery of cationic drugs.

  12. Radiation Graft Copolymerization of Butyl methacrylate and Acrylamide onto Low density polyethylene and polypropylene films and its application in wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butyl methacrylate and Acrylamide (BMA/AAm) comonomer were grafted onto Low density polyethylene and polypropylene films using direct gamma radiation by grafting technique. The influences of grafting conditions such as solvent, monomer concentration, monomer composition, and irradiation dose on the grafting yield were determined. It was found that, using DMF as a solvent enhanced the copolymerization process. The grafting yield increases with comonomer concentration up to 60 %. . Also it was found that, the degree of grafting of (BMA/AAm) onto LDPE and PP films increases as the AAm content increases till optimum value at (50:50) %. The grafting yield of the comonomer found to be increased with increasing radiation dose. It was observed that the degree of grafting of polyethylene films is higher than that for polypropylene films. Some selected properties of the graft copolymers, such as water uptake and thermal properties determined by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) has been carried out. The morphology and structure of grafted films was investigated by using SEM, IR and X-ray diffraction. The improvement in such properties of the prepared copolymers was observed which makes possible uses in some practical applications such as in the removal of some heavy metals from wastewater. It was found that the maximum metal uptake by the copolymer is ordered in the sequence of Cu2+ > CO2+ > Ni2+ ions.

  13. A Green Approach to Synthesize Silver Nanoparticles in Starch-co-Poly(acrylamide Hydrogels by Tridax procumbens Leaf Extract and Their Antibacterial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siraj Shaik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of starch-co-poly(acrylamide (starch-co-PAAm hydrogels were synthesized by employing free radical redox polymerization. A novel green approach, Tridax procumbens (TD leaf extract, was used for reduction of silver ions (Ag+ into silver nanoparticles in the starch-co-PAAm hydrogel network. The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and X-ray diffraction (X-RD studies. 22% of weight loss difference between hydrogel and silver nanocomposite hydrogel (SNCH clearly indicates the formation of silver nanoparticles by TGA. TEM images indicate the successful incorporation of silver nanoparticles ranging from 5 to 10 nm in size and spherical in shape with a narrow size distribution. These developed SNCHs were used to study the antibacterial activity by inhibition zone method against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria such as Bacillus and Escherichia coli. The results indicated that these SNCHs can be used potentially for biomedical applications.

  14. 甲基丙烯酸羟乙酯与丙稀酰胺共聚特水凝胶的合成及氯霉素缓释性能研究%Study on Synthesis and chloramphenicol Release of poly (2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate-co-acrylamide) hydrogels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎新明; 崔英德

    2008-01-01

    In this article,poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate-co-acrylamide)hydrogels were synthesized by bulk free-radical copolymerization of 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate(HEMA)and acrylamide(AAm)for soft contact lens(SCL)-based ophthalmic drug delivery system.The copolymer was characterized with FT-IR and SEM,the swelling property of the hydrogels were studied by gravimetrical method.and chloramphenicol was used as a model drug to investigate drug release profile of the hydrogels.The results showed that poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylateco-acrylamide)hydrogels were transparent and useful SCL biomaterial.the water content increased as AAm content increase and pH decrease,and in the sanqe way,hydrogel composition affected chloramphenicol release process too.Migration rate of chloramphenicol increased as the AAm content in the hydrogels increased in the first stage of diffusion process,whereas there Was no significant difference thereafter.

  15. 聚(N-异丙基丙烯酰胺)及聚(N-异丙基丙烯酰胺-共-丙烯酰胺)水凝胶的制备及性能%Synthesis and Properties of Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) and Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylamide) Hydrogels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴勇; 陈捷; 杨黎明; 施丽莉; 罗浩杰

    2005-01-01

    The thermosensitive poly ( N-isopropylacrylamide ) (PNIPAAm) and poly ( N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylamide ) [ poly (NIPAAm-co-AAm) ] hydrogels with different acrylamide molar percentage are prepared by radiation polymerization using Co60 γ-ray.Their swelling equilibrium data in the media of deionized water, NaCl aqueous solutions and different pH buffer solutions are determined. It appears that lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the hydrogels will drop with the increase of ionic strength and increase with the rising of acrylamide content. A semi-empirical formula is set up with the experimental results. Moreover, it also indicates that this copolymer is pH-sensitive, which is similar to the homopolymer of PNIPAAm.

  16. 衡阳市淀粉类油炸食品中丙烯酰胺含量调查%Survey of Acrylamide in Fried Starchy Food in Hengyang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李程; 龚琴; 向艳; 何爱桃

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the level of acrylamide in fried starchy food in Hengyang. Methods A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method combined with solid phase extraction (SPE) was used to detect the level of acrylamide in 84 samples of fried starchy food which was obtained from the markets by random principle. Results The average levels of acrylamide in 8 kinds of fried starchy food, inculding French fries, biscuit, twisted dough - strips, deepfried pancake, cake, toast, fried dough twist and instant noodles were 1,082 μg/kg, 715 μg/kg, 390 μg/kg, 281 μg/kg, 165 μg/kg, 118 μg/kg, 92 μg/kg and 54 μg/kg, respectively. There were different levels of acrylamide found in 8 kinds of fried food (F= 126.44, P<0.01 ). There were statistically significant differences in the average levels of acrylanide among other 6 kinds of fried food (P< 0.05) except twisted dough- strips and toast (P >0.05). Conclusions The levels of acrylamide of 8 kinds of fried starchy foods are far higher than the acrylamide limited level in the drinking water recommended by the World Health Organization, which must be paid a lot of attention to.%目的 了解衡阳市淀粉类油炸食品中丙烯酰胺含量情况.方法 对衡阳市市售淀粉类油炸食品进行随机采样,在选定的色谱条件下,固相萃取-高效液相色谱法测定样品中的丙烯酰胺含量.结果 8种淀粉类油炸食品:薯条、饼干、油条、油饼、蛋糕、烤面包、麻花和方便面中丙烯酰胺平均含量依次为1 082,715,390,281,165,118,92,54μg/kg;8种淀粉类油炸食品中丙烯酰胺的含量不同(F=126.44,P0.05),其余各种淀粉类油炸食品的丙烯酰胺含量间差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 8种淀粉类油炸食品中丙烯酰胺含量均远远超过世界卫生组织规定的饮水中丙烯酰胺的限量水平,应引起重视.

  17. 聚(丙烯酸-丙烯酰胺)高吸水树脂的制备及性能研究%Preparation and properties of acrylic acid and acrylamid superabsorbent copolymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉贵; 张瑾; 朱忠其; 刘强; 柳清菊

    2013-01-01

    The acrylic acid and acrylamide (PAA-AM) superabsorbent copolymer was synthesized by inverse-suspension polymerization with cyclohexane as dispersant, Span80 as suspension stabilizer, acrylic acid (AA) and acrylamide (AM) as comonomer, potassium persulfate as initiator, N, N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide as crosslinking agent. The influence of neutralization degree of AA, mass ratio of acrylic acid (AA) to acrylamide (AM), the amount of crosslinking agent and initiator, and reaction temperature on the absorption capability of water and salt solution were investigated. The results show that the water absorbency of the superabsorbent polymer prepared at the optimum condition in deionized water and in 0. 9%NaCl solution is about 1282 and 109g/g, respectively, and under the same conditions, the sample has more excellent water absorption and salt-resistance, which compares with the similar products of the SNF (French) production.%以环己烷为溶剂,Span80为悬浮稳定剂,丙烯酸(AA)和丙烯酰胺(AM)为共聚单体,过硫酸钾为引发剂,N,N’-亚甲基双丙烯酰胺(NMBA)为交联剂,采用反相悬浮聚合法制备了聚(丙烯酸-丙烯酰胺)(PAA-AM)高吸水树脂,研究了丙烯酸中和度、单体配比、交联剂和引发剂的用量、反应温度等因素对树脂吸液性能的影响.结果表明,最佳条件下制备的树脂吸去离子水和0.9% NaCl水溶液的倍率分别为1282和109g/g.并且在同等条件下,该树脂样品与法国爱森(SNF)产同类产品相比具有较优异的吸水性能和耐盐性.

  18. N-脱氢枞基丙烯酰胺的合成、表征及其聚合性能分析%Synthesis, Characterization and Polymerization Property of N-dehydroabietic Acrylamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨艳平; 沈明贵; 刘鹤; 商士斌; 宋湛谦

    2016-01-01

    以歧化松香为原料,先制得脱氢枞胺,再与丙烯酰氯经酰胺化反应合成了N-脱氢枞基丙烯酰胺单体,经提纯为液相色谱纯度97.95%的白色固体。通过FT-IR、MS、1H NMR、13C NMR、TG、GPC及DSC表征了其结构和性能。结构表征结果显示成功合成了N-脱氢枞基丙烯酰胺。 DSC分析显示,单一单体在151~196℃时发生热聚合,且自由基引发剂偶氮二异丁腈(AIBN)的存在可以降低其聚合温度,聚合物的玻璃化转变温度在100.34℃。 TG分析显示,聚合物在209~483℃发生热分解。对N-脱氢枞基丙烯酰胺聚合物进行GPC分析,结果为Mn=4301,Mw/Mn=1.56。%N-dehydroabietic acrylamide, a polymerization monomer, was synthesized via amidation reaction of acryloyl chloride and dehydroabietylamine which was synthesized using disproportionated rosin as raw materials. And the product was white solid with liquid chromatographic purity of 97. 95% after purification. The structure and performance of N-dehydroabietic acrylamide monomer were characterized by FT-IR, MS, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, TG, DSC and GPC. The characterization results showed that N-dehydroabietic acrylamide was synthesized successfully. The DSC analysis showed that the thermal polymerization of the single monomer was occurred during 151-196℃, the glass transition temperature of the polymer was 100.34℃and the polymerization temperature could be reduced with the presence of free radical initiator azodiisobutyronitrile ( AIBN) . The TG analysis showed that the thermal decomposition of the polymer occurred at 209-483℃. The Mn of homopolymer of N-dehydroabietic acrylamide polymerization was 4301 and Mw/Mn was 1.56 from the GPC analysis.

  19. The effects of subchronic acrylamide exposure on gene expression, neurochemistry, hormones, and histopathology in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis of male Fischer 344 rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acrylamide (AA) is an important industrial chemical that is neurotoxic in rodents and humans and carcinogenic in rodents. The observation of cancer in endocrine-responsive tissues in Fischer 344 rats has prompted hypotheses of hormonal dysregulation, as opposed to DNA damage, as the mechanism for tumor induction by AA. The current investigation examines possible evidence for disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis from 14 days of repeated exposure of male Fischer 344 rats to doses of AA that range from one that is carcinogenic after lifetime exposure (2.5 mg/kg/d), an intermediate dose (10 mg/kg/d), and a high dose (50 mg/kg/d) that is neurotoxic for this exposure time. The endpoints selected include: serum levels of thyroid and pituitary hormones; target tissue expression of genes involved in hormone synthesis, release, and receptors; neurotransmitters in the CNS that affect hormone homeostasis; and histopathological evaluation of target tissues. These studies showed virtually no evidence for systematic alteration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis and do not support hormone dysregulation as a plausible mechanism for AA-induced thyroid cancer in the Fischer 344 rat. Specifically, there were no significant changes in: 1) mRNA levels in hypothalamus or pituitary for TRH, TSH, thyroid hormone receptor α and β, as well 10 other hormones or releasing factors; 2) mRNA levels in thyroid for thyroglobulin, thyroid peroxidase, sodium iodide symporter, or type I deiodinases; 3) serum TSH or T3 levels (T4 was decreased at high dose only); 4) dopaminergic tone in the hypothalamus and pituitary or importantly 5) increased cell proliferation (Mki67 mRNA and Ki-67 protein levels were not increased) in thyroid or pituitary. These negative findings are consistent with a genotoxic mechanism of AA carcinogenicity based on metabolism to glycidamide and DNA adduct formation. Clarification of this mechanistic dichotomy may be useful in human cancer risk

  20. Effects of dietary extra virgin olive oil and its fractions on antioxidant status and DNA damage in the heart of rats co-exposed to aluminum and acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbel, Imen; Khemakhem, Mouna; Boudawara, Ons; Marrekchi, Rim; Jamoussi, Kamel; Ben Amar, Raja; Boudawara, Tahia; Zeghal, Najiba; Grati Kamoun, Naziha

    2015-09-01

    Oxidative stress generated by an excessive production of free radicals has been linked to the development of several health problems such as cardiovascular diseases. We investigated the protective efficacy of Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) and its lipophilic fraction (OOLF) and hydrophilic fraction (OOHF) against the cardiotoxicity and DNA damage induced by co-exposure to aluminum (AlCl3) and acrylamide (ACR). Rats were divided into eight groups of six each: controls, AlCl3 (50 mg per kg body weight) administered via drinking water and ACR (20 mg per kg body weight) given by gavage, combined group plus EVOO (300 μl); combined group plus the hydrophilic fraction (1 ml); combined group plus the lipophilic fraction (300 μl); extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and its fractions were administered daily by gavage for 21 days. Three other groups, considered as positive controls, received either EVOO, OOLF or OOLH. Exposure of rats to both AlCl3 and ACR provoked oxidative stress objectified by an increase in MDA, AOPP and a decrease in GSH, NPSH and vitamin C levels. The activities of CAT, GPx and SOD were also decreased. EVOO and its OOLF fraction exhibited a pronounced enhancement of antioxidant status while a partial recovery in the antioxidant status was obtained with the OOHF fraction. Plasma LDH and CK activities, TC, LDL-C levels, TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios were increased, while HDL-C and TG decreased in rats treated with both AlCl3 and ACR. Co-administration of EVOO, OOLF or OOHF to treated rats restored cardiac biomarkers and lipid profile to near-normal values. Histological studies and DNA damage confirmed the biochemical parameters and the beneficial role of EVOO and its two fractions. Our results suggest that extra virgin olive oil and its two fractions can decrease the frequency of cardiac complications and genotoxicity.

  1. Use and impact of usual intake models on dietary exposure estimate and risk assessment of chemical substances: a practical example for cadmium, acrylamide and sulphites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Francesca Romana; Sirot, Véronique; Busani, Luca; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Hulin, Marion

    2015-01-01

    To estimate of food and nutrient intakes, 24-h recalls are frequently used in dietary assessment. However intake data collected for a short period are a limited estimator of long-term usual intake. An important limitation of such data is that the within-person variability tends to inflate the intake distribution leading to a biased estimation of extreme percentiles. Statistical models, named usual-intake models, that separate the within-person variability from the between-persons variability, have lately been implemented. The main objectives of this study were to highlight the potential impact that usual-intake models can have on exposure estimate and risk assessment and to point out which are the key aspects to be considered in order to run these models properly and be sure to interpret the output correctly. To achieve the goal we used the consumption data obtained by the French dietary survey INCA2 and the concentration data collected during the French TDS2, using Monte Carlo Risk Assessment (MCRA) software, release 8.0. For the three substances included in this study (cadmium, acrylamide and sulphites), the exposure of the upper percentiles was significantly reduced when using usual-intake models in comparison with the results obtained in the observed individual mean models, even if in terms of risk assessment the impact of using usual-intake models was limited. From the results it appears that the key aspects to consider when using usual-intake models are: (1) the normality of the log-transformed intake distribution, (2) the contribution per single food group to the total exposure, and (3) the independency of food consumption data on multiple days. In conclusion, usual-intake models may have an impact on exposure estimates although, referring to the results, it did not bring any changes in terms of risk assessment, but further investigations are needed.

  2. Swellable molecularly imprinted polyN-(N-propyl)acrylamide particles for detection of emerging organic contaminants using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavine, Barry K; Westover, David J; Kaval, Necati; Mirjankar, Nikhil; Oxenford, Leah; Mwangi, George K

    2007-05-15

    Lightly crosslinked theophylline imprinted polyN-(N-propyl)acrylamide particles (ca. 300nm in diameter) that are designed to swell and shrink as a function of analyte concentration in aqueous media were spin coated onto a gold surface. The nanospheres responded selectively to the targeted analyte due to molecular imprinting. Chemical sensing was based on changes in the refractive index of the imprinted particles that accompanied swelling due to binding of the targeted analyte, which was detected using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy. Because swelling leads to an increase in the percentage of water in the polymer, the refractive index of the polymer nanospheres decreased as the particles swelled. In the presence of aqueous theophylline at concentrations as low as 10(-6)M, particle swelling is both pronounced and readily detectable. The full scale response of the imprinted particles to template occurs in less than 10min. Swelling is also reversible and independent of the ionic strength of the solution in contact with the polymer. Replicate precision is less than 10(-4) RI units. By comparison, there is no response to caffeine which is similar in structure to theophylline at concentrations as high as 1x10(-2)M. Changes in the refractive index of the imprinted polymer particles, as low as 10(-4) RI units could be readily detected. A unique aspect of the prepared particles is the use of light crosslinking rather than heavy crosslinking. This is a significant development as it indicates that heavy crosslinking is not entirely necessary for selectivity in molecular imprinting with polyacrylamides.

  3. Urinary levels of N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-cysteine (AAMA), an acrylamide metabolite, in Korean children and their association with food consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acrylamide (AA), a probable human carcinogen, is present in high-temperature-processed foods, and has frequently been detected in humans worldwide. In the present study, the levels of a major AA metabolite, N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-cysteine (AAMA) were measured in urine samples collected in two separate events with 3 d interval from Korean children (n = 31, 10–13 years old), and their diets were surveyed for 4 d period prior to the second urine sampling. Daily AA intake was estimated from AAMA urinary levels and the influence of food consumption on urinary AAMA levels was investigated. The concentrations of metabolite AAMA in urine ranged between 15.4 and 196.3 ng/mL, with a median level of 68.1 ng/mL, and the levels varied by day considerably even in a given child. Children who were exposed to environmental smoke at home exhibited significantly higher levels of AAMA in urine, suggesting the importance of passive smoking as a source of AA exposure among children. Median (95th percentile) values of daily AA intake in Korean children were 1.04 (2.47) μg/kg body weight/day, which is higher than those reported elsewhere. After adjustment for gender, body mass index, and smoking status of family members, the consumptions of cracker and chocolate were identified to be significantly associated with the concentrations of AAMA in urine. The result of this study will provide information useful for developing public health and safety management for AA. - Highlights: • Urinary AAMA concentrations varied over time by the changes in diet. • Consumption of cracker and chocolate were correlated with urinary AAMA levels. • Urinary AAMA levels were significantly correlated with passive smoking. • AA intake estimates among Korean children are higher than those reported elsewhere

  4. Acrylamide-functionalized graphene micro-solid-phase extraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography for the online analysis of trace monoamine acidic metabolites in biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoting; Hu, Yufei; Li, Gongke; Zhang, Zhuomin

    2015-05-01

    Monoamine acidic metabolites in biological samples are essential biomarkers for the diagnosis of neurological disorders. In this work, acrylamide-functionalized graphene adsorbent was successfully synthesized by a chemical functionalization method and was packed in a homemade polyether ether ketone micro column as a micro-solid-phase extraction unit. This micro-solid-phase extraction unit was directly coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography to form an online system for the separation and analysis of three monoamine acidic metabolites including homovanillic acid, 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid in human urine and plasma. The online system showed high stability, permeability, and adsorption capacity toward target metabolites. The saturated extraction amount of this online system was 213.1, 107.0, and 153.4 ng for homovanillic acid, 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, respectively. Excellent detection limits were achieved in the range of 0.08-0.25 μg/L with good linearity and reproducibility. It was interesting that three targets in urine and plasma could be actually quantified to be 0.94-3.93 μg/L in plasma and 7.15-19.38 μg/L in urine. Good recoveries were achieved as 84.8-101.4% for urine and 77.8-95.1% for plasma with the intra- and interday relative standard deviations less than 9.3 and 10.3%, respectively. This method shows great potential for online analysis of trace monoamine acidic metabolites in biological samples.

  5. Urinary levels of N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-cysteine (AAMA), an acrylamide metabolite, in Korean children and their association with food consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Kyunghee [School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Veterinary Sciences and Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Yongin University, Yongin, 449-714 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Sungeun; Lee, Gowoon; Lee, Saeram; Jo, Areum; Kwak, Kyunghee; Kim, Dohyung; Kho, Dohyun; Lee, Sangwoo; Kim, Sunmi; Kim, Sungkyoon [School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Hiuang, Yuh-Fang; Wu, Kuen-Yuh [Public Health and Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China); Choi, Kyungho, E-mail: kyungho@snu.ac.kr [School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Acrylamide (AA), a probable human carcinogen, is present in high-temperature-processed foods, and has frequently been detected in humans worldwide. In the present study, the levels of a major AA metabolite, N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-cysteine (AAMA) were measured in urine samples collected in two separate events with 3 d interval from Korean children (n = 31, 10–13 years old), and their diets were surveyed for 4 d period prior to the second urine sampling. Daily AA intake was estimated from AAMA urinary levels and the influence of food consumption on urinary AAMA levels was investigated. The concentrations of metabolite AAMA in urine ranged between 15.4 and 196.3 ng/mL, with a median level of 68.1 ng/mL, and the levels varied by day considerably even in a given child. Children who were exposed to environmental smoke at home exhibited significantly higher levels of AAMA in urine, suggesting the importance of passive smoking as a source of AA exposure among children. Median (95th percentile) values of daily AA intake in Korean children were 1.04 (2.47) μg/kg body weight/day, which is higher than those reported elsewhere. After adjustment for gender, body mass index, and smoking status of family members, the consumptions of cracker and chocolate were identified to be significantly associated with the concentrations of AAMA in urine. The result of this study will provide information useful for developing public health and safety management for AA. - Highlights: • Urinary AAMA concentrations varied over time by the changes in diet. • Consumption of cracker and chocolate were correlated with urinary AAMA levels. • Urinary AAMA levels were significantly correlated with passive smoking. • AA intake estimates among Korean children are higher than those reported elsewhere.

  6. A Combination Supplement of Fructo- and Xylo-Oligosaccharides Significantly Abrogates Oxidative Impairments and Neurotoxicity in Maternal/Fetal Milieu Following Gestational Exposure to Acrylamide in Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Gokul; Divyashri, Gangaraju; Prapulla, S G; Muralidhara

    2015-09-01

    Prebiotic oligosaccharides are demonstrated to confer a wide spectrum of physiological benefits during pregnancy. In view of this, focused attempts are being directed towards understanding their role as modulators of brain chemistry and behavior. Epidemiological studies have identified that exposure to neurotoxins during prenatal/early life can profoundly impact neurodevelopment/function. In this context, we have tested the hypothesis that a combination of prebiotic supplements during gestation has the propensity to attenuate acrylamide (ACR) induced oxidative impairments, mitochondrial dysfunction and neurotoxicity in maternal and fetal brain of rats. To achieve this, pregnant dams given oral supplements of a combination of fructo- and xylooligosaccharides (FOS + XOS, 3 g/kg/day) during gestation days (GD 0-19) were exposed to ACR (200 ppm in drinking water, GD 6-19). The behavioral analysis revealed that ACR dams fed prebiotics displayed higher exploratory behavior in the open field test. The prenatal evaluation showed that ACR-induced decrements of placental/fetal weights were markedly restored with prebiotic feeding. Prebiotics significantly offset markers of oxidative stress, restored enzymic antioxidants, cholinergic and mitochondrial function in the maternal and fetal brain. Concomitantly, prebiotics restored ACR-induced depletion in the levels of dopamine and γ-aminobutyric acid in the maternal cortex that positively correlated with cecal bacterial numbers. Collectively, these data suggest that prenatal prebiotic oligosaccharide supplements protect developing brain against oxidative stress-mediated neurotoxicity. While the underlying mechanism/s by which prebiotics abrogate the impact of neurotoxicants in the developing brain merits further studies, we speculate that it may be mediated predominantly through attenuation of oxidative stress and proliferation of enteric microbiota. PMID:26248513

  7. Anti-genotoxic effect of Aloysia triphylla infusion against acrylamide-induced DNA damage as shown by the comet assay technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamorano-Ponce, E; Morales, C; Ramos, D; Sepúlveda, C; Cares, S; Rivera, P; Fernández, J; Carballo, M A

    2006-02-28

    Aloysia triphylla a perennial, bushy plant originally from South America has long been used in traditional medicine. Its aqueous extract contains considerable amounts of polyphenolic compounds, namely flavonoids and phenolic acids. In view of the interest in natural phenolic compounds as antioxidant in preventive medicine, this study was undertaken to investigate the chemoprotective effects of cedron leaves infusion against the genetic damage induced by acrylamide (AA) by using the alkaline version of the comet assay technique. Mice were separated in nine groups (eight animals each): (I) untreated, (II) negative control, (III) treated with infusion of cedron leaves 5%, 20 days twice a day, (IV) treated with AA (5 mg/kg b.w.), (V) treated with AA (20 mg/kg b.w.), (VI) treated with AA (30 mg/kg b.w.), (VII) treated with AA (50 mg/kg b.w.), (VIII) pretreated with infusion and treated with AA (50 mg/kg b.w.) and (IX) positive control (cyclophosphamide, 20 mg/kg b.w.). Three hundred blast cells were digitally evaluated per animal from three different slides (100 each). Media of tail moment (TM) values were analyzed by ANOVA test. No statistical differences (p>0.05) were found between untreated animals, negative control and infusion-treated mice. A single dose of AA-induced genetic damage as revealed by a statistically significant increase in TM values (p0.05) and exhibit statistical differences from animals treated only with AA (p<0.01). Cell viability was at least 90% in all cases as measured by the trypan blue exclusion method. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) method reveals that the plasma of infusion-treated mice has a significantly higher antioxidant capacity than plasma from controls (p<0.01). The results suggest that the infusion could exerts an in vivo chemo protective action, probably due to its scavenging potency towards free radicals. PMID:16413820

  8. Psyllium and copolymers of 2-hydroxylethylmethacrylate and acrylamide-based novel devices for the use in colon specific antibiotic drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Baljit; Chauhan, Nirmala; Kumar, S; Bala, Ritu

    2008-03-20

    In order to utilize the psyllium husk, a medicinally important natural polysaccharide, to develop the hydrogels meant for the drug delivery, we have prepared psyllium 2-hydroxylethylmethacrylate (HEMA) and acrylamide (AAm)-based polymeric networks by using N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (N,N'-MBAAm) as crosslinker and ammonium persulfate (APS) as initiator. The polymeric networks thus formed [psy-cl-poly(HEMA-co-AAm)] were characterized with FTIR and swelling studies which were carried out as a function of crosslinker concentration, time, pH and [NaCl] of the swelling medium. The swelling kinetics of the hydrogels and in vitro release dynamics of model drug (tetracycline hydrochloride) from these hydrogels has been studied for the evaluation of swelling mechanism and drug release mechanism from the hydrogels. The values of the diffusion exponent 'n' have been obtained 0.5 for both swelling kinetics and drug release dynamics. This value shows that the Fickian type diffusion mechanism has occurred for the swelling of the polymers and for the release of drug from the polymers in different release mediums. The values of the initial diffusion coefficients (10.6 x 10(-4), 13.1 x 10(-4), 14.0 x 10(-4))cm(2)/min, average diffusion coefficients (22.2 x 10(-4), 25.7 x 10(-4), 27.0 x 10(-4))cm(2)/min and late diffusion coefficients (1.68 x 10(-4), 2.15 x 10(-4), 2.28 x 10(-4))cm(2)/min for the release of tetracycline HCl respectively in distilled water, pH 2.2 buffer and pH 7.4 buffer from the drug loaded samples shows that in the initial stages, the rate of release of drug from the hydrogels is slow and rate of diffusion of drug increases with time. PMID:18055144

  9. Anti-genotoxic effect of Aloysia triphylla infusion against acrylamide-induced DNA damage as shown by the comet assay technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamorano-Ponce, E; Morales, C; Ramos, D; Sepúlveda, C; Cares, S; Rivera, P; Fernández, J; Carballo, M A

    2006-02-28

    Aloysia triphylla a perennial, bushy plant originally from South America has long been used in traditional medicine. Its aqueous extract contains considerable amounts of polyphenolic compounds, namely flavonoids and phenolic acids. In view of the interest in natural phenolic compounds as antioxidant in preventive medicine, this study was undertaken to investigate the chemoprotective effects of cedron leaves infusion against the genetic damage induced by acrylamide (AA) by using the alkaline version of the comet assay technique. Mice were separated in nine groups (eight animals each): (I) untreated, (II) negative control, (III) treated with infusion of cedron leaves 5%, 20 days twice a day, (IV) treated with AA (5 mg/kg b.w.), (V) treated with AA (20 mg/kg b.w.), (VI) treated with AA (30 mg/kg b.w.), (VII) treated with AA (50 mg/kg b.w.), (VIII) pretreated with infusion and treated with AA (50 mg/kg b.w.) and (IX) positive control (cyclophosphamide, 20 mg/kg b.w.). Three hundred blast cells were digitally evaluated per animal from three different slides (100 each). Media of tail moment (TM) values were analyzed by ANOVA test. No statistical differences (p>0.05) were found between untreated animals, negative control and infusion-treated mice. A single dose of AA-induced genetic damage as revealed by a statistically significant increase in TM values (p0.05) and exhibit statistical differences from animals treated only with AA (p<0.01). Cell viability was at least 90% in all cases as measured by the trypan blue exclusion method. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) method reveals that the plasma of infusion-treated mice has a significantly higher antioxidant capacity than plasma from controls (p<0.01). The results suggest that the infusion could exerts an in vivo chemo protective action, probably due to its scavenging potency towards free radicals.

  10. Process Optimization and Acrylamide Control of Deep-Fried Dough Sticks%油条加工中丙烯酰胺的控制与工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伍金; 郑美珍

    2015-01-01

    Taking into consideration acrylamide content and sensory evaluation, the article explores new tech-nology on healthy deep-fried dough sticks by Response Surface Methodology ( RSM) . The results show that the optimum parameters for deep-fried dough sticks are:total raising agent 15g, fry temperature 180℃, acrylam-ide content 4. 836mg/kg (the minimum level in sticks fried in 2min). The results also indicate that deep-fried dough sticks thus made are with golden color, regular shape, uniform pores, thin walls, great resilience and crispy salty palatable taste.%从油条中丙烯酰胺含量监测、感官品质评价两方面入手,采取响应曲面法设计,探讨健康的油炸新工艺。结果表明:膨松剂总量为3%(以面粉质量计)、油条油炸温度180℃、油炸时间2min的条件下,制得的油条丙烯酰胺含量为最低值4.836mg/kg,感官评价具有色泽金黄、外观形状整齐、气孔均匀、孔壁薄、复原性好、口感咸香适口等良好的品质特点。

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Sodium Acrylate-Acrylamide Super Water-absorbent Resin%丙烯酸钠-丙烯酰胺高吸水树脂的合成与性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任敏红; 陈权生; 张玉敏; 田英

    2015-01-01

    A super absorbent resin was synthesized by aqueous solution polymerization, in which the initiator was potassium persulphate and crosslinking agent was N,N’-methylene bis-acrylamide. The influences included ratio of acrylic acid to acrylamide, monomer concent, the amount of initiator and crosslinker, reaction temperature on absorption capacity were studied. The absorbency of the resin was 593g/g in distilled water,260g/g in tap water, and 66.7g/g in 0.9 wt% NaCl solution.%以过硫酸钾为引发剂、N,N-亚甲基双丙烯酰胺(NNMBA)为交联剂,采用水溶液聚合法制备聚丙烯酸钠-丙烯酰胺高吸水性树脂,研究了丙烯酸与丙烯酰胺比例、单体浓度、引发剂用量、交联剂用量以及聚合温度对树脂吸水性能的影响。制备的高吸水性树脂吸蒸馏水为593g·g-1,吸自来水为260g·g-1,吸0.9%NaCl溶液为66.7g·g-1。

  12. 黄原胶辐射接枝丙烯酰胺及其应用性能的研究%Studies on the grafting of acrylamide onto xanthan gum by co-irradiation and its application performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏秀霞; 诸晓锋; 李仲谨; 王磊; 顿雪明; 路宽

    2009-01-01

    利用60Co γ为辐射源,在氮气保护下对黄原胶(Xanthan gum,XG)和丙烯酰胺(Acrylamide,AM)进行共辐射接枝,制备出了黄原胶,丙烯酰胺接枝共聚物(Xanthan gum-graft-Acrylamide,XG-g-AM).研究了反应条件对样品接枝率和单体转换效率的影响规律,利用元素分析(Element analysis,EA)、傅立叶红外光谱(Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy,FT-IR)、X射线衍射(X-ray diffraction,XRD)、热重分析(Thermal gravimetric analysis,TGA)对接枝产物进行表征.实验结果表明,当XG浓度为10 g/L,AM与XG质量比为3:1,吸收剂量为6.0 kGy,其最佳产品接枝率为128.5%,单体接枝效率为80.4%.同时对接枝共聚物的絮凝效果进行了试验.

  13. Pyrolysis of carbonaceous particles and properties of Carbonaceous-g-Poly (acrylic acid-co-acrylamide superabsorbent polymer for agricultural applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazali S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilisation of fertilizer and water are very important in determining the production of agriculture nowadays. The excessive use of fertilizer in plantation somehow could leads to environmental pollution. The present study reported a synthesis of controlled release water retention (CRWR fertilizer coating with superabsorbent polymer (SAPs. Superabsorbent polymer (SAPs are polymers that have ability to absorb and retain large amounts of water relative to their own mass. The presence of coating layer of SAPs on fertilizer granules was believed could reduce excessive used of fertilizer by controlling their dissolution rates and also reduce the environmental pollution. In this study, the effect on the addition of carbonaceous filler in SAPs on the water absorbency was also be compared with control SAPs (without carbonaceous particles. In this study, the carbonaceous filler were obtained from pyrolysis process of empty fruit bunch (EFB biomass. The synthesized of SAPs and carbonaceous-SAPs were carried out via solution polymerization technique by using monomer of poly(acrylic acid (AA, acrylamide (AM, cross linker, methylene bisacrylamide (MBA and initiator, ammonium peroxodisulfate (APS that partially neutralized with sodium hydroxide (NaOH. The CRWR fertilizer was later be prepared by coated the fertilizer granule with SAPs and carbonaceous-SAPs. The water absorbency, morphology and the bonding formation of both CRWR fertilizer were investigated by using tea-beg method, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR, respectively. Moreover, the water retention studies was conducted in order to investigate the efficiency of CRWR coated with SAP and carbonaceous-SAP in retaining the water content in different soil (organic and top soil. Based on the results, the CRWR fertilizer that was coated with carbonaceous-SAP had higher water absorbency value than the CRWR fertilizer without carbonaceous-SAP. Meanwhile

  14. LC-MS/MS法测定11种鲜切油炸马铃薯片中丙烯酰胺的含量%LC-MS/MS Method for the Determination of Acrylamide in 11 Varieties of Fresh-cut Fried potato chips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程江华; 王薇; 廖华俊; 周蓓蓓; 杨松; 付广俊; 闫晓明

    2011-01-01

    目的:在相同的设定条件下,进行11种鲜切油炸马铃薯片中丙烯酰胺含量的测试.方法:将马铃薯热烫60s,表面干燥,180℃油炸100s,脱油,前处理,采用液相-质谱联用检测不同品种的马铃薯油炸薯片中丙烯酰胺含量.结果:在相同的油炸试验条件下,丙烯酰胺含量较低的是D-519、陇薯-3号、中薯-7号、LK99等,丙烯酰胺含量较高的是中薯-8号、夏波蒂、中薯-3号等.结论:马铃薯品种对鲜切油炸薯片中丙烯酰胺含量有较大的影响.%Objective: In this paper, determination test of acrylamide contents in 11 potato varieties fresh-cut fried potato chips was carried out the same conditions. Methods: The sample blanching 60s, dry surface, 180℃ fried 100s, off the oil, pre-treatment, acrylamide contents, in different cultivars were detected by LC-MS/MS. Results: In the same frying experimental basis, low levels of acrylamide is the D-519, Longshu-3, zhongshu-7, LK99 and so on,the high content of acrylamide is zhongshu-8, shepody and Zhongshu-3. The results provide some basis for the determination of potato processing varieties. Conclusion: The variety of potato have an major effect on the acrylamide content of fresh-cut fried potato chips.

  15. 油炸涂膜薯片的吸油率和丙烯酰胺含量研究%Research on Oil Absorption Ratio and Acrylamide Content of Fried Potato Chips with Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛美香; 尤婷婷; 柳佳齐; 姜燕

    2015-01-01

    将不同浓度的羧甲基纤维素钠(CMC)膜液、大豆分离蛋白(SPI)膜液和壳聚糖膜液分别涂覆于薯片表面,高温油炸后,以薯片的吸油率和含水量为评价指标,确定3种膜液的最宜浓度,并对比了3种膜液最佳浓度下油炸薯片的丙烯酰胺含量、色泽值及感官品质.在CMC、SPI和壳聚糖膜液浓度分别为1.5%、8%和1.5%时,与未涂膜薯片对比,油炸涂膜薯片的吸油率分别下降17.73%、22.94%和7.58%,丙烯酰胺含量分别下降21.5%、42.9%和53.3%.结果表明,SPI涂膜可更大程度降低油炸薯片的吸油率,而壳聚糖涂膜可显著减少其丙烯酰胺含量,并具有较好的感官品质.%Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium (CMC) coating,soy protein isolate (SPI) coating and chitosan coating of different concentrations were coated on the surface of potato chips respectively.According to oil absorption rate and water content of fried potato chips,the appropriate coating solution were determined.The acrylamide content,color and sensory evaluation of fried potato chips coated with three coatings were compared in this situation simultaneously.Comparing with non-coating fried potato chips,the oil absorption ratio of fried chips coated with 1.5%CMC,8%SPI and 1.5%chitosan decreases 17.73%,22.94%and 7.58%and the acrylamide content decreases 21.5%,42.9%and 53.3%,respectively.Results indicate that SPI coating could reduce the oil absorption significantly,and chitosan coating could reduce the acrylamide content of fried potato chips.The product appears good sensory quality.

  16. Drug delivery system prepared by ionizing radiation of the N,N-dimethyl acrylamide with acryloyloxy-acetanilide copolymerization; Sistema de liberacao de droga obtido via radiacao ionizante pela copolimerizacao do N,N-dimetilacrilamida com 4-acriloiloxiacetanilida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martellini, Flavia; Higa, Olga Z. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Queiroz, Alvaro A.A. de [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Rodighiero, Paolo [Universidade de Padova (Italy). Inst. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas

    1995-12-31

    Radiation induced polymerization has been used in biomaterials used in systems which such as drug delivery (DDS). This work describes the copolymerization of the monomers by gamma rays N,N-dimethyl acrylamide (DMAA) and acryloyloxy-acetanilide (AOA) for the immobilization of paracetamol, an analgesic and anti thermic drug. Dimethylformamide solutions were used in two concentrations of DMAA and AOA (F{sub DMAA/AOA} = 0,85/015 and 0,70/0,30, where F = molar fraction in the monomer feed). The samples were irradiated in the dose range of 30-800 Gy. The copolymer poly(DMAA-co-AOA) characterization was carried out by FTIR and {sup 1}HRMN. The hydrolysis was studied considering the formation of sodium salts of 4-hydroxy acetanilide at different times of treatment using colorimetric assay. (author). 6 refs., 5 figs.

  17. 基于计算机视觉的油炸薯片中丙烯酰胺含量测定系统%Determination of Acrylamide Contents in Fried Potato Chips Based on Computer Vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何鹏; 王成琳; 万晓青

    2013-01-01

    设计了一套基于计算机视觉技术的油炸薯片中丙烯酰胺含量的测定系统,图像获取装置采集每隔60 s从电炸锅内取出的薯片的双面图像,采用气相色谱-质谱法测定相应薯片的丙烯酰胺含量;采用图像滤波算法、彩色图像分割算法和颜色测量算法从双面图像中提取目标薯片,测量整体薯片的L*、a*、b*平均值.数据分析表明,薯片双面a*平均值的平均值与薯片中丙烯酰胺含量之间有很强的相关性(R2=0.971),建立了两者之间的线性回归方程.采集了10个不同品牌薯片的双面图像,将获取的双面a*平均值的平均值代入方程,计算得到的丙烯酰胺含量与标准化学方法测定值之间的最大相对误差为4.94%,表明该方法可行、准确.%A system of determining acrylamide contents in fried potato chips based on computer vision technology was developed. For each 60 s, the image acquisition device collected double-sided images of potato chips removed from the fryer. The acrylamide contents of the corresponding potato chips were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method, meanwhile, the target potato chips of the double-sided images were extracted and L*, a* , b * average of the overall target was measured by proposed image filtering algorithm, the color image segmentation algorithm and the color measurement algorithm, respectively. The obtained data was analyzed and a strong correlation between the average of double-sided a* average and acrylamide contents of potato chips was found (R2 =0. 971 ) and a linear regression equation was established. Potato chips double-sided images of 10 different brands sold on the market was collected and the average of double-sided a* average was put into the equation. The maximum relative error between the acrylamide contents calculated and standard chemical method was 4. 94% , which indicated that the method was feasible and accurate.

  18. Novel strategy for synthesis of magnetic dummy molecularly imprinted nanoparticles based on functionalized silica as an efficient sorbent for the determination of acrylamide in potato chips: Optimization by experimental design methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabi, Maryam; Ostovan, Abbas; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Purkait, Mihir K

    2016-07-01

    This study discusses a novel and simple method for the preparation of magnetic dummy molecularly imprinted nanoparticles (MDMINPs). Firstly, Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesized as a magnetic component. Subsequently, MDMINPs were constructed via the sol-gel strategy using APTMS as the functional monomer. Urethane was considered as dummy template to avoid residual template and TEOS as the cross linker. The prepared MDMINPs were used for the pre-concentration of acrylamide from potato chips. Quantification was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (HPLC-UV). The impact of influential variables such as pH, amount of sorbent, sonication time and eluent volume were well investigated and optimized using a central composite design. The particles had excellent magnetic property and high selectivity to the targeted molecule. In optimized conditions, the recovery ranged from 94.0% to 98.0% with the detection limit of 0.35µgkg(-1). PMID:27154710

  19. Enzymatic grafting of eugenol-bridged jute fiber with acrylamide%黄麻纤维生物法桥接丁子香酚接枝丙烯酰胺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜淼; 董爱学; 王强; 吴慧敏; 范雪荣

    2015-01-01

    Enzymatic processes provide new perspectives for the hydrophilization modification of jute lignocellu-losic fiber.First,eugenol as an intermediate monomer was grafted to the lignin-rich jute fabric catalyzed by lac-case.Then,further grafting polymerization of acrylamide to the eugenol-bridged jute mediated by laccase/tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)was investigated in this study.The results showed that eugenol could be grafted to the surface of jute via the catalysis of laccase and the C1s peak of C=C was observed at 283.49 eV in XPS spectra.The best grafting conditions measured by a bromine method were 50 ℃,pH was 4,4 h,eugenol con-centration of 5 mmol/L,laccase dosage of 1.68 U/mL for grafting rate of 1.06%.FT-IR spectrum of acrylam-ide-grafted eugenol-bridged jute showed obvious characteristic peaks of amide groups,which revealed the exist-ence of grafted acrylamides on the jute fibers.The grafting rate of acrylamide onto the jute fiber was 3.66% de-termined by the micro kjeldahl method.%研究了漆酶催化黄麻木质纤维接枝过渡单体丁子香酚,然后在漆酶/t-BHP 催化下,在丁子香酚上进一步接枝丙烯酰胺的亲水化改性反应.结果表明,黄麻纤维接枝丁子香酚的 XPS 分峰图上观察到283.49 eV 处存在 C=C 的能谱峰,证明丁子香酚接枝到了黄麻纤维表面;溴量法测得在50℃、pH 值=4、丁子香酚浓度5 mmol/L、漆酶用量1.68 U/mL 条件下反应4 h 接枝过渡单体效果最好,接枝率为1.06%.在黄麻纤维桥接丁子香酚接枝丙烯酰胺的红外光谱图上呈现酰胺基团的红外特征吸收峰,说明黄麻纤维表面成功接枝丙烯酰胺;微量凯氏定氮法测得黄麻纤维桥接丁子香酚接枝丙烯酰胺的接枝率为3.66%.

  20. 预防医学专业本科学生丙烯酰胺知晓度及摄入量调查%Investigation on awareness degree and dietary intake of acrylamide among preventive medicine professional undergraduate students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐宝宁; 孟娟娟; 陈丽剑; 成振红; 高倩

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解咸阳市某高校预防医学专业本科学生对食品中丙烯酰胺(A A )的知晓率和膳食摄入量情况。方法选择28种大学生经常食用的油炸及烘烤食品作为被调查对象,采用食物频数法对整群抽取的1~5年级248名预防医学专业在校本科生进行膳食问卷调查。结果38.71%的大学生从未听说A A ,32.26%听说过但不知A A是何物,11.29%知晓其危害;大学生每人AA的膳食摄入量约为31.57μg/d ,且不同性别和不同年级之间AA膳食摄入量差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论被调查预防医学专业本科学生对AA的知晓率相对较低,应加强AA相关食品安全知识的宣传教育。%Objective To understand the awareness degree and the dietary intake of acrylamide (AA) in food among preventive medicine professional undergraduate students in a university of Xianyang city .Methods 28 kinds of fried and baked food frequently eaten by undergraduates were selected as the respondents .The food-frequency method was adopted to perform the questionnaire in-vestigation on 248 undergraduates sampled from grade 1-5 of preventive medicine professional undergraduate students by the clus-ter sampling .Results More than 38 .71% of the investigated students had never known about the acrylamide ,32 .26% of the inves-tigated students had heard but did not know what it was ,11 .26% students knew about its hazard .The AA dietary intake was about 31 .57 μg/d per person ,and there was no statistical difference in the AA dietary intake between different sexes and grades .Conclu-sion The awareness degree of AA among investigated preventive medicine professional undergraduates is relatively low .Therefore it is necessary to strengthen the publicity and education of the AA-related food safety knowledge .