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Sample records for acrolein

  1. Fate and effects of acrolein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghilarducci, D P; Tjeerdema, R S

    1995-01-01

    Acrolein is a highly toxic, reactive, and irritating aldehyde that occurs as a product of organic pyrolysis, as a metabolite of a number of compounds, and as a residue in water when used for the control of aquatic organisms. It is an intermediate in the production of acrylic acid, DL-methionine, and numerous other agents. Its major direct use is as a biocide for the control of aquatic flora and fauna. It is introduced to the environment from a variety of sources, including organic combustion such as automobile exhaust, cigarette smoke, and manufacturing and cooking emissions, as well as direct biocidal applications. Organic combustion from both fixed and mobile sources is the significant source of acrolein in the atmosphere; it represents up to 8% of the total aldehydes generated from vehicles and residential fireplaces and 13% of total atmospheric aldehydes. This reactive aldehyde also occurs in organisms as a metabolite of allyl alcohol, allylamine, spermine, spermidine, and the anticancer drug cyclophosphamide, and as a product of UV radiation of the skin lipid triolein. Furthermore, small amounts are found in foods; when animal or vegetable fats are overheated, however, large amounts are produced. Most human contact occurs during exposure to smoke from cigarettes, automobiles, industrial processes, and structural and vegetation fires. Besides cigarette smoke, occupational exposures are a common mode of human contact, particularly in industries that involve combustion of organic compounds. Firefighters, in particular, are exposed to extremely high levels during the extinguishment and overhaul phases of their work. Water may contain significant levels of the herbicide. It has been found in paper mill and municipal effluents at 20-200 micrograms/L, and at 30 micrograms/L as far as 64 km downstream from the point of application. The USEPA-recommended water quality criteria for freshwater are only 1.2 micrograms/L (24-hr avg) and 2.7 micrograms/L (maximum ceiling

  2. Pyrolysis of D-Glucose to Acrolein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chong Shen; Igor Ying Zhang; Gang Fu; Xin Xu

    2011-01-01

    Despite of its great importance, the detailed molecular mechanism for carbohydrate pyrolysis remains poorly understood. We perform a density functional study with a newly developed XYG3 functional on the processes for D-glucose pyrolysis to acrolein. The most feasible reaction pathway starts from an isomerization from D-glucose to D-fructose, which then undergoes a cyclic Grob fragmentation, followed by a concerted electrocyclic dehydration to yield acrolein. This mechanism can account for the known experimental results.

  3. Acrolein and embryogenesis: an experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhibber, G.; Cilani, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of acrolein were studied on the chick embryos of 48 and 72 hr of incubation. Acrolein was dissolved in physiological saline and injected into the air sacs of the eggs at doses ranging from 0.001 to 0.1 mg per egg. The controls received and equal amount of saline only (0.1 ml per egg). All the embryos including controls were examined at Day 13. In all, 600 eggs were utilized for this investigation. At 48 hr incubation, the percentage survival ranged from 80 to 0 as the dosage of acrolein was increased. Embryonic mortality following 72 hr incubation did not increase significantly at any dose level. Gross malformations such as short and twisted limbs, everted viscera, microphthalmia, short and twisted neck, and hemorrhage over the body were observed. The frequency and the types of gross abnormalities did not vary much in the 48- or 72-hr-treated groups. The incidence of malformation in the controls was low. The results of this study indicates that acrolein is embryotoxic at higher doses and moderately teratogenic to chick embryogenesis.

  4. EXPOSURE TO ACROLEIN BY INHALATION CAUSES PLATELET ACTIVATION

    OpenAIRE

    Sithu, Srinivas D.; Srivastava, Sanjay; Siddiqui, Maqsood A; Vladykovskaya, Elena; Riggs, Daniel W.; Conklin, Daniel J.; Haberzettl, Petra; O’Toole, Timothy E.; Bhatnagar, Aruni; D’Souza, Stanley E.

    2010-01-01

    Acrolein is a common air pollutant that is present in high concentrations in wood, cotton, and tobacco smoke, automobile exhaust and industrial waste and emissions. Exposure to acrolein containing environmental pollutants such as tobacco smoke and automobile exhaust has been linked to the activation of the coagulation and hemostasis pathways and thereby to the predisposition of thrombotic events in human. To examine the effects of acrolein on platelets, adult male C57Bl/6 mice were subjected ...

  5. Proteomic analysis of rat cerebral cortex following subchronic acrolein toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acrolein, a member of reactive α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, is a major environmental pollutant. Acrolein is also produced endogenously as a toxic by-product of lipid peroxidation. Because of high reactivity, acrolein may mediate oxidative damages to cells and tissues. It has been shown to be involved in a wide variety of pathological states including pulmonary, atherosclerosis and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study we employed proteomics approach to investigate the effects of subchronic oral exposures to 3 mg/kg of acrolein on protein expression profile in the brain of rats. Moreover effects of acrolein on malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and reduced glutathione (GSH) content were investigated. Our results revealed that treatment with acrolein changed levels of several proteins in diverse physiological process including energy metabolism, cell communication and transport, response to stimulus and metabolic process. Interestingly, several differentially over-expressed proteins, including β-synuclein, enolase and calcineurin, are known to be associated with human neurodegenerative diseases. Changes in the levels of some proteins were confirmed by Western blot. Moreover, acrolein increases the level of MDA, as a lipid peroxidation biomarker and decreased GSH concentrations, as a non-enzyme antioxidant in the brain of acrolein treated rats. These findings suggested that acrolein induces the oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in the brain, and so that may contribute to the pathophysiology of neurological disorders. - Highlights: • Acrolein intoxication increased lipid peroxidation and deplete GSH in rat brain. • Effect of acrolein on protein levels of cerebral cortex was analyzed by 2DE-PAGE. • Levels of a number of proteins with different biological functions were increased

  6. Proteomic analysis of rat cerebral cortex following subchronic acrolein toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashedinia, Marzieh; Lari, Parisa [Department of Pharmacodynamics and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abnous, Khalil, E-mail: Abnouskh@mums.ac.r [Pharmaceutical Research Center, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseinzadeh, Hossein, E-mail: Hosseinzadehh@mums.ac.ir [Pharmaceutical Research Center, Department of Pharmacodynamics and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-10-01

    Acrolein, a member of reactive α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, is a major environmental pollutant. Acrolein is also produced endogenously as a toxic by-product of lipid peroxidation. Because of high reactivity, acrolein may mediate oxidative damages to cells and tissues. It has been shown to be involved in a wide variety of pathological states including pulmonary, atherosclerosis and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study we employed proteomics approach to investigate the effects of subchronic oral exposures to 3 mg/kg of acrolein on protein expression profile in the brain of rats. Moreover effects of acrolein on malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and reduced glutathione (GSH) content were investigated. Our results revealed that treatment with acrolein changed levels of several proteins in diverse physiological process including energy metabolism, cell communication and transport, response to stimulus and metabolic process. Interestingly, several differentially over-expressed proteins, including β-synuclein, enolase and calcineurin, are known to be associated with human neurodegenerative diseases. Changes in the levels of some proteins were confirmed by Western blot. Moreover, acrolein increases the level of MDA, as a lipid peroxidation biomarker and decreased GSH concentrations, as a non-enzyme antioxidant in the brain of acrolein treated rats. These findings suggested that acrolein induces the oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in the brain, and so that may contribute to the pathophysiology of neurological disorders. - Highlights: • Acrolein intoxication increased lipid peroxidation and deplete GSH in rat brain. • Effect of acrolein on protein levels of cerebral cortex was analyzed by 2DE-PAGE. • Levels of a number of proteins with different biological functions were increased.

  7. Prozessentwicklung zur biotechnologischen Produktion von Acrolein aus Nebenprodukten der Bioethanolherstellung

    OpenAIRE

    Oehmke, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Da fossile Quellen endlich sind, werden Chemikalien aus nachwachsenden Rohstoffen immer interessanter für die Forschung und Industrie. Zu den vielversprechenden Plattformchemikalien gehört das Stoffpaar 3-Hydroxypropionaldehyd/ Acrolein. Jedoch sind bisherige Ansätze für eine wirtschaftliche Produktion von 3-Hydroxypropionaldehyd/ Acrolein im industriellen Maßstab nicht ausreichend. Deshalb wurde in dieser Arbeit geprüft, inwieweit sich Schlempe, ein glycerinhaltiges Nebenprodukt der Bioethan...

  8. Anti-acrolein treatment improves behavioral outcome and alleviates myelin damage in EAE mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Gary; Sun, WenJing; Zheng, Lingxing; Brookes, Sarah; Tully, Melissa; Shi, Riyi

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative stress is considered a major contributor in the pathology of multiple sclerosis (MS). Acrolein, a highly reactive aldehyde byproduct of lipid peroxidation, is thought to perpetuate oxidative stress. In this study, we aimed to determine the role of acrolein in an animal model of MS, experimental autoimmune enchephalomyelitis (EAE) mice. We have demonstrated a significant elevation of acrolein protein adduct levels in EAE mouse spinal cord. Hydralazine, a known acrolein scavenger, sig...

  9. Effects of acrolein on the production of corticosterone in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Yung-Hsing; Chou, Jou-Chun; Weng, Ting-Chun; Lieu, Fu-Kong; Lin, Jou-Yu; Yeh, Chii-Chang; Hu, Sindy; Wang, Paulus S; Idova, Galina; Wang, Shyi-Wu

    2016-07-01

    Acrolein, an α, β-unsaturated aldehyde, exists in a wide range of sources. Acrolein can be not only generated from all types of smoke but also produced endogenously from the metabolism by lipid peroxidation. The cellular influence of acrolein is due to its electrophilic character via binding to and depleting cellular nucleophiles. Although the toxicity of acrolein has been extensively studied, there is relatively little information about its impact on hormone release. This study aimed at the effect of acrolein on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (H-P-A) axis. In an in vivo study, male rats were administrated with acrolein for 1 or 3days. The plasma corticosterone in response to a single injection of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) increased slowly in acrolein-pretreated rats than in control rats. Further investigating the steroidogenic pathway, the protein expressions of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and the upper receptor-melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R) were attenuated in acrolein-treated groups. Another experiment using trilostane showed less activity of P450scc in zona fasciculata-reticularis (ZFR) cells in acrolein-treated groups. In addition to the suppressed ability of corticosterone production in ZFR cells, acrolein even had extended influence at higher concentrations. The lower ACTH was observed in the plasma from acrolein-pretreated rats. In an in vitro study, ZFR cells were incubated with acrolein and the results showed that corticosterone concentrations in media were decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Acrolein also desensitized the response of the ZFR cells to ACTH. These results suggested that acrolein decreased the releasing ability of corticosterone via an inhibition on the response of ZFR cells to ACTH and the reduction of protein expressions of StAR and MC2R as well as the activity of P450scc in rat ZFR cells. The present evidences showed that the H-P-A axis was affected by the administration of acrolein. PMID:26996390

  10. The Uremic Toxin Acrolein Promotes Suicidal Erythrocyte Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Siyabeldin E. Ahmed

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anemia is a major complication of end stage renal disease. The anemia is mainly the result of impaired formation of erythrocytes due to lack of erythropoietin and iron deficiency. Compelling evidence, however, points to the contribution of accelerated erythrocyte death, which decreases the life span of circulating erythrocytes. Erythrocytes may enter suicidal death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and by cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine-exposure at the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i. Erythrocytes could be sensitized to cytosolic Ca2+ by ceramide. In end stage renal disease, eryptosis may possibly be stimulated by uremic toxins. The present study explored, whether the uremic toxin acrolein could trigger eryptosis. Methods: Cell volume was estimated from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine-exposure from annexin-V-binding, hemolysis from hemoglobin release, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, and ceramide from fluorescent antibodies. Results: A 48 h exposure to acrolein (30 - 50 µM did not significantly modify [Ca2+]i but significantly decreased forward scatter and increased annexin-V-binding. Acrolein further triggered slight, but significant hemolysis and increased ceramide formation in erythrocytes. Acrolein (50 µM induced annexin-V-binding was significantly blunted in the nominal absence of extracellular Ca2+. Acrolein augmented the annexin-V-binding following treatment with Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin (1 µM. Conclusion: Acrolein stimulates suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, an effect at least in part due to stimulation of ceramide formation with subsequent sensitisation of the erythrocytes to cytosolic Ca2+.

  11. Crude glycerol combustion: Particulate, acrolein, and other volatile organic emissions

    KAUST Repository

    Steinmetz, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Crude glycerol is an abundant by-product of biodiesel production. As volumes of this potential waste grow, there is increasing interest in developing new value added uses. One possible use, as a boiler fuel for process heating, offers added advantages of energy integration and fossil fuel substitution. However, challenges to the use of crude glycerol as a boiler fuel include its low energy density, high viscosity, and high autoignition temperature. We have previously shown that a refractory-lined, high swirl burner can overcome challenges related to flame ignition and stability. However, critical issues related to ash behavior and the possible formation of acrolein remained. The work presented here indicates that the presence of dissolved catalysts used during the esterification and transesterification processes results in extremely large amounts of inorganic species in the crude glycerol. For the fuels examined here, the result is a submicron fly ash comprised primarily of sodium carbonates, phosphates, and sulfates. These particles report to a well-developed accumulation mode (0.3-0.7 μm diameter), indicating extensive ash vaporization and particle formation via nucleation, condensation, and coagulation. Particle mass emissions were between 2 and 4 g/m3. These results indicate that glycerol containing soluble catalyst is not suitable as a boiler fuel. Fortunately, process improvements are currently addressing this issue. Additionally, acrolein is of concern due to its toxicity, and is known to be formed from the low temperature thermal decomposition of glycerol. Currently, there is no known reliable method for measuring acrolein in sources. Acrolein and emissions of other volatile organic compounds were characterized through the use of a SUMMA canister-based sampling method followed by GC-MS analysis designed for ambient measurements. Results indicate crude glycerol combustion produces relatively small amounts of acrolein (∼15 ppbv) and other volatile organic

  12. Acrolein cytotoxicity in hepatocytes involves endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammad, Mohammad K. [Department of Medicine, University of Louisville (United States); Alcohol Research Center, University of Louisville (United States); Avila, Diana [Department of Medicine, University of Louisville (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville (United States); Alcohol Research Center, University of Louisville (United States); Zhang, Jingwen [Department of Medicine, University of Louisville (United States); Alcohol Research Center, University of Louisville (United States); Barve, Shirish [Department of Medicine, University of Louisville (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville (United States); Alcohol Research Center, University of Louisville (United States); Arteel, Gavin [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville (United States); Alcohol Research Center, University of Louisville (United States); McClain, Craig [Department of Medicine, University of Louisville (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville (United States); Alcohol Research Center, University of Louisville (United States); Robley Rex VAMC, Louisville, KY (United States); Joshi-Barve, Swati, E-mail: s0josh01@louisville.edu [Department of Medicine, University of Louisville (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville (United States); Alcohol Research Center, University of Louisville (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Acrolein is a common environmental, food and water pollutant and a major component of cigarette smoke. Also, it is produced endogenously via lipid peroxidation and cellular metabolism of certain amino acids and drugs. Acrolein is cytotoxic to many cell types including hepatocytes; however the mechanisms are not fully understood. We examined the molecular mechanisms underlying acrolein hepatotoxicity in primary human hepatocytes and hepatoma cells. Acrolein, at pathophysiological concentrations, caused a dose-dependent loss of viability of hepatocytes. The death was apoptotic at moderate and necrotic at high concentrations of acrolein. Acrolein exposure rapidly and dramatically decreased intracellular glutathione and overall antioxidant capacity, and activated the stress-signaling MAP-kinases JNK, p42/44 and p38. Our data demonstrate for the first time in human hepatocytes, that acrolein triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activated eIF2α, ATF-3 and -4, and Gadd153/CHOP, resulting in cell death. Notably, the protective/adaptive component of ER stress was not activated, and acrolein failed to up-regulate the protective ER-chaperones, GRP78 and GRP94. Additionally, exposure to acrolein disrupted mitochondrial integrity/function, and led to the release of pro-apoptotic proteins and ATP depletion. Acrolein-induced cell death was attenuated by N-acetyl cysteine, phenyl-butyric acid, and caspase and JNK inhibitors. Our data demonstrate that exposure to acrolein induces a variety of stress responses in hepatocytes, including GSH depletion, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and ER stress (without ER-protective responses) which together contribute to acrolein toxicity. Our study defines basic mechanisms underlying liver injury caused by reactive aldehyde pollutants such as acrolein. -- Highlights: ► Human primary hepatocytes and cultured cell lines are used. ► Multiple cell death signaling pathways are activated by acrolein. ► Novel finding of

  13. Effects of cyclophosphamide and a metabolite, acrolein, on Naegleria fowleri in vitro and in vivo.

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, L.; Marciano-Cabral, F; Bradley, S G

    1988-01-01

    Mice challenged intranasally with Naegleria fowleri died of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. Mice given 30 mg of cyclophosphamide per kg of body weight daily for 10 days starting 2 days before challenge were protected. Neither cyclophosphamide nor serum from cyclophosphamide-treated mice inhibited N. fowleri in vitro. A metabolic product of cyclophosphamide, acrolein, inhibited growth and enflagellation of N. fowleri. Acrolein at 40 microM was amoebicidal. Acrolein injured starved cells a...

  14. A single exposure to acrolein causes arrhythmogenesis, cardiac electrical dysfunction and decreased heart rate variability in hypertensive rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological studies demonstrate an association between cardiovascular morbidity, arrhythmias, and exposure to air toxicants such as acrolein. We hypothesized that a single exposure to acrolein would increase arrhythmias and cause changes in the electrocardiogram (ECG) of hype...

  15. Acute Acrolein Exposure Induces Impairment of Vocal Fold Epithelial Barrier Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinxin; Zheng, Wei; Sivasankar, M Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Acrolein is a ubiquitous pollutant abundant in cigarette smoke, mobile exhaust, and industrial waste. There is limited literature on the effects of acrolein on vocal fold tissue, although there are clinical reports of voice changes after pollutant exposures. Vocal folds are responsible for voice production. The overall objective of this study was to investigate the effects of acrolein exposure on viable, excised vocal fold epithelial tissue and to characterize the mechanism underlying acrolein toxicity. Vocal fold epithelia were studied because they form the outermost layer of the vocal folds and are a primary recipient of inhaled pollutants. Porcine vocal fold epithelia were exposed to 0, 50, 100, 500, 900 or 1300 μM of acrolein for 3 hours; the metabolic activity, epithelial resistance, epithelial permeability, tight junction protein (occludin and claudin 3) expression, cell membrane integrity and lipid peroxidation were investigated. The data demonstrated that acrolein exposure at 500 μM significantly reduced vocal fold epithelial metabolic activity by 27.2% (p≤0.001). Incubation with 100 μM acrolein caused a marked increase in epithelial permeability by 130.5% (presistance (TEER) by 180.0% (pchange in acrolein-treated samples, the cell membrane integrity was significantly damaged with a 45.6% increase of lipid peroxidation as compared to controls (p<0.05). Taken together, these data provide evidence that acute acrolein exposure impairs vocal fold epithelial barrier integrity. Lipid peroxidation-induced cell membrane damage may play an important role in reducing the barrier function of the epithelium. PMID:27643990

  16. Acute Acrolein Exposure Induces Impairment of Vocal Fold Epithelial Barrier Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Sivasankar, M. Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Acrolein is a ubiquitous pollutant abundant in cigarette smoke, mobile exhaust, and industrial waste. There is limited literature on the effects of acrolein on vocal fold tissue, although there are clinical reports of voice changes after pollutant exposures. Vocal folds are responsible for voice production. The overall objective of this study was to investigate the effects of acrolein exposure on viable, excised vocal fold epithelial tissue and to characterize the mechanism underlying acrolein toxicity. Vocal fold epithelia were studied because they form the outermost layer of the vocal folds and are a primary recipient of inhaled pollutants. Porcine vocal fold epithelia were exposed to 0, 50, 100, 500, 900 or 1300 μM of acrolein for 3 hours; the metabolic activity, epithelial resistance, epithelial permeability, tight junction protein (occludin and claudin 3) expression, cell membrane integrity and lipid peroxidation were investigated. The data demonstrated that acrolein exposure at 500 μM significantly reduced vocal fold epithelial metabolic activity by 27.2% (p≤0.001). Incubation with 100 μM acrolein caused a marked increase in epithelial permeability by 130.5% (presistance (TEER) by 180.0% (pchange in acrolein-treated samples, the cell membrane integrity was significantly damaged with a 45.6% increase of lipid peroxidation as compared to controls (p<0.05). Taken together, these data provide evidence that acute acrolein exposure impairs vocal fold epithelial barrier integrity. Lipid peroxidation-induced cell membrane damage may play an important role in reducing the barrier function of the epithelium. PMID:27643990

  17. Structural Elucidation of a Carnosine-Acrolein Adduct and its Quantification in Human Urine Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bispo, Vanderson S; de Arruda Campos, Ivan P; Di Mascio, Paolo; Medeiros, Marisa H G

    2016-01-01

    Aldehydes accumulate in inflammation, during myocardial infarction and have been associated with pain symptoms. One pathway of aldehyde detoxification is the conjugation with carnosine. A 3-methylpyridinium carnosine adduct from the reaction of carnosine and acrolein was characterized using extensive spectroscopic measurements. The adduct with urinary concentrations of 1.82 ± 0.68 nmol/mg of creatinine is one of the most abundant acrolein metabolites in urine and opens promising therapeutic strategies for carnosine. PMID:26783107

  18. Structural Elucidation of a Carnosine-Acrolein Adduct and its Quantification in Human Urine Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderson S. Bispo; Ivan P. de Arruda Campos; Paolo Di Mascio; Medeiros, Marisa H. G.

    2016-01-01

    Aldehydes accumulate in inflammation, during myocardial infarction and have been associated with pain symptoms. One pathway of aldehyde detoxification is the conjugation with carnosine. A 3-methylpyridinium carnosine adduct from the reaction of carnosine and acrolein was characterized using extensive spectroscopic measurements. The adduct with urinary concentrations of 1.82 ± 0.68 nmol/mg of creatinine is one of the most abundant acrolein metabolites in urine and opens promising therapeutic s...

  19. Inhibition of acrolein-stimulated MUC5AC expression by Platycodon grandiflorum root-derived saponin in A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae Ho; Hwang, Yong Pil; Han, Eun Hee; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Park, Bong Hwan; Lee, Hyun Sun; Park, Byung Keun; Lee, Young Chun; Chung, Young Chul; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2011-09-01

    Mucin overproduction is a hallmark of chronic airway diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In this study, we investigated the inhibition of acrolein-induced expression of mucin 5, subtypes A and C (MUC5AC) by Changkil saponin (CKS) in A549 cells. Acrolein, a known toxin in tobacco smoke and an endogenous mediator of oxidative stress, increases the expression of airway MUC5AC, a major component of airway mucus. CKS, a Platycodon grandiflorum root-derived saponin, inhibited acrolein-induced MUC5AC expression and activity, through the suppression of NF-κB activation. CKS also repressed acrolein-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and p38MAPK, which are upstream signaling molecules that control MUC5AC expression. In addition, the MAPK inhibitors PD98059 (ERK1/2), SP600125 (JNK1/2), and SB203580 (p38 MAPK), and a PKC delta inhibitor (rottlerin; PKCδ) inhibited acrolein-induced MUC5AC expression and activity. CKS repressed acrolein-induced phosphorylation of PKCδ. Moreover, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitor, N-acetylcysteine, inhibited acrolein-induced MUC5AC expression and activity through the suppression of PKCδ and MAPK activation, and CKS repressed acrolein-induced ROS production. These results suggest that CKS suppresses acrolein-induced MUC5AC expression by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB via ROS-PKCδ-MAPK signaling. PMID:21664222

  20. Chitosan nanoparticle-based neuronal membrane sealing and neuroprotection following acrolein-induced cell injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Riyi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The highly reactive aldehyde acrolein is a very potent endogenous toxin with a long half-life. Acrolein is produced within cells after insult, and is a central player in slow and progressive "secondary injury" cascades. Indeed, acrolein-biomolecule complexes formed by cross-linking with proteins and DNA are associated with a number of pathologies, especially central nervous system (CNS trauma and neurodegenerative diseases. Hydralazine is capable of inhibiting or reducing acrolein-induced damage. However, since hydralazine's principle activity is to reduce blood pressure as a common anti-hypertension drug, the possible problems encountered when applied to hypotensive trauma victims have led us to explore alternative approaches. This study aims to evaluate such an alternative - a chitosan nanoparticle-based therapeutic system. Results Hydralazine-loaded chitosan nanoparticles were prepared using different types of polyanions and characterized for particle size, morphology, zeta potential value, and the efficiency of hydralazine entrapment and release. Hydralazine-loaded chitosan nanoparticles ranged in size from 300 nm to 350 nm in diameter, and with a tunable, or adjustable, surface charge. Conclusions We evaluated the utility of chitosan nanoparticles with an in-vitro model of acrolein-mediated cell injury using PC -12 cells. The particles effectively, and statistically, reduced damage to membrane integrity, secondary oxidative stress, and lipid peroxidation. This study suggests that a chitosan nanoparticle-based therapy to interfere with "secondary" injury may be possible.

  1. A Potential Role for Acrolein in Neutrophil-Mediated Chronic Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noerager, Brett D; Xu, Xin; Davis, Virginia A; Jones, Caleb W; Okafor, Svetlana; Whitehead, Alicia; Blalock, J Edwin; Jackson, Patricia L

    2015-12-01

    Neutrophils (PMNs) are key mediators of inflammatory processes throughout the body. In this study, we investigated the role of acrolein, a highly reactive aldehyde that is ubiquitously present in the environment and produced endogenously at sites of inflammation, in mediating PMN-mediated degradation of collagen facilitating proline-glycine-proline (PGP) production. We treated peripheral blood neutrophils with acrolein and analyzed cell supernatants and lysates for matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and prolyl endopeptidase (PE), assessed their ability to break down collagen and release PGP, and assayed for the presence of leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) and its ability to degrade PGP. Acrolein treatment induced elevated production and functionality of collagen-degrading enzymes and generation of PGP fragments. Meanwhile, LTA4H levels and triaminopeptidase activity declined with increasing concentrations of acrolein thereby sparing PGP from enzymatic destruction. These findings suggest that acrolein exacerbates the acute inflammatory response mediated by neutrophils and sets the stage for chronic pulmonary and systemic inflammation.

  2. Acrolein inhalation causes myocardial strain delay and decreased cardiac performance as detected by high-frequency echocardiography in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acrolein, an unsaturated aldehyde found in air pollution, impairs Ca2+ flux and contraction in cardiomyocytes in vitro. To better define direct and delayed functional cardiac effects, we hypothesized that a single exposure to acrolein would modify myocardial strain and performanc...

  3. Molecular cytotoxicity mechanisms of allyl alcohol (acrolein) in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golla, Upendarrao; Bandi, Goutham; Tomar, Raghuvir S

    2015-06-15

    Allyl alcohol (AA) is one of the environmental pollutants used as a herbicide and industrial chemical. AA undergoes enzymatic oxidation in vivo to form Acrolein (Acr), a highly reactive and ubiquitous environmental toxicant. The exposure to AA/Acr has detrimental effects on cells and is highly fatal. In corroboration to the current literature describing AA/Acr toxicity, this study aimed to investigate the molecular cytotoxicity mechanisms of AA/Acr using budding yeast as a eukaryotic model organism. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis of cells treated with a sublethal dose of AA (0.4 mM) showed differential regulation of approximately 30% of the yeast genome. Functional enrichment analysis of the AA transcriptome revealed that genes belong to diverse cellular processes including the cell cycle, DNA damage repair, metal homeostasis, stress response genes, ribosomal biogenesis, metabolism, meiosis, ubiquitination, cell morphogenesis, and transport. Moreover, we have identified novel molecular targets of AA/Acr through genetic screening, which belongs to oxidative stress, DNA damage repair, iron homeostasis, and cell wall integrity. This study also demonstrated the epigenetic basis of AA/Acr toxicity mediated through histone tails and chromatin modifiers. Interestingly, our study disclosed the use of pyrazole and ethanol as probable antidotes for AA intoxication. For the first time, this study also demonstrated the reproductive toxicity of AA/Acr using the yeast gametogenesis (spermatogenesis) model. Altogether, this study unravels the molecular mechanisms of AA/Acr cytotoxicity and facilitates the prediction of biomarkers for toxicity assessment and therapeutic approaches. PMID:25919230

  4. Quantitative analysis of acrolein in heated vegetable oils by liquid chromatography with pulsed electrochemical detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Innocenzo G; Contursi, Michela

    2004-09-22

    A sensitive and selective analytical method for the determination of acrolein in heated vegetable oils by liquid chromatographic separation with pulsed electrochemical detection is described. An optimized triple-step pulsed waveform, based on the formation/inhibition of PtOH species on the electrode surface, a consequence of the absence/presence of adsorbing analytes, is described for the sensitive detection of acrolein in acidic medium. Under these optimized experimental conditions the proposed analytical method allowed detection limits of 0.15 microM without pre- or postcolumn derivatization or tedious cleanup procedures. The proposed analytical method was successfully employed for the sensitive determination of acrolein in fresh and heated vegetable oils with good mean recoveries, selectivity, and analytical reproducibility. PMID:15366826

  5. Mitigation of sensory and motor deficits by acrolein scavenger phenelzine in a rat model of spinal cord contusive injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Park, Jonghyuck; Butler, Breanne; Acosta, Glen; Vega-Alvarez, Sasha; Zheng, Lingxing; Tang, Jonathan; McCain, Robyn; Zhang, Wenpeng; Ouyang, Zheng; Cao, Peng; Shi, Riyi

    2016-07-01

    Currently there are no effective therapies available for the excruciating neuropathic pain that develops after spinal cord injuries (SCI). As such, a great deal of effort is being put into the investigation of novel therapeutic targets that can alleviate this pain. One such target is acrolein, a highly reactive aldehyde produced as a byproduct of oxidative stress and inflammation that is capable of activating the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) cation channel, known to be involved in the transmission and propagation of chronic neuropathic pain. One anti-acrolein agent, hydralazine, has already been shown to reduce neuropathic pain behaviors and offer neuroprotection after SCI. This study investigates another acrolein scavenger, phenelzine, for its possible role of alleviating sensory hypersensitivity through acrolein suppression. The results show that phenelzine is indeed capable of attenuating neuropathic pain behaviors in acute, delayed, and chronic administration schedules after injury in a rat model of SCI. In addition, upon the comparison of hydralazine to phenelzine, both acrolein scavengers displayed a dose-dependent response in the reduction of acrolein in vivo. Finally, phenelzine proved capable of providing locomotor function recovery and neuroprotection of spinal cord tissue when administered immediately after injury for 2 weeks. These results indicate that phenelzine may be an effective treatment for neuropathic pain after SCI and likely a viable alternative to hydralazine. We have shown that phenelzine can attenuate neuropathic pain behavior in acute, delayed, and chronic administration in post-SCI rats. This was accompanied by a dose-dependent reduction in an acrolein metabolite in urine and an acrolein adduct in spinal cord tissue, and the suppression of TRPA1 over-expression in central and peripheral locations post-trauma. Acrolein scavenging might be a novel therapeutic strategy to reduce post-SCI neuropathic pain. PMID:27060873

  6. Determination of acrolein, ethanol, volatile acidity, and copper in different samples of sugarcane spirits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Masson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Seventy-one samples of sugarcane spirits from small and average size stills produced in the northern and southern Minas Gerais (Brazil were analyzed for acrolein using HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Ethanol and copper concentrations and volatile acidity were also determined according to methods established by the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply (MAPA. A total of 9.85% of the samples tested showed levels of acrolein above the legal limits, while the copper concentrations of 21.00% of the samples and the volatile acidity of 8.85% of the samples were higher than the limits established by the Brazilian legislation. The concentration of acrolein varied from 0 to 21.97 mg.100 mL-1 of ethanol. However, no significant difference at 5% of significance was observed between the samples produced in the northern and southern Minas Gerais. The method used for determination of acrolein in sugarcane spirits involved the formation of a derivative with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH and subsequent analysis by HPLC.

  7. Selective oxidation of propylene to acrolein by silica-supported bismuth molybdate catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duc, Duc Truong; Ha, Hanh Nguyen; Fehrmann, Rasmus;

    2011-01-01

    Silica-supported bismuth molybdate catalysts have been prepared by impregnation, structurally characterized and examined as improved catalysts for the selective oxidation of propylene to acrolein. Catalysts with a wide range of loadings (from 10 to 90 wt%) of beta bismuth molybdate (β-Bi2Mo2O9...

  8. Selective oxidation of propylene to acrolein by hydrothermally synthesized bismuth molybdates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuh, Kirsten; Kleist, Wolfgang; Høj, Martin;

    2014-01-01

    of nitric acid during hydrothermal synthesis enhanced both propylene conversion and acrolein yield, possibly due to a change in morphology. Formation of β-Bi2Mo2O9 was not observed under the applied conditions. In general, the catalytic performance of all samples decreased notably after calcination at 550...

  9. Effects of acrolein and other pesticides on water quality and aquatic biota in Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential impacts of acrolein and other pesticides on water quality and aquatic invertebrates and fish, with a...

  10. Acrolein, a highly toxic aldehyde generated under oxidative stress in vivo, aggravates the mouse liver damage after acetaminophen overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Tomoya; Koyama, Ryo; Yuasa, Makoto; Kitamura, Daisuke; Mizuta, Ryushin

    2014-01-01

    Although acetaminophen-induced liver injury in mice has been extensively studied as a model of human acute drug-induced hepatitis, the mechanism of liver injury remains unclear. Liver injury is believed to be initiated by metabolic conversion of acetaminophen to the highly reactive intermediate N-acetyl p-benzoquinoneimine, and is aggravated by subsequent oxidative stress via reactive oxygen species (ROS), including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the hydroxyl radical (•OH). In this study, we found that a highly toxic unsaturated aldehyde acrolein, a byproduct of oxidative stress, has a major role in acetaminophen-induced liver injury. Acetaminophen administration in mice resulted in liver damage and increased acrolein-protein adduct formation. However, both of them were decreased by treatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) or sodium 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (MESNA), two known acrolein scavengers. The specificity of NAC and MESNA was confirmed in cell culture, because acrolein toxicity, but not H2O2 or •OH toxicity, was inhibited by NAC and MESNA. These results suggest that acrolein may be more strongly correlated with acetaminophen-induced liver injury than ROS, and that acrolein produced by acetaminophen-induced oxidative stress can spread from dying cells at the primary injury site, causing damage to the adjacent cells and aggravating liver injury.

  11. In situ XAS-Untersuchungen zur Partialoxidation von Acrolein an Mischoxidkatalysatoren

    OpenAIRE

    Samuelis, Dominik

    2008-01-01

    Vanadium molybdenum mixed oxides have proven to be active and selective catalysts for the partial oxidation of unsaturated aldehydes. They are widely used in Megaton-scale industrial processes like the partial oxidation of acrolein to acrylic acid. The macroscopic reaction kinetics of vanadium molybdenum oxide catalysts for partial oxidation reactions are well established, and numerous promoters, e.g. tungsten, are available for improving performance and stability. However, little is known ab...

  12. NMR investigation of acrolein stability in hydroalcoholic solution as a foundation for the valid HS-SPME/GC–MS quantification of the unsaturated aldehyde in beverages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Acrolein in hydroalcoholic solution degrades to 1,3,3-propanetriol and 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde. • Hydroquinone (0.2%) at pH 3.0 stabilizes acrolein solutions. • Quantitative HS-SPME/GC–MS determination of acrolein in alcoholic beverages was developed (LOD 14 μg L−1). • 6 of 117 samples had acrolein levels above the WHO threshold (1500 μg L−1). - Abstract: Acrolein (propenal) is found in many foods and beverages and may pose a health hazard due to its cytotoxicity. Considerable knowledge gaps regarding human exposure to acrolein exist, and there is a lack of reliable analytical methods. Hydroalcoholic dilutions prepared for calibration purposes from pure acrolein show considerable degradation of the compound and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy showed that 1,3,3-propanetriol and 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde are formed. The degradation can be prevented by addition of hydroquinone as stabilizer to the calibration solutions, which then show linear concentration-response behaviour required for quantitative analysis. The stabilized calibration solutions were used for quantitative headspace solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC–MS) determination of acrolein in alcoholic beverages with a detection limit of 14 μg L−1. Of 117 tested alcoholic beverages, 64 were tested positive with the highest incidence in grape marc spirits and whiskey (100%, mean 252 μg L−1), followed by fruit spirits (86%, mean 591 μg/L−1), tequila (86%, mean 404 μg L−1), Asian spirits (43%, mean 54 μg L−1) and wine (9%, mean 0.7 μg L−1). Acrolein could not be detected in beer, vodka, absinthe and bottled water. Six of the fruit and grape marc spirits had acrolein levels above the World Health Organization (WHO) provisional tolerable concentration of 1.5 mg L−1

  13. NMR investigation of acrolein stability in hydroalcoholic solution as a foundation for the valid HS-SPME/GC–MS quantification of the unsaturated aldehyde in beverages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kächele, Martin [Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt (CVUA) Karlsruhe, Weissenburger Strasse 3, D-76187 Karlsruhe (Germany); Hochschule Mannheim, Paul-Wittsack-Strasse 10, D-68163 Mannheim (Germany); Monakhova, Yulia B. [Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt (CVUA) Karlsruhe, Weissenburger Strasse 3, D-76187 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bruker Biospin GmbH, Silbersteifen, 76287 Rheinstetten (Germany); Department of Chemistry, Saratov State University, Astrakhanskaya Street 83, 410012 Saratov (Russian Federation); Kuballa, Thomas [Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt (CVUA) Karlsruhe, Weissenburger Strasse 3, D-76187 Karlsruhe (Germany); Lachenmeier, Dirk W., E-mail: lachenmeier@web.de [Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt (CVUA) Karlsruhe, Weissenburger Strasse 3, D-76187 Karlsruhe (Germany); Ministry of Rural Affairs and Consumer Protection, Kernerplatz 10, 70182 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Acrolein in hydroalcoholic solution degrades to 1,3,3-propanetriol and 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde. • Hydroquinone (0.2%) at pH 3.0 stabilizes acrolein solutions. • Quantitative HS-SPME/GC–MS determination of acrolein in alcoholic beverages was developed (LOD 14 μg L⁻¹. • 6 of 117 samples had acrolein levels above the WHO threshold (1500 μg L⁻¹). Abstract: Acrolein (propenal) is found in many foods and beverages and may pose a health hazard due to its cytotoxicity. Considerable knowledge gaps regarding human exposure to acrolein exist, and there is a lack of reliable analytical methods. Hydroalcoholic dilutions prepared for calibration purposes from pure acrolein show considerable degradation of the compound and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy showed that 1,3,3-propanetriol and 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde are formed. The degradation can be prevented by addition of hydroquinone as stabilizer to the calibration solutions, which then show linear concentration-response behaviour required for quantitative analysis. The stabilized calibration solutions were used for quantitative headspace solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC–MS) determination of acrolein in alcoholic beverages with a detection limit of 14 μg L⁻¹. Of 117 tested alcoholic beverages, 64 were tested positive with the highest incidence in grape marc spirits and whiskey (100%, mean 252 μg L⁻¹), followed by fruit spirits (86%, mean 591 μg/L⁻¹), tequila (86%, mean 404 μg L⁻¹), Asian spirits (43%, mean 54 μg L⁻¹) and wine (9%, mean 0.7 μg L⁻¹). Acrolein could not be detected in beer, vodka, absinthe and bottled water. Six of the fruit and grape marc spirits had acrolein levels above the World Health Organization (WHO) provisional tolerable concentration of 1.5 mg L⁻¹.

  14. Effective VTeO/SBA-15 Catalyst Prepared by Precursor Method for the Selective Oxidation of Propane to Acrolein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Mao-ying; HUANG Chuan-jing; WENG Wei-zheng; WAN Hui-lin; XU Qin; ZHOU Zhao-hui

    2008-01-01

    Precursor decomposition was used for the preparation of VTeO/SBA-15 catalyst for the selective oxidation of propane to acrolein.The catalyst shows a better performance compared with those prepared by conventional impregnant method.A yield of 9.3% of acrolein was achieved with 2% V Ioadings at 500℃.XRD,N2-adsorption,H2-TPR,Py-IR and XPS measurements were used to unclose the relationship between the structure and performance of the catalyst.

  15. Effects of cyclophosphamide and acrolein in organoid cultures of mouse limb bud cells grown in the presence of adult rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaida, J; Merker, H J

    1992-01-01

    The effects were evaluated of cyclophosphamide (CPA) and its metabolite, acrolein, on chondrogenesis in organoid cultures of mouse limb bud mesenchymal cells co-cultured with non-enzymatically isolated adult rat hepatocytes. The studies were conducted with or without the simultaneous addition of 2-mercaptoethanesulphonic acid sodium (mesna) or glutathione (GSH). Alcian blue binding assay and light and electron microscopic techniques were used. Increasing concentrations of the two compounds (bioactivated CPA, 18-180 mum; acrolein, 50-500 mum) led to a dose-dependent inhibition of chondrogenesis associated with cellular dedifferentiation and/or cytotoxicity. Addition of mesna (1 mm) or GSH (1 mm) partially protected the cultures against CPA and acrolein. However, the protective effect depended on the dose of CPA or acrolein used. A higher protection was observed with mesna than with GSH, and the effect was more pronounced with acrolein than with CPA. The morphological findings suggested that CPA and acrolein acted by different mechanisms. Bioactivated CPA primarily inhibited the differentiation process, whereas acrolein exhibited a high cytotoxic activity affecting particularly monolayer cells that normally grow on the periphery of the cultures. These findings suggest that acrolein possesses a specific mode of action directed towards this type of cell. This could be explained by the specific shape and/or behaviour of the cells (i.e. cytoskeletal arrangement, proliferation rate, migration activity, intercellular communication pattern, etc.). The results demonstrated that the cell system used was suitable for the performance of cytotoxicity and teratogenicity studies such as those conducted with CPA and acrolein.

  16. Dehydration of Glycerin to Acrolein Over Heteropolyacid Nano-Catalysts Supported on Silica-Alumina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Tae Hun; Choi, Jung Ho; Choi, Jun Seon; Song, In Kyu

    2015-10-01

    A series of H3PW12O40 nano-catalysts supported on silica-alumina (XH3PW12O40/SA (X = 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30)) with different H3PW12O40 content (X, wt%) were prepared, and they were applied to the dehydration of glycerin to acrolein. The effect of H3PW12O40 content on the physicochemical properties and catalytic activities of XH3PW12O40/SA nano-catalysts was investigated. Surface area and pore volume of XH3PW12O40/SA catalysts decreased with increasing H3PW12O40 content. Formation of H3PW12O40 aggregates was observed in the catalysts with high H3PW12O40 loading. Brønsted acidity of the catalysts showed a volcano-shaped trend with respect to H3PW12O40 content. It was revealed that yield for acrolein increased with increasing Brønsted acidity of XH3PW12O40/SA catalysts. Brønsted acidity of XH3PW12O40/SA catalysts served as a crucial factor determining the catalytic performance in the dehydration of glycerin. Among the catalysts tested, 25H3PW12O40/SA catalyst with the largest Brønsted acidity showed the best catalytic performance.

  17. Simultaneous exposure to concentrated ambient particles and acrolein causes cardiac effects mediated by parasympathetic modulation in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study shows that exposure to CAPs and acrolein causes an increase in HRV that is mediated by the parasympathetic nervous system. Numerous studies show that short-term air pollution exposure modulates heart rate variability (HRV), which is an indicator of autonomic influence...

  18. Aggravation of brain infarction through an increase in acrolein production and a decrease in glutathione with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Takeshi; Watanabe, Kenta; Ishibashi, Misaki; Saiki, Ryotaro; Kuni, Kyoshiro; Nishimura, Kazuhiro; Toida, Toshihiko; Kashiwagi, Keiko; Igarashi, Kazuei

    2016-04-29

    We previously reported that tissue damage during brain infarction was mainly caused by inactivation of proteins by acrolein. This time, it was tested why brain infarction increases in parallel with aging. A mouse model of photochemically induced thrombosis (PIT) was studied using 2, 6, and 12 month-old female C57BL/6 mice. The size of brain infarction in the mouse PIT model increased with aging. The volume of brain infarction in 12 month-old mice was approximately 2-fold larger than that in 2 month-old mice. The larger brain infarction in 12 month-old mice was due to an increase in acrolein based on an increase in the activity of spermine oxidase, together with a decrease in glutathione (GSH), a major acrolein-detoxifying compound in cells, based on the decrease in one of the subunits of glutathione biosynthesizing enzymes, γ-glutamylcysteine ligase modifier subunit, with aging. The results indicate that aggravation of brain infarction with aging was mainly due to the increase in acrolein production and the decrease in GSH in brain.

  19. Direct sp(3)C-H acroleination of N-aryl-tetrahydroisoquinolines by merging photoredox catalysis with nucleophilic catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhu-Jia; Xuan, Jun; Xia, Xu-Dong; Ding, Wei; Guo, Wei; Chen, Jia-Rong; Zou, You-Quan; Lu, Liang-Qiu; Xiao, Wen-Jing

    2014-04-01

    Sequence catalysis merging photoredox catalysis (PC) and nucleophilic catalysis (NC) has been realized for the direct sp(3) C-H acroleination of N-aryl-tetrahydroisoquinoline (THIQ). The reaction was performed under very mild conditions and afforded products in 50-91% yields. A catalytic asymmetric variant was proved to be successful with moderate enantioselectivities (up to 83 : 17 er).

  20. Acrolein Causes TRPA1-Mediated Sensory Irritation and Indirect Potentiation of TRPV1-Mediated Pulmonary Chemoreflex Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    We previously demonstrated that acute exposure to acrolein causes immediate sensory irritation, with rapid decrease in heart rate (HR) and increase in inspiratory time (Ti), and potentiation of pulmonary chemoreflex response 24hrs later; of these effects only the latter is mediat...

  1. Formation of a Vitamin C Conjugate of Acrolein and its Paraoxonase-mediated Conversion into 5,6,7,8-Tetrahydroxy-4-oxooctanal

    OpenAIRE

    Kesinger, Nicholas G.; Langsdorf, Brandi L.; Yokochi, Alexandre F.; Miranda, Cristobal L.; Stevens, Jan F.

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) has been reported to participate in Michael addition reactions in vitro to form vitamin C conjugates with α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, such as acrolein. This study shows evidence for the formation and metabolism of the vitamin C conjugate of acrolein (AscACR) in cultured human monocytic THP-1 cells exposed to acrolein diacetate. By using 18O and 13C labeling in combination with liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry, AscACR was shown to undergo hydrolytic conve...

  2. Acrolein-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling is mediated by alkylation of thioredoxin reductase and thioredoxin 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Randall

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking remains a major health concern worldwide, and many of the adverse effects of cigarette smoke (CS can be attributed to its abundant electrophilic aldehydes, such as acrolein (2-propenal. Previous studies indicate that acrolein readily reacts with thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1, a critical enzyme involved in regulation of thioredoxin (Trx-mediated redox signaling, by alkylation at its selenocysteine (Sec residue. Because alkylation of Sec within TrxR1 has significant implications for its enzymatic function, we explored the potential importance of TrxR1 alkylation in acrolein-induced activation or injury of bronchial epithelial cells. Exposure of human bronchial epithelial HBE1 cells to acrolein (1–30 μM resulted in dose-dependent loss of TrxR thioredoxin reductase activity, which coincided with its alkylation, as determined by biotin hydrazide labeling, and was independent of initial GSH status. To test the involvement of TrxR1 in acrolein responses in HBE1 cells, we suppressed TrxR1 using siRNA silencing or augmented TrxR1 by cell supplementation with sodium selenite. Acrolein exposure of HBE1 cells induced dose-dependent activation of the MAP kinases, extracellular regulated kinase (ERK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, and p38, and activation of JNK was markedly enhanced after selenite-mediated induction of TrxR1, and was associated with increased alkylation of TrxR1. Conversely, siRNA silencing of TrxR1 significantly suppressed the ability of acrolein to activate JNK, and also appeared to attenuate acrolein-dependent activation of ERK and p38. Alteration of initial TrxR1 levels by siRNA or selenite supplementation also affected initial Trx1 redox status and acrolein-mediated alkylation of Trx1, but did not significantly affect acrolein-mediated activation of HO-1 or cytotoxicity. Collectively, our findings indicate that alkylation of TrxR1 and/or Trx1 may contribute directly to acrolein-mediated activation of MAP kinases

  3. Polyphenol extract from Phellinus igniarius protects against acrolein toxicity in vitro and provides protection in a mouse stroke model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papawee Suabjakyong

    Full Text Available The basidiomycetous mushroom Phellinus igniarius (L. Quel. has been used as traditional medicine in various Asian countries for many years. Although many reports exist on its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities and therapeutic effects against various diseases, our current knowledge of its effect on stroke is very limited. Stroke is a neurodegenerative disorder in which oxidative stress is a key hallmark. Following the 2005 discovery by Igarashi's group that acrolein produced from polyamines in vivo is a major cause of cell damage by oxidative stress, we now describe the effects of anti-oxidative extracts from P. igniarius on symptoms of experimentally induced stroke in mice. The toxicity of acrolein was compared with that of hydrogen peroxide in a mouse mammary carcinoma cell line (FM3A. We found that the complete inhibition of FM3A cell growth by 5 μM acrolein could be prevented by crude ethanol extract of P. igniarius at 0.5 μg/ml. Seven polyphenol compounds named 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, 4-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-3-buten-2one, inonoblin C, phelligridin D, inoscavin C, phelligridin C and interfungin B were identified from this ethanolic extract by LCMS and 1H NMR. Polyphenol-containing extracts of P. igniarius were then used to prevent acrolein toxicity in a mouse neuroblastoma (Neuro-2a cell line. The results suggested that Neuro-2a cells were protected from acrolein toxicity at 2 and 5 μM by this polyphenol extract at 0.5 and 2 μg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, in mice with experimentally induced stroke, intraperitoneal treatment with P. igniarius polyphenol extract at 20 μg/kg caused a reduction of the infarction volume by 62.2% compared to untreated mice. These observations suggest that the polyphenol extract of P. igniarius could serve to prevent ischemic stroke.

  4. Polyphenol extract from Phellinus igniarius protects against acrolein toxicity in vitro and provides protection in a mouse stroke model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suabjakyong, Papawee; Saiki, Ryotaro; Van Griensven, Leo J L D; Higashi, Kyohei; Nishimura, Kazuhiro; Igarashi, Kazuei; Toida, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    The basidiomycetous mushroom Phellinus igniarius (L.) Quel. has been used as traditional medicine in various Asian countries for many years. Although many reports exist on its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities and therapeutic effects against various diseases, our current knowledge of its effect on stroke is very limited. Stroke is a neurodegenerative disorder in which oxidative stress is a key hallmark. Following the 2005 discovery by Igarashi's group that acrolein produced from polyamines in vivo is a major cause of cell damage by oxidative stress, we now describe the effects of anti-oxidative extracts from P. igniarius on symptoms of experimentally induced stroke in mice. The toxicity of acrolein was compared with that of hydrogen peroxide in a mouse mammary carcinoma cell line (FM3A). We found that the complete inhibition of FM3A cell growth by 5 μM acrolein could be prevented by crude ethanol extract of P. igniarius at 0.5 μg/ml. Seven polyphenol compounds named 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, 4-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-3-buten-2one, inonoblin C, phelligridin D, inoscavin C, phelligridin C and interfungin B were identified from this ethanolic extract by LCMS and 1H NMR. Polyphenol-containing extracts of P. igniarius were then used to prevent acrolein toxicity in a mouse neuroblastoma (Neuro-2a) cell line. The results suggested that Neuro-2a cells were protected from acrolein toxicity at 2 and 5 μM by this polyphenol extract at 0.5 and 2 μg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, in mice with experimentally induced stroke, intraperitoneal treatment with P. igniarius polyphenol extract at 20 μg/kg caused a reduction of the infarction volume by 62.2% compared to untreated mice. These observations suggest that the polyphenol extract of P. igniarius could serve to prevent ischemic stroke. PMID:25811373

  5. Cytotoxicity of Thirdhand Smoke and Identification of Acrolein as a Volatile Thirdhand Smoke Chemical That Inhibits Cell Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahl, Vasundhra; Weng, Nikki J-H; Schick, Suzaynn F; Sleiman, Mohamad; Whitehead, Jacklyn; Ibarra, Allison; Talbot, Prue

    2016-03-01

    Thirdhand smoke (THS) is a mixture of chemicals that remain on indoor surfaces after smoking has ceased. These chemicals can be inhaled, ingested, or absorbed dermally, and thus could impact human health. We evaluated the cytotoxicity and mode of action of fresh and aged THS, the toxicity of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in THS, and the molecular targets of acrolein, a VOC in THS. Experiments were done using mouse neural stem cells (mNSC), human pulmonary fibroblasts (hPF), and lung A549 epithelial cells. THS-exposed cotton cloth was extracted in Dulbecco's Eagle Medium and caused cytotoxicity in the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. THS extracts induced blebbing, immotility, vacuolization, cell fragmentation, severing of microfilaments and depolymerization of microtubules in mNSC. Cytotoxicity was inversely related to headspace volume in the extraction container and was lost upon aging, suggesting that VOCs in THS were cytotoxic. Phenol, 2',5'-dimethyl furan and acrolein were identified as the most cytotoxic VOCs in THS, and in combination, their cytotoxicity increased. Acrolein inhibited proliferation of mNSC and hPF and altered expression of cell cycle regulatory genes. Twenty-four hours of treatment with acrolein decreased expression of transcription factor Dp-1, a factor needed for the G1 to S transition in the cell cycle. At 48 h, WEE1 expression increased, while ANACP1 expression decreased consistent with blocking entry into and completion of the M phase of the cell cycle. This study identified acrolein as a highly cytotoxic VOC in THS which killed cells at high doses and inhibited cell proliferation at low doses. PMID:26719373

  6. Transient receptor potential cation channel A1 (TRPA1) mediates changes in heart rate variability following a single exposure to acrolein in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The data show that a single exposure to acrolein causes autonomic imbalance in mice through the TRPA1 sensor and subsequent cardiac dysfunction. Human and animal studies have shown that short-term air pollution exposure causes...

  7. Acrolein, A Reactive Product of Lipid Peroxidation, Induces Oxidative Modification of Cytochrome c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jung Hoon [Cheongju Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Acrolein (ACR) is a well-known carbonyl toxin produced by lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). In Alzheimer's brain, ACR was found to be elevated in hippocampus and temporal cortex where oxidative stress is high. In this study, we evaluated oxidative modification of cytochrome c occurring after incubation with ACR. When cytochrome c was incubated with ACR, protein aggregation increased in a dose-dependent manner. The formation of carbonyl compounds and the release of iron were obtained in ACR-treated cytochrome c. Reactive oxygen species scavengers and iron specific chelator inhibited the ACR-mediated cytochrome c modification and carbonyl compound formation. Our data demonstrate that oxidative damage of cytochrome c by ACR might induce disruption of cyotochrome c structure and iron mishandling as a contributing factor to the pathology of AD.

  8. Hypoxia Stress Test Reveals Exaggerated Cardiovascular Effects in Hypertensive Rats After Exposure to the Air Pollutant Acrolein

    OpenAIRE

    Perez, Christina M.; Ledbetter, Allen D.; Hazari, Mehdi S.; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Carll, Alex P.; Winsett, Darrell W.; Costa, Daniel L.; Farraj, Aimen K.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in susceptible populations. Despite increased risk, adverse responses are often delayed and require additional stress tests to reveal latent effects of exposure. The goal of this study was to use an episode of “transient hypoxia” as an extrinsic stressor to uncover latent susceptibility to environmental pollutants in a rodent model of hypertension. We hypothesized that exposure to acrolein, an u...

  9. Protective Effect of Pycnogenol® in Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells Following Acrolein Induced Cytotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari, Mubeen A.; Keller, Jeffrey N.; Scheff, Stephen W.

    2008-01-01

    Oxidative stress is one of the hypotheses involved in the etiology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Considerable attention has focused on increasing the intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels in many neurodegenerative diseases, including AD. Pycnogenol® (PYC) has antioxidant properties and stabilizes intracellular antioxidant defense systems including glutathione (GSH) levels. The present study investigated the protective effects of PYC on acrolein-induced oxidative cell toxicity in cultured SH-S...

  10. Evaluation of N-acetylcysteine and methylprednisolone as therapies for oxygen and acrolein-induced lung damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Critchley, J.A.J.H. (Univ. of Edinburgh (England)); Beeley, J.M.; Clark, R.J.; Buchanan, J.D. (Royal Naval Hospital Hoslar, Gosport (England)); Summerfield, M.; Bell, S. (Admiralty Research Establishment, Alverstoke (England)); Spurlock, M.S.; Edginton, J.A.G. (Chemical Defence Establishment, Porton Down (England))

    1990-04-01

    Reactive oxidizing species are implicated in the etiology of a range of inhalational pulmonary injuries. Consequently, various free radical scavengers have been tested as potential prophylactic agents. The sulfydryl compound, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is the only such compound clinically available for use in realistic dosages, and it is well established as an effective antidote for the hepatic and renal toxicity of paracetamol. Another approach in pulmonary injury prophylaxis is methylprednisolone therapy. The authors evaluated NAC and methylprednisolone in two rats models of inhalation injury: 40-hr exposure to >97% oxygen at 1.1 bar and 15-min exposure to acrolein vapor (210 ppm). The increases in lung wet/dry weight ratios, seen with both oxygen and acrolein toxicity were reduced with both treatments. However, with oxygen, NAC therapy was associated with considerably increased mortality and histological changes. Furthermore, IP NAC administration resulted in large volumes of ascitic fluid. With acrolein, IV, NAC had no significant effect on mortality or pulmonary histological damage. Methylprednisolone had no beneficial effects on either the mortality or histological damage observed in either toxicity model. They caution against the ad hoc use of NAC in the management of inhalational pulmonary injury.

  11. Vibrationally specific photoionization cross sections of acrolein leading to the Χ~A' ionic state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vibrational branching ratios in the photoionization of acrolein for ionization leading to the Χ~A' ion state were studied. Computed logarithmic derivatives of the cross section and the corresponding experimental data derived from measured vibrational branching ratios for several normal modes (ν9, ν10, ν11, and ν12) were found to be in relatively good agreement, particularly for the lower half of the 11–100 eV photon energy range considered. Two shape resonances have been found near photon energies of 15.5 and 23 eV in the photoionization cross section and have been demonstrated to originate from the partial cross section of the A′ scattering symmetry. The wave functions computed at the resonance complex energies are delocalized over the whole molecule. By looking at the dependence of the cross section on the different normal mode displacements together with the wave function at the resonant energy, a qualitative explanation is given for the change of the cross sections with respect to changing geometry

  12. A SUBCHRONIC INHALATION STUDY OF FISCHER 344 RATS EXPOSED TO 0, 0.4, 1.4 OR 4.0 PPM ACROLEIN.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KUTZMAN,R.S.

    1981-10-01

    Fischer 344 rats were exposed to 0.0, 0.4, 1.4, or 4.0 ppm acrolein for 62 days. The major objective of the study was to relate the results of a series of pulmonary function tests to biochemical and pathological alterations observed in the lung. Cytological and reproductive potential endpoints were also assessed after acrolein exposure. Rats were exposed to acrolein for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week for 62 days. Mortality was observed only in the 4.0 ppm chamber where 32 of 57 exposed males died; however, none of the 8 exposed females died. Most of the mortality occurred within the first 10 exposure days. Histologic examination indicated that the animals died of acute bronchopneumonia. The surviving males and females exposed to 4.0 ppm acrolein gained weight at a significantly slower rate than control animals. The growth of both sexes in the 0.4 and 1.4 ppm groups was similar to that of their respective controls. Histopathologic examination of animals after 62 days of exposure revealed bronchiolar epithelial necrosis and sloughing, bronchiolar edema with macrophages, and focal pulmonary edema in the 4.0 ppm group. These lesions were, in some cases, associated with edema of the trachea and peribronchial lymph nodes, and acute rhinitis which indicated an upper respiratory tract effect of acrolein. Of particular interest was the variability of response between rats in the 4.0 ppm group, some not affected at all while others were moderately affected. Intragroup variability in toxicity was also apparent in the 1.4 ppm exposure group where only 3 of 31 animals examined had lesions directly related to acrolein exposure. Extra respiratory organs appeared unaffected.

  13. Measurement of acrolein and 1,3-butadiene in a single puff of cigarette smoke using lead-salt tunable diode laser infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thweatt, W. Dave; Harward, Charles N., Sr.; Parrish, Milton E.

    2007-05-01

    Acrolein and 1,3-butadiene in cigarette smoke generally are measured using two separate analytical methods, a carbonyl derivative HPLC method for acrolein and a volatile organic compound (VOC) GC/MS method for 1,3-butadiene. However, a single analytical method having improved sensitivity and real-time per puff measurement will offer more specific information for evaluating experimental carbon filtered cigarettes designed to reduce the smoke deliveries of these constituents. This paper describes an infrared technique using two lead-salt tunable diode lasers (TDLs) operating with liquid nitrogen cooling with emissions at 958.8 cm -1 and 891.0 cm -1 respectively for the simultaneous measurement of acrolein and 1,3-butadiene, respectively, in each puff of mainstream cigarette smoke in real time. The dual TDL system uses a 3.1 l volume, 100 m astigmatic multiple pass absorption gas cell. Quantitation is based on a spectral fit that uses previously determined infrared molecular line parameters generated in our laboratory, including line positions, line strengths and nitrogen-broadened half-widths for these species. Since acrolein and ethylene absorption lines overlap and 1,3-butadiene, ethylene and propylene absorption lines overlap, the per puff deliveries of ethylene and propylene were determined since their overlapping absorption lines must be taken into account by the spectral fit. The acrolein and 1,3-butadiene total cigarette deliveries for the 1R5F Kentucky Reference cigarette were in agreement with the HPLC and GC/MS methods, respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) for 1,3-butadiene and acrolein was 4 ng/puff and 24 ng/puff, respectively, which is more than adequate to determine at which puff they break through the carbon filter. The retention and breakthrough behavior for the two primary smoke constituents depend on the cigarette design and characteristics of the carbon filter being evaluated.

  14. Nanocarbons as catalyst for selective oxidation of acrolein to acrylic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, B.; Blume, R.; Rinaldi, A.; Trunschke, A.; Schloegl, R. [Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry

    2011-07-01

    Selective oxidations are key steps of industrial oil and gas processing for the synthesis of high-value chemicals. Mixed metal oxides based on redox active V or Mo are frequently used for oxidative C-H bond activation. However, multiple processes require precious metals or suffer from low product selectivity demanding an ongoing search for cost-effective alternatives. Recently, the nanostructured carbon was reported to catalyze the metal-free selective alkane activation by oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH). Electron-rich surface carbonyls coordinate this reaction and mimic the active oxygen species in metal oxide catalysts. Here we show that the graphitic carbon, beyond ODH, has the potential to selectively mediate the insertion of an oxygen atom into an organic molecule, i.e., acrolein. Multi-step atom rearrangements considerably exceed the mechanistic complexity of hydrogen abstraction and were so far believed to be the exclusive domain of metal (oxide) catalysis. In the carbon catalyzed process, the nucleophilic oxygen atoms terminating the graphite (0001) surface abstract the formyl hydrogen and the activated aldehyde gets oxidized by epoxide-type mobile oxygen, thus the sp{sup 2} carbon acts as a bifunctional catalyst. Substantial similarities between the metal oxide- and carbon-catalyzed reactions could be identified. Our results shed light on a rarely known facet of applications of nanostructured carbon materials being decorated with diverse oxygen functionalities to coordinate complex catalytic processes. We could successfully transfer the results obtained from the graphite model to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) providing a higher surface area, defect density, and intrinsic activity, to substantially increase the reactivity per catalyst volume. Indeed, low dimensional nanostructured carbon is a highly flexible and robust material which can be modified in a multiple manner to optimize its properties with respect to the intended application. The exploration of

  15. A Reduction-Based Sensor for Acrolein Conjugates with the Inexpensive Nitrobenzene as an Alternative to Monoclonal Antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamatsu, Masayuki; Fukase, Koichi; Oka, Ritsuko; Kitazume, Shinobu; Taniguchi, Naoyuki; Tanaka, Katsunori

    2016-01-01

    Acrolein, a highly toxic α, β–unsaturated aldehyde, has been a longstanding key biomarker associated with a range of disorders related to oxidative stresses. One of the most promising methods for detecting acrolein involves the use of antibodies that can recognize the acrolein–lysine conjugate, 3-formyl-3, 4-dehydropiperidines (FDP), within oxidatively stressed cells and tissues from various disease states. We have uncovered here that FDP could reduce nitroarenes in high yields at 100 °C in the presence of excess CaCl2 as a Lewis acid promoter. This unique transformation allowed for the development of a de novo method for detecting levels of FDPs generated from proteins in urine or blood serum samples. Thus we successfully converted a non-fluorescent and inexpensive 4-nitrophthalonitrile probe to the corresponding fluorescent aniline, thereby constituting the concept of fluorescent switching. Its sensitivity level (0.84 nmol/mL) is more than that of ELISA assays (3.13 nmol/mL) and is already equally reliable and reproducible at this early stage of development. More importantly, this method is cost effective and simple to operate, requiring only mixing of samples with a kit solution. Our method thus possesses potential as a future alternative to the more costly and operatively encumbered conventional antibody-based methods. PMID:27782170

  16. Characterization and reactivity of 11-molybdo-1-vanadophosphoric acid catalyst supported on zirconia for dehydration of glycerol to acrolein

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Balaga Viswanadham; Amirineni Srikanth; Komandur V R Chary

    2014-03-01

    A series of vanadium-substituted phosphomolybdic acid (HPA) catalysts supported on zirconia were prepared by impregnation method with varying the HPA active phase content from 10 to 50 wt% on the support. The calcined catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, temperatureprogrammed desorption of NH3, FT-IR spectra of pyridine adsorption and surface area measurements. XRD results suggest that the active phase of heteropolyacid is present in a highly dispersed state at lower loadings and as a crystalline phase at higher HPA loadings and these findings are well-supported by the results of FT-IR and Raman spectra. Calcination of the samples did not affect the Keggin ion structure of HPA. The ammonia TPD results suggest that acidity of the catalysts was found to increase with increase of HPA loading up to 40 wt% and decreases at higher loadings. FT-IR spectra of pyridine adsorption show that the Brønsted acidic sites increase with increase of HPA loadings up to 40 wt% catalyst. However, Lewis acid sites decrease with increase ofHPA loading. Catalytic properties were evaluated during vapour phase dehydration of glycerol to acrolein. The catalyst with 40 wt% HPA has exhibited excellent selectivity towards acrolein formation with complete conversion of glycerol at 225°C under atmospheric pressure. Catalytic performances during dehydration of glycerol are well-correlated with acidity of the catalysts.

  17. Acrolein Exposure Blocks Down-Regulation of Cytokines and IgE Antibody in a Mucosal Tolerance Model but does not Alter Phenotypic Markers of Allergic Lung Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acrolein (ACR) is a highly reactive upper airway toxicant that humans are exposed in a variety of environmental situations. Here we examined the effect of ACR exposure on development of immune tolerance in mice. To induce tolerance, female BALB/C mice were intranasally inoculate...

  18. DFT-Based Explanation of the Effect of Simple Anionic Ligands on the Regioselectivity of the Heck Arylation of Acrolein Acetals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Signe Teuber; Tanner, David Ackland; Cacchi, Sandro;

    2009-01-01

    The Heck arylation of acrolein acetal has been studied computationally and compared to the corresponding reaction with allyl ethers. The reaction can be controlled to give either cinnamaldehydes or arylpropanoic esters by addition of different coordinating anions, acetate, or chloride. The comput...

  19. One-step synthesis of bismuth molybdate catalysts via flame spray pyrolysis for the selective oxidation of propylene to acrolein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, K; Kleist, W; Høj, M; Trouillet, V; Jensen, A D; Grunwaldt, J-D

    2014-12-18

    Flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) of Bi(III)- and Mo(VI)-2-ethylhexanoate dissolved in xylene resulted in various nanocrystalline bismuth molybdate phases depending on the Bi/Mo ratio. Besides α-Bi2Mo3O12 and γ-Bi2MoO6, FSP gave direct access to the metastable β-Bi2Mo2O9 phase with high surface area (19 m(2) g(-1)). This phase is normally only obtained at high calcination temperatures (>560 °C) resulting in lower surface areas. The β-phase was stable up to 400 °C and showed superior catalytic performance compared to α- and γ-phases in selective oxidation of propylene to acrolein at temperatures relevant for industrial applications (360 °C). PMID:25350295

  20. Mercapturic Acids Derived from the Toxicants Acrolein and Crotonaldehyde in the Urine of Cigarette Smokers from Five Ethnic Groups with Differing Risks for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungshim L.; Carmella, Steven G.; Chen, Menglan; Patel, Yesha; Stram, Daniel O.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Le Marchand, Loic; Hecht, Stephen S.

    2015-01-01

    The Multiethnic Cohort epidemiology study has clearly demonstrated that, compared to Whites and for the same number of cigarettes smoked, African Americans and Native Hawaiians have a higher risk for lung cancer whereas Latinos and Japanese Americans have a lower risk. Acrolein and crotonaldehyde are two important constituents of cigarette smoke which have well documented toxic effects and could play a role in lung cancer etiology. Their urinary metabolites 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (3-HPMA) and 3-hydroxy-1-methylpropylmercapturic acid (HMPMA), respectively, are validated biomarkers of acrolein and crotonaldehyde exposure. We quantified levels of 3-HPMA and HMPMA in the urine of more than 2200 smokers from these five ethnic groups, and also carried out a genome wide association study using blood samples from these subjects. After adjusting for age, sex, creatinine, and total nicotine equivalents, geometric mean levels of 3-HPMA and HMPMA were significantly different in the five groups (P<0.0001). Native Hawaiians had the highest and Latinos the lowest geometric mean levels of both 3-HPMA and HMPMA. Levels of 3-HPMA and HMPMA were 3787 and 2759 pmol/ml urine, respectively, in Native Hawaiians and 1720 and 2210 pmol/ml urine in Latinos. These results suggest that acrolein and crotonaldehyde may be involved in lung cancer etiology, and that their divergent levels may partially explain the differing risks of Native Hawaiian and Latino smokers. No strong signals were associated with 3-HPMA in the genome wide association study, suggesting that formation of the glutathione conjugate of acrolein is mainly non-enzymatic, while the top significant association with HMPMA was located on chromosome 12 near the TBX3 gene, but its relationship to HMPMA excretion is not clear. PMID:26053186

  1. Mercapturic Acids Derived from the Toxicants Acrolein and Crotonaldehyde in the Urine of Cigarette Smokers from Five Ethnic Groups with Differing Risks for Lung Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungshim L Park

    Full Text Available The Multiethnic Cohort epidemiology study has clearly demonstrated that, compared to Whites and for the same number of cigarettes smoked, African Americans and Native Hawaiians have a higher risk for lung cancer whereas Latinos and Japanese Americans have a lower risk. Acrolein and crotonaldehyde are two important constituents of cigarette smoke which have well documented toxic effects and could play a role in lung cancer etiology. Their urinary metabolites 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (3-HPMA and 3-hydroxy-1-methylpropylmercapturic acid (HMPMA, respectively, are validated biomarkers of acrolein and crotonaldehyde exposure. We quantified levels of 3-HPMA and HMPMA in the urine of more than 2200 smokers from these five ethnic groups, and also carried out a genome wide association study using blood samples from these subjects. After adjusting for age, sex, creatinine, and total nicotine equivalents, geometric mean levels of 3-HPMA and HMPMA were significantly different in the five groups (P < 0.0001. Native Hawaiians had the highest and Latinos the lowest geometric mean levels of both 3-HPMA and HMPMA. Levels of 3-HPMA and HMPMA were 3787 and 2759 pmol/ml urine, respectively, in Native Hawaiians and 1720 and 2210 pmol/ml urine in Latinos. These results suggest that acrolein and crotonaldehyde may be involved in lung cancer etiology, and that their divergent levels may partially explain the differing risks of Native Hawaiian and Latino smokers. No strong signals were associated with 3-HPMA in the genome wide association study, suggesting that formation of the glutathione conjugate of acrolein is mainly non-enzymatic, while the top significant association with HMPMA was located on chromosome 12 near the TBX3 gene, but its relationship to HMPMA excretion is not clear.

  2. Concerns regarding 24-h sampling for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH)-coated solid sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, Jason S.; Hays, Michael D.

    2012-08-01

    There is high demand for accurate and reliable airborne carbonyl measurement methods due to the human and environmental health impacts of carbonyls and their effects on atmospheric chemistry. Standardized 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH)-based sampling methods are frequently applied for measuring gaseous carbonyls in the atmospheric environment. However, there are multiple short-comings associated with these methods that detract from an accurate understanding of carbonyl-related exposure, health effects, and atmospheric chemistry. The purpose of this brief technical communication is to highlight these method challenges and their influence on national ambient monitoring networks, and to provide a logical path forward for accurate carbonyl measurement. This manuscript focuses on three specific carbonyl compounds of high toxicological interest—formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein. Further method testing and development, the revision of standardized methods, and the plausibility of introducing novel technology for these carbonyls are considered elements of the path forward. The consolidation of this information is important because it seems clear that carbonyl data produced utilizing DNPH-based methods are being reported without acknowledgment of the method short-comings or how to best address them.

  3. Hydrogenation of the alpha,beta-Unsaturated Aldehydes Acrolein, Crotonaldehyde, and Prenal over Pt Single Crystals: A Kinetic and Sum-Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kliewer, C.J.; Somorjai, G.A.

    2008-11-26

    Sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) and kinetic measurements using gas chromatography have been used to study the surface reaction intermediates during the hydrogenation of three {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated aldehydes, acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and prenal, over Pt(111) at Torr pressures (1 Torr aldehyde, 100 Torr hydrogen) in the temperature range of 295K to 415K. SFG-VS data showed that acrolein has mixed adsorption species of {eta}{sub 2}-di-{sigma}(CC)-trans, {eta}{sub 2}-di-{sigma}(CC)-cis as well as highly coordinated {eta}{sub 3} or {eta}{sub 4} species. Crotonaldehyde adsorbed to Pt(111) as {eta}{sub 2} surface intermediates. SFG-VS during prenal hydrogenation also suggested the presence of the {eta}{sub 2} adsorption species, and became more highly coordinated as the temperature was raised to 415K, in agreement with its enhanced C=O hydrogenation. The effect of catalyst surface structure was clarified by carrying out the hydrogenation of crotonaldehyde over both Pt(111) and Pt(100) single crystals while acquiring the SFG-VS spectra in situ. Both the kinetics and SFG-VS showed little structure sensitivity. Pt(100) generated more decarbonylation 'cracking' product while Pt(111) had a higher selectivity for the formation of the desired unsaturated alcohol, crotylalcohol.

  4. 丙烯醛-DNA加合物的研究进展%REVIEW:THE FORMATION AND MUTAGENESIS OF ACROLEIN-DNA ADDUCTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹瑞川; 汪海林

    2011-01-01

    丙烯醛是一种活泼的a,β不饱和醛,在环境中广泛存在,香烟烟气和厨房油烟是人体丙烯醛暴露的主要环境来源.另一方面机体内丙烯醛可以通过脂质过氧化、氨基酸氧化等多种途径自发生成.进入人体后,丙烯醛和DNA发生加合生成丙烯醛-DNA加合物,目前研究最多的是丙烯醛-dG加合物,包括a-OH-PdG和γ-OH-PdG,其中γ-OH-PdG是主要dG加合物,可引起基因突变(约1%),以G→T突变为主,而次要加合物a-OH-PdG的突变概率高于γ-OH-PdG(约8%),同样以G→T突变为主,并且这些加合物与一些癌症密切相关,如吸烟相关肺癌和膀胱癌等.此外,丙烯醛可以与其它碱基发生加合,生成其它类型的DNA加合物,包括丙烯醛-dA、dC和dT加合物,其中一些加合物的结构已表征,并在体外反应中存在.%Acrolein, one of the most reactive α,β unsaturated aldehydes, is an ubiquitous environmental pollutant and is found in cigarette smoking and cooking. On the other hand, acrolein can also be endogenously released during lipid peroxidation, myeloperoxidase-mediated degradation of amino acids, and so on. Acrolein can directly react with DNA without metabolic activation. As a result several types of DNA adducts could be produced. Currently, most of studies focus on Acrolein-dG adduct, including α-OH-PdG and γ-OH-PdG. The measured amount of γ-OH-PdG is higher than α-OH-PdG in human body and it can generate about 1% gene mutation, while gene mutation frequency is 8% for α-OH-PdG. Both adducts mainly induce G→T mutation.In addition, other base adducts may also be generated in vitro, including Aerolein-dA, dC, and dT adducts.But their metabolism and genotoxicity are unknown. To unbiasedly judge the genotoxicity of acrolein, the formation, metabolism and genotoxicity of non-dG adducts should be considered.

  5. Redox catalysts for the oxidative functionalisation of alkanes and methyl aromatics. Part project: Oxidation and ammoxidation of propane to acrolein and acrylonitride. Final report; Redox-Katalysatoren fuer die oxidative Funktionalisierung von Alkanen und Methylaromaten. Teilprojekt: Oxidation und Ammoxidation von Propan zu Acrolein und Acrylnitril. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baerns, M.

    1996-04-01

    Acrolein (ACRO) and acrylonitrile (ACN) yields obtained by direct conversion of propane using any of the hitherto known catalysts are too low for technical applications (Y{sub ACRO,max}=13%, Y{sub ACN,max}=58%). The purpose of the present project was therefore to provide the groundwater for a mechanistically based development of a suitable catalyst. This was to be done by identifying elementary reaction steps and determining the desired properties of the catalyst. This was to be done by identifying elementary reaction steps and determining the desired properties of the catalyst. Candidate catalytic solids were characterised by various physicochemical methods and examined with regard to their catalytic mechanism under both transient and steady conditions. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Die direkte Umsetzung von Propan zu Acrolein (ACRO) bzw. Acrylnitril (ACN) ist an bislang bekannten Katalysatoren nur mit Ausbeuten (Y{sub ACRO,max}=13%, Y{sub ACN,max}=58%) moeglich, die fuer technische Anwendungen zu gering sind. In diesem Projekt sollten deshalb als Basis fuer eine mechanistisch begruendete Katalysatorentwicklung, elementare Reaktionsschritte identifiziert und notwendige Katalysatoreigenschaften ermittelt werden. Hierzu wurden geeignet erscheinende katalytische Feststoffe mit unterschiedlichen physikalisch-chemischen Methoden charakterisiert und auf ihre katalytische Wirkungsweise mit Transientenmethoden und unter stationaeren Bedingungen untersucht. (orig./SR)

  6. Formation of an adduct between insulin and the toxic lipoperoxidation product acrolein decreases both the hypoglycemic effect of the hormone in rat and glucose uptake in 3T3 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Navarro, Rafael; Guzmán-Grenfell, Alberto M; Díaz-Flores, Margarita; Duran-Reyes, Genoveva; Ortega-Camarillo, Clara; Olivares-Corichi, Ivonne M; Hicks, Juan José

    2007-10-01

    Lipid peroxidation induced by reactive oxygen species might modify circulating biomolecules because of the formation of alpha,beta-unsaturated or dicarbonylic aldehydes. In order to investigate the interaction between a lipoperoxidation product, acrolein, and a circulating protein, insulin, the acrolein-insulin adduct was obtained. To characterize the adduct, gel filtration chromatography, sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and carbonyl determination were performed. Induction of hypoglycemia in the rat and stimulation of glucose uptake by 3T3 adipocytes were used to evaluate the biological efficiency of the adduct compared with that of native insulin (Mackness, B., Quarck, R., Verte, W., Mackness, M., and Holvoet, P. (2006) Arterioscler., Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 26, 1545-1550). Formation of the acrolein-insulin complex in vitro increased the carbonyl group concentration from 2.5 to 22.5 nmol/mg of protein, and it formed without intermolecular aggregates (Halliwell, B., and Whiteman, M. (2004) Br. J. Pharmacol. 142, 231-255. The hypoglycaemic effect 18 min after administration to the rat is decreased by 25% (Robertson, R. P. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 42351-42354. An adduct concentration of 94 nM, compared to 10 nM for native insulin, was required to obtain the A 50% (concentration needed to obtain 50% of maximum transport of glucose uptake by 3T3 adipocytes). In conclusion, formation of the acrolein-insulin adduct modifies the structure of insulin and decreases its hypoglycemic effect in rat and glucose uptake by 3T3 adipocytes. These results help explain how a toxic aldehyde prone to be produced in vivo can structurally modify insulin and change its biological action.

  7. Recent progress in glycerol dehydration to acrolein%甘油选择性脱水制备丙烯醛研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈维苗; 丁云杰; 宁丽丽; 龚磊峰; 吕元

    2009-01-01

    生物柴油以其环保性和可再生性而被公认为是可替代石化柴油的新型能源,其迅猛发展将导致其副产物甘油的大量过剩,因此,开发和深度利用甘油,使其成为新一代从生物质到化学品的转化平台成为近期研究热点,其中,甘油脱水制丙烯醛是重要途径.综述了实现该过程的催化剂体系研究进展,探讨了催化剂结构和反应条件对甘油脱水反应性能的影响,分析了甘油脱水的反应路径,以期对开发高性能催化体系和合理工艺提供参考.由于匀相催化剂存在活性低、操作条件苛刻和设备腐蚀等缺点,开发的重点集中在固体酸催化剂上,虽然活性较高,但易失活,稳定性差.仍需进一步提高催化剂性能,同时结合反应器和工艺的设计和选择,综合考量.%The rapidly rising production of biodiesel from vegetable oils will lead to a drastic surplus of by-product glycerol in chemical markets. The utilization of large amount of glycerol is the driving force of developing new processes. As a sustainable alternative, acrolein can be produced by the dehydration of glycerol. Recent progress in catalyst systems for glycerol dehydration to acrolein was reviewed. The effects of catalyst properties and reaction conditions on glycerol dehydration performance were discussed, as well as its reaction networks. Due to severe operation conditions and corrosion, the researches were focused on the heterogeneous solid acid catalysts. The catalysts had higher activity, but lower stability. The future study should concentrate on further improvement of the catalyst performances, especially sta-bility, and optimization of reaction conditions and selection of proper reactor.

  8. A new kinetic model based on the remote control mechanism to fit experimental data in the selective oxidation of propene into acrolein on biphasic catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdeldayem, H.M.; Ruiz, P.; Delmon, B. [Unite de Catalyse et Chimie des Materiaux Divises, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-La-Neuve (Belgium); Thyrion, F.C. [Unite des Procedes Faculte des Sciences Appliquees, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-La-Neuve (Belgium)

    1998-12-31

    A new kinetic model for a more accurate and detailed fitting of the experimental data is proposed. The model is based on the remote control mechanism (RCM). The RCM assumes that some oxides (called `donors`) are able to activate molecular oxygen transforming it to very active mobile species (spillover oxygen (O{sub OS})). O{sub OS} migrates onto the surface of the other oxide (called `acceptor`) where it creates and/or regenerates the active sites during the reaction. The model contains tow terms, one considering the creation of selective sites and the other the catalytic reaction at each site. The model has been tested in the selective oxidation of propene into acrolein (T=380, 400, 420 C; oxygen and propene partial pressures between 38 and 152 Torr). Catalysts were prepared as pure MoO{sub 3} (acceptor) and their mechanical mixtures with {alpha}-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 4} (donor) in different proportions. The presence of {alpha}-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 4} changes the reaction order, the activation energy of the reaction and the number of active sites of MoO{sub 3} produced by oxygen spillover. These changes are consistent with a modification in the degree of irrigation of the surface by oxygen spillover. The fitting of the model to experimental results shows that the number of sites created by O{sub SO} increases with the amount of {alpha}-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 4}. (orig.)

  9. Guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart.) prevents β-amyloid aggregation, generation of advanced glycation-end products (AGEs), and acrolein-induced cytotoxicity on human neuronal-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Leonardo da Silva; Zeidán-Chuliá, Fares; Yatsu, Francini Kiyono Jorge; Schnorr, Carlos Eduardo; Moresco, Karla Suzana; Kolling, Eduardo Antônio; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Bassani, Valquiria Linck; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2014-11-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are considered potent molecules capable of promoting neuronal cell death and participating in the development of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous studies have shown that AGEs exacerbate β-amyloid (Aβ) aggregation and AGE-related cross-links are also detected in senile plaques. Acrolein (ACR) is an α, β-unsaturated aldehyde found in the environment and thermally processed foods, which can additionally be generated through endogenous metabolism. The role of ACR in AD is widely accepted in the literature. Guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart.) is popularly consumed by the population in Brazil, mainly for its stimulant activity. In the present study, we showed that guarana (10, 100, and 1000 µg/mL) is able to prevent protein glycation, β-amyloid aggregation, in vitro methylglyoxal, glyoxal, and ACR (20 μM)-induced toxicity on neuronal-like cells (SH-SY5Y). Since these are considered typical AD pathological hallmarks, we propose that guarana may deserve further research as a potential therapeutic agent in such a neurodegenerative disease. PMID:24840232

  10. Mesoporous siliconiobium phosphate as a pure Brønsted acid catalyst with excellent performance for the dehydration of glycerol to acrolein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youngbo; Park, Dae Sung; Yun, Hyeong Jin; Baek, Jayeon; Yun, Danim; Yi, Jongheop

    2012-12-01

    The development of solid acid catalysts that contain a high density of Brønsted acid sites with suitable acidity, as well as a long lifetime, is one of great challenges for the efficient dehydration of glycerol to acrolein. Herein, we report on a mesoporous siliconiobium phosphate (NbPSi-0.5) composite, which is a promising solid Brønsted acid that is a potential candidate for such a high-performance catalyst. A variety of characterization results confirm that NbPSi-0.5 contains nearly pure Brønsted acid sites and has well-defined large mesopores. In addition, NbPSi-0.5 contains a similar amount of acid sites and exhibits weaker acidity than that of the highly acidic niobium phosphate and HZSM-5 zeolite. NbPSi-0.5 is quite stable and has a high activity for the dehydration of glycerol. The stability of NbPSi-0.5 is about three times higher than that of the reported catalyst. The significantly enhanced catalytic performance of NbPSi-0.5 can be attributed to 1) nearly pure Brønsted acidity, which suppresses side reactions that lead to coke formation; 2) a significant reduction of pore blocking due to the mesopores; and 3) a decrease in the amount and oxidation temperature of coke.

  11. Curcumin analog 1, 5-bis (2-trifluoromethylphenyl)-1, 4-pentadien-3-one exhibits enhanced ability on Nrf2 activation and protection against acrolein-induced ARPE-19 cell toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curcumin, a phytochemical agent in the spice turmeric, has received increasing attention for its anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. However, application of curcumin has been limited due to its insolubility in water and poor bioavailability both clinically and experimentally. In addition, the protective effects and mechanisms of curcumin in eye diseases have been poorly studied. In the present study, we synthesized a curcumin analog, 1, 5-bis (2-trifluoromethylphenyl)-1, 4-pentadien-3-one (C3), which displayed improved protective effect against acrolein-induced toxicity in a human retinal pigment epithelial cell line (ARPE-19). At 5 μM, curcumin completely protected against acrolein-induced cell oxidative damage and preserved GSH levels and mitochondrial function. Surprisingly, C3 displayed a complete protective effect at 0.5 μM, which was much more efficient than curcumin. Both 0.5 μM C3 and 5 μM curcumin induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation and Nrf2 target genes transcription similarly. Experiments using Nrf2 siRNA showed that the protective effects of curcumin and C3 were eliminated by Nrf2 knockdown. Additionally, both curcumin and C3 activated the PI3/Akt pathway, however, Nrf2 activation was independent of this pathway, and therefore, we hypothesized that both curcumin and C3 activated phase II enzymes via directly disrupting the Nrf2/Keap1 complex and promoting Nrf2's nuclear translocation. Since acrolein challenge of ARPE-19 cells has been used as a model of smoking and age-related macular degeneration (AMD), we concluded that the curcumin analog, C3, may be a more promising drug candidate for its potential application for the prevention and treatment of eye diseases, such as AMD. - Highlights: • We examine toxicity effects of cigarette smoking component acrolein in retina cells. • We report a more efficient curcumin analog (C3) protecting cellular function. • Mitochondrial function and phase II enzyme activation are the major

  12. Curcumin analog 1, 5-bis (2-trifluoromethylphenyl)-1, 4-pentadien-3-one exhibits enhanced ability on Nrf2 activation and protection against acrolein-induced ARPE-19 cell toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuan [Center for Mitochondrial Biology and Medicine, The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology and Frontier Institute of Life Science, FIST, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Zou, Xuan [Center for Translational Medicine, FIST, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Cao, Ke; Xu, Jie; Yue, Tingting [Center for Mitochondrial Biology and Medicine, The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology and Frontier Institute of Life Science, FIST, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Dai, Fang; Zhou, Bo [State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou (China); Lu, Wuyuan [Center for Translational Medicine, FIST, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Feng, Zhihui, E-mail: zhfeng@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Center for Mitochondrial Biology and Medicine, The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology and Frontier Institute of Life Science, FIST, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Liu, Jiankang, E-mail: j.liu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Center for Mitochondrial Biology and Medicine, The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology and Frontier Institute of Life Science, FIST, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China)

    2013-11-01

    Curcumin, a phytochemical agent in the spice turmeric, has received increasing attention for its anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. However, application of curcumin has been limited due to its insolubility in water and poor bioavailability both clinically and experimentally. In addition, the protective effects and mechanisms of curcumin in eye diseases have been poorly studied. In the present study, we synthesized a curcumin analog, 1, 5-bis (2-trifluoromethylphenyl)-1, 4-pentadien-3-one (C3), which displayed improved protective effect against acrolein-induced toxicity in a human retinal pigment epithelial cell line (ARPE-19). At 5 μM, curcumin completely protected against acrolein-induced cell oxidative damage and preserved GSH levels and mitochondrial function. Surprisingly, C3 displayed a complete protective effect at 0.5 μM, which was much more efficient than curcumin. Both 0.5 μM C3 and 5 μM curcumin induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation and Nrf2 target genes transcription similarly. Experiments using Nrf2 siRNA showed that the protective effects of curcumin and C3 were eliminated by Nrf2 knockdown. Additionally, both curcumin and C3 activated the PI3/Akt pathway, however, Nrf2 activation was independent of this pathway, and therefore, we hypothesized that both curcumin and C3 activated phase II enzymes via directly disrupting the Nrf2/Keap1 complex and promoting Nrf2's nuclear translocation. Since acrolein challenge of ARPE-19 cells has been used as a model of smoking and age-related macular degeneration (AMD), we concluded that the curcumin analog, C3, may be a more promising drug candidate for its potential application for the prevention and treatment of eye diseases, such as AMD. - Highlights: • We examine toxicity effects of cigarette smoking component acrolein in retina cells. • We report a more efficient curcumin analog (C3) protecting cellular function. • Mitochondrial function and phase II enzyme activation are the

  13. Induction of cancer chemopreventive enzymes by coffee is mediated by transcription factor Nrf2. Evidence that the coffee-specific diterpenes cafestol and kahweol confer protection against acrolein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mice fed diets containing 3% or 6% coffee for 5 days had increased levels of mRNA for NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and glutathione S-transferase class Alpha 1 (GSTA1) of between 4- and 20-fold in the liver and small intestine. Mice fed 6% coffee also had increased amounts of mRNA for UDP-glucuronosyl transferase 1A6 (UGT1A6) and the glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic (GCLC) subunit of between 3- and 10-fold in the small intestine. Up-regulation of these mRNAs was significantly greater in mice possessing Nrf2 (NF-E2 p45 subunit-related factor 2) than those lacking the transcription factor. Basal levels of mRNAs for NQO1, GSTA1, UGT1A6 and GCLC were lower in tissues from nrf2-/- mice than from nrf2+/+ mice, but modest induction occurred in the mutant animals. Treatment of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from nrf2+/+ mice with either coffee or the coffee-specific diterpenes cafestol and kahweol (C + K) increased NQO1 mRNA up to 9-fold. MEFs from nrf2-/- mice expressed less NQO1 mRNA than did wild-type MEFs, but NQO1 was induced modestly by coffee or C + K in the mutant fibroblasts. Transfection of MEFs with nqo1-luciferase reporter constructs showed that induction by C + K was mediated primarily by Nrf2 and required the presence of an antioxidant response element in the 5'-upstream region of the gene. Luciferase reporter activity did not increase following treatment of MEFs with 100 μmol/l furan, suggesting that this ring structure within C + K is insufficient for gene induction. Priming of nrf2+/+ MEFs, but not nrf2-/- MEFs, with C + K conferred 2-fold resistance towards acrolein

  14. GC Determination of Acetaldehyde, Acrolein and Acrylonitrile in Water with Purge and Trap Technique%吹扫捕集-气相色谱法测定水中乙醛、丙烯醛、丙烯腈

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆文娟; 王晋宇; 陈玲瑚; 赵辰

    2011-01-01

    Purge and trap technique was applied in the GC determination of acetaldehyde, acrolein and acrylonitrile in water. The analytes were purged, trapped and thermodesorbed using the Trap Vocarb 3000, and determined by CR2 with flame ionization detector (FID). Linear relationships between values of peak area and mass concentration of acetaldehyde, acrolein and acrylonitrile obtained were same in the range of 0. 020--0.20 mg·L^-1 , with detection limits (3S/N) of 0. 005, 0. 010, 0. 001mg·L^-1 respectively. Tests for recovery and precision were made by standard addition method, values of recovery found were in the range of 90. 0%-110.0% and values of RSD's (n=7) were less than 50%.%提出了吹扫捕集-气相色谱法测定水中乙醛、丙烯醛和丙烯腈的分析方法。样品用Trap Vocarb 3000捕集阱吹扫、捕集及热解析后,用气相色谱法氢火焰离子化检测器分析。3种化合物的质量浓度在0.020~0.20mg·L^-1的相同范围内与其峰面积呈线性关系,方法的检出限(3S/N)分别为0.005,0.010,0.001mg·L^-。标准加入回收率在90.0%~110.0%之间,相对标准偏差(n=7)均小于5%。

  15. Catalytic performance of Nd-P-O catalysts for vapor-phase dehydration of glycerol to acrolein%Nd -P -O催化剂上甘油脱水生产丙烯醛反应性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庆波; 张镇; 杨向光

    2011-01-01

    Nd-P-0 catalysts were prepared by precipitation method using phosphate, pyrophosphate and tripolyphosphate as the phosphorus source, and their catalytic performance was compared using vaporphase dehydration of glycerol to acrolein as the model reaction. The effects of reaction temperature, flow rate of carrier gas,space velocity,and concentration of glycerol aqueous solution on the catalytic performance of the catalyst were investigated. Glycerol conversion of 96. 4% and the selectivity to acrolein of 82.7% were attained under the optimal condition as follows:reaction temperature 320 ℃. ,flow rate of carrier gas 30 mL· min-1,glycerol space velocity 227 h-1,and concentration of glycerol aqueous solution 36.5%.%分别以磷酸、焦磷酸和三聚磷酸为磷源制备了稀土磷氧类化合物,并以甘油脱水生产丙烯醛反应为模型反应,对该类化合物催化性能进行比较.研究反应温度、载气流速、反应空速和反应溶液浓度对催化剂性能的影响,得到最佳反应条件:反应温度320℃,载气流速30 mL · min-1,甘油空速227 h-1,甘油水溶液浓度36.5%,此条件下,甘油转化率为96.4%,丙烯醛选择性为82.7%.

  16. Towards the pressure and material gap in heterogeneous catalysis: hydrogenation of acrolein over silver catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Bron, M.; Bonifer, M.; Knop-Gericke, A; Teschner, D; Kröhnert, J.; Jentoft, F.; Schlögl, R.; Claus, P.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction In recent time, increasing effort has been undertaken in order to answer the question, whether it is justified to transfer results from surface science studies, mostly obtained with idealised surfaces under UHV conditions, to "real" catalysis, i.e. high pressures and complex materials (the so-called pressure and material gaps). The DFG (German research foundation) has initialised a priority program (SPP 1091) in order to bring together experts from surface science, materials s...

  17. Polyphenol extract from Phellinus igniarius protects against acrolein toxicity in vitro and provides protection in a mouse stroke model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suabjakyong, Papawee; Saiki, Ryotaro; Griensven, Van Leo J.L.D.; Higashi, Kyohei; Nishimura, Kazuhiro; Igarashi, Kazuei; Toida, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    The basidiomycetous mushroom Phellinus igniarius (L.) Quel. has been used as traditional medicine in various Asian countries for many years. Although many reports exist on its antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities and therapeutic effects against various diseases, our current knowledge of

  18. Hypoxia Stress Test Reveals Exaggerated Cardiovascular Effects in Hypertensive Rats after Exposure to the Air Pollutant Acrolein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in susceptible populations with cardiovascular disease. Stress tests are useful in assessing cardiovascular risk and manifesting latent effects of exposure. The goal of this study w...

  19. A single inhalation exposure to acrolein desensitizes baroreflex responsiveness in Wistar-Kyoto and Spontaneously Hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arterial baroreflex is one of the body's homeostatic mechanisms that regulate blood pressure (BP) by changing heart rate (HR) and vasoconstriction. Increases in BP reflexively cause HR to decrease, whereas decreases in BP depress the baroreflex and cause HR to rise. As such, baro...

  20. A single exposure to acrolein desensitizes baroreflex responsiveness and increases cardiac arrhythmias in normotensive and hypertensive rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background – Short-term exposure to air pollutants has been linked to acute cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Even in the absence of overt symptoms, pollutants can cause subtle disruptions of internal regulatory mechanisms, which maintain homeostatic balance, thereby reduci...

  1. One-step synthesis of bismuth molybdate catalysts via flame spray pyrolysis for the selective oxidation of propylene to acrolein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuh, K.; Kleist, W.; Høj, Martin;

    2014-01-01

    area (19 m(2) g(-1)). This phase is normally only obtained at high calcination temperatures (>560 degrees C) resulting in lower surface areas. The beta-phase was stable up to 400 degrees C and showed superior catalytic performance compared to alpha- and gamma-phases in selective oxidation of propylene...

  2. Acrolein-Induced Increases in Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Are Coupled with Decreased Blood Oxygen Levels During Exposure in Hypertensive Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in individuals with pre-existing cardiovascular disease. Recent studies link exposure to air pollution with reduced blood oxygen saturation suggesting that hypoxia is a potential me...

  3. Approximate inclusion of triple excitations in combined coupled cluster/molecular mechanics: Calculations of electronic excitation energies in solution for acrolein, water, formamide, and n-methylacetamide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sneskov, Kristian; Gras, Eduard Matito; Kongsted, Jacob;

    2010-01-01

    Electronic excitation energies are often significantly affected by perturbing surroundings such as, for example, solvent molecules. Correspondingly, for an accurate comparison between theory and experiment, the inclusion of solvent effects in high-level theoretical predictions is important. Here...... and a solvent described by polarizable MM methods. The CCSDR(3)/MM includes triples effects in a computational tractable noniterative fashion. The resulting approach allows for both high-accuracy inclusion of triples effects and inclusion of solute−solvent interactions with polarization effects, as well...

  4. 醋酸杆菌生物催化丙烯醛合成丙烯酸%Biosynthesis of acrylic acid from acrolein by Acetobacter sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭昌; 宗红; 陆信曜; 诸葛斌; 方慧英; 宋健; 诸葛健

    2015-01-01

    丙烯酸是一种重要的有机化工原料,主要用于合成树脂和丙烯酸酯,广泛应用于生产和生活的各方面.本文开展了利用微生物催化丙烯醛生产丙烯酸的研究.通过菌株筛选和ESI-MS验证,获得2株目的微生物,经鉴定比较发现Acetobacter sp.对丙烯醛的催化效率较高,在Acetobacter sp.细胞浓度15 g/L,初始底物浓度10 g/L,pH 6.8,30℃的条件下反应1h,转化率可达88.0%,产物浓度达到11.32 g/L丙烯酸.同时,利用固定化细胞的方法提高反应对底物和产物的耐受性,经过2.5h的反应,20 g/L的丙烯醛被催化成22.96 g/L丙烯酸,摩尔转化率为89.3%,固定化细胞重复利用6次后转化率仍可达到85.4%.利用Acetobacter sp.细胞催化生产丙烯酸,为丙烯酸的制备提供了一种新的可能.

  5. Acrolein—an α,β-Unsaturated Aldehyde: A Review of Oral Cavity Exposure and Oral Pathology Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizenbud, Dror; Aizenbud, Itay; Reznick, Abraham Z.; Avezov, Katia

    2016-01-01

    Acrolein is a highly reactive unsaturated aldehyde widely present in the environment, particularly as a product of tobacco smoke. Our previous studies indicated the adverse consequences of even short-term acrolein exposure and proposed a molecular mechanism of its potential harmful effect on oral cavity keratinocytic cells. In this paper we chose to review the broad spectrum of acrolein sources such as pollution, food, and smoking. Consequently, in this paper we consider a high level of oral exposure to acrolein through these sources and discuss the noxious effects it has on the oral cavity including on salivary quality and contents, oral resistance to oxidative stress, and stress mechanism activation in a variety of oral cells. PMID:27487309

  6. Olefin cross metathesis based de novo synthesis of a partially protected L-amicetose and a fully protected L-cinerulose derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Schmidt

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cross metathesis of a lactate derived allylic alcohol and acrolein is the entry point to a de novo synthesis of 4-benzoate protected L-amicetose and a cinerulose derivative protected at C5 and C1.

  7. Olefin cross metathesis based de novo synthesis of a partially protected L-amicetose and a fully protected L-cinerulose derivative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauke, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    Summary Cross metathesis of a lactate derived allylic alcohol and acrolein is the entry point to a de novo synthesis of 4-benzoate protected L-amicetose and a cinerulose derivative protected at C5 and C1. PMID:24991253

  8. Acrolein—an α,ß-Unsaturated Aldehyde: A Review of Oral Cavity Exposure and Oral Pathology Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dror Aizenbud

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Acrolein is a highly reactive unsaturated aldehyde widely present in the environment, particularly as a product of tobacco smoke. Our previous studies indicated the adverse consequences of even short-term acrolein exposure and proposed a molecular mechanism of its potential harmful effect on oral cavity keratinocytic cells. In this paper we chose to review the broad spectrum of acrolein sources such as pollution, food, and smoking. Consequently, in this paper we consider a high level of oral exposure to acrolein through these sources and discuss the noxious effects it has on the oral cavity including on salivary quality and contents, oral resistance to oxidative stress, and stress mechanism activation in a variety of oral cells.

  9. Glutathione S-transferase P protects against cyclophosphamide-induced cardiotoxicity in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conklin, Daniel J., E-mail: dj.conklin@louisville.edu [Diabetes and Obesity Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Institute of Molecular Cardiology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Haberzettl, Petra; Jagatheesan, Ganapathy; Baba, Shahid [Diabetes and Obesity Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Institute of Molecular Cardiology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Merchant, Michael L. [Diabetes and Obesity Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Prough, Russell A. [Diabetes and Obesity Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Williams, Jessica D. [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Internal Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Prabhu, Sumanth D. [Division of Cardiovascular Disease, University of Alabama-Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Bhatnagar, Aruni [Diabetes and Obesity Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Institute of Molecular Cardiology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    High-dose chemotherapy regimens using cyclophosphamide (CY) are frequently associated with cardiotoxicity that could lead to myocyte damage and congestive heart failure. However, the mechanisms regulating the cardiotoxic effects of CY remain unclear. Because CY is converted to an unsaturated aldehyde acrolein, a toxic, reactive CY metabolite that induces extensive protein modification and myocardial injury, we examined the role of glutathione S-transferase P (GSTP), an acrolein-metabolizing enzyme, in CY cardiotoxicity in wild-type (WT) and GSTP-null mice. Treatment with CY (100–300 mg/kg) increased plasma levels of creatine kinase-MB isoform (CK·MB) and heart-to-body weight ratio to a significantly greater extent in GSTP-null than WT mice. In addition to modest yet significant echocardiographic changes following acute CY-treatment, GSTP insufficiency was associated with greater phosphorylation of c-Jun and p38 as well as greater accumulation of albumin and protein–acrolein adducts in the heart. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed likely prominent modification of albumin, kallikrein-1-related peptidase, myoglobin and transgelin-2 by acrolein in the hearts of CY-treated mice. Treatment with acrolein (low dose, 1–5 mg/kg) also led to increased heart-to-body weight ratio and myocardial contractility changes. Acrolein induced similar hypotension in GSTP-null and WT mice. GSTP-null mice also were more susceptible than WT mice to mortality associated with high-dose acrolein (10–20 mg/kg). Collectively, these results suggest that CY cardiotoxicity is regulated, in part, by GSTP, which prevents CY toxicity by detoxifying acrolein. Thus, humans with low cardiac GSTP levels or polymorphic forms of GSTP with low acrolein-metabolizing capacity may be more sensitive to CY toxicity. - Graphical abstract: Cyclophosphamide (CY) treatment results in P450-mediated metabolic formation of phosphoramide mustard and acrolein (3-propenal). Acrolein is either metabolized and

  10. Olefin cross metathesis based de novo synthesis of a partially protected L-amicetose and a fully protected L-cinerulose derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Bernd; Hauke, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    Cross metathesis of a lactate derived allylic alcohol and acrolein is the entry point to a de novo synthesis of 4-benzoate protected L-amicetose and a cinerulose derivative protected at C5 and C1. PMID:24991253

  11. Gas-phase dehydration of glycerol over thermally-stable SAPO-40 catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Lourenço, J. P.; Fernandes, A; Bértolo, R. A.; Ribeiro, M. F.

    2015-01-01

    SAPO-40 was used as catalyst for the gas-phase dehydration of glycerol towards acrolein. At 350 ºC the catalyst attained full conversion of glycerol with a negligible deactivation in the first 48 h, a glycerol conversion above 50 % after 120 h on stream and a nearly constant selectivity to acrolein above 70%. This catalyst proved to be highly resistant under the experimental conditions used and can be regenerated without loss of activity or significant structural damage. The compa...

  12. Silica nanoparticles as vehicles for therapy delivery in neurological injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Desiree

    Acrolein, a very reactive aldehyde, is a culprit in the biochemical cascade after primary, mechanical spinal cord injury (SCI), which leads to the destruction of tissue initially unharmed, referred to as "secondary injury". Additionally, in models of multiple sclerosis (MS) and some clinical research, acrolein levels are significantly increased. This aldehyde overwhelms the natural anti-oxidant system, reacts freely with proteins, and releases during lipid peroxidation (LPO), effectively regenerating its self. Due to its ability to make more copies of itself in the presence of tissue via lipid peroxidation, researchers believe that acrolein plays a role in the increased destruction of the central nervous system in both SCI and MS. Hydralazine, an FDA-approved hypertension drug, has been shown to scavenge acrolein, but its side effects and short half life at the appropriate dose for acrolein scavenging must be improved for beneficial clinical translation. Due to the inefficient delivery of therapeutic drugs, nanoparticles have become a major field of exploration for medical applications. Based on their material properties, they can help treat disease by delivering drugs to specific tissues, enhancing detection methods, or a mixture of both. Nanoparticles made from silica provide distinct advantages. They form porous networks that can carry therapeutic molecules throughout the body. Therefore, a nanomedical approach has been designed using silica nanoparticles as a porous delivery vehicle hydralazine. The silica nanoparticles are formed in a one-step method that incorporates poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG), a stealth molecule, directly onto the nanoparticles. As an additional avenue for study, a natural product in green tea, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), has been explored for its ability to react with acrolein, disabling its reactive capabilities. Upon demonstration of attenuating acrolein, EGCG's delivery may also be improved using the nanomedical approach. The

  13. Caracterização e quantificação de contaminantes em aguardentes de cana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiany Mendonça Zacaroni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was the evaluation of the presence of organic and inorganic contaminants in samples of aged cachaça from the South of the state of Minas Gerais. Furfural, methanol and copper were determined by colorimetric reactions, while the analyses of ethyl carbamate and acrolein were performed by GC/MS and HPLC, respectively. High levels of furfural and copper were obtained. All samples showed concentrations below the established by legislation for the ethyl carbamate, and for acrolein, only one sample showed higher levels. Methanol was not detected in the samples.

  14. Guide On Analysis Of Dangerous And Harmful Object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book lists the dangerous and harmful object, which are Acetaldehyde, Acetic acid, Acetone, Acrolein, Aldrin Ammonia, Arsenic, Asphalt, Barium, Benzene, Benzyl chloride, Butane, Butylamine, Butyl mercaptan, Cadmium, Cadmium chloride, Cadmium nitrate, Cadmium sulfate, Calcium, Calcium carbonate, Calcium chloride, Calcium cyanamide, Calcium oxide, Captan, Carbon black, Carbon dioxide, Carbon disulfide, Catechol, Chlordane, Chlorine, Chlorine dioxide, Chlorine trifluoride and Chloroacetic acid.

  15. Ambient concentrations of aldehydes in relation to Beijing Olympic air pollution control measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, J. C.; Zhu, T.; Hu, M.; Zhang, L. W.; Cheng, H.; Zhang, L.; Tong, J.; Zhang, J.

    2010-08-01

    Aldehydes are ubiquitous constituents of the atmosphere. Their concentrations are elevated in polluted urban atmospheres. The present study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of most health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) in a central Beijing site in the summer and early fall of 2008 (from June to October). Measurements were made before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics to examine whether the air pollution control measures implemented to improve Beijing's air quality during the Olympics had any impact on concentrations of the three aldehydes. Average concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were 29.34 ± 15.12 μg/m3, 27.09 ± 15.74 μg/m3 and 2.32 ± 0.95 μg/m3, respectively, for the entire period of measurements, all being the highest among the levels measured in cities around the world in photochemical smog seasons. Among the three measured aldehydes, only acetaldehyde had a substantially reduced mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period. Formaldehyde and acrolein followed the changing pattern of temperature and were each significantly correlated with ozone (a secondary product of photochemical reactions). In contrast, acetaldehyde was significantly correlated with several pollutants emitted mainly from local emission sources (e.g., NO2, CO, and PM2.5). These findings suggest that local direct emissions had a larger impact on acetaldehyde than formaldehyde and acrolein.

  16. Searches for new interstellar molecules, including a tentative detection of aziridine and a possible detection of propenal

    OpenAIRE

    DICKENS, J.E; IRVINE, W.M; Nummelin, A.; MØLLENDAL, H; Saito, S.; Thorwirth, S.; Hjalmarson, Å.; OhiShi, M

    2001-01-01

    Rotational spectroscopy at millimeter wavelengths is a powerful means of investigating the chemistry of dense interstellar clouds. These regions can exhibit an interesting complement of gas phase molecules, including relatively complex organics. Here we report the tentative first astronomical detection of aziridine (ethylenimine), the possible detection of propenal (acrolein), and upper limits on the abundances of cyclopropenone, furan, hydroxyethanal (glycolaldehyde), thiohydroxylamine (NH2S...

  17. 40 CFR Table 8 to Subpart Ggg of... - Fraction Measured (Fm) for HAP Compounds in Wastewater Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Compounds in Wastewater Streams 8 Table 8 to Subpart GGG of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Streams Chemical name CAS No. a Fm Acetaldehyde 75070 1.00 Acetonitrile 75058 0.99 Acetophenone 98862 0.31 Acrolein 107028 1.00 Acrylonitrile 107131 1.00 Allyl chloride 107051 1.00 Benzene 71432 1.00...

  18. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Partially Soluble HAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in § 63.11498(a), you must comply with emission limits for wastewater streams that contain the...-Dichloroethylene (vinylidene chloride) 75354 5. 1,2-Dibromoethane 106934 6. 1,2-Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride.... Acrolein 107028 15. Acrylonitrile 107131 16. Allyl chloride 107051 17. Benzene 71432 18. Benzyl...

  19. 40 CFR Table 34 to Subpart G of... - Fraction Measured (Fm) and Fraction Emitted (Fe) For HAP Compounds in Wastewater Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Emitted (Fe) For HAP Compounds in Wastewater Streams 34 Table 34 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of...—Fraction Measured (Fm) and Fraction Emitted (Fe) For HAP Compounds in Wastewater Streams Chemical name CAS... Acrolein 107028 1.00 0.43 Acrylonitrile 107131 1.00 0.43 Allyl chloride 107051 1.00 0.89 Benzene 71432...

  20. Synthesis of 12-alkoxycarbonylmethylene-1,15-pentadecanolides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Six novel 12-alkoxycarbonylmethylene-1,15-pentadecanolides (3) were synthesized from 2-nitrocyclo-dodecanone by the Michael addition with acrolein followed by ring enlargement, Nef reaction and Wittig-Horner reaction. Their structures were confirmed by 1H NMR, IR and elemental analysis. The preliminary bioassay showed that they have some fungicidal activity.

  1. 46 CFR Table I to Part 150 - Alphabetical List of Cargoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... solution 7 Glycol diacetate, see Ethylene glycol diacetate EGY Glycolic acid solution 4 GLC Glyoxal... No. Foot-note CHRIS Code Related CHRIS Codes Acetaldehyde 19 AAD Acetic acid 4 2 AAC Acetic anhydride... Acetophenone 18 ACP Acrolein 19 2 ARL Acrylamide solution 10 AAM Acrylic acid 4 2 ACR Acrylonitrile 15 2...

  2. Development of three stable isotope dilution assays for the quantitation of (E)-2-butenal (crotonaldehyde) in heat-processed edible fats and oils as well as in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granvogl, Michael

    2014-02-12

    Three stable isotope dilution assays (SIDAs) were developed for the quantitation of (E)-2-butenal (crotonaldehyde) in heat-processed edible fats and oils as well as in food using synthesized [¹³C₄]-crotonaldehyde as internal standard. First, a direct headspace GC-MS method, followed by two indirect methods on the basis of derivatization with either pentafluorophenylhydrazine (GC-MS) or 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (LC-MS/MS), was developed. All methods are also suitable for the quantitation of acrolein using the standard [¹³C₃]-acrolein. Applying these three methods on five different types of fats and oils varying in their fatty acid compositions revealed significantly varying crotonaldehyde concentrations for the different samples, but nearly identical quantitative data for all methods. Formed amounts of crotonaldehyde were dependent not only on the type of oil, e.g., 0.29-0.32 mg/kg of coconut oil or 33.9-34.4 mg/kg of linseed oil after heat-processing for 24 h at 180 °C, but also on the applied temperature and time. The results indicated that the concentration of formed crotonaldehyde seemed to be correlated with the amount of linolenic acid in the oils. Furthermore, the formation of crotonaldehyde was compared to that of its homologue acrolein, demonstrating that acrolein was always present in higher amounts in heat-processed oils, e.g., 12.3 mg of crotonaldehyde/kg of rapeseed oil in comparison to 23.4 mg of acrolein/kg after 24 h at 180 °C. Finally, crotonaldehyde was also quantitated in fried food, revealing concentrations from 12 to 25 μg/kg for potato chips and from 8 to 19 μg/kg for donuts, depending on the oil used.

  3. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles for treating spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    White-Schenk, Désirée.; Shi, Riyi; Leary, James F.

    2013-02-01

    An estimated 12,000 new cases of spinal cord injury (SCI) occur every year in the United States. A small oxidative molecule responsible for secondary injury, acrolein, is an important target in SCI. Acrolein attacks essential proteins and lipids, creating a feed-forward loop of oxidative stress in both the primary injury area and the surrounding areas. A small molecule used and FDA-approved for hypertension, hydralazine, has been found to "scavenge" acrolein after injury, but its delivery and short half-life, as well as its hypertension effects, hinder its application for SCI. Nanomedical systems broaden the range of therapeutic availability and efficacy over conventional medicine. They allow for targeted delivery of therapeutic molecules to tissues of interest, reducing side effects of untargeted therapies in unwanted areas. Nanoparticles made from silica form porous networks that can carry therapeutic molecules throughout the body. To attenuate the acrolein cascade and improve therapeutic availability, we have used a one-step, modified Stober method to synthesize two types of silica nanoparticles. Both particles are "stealth-coated" with poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG) (to minimize interactions with the immune system and to increase circulation time), which is also a therapeutic agent for SCI by facilitating membrane repair. One nanoparticle type contains an amine-terminal PEG (SiNP-mPEG-Am) and the other possesses a terminal hydrazide group (SiNP-mPEG-Hz). The former allows for exploration of hydralazine delivery, loading, and controlled release. The latter group has the ability to react with acrolein, allowing the nanoparticle to scavenge directly. The nanoparticles have been characterized and are being explored using neuronal PC-12 cells in vitro, demonstrating the potential of novel silica nanoparticles for use in attenuating secondary injury after SCI.

  4. Plant microtechnique: some principles and new methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feder, N.; O' Brien, T.P.

    1968-01-01

    Some easily seen structural features of living plant cells are destroyed or badly distorted by most of the common fixatives and embedding media used in plant histology. In stained sections of plant tissues fixed in FAA (formalin-acetic acid-alcohol mixtures) and embedded in paraffin wax, for example, mitochondria and fine transvacuolar strands of cytoplasm are usually not visible. Many structural features such as these can be preserved, however, with suitable fixatives and embedding media. Fixation in non-coagulant fixatives (e.g., osmium tetroxide, acrolein, glutaraldehyde, formaldehyde) and the use of plastics as embedding media is recommended. A method of fixation in acrolein and embedding in glycol methacrylate polymer is described in detail. In a wide range of plant specimens prepared in this way, stained sections 1-3 microns thick showed excellent preservation of tissue and cell structures. 39 references, 11 figures.

  5. Alkoxyallenes as building blocks for organic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Reinhold; Reissig, Hans-Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    Alkoxyallenes are unusually versatile C3 building blocks in organic synthesis. Hence this tutorial review summarizes the most important transformations, including subsequent reactions and their applications in the synthesis of relevant compounds, e.g. natural products. The reactivity patterns involved and the synthons derived from alkoxyallenes are presented. Often alkoxyallenes can serve as substitutes of acrolein or acrolein acetals, utilisation of which has already led to interesting products. Most important is the use of lithiated alkoxyallenes which smoothly react with a variety of electrophiles and lead to products with unique substitution patterns. The heterocycles or carbocycles formed are intermediates for the stereoselective synthesis of natural products or for the preparation of other structurally relevant compounds. The different synthons being put into practice by the use of lithiated alkoxyallenes in these variations will be discussed.

  6. Selective propene oxidation on mixed metal oxide catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    James, D W

    2002-01-01

    Selective catalytic oxidation processes represent a large segment of the modern chemical industry and a major application of these is the selective partial oxidation of propene to produce acrolein. Mixed metal oxide catalysts are particularly effective in promoting this reaction, and the two primary candidates for the industrial process are based on iron antimonate and bismuth molybdate. Some debate exists in the literature regarding the operation of these materials and the roles of their catalytic components. In particular, iron antimonate catalysts containing excess antimony are known to be highly selective towards acrolein, and a variety of proposals for the enhanced selectivity of such materials have been given. The aim of this work was to provide a direct comparison between the behaviour of bismuth molybdate and iron antimonate catalysts, with additional emphasis being placed on the component single oxide phases of the latter. Studies were also extended to other antimonate-based catalysts, including coba...

  7. Synergetic effect of TeMo5O16 and MoO3 phases in MoTeOx catalysts used for the partial oxidation of propylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiming He; Ying Wu; Weizheng Weng; Huilin Wan

    2011-01-01

    A detailed study on the synergetic effect of TeMo5O16 and MoO3 phases in the MoTeOx catalysts for the partial oxidation of propylene to acrolein has been reported in this work. It was found that both propylene conversion and acrolein selectivity increased with the addition of MoO3 to TeMo5O16. Based on the results of N2 adsorption-desorption, XRD, XPS, in-situ XRD, O2-TPO, and 2-propanol decomposition reaction, the higher catalytic performance and synergetic effect could be attributed to the enhancement of acidity and the oxygen transfer from TeMo5O16 to MoO3 phase.

  8. Synergy effects in mixed Bi2O3, MoO3 and V2O5 catalysts for selective oxidation of propylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tien The; Le, Thang Minh; Truong, Duc Duc;

    2012-01-01

    % Bi2Mo3O12 and 78.57 mol% BiVO4), corresponding to the compound Bi1-x/3V1-xMoxO4 with x = 0.45 (Bi0.85V0.55Mo0.45O4), exhibited the highest activity for the selective oxidation of propylene to acrolein. The mixed sample prepared chemically by a sol–gel method possessed higher activity than that of...

  9. Stimulated Raman signals at conical intersections: Ab initio surface hopping simulation protocol with direct propagation of the nuclear wave function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Femtosecond Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy (FSRS) signals that monitor the excited state conical intersections dynamics of acrolein are simulated. An effective time dependent Hamiltonian for two C—H vibrational marker bands is constructed on the fly using a local mode expansion combined with a semi-classical surface hopping simulation protocol. The signals are obtained by a direct forward and backward propagation of the vibrational wave function on a numerical grid. Earlier work is extended to fully incorporate the anharmonicities and intermode couplings

  10. Study on Papain Immobilization on a Macroporous Polymer Carrier

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Liang; YAO, Zihua; Li, Tong

    2003-01-01

    Macroporous resin microbeads of methyl methacrylate-divinyl benzene copolymer were synthesized by radical suspension polymerization of acrolein with divinylbenzene in the presence of a pore-creating agent, petroleum ether. The microbeads had a large specific surface area and large pores covered the entire surface of the resin. This macroporous polymer carrier was aminated by hydrazine hydrate that produced a large number of amino groups on the carrier. Papain was immobilized on the ...

  11. 40 CFR 117.3 - Determination of reportable quantities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Benzoyl chloride C 1,000 (454) Benzyl chloride B 100 (45.4) Beryllium chloride X 1 (0.454) Beryllium... Determination of reportable quantities. Each substance in Table 117.3 that is listed in Table 302.4, 40 CFR part... cyanohydrin A 10 (4.54) Acetyl bromide D 5,000 (2,270) Acetyl chloride D 5,000 (2,270) Acrolein X 1...

  12. Research advances in the catalysts for the selective oxidation of ethane to aldehydes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhe; ZHAO Zhen; XU Chunming

    2005-01-01

    Selective oxidation of ethane to aldehydes is one of the most difficult processes in the catalysis researches of low alkanes. The development of selective oxidation of ethane to aldehydes (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein) is discussed. The latest progress of the catalysts, including bulk or supported metal oxide catalysts, highly dispersed and isolated active sites catalysts, and the photo-catalytic ethane oxidation catalysts, partial oxidation of ethane in the gas phase, and the proposed reaction pathways from ethane to aldehydes are involved.

  13. Ambient concentrations of aldehydes in relation to Beijing Olympic air pollution control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Gong

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Aldehydes are ubiquitous constituents of the atmosphere. Their concentrations are elevated in polluted urban atmospheres. The present study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of most health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein in a central Beijing site in the summer and early fall of 2008 (from June to October. Measurements were made before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics to examine whether the air pollution control measures implemented to improve Beijing's air quality during the Olympics had any impact on concentrations of the three aldehydes. Average concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were 29.34 ± 15.12 μg/m3, 27.09 ± 15.74 μg/m3 and 2.32 ± 0.95 μg/m3, respectively, for the entire period of measurements, all being the highest among the levels measured in cities around the world in photochemical smog seasons. Among the three measured aldehydes, only acetaldehyde had a substantially reduced mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period. Formaldehyde and acrolein followed the changing pattern of temperature and were each significantly correlated with ozone (a secondary product of photochemical reactions. In contrast, acetaldehyde was significantly correlated with several pollutants emitted mainly from local emission sources (e.g., NO2, CO, and PM2.5. These findings suggest that local direct emissions had a larger impact on acetaldehyde than formaldehyde and acrolein.

  14. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 channel localized to non-neuronal airway cells promotes non-neurogenic inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Nassini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1 channel, localized to airway sensory nerves, has been proposed to mediate airway inflammation evoked by allergen and cigarette smoke (CS in rodents, via a neurogenic mechanism. However the limited clinical evidence for the role of neurogenic inflammation in asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease raises an alternative possibility that airway inflammation is promoted by non-neuronal TRPA1. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By using Real-Time PCR and calcium imaging, we found that cultured human airway cells, including fibroblasts, epithelial and smooth muscle cells express functional TRPA1 channels. By using immunohistochemistry, TRPA1 staining was observed in airway epithelial and smooth muscle cells in sections taken from human airways and lung, and from airways and lung of wild-type, but not TRPA1-deficient mice. In cultured human airway epithelial and smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts, acrolein and CS extract evoked IL-8 release, a response selectively reduced by TRPA1 antagonists. Capsaicin, agonist of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1, a channel co-expressed with TRPA1 by airway sensory nerves, and acrolein or CS (TRPA1 agonists, or the neuropeptide substance P (SP, which is released from sensory nerve terminals by capsaicin, acrolein or CS, produced neurogenic inflammation in mouse airways. However, only acrolein and CS, but not capsaicin or SP, released the keratinocyte chemoattractant (CXCL-1/KC, IL-8 analogue in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid of wild-type mice. This effect of TRPA1 agonists was attenuated by TRPA1 antagonism or in TRPA1-deficient mice, but not by pharmacological ablation of sensory nerves. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that, although either TRPV1 or TRPA1 activation causes airway neurogenic inflammation, solely TRPA1 activation orchestrates an additional inflammatory response which is not neurogenic. This finding suggests

  15. Evaluation of Volatile Organic Compounds and Carbonyl Compounds Present in the Cabins of Newly Produced, Medium- and Large-Size Coaches in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yan-Yang Lu; Yi Lin; Han Zhang; Dongxiao Ding; Xia Sun; Qiansheng Huang; Lifeng Lin; Ya-Jie Chen; Yu-Lang Chi; Sijun Dong

    2016-01-01

    An air-conditioned coach is an important form of transportation in modern motorized society; as a result, there is an increasing concern of in-vehicle air pollution. In this study, we aimed to identify and quantify the levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonyl compounds (CCs) in air samples collected from the cabins of newly produced, medium- and large-size coaches. Among the identified VOCs and CCs, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein/acetone, a...

  16. A carnosine intervention study in overweight human volunteers: bioavailability and reactive carbonyl species sequestering effect

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Regazzoni; Barbora de Courten; Davide Garzon; Alessandra Altomare; Cristina Marinello; Michaela Jakubova; Silvia Vallova; Patrik Krumpolec; Marina Carini; Jozef Ukropec; Barbara Ukropcova; Giancarlo Aldini

    2016-01-01

    Carnosine is a natural dipeptide able to react with reactive carbonyl species, which have been recently associated with the onset and progression of several human diseases. Herein, we report an intervention study in overweight individuals. Carnosine (2 g/day) was orally administered for twelve weeks in order to evaluate its bioavailability and metabolic fate. Two carnosine adducts were detected in the urine samples of all subjects. Such adducts are generated from a reaction with acrolein, whi...

  17. Teores de compostos orgânicos em cachaças produzidas na região norte fluminense - Rio de Janeiro Organic compounds contents in cachaças produced in the northern Rio de Janeiro State - RJ

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro Marelli de Souza; Karla Silva Ferreira; Luís César Passoni; Alice Barreto Bevitori; Karen Vieira Melo; Arivaldo Ribeiro Viana

    2009-01-01

    This work aimed to quantify some organic compounds in "cachaças" (sugar cane spirit). The ethyl alcohol was quantified by densimetry, after distillation. The acetic acid, methyl alcohol, n-propyl alcohol, n-butyl alcohol, isobutyl alcohol, isoamyl alcohol (mixture of 2-methyl-butyl and 3-methyl-butyl), ethyl acetate and acetaldehyde were determined by gas chromatography; and the furfural, 5-hydroxy-methylfurfural and acrolein by high efficiency liquid chromatography. From the 30 samples analy...

  18. Searches for new interstellar molecules, including a tentative detection of aziridine and a possible detection of propenal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, J. E.; Irvine, W. M.; Nummelin, A.; Mollendal, H.; Saito, S.; Thorwirth, S.; Hjalmarson, A.; Ohishi, M.

    2001-01-01

    Rotational spectroscopy at millimeter wavelengths is a powerful means of investigating the chemistry of dense interstellar clouds. These regions can exhibit an interesting complement of gas phase molecules, including relatively complex organics. Here we report the tentative first astronomical detection of aziridine (ethylenimine), the possible detection of propenal (acrolein), and upper limits on the abundances of cyclopropenone, furan, hydroxyethanal (glycolaldehyde), thiohydroxylamine (NH2SH), and ethenol (vinyl alcohol) in various interstellar clouds.

  19. Concentrations of formaldehyde and other carbonyls in environments affected by incense burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Yu, Jian Zhen

    2002-10-01

    Burning incense to pay homage to deities is common in Chinese homes and temples. Air samples were collected and analyzed for carbonyls from a home and a temple in Hong Kong where incense burning occurs on a daily basis. Carbonyls in the air were trapped on a solid sorbent coated with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)-hydroxylamine, followed by thermal desorption and subsequent GC/MS analysis. The carbonyls identified include formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, 2-furfural, benzaldehyde, glyoxal, and methylglyoxal. The levels of the above carbonyls correlate with the intensity of the incense-burning activities. The total mixing ratios of the carbonyls in the temple exceed those in the ambient air outside the temple by 11-23 times. Formaldehyde is the most abundant species, contributing to approximately 55% of the total carbonyl mixing ratios in both the temple and the home environments during incense burning. The mixing ratio of formaldehyde ranges from 108 to 346 ppbv in the temple and averages 103 ppbv in the home during incense burning. These values exceed the World Health Organization (WHO) air quality guideline of 100 microg m(-3) (88 ppbv) for formaldehyde. The highest formaldehyde level in the temple exceeds the WHO guideline by 3 times at peak incense burning hours. The mixing ratio of acrolein in the temple ranges from 20 to 99 ppbv, approaching or exceeding the WHO air quality guideline of 50 microg m(-3) (22 ppbv) for acrolein. Our measurements indicate that incense burning significantly elevates the concentrations of a number of carbonyls, most notably formaldehyde and acrolein, in the surrounding environments. This study provides preliminary insights on indoor air quality problems created by incense burning.

  20. Reactions of CH-acids with α,β-unsaturated aldehydes in ionic liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kryshtal, G. V.; Zhdankina, G. M.; Astakhova, Irina Kira;

    2004-01-01

    Metal carbonate-catalyzed reactions of CH-acids (diethyl malonate, ethyl acetoacetate, ethyl cyanoacetate, and ethyl 2-acetyl- and 2-ethoxycarbonyl-5,9- dimethyldeca-4,8-dienoates) with α,β-unsaturated aldehydes (acrolein, crotonaldehyde, citral) were studied in an ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3...... of the Michael adducts. The ionic liquid [bmim][PF 6] can be recovered and repeatedly used in the reactions....

  1. CRAQUEAMENTO TÉRMICO DA GLICERINA: UMA PROPOSTA DE EXPERIMENTO PARA QUÍMICA ORGÂNICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria B. Riatto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an undergraduate organic chemistry experiment based on thermal cracking of glycerin is proposed. The reagent is obtained as a by-product from the practice of biodiesel synthesis, and allows reduction of waste produced in the lab. The main product obtained from thermal cracking was characterized by GC analysis as acrolein. This substance was also identified by chemical derivatization as 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone, allowing a combined experiment of identification by synthesis of the derivative.

  2. Aerobic oxidation of aldehydes under ambient conditions using supported gold nanoparticle catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsden, Charlotte Clare; Taarning, Esben; Hansen, David;

    2008-01-01

    A new, green protocol for producing simple esters by selectively oxidizing an aldehyde dissolved in a primary alcohol has been established, utilising air as the oxidant and supported gold nanoparticles as catalyst. The oxidative esterifications proceed with excellent selectivities at ambient cond...... conditions; the reactions can be performed in an open flask and at room temperature. Benzaldehyde is even oxidised at a reasonable rate below -70 degrees C. Acrolein is oxidised to methyl acrylate in high yield using the same protocol....

  3. [The effect of antioxidants on in vivo and in vitro methemoglobin formation in erytrocytes of patients with Parkinson`s disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makletsova, M G; Rikhireva, G T; Poleshuk, V V; Grjakalov, K V; Timerbaeva, S L; Fedorova, T N

    2016-01-01

    Methemoglobin formation was examined in erytrocytes of 16 patients with Parkinson`s disease (PD) (stage 3-4 by the Hoehn and Yahr scale). The patients receiving levodopa-containing drugs (madopar, nakom) were also treated with intramuscular injections of mexidol (daily dose 100 mg/day) for 14 days. Control group included 12 clinically healthy persons. The erythrocyte methemoglobin content was determined by electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) using the EPR signal intensity with g-factor 6.0. The methemoglobin content was significantly higher in erythrocytes of PD patients than in healthy donors. The complex therapy with mexidol normalized the methemoglobin content in erythrocytes of PD patients. Incubation in vitro of erythrocytes of donors and PD patients with acrolein increased the methemoglobin content, while incubation with carnosine normalized the methemoglobin content in erythrocytes of PD patients. Prophylactic (i.e. before acrolein addition) and therapeutic administration of carnosine to the incubation system with acrolein decreased the methemoglobin content to its initial level. Results of this study suggest that inclusion of the antioxidants mexidol and carnosine in the scheme of basic therapy of PD may reduce side effects associated with methemoglobinemia.

  4. A carnosine intervention study in overweight human volunteers: bioavailability and reactive carbonyl species sequestering effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regazzoni, Luca; de Courten, Barbora; Garzon, Davide; Altomare, Alessandra; Marinello, Cristina; Jakubova, Michaela; Vallova, Silvia; Krumpolec, Patrik; Carini, Marina; Ukropec, Jozef; Ukropcova, Barbara; Aldini, Giancarlo

    2016-06-01

    Carnosine is a natural dipeptide able to react with reactive carbonyl species, which have been recently associated with the onset and progression of several human diseases. Herein, we report an intervention study in overweight individuals. Carnosine (2 g/day) was orally administered for twelve weeks in order to evaluate its bioavailability and metabolic fate. Two carnosine adducts were detected in the urine samples of all subjects. Such adducts are generated from a reaction with acrolein, which is one of the most toxic and reactive compounds among reactive carbonyl species. However, neither carnosine nor adducts have been detected in plasma. Urinary excretion of adducts and carnosine showed a positive correlation although a high variability of individual response to carnosine supplementation was observed. Interestingly, treated subjects showed a significant decrease in the percentage of excreted adducts in reduced form, accompanied by a significant increase of the urinary excretion of both carnosine and carnosine-acrolein adducts. Altogether, data suggest that acrolein is entrapped in vivo by carnosine although the response to its supplementation is possibly influenced by individual diversities in terms of carnosine dietary intake, metabolism and basal production of reactive carbonyl species.

  5. [The effect of antioxidants on in vivo and in vitro methemoglobin formation in erytrocytes of patients with Parkinson`s disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makletsova, M G; Rikhireva, G T; Poleshuk, V V; Grjakalov, K V; Timerbaeva, S L; Fedorova, T N

    2016-01-01

    Methemoglobin formation was examined in erytrocytes of 16 patients with Parkinson`s disease (PD) (stage 3-4 by the Hoehn and Yahr scale). The patients receiving levodopa-containing drugs (madopar, nakom) were also treated with intramuscular injections of mexidol (daily dose 100 mg/day) for 14 days. Control group included 12 clinically healthy persons. The erythrocyte methemoglobin content was determined by electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) using the EPR signal intensity with g-factor 6.0. The methemoglobin content was significantly higher in erythrocytes of PD patients than in healthy donors. The complex therapy with mexidol normalized the methemoglobin content in erythrocytes of PD patients. Incubation in vitro of erythrocytes of donors and PD patients with acrolein increased the methemoglobin content, while incubation with carnosine normalized the methemoglobin content in erythrocytes of PD patients. Prophylactic (i.e. before acrolein addition) and therapeutic administration of carnosine to the incubation system with acrolein decreased the methemoglobin content to its initial level. Results of this study suggest that inclusion of the antioxidants mexidol and carnosine in the scheme of basic therapy of PD may reduce side effects associated with methemoglobinemia. PMID:27143379

  6. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation responses to multiple cigarette smoke irritants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Daniel N; Liu, Boyi; Ha, Michael A; Jordt, Sven-Eric; Morris, John B

    2011-12-01

    Menthol, the cooling agent in peppermint, is added to almost all commercially available cigarettes. Menthol stimulates olfactory sensations, and interacts with transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) ion channels in cold-sensitive sensory neurons, and transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), an irritant-sensing channel. It is highly controversial whether menthol in cigarette smoke exerts pharmacological actions affecting smoking behavior. Using plethysmography, we investigated the effects of menthol on the respiratory sensory irritation response in mice elicited by smoke irritants (acrolein, acetic acid, and cyclohexanone). Menthol, at a concentration (16 ppm) lower than in smoke of mentholated cigarettes, immediately abolished the irritation response to acrolein, an agonist of TRPA1, as did eucalyptol (460 ppm), another TRPM8 agonist. Menthol's effects were reversed by a TRPM8 antagonist, AMTB. Menthol's effects were not specific to acrolein, as menthol also attenuated irritation responses to acetic acid, and cyclohexanone, an agonist of the capsaicin receptor, TRPV1. Menthol was efficiently absorbed in the respiratory tract, reaching local concentrations sufficient for activation of sensory TRP channels. These experiments demonstrate that menthol and eucalyptol, through activation of TRPM8, act as potent counterirritants against a broad spectrum of smoke constituents. Through suppression of respiratory irritation, menthol may facilitate smoke inhalation and promote nicotine addiction and smoking-related morbidities. PMID:21903934

  7. Mechanisms of Fatal Cardiotoxicity following High-Dose Cyclophosphamide Therapy and a Method for Its Prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuro Nishikawa

    Full Text Available Observed only after administration of high doses, cardiotoxicity is the dose-limiting effect of cyclophosphamide (CY. We investigated the poorly understood cardiotoxic mechanisms of high-dose CY. A rat cardiac myocardial cell line, H9c2, was exposed to CY metabolized by S9 fraction of rat liver homogenate mixed with co-factors (CYS9. Cytotoxicity was then evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl¬2,5-diphenyl¬2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay, lactate dehydrogenase release, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, and incidence of apoptosis. We also investigated how the myocardial cellular effects of CYS9 were modified by acrolein scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC, antioxidant isorhamnetin (ISO, and CYP inhibitor β-ionone (BIO. Quantifying CY and CY metabolites by means of liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry, we assayed culture supernatants of CYS9 with and without candidate cardioprotectant agents. Assay results for MTT showed that treatment with CY (125-500 μM did not induce cytotoxicity. CYS9, however, exhibited myocardial cytotoxicity when CY concentration was 250 μM or more. After 250 μM of CY was metabolized in S9 mix for 2 h, the concentration of CY was 73.6 ± 8.0 μM, 4-hydroxy-cyclophosphamide (HCY 17.6 ± 4.3, o-carboxyethyl-phosphoramide (CEPM 26.6 ± 5.3 μM, and acrolein 26.7 ± 2.5 μM. Inhibition of CYS9-induced cytotoxicity occurred with NAC, ISO, and BIO. When treated with ISO or BIO, metabolism of CY was significantly inhibited. Pre-treatment with NAC, however, did not inhibit the metabolism of CY: compared to control samples, we observed no difference in HCY, a significant increase of CEPM, and a significant decrease of acrolein. Furthermore, NAC pre-treatment did not affect intracellular amounts of ROS produced by CYS9. Since acrolein seems to be heavily implicated in the onset of cardiotoxicity, any competitive metabolic processing of CY that reduces its transformation to acrolein

  8. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation and elevates blood cotinine in cigarette smoke exposed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Ha

    Full Text Available Addition of menthol to cigarettes may be associated with increased initiation of smoking. The potential mechanisms underlying this association are not known. Menthol, likely due to its effects on cold-sensing peripheral sensory neurons, is known to inhibit the sensation of irritation elicited by respiratory irritants. However, it remains unclear whether menthol modulates cigarette smoke irritancy and nicotine absorption during initial exposures to cigarettes, thereby facilitating smoking initiation. Using plethysmography in a C57Bl/6J mouse model, we examined the effects of L-menthol, the menthol isomer added to cigarettes, on the respiratory sensory irritation response to primary smoke irritants (acrolein and cyclohexanone and smoke of Kentucky reference 2R4 cigarettes. We also studied L-menthol's effect on blood levels of the nicotine metabolite, cotinine, immediately after exposure to cigarette smoke. L-menthol suppressed the irritation response to acrolein with an apparent IC₅₀ of 4 ppm. Suppression was observed even at acrolein levels well above those necessary to produce a maximal response. Cigarette smoke, at exposure levels of 10 mg/m³ or higher, caused an immediate and marked sensory irritation response in mice. This response was significantly suppressed by L-menthol even at smoke concentrations as high as 300 mg/m³. Counterirritation by L-menthol was abolished by treatment with a selective inhibitor of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8, the neuronal cold/menthol receptor. Inclusion of menthol in the cigarette smoke resulted in roughly a 1.5-fold increase in plasma cotinine levels over those observed in mice exposed to smoke without added menthol. These findings document that, L-menthol, through TRPM8, is a strong suppressor of respiratory irritation responses, even during highly noxious exposures to cigarette smoke or smoke irritants, and increases blood cotinine. Therefore, L-menthol, as a cigarette additive, may

  9. Community air monitoring for pesticides. Part 3: using health-based screening levels to evaluate results collected for a year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wofford, Pamela; Segawa, Randy; Schreider, Jay; Federighi, Veda; Neal, Rosemary; Brattesani, Madeline

    2014-03-01

    The CA Department of Pesticide Regulation (CDPR) and the CA Air Resources Board monitored 40 pesticides, including five degradation products, in Parlier, CA, to determine if its residents were exposed to any of these pesticides and, if so, in what amounts. They included 1,3-dichloropropene, acrolein, arsenic, azinphos-methyl, carbon disulfide, chlorpyrifos and its degradation product, chlorthalonil, copper, cypermethrin, diazinon and its degradation product, dichlorvos, dicofol, dimethoate and its degradation product, diuron, endosulfan and its degradation product, S-ethyl dipropylcarbamothioate (EPTC), formaldehyde, malathion and its degradation product, methyl isothiocyanate (MITC), methyl bromide, metolachlor, molinate, norflurazon, oryzalin, oxyfluorfen, permethrin, phosmet, propanil, propargite, simazine, SSS-tributylphosphorotrithioate, sulfur, thiobencarb, trifluralin, and xylene. Monitoring was conducted 3 days per week for a year. Twenty-three pesticides and degradation products were detected. Acrolein, arsenic, carbon disulfide, chlorpyrifos, copper, formaldehyde, methyl bromide, MITC, and sulfur were detected in more than half the samples. Since no regulatory ambient air standards exist for these pesticides, CDPR developed advisory, health-based non-cancer screening levels (SLs) to assess acute, subchronic, and chronic exposures. For carcinogenic pesticides, CDPR assessed risk using cancer potency values. Amongst non-carcinogenic agricultural use pesticides, only diazinon exceeded its SL. For carcinogens, 1,3-dichloropropene concentrations exceeded its cancer potency value. Based on these findings, CDPR has undertaken a more comprehensive evaluation of 1,3-dichloropropene, diazinon, and the closely related chlorpyrifos that was frequently detected. Four chemicals-acrolein, arsenic, carbon disulfide, and formaldehyde-sometimes used as pesticides were detected, although no pesticidal use was reported in the area during this study. Their presence was most

  10. Aldehydes in relation to air pollution sources: A case study around the Beijing Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altemose, Brent; Gong, Jicheng; Zhu, Tong; Hu, Min; Zhang, Liwen; Cheng, Hong; Zhang, Lin; Tong, Jian; Kipen, Howard M.; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Meng, Qingyu; Robson, Mark G.; Zhang, Junfeng

    2015-05-01

    This study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) at a central Beijing site in the summer and early fall of 2008 (from June to October). Aldehydes in polluted atmospheres come from both primary and secondary sources, which limits the control strategies for these reactive compounds. Measurements were made before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics to examine whether the dramatic air pollution control measures implemented during the Olympics had an impact on concentrations of the three aldehydes and their underlying primary and secondary sources. Average concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were 29.3 ± 15.1 μg/m3, 27.1 ± 15.7 μg/m3 and 2.3 ± 1.0 μg/m3, respectively, for the entire period of measurements, all being at the high end of concentration ranges measured in cities around the world in photochemical smog seasons. Formaldehyde and acrolein increased during the pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic Games, followed the changing pattern of temperature, and were significantly correlated with ozone and with a secondary formation factor identified by principal component analysis (PCA). In contrast, acetaldehyde had a reduction in mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period and was significantly correlated with several pollutants emitted from local emission sources (e.g., NO2, CO, and PM2.5). Acetaldehyde was also more strongly associated with primary emission sources including vegetative burning and oil combustion factors identified through the PCA. All three aldehydes were lower during the post-Olympic sampling period compared to the before and during Olympic periods, likely due to seasonal and regional effects. Our findings point to the complexity of source control strategies for secondary pollutants.

  11. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation and elevates blood cotinine in cigarette smoke exposed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Michael A; Smith, Gregory J; Cichocki, Joseph A; Fan, Lu; Liu, Yi-Shiuan; Caceres, Ana I; Jordt, Sven Eric; Morris, John B

    2015-01-01

    Addition of menthol to cigarettes may be associated with increased initiation of smoking. The potential mechanisms underlying this association are not known. Menthol, likely due to its effects on cold-sensing peripheral sensory neurons, is known to inhibit the sensation of irritation elicited by respiratory irritants. However, it remains unclear whether menthol modulates cigarette smoke irritancy and nicotine absorption during initial exposures to cigarettes, thereby facilitating smoking initiation. Using plethysmography in a C57Bl/6J mouse model, we examined the effects of L-menthol, the menthol isomer added to cigarettes, on the respiratory sensory irritation response to primary smoke irritants (acrolein and cyclohexanone) and smoke of Kentucky reference 2R4 cigarettes. We also studied L-menthol's effect on blood levels of the nicotine metabolite, cotinine, immediately after exposure to cigarette smoke. L-menthol suppressed the irritation response to acrolein with an apparent IC₅₀ of 4 ppm. Suppression was observed even at acrolein levels well above those necessary to produce a maximal response. Cigarette smoke, at exposure levels of 10 mg/m³ or higher, caused an immediate and marked sensory irritation response in mice. This response was significantly suppressed by L-menthol even at smoke concentrations as high as 300 mg/m³. Counterirritation by L-menthol was abolished by treatment with a selective inhibitor of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8), the neuronal cold/menthol receptor. Inclusion of menthol in the cigarette smoke resulted in roughly a 1.5-fold increase in plasma cotinine levels over those observed in mice exposed to smoke without added menthol. These findings document that, L-menthol, through TRPM8, is a strong suppressor of respiratory irritation responses, even during highly noxious exposures to cigarette smoke or smoke irritants, and increases blood cotinine. Therefore, L-menthol, as a cigarette additive, may promote smoking

  12. Investigation of the O+allyl addition/elimination reaction pathways from the OCH(2)CHCH(2) radical intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Benjamin L; Lau, Kai-Chung; Butler, Laurie J; Lee, Shih-Huang; Lin, Jim Jr-Min

    2008-08-28

    These experiments study the preparation of and product channels resulting from OCH(2)CHCH(2), a key radical intermediate in the O+allyl bimolecular reaction. The data include velocity map imaging and molecular beam scattering results to probe the photolytic generation of the radical intermediate and the subsequent pathways by which the radicals access the energetically allowed product channels of the bimolecular reaction. The photodissociation of epichlorohydrin at 193.3 nm produces chlorine atoms and c-OCH(2)CHCH(2) radicals; these undergo a facile ring opening to the OCH(2)CHCH(2) radical intermediate. State-selective resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) detection resolves the velocity distributions of ground and spin-orbit excited state chlorine independently, allowing for a more accurate determination of the internal energy distribution of the nascent radicals. We obtain good agreement detecting the velocity distributions of the Cl atoms with REMPI, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization at 13.8 eV, and electron bombardment ionization; all show a bimodal distribution of recoil kinetic energies. The dominant high recoil kinetic energy feature peaks near 33 kcalmol. To elucidate the product channels resulting from the OCH(2)CHCH(2) radical intermediate, the crossed laser-molecular beam experiment uses VUV photoionization and detects the velocity distribution of the possible products. The data identify the three dominant product channels as C(3)H(4)O (acrolein)+H, C(2)H(4)+HCO (formyl radical), and H(2)CO (formaldehyde)+C(2)H(3). A small signal from C(2)H(2)O (ketene) product is also detected. The measured velocity distributions and relative signal intensities at me=27, 28, and 29 at two photoionization energies show that the most exothermic product channel, C(2)H(5)+CO, does not contribute significantly to the product branching. The higher internal energy onset of the acrolein+H product channel is consistent with the relative barriers en route to

  13. The effects of Te on the performance of Mo-V catalysts prepared by hydrothermal synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Chang Jiang; Ling Zeng; Bin Long Yin

    2007-01-01

    Some Mo-V-Te-La catalysts with varied component were prepared by hydrothermal synthesis and dried with microwave method. The component of the catalyst were greatly affected the crystal structure and Raman spectrum. The phase in the catalysts was different when the Mo, V, and Te content varied. When the catalyst containing the same Mo, V content, due to the effect of dopant of Te element (V0.07 Mo0.93)5O14 became the main phase in the catalyst. The catalyst also showed good activity for the reaction of selective oxidation propane to acrolein and acrylic acid.

  14. Teores de compostos orgânicos em cachaças produzidas na região norte fluminense - Rio de Janeiro Organic compounds contents in cachaças produced in the northern Rio de Janeiro State - RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Marelli de Souza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to quantify some organic compounds in "cachaças" (sugar cane spirit. The ethyl alcohol was quantified by densimetry, after distillation. The acetic acid, methyl alcohol, n-propyl alcohol, n-butyl alcohol, isobutyl alcohol, isoamyl alcohol (mixture of 2-methyl-butyl and 3-methyl-butyl, ethyl acetate and acetaldehyde were determined by gas chromatography; and the furfural, 5-hydroxy-methylfurfural and acrolein by high efficiency liquid chromatography. From the 30 samples analyzed, 63.3% showed non-conformity with national legislation regarding at least one of the analyzed components.

  15. Ozone's impact on public health: Contributions from indoor exposures to ozone and products of ozone-initiated chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.

    2006-01-01

    , if any, threshold for ozone's impact on mortality. Additionally, the present study estimates that average daily indoor intakes of ozone oxidation products are roughly one-third to twice the indoor inhalation intake of ozone alone. Some of these oxidation products are known or suspected to adversely...... affect human health (e.g., formaldehyde, acrolein, hydro-peroxides, fine and ultrafine particles). Indirect evidence supports connections between morbidity/mortality and exposures to indoor ozone and its oxidation products. For example, cities with stronger associations between outdoor ozone...

  16. Ring-Opening of the γ-OH-PdG Adduct Promotes Error-Free Bypass by the Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA Polymerase Dpo4

    OpenAIRE

    Shanmugam, Ganesh; Minko, Irina G.; Banerjee, Surajit; Christov, Plamen P.; Kozekov, Ivan D.; Rizzo, Carmelo J.; Lloyd, R. Stephen; Egli, Martin; Michael P. Stone

    2013-01-01

    Acrolein, a mutagenic aldehyde, reacts with deoxyguanosine (dG) to form 3-(2′-deoxy-β-d-erythro-pentofuranosyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-8-hydroxypyrimido[1,2-a] purin-10(3H)-one (γ-OH-PdG). When placed opposite deoxycytosine (dC) in DNA, γ-OH-PdG undergoes ring-opening to the N 2-(3-oxopropyl)-dG. Ring-opening of the adduct has been hypothesized to facilitate nonmutagenic bypass, particularly by DNA polymerases of the Y family. This study examined the bypass of γ-OH-PdG by Sulfolobus solfataricus ...

  17. Isoindolinones as Michael Donors under Phase Transfer Catalysis: Enantioselective Synthesis of Phthalimidines Containing a Tetrasubstituted Carbon Stereocenter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Scorzelli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Readily available chiral ammonium salts derived from cinchona alkaloids have proven to be effective phase transfer catalysts in the asymmetric Michael reaction of 3-substituted isoindolinones. This protocol provides a convenient method for the construction of valuable asymmetric 3,3-disubstituted isoindolinones in high yields and  moderate to good enantioselectivity. Diastereoselectivity was also investigated in the construction of contiguous tertiary and quaternary stereocenters. The use of acrolein as Michael acceptor led to an interesting tricyclic derivative, a pyrroloisoindolinone analogue, via a tandem conjugated addition/cyclization reaction.

  18. Oxidation of propane over substituted Keggin phosphomolybdate salts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T. Mazari; C. Roch. Marchal; S. Hocine; N. Salhi; C. Rabia

    2009-01-01

    Ammonium salts,(NH_4)_6HPMo_(11) MO_(40) (M=Ni,Co,Fe),have been investigated for the oxidation of propane,with molecular oxygen,at temperature ranging between 380 ℃ and 420 ℃ after in-situ pre-treatment performed at two heating rate of 5 or 9 ℃/min. They were characterized by BET method,XRD,~(31)p NMR,UV-Vis and IR techniques. The catalysts were found active in the propane oxidation and selective to propene or acrolein,in particular for samples pre-treated with the heating rate of 9 ℃/min.

  19. Quantification of aldehydes emissions from alternative and renewable aviation fuels using a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hu; Altaher, Mohamed A.; Wilson, Chris W.; Blakey, Simon; Chung, Winson; Rye, Lucas

    2014-02-01

    In this research three renewable aviation fuel blends including two HEFA (Hydrotreated Ester and Fatty Acid) blends and one FAE (Fatty Acids Ethyl Ester) blend with conventional Jet A-1 along with a GTL (Gas To Liquid) fuel have been tested for their aldehydes emissions on a small gas turbine engine. Three strong ozone formation precursors: formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were measured in the exhaust at different operational modes and compared to neat Jet A-1. The aim is to assess the impact of renewable and alternative aviation fuels on aldehydes emissions from aircraft gas turbine engines so as to provide informed knowledge for the future deployment of new fuels in aviation. The results show that formaldehyde was a major aldehyde species emitted with a fraction of around 60% of total measured aldehydes emissions for all fuels. Acrolein was the second major emitted aldehyde species with a fraction of ˜30%. Acetaldehyde emissions were very low for all the fuels and below the detention limit of the instrument. The formaldehyde emissions at cold idle were up to two to threefold higher than that at full power. The fractions of formaldehyde were 6-10% and 20% of total hydrocarbon emissions in ppm at idle and full power respectively and doubled on a g kg-1-fuel basis.

  20. Effect of variable power levels on the yield of total aerosol mass and formation of aldehydes in e-cigarette aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, I G; Kistler, K A; Stewart, E W; Paolantonio, A R

    2016-03-01

    The study objective was to determine the effect of variable power applied to the atomizer of refillable tank based e-cigarette (EC) devices. Five different devices were evaluated, each at four power levels. Aerosol yield results are reported for each set of 25 EC puffs, as mass/puff, and normalized for the power applied to the coil, in mass/watt. The range of aerosol produced on a per puff basis ranged from 1.5 to 28 mg, and, normalized for power applied to the coil, ranged from 0.27 to 1.1 mg/watt. Aerosol samples were also analyzed for the production of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein, as DNPH derivatives, at each power level. When reported on mass basis, three of the devices showed an increase in total aldehyde yield with increasing power applied to the coil, while two of the devices showed the opposite trend. The mass of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein produced per gram of total aerosol produced ranged from 0.01 to 7.3 mg/g, 0.006 to 5.8 mg/g, and aerosols from specific devices, and were compared to estimated exposure from consumption of cigarettes, to occupational and workplace limits, and to previously reported results from other researchers. PMID:26743740

  1. Gas-phase dehydration of glycerol over commercial Pt/γ-Al2O3 catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sergey Danov; Anton Esipovich; Artem Belousov; Anton Rogozhin

    2015-01-01

    Gas-phase dehydration of glycerol to produce acrolein was investigated over commercial catalysts based onγ-Al2O3, viz. A-64, A-56, I-62, AP-10, AP-56, AP-64 and KR-104. To understand the effect of Cl−anions, HCl-impregnated sup-ports have been investigated in the dehydration reaction of glycerol at 375 °C. For comparison, various H-zeolites were also examined. It was found that the glycerol conversion over the solid acid catalysts was strongly dependent on their acidity and surface area. And the relationship between the catalytic activity and the acidity of the catalysts was discussed. The outstanding properties of Pt/γ-Al2O3 catalyst systems for the dehydration of glycerol were revealed. Pt/γ-Al2O3 catalyst (AP-64) showed the highest catalytic activity after 50 h of reaction with an acrolein selectivity of 65%at a conversion of glycerol of 90%. Based on these results, catalysts based onγ-Al2O3 appear to be most promising for gas phase dehydration of glycerol.

  2. Traditional reactive carbonyl scavengers do not prevent the carbonylation of brain proteins induced by acute glutathione depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, J; Bizzozero, O A

    2010-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of reactive carbonyl species (RCS)-trapping agents on the formation of protein carbonyls during depletion of brain glutathione (GSH). To this end, rat brain slices were incubated with the GSH-depletor diethyl maleate in the absence or presence of chemically different RCS scavengers (hydralazine, methoxylamine, aminoguanidine, pyridoxamine, carnosine, taurine and z-histidine hydrazide). Despite their strong reactivity towards the most common RCS, none of the scavengers tested, with the exception of hydralazine, prevented protein carbonylation. These findings suggest that the majority of protein-associated carbonyl groups in this oxidative stress paradigm do not derive from stable lipid peroxidation products like malondialdehyde (MDA), acrolein and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE). This conclusion was confirmed by the observation that the amount of MDA-, acrolein- and 4-HNE-protein adducts does not increase upon GSH depletion. Additional studies revealed that the efficacy of hydralazine at preventing carbonylation was due to its ability to reduce oxidative stress, most likely by inhibiting mitochondrial production of superoxide and/or by scavenging lipid free radicals. PMID:20001647

  3. Design, synthesis, and application of a hydrazide-functionalized isotope-coded affinity tag for the quantification of oxylipid-protein conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bingnan; Stevens, Jan F; Maier, Claudia S

    2007-05-01

    An isotopically coded affinity probe was developed and evaluated for the characterization and quantification of proteins adducted by 2-alkenals derived from lipid peroxidation (LPO) processes. Lipid-derived 2-alkenals, such as acrolein and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), have the ability to react with cysteine, histidine, and lysine residues in proteins, thus causing protein damage and loss of protein function. Such modifications of proteins are difficult to characterize in biological samples by mass spectrometry due to the complexity of protein extracts and the low abundance of adducted proteins. The novel aldehyde-reactive, hydrazide-functionalized, isotope-coded affinity tag (HICAT) described in this study was found effective for the selective isolation, detection, and quantification of Michael-type adducts of 2-alkenals with proteins using a combination of affinity isolation, nanoLC, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS/MS). The chemical and mass spectrometric properties of the new probe are demonstrated on a model protein treated with HNE. The efficacy of HICAT for the analysis of complex samples was tested using preparations of mitochondrial proteins that were modified in vitro with HNE. The potential of the HICAT strategy for the identification, characterization, and quantification of in vivo oxylipid-protein conjugates is demonstrated on cardiac mitochondrial protein preparations, in which, for example, the ADP/ATP translocase 1 was found adducted to the 2-alkenals, acrolein and 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal, at Cys-256.

  4. Toxic hazards research unit annual report 1993. Final report, 1 October 1992-30 September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodd, D.E.; Smith, P.M.

    1994-10-01

    This report presents a review of the activities of the Toxic Hazards Research Unit (THRU) for the period 0 1 October 1992 through 30 September 1993. The THRU conducts descriptive, mechanistic, and predictive toxicology research and toxicological risk assessments to provide data to predict health hazards and to assess health risks associated with human exposure to chemicals and materials associated with military systems and operational environments. The report includes summaries of ongoing or completed research activities for the individual toxicology research requirements of the U.S. Air Force, Army, and Navy; highlights of the research support elements and conference activities of the THRU; and appendices that describe the THRU organization and its publications and presentations. The majority of the report describes the progress attained in toxicological studies on a wide variety of chemicals and materials to include tetrachloroethylene, iodotrifluoromethane, ammonium dinitramide, HCFC- 123, trichloroethylene, toluene, liquid propellant formulation 1846, vinyl chloride and trichloroethylene mixture, methylene chloride, MIL-H-19457C hydraulic fluid, acrolein and acrolein/Syloid 244 mixture, 1 ,3,3-trinitroazetidine, and 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene. The THRU also conducted research on lactational transfer and dermal absorption of chemicals, on toxicological risk assessment methods, and evaluated statistical methods for assessing military populations as a subgroup of the public at-large.

  5. Determination of aliphatic aldehydes by liquid chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Innocenzo G; Contursi, Michela

    2005-01-21

    An electrochemical detection method for short-chain saturated and unsaturated aliphatic aldehydes separated by liquid chromatography in moderately acidic medium is described. A triple-step waveform of the potentials applied to the polycrystalline platinum electrode, is proposed for sensitive detection of aliphatic aldehydes in flowing streams avoiding tedious pre- or post-column derivatization and/or cleanup procedures. The influences of the perchloric acid concentration and dissolved oxygen in the mobile phase, on the amperometric and chromatographic performance were evaluated and considered in terms of sensitivity and selectivity. Under the optimised experimental conditions (i.e., deoxygenated 50mM HClO4) the proposed analytical method allowed detection limits between 0.2 microM for acrolein and 2.5 microM for valeraldehyde. Regression analysis of calibration data indicates that responses for all investigated compounds are linear over about 2 orders of magnitude above the LOD, with correlation coefficients >0.990. The method was successfully applied to the determination of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde and acrolein in real matrices such as spiked water and red wines with good mean recoveries (81-97%). PMID:15700464

  6. Potential effects of using biodiesel in road-traffic on air quality over the Porto urban area, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Isabel; Monteiro, Alexandra; Lopes, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    This work aims to assess the impacts of biodiesel blends use in road-traffic on air quality. In this frame, the air quality numerical modelling system WRF-EURAD was applied over Portugal and the Porto urban area, forced by two emission scenarios (including CO, NOx, PM10, PM2.5, NMVOC, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein and benzene): a reference scenario, without biofuels, and a scenario where a B20 fuel (20% biodiesel/80% diesel, v/v) is used by the diesel vehicle fleet. Regarding carbonyl compounds, emission scenarios pointed out that B20 fuel can promote an increase of 20% on formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein emissions, leading to increments on equivalent ozone production. On the other hand, through the air quality modelling exercise, it was verified that the use of B20 helps in controlling air pollution, improving CO and NO2 concentrations in urban airshed in about 20% and 10%, respectively, taking into account a regional simulation grid. However, according to the urban scale simulation, NO2 levels can increase in about 1%, due to the use of B20, over the Porto urban area. For the remaining studied pollutants, namely PM10 and PM2.5, mean concentrations will be reduced all over the territory, however in a negligible amount of <1%.

  7. Effects of Smoking Cessation on Eight Urinary Tobacco Carcinogen and Toxicant Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmella, Steven G.; Chen, Menglan; Han, Shaomei; Briggs, Anna; Jensen, Joni; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Hecht, Stephen S.

    2009-01-01

    We determined the persistence at various times (3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42 and 56 days) of eight tobacco smoke carcinogen and toxicant biomarkers in the urine of 17 smokers who stopped smoking. The biomarkers were 1-hydroxy-2-(N-acetylcysteinyl)-3-butene (1) and 1-(N-acetylcysteinyl)-2-hydroxy-3-butene (2) [collectively called MHBMA for monohydroxybutyl mercapturic acid] and 1,2-dihydroxy-4-(N-acetylcysteinyl)butane (3) [DHBMA for dihydroxybutyl mercapturic acid], metabolites of 1,3-butadiene; 1-(N-acetylcysteinyl)-propan-3-ol (4, HPMA for 3-hydroxypropyl mercapturic acid), a metabolite of acrolein; 2-(N-acetylcysteinyl)butan-4-ol (5, HBMA for 4-hydroxybut-2-yl mercapturic acid), a metabolite of crotonaldehyde; (N-acetylcysteinyl)benzene (6, SPMA for S-phenyl mercapturic acid), a metabolite of benzene; (N-acetylcysteinyl)ethanol (7, HEMA for 2-hydroxyethyl mercapturic acid), a metabolite of ethylene oxide; 1-hydroxypyrene (8) and its glucuronides (1-HOP), metabolites of pyrene; and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (9) and its glucuronides (total NNAL), a biomarker of exposure to 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). These biomarkers represent some of the major carcinogens and toxicants in cigarette smoke: 1,3-butadiene, acrolein, crotonaldehyde, benzene, ethylene oxide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and NNK. With the exception of DHBMA, levels of which did not change after cessation of smoking, all other biomarkers decreased significantly after 3 days of cessation (P<0.001). The decreases in MHBMA, HPMA, HBMA, SPMA, and HEMA were rapid, nearly reaching their ultimate levels (81 – 91% reduction) after 3 days. The decrease in total NNAL was gradual, reaching 92% after 42 days, while reduction in 1-HOP was variable among subjects to about 50% of baseline. Since DHBMA did not change upon smoking cessation, there appear to be sources of this metabolite other than 1,3-butadiene. The results of this study demonstrate that the tobacco

  8. Air pollution source apportionment before, during, and after the 2008 Beijing Olympics and association of sources to aldehydes and biomarkers of blood coagulation, pulmonary and systemic inflammation, and oxidative stress in healthy young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altemose, Brent A.

    Based on principal component analysis (PCA) of air pollution data collected during the Summer Olympic Games held in Beijing, China during 2008, the five source types of air pollution identified -- natural soil/road dust, vehicle and industrial combustion, vegetative burning, oil combustion, and secondary formation, were all distinctly lower during the Olympics. This was particularly true for vehicle and industrial combustion and oil combustion, and during the main games period between the opening and closing ceremonies. The reduction in secondary formation was reflective of a reduction in nitrogen oxides, but this also contributed to increased ozone concentrations during the Olympic period. Among three toxic aldehydes measured in Beijing during the same time period, only acetaldehyde had a reduction in mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period. Accordingly, acetaldehyde was significantly correlated with primary emission sources including vegetative burning and oil combustion, and with several pollutants emitted mainly from primary sources. In contrast, formaldehyde and acrolein increased during the Olympic air pollution control period; accordingly both were significantly correlated with ozone and with the secondary formation source type. These findings indicate primary sources may dominate for acetaldehyde while secondary sources may dominate for formaldehyde and acrolein. Biomarkers for pulmonary inflammation (exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH, exhaled nitric oxide, and EBC nitrite) and hemostasis and blood coagulation (vWF and sCD62p) were most consistently associated with vehicle and industrial combustion, oil combustion, and vegetative burning. The systemic inflammation biomarker 8-OHdG was most consistently associated with vehicle and industrial combustion. In contrast, the associations between the biomarkers and the aldehydes were generally not significant or in the hypothesized direction, although

  9. Effects of low concentration biodiesel blends application on modern passenger cars. Part 2: impact on carbonyl compound emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaras, Georgios; Karavalakis, Georgios; Kousoulidou, Marina; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Bakeas, Evangelos; Stournas, Stamoulis; Samaras, Zissis

    2010-07-01

    Today in most European member states diesel contains up to 5% vol biodiesel. Since blending is expected to increase to 10% vol, the question arises, how this higher mixing ratio will affect tailpipe emissions particularly those linked to adverse health effects. This paper focuses on the impact of biodiesel on carbonyl compound emissions, attempting also to identify possible relationship between biodiesel feedstock and emissions. The blends were produced from five different feedstocks, commonly used in Europe. Measurements were conducted on a Euro 3 common-rail passenger car over various driving cycles. Results indicate that generally the use of biodiesel at low concentrations has a minor effect on carbonyl compound emissions. However, certain biodiesels resulted in significant increases while others led to decreases. Biodiesels associated with increases were those derived from rapeseed oil (approx. 200%) and palm oil (approx. 180%), with the highest average increases observed at formaldehyde and acroleine/acetone.

  10. Enhanced performance of the catalytic conversion of allyl alcohol to 3-hydroxypropionic acid using bimetallic gold catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falletta, Ermelinda; Della Pina, Cristina; Rossi, Michele; He, Qian; Kiely, Christopher J; Hutchings, Graham J

    2011-01-01

    One of the strategic building blocks in organic synthesis is 3-hydroxypropionic acid, which is particularly important for the manufacture of high performance polymers. However, to date, despite many attempts using both biological and chemical routes, no large scale effective process for manufacturing 3-hydroxypropionic acid has been developed. One potentially useful starting point is from allyl alcohol, as this can be obtained in principle from the dehydration of glycerol, thereby presenting a bio-renewable green pathway to this important building block. The catalytic transformation of allyl alcohol to 3-hydroxypropionic acid presents interesting challenges in catalyst design, particularly with respect to the control of selectivity among the products that can be expected, as acrylic acid, acrolein and glyceric acid can also be formed. In this paper, we present a novel eco-sustainable catalytic pathway leading to 3-hydroxypropionic acid, which highlights the outstanding potential of gold-based and bimetallic catalysts in the aerobic oxidation of allyl alcohol. PMID:22455056

  11. Active catalytic sites in the ammoxidation of propane and propene over V-Sb-O catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, S.A.; Zanthoff, H.W. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Chemie

    1998-12-31

    The ammoxidation of propane over VSb{sub y}O{sub x} catalysts (y=1, 2, 5) was investigated with respect to the role of different oxygen species in the selective and non selective reaction steps using transient experiments in the Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP) reactor. Only lattice oxygen is involved in the oxidation reactions. Using isotopic labelled oxygen it is shown that two different active sites exist on the surface. On site A, which can be reoxidized faster by gas phase oxygen compared to site B, mainly CO is formed. On site B CO{sub 2} and acrolein as well as NO and N{sub 2}O in the presence of ammonia in the feed gas are formed and reoxidation mainly occurs with bulk lattice oxygen. (orig.)

  12. Simplified heavy metal staining techniques demonstrated with Fast Plant leaf tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HARRISJOSEPHB; THOMASG.GUILLIAMS; 等

    1992-01-01

    Fast Plant (Brassica rapa,Cruciferae)leaf tissue fixed in glutaradehyde-acrolein and post-fixed in osmium,was examined for response to several easilyprepared heavy metal stains.Lead and uranium,separately and in combination,gave typical results across the spectrum of cell orgeanelles.As s single stain following osmium,bismuth produced images seemingly equivalent to lead and uranium.Phosphotungstic acid produced very good membrane delineation but produced a washed-out background image similar to that from lead staining .Carbohydrate compounds were especially responsive to ruthenium;the cytoplasm and the matrix of all organelles were also stained very well.The procedures were no more demanding than traditional staining methods and may be easily used in research and teaching .Fast Plant materials are a reliable,quick nand easy source of living material.

  13. Oxidative dehydration of glycerol to acrylic acid over vanadium-impregnated zeolite beta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oxidative dehydration of glycerol to acrylic acid was studied over vanadium-impregnated zeolite Beta. Catalysts were prepared by wet impregnation of ammonium metavanadate over ammonium-exchanged zeolite Beta, followed by air calcination at 823 K. Impregnation reduced the specific surface area, but did not significantly affected the acidity (Bronsted and Lewis) of the zeolites. The catalytic evaluation was carried out in a fixed bed flow reactor using air as the carrier and injecting glycerol by means of a syringe pump. Acrolein was the main product, with acetaldehyde and hydroxy-acetone (acetol) being also formed. Acrylic acid was formed with approximately 25% selectivity at 548 K over the impregnated zeolites. The result can be explained by XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) measurements, which indicated a good dispersion of the vanadium inside the pores. (author)

  14. Antiviral activity of oxidized polyamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachrach, U

    2007-08-01

    Polyamines, oxidized by serum amine oxidase, yield aminoaldehydes and hydrogen peroxide. Acrolein may be formed from the aminoaldehydes by a spontaneous beta-elimination process. These oxidation products "oxidized polyamines" inhibit bacterial growth and exhibit anticancer activity. The antimicrobial activity of oxidized polyamines is not limited to bacteria; and the inactivation of bacterial viruses, plant viruses and animal viruses, was also reported. Bacteriophages of the T-odd series are permeable and were inactivated by oxidized polyamines. The inactive phages absorb to their bacterial host and injected their DNA, which formed a stable inactive complex with the aminoaldehydes. Aminoaldehydes, synthesized chemically, also inactivated viruses. The growth of the plant viruses: Tobacco mosaic virus, Potato virus X and Alfalfa mosaic virus was also inhibited by oxidized polyamines. The animal viruses, which were inactivated by oxidized polyamines included Myxoviruses (influenza and Newcastle disease viruses), West Nile, vaccinia and Sindbis viruses. These findings may have practical implications. PMID:17429570

  15. Determination of toxic material penetrations for wildland respirator filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foote, K.L.

    1994-05-01

    Thousands of wildland firefighters are exposed to high levels of toxic materials every year. Carbon monoxide, formaldehyde and acrolein gases, along with high particulate concentrations, are the major toxics encountered. Currently, the only respiratory protection wildland firefighters use is a bandanna over the mouth and nose. In this study, a modem activated carbon cartridge with an electrostatic prefilter was compared to a typical bandanna for its ability to filter wildland smoke toxics such as formaldehyde and particulates. The results of the tests were disappointing; neither filter performed very well. The activated carbon cartridge and prefilter efficiently collected formaldehyde gas for up to 60 minutes; however, it only collected 85 percent of the challenge particulate. ]Me bandanna, as expected, was only partially effective at collecting smoke particulate and filtered no toxic gases.

  16. A Review of Acetol: Application and Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd H. Mohamad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Acetol is used as organic intermediates because it contains both hydroxyl and carbonyl functional groups and mainly use to produce polyols and acrolein. Besides, it also widely uses as reduced dyes and skin tanning agent. The commercially used acetol is made from petroleum-based that leads to high cost of production. Approach: This review highlights applications of acetol and established methods and factors affecting acetol selectivity. Global market of acetol and its contribution in Malaysia are also surveyed. Results: Multiple ways which are through dehydration of glycerol or dehydrogenation of polyols and sugar alcohols can be applied to produce acetol. Conclusion: The approach using glycerol as feedstock since its economic viable in the presence of metal supported acidic catalyst is the very promising and reliable because its high conversion and selectivity. However, the production under optimum conditions still remained as an open challenge to all researchers.

  17. Oxidative dehydration of glycerol to acrylic acid over vanadium-impregnated zeolite beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestana, Carolina F.M.; Guerra, Antonio C.O.; Turci, Cassia C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Ferreira, Glaucio B. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Mota, Claudio J.A., E-mail: cmota@iq.ufrj.br [INCT Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-01-15

    The oxidative dehydration of glycerol to acrylic acid was studied over vanadium-impregnated zeolite Beta. Catalysts were prepared by wet impregnation of ammonium metavanadate over ammonium-exchanged zeolite Beta, followed by air calcination at 823 K. Impregnation reduced the specific surface area, but did not significantly affected the acidity (Bronsted and Lewis) of the zeolites. The catalytic evaluation was carried out in a fixed bed flow reactor using air as the carrier and injecting glycerol by means of a syringe pump. Acrolein was the main product, with acetaldehyde and hydroxy-acetone (acetol) being also formed. Acrylic acid was formed with approximately 25% selectivity at 548 K over the impregnated zeolites. The result can be explained by XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) measurements, which indicated a good dispersion of the vanadium inside the pores. (author)

  18. Catalytic oxidative conversion of alkanes to olefines and oxygenates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baerns, M. [Institut fuer Angewandte Chemie Berlin-Adlershof e.V., Berlin (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    All of the direct reaction schemes described and the corresponding process schemes are still in an exploratory state. Ethylene by oxidative coupling of methane could become competitive if process schemes are developed with significantly less expenditures for separation of the product from unconverted feed. No encouragement for formaldehyde from methane can be presently derived from the existing knowledge. Liquid-phase oxidation of methane to methanol appears to be attractive but no final judgement is possible at present. Oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylene and propane look promising although further catalyst improvement is required. Acetic acid from ethane and acrylonitrile from propane have a certain potential as an alternative to present technology. The outlook for acrolein and acrylic acid from propane is less favourable; new concepts for catalyst design are necessary. (orig.)

  19. Structures and spectra of complexes of tetra-tetrazole macrocycle with organic contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Yifei; Du, Jingshan; Xu, Junbo; Teng, Qiwen; Wu, Shi

    2015-06-01

    The binding affinities of the tetra-tetrazole macrocycle to organic contaminants were studied using density function theory (DFT) at B3LYP/6-31G( d, p) level after the basis set superior error (BSSE). The host molecule shows the binding affinity to the guest molecules owing to the formation of the hydrogen bonds. Based on the B3LYP/6-31G( d) optimized geometries, the electronic spectra of the complexes were calculated using INDO/CIS method. The first absorption bands in the electronic spectra of most of the complexes, compared with that of the host, are red-shifted. The chemical shifts of the carbon atoms with sp 3 hybridization in the host, calculated at B3LYP/6-31G( d) level, are basically shifted upwards. The complex formed by the host and acrolein exhibits the aromaticity although the host shows the anti-aromaticity.

  20. Determination of carbonyl compounds in beer by derivatisation and headspace solid-phase microextraction in combination with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saison, Daan; De Schutter, David P; Delvaux, Filip; Delvaux, Freddy R

    2009-06-26

    Headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry was applied for quantification of 41 chemically diverse carbonyl compounds in beer. Therefore, in-solution derivatisation with o-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine (PFBHA) combined with SPME was optimised for fibre selection, PFBHA concentration, extraction temperature and time and ionic strength. Afterwards, the method was calibrated and validated successfully and extraction efficiency was compared to sampling with on-fibre derivatisation. In-solution derivatisation enabled the detection of several compounds that were poorly extracted with on-fibre derivatisation such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, acrolein, hydroxyacetone, acetoin, glyoxal and methylglyoxal. Others, especially (E)-2-nonenal, were extracted better with on-fibre derivatisation. PMID:19450805

  1. Indoor air-assessment: Indoor concentrations of environmental carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the report, indoor concentration data are presented for the following general categories of air pollutants: radon-222, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), asbestos, gas phase organic compounds, formaldehyde, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), pesticides, and inorganic compounds. These pollutants are either known or suspect carcinogens (i.e., radon-222, asbestos) or more complex mixtures or classes of compounds which contain known or suspect carcinogens. Concentration data for individual carcinogenic compounds in complex mixtures are usually far from complete. The data presented for complex mixtures often include compounds which are not carcinogenic or for which data are insufficient to evaluate carcinogenicity. Their inclusion is justified, however, by the possibility that further work may show them to be carcinogens, cocarcinogens, initiators or promotors, or that they may be employed as markers (e.g., nicotine, acrolein) for the estimation of exposure to complex mixtures

  2. Impacts of NMVOC emissions on human health in European countries for 2000-2010: Use of sector-specific substance profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurent, Alexis; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2014-01-01

    assess the damages at national level and thus define adequate air pollution abatement policies, substance breakdowns are needed. However, these are not readily available as total NMVOC emissions are only reported at sector level. In this study, we developed a reproducible methodology that combines...... for 31 European countries within the period 2000e2010. Using life cycle impact assessment methods for POF and human toxicity, impacts on human health were quantified. The results indicated that a strong linear correlation exists between POF impacts and the total NMVOC emissions, suggesting that air...... impacts (i) are caused by few substances, such as formaldehyde, acrolein and furan, (ii) primarily stem from transportation sectors and from residential sources, and (iii) are found not to correlate with total NMVOC emissions. Our findings therefore suggest the need for supporting air pollution abatement...

  3. Cataluminescence sensor for gaseous acetic acid using a thin film of In2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a cataluminescence sensor for the determination of gaseous acetic acid. It is based on a 60-nm thick sol-gel film of In2O3 on a ceramic support. SEM, XPS and surface profiling were applied for its characterization. It is found that aluminum ions of the ceramic substrate penetrate into the film and produce a synergetic catalytic effect. The sensor displays high sensitivity and specificity for acetic acid, a low detection limit, a wide linear range and a fast response. No (or only very low) interference was observed by formic acid, ammonia, acrolein, benzene, formaldehyde, ethanol, and acetaldehyde. The sensor was successfully applied to the determination of acetic acid in spiked air samples. We also discuss a conceivable mechanism (based on the reaction products) for the cataluminescence resulting from the oxidation reaction on the surface of the sensor film. (author)

  4. EPHECT II: Exposure assessment to household consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitroulopoulou, C; Trantallidi, M; Carrer, P; Efthimiou, G C; Bartzis, J G

    2015-12-01

    Within the framework of the EPHECT project (Emissions, exposure patterns and health effects of consumer products in the EU), irritative and respiratory health effects were assessed in relation to acute and long-term exposure to key and emerging indoor air pollutants emitted during household use of selected consumer products. In this context, inhalation exposure assessment was carried out for six selected 'target' compounds (acrolein, formaldehyde, benzene, naphthalene, d-limonene and α-pinene). This paper presents the methodology and the outcomes from the micro-environmental modelling of the 'target' pollutants following single or multiple use of selected consumer products and the subsequent exposure assessment. The results indicate that emissions from consumer products of benzene and α-pinene were not considered to contribute significantly to the EU indoor background levels, in contrast to some cases of formaldehyde and d-limonene emissions in Eastern Europe (mainly from cleaning products). The group of housekeepers in East Europe appears to experience the highest exposures to acrolein, formaldehyde and benzene, followed by the group of the retired people in North, who experiences the highest exposures to naphthalene and α-pinene. High exposure may be attributed to the scenarios developed within this project, which follow a 'most-representative worst-case scenario' strategy for exposure and health risk assessment. Despite the above limitations, this is the first comprehensive study that provides exposure estimates for 8 population groups across Europe exposed to 6 priority pollutants, as a result of the use of 15 consumer product classes in households, while accounting for regional differences in uses, use scenarios and ventilation conditions of each region. PMID:26173853

  5. Assessment of Exposure to VOCs among Pregnant Women in the National Children’s Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Elizabeth Barksdale; Viet, Susan M.; Wright, David J.; Merrill, Lori S.; Alwis, K. Udeni; Blount, Benjamin C.; Mortensen, Mary E.; Moye, John; Dellarco, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies can measure exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using environmental samples, biomarkers, questionnaires, or observations. These different exposure assessment approaches each have advantages and disadvantages; thus, evaluating relationships is an important consideration. In the National Children’s Vanguard Study from 2009 to 2010, participants completed questionnaires and data collectors observed VOC exposure sources and collected urine samples from 488 third trimester pregnant women at in-person study visits. From urine, we simultaneously quantified 28 VOC metabolites of exposure to acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, benzene, 1-bromopropane, 1,3-butadiene, carbon disulfide, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, N,N-dimethylformamide, ethylbenzene, ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, styrene, tetrachloroethylene, toluene, trichloroethylene, vinyl chloride, and xylene exposures using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI/MSMS) method. Urinary thiocyanate was measured using an ion chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method (IC-ESI/MSMS). We modeled the relationship between urinary VOC metabolite concentrations and sources of VOC exposure. Sources of exposure were assessed by participant report via questionnaire (use of air fresheners, aerosols, paint or varnish, organic solvents, and passive/active smoking) and by observations by a trained data collector (presence of scented products in homes). We found several significant (p < 0.01) relationships between the urinary metabolites of VOCs and sources of VOC exposure. Smoking was positively associated with metabolites of the tobacco constituents acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, ethylene oxide, N,N-dimethylformamide, propylene oxide, styrene, and xylene. Study location was negatively associated with the toluene metabolite N

  6. 静态顶空气相色谱法对土壤中乙醛等物质分析及研究%Analysis and Research of the Substances in Soils Such as Acetaldehyde by Static Headspace-Gas Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭艳

    2015-01-01

    In this research, static headspace technology is used for preliminary treatment of soils and a detection and analysis method of determination of acetaldehyde, acrolein, acrylonitrile and pyridine in soils is set up by static headspace–gas chromatography. Under a certain condition of static headspace-gas chromatography, time and temperature for static headspace is optimized and detection limits for determination of acetaldehyde, acrolein, acrylonitrile, and pyridine in soils by static headspace–gas chromatography are identified, with satisfactory separation efect, linear regression equation, precision and accuracy achieved. The results indicate that analysis of the target compounds in soils by headspace-gas chromatography can reduce the loss of the organic matter in soils to be determined and improve sensitivity and accuracy of the experimentalanalysis.%研究用静态顶空技术处理土壤,从而建立了静态顶空-气相色谱(GC-FID)测定土壤中的乙醛、丙烯醛、丙烯腈和吡啶的检测分析方法。在一定的静态顶空和气相色谱条件下,进行了顶空的时间和温度优化,确定了静态顶空气相色谱法测定土壤中乙醛、丙烯醛、丙烯腈和吡啶方法的检出限,并取得了满意的分离效果、线性回归方程、精密度和准确度。结果表明:用顶空气相色谱法处理土壤样品,可以减少土壤中待测有机物的损失,提高实验分析的灵敏度和准确度。

  7. Smoke impacts from agricultural burning in a rural Brazilian town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, T E; Ottmar, R D; Castilla, C

    2001-03-01

    Agricultural and silvicultural biomass burning is practiced in many undeveloped portions of the Amazon basin. In Rond nia, Brazil, such burning is restricted to a brief period in the dry season of August and September to minimize the duration of air quality impacts and to attempt to control escaped fires. During this period, much of the region and the communities within it experience significant exposure to smoke from agricultural and forest fires. In cooperation with Brazilian scientists of the University of Brasilia, the Brazilian Organization for Agricultural Research (EMBRAPA), and the Alternative to Slash and Burn Program coordinated by the International Center for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF), ambient air quality was measured in Theobroma, a small town in Rond nia, during one week of the open burning period of 1995 to supplement available air quality data and to foster public awareness of the impacts of widespread fires. Personal sampling equipment was used to measure ambient levels of formaldehyde (HCHO), acrolein, CO, benzene, and respirable PM in outdoor air. The data obtained were compared with established Brazilian and U.S. ambient air quality guidelines. Ambient levels of respirable PM averaged 191 microg/m3, HCHO averaged 12.8 ppb, CO averaged 4.2 ppm, and benzene averaged 3.2 ppb. Almost all acrolein samples were less than the detection limit of 1 ppb. The results showed that the public can be exposed to relatively high levels of pollutants under the prescribed burning smoke management strategy of a two- to three-week prescription burning period, although this is an improvement over past years when burning was unregulated and continued through most of the dry season. The results also demonstrate the feasibility of using personal exposure monitoring equipment for low-cost surveys of ambient air quality in polluted regions.

  8. Comparison of Carbonyls and BTEX Emissions from a Light Duty Vehicle Fuelled with Gasoline and Ethanol-Gasoline Blend, and Operated without 3-Way Catalytic Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Naeem Shah

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the comparison of unregulated emissions such as carbonyls and BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethyl Benzene, and Xylenes species emanated from a light duty SI (Spark Ignition vehicle E-0 (fuelled on gasoline and E-10 (ethanol-gasoline blend. Meanwhile, the ozone forming potential of these pollutants based on their ozone SR (Specific Reactivity has also been addressed in this study. The experiments were performed on transient as well as steady-state modes in accordance with the standard protocols recommended for light duty vehicle emissions. Carbonyls and BTEX were analyzed by HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography with UV detector and GC/MS (Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy, respectively. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were the predominant components of the carbonyls for E-0 and E-10, respectively. During transient mode, formaldehyde, acrolein + acetone, and tolualdehyde pollutants were decreased but, acetaldehyde emissions increased with E-10 as compared to E-0. The BTEX emissions were also decreased with E-10, relative to E-0. During the steady-state modes, formaldehyde, acrolein + acetone and propionaldehyde were lower, aromatic aldehydes were absent, but acetaldehyde pollutants were higher with E-10 compared to E-0. The BTEX emissions were decreased at medium and higher speed modes however, increased at lower speed mode with E-10 as compared to E-0. Total BTEX emissions were maximal at lower speed mode but, least at medium speed mode for both the fuels. SR of the pollutants was higher over transient cycle of operation, compared with steady-state mode. Relative to E-0, E-10 displayed lower SR during both transient as well as steady-state mode.

  9. Emissions of aldehydes and ketones from a two-stroke engine using ethanol and ethanol-blended gasoline as fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Roger; Nilsson, Calle; Andersson, Barbro

    2002-04-15

    Besides aliphatic gasoline, ethanol-blended gasoline intended for use in small utility engines was recently introduced on the Swedish market. For small utility engines, little data is available showing the effects of these fuels on exhaust emissions, especially concerning aldehydes and ketones (carbonyls). The objective of the present investigation was to study carbonyl emissions and regulated emissions from a two-stroke chain saw engine using ethanol, gasoline, and ethanol-blended gasoline as fuel (0%, 15%, 50%, 85%, and 100% ethanol). The effects of the ethanol-blending level and mechanical changes of the relative air/fuel ratio, lambda, on exhaust emissions was investigated, both for aliphatic and regular gasoline. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and aromatic aldehydes were the most abundant carbonyls in the exhaust. Acetaldehyde dominated for all ethanol-blended fuels (1.2-12 g/kWh, depending on the fuel and lambda), and formaldehyde dominated for gasoline (0.74-2.3 g/kWh, depending on the type of gasoline and lambda). The main effects of ethanol blending were increased acetaldehyde emissions (30-44 times for pure ethanol), reduced emissions of all other carbonyls exceptformaldehyde and acrolein (which showed a more complex relation to the ethanol content), reduced carbon monoxide (CO) and ntirogen oxide (NO) emissions, and increased hydrocarbon (HC) and nitrogen dixodie (NO2) emissions. The main effects of increasing lambda were increased emissions of carbonyls and nitrogen oxides (NOx) and reduced CO and HC emissions. When the two types of gasoline are considered, benzaldehyde and tolualdehyde could be directly related to the gasoline content of aromatics or olefins, but also acrolein, propanal, crotonaldehyde, and methyl ethyl ketone mainly originated from aromatics or olefins, while the main source for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, methacrolein, and butanal was saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons.

  10. Assessment of Exposure to VOCs among Pregnant Women in the National Children's Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Elizabeth Barksdale; Viet, Susan M; Wright, David J; Merrill, Lori S; Alwis, K Udeni; Blount, Benjamin C; Mortensen, Mary E; Moye, John; Dellarco, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Epidemiologic studies can measure exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using environmental samples, biomarkers, questionnaires, or observations. These different exposure assessment approaches each have advantages and disadvantages; thus, evaluating relationships is an important consideration. In the National Children's Vanguard Study from 2009 to 2010, participants completed questionnaires and data collectors observed VOC exposure sources and collected urine samples from 488 third trimester pregnant women at in-person study visits. From urine, we simultaneously quantified 28 VOC metabolites of exposure to acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, benzene, 1-bromopropane, 1,3-butadiene, carbon disulfide, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, N,N-dimethylformamide, ethylbenzene, ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, styrene, tetrachloroethylene, toluene, trichloroethylene, vinyl chloride, and xylene exposures using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI/MSMS) method. Urinary thiocyanate was measured using an ion chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method (IC-ESI/MSMS). We modeled the relationship between urinary VOC metabolite concentrations and sources of VOC exposure. Sources of exposure were assessed by participant report via questionnaire (use of air fresheners, aerosols, paint or varnish, organic solvents, and passive/active smoking) and by observations by a trained data collector (presence of scented products in homes). We found several significant (p Smoking was positively associated with metabolites of the tobacco constituents acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, ethylene oxide, N,N-dimethylformamide, propylene oxide, styrene, and xylene. Study location was negatively associated with the toluene metabolite N-acetyl-S-(benzyl)-L-cysteine (BMA), and paint use was positively associated with the xylene metabolites

  11. Assessment of Exposure to VOCs among Pregnant Women in the National Children’s Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Barksdale Boyle

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies can measure exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs using environmental samples, biomarkers, questionnaires, or observations. These different exposure assessment approaches each have advantages and disadvantages; thus, evaluating relationships is an important consideration. In the National Children’s Vanguard Study from 2009 to 2010, participants completed questionnaires and data collectors observed VOC exposure sources and collected urine samples from 488 third trimester pregnant women at in-person study visits. From urine, we simultaneously quantified 28 VOC metabolites of exposure to acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, benzene, 1-bromopropane, 1,3-butadiene, carbon disulfide, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, N,N-dimethylformamide, ethylbenzene, ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, styrene, tetrachloroethylene, toluene, trichloroethylene, vinyl chloride, and xylene exposures using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI/MSMS method. Urinary thiocyanate was measured using an ion chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method (IC-ESI/MSMS. We modeled the relationship between urinary VOC metabolite concentrations and sources of VOC exposure. Sources of exposure were assessed by participant report via questionnaire (use of air fresheners, aerosols, paint or varnish, organic solvents, and passive/active smoking and by observations by a trained data collector (presence of scented products in homes. We found several significant (p < 0.01 relationships between the urinary metabolites of VOCs and sources of VOC exposure. Smoking was positively associated with metabolites of the tobacco constituents acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, ethylene oxide, N,N-dimethylformamide, propylene oxide, styrene, and xylene. Study location was negatively associated with the toluene metabolite

  12. Carbonyl compound emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with diesel fuel and ethanol-diesel blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chonglin; Zhao, Zhuang; Lv, Gang; Song, Jinou; Liu, Lidong; Zhao, Ruifen

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the carbonyl emissions from a direct injection heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with pure diesel fuel (DF) and blended fuel containing 15% by volume of ethanol (E/DF). The tests have been conducted under steady-state operating conditions at 1200, 1800, 2600 rpm and idle speed. The experimental results show that acetaldehyde is the most predominant carbonyl, followed by formaldehyde, acrolein, acetone, propionaldehyde and crotonaldehyde, produced from both fuels. The emission factors of total carbonyls vary in the range 13.8-295.9 mg(kWh)(-1) for DF and 17.8-380.2mg(kWh)(-1) for E/DF, respectively. The introduction of ethanol into diesel fuel results in a decrease in acrolein emissions, while the other carbonyls show general increases: at low engine speed (1200 rpm), 0-55% for formaldehyde, 4-44% for acetaldehyde, 38-224% for acetone, and 5-52% for crotonaldehyde; at medium engine speed (1800 rpm), 106-413% for formaldehyde, 4-143% for acetaldehyde, 74-113% for acetone, 114-1216% for propionaldehyde, and 15-163% for crotonaldehyde; at high engine speed (2600 rpm), 36-431% for formaldehyde, 18-61% for acetaldehyde, 22-241% for acetone, and 6-61% for propionaldehyde. A gradual reduction in the brake specific emissions of each carbonyl compound from both fuels is observed with increase in engine load. Among three levels of engine speed employed, both DF and E/DF emit most CBC emissions at high engine speed. On the whole, the presence of ethanol in diesel fuel leads to an increase in aldehyde emissions.

  13. Reaction pathways for catalytic gas-phase oxidation of glycerol over mixed metal oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suprun, W.; Glaeser, R.; Papp, H. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Chemical Technology

    2011-07-01

    Glycerol as a main by-product from bio-diesel manufacture is a cheap raw material with large potential for chemical or biochemical transformations to value-added C3-chemicals. One possible way of glycerol utilization involves its catalytic oxidation to acrylic acid as an alternative to petrochemical routes. However, this catalytic conversion exhibits various problems such as harsh reaction conditions, severe catalyst coking and large amounts of undesired by-products. In this study, the reaction pathways for gas-phase conversion of glycerol over transition metal oxides (Mo, V und W) supported on TiO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2} were investigated by two methods: (i) steady state experiments of glycerol oxidation and possible reactions intermediates, i.e., acrolein, 3-hydroxy propionaldehyde and acetaldehyde, and (ii) temperature-programmed surface reaction (TPSR) studies of glycerol conversion in the presence and in the absence of gas-phase oxygen. It is shown that the supported W-, V and Mo-oxides possess an ability to catalyze the oxidation of glycerol to acrylic acid. These investigations allowed us to gain a deeper insight into the reaction mechanism. Thus, based on the obtained results, three possible reactions pathways for the selective oxidation of glycerol to acrylic acid on the transition metal-containing catalysts are proposed. The major pathways in presence of molecular oxygen are a fast successive destructive oxidation of glycerol to CO{sub x} and the dehydration of glycerol to acrolein which is a rate-limiting step. (orig.)

  14. Conversion of 1,3-Propylene Glycol on Rutile TiO2(110)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Long; Li, Zhenjun; Smith, R. Scott; Kay, Bruce D.; Dohnalek, Zdenek

    2014-10-09

    The adsorption of 1,3-propylene glycol (1,3-PG) on partially reduced TiO2(110) and its conversion to products have been studied by a combination of molecular beam dosing and temperature programmed desorption (TPD). When the Ti surface sites are saturated by 1,3-PG, ~80% of the molecules undergo further reactions to yield products that are liberated during the TPD ramp. In contrast to ethylene glycol (EG) and 1,2- propylene glycol (1,2-PG) that yield only alkenes and water at very low coverages (< 0.05 ML), two additional products, HCHO and C2H4, along with propylene (CH3CHCH2) and water are observed for 1,3-PG. Identical TPD line shapes and desorption yields for HCHO and C2H4 suggest that these products result from C-C bond cleavage and are coupled. At higher 1,3-PG coverages (> 0.1 ML), propanal (CH3CH2CHO) and two additional products, 1-propanol (CH3CH2CH2OH) and acrolein (CH2CHCHO), are observed. The desorption of 1-propanol is found to be coupled with the desorption of acrolein, suggesting that these products are formed by the disproportionation of two 1,3-PG molecules. The coverage dependent TPD results further show that propylene formation dominates at low coverages (< 0.3 ML), while the decomposition and disproportionation channels increase rapidly at higher coverages and reach yields comparable to that of propylene at the 1,3-PG saturation coverage of 0.5 ML. The observed surface chemistry clearly shows how the molecular structure of glycols influences their reaction pathways on oxide surfaces.

  15. Interactions of silica nanoparticles with therapeutics for oxidative stress attenuation in neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    White-Schenk, Desiree; Shi, Riyi; Leary, James F.

    2015-03-01

    Oxidative stress plays a major role in many disease pathologies, notably in the central nervous system (CNS). For instance, after initial spinal cord injury, the injury site tends to increase during a secondary chemical injury process based on oxidative stress from necrotic cells and the inflammatory response. Prevention of this secondary chemical injury would represent a major advance in the treatment of people with spinal cord injuries. Few therapeutics are useful in combating such stress in the CNS due to side effects, low efficacy, or half-life. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles show promise for delivering therapeutics based on the formation of a porous network during synthesis. Ideally, they increase the circulation time of loaded therapeutics to increase the half-life while reducing overall concentrations to avoid side effects. The current study explored the use of silica nanoparticles for therapeutic delivery of anti-oxidants, in particular, the neutralization of acrolein which can lead to extensive tissue damage due to its ability to generate more and more copies of itself when it interacts with normal tissue. Both an FDA-approved therapeutic, hydralazine, and natural product, epigallocatechin gallate, were explored as antioxidants for acrolein with nanoparticles for increased efficacy and stability in neuronal cell cultures. Not only were the nanoparticles explored in neuronal cells, but also in a co-cultured in vitro model with microglial cells to study potential immune responses to near-infrared (NIRF)-labeled nanoparticles and uptake. Studies included nanoparticle toxicity, uptake, and therapeutic response using fluorescence-based techniques with both dormant and activated immune microglia co-cultured with neuronal cells.

  16. Occupational exposures among personnel working near combined burn pit and incinerator operations at Bagram Airfield, Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasch, Kyle; Kolivosky, John; Hill, Barry

    2016-04-01

    Occupational air samples were collected at Bagram Airfield Afghanistan for security forces (SF) stationed at the perimeter of the solid waste disposal facility that included a burn pit, air curtain destructors, and solid waste and medical waste incinerators. The objective of the investigation was to quantify inhalation exposures of workers near the disposal facility. Occupational air sample analytes included total particulates not otherwise specified (PNOS), respirable PNOS, acrolein and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Exposures were measured for four SF job specialties. Thirty 12-hour shifts were monitored from November 2011 to March 2012. The geometric means for respirable particulate matter and PAH for all job specialties were below the 12-hour adjusted American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists threshold limit value time weighted averages (TLV-TWA). The geometric mean of the respirable particulate matter 12-hour TWAs for the four job specialties ranged from 0.116 to 0.134 mg/m(3). One measurement collected at the tower (3.1 mg/m(3)) position exceeded the TLV-TWA. Naphthalene and pyrene were the only PAHs detected in multiple samples of the 18 PAHs analyzed. The geometric mean concentration for naphthalene was 9.39E-4 mg/m(3) and the maximum concentration was 0.0051 mg/m(3). The geometric mean of acrolein for the four job specialties ranged from 0.021 to 0.047 mg/m(3). There were four exceedances of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration 8-hour permissible exposure limit- time weighted average (PEL-TWA), respectively, ranging from 0.13 to 0.32 mg/m(3). PMID:27092584

  17. Smoke impacts from agricultural burning in a rural Brazilian town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, T E; Ottmar, R D; Castilla, C

    2001-03-01

    Agricultural and silvicultural biomass burning is practiced in many undeveloped portions of the Amazon basin. In Rond nia, Brazil, such burning is restricted to a brief period in the dry season of August and September to minimize the duration of air quality impacts and to attempt to control escaped fires. During this period, much of the region and the communities within it experience significant exposure to smoke from agricultural and forest fires. In cooperation with Brazilian scientists of the University of Brasilia, the Brazilian Organization for Agricultural Research (EMBRAPA), and the Alternative to Slash and Burn Program coordinated by the International Center for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF), ambient air quality was measured in Theobroma, a small town in Rond nia, during one week of the open burning period of 1995 to supplement available air quality data and to foster public awareness of the impacts of widespread fires. Personal sampling equipment was used to measure ambient levels of formaldehyde (HCHO), acrolein, CO, benzene, and respirable PM in outdoor air. The data obtained were compared with established Brazilian and U.S. ambient air quality guidelines. Ambient levels of respirable PM averaged 191 microg/m3, HCHO averaged 12.8 ppb, CO averaged 4.2 ppm, and benzene averaged 3.2 ppb. Almost all acrolein samples were less than the detection limit of 1 ppb. The results showed that the public can be exposed to relatively high levels of pollutants under the prescribed burning smoke management strategy of a two- to three-week prescription burning period, although this is an improvement over past years when burning was unregulated and continued through most of the dry season. The results also demonstrate the feasibility of using personal exposure monitoring equipment for low-cost surveys of ambient air quality in polluted regions. PMID:11266107

  18. Healthy Zero Energy Buildings (HZEB) Program - Cross-Sectional Study of Contaminant Levels, Source, Strengths, and Ventilation Rates in Retail Stores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Wanyu R.; Sidheswaran, Meera; Cohn, Sebastian; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William

    2014-02-01

    This field study measured ventilation rates and indoor air quality parameters in 21 visits to retail stores in California. The data was collected to guide the development of new, science-based commercial building ventilation rate standards that balance the dual objectives of increasing energy efficiency and maintaining acceptable indoor air quality. Data collection occurred between September 2011 and March 2013. Three types of stores participated in this study: grocery stores, furniture/hardware stores, and apparel stores. Ventilation rates and indoor air contaminant concentrations were measured on a weekday, typically between 9 am and 6 pm. Ventilation rates measured using a tracer gas decay method exceeded the minimum requirement of California’s Title 24 Standard in all but one store. Even though there was adequate ventilation according to Title 24, concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein exceeded the most stringent chronic health guidelines. Other indoor air contaminants measured included carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O{sub 3}), and particulate matter (PM). Concentrations of CO{sub 2} were kept low by adequate ventilation, and were assumed low also because the sampling occurred on a weekday when retail stores were less busy. CO concentrations were also low. The indoor-outdoor ratios of O{sub 3} showed that the first-order loss rate may vary by store trade types and also by ventilation mode (mechanical versus natural). Analysis of fine and ultrafine PM measurements showed that a substantial portion of the particle mass in grocery stores with cooking-related emissions was in particles less than 0.3 μm. Stores without cooking as an indoor source had PM size distributions that were more similar indoors and outdoors. The whole-building emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and PM were estimated from the measured ventilation rates and indoor and outdoor contaminant concentrations. Mass balance models were

  19. Green LPG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulteberg, Christian; Brandin, Jan; Leveau, Andreas (Biofuel-Solution AB, Limhamn (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    readily available as the production of biofuels (from which glycerine is a side product) in the world has increased markedly over the last 10 year period. This glut in the glycerol production has also lowered worldwide prices of glycerine. Since the key step in producing energy gases from glycerol is the dehydration of glycerol to acrolein, this step has attracted much attention during the development work. The step has been improved during the performed work and the need for any regeneration of the catalyst has been significantly reduced, if not omitted completely. This improvement allows for a simple fixed bed reactor design and will save cost in reactor construction as well as in operating costs of the plant. The same conclusion can be drawn from the combination of the two functionalities (dehydration and hydrogenation) in designing a catalyst that promote the direct reaction of 1-propanol to propane in one step instead of two. The experiments with the decarbonylation of acrolein to form ethane show that the catalyst deactivation rates are quite rapid. The addition of noble metal to the catalyst seems to improve the longevity of the catalyst, but the coking is still too severe to provide for a commercially viable process. It is believed that there is a possible way forward for the decarbonylation of acrolein to ethane; it will however require additional time and resources spent in this area. In this work it has been shown that all of the catalytic steps involved in the production of propane from glycerol have sufficient longterm stability and endurance and it is motivated to recommend that the project continues to pilot plant testing stage

  20. 两种烟用助燃剂对卷烟主流烟气中羰基化合物释放量的影响研究%Study on the Effects of Two Combustion Improvers on the Yield of Carbonyl Compounds in Main Stream Smoke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵娟; 张峻松; 李春; 任卓英; 向能军

    2012-01-01

    In order to study on the effect of burn additives on selective reduction of carbonyl compounds in mainstream smoke,different amount of potassium citrate and potassium sodium tartrate solution are added into cut tobacco though wet adding method.The results showed that: when the addition rate is in the range of 2 ‰-15 ‰,(1) With the increase of potassium citrate improver,the content of formaldehyde,acrolein and propionaldehyde in mainstream smoke increase while the content of acetone was stable.On the contrary,Crotonal-dehyde and methyl-ethyl-ketone deliveries decreased and the trend of decreasing dropt to zero with the increase of adding amount.Butyraldehyde delivery decreased followed by increasing initially.When the adding amount of potassium citrate was 8 ‰,the delivery of acetaldehyde was the lowest;(2) Adding potassium sodium tartrate into tobacco results in the increasing of formaldehyde,acrolein and propionaldehyde in mainstream smoke.Meanwhile,there was little change in the content of acetone and acetaldehyde deliveries.Further more,Crotonaldehyde and 2-butanone content declined in mainstream smoke.%以湿法按不同比例添加助燃剂柠檬酸钾、酒石酸钾钠到烟丝中,研究其对卷烟烟气中挥发性羰基化合物释放量的影响。结果表明:在添加量为2‰-15‰范围内焦油有下降趋势,其中:(1)加入柠檬酸钾,主流烟气中甲醛、丙醛、丙烯醛的释放量依次增加;丙酮的释放量变化不大;巴豆醛、2-丁酮释放量呈下降趋势,但随着添加量的增加,下降趋于零;丁醛的释放量呈先增加后减少的趋势;添加量为8‰时,乙醛释放量达到最低;(2)酒石酸钾钠的加入使得主流烟气中甲醛、丙烯醛、丙醛的释放量增加;乙醛和丙酮的释放量变化不大;巴豆醛、2-丁酮释放量呈下降趋势。

  1. Toxicologically Relevant Aldehydes Produced during the Frying Process Are Trapped by Food Phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Rosario; Aguilar, Isabel; Granvogl, Michael; Hidalgo, Francisco J

    2016-07-13

    The lipid-derived carbonyl trapping ability of phenolic compounds under common food processing conditions was studied by determining the presence of carbonyl-phenol adducts in both onions fried in the laboratory and commercially crispy fried onions. Four carbonyl-phenol adducts produced between quercetin and acrolein, crotonaldehyde, or (E)-2-pentenal were prepared and characterized by (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-HRMS). The synthesized compounds were 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,5,8-trihydroxy-9,10-dihydro-4H,8H-pyrano[2,3-f]chromen-4-one (4), 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,5,8-trihydroxy-10-methyl-9,10-dihydro-4H,8H-pyrano[2,3-f]chromen-4-one (5), 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,5-dihydroxy-8-methyl-4H,8H-pyrano[2,3-f]chromen-4-one (9), and 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-8-ethyl-3,5-dihydroxy-4H,8H-pyrano[2,3-f]chromen-4-one (10). When onions were fried in fresh rapeseed oil spiked with acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and (E)-2-pentenal (2.7 μmol/g of oil), adduct 10 was the major compound produced, and trace amounts of adducts 4 and 5, but not of adduct 9, were also detected. In contrast, compound 4 was the major adduct present in commercially crispy fried onions. Compound 10 was also present to a lower extent, and trace amounts of compound 5, but not of compound 9, were also detected. These data suggested that lipid-derived carbonyl-phenol adducts are formed in food products under standard cooking conditions. They also pointed to a possible protective role of food polyphenols, which might contribute to the removal of toxicologically relevant aldehydes produced during deep-frying, assuming that the formed products are stable during food consumption in the human organism. PMID:27322490

  2. Crude Glycerol as Cost-Effective Fuel for Combined Heat and Power to Replace Fossil Fuels, Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, William L

    2012-10-31

    The primary objectives of this work can be summed into two major categories. Firstly, the fundamentals of the combustion of glycerol (in both a refined and unrefined form) were to be investigated, with emphasis of the development of a system capable of reliably and repeatedly combusting glycerol as well as an analysis of the emissions produced during glycerol combustion. Focus was placed on quantifying common emissions in comparison to more traditional fuels and this work showed that the burner developed was able to completely combust glycerol within a relatively wide range of operating conditions. Additionally, focus was placed on examining specific emissions in more detail, namely interesting NOx emissions observed in initial trials, acrolein and other volatile organic emissions, and particulate and ash emissions. This work showed that the combustion of crude glycerol could result in significantly reduced NOx emissions as a function of the high fuel bound oxygen content within the glycerol fuel. It also showed that when burned properly, the combustion of crude glycerol did not result in excessive emissions of acrolein or any other VOC compared to the combustion from more traditional fuels. Lastly however, this work has shown that in any practical application in which glycerol is being burned, it will be necessary to explore ash mitigation techniques due to the very high particulate matter concentrations produced during glycerol combustion. These emissions are comparable to unfiltered coal combustion and are directly tied to the biodiesel production method. The second focus of this work was directed to developing a commercialization strategy for the use of glycerol as a fuel replacement. This strategy has identified a 30 month plan for the scaling up of the laboratory scale burner into a pre-pilot scale system. Additionally, financing options were explored and an assessment was made of the economics of replacing a traditional fuel (namely natural gas) with crude

  3. In-situ Studies of the Reactions of Bifunctional and Heterocyclic Molecules over Noble Metal Single Crystal and Nanoparticle Catalysts Studied with Kinetics and Sum-Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kliewer, Christopher J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-06-30

    Sum frequency generation surface vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) in combination with gas chromatography (GC) was used in-situ to monitor surface bound reaction intermediates and reaction selectivities for the hydrogenation reactions of pyrrole, furan, pyridine, acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and prenal over Pt(111), Pt(100), Rh(111), and platinum nanoparticles under Torr reactant pressures and temperatures of 300K to 450K. The focus of this work is the correlation between the SFG-VS observed surface bound reaction intermediates and adsorption modes with the reaction selectivity, and how this is affected by catalyst structure and temperature. Pyrrole hydrogenation was investigated over Pt(111) and Rh(111) single crystals at Torr pressures. It was found that pyrrole adsorbs to Pt(111) perpendicularly by cleaving the N-H bond and binding through the nitrogen. However, over Rh(111) pyrrole adsorbs in a tilted geometry binding through the {pi}-aromatic orbitals. A surface-bound pyrroline reaction intermediate was detected over both surfaces with SFG-VS. It was found that the ring-cracking product butylamine is a reaction poison over both surfaces studied. Furan hydrogenation was studied over Pt(111), Pt(100), 10 nm cubic platinum nanoparticles and 1 nm platinum nanoparticles. The product distribution was observed to be highly structure sensitive and the acquired SFG-VS spectra reflected this sensitivity. Pt(100) exhibited more ring-cracking to form butanol than Pt(111), while the nanoparticles yielded higher selectivities for the partially saturated ring dihydrofuran. Pyridine hydrogenation was investigated over Pt(111) and Pt(100). The α-pyridyl surface adsorption mode was observed with SFG-VS over both surfaces. 1,4-dihydropyridine was seen as a surface intermediate over Pt(100) but not Pt(111). Upon heating the surfaces to 350K, the adsorbed pyridine changes to a flat-lying adsorption mode. No evidence was found for the pyridinium cation. The hydrogenation of the

  4. In-situ Studies of the Reactions of Bifunctional and Heterocyclic Molecules over Noble Metal Single Crystal and Nanoparticle Catalysts Studied with Kinetics and Sum-Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kliewer, Christopher J.

    2009-06-30

    Sum frequency generation surface vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) in combination with gas chromatography (GC) was used in-situ to monitor surface bound reaction intermediates and reaction selectivities for the hydrogenation reactions of pyrrole, furan, pyridine, acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and prenal over Pt(111), Pt(100), Rh(111), and platinum nanoparticles under Torr reactant pressures and temperatures of 300K to 450K. The focus of this work is the correlation between the SFG-VS observed surface bound reaction intermediates and adsorption modes with the reaction selectivity, and how this is affected by catalyst structure and temperature. Pyrrole hydrogenation was investigated over Pt(111) and Rh(111) single crystals at Torr pressures. It was found that pyrrole adsorbs to Pt(111) perpendicularly by cleaving the N-H bond and binding through the nitrogen. However, over Rh(111) pyrrole adsorbs in a tilted geometry binding through the {pi}-aromatic orbitals. A surface-bound pyrroline reaction intermediate was detected over both surfaces with SFG-VS. It was found that the ring-cracking product butylamine is a reaction poison over both surfaces studied. Furan hydrogenation was studied over Pt(111), Pt(100), 10 nm cubic platinum nanoparticles and 1 nm platinum nanoparticles. The product distribution was observed to be highly structure sensitive and the acquired SFG-VS spectra reflected this sensitivity. Pt(100) exhibited more ring-cracking to form butanol than Pt(111), while the nanoparticles yielded higher selectivities for the partially saturated ring dihydrofuran. Pyridine hydrogenation was investigated over Pt(111) and Pt(100). The {alpha}-pyridyl surface adsorption mode was observed with SFG-VS over both surfaces. 1,4-dihydropyridine was seen as a surface intermediate over Pt(100) but not Pt(111). Upon heating the surfaces to 350K, the adsorbed pyridine changes to a flat-lying adsorption mode. No evidence was found for the pyridinium cation. The hydrogenation of the

  5. Ambient levels and temporal trends of VOCs, including carbonyl compounds, and ozone at Cabañeros National Park border, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Florentina; Tapia, Araceli; Notario, Alberto; Albaladejo, José; Martínez, Ernesto

    2014-03-01

    Concentration levels of 15 carbonyls, 17 VOCs and ozone were studied at Cabañeros National Park border, Spain, in an area mainly constituted by holm oaks (Quercus ilex) and cork oaks (Quercus suber), along with scrubland formations such as rock-rose and heather. The compounds were collected by means of diffusive samplers from August-November 2010 and February-August 2011. Carbonyl compounds, VOCs and O3 were analysed by HPLC with diode array UV-Vis detector, GC-FID and by UV-visible spectrophotometry, respectively. The most abundant carbonyls were hexanal, acetone-acrolein, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Seasonal variation was apparent with maximum values observed in summer months. Total carbonyl concentrations ranged from 2.8 to 19.7 μg m-3. Most VOCs studied (using chemically desorbable cartridges) were either not detected or were below their detection limits, however, a parallel sampling using thermally desorbable cartridges, from May 22 to June 19, revealed the presence of much more VOCs, identified using GC-MS. O3 concentration ranged from 27.2 to 90.5 μg m-3, reaching the maximum monthly mean concentration in March (84.4 μg m-3). The analysis of back trajectories indicates the transport of polluted air masses from remote areas, mainly from the Mediterranean basin that should contribute to the high levels of ozone observed.

  6. Lipid peroxidation triggers neurodegeneration: a redox proteomics view into the Alzheimer disease brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Rukhsana; Perluigi, Marzia; Allan Butterfield, D

    2013-09-01

    Lipid peroxidation involves a cascade of reactions in which production of free radicals occurs selectively in the lipid components of cellular membranes. Polyunsaturated fatty acids easily undergo lipid peroxidation chain reactions, which, in turn, lead to the formation of highly reactive electrophilic aldehydes. Among these, the most abundant aldehydes are 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) and malondialdehyde, while acrolein is the most reactive. Proteins are susceptible to posttranslational modifications caused by aldehydes binding covalently to specific amino acid residues, in a process called Michael adduction, and these types of protein adducts, if not efficiently removed, may be, and generally are, dangerous for cellular homeostasis. In the present review, we focused the discussion on the selective proteins that are identified, by redox proteomics, as selective targets of HNE modification during the progression and pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD). By comparing results obtained at different stages of the AD, it may be possible to identify key biochemical pathways involved and ideally identify therapeutic targets to prevent, delay, or treat AD.

  7. The potential of biodetoxification activity as a probiotic property of Lactobacillus reuteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Niel, Ed W J; Larsson, Christer U; Lohmeier-Vogel, Elke M; Rådström, Peter

    2012-01-16

    Previous work on the metabolism of Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 anticipated a variability in the use of organic electron acceptors as a means to relieve metabolic redox problems. Therefore, investigations focusing on this unique metabolism of L. reuteri may reveal a basis for new probiotic properties. For instance, L. reuteri may use reactive aldehydes and ketones as electron acceptors to balance their redox metabolism, which opens the possibility to exploit this bacterium for in vivo bioreduction of deleterious compounds in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Herein we demonstrate that L. reuteri ATCC 55730 cultures on glucose are able to use furfural (1g/L), and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) (0.5g/L), as electron acceptors. The former enhances the growth rate by about 25% and biomass yield by 15%, whereas the latter is inhibitory. Furfural is stoichiometrically reduced to furfuryl alcohol by the culture. The conversion of furfural had no effect on the flux distribution between the simultaneously operating phosphoketolase and Embden-Meyerhof pathways, but initiated a flux to acetate production. In addition to furfural and HMF, cellular extracts showed potential to reoxidize NADH and/or NADPH with acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and diacetyl, indicating that conversion reactions take place intracellularly, however, utilization mechanisms for the latter compounds may not be present in this strain. The strain did not reduce other GIT-related reactive compounds, including acrylamide, glyoxal, and furan. PMID:22071286

  8. Kinetics of Forming Aldehydes in Frying Oils and Their Distribution in French Fries Revealed by LC-MS-Based Chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Csallany, A Saari; Kerr, Brian J; Shurson, Gerald C; Chen, Chi

    2016-05-18

    In this study, the kinetics of aldehyde formation in heated frying oils was characterized by 2-hydrazinoquinoline derivatization, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). The aldehydes contributing to time-dependent separation of heated soybean oil (HSO) in a PCA model were grouped by the HCA into three clusters (A1, A2, and B) on the basis of their kinetics and fatty acid precursors. The increases of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and the A2-to-B ratio in HSO were well-correlated with the duration of thermal stress. Chemometric and quantitative analysis of three frying oils (soybean, corn, and canola oils) and French fry extracts further supported the associations between aldehyde profiles and fatty acid precursors and also revealed that the concentrations of pentanal, hexanal, acrolein, and the A2-to-B ratio in French fry extracts were more comparable to their values in the frying oils than other unsaturated aldehydes. All of these results suggest the roles of specific aldehydes or aldehyde clusters as novel markers of the lipid oxidation status for frying oils or fried foods.

  9. Alcohol, Aldehydes, Adducts and Airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, Muna; Wyatt, Todd A

    2015-11-05

    Drinking alcohol and smoking cigarettes results in the formation of reactive aldehydes in the lung, which are capable of forming adducts with several proteins and DNA. Acetaldehyde and malondialdehyde are the major aldehydes generated in high levels in the lung of subjects with alcohol use disorder who smoke cigarettes. In addition to the above aldehydes, several other aldehydes like 4-hydroxynonenal, formaldehyde and acrolein are also detected in the lung due to exposure to toxic gases, vapors and chemicals. These aldehydes react with nucleophilic targets in cells such as DNA, lipids and proteins to form both stable and unstable adducts. This adduction may disturb cellular functions as well as damage proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. Among several adducts formed in the lung, malondialdehyde DNA (MDA-DNA) adduct and hybrid malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA) protein adducts have been shown to initiate several pathological conditions in the lung. MDA-DNA adducts are pre-mutagenic in mammalian cells and induce frame shift and base-pair substitution mutations, whereas MAA protein adducts have been shown to induce inflammation and inhibit wound healing. This review provides an insight into different reactive aldehyde adducts and their role in the pathogenesis of lung disease.

  10. Hop proanthocyanidins induce apoptosis, protein carbonylation, and cytoskeleton disorganization in human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells via reactive oxygen species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Woon-Gye; Miranda, Cristobal L.; Stevens, Jan F.; Maier, Claudia S.

    2009-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PCs) have been shown to suppress the growth of diverse human cancer cells and are considered as promising additions to the arsenal of chemopreventive phytochemicals. An oligomeric mixture of PCs from hops (Humulus lupulus) significantly decreased cell viability of human colon cancer HT-29 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Hop PCs, at 50 or 100 μg/ml, exhibited apoptosis-inducing properties as shown by the increase in caspase-3 activity. Increased levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was accompanied by an augmented accumulation of protein carbonyls. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis in combination with 2-alkenal-specific immunochemical detection identified β-actin and protein disulfide isomerase as major putative targets of acrolein adduction. Incubation of HT-29 cells with hop PCs resulted in morphological changes that indicated disruption of the actin cytoskeleton. PC-mediated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) formation in the cell culture media was also quantified; but, the measured H2O2 levels would not explain the observed changes in the oxidative modifications of actin. These findings suggest new modes of action for proanthocyandins as antitumorgenic agents in human colon cancer cells, namely, promotion of protein oxidative modifications and cytoskeleton derangement. PMID:19271284

  11. Derivatives of xanthic acid are novel antioxidants: application to synaptosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauderback, Christopher M; Drake, Jennifer; Zhou, Daohong; Hackett, Janna M; Castegna, Alessandra; Kanski, Jaroslaw; Tsoras, Maria; Varadarajan, Sridhar; Butterfield, D Allan

    2003-04-01

    Xanthic acids have long been known to act as reducing agents. Recently, D609, a tricyclodecanol derivative of xanthic acid, has been reported to have anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties that are attributed to specific inhibition of phosphatidyl choline phospholipase C (PC-PLC). However, because oxidative stress is involved in both of these cellular responses, the possibility that xanthates may act as antioxidants was investigated in the current study. Finding that xanthates efficiently scavenge hydroxyl radicals, the mechanism by which D609 and other xanthate derivatives may protect against oxidative damage was further examined. The xanthates studied, especially D609, mimic glutathione (GSH). Xanthates scavenge hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide, form disulfide bonds (dixanthogens), and react with electrophilic products of lipid oxidation (acrolein) in a manner similar to GSH. Further, upon disulfide formation, dixanthogens are reduced by glutathione reductase to a redox active xanthate. Supporting its role as an antioxidant, D609 significantly (p < 0.01) reduces free radical-induced changes in synaptosomal lipid peroxidation (TBARs), protein oxidation (protein carbonyls), and protein conformation. Thus, in addition to inhibitory effects on PC-PLC, D609 may prevent cellular apoptotic and inflammatory cascades by acting as antioxidants and novel GSH mimics. These results are discussed with reference to potential therapeutic application of D609 in oxidative stress conditions.

  12. Glu504Lys Single Nucleotide Polymorphism of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2 Gene and the Risk of Human Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH 2 is a mitochondrial enzyme that is known for its important role in oxidation and detoxification of ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde. ALDH2 also metabolizes other reactive aldehydes such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and acrolein. The Glu504Lys single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP of ALDH2 gene, which is found in approximately 40% of the East Asian populations, causes defect in the enzyme activity of ALDH2, leading to alterations in acetaldehyde metabolism and alcohol-induced “flushing” syndrome. Evidence suggests that ALDH2 Glu504Lys SNP is a potential candidate genetic risk factor for a variety of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, and late-onset Alzheimer’s disease. In addition, the association between ALDH2 Glu504Lys SNP and the development of these chronic diseases appears to be affected by the interaction between the SNP and lifestyle factors such as alcohol consumption as well as by the presence of other genetic variations.

  13. Synthesis of certain fused pyrazoles derived from 2-methyl-3-amino-6-iodo-4(3 H) quinazolinone as possible insecticidal and radiosensitizing agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Verisimilar reaction on 3-amino-2-methyl-6-4-quinazolone (1) using P O Cl3/DMF afforded 3-formyl pyrazole derivative (2). The condensation products (3 a,b) were obtained via reaction of (2) with malononitrile or ethyl cyano acetate. Heating the condensation products (3 a,b) with acetyl derivatives in the presence of ammonium acetate yielded the corresponding cyano pyridines (9 a-e) and (10 a-e), respectively. Compounds (9 c) and (10 c) were obtained also from the interaction of the chalcone derivative (11) with malononitrile or ethyl cyano acetate. Condensation of (2) with semicarbazide hydrochloride, thio semicarbazide or aromatic amines gave the corresponding (12 a), (12 b) and (13 a-c), respectively. Compound (12 a) could be cyclized to (14) in acid medium. Interaction of compound (12 b) with chloro acetyl chloride gave (15). The Verisimilar reaction on Schiff bass (16) using P O Cl3/DMF gave the amino acrolein derivates (17), which was converted into 2-pyrazole derivative (18) and 2-isoxazolinyl derivative (19), respectively. The obtained compounds have been characterized on the basis of their IR, 'H-NMR and Mass spectral data and elemental analysis. Among the synthesized compounds only the formyl pyrazole derivative (2) and the azetidinylthioured derivative (15) showed a remarkable adulticidal activity. In addition the formyl pyrazole derivative (2) acted as a potent radiosensitizer. 2 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Hazard Assessment of Chemical Air Contaminants Measured in Residences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logue, J.M.; McKone, T.E.; Sherman, M. H.; Singer, B.C.

    2010-05-10

    Identifying air pollutants that pose a potential hazard indoors can facilitate exposure mitigation. In this study, we compiled summary results from 77 published studies reporting measurements of chemical pollutants in residences in the United States and in countries with similar lifestyles. These data were used to calculate representative mid-range and upper bound concentrations relevant to chronic exposures for 267 pollutants and representative peak concentrations relevant to acute exposures for 5 activity-associated pollutants. Representative concentrations are compared to available chronic and acute health standards for 97 pollutants. Fifteen pollutants appear to exceed chronic health standards in a large fraction of homes. Nine other pollutants are identified as potential chronic health hazards in a substantial minority of homes and an additional nine are identified as potential hazards in a very small percentage of homes. Nine pollutants are identified as priority hazards based on the robustness of measured concentration data and the fraction of residences that appear to be impacted: acetaldehyde; acrolein; benzene; 1,3-butadiene; 1,4-dichlorobenzene; formaldehyde; naphthalene; nitrogen dioxide; and PM{sub 2.5}. Activity-based emissions are shown to pose potential acute health hazards for PM{sub 2.5}, formaldehyde, CO, chloroform, and NO{sub 2}.

  15. Carbonyl compounds generated from electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekki, Kanae; Uchiyama, Shigehisa; Ohta, Kazushi; Inaba, Yohei; Nakagome, Hideki; Kunugita, Naoki

    2014-10-28

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are advertised as being safer than tobacco cigarettes products as the chemical compounds inhaled from e-cigarettes are believed to be fewer and less toxic than those from tobacco cigarettes. Therefore, continuous careful monitoring and risk management of e-cigarettes should be implemented, with the aim of protecting and promoting public health worldwide. Moreover, basic scientific data are required for the regulation of e-cigarette. To date, there have been reports of many hazardous chemical compounds generated from e-cigarettes, particularly carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and glyoxal, which are often found in e-cigarette aerosols. These carbonyl compounds are incidentally generated by the oxidation of e-liquid (liquid in e-cigarette; glycerol and glycols) when the liquid comes in contact with the heated nichrome wire. The compositions and concentrations of these compounds vary depending on the type of e-liquid and the battery voltage. In some cases, extremely high concentrations of these carbonyl compounds are generated, and may contribute to various health effects. Suppliers, risk management organizations, and users of e-cigarettes should be aware of this phenomenon.

  16. Carbonyl Compounds Generated from Electronic Cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanae Bekki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes are advertised as being safer than tobacco cigarettes products as the chemical compounds inhaled from e-cigarettes are believed to be fewer and less toxic than those from tobacco cigarettes. Therefore, continuous careful monitoring and risk management of e-cigarettes should be implemented, with the aim of protecting and promoting public health worldwide. Moreover, basic scientific data are required for the regulation of e-cigarette. To date, there have been reports of many hazardous chemical compounds generated from e-cigarettes, particularly carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and glyoxal, which are often found in e-cigarette aerosols. These carbonyl compounds are incidentally generated by the oxidation of e-liquid (liquid in e-cigarette; glycerol and glycols when the liquid comes in contact with the heated nichrome wire. The compositions and concentrations of these compounds vary depending on the type of e-liquid and the battery voltage. In some cases, extremely high concentrations of these carbonyl compounds are generated, and may contribute to various health effects. Suppliers, risk management organizations, and users of e-cigarettes should be aware of this phenomenon.

  17. The electronic cigarette. Official statement of the Spanish Society of Pneumology and Thoracic Surgery (SEPAR) on the efficacy, safety and regulation of electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez Ruiz, Carlos A; Solano Reina, Segismundo; de Granda Orive, Jose Ignacio; Signes-Costa Minaya, Jaime; de Higes Martinez, Eva; Riesco Miranda, Juan Antonio; Altet Gómez, Neus; Lorza Blasco, Jose Javier; Barrueco Ferrero, Miguel; de Lucas Ramos, Pilar

    2014-08-01

    The electronic cigarette (EC) is a device formed by three basic elements: battery, atomizer and cartridge. When assembled, it looks like a cigarette. The cartridge contains different substances: propylene glycol, glycerine and, sometimes, nicotine. When the user "vapes", the battery is activated, the atomizer is heated and the liquid is drawn in and vaporized. The smoker inhales the mist produced. Various substances have been detected in this mist: formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein and some heavy metals. Although these are found in lower concentrations than in cigarettes, they may still be harmful for the human body. Several surveys show that 3-10% of smokers regularly use e-cigarettes. A randomized study has shown that the efficacy of e-cigarettes for helping smokers to quit is similar to nicotine patches. Nevertheless, the study has relevant methodological limitations and reliable conclusions cannot be deduced. This report sets down the Position Statement of the Spanish Society of Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery (SEPAR) on the efficacy and safety of e-cigarettes. This statement declares that e-cigarettes should be regulated as medicinal products.

  18. Toxicity Assessment of Refill Liquids for Electronic Cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Varlet

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed 42 models from 14 brands of refill liquids for e-cigarettes for the presence of micro-organisms, diethylene glycol, ethylene glycol, hydrocarbons, ethanol, aldehydes, tobacco-specific nitrosamines, and solvents. All the liquids under scrutiny complied with norms for the absence of yeast, mold, aerobic microbes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Diethylene glycol, ethylene glycol and ethanol were detected, but remained within limits authorized for food and pharmaceutical products. Terpenic compounds and aldehydes were found in the products, in particular formaldehyde and acrolein. No sample contained nitrosamines at levels above the limit of detection (1 μg/g. Residual solvents such as 1,3-butadiene, cyclohexane and acetone, to name a few, were found in some products. None of the products under scrutiny were totally exempt of potentially toxic compounds. However, for products other than nicotine, the oral acute toxicity of the e-liquids tested seems to be of minor concern. However, a minority of liquids, especially those with flavorings, showed particularly high ranges of chemicals, causing concerns about their potential toxicity in case of chronic oral exposure.

  19. INTERACTION OF ALDEHYDES DERIVED FROM LIPID PEROXIDATION AND MEMBRANE PROTEINS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania ePizzimenti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A great variety of compounds are formed during lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids of membrane phospholipids. Among them, bioactive aldehydes, such as 4-hydroxyalkenals, malondialdehyde (MDA and acrolein, have received particular attention since they have been considered as toxic messengers that can propagate and amplify oxidative injury. In the 4-hydroxyalkenal class, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE is the most intensively studied aldehyde, in relation not only to its toxic function, but also to its physiological role. Indeed, HNE can be found at low concentrations in human tissues and plasma and participates in the control of biological processes, such as signal transduction, cell proliferation and differentiation. Moreover, at low doses, HNE exerts an anti-cancer effect, by inhibiting cell proliferation, angiogenesis, cell adhesion and by inducing differentiation and/or apoptosis in various tumor cell lines. It is very likely that a substantial fraction of the effects observed in cellular responses, induced by HNE and related aldehydes, be mediated by their interaction with proteins, resulting in the formation of covalent adducts or in the modulation of their expression and/or activity. In this review we focus on membrane proteins affected by lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes, under physiological and pathological conditions.

  20. High concentrations of morphine sensitize and activate mouse dorsal root ganglia via TRPV1 and TRPA1 receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messlinger Karl

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Morphine and its derivatives are key drugs in pain control. Despite its well-known analgesic properties morphine at high concentrations may be proalgesic. Particularly, short-lasting painful sensations have been reported upon dermal application of morphine. To study a possible involvement of TRP receptors in the pro-nociceptive effects of morphine (0.3 – 10 mM, two models of nociception were employed using C57BL/6 mice and genetically related TRPV1 and TRPA1 knockout animals, which were crossed and generated double knockouts. Hindpaw skin flaps were used to investigate the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide indicative of nociceptive activation. Results Morphine induced release of calcitonin gene-related peptide and sensitized the release evoked by heat or the TRPA1 agonist acrolein. Morphine activated HEK293t cells transfected with TRPV1 or TRPA1. Activation of C57BL/6 mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons in culture was investigated with calcium imaging. Morphine induced a dose-dependent rise in intracellular calcium in neurons from wild-type animals. In neurons from TRPV1 and TRPA1 knockout animals activation by morphine was markedly reduced, in the TRPV1/A1 double knockout animals this morphine effect was abrogated. Naloxone induced an increase in calcium levels similar to morphine. The responses to both morphine and naloxone were sensitized by bradykinin. Conclusion Nociceptor activation and sensitization by morphine is conveyed by TRPV1 and TRPA1.

  1. Bio-Propane from glycerol for biogas addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandin, Jan; Hulteberg, Christian; Liljegren Nilsson, Andreas (Biofuel-Solution AB, Malmoe (Sweden))

    2008-11-15

    In this report, the technical and economical feasibility to produce higher alkanes from bioglycerol has been investigated. The main purpose of producing this kind of chemicals would be to replace the fossil LPG used in upgraded biogas production. When producing biogas and exporting it to the natural gas grid, the Wobbe index and heating value does not match the existing natural gas. Therefore, the upgraded biogas that is put into the natural gas grid in Sweden today contains 8-10 vol-% of LPG. The experimental work performed in association to this report has shown that it is possible to produce propane from glycerol. However, the production of ethane from glycerol may be even more advantageous. The experimental work has included developing and testing catalysts for several intermediate reactions. The work was performed using different micro-scale reactors with a liquid feed rate of 18 g/h. The first reaction, independent on if propane or ethane is to be produced, is dehydration of glycerol to acrolein. This was showed during 60 h on an acidic catalyst with a yield of 90%. The production of propanol, the second intermediate to producing propane, was shown as well. Propanol was produced both using acrolein as the starting material as well as glycerol (combining the first and second step) with yields of 70-80% in the first case and 65-70% in the second case. The propanol produced was investigated for its dehydration to propene, with a yield of 70-75%. By using a proprietary, purposely developed catalyst the propene was hydrogenated to propane, with a yield of 85% from propanol. The formation of propane from glycerol was finally investigated, with an overall yield of 55%. The second part of the experimental work performed investigated the possibilities of decarbonylating acrolein to form ethane. This was made possible by the development of a proprietary catalyst which combines decarbonylation and water-gas shift functionality. By combining these two functionalities, no

  2. In vitro assessment of human airway toxicity from major aldehydes in automotive emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grafstroem, R.C. [Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Inst. of Environmental Medicine

    1997-09-01

    Automotive exhausts can significantly contribute to the levels of reactive aldehydes, including formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein, in urban air. The use of alcohols as an alternative fuel for gasoline or diesel may further increase these emissions. Since it is unclear if aldehyde inhalation may induce pathological states, including cancer, in human airways, the toxic properties of the above-mentioned aldehydes were studied in cultured target cell types. Each aldehyde modified vital cellular functions in a dose-dependent manner, and invariably inhibited growth and induced abnormal terminal differentiation. Decreases of cellular thiols and increases of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} were observed, and moreover, variable types and amounts of short-lived or persistent genetic damage were induced. The concentrations required for specified levels of a particular type of injury varied up to 10000-fold among the aldehydes. Overall, distinctive patterns of cytopathological activity were observed, which differed both qualitatively and quantitatively among the aldehydes. Finally, aldehydes inhibited DNA repair processes and increased cytotoxicity and mutagenesis in synergy with other known toxicants, indicating that aldehydes may also enhance damage by other constituents in automotive exhausts. In summary, the aldehydes, notably {sup m}u{sup M}-mM formaldehyde, caused pathological effects and induced mechanisms that relate to acute toxicity and cancer development in airway epithelial cells. Since `no-effect` levels may not exist for carcinogenic agents, the overall results support a need for elimination of aldehydes in automotive exhausts. 41 refs

  3. An Examination of the Chemistry of Peroxycarboxylic Nitric Anhydrides and Related Volatile Organic Compounds During Texas Air Quality Study 2000 Using Ground-Based Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, James M.; Jobson, B Tom T.; Kuster, W. C.; Goldan, P. D.; Murphy, Paul; Williams, Eric; Frost, G. J.; Riemer, D.; Apel, Eric; Stroud, C.; Wiedinmyer, Christine; Fehsenfeld, Fred C.

    2003-08-19

    Measurements of peroxycarboxylic nitric anhydrides (PANs) along with related volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were made at the La Porte super site during the TexAQS 2000 Houston study. The PAN mixing ratios ranged up to 6.5 ppbv and were broadly correlated with O3, characteristic of a highly polluted urban environment. The anthropogenic PAN homologue concentrations were generally consistent with those found in other urban environments; peroxypropionic nitric anhydride (PPN) averaged 15%, and peroxyisobutyric nitric anhydride (PiBN) averaged 3% of PAN,. Some periods were noted where local petrochemical sources resulted in anomalous PANs chemistry. This effect was especially noticeable in the case of peroxyacrylic nitric anhydride (APAN) where local sources of 1,3-butadiene and acrolein resulted in APAN as high as 30% of PAN. Peroxymethacrylic nitric anhydride (MPAN) was a fairly minor constituent of the PANs except for two periods on 4 and 5 September when air masses from high biogenic hydrocarbons (BHC) areas were observed. BHC chemistry was not a factor in the highest ozone pollution episodes in Houston but may have an impact on daily average ozone levels in some circumstances.

  4. Glycation of the muscle-specific enolase by reactive carbonyls: effect of temperature and the protection role of carnosine, pyridoxamine and phosphatidylserine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietkiewicz, Jadwiga; Bronowicka-Szydełko, Agnieszka; Dzierzba, Katarzyna; Danielewicz, Regina; Gamian, Andrzej

    2011-03-01

    Reactive carbonyls such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), trans-2-nonenal (T2 N), acrolein (ACR) can react readily with nucleophilic protein sites forming of advanced glycation end-products (AGE). In this study, the human and pig muscle-specific enolase was used as a protein model for in vitro modification by 4-HNE, T2 N and ACR. While the human enolase interaction with reactive α-oxoaldehyde methylglyoxal (MOG) was demonstrated previously, the effect of 4-HNE, T2N and ACR has not been identified yet. Altering in catalytic function were observed after the enzyme incubation with these active compounds for 1-24 h at 25, 37 and 45 °C. The inhibition degree of enolase activity occurred in following order: 4-HNE > ACR > MOG > T2N and inactivation of pig muscle-specific enolase was more effective relatively to human enzyme. The efficiency of AGE formation depends on time and incubation temperature with glycating agent. More amounts of insoluble AGE were formed at 45 °C. We found that pyridoxamine and natural dipeptide carnosine counteracted AGE formation and protected enolase against the total loss of catalytic activity. Moreover, we demonstrated for the first time that phosphatidylserine may significantly protect enolase against decrease of catalytic activity in spite of AGE production. PMID:21347838

  5. Effects of low concentration biodiesel blends application on modern passenger cars. Part 2: Impact on carbonyl compound emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontaras, Georgios [Laboratory of Applied Thermodynamics, Aristotle University Thessaloniki, P.O. Box 458, GR 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Karavalakis, Georgios [Laboratory of Fuels Technology and Lubricants, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Str., Zografou Campus, 15780 Athens (Greece); Kousoulidou, Marina; Ntziachristos, Leonidas [Laboratory of Applied Thermodynamics, Aristotle University Thessaloniki, P.O. Box 458, GR 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Bakeas, Evangelos [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Chemistry Department, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens (Greece); Stournas, Stamoulis [Laboratory of Fuels Technology and Lubricants, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Str., Zografou Campus, 15780 Athens (Greece); Samaras, Zissis, E-mail: zisis@auth.g [Laboratory of Applied Thermodynamics, Aristotle University Thessaloniki, P.O. Box 458, GR 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2010-07-15

    Today in most European member states diesel contains up to 5% vol biodiesel. Since blending is expected to increase to 10% vol, the question arises, how this higher mixing ratio will affect tailpipe emissions particularly those linked to adverse health effects. This paper focuses on the impact of biodiesel on carbonyl compound emissions, attempting also to identify possible relationship between biodiesel feedstock and emissions. The blends were produced from five different feedstocks, commonly used in Europe. Measurements were conducted on a Euro 3 common-rail passenger car over various driving cycles. Results indicate that generally the use of biodiesel at low concentrations has a minor effect on carbonyl compound emissions. However, certain biodiesels resulted in significant increases while others led to decreases. Biodiesels associated with increases were those derived from rapeseed oil (approx. 200%) and palm oil (approx. 180%), with the highest average increases observed at formaldehyde and acroleine/acetone. - Biodiesel application, may increase the levels of certain pollutants such as carbonyl compounds which are associated with both environmental and health risks.

  6. Toxicity of polyamines and their metabolic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegg, Anthony E

    2013-12-16

    Polyamines are ubiquitous and essential components of mammalian cells. They have multiple functions including critical roles in nucleic acid and protein synthesis, gene expression, protein function, protection from oxidative damage, the regulation of ion channels, and maintenance of the structure of cellular macromolecules. It is essential to maintain a correct level of polyamines, and this amount is tightly regulated at the levels of transport, synthesis, and degradation. Catabolic pathways generate reactive aldehydes including acrolein and hydrogen peroxide via a number of oxidases. These metabolites, particularly those from spermine, can cause significant toxicity with damage to proteins, DNA, and other cellular components. Their production can be increased as a result of infection or cell damage that releases free polyamines and activates the oxidative catabolic pathways. Since polyamines also have an important physiological role in protection from oxidative damage, the reduction in polyamine content may exacerbate the toxic potential of these agents. Increases in polyamine catabolism have been implicated in the development of diseases including stroke, other neurological diseases, renal failure, liver disease, and cancer. These results provide new opportunities for the early diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of disease. PMID:24224555

  7. Diet-induced and mono-genetic obesity alter volatile organic compound signature in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Martin; Muntean, Andreea; Szymczak, Wilfried; Rink, Nadine; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Wurst, Wolfgang; Hoeschen, Christoph; Klingenspor, Martin; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Rozman, Jan

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of obesity is still rising in many countries, resulting in an increased risk of associated metabolic diseases. In this study we aimed to describe the volatile organic compound (VOC) patterns symptomatic for obesity. We analyzed high fat diet (HFD) induced obese and mono-genetic obese mice (global knock-in mutation in melanocortin-4 receptor MC4R-ki). The source strengths of 208 VOCs were analyzed in ad libitum fed mice and after overnight food restriction. Volatiles relevant for a random forest-based separation of obese mice were detected (26 in MC4R-ki, 22 in HFD mice). Eight volatiles were found to be important in both obesity models. Interestingly, by creating a partial correlation network of the volatile metabolites, the chemical and metabolic origins of several volatiles were identified. HFD-induced obese mice showed an elevation in the ketone body acetone and acrolein, a marker of lipid peroxidation, and several unidentified volatiles. In MC4R-ki mice, several yet-unidentified VOCs were found to be altered. Remarkably, the pheromone (methylthio)methanethiol was found to be reduced, linking metabolic dysfunction and reproduction. The signature of volatile metabolites can be instrumental in identifying and monitoring metabolic disease states, as shown in the screening of the two obese mouse models in this study. Our findings show the potential of breath gas analysis to non-invasively assess metabolic alterations for personalized diagnosis. PMID:26860833

  8. The importance of antioxidants which play the role in cellular response against oxidative/nitrosative stress: current state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurutas, Ergul Belge

    2016-01-01

    Remarkable interest has risen in the idea that oxidative/nitrosative stress is mediated in the etiology of numerous human diseases. Oxidative/Nitrosative stress is the result of an disequilibrium in oxidant/antioxidant which reveals from continuous increase of Reactive Oxygen and Reactive Nitrogen Species production. The aim of this review is to emphasize with current information the importance of antioxidants which play the role in cellular responce against oxidative/nitrosative stress, which would be helpful in enhancing the knowledge of any biochemist, pathophysiologist, or medical personnel regarding this important issue. Products of lipid peroxidation have commonly been used as biomarkers of oxidative/nitrosative stress damage. Lipid peroxidation generates a variety of relatively stable decomposition end products, mainly α, β-unsaturated reactive aldehydes, such as malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, 2-propenal (acrolein) and isoprostanes, which can be measured in plasma and urine as an indirect index of oxidative/nitrosative stress. Antioxidants are exogenous or endogenous molecules that mitigate any form of oxidative/nitrosative stress or its consequences. They may act from directly scavenging free radicals to increasing antioxidative defences. Antioxidant deficiencies can develop as a result of decreased antioxidant intake, synthesis of endogenous enzymes or increased antioxidant utilization. Antioxidant supplementation has become an increasingly popular practice to maintain optimal body function. However, antoxidants exhibit pro-oxidant activity depending on the specific set of conditions. Of particular importance are their dosage and redox conditions in the cell. PMID:27456681

  9. Genotoxicity of formaldehyde: Molecular basis of DNA damage and mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanobu eKawanishi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde is commonly used in the chemical industry and is present in the environment, such as vehicle emissions, some building materials, food and tobacco smoke. It also occurs as a natural product in most organisms, the sources of which include a number of metabolic processes. It causes various acute and chronic adverse effects in humans if they inhale its fumes. Among the chronic effects on human health, we summarize data on genotoxicity and carcinogenicity in this review, and we particularly focus on the molecular mechanisms involved in the formaldehyde mutagenesis. Formaldehyde mainly induces N-hydroxymethyl mono-adducts on guanine, adenine and cytosine, and N-methylene crosslinks between adjacent purines in DNA. These crosslinks are types of DNA damage potentially fatal for cell survival if they are not removed by the nucleotide excision repair pathway. In the previous studies, we showed evidence that formaldehyde causes intra-strand crosslinks between purines in DNA using a unique method (Matsuda et al. Nucleic Acids Res. 26, 1769-1774,1998. Using shuttle vector plasmids, we also showed that formaldehyde as well as acetaldehyde induces tandem base substitutions, mainly at 5’-GG and 5’-GA sequences, which would arise from the intra-strand crosslinks. These mutation features are different from those of other aldehydes such as crotonaldehyde, acrolein, glyoxal and methylglyoxal. These findings provide molecular clues to improve our understanding of the genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of formaldehyde.

  10. Comparative risk assessment of tobacco smoke constituents using the margin of exposure approach: the neglected contribution of nicotine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumung, Claudia; Rehm, Jürgen; Franke, Heike; Lachenmeier, Dirk W.

    2016-01-01

    Nicotine was not included in previous efforts to identify the most important toxicants of tobacco smoke. A health risk assessment of nicotine for smokers of cigarettes was conducted using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach and results were compared to literature MOEs of various other tobacco toxicants. The MOE is defined as ratio between toxicological threshold (benchmark dose) and estimated human intake. Dose-response modelling of human and animal data was used to derive the benchmark dose. The MOE was calculated using probabilistic Monte Carlo simulations for daily cigarette smokers. Benchmark dose values ranged from 0.004 mg/kg bodyweight for symptoms of intoxication in children to 3 mg/kg bodyweight for mortality in animals; MOEs ranged from below 1 up to 7.6 indicating a considerable consumer risk. The dimension of the MOEs is similar to those of other tobacco toxicants with high concerns relating to adverse health effects such as acrolein or formaldehyde. Owing to the lack of toxicological data in particular relating to cancer, long term animal testing studies for nicotine are urgently necessary. There is immediate need of action concerning the risk of nicotine also with regard to electronic cigarettes and smokeless tobacco. PMID:27759090

  11. Pollution survey of carbonyl compounds in train air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Hao; ZHU Lizhong

    2007-01-01

    The train iS an important vehicle in China,but its air quality has important impacts on passengers' health.In this work,pollution from carbonyl compounds was measured in the air of six trains.The obiectives of this work were to investigate carbonyl compound levels in selected air from trains,identify their emission sources,and assess the intake of carbonyl compounds for passengers.The methods for sampling and analyzing 10 carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde,acetaldehyde,acrolein,acetone,propionalde hyde,crotonaldehyde,butyraldehyde,benzaldehyde,cyclo hexanone,and valeraldehyde in indoor air were proposed with the sampling efficiency,recovery,and detection limit being 92%-100%,91%-104%,and 0.26-0.82 ng/m3,respec tively.It was indicated that the total concentrations of carbonyl compounds were 0.159-0.2828 mg/m3 with the average concentration of 0.2330 mg/m3.The average concen trations of formaldehyde.acetaldehyde and acetone were 0.0922,0.0499,and 0.0580 mg/m3,accounting for 42.6%,21.4%.and 24.9% of the total concentrations of carbonyl compounds,respectively.The carbonyl compounds probably came from woodwork and cigarette smoking.The intake of carbonyl compounds for the passengers was approximately 0.043-0.076 mg/h.The carbonyl compounds in train air could be harmful to human health.

  12. Lipid oxidation and peroxidation in CNS health and disease: from molecular mechanisms to therapeutic opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibhatla, Rao Muralikrishna; Hatcher, James Franklin

    2010-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced at low levels in mammalian cells by various metabolic processes, such as oxidative phosphorylation by the mitochondrial respiratory chain, NAD(P)H oxidases, and arachidonic acid oxidative metabolism. To maintain physiological redox balance, cells have endogenous antioxidant defenses regulated at the transcriptional level by Nrf2/ARE. Oxidative stress results when ROS production exceeds the cell's ability to detoxify ROS. Overproduction of ROS damages cellular components, including lipids, leading to decline in physiological function and cell death. Reaction of ROS with lipids produces oxidized phospholipids, which give rise to 4-hydroxynonenal, 4-oxo-2-nonenal, and acrolein. The brain is susceptible to oxidative damage due to its high lipid content and oxygen consumption. Neurodegenerative diseases (AD, ALS, bipolar disorder, epilepsy, Friedreich's ataxia, HD, MS, NBIA, NPC, PD, peroxisomal disorders, schizophrenia, Wallerian degeneration, Zellweger syndrome) and CNS traumas (stroke, TBI, SCI) are problems of vast clinical importance. Free iron can react with H(2)O(2) via the Fenton reaction, a primary cause of lipid peroxidation, and may be of particular importance for these CNS injuries and disorders. Cholesterol is an important regulator of lipid organization and the precursor for neurosteroid biosynthesis. Atherosclerosis, the major risk factor for ischemic stroke, involves accumulation of oxidized LDL in the arteries, leading to foam cell formation and plaque development. This review will discuss the role of lipid oxidation/peroxidation in various CNS injuries/disorders. PMID:19624272

  13. Kinetics of Forming Aldehydes in Frying Oils and Their Distribution in French Fries Revealed by LC-MS-Based Chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Csallany, A Saari; Kerr, Brian J; Shurson, Gerald C; Chen, Chi

    2016-05-18

    In this study, the kinetics of aldehyde formation in heated frying oils was characterized by 2-hydrazinoquinoline derivatization, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). The aldehydes contributing to time-dependent separation of heated soybean oil (HSO) in a PCA model were grouped by the HCA into three clusters (A1, A2, and B) on the basis of their kinetics and fatty acid precursors. The increases of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and the A2-to-B ratio in HSO were well-correlated with the duration of thermal stress. Chemometric and quantitative analysis of three frying oils (soybean, corn, and canola oils) and French fry extracts further supported the associations between aldehyde profiles and fatty acid precursors and also revealed that the concentrations of pentanal, hexanal, acrolein, and the A2-to-B ratio in French fry extracts were more comparable to their values in the frying oils than other unsaturated aldehydes. All of these results suggest the roles of specific aldehydes or aldehyde clusters as novel markers of the lipid oxidation status for frying oils or fried foods. PMID:27128101

  14. A randomized, controlled exposure study in adult smokers of full flavor Marlboro cigarettes switching to Marlboro Lights or Marlboro Ultra Lights cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Paul; Kapur, Sunil; Wang, Jingzhu; Feng, Shixia; Roethig, Hans

    2008-08-01

    Rationale. To date no state-of-the-art clinical study has been conducted to address the question as to whether switching to lower tar cigarettes reduces exposure to smoke constituents in humans. Methods. Randomized, controlled, forced switching study in 225 adult smokers of full flavor Marlboro (MFF) cigarettes for 8 days with a 24-week follow-up. Subjects smoked MFF (a 15-mg Federal Trade Commission (FTC) tar cigarette) at baseline and were randomized to smoke 11-mg Marlboro Lights (ML) or 6-mg Marlboro Ultra Lights (MUL) cigarettes. Biomarkers of exposure to nicotine, 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), pyrene, CO, benzene, acrolein, and mutagenic substances were measured. Results. In the short-term phase, switching from MFF to ML showed statistically significant decreases in nicotine exposure (-13%) and non-significant increases in CO exposure (+6%), while switching from MFF to MUL showed statistically significant decreases in nicotine (-27%) and CO (-13%) exposure. Both nicotine and CO biomarkers trended similarly in the 24-week follow-up as in the short-term phase. The other biomarkers of cigarette smoke constituents followed the same trend as nicotine at the end of the 24-week follow-up. Conclusions. Switching smokers to lower FTC tar yield cigarettes, on average, reduces nicotine and other biomarkers considered surrogates of tar exposure. PMID:18565634

  15. Reactivity Differences between [alpha, beta]-Unsaturated Carbonyls and Hydrazones Investigated by Experimental and Theoretical Electron Density and Electron Localizability Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabowsky, Simon; Weber, Manuela; Jayatilaka, Dylan; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Grabowski, Matthias T.; Brehme, Rainer; Hesse, Malte; Schirmeister, Tanja; Luger, Peter (UWA); (Wurzburg); (UC); (Berlin)

    2012-10-11

    It is still a challenge to predict a compound's reactivity from its ground-state electronic nature although Bader-type topological analyses of the electron density (ED) and electron localizability indicator (ELI) give detailed and useful information on electron concentration and electron-pair localization, respectively. Both ED and ELI can be obtained from theoretical calculations as well as high-resolution X-ray diffraction experiments. Besides ED and ELI descriptors, the delocalization index is used here; it is likewise derived from theoretical calculations as well as from experimental X-ray results, but in the latter case, demonstrated here for the first time. We investigate {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated carbonyl and hydrazone compounds because resonance exhibited by these compounds in the electronic ground-state determines their reactive behavior. The degree of resonance as well as the reactivity contrast are quantified with the electronic descriptors. Moreover, competitive mesomeric substituent effects are studied using the two biologically important compounds acrolein and acrylamide. The reactivity differences predicted from the analyses are in line with the known reactivity of these compounds in organic synthesis. Hence, the capability of the ED and ELI for rationalizing and predicting different and competing substituent effects with respect to reactivity is demonstrated.

  16. Nanomedicine strategies for treatment of secondary spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White-Schenk D

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Désirée White-Schenk,1,4 Riyi Shi,1–3 James F Leary1–4 1Interdisciplinary Biomedical Sciences Program, 2Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, 3Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Lynn School of Veterinary Medicine, 4Birck Nanotechnology Center, Discovery Park, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA Abstract: Neurological injury, such as spinal cord injury, has a secondary injury associated with it. The secondary injury results from the biological cascade after the primary injury and affects previous uninjured, healthy tissue. Therefore, the mitigation of such a cascade would benefit patients suffering a primary injury and allow the body to recover more quickly. Unfortunately, the delivery of effective therapeutics is quite limited. Due to the inefficient delivery of therapeutic drugs, nanoparticles have become a major field of exploration for medical applications. Based on their material properties, they can help treat disease by delivering drugs to specific tissues, enhancing detection methods, or a mixture of both. Incorporating nanomedicine into the treatment of neuronal injury and disease would likely push nanomedicine into a new light. This review highlights the various pathological issues involved in secondary spinal cord injury, current treatment options, and the improvements that could be made using a nanomedical approach. Keywords: spinal cord injury, acrolein, drug delivery, methylprednisolone, secondary injury

  17. GHK-Cu may Prevent Oxidative Stress in Skin by Regulating Copper and Modifying Expression of Numerous Antioxidant Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren Pickart

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The copper binding tripeptide GHK (glycyl-l-histidyl-l-lysine is a naturally occurring plasma peptide that significantly declines during human aging. It has been established that GHK:Copper(2+ improves wound healing and tissue regeneration and stimulates collagen and decorin production. GHK-Cu also supports angiogenesis and nerve outgrowth, improves the condition of aging skin and hair, and possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. In addition, it increases cellular stemness and secretion of trophic factors by mesenchymal stem cells. GHK’s antioxidant actions have been demonstrated in vitro and in animal studies. They include blocking the formation of reactive oxygen and carbonyl species, detoxifying toxic products of lipid peroxidation such as acrolein, protecting keratinocytes from lethal Ultraviolet B (UVB radiation, and blocking hepatic damage by dichloromethane radicals. In recent studies, GHK has been found to switch gene expression from a diseased state to a healthier state for certain cancers and for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The Broad Institute’s Connectivity Map indicated that GHK induces a 50% or greater change of expression in 31.2% of human genes. This paper reviews biological data demonstrating positive effects of GHK in skin and proposes interaction with antioxidant-related genes as a possible explanation of its antioxidant activity.

  18. TRPA1 mediates the inflammatory actions of environmental irritants and proalgesic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Diana M; Jordt, Sven-Eric; Nikai, Tetsuro; Tsuruda, Pamela R; Read, Andrew J; Poblete, Jeannie; Yamoah, Ebenezer N; Basbaum, Allan I; Julius, David

    2006-03-24

    TRPA1 is an excitatory ion channel targeted by pungent irritants from mustard and garlic. TRPA1 has been proposed to function in diverse sensory processes, including thermal (cold) nociception, hearing, and inflammatory pain. Using TRPA1-deficient mice, we now show that this channel is the sole target through which mustard oil and garlic activate primary afferent nociceptors to produce inflammatory pain. TRPA1 is also targeted by environmental irritants, such as acrolein, that account for toxic and inflammatory actions of tear gas, vehicle exhaust, and metabolic byproducts of chemotherapeutic agents. TRPA1-deficient mice display normal cold sensitivity and unimpaired auditory function, suggesting that this channel is not required for the initial detection of noxious cold or sound. However, TRPA1-deficient mice exhibit pronounced deficits in bradykinin-evoked nociceptor excitation and pain hypersensitivity. Thus, TRPA1 is an important component of the transduction machinery through which environmental irritants and endogenous proalgesic agents depolarize nociceptors to elicit inflammatory pain. PMID:16564016

  19. Evaluation of Volatile Organic Compounds and Carbonyl Compounds Present in the Cabins of Newly Produced, Medium- and Large-Size Coaches in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Yang Lu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An air-conditioned coach is an important form of transportation in modern motorized society; as a result, there is an increasing concern of in-vehicle air pollution. In this study, we aimed to identify and quantify the levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and carbonyl compounds (CCs in air samples collected from the cabins of newly produced, medium- and large-size coaches. Among the identified VOCs and CCs, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein/acetone, and isovaleraldehyde were relatively abundant in the cabins. Time was found to affect the emissions of the contaminants in the coaches. Except for benzaldehyde, valeraldehyde and benzene, the highest in-vehicle concentrations of VOCs and CCs were observed on the 15th day after coming off the assembly line, and the concentrations exhibited an approximately inverted U-shaped pattern as a function of time. Interestingly, this study also showed that the interior temperature of the coaches significantly affected the VOCs emissions from the interior materials, whereas the levels of CCs were mainly influenced by the relative humidity within the coaches. In China, guidelines and regulations for the in-vehicle air quality assessment of the coaches have not yet been issued. The results of this study provide further understanding of the in-vehicle air quality of air-conditioned coaches and can be used in the development of both specific and general rules regarding medium- and large-size coaches.

  20. Evaluation of Volatile Organic Compounds and Carbonyl Compounds Present in the Cabins of Newly Produced, Medium- and Large-Size Coaches in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yan-Yang; Lin, Yi; Zhang, Han; Ding, Dongxiao; Sun, Xia; Huang, Qiansheng; Lin, Lifeng; Chen, Ya-Jie; Chi, Yu-Lang; Dong, Sijun

    2016-01-01

    An air-conditioned coach is an important form of transportation in modern motorized society; as a result, there is an increasing concern of in-vehicle air pollution. In this study, we aimed to identify and quantify the levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonyl compounds (CCs) in air samples collected from the cabins of newly produced, medium- and large-size coaches. Among the identified VOCs and CCs, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein/acetone, and isovaleraldehyde were relatively abundant in the cabins. Time was found to affect the emissions of the contaminants in the coaches. Except for benzaldehyde, valeraldehyde and benzene, the highest in-vehicle concentrations of VOCs and CCs were observed on the 15th day after coming off the assembly line, and the concentrations exhibited an approximately inverted U-shaped pattern as a function of time. Interestingly, this study also showed that the interior temperature of the coaches significantly affected the VOCs emissions from the interior materials, whereas the levels of CCs were mainly influenced by the relative humidity within the coaches. In China, guidelines and regulations for the in-vehicle air quality assessment of the coaches have not yet been issued. The results of this study provide further understanding of the in-vehicle air quality of air-conditioned coaches and can be used in the development of both specific and general rules regarding medium- and large-size coaches. PMID:27314375

  1. Industrial Application of the Catalyst for Oxidation of Prolylene to Acrylic Acid%丙烯氧化制丙烯酸催化剂在万吨级工业装置上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪梅; 冯世强; 焦昆; 秦春华; 褚小东; 邵敬铭

    2012-01-01

    采用XRD和BET等手段对自制丙烯氧化制丙烯酸催化剂进行了表征;对该催化剂进行了小试、模试和10kt/a工业装置评价.试验结果表明,一段催化剂主要为CoMO4,Bi2M03O12,Bi2MoO6,FeMoO4,Co6Mo12Bi15Ox的晶相;二段催化剂主要为MoO3,Mo5Ol4,( Sb2O)M6O18( M=Mo,W,V)氧化物的晶相.小试评价结果为一段催化剂平均丙烯转化率98.1%、丙烯醛和丙烯酸总收率92.3%、氧化碳总收率3.4%,二段催化剂平均丙烯醛转化率99.7%、丙烯酸收率97.9%、氧化碳收率l.6%;一段和二段催化剂串联后,其模试评价的丙烯酸收率为88.8%,工业装置上运行时丙烯酸收率为88.9%.%The catalysts were characterized by means of XRD and BET, and their catalytic performance for oxidation of propylene to acrylic acid was evaluated through bench scale test, pilot scale test and 10 kt/a industrial test. The results showed that crystal phases of the first stage catalysts included CoMoO4, Bi2Mo3O12, Bi2MoO6, FeMoO4 and Co6Mo12Bi1.5Ox, and crystal phases of the second stage catalysts included MoO3, Mo5O14 and (Sb2O) M6O18(M=Mo, W, V). The bench scale test indicated 98.1% propylene conversion, 92.3% total yield of acrolein and acrylic acid, and 3.4% carbon oxide yield for the first stage catalyst, and 99.7% acrolein conversion, 97.9% acrylic acid yield and 1.6% carbon oxide yield for the second stage catalyst. The acrylic acid yield could reach 88.8% and 88.9% in the pilot scale test and the 10 kt/a industrial test, respectively.

  2. Primary photodissociation pathways of epichlorohydrin and analysis of the C-C bond fission channels from an O((3)P)+allyl radical intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Benjamin L; Alligood, Bridget W; Butler, Laurie J; Lee, Shih-Huang; Lin, Jim Jr-Min

    2010-09-01

    This study initially characterizes the primary photodissociation processes of epichlorohydrin, c-(H(2)COCH)CH(2)Cl. The three dominant photoproduct channels analyzed are c-(H(2)COCH)CH(2)+Cl, c-(H(2)COCH)+CH(2)Cl, and C(3)H(4)O+HCl. In the second channel, the c-(H(2)COCH) photofission product is a higher energy intermediate on C(2)H(3)O global potential energy surface and has a small isomerization barrier to vinoxy. The resulting highly vibrationally excited vinoxy radicals likely dissociate to give the observed signal at the mass corresponding to ketene, H(2)CCO. The final primary photodissociation pathway HCl+C(3)H(4)O evidences a recoil kinetic energy distribution similar to that of four-center HCl elimination in chlorinated alkenes, so is assigned to production of c-(H(2)COC)=CH(2); the epoxide product is formed with enough vibrational energy to isomerize to acrolein and dissociate. The paper then analyzes the dynamics of the C(3)H(5)O radical produced from C-Cl bond photofission. When the epoxide radical photoproduct undergoes facile ring opening, it is the radical intermediate formed in the O((3)P)+allyl bimolecular reaction when the O atom adds to an end C atom. We focus on the HCO+C(2)H(4) and H(2)CO+C(2)H(3) product channels from this radical intermediate in this report. Analysis of the velocity distribution of the momentum-matched signals from the HCO+C(2)H(4) products at m/e=29 and 28 shows that the dissociation of the radical intermediate imparts a high relative kinetic energy, peaking near 20 kcal/mol, between the products. Similarly, the energy imparted to relative kinetic energy in the H(2)CO+C(2)H(3) product channel of the O((3)P)+allyl radical intermediate also peaks at high-recoil kinetic energies, near 18 kcal/mol. The strongly forward-backward peaked angular distributions and the high kinetic energy release result from tangential recoil during the dissociation of highly rotationally excited nascent radicals formed photolytically in this

  3. Carbonyl compounds emitted by a diesel engine fuelled with diesel and biodiesel-diesel blends: Sampling optimization and emissions profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarieiro, Lílian Lefol Nani; Pereira, Pedro Afonso de Paula; Torres, Ednildo Andrade; da Rocha, Gisele Olimpio; de Andrade, Jailson B.

    75). The ΣCC of the emission concentrations were 20.5 ppmV for B0 and 15.7 ppmV for B100. When considering fuel blends, the measured ΣCC were 21.4 ppmV, 22.5 ppmV, 20.4 ppmV, 14.2 ppmV, 11.4 ppmV and 14.7 ppmV, respectively, for B2, B5, B10, B20, B50 and B75. Among the target CC, both formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were the major contributors to the observed total CC levels. Except for acrolein and formaldehyde, all CC showed a clear trend of reduction in the emissions from B2 to B100 (40% reduction, on average). Both individual and total CC emission factors (pg g -1 of fuel burnt) were calculated for all tested biodiesel-diesel blends. The lowest total CC emission factor (2271 pg g -1) was found when B50 was used; the individual emission factors determined (pg g -1) were: 539.7 (formaldehyde), 1411 (acetaldehyde), 30.83 (acrolein), and 310.7 (propionaldehyde).

  4. Inhibition of aminoacylase 3 protects rat brain cortex neuronal cells from the toxicity of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal mercapturate and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsirulnikov, Kirill; Abuladze, Natalia [Department of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Bragin, Anatol [Department of Neurology, University of California at Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Brain Research Institute, University of California at Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Faull, Kym [Brain Research Institute, University of California at Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, University of California at Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Pasarow Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, University of California at Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Cascio, Duilio [Institute of Genomics and Proteomics, University of California at Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Damoiseaux, Robert; Schibler, Matthew J. [California NanoSystems Institute, University of California at Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Pushkin, Alexander, E-mail: apushkin@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2012-09-15

    4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (4HNE) and acrolein (ACR) are highly reactive neurotoxic products of lipid peroxidation that are implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Conjugation with glutathione (GSH) initiates the 4HNE and ACR detoxification pathway, which generates the mercapturates of 4HNE and ACR that can be excreted. Prior work has shown that the efficiency of the GSH-dependent renal detoxification of haloalkene derived mercapturates is significantly decreased upon their deacetylation because of rapid transformation of the deacetylated products into toxic compounds mediated by β-lyase. The enzymes of the GSH-conjugation pathway and β-lyases are expressed in the brain, and we hypothesized that a similar toxicity mechanism may be initiated in the brain by the deacetylation of 4HNE- and ACR-mercapturate. The present study was performed to identify an enzyme(s) involved in 4HNE- and ACR-mercapturate deacetylation, characterize the brain expression of this enzyme and determine whether its inhibition decreases 4HNE and 4HNE-mercapturate neurotoxicity. We demonstrated that of two candidate deacetylases, aminoacylases 1 (AA1) and 3 (AA3), only AA3 efficiently deacetylates both 4HNE- and ACR-mercapturate. AA3 was further localized to neurons and blood vessels. Using a small molecule screen we generated high-affinity AA3 inhibitors. Two of them completely protected rat brain cortex neurons expressing AA3 from the toxicity of 4HNE-mercapturate. 4HNE-cysteine (4HNE-Cys) was also neurotoxic and its toxicity was mostly prevented by a β-lyase inhibitor, aminooxyacetate. The results suggest that the AA3 mediated deacetylation of 4HNE-mercapturate may be involved in the neurotoxicity of 4HNE.

  5. Membrane lipid peroxidation in neurodegeneration: Role of thrombin and proteinase-activated receptor-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citron, Bruce A; Ameenuddin, Syed; Uchida, K; Suo, William Z; SantaCruz, Karen; Festoff, Barry W

    2016-07-15

    Thrombin and membrane lipid peroxidation (MLP) have been implicated in various central nervous system (CNS) disorders from CNS trauma to stroke, Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's (PD) diseases. Because thrombin also induces MLP in platelets and its involvement in neurodegenerative diseases we hypothesized that its deleterious effects might, in part, involve formation of MLP in neuronal cells. We previously showed that thrombin induced caspase-3 mediated apoptosis in motor neurons, via a proteinase-activated receptor (PAR1). We have now investigated thrombin's influence on the oxidative state of neurons leading to induction of MLP-protein adducts. Translational relevance of thrombin-induced MLP is supported by increased levels of 4-hydroxynonenal-protein adducts (HNEPA) in AD and PD brains. We now report for the first time that thrombin dose-dependently induces formation of HNEPA in NSC34 mouse motor neuron cells using anti-HNE and anti-acrolein monoclonal antibodies. The most prominent immunoreactive band, in SDS-PAGE, was at ∼54kDa. Membrane fractions displayed higher amounts of the protein-adduct than cytosolic fractions. Thrombin induced MLP was mediated, at least in part, through PAR1 since a PAR1 active peptide, PAR1AP, also elevated HNEPA levels. Of interest, glutamate and Fe2SO4 also increased the ∼54kDa HNEPA band in these cells but to a lesser extent. Taken together our results implicate the involvement of thrombin and MLP in neuronal cell loss observed in various CNS degenerative and traumatic pathologies. PMID:27138068

  6. A review of acrylamide: an industry perspective on research, analysis, formation, and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taeymans, Dominique; Wood, John; Ashby, Peter; Blank, Imre; Studer, Alfred; Stadler, Richard H; Gondé, Pierre; Van Eijck, Paul; Lalljie, Sam; Lingnert, Hans; Lindblom, Marianne; Matissek, Reinhard; Müller, Detflef; Tallmadge, Dan; O'Brien, John; Thompson, Sara; Silvani, David; Whitmore, Tricia

    2004-01-01

    Acrylamide is a synthetic monomer with a wide scope of industrial applications, mainly as a precursor in the production of several polymers, such as polyacrylamide. The main uses of polyacrylamides are in water and wastewater treatment processes, pulp and paper processing, and mining and mineral processing. The announcement by the Swedish National Food Administration in April 2002 of the presence of acrylamide predominantly in heat-treated carbohydrate-rich foods sparked intensive investigations into acrylamide, encompassing the occurrence, chemistry, agricultural practices, and toxicology, in order to establish if there is a potential risk to human health from the presence of this contaminant in the human diet. The link of acrylamide in foods to the Maillard reaction and, in particular, to the amino acid asparagine has been a major step forward in elucidating the first feasible chemical route of formation during the preparation and processing of food. Other probably minor pathways have also been proposed, including acrolein and acrylic acid. This review addresses the analytical and mechanistic aspects of the acrylamide issue and summarizes the progress made to date by the European food industries in these key areas. Essentially, it presents experimental results generated under laboratory model conditions, as well as under actual food processing conditions covering different food categories, such as potatoes, biscuits, cereals, and coffee. Since acrylamide formation is closely linked to food composition, factors such as the presence of sugars and availability of free amino acids are also considered. Many new findings that contribute towards a better understanding of the formation and presence of acrylamide in foods are presented. Many national authorities across the world are assessing the dietary exposure of consumers to acrylamide, and scientific projects have commenced to gather new information about the toxicology of acrylamide. These are expected to provide

  7. Organic acids and aldehydes in rainwater in a northwest region of Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, R.M.; Garcia, S.; Herrero, C. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Lugo (Spain). Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia

    2002-11-01

    During a 1 year period, measurements of carboxylic acids and aldehydes were carried out in rainwater samples collected at nine different sites in NW Spain surrounding a thermal power plant in order to determine concentration levels and sources. In addition, certain major ions (Cl{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, Na{sup +}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, K{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}) were also determined. Aldehyde and carboxylic acid concentration patterns and their effects on rainwater composition concerning temporal, seasonal and spatial variations were evaluated. Among carboxylic acids, formic and acetic were predominant (VWA 7.0 and 8.3 {mu}M), while formaldehyde and acroleine were the dominant aldehydes (VWA 0.42 and 1.25 {mu}M). Carboxylic acids were estimated to account for 27.5% of the total free acidity (TFA), whereas sulphuric and nitric acid accounted for 46.2% and 26.2%, respectively. Oxalic acid was demonstrated to be an important contributing compound to the acidification in rainwater representing 7.1% of the TFA. The concentration of aldehydes and carboxylic acids, which originated mainly from biogenic emissions in the area studied, was strongly dependent on the season of the year (growing and non-growing). The ratios of formic to acetic acids are considerably different in the two seasons suggesting that there exist distinct sources in both growing and non-growing seasons. Principal component analysis was applied in order to elucidate the sources of aldehydes and organic acids in rainwater. The prevalence of natural vegetative origins for both of these compounds versus anthropogenic emissions was demonstrated and the importance of the oxidation of aldehydes as a relevant source of organic acids was also established. (author)

  8. EPHECT III: Health risk assessment of exposure to household consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trantallidi, M; Dimitroulopoulou, C; Wolkoff, P; Kephalopoulos, S; Carrer, P

    2015-12-01

    In the framework of the EU EPHECT project (Emissions, Exposure Patterns and Health Effects of Consumer Products in the EU), irritative and respiratory effects were assessed in relation to acute (30-min) and long-term (24-h) inhalation exposure to key and emerging indoor air pollutants emitted during household use of selected consumer products. A detailed Health Risk Assessment (HRA) was performed for five selected pollutants of respiratory health relevance, namely acrolein, formaldehyde, naphthalene, d-limonene and α-pinene. For each pollutant, the Critical Exposure Limit (CEL) was compared to indoor air concentrations and exposure estimates for the use of 15 selected consumer products by two population groups (housekeepers and retired people) in the four geographical regions of Europe (North, West, South, East), which were derived previously based on microenvironmental modelling. For the present HRA, health-based CELs were derived for certain compounds in case indoor air quality guidelines were not available by the World Health Organization for end-points relevant to the current study. For each pollutant, the highest indoor air concentrations in each microenvironment and exposure estimates across home microenvironments during the day were lower than the corresponding acute and long-term CELs. However, considerable contributions, especially to acute exposures, were obtained in some cases, such as formaldehyde emissions resulting from single product use of a floor cleaning agent (82% CEL), a candle (10% CEL) and an electric air freshener (17% CEL). Regarding multiple product use, the case of 30-min formaldehyde exposure reaching 34% CEL when eight product classes were used across home microenvironments, i.e. all-purpose/kitchen/floor cleaning agents, furniture/floor polish, combustible/electric air fresheners, and perfume, needs to be highlighted. Such estimated values should be evaluated with caution, as these may be attributed to the exposure scenarios

  9. Evaluation of Microbiological and Chemical Contaminants in Poultry Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Skóra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbiological and chemical contamination in settled dust at poultry farms. The scope of research included evaluating the contributions of the various granulometric fractions in settled dust samples, assessing microbial contamination using culture methods, concentrations of secondary metabolites in dust and their cytotoxicity against hepatocyte chicken cells by means of MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide tests. In addition, we also evaluated the concentration of selected volatile odorous compounds (VOCs using gas chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods and airborne dust concentration in the air with DustTrak™ DRX Aerosol Monitor. Studies were carried out on chicken broilers and laying hens at 13 poultry farms, with numbers of birds ranging from 8000 to 42,000. The airborne total dust concentration at poultry farms averaged 1.44 mg/m3 with a high percentage of the PM10 fraction (particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 μm. Microorganism concentrations in the settled dust were: 3.2 × 109 cfu/g for bacteria and 1.2 × 106 cfu/g for fungi. Potential pathogens (Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Paecilomyces variotii were also found. Secondary metabolites included aurofusarin, deoxynivalenol, 15-hydroxyculmorin zearalenone, zearalenone-sulfate, infectopyron, and neochinulin A. However, the dust samples showed weak cytotoxicity towards chicken hepatocyte cells, which ranged between 9.2% and 29.7%. Among volatile odorous compounds ammonia, acrolein, methyloamine, acetic acid, acetoaldehyde and formaldehyde were detected in the air. In conclusion, settled dust can be a carrier of microorganisms, odours and secondary metabolites in poultry farms, which can be harmful to workers’ health.

  10. Analsysis of frequency of tuberculosis in smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škodrić-Trifunović Vesna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Smoking and tuberculosis are among the most important problems of public health. Smoking and tuberculosis are responsible for 5 million and 2 million deaths per year, respectively, whereas smoking is responsible for half a million deaths in patients with tuberculosis. Discussion and Review of Literature. Nicotine is a significant suppressor of function of macrophages, dendritic cells and T-cells, which explains the immunosuppressive features of smoking that help develop the infection. Tobacco smoke contains many substances with immunomodulatory effects, including nicotine, carbon monoxide, acrolein, peroxynitrite and many others. The dominant immune and pathophysiological mechanism is the reduction of synthesis of tumor necrosis factor in lung macrophages, leading to increased susceptibility of persons who are exposed to tobacco smoke for developing active tuberculosis after infection and increased susceptibility to the development of other infections, such as infections of Gram-negative bacteria. Based on epidemiological studies and studies on this problem in the past 50 years, the World Health Organization has published the finding that smoking increases the risk of infection with M. tuberculosis, increases the risk of progression of infection to active disease and the risk of death. The prevalence of tuberculosis is higher in smokers and former smokers than in nonsmokers. The risk of tuberculosis depends on the number of cigarettes smoked and length of period the person has been a smoker. Passive smoking accelerates the development of active tuberculosis. in children who live with persons suffering from active tuberculosis, Conclusion. Given the multiple consequences of the association between smoking and tuberculosis, prevention of smoking may be an important measure in the control of tuberculosis. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175046 i br. 175081

  11. Cigarette smoke affects keratinocytes SRB1 expression and localization via H2O2 production and HNE protein adducts formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Sticozzi

    Full Text Available Scavenger Receptor B1 (SR-B1, also known as HDL receptor, is involved in cellular cholesterol uptake. Stratum corneum (SC, the outermost layer of the skin, is composed of more than 25% cholesterol. Several reports support the view that alteration of SC lipid composition may be the cause of impaired barrier function which gives rise to several skin diseases. For this reason the regulation of the genes involved in cholesterol uptake is of extreme significance for skin health. Being the first shield against external insults, the skin is exposed to several noxious substances and among these is cigarette smoke (CS, which has been recently associated with various skin pathologies. In this study we first have shown the presence of SR-B1 in murine and human skin tissue and then by using immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation, RT-PCR, and confocal microscopy we have demonstrated the translocation and the subsequent lost of SR-B1 in human keratinocytes (cell culture model after CS exposure is driven by hydrogen peroxide (H(2O(2 that derives not only from the CS gas phase but mainly from the activation of cellular NADPH oxidase (NOX. This effect was reversed when the cells were pretreated with NOX inhibitors or catalase. Furthermore, CS caused the formation of SR-B1-aldheydes adducts (acrolein and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and the increase of its ubiquitination, which could be one of the causes of SR-B1 loss. In conclusion, exposure to CS, through the production of H(2O(2, induced post-translational modifications of SR-B1 with the consequence lost of the receptor and this may contribute to the skin physiology alteration as a consequence of the variation of cholesterol uptake.

  12. Cigarette smoke affects keratinocytes SRB1 expression and localization via H2O2 production and HNE protein adducts formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sticozzi, Claudia; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Arezzini, Beatrice; Gardi, Concetta; Maioli, Emanuela; Miracco, Clelia; Toscano, Marzia; Forman, Henry Jay; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Scavenger Receptor B1 (SR-B1), also known as HDL receptor, is involved in cellular cholesterol uptake. Stratum corneum (SC), the outermost layer of the skin, is composed of more than 25% cholesterol. Several reports support the view that alteration of SC lipid composition may be the cause of impaired barrier function which gives rise to several skin diseases. For this reason the regulation of the genes involved in cholesterol uptake is of extreme significance for skin health. Being the first shield against external insults, the skin is exposed to several noxious substances and among these is cigarette smoke (CS), which has been recently associated with various skin pathologies. In this study we first have shown the presence of SR-B1 in murine and human skin tissue and then by using immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation, RT-PCR, and confocal microscopy we have demonstrated the translocation and the subsequent lost of SR-B1 in human keratinocytes (cell culture model) after CS exposure is driven by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) that derives not only from the CS gas phase but mainly from the activation of cellular NADPH oxidase (NOX). This effect was reversed when the cells were pretreated with NOX inhibitors or catalase. Furthermore, CS caused the formation of SR-B1-aldheydes adducts (acrolein and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal) and the increase of its ubiquitination, which could be one of the causes of SR-B1 loss. In conclusion, exposure to CS, through the production of H(2)O(2), induced post-translational modifications of SR-B1 with the consequence lost of the receptor and this may contribute to the skin physiology alteration as a consequence of the variation of cholesterol uptake.

  13. Comparison of the impact of the Tobacco Heating System 2.2 and a cigarette on indoor air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitova, Maya I; Campelos, Pedro B; Goujon-Ginglinger, Catherine G; Maeder, Serge; Mottier, Nicolas; Rouget, Emmanuel G R; Tharin, Manuel; Tricker, Anthony R

    2016-10-01

    The impact of the Tobacco Heating System 2.2 (THS 2.2) on indoor air quality was evaluated in an environmentally controlled room using ventilation conditions recommended for simulating "Office", "Residential" and "Hospitality" environments and was compared with smoking a lit-end cigarette (Marlboro Gold) under identical experimental conditions. The concentrations of eighteen indoor air constituents (respirable suspended particles (RSP) < 2.5 μm in diameter), ultraviolet particulate matter (UVPM), fluorescent particulate matter (FPM), solanesol, 3-ethenylpyridine, nicotine, 1,3-butadiene, acrylonitrile, benzene, isoprene, toluene, acetaldehyde, acrolein, crotonaldehyde, formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, and combined oxides of nitrogen) were measured. In simulations evaluating THS 2.2, the concentrations of most studied analytes did not exceed the background concentrations determined when non-smoking panelists were present in the environmentally controlled room under equivalent conditions. Only acetaldehyde and nicotine concentrations were increased above background concentrations in the "Office" (3.65 and 1.10 μg/m(3)), "Residential" (5.09 and 1.81 μg/m(3)) and "Hospitality" (1.40 and 0.66 μg/m(3)) simulations, respectively. Smoking Marlboro Gold resulted in greater increases in the concentrations of acetaldehyde (58.8, 83.8 and 33.1 μg/m(3)) and nicotine (34.7, 29.1 and 34.6 μg/m(3)) as well as all other measured indoor air constituents in the "Office", "Residential" and "Hospitality" simulations, respectively.

  14. Characterizing Air Toxics from Oil Field Operations in Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M. C.; Brown, S. G.; DeWinter, J. L.; Bai, S.; O'Brien, T.; Vaughn, D.; Peltier, R.; Soltis, J.; Field, R. A.; Murphy, S. M.; Roberts, P. T.

    2014-12-01

    The Inglewood Oil Field in urban Los Angeles has been in operation for more than 70 years. Neighborhoods surrounding the oil field are concerned with the potential emissions of air toxics from oil field operations. The Baldwin Hills Air Quality Study focused on (1) quantifying air toxics concentrations originating from the Inglewood Oil Field operations, including drilling and well workovers, and (2) assessing the health risk of both acute and chronic exposure to air toxics emitted from oil field operations. Key pollutants identified for characterization included diesel particulate matter (DPM), cadmium, benzene, nickel, formaldehyde, mercury, manganese, acrolein, arsenic, and lead. The field study began in November 2012 and ended in November 2013. Four types of instruments were used to characterize oil field operations: (1) Aethalometers to measure black carbon (BC; as a proxy for DPM); (2) X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) for metals; (3) Proton-Transfer-Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (PTR-TOFMS) for volatile organic compounds; and (4) meteorological sensors to help assess the wind patterns, temperature, and humidity that influence pollutant concentrations. Overall concentrations of most of the species measured in the study were quite low for an urban area. We determined that there were statistically significant increases in concentrations of DPM associated with oil field operations when winds were from the west-southwest. BC concentrations increased by 0.036 to 0.056 μg/m3, on average, when winds originated from the west-southwest, compared to annual mean BC concentrations of approximately 0.67 μg/m3. West-southwest winds occurred 53% of the time during the study. No other pollutants showed strong statistical evidence of chronic or acute risk from oil field operations.

  15. Evaluation of Microbiological and Chemical Contaminants in Poultry Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skóra, Justyna; Matusiak, Katarzyna; Wojewódzki, Piotr; Nowak, Adriana; Sulyok, Michael; Ligocka, Anna; Okrasa, Małgorzata; Hermann, Janusz; Gutarowska, Beata

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbiological and chemical contamination in settled dust at poultry farms. The scope of research included evaluating the contributions of the various granulometric fractions in settled dust samples, assessing microbial contamination using culture methods, concentrations of secondary metabolites in dust and their cytotoxicity against hepatocyte chicken cells by means of MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) tests. In addition, we also evaluated the concentration of selected volatile odorous compounds (VOCs) using gas chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods and airborne dust concentration in the air with DustTrak™ DRX Aerosol Monitor. Studies were carried out on chicken broilers and laying hens at 13 poultry farms, with numbers of birds ranging from 8000 to 42,000. The airborne total dust concentration at poultry farms averaged 1.44 mg/m³ with a high percentage of the PM10 fraction (particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 μm). Microorganism concentrations in the settled dust were: 3.2 × 10⁸ cfu/g for bacteria and 1.2 × 10⁶ cfu/g for fungi. Potential pathogens (Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Paecilomyces variotii) were also found. Secondary metabolites included aurofusarin, deoxynivalenol, 15-hydroxyculmorin zearalenone, zearalenone-sulfate, infectopyron, and neochinulin A. However, the dust samples showed weak cytotoxicity towards chicken hepatocyte cells, which ranged between 9.2% and 29.7%. Among volatile odorous compounds ammonia, acrolein, methyloamine, acetic acid, acetoaldehyde and formaldehyde were detected in the air. In conclusion, settled dust can be a carrier of microorganisms, odours and secondary metabolites in poultry farms, which can be harmful to workers' health.

  16. Kinetic and mechanistic studies on the atmospheric oxidation of oxygenated Volatile Organic Compounds: aldehyde, ketones and esters (solvents or car emissions); Etudes des cinetiques et mecanismes de degradation atmospherique de composes organiques volatils oxygenes: aldehydes, cetones et esters (emissions automobiles et solvants)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thevenet, R.

    2000-12-01

    The atmospheric fate of oxygenated Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), used as solvents or emitted by fuel car combustion, is reported in this thesis. Four saturated aldehydes (propanal, isobutyr-aldehyde, pivalaldehyde and valeraldehyde), two unsaturated aldehydes (acrolein and croton-aldehyde), three ketones (2-butanone, 2-methyl-4-pentanone, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone) and three esters (methyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate and methyl pyruvate) have been studied. The rate coefficients of the OH reactions with the VOCs have been measured over the temperature range 233-372 K, using the Pulsed Laser Photolysis - Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLP-LIF) technique. The photo-reactor have been used to measure the reaction rate constants of these VOCs with Cl or O{sub 3} by the relative method. The obtained results are the first determinations for the most of the VOCs. In a second part, the atmospheric oxidation of the VOCs, initiated by OH, have been studied in smog chambers. Analysis have been performed by IRTF and GC-MS. Photo-reactors have been used, a laboratory photo-reactor in Orleans (160 L) and the European Photo-reactor EUPHORE (200 m{sup 3} with sunlight irradiation). The main oxidation pathways of the VOCs and the main products have been identified. For most of the VOCs, there are the first studies. These experimental results leaded to discuss the atmospheric fate of the VOCs in terms of lifetimes and oxidation products of the VOCs. The tropospheric ozone forming potential of the VOCs and their role in the photo-oxidant pollution have been evaluated. (author)

  17. Measurements of volatile organic compounds emitted from plants in the metropolitan area of São Paulo City , Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, L.; Pisani, S.; Pool, C.; Vasconcellos, P.

    2003-04-01

    The presence of the biogenic hydrocarbons in an NO_x-containing atmosphere can enhance ozone generation and the impact of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from vegetation on atmospheric chemistry has been investigated. No study of VOC emission rates from plant species has been carried out in São Paulo City, Brazil, prior to this work. This study is part of a three-years project on biogenic volatile organic compounds emissions from species of plants found in the vegetation of the São Paulo metropolitan area. Typical plants (Alchornea sidifolia, Cupania oblongifolia, Cecropia pachystachia, Casearia sylvestris, Machaerium villosum, Croton floribundus, Myrcia rostrata, Solanum erianthum and Ficus insípida) were selected and identical species were studied in urban, sub-urban and forest regions. Biogenic hydrocarbons were determined placing branches of plants in enclosures and measuring the accumulation of emitted compounds in an all-Teflon chamber, the cuvette system. Measuring ambient VOC concentration adsorptive preconcentration, followed by GC-MS after thermal desorption of the sample, was employed to determine components heavier than C_5. Collection of carbonyl compounds on 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazine coated particles followed by HPLC-UV was used to analyze low molecular weight carbonyl compounds. Emissions rates of isoprene, a-pinene, camphene and limonene ranged from 0.01 to 2.16 μg C/h.g and emissions rates of aldehydes (C_1 - C_6), acrolein, methacrolein, 2-butanone and acetone ranged from 0.04 to 4.20 μg C/h.g. Ambient and chamber temperatures, relative humidity, light intensity, O_3 and NO_x were monitored during experiments.

  18. Role of aldehyde chemistry and NOx concentrations in secondary organic aerosol formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. O. Wennberg

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Aldehydes are an important class of products from atmospheric oxidation of hydrocarbons. Isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, the most abundantly emitted atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbon, produces a significant amount of secondary organic aerosol (SOA via methacrolein (a C4-unsaturated aldehyde under urban high-NOx conditions. Previously, we have identified peroxy methacryloyl nitrate (MPAN as the important intermediate to isoprene and methacrolein SOA in this NOx regime. Here we show that as a result of this chemistry, NO2 enhances SOA formation from methacrolein and two other α, β-unsaturated aldehydes, specifically acrolein and crotonaldehyde, a NOx effect on SOA formation previously unrecognized. Oligoesters of dihydroxycarboxylic acids and hydroxynitrooxycarboxylic acids are observed to increase with increasing NO2/NO ratio, and previous characterizations are confirmed by both online and offline high-resolution mass spectrometry techniques. Molecular structure also determines the amount of SOA formation, as the SOA mass yields are the highest for aldehydes that are α, β-unsaturated and contain an additional methyl group on the α-carbon. Aerosol formation from 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO232 is insignificant, even under high-NO2 conditions, as PAN (peroxy acyl nitrate, RC(OOONO2 formation is structurally unfavorable. At atmospherically relevant NO2/NO ratios, the SOA yields from isoprene high-NOxphotooxidation are 3 times greater than previously measured at lower NO2/NO ratios. At sufficiently high NO2 concentrations, in systems of α, β-unsaturated aldehydes, SOA formation from subsequent oxidation of products from acyl peroxyl radicals+NO2 can exceed that from RO2+HO2 reactions under the same inorganic seed conditions, making RO2+NO2 an important channel for SOA formation.

  19. Role of aldehyde chemistry and NOx concentrations in secondary organic aerosol formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. O. Wennberg

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Aldehydes are an important class of products from atmospheric oxidation of hydrocarbons. Isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, the most abundantly emitted atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbon, produces a significant amount of secondary organic aerosol (SOA via methacrolein (a C4-unsaturated aldehyde under urban high-NOx conditions. Previously, we have identified peroxy methacryloyl nitrate (MPAN as the important intermediate to isoprene and methacrolein SOA in this NOx regime. Here we show that as a result of this chemistry, NO2 enhances SOA formation from methacrolein and two other α, β-unsaturated aldehydes, specifically acrolein and crotonaldehyde, a NOx effect on SOA formation previously unrecognized. Oligoesters of dihydroxycarboxylic acids and hydroxynitrooxycarboxylic acids are observed to increase with increasing NO2/NO ratio, and previous characterizations are confirmed by both online and offline high-resolution mass spectrometry techniques. Molecular structure also determines the amount of SOA formation, as the SOA mass yields are the highest for aldehydes that are α, β-unsaturated and contain an additional methyl group on the α-carbon. Aerosol formation from 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO232 is insignificant, even under high-NO2 conditions, as PAN (peroxy acyl nitrate, RC(OOONO2 formation is structurally unfavorable. At atmospherically relevant NO2/NO ratios (3–8, the SOA yields from isoprene high-NOx photooxidation are 3 times greater than previously measured at lower NO2/NO ratios. At sufficiently high NO2 concentrations, in systems of α, β-unsaturated aldehydes, SOA formation from subsequent oxidation of products from acyl peroxyl radicals+NO2 can exceed that from RO2+HO2 reactions under the same inorganic seed conditions, making RO2+NO2 an important channel for SOA formation.

  20. Molecular Mechanism of Acrylamide Neurotoxicity: Lessons Learned from Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, Terrence

    2012-01-01

    Background: Acrylamide (ACR) produces cumulative neurotoxicity in exposed humans and laboratory animals through a direct inhibitory effect on presynaptic function. Objectives: In this review, we delineate how knowledge of chemistry provided an unprecedented understanding of the ACR neurotoxic mechanism. We also show how application of the hard and soft, acids and bases (HSAB) theory led to the recognition that the α,β-unsaturated carbonyl structure of ACR is a soft electrophile that preferentially forms covalent bonds with soft nucleophiles. Methods: In vivo proteomic and in chemico studies demonstrated that ACR formed covalent adducts with highly nucleophilic cysteine thiolate groups located within active sites of presynaptic proteins. Additional research showed that resulting protein inactivation disrupted nerve terminal processes and impaired neurotransmission. Discussion: ACR is a type-2 alkene, a chemical class that includes structurally related electrophilic environmental pollutants (e.g., acrolein) and endogenous mediators of cellular oxidative stress (e.g., 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal). Members of this chemical family produce toxicity via a common molecular mechanism. Although individual environmental concentrations might not be toxicologically relevant, exposure to an ambient mixture of type-2 alkene pollutants could pose a significant risk to human health. Furthermore, environmentally derived type-2 alkenes might act synergistically with endogenously generated unsaturated aldehydes to amplify cellular damage and thereby accelerate human disease/injury processes that involve oxidative stress. Conclusions: These possibilities have substantial implications for environmental risk assessment and were realized through an understanding of ACR adduct chemistry. The approach delineated here can be broadly applied because many toxicants of different chemical classes are electrophiles that produce toxicity by interacting with cellular proteins. PMID:23060388

  1. Cellular RNA is chemically modified by exposure to air pollution mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldridge, Kevin C; Zavala, Jose; Surratt, Jason; Sexton, Kenneth G; Contreras, Lydia M

    2015-01-01

    RNAs are more susceptible to modifications than DNA, and chemical modifications in RNA have an effect on their structure and function. This study aimed to characterize chemical effects on total RNA in human A549 lung cells after exposure to elevated levels of major secondary air pollutants commonly found in urban locations, including ozone (O3), acrolein (ACR) and methacrolein (MACR). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were used to measure levels of interleukin (IL)-8 in the growth media and 8-oxoguanine (8OG) levels in total cellular RNA, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the growth media was measured by a coupled enzymatic assay. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to measure levels of microRNA 10b (miR-10b). The study found that 1-h exposure to all tested pollutant mixtures consistently caused significant increases in the levels of 8OG in total RNA. In the case of 4 ppm O3 exposures, measured levels of IL-8, LDH and miR-10b each showed consistent trends between two independent trials, but varied among these three targets. After 1-h exposures to an ACR+MACR mixture, measured levels of IL-8, LDH and miR-10b showed variable results. For mixtures of O3+ACR+MACR, IL-8 measurements showed no change; miR-10b and LDH showed variable results. The results indicate that short-term high-concentration exposures to air pollution can cause RNA chemical modifications. Chemical modifications in RNAs could represent more consistent markers of cellular stress relative to other inflammation markers, such as IL-8 and LDH, and provide a new biomarker endpoint for mechanistic studies in toxicity of air pollution exposure.

  2. Quantification of Carnosine-Aldehyde Adducts in Human Urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Bispo, Vanderson; Di Mascio, Paolo; Medeiros, Marisa

    2014-10-01

    Lipid peroxidation generates several reactive carbonyl species, including 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), acrolein (ACR), 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (HHE) and malondialdehyde. One major pathwayof aldehydes detoxification is through conjugation with glutathione catalyzed by glutathione-S-transferases or, alternatively, by conjugation with endogenous histidine containing dipeptides, such as carnosine (CAR). In this study, on-line reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation with tandem mass spectrometry detection was utilized for the accurate quantification of CAR- ACR, CAR-HHE and CAR-HNE adducts in human urinary samples from non-smokers young adults. Standard adducts were prepared and isolated by HPLC. The results showed the presence of a new product from the reaction of CAR with ACR. This new adduct was completely characterized by HPLC/MS-MSn, 1H RMN, COSY and HSQC. The new HPLC/MS/MS methodology employing stable isotope-labeled internal standards (CAR-HHEd5 and CAR-HNEd11) was developed for adducts quantification. This methodology permits quantification of 10pmol CAR-HHE and 1pmol of CAR-ACR and CAR-HNE. Accurate determinations in human urine sample were performed and showed 4.65±1.71 to CAR-ACR, 5.13±1.76 to CAR-HHE and 5.99±3.19nmol/mg creatinine to CAR-HNE. Our results indicate that carnosine pathways can be an important detoxification route of a, ß -unsaturated aldehydes. Moreover, carnosine adducts may be useful as redox stress indicator. PMID:26461323

  3. The kinetics of activation and deactivation in the process of water ozonising used for advanced oxidation of the dust waste from moulding sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baliński

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Adding coal dust and organic carriers of the lustrous carbon to bentonite-bonded moulding sands in amounts justified by thetechnological regime and the use of cores and protective coatings based on organic compounds create serious threats to the environment.During thermal destruction of the individual components of moulding and core sands, some toxic organic compounds are emitted. They formthe majority of the Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs, and include mainly compounds like benzene, toluene, xylene, naphtalene, hexane,acetaldehyde, acrolein, aniline, cresol and cumene, their polycyclic derivatives, phenol, formaldehyde, and other similar matters. In thusformed dust waste, the amount of which constitutes about 20% of all the waste from foundries using traditional moulding and core sands, there are still full-value materials which can undergo total recycling, providing the HAPs are partially or totally removed from them. The article discusses some problems of the advanced oxidation of selected toxic chemical compounds present in bentonite-bonded moulding sands due to the effect of high temperature. The results of the investigations of the kinetics of the process of maximum water saturation with ozone (acting as an oxidiser and of the kinetics of the natural process of ozone decomposition to diatomic oxygen were presented. It has been stated that the maximum time of water saturation with ozone using an OZOMATIC OSC-MODULAR 4HC ozone generator and a 1m3 capacity tank with water is 60 minutes. After 30 minute break in the ozonising process, the ozone concentration in water decreases by 40 to 50%. To obtain maximum ozone concentration in water during the next ozonising cycle, it is necessary to have the ozone-generating device running for the next 30 minutes. The stabilisation of ozone concentration in water takes place only after the third ozonising cycle, when it reaches nearly 80%of the maximum value obtained after the first process cycle

  4. Kiln emissions and potters' exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirtle, B; Teschke, K; van Netten, C; Brauer, M

    1998-10-01

    Some ten thousand British Columbia potters work in small private studios, cooperative facilities, educational institutions, or recreation centers. There has been considerable concern that this diffuse, largely unregulated activity may involve exposures to unacceptable levels of kiln emissions. Pottery kiln emissions were measured at 50 sites--10 from each of 5 categories: professional studios, recreation centers, elementary schools, secondary schools, and colleges. Area monitoring was done 76 cm from firing kilns and 1.6 m above the floor to assess breathing zone concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, fluorides, aldehydes, aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, boron, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, gold, iron, lead, lithium, magnesium, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium, silver, vanadium, and zinc. Personal exposures to the same metals were measured at 24 sites. Almost all measured values were well below permissible concentrations for British Columbia work sites and American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit values (TLVs) with the following two exceptions. A single firing duration (495 minute) acrolein measurement adjacent to an electric kiln (0.109 ppm) exceeded these guidelines. One 15-minute sulfur dioxide measurement collected adjacent to a gas kiln (5.7 ppm) exceeded the ACGIH short-term exposure limit. The fact that concentrations in small, ventilated kiln rooms ranked among the highest measured gives rise to concern that unacceptable levels of contamination may exist where small kiln rooms remain unventilated. Custom designed exhaust hoods and industrial heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems were the most effective ventilation strategies. Passive diffusion and wall/window fans were least effective. PMID:9794068

  5. Chitosan oligosaccharides attenuates oxidative-stress related retinal degeneration in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Mo Fang

    Full Text Available This study investigated the therapeutic potential and mechanisms of chitosan oligosaccharides (COS for oxidative stress-induced retinal diseases. Retinal oxidative damage was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by intravitreal injection of paraquat (PQ. Low-dose (5 mg/kg or high-dose (10 mg/kg COS or PBS was intragastrically given for 14 days after PQ injection. Electroretinograms were performed to determine the functionality of the retinas. The surviving neurons in the retinal ganglion cell layer and retinal apoptosis were determined by counting Neu N-positive cells in whole-mounted retinas and TUNEL staining, respectively. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS was determined by lucigenin- and luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence. Retinal oxidative damages were assessed by staining with nitrotyrosine, acrolein, and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG. Immunohistochemical studies were used to demonstrate the expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB p65 in retinas. An in vitro study using RGC-5 cells was performed to verify the results. We demonstrated COS significantly enhanced the recovery of retinal function, preserved inner retinal thickness, and decreased retinal neurons loss in a dose-dependent manner. COS administration demonstrated anti-oxidative effects by reducing luminol- and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminenscense levels and activating superoxide dismutase and catalase, leading to decreased retinal apoptosis. COS markedly reduced retinal NF-κB p65. An in vitro study demonstrated COS increased IκB expression, attenuated the increase of p65 and thus decreased NF-κB/DNA binding activity in PQ-stimulated RGC-5 cells. In conclusion, COS attenuates oxidative stress-induced retinal damages, probably by decreasing free radicals, maintaining the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes, and inhibiting the activation of NF-κB.

  6. Inflammation and pyroptosis mediate muscle expansion in an interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Subhash; Dru, Christopher; Choudhury, Diptiman; Mishra, Rajeev; Fernandez, Ana; Biondi, Shea; Liu, Zhenqiu; Shimada, Kenichi; Arditi, Moshe; Bhowmick, Neil A

    2015-03-01

    Muscle inflammation is often associated with its expansion. Bladder smooth muscle inflammation-induced cell death is accompanied by hyperplasia and hypertrophy as the primary cause for poor bladder function. In mice, DNA damage initiated by chemotherapeutic drug cyclophosphamide activated caspase 1 through the formation of the NLRP3 complex resulting in detrusor hyperplasia. A cyclophosphamide metabolite, acrolein, caused global DNA methylation and accumulation of DNA damage in a mouse model of bladder inflammation and in cultured bladder muscle cells. In correlation, global DNA methylation and NLRP3 expression was up-regulated in human chronic bladder inflammatory tissues. The epigenetic silencing of DNA damage repair gene, Ogg1, could be reversed by the use of demethylating agents. In mice, demethylating agents reversed cyclophosphamide-induced bladder inflammation and detrusor expansion. The transgenic knock-out of Ogg1 in as few as 10% of the detrusor cells tripled the proliferation of the remaining wild type counterparts in an in vitro co-culture titration experiment. Antagonizing IL-1β with Anakinra, a rheumatoid arthritis therapeutic, prevented detrusor proliferation in conditioned media experiments as well as in a mouse model of bladder inflammation. Radiation treatment validated the role of DNA damage in the NLRP3-associated caspase 1-mediated IL-1β secretory phenotype. A protein array analysis identified IGF1 to be downstream of IL-1β signaling. IL-1β-induced detrusor proliferation and hypertrophy could be reversed with the use of Anakinra as well as an IGF1 neutralizing antibody. IL-1β antagonists in current clinical practice can exploit the revealed mechanism for DNA damage-mediated muscular expansion. PMID:25596528

  7. A mechanistic study on the reaction pathways leading to benzene and naphthalene in cellulose vapor phase cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reaction pathways leading to aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene and naphthalene in gas-phase reactions of multi-component mixtures derived from cellulose fast pyrolysis were studied both experimentally and numerically. A two-stage tubular reactor was used for evaluating the reaction kinetics of secondary vapor phase cracking of the nascent pyrolysates at temperature ranging from 400 to 900 °C, residence time from 0.2 to 4.3 s, and at 241 kPa. The products of alkyne and diene were identified from the primary pyrolysis of cellulose even at low temperature range 500–600 °C. These products include acetylene, propyne, propadiene, vinylacetylene, and cyclopentadiene. Experiments were also numerically validated by a detailed chemical kinetic model consisting of more than 8000 elementary step-like reactions with over 500 chemical species. Acceptable capabilities of the kinetic model in predicting concentration profiles of the products enabled us to assess reaction pathways leading to benzene and naphthalene via the alkyne and diene from primary pyrolysates of cellulose. C3 alkyne and diene are primary precursors of benzene at 650 °C, while combination of ethylene and vinylacetylene produces benzene dominantly at 850 °C. Cyclopentadiene is a prominent precursor of naphthalene. Combination of acetylene with propyne or allyl radical leads to the formation of cyclopentadiene. Furan and acrolein are likely important alkyne precursors in cellulose pyrolysis at low temperature, whereas dehydrogenations of olefins are major route to alkyne at high temperatures. - Highlights: • Analytical pyrolysis experiments provided data for kinetic modeling. • Detailed chemical kinetic model was used and evaluated. • Alkyne and diene were important intermediates for aromatic hydrocarbon formation. • Reaction pathways leading to aromatic hydrocarbons were proposed

  8. Direct gas-phase epoxidation of propylene to propylene oxide using air as oxidant on supported gold catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhanghuai Suo; Mingshan Jin; Jiqing Lu; Zhaobin Wei; Can Li

    2008-01-01

    Gold catalysts supported on SiO2, TiO2, TiO2-SiO2, and ZrO2-SiO2 supports were prepared by impregnating each support with a basic solution of tetrachloroauric acid. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques were used to characterize their structure and surface composition. The results indicated that the size of gold particles could be controlled to below 10 nm by this method of preparation. Washing gold catalysts with water could markedly enhance the dispersion of metallic gold particles on the surface, but it could not completely remove the chloride ions left on the surface. The catalytic performance of direct vapor-phase epoxidation of propylene using air as an oxidant over these catalysts was evaluated at atmospheric pressure. The selectivity to propylene oxide (PO) was found to vary with reaction time on the stream. At the reaction conditions of atmosphere pressure, temperature 325 ℃, feed gas ratio V(C3H6)/V(O2) = 1/2, and GHSV = 6000 h-1, 17.9% PO selectivity with 0.9% propylene conversion were obtained at initial 10 min for Au/SiO2 catalyst. After reacting 60 min only 8.9% PO selectivity were detected, but the propylene conversion rises to 1.4% and the main product is transferred to acrolein (72% selectivity). Washing Au/TiO2-SiO2 and Au/ZrO2-SiO2 samples with magnesium citrate solution could markedly enhance the activity and PO selectivity because smaller gold particles were obtained.

  9. Diesel particle filter and fuel effects on heavy-duty diesel engine emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, Matthew A; Dane, A John; Williams, Aaron; Ireland, John; Luecke, Jon; McCormick, Robert L; Voorhees, Kent J

    2010-11-01

    The impacts of biodiesel and a continuously regenerated (catalyzed) diesel particle filter (DPF) on the emissions of volatile unburned hydrocarbons, carbonyls, and particle associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nitro-PAH, were investigated. Experiments were conducted on a 5.9 L Cummins ISB, heavy-duty diesel engine using certification ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD, S ≤ 15 ppm), soy biodiesel (B100), and a 20% blend thereof (B20). Against the ULSD baseline, B20 and B100 reduced engine-out emissions of measured unburned volatile hydrocarbons and PM associated PAH and nitro-PAH by significant percentages (40% or more for B20 and higher percentage for B100). However, emissions of benzene were unaffected by the presence of biodiesel and emissions of naphthalene actually increased for B100. This suggests that the unsaturated FAME in soy-biodiesel can react to form aromatic rings in the diesel combustion environment. Methyl acrylate and methyl 3-butanoate were observed as significant species in the exhaust for B20 and B100 and may serve as markers of the presence of biodiesel in the fuel. The DPF was highly effective at converting gaseous hydrocarbons and PM associated PAH and total nitro-PAH. However, conversion of 1-nitropyrene by the DPF was less than 50% for all fuels. Blending of biodiesel caused a slight reduction in engine-out emissions of acrolein, but otherwise had little effect on carbonyl emissions. The DPF was highly effective for conversion of carbonyls, with the exception of formaldehyde. Formaldehyde emissions were increased by the DPF for ULSD and B20.

  10. Determination of Polarity Water-soluble Organic Compounds in Water by Method of Dynamic Headspace Gas Chromatography%动态顶空气相色谱法测定水中极性水溶性有机物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙睿华

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic headspace gas chromatography equipped with FID was applied to test the acetaldehyde, acetone, methanol, acrolein, acrylonitrile, acetonitrile and pyridin in water.The dynamic headspace conditions were optimized.The method had good linearity from 0.152 mg/L to 7.92 mg/L.The method detection limits were between 0.008 mg/L and 0.048 mg/L.The spiked recovery in blank water ranged from 103%to 111%, with the RSDs 5 .4%~8 .7%.This method was used to test wastwater of some pharmaceutical enterprise and surface water.Only methanol, acetonitrile and pyridin were detected in wastwater.%采用动态顶空气相色谱FID法测定水中乙醛、丙酮、甲醇、丙烯醛、丙烯腈、乙腈、吡啶等7种极性水溶性有机物,通过优化动态顶空条件,使该方法在0.157 mg/L~7.92 mg/L之间线性良好。方法检出限在0.008 mg/L~0.048 mg/L之间,空白水样的加标回收率为103%~111%,RSD为5.4%~8.7%。用该方法测定某制药企业排口污水和地表水,只有污水中甲醇、乙腈、吡啶有响应值。

  11. A review of acrylamide: an industry perspective on research, analysis, formation, and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taeymans, Dominique; Wood, John; Ashby, Peter; Blank, Imre; Studer, Alfred; Stadler, Richard H; Gondé, Pierre; Van Eijck, Paul; Lalljie, Sam; Lingnert, Hans; Lindblom, Marianne; Matissek, Reinhard; Müller, Detflef; Tallmadge, Dan; O'Brien, John; Thompson, Sara; Silvani, David; Whitmore, Tricia

    2004-01-01

    Acrylamide is a synthetic monomer with a wide scope of industrial applications, mainly as a precursor in the production of several polymers, such as polyacrylamide. The main uses of polyacrylamides are in water and wastewater treatment processes, pulp and paper processing, and mining and mineral processing. The announcement by the Swedish National Food Administration in April 2002 of the presence of acrylamide predominantly in heat-treated carbohydrate-rich foods sparked intensive investigations into acrylamide, encompassing the occurrence, chemistry, agricultural practices, and toxicology, in order to establish if there is a potential risk to human health from the presence of this contaminant in the human diet. The link of acrylamide in foods to the Maillard reaction and, in particular, to the amino acid asparagine has been a major step forward in elucidating the first feasible chemical route of formation during the preparation and processing of food. Other probably minor pathways have also been proposed, including acrolein and acrylic acid. This review addresses the analytical and mechanistic aspects of the acrylamide issue and summarizes the progress made to date by the European food industries in these key areas. Essentially, it presents experimental results generated under laboratory model conditions, as well as under actual food processing conditions covering different food categories, such as potatoes, biscuits, cereals, and coffee. Since acrylamide formation is closely linked to food composition, factors such as the presence of sugars and availability of free amino acids are also considered. Many new findings that contribute towards a better understanding of the formation and presence of acrylamide in foods are presented. Many national authorities across the world are assessing the dietary exposure of consumers to acrylamide, and scientific projects have commenced to gather new information about the toxicology of acrylamide. These are expected to provide

  12. Methodology for full comparative assessment of direct gross glycerin combustion in a flame tube furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maturana, Aymer Yeferson; Pagliuso, Josmar D. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Sao Carlos School of Engineering. University of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)], e-mails: aymermat@sc.usp.br, josmar@sc.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    This study is to develop a methodology to identify and evaluate the emissions and heat transfer associated to combustion of gross glycerin a by-product of the Brazilian biodiesel manufacture process as alternative energy source. It aims to increase the present knowledge on the matter and to contribute to the improvement of the economic and environmental perspective of biodiesel industry. This methodology was considered to be used for assessment of gross glycerin combustion from three different types of biodiesel (bovine tallow, palm and soy). The procedures for evaluation and quantification of emissions of sulphur and nitrogen oxides, total hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and acrolein were analyzed, described and standardized. Experimental techniques for mutagenic and toxic effects assessment of gases similarly were analyzed and standardized, as well as the calorific power, the associate heat transfer and fundamentals operational parameters. The methodology was developed, using a full-instrumented flame tube furnace, continuous gas analyzers, a chromatograph, automatic data acquisition systems and other auxiliary equipment. The mutagenic and toxic effects of the study was based on Tradescantia clone KU-20, using chambers of intoxication and biological analytical techniques previously developed and others were specially adapted. The benchmark for the initial set up was based on the performance evaluation of the previous equipment tested with diesel considering its behavior during direct combustion. Finally, the following factors were defined for the combustion of crude glycerin, configurations of equipment types, operational parameters such as air fuel ratio adiabatic temperature and other necessary aspect for successful application of the methodology. The developed and integrated methodology was made available to the concern industry, environmental authorities and researchers as procedures to access the viability of gross glycerin or similar fuels as

  13. An integrated QSAR-PBK/D modelling approach for predicting detoxification and DNA adduct formation of 18 acyclic food-borne α,β-unsaturated aldehydes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acyclic α,β-unsaturated aldehydes present in food raise a concern because the α,β-unsaturated aldehyde moiety is considered a structural alert for genotoxicity. However, controversy remains on whether in vivo at realistic dietary exposure DNA adduct formation is significant. The aim of the present study was to develop physiologically based kinetic/dynamic (PBK/D) models to examine dose-dependent detoxification and DNA adduct formation of a group of 18 food-borne acyclic α,β-unsaturated aldehydes without 2- or 3-alkylation, and with no more than one conjugated double bond. Parameters for the PBK/D models were obtained using quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSARs) defined with a training set of six selected aldehydes. Using the QSARs, PBK/D models for the other 12 aldehydes were defined. Results revealed that DNA adduct formation in the liver increases with decreasing bulkiness of the molecule especially due to less efficient detoxification. 2-Propenal (acrolein) was identified to induce the highest DNA adduct levels. At realistic dietary intake, the predicted DNA adduct levels for all aldehydes were two orders of magnitude lower than endogenous background levels observed in disease free human liver, suggesting that for all 18 aldehydes DNA adduct formation is negligible at the relevant levels of dietary intake. The present study provides a proof of principle for the use of QSAR-based PBK/D modelling to facilitate group evaluations and read-across in risk assessment. - Highlights: • Physiologically based in silico models were made for 18 α,β-unsaturated aldehydes. • Kinetic parameters were determined by in vitro incubations and a QSAR approach. • DNA adduct formation was negligible at levels relevant for dietary intake. • The use of QSAR-based PBK/D modelling facilitates group evaluations and read-across

  14. Endothelial disruptive proinflammatory effects of nicotine and e-cigarette vapor exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Kelly S.; Chen, Steven X.; Law, Sarah; Van Demark, Mary; Poirier, Christophe; Justice, Matthew J.; Hubbard, Walter C.; Kim, Elena S.; Lai, Xianyin; Wang, Mu; Kranz, William D.; Carroll, Clinton J.; Ray, Bruce D.; Bittman, Robert; Goodpaster, John

    2015-01-01

    The increased use of inhaled nicotine via e-cigarettes has unknown risks to lung health. Having previously shown that cigarette smoke (CS) extract disrupts the lung microvasculature barrier function by endothelial cell activation and cytoskeletal rearrangement, we investigated the contribution of nicotine in CS or e-cigarettes (e-Cig) to lung endothelial injury. Primary lung microvascular endothelial cells were exposed to nicotine, e-Cig solution, or condensed e-Cig vapor (1–20 mM nicotine) or to nicotine-free CS extract or e-Cig solutions. Compared with nicotine-containing extract, nicotine free-CS extract (10–20%) caused significantly less endothelial permeability as measured with electric cell-substrate impedance sensing. Nicotine exposures triggered dose-dependent loss of endothelial barrier in cultured cell monolayers and rapidly increased lung inflammation and oxidative stress in mice. The endothelial barrier disruptive effects were associated with increased intracellular ceramides, p38 MAPK activation, and myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation, and was critically mediated by Rho-activated kinase via inhibition of MLC-phosphatase unit MYPT1. Although nicotine at sufficient concentrations to cause endothelial barrier loss did not trigger cell necrosis, it markedly inhibited cell proliferation. Augmentation of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signaling via S1P1 improved both endothelial cell proliferation and barrier function during nicotine exposures. Nicotine-independent effects of e-Cig solutions were noted, which may be attributable to acrolein, detected along with propylene glycol, glycerol, and nicotine by NMR, mass spectrometry, and gas chromatography, in both e-Cig solutions and vapor. These results suggest that soluble components of e-Cig, including nicotine, cause dose-dependent loss of lung endothelial barrier function, which is associated with oxidative stress and brisk inflammation. PMID:25979079

  15. Comparison of carcinogen, carbon monoxide, and ultrafine particle emissions from narghile waterpipe and cigarette smoking: Sidestream smoke measurements and assessment of second-hand smoke emission factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Nancy; Saleh, Rawad; Jaroudi, Ezzat; Sheheitli, Hiba; Badr, Thérèse; Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Al Rashidi, Mariam; Saliba, Najat; Shihadeh, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The lack of scientific evidence on the constituents, properties, and health effects of second-hand waterpipe smoke has fueled controversy over whether public smoking bans should include the waterpipe. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare emissions of ultrafine particles (UFP, cigarettes and narghile (shisha, hookah) waterpipes. These smoke constituents are associated with a variety of cancers, and heart and pulmonary diseases, and span the volatility range found in tobacco smoke. Sidestream cigarette and waterpipe smoke was captured and aged in a 1 m 3 Teflon-coated chamber operating at 1.5 air changes per hour (ACH). The chamber was characterized for particle mass and number surface deposition rates. UFP and CO concentrations were measured online using a fast particle spectrometer (TSI 3090 Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer), and an indoor air quality monitor. Particulate PAH and gaseous volatile aldehydes were captured on glass fiber filters and DNPH-coated SPE cartridges, respectively, and analyzed off-line using GC-MS and HPLC-MS. PAH compounds quantified were the 5- and 6-ring compounds of the EPA priority list. Measured aldehydes consisted of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, methacrolein, and propionaldehyde. We found that a single waterpipe use session emits in the sidestream smoke approximately four times the carcinogenic PAH, four times the volatile aldehydes, and 30 times the CO of a single cigarette. Accounting for exhaled mainstream smoke, and given a habitual smoker smoking rate of 2 cigarettes per hour, during a typical one-hour waterpipe use session a waterpipe smoker likely generates ambient carcinogens and toxicants equivalent to 2-10 cigarette smokers, depending on the compound in question. There is therefore good reason to include waterpipe tobacco smoking in public smoking bans.

  16. Non-thermal Plasma and Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyokuni, Shinya

    2015-09-01

    Thermal plasmas and lasers have been used in medicine to cut and ablate tissues and for coagulation. Non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma (NEAPP; non-thermal plasma) is a recently developed, non-thermal technique with possible biomedical applications. Although NEAPP reportedly generates reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, electrons, positive ions, and ultraviolet radiation, few research projects have been conducted to merge this technique with conventional free radical biology. Recently, Prof. Masaru Hori's group (Plasma Nanotechnology Research Center, Nagoya University) developed a NEAPP device with high electron density. Here electron spin resonance revealed hydroxyl radicals as a major product. To merge non-thermal plasma biology with the preexisting free radical biology, we evaluated lipid peroxidation and DNA modifications in various in vitro and ex vivo experiments. Conjugated dienes increased after exposure to linoleic and alfa-linolenic acids. An increase in 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances was also increased after exposure to phosphatidylcholine, liposomes or liver homogenate. Direct exposure to rat liver in medium produced immunohistochemical evidence of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal- and acrolein-modified proteins. Exposure to plasmid DNA induced dose-dependent single/double strand breaks and increased the amounts of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. These results indicate that oxidative biomolecular damage by NEAPP is dose-dependent and thus can be controlled in a site-specific manner. Simultaneous oxidative and UV-specific DNA damage may be useful in cancer treatment. Other recent advancements in the related studies of non-thermal plasma in Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine will also be discussed.

  17. Incineration of oxygenated volatile organic compounds. Experimental study and kinetic modeling of the oxidation of methyl ethyl ketone, ethyl acetate and butan-2-ol in methane flames; Incineration de composes organiques volatils oxygenes. Etude experimentale et modelisation cinetique de l'oxydation de la methyl ethyl cetone, de l'acetate d'ethyle et du butan-2-ol dans des flammes de methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decottignies, V.

    2000-12-01

    This work deals with the low pressure (0.05 atm) degradation of three volatile organic compounds (VOCs): methyl-ethyl-ketone, ethyl acetate and butan-2-ol, in premixed stoichiometric laminar methane flames seeded with 1 to 3% of each VOC. Molar fraction profiles of species have been obtained using microprobe sampling coupled with a gas chromatography and a mass spectroscopy analysis. Temperature profiles have been obtained using the covered thermocouple technique in the presence of the microprobe. The addition of a VOC in the initial reagents mixture leads to an increase of the quantity of intermediate hydrocarbon compounds and in particular of some soot precursor species. The degradation of VOCs leads to the formation of oxygenated intermediates like methanol, dimethyl-ether, acetaldehyde, propanal, acetone and vinyl acetate, the type of VOC having an effect on the quantities produced. The degradation of a VOC can lead to the formation of more toxic or polluting compounds (methyl vinyl ketone, acetic acid and acrolein) than the VOC itself. In the conditions of the study, the intermediate compounds are totally destructed inside the reactional area of the flame front and are no more present in the burnt gases. Sub-mechanisms of VOC oxidation have been developed using experimental observations and the most recent recommendations of the literature. These sub-mechanisms comprise 49 species involved in 241 elementary reactions. Their validation has been performed by comparing the experiment with the kinetic modeling on the molar fraction profiles of the detected species. Experimental data are well reproduced by the model for most species. The addition of a VOC inside the initial reagents mixture creates an important reactivity increase, in particular in the case of butan-2-ol seeded flames. The analysis of reactional ways has permitted to draw out the main reactions responsible for the degradation of the 3 VOCs and the ways of formation and consumption of the

  18. Assessment of potential aquatic herbicide impacts to California aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemering, Geoffrey S; Hayworth, Jennifer D; Greenfield, Ben K

    2008-10-01

    A series of legal decisions culminated in 2002 with the California State Water Resources Control Board funding the San Francisco Estuary Institute to develop and implement a 3-year monitoring program to determine the potential environmental impacts of aquatic herbicide applications. The monitoring program was intended to investigate the behavior of all aquatic pesticides in use in California, to determine potential impacts in a wide range of water-body types receiving applications, and to help regulators determine where to direct future resources. A tiered monitoring approach was developed to achieve a balance between program goals and what was practically achievable within the project time and budget constraints. Water, sediment, and biota were collected under "worst-case" scenarios in close association with herbicide applications. Applications of acrolein, copper sulfate, chelated copper, diquat dibromide, glyphosate, fluridone, triclopyr, and 2,4-D were monitored. A range of chemical analyses, toxicity tests, and bioassessments were conducted. At each site, risk quotients were calculated to determine potential impacts. For sediment-partitioning herbicides, sediment quality triad analysis was performed. Worst-case scenario monitoring and special studies showed limited short-term and no long-term toxicity directly attributable to aquatic herbicide applications. Risk quotient calculations called for additional risk characterizations; these included limited assessments for glyphosate and fluridone and more extensive risk assessments for diquat dibromide, chelated copper products, and copper sulfate. Use of surfactants in conjunction with aquatic herbicides was positively associated with greater ecosystem impacts. Results therefore warrant full risk characterization for all adjuvant compounds. PMID:18293029

  19. An integrated QSAR-PBK/D modelling approach for predicting detoxification and DNA adduct formation of 18 acyclic food-borne α,β-unsaturated aldehydes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiwamoto, R., E-mail: reiko.kiwamoto@wur.nl; Spenkelink, A.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Punt, A.

    2015-01-01

    Acyclic α,β-unsaturated aldehydes present in food raise a concern because the α,β-unsaturated aldehyde moiety is considered a structural alert for genotoxicity. However, controversy remains on whether in vivo at realistic dietary exposure DNA adduct formation is significant. The aim of the present study was to develop physiologically based kinetic/dynamic (PBK/D) models to examine dose-dependent detoxification and DNA adduct formation of a group of 18 food-borne acyclic α,β-unsaturated aldehydes without 2- or 3-alkylation, and with no more than one conjugated double bond. Parameters for the PBK/D models were obtained using quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSARs) defined with a training set of six selected aldehydes. Using the QSARs, PBK/D models for the other 12 aldehydes were defined. Results revealed that DNA adduct formation in the liver increases with decreasing bulkiness of the molecule especially due to less efficient detoxification. 2-Propenal (acrolein) was identified to induce the highest DNA adduct levels. At realistic dietary intake, the predicted DNA adduct levels for all aldehydes were two orders of magnitude lower than endogenous background levels observed in disease free human liver, suggesting that for all 18 aldehydes DNA adduct formation is negligible at the relevant levels of dietary intake. The present study provides a proof of principle for the use of QSAR-based PBK/D modelling to facilitate group evaluations and read-across in risk assessment. - Highlights: • Physiologically based in silico models were made for 18 α,β-unsaturated aldehydes. • Kinetic parameters were determined by in vitro incubations and a QSAR approach. • DNA adduct formation was negligible at levels relevant for dietary intake. • The use of QSAR-based PBK/D modelling facilitates group evaluations and read-across.

  20. TRPM8 is the principal mediator of menthol-induced analgesia of acute and inflammatory pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Boyi; Fan, Lu; Balakrishna, Shrilatha; Sui, Aiwei; Morris, John B; Jordt, Sven-Eric

    2013-10-01

    Menthol, the cooling natural product of peppermint, is widely used in medicinal preparations for the relief of acute and inflammatory pain in sports injuries, arthritis, and other painful conditions. Menthol induces the sensation of cooling by activating TRPM8, an ion channel in cold-sensitive peripheral sensory neurons. Recent studies identified additional targets of menthol, including the irritant receptor, TRPA1, voltage-gated ion channels and neurotransmitter receptors. It remains unclear which of these targets contribute to menthol-induced analgesia, or to the irritating side effects associated with menthol therapy. Here, we use genetic and pharmacological approaches in mice to probe the role of TRPM8 in analgesia induced by L-menthol, the predominant analgesic menthol isomer in medicinal preparations. L-menthol effectively diminished pain behavior elicited by chemical stimuli (capsaicin, acrolein, acetic acid), noxious heat, and inflammation (complete Freund's adjuvant). Genetic deletion of TRPM8 completely abolished analgesia by L-menthol in all these models, although other analgesics (acetaminophen) remained effective. Loss of L-menthol-induced analgesia was recapitulated in mice treated with a selective TRPM8 inhibitor, AMG2850. Selective activation of TRPM8 with WS-12, a menthol derivative that we characterized as a specific TRPM8 agonist in cultured sensory neurons and in vivo, also induced TRPM8-dependent analgesia of acute and inflammatory pain. L-menthol- and WS-12-induced analgesia was blocked by naloxone, suggesting activation of endogenous opioid-dependent analgesic pathways. Our data show that TRPM8 is the principal mediator of menthol-induced analgesia of acute and inflammatory pain. In contrast to menthol, selective TRPM8 agonists may produce analgesia more effectively, with diminished side effects. PMID:23820004

  1. Sensory detection and responses to toxic gases: mechanisms, health effects, and countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessac, Bret F; Jordt, Sven-Eric

    2010-07-01

    The inhalation of reactive gases and vapors can lead to severe damage of the airways and lung, compromising the function of the respiratory system. Exposures to oxidizing, electrophilic, acidic, or basic gases frequently occur in occupational and ambient environments. Corrosive gases and vapors such as chlorine, phosgene, and chloropicrin were used as warfare agents and in terrorist acts. Chemical airway exposures are detected by the olfactory, gustatory, and nociceptive sensory systems that initiate protective physiological and behavioral responses. This review focuses on the role of airway nociceptive sensory neurons in chemical sensing and discusses the recent discovery of neuronal receptors for reactive chemicals. Using physiological, imaging, and genetic approaches, Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) ion channels in sensory neurons were shown to respond to a wide range of noxious chemical stimuli, initiating pain, respiratory depression, cough, glandular secretions, and other protective responses. TRPA1, a TRP ion channel expressed in chemosensory C-fibers, is activated by almost all oxidizing and electrophilic chemicals, including chlorine, acrolein, tear gas agents, and methyl isocyanate, the highly noxious chemical released in the Bhopal disaster. Chemicals likely activate TRPA1 through covalent protein modification. Animal studies using TRPA1 antagonists or TRPA1-deficient mice confirmed the role of TRPA1 in chemically induced respiratory reflexes, pain, and inflammation in vivo. New research shows that sensory neurons are not merely passive sensors of chemical exposures. Sensory channels such as TRPA1 are essential for maintenance of airway inflammation in asthma and may contribute to the progression of airway injury following high-level chemical exposures. PMID:20601631

  2. Comparison of carcinogen, carbon monoxide, and ultrafine particle emissions from narghile waterpipe and cigarette smoking: Sidestream smoke measurements and assessment of second-hand smoke emission factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Nancy; Saleh, Rawad; Jaroudi, Ezzat; Sheheitli, Hiba; Badr, Thérèse; Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Al Rashidi, Mariam; Saliba, Najat; Shihadeh, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The lack of scientific evidence on the constituents, properties, and health effects of second-hand waterpipe smoke has fueled controversy over whether public smoking bans should include the waterpipe. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare emissions of ultrafine particles (UFP, range found in tobacco smoke. Sidestream cigarette and waterpipe smoke was captured and aged in a 1 m 3 Teflon-coated chamber operating at 1.5 air changes per hour (ACH). The chamber was characterized for particle mass and number surface deposition rates. UFP and CO concentrations were measured online using a fast particle spectrometer (TSI 3090 Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer), and an indoor air quality monitor. Particulate PAH and gaseous volatile aldehydes were captured on glass fiber filters and DNPH-coated SPE cartridges, respectively, and analyzed off-line using GC-MS and HPLC-MS. PAH compounds quantified were the 5- and 6-ring compounds of the EPA priority list. Measured aldehydes consisted of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, methacrolein, and propionaldehyde. We found that a single waterpipe use session emits in the sidestream smoke approximately four times the carcinogenic PAH, four times the volatile aldehydes, and 30 times the CO of a single cigarette. Accounting for exhaled mainstream smoke, and given a habitual smoker smoking rate of 2 cigarettes per hour, during a typical one-hour waterpipe use session a waterpipe smoker likely generates ambient carcinogens and toxicants equivalent to 2-10 cigarette smokers, depending on the compound in question. There is therefore good reason to include waterpipe tobacco smoking in public smoking bans.

  3. Tempo-spatial variation of emission inventories of speciated volatile organic compounds from on-road vehicles in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Cai

    2009-05-01

    , benzaldehyde, acetone and acrolein from carbonyls.

  4. Thermal catalytic oxidation of octachloronaphthalene over anatase TiO2 nanomaterial and its hypothesized mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Guijin; Li, Qianqian; Lu, Huijie; Zhang, Lixia; Huang, Linyan; Yan, Li; Zheng, Minghui

    2015-12-01

    As an environmentally-green technology, thermal catalytic oxidation of octachloronaphthalene (CN-75) over anatase TiO2 nanomaterials was investigated at 300 °C. A wide range of oxidation intermediates, which were investigated using various techniques, could be of three types: naphthalene-ring, single-benzene-ring, and completely ring-opened products. Reactive oxygen species on anatase TiO2 surface, such as O2-• and O2-, contributed to oxidative degradation. Based on these findings, a novel oxidation degradation mechanism was proposed. The reaction at (101) surface of anatase TiO2 was used as a model. The naphthalene-ring oxidative products with chloronaphthols and hydroxyl-pentachloronaphthalene-dione, could be formed via attacking the carbon of naphthalene ring at one or more positions by nucleophilic O2-. Lateral cleavage of the naphthalene ring at different C1-C10 and C4-C9, C1-C2 and C4-C9, C1-C2 or and C3-C4 bond positions by electrophilic O2-• could occur. This will lead to the formation of tetrachlorophenol, tetrachloro-benzoic acid, tetrachloro-phthalaldehyde, and tetrachloro-acrolein-benzoic acid, partially with further transformation into tetrachlorobenzene-dihydrodiol and tetrachloro-salicylic acid. Unexpectedly, the symmetric half section of CN-75 could be completely remained with generating the intricate oxidative intermediates characteristically containing tetrachlorobenzene structure. Complete cleavage of naphthalene ring could produce the ring-opened products, such as formic and acetic acids.

  5. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Induce Oxidative DNA Adducts in Female Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Esra; Gao, Lina; Collins, Leonard B; Walker, Nigel J; Hartwell, Hadley J; Olson, James R; Sun, Wei; Gold, Avram; Ball, Louise M; Swenberg, James A

    2016-08-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are organic chemicals that were traditionally produced and widely used in industry as mixtures and are presently formed as byproducts of pigment and dye manufacturing. They are known to persist and bioaccumulate in the environment. Some have been shown to induce liver cancer in rodents. Although the mechanism of the toxicity of PCBs is unknown, it has been shown that they increase oxidative stress, including lipid peroxidation. We hypothesized that oxidative stress-induced DNA damage could be a contributor for PCB carcinogenesis and analyzed several DNA adducts in female Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126), 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153), and a binary mixture (PCB 126 + 153) for 14, 31, and 53 wks. Eight adducts were measured to profile oxidative DNA lesions, including 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG), 1,N(6)-ethenodeoxyadenosine (1,N(6)-εdA), N(2),3-ethenoguanine (N(2),3-εG), 1,N(2)-ethenodeoxyguanosine (1,N(2)-εdG), as well as malondialdehyde (M1dG), acrolein (AcrdG), crotonaldehyde (CrdG), and 4-hydroxynonenal-derived dG adducts (HNEdG) by LC-MS/MS analysis. Statistically significant increases were observed for 8-oxo-dG and 1,N(6)-εdA concentrations in hepatic DNA of female rats exposed to the binary mixture (1000 ng/kg/day + 1000 μg/kg/day) but not in rats exposed to PCB 126 (1000 ng/kg/day) or PCB 153 (1000 μg/kg/day) for 14 and 31 wks. However, exposure to PCB 126 (1000 ng/kg/day) for 53 wks significantly increased 8-oxo-dG, 1,N(6)-εdA, AcrdG, and M1dG. Exposure to PCB 153 (1000 μg/kg/day) for 53 wks increased 8-oxo-dG, and 1,N(6)-εdA. Exposure to the binary mixture for 53 wks increased 8-oxo-dG, 1,N(6)-εdA, AcrdG, 1,N(2)-εdG, and N(2),3-εG significantly above control groups. Increased hepatic oxidative DNA adducts following exposure to PCB 126, PCB 153, or the binary mixture shows that an increase in DNA damage may play an important role in hepatic toxicity and

  6. Burning of olive tree branches: a major organic aerosol source in the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kostenidou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol produced during the burning of olive tree branches was characterized with both direct source-sampling (using a mobile smog chamber and with ambient measurements during the burning season. The fresh particles were composed of 80% organic matter, 8–10% black carbon (BC, 5% potassium, 3–4% sulfate, 2–3% nitrate and 0.8% chloride. Almost half of the fresh olive tree branches burning organic aerosol (otBB-OA consisted of alkane groups. Their mode diameter was close to 70 nm. The oxygen to carbon (O:C ratio of the fresh otBB-OA was 0.29 ± 0.04. The mass fraction of levoglucosan in PM1 was 0.034–0.043, relatively low in comparison with most fuel types. This may lead to an underestimation of the otBB-OA contribution if levoglucosan is being used as a wood burning tracer. Chemical aging was observed during smog chamber experiments, as f44 and O:C ratio increased, due to reactions with OH radicals and O3. The otBB-OA AMS mass spectrum differs from the other published biomass burning spectra, with a main difference at m/z 60, used as levoglucosan tracer. In addition to particles, volatile organic compounds (VOCs such as methanol, acetonitrile, acrolein, benzene, toluene and xylenes are also emitted. Positive matrix factorization (PMF was applied to the ambient organic aerosol data and 3 factors could be identified: OOA (oxygenated organic aerosol, 55%, HOA (hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol, 11.3% and otBB-OA 33.7%. The fresh chamber otBB-OA AMS spectrum is close to the PMF otBB-OA spectrum and resembles the ambient mass spectrum during olive tree branches burning periods. We estimated an otBB-OA emission factor of 3.5 ± 0.2 g kg−1. Assuming that half of the olive tree branches pruned is burned in Greece 2280 ± 140 tons of otBB-OA are emitted every year. This activity is one of the most important fine aerosol sources during the winter months in the Mediterranean countries.

  7. Research status of acrylamide in roasted coffee%焙炒咖啡中丙烯酰胺的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许彤宇; 曾绍东; 王明月; 杨春亮

    2015-01-01

    Coffee can produce a certain amount of acrylamide which is potential carcinogenica during the process of roasting under high temperature (200~250℃ ). Experimental researches showed that short-term contact with a lot of acrylamide could damage nervous centralis of human beings and animals. If human beings were exposed to little doses of acrylamide in long-term, limb numbness and weakness would happen to them. Acrylamide from the process of roasting were created by either asparagine route or acrolein route. The types of coffee, the roasting temperature and the roasting time were the major factors in the formation of acrylamide during roasting coffee beans. The research progresses of controlling the ways of acrylamide formation were reviewed in this article, and suggestions for further researches on the formation of acrylamide were put forward.%咖啡在高温(200~250℃)焙炒加工过程中会产生一定量潜在的致癌物质丙烯酰胺。实验研究表明,短期接触大量丙烯酰胺会对人和动物的中枢神经造成损伤,人体长期小剂量接触丙烯酰胺会表现为四肢末端麻木、无力。咖啡焙炒加工过程中产生的丙烯酰胺除了通过天门冬酰胺途径生成以外,还可以由丙烯醛途径生成。其中影响咖啡中丙烯酰胺形成的主要因素有咖啡类型、咖啡的焙炒温度和时间。本文对控制丙烯酰胺形成途径的研究进展进行了相关阐述,并对焙炒咖啡中丙烯酰胺的进一步研究提出建议。

  8. Performance of 181 chemicals in a Drosophila assay predominantly monitoring interchromosomal mitotic recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, E W; Nivard, M J

    1993-01-01

    selectivity: acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, epichlorohydrin, chloroethylisocyanate, 1,2-epoxybutane, N-methyl-n-vinylacetamide, methyl vinylketone, 2-methyl-2-vinyloxirane and methyl vinylsulfone. These chemicals have a relatively low DNA reactivity. Chloroethylisocyanate was active only in the absence of excision repair, suggesting that efficient DNA repair is the cause for the weak genotoxic effectiveness of these genotoxins. (c) Spindle poisons (Table V) were active at rather low but toxic exposure levels. Irregularities in the structure of ommatidia were seen at dose levels producing no more than 2- to 3-fold increases in clone frequencies. (d) The fourth group consisted of chemicals generally regarded as non-genotoxic carcinogens: amitrole, ethionine, ethylurea, tetrachloroethylene and thiourea. Their weak responses were always accompanied by signs of toxicity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8450769

  9. Eco-compatibility in the Brazilian energy matrix: biodiesel fuel can be considered environmentally friendly?; Eco-compatibilidade na matriz energetica brasileira: o biodiesel pode ser considerado como combustivel ambientalmente correto?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Iracema Andrade; Santos, Jarsia Melo dos; Cruz, Andrea Cristina da; Leite, Maria Bernadete Neiva Lemos [Faculdade de Tecnologia e Ciencias, Salvador, BA (Brazil)], e-mail: iracema@ftc.br; Pereira, Solange Andrade; Nascimento, Mauricio Andrade [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia

    2008-07-01

    Based on the law 11.097/05, Brazil begins the compulsory use of biodiesel from 2008, persuading the compliance of economical, technological, social and environmental objectives. The country uses 40 billions litters of diesel per year, 15% to 17% imported, which represented in 2007, a cost superior to two billion dollars. The addition of biodiesel to diesel from 2%, 5% to 20% (limit proved as technically secure), besides providing economical and social benefits, represents environmental gains, due to emissions reduction in relation to diesel fossil. However, besides the acrolein, which can result from the burnt of possible remaining glycerin in biodiesel, the soluble fractions of this biofuel and the effluents generated during its productive processes may cause possible pollution in soil and water bodies. Eco toxicological information of co-products is incomplete, and due to technical and economical restraints for the use of ethanol, methanol is mostly used for the transesterification process of biodiesel production, even though its toxicological properties are already biodiesel/year. However, the estimated production capacity is supposed to reach 3,8 billions L by 2009, what may represent environmental constraints. The present work does not discuss all the ecological risks associated to the biodiesel productive chain. It aims to determine the toxicity of the soluble water fraction (FSA) of three different types of biodiesel: castor base oil (methylic route and homogeneous basic catalysis - NaOH), 'dende' base oil (methylic route and acid catalysis) and residual cooking oil OGR-biodiesel (methylic route and acid and basic catalysis), using as organism-test (Echinometra lucunter) and, as biochemical biomarker, the activity of acid phosphatase, measured in hepatocytes of exposed fishes (Oreochromis niloticus). The results showed that the FSA of mamona (castor oil) biodiesel was the most toxic (5,0 mU/mg), followed by OGR (3,9 mU/mg) and dende biodiesel (2

  10. Challenges and Development Opportunities for Catalytic Technologies in Petrochemical Industry in the 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Qing-ling

    2004-01-01

    The propellent drive and development opportunities for future catalytic technologies in petrochemical industry in the 21st century are reviewed in this paper. It focuses on the following five aspects:(1) The environmentally-friendly catalytic technologies, such as new technologies for the production of organic chemicals changing the raw material and synthetic process, the chemicals production replacing phosgene and hydrogen cyanide toxicant, and the conversion and utilization of organic wastes etc.(2) Utilization and development of cheaper light alkanes, for example, the chemical use of natural gas and the development technologies of methane chain, the production of acetic acid, ethylene and vinyl chloride from selective oxidation of ethane, as well as the manufacture of acrolein and acrylonitrile from the oxidation and ammoxidation of propane.(3) The new propylene-plus technologies of the low value higher olefins, such as catalytic cracking of C4,C5 olefins and metathesis of C4 olefin.(4) The technologies of high selective oxidation, e.g. production of propylene oxide with TS-1 molecular sieve, oxidation process by lattice oxygen and direct oxidation of benzene to phenol etc.(5) Development and application of novel catalytic materials, especially, mesopore molecular sieve materials for a larger molecule reaction, zeolite catalyst with MWW structure for alkylation of benzene and propylene, ionic liquid, and membrane reactor catalyst etc.Meanwhile,the challenging research subjects for future industrial catalysis and the several viewpoints for development strategy of new catalytic technologies are proposed. These viewpoints are as follows:(1) Catalysis discipline must be integrated with many other disciplines and should be multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary.(2) New preparation methods of catalytic materials must be originally developed.(3) The instrumentation having better time resolution and spatial resolution and applying under reaction conditions must be

  11. Acacia Senegal Gum Exudate Offers Protection Against Cyclophosphamide-Induced Urinary Bladder Cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz A. Al-Yahya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cylophosphamide (CYCL is a strong anticancer and immunosuppressive agent but its urotoxicity presents one of the major toxic effects that limit its wide usage particularly in high dose regimens. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate Acacia Senegal gum exudate, Gum Arabic (GA, for its possible role as a natural, nontoxic agent against CYCL-induced urotoxicity. Male Swiss albino rats were exposed to CYCL (150 mg/kg BW, once i.p with or without GA oral supplementation (7.5 g/kg/day for 6 days through drinking water. Glutathione (GSH, Malondialdehyde (MDA and Nitric oxide (NO bladder contents were assessed. Responsiveness of the bladder rings to acetylcholine (ACh in vitro, microscopic and macroscopic features are also investigated. CYCL produced pronounced harmful effects on bladder urothelial lining with significant increases in (MDA and NO levels in the tissue homogenates. Bladder-GSH content is dropped by over 60% following CYCL injection. Bladder contractility, as measured by its responsiveness to ACh, recorded a marked reduction. The isolated bladders exhibited such macroscopic changes as severe edema, inflammation and extravasation. The bladder weight increased as well. Histological changes were evident in the form of severe congestion, petechial hemorrhage and chronic inflammatory reaction in the lamina propria accompanied with desquamated epithelia. GA, a potential protective agent, produced an almost complete reversal of NO induction, lipid peroxidation or cellular GSH bladder contents in the GA + CYCL-treated group. Likewise, bladder inflammation and edema were reduced. Bladder rings showed a remarkable recovery in their responsiveness to ACh. Bladder histological examination showed a near normal configuration and structural integrity, with a significant reduction in inflammation and disappearance of focal erosions. These remarkable effects of GA may be attributed to its ability to neutralize acrolein, the reactive metabolite of CYCL

  12. FIRE EVACUATION FROM HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korol'chenko Aleksandr Yakovlevich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors argue that no collapse of structures is likely in the event of a fire emergency in multistoried buildings, rather, other fire-related factors may endanger the lives of people inside high-rise buildings exposed to the fire emergency, including open fire, sparks, high ambient temperature, smoke and toxic combustion products, reduced concentration of oxygen, and combined influence of various factors. In case of fire, the temperature inside buildings reaches 1100 °С. It exceeds the temperature of the ambient air acceptable for humans by far (70 °С. The experiments demonstrate that combustion products contain hundreds of toxic chemical compounds. The most hazardous of them include carbon oxide, carbon dioxide, chloride and cyanic hydrogen, aldehydes and acrolein. The author provides the pattern of their influence on the human body. The smoke consists of unburned particles of carbon and aerosols. The size of particles fluctuates within 0.05-50 MMK. Smoke produces a physiological and psychological impact on human beings. It has been proven that dangerous fire factors emerge within the first five to ten minutes of the emergency situation. Evacuation is the principal method of safety assurance. However, the velocity of propagation of smoke and heat is so high that even if the fire prevention system is in operation, people may be blocked both on the floors that are exposed to the fire and those that escape its propagation. New evacuation and rescue methods are recommended by the author. Various ways and methods of use of life-saving facilities are also provided. Safe evacuation is feasible from buildings where the number of stories does not exceed 10- 12. During evacuation, high density human streams are formed inside buildings, therefore, the period of stay in a burning building is increased. The calculations have proven that a two-minute delay of evacuation converts into a safe evacuation of only 13-15% of people. Low reliability of

  13. Production of alkyl-aromatics from light oxygenates over zeolite catalysts for bio-oil refining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Trung Q.

    Upgrading of light oxygenates derived from biomass conversion, such as propanal and glycerol, to more valuable aromatics for biofuels has been demonstrated on zeolite catalysts. Aromatics with a high ratio of C 9/(C8+C7) and little benzene are produced at much higher yield from oxygenates than from olefins at mild conditions over HZSM-5. It is proposed that C9 aromatics are predominantly produced via acid-catalyzed aldol condensation. This reaction pathway is different from the pathway of propylene and other hydrocarbon aromatization that occurs via a hydrocarbon pool at more severe conditions with major aromatic products C6 and C7. In fact, investigation on the effect of crystallite size HZSM-5 has shown a higher ratio of C9/(C8+C 7) aromatics on small crystallite. This is due to faster removal of products from the shorter diffusion path length. As a result, a longer catalyst lifetime, less isomerization, and less cracking were observed on small crystallites. Beside crystallite size, pore geometry of zeolites was also found to significantly affect aromatic production for both conversion of propanal and glycerol. It is shown that the structure of the HZSM-22, with a one-dimensional and narrower channel system, restricts the formation of aromatics. In contrast, a higher yield of aromatic products is observed over HZSM-5 with its three-dimensional channel system. By increasing channel dimension and connectivity of the channels, increasing catalyst activity was also observed due to more accessible acid sites. It was also found that glycerol is highly active for dehydration on zeolites to produce high yields of acrolein (propenal), a high value chemical. To maximize aromatics from glycerol conversion, HZSM-5 and HY were found to be effective. A two-bed reactor of Pd/ZnO and HZSM-5 was used to first deoxygenate/hydrogenate glycerol over Pd/ZnO to intermediate oxygenates that can further aromatize on HZSM-5. The end results are very promising with significant improvement

  14. Particulate PAHs and n-alkanes in the air over Southern and Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnoli, Paola; Balducci, Catia; Perilli, Mattia; Perreca, Erica; Cecinato, Angelo

    2016-09-01

    Particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, n-alkanes and polar organic compounds were investigated in the marine atmosphere of Southern and Eastern Mediterranean Sea, in the frame of the scientific cruise of Urania ship between 27 July and 11 August 2013. The PM10 fraction of aerosol to which most organic substances are associated, were collected daily; contemporarily, gaseous regulated toxicants (ozone, nitrogen oxides and carbon oxide) and carbonyls were recorded. Samplings were carried out in front of Palermo and Messina, respectively the start and end harbors, and along the cruise, both in movement (transects, N = 14) and at stops (N = 11). Total PAHs ranged from 0.06 ng/m(3) up to 1.8 ng/m(3), with the maximums observed close to harbors. Unlike total concentrations that were in general comparable, the percent composition of PAHs was distinct for harbors, transects and stops, which allowed to draw insights about the pollution sources impact. Concentrations of n-alkanes (C18-C35) ranging from 6.7 to 43 ng/m(3) were quantified. The carbonyls evaluation revealed relatively high concentrations of formaldehyde (∼4-24 μg/m(3)) and acetone (∼5-35 μg/m(3)) near harbors, and of acrolein (up to 12 μg/m(3)) offshore, while benzaldehyde was quite independent of the site type (≈0.5 μg/m(3)). Nicotine and caffeine were detected, at different extents (0.0-2.2 ng/m(3) and 0.01-0.17 ng/m(3), respectively), in ca. 70% and 100% of samples. Alkyl phthalates ranged from 2.7 to 67 ng/m(3) and showed variable percentages in the samples. Finally, traces of N,N-diethyl-meta-toluene amide (up to 0.4 ng/m(3)) were found at all sites. PMID:27341155

  15. Gas phase carbonyl compounds in ship emissions: Differences between diesel fuel and heavy fuel oil operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reda, Ahmed A.; Schnelle-Kreis, J.; Orasche, J.; Abbaszade, G.; Lintelmann, J.; Arteaga-Salas, J. M.; Stengel, B.; Rabe, R.; Harndorf, H.; Sippula, O.; Streibel, T.; Zimmermann, R.

    2014-09-01

    Gas phase emission samples of carbonyl compounds (CCs) were collected from a research ship diesel engine at Rostock University, Germany. The ship engine was operated using two different types of fuels, heavy fuel oil (HFO) and diesel fuel (DF). Sampling of CCs was performed from diluted exhaust using cartridges and impingers. Both sampling methods involved the derivatization of CCs with 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH). The CCs-hydrazone derivatives were analyzed by two analytical techniques: High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD) and Gas Chromatography-Selective Ion Monitoring-Mass Spectrometry (GC-SIM-MS). Analysis of DNPH cartridges by GC-SIM-MS method has resulted in the identification of 19 CCs in both fuel operations. These CCs include ten aliphatic aldehydes (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propanal, isobutanal, butanal, isopentanal, pentanal, hexanal, octanal, nonanal), three unsaturated aldehydes (acrolein, methacrolein, crotonaldehyde), three aromatic aldehyde (benzaldehyde, p-tolualdehyde, m,o-molualdehyde), two ketones (acetone, butanone) and one heterocyclic aldehyde (furfural). In general, all CCs under investigation were detected with higher emission factors in HFO than DF. The total carbonyl emission factor was determined and found to be 6050 and 2300 μg MJ-1 for the operation with HFO and DF respectively. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were found to be the dominant carbonyls in the gas phase of ship engine emission. Formaldehyde emissions factor varied from 3500 μg MJ-1 in HFO operation to 1540 μg MJ-1 in DF operation, which is 4-30 times higher than those of other carbonyls. Emission profile contribution of CCs showed also a different pattern between HFO and DF operation. The contribution of formaldehyde was found to be 58% of the emission profile of HFO and about 67% of the emission profile of DF. Acetaldehyde showed opposite behavior with higher contribution of 16% in HFO compared to 11% for DF. Heavier carbonyls

  16. Heterogeneous Partial (ammOxidation and Oxidative Dehydrogenation Catalysis on Mixed Metal Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques C. Védrine

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of heterogeneous partial (ammoxidation and oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH of hydrocarbons. The review has been voluntarily restricted to metal oxide-type catalysts, as the partial oxidation field is very broad and the number of catalysts is quite high. The main factors of solid catalysts for such reactions, designated by Grasselli as the “seven pillars”, and playing a determining role in catalytic properties, are considered to be, namely: isolation of active sites (known to be composed of ensembles of atoms, Me–O bond strength, crystalline structure, redox features, phase cooperation, multi-functionality and the nature of the surface oxygen species. Other important features and physical and chemical properties of solid catalysts, more or less related to the seven pillars, are also emphasized, including reaction sensitivity to metal oxide structure, epitaxial contact between an active phase and a second phase or its support, synergy effect between several phases, acid-base aspects, electron transfer ability, catalyst preparation and activation and reaction atmospheres, etc. Some examples are presented to illustrate the importance of these key factors. They include light alkanes (C1–C4 oxidation, ethane oxidation to ethylene and acetic acid on MoVTe(SbNb-O and Nb doped NiO, propene oxidation to acrolein on BiMoCoFe-O systems, propane (ammoxidation to (acrylonitrile acrylic acid on MoVTe(SbNb-O mixed oxides, butane oxidation to maleic anhydride on VPO: (VO2P2O7-based catalyst, and isobutyric acid ODH to methacrylic acid on Fe hydroxyl phosphates. It is shown that active sites are composed of ensembles of atoms whose size and chemical composition depend on the reactants to be transformed (their chemical and size features and the reaction mechanism, often of Mars and van Krevelen type. An important aspect is the fact that surface composition and surface crystalline structure vary with reaction on stream until

  17. Evaluation of a novel inhalation exposure system to determine acute respiratory responses to tobacco and polymer pyrolysate mixtures in Swiss-Webster mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werley, Michael S; Lee, K Monica; Lemus, Ranulfo

    2009-07-01

    macrophages, and histopathological findings in the nose of mice exposed to 100% tobacco or tobacco/polymer pyrolysates. Analytical measurements were also performed in order to characterize the test atmospheric changes that could occur from inclusion of the polymer into the tobacco. These included DIN-generated wet total particulate matter (TPM) DIN-Generated wet TPM (DWTPM), nicotine, cyanide, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen oxides. We attempted to correlate analyte differences in the test atmospheres with the resulting biological findings in the mice. The results demonstrated that this approach could detect minimal toxicological effects in mice exposed to test atmospheres of 100% tobacco or 70%/30% tobacco/polymer pyrolysates. PMID:19555223

  18. The Influence of Shale Rock Fracturing Equipment Operation on Atmospheric Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacki, Marek; Macuda, Jan

    2014-12-01

    The hydraulic fracturing jobs performed on shale rocks are connected with atmospheric emissions of dusts and exhaust gases from high-power motors supplying pump aggregates used for fracturing operations and from other technological devices. The total power of motors driving technological systems depends on the specific character of deposit and well and may range between a dozen to tens of thousands kW. An exemplary set of technological systems used for frac jobs is presented in figure 1. The following substances are emitted to the atmosphere during engine operation, e.g. nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon oxide (CO), dust PM10, ammonia, benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), benzene, toluene, xylene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein. As a consequence admissible concentrations of these substances in air can be exceeded. The influence of dust and gaseous emissions accompanying shale rock fracturing jobs is addressed in this paper. Model analyses were performed. An exemplary model of a process used for simulating propagation of atmospheric emissions in a specified calculation area (1,150 m × 1,150 m) were based on the analysis of hydraulic fracturing jobs performed in wells in Poland and abroad. For making calculations more actual, the model was located in the Gdańsk area and was ascribed its typical meteorological and orographic parameters. In the center of this area a rig site 150 m x 150 m was distinguished. The emission field was generated by 12 high-power engines supplying pump aggregates, 1680 kW each. The time of work of particular engines was established for 52 hrs (13 frac jobs, each lasting 4 hrs). It was assumed that all engines will operate simultaneously and using 100% of their power. Attention was paid to the correct modelling of the real emission field. Technical parameters of motors and the applied fuels were characterized. Emission indices were worked out by, e.g. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or European Environment Agency. The

  19. Effect of cold-sensitive channel activity induced by cold air on expression of inflammatory cytokines in rat lungs%大鼠肺内冷敏感通道受冷空气刺激后增强炎性因子表达的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔海洋; 孙文武; 王忠华; 曹建平; 马壮

    2015-01-01

    temperature controlled at ( 2 ±1 )℃.The rats of warm air inhalation group were treated in the same way as cold air inhalation group except for the temperature at (36 ±1)℃.The rats of both groups were treated for 3 times, 1 hour each time.There were 12 hour intervals between treatments .The rats of TRPA1 channel agonist inhalation group were treated with atomizing inhalation of 60 mmol/L acrolein at room temperature (24 ±2)℃for 3 times, 1 hour each time.There were 12 hour intervals between two treatments .The rats were sacrificed after the last treatment .The tracheas and left lung tissues of all rats were taken and total RNA was extracted .The mRNA expressions of TRPA1, interleukin 1 beta ( IL-1β), interleukin 5(IL-5),and neutrophil chemoattractant chemokine (CXCL-1/KC)in the rat lungs were detected by real-time quantitative PCR .Results TRPA1 was expressed in rat lung tissues .In the short term cold air inhalation group , the expressions of IL-1β,IL-5 and CXCL-1/KC mRNA in the rat lungs were higher than those of the warm air inhalation or the normal groups .Similar results were also found in the specific TRPA 1 channel positive agonist ( acrolein ) inhalation group . Conclusion In living animals, the TRPA1 channels of the lungs can be activated by short-term cold air(<17℃),which results in the increasing expression of some inflammatory cytokines in lungs .

  20. Atmospheric oxidation of 1,3-butadiene: characterization of gas and aerosol reaction products and implications for PM2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaoui, M.; Lewandowski, M.; Docherty, K.; Offenberg, J. H.; Kleindienst, T. E.

    2014-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was generated by irradiating 1,3-butadiene (13BD) in the presence of H2O2 or NOx. Experiments were conducted in a smog chamber operated in either flow or batch mode. A filter/denuder sampling system was used for simultaneously collecting gas- and particle-phase products. The chemical composition of the gas phase and SOA was analyzed using derivative-based methods (BSTFA, BSTFA + PFBHA, or DNPH) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the derivative compounds. The analysis showed the occurrence of more than 60 oxygenated organic compounds in the gas and particle phases, of which 31 organic monomers were tentatively identified. The major identified products include glyceric acid, d-threitol, erythritol, d-threonic acid, meso-threonic acid, erythrose, malic acid, tartaric acid, and carbonyls including glycolaldehyde, glyoxal, acrolein, malonaldehyde, glyceraldehyde, and peroxyacryloyl nitrate (APAN). Some of these were detected in ambient PM2.5 samples, and could potentially serve as organic markers of 13BD. Furthermore, a series of oligoesters were detected and found to be produced through chemical reactions occurring in the aerosol phase between compounds bearing alcoholic groups and compounds bearing acidic groups. SOA was analyzed for organic mass to organic carbon (OM /OC) ratio, effective enthalpy of vaporization (Δ Hvapeff), and aerosol yield. The average OM /OC ratio and SOA density were 2.7 ± 0.09 and 1.2 ± 0.05, respectively. The average Δ Hvapeff was -26.08 ± 1.46 kJ mol-1, a value lower than that of isoprene SOA. The average laboratory SOA yield measured in this study at aerosol mass concentrations between 22.5 and 140.2 μg m-3 was 0.025 ± 0.011, a value consistent with the literature (0.021-0.178). While the focus of this study has been examination of the particle-phase measurements, the gas-phase photooxidation products have also been

  1. Reaction Dynamics of O((3)P) + Propyne: II. Primary Products, Branching Ratios, and Role of Intersystem Crossing from Ab Initio Coupled Triplet/Singlet Potential Energy Surfaces and Statistical Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimondi, Ilaria; Cavallotti, Carlo; Vanuzzo, Gianmarco; Balucani, Nadia; Casavecchia, Piergiorgio

    2016-07-14

    3CCO + H and CH3 + HCCO are the major channels active on the triplet PES and are formed from the wells accessed after O addition to the terminal and central C, respectively; (1)CH3CH + CO and C2H3 + HCO are the major channels active on the singlet PES and are formed from the methylketene and acrolein wells after ISC. However, also a large number of minor channels (∼15) are active, so that the system reactivity is quite complicated. The comparison between computational and experimental BRs is quite good for the kinetic study, while some discrepancy with the CMB estimations suggests that dynamic non-ergodic effects may influence the system reactivity. Channel specific rate constants are calculated in the 300-2250 K and 1-30 bar temperature and pressure ranges. It is found that as the temperature increases the H abstraction reaction, whose contribution is negligible in the experimental conditions, increases in relevance, and the extent of ISC decreases from ∼80% at 300 K to less than 2% at 2250 K. PMID:27010914

  2. Determination of heat purgeable and ambient purgeable volatile organic compounds in water by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Donna L.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Murtagh, Lucinda K.

    2016-09-08

    preserved with HCl (1:1) to pH 2, and many are stable longer. Acrolein was retained in the method validation and initial method implementation and subsequently deleted because of instability and inconsistent performance. 2-Chloromethyl oxirane, methyl oxirane, and oxirane were tested using this method, but the compounds degraded quickly with the HCl (1:1) used for microbial preservation.The ambient purgeable method, USGS Method O-4436-16, operates with the mass spectrometer in the full scan mode. This method is a modification of USGS Method O-4127-96 (NWQL LS 2020). Several compounds were retained from Method O-4127-96 and will continue to be determined in Method O-4436-16. Eleven high priority compounds were added. MDLs for the high priority compounds range from 0.007 µg/L for 2,2-dichloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane to 0.04 µg/L for 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene and 1,3-butadiene. Historical MDLs for the compounds retained from Method O-4127-96 range from 0.009 µg/L for trans-1,2-dichloroethene to 0.1 µg/L for bromomethane. The calculated holding times for the compounds indicate the majority of the compounds are stable for a minimum of 14 days, or longer, at pH 2 with HCl (1:1) preservation. Four semivolatile compounds, 1,2-dimethylnaphthalene, 1,6-dimethylnaphthalene, 2,6-di-tert-butyl phenol, and 2-chloronapthalene, were tested and deleted from the method due to poor performance. Benzyl chloride was tested and deleted due to instability.

  3. Gaseous VOCs rapidly modify particulate matter and its biological effects - Part 1: Simple VOCs and model PM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersviller, S.; Lichtveld, K.; Sexton, K. G.; Zavala, J.; Lin, Y.-H.; Jaspers, I.; Jeffries, H. E.

    2012-12-01

    This is the first of a three-part study designed to demonstrate dynamic entanglements among gaseous organic compounds (VOC), particulate matter (PM), and their subsequent potential biological effects. We study these entanglements in increasingly complex VOC and PM mixtures in urban-like conditions in a large outdoor chamber. To the traditional chemical and physical characterizations of gas and PM, we added new measurements of biological effects, using cultured human lung cells as model indicators. These biological effects are assessed here as increases in cellular damage or expressed irritation (i.e., cellular toxic effects) from cells exposed to chamber air relative to cells exposed to clean air. The exposure systems permit virtually gas-only- or PM-only-exposures from the same air stream containing both gases and PM in equilibria, i.e., there are no extractive operations prior to cell exposure. Our simple experiments in this part of the study were designed to eliminate many competing atmospheric processes to reduce ambiguity in our results. Simple volatile and semi-volatile organic gases that have inherent cellular toxic properties were tested individually for biological effect in the dark (at constant humidity). Airborne mixtures were then created with each compound to which we added PM that has no inherent cellular toxic properties for another cellular exposure. Acrolein and p-tolualdehyde were used as model VOCs and mineral oil aerosol (MOA) was selected as a surrogate for organic-containing PM. MOA is appropriately complex in composition to represent ambient PM, and exhibits no inherent cellular toxic effects and thus did not contribute any biological detrimental effects on its own. Chemical measurements, combined with the responses of our biological exposures, clearly demonstrate that gas-phase pollutants can modify the composition of PM (and its resulting detrimental effects on lung cells). We observed that, even if the gas-phase pollutants are not

  4. Gaseous VOCs rapidly modify particulate matter and its biological effects – Part 1: Simple VOCs and model PM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. E. Jeffries

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This is the first of a three-part study designed to demonstrate dynamic entanglements among gaseous organic compounds (VOC, particulate matter (PM, and their subsequent potential biological effects. We study these entanglements in increasingly complex VOC and PM mixtures in urban-like conditions in a large outdoor chamber. To the traditional chemical and physical characterizations of gas and PM, we added new measurements of gas-only- and PM-only-biological effects, using cultured human lung cells as model indicators. These biological effects are assessed here as increases in cellular damage or expressed irritation (i.e., cellular toxic effects from cells exposed to chamber air relative to cells exposed to clean air. The exposure systems permit gas-only- or PM-only-exposures from the same air stream containing both gases and PM in equilibria, i.e., there are no extractive operations prior to cell exposure. Our simple experiments in this part of the study were designed to eliminate many competing atmospheric processes to reduce ambiguity in our results. Simple volatile and semi-volatile organic gases that have inherent cellular toxic properties were tested individually for biological effect in the dark (at constant humidity. Airborne mixtures were then created with each compound and PM that has no inherent cellular toxic properties for another cellular exposure. Acrolein and p-tolualdehyde were used as model VOCs and mineral oil aerosol (MOA was selected as a surrogate for organic-containing PM. MOA is appropriately complex in composition to represent ambient PM, and it exhibits no inherent cellular toxic effects and thus did not contribute any biological detrimental effects on its own. Chemical measurements, combined with the responses of our biological exposures, clearly demonstrate that gas-phase pollutants can modify the composition of PM (and its resulting detrimental effects on lung cells – even if the gas-phase pollutants are not

  5. Characterizations and Catalytic Properties of Transition Metal Ions Incorporated in Mesoporous Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ye

    2004-01-01

    was dispersed on the wall surface of MCM-41. The V-MCM-41-DHT showed higher selectivity in the partial oxidations of C3H8 and i-C4H10 to alkenes and acrolein and methacrolein, but the V-MCM-41-TIE exhibited better catalytic activities in the partial oxidation of CH4 to HCHO and the oxidative dehydrogenation of C2H6.For Fe-MCM-41, EXAFS studies indicated that the DHT method also resulted in Fe3+ cations incorporated inside the framework of MCM-41 if iron content was lower than ca. 1 wt%. However,aggregated iron oxides with iron in octahedral coordination were mainly observed in the calcined Fe-MCM-41 by the TIE method. In the partial oxidation of CH4 to HCHO with O2 and the epoxidation of styrene with H2O2, the Fe-MCM-41 by the DHT method exhibits remarkably higher catalytic performances than that by the TIE method.Chromium could not be incorporated inside the framework of MCM-41 to substitute Si4+, and both synthetic methods led to surface chromate species. However, the DHT method resulted in only monochromate species on the wall surface of MCM-41 while polychromate species existed over the sample by the TIE method as indicated by the UV-Raman spectroscopic studies. The two types of Cr-MCM-41 exhibited distinctly different catalytic behaviors in the partial oxidation of CH4 with O2.The Cr-MCM-41-DHT was remarkably more selective towards HCHO formation.

  6. Air Impacts of Unconventional Natural Gas Development: A Barnett Shale Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C. W.; Zielinska, B.; Campbell, D.; Fujita, E.

    2013-12-01

    Many atmospheric pollutants have been linked to the lifecycle of unconventional natural gas. Attributing air emissions to particular segments of the natural gas life cycle can be difficult. Further, describing individual and community exposure to air pollutants is complex since contaminants can vary spatially and temporally, based on proximity to point sources, magnitude, transport and dispersion of emissions. Here we will present data from the Barnett Shale formation near Dallas/Fort Worth, TX with the goal of providing a better understanding of the extent to which population exposure to air toxics is associated with emissions from natural gas production operations in this region. The Barnett Shale formation covers nearly 13000 km2 and is located west of Dallas/Fort Worth, TX. This formation contains natural gas, natural gas condensate, and light oil. Samples were collected in April-May 2010 in two phases with the purpose of Phase 1 being to characterize emissions from major gas production facilities in the area, while Phase 2 involved more intensive monitoring of two residential areas identified in Phase 1. One of the residential areas was downwind of a gas well and two condensate tanks and the other area was close to a compressor station. Phase 1 sampling involved our mobile monitoring system, which includes real-time estimates of volatile organic compounds (VOC), using a portable photoionization detector monitor; continuous NO, PM2.5 mass, and a GasFindIR camera. Phase 1 also included 1-hr integrated canister VOC samples and carbonyl compound samples, using DNPH impregnated Sep-Pac Si cartridges. These samples were analyzed by GC/MS and high performance liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector. Phase 2 sampling included 7-day integrated passive samples for NOx, NO2 and SO2 using Ogawa passive samplers, and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes), 1,3-butadiene, and carbonyl compounds (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) using

  7. Pyrolysis Behavior of Paper-base of Paper-making Process Reconstituted Tobacco with Different Physical Parameters under Flash Pyrolysis Conditions%不同物理参数造纸法再造烟叶纸基在闪速热解环境下的热解特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周顺; 陶丰; 何庆; 徐迎波; 胡源; 王程辉; 葛少林; 舒俊生; 田振峰; 王平军; 周明华

    2012-01-01

    为考察造纸法再造烟叶纸基物理参数改变对其热解特性的影响,利用闪速热解-红外联用( FPy-FTIR)法研究了4种不同物理参数纸基热解气相产物的形成规律,采用闪速热解结合高效液相色谱针对性地分析了热解气相产物中8种羰基化合物(甲醛、乙醛、丙酮、丙烯醛、丙醛、巴豆醛、2-丁酮和丁醛)的生成情况.结果表明:①纸基热解主要生成H2O、CO2、CO、甲醇、羰基化合物、炔烃类(主要是乙炔)、烯烃类(主要是乙烯)和烷烃类(主要是甲烷)化合物.纸基透气度的提高有利于热解释放出更多的气相产物.②透气度、定量以及烟草浆和木浆相对比例的改变并不会影响甲烷的形成,而透气度的提高会降低CO的生成量,并产生更多的CO2.③木浆相对比例的提高是导致羰基化合物和乙烯生成强度减弱的主要原因.④4种纸基闪速热解所形成的羰基化合物中都是乙醛的生成量最多,其次是丙酮和丙醛.%In order to investigate the influences of the physical parameters of the paper-base in paper-making process reconstituted tobacco on its pyrolysis behavior, the formation of pyrolyzed gas phase products of 4 paper-bases with different physical parameters were investigated by flash pyrolysis-Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FPy-FTIR). Moreover, the evolution of 8 carbonyl compounds (including formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, acrolein, propionaldehyde, crotonaldehyde, butanone and butyraldehyde) were analyzed by flash pyrolysis-high performance liquid chromatography (FPy-HPLC). The results showed that: 1) The pyrolyzed gas phase products mainly included water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methanol, carbonyl compounds, alkynes (mainly acetylene), alkenes (ethylene) and alkanes (methane) compounds. The increase of permeability of paper-base was beneficial to the formation of gas phase products. 2) The changes of permeability, grammage and ratio of tobacco

  8. Analysis of Carbonyl Compounds in Water-based Adhesive by Direct Derivatization and High-performance Liquid Chromatography%直接衍生/高效液相色谱法分析水基胶中羰基化合物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万小红; 吴名剑; 蒋新宇; 戴云辉; 李绍晔

    2011-01-01

    A direct derivatization and high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the trace analysis of 8 carbonyl compounds, e. G. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, acrole-in, propaldehyde, crotonaldehyde and 2-butanone and butaldehyde in water-based adhesive. The method adopted 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazine(DNPH) to directly react with the adhesive sample solution , and the influence factors were investigated and optimized. The best derivatization condition was using the adhesive to react directly with DNPH at 40 °C for 20 min. The optimized chromatograpic conditions were as follows: DIONEX Acclaim Explosives E2 reversed-phase column as separation column, water and acetonitrile as mobile phase by double gradient elution. The flow rate was set at 1. 2 mL/min, and the column temperature was set at 35 ℃. Under the optimal conditions, the linear ranges of 8 carbonyl compounds were all in 0. 001 1 -55. 32 mg/L, with correlation coefficients higher than 0. 999. The limits of detection for 8 carbonyl compounds were 0. 066 3 - 1. 691 1 mg/kg, and the limits of quantitation were 0. 221 -5. 637 mg/kg. The relative standard deviations were between 4. 3% and 9. 3% , and the recoveries were 62% -100% . The established method was sensitive , simple and accurate, and was practical for the determination of 8 carbonyl compounds in water-based adhesive.%建立了直接衍生/高效液相色谱分析水基胶中8种痕量羰基化合物(甲醛、乙醛、丙酮、丙烯醛、丙醛、丁烯醛、2-丁酮和丁醛)的方法.对影响分析效率的因素进行了考察,确定最佳衍生条件为:水基胶样品与2,4-二硝基苯肼衍生剂在40℃下反应20 min;最佳色谱分析条件为:采用DIONEX Acclaim Explosives E2反相柱,用水和乙腈进行二元梯度洗脱,流速1.2 mL/min,色谱柱温度35℃.8种羰基化合物的线性范围为0.001 1~55.32 mg/L,相关系数均大于0.999,方法的检出限为0.066 3~1.6911mg/kg,定量下限为0.221 ~5

  9. Gaseous VOCs rapidly modify particulate matter and its biological effects – Part 1: Simple VOCs and model PM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. E. Jeffries

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the first of a three-part study designed to demonstrate dynamic entanglements among gaseous organic compounds (VOC, particulate matter (PM, and their subsequent potential biological effects. We study these entanglements in increasingly complex VOC and PM mixtures in urban-like conditions in a large outdoor chamber. To the traditional chemical and physical characterizations of gas and PM, we added new measurements of biological effects, using cultured human lung cells as model indicators. These biological effects are assessed here as increases in cellular damage or expressed irritation (i.e., cellular toxic effects from cells exposed to chamber air relative to cells exposed to clean air. The exposure systems permit virtually gas-only- or PM-only-exposures from the same air stream containing both gases and PM in equilibria, i.e., there are no extractive operations prior to cell exposure. Our simple experiments in this part of the study were designed to eliminate many competing atmospheric processes to reduce ambiguity in our results. Simple volatile and semi-volatile organic gases that have inherent cellular toxic properties were tested individually for biological effect in the dark (at constant humidity. Airborne mixtures were then created with each compound to which we added PM that has no inherent cellular toxic properties for another cellular exposure. Acrolein and p-tolualdehyde were used as model VOCs and mineral oil aerosol (MOA was selected as a surrogate for organic-containing PM. MOA is appropriately complex in composition to represent ambient PM, and exhibits no inherent cellular toxic effects and thus did not contribute any biological detrimental effects on its own. Chemical measurements, combined with the responses of our biological exposures, clearly demonstrate that gas-phase pollutants can modify the composition of PM (and its resulting detrimental effects on lung cells. We observed that, even if the gas-phase pollutants

  10. Personal and ambient exposures to air toxics in Camden, New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioy, Paul J; Fan, Zhihua; Zhang, Junfeng; Georgopoulos, Panos; Wang, Sheng-Wei; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Wu, Xiangmei; Zhu, Xianlei; Harrington, Jason; Tang, Xiaogang; Meng, Qingyu; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Kwon, Jaymin; Hernandez, Marta; Bonnano, Linda; Held, Joann; Neal, John

    2011-08-01

    (i.e., diesel trucks) had a large impact on formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations in both neighborhoods and that both are aldehyde hot spots. The study also showed that PM2.5, aldehydes, BTEX, and MTBE concentrations in both Waterfront South and Copewood-Davis were higher than ambient background concentrations in New Jersey and than national average concentrations, indicating that both neighborhoods are in fact hot spots for these pollutants. Higher concentrations were observed on weekdays than on weekend days for several compounds, including toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (known collectively as TEX) as well as PAHs and PM2.5. These observations showed the impact on ambient air pollution of higher traffic volumes and more active industrial and commercial operations in the study areas on weekdays. Seasonal variations differed by species. Concentrations of TEX, for example, were found to be higher in winter than in summer in both locations, possibly because of higher emission rates from automobiles and reduced photochemical reactivity in winter. In contrast, concentrations of MTBE were found to be significantly higher in summer than in winter in both locations, possibly because of higher evaporation rates from gasoline in summer. Similarly, concentrations of heavier PAHs, such as benzo[a]pyrene, were found to be higher in winter in both locations, possibly because of higher emission rates from mobile sources, the use of home heating, and the reduced photochemical reactivity of benzo[a]pyrene in winter. In contrast, concentrations of lighter PAHs were found to be higher in summer in both locations, possibly because of volatilization of these compounds from various surfaces in summer. In addition, higher concentrations of formaldehyde were observed in summer than in winter, possibly because of significant contributions from photochemical reactions to formaldehyde air pollution in summer. Personal concentrations of toluene (25.4 +/- 13.5 microg/m3) and acrolein

  11. In Situ Real-Time Monitoring of Volatile Metabolites of Fermented Milk by Dynamic Headspace Sampling - Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Mass Spectrometry%动态顶空取样-大气压化学电离质谱原位实时监测发酵乳挥发性代谢产物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁华正; 杨水平; 刘维佳; 李媛

    2012-01-01

    Volatile metabolites produced from fermented milk were monitored in situ real-time by atmospheric pressure dynamic headspace sampling coupled with chemical ionization mass spectrometry. The ion current signal of volatile metabolites was recorded during 3.0 h to 4.7 h after the start of fermentation. The signal of 2,3-butanedione (m/z 104,M+H2O·+ ) was weak in the first 4 h followed by a gradual increase, reaching a rapid upward trend after 4.2 b, the signal of ethyl acetate (m/z 106, M+H2O·+) began gradually increasing after 3 h, but the signal of benzaldehyde (m/z 124, M+H2O·+ ) remained relatively stable. The mass spectrum of 6 h fermented milk mainly included the signals of lactic acid (mlz 91, MH+ and m/z 108,M+H2O·+), 2,3-butanedione (m/z 104, M+H2O·+ ), benzaldehyde (m/z 107, MH+ and m/z 124,M+H2O·+ ), ethyl acetate (m/z 89, MH+ and m/z 106, M+H2O·+ ), hexanal (m/z 101, MH+and m/z 118, M+H2O·+ ), acrolein (m/z 74, M+H2O·+), etc. Atmospheric pressure dynamic headspace sampling coupled with chemical ionization mass spectrometry has many advantages such as rapid and non-destructive and can be used for quality control in the production of fermented milk.%采用大气压化学电离质谱法,利用动态顶空取样技术对发酵乳生产过程中产生的挥发性代谢产物进行原位实时监测。从发酵开始后3.0~4.7h连续用质谱仪记录发酵乳挥发物的离子流信号,结果表明:2,3-丁二酮(m/z104,M+H2O·+)在前4h信号较弱,4h后开始逐渐增大,4.2h后呈快速增大的趋势;乙酸乙酯(m/z106,M+H2O·+)信号从发酵3h后开始呈逐渐增大趋势;苯甲醛(m/z124,M+H2O·+)信号较平稳。发酵进行到6h的质谱图中质谱信号主要有乳酸(m/z291,MH+和m/z108,M+H2O·+),2,3-丁二酮(m/z 104,M+H2O·+),苯甲醛(m/z107,MH+和m/z124,M+H2O·+),乙酸乙酯(m/z 89,MH+和m/z106,M+H2O

  12. Field measurements of trace gases and aerosols emitted by peat fires in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, during the 2015 El Niño

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Chelsea E.; Jayarathne, Thilina; Cochrane, Mark A.; Ryan, Kevin C.; Putra, Erianto I.; Saharjo, Bambang H.; Nurhayati, Ati D.; Albar, Israr; Blake, Donald R.; Simpson, Isobel J.; Stone, Elizabeth A.; Yokelson, Robert J.

    2016-09-01

    of the EFs for CO2 (-8 %), CH4 (-55 %), NH3 (-86 %), CO (+39 %), and other gases compared with widely used recommendations for tropical peat fires based on a lab study of a single sample published in 2003. BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes) are important air toxics and aerosol precursors and were emitted in total at 1.5 ± 0.6 g kg-1. Formaldehyde is probably the air toxic gas most likely to cause local exposures that exceed recommended levels. The field results from Kalimantan were in reasonable agreement with recent lab measurements of smoldering Kalimantan peat for "overlap species," lending importance to the lab finding that burning peat produces large emissions of acetamide, acrolein, methylglyoxal, etc., which were not measurable in the field with the deployed equipment and implying value in continued similar efforts. The aerosol optical data measured include EFs for the scattering and absorption coefficients (EF Bscat and EF Babs, m2 kg-1 fuel burned) and the single scattering albedo (SSA) at 870 and 405 nm, as well as the absorption Ångström exponents (AAE). By coupling the absorption and co-located trace gas and filter data we estimated black carbon (BC) EFs (g kg-1) and the mass absorption coefficient (MAC, m2 g-1) for the bulk organic carbon (OC) due to brown carbon (BrC). Consistent with the minimal flaming, the emissions of BC were negligible (0.0055 ± 0.0016 g kg-1). Aerosol absorption at 405 nm was ˜ 52 times larger than at 870 nm and BrC contributed ˜ 96 % of the absorption at 405 nm. Average AAE was 4.97 ± 0.65 (range, 4.29-6.23). The average SSA at 405 nm (0.974 ± 0.016) was marginally lower than the average SSA at 870 nm (0.998 ± 0.001). These data facilitate modeling climate-relevant aerosol optical properties across much of the UV/visible spectrum and the high AAE and lower SSA at 405 nm demonstrate the dominance of absorption by the organic aerosol. Comparing the Babs at 405 nm to the simultaneously measured OC mass