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Sample records for acridine orange

  1. Rapid diagnosis of bacteremia in adults using acridine orange stained buffy coat smears

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Mark; Mendelson, Jack

    1990-01-01

    The use of acridine orange stained buffy coat smears was assessed as a rapid screening test for bacteremia in adults. A total of 356 consecutive blood cultures were submitted with simultaneous anticoagulated blood samples, from which a buffy coat smear was prepared and stained with acridine orange (100 mg/L; pH 3.0). Forty-one of 356 blood samples (12%) yielded organisms in the blood culture system. Compared to blood culture, the overall sensitivity of acridine orange stained buffy coat smear...

  2. A quantitative model for using acridine orange as a transmembrane pH gradient probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerc, S; Barenholz, Y

    1998-05-15

    Monitoring the acidification of the internal space of membrane vesicles by proton pumps can be achieved easily with optical probes. Transmembrane pH gradients cause a blue-shift in the absorbance spectrum and the quenching of the fluorescence of the cationic dye acridine orange. It has been postulated that these changes are caused by accumulation and aggregation of the dye inside the vesicles. We tested this hypothesis using liposomes with transmembrane concentration gradients of ammonium sulfate as model system. Fluorescence intensity of acridine orange solutions incubated with liposomes was affected by magnitude of the gradient, volume trapped by vesicles, and temperature. These experimental data were compared to a theoretical model describing the accumulation of acridine orange monomers in the vesicles according to the inside-to-outside ratio of proton concentrations, and the intravesicular formation of sandwich-like piles of acridine orange cations. This theoretical model predicted quantitatively the relationship between the transmembrane pH gradients and spectral changes of acridine orange. Therefore, adequate characterization of aggregation of dye in the lumen of biological vesicles provides the theoretical basis for using acridine orange as an optical probe to quantify transmembrane pH gradients.

  3. Preparation of acridine orange-doped silica nanoparticles for pH measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jinshui, E-mail: jsliu@sina.com; Zang, Lingjie; Wang, Yiru; Liu, Guoning

    2014-03-15

    Acridine orange was first encapsulated into silica shell via a facile reverse microemusion method to built core–shell fluorescent nanoparticles. The nanoparticles are all in spherical shape and have a narrow size distribution, and its application as a optical pH sensor has been demonstrated. This novel sensor is based on the pH-dependent fluorescence intensities of acridine orange in different pH value. The fluorescence intensity of acridine orange-doped silica nanoparticles was decreased by increasing pH value. Under optimum conditions, the changes of fluorescence intensity were proportional to the pH value in the range of 8.00–10.90. In addition, the sensor can be easily separated by centrifugation and adds no pollution to the environment compared to the free dyes. Furthermore, the effects of ionic strength and co-existing substances were proved to have little influence on the determination of pH. The sensor has been successfully applied to determine the pH of two artificial samples. Hence, the core–shell fluorescent nanoparticles show potential for practical application. -- Highlights: • Acridine orange was encapsulated into silica shell via a facile reverse microemusion method to built core–shell fluorescent nanoparticles. • The fluorescence intensity of acridine orange-doped silica nanoparticles was decreased by increasing pH value. • Its can be used as an optical pH sensor. • The sensor can be easily separated by centrifugation and adds no pollution to the environment compared to the free dyes. • The sensor has been successfully applied to determine the pH of artificial samples.

  4. Morphology Dependent Photocatalytic Activity of α-MoO3 Nanostructures Towards Mutagenic Acridine Orange Dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The morphological evolutions of orthorhombic molybdenum oxide nanostructures with high crystalline nature have been successfully synthesized by combining low-temperature sol-gel and annealing processes. Strong influence of gelation temperature is a factor facilitated to control the material morphology. Morphological transformations like nanospheres, nanoplatelets, mixtures of hexagonal platelets, and one-dimensional nanobars were obtained. The possible morphological formation mechanism has been proposed as a self-assemble process of nucleation and a mechanism for particle growth by Ostwald ripening. The as-prepared nanostructures were recognized as photocatalysts for the degradation of Acridine Orange under Ultra Violet light. The obtained mixed morphology (hexagonal nanoplatelets and nanobars) showed a high photocatalytic property to degrade mutagenic Acridine Orange dye. Moreover, they could be easily recycled without changing the photocatalytic activity due to their 1-Dimensional and 2-Dimensional nanostructure property. PMID:26369043

  5. Microscopic observation of progressive immobilization of leishmania promastigotes in acridine orange stain.

    OpenAIRE

    G.S. Barreca; Berlinghieri, M C; F. Foti; G. Matera; Foca, A

    1997-01-01

    To rapidly isolate Leishmania donovani promastigotes in samples from Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle (NNN) cultures, a method of staining with acridine orange was developed. Such vital staining combines the advantages of direct microscopic examination (e.g., observation of motility) with more accurate cytological and structural imaging of the stained parasites (usually obtained by Giemsa staining). Progressive immobilization of Leishmania promastigotes associated with a change in fluorescence color was ...

  6. Systematic colocalization errors between acridine orange and EGFP in astrocyte vesicular organelles

    OpenAIRE

    Nadrigny, F.; Li, D.; Kemnitz, K; Ropert, N.; Koulakoff, A; Rudolph, S.; Vitali, M.; Giaume, C.; Kirchhoff, F.; Oheim, M

    2007-01-01

    Dual-color imaging of acridine orange (AO) and EGFP fused to a vesicular glutamate transporter or the vesicle-associated membrane proteins 2 or 3 has been used to visualize a supposedly well-defined subpopulation of glutamatergic astrocytic secretory vesicles undergoing regulated exocytosis. However, AO metachromasy results in the concomitant emission of green and red fluorescence from AO-stained tissue. Therefore, the question arises whether AO and EGFP fluorescence can be distinguished reli...

  7. Nonlinear phenomena of acridine orange in inorganic glasses at nanosecond scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaponenko, S. V.; Gribkovskii, V. P.; Zimin, L. G.; Lebed, V. Yu.; Malinovskii, I. E.; Graham, S.; Klingshirn, C.; Eyal, M.; Brusilovsky, D.; Reisfeld, R.

    1993-04-01

    Nonlinear optical behavior of acridine orange dye has been studied in lead-tin-flouride glass. We found that this material possess nonlinear saturable absorption and power-dependent lifetimes, both on nanosecond time scale. This short response is explained by an efficient S-T transfer induced by the heavy atoms of the glass. The glass has a good potential as a nonlinear material on a nanosecond time scale.

  8. Kinetics and Adsorption Isotherms Studies of Acridine Orange Dye from Aqueous Solution by Activated Charcoal

    OpenAIRE

    2N. Qamar; R. Azmat; Naz, R.; Malik, B.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this research is to evaluate the efficiency of charcoal as low coast and effective adsorbent for acridine orange (a cationic dye) from aqueous solution at room temperature. Effect of initial pH (2-8), shaking time (5min. - 1hour), adsorbent dose (0.1gm- 0.9gm) and dye concentration (37mg/30ml-185mg/30ml) were investigated. Results demonstrated that charcoal act as good adsorbent for the removal AO where 99.15% of the dye was adsorbed within 30 minutes. For the maximum dye removal ...

  9. Fluorescence enhancement of acridine orange in a water solution by Au nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The surface enhanced fluorescence effect of acridine orange fluorophore in the proximity of Au nanoparticles has been investigated experimentally in the system of aqueous solution.Significant enhancement of the fluorescence intensity was observed when the system was excited with 532 nm or 442 nm CW lasers.The influence of the distances between neighboring Au particles as well as that between the fluorophore molecules and the Au surface were explored experimentally.The results demonstrated that a compact distribution of metallic particles was able to produce stronger fluorescence enhancement.Proper separation between the fluorophore molecules and the metal surface was favorable for a better enhancement.

  10. Evaluation of chromatin condensation in human spermatozoa: a flow cytometric assay using acridine orange staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golan, R; Shochat, L; Weissenberg, R; Soffer, Y; Marcus, Z; Oschry, Y; Lewin, L M

    1997-01-01

    The quality of sperm chromatin is an important factor in fertilization and is especially critical where one spermatozoon is artificially selected for fertilizing an egg (as in intracytoplasmic sperm injection). In this study, flow cytometry after staining of human spermatozoa with Acridine Orange was used to study chromatin structure. A method is described for estimating the percentage of cells in a human sperm sample that have completed epididymal maturation in regard to chromatin condensation. Of the 121 samples of the semen that were examined, nine contained a higher percentage of hypocondensed spermatozoa and six samples contained elevated amounts of hypercondensed spermatozoa. In addition to aberrancies in chromatin condensation other defects showed up as satellite populations of spermatozoa with higher than normal ratios of red/green fluorescence after Acridine Orange staining. Such defects were found in 15 semen samples. The use of swim-up and Percoll gradient centrifugation methods was shown to improve the percentage of spermatozoa with normal chromatin structure in some samples with poor initial quality.

  11. Determination of sex by exfoliative cytology using acridine orange confocal microscopy: A short study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Shyam Prasad Reddy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Establishing individuality is an imperative aspect in any investigation procedure. Sometimes, in identifying an individual, it becomes necessary to determine the sex of that particular individual. Combining rapidity with reliability, an innovative idea has been put forward using a confocal microscope in exfoliative cytology. In the present study, we have determined the sex of the individual from buccal mucosal scrapings. The exfoliative cells were observed for Barr bodies under a confocal microscope, and the percentage of Barr-body-positive cells was determined. Aims: The main objective of this study is to assess confocal microscopy for the determination of sex by observing Barr bodies in the exfoliative cells of both men and women. Settings and Design: Samples of buccal mucosa smears were made followed by acridine orange staining. The stained slides were observed under a confocal microscope and the data obtained was subjected for statistical analysis, especially for mean and standard deviation. Materials and Methods: Samples of buccal mucosa smears from 20 men and 20 women were obtained by scraping with flat wooden sticks (exfoliative cytology. The smears were fixed in 100% alcohol for 15 min, followed by acridine orange (AO staining as described by Von Bertalanffy et al. Smears stained with AO were examined under a confocal microscope and the percentage of Barr-body-positive cells was determined. Statistical Analysis Used: Data obtained was subjected for statistical analysis, especially for mean and standard deviation. Results: Two non-overlapping ranges for the percentage of Barr-body-positive cells have been obtained for men and women. It was observed that in the male samples, the percentage of Barr-body-positive cells ranged from 0-3%. In the female samples, the percentage of Barr-body-positive cells ranged from 18-72%, and all the females showed the presence of Barr bodies. Conclusion: The study showed that the presence of Barr

  12. Acridine orange staining reaction as an index of physiological activity in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFeters, G. A.; Singh, A.; Byun, S.; Callis, P. R.; Williams, S.

    1991-01-01

    The assumption that the acridine orange (AO) color reaction may be used as an index of physiological activity was investigated in laboratory grown Escherichia coli. Spectrofluorometric observations of purified nucleic acids, ribosomes and the microscopic color of bacteriophage-infected cells stained with AO confirmed the theory that single-stranded nucleic acids emit orange to red fluorescence while those that are double-stranded fluoresce green in vivo. Bacteria growing actively in a rich medium could be distinguished from cells in stationary phase by the AO reaction. Cells from log phase appeared red, whereas those in stationary phase were green. However, this differentiation was not seen when the bacteria were grown in a minimal medium or when a variation of the staining method was used. Also, shifting bacteria in stationary phase to starvation conditions rapidly changed their AO staining reaction. Boiling and exposure to lethal concentrations of azide and formalin resulted in stationary-phase cells that appeared red after staining but bacteria killed with chlorine remained green. These findings indicate that the AO staining reaction may be suggestive of physiological activity under defined conditions. However, variables in staining and fixation procedures as well as uncertainties associated with mixed bacterial populations in environmental samples may produce results that are not consistent with the classical interpretation of this reaction. The importance of validating the putative physiological implications of this staining reaction is stressed.

  13. Comparison of acridine orange and Gram stains for detection of microorganisms in cerebrospinal fluid and other clinical specimens.

    OpenAIRE

    Lauer, B. A.; Reller, L B; Mirrett, S

    1981-01-01

    Acridine orange, a fluorochrome strain, is potentially superior to the Gram stain in the direct microscopic examination of clinical specimens because it gives striking differential staining between bacteria and background cells and debris. Its value in clinical laboratories was evaluated by testing 209 cerebrospinal fluids and 288 other body fluids, tissues, and exudates by both techniques. Smears were made in duplicate, fixed with methanol, stained, and examined without knowledge of the resu...

  14. Enhanced fluorescence quenching in an acridine orange - alizarin red system through matrine and its analytical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaoling; Wang, Xiaojun; Gong, Qi; Wang, Lisheng; Zhou, Shiwu

    2015-01-01

    This study shows that alizarin red (AR) only slightly quenched fluorescence for acridine orange (AO) in an AR/AO mixed solution at pH = 5-6. The reduced fluorescent signal was closely and linearly associated with the level of MT added to the system, which is the basis for a new quantitative MT assay method using the fluorescence quenching reaction in the AO-AR system. The results show that under optimal conditions, this method had a 14.9-43.5 mg L-1 linear detection range with a 1.38 mg L-1 detection limit and 1.24% precision. In addition, this method was used to determine the MT levels in the commercially available MT-containing pesticides and suppositories, which showed a 96.6-103% recovery. Therefore, this method has multiple advantages, including simple and fast operation, high accuracy and low cost. Moreover, herein, we investigated the underlying mechanism in-depth using an ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopic technique.

  15. Structural relaxation of acridine orange dimer in bulk water and inside a single live lung cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Rajdeep; Nandi, Somen; Halder, Ritaban; Jana, Biman; Bhattacharyya, Kankan

    2016-02-01

    Structural relaxation of the acridine orange (AO) dimer in bulk water and inside a single live lung cell is studied using time resolved confocal microscopy and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The emission maxima ( λem max ˜ 630 nm) of AO in a lung cancer cell (A549) and a non-cancer lung fibroblast cell (WI38) suggest that AO exists as a dimer inside the cell. Time-dependent red shift in emission maximum indicates dynamic relaxation of the AO dimer (in the excited state) with a time constant of 500-600 ps, both in bulk water and inside the cell. We have calculated the equilibrium relaxation dynamics of the AO dimer in the ground state using MD simulations and found a slow component of time scale ˜350 ps. The intra- and inter-molecular components of the total relaxation dynamics of the AO dimer reveal the presence of a slow component of the order of a few hundred picoseconds. Upon restricting intra-molecular dye dynamics by harmonic constraint between AO monomers, the slow component vanishes. Combining the experimental observations and MD simulation results, we ascribe the slow component of the dynamic relaxation of the AO dimer to the structural relaxation, namely, fluctuations in the distance between the two monomers and associated fluctuation in the number of water molecules.

  16. Kinetics and Adsorption Isotherms Studies of Acridine Orange Dye from Aqueous Solution by Activated Charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *N. Qamar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to evaluate the efficiency of charcoal as low coast and effective adsorbent for acridine orange (a cationic dye from aqueous solution at room temperature. Effect of initial pH (2-8, shaking time (5min. - 1hour, adsorbent dose (0.1gm- 0.9gm and dye concentration (37mg/30ml-185mg/30ml were investigated. Results demonstrated that charcoal act as good adsorbent for the removal AO where 99.15% of the dye was adsorbed within 30 minutes. For the maximum dye removal efficiency (100%, optimum conditions were obtained at pH 8 (99.24%, adsorbent dose of 0.9g and dye concentration of 185 mg with charcoal. Kinetics of adsorption was investigated as well as Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were employed to describe equilibrium studies. The Langmuir adsorption isotherms models and pseudo second order kinetics fitted the experimental data best with high regression coefficient R2. The results of the present studies points to the potential of charcoal as an effective adsorbent for the removal of dye from contaminated water sources.

  17. Flow cytometry reticulocyte counting using acridine orange: validation of a new protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Augusta Viana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Currently, the reticulocyte counting is a challenge for clinical laboratories in Brazil, mainly for the ordinary ones, which still use the manual method. This method has some limitations, since it consists of a laborious method, time consuming, with low accuracy. Objectives: This study has developed and evaluated the performance of a New Laboratory Protocol for flow cytometry (FC reticulocytes counting using acridine orange (AO as dye, aiming to standardize a more precise, easy, fast implementation, and low cost protocol. After standardization of the New Protocol (FC/AO, it was compared with the manual method. The results were analyzed according to the recommendations of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS, now known as Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI, to evaluate the interchangeability of methods in linear regression analysis and paired t test, besides other quality control tests. Conclusion: Based on these results concerning to the correlation between the methods and the tests related to quality control, we can admit that FC/AO for reticulocyte counting shows undeniable advantages when compared to the preexisting manual method.

  18. Linear sweep polarographic determination of nucleic acids using acridine orange as a bioprobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEI SUN

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of acridine orange (AO with double-stranded (ds DNA in aqueous solution was investigated by linear sweep polarography (LSP on a dropping mercury working electrode (DME. In pH 2.5 Britton–Robinson (B–R buffer solution, AO had a sensitive linear sweep polarographic reductive peak at –0.89 V (vs. SCE, which could be greatly inhibited by the addition of dsDNA, with a positive shift of the peak potential. Based on the decrease of the reductive peak current, a new quantitative electrochemical determination method for dsDNA was developed with a linear range of 2.0−20.0 mg l-1 and the linear regression equation: ΔIp” (nA = 111.90 C (mg l-1+125.32 (n = 9, γ = 0.997. The influences of commonly co-existing substances, such as metal ions, amino acid, etc., on the determination were also investigated. The method is sensitive, rapid and simple with good selectivity. The new proposed method was further applied to the detection of RNA and three synthetic samples containing dsDNA with satisfactory results. The binding number and the equilibrium constant between dsDNA and AO were calculated by an electrochemical method.

  19. Comparative study of subculture, Gram staining and acridine orange staining for early detection of positive blood cultures.

    OpenAIRE

    Mascart, G; Bertrand, F.; Mascart, P.

    1983-01-01

    In view of the importance of a rapid aetiological diagnosis in septicaemia, we compared the results of subculture, Gram staining and acridine orange staining in the detection of positive blood cultures. The study was based on 1013 blood cultures of which 138 were positive by culture. The three techniques were applied 12 h after the specimen was taken in 210 instances, at 24 h in 540 instances and after 48 h in 525. We were able to demonstrate the value of direct examination. Staining with acr...

  20. Validation of a flow cytometric acridine orange micronuclei methodology in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criswell, K A; Krishna, G; Zielinski, D; Urda, G A; Juneau, P; Bulera, S; Bleavins, M R

    2003-07-25

    Our laboratory has previously reported a flow cytometric acridine orange method for detection of micronucleus (MN) in the rat using cyclophosphamide as a test compound. To replace the manual method of scoring and satisfy Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) requirements, an extensive validation of the flow method was required. Therefore, manual scoring and flow cytometric determination of MN were compared using vincristine, chlorambucil, methotrexate, and doxorubicin compounds known to induce MN formation with various mechanisms of action. 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine (1,2-DH), a compound with negative or equivocal MN findings also was evaluated. The flow method consistently demonstrated dose- and time-dependent responses for MN production at all concentrations of vincristine, methotrexate, clorambucil, and doxorubicin. In contrast, manual scoring of slides failed to detect an increase in MN at the lowest doses of doxorubicin (1mg/kg) at 24 or 48 h, and methotrexate at 48 h, or any dose of methotrexate (50, 100, or 250 mg/kg) at 24h. Additionally, a dose-response for methotrexate at 48 h, and chlorambucil at 24 h were missed using manual scoring. For 1,2-DH, the flow method showed a low level (< 1.4-fold) increase in MN at all doses and times. In contrast, the manual method showed five-seven-fold increases at 24 h, but a < two-fold increase at 48 h in the highest dose only. These data may suggest that the flow method has a greater sensitivity and possibly accuracy than manual scoring. Significant decreases in polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) were seen using both methods at approximately the same dose for all compounds. However, absolute flow cytometric PCE values were consistently higher than manual. Additional cytotoxicity parameters obtained by the flow method allowed a more complete assessment of cytotoxicity than PCE alone. Furthermore, data reported here combined with improved throughput, shortened data turnaround and reporting times, and possibly better precision due to

  1. In-depth validation of acridine orange staining for flow cytometric parasite and reticulocyte enumeration in an experimental model using Plasmodium berghei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hein-Kristensen, L; Wiese, L; Kurtzhals, J A L;

    2009-01-01

    Flow cytometry is potentially an effective method for counting malaria parasites, but inconsistent results have hampered its routine use in rodent models. A published two-channel method using acridine orange offers clear discrimination between the infected and uninfected erythrocytes. However...

  2. Determination of ACC-induced cell-programmed death in roots of Vicia faba ssp. minor seedlings by acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining

    OpenAIRE

    Byczkowska, Anna; Kunikowska, Anita; Kaźmierczak, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescence staining with acridine orange (AO) and ethidium bromide (EB) showed that nuclei of cortex root cells of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC)-treated Vicia faba ssp. minor seedlings differed in color. Measurement of resultant fluorescence intensity (RFI) showed that it increased when the color of nuclear chromatin was changed from green to red, indicating that EB moved to the nuclei via the cell membrane which lost its integrity and stained nuclei red. AO/EB staining showed...

  3. Low-dose Radiation-Induced Adaptive Response in Polychromatic Mice Erythrocyte as Measures by Acridine Orange Stained Micronucleus Assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of conditioning pretreatment with 0.01Gy of gamma rays on micronucleated polychromatic erythrocyte (MN-PCE) induction by 2Gy of g-rays was determined in peripheral blood of C3H/He mice. The timing of their administration of challenge doses was 6 hr. The response was determined by scoring of Acridine orange due stained MN-PCEs. The results indicate that low dose gamma ray pretreatment does protect against MN-PCE induction by the challenge g-ray dose. Introduction: an adaptive response induced by low doses of ionizing radiation in vivo reported. Some research team reports that a reduction on MN-PCE of mice caused by the pretreatment was observed (1-4). However, there was variability in the amount of the response depending on the time and adaptive dose (3). This is important because the variation of MN-PCE frequency with time could lead to differences in the interpretation. In this study, differences in the biological effects within the priming dose ranges are discussed. (Author)

  4. Sensitive and selective turn-on fluorescence method for cetyltrimethylammonium bromide determination based on acridine orange-polystyrene sulfonate complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Hao, Xia; Kang, Bei Hua; Li, Nian Bing; Luo, Hong Qun

    2016-06-01

    This work proposed a rapid and novel fluorescence-sensing system using a complex of acridine orange (AO) and polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) to sensitively recognize and monitor cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in an aqueous medium. AO can interact with PSS and a complex is formed via electrostatic attraction and hydrophobic interaction. The fluorescence of AO is greatly quenched after the introduction of PSS. Upon its subsequent addition, CTAB can interact and form a complex with PSS because the electrostatic attraction between CTAB and PSS is much stronger than that between AO and PSS, which results in significant fluorescence recovery. Interestingly, the proposed method can be applied for the discrimination and detection of surfactants with different hydrocarbon chain lengths due to their different binding affinity toward PSS. The detection limit for CTAB is as low as 0.2 µg/mL and the linear range is from 0.5 to 3.5 µg/mL. Moreover, we applied the sensor to the successful detection of CTAB in water samples. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Low-Dose Radiation-Induced Adaptive Response in Polychromatic Mice Erythrocyte as Measured by Acridine Orange Stained Micronuleus Assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of conditioning pretreatment with 0.01Gy of gamma rays on micronucleated polychromatic erythrocyte (MN-PCE) induction by 2Gy of g-rays was determined in peripheral blood of C3H/He mice. The timing of their administration of challenge doses was 6hr. The response was determined by scoring of Acridine orange dye stained MN-PCEs. The results indicate that low dose gamma ray pretreatment does protect against MN-PCE induction by the challenge g-ray dose. Introduction: An adaptive response induced by low doses of ionizing radiation in vivo reported. Some research team reports that a reduction on MN-PCE of mice caused by the pretreatment was observed [1- 4]. However, there was variability in the amount of the response depending on the time and adaptive dose [3]. This is important because the variation of MN-PCE frequency with time could lead to differences in the interpretation. In this study, differences in the biological effects within the priming dose ranges are discussed. Materials and Methods: Specific pathogen free 5-week-old C3H/He mice, purchased from Shizuoka Laboratory Center (Japan), were kept in clean and conventional environment. When 6 weeks old, the animal were whole body irradiated using irradiator of IBL-437 (137Cs, 0.8Gy/min). After various time intervals, the two groups were administrated to adaptation dose and challenge dose of 0.01Gy and 2Gy, respectively. For experiments, sham-irradiated, only adaptive and challenge dose irradiated groups were run concurrently. Smears were stained and scored using Acridine orange dye method [2]. Statistically significant differences in MN-PCE frequency were determined by comparing tie individual values at each group with the respective control values (challenge dose irradiated group) by using the paired ttest. Results and Discussions: Induced MN by the challenge dose (2Gy) after the pretreatment with 0.01Gy is low to the one induced by the challenge dose alone. In the present study, this estimation for the

  6. Synthesis of modified maghemite nanoparticles and its application for removal of Acridine Orange from aqueous solutions by using Box-Behnken design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagheban Shahri, Fatemeh; Niazi, Ali, E-mail: a-niazi@iau-arak.ac.ir

    2015-12-15

    In this study, sodium dodecyl sulfate-coated maghemite nanoparticles (SDS-coated γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs), was used for removal of cationic dye Acridine Orange from water samples. The γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs were synthesized by co-precipitation method and were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) to examine their size and magnetic moment. The adsorption experiments were performed using the batch system. The prepared magnetic adsorbent was well dispersed in water and easily separated magnetically from the medium after loaded with adsorbate. Four most important operating variables including initial pH of the solution, dosage of adsorbent, concentration of dye and contact time was studied and optimized by response surface methodology (RSM), involving Box-Behnken design matrix. Twenty-seven experiments were performed to investigate the effect of these parameters on removal of the dye. The results showed that initial pH of the solution was the most effective parameter in comparison with others. Also, experimental parameters were optimized and chose the best conditions by determination of effective factors. The optimized conditions for dye removal were at initial pH 5.1 0.8 g L{sup −1} of adsorbent, 30.0 mg L{sup −1} dye and 43 min adsorption time. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. The maximum predicted adsorption capacities for Acridine Orange was 285.82 mg g{sup −1}. - Highlights: • Synthesis of maghemite as magnetic nanoparticle by co-precipitation. • Simple and fast removal of Acridine Orange by MMNPs. • Effect of parameters are optimized by Box-Behnken design.

  7. Synthesis of modified maghemite nanoparticles and its application for removal of Acridine Orange from aqueous solutions by using Box-Behnken design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheban Shahri, Fatemeh; Niazi, Ali

    2015-12-01

    In this study, sodium dodecyl sulfate-coated maghemite nanoparticles (SDS-coated γ-Fe2O3 NPs), was used for removal of cationic dye Acridine Orange from water samples. The γ-Fe2O3 NPs were synthesized by co-precipitation method and were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) to examine their size and magnetic moment. The adsorption experiments were performed using the batch system. The prepared magnetic adsorbent was well dispersed in water and easily separated magnetically from the medium after loaded with adsorbate. Four most important operating variables including initial pH of the solution, dosage of adsorbent, concentration of dye and contact time was studied and optimized by response surface methodology (RSM), involving Box-Behnken design matrix. Twenty-seven experiments were performed to investigate the effect of these parameters on removal of the dye. The results showed that initial pH of the solution was the most effective parameter in comparison with others. Also, experimental parameters were optimized and chose the best conditions by determination of effective factors. The optimized conditions for dye removal were at initial pH 5.1 0.8 g L-1 of adsorbent, 30.0 mg L-1 dye and 43 min adsorption time. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. The maximum predicted adsorption capacities for Acridine Orange was 285.82 mg g-1.

  8. Blood culture gram stain, acridine orange stain and direct sensitivity-based antimicrobial therapy of bloodstream infection in patients with trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behera B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to ascertain if the simple practice of Gram stain, acridine orange stain and direct sensitivity determination of positive blood culture bottles could be used to guide early and appropriate treatment in trauma patients with clinical suspicion of sepsis. The study also aimed to evaluate the error in interpreting antimicrobial sensitivity by direct method when compared to standard method and find out if specific antibiotic-organism combination had more discrepancies. Findings from consecutive episodes of blood stream infection at an Apex Trauma centre over a 12-month period are summarized. Materials and Methods: A total of 509 consecutive positive blood cultures were subjected to Gram staining. AO staining was done in BacT/ALERT-positive Gram-stain negative blood cultures. Direct sensitivity was performed from 369 blood culture broths, showing single type of growth in Gram and acridine orange staining. Results of direct sensitivity were compared to conventional sensitivity for errors. Results: No ′very major′ discrepancy was found in this study. About 5.2 and 1.8% minor error rates were noted in gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, respectively, while comparing the two methods. Most of the discrepancies in gram-negative bacteria were noted in β lactam - β lactamase inhibitor combinations. Direct sensitivity testing was not reliable for reporting of methicillin and vancomycin resistance in Staphylococci. Conclusions: Gram stain result together with direct sensitivity testing is required for optimizing initial antimicrobial therapy in trauma patients with clinical suspicion of sepsis. Gram staining and AO staining proved particularly helpful in the early detection of candidaemia.

  9. Determination of ACC-induced cell-programmed death in roots of Vicia faba ssp. minor seedlings by acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byczkowska, Anna; Kunikowska, Anita; Kaźmierczak, Andrzej

    2013-02-01

    Fluorescence staining with acridine orange (AO) and ethidium bromide (EB) showed that nuclei of cortex root cells of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC)-treated Vicia faba ssp. minor seedlings differed in color. Measurement of resultant fluorescence intensity (RFI) showed that it increased when the color of nuclear chromatin was changed from green to red, indicating that EB moved to the nuclei via the cell membrane which lost its integrity and stained nuclei red. AO/EB staining showed that changes in color of the nuclear chromatin were accompanied by DNA condensation, nuclei fragmentation, and chromatin degradation which were also shown after 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindol staining. These results indicate that ACC induced programmed cell death. The increasing values of RFI together with the corresponding morphological changes of nuclear chromatin were the basis to prepare the standard curve; cells with green unchanged nuclear chromatin were alive while those with dark orange and bright red nuclei were dead. The cells with nuclei with green-yellow, yellow-orange, and bright orange chromatin with or without their condensation and fragmentation chromatin were dying. The prepared curve has became the basis to draw up the digital method for detection and determination of the number of living, dying, and dead cells in an in planta system and revealed that ACC induced death in about 20% of root cortex cells. This process was accompanied by increase in ion leakage, shortening of cells and whole roots, as well as by increase in weight and width of the apical part of roots and appearance of few aerenchymatic spaces while not by internucleosomal DNA degradation. PMID:22350735

  10. 吖啶橙指示荧光分析法测定双酚A%Spectrofluorimetric Determination of Bisphenol A with Acridine Orange as Indicator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜凌云; 包玉红; 王术皓

    2011-01-01

    A new spectrofluorimetric method has been developed for the determination of bisphenol A based on the inhibitory effect of bisphenol A on redox reaction between hydroxyl radical and acridine orange in acidic media. This method is simple, fast, and its linear range is 1. 0 to 100 ng/mL with the detection limit of 0. 21 ng/mL. The proposed method was applied to the determination of bisphenol A in plastic bag with satisfactory results.%基于在酸性介质中,双酚A对羟自由基与吖啶橙的氧化还原反应的阻抑作用,建立了测定双酚A的荧光分析新方法.该方法简单,快速,线性范围为1.0~100 ng/mL,检出限为0.21 ng/mL.将其用于塑料制品中双酚A的测定,结果满意.

  11. Radioadaptive response in human B- and CD8{sup +} T-lymphocytes as measured by the acridine orange stained micronuclei technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H.S.; Choi, J.M.; Yang, K.H.; Kim, C.S.; Lim, Y.K.; Kim, C.S. [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Corporation, Radiation Health Research Institute, Seoul (Korea); Woon, J.H. [National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service, Anyang (Korea)

    2003-07-01

    To investigate (1) the radiosensitive of B- versus T- lymphocytes and (2) the possible application of their sensitivity for adaptive response after treating with an adapting plus a challenge dose. In the present experiments, micronucleus analysis was performed in B- and CD8{sup +} matured T-lymphocytes of eight healthy volunteers exposed to {gamma}-rays. The number of radio-induced micronuclei was significantly higher in B-lymphocytes compared to T-lymphocytes in the dose range from 10 to 100cGy. To investigate adaptive response, whole blood samples were irradiated in vitro with a pretreatment dose of 1cGy {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-irradiation. Six hours after their initiation, groups of cultures were subsequently exposed to a challenge dose of 100cGy {gamma}-irradiation. Following stimulation with PHA and PWM for T- and B-lymphocyte cultivation, lymphocytes were fixed at 72 hours and stained with acridine orange dye. B-lymphocytes exhibited a greater induction of adaptive response than those of CD8{sup +} matured T-lymphocytes, and when pretreated with 1cGy significantly fewer micronuclei induced by the challenge dose of 100cGy {gamma}-irradiation. The results suggest that the lower dose pretreatments are able to induce a significantly higher adaptive response in human B-lymphocytes, and this adaptive response may result from the DNA repair mechanism, which may lead to less residual damage. (author)

  12. Microbial quality of lamb carcasses during processing and the acridine orange direct count technique (a modified DEFT) for rapid enumeration of total viable counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, M L; Sheridan, J J; McGuire, L

    1997-04-29

    This study was designed to set up a hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) system for sheep slaughtering operations at four different plants in Ireland and to determine the differences between plants in terms of microbial contamination. A single carcass area, the abdomen, was examined by swabbing and a microbiological profile was determined at different stages along the slaughter line. The level of contamination was assessed from the total bacteria counts, Enterobacteriaceae and Listeria spp. For the total counts, a modified direct epifluorescent filter technique (acridine orange direct count technique (AODC)) was developed and tested. No significant differences were found among plants in the levels of bacterial contamination. This was observed for all groups of organisms. The rapid direct technique (AODC) was found to be very successful. A correlation coefficient of 0.87 was obtained for this method and the standard plate count. Each test could be carried out in about 10-15 min and could be used to predict the standard plate count.

  13. Application of poly(acridine orange) and graphene modified carbon/ionic liquid paste electrode for the sensitive electrochemical detection of rutin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A carbon/ionic liquid paste electrode (CILPE) prepared by 1-hexylpyridinium hexafluorophosphate as the binder was used as the substrate electrode. A layer of graphene oxide (GO) film was cast on CILPE surface (GO/CILPE) and the electropolymerization of acridine orange (AO) on electrode was further realized by cyclic voltammetry in the potential range from −1.40 V to 1.40 V, which could simultaneously reduce GO to graphene (GR) electrochemically. The fabricated PAO-GR/CILPE exhibited good electrochemical performances with higher conductivity and lower electron transfer resistance. Electrochemical behaviors of rutin were further investigated on the modified electrode in 0.1 mol/L pH 2.0 phosphate buffer solution by cyclic voltammetry with a pair of well-defined redox peaks appeared. The peak-to-peak separation (ΔEp) was calculated as 0.076 V, which proved a fast quasi-reversible electron transfer process and the electrochemical parameters of rutin on PAO-GR/CILPE were calculated. Under the optimal conditions, the linear relationship between the oxidation peak current of rutin and its concentration was obtained in the range from 0.03 to 800.0 μmol/L with the detection limit as 8.33 nmol/L (3σ). The PAO-GR/CILPE showed good selectivity, stability and reproducibility, which was further applied to detect rutin tablet samples with satisfactory results

  14. Layer-by-layer films and colloidal dispersions of graphene oxide nanosheets for efficient control of the fluorescence and aggregation properties of the cationic dye acridine orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansda, Chaitali; Chakraborty, Utsav; Hussain, Syed Arshad; Bhattacharjee, Debajyoti; Paul, Pabitra Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Chemically derived graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets have received great deal of interest for technological application such as optoelectronic and biosensors. Aqueous dispersions of GO become an efficient template to induce the association of cationic dye namely Acridine Orange (AO). Interactions of AO with colloidal GO was governed by both electrostatic and π-π stacking cooperative interactions. The type of dye aggregations was found to depend on the concentration of GO in the mixed ensemble. Spectroscopic calculations revealed the formation of both H and J-type dimers, but H-type aggregations were predominant. Preparation of layer-by-layer (LbL) electrostatic self-assembled films of AO and GO onto poly (allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) coated quartz substrate is also reported in this article. UV-Vis absorption, steady state and time resolve fluorescence and Raman spectroscopic techniques have been employed to explore the detail photophysical properties of pure AO, AO/GO mixed solution and AO/GO LbL films. Scanning electron microscopy was also used for visual evidence of the synthesized nanodimensional GO sheets. The fluorescence quenching of AO in the presence of GO in aqueous solution was due to the interfacial photoinduced electron transfer (PET) from photoexcited AO to GO i.e. GO acts as an efficient quenching agent for the fluorescence emission of AO. The quenching is found to be static in nature. Raman spectroscopic results also confirmed the interaction of AO with GO and the electron transfer. The formation of AO/GO complex via very fast excited state electron transfer mechanism may be proposed as to prepare GO-based fluorescence sensor for biomolecular detection without direct labeling the biomolecules by fluorescent probe.

  15. Electrochemical DNA biosensor for the detection of Trichoderma harzianum based on a gold electrode modified with a composite membrane made from an ionic liquid, ZnO nanoparticles and chitosan, and by using acridine orange as a redox indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electrochemical DNA biosensor was developed that is based on a gold electrode modified with a nanocomposite membrane made from an ionic liquid, ZnO nanoparticles and chitosan. A single-stranded DNA probe was immobilized on this electrode. Acridine orange was used as the hybridization probe for monitoring the hybridization of the target DNA. The biosensor was capable of detecting target DNA in the concentration range from 1.0 x 10-14 to 1.8 x 10-4 mol L-1, with a detection limit of 1.0 x 10-15 mol L-1. The approach towards constructing a DNA biosensor allows studies on the hybridization even with crude DNA fragments and also to analyze sample obtained from real samples. The results show that the DNA biosensor has the potential for sensitive detection of a specific sequence of the Trichoderma harzianum gene and provides a quick, sensitive and convenient method for the study of microorganisms. (author)

  16. Antigenotoxic and Apoptotic Activity of Green Tea Polyphenol Extracts on Hexavalent Chromium-Induced DNA Damage in Peripheral Blood of CD-1 Mice: Analysis with Differential Acridine Orange/Ethidium Bromide Staining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen García-Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the modulating effects of green tea polyphenols on genotoxic damage and apoptotic activity induced by hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI] in CD-1 mice. Animals were divided into the following groups: (i injected with vehicle; (ii treated with green tea polyphenols (30 mg/kg via gavage; (iii injected with CrO3 (20 mg/kg intraperitoneally; (iv treated with green tea polyphenols in addition to CrO3. Genotoxic damage was evaluated by examining micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MN-PCEs obtained from peripheral blood at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h after treatment. Induction of apoptosis and cell viability were assessed by differential acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB staining. Treatment of green tea polyphenols led to no significant changes in the MN-PCEs. However, CrO3 treatment significantly increased MN-PCEs at 24 and 48 h after injection. Green tea polyphenols treatment prior to CrO3 injection led to a decrease in MN-PCEs compared to the group treated with CrO3 only. The average of apoptotic cells was increased at 48 h after treatment compared to control mice, suggesting that apoptosis could contribute to eliminate the DNA damaged cells induced by Cr (VI. Our findings support the proposed protective effects of green tea polyphenols against the genotoxic damage induced by Cr (VI.

  17. 中性红、吖啶橙及PE标记的LAMP-2抗体在B16F10细胞溶酶体检测中的应用与比较%Application and comparison of neutral red, acridine orange, or PE labeled LAMP-2 antibodies in the detection of lysosomes in B16F10 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟晓峰; 施文; 李国兴; 孙永强; 赵文静; 钱红燕; 李静; 陈橼; 何向锋

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the application and value of neutral red, acridine orange, or PE labeled anti-LAMP-2 antibodies in the detection of lysosomes in B16F10 cells. Firstly, we labeled the lysosomes of B16F10 cells with neutral red, acridine orange, and PE labeled anti-LAMP-2 antibodies respectively and detect the labeled lysosomes by optical and fluorescent microscopy. The results showed that the distribution and numbers of lysosomes in B16F10 cells could be clearly observed in optical microscope through the staining of neutral red, and the cytoplasm and lysosome could be stained in green and red respectively by acridine orange, but the quenching of red fluorescence in lysosome was so fast that the detection window was too narrow. The location and numbers of lysosomes in B16F10 cells could be clearly revealed with red fluorescence after the application of PE-labeled anti-LAMP-2 antibody, and the relative location of lysosomes and nucleus could be presented directly along with DAPI staining. In conclusion, the neutral red, acridine orange and PE labeled LAMP-2 antibody staining have their own advantage and characteristics in the detection of lysosomes. The choice of the effective lysosomes detection method should be based on the aim of study.%目的 探讨中性红、吖啶橙及PE标记的LAMP-2抗体在小鼠黑色素瘤B16F10细胞溶酶体检测中的应用与价值.方法 分别用中性红、吖啶橙和PE标记的LAMP-2抗体标记B16F10细胞溶酶体,通过光学和荧光显微镜进行检测.结果 中性红染色法能够在光镜下清晰显示溶酶体在细胞中的分布与数量,并能够反应溶酶体的功能;吖啶橙能够同时将细胞质和溶酶体分别用绿色和红色荧光标示出来,但溶酶体的红色荧光淬灭很快,观测窗口较窄;PE标记的LAMP-2抗体能够将溶酶体在细胞内的位置和数量清晰以红色荧光呈现出来,配合DAPI染色,可以直观显示溶酶体同细胞核

  18. Hydrodenitrogenation of quinoline and acridine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiff, Jr., E. K.

    1977-06-01

    The hydrodenitrogenation of quinoline and of acridine was studied in a batch autoclave reactor between 342 and 353/sup 0/C and between 500 and 2000 psig. The several commercial hydrotreating catalysts examined decreased in activity in the following order for quinoline hydrodenitrogenation: Ni--Mo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Ni--W/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Ni--W/SiO/sub 2/--Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and Co--Mo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/. The total nitrogen removal rate for quinoline was slightly greater than that for acridine and both followed pseudo first-order kinetics over a conversion range of 0 to 50%. Hydrogenation and cracking steps were both kinetically limiting. Nitrogen-containing reaction products for quinoline hydrodenitrogenation were 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline, 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroquinoline, decahydroquinoline and o-propylaniline. At 342/sup 0/C and 500 psig quinoline and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline were in thermodynamic equilibrium, and the disappearance of the lumped group of quinoline plus 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline followed pseudo first-order kinetics. Sixteen nitrogen-containing reaction products were found for acridine hydrodenitrogenation, including 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridine, 1,2,3,4,9,10,13,14-octahydroacridine, sym-octahydroacridine, perhydroacridine, and o-(methylenecyclohexane)aniline. The hydrogenolysis step for both quinoline and acridine appears to be through hydrogenated forms of these compounds. This is supported by bond strength arguments.

  19. Photocatalytic water splitting with acridine dyes: Guidelines from computational chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojun; Karsili, Tolga N. V.; Sobolewski, Andrzej L.; Domcke, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The photocatalytic splitting of water into Hrad and OHrad radicals in hydrogen-bonded chromophore-water complexes has been explored with computational methods for the chromophores acridine orange (AO) and benzacridine (BA). These dyes are strong absorbers within the range of the solar spectrum. It is shown that low-lying charge-transfer excited states exist in the hydrogen-bonded AOsbnd H2O and BAsbnd H2O complexes which drive the transfer of a proton from water to the chromophore, which results in AOHradsbnd OHrad or BAHradsbnd OHrad biradicals. The AOHrad and BAHrad radicals possess bright ππ∗ excited states with vertical excitation energies near 3.0 eV which are predissociated by a low-lying repulsive πσ∗ state. The conical intersections of the πσ∗ state with the ππ∗ excited states and the ground state provide a mechanism for the photodetachment of the H-atom by a second photon. Our results indicate that AO and BA are promising chromophores for water splitting with visible light.

  20. Methyltrioctylammonium chloride catalysed sonochemical synthesis of acridine diones

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhupinder Kaur; Harish Kumar

    2013-09-01

    The greener, clean and efficient protocol for the synthesis of acridine diones derivatives has been achieved by reacting aromatic aldehyde, dimedone and amines using methyltrioctylammonium chloride (Aliquate 336) as a catalyst under ultrasonic irradiations.

  1. Study on the Interaction between CdTe Quantum Dot-Acridine Orange-Calf Thymus DNA by Fluorescence Reversible Control%荧光可逆调控研究CdTe量子点-吖啶橙-小牛胸腺DNA的相互作用及分析应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚会平; 刘绍璞; 殷鹏飞; 闫曙光; 范小青; 何佑秋

    2011-01-01

    水相合成了谷胱甘肽(GSH)修饰的CdTe量子点(QDs).在PH=7.4的Tris-HCl缓冲溶液中,吖啶橙(AO)通过静电引力吸附到GSH-CdTe QDs的表面,与GSH-CdTe QDs形成了基态复合物,导致GSH-CdTe QDs的荧光猝灭.在GSH-CdTe QDs-AO体系中加入小牛胸腺DNA(ctDNA),ctDNA诱导AO从GSH-CdTe QDs表面脱落嵌入其双螺旋结构中,导致GSH-CdTe QDs的荧光恢复.根据GSH-CdTe QDs荧光的猝灭和恢复,实现了量子点荧光的可逆调控.ctDNA引起GSH-CdTe QDs-AO体系荧光恢复强度与ctDNA浓度成良好的线性关系,检出限为0.13 ng mL-1,据此提出了简便快捷、准确、高灵敏测定ctDNA的新方法.还结合共振瑞利散射(RRS)光谱、吸收光谱和原子力显微镜照片研究了GSH-CdTe QDs-AO-ctDNA三者之间的相互作用,对相互作用机理进行了讨论并提出了相应的作用模型.%Glutathione(GSH)-capped CdTe quantum dots(GSH-CdTe QDs) were synthesized in aqueous solution.In pH 7.4 Tris-HCl buffer medium,acridine orange(AO) was adsorbed to the surfaces of GSH-CdTe QDs via electrostatic attraction and formed ground state complex,which resulted in the quenching of the fluorescence of GSH-CdTe QDs.Adding ctDNA to GSH-CdTe QDs-AO system leaded to the fluorescence intensity of GSH-CdTe QDs recover,which can be explained by that the addition of ctDNA to the system induced AO to dissociate from the surface of GSH-CdTe QDs and embed into its double helix structure.According to the fluorescence quencher and restoration for GSH-CdTe QDs,fluorescence reversible control of QDs was realized.The fluorescence intensity change of GSH-CdTe QDs-AO system aroused by the addition of ctDNA was proportional to the ctDNA concentration in a certain range,and its detection limit was 0.13 ngomL-1.Based on it,the simple,rapid,accurate and sensitive methods had been proposed to determine ctDNA.The interaction of GSH-CdTe QDs-AO-ctDNA was studied by resonance Rayleigh scattering

  2. Orange Book

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence (Orange Book or OB) is a list of drugs approved under Section 505 of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act...

  3. Antitumor polycyclic acridines. 7. Synthesis and biological properties of DNA affinic tetra- and pentacyclic acridines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanslas, J; Hagan, D J; Ellis, M J; Turner, C; Carmichael, J; Ward, W; Hammonds, T R; Stevens, M F

    2000-04-20

    New synthetic routes to a series of tetra- and pentacyclic acridines related in structure to marine natural products are reported. The novel water-soluble agent dihydroindolizino[7,6,5-kl]acridinium chloride 14 has inhibitory activity in a panel of non-small-cell lung and breast tumor cell lines exceeding that of m-AMSA. The salt inhibited the release of minicircle products of kDNA confirming that disorganization of topoisomerase II partly underlies the activity of the compound. COMPARE analysis of the NCI mean graph profile of compound 14 at the GI(50) level corroborates this conclusion with Pearson correlation coefficients (>0.6) to clinical agents of the topoisomerase II class: however, this correlation was not seen at the LC(50) level. The inhibitory action of 14 on Saccharomyces cerevisiae transfected with human topoisomerase II isoforms showed a 3-fold selectivity against the IIalpha isoform over the IIbeta isoform. Unlike m-AMSA, 14 is not susceptible to P-glycoprotein-mediated drug efflux and retains activity in lung cells with derived resistance to the topoisomerase II inhibitor etoposide.

  4. Photocatalytic Water Splitting with the Acridine Chromophore: A Computational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojun; Karsili, Tolga N V; Sobolewski, Andrzej L; Domcke, Wolfgang

    2015-08-20

    The hydrogen-bonded acridine-water complex is considered as a model system for the exploration of photochemical reactions which can lead to the splitting of water into H(•) and OH(•) radicals. The vertical excitation energies of the lowest singlet and triplet excited states of the complex were calculated with the CASSCF/CASPT2 and ADC(2) ab initio electronic-structure methods. In addition to the well-known excited states of the acridine chromophore, excited states of charge-transfer character were identified, in which an electron is transferred from the p orbital of the H2O molecule to the π* orbital of acridine. The low-energy barriers which separate these reactive charge-transfer states from the spectroscopic states of the acridine-water complex have been characterized by the calculation of two-dimensional relaxed potential-energy surfaces as functions of the H atom-transfer coordinate and the donor (O)-acceptor (N) distance. When populated, these charge-transfer states drive the transfer of a proton from the water molecule to acridine, which results in the acridinyl-hydroxyl biradical. The same computational methods were employed to explore the photochemistry of the (N-hydrogenated) acridinyl radical. The latter possesses low-lying (about 3.0 eV) ππ* excited states with appreciable oscillator strengths in addition to a low-lying dark ππ* excited state. The bound potential-energy functions of the ππ* excited states are predissociated by the potential-energy function of an excited state of πσ* character which is repulsive with respect to the NH stretching coordinate. The dissociation threshold of the πσ* state is about 2.7 eV and thus below the excitation energies of the bright ππ* states. The conical intersections of the πσ* state with the ππ* excited states and with the electronic ground state provide a mechanism for the direct and fast photodetachment of the H atom from the acridinyl radical. These computational results indicate that the H2

  5. Optically enhanced nuclear cross polarization in acridine-doped fluorene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshiro, C.M.

    1982-06-01

    The objective of this work has been to create large polarizations of the dilute /sup 13/C nuclei in the solid state. The idea was to create /sup 1/H polarizations larger than Boltzmann and to use the proton enhanced nuclear induction spectroscopy cross polarization technique to then transfer this large polarization to the /sup 13/C spin system. Optical Nuclear Polarization (ONP) of acridine-doped fluorene single crystals was studied. In addition, ONP of powdered samples of the acridine-doped fluorene was studied. In general, many compounds do not crystallize easily or do not form large crystals suitable for NMR experiments. Powdered, amorphous and randomly dispersed samples are generally far more readily available than single crystals. One objective of this work has been to (first) create large /sup 1/H polarizations. Although large optical proton polarizations in single crystals have been reported previously, optically generated polarizations in powdered samples have not been reported. For these reasons, ONP studies of powdered samples of the acridine-doped fluorene were also undertaken. Using ONP in combination with the proton enhanced nuclear induction spectroscopy experiment, large /sup 13/C polarizations have been created in fluorene single crystals. These large /sup 13/C polarizations have permitted the determination of the seven incongruent chemical shielding tensors of the fluorene molecule. Part 2 of this thesis describes the proton enhanced nuclear induction spectroscopy experiment. Part 3 describes the ONP experiment. Part 4 is a description of the experimental set-up. Part 5 describes the data analysis for the determination of the chemical shielding tensors. Part 6 presents the results of the ONP experiments performed in this work and the chemical shielding tensors determined.

  6. Interaction of acridine-calix[4]arene with DNA at the electrified liquid liquid interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kivlehan, Francine [Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Lefoix, Myriam; Moynihan, Humphrey A. [Department of Chemistry, Analytical and Biological Chemistry Research Facility, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Thompson, Damien; Ogurtsov, Vladimir I.; Herzog, Gregoire [Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Arrigan, Damien W.M., E-mail: d.arrigan@curtin.edu.a [Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland)

    2010-03-30

    The behaviour of an acridine-functionalised calix[4]arene at the interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions (ITIES) is reported. Molecular modelling showed that the acridine-calix[4]arene has regions of significant net positive charge spread throughout the protonated acridine moieties, consistent with it being able to function as an anion ionophore. The presence of this compound in the organic phase facilitated the transfer of aqueous phase electrolyte ions. Upon addition of double stranded DNA to the aqueous phase, the transfer of electrolyte anions was diminished, due to DNA binding to the acridine moiety at the ITIES. The behaviour provides a basis for DNA hybridization detection using electrochemistry at the ITIES.

  7. Synthesis, DNA Binding, and Antiproliferative Activity of Novel Acridine-Thiosemicarbazone Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Sinara Mônica Vitalino de Almeida; Elizabeth Almeida Lafayette; Lúcia Patrícia Bezerra Gomes da Silva; Cézar Augusto da Cruz Amorim; Tiago Bento de Oliveira; Ana Lucia Tasca Gois Ruiz; João Ernesto de Carvalho; Ricardo Olímpio de Moura; Eduardo Isidoro Carneiro Beltrão; Maria do Carmo Alves de Lima; Luiz Bezerra de Carvalho Júnior

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the acridine nucleus was used as a lead-compound for structural modification by adding different substituted thiosemicarbazide moieties. Eight new (Z)-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene)-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide derivatives (3a–h) were synthesized, their antiproliferative activities were evaluated, and DNA binding properties were performed with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) by electronic absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies. Both hyperchromic and hypochromic effects, as well as re...

  8. Covalent functionalization of graphene oxide by 9-(4-aminophenyl)acridine and its derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Si Feng; Jing Jing Ma; Xin Yan Lin; Jia Song Zhang; Peng Lv; Hua Jian Xu; Lin Bao Luo

    2012-01-01

    Graphene/acridine (G-Acr) hybrid structures were synthesized through covalent functionalization of graphene oxide with 9-(4-aminophenyl)acridine (APA) and its derivatives.The G-Acr hybrids were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry,thermal gravimetric analysis and Raman spectroscopy.X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms that the binding energies of APA and its derivatives shifted to higher values,revealing pronounced charge transfer at the interface of graphene and organic molecules.

  9. ORANGE: RANGE OF BENEFITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parle Milind

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available No wonder that oranges are one of the most popular fruits in the world. Orange (citrus sinensis is well known for its nutritional and medicinal properties throughout the world. From times immemorial, whole Orange plant including ripe and unripe fruits, juice, orange peels, leaves and flowers are used as a traditional medicine. Citrus sinensis belongs to the family Rutaceae. The fruit is a fleshy, indehiscent, berry that ranges widely in size from 4 cm to 12 cm. The major medicinal properties of orange include anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti- diabetic, cardio- protective, anti-cancer, anti-arthritic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-Tubercular, anti-asthmatic and anti-hypertensive. Phytochemically, whole plant contains limonene, citral, neohesperidin, naringin, rutin, rhamnose, eriocitrin, and vitamin-C. In the present review article, a humble attempt is made to compile all the strange facts available about this tasty fruit.

  10. Synthesis and G-Quadruplex-Binding Properties of Defined Acridine Oligomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Ferreira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of oligomers containing two or three acridine units linked through 2-aminoethylglycine using solid-phase methodology is described. Subsequent studies on cell viability showed that these compounds are not cytotoxic. Binding to several DNA structures was studied by competitive dialysis, which showed a clear affinity for DNA sequences that form G-quadruplexes and parallel triplexes. The fluorescence spectra of acridine oligomers were affected strongly upon binding to DNA. These spectral changes were used to calculate the binding constants (K. Log K were found to be in the order of 4–6.

  11. Synthesis, DNA Binding, and Antiproliferative Activity of Novel Acridine-Thiosemicarbazone Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Sinara Mônica Vitalino; Lafayette, Elizabeth Almeida; da Silva, Lúcia Patrícia Bezerra Gomes; Amorim, Cézar Augusto da Cruz; de Oliveira, Tiago Bento; Ruiz, Ana Lucia Tasca Gois; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; de Moura, Ricardo Olímpio; Beltrão, Eduardo Isidoro Carneiro; de Lima, Maria do Carmo Alves; de Carvalho Júnior, Luiz Bezerra

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the acridine nucleus was used as a lead-compound for structural modification by adding different substituted thiosemicarbazide moieties. Eight new (Z)-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene)-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide derivatives (3a-h) were synthesized, their antiproliferative activities were evaluated, and DNA binding properties were performed with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) by electronic absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies. Both hyperchromic and hypochromic effects, as well as red or blue shifts were demonstrated by addition of ctDNA to the derivatives. The calculated binding constants ranged from 1.74 × 10(4) to 1.0 × 10(6) M(-1) and quenching constants from -0.2 × 10(4) to 2.18 × 10(4) M(-1) indicating high affinity to ctDNA base pairs. The most efficient compound in binding to ctDNA in vitro was (Z)-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene)-N- (4-chlorophenyl) hydrazinecarbothioamide (3f), while the most active compound in antiproliferative assay was (Z)-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene)-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide (3a). There was no correlation between DNA-binding and in vitro antiproliferative activity, but the results suggest that DNA binding can be involved in the biological activity mechanism. This study may guide the choice of the size and shape of the intercalating part of the ligand and the strategic selection of substituents that increase DNA-binding or antiproliferative properties. PMID:26068233

  12. Structural considerations on acridine/acridinium derivatives: Synthesis, crystal structure, Hirshfeld surface analysis and computational studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wera, Michał; Storoniak, Piotr; Serdiuk, Illia E.; Zadykowicz, Beata

    2016-02-01

    This article describes a detailed study of the molecular packing and intermolecular interactions in crystals of four derivatives of acridine, i.e. 9-methyl-, 9-ethyl, 9-bromomethyl- and 9-piperidineacridine (1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively) and three 10-methylacridinium salts containing the trifluoromethanesulphonate anion and 9-vinyl-, 9-bromomethyl, and 9-phenyl-10-methylacridinium cations (5, 6 and 7, respectively). The crystal structures of all of the compounds are stabilized by long-range electrostatic interactions, as well as by a network of short-range C-HṡṡṡO (in hydrates and salts 3 and 5-7, respectively), C-Hṡṡṡπ, π-π, C-Fṡṡṡπ and S-Oṡṡṡπ (in salts 5-7) interactions. Hirshfeld surface analysis shows that various intermolecular contacts play an important role in the crystal packing, graphically exhibiting the differences in spatial arrangements of the acridine/acridinium derivatives under scrutiny here. Additionally, computational methods have been used to compare the intermolecular interactions in the crystal structures of the investigated compounds. Computations have confirmed the great contribution of dispersive interactions for crystal lattice stability in the case of 9-substituted acridine and electrostatic interactions for the crystal lattice stability in the case of 9-substituted 10-methylacridinium trifluoromethanesulphonates. The value of crystal lattice energy and the electrostatic contribution in the crystal lattice energy of monohydrated acridine derivatives have confirmed that these compounds have behave as acridinium derivatives.

  13. Synthesis, DNA Binding, and Antiproliferative Activity of Novel Acridine-Thiosemicarbazone Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinara Mônica Vitalino de Almeida

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the acridine nucleus was used as a lead-compound for structural modification by adding different substituted thiosemicarbazide moieties. Eight new (Z-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide derivatives (3a–h were synthesized, their antiproliferative activities were evaluated, and DNA binding properties were performed with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA by electronic absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies. Both hyperchromic and hypochromic effects, as well as red or blue shifts were demonstrated by addition of ctDNA to the derivatives. The calculated binding constants ranged from 1.74 × 104 to 1.0 × 106 M−1 and quenching constants from −0.2 × 104 to 2.18 × 104 M−1 indicating high affinity to ctDNA base pairs. The most efficient compound in binding to ctDNA in vitro was (Z-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene-N- (4-chlorophenyl hydrazinecarbothioamide (3f, while the most active compound in antiproliferative assay was (Z-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide (3a. There was no correlation between DNA-binding and in vitro antiproliferative activity, but the results suggest that DNA binding can be involved in the biological activity mechanism. This study may guide the choice of the size and shape of the intercalating part of the ligand and the strategic selection of substituents that increase DNA-binding or antiproliferative properties.

  14. Synthesis, cytotoxicity and structure-activity relationships between ester and amide functionalities in novel acridine-based platinum(II) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyer, Florence; Moretto, Johnny; Pertuit, David; Szollosi, Anna; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth; Blache, Yves; Chauffert, Bruno; Desbois, Nicolas

    2012-05-01

    In order to improve the pharmacological profile of the anticancer drug cisplatin, several new acridine-based tethered (ethane-1,2-diamine)platinum(II) complexes connected by a polymethylene chain were synthetized. Activity-structure relationship between amide or ester functionalities was explored by changing acridine-9-carboxamide into acridine-9-carboxylate chromophore. The in vitro cytotoxicity of these new complexes was assessed in human colic HCT 116, SW480 and HT-29 cancer cell lines. Series of complexes bearing the acridine-9-carboxylate chromophore displayed higher cytotoxic effect than acridine-9-carboxamide complexes, with gradual effect according to the size of the polymethylene linker. PMID:22459174

  15. LOKALIZACIJA PAKETA ORANGE HRM

    OpenAIRE

    Berčič, Sergej

    2014-01-01

    Diplomsko delo obravnava izdelavo slovenskega jezikovnega paketa za odprtokodno programsko rešitev za upravljanje s človeškimi viri OrangeHRM. Kratko je opisano odprtokodno razvojno okolje, ki ga vključuje paket XAMPP: spletni strežnik Apache, sistem za upravljanje z bazo podatkov MySQL, PHP in Perl. Za prevajanje je bil uporabljen urejevalnik Notepad++. Prikazan je postopek namestitve paketa OrangeHRM, nato pa so opisane funkcije posameznih modulov: administrator, osebni podatki, odsotnosti,...

  16. Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enter ZIP code here Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange VA presumes Veterans' early-onset peripheral neuropathy is related to their exposure to Agent Orange or other herbicides during service when the disease ...

  17. Solvent-free preparation of co-crystals of phenazine and acridine with vanillin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Co-crystals of phenazine and acridine with vanillin have been obtained by solvent-free reaction or thermal treatment of the solid reactants: their structures, thermal behaviour and eutectic formation have been investigated via single crystal X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), variable temperature X-ray powder diffraction and hot-stage microscopy (HSM). Polymorph screening of the reagents has also been carried out.

  18. Solvent-free preparation of co-crystals of phenazine and acridine with vanillin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Dario, E-mail: dario.braga@unibo.it [Dipartimento di Chimica ' G.Ciamician' , Universita degli studi di Bologna, Via Selmi 2, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Grepioni, Fabrizia; Maini, Lucia; Mazzeo, Paolo P.; Rubini, Katia [Dipartimento di Chimica ' G.Ciamician' , Universita degli studi di Bologna, Via Selmi 2, 40126 Bologna (Italy)

    2010-08-10

    Co-crystals of phenazine and acridine with vanillin have been obtained by solvent-free reaction or thermal treatment of the solid reactants: their structures, thermal behaviour and eutectic formation have been investigated via single crystal X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), variable temperature X-ray powder diffraction and hot-stage microscopy (HSM). Polymorph screening of the reagents has also been carried out.

  19. DNA binding, anti-tumour activity and reactivity toward cell thiols of acridin-9-ylalkenoic derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    O Salem; M Vilkova; J Plsikova; A Grolmusova; M Burikova; M Prokaiova; H Paulikova; J Imrich; M Kozurkova

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we describe the synthesis, biochemical properties and biological activity of a series of new 9-substituted acridine derivatives with a reactive alkene moiety: 9-[(E)-2-phenylethenyl] acridine (1) and methyl (2E)-3-(acridin-9-yl)-prop-2-enoate (2). The interaction of derivatives 1 and 2 with calf thymus DNA was investigated using UV-Vis, fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy. The binding constants K were estimated as being in the range of 1.9 to 7.1 × 105 M−1, and the percentage of hypochromism was found to be 40–57% (from spectral titration). UV-Vis, fluorescence, and CD measurements indicate that the compounds were effective DNA-intercalating agents. Electrophoretic separation proved that ligands 1 and 2 relaxed topoisomerase I at a concentration of 5 M. Ester 2 was shown to have a stronger cytostatic effect on leukemia cell line L1210 than alkene 1. The incubation of ligands 1 and 2 with the ovarian carcinoma cell line A2780 confirmed their extensive cytotoxic effects, an effect which was particularly pronounced in the case of ligand 2. Cytotoxicity tests against A2780 cells demonstrate that a conjugate of compound 2 with -cysteine (3) is less cytotoxic than compound 2, especially at concentrations greater than 10 M.

  20. Inhibition of RNA synthesis in vitro by acridines--relation between structure and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piestrzeniewicz, M K; Wilmańska, D; Studzian, K; Szemraj, J; Czyz, M; Denny, W A; Gniazdowski, M

    1998-01-01

    The effects of acridine derivatives (proflavine and 2,7-dialkyl derivatives, diacridines and triacridines, 9-aminoacridine carboxamides, and 9-anilinoacridine, amsacrine and its congeners) on overall RNA synthesis in vitro, on synthesis of initiating oligonucleotides and the binding of the enzyme to DNA were studied. The primary mechanism of action is related to inhibition of the enzyme binding to DNA. The acridines (intercalating or non-intercalating and bis-intercalating ligands) assayed here differ in the properties of their complexes with DNA. Correlation is generally observed between inhibition of RNA synthesis in vitro and cytotoxicity in cell cultures for di- and triacridines and 9-aminoacridine carboxamide derivatives. No relationship was found between the effect on RNA polymerase system and biological effects for amsacrine and its derivatives in contrast to the other series of acridines studied here. The aniline ring seems to decrease the inhibitory potency of a ligand. The discrepancy between the biological effect and RNA synthesis inhibition may be due to a different mechanism of cytotoxicity action of amsacrine which is a potent topoisomerase II poison. PMID:9679327

  1. Basicities of some 9-substituted acridine-4-carboxamides: A density functional theory (DFT) calculation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Raghab Parajuli; C Medhi

    2004-06-01

    Acid-base properties of drugs are important in understanding the behaviour of these compounds under physiological condition. In order to understand such behaviour the proton affinities of acridine 4-carboxamides with substitution (R) at the 9-position are theoretically studied, and considered for the basic sites of both the heterocyclic ring as well as side chain nitrogens. In 9-amino acridine 4-carboxamide, the -NH2 group is observed to be an additional basic site. The heterocyclic nitrogen of substituted carboxamides (R = -NH2, -O-methyl, -O-ethyl, and -O-phenyl) is more basic than the side chain nitrogen, however, side chain nitrogen corresponds to more basic site for some carboxamides (R = -OH and -Cl) and the -NH2 group represents the least basic site of 9-amino acridine 4-carboxamide. In addition to presenting the basicities of these drugs an indication of another hydrogen-bond between heterocyclic ring N and carboxamide chain O is observed. The difference of basicities with substituents at 9-position are very narrow and carboxamides with substituents at 9-position are found to be suitable for studying intramolecular H-bonds between the heterocyclic N and carboxamide O. The resultant stabilization of a configuration due to such H-bonding is determined.

  2. Supra-molecular inter-actions in a 1:1 co-crystal of acridine and 3-chloro-thio-phene-2-carb-oxy-lic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajina, Olakkandiyil; Thomas Muthiah, Packianathan; Perdih, Franc

    2016-05-01

    In the title co-crystal, C5H3ClO2S·C13H9N, the components inter-act with each other via an O-H⋯N hydrogen bond. Acridine-acridine stacking, thio-phene-thio-phene stacking and acridine-thio-phene C-H⋯π inter-actions also occur in the crystal. PMID:27308013

  3. Thiol-dependent inhibition of RNA synthesis in vitro by acridines: structure-inhibition relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gniazdowski, M; Szmigiero, L; Wilmańska, D

    1982-01-01

    In the presence of sulfhydryl compounds an anticancer drug, 1-nitro-9-aminoalkylacridine derivative, forms with DNA irreversible, probably covalent, complexes of decreased template properties. Five 9-substituted 1-nitro-9-aminoacridine derivatives of cytostatic activity show irreversible thiol-dependent inhibitory effects on the RNA synthesis in vitro system while equal inhibition is observed both in the presence and in the absence of dithiothreitol with biologically inactive analogues of nitrocrine. In the absence of sulfhydryl compounds the inhibition depends on the planarity of the acridine ring. Hence, both 1-nitro-9-aminoalkylacridine and tetrahydroacridine derivatives show low inhibitory effect. PMID:6174208

  4. Acridin-9-ylmethoxycarbonyl (Amoc): A New Photochemically Removable Protecting Group for Alcohols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hong-Bo; TANG Wen-Jian; YU Jing-Yu; SONG Qin-Hua

    2006-01-01

    Synthesis and photochemistry of acridin-9-ylmethoxycarbonyl (Amoc) as a new photochemically removable protecting group for alcohols were described. Three carbonates of alcohols 1-3 were synthesized through condensation of 9-hydroxymethylacridine and chloroformates of alcohols, including benzyl alcohol, phenethyl alcohol and one galactose derivative. The photolysis of protected alcohols can efficiently release the corresponding alcohol in the efficiencies (Qu1ε) of 100-200 (quantum yield Qu1=0.011-0.023, and molar absorptivity ε=9.1 × 103-9.8 × 103 mol-1·L·cm-1) under 360 nm light.

  5. Highly selective and sensitive fluorescence detection of Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) ions by using an acridine sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, A; Bachmann, S; Schnegelsberg, C; Teuteberg, T; Mata, R A; Stalke, D

    2016-04-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy investigations of the new acridine derivative bis(N,N-dimethylaminemethylene)acridine (3) show remarkable selectivity and sensitivity towards Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) ions in methanol and for the latter even in water. Through the chelation of the metal ions the present PET effect is quenched, significantly enhancing the emission intensity of the fluorophore. In solution, the bonding situation is studied by fluorescence and NMR spectroscopy, as well as ESI-TOF mass-spectrometry measurements. The solid state environment is investigated by X-ray diffraction and computational calculations. Here, we can show the complexation of the zinc and cadmium ions by the methylene bridged amine receptors as well as by the nitrogen atom of the acridine system. PMID:26928871

  6. Cytotoxic and DNA-damaging properties of N-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]acridine-4-carboxamide (DACA) and its analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastwa, E; Ciesielska, E; Piestrzeniewicz, M K; Denny, W A; Gniazdowski, M; Szmigiero, L

    1998-08-01

    An antitumor drug N-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]acridine-4-carboxamide (DACA) and its three close structural analogs N-[2-(hydroxyethylamino)ethyl]acridine-4-carboxamide (DACAH), N-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-9-aminoacridine-4-carboxamide (amino-DACA), and N-[2-(hydroxyethylamino)ethyl]-9-aminoacridine-4-carboxamide (amino-DACAH) were studied for their ability to inhibit RNA synthesis in vitro and to form topoisomerase II-mediated DNA lesions in relation to cell-killing activity. All tested compounds induced chromatin lesions characteristic of topoisomerase II-blocking drugs (DNA breaks and DNA-protein cross-links) in treated cells, but were much less active than reference antileukemic acridine m-AMSA (4'-(9-acridinylamino)-methanesulfon-m-anisidide). The ability to form these lesions was dependent on the structure of the 4-carboxamide side-chain, which seems to be an important factor affecting the drug transport rate through cell membrane. A 4-carboxamide chain with an N-2-(dimethylamino)ethyl moiety resulted in more efficient transport through cell membranes, higher cytotoxicity, and DNA-damaging activity. The mode of action of acridine-4-carboxamides was further elucidated by their incubation with cells in the presence of antitopoisomerase II agents of a known mechanism of inhibition. These were: bisdioxopiperazine (ICRF-187), a catalytic inhibitor of topoisomerase II, and etoposide (VP-16), an inducer of a cleavable complex of the enzyme with DNA. The cytotoxicity of DACA and its analogs was not antagonized by preincubating cells with ICRF-187. All tested acridines protected cells against DNA breakage induced by VP-16, but the extent of protection varied significantly. Amino-DACA, which easily penetrates cell membrane, fully inhibited DNA break formation, whereas other analogs exhibited a low degree of protection when used at high concentration. Our results suggest that the acridine-4-carboxamides discussed here are poor topoisomerase II poisons and that this enzyme

  7. Interaction and sonodynamic damage activity of acridine red (AD-R) to bovine serum albumin (BSA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dandan; Xie, Jinhui; Wu, Qiong; Fan, Ping; Wang, Jun, E-mail: wangjun888tg@126.com

    2015-04-15

    The sonodynamic therapy (SDT) has become an attractive antitumor treatment method in recent years, but the selection of sonosensitizer, mechanism of damage biomolecule and kind of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during sonodynamic process have not been investigated in detail. In this paper, the acridine red (AD-R), as a sonosensitizer, combining with ultrasonic irradiation to damage bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated. At first, the interaction of AD-R to BSA molecules in aqueous solution was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy. As judged from the experimental results, the quenching mechanism of BSA fluorescence belongs to a static process. Synchronous fluorescence spectra demonstrate that the binding and damage sites to BSA molecules are mainly on the tryptophan residues. The generation and kind of generated ROS were also estimated by the method of oxidation and extraction photometry. This paper may offer some valuable references for the study of the sonodynamic activity and application of AD-R in SDT for tumor treatment. - Highlights: ●Acridine red (AD-R) is used to study interaction with BSA. ●Spectroscopy is used to study sonodynamic damage activity of AD-R to BSA. ●Generation of ROS caused by AD-R under ultrasonic irradiation was determined.

  8. Pyrrolidine-Acridine hybrid in Artemisinin-based combination: a pharmacodynamic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Swaroop Kumar; Biswas, Subhasish; Gunjan, Sarika; Chauhan, Bhavana Singh; Singh, Sunil Kumar; Srivastava, Kumkum; Singh, Sarika; Batra, Sanjay; Tripathi, Renu

    2016-09-01

    Aiming to develop new artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for malaria, antimalarial effect of a new series of pyrrolidine-acridine hybrid in combination with artemisinin derivatives was investigated. Synthesis, antimalarial and cytotoxic evaluation of a series of hybrid of 2-(3-(substitutedbenzyl)pyrrolidin-1-yl)alkanamines and acridine were performed and mode of action of the lead compound was investigated. In vivo pharmacodynamic properties (parasite clearance time, parasite reduction ratio, dose and regimen determination) against multidrug resistant (MDR) rodent malaria parasite and toxicological parameters (median lethal dose, liver function test, kidney function test) were also investigated. 6-Chloro-N-(4-(3-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)pyrrolidin-1-yl)butyl)-2-methoxyacridin-9-amine (15c) has shown a dose dependent haem bio-mineralization inhibition and was found to be the most effective and safe compound against MDR malaria parasite in Swiss mice model. It displayed best antimalarial potential with artemether (AM) in vitro as well as in vivo. The combination also showed favourable pharmacodynamic properties and therapeutic response in mice with established MDR malaria infection and all mice were cured at the determined doses. The combination did not show toxicity at the doses administered to the Swiss mice. Taken together, our findings suggest that compound 15c is a potential partner with AM for the ACT and could be explored for further development. PMID:27230403

  9. Photoabsorption of Acridine Yellow and Proflavin Bound to Human Serum Albumin Studied by Means of Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aidas, Kestutis; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Kongsted, Jacob;

    2013-01-01

    Attempting to unravel mechanisms in optical probing of proteins, we have performed pilot calculations of two cationic chromophores—acridine yellow and proflavin—located at different binding sites within human serum albumin, including the two primary drug binding sites as well as a heme binding site...

  10. Evaluation of new iodinated acridine derivatives for targeted radionuclide therapy of melanoma using 125I, an Auger electron emitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardette, Maryline; Papon, Janine; Bonnet, Mathilde; Desbois, Nicolas; Labarre, Pierre; Wu, Ting-Dee; Miot-Noirault, Elisabeth; Madelmont, Jean-Claude; Guerquin-Kern, Jean-Luc; Chezal, Jean-Michel; Moins, Nicole

    2011-12-01

    The increasing incidence of melanoma and the lack of effective therapy on the disseminated form have led to an urgent need for new specific therapies. Several iodobenzamides or analogs are known to possess specific affinity for melanoma tissue. New heteroaromatic derivatives have been designed with a cytotoxic moiety and termed DNA intercalating agents. These compounds could be applied in targeted radionuclide therapy using (125)I, which emits Auger electrons and gives high-energy, localized irradiation. Two iodinated acridine derivatives have been reported to present an in vivo kinetic profile conducive to application in targeted radionuclide therapy. The aim of the present study was to perform a preclinical evaluation of these compounds. The DNA intercalating property was confirmed for both compounds. After radiolabeling with (125)I, the two compounds induced in vitro a significant radiotoxicity to B16F0 melanoma cells. Nevertheless, the acridine compound appeared more radiotoxic than the acridone compound. While cellular uptake was similar for both compounds, SIMS analysis and in vitro protocol showed a stronger affinity for melanin with acridone derivative, which was able to induce a predominant scavenging process in the melanosome and restrict access to the nucleus. In conclusion, the acridine derivative with a higher nuclear localization appeared a better candidate for application in targeted radionuclide therapy using (125)I. PMID:20567996

  11. Unexpected regiospecific formation and DNA binding of new 3-(acridin-9-yl)methyl-2-iminothiazolidin-4-ones

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ján Imrich; Danica Sabolová; Mária Vilková; Júlia Kudláčová

    2016-02-01

    New 3-(acridin-9-yl)methyl-2-substituted imino-1,3-thiazolidin-4-ones were regiospecifically synthesized from unstable (acridin-9-yl)methyl thioureas and methyl bromoacetate (MBA) or bromoacetyl bromide (BAB). Unexpected formation of only one thiazolidinone regioisomer with both the reagents was due to a new mechanism involving a transient spiro 9,10-dihydroacridine intermediate. These results are in contrast with the reactions of acridin-9-yl thioureas with MBA/BAB that afforded two different thiazolidinone regioisomers with these reagents. UV-vis titrations, CD spectra, and fluorescence quenching have shown that new products intercalated into calf thymus (CT) DNA, and displaced ethidium bromide (EB) from a CT DNA–EB complex. Intrinsic binding constants, , and Stern-Volmer constants, , were found in the range 0.79✕105 – 2.85✕105 M−1 and 17950 – 3360M−1, respectively. The strongest binding affinity was found for an electrondonated 2-(4-methoxyphenylimino) thiazolidinone. Additional evidence for DNA intercalation was obtained from thermal denaturation studies. Gel electrophoresis has proven that thiazolidinone products nicked the supercoiled plasmid DNA in 5.0 M concentration.

  12. Porphyria Cutanea Tarda and Agent Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ZIP code here Porphyria Cutanea Tarda and Agent Orange VA presumes porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) is related to Veterans' exposure to Agent Orange or other herbicides during military service when the ...

  13. Soft Tissue Sarcomas and Agent Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ZIP code here Soft Tissue Sarcomas and Agent Orange VA presumes some soft tissue sarcomas in Veterans are related to their exposure to Agent Orange or other herbicides during military service. The soft ...

  14. Orange Peels and Fresnel Integrals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartholdi, Laurent; Henriques, A.G.

    2012-01-01

    Cut the skin of an orange along a thin spiral of constant width and place it flat on a table. A natural breakfast question, for a mathematician, is what shape the spiral peel will have when flattened out. We derive a formula that, for a given cut width, describes the corresponding spiral’s shape.

  15. Orange Peels and Fresnel Integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Bartholdi, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    There are two standard ways of peeling an orange: either cut the skin along meridians, or cut it along a spiral. We consider here the second method, and study the shape of the spiral strip, when unfolded on a table. We derive a formula that describes the corresponding flattened-out spiral. Cutting the peel with progressively thinner strip widths, we obtain a sequence of increasingly long spirals. We show that, after rescaling, these spirals tends to a definite shape, known as the Euler spiral. The Euler spiral has applications in many fields of science. In optics, the illumination intensity at a point behind a slit is computed from the distance between two points on the Euler spiral. The Euler spiral also provides optimal curvature for train tracks between a straight run and an upcoming bend. It is striking that it can be also obtained with an orange and a kitchen knife.

  16. 21 CFR 74.250 - Orange B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange B. 74.250 Section 74.250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.250 Orange B. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Orange B is principally the disodium salt of...

  17. A new acridine derivative as a highly selective fluoroionophore for Cu{sup 2+} in 100% aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yu, E-mail: wangyu1168@sxu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Shi, LiLi; Sun, HuanHe Sun; Shang, ZhuoBin; Chao, JianBin [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Jin, WeiJun, E-mail: wjjin@bnu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2013-07-15

    A new acridine fluoroionophore containing two iminodiacetic acid ligands, Acridinyl Tetra Acid (ATA), was synthesized. The fluorescence sensing behavior of ATA toward metal ions was investigated in buffered aqueous media. The presence of Cu{sup 2+} resulted in significant quenching of the fluorescence emission from ATA, while other metal ions posed little interferences, if any. The fluorescence response was concentration-dependent and can be well described by the modified Stern–Volmer equation. A good linear relationship (R{sup 2}=0.9952) was observed up to 3.0×10{sup −6} mol L{sup −1} Cu{sup 2+} ions. The detection limit, calculated following the 3σ IUPAC criteria, was 1.24×10{sup −7} mol L{sup −1}. The presence of Cu{sup 2+} induces the formation of a 1:1 ligand/metal complex at neutral pH. -- Highlights: ► A new acridine fluoroionophore was synthesized for detection of Cu{sup 2+} in water. ► Iminodiacetic acid moiety was chosen as the ionophore. ► The fluoroionophore exhibits great fluorescence quenching effect for Cu{sup 2+}.

  18. Interactive Network Exploration with Orange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Štajdohar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Network analysis is one of the most widely used techniques in many areas of modern science. Most existing tools for that purpose are limited to drawing networks and computing their basic general characteristics. The user is not able to interactively and graphically manipulate the networks, select and explore subgraphs using other statistical and data mining techniques, add and plot various other data within the graph, and so on. In this paper we present a tool that addresses these challenges, an add-on for exploration of networks within the general component-based environment Orange.

  19. Ukraine’s Orange Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Ali Mortazavi Emami

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Color revolution is one of the new ways of changing a regime at the beginning of the twenty-first century, which has usually been carried out on corrupt, political systems remaining from the Cold War era in Eastern European countries and countries that have become independent from the former Soviet Union and through such revolution a new peaceful form of political power transition emerged. An exploration of the circumstances of Ukraine’s Orange Revolution suggests foreigners’ support and leading. Ukraine’s presidential elections of 2004 and the competition between Viktor Yushchenko and Victor Yanukovich and the presence of international observers in the process of elections and the controversy of electoral fraud and the West’s support of Yushchenko were all directed toward the formation of a color revolution in Ukraine. Poor economic conditions and official corruption, religious, linguistic, class and racial gaps in Ukraine led the way for foreigners to use them in creating electoral situations and prepare the fall of the government. The main purpose question in this article is the Orange Revolution and its causes.

  20. Neutron activation analysis of thin orange pottery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbottle, G; Sayre, E V; Abascal, R

    1976-01-01

    The evidence thus far obtained supports the idea of ''Thin Orange'' ware, typical of classic Teotihuacan culture, easily identifiable petrographically or chemically, not necessarily made at Teotihuacan itself but widely traded, and ''thin, orange'' pottery, fabricated in many other places, and perhaps at other times as well.

  1. 7 CFR 29.1043 - Orange (F).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Orange (F). 29.1043 Section 29.1043 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1043 Orange (F). A reddish yellow....

  2. Evaluation of new iodinated acridine derivatives for targeted radionuclide therapy of melanoma using 125I, an Auger electron emitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The full text of the publication follows. The increasing incidence of melanoma and the lack of effective therapy on the disseminated form have led to an urgent need for new specific therapies. Several iodo-benzamides or analogs are known to possess specific affinity for melanoma tissue. New hetero-aromatic derivatives have been designed with a cytotoxic moiety and termed DNA intercalating agents. These compounds could be applied in targeted radionuclide therapy using 125I, Auger electrons emitter which gives high-energetic localized irradiation. Two iodinated acridine derivatives have been reported to present an in vivo kinetic profile conducive to application in targeted radionuclide therapy. The aim of the present study was to perform a preclinical evaluation of these compounds. The DNA intercalating property was confirmed for both compounds. After radiolabeling with 125I, the two compounds induced in vitro a significant radiotoxicity on B16F0 melanoma cells. The acridine compound, ICF01040, appeared more radio toxic than the acridone compound, ICF01035. While cellular uptake was similar for both compounds, SIMS analysis and in vitro protocol showed a stronger affinity for melanin with ICF01035, which was able to induce a predominant scavenging process in the melanosome and restrict access to the nucleus. Nevertheless, an important radiotoxicity was measured for the two compounds while the nuclear accumulation was low. Indeed, even if nuclear localization remains the main target sensitive to Auger electrons, the cell membrane remains sensitive to 125I decays. So, these compounds may induce secondary toxic effects of irradiation, such as membrane lipid damage. Conducted to current experiments are evaluate such hypothesis. Taken together, these results suggest that ICF01040 is a better candidate for application in targeted radionuclide therapy using 125I. The next step will be in vivo evaluation, where high tumoral vectorization gives promising perspectives

  3. Mini-Orange Spectrometer at CIAE

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Yun; Li, Guang-Sheng; Li, Cong-Bo; He, Chuang-Ye; Chen, Qi-Ming; Zhong, Jian; Zhou, Wen-Kui; Deng, Li-Tao; Zhu, Bao-Ji

    2016-01-01

    A Mini-Orange spectrometer used for in-beam measurements of internal conversion electrons, which consists of a Si(Li) detector and different sets of SmO$_5$ permanent magnets for filtering and transporting the conversion electrons to the Si(Li) detector, has been developed at China Institute of Atomic Energy. The working principle and configuration of the Mini-Orange spectrometer are described. The performance of the setup is illustrated by measured singles conversion electron spectra using the Mini-Orange spectrometer.

  4. Mini-orange spectrometer at CIAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yun; Wu, Xiao-Guang; Li, Guang-Sheng; Li, Cong-Bo; He, Chuang-Ye; Chen, Qi-Ming; Zhong, Jian; Zhou, Wen-Kui; Deng, Li-Tao; Zhu, Bao-Ji

    2016-08-01

    A mini-orange spectrometer used for in-beam measurements of internal conversion electrons, consisting of a Si(Li) detector and different sets of SmO5 permanent magnets for filtering and transporting the conversion electrons to the Si(Li) detector, has been developed at the China Institute of Atomic Energy. The working principles and configuration of the mini-orange spectrometer are described. The performance of the setup is illustrated by measured singles conversion electron spectra using the mini-orange spectrometer. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11305269, 11375267, 11475072, 11405274, 11205068, 11175259)

  5. Keberadaan Orang Melayu di Sulawesi Selatan Pada Peringkat Awal

    OpenAIRE

    Hadrawi, Muhlis

    2008-01-01

    Keberadaan pelbagai kelompok orang Melayu di beberapa kepulauan Nusantara, tak terkecuali kehadiran orang Melayu di Sulawesi Selatan, dapat dijelaskan sebagai fenomena penghijraan. Manuskript attoriolong (kronik) Bugis mengungkapkan keberadaan orang Melayu di Sulawesi Selatan semenjak era pra-Islam sebagai gejala penghijraan disamping aktiviti perdagangan dan misi penyebaran agama Islam. Kajian ini mengungkapkan keberadaan orang Melayu di Sulawesi Selatan pada peringkat awal pada akhir abad ...

  6. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food prepared by mixing water with frozen concentrated orange juice as defined in § 146.146 or...

  7. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is...

  8. Photostability of Natural Orange-Red and Yellow Fungal Pigments in Liquid Food Model Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mapari, Sameer Shamsuddin; Meyer, Anne S.; Thrane, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    The variation in the photostability among the currently authorized natural pigments limits their application span to a certain type of food system, and more robust alternatives are being sought after to overcome this problem. In the present study, the photostability of an orange-red and a yellow...... an enhanced photostability of fungal pigment extracts compared to the commercially available natural colorants Monascus Red and turmeric used as controls. Yellow components of the orange-red fungal pigment extract were more photostable than the red components. Chemistry of the photodegradation of the orange-red...... pigment extract was studied by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS), and a light-induced formation of a structural analogue of sequoiamonascin C, a Monascus-like polyketide pigment discovered in the extract of Penicillium aculeatum IBT 14263 on yeast...

  9. Pampas Grass - Orange Co. [ds351

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset provides the known distribution of pampas grass (Cortaderia selloana) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to June, 2007 and...

  10. Arundo Distribution - Orange Co. [ds348

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset provides the known distribution of Arundo (Arundo donax) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to June, 2007 and were funded...

  11. Mexican Fan Palm - Orange Co. [ds350

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset provides the known distribution of Mexican fan palm (Washingtonia robusta) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to June, 2007...

  12. Antimatter, clockwork orange, laser divestment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmus, John F.

    2005-06-01

    In 1972 Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi sponsored a program to holographically record the images of Venetian sculptural treasures for archival purposes. At Laboratorio San Gregorio, where the initial holography took place, G. Musumeci and K. Hempel suggested an experiment to determine whether the concentrated beam from the ruby holographic laser could ablate black-patina crusts from decaying marble. Initial success of a laser-divestment test on a Palazzo Ducale capital launched a search for funding to enable a full-scale laser-conservation demonstration. Later, at a Caltech reunion one of the author's physics professors (Carl Anderson, the discoverer of mu mesons and the positron), noting the prominence of the Venice Film Festival suggested our approaching the motion picture industry. Many years earlier Anderson's Caltech classmate, Frank Capra, had supported the research that led to the discovery of cosmic-ray-generated antimatter on Pikes Peak. (After Caltech, Capra had become a director at Columbia Studios.) Anderson's chance comment led to an introduction to producer Jack Warner at a festival screening of his "A Clockwork Orange" in Asolo. He and his friends contributed US$5000 toward the laser conservation of a marble relief of "The Last Supper" in the Porta della Carta of Venice. This work was conducted in 1980 under the direction of Arch. G. Calcagno. In 1981 it was found that the granite veneer or the newly completed Warner Center Tower had been stained during transit from the quarry. The Venice laser successfully restored the veneer, thereby returning the Warner Brothers' favor.

  13. ORANGE JUICE AND BLOOD PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. VALIM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Blood pressure is the force of blood against artery walls. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg and recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (as the heart contracts over diastolic pressure (as the heart relaxes between beats. High blood pressure (hypertension is defined as chronically elevated high blood pressure, with systolic blood pressure (SBP of 140 mm Hg or greater, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP of 90 mm Hg or greater. High blood pressure (HBP, smoking, abnormal blood lipid levels, obesity and diabetes are risk factors for coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in the US. Lifestyle modifications such as engaging in regular physical activity, quitting smoking and eating a healthy diet (limiting intake of saturated fat and sodium and increasing consumption of fiber, fruits and vegetables are advocated for the prevention, treatment, and control of HBP. As multiple factors influence blood pressure, the effects of each factor are typically modest, particularly in normotensive subjects, yet the combined effects can be substantial. Nutrition plays an important role in influencing blood pressure. Orange juice should be included as part of any low sodium diet and/or any blood pressure reducing eating plan, as it is sodium free, fat-free and can help meet recommended levels of potassium intake that may contribute to lower BP.

  14. Efficient orange-red organic light-emitting diodes using 9,10-bis[4-(di-4-tert-butylphenylamino)styryl] anthracene as a fluorescent orange-red emitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Bo Min; Seo, Ji Hoon; Kim, Jun Ho; Park, Jung Sun [Department of Information Display, Hongik University, Seoul, 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kum Hee; Park, Min Hye [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Seung Soo, E-mail: ssyoon@skku.ed [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Kwan, E-mail: kimyk@hongik.ac.k [Department of Information Display, Hongik University, Seoul, 121-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-01

    The authors have demonstrated efficient orange-red organic lighting diodes (OLEDs) using a new fluorescent orange-red material, 9,10-bis[4-(di-4-tert-buthylphenylamino)styryl]anthracene (ATBTPA). The optimized orange-red OLED using ATBTPA achieved a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 3.78%, a current efficiency (CE) of 9.47 cd/A, and Commision Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE{sub x,y}) coordinates of (0.51, and 0.48) at 1.61 mA/cm{sup 2} in comparison with orange-red OLED using (5,6,11,12)-tetraphenyl-naphthacene (rubrene) which showed a maximum EQE of 1.65%, CE of 4.94 cd/A, and CIE{sub x,y} coordinates of (0.50, and 0.49) at 0.61 mA/cm{sup 2}, respectively. The optimized orange-red device using ATBTPA showed higher efficiency of two times the orange-red device using rubrene due to the efficient Foerster singlet energy transfer from MADN to ATBTPA in comparison with that from MADN to rubrene. This study clearly suggests that ATBTPA is an excellent fluorescent orange-red material for efficient WOLEDs.

  15. Synthesis of a new class of strongly fluorescent heterocyclic compounds: 3H-imidazo[4,5-a]acridine-11-carbonitriles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahraei, Robabeh [Department of Chemistry, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pordel, Mehdi, E-mail: mehdipordel58@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Behmadi, Hossein; Razavi, Bahareh [Department of Chemistry, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    The synthesis, spectral characterization and fluorescence studies of some novel substituted 8-chloro-3H-imidazo[4,5-a]acridine-11-carbonitriles are presented. The nucleophilic substitution of hydrogen in 5-nitrobenzimidazole derivatives occurs upon reaction with 2-(4-chlorophenyl) acetonitrile under basic conditions and proceeds with concomitant cyclisation. This sequence offers a one-pot synthesis of new fluorescent heterocyclic compounds, 8-chloro-3-alkyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-a]acridine-11-carbonitriles. The fluorescence of all compounds was intense and fluorescence quantum yields were very high (>0.85) for all of them. -- Highlights: ► A facile method to synthesis of new 3H-imidazo[4,5–a]acridine-11-carbonitriles is presented. ► The spectral and photophysical properties of these new compounds are investigated. ► The fluorescence of all compounds was intense and fluorescence quantum yields were very high for all of them.

  16. Inhibition of RNA recruitment and replication of an RNA virus by acridine derivatives with known anti-prion activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna Sasvari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Small molecule inhibitors of RNA virus replication are potent antiviral drugs and useful to dissect selected steps in the replication process. To identify antiviral compounds against Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV, a model positive stranded RNA virus, we tested acridine derivatives, such as chlorpromazine (CPZ and quinacrine (QC, which are active against prion-based diseases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report that CPZ and QC compounds inhibited TBSV RNA accumulation in plants and in protoplasts. In vitro assays revealed that the inhibitory effects of these compounds were manifested at different steps of TBSV replication. QC was shown to have an effect on multiple steps, including: (i inhibition of the selective binding of the p33 replication protein to the viral RNA template, which is required for recruitment of viral RNA for replication; (ii reduction of minus-strand synthesis by the tombusvirus replicase; and (iii inhibition of translation of the uncapped TBSV genomic RNA. In contrast, CPZ was shown to inhibit the in vitro assembly of the TBSV replicase, likely due to binding of CPZ to intracellular membranes, which are important for RNA virus replication. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Since we found that CPZ was also an effective inhibitor of other plant viruses, including Tobacco mosaic virus and Turnip crinkle virus, it seems likely that CPZ has a broad range of antiviral activity. Thus, these inhibitors constitute effective tools to study similarities in replication strategies of various RNA viruses.

  17. Design and synthesis of novel anti-Alzheimer's agents: Acridine-chromenone and quinoline-chromenone hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Zahra; Saeedi, Mina; Mahdavi, Mohammad; Sabourian, Reyhaneh; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Tehrani, Maliheh Barazandeh; Moghadam, Farshad Homayouni; Edraki, Najmeh; Karimpor-Razkenari, Elahe; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad; Foroumadi, Alireza; Shafiee, Abbas; Akbarzadeh, Tahmineh

    2016-08-01

    A novel series of acridine-chromenone and quinoline-chromenone hybrids were designed, synthesized, and evaluated as anti-Alzheimer's agents. All synthesized compounds were evaluated as cholinesterases (ChEs) inhibitors and among them, 7-(4-(6-chloro-2,3-dihydro-1H-cyclopenta[b]quinolin-9-ylamino)phenoxy)-4-methyl-2H-chromen-2-one (8e) exhibited the most potent anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity (IC50=16.17μM) comparing with rivastigmine (IC50=11.07μM) as the reference drug. Also, compound 8e was assessed for its β-secretase (BACE1) inhibitory and neuroprotective activities which demonstrated satisfactory results. It should be noted that both kinetic study on the inhibition of AChE and molecular modeling revealed that compound 8e interacted simultaneously with both the catalytic active site (CAS) and peripheral anionic site (PAS) of AChE. PMID:27289559

  18. Ukraine: the orange revolution and its aftermath

    OpenAIRE

    Sirutavičius, Vladas

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the causes of the Orange Revolution in Ukraine and find out how changes in the political regime have influenced the course of Kiev's foreign policy. The first part of the article tries to clarify what internal and external factors determined the transformation of the political regime at the end of 2004 and the beginning of 2005. The answer to the question why the Orange Revolution in Ukraine took place is provided. It is based on the assumption that t...

  19. Orange proteomic fingerprinting: From fruit to commercial juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerma-García, María Jesús; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto F; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Fasoli, Elisa

    2016-04-01

    Combinatorial peptide ligand library technology, coupled to mass spectrometry, has been applied to extensively map the proteome of orange pulp and peel and, via this fingerprinting, to detect its presence in commercial orange juices and drinks. The native and denaturing extraction protocols have captured 1109 orange proteins, as identified by LC-MS/MS. This proteomic map has been searched in an orange concentrate, from a Spanish juice manufacturer, as well as in commercial orange juices and soft drinks. The presence of numerous orange proteins in commercial juices has demonstrated the genuineness of these products, prepared by using orange fruits as original ingredients. However, the low number of identified proteins in sparkling beverages has suggested that they were prepared with scarce amounts of fruit extract, thus imparting lower quality to the final products. These findings not only increase the knowledge of the orange proteome but also present a reliable analytical method to assess quality and genuineness of commercial products.

  20. Financial Benefits of Florida Generic Orange Juice Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Arthur M.; Canter, Neil

    2009-01-01

    The benefits to Florida orange growers of generic orange juice advertising are assessed using additive, nonlinear, regional econometric models, measuring the impact of category and brand marketing efforts on category demand while controlling for pricing and various other factors. The study shows that generic marketing efforts increased orange juice category demand by 8.3 percent, resulting in increased orange prices and a benefit-to-cost ratio to Florida growers of 3.5 to 1. Branded promotion...

  1. An overview on the Brazilian orange juice production chain

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Marcio dos Santos; Irenilza de Alencar Nääs; Mario Mollo Neto; Oduvaldo Vendrametto

    2013-01-01

    Brazil is the world's largest producer of oranges and uses more than 70% of the harvested fruits in the production of juices. The amount of processed orange is growing about 10% per year, confirming the trend of the Brazilian citrus for juice production. This research aimed to investigate the Brazilian orange juice production chain from 2005 to 2009. Data from the amount of frozen juice produced and exported, international price of orange juice, and intermediate transactions were assessed in ...

  2. Orange rust: A new surgarcane disease in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange rust of sugarcane was observed approximately 5 miles east of Belle Glade, Florida on CP 80-1743 (a complex hybrid of Sacharum L. species) during the lsat week of June 2007. Orange rust pustules are cinnamon-orange in color, oval and smaller than the darker brown elongate rust pustules of the ...

  3. Orange peel products can reduce Salmonella populations in ruminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella can live undetected in the gut of food animals and be spread to humans directly and indirectly. Diet can impact intestinal populations of foodborne pathogens, including Salmonella spp. Orange juice production results in a waste product, orange peel and orange pulp, which has a high nutr...

  4. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  5. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing is the food prepared for further manufacturing use. It is prepared from unfermented juice...

  6. 76 FR 52563 - Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ...) entitled Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX in the Federal Register (76 FR 103). We... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX... Events; Sabine River, Orange, TX. (a) Definitions. As used in this section ``Participant Vessel''...

  7. Preliminary biological evaluation of acridinic compounds for a targeted combined chemo and internal radionuclide therapy for melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing incidence of melanoma and a lack of effective therapy on the disseminated form induces the development of selective tissue-targeted therapies. The aim of the present work was a targeting approach combining a bimodality therapy with the same compound exhibiting both chemo and internal radionuclide therapeutic properties. Benzamides are known to present a specific affinity for melanoma tissue. Former studies have shown that with aromatic and hetero-aromatic analogues of N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)- 4-iodo benzamide (B.Z.A.), the affinity for melanoma was maintained. In this context, new compounds have been designed and synthesized conjugating a cytotoxic hetero-aromatic moiety, an amino-alkyl amidic side chain for melanoma targeting and a radioiodine for internal radionuclide therapy. Acridinic derivatives known as cytotoxic DNA-intercalating agents have been chosen for this study. The cytotoxic activity of fifteen new compounds has been tested in vitro on a panel of cell lines and the I.C.50 values were determined. The three first selected compounds have been further evaluated: in vivo, on B 16 F0 melanoma bearing C 57 B.L.6 mice to determine the pharmacological kinetic and namely the tumoral affinity. Two compounds exhibited a high, specific and long lasting concentration in melanoma tumor giving them a kinetic profile favourable for an application to radionuclide therapy; in vitro, using the 'colony forming' test on melanoma cells, for a first approach of association of chemo toxicity and radiotoxicity. Assessed on the ability of cells to form colonies, the inhibition observed with the association for a same molecule of chemo toxic and radio toxic doses was quite exactly the sum of the two separate effects, a result providing a first validation of the radio chemotherapy concept; in vitro, by a preliminary determination of molecular mechanisms. Compared to parent compounds, results confirmed a maintain of DNA-intercalating properties. These first results

  8. 32P-postlabelling analysis of dibenz[a,j]acridine-DNA adducts in mice: identification of proximate metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaska, G; Roh, J; Schamer, M; Reilman, R; Xue, W; Warshawsky, D

    1995-03-30

    N-Heterocyclic polynuclear aromatics are widely-occurring environmental pollutants formed during the pyrolysis of nitrogen-containing organic chemicals. Dibenz[a,j]acridine (DBA), a member of this class, has been shown to be a skin carcinogen in mice. We undertook studies to determine the organ distribution of DBA-DNA adducts and to identify the DBA metabolites which lead to the formation of carcinogen-DNA adducts in vivo. DBA and its metabolites, trans-DBA-1,2-dihydrodiol (DBA-1,2-DHD) trans-DBA-3,4-dihydrodiol (DBA-3,4-DHD) and trans-DBA-5,6-dihydrodiol (DBA-5,6-DHD), were topically applied on mice. DNA was isolated using enzyme-solvent extraction methods, and analyzed for carcinogen-DNA adducts using 32P-postlabelling. In skin, DBA produced two distinct adducts (Adducts 1 and 2). The same two adducts were seen when DBA-3,4-DHD was applied. In addition, the total adduct level elicited by DBA-3,4-DHD was twice that of the parent compound. Two adducts (Adducts 3 and 4) were also seen in mouse skin when DBA-5,6-DHD was applied, but these differed chromatographically from adducts seen with DBA. However, when DBA-3,4-DHD was applied and analyzed using sensitive nuclease P1 32P-postlabelling, all four adducts could be detected. These results suggest that the major route of DBA activation to DNA-binding species in skin is through formation of DBA-3,4-DHD and subsequent metabolism of this compound to a bay-region diol-epoxide. However, we postulate that another activation pathway may proceed through a bis-dihydrodiol-epoxide.

  9. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages §...

  10. Vitamin C Content of Commercial Orange Juices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Paul

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to confirm that newly purchased commercial orange juice contains sufficient ascorbic acid to meet government standards, and to establish the rate of aerial oxidation of this ascorbic acid when the juice is stored in a refrigerator. (MLH)

  11. Orange County Outdoor School: Cabin Leader's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange County Dept. of Education, Santa Ana, CA.

    Presented in five sections, the manual furnishes cabin leaders (high school students) with background information concerning philosophy, teaching, objectives, daily schedule, and cabin leader responsibilities in the Orange County Outdoor School program. The welcome section contains the history of the Outdoor School, staff responsibilities,…

  12. 6-Hydroxypelargonidin glycosides in the orange-red flowers of Alstroemeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Saito, Norio; Murata, Naho; Shinoda, Koichi; Shigihara, Atsushi; Honda, Toshio

    2003-04-01

    Two 6-hydroxypelargonidin glycosides were isolated from the orange-red flowers of Alstroemeria cultivars, and determined to be 6-hydroxypelargonidin 3-O-(beta-D-glucopyranoside) and 3-O-[6-O-(alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside], respectively, by chemical and spectroscopic methods. In addition, five known anthocyanidin glycosides, 6-hydroxycyanidin 3-malonylglucoside, 6-hydroxycyanidin 3-rutinoside, cyanidin 3-malonylglucoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside and pelargonidin 3-rutinoside were identified in the flowers. PMID:12648544

  13. Preliminary biological evaluation of acridinic compounds for a targeted combined chemo and internal radionuclide therapy for melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardette, M.; Papon, J.; Desbois, N.; Labarre, P.; Maisonial, A.; Maublant, J.; Madelmont, J.C.; Moins, N.; Chezal, J.M. [Centre Jean Perrin, Inserm-Universite d' Auvergne, 63 - Clermont Ferrand (France)

    2008-02-15

    The increasing incidence of melanoma and a lack of effective therapy on the disseminated form induces the development of selective tissue-targeted therapies. The aim of the present work was a targeting approach combining a bimodality therapy with the same compound exhibiting both chemo and internal radionuclide therapeutic properties. Benzamides are known to present a specific affinity for melanoma tissue. Former studies have shown that with aromatic and hetero-aromatic analogues of N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)- 4-iodo benzamide (B.Z.A.), the affinity for melanoma was maintained. In this context, new compounds have been designed and synthesized conjugating a cytotoxic hetero-aromatic moiety, an amino-alkyl amidic side chain for melanoma targeting and a radioiodine for internal radionuclide therapy. Acridinic derivatives known as cytotoxic DNA-intercalating agents have been chosen for this study. The cytotoxic activity of fifteen new compounds has been tested in vitro on a panel of cell lines and the I.C.50 values were determined. The three first selected compounds have been further evaluated: in vivo, on B 16 F0 melanoma bearing C 57 B.L.6 mice to determine the pharmacological kinetic and namely the tumoral affinity. Two compounds exhibited a high, specific and long lasting concentration in melanoma tumor giving them a kinetic profile favourable for an application to radionuclide therapy; in vitro, using the 'colony forming' test on melanoma cells, for a first approach of association of chemo toxicity and radiotoxicity. Assessed on the ability of cells to form colonies, the inhibition observed with the association for a same molecule of chemo toxic and radio toxic doses was quite exactly the sum of the two separate effects, a result providing a first validation of the radio chemotherapy concept; in vitro, by a preliminary determination of molecular mechanisms. Compared to parent compounds, results confirmed a maintain of DNA-intercalating properties. These

  14. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF ORANGE SEED DRYING KINETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Penteado Rosa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Drying of orange seeds representing waste products from juice processing was studied in the temperatures of 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C and drying velocities of 0.6, 1.0 and 1.4 m/s. Experimental drying kinetics of orange seeds were obtained using a convective air forced dryer. Three thin-layer models: Page model, Lewis model, and the Henderson-Pabis model and the diffusive model were used to predict the drying curves. The Henderson-Pabis and the diffusive models show the best fitting performance and statistical evaluations. Moreover, the temperature dependence on the effective diffusivity followed an Arrhenius relationship, and the activation energies ranging from 16.174 to 16.842 kJ/mol

  15. Call cultures in orang-utans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge A Wich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies suggested great ape cultures, arguing that human cumulative culture presumably evolved from such a foundation. These focused on conspicuous behaviours, and showed rich geographic variation, which could not be attributed to known ecological or genetic differences. Although geographic variation within call types (accents has previously been reported for orang-utans and other primate species, we examine geographic variation in the presence/absence of discrete call types (dialects. Because orang-utans have been shown to have geographic variation that is not completely explicable by genetic or ecological factors we hypothesized that this will be similar in the call domain and predict that discrete call type variation between populations will be found. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined long-term behavioural data from five orang-utan populations and collected fecal samples for genetic analyses. We show that there is geographic variation in the presence of discrete types of calls. In exactly the same behavioural context (nest building and infant retrieval, individuals in different wild populations customarily emit either qualitatively different calls or calls in some but not in others. By comparing patterns in call-type and genetic similarity, we suggest that the observed variation is not likely to be explained by genetic or ecological differences. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results are consistent with the potential presence of 'call cultures' and suggest that wild orang-utans possess the ability to invent arbitrary calls, which spread through social learning. These findings differ substantially from those that have been reported for primates before. First, the results reported here are on dialect and not on accent. Second, this study presents cases of production learning whereas most primate studies on vocal learning were cases of contextual learning. We conclude with speculating on how these findings might

  16. Postharvest response of oranges of ethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aharoni, Y.; Lattar, F.S.; Monselise, S.P.

    1969-01-01

    Since the effect of ethylene on the respiration rate of young unripe oranges has not yet been described, experiments were carried out to study the respiratory response of such fruits to ethylene. Oranges (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) of the Washington navel, Shamouti and Valencia varieties, growing on a sandy loam near Rehovot, Israel, were picked in June, July, September, December and January. Immediately after picking, they were weighed, placed in glass jars, and stored at 20/sup 0/. Each experiment comprised 12 jars, 4 for each variety. A constant stream (200 ml/min) of air containing 20 ppm of ethylene was run through the jars. The respiration rate was measured by the amount of CO/sub 2/ evolved by the fruits, and based on a fresh weight unit. The results show that in all 3 varieties, ethylene caused an immediate rise in respiration rate, at all stages of development tested, regardless of whether it was applied from the beginning of the test or after a certain period of storage in air. The pattern of response to ethylene of young unripe oranges (picked in June, July, and September) was therefore similar to that of ripe ones (picked in December and January).

  17. Unusual Orange-Colored Choroidal Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem Krema

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the clinical and paraclinical features of two patients with orangecolored choroidal metastases in whom the primary cancers have not previously been associated with such lesions. Case Report: Orange-colored choroidal lesions were detected on the fundus examination of one patient with metastatic small cell neuroendocrine tumor of the larynx and oropharynx, and in another subject with metastatic alveolar soft part sarcoma of the leg. Although ultrasonographic characteristics of the choroidal masses were comparable to those of choroidal hemangiomas, fluorescein angiography revealed delayed initial fluorescence along with minimal fluorescence in subsequent phases of the angiogram which were in clear distinction from the earlier appearing and progressively intense fluorescence observed with circumscribed choroidal hemangiomas. Conclusion: Small cell neuroendocrine tumors and alveolar soft part sarcomas should be considered among the differential diagnoses for orange-colored choroidal metastases. Identifying these choroidal lesions could facilitate localizing the occult primary tumor. Fluorescein angiography may differentiate a unifocal orange choroidal metastasis from a circumscribed choroidal hemangioma.

  18. Microwave assisted synthesis of novel acridine-acetazolamide conjugates and investigation of their inhibition effects on human carbonic anhydrase isoforms hCA I, II, IV and VII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulus, Ramazan; Aday, Burak; Tanç, Muhammet; Supuran, Claudiu T; Kaya, Muharrem

    2016-08-15

    4-Amino-N-(5-sulfamoyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)benzamide was condensed with cyclic-1,3-diketones (dimedone and cyclohexane-1,3-dione) and aromatic aldehydes under microwave irradiation, leading to a series of acridine-acetazolamide conjugates. The new compounds were investigated as inhibitors of carbonic anhydrases (CA, EC 4.2.1.1), and more precisely cytosolic isoforms hCA I, II, VII and membrane-bound one hCA IV. All investigated isoforms were inhibited in low micromolar and nanomolar range by the new compounds. hCA IV and VII were inhibited with KIs in the range of 29.7-708.8nM (hCA IV), and of 1.3-90.7nM (hCA VII). For hCA I and II the KIs were in the range of 6.7-335.2nM (hCA I) and of 0.5-55.4nM (hCA II). The structure-activity relationships (SAR) for the inhibition of these isoforms with the acridine-acetazolamide conjugates reported here were delineated. PMID:27298005

  19. Pd-Catalyzed Intramolecular Heck Reaction, C(sp(2))-H Activation, 1,4-Pd Migration, and Aminopalladation: Chemoselective Synthesis of Dihydroindeno[1,2,3-kl]acridines and 3-Arylindoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zheng-Yang; Liu, Cheng-Guo; Wang, Shun-Yi; Ji, Shun-Jun

    2016-05-20

    Palladium-catalyzed intramolecular Heck reaction and aminopalladation of N-(2-(1-phenylvinyl)phenyl)aniline for the efficient synthesis of dihydroindeno[1,2,3-kl]acridines and 3-arylindoles via tuning of the phosphine ligands and solvents under two optimized conditions are reported. The reaction follows a 1,4-Pd migration, aminopalladation, C(sp(2))-H activation, as well as five- and six-membered-ring fusion to form different products. The dihydroindeno[1,2,3-kl]acridine derivatives showed higher triplet energy (ET) levels than common blue phosphorescent dopant and may serve as good host candidates for blue triplet emitters. PMID:27137482

  20. Recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haypek E.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the recovery of aroma compounds present in the orange essential oil using experimental data from CUTRALE (a Brazilian Industry of Concentrated Orange Juice. The intention was to reproduce the industrial unit and afterwards to optimize the recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil by liquid-liquid extraction. The orange oil deterpenation was simulated using the commercial software PRO/II 4.0 version 1.0. The UNIFAC model was chosen for the calculation of the activity coefficients.

  1. Recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    Haypek E.; Silva L.H.M; Batista E.; Marques D. S.; Meireles M.A.A.; Meirelles A.J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the recovery of aroma compounds present in the orange essential oil using experimental data from CUTRALE (a Brazilian Industry of Concentrated Orange Juice). The intention was to reproduce the industrial unit and afterwards to optimize the recovery of aroma compounds from orange essential oil by liquid-liquid extraction. The orange oil deterpenation was simulated using the commercial software PRO/II 4.0 version 1.0. The UNIFAC model was chosen for the c...

  2. The growth of Neck orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco scion on seedling and cutting of trifoliate orange hybrid rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thavorat, S.

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The growth of Neck orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco on seedling and cutting of trifoliate orange hybrid rootstocks was studied at the Department of Plant Science, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University in order to select the appropriate rootstock. The stem cross section, growth characteristic and isozyme pattern of Neck orange scion were investigated. One-year-old seedlings and cuttings (both with 0.3-0.4 mm stem diameter of Troyer citrange, Swingle citrumelo and Neck orange were used as root stock for grafting with Neck orange scions. The diameter of upper and lower graft union, number of branches and leaves, height, root length, shoot and root dry weight and shoot: root dry weight ratio of grafted plants were measured at 24 weeks after grafting. The results showed that the structure of stem cross section of Troyer citrange and Neck orange i.e. the size of periderm, vascular bundle and pith, were similar to that of Neck orange. The vascular bundle of Swingle citrumelo was larger than that of the two rootstocks. Troyer citrange rootstock gave the best results in all growth parameters of Neck orange. The study of isozymes recorded an extra locus (Est 3 of Swingle citrumelo rootstock occurred in Neck orange at 24 and 48 weeks after grafting.

  3. Determination of lead ion by resonance energy transfer fluorescence quenching of acridine orange-rhodamine 6 G%吖啶橙-罗丹明6G共振能量转移荧光猝灭法测定铅

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨胜园; 徐小娜; 程健琳; 于军晖; 孙倩倩

    2015-01-01

    目的 根据吖啶橙和罗丹明6G两分子间能够有效地发生荧光共振能量转移,建立一种检测铅离子的新方法.方法 在表面活性剂SDS的存在下,吖啶橙和罗丹明6G分子间发生荧光共振能量转移,使罗丹明6G的荧光强度增大;加入铅离子后能对AO-R6 G体系的荧光产生猝灭作用,其荧光猝灭程度随着铅离子浓度的增大而增强,据此建立了检测Pb2+的新方法.结果 当pb2+浓度为2.0 ×10-7mol/L ~ 3.0×10-6mol/L时,与荧光猝灭程度△F有良好的线性关系,线性回归方程为y=16.34x +42.79,相关系数(r) =0.998,检出限为6.06×10-8mol/L,相对标准偏差(RSD)为3.4% ~5.3%,加标回收率为95.1% ~96.5%.结论 本方法操作简便、灵敏,可用于实际水样中铅含量的测定.

  4. Associated electron and proton transfer between Acridine and Triethylamine in AOT reverse micelles probed by laser flash photolysis with magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarangi, Manas Kumar; Basu, Samita

    2011-04-01

    Laser flash photolysis with magnetic field (MF ˜0.08 T) has been used to study interaction between Acridine (Acr) and Triethylamine (TEA) in reverse micelles with w0 = 2.5-40. Dynamic protonation equilibrium exists between 3Acr and 3AcrH +. The intermediates indicate excited-state proton transfer (PT) between 3AcrH + and TEA. However, application of MF highlights the formation of geminate radical ion pairs (RIPs) with triplet spin-correlation, a signature of latent photoinduced electron transfer between 3AcrH + and TEA co-exists with PT. Magnetic field effect (MFE) is prominent for smaller w0 showing importance of optimum separation between RIP to maximize MFE, whereas PT remains unaltered.

  5. Design, Synthesis, Fluorescence Properties and Antibacterial Activities of New 8-Chloro-3-Alkyl-3H-Pyrazolo[4,3-a]acridine-11-Carbonitriles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmani, Zeynab; Pordel, Mehdi; Davoodnia, Abolghasem [Islamic Azad Univ., Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    The treatment of alkylated nitro derivatives of indazole with 2-(4-chlorophenyl)acetonitrile under basic conditions gave the new 8-chloro-3-alkyl-3H-pyrazolo[4,3-a]acridine-11-carbonitriles via the nucleophilic substitution of hydrogen which proceeds at room temperature with concomitant cyclisation in fairly good yields. The structures of all newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by IR, {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR and mass spectral data. Fluorescence experimental results of all newly synthesized compounds revealed remarkable photoluminescence properties and strong green fluorescence properties. Also, the new compounds exhibited potent antibacterial activity and their antibacterial activity (MIC) against Gram positive (Staphylococcuse aureus methicillin resistant S. aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and negative bacterial (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli) species were determined.

  6. Novel acridine-based N-acyl-homoserine lactone analogs induce endoreduplication in the human oral squamous carcinoma cell line SAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cytotoxicity of novel acridine-based N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) analogs was investigated on the human oral squamous carcinoma cell line SAS. One analog induced G2/M phase arrest at 5.3-10.6 μM and induced polyploidy at a higher dose (21.2 μM). Importantly, treatment of SAS cells with a combination of the AHL analog and the Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor, SP600125, prevented mitosis and induced polyploidy. The AHL analog synergized with X-irradiation to inhibit clonogenic survival of SAS cells; however, its radiosensitizing effects were relative to not X-irradiation-induced apoptosis but mitotic failure following enhanced expression of Aurora A and B. These results suggest that the active AHL analog showed growth-suppressive and radiosensitizing effects, which involve polyploidy followed by G2/M accumulation and atypical cell death in the SAS cell line. (author)

  7. PROGRAM PENGHITUNG JUMLAH ORANG LEWAT MENGGUNAKAN WEBCAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudianto Lande

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The amount of public places's visitor data is very important. Usually we get it manually. AT the moment, video camera has been used for security. Therefor, the people counter software has been made using Normalized Sum-squared difference (NSSD method that take differences the sum of frame fixel and background, squared it then normalized by detection window area. The NSSD values that have been count then thresholded to detect the people occurance in detection window. This project is made using Borland Delphi 5.0 with Tvideo component. Corect people counting percentation of more than 90% was obtained. The succesness of this program depends on the right thresholding values. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Data jumlah pengunjung suatu tempat umum sangat penting. Data jumlah pengunjung biasanya didapat secara manual. Saat ini kamera video telah diterapkan untuk kepentingan keamanan. Karena itu dibuatlah program penghitung jumlah pengunjung dengan metode Normalized Sum-Squared Differences (NSSD yang mengambil selisih jumlah pixel frame dan background dan dikuadratkan, dinormalisasi dengan luasan detection window. Nilai NSSD yang didapat diseleksi dengan proses thresholding untuk mendeteksi keberadaan orang pada detection window. Penelitian ini dibuat dengan menggunakan Borland Delphi 5.0, dengan tambahan komponen TVideo. Program ini secara keseluruhan menunjukkan keberhasilan lebih dari 90%. Keberhasilan dari program ini sangat dipengaruhi oleh penentuan nilai threshold yang tepat. Kata kunci: penghitungan orang, sensor kamera, NSSD, Image processing.

  8. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... any safe and suitable preservatives or combinations thereof. (c) The name of the food is “Orange juice with preservative”. (d) Label declaration. Each of the ingredients used in the food shall be...

  9. 7 CFR 29.1044 - Orange Red (FR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Orange Red (FR). 29.1044 Section 29.1044 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1044 Orange Red (FR). A yellowish red....

  10. Ultrastructural changes in sweet orange with symptoms of huanglongbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus greening (Huanglongbing [HLB]) is one of the most destructive citrus diseases worldwide. To better understand the ultrastructural changes of sweet orange seedlings in response to infection, anatomical analyses of HLB-infected sweet orange were carried out by light and electron microscopy. A...

  11. Comparative and demographic analysis of orang-utan genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Locke, Devin P.; Hillier, LaDeana W.; Warren, Wesley C.;

    2011-01-01

    Orang-utan’ is derived from a Malay term meaning ‘man of the forest’ and aptly describes the southeast Asian great apes native to Sumatra and Borneo. The orang-utan species, Pongo abelii (Sumatran) and Pongo pygmaeus (Bornean), are the most phylogenetically distant great apes from humans, thereb...

  12. The mechanism of cloud loss phenomena in orange juice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krop, J.J.P.

    1974-01-01

    The importance of many factors for the cloud stability of orange juice was investigated. By the determination of methanol, cloud loss of orange juice could be ascribed directly to the action of pectin esterase. However, clarification only occurs if calcium ions are available to precipitate the low m

  13. Koehler and Tool Use in Orang-Utans

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, L. J.; Kaplan, G

    1993-01-01

    Wewill comment on some specific behaviors observed by Koehler, on the basis of our studies of semi-wild orang-utans conducted in 1991 and 1992 at Sepilok/Sandakan and Semengoh/Kuching Orang-utan Rehabilitation Centers in East Malaysia. Most of our comments refer to tool use,although these may be connected with other observations  

  14. 75 FR 41119 - Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX... River, Orange, Texas. This Special Local Regulation is intended to restrict vessels from portions of...

  15. 76 FR 30890 - Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX... River, Orange, Texas on September 24-25, 2011. This Special Local Regulation is intended to...

  16. 75 FR 55968 - Special Local Regulations, Sabine River; Orange, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... (NPRM) entitled Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX in the Federal Register (75 FR 41119... published in 75 FR 41119. Regulatory Analyses We developed this rule after considering numerous statutes and... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations, Sabine River; Orange,...

  17. The draft genome of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiang; Chen, Ling-Ling; Ruan, Xiaoan; Chen, Dijun; Zhu, Andan; Chen, Chunli; Bertrand, Denis; Jiao, Wen-Biao; Hao, Bao-Hai; Lyon, Matthew P; Chen, Jiongjiong; Gao, Song; Xing, Feng; Lan, Hong; Chang, Ji-Wei; Ge, Xianhong; Lei, Yang; Hu, Qun; Miao, Yin; Wang, Lun; Xiao, Shixin; Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Zeng, Wenfang; Guo, Fei; Cao, Hongbo; Yang, Xiaoming; Xu, Xi-Wen; Cheng, Yun-Jiang; Xu, Juan; Liu, Ji-Hong; Luo, Oscar Junhong; Tang, Zhonghui; Guo, Wen-Wu; Kuang, Hanhui; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Roose, Mikeal L; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Ruan, Yijun

    2013-01-01

    Oranges are an important nutritional source for human health and have immense economic value. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the draft genome of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis). The assembled sequence covers 87.3% of the estimated orange genome, which is relatively compact, as 20% is composed of repetitive elements. We predicted 29,445 protein-coding genes, half of which are in the heterozygous state. With additional sequencing of two more citrus species and comparative analyses of seven citrus genomes, we present evidence to suggest that sweet orange originated from a backcross hybrid between pummelo and mandarin. Focused analysis on genes involved in vitamin C metabolism showed that GalUR, encoding the rate-limiting enzyme of the galacturonate pathway, is significantly upregulated in orange fruit, and the recent expansion of this gene family may provide a genomic basis. This draft genome represents a valuable resource for understanding and improving many important citrus traits in the future.

  18. Volatile and nonvolatile flavor chemical evaluation of USDA orange-mandarin hybrids for comparison to sweet orange and mandarin fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three citrus hybrids, containing 50-75% sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) genome in their pedigrees and similar to sweet orange in fruit size, color and taste, were tested for their potential to be classified as new “sweet orange” cultivars. 'Hamlin', ‘Midsweet’, and three other early to mid-season swe...

  19. Identification of sensory attributes that drive consumer liking of commercial orange juice products in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mina K; Lee, Young-Jin; Kwak, Han Sub; Kang, Myung-woo

    2013-09-01

    Orange juice is a well-accepted fruit juice, and its consumption increases steadily. Many studies have been conducted to understand the sensory characteristics of orange juice throughout its varying processing steps. Sensory language and consumer likings of food can be influenced by culture. The objective of this study is to evaluate the sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juices in Korea and identify drivers of liking for orange juices in Korea. A quantitative descriptive analysis was conducted using a trained panel (n = 10) to evaluate 7 orange juice samples in triplicates, followed by consumer acceptance tests (n = 103). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted for data analysis. The sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juice were documented and grouped: group 1 samples were characterized by high in natural citrus flavors such as orange peel, orange flesh, citrus fruit, and grape fruit, whereas group 2 samples were characterized by processed orange-like flavors such as over-ripe, cooked-orange, and yogurt. Regardless of orange flavor types, a high intensity of orange flavor in orange juice was identified as a driver of liking for orange juices in Korea. Three distinct clusters were segmented by varying sensory attributes that were evaluated by likes and dislikes. Overall, many similarities were noticed between Korean market segment and global orange juice market. By knowing the drivers of liking and understanding the distinct consumer clusters present in the Korean orange juice market, the orange juice industry could improve the strategic marketing of its products in Korea.

  20. The Great Orange Hope Ukraine, NATO, and the dilemma of European integration after the Orange Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Cramer, Clarke S.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis examines the dilemma of Ukrainian integration into Europe and analyzes the significance and prospect of Ukrainian membership in NATO following the 2004 â Orange Revolution.â The extraordinary election of Victor Yushchenko became a powerful catalyst for Ukrainian integration efforts into Europe and amplified Ukraineâ s geopolitical plight between Europe and Eurasia. Although Russia remains Ukraineâ s â eternal strategic partner,â President Yushchenko affirmed his intention ...

  1. Oranges or "lemons"? Family farming and product quality in the Spanish orange industry, 1870-1960.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    In the early twentieth century California became a big exporter of some agricultural products that, until then, had only been grown on a large scale in the mediterranean basin. As a result, exports of those products diminished or stagnated in Mediterranean countries, with important repercussions on their economies. The Spanish orange industry, however, continued to expand, despite the fact that a substantial percentage of Spanish oranges came from farms owned by (often illiterate) small peasants who, in comparison to the California growers, used a great deal of labor, small amounts of capital, and little science. This paper shows that Spanish farmers were in fact capable of growing high-quality oranges at prices that were more competitive than those in California, although interested they often preferred to satisfy the strong demand for middling fruit from Great Britain because it was a more profitable business. This, combined with a deficient use of brand names, gave the Spanish citrus industry serious reputation problems by the 1930s, from which, however, it recovered quickly. PMID:20509234

  2. An overview on the Brazilian orange juice production chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Marcio dos Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the world's largest producer of oranges and uses more than 70% of the harvested fruits in the production of juices. The amount of processed orange is growing about 10% per year, confirming the trend of the Brazilian citrus for juice production. This research aimed to investigate the Brazilian orange juice production chain from 2005 to 2009. Data from the amount of frozen juice produced and exported, international price of orange juice, and intermediate transactions were assessed in order to make possible selection of all interveners involved in the chain. The study using the Social Network Analysis (SNA showed that the densest relationships in the network are from exporters to importers and from orange growers to the orange processing industry. No difference was found in the values of the network geodesic distance or the clustering coefficients from 2005 to 2009. The degree of centrality increased steadily throughout the years indicating that the processing industry attempts to minimize the risks by centralizing the actions. A decrease in export of orange juice from 2007 (2.07 10(6 t to 2008 (2.05 10(6 t was found, probably due to the world's financial crisis with recovery in 2009. Since 2004, there has been an increase of nearly 10% per year in the market preference of concentrate juice (OFCJ when compared to the "not from concentrated" juice (NFC. Nowadays the NFC market represents nearly 50% of all Brazilian export which impacted in the logistic distribution and transportation issues.

  3. 76 FR 19315 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... certain orange juice from Brazil. See Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice from Brazil, 71 FR... Antidumping Duty Order; Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice from Brazil, 52 FR 16426 (May 5, 1987). Therefore... International Trade Administration Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

  4. Orange County Government Solar Demonstration and Research Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Renee [Orange County Florida, Orlando, Florida (United States); Cunniff, Lori [Orange County Florida, Orlando, Florida (United States)

    2015-05-12

    Orange County Florida completed the construction of a 20 kilowatt Solar Demonstration and Research Facility in March 2015. The system was constructed at the Orange County/University of Florida Cooperative Extension Center whose electric service address is 6021 South Conway Road, Orlando, Florida 32802. The Solar Demonstration and Research Facility is comprised of 72 polycrystalline photovoltaic modules and 3 inverters which convert direct current from the solar panels to alternating current electricity. Each module produces 270 watts of direct current power, for a total canopy production of just under 20,000 watts. The solar modules were installed with a fixed tilt of 5 degrees and face south, toward the equator to maximize the amount of sunlight captures. Each year, the electricity generated by the solar array will help eliminate 20 metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions as well as provide covered parking for staff and visitors vehicles. The solar array is expected to generate 27,000 kilowatt hours of electricity annually equating to an estimated $266 savings in the monthly electric bill, or $3,180 annually for the Orange County/University of Florida Cooperative Extension Center. In addition to reducing the electric bill for the Extension Center, Orange County’s solar array also takes advantage of a rebate incentive offered by the local utility, Orlando Utility Commission, which provided a meter that measures the amount of power produced by the solar array. The local utility company’s Solar Photovoltaic Production Incentive will pay Orange County $0.05 per kilowatt hour for the power that is produced by the solar array. This incentive is provided in addition to Net Metering benefits, which is an effort to promote the use of clean, renewable energy on the electric grid. The Photovoltaic Solar Demonstration and Research Facility also serves an educational tool to the public; the solar array is tied directly into a data logger that provides real time power

  5. Final critical habitat for Orange-nacre Mucket (Lampsilis perovalis)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Polygon shapefile of critical habitat for the Orange-nacre Mucket (Lampsilis perovalis) based on the description provided in the Federal Register.

  6. Approved Drug Products with Therapuetic Equivalence Evaluations (Orange Book)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The publication Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations (the List, commonly known as the Orange Book) identifies drug products approved on...

  7. Regulation of orange carotenoid protein activity in cyanobacterial photoprotection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thurotte, A.; Lopez Igual, R.; Wilson, A.; Comolet, L.; Bourcier de Carbon, C.; Xiao, F.; Kirilovsky, D.

    2015-01-01

    Plants, algae, and cyanobacteria have developed mechanisms to decrease the energy arriving at reaction centers to protect themselves from high irradiance. In cyanobacteria, the photoactive Orange Carotenoid Protein (OCP) and the Fluorescence Recovery Protein are essential elements in this mechanism.

  8. Binding Affinity of Novel Cyclodextrin Dimers to Ethyl Orange

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The interaction between ethyl orange (Eto, guest) and β-cyclodextrin dimers (1a~d, host) bridged with 2-t-butoxycarbonyl(Boc)-amino diacid was investigated. A remarkable synergic complexation of two cavities in host molecule was observed.

  9. Canary Island Date Palm - Orange Co. [ds349

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset provides the known distribution of Canary Island date palm (Phoenix canariensis) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to...

  10. Instantaneous network RTK in Orange County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Y.

    2003-04-01

    The Orange County Real Time GPS Network (OCRTN) is an upgrade of a sub-network of SCIGN sites in southern California to low latency (1-2 sec), high-rate (1 Hz) data streaming, analysis, and dissemination. The project is a collaborative effort of the California Spatial Reference Center (CSRC) and the Orange County Public Resource and Facilities Division, with partners from the geophysical community, local and state government, and the private sector. Currently, ten sites are streaming 1 Hz raw data (Ashtech binary MBEN format) by means of dedicated, point-to-point radio modems to a network hub that translates the asynchronous serial data to TCP/IP and onto a PC workstation residing on a local area network. Software residing on the PC allows multiple clients to access the raw data simultaneously though TCP/IP. One of the clients is a Geodetics RTD server that receives and archives (1) the raw 1 Hz network data, (2) estimates of instantaneous positions and zenith tropospheric delays for quality control and detection of ground motion, and (3) RINEX data to decimated to 30 seconds. Data recovery is typically 99-100%. The server also produces 1 Hz RTCM data (messages 18, 19, 3 and 22) that are available by means of TCP/IP to RTK clients with wireless Internet modems. Coverage is excellent throughout the county. The server supports standard RTK users and is compatible with existing GPS instrumentation. Typical latency is 1-2 s, with initialization times of several seconds to minutes OCRTN site spacing is 10-15 km. In addition, the server supports “smart clients” who can retrieve data from the closest n sites (typically 3) and obtain an instantaneous network RTK position with 1-2 s latency. This mode currently requires a PDA running the RTD client software, and a wireless card. Since there is no initialization and re-initialization required this approach is well suited to support high-precision (centimeter-level) dynamic applications such as intelligent transportation

  11. Aktivity společenskej zodpovednosti firmy Orange Slovensko

    OpenAIRE

    Bačovčinová, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the bachelor thesis titled "Activities of corporate social responsibility of the company Orange Slovakia" is to analyze the social responsibility activities of the company Orange Slovakia. The work is divided into theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part focused on the basic terms necessary to understand the issues. The application part of the thesis is dedicated to autor's research of the company , the analysis of its CSR concept and comparison with GRI standard. Using...

  12. Orange emission in Pr3+-doped fluoroindate glasses

    CERN Document Server

    Manzani, Danilo; Ribeiro, Sidney J L; Goldner, Philippe; Bretenaker, Fabien

    2012-01-01

    We synthesize and study the properties of praseodymium doped fluoroindate glasses. Glass compositions with praseodymium molar concentrations up to 5% were obtained with good optical quality. Thermal, optical, and luminescence properties are investigated. Judd-Ofelt analysis is used to determine radiative lifetime and emission cross-section of the orange transition originating from the 3P0 level. We find that these glasses are good candidates for the realization of blue diode laser pumped orange lasers for quantum information processing applications.

  13. Physicochemical Characteristics of Orange Juice Samples From Seven Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Some physicochemical parameters of orange juice from seven orange varieties (Pineapple orange, Hamlin, Trovita, Jincheng,1232 Tangor, Olinda Valencia, and Delta Valencia) were analyzed, special attention was paid to the level of sugars, organic acids, free amino acids, mineral composition, and color parameters. The results showed that total soluble solids (TSS),TSS/titratable acidity (TA) ratios, sugars, and organic acids were kept within a proper range for juice processing except that Jincheng had lower TSS than the others. Sucrose was the most dominant sugar in the orange cultivars, followed by fructose and glucose, while citric acid was the principal organic acid. Serine and proline were the principal amino acids.Potassium was the most abundant mineral in all of the juice samples, followed by magnesium and calcium. The sodium content of most varieties was under 10 mg kg-1. Though all of the samples had orange colour, Olinda Valencia and Delta Valencia had deeper red colour than the others. Statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) were found between the samples in most of the characteristics. The results provided important information on the physicochemical characteristics of the varieties and on how to make the best use of orange cultivars for different purposes, which is of significance for both technological research and processing practice.

  14. Supra­molecular inter­actions in a 1:1 co-crystal of acridine and 3-chloro­thio­phene-2-carb­oxy­lic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Prajina, Olakkandiyil; Thomas Muthiah, Packianathan; Perdih, Franc

    2016-01-01

    In the title co-crystal, C5H3ClO2S·C13H9N, the components inter­act with each other via an O—H⋯N hydrogen bond. Acridine–acridine stacking, thio­phene–thio­phene stacking and acridine–thio­phene C—H⋯π inter­actions also occur in the crystal.

  15. A Novel Fluorescence Probe 9-(4-(1,2-diamine)benzene-N1-phenyl)acridine for Nitric Oxide Determination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Liyun; YUAN Fang; HUANG Lanfen; HUANG Jun; LIU Xiaofang; LIANG Bing

    2014-01-01

    A novel fluorescent probe 9-(4-(1,2-diamine)benzene-N1-phenyl)acridine (DABPA) was synthesized for the detection of nitric oxide (NO) and characterized by IR, 1H-NMR and EI-MS spectroscopy. Based on a photoelectron transfer mechanism, the fluorescence intensities of DABPA were investigated with the different concentrations of NO. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the fluorescence intensity of DABPA had a good linear relationship (R2=0.9977) with NO concentration in the range from 1×10-7 to 1.5×10-6 mol/L with a detection limit of 1×10-8 mol/L. The cytotoxicity induced by DABPA was evaluated by the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay for biological application. Furthermore, the probe DABPA had also been successfully applied to real-time image NO produced in PC12 cells in the presence of L-arginine.

  16. Spectrophotometric determination of low levels arsenic species in beverages after ion-pairing vortex-assisted cloud-point extraction with acridine red.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunay, Nail; Gürkan, Ramazan; Kır, Ufuk

    2016-01-01

    A new, low-cost, micellar-sensitive and selective spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of inorganic arsenic (As) species in beverage samples. Vortex-assisted cloud-point extraction (VA-CPE) was used for the efficient pre-concentration of As(V) in the selected samples. The method is based on selective and sensitive ion-pairing of As(V) with acridine red (ARH(+)) in the presence of pyrogallol and sequential extraction into the micellar phase of Triton X-45 at pH 6.0. Under the optimised conditions, the calibration curve was highly linear in the range of 0.8-280 µg l(-1) for As(V). The limits of detection and quantification of the method were 0.25 and 0.83 µg l(-1), respectively. The method was successfully applied to the determination of trace As in the pre-treated and digested samples under microwave and ultrasonic power. As(V) and total As levels in the samples were spectrophotometrically determined after pre-concentration with VA-CPE at 494 nm before and after oxidation with acidic KMnO4. The As(III) levels were calculated from the difference between As(V) and total As levels. The accuracy of the method was demonstrated by analysis of two certified reference materials (CRMs) where the measured values for As were statistically within the 95% confidence limit for the certified values.

  17. Characterization of Nuclear and Cytoplasmic Compositions of Somatic Hybrid Plants Between Sweet Orange and Sour Orange

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUJi-Hong; XUXiao-Yong; DENGXiu-Xin

    2004-01-01

    Abstract In the present research, flow cytometry (FCM), simple sequence repeat (SSR) and cleavedamplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) were employed to analyze somatic hybrid plants derived from electrofusion between embryogenic protoplasts of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Shamouti) and leaf-derived protoplasts of sour orange (C. aurantium L). FCM showed that all of the somatic hybrid plants had two-fold fluorescence intensity values of the diploid control, indicating that they were tetraploids. SSR and CAPS were used to characterize the compositions of nuclear and cytoplasmic genomes of the somatic hybnd plants. As for SSR four primer pairs were tried and two showed polymorphisms between the fusion parents. With both pnmer pairs the somatic hybrid plants encompassed DNA bands from both parents, indicating that they were heterokaryonic hybrids. Amplification with some universal primers, followed by digestion with restriction endonucleases, could distinguish the fusion parents from each other. As far as mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA compositions were concerned the somatic hybrid plants shared the same banding patterns as the embryogenic parents for all of the polymorphic primer/enzyme combinations. The results herein demonstrated that the somatic hybrid plants inherited their nuclear genome from both fusion parents, whereas the cytoplasmic genomes were possibly only contributed by the embryogenic parent. Merits of the analytical methods and nuclear and cytoplasmic inheritance of citrus tetraploid somatic hybrids, together with their application, are discussed herein.

  18. A Study of Regional Brand Positioning Strategy for Linhai Orange Based on Soft Laddering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying; TAO; Yueli; ZHANG

    2015-01-01

    In this paper,Means-End Chain Theory is used for the positioning strategy study on regional brand of Linhai Orange,and based on soft laddering method,33 Linhai Orange consumers are interviewed. By understanding the individual needs of Linhai Orange consumers,this paper establishes the " Attributes-Consequences-Value" matrix and hierarchical value map. This study aims to explore the regional brand positioning strategy of Linhai Orange,in order to promote the regional brand building and extension of Linhai Orange and enhance the sustained regional brand development of Linhai Orange.

  19. Kehidupan Wayang Orang Sriwedari dalam Perspektif Determinasi Penari Rol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hersapandi Hersapandi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Penari rol atau penari bintang dalam Wayang Orang memiliki kualifi kasi sangat baik dalam menjalankan perannya, penguasaan keterampilan dan pengetahuan yang tinggi, dan kemampuan mengembangkan karakter peran yang dilakukan. Keterampilan kompetitif unggul tentu menjadi ikon untuk menyerap perhatian audien. Ikon peran terletak pada penonton. Oleh karena itu, seorang penari bintang perlu memiliki semangat tersebut untuk memotivasi kehidupan kelompok Wayang Orang. Kemampuan aktingnya mencerminkan suatu totalitas kesenian aktor dalam kehidupan pribadinya, yaitu untuk menjaga kualitas seorang penari profesional kuat sebagai agen. Aktor ini sering tampak melindungi karismanya. Dia selalu mencoba untuk melakukan sebanyak mungkin, sehingga ia tidak perlu membuat penari baru lainnya untuk menggantikannya. Alasannya adalah penari baru dianggap sebagai pesaing yang dapat menggantikan posisi potensi ekonomi. Semangat kinerja Wayang Orang adalah kualitas artistik penari bintang yang menyatakan simbol dan nilai artistik yang diperlukan oleh para penonton.Kata kunci: Wayang Orang, bintang penari, manajemen seni.ABSTRACTSriwedari Wayang Orang Performance. The term “rol” dancer or star dancer refers to the main dancer who becomes the star in wayang orang. It has an excellent qualifi cation in performing his/her role, an excellent mastery of knowledge and skills, and capability of developing the characters of the role that s/he performs. His/her superior competitive skills certainly become an icon for absorbing the audiens’ attention. Since the icon role lies on the audience, a star dancer needs to have such skills to motivate the life of the wayang orang group. As an agent, his/her acting skills have refl ected a totality of the actor’s artistry in his/her private life, i.e. to keep professional dancer’s quality stronger as a whole.The agent has as individudal and inttelectual integrity as a professional actor. The actor often seems to protect his

  20. Semangat Islam Dalam Kebudayaan Orang Bugis-Makassar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Hamid

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Pembahasan masalah semangat dan etos sosial tidak terlepas dari jangkauan sistem budaya masyarakat. Sistem budaya adalah abstrak, tak dapat dilihat dan diraba, ia identik pada komunitas, berada di kepala dan sukma tiap orang dalam komunitas tersebut, terdiri atas konsep-konsep, gagasan ide-ide dan kepercayaan yang diterima setiap orang dari hasil perkembangan kebudayaannya. Sadar atau tidak sadar, manusia terpengaruh dan menerima berbagai warisan, ajaran, kepercayaan dan ideologi tertentu dan hasil kerja komunitasnya melalui internalisasi sejak ia lahir dari dalam rumah tangga serta pengeruh dari lingkungan hidupnya tempat manusia tersebut bertumbuh. Kalau tradisi budaya masyarakat telah diserapi oleh setiap orang, maka perilakunya hampir menjadi otomatis, tanpa disadari perilakunya itu sudah diterima secara sosial.

  1. Adsorption of remazol brilliant blue on an orange peel adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Mafra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel orange peel adsorbent developed from an agricultural waste material was characterised and utilised for the removal of Remazol Brilliant Blue from an artificial textile-dye effluent. The adsorption thermodynamics of this dye-adsorbent pair was studied in a series of equilibrium experiments. The time to reach equilibrium was 15 h for the concentration range of 30 mg L-1 to 250 mg L-1. The adsorption capacity decreased with increasing temperature, from 9.7 mg L-1 at 20 ºC to 5.0 mg L-1 at 60 ºC. Both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models fitted the adsorption data quite reasonably. The thermodynamic analysis of dye adsorption onto the orange peel adsorbent indicated its endothermic and spontaneous nature. Thus, the application of orange peel adsorbent for the removal of dye from a synthetic textile effluent was successfully demonstrated.

  2. Oranges and Sunshine: The Story of a Traumatic Encounter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Herrero

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper will rely on some well-known theories on trauma, memory and ethics to study how Jim Loach’s debut film Oranges and Sunshine (2010 testifies to the traumatic deportation of up to 150,000 British children to distant parts of the Empire, mainly Australia, until 1970. Oranges and Sunshine was based on Margaret Humphreys’ moving memoir, originally entitled Empty Cradles (1994 but later re-titled Oranges and Sunshine after Loach’s film. What these two texts basically claim is the need to recover historic memory through heart-breaking acts of remembrance, which can alone denounce the atrocities that were concomitant with the colonial enterprise and pave the way for disclosing and working through individual and collective traumas.

  3. Text mining library for Orange data mining suite

    OpenAIRE

    Novak, David

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a text mining system that can be used as an add-on for Orange, a data mining platform. Orange envelops a set of supervised and unsupervised machine learning methods that benefit a typical text mining platform and therefore offers an excellent foundation for development. We have studied the field of text mining and reviewed several open-source toolkits to define its base components. We have included widgets that enable retrieval of data from remote repositories, such as PubMe...

  4. Orange County Government Solar Demonstration and Research Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Renee [Orange County Florida, Orlando, Florida (United States); Cunniff, Lori [Orange County Florida, Orlando, Florida (United States)

    2015-05-12

    Orange County Florida completed the construction of a 20 kilowatt Solar Demonstration and Research Facility in March 2015. The system was constructed at the Orange County/University of Florida Cooperative Extension Center whose electric service address is 6021 South Conway Road, Orlando, Florida 32802. The Solar Demonstration and Research Facility is comprised of 72 polycrystalline photovoltaic modules and 3 inverters which convert direct current from the solar panels to alternating current electricity. Each module produces 270 watts of direct current power, for a total canopy production of just under 20,000 watts. The solar modules were installed with a fixed tilt of 5 degrees and face south, toward the equator to maximize the amount of sunlight captures. Each year, the electricity generated by the solar array will help eliminate 20 metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions as well as provide covered parking for staff and visitors vehicles. The solar array is expected to generate 27,000 kilowatt hours of electricity annually equating to an estimated $266 savings in the monthly electric bill, or $3,180 annually for the Orange County/University of Florida Cooperative Extension Center. In addition to reducing the electric bill for the Extension Center, Orange County’s solar array also takes advantage of a rebate incentive offered by the local utility, Orlando Utility Commission, which provided a meter that measures the amount of power produced by the solar array. The local utility company’s Solar Photovoltaic Production Incentive will pay Orange County $0.05 per kilowatt hour for the power that is produced by the solar array. This incentive is provided in addition to Net Metering benefits, which is an effort to promote the use of clean, renewable energy on the electric grid. The Photovoltaic Solar Demonstration and Research Facility also serves an educational tool to the public; the solar array is tied directly into a data logger that provides real time power

  5. 76 FR 35886 - Orange Cove Irrigation District, and Friant Power Authority; Notice of Availability of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Orange Cove Irrigation District, and Friant Power Authority; Notice of... Office of Energy Projects has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) regarding Orange Cove...

  6. 78 FR 55214 - Annual Marine Events in the Eighth Coast Guard District, Sabine River; Orange, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ...; Orange, TX AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast....T.) boat races to be held on the Neches River in Orange, TX from 3 p.m. on September 20,...

  7. 77 FR 47519 - Annual Marine Events in the Eighth Coast Guard District, Sabine River; Orange, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ...; Orange, TX AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce Special Local Regulations for the S.P.O.R.T. Power Boat Neches River in Orange,...

  8. HUBUNGAN RASIO LINGKAR PERUT PANGGUL DENGAN RESIKO PENYAKIT KARDIOVASKULER PADA ORANG DEWASA

    OpenAIRE

    Astuti Lamid; Abas Basuni Jahari; Djoko Kartono; Dwi Prijatmoko; Y. Krisdinamurtirin; Sri Murni Prastowo

    2012-01-01

    Penelitian hubungan antara rasio lingkar perut dan panggul (RLPP) dengan resiko penyakit kardiovaskuler pada orang dewasa usia di atas 30 tahun telah dilaksanakan di kecamatan Bogor Barat, Kodya Bogor. Dari 1145 orang dewasa usia di atas 30 tahun yang telah diukur, diambil secara random 54 orang sebagai sampel yang mempunyai RLPP tinggi (>0.85) dan 54 orang pembanding dengan RLPP rendah (<0.05). Data yang dikumpulkan pada sampel dan pembanding meliputi antropometri, faktor resiko penyak...

  9. A Study of Regional Brand Positioning Strategy for Linhai Orange Based on Soft Laddering

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Ying; Zhang, Yueli

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, Means-End Chain Theory is used for the positioning strategy study on regional brand of Linhai Orange, and based on soft laddering method, 33 Linhai Orange consumers are interviewed. By understanding the individual needs of Linhai Orange consumers, this paper establishes the "Attributes- Consequences-Value" matrix and hierarchical value map. This study aims to explore the regional brand positioning strategy of Linhai Orange, in order to promote the regional brand building and ex...

  10. Hybrid white organic light-emitting devices based on phosphorescent iridium-benzotriazole orange-red and fluorescent blue emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Zhen-Yuan, E-mail: xiazhenyuan@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials and Institute of Fine Chemicals, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Su, Jian-Hua [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials and Institute of Fine Chemicals, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Chang, Chi-Sheng; Chen, Chin H. [Display Institute, Microelectronics and Information Systems Research Center, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan 300 (China)

    2013-03-15

    We demonstrate that high color purity or efficiency hybrid white organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) can be generated by integrating a phosphorescent orange-red emitter, bis[4-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-N,N-diphenyl-aniline-N{sup 1},C{sup 3}] iridium acetylacetonate, Ir(TBT){sub 2}(acac) with fluorescent blue emitters in two different emissive layers. The device based on deep blue fluorescent material diphenyl-[4-(2-[1,1 Prime ;4 Prime ,1 Double-Prime ]terphenyl-4-yl-vinyl)-phenyl]-amine BpSAB and Ir(TBT){sub 2}(acac) shows pure white color with the Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.33,0.30). When using sky-blue fluorescent dopant N,N Prime -(4,4 Prime -(1E,1 Prime E)-2,2 Prime -(1,4-phenylene)bis(ethene-2,1-diyl) bis(4,1-phenylene))bis(2-ethyl-6-methyl-N-phenylaniline) (BUBD-1) and orange-red phosphor with a color-tuning phosphorescent material fac-tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium (Ir(ppy){sub 3} ), it exhibits peak luminance yield and power efficiency of 17.4 cd/A and 10.7 lm/W, respectively with yellow-white color and CIE color rendering index (CRI) value of 73. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An iridium-based orange-red phosphor Ir(TBT){sub 2}(acac) was applied in hybrid white OLEDs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Duel- and tri-emitter WOLEDs were achieved with either high color purity or efficiency performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Peak luminance yield of tri-emitter WOLEDs was 17.4 cd/A with yellow-white color and color rendering index (CRI) value of 73.

  11. 75 FR 50999 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... Orange Juice from Brazil, 52 FR 16426 (May 5, 1987). Therefore, the scope of this order with regard to... Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice from Brazil, 72 FR 12183 (Mar. 9, 2006). These deposit requirements... International Trade Administration Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping...

  12. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for...

  13. 77 FR 30504 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ....\\2\\ \\2\\ See Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil, 77 FR 23659 (Apr... International Trade Administration Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty... orange juice (OJ) from Brazil for a period of review (POR) of March 1, 2011, through February 29,...

  14. 78 FR 14075 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil; Notice of Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... Orange Juice From Brazil, 77 FR 23659 (April 20, 2012). We are issuing this determination and publishing... International Trade Administration Certain Orange Juice From Brazil; Notice of Amended Final Results of... on certain orange juice (OJ) from Brazil.\\1\\ The period of review (POR) is August 24, 2005,...

  15. 75 FR 18794 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... Orange Juice from Brazil, 71 FR 12183 (Mar. 9, 2006) (OJ Order). Subsequently, on March 2, 2009, the...; Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice from Brazil, 52 FR 16426 (May 5, 1987). Therefore, the scope of this... Certain Orange Juice from Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 74 FR...

  16. 76 FR 50176 - Certain Orange Juice from Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... Brazil. See Antidumping Duty Order; Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice from Brazil, 52 FR 16426 (May 5... Administrative Review, 74 FR 40167 (Aug. 11, 2009); and Certain Orange Juice from Brazil: Final Results of... Orange Juice from Brazil, 72 FR 12183 (Mar. 9, 2006). These deposit requirements shall remain in...

  17. 77 FR 21724 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... Antidumping Duty Order; Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice from Brazil, 52 FR 16426 (May 5, 1987). Therefore... of Critical Circumstances: Certain Orange Juice from Brazil, 71 FR 2183 (Jan. 13, 2006). As noted... International Trade Administration Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

  18. 77 FR 63291 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... Brazil. See Antidumping Duty Order; Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice from Brazil, 52 FR 16426 (May 5... Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil, 77 FR 23659 (Apr. 20, 2012... International Trade Administration Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping...

  19. Molecular characterization and transcriptome analysis of orange head Chinese cabbage (brassica rapa L. ssp.pekinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange head leaves are a desirable quality trait for Chinese cabbage. Our previous fine mapping identified BrCRTISO as the Br-or candidate gene for the orange Chinese cabbage mutant. Here we examined the BrCRTISO gene from white and orange head Chinese cabbage. While BrCRTISO from the white control ...

  20. 21 CFR 74.2261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 74.2261 Section 74.2261 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  1. 21 CFR 82.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 82.1260 Section 82.1260 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  2. 76 FR 30754 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement: Riverside and Orange Counties...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ...: Riverside and Orange Counties, CA AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for a proposed highway project in Riverside and Orange... in Riverside and Orange Counties. The State Route 91 Corridor Improvement Project proposes to...

  3. 76 FR 54375 - Safety Zone; Thunder on the Gulf, Gulf of Mexico, Orange Beach, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Thunder on the Gulf, Gulf of Mexico, Orange... establishing a temporary safety zone for a portion of the Gulf of Mexico for the waters off Orange Beach... Mexico, south of Orange Beach, Alabama to occur from October 6, 2011 through October 9, 2011. This...

  4. 21 CFR 74.2260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 74.2260 Section 74.2260 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  5. 21 CFR 82.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 82.1261 Section 82.1261 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  6. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... are any safe and suitable preservatives or combinations thereof. (c) The name of the food is... the percent by weight of the preservative used. If the food is packed in container sizes that are...

  7. The pharmacokinetics and health benefits of orange peel compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange peel is a resource rich in phenolic antioxidants, including several classes of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamates. These compounds have been extensively studied for their biological actions particularly against chronic diseases in humans. Yet, full development of these materials as new, commerc...

  8. Vocal matching by orange-fronted conures (Aratinga canicularis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balsby, Thorsten J S; Bradbury, Jack W

    2009-01-01

    in groups with variable composition, and lack multiple alarm signals. Here we present the results of interactive playbacks in a fission/fusion parrot species, the orange-fronted conjure (Aratinga canicularis), that provide evidence of vocal matching. A randomly selected loud contact call (chee) per trial...

  9. Two Lesser Dystopias: "We" and "A Clockwork Orange."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnsley, John H.

    1984-01-01

    Both the Russian novel "We" and the Anthony Burgess novel "A Clockwork Orange" offer frightening glimpses of a future society. But the contrast between these visions is striking. "We" is concerned with the misuse of technology, Burgess's book with the misuse of psychology. Both warn about the misuse of state power. (CS)

  10. Quality of jinchen orange juice treated with irradiation and pasteurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinchen orange juice was treated by pasteurization and irradiation (1.4, 2.8 and 5.6 kGy) to study the effects of sterilization methods on quality of orange juice. The volatile compounds were analyzed by solid phase micro-extraction method combined with GC-MS. The juice color, pH and Vc content were determined, and sensory evaluation of the juice were evaluated. The results showed a total of 54, 47, 57, 55, 53 kinds of compounds were detected in fresh juice, pasteurized juice and 3 irradiated juices, respectively. The irradiated juices had bigger peak area of volatile compounds than pasteurized juice,and the biggest peak area was found in 2.8 kGy irradiation sample. β - myrcene, D - limonene and γ-terpinene, which were the characteristic aroma compounds in orange juice, were detected a higher level in irradiation sample than pasteurization. Vc content and aroma decreased after all treatments. The sample after 1.4 kGy treatment showed highest score in sensory evaluation. It was concluded that low dose irradiation could be used in sterilization processing of orange juice. (authors)

  11. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit...

  12. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices...

  13. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices...

  14. The Chemical and Educational Appeal of the Orange Juice Clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelter, Paul B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes the recent history, chemistry, and educational uses of the Orange Juice Clock demonstration in which a galvanic cell is made from the combination of a magnesium strip, a copper strip, and juice in a beaker. Discusses the chemistry basics, extensions for more advanced students, questions for student/teacher workshop participants, and…

  15. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 146.146 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES..., to which may be added unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the species Citrus reticulata, other Citrus reticulata hybrids, or of Citrus aurantium, or both. However, in the unconcentrated...

  16. Dropout Prevention Initiatives for Malaysian Indigenous Orang Asli Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor, Sharifah Md; Roslan, Samsilah; Mohamed, Aminuddin; Hassan, Kamaruddin Hj. Abu; Ali, Mohamad Azhar Mat; Manaf, Jaimah Abdul

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses dropout prevention initiatives by the Malaysian government for the disadvantaged indigenous Orang Asli people in the rural villages of Peninsular Malaysia. The roles of the Ministry of Education (MOE) as well as the Institutes of Teacher Education (ITEs) are highlighted pertaining to efforts at improving the quality of…

  17. Using Impact Fees for Public Schools: The Orange County Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducker, Richard D.

    1994-01-01

    Orange County established a system of impact fees imposed on new housing developments to raise funds to finance new school construction. Reviews the events that led to the adoption of such a fee; analyzes the fee and the methodology for calculating it; and reviews the legal issues which arise when impact fees are used to finance public facilities.…

  18. Tectonic subsidence history and thermal evolution of the Orange Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirsch, K.K.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Wees, J.-D. van; Kuhlmann, G.; Paton, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    The Orange Basin offshore southwest Africa appears to represent a classical example of continental rifting and break up associated with large-scale, transient volcanism. The presence of lower crustal bodies of high seismic velocities indicates that large volumes of igneous crust formed as a conseque

  19. Microwave assisted synthesis of novel Hantzsch 1,4-dihydropyridines, acridine-l,8-diones and polyhydroquinolines bearing the tetrazolo [1,5-a]quinoline moiety and their antimicrobial activity assess

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niraj K. Ladani; Divyesh C. Mungra; Manish P. Patel; Ranjan G. Patel

    2011-01-01

    Microwave assisted efficient Hantzsch reaction via four-component coupling reactions of tetrazolo [l,5-a]quinoline-4-carbal-dehyde, dimedone/cyclohexane-l,3-dione, ethyl/methyl acetoacetate and ammonium acetate was described as the preparation of tetrazolo [l,5-a]quinoline based 1,4-dihydropyridines, acridine-l,8-diones and polyhydroquinolines. The process presented here is simple, rapid, environmentally welcoming and high yielding. All the derivatives were subjected to an in vitro antimicrobial screening against a representative panel of bacteria and fungi and results worth further investigations.

  20. Alcoholic fermentation induces melatonin synthesis in orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pachón, M S; Medina, S; Herrero-Martín, G; Cerrillo, I; Berná, G; Escudero-López, B; Ferreres, F; Martín, F; García-Parrilla, M C; Gil-Izquierdo, A

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a molecule implicated in multiple biological functions. Its level decreases with age, and the intake of foods rich in melatonin has been considered an exogenous source of this important agent. Orange is a natural source of melatonin. Melatonin synthesis occurs during alcoholic fermentation of grapes, malt and pomegranate. The amino acid tryptophan is the precursor of all 5-methoxytryptamines. Indeed, melatonin appears in a shorter time in wines when tryptophan is added before fermentation. The aim of the study was to measure melatonin content during alcoholic fermentation of orange juice and to evaluate the role of the precursor tryptophan. Identification and quantification of melatonin during the alcoholic fermentation of orange juice was carried out by UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS. Melatonin significantly increased throughout fermentation from day 0 (3.15 ng/mL) until day 15 (21.80 ng/mL) reaching larger amounts with respect to other foods. Melatonin isomer was also analysed, but its content remained stable ranging from 11.59 to 14.18 ng/mL. The enhancement of melatonin occurred mainly in the soluble fraction. Tryptophan levels significantly dropped from 13.80 mg/L (day 0) up to 3.19 mg/L (day 15) during fermentation. Melatonin was inversely and significantly correlated with tryptophan (r = 0.907). Therefore, the enhancement in melatonin could be due to both the occurrence of tryptophan and the new synthesis by yeast. In summary, the enhancement of melatonin in novel fermented orange beverage would improve the health benefits of orange juice by increasing this bioactive compound.

  1. Orange fiber as a novel fat replacer in lemon ice cream

    OpenAIRE

    Tainara de Moraes Crizel; Rubilene Ramos de Araujo; Alessandro de Oliveira Rios; Rosane Rech; Simone Hickmann Flôres

    2014-01-01

    Orange fiber was used as a novel fat replacer in light lemon ice cream. Nine ice cream formulations were compared: standard control ice cream (IC); ice cream with fiber (F1) from the peel, bagasse, and orange seed (ICA and ICB); ice cream with fiber (F2) from the orange peel alone (ICC and ICD); ice cream with fiber (F3) from the peel, bagasse, and orange seed pretreated with hydro-distillation (ICE and ICF); and ice cream with fiber (F4) from the orange peel pretreated with hydro-distillatio...

  2. Does Egyptian orange exports really have a market power in Saudi Arabia market?

    OpenAIRE

    Yasser S. A. Mazrou

    2015-01-01

    Egypt is one of the important orange exporters and Saudi Arabia also is an important import orange market. The Saudi orange market is a main market for Egypt which has a market share that exceeds half of Saudi orange market by 55.72%. This article aims to discover the degree of market power for Egyptian orange exports and other competitors in the Saudi market and if it is considered a measure of the relative mark- up by applying Residual Demand Elasticity approach. The results show that Egypt...

  3. Rapid biodegradation and decolorization of Direct Orange 39 (Orange TGLL) by an isolated bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain BCH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Jyoti P; Phugare, Swapnil S; Dhanve, Rhishikesh S; Jadhav, Shekhar B

    2010-06-01

    A newly isolated novel bacterium from sediments contaminated with dyestuff was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain BCH by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The bacterium was extraordinarily active and operative over a wide rage of temperature (10-60 degrees C) and salinity (5-6%), for decolorization of Direct Orange 39 (Orange TGLL) at optimum pH 7. This strain was capable of decolorizing Direct Orange 39; 50 mg l(-1) within 45 +/- 5 min, with 93.06% decolorization, while maximally it could decolorize 1.5 g l(-1) of dye within 48 h with 60% decolorization. Analytical studies as, UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, HPLC were employed to confirm the biodegradation of dye and formation of new metabolites. Induction in the activities of lignin peroxidases, DCIP reductase as well as tyrosinase was observed, indicating the significant role of these enzymes in biodegradation of Direct Orange 39. Toxicity studies with Phaseolus mungo and Triticum aestivum revealed the non-toxic nature of degraded metabolites.

  4. [Commercial orange juice beverages detection by fluorescence spectroscopy combined with PCA-ED and PLSR methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang-jun; Zhu, Chun; Chen, Guo-qing; Zhang, Yong; Kong, Fan-biao; Li, Run; Zhu, Zhuo-wei; Wang, Xu; Gao, Shu-mei

    2014-08-01

    In order to classify the orange juiice beverages effectively, the fluorescence character differences of two kinds of orange juice beverages including 100% orange juice and orange drink were analyzed and compared, principal component analysis combined with Euclidean distance was adopted to classify two kinds of orange juice beverages, and ideal classification results were obtained. Meanwhile, the orange juice content estimation model was established by using fluorescence spectroscopy combined with partial least squares regression method, and the correlation coefficient R, root mean square error of calibration RMSEC and root mean square error of prediction RMSEP were 0.997, 0.87% and 2.05%, respectively. The experimental results indicate that the calibration model offers comparatively accurate content estimation, which reflect the actual orange juice content in the commercial orange juice beverages. The exploration to classify orange juice beverages was carried out from two aspects of qualitative and quantitative analysis by employing fluorescence spectroscopy combined with chemometrics method, which can provide a new idea for the classification and adulteration detection of commercial orange juice beverages, and also can give certain reference basis for the quality control of orange juice raw material.

  5. Red-fleshed sweet orange juice improves the risk factors for metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Jacqueline Q; Dourado, Grace K Z S; Cesar, Thais B

    2015-01-01

    Orange juice consumption can promote lower levels of oxidative stress and inflammation due to the antioxidant activity of citrus flavonoids and carotenoids. In addition, red-fleshed sweet orange juice (red orange juice) also contains lycopene. This study investigated the effects of red orange juice consumption on risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Volunteers consumed red orange juice daily for 8 weeks, with clinical and biochemical assessments performed at baseline and on the final day. There was no change in the abdominal obesity, but low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein decreased, while there was an increase of the antioxidant activity in serum after red orange juice consumption. Insulin resistance and systolic blood pressure were reduced in normal-weight volunteers, while diastolic blood pressure decreased in overweight volunteers after intervention. Red orange juice showed anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and lipid-lowering properties that may prevent the development of metabolic syndrome.

  6. Orange and reddish-orange light emitting phosphors: Sm3+ and Sm3+/Eu3+ doped zinc phosphate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A spectroscopy study of Sm3+ and Sm3+/Eu3+ doped zinc phosphate glasses is performed through photoluminescence spectra and decay time profile measurements. Under Sm3+ excitation at 344 nm, the Sm3+ singly doped glass shows an orange global emission with x=0.579 and y=0.414 CIE1931 chromaticity coordinates, whereas the Sm3+/Eu3+ co-doped sample exhibits orange overall emissions (x=0.581 and y=0.398, and x=0.595 and y=0.387) and reddish-orange overall emission (x=0.634 and y=0.355) upon excitations at 344, 360 and 393 nm, respectively. Such luminescence from the co-doped sample is originated by the simultaneous emission of Sm3+ and Eu3+. Under Sm3+ excitation at 344 and 360 nm, the Eu3+ emission is sensitized and enhanced by Sm3+ through a non-radiative energy transfer process. The non-radiative nature was inferred from the shortening of the Sm3+ lifetime observed in the Sm3+/Eu3+ co-doped sample. An analysis of the Sm3+ emission decay time profiles using the Inokuti–Hirayama model suggests that an electric quadrupole–quadrupole interaction into Sm–Eu clusters might dominate the energy transfer process, with an efficiency of 0.17. - Highlights: • Zinc phosphate glasses are optically activated with Sm3+/Eu3+ (ZPOSmEu). • Non-radiative energy transfer Sm3+→Eu3+ takes place in ZPOSmEu. • ZPOSmEu overall emission can be modulated with the excitation wavelength. • ZPOSmEu might be useful as orange/reddish-orange phosphor for UV-white LEDs

  7. Spectrophotometric Determination of Palladium (II) With Semixylenol Orange

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Fuzhen

    1999-01-01

      A highly selective, reproducible and rapid spectrophotometry for the determination of palladium (Ⅱ) has been worked out. This method is based on the chelation of Pd (Ⅱ) with semixylenol orange (C24H23NaNO9S) in 1.00 mol.l-1 sulphuric acid medium (H2SO4), to chelate a stable orange complex of Pd (Ⅱ) . Beer′s law is obeyed over the range 0.2-1.6 μg ml-1 Palladium(Ⅱ),its maximum absorption wavelength λmax is at 540 nm,the apparent molar absorptivityε540 is 6.2*104 l mol-1 cm-1.The method has been successfully applied for the determaination of Palladium(Ⅱ)in Pd-C catalyst , Al-Si-Pd and Zr-Pd alloys.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of flavanone glycosides after ingestion of single doses of fresh-squeezed orange juice versus commercially processed orange juice in healthy humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange juice is a rich source of flavonoids known to be beneficial to cardiovascular health in humans. The objective of this study was to analyze the pharmacokinetics of the main flavanone glycosides, hesperidin and narirutin, in humans after the consumption of two types of orange juice, fresh squee...

  9. Skin color variation in Orang Asli tribes of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khai C Ang

    Full Text Available Pigmentation is a readily scorable and quantitative human phenotype, making it an excellent model for studying multifactorial traits and diseases. Convergent human evolution from the ancestral state, darker skin, towards lighter skin colors involved divergent genetic mechanisms in people of European vs. East Asian ancestry. It is striking that the European mechanisms result in a 10-20-fold increase in skin cancer susceptibility while the East Asian mechanisms do not. Towards the mapping of genes that contribute to East Asian pigmentation there is need for one or more populations that are admixed for ancestral and East Asian ancestry, but with minimal European contribution. This requirement is fulfilled by the Senoi, one of three indigenous tribes of Peninsular Malaysia collectively known as the Orang Asli. The Senoi are thought to be an admixture of the Negrito, an ancestral dark-skinned population representing the second of three Orang Asli tribes, and regional Mongoloid populations of Indo-China such as the Proto-Malay, the third Orang Asli tribe. We have calculated skin reflectance-based melanin indices in 492 Orang Asli, which ranged from 28 (lightest to 75 (darkest; both extremes were represented in the Senoi. Population averages were 56 for Negrito, 42 for Proto-Malay, and 46 for Senoi. The derived allele frequencies for SLC24A5 and SLC45A2 in the Senoi were 0.04 and 0.02, respectively, consistent with greater South Asian than European admixture. Females and individuals with the A111T mutation had significantly lighter skin (p = 0.001 and 0.0039, respectively. Individuals with these derived alleles were found across the spectrum of skin color, indicating an overriding effect of strong skin lightening alleles of East Asian origin. These results suggest that the Senoi are suitable for mapping East Asian skin color genes.

  10. EFFECT OF NUTRITION ON CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ORANGE FRUITS

    OpenAIRE

    Tarek FOUDA; Shimaa SALAH

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the chemical characterization of orange fruits using applications of nutrition minerals and growth substance during at private farm in wadi el-netron , ELbehari governorate, Egypt during in December2011. The results showed during maturity time increasing the total soluble solid (TSS), pH, percentage of liquid, (TSS/acidity)and carotenoids while chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and acidity were decreased.With one application of nutrition minerals and with gro...

  11. SURFACE ENERGY BALANCE OVER ORANGE ORCHARD USING SURFACE RENEWAL ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatore Barbagallo; Simona Consoli; Alfonso Russo

    2009-01-01

    Reliable estimation of surface sensible and latent heat flux is the most important process to appraise energy and mass exchange among atmosphere and biosphere. In this study the surface energy fluxes were measured over an irrigated orange orchard during 2005-2008 monitoring periods using a Surface Renewal- Energy Balance approach. The experimental area is located in a representative orchard growing area of eastern Sicily (Italy). The performance of Surface Renewal (SR) analysis for estimating...

  12. In vitro evaluation of the effect of natural orange juices on dentin morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Leal Zandim

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The patient's diet has been considered an important etiological factor of dentin hypersensitivity. The frequent ingestion of acidic substances can promote the loss of dental structure or remove the smear layer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the degree of smear layer removal and dentinal tubules exposure by different natural orange juices. Extracted human teeth were submitted to manual scaling in order to develop the smear layer. Seventy dentin samples were obtained and distributed into the following groups: Control, lime orange, lime, valência orange, navel orange, mandarin, and tangerine. Each group included 2 methods of application: Topical and topical + friction. After preparation for SEM analysis, photomicrographs were assessed by a blind calibrated examiner using an index system. The Kruskal-Wallis test indicated a significant influence of the orange juices on smear layer removal. Significant difference was observed between navel orange, valência orange, mandarin and the control group (p < 0.05. These orange juices resulted in greater removal of the smear layer and greater opening of dentinal tubules. The comparison between the application methods for each group using the Mann-Whitney test showed that friction increased smear layer removal significantly only for lime orange and lime. The data suggest that certain natural orange juices are more effective in terms of smear layer removal and dentinal tubules exposure than others.

  13. Does Egyptian orange exports really have a market power in Saudi Arabia market?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser S. A. Mazrou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Egypt is one of the important orange exporters and Saudi Arabia also is an important import orange market. The Saudi orange market is a main market for Egypt which has a market share that exceeds half of Saudi orange market by 55.72%. This article aims to discover the degree of market power for Egyptian orange exports and other competitors in the Saudi market and if it is considered a measure of the relative mark- up by applying Residual Demand Elasticity approach. The results show that Egyptian orange exports has just a statistically signified market power by SUR and 3-SLS and has a negative sign, which may gain monopolistic profits by the relative mark-up over its marginal cost by about 63.7% without losing any of its market share. The source of Egyptian orange exports market power is due to: 1- product differentiation where Egypt exports navel orange most its export season compared with sweet orange which exported from other competitors. 2- Saudi Arabia Market demand characteristics which reflect on the consumers preference for Egyptian oranges.

  14. Immunochemical screening of pesticides (simazine and cypermethrin) in orange oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichkova, Mikaela; Fu, Xun; Yang, Zheng; Zhong, Ping; Sanborn, James R; Chang, Dan; Gee, Shirley J; Hammock, Bruce D

    2009-07-01

    Pesticide residue analysis in citrus oils is very important for their quality and marketing. This study assessed the reliability and sensitivity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for simazine and cypermethrin screening in orange oil. Simazine was analyzed after extraction of the oil with methanolic phosphate buffer with a limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 40 microg/L for 1-fold and approximately 100 microg/L for 10-fold oils. Due to matrix effects the immunoanalysis of cypermethrin required hexane-acetonitrile partitioning followed by silica solid phase extraction. The method detected levels higher than 0.5 ppm (mg/L). This LOQ is lower than the U.S. EPA tolerance level (0.9 ppm) for cypermethrin in citrus oils. A good correlation (r(2) 0.99) between ELISA and LC-MS/MS was observed for the analysis of both analytes in 1-fold orange oil. Immunochemical screening can be used to reduce instrumental analysis costs by its use in preliminary orange oil screening. PMID:19526986

  15. Trapping characteristic of halloysite lumen for methyl orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Yan, Hua; Pei, Zhenzhao; Wu, Junyong; Li, Rongrong; Jin, Yanxian; Zhao, Jie

    2015-08-01

    The interaction of clay minerals and dyes is an area of great interest especially in the development of novel adsorbents. In this report, we demonstrated interaction of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) and an anionic dye, methyl orange (MO), through a electrostatic attraction. Halloysite lumen has a trapping characteristic for methyl orange, which is mainly determined by the positively charged nature of the inner surface of HNTs. XRD results confirmed that intercalation of methyl orange into HNTs did not occur. SEM-EDS and photostability results showed that MO molecules were primarily in HNTs lumen. Adsorption isotherm studies revealed an interesting phenomenon, i.e., a sudden increase of adsorption capacity occurred in the initial dye concentration of about 75 mg/L, which was just the dye concentration corresponding to the onset of dye oligomer formation. This suggested dye aggregation state had a decisive influence to the adsorption behavior of MO on the halloysite. BET results demonstrated at low and high dye concentrations, single MO molecule and aggregation of several dimers through hydrophobic interaction, interacted with Al-OH2+ sites on the inner wall, respectively. Desorption experiments showed that MO in HNTs can be completely removed with deionized water, indicating halloysite is a low-cost and efficient adsorbent for anionic dye.

  16. REVERSE OSMOSIS CONCENTRATION OF ORANGE JUICE USING SPIRAL WOUND MEMBRANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. de ARAUJO

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Flavor and odor components of foods are often lost during processing which leads to a poorer quality final product compared with the fresh ingredients. The orange juice industry concentrates juice (45-66ºBrix in TASTE (Thermally Accelerated Short Time Evaporator to remove excess water, and thus reduce storage and transportation costs, but also to improve product stability. Evaporation results in a loss of fresh juice flavors, color degradation and “cooked” taste due to the thermal effects. Methods using less heat for thermal damage reduction must be investigated to establish parameters for future commercial processes. The promising alternative is Reverse Osmosis (RO, but it cannot achieve concentrations greater than 30ºBrix. RO has advantages over traditional evaporation techniques in removing water. Because less heat is used, thermal damage to products is generally eliminated. In this project tests were performed using unpasteurised Single Strength Orange Juice (SSOJ, spiral wound membranes (Polyamide, and a DESAL pilot system model 4040. The aim was to evaluate spiral wound membranes on the basis of flux as a function of time. Retentate concentrations were 15-20ºBrix, and GC-FID analyses were used in order to understand aroma losses. KEYWORDS: Orange; juice; membrane; concentration; osmosis; reverse.

  17. EFFECT OF NUTRITION ON CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ORANGE FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek FOUDA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the chemical characterization of orange fruits using applications of nutrition minerals and growth substance during at private farm in wadi el-netron , ELbehari governorate, Egypt during in December2011. The results showed during maturity time increasing the total soluble solid (TSS, pH, percentage of liquid, (TSS/acidityand carotenoids while chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and acidity were decreased.With one application of nutrition minerals and with growth substance were the lowest value of chlorophyll, a (chl,a and chlorophyll, b (chl,b as follow 0.42 and 0.45 (mg/100g while with control management were the highest value to total soluble solid (Tss and carotenoids (car. as follow 10.07(Brix,% and 15.77 (mg/100g. The pattern of changes was clearly observed from the absorption spectra of the green and orange When orange is fully ripe, chlorophyll would be greatly reduced or may disappear completely and carotenoids becomes the dominant pigment in the fruit surface.

  18. 脐橙和蜜桔农药残留调查及风险评估%Pesticide Residue Investigation and Risk Assessment of Navel Orange and Orange

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕蓉

    2015-01-01

    调查江西省脐橙和蜜桔的农药残留情况并进行风险评估. 对江西省2013年脐橙和蜜桔的144个送检样品中的36种农药残留进行定量检测分析.2013年9月至12月江西省的脐橙和蜜桔质量安全较为稳定,农药残留超标率为0.毒死蜱、啶虫脒、杀扑磷、抑霉唑4种农药有检出,12月份抑霉唑的检出率最高.3个月的农药安全指数均小于1,说明检测的36种农药均在可接受的风险程度内,没有安全风险.本研究可为江西省脐橙和蜜桔质量安全监管提供参考.%The aim was to investigate and estimate risk of pesticide residue in navel orange and orange in Jiangxi province. 36 pesticides residues in 144 samples of navel orange and orange in Jiangxi province were determined by quantitative analysis. The results showed that the quality of navel orange and orange in Jiangxi province is stable and safety from september to october in 2013. Pesticide residues over standard in navel orange and orange were zero. Chlorpyrifos,acetamiprid,methidathion,imazalil were checked out,the detection rate of imazalil is highest in December. Safety indexes of all pesticides were lower than 1 in each sample during three month,showing that 36 pesticide residues were safe. The paper provides a theoretical basis for supervising navel orange and orange safety in Jiangxi province.

  19. Very bright orange fluorescent plants: endoplasmic reticulum targeting of orange fluorescent proteins as visual reporters in transgenic plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann David GJ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expression of fluorescent protein (FP genes as real-time visual markers, both transiently and stably, has revolutionized plant biotechnology. A palette of colors of FPs is now available for use, but the diversity has generally been underutilized in plant biotechnology. Because of the green and far-red autofluorescent properties of many plant tissues and the FPs themselves, red and orange FPs (RFPs, and OFPs, respectfully appear to be the colors with maximum utility in plant biotechnology. Within the color palette OFPs have emerged as the brightest FP markers in the visible spectra. This study compares several native, near-native and modified OFPs for their “brightness” and fluorescence, therefore, their usability as marker genes in transgenic plant tissues. Results The OFPs DsRed2, tdTomato, mOrange and pporRFP were all expressed under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter in agroinfiltration-mediated transient assays in Nicotiana benthamiana. Each of these, as well as endoplasmic reticulum (ER-targeted versions, were stably expressed in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum and Arabidopsis thaliana. Congruent results were observed between transient and stable assays. Our results demonstrated that there are several adequate OFP genes available for plant transformation, including the new pporRFP, an unaltered tetramer from the hard coral Porites porites. When the tandem dimer tdTomato and the monomeric mOrange were targeted to the ER, dramatic, ca. 3-fold, increase in plant fluorescence was observed. Conclusions From our empirical data, and a search of the literature, it appears that tdTomato-ER and mOrange-ER are the two highest fluorescing FPs available as reporters for transgenic plants. The pporRFP is a brightly fluorescing tetramer, but all tetramer FPs are far less bright than the ER-targeted monomers we report here.

  20. Effect of ultrahigh-temperature continuous ohmic heating treatment on fresh orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leizerson, Shirly; Shimoni, Eyal

    2005-05-01

    The scope of this study is the effect of ohmic heating thermal treatment on liquid fruit juice made of oranges. Effects of ohmic heating on the quality of orange juice were examined and compared to those of heat pasteurization at 90 degrees C for 50 s. Orange juice was treated at temperatures of 90, 120, and 150 degrees C for 1.13, 0.85, and 0.68 s in an ohmic heating system. Microbial counts showed complete inactivation of bacteria, yeast, and mold during ohmic and conventional treatments. The ohmic heating treatment reduced pectin esterase activity by 98%. The reduction in vitamin C was 15%. Ohmic-heated orange juice maintained higher amounts of the five representative flavor compounds than did heat-pasteurized juice. Sensory evaluation tests showed no difference between fresh and ohmic-heated orange juice. Thus, high-temperature ohmic-heating treatment can be effectively used to pasteurize fresh orange juice with minimal sensory deterioration.

  1. Green, yellow, and orange defect emission from ZnO nanostructures: Influence of excitation wavelength

    OpenAIRE

    Djurišić, AB; Tam, KH; Ding, L; Ge, WK; Chen, HY; Gwo, S.; Leung, YH

    2006-01-01

    ZnO commonly exhibits luminescence in the visible spectral range due to different intrinsic defects. In order to study defect emissions, photoluminescence from ZnO nanostructures prepared by different methods (needles, rods, shells) was measured as a function of excitation wavelength and temperature. Under excitation at 325 nm, needles exhibited orange-red defect emission, rods exhibited yellow defect emission, while shells exhibited green defect emission. Obvious color change from orange to ...

  2. Determination of Navel Orange Safety Production Traceability Information Based on HACCP

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Haiyan; Zheng, Huoguo; Liu, Shihong

    2011-01-01

    Part 1: Decision Support Systems, Intelligent Systems and Artificial Intelligence Applications International audience The traceability system of navel orange can ensure the quality and safety due to the whole process control from orchard to market. Research on the whole process of navel orange is the foundation and premise of building the traceability system. Based on the analyses of whole food chain of navel orange from origin to market, HACCP is used to evaluate the risk and latent ri...

  3. Practices of Dengue Fever Prevention and the Associated Factors among the Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Josephine Rebecca Chandren; Li Ping Wong; Sazaly AbuBakar

    2015-01-01

    Background Dengue is prevalent among Malaysia's indigenous peoples, known as the Orang Asli, and it poses a serious health threat to them. The study aims to look at the socio-demographic factors, health beliefs, and knowledge about dengue and its association to dengue prevention practices among Orang Asli communities in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 16 randomly selected Orang Asli villages from eight states in Peninsular Malaysia from April 2012 until ...

  4. 21 CFR 74.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 74.1261 Section 74.1261 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 is a mixture consisting principally of the disodium salts of...

  5. 21 CFR 74.1254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 74.1254 Section 74.1254 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1254 D&C Orange No. 4. (a) Identity. (1) the color additive D&C Orange No. 4 is principally the sodium salt of 4- benzenesulfonic acid. (2) Color...

  6. 21 CFR 74.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.1255 Section 74.1255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity. (1) the color additive D&C Orange No. 5 is a mixture consisting principally the sodium salt of 4′,5′-dibromofluorescein...

  7. 21 CFR 74.2254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 74.2254 Section 74.2254 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2254 D&C Orange No. 4. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  8. 21 CFR 74.2255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.2255 Section 74.2255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  9. 21 CFR 82.1254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 82.1254 Section 82.1254 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1254 D&C Orange No. 4. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  10. 21 CFR 74.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 74.1260 Section 74.1260 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 is a mixture consisting principally of 4′,5′-diiodofluorescein,...

  11. 21 CFR 82.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 82.1255 Section 82.1255 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) The color additive D&C Orange No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  12. 21 CFR 73.3112 - C.I. Vat Orange 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false C.I. Vat Orange 1. 73.3112 Section 73.3112 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3112 C.I. Vat Orange 1. (a) Identity. The color additive is C.I. Vat Orange 1, Colour Index No. 59105. (b) Uses and restrictions. (1)...

  13. Equilibrium Studies of Some Metal Ions onto Modified Orange Mesocarp Extract in Aqueous Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Ibezim-Ezeani, Millicent U.; Okoye, Francis A.; Akaranta, Onyewuchi

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the equilibrium removal of Zinc, Copper, Nickel and Cobalt ions from aqueous solutions by cation exchange resins synthesized using orange mesocarp extract. The percentage metal ion exchange of Carboxylated-Toluene Di-isocyanate Orange Mesocarp Extract Resin (CTOR) increased with increase in pH of the solution phase, while that of Sulphonated-Toluene Di-isocyanate Orange Mesocarp Extract Resin (STOR) was relatively uniform with increase in solution pH. The results also show...

  14. Development of Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on leaves and fruit of orange trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Jianhua; Glover, Michelle; Munro, Scott; Beattie, G Andrew C

    2006-08-01

    Development of Epipyas postvittna (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), on leaves and fruit of 'Valencia', 'Washington navel', and 'Navelina' orange trees was studied under constant and fluctuating temperatures. E. postvittna was able to complete its life cycle feeding exclusively on leaves or fruit of orange trees. However, larval survival rate was very low (types of orange tissues, young orange leaves and fruit afforded larvae higher survival rates than mature orange leaves and fruit. Fruit (young or mature) produced heavier pupae than leaves (young or mature). Larvae developed more slowly on mature orange fruit than on other orange materials and more slowly on orange leaves than on leaves of most noncitrus hosts. Degree-day accumulations based on the fastest developmental rates obtained in this study suggested that E. postvittna is capable of completing 4.4-4.7 generations per year in orange orchards in the Riverina region of New South Wales, Australia. Implications of the results in the management of the insect in citrus are discussed.

  15. Orange fiber as a novel fat replacer in lemon ice cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainara de Moraes Crizel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Orange fiber was used as a novel fat replacer in light lemon ice cream. Nine ice cream formulations were compared: standard control ice cream (IC; ice cream with fiber (F1 from the peel, bagasse, and orange seed (ICA and ICB; ice cream with fiber (F2 from the orange peel alone (ICC and ICD; ice cream with fiber (F3 from the peel, bagasse, and orange seed pretreated with hydro-distillation (ICE and ICF; and ice cream with fiber (F4 from the orange peel pretreated with hydro-distillation (ICG and ICH.The orange fiber reduced the ice cream fat content (50 % and the overrun ratio and increased the fiber content and the hardness, gumminess, and springiness values, but it did not affect the adhesiveness and odor of the samples. The samples with 1.0 % of orange fiber showed low melting rate values than those of the control ice cream. The overall acceptance of the ice cream with 1.0 % of pre-treated orange peel fiber did not differ from that of the control ice cream (80 %. The orange fiber proved a promising food ingredient since it can be used to decrease the fat content and increase bioactive compounds content, such as fiber and carotenoids.

  16. An Investigation of Potential Fraud in Commercial Orange Juice Products in Malaysian Market by Cluster Analysis and Principal Component Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was triggered by Malaysia Ministry of Health to monitor quality of commercial orange juice products sold in Malaysia market. A total of 19 orange juice samples from 14 different brands of packed orange juice products and 5 different brands of fresh orange fruit juices were analyzed for total soluble solids content, total titratable acidity, sugar composition and amino acid profiles. Hierarchical Cluster analysis (HCA) and Principal component analysis (PCA) on amino acid composition alone allowed visual discrimination between fresh squeezed orange juices and commercial packed orange juices. Suspicion of mislabel was raised in cases of miss-classification. (author)

  17. Enhancing quality of orange juice by irradiation and chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent concern about the presence of disease-causing bacteria in orange juice has highlighted the need to develop alternative means of pathogen control that preserve sensory properties and nutrient content. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of irradiation and chitosan on the microbiological, physico-chemical and sensory properties in orange juice during refrigerated storage at 4 c. Irradiation treatments with 1 and 2 kGy decreased the log counts of total bacterial counts (TBC) and total mould and yeast (TM and Y)of orange juice (OJ). Whereas, irradiation with 2 kGy after treated OJ with 0.1% chitosan (Cs) the log counts were less than 10 cfu/ml during storage periods up to 6 months. Also, no viable cells of salmonella typhimurium and escherichia coli were found after these treatments. Therefore, it was concluded that irradiation with 2 kGy 0.1% Cs of oj improved the microbiological safety. D10-value of s. typhimirium in oj and saline solution were 0.48 and 0.40 kGy, while those of e.coli were 0.25 and 0.20 kGy. Irradiation and chitosan resulted in reduction of ascorbic acid content by 7.47%.however, the contents of acidity were stable during storage periods. After 6 months of storage, sensory quality of the irradiated 2 kGy.1% Cs oj samples was adequate, while the quality of the non-irradiated control was deteriorated. Using 2 kGy.1% Cs treatment would allow to inactivate pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms or slow down their development without affecting its sensory quality. The results indicated that the oj behaves as a non-Newtonian fluid. The measurements of viscosity were applied in power low model to analyze the behavior

  18. Effects of organic fertilisation on sweet orange bearing trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roccuzzo, Giancarlo; Torrisi, Biagio; Canali, Stefano; Intrigliolo, Francesco

    2010-05-01

    In a study realised over a five year period (2001-2006) on orange bearing trees [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] cv. ‘Valencia late', grafted on sour orange (C. aurantium L.), four fertiliser treatments were applied: citrus by-products compost (CB), poultry manure (PM), livestock waste compost (LW) and mineral fertiliser (MF), as control. The trees, with the exception of MF treatment, were organically grown since 1994 in the experimental farm of CRA-ACM in Lentini, Sicily, and received the same N input every year. The research objectives were to evaluate the effect of long term repeated organic fertilisers application on i) soil fertility; ii) citrus bearing trees nutritional status by means of leaf analysis and iii) yield and fruit quality, determining parameters currently utilized to evaluate sweet orange production either for fresh consumption and processing. The CB treatment showed significantly higher values of Corg in soil than MF treatment (about 30%). Corg in PM and LW treatments was higher than MF treatment (13% and 20%, respectively), but these differences were not statistically significant either from the control treatment nor from the soil fertilised with CB. Similar trend was showed by the humic and fulvic C being the values of the CB treatment significantly higher than the control. PM and LW treatments had intermediate values, without statistical significance. The long term addition to soil of a quality compost (CB) with high C/N ratio increased the level of nutrients wich usually show low availability for citrus plants (P, Fe, Zn, Mn), as demonstrated by leaf analysis. No significant difference was noticed as far as yield was concerned, whereas CB treatment enhanced some fruit quality parameters.

  19. Submerged citric acid fermentation on orange peel autohydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Beatriz; Torrado, Ana; Torre, Paolo; Converti, Attilio; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2008-04-01

    The citrus-processing industry generates in the Mediterranean area huge amounts of orange peel as a byproduct from the industrial extraction of citrus juices. To reduce its environmental impact as well as to provide an extra profit, this residue was investigated in this study as an alternative substrate for the fermentative production of citric acid. Orange peel contained 16.9% soluble sugars, 9.21% cellulose, 10.5% hemicellulose, and 42.5% pectin as the most important components. To get solutions rich in soluble and starchy sugars to be used as a carbon source for citric acid fermentation, this raw material was submitted to autohydrolysis, a process that does not make use of any acidic catalyst. Liquors obtained by this process under optimum conditions (temperature of 130 degrees C and a liquid/solid ratio of 8.0 g/g) contained 38.2 g/L free sugars (8.3 g/L sucrose, 13.7 g/L glucose, and 16.2 g/L fructose) and significant amounts of metals, particularly Mg, Ca, Zn, and K. Without additional nutrients, these liquors were employed for citric acid production by Aspergillus niger CECT 2090 (ATCC 9142, NRRL 599). Addition of calcium carbonate enhanced citric acid production because it prevented progressive acidification of the medium. Moreover, the influence of methanol addition on citric acid formation was investigated. Under the best conditions (40 mL of methanol/kg of medium), an effective conversion of sugars into citric acid was ensured (maximum citric acid concentration of 9.2 g/L, volumetric productivity of 0.128 g/(L.h), and yield of product on consumed sugars of 0.53 g/g), hence demonstrating the potential of orange peel wastes as an alternative raw material for citric acid fermentation. PMID:18321055

  20. Orange oil effect in the control of fennel aphid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanildo Cavalcanti de Albuquerque

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In the properties where fennel is grown, in the states of Bahia, Sergipe, Pernambuco and Paraiba, at the Northeast of Brazil, a high rate of usage of pesticides in the crop, aiming to control the aphid Hyadaphis foeniculi. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of orange oil Prev-Am (sodium tetraborohydrate decahydrate, in the control of H. foeniculi aphid of the fennel crop. The trial was conducted in a fennel field located in Lagoa Seca Experimental Station, belonging to the EMEPA-PB. Forty-eight hours after the product has been sprayed, one flower of the umbel was collected and removed her aphids, which were placed in a "petri" plate from 9cm in diameter. As a following step, the insects were counted as part of two groups, considering the number of insects dead and alive, being tabulated for later analysis. The data were subjected to analysis of variance, using the experimental design of randomized blocks composed of six treatments (doses of 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7% of orange oil (Prev-am and pure water as check, with five repetitions. The data were submitted to the regression analysis. The orange oil (Prev-am controls effectively H. foeniculi at the concentration of 0.3%, increasing the control up to concentrations of 0.6 and 0.7%. The product does not kill ladybugs (Cycloneda sanguinea and can be used in programs for integrated pest management.Keywords: Foeniculum vulgare, aphid, vegetable oil, ladybug, umbel.

  1. Preparation of carbon monoliths from orange peel for NOx retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Giraldo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of monoliths are prepared from orange peels and chemically activated with H3PO4, KOH, ZnCl2, and water vapor without a binder. The monoliths were characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms at 77 K, Boehm titrations and XPS. Thereafter, monoliths were tested for their ability to establish NOx retention. The results show that the retention capacities of NOx were a function of the textural properties and chemistries. The carbons synthesized with ZnCl2 and KOH retained similar amounts of NOx.

  2. Obtaining lipases from byproducts of orange juice processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okino-Delgado, Clarissa Hamaio; Fleuri, Luciana Francisco

    2014-11-15

    The presence of lipases was observed in three byproducts of orange juice processing: peel, core and frit. The enzymes were characterised biochemically over a wide pH range from neutral (6-7) to alkaline (8-9). The optimal temperature for the activity of these byproducts showed wide range at 20°C to 70°C, indicating fairly high thermostability. The activities were monitored on p-NP-butyrate, p-NP-laurate and p-NP-palmitate. For the first time, lipase activity was detected in these residues, reaching 68.5 lipase U/g for the crude extract from fractions called frit.

  3. Mars Life? - Orange-colored Carbonate Mineral Globules

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This photograph shows orange-colored carbonate mineral globules found in a meteorite, called ALH84001, believed to have once been a part of Mars. These carbonate minerals in the meteorite are believed to have been formed on Mars more than 3.6 billion years ago. Their structure and chemistry suggest that they may have been formed with the assistance of primitive, bacteria-like living organisms. A two-year investigation by a NASA research team found organic molecules, mineral features characteristic of biological activity and possible microscopic fossils inside of carbonate minerals such as these in the meteorite.

  4. The Chemical and Educational Appeal of the Orange Juice Clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelter, Paul B.; Carr, James D.; Johnson, Tanya; Mauricio Castro-Acuña, Carlos

    1996-12-01

    The Orange Juice Clock, in which a galvanic cell is made from the combination of a magnesium strip, a copper strip, and juice in a beaker, has been a popular classroom, conference, and workshop demonstration for nearly 10 years. It is widely enjoyed because it shows visually how chemistry - or more precisely, electrochemistry - is responsible for the very common phenomenon of a clock ticking. The chemistry of the process can also be understood on a variety of levels, from middle school (simple electron flow in a circuit, Ohm's law) and high school (reduction/oxidation and standard cell potentials) to first-year college (cell potential at nonideal conditions) and graduate school courses (overpotential and charge transfer across interfaces.) The discussion that follows considers the recent history, chemistry, and educational uses of the demonstration. The History The demonstration was devised by one of us (PK) in 1986, after reading an activity in Hubert Alyea's 1947 compendium of chemical demonstrations from this Journal (1). In that activity, Alyea hooked a magnesium strip to the negative battery terminal of an electric bell and hooked a copper strip to the positive terminal. He placed the loose ends of the strips into a 1M 2SO4 solution and the bell rang. After trying the demonstration, it seemed to make sense to modify the electrolyte to orange juice because it is safe, readily available, and would be a mixture in which the magnesium would oxidize more slowly than in sulfuric acid. Further, a clock was substituted for the bell because a clock is easier on the ears than a bell. A video of the orange-juice clock setup is given as Figure 1. Figure 1.The orange juice clock set up. Video of orange juice clock was filmed and editted by Jerry Jacobson at the University of Wisconsin - Madison. The apparatus was presented in 1987 as part of a teacher workshop led by Irwin Talesnick, then of Queen's University in Canada. Talesnick, whose distinguished career has been

  5. Mycorrhiza alters the profile of root hairs in trifoliate orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiang-Sheng; Liu, Chun-Yan; Zhang, De-Jian; Zou, Ying-Ning; He, Xin-Hua; Wu, Qing-Hua

    2016-04-01

    Root hairs and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) coexist in root systems for nutrient and water absorption, but the relation between AM and root hairs is poorly known. A pot study was performed to evaluate the effects of four different AM fungi (AMF), namely, Claroideoglomus etunicatum, Diversispora versiformis, Funneliformis mosseae, and Rhizophagus intraradices on root hair development in trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata) seedlings grown in sand. Mycorrhizal seedlings showed significantly higher root hair density than non-mycorrhizal seedlings, irrespective of AMF species. AMF inoculation generally significantly decreased root hair length in the first- and second-order lateral roots but increased it in the third- and fourth-order lateral roots. AMF colonization induced diverse responses in root hair diameter of different order lateral roots. Considerably greater concentrations of phosphorus (P), nitric oxide (NO), glucose, sucrose, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) were found in roots of AM seedlings than in non-AM seedlings. Levels of P, NO, carbohydrates, IAA, and MeJA in roots were correlated with AM formation and root hair development. These results suggest that AMF could alter the profile of root hairs in trifoliate orange through modulation of physiological activities. F. mosseae, which had the greatest positive effects, could represent an efficient AM fungus for increasing fruit yields or decreasing fertilizer inputs in citrus production.

  6. Genetic Signature of Anthropogenic Population Collapse in Orang-utans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Great ape populations are undergoing a dramatic decline, which is predicted to result in their extinction in the wild from entire regions in the near future. Recent findings have particularly focused on African apes, and have implicated multiple factors contributing to this decline, such as deforestation, hunting, and disease. Less well-publicised, but equally dramatic, has been the decline in orang-utans, whose distribution is limited to parts of Sumatra and Borneo. Using the largest-ever genetic sample from wild orang-utan populations, we show strong evidence for a recent demographic collapse in North Eastern Borneo and demonstrate that this signature is independent of the mutation and demographic models used. This is the first demonstration that genetic data can detect and quantify the effect of recent, human-induced deforestation and habitat fragmentation on an endangered species. Because current demographic collapses are usually confounded by ancient events, this suggests a much more dramatic decline than demographic data alone and emphasises the need for major conservation efforts.

  7. Genetic signature of anthropogenic population collapse in orang-utans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Goossens

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Great ape populations are undergoing a dramatic decline, which is predicted to result in their extinction in the wild from entire regions in the near future. Recent findings have particularly focused on African apes, and have implicated multiple factors contributing to this decline, such as deforestation, hunting, and disease. Less well-publicised, but equally dramatic, has been the decline in orang-utans, whose distribution is limited to parts of Sumatra and Borneo. Using the largest-ever genetic sample from wild orang-utan populations, we show strong evidence for a recent demographic collapse in North Eastern Borneo and demonstrate that this signature is independent of the mutation and demographic models used. This is the first demonstration that genetic data can detect and quantify the effect of recent, human-induced deforestation and habitat fragmentation on an endangered species. Because current demographic collapses are usually confounded by ancient events, this suggests a much more dramatic decline than demographic data alone and emphasises the need for major conservation efforts.

  8. Colour and carotenoid changes of pasteurised orange juice during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Scheling; Vervoort, Liesbeth; Tomic, Jovana; Santiago, Jihan Santanina; Lemmens, Lien; Panozzo, Agnese; Grauwet, Tara; Hendrickx, Marc; Van Loey, Ann

    2015-03-15

    The correlation of carotenoid changes with colour degradation of pasteurised single strength orange juice was investigated at 20, 28, 35 and 42°C for a total of 32 weeks of storage. Changes in colour were assessed using the CIELAB system and were kinetically described by a zero-order model. L(∗), a(∗), b(∗), ΔE(∗), Cab(∗) and hab were significantly changed during storage (pcolour parameters were 64-73 kJ mol(-1). Several carotenoids showed important changes and appeared to have different susceptibilities to storage. A decrease of β-cryptoxanthin was observed at higher temperatures, whereas antheraxanthin started to decrease at lower temperatures. Depending on the time and temperature, changes in carotenoids could be due to isomerisation reactions, which may lead to a perceptible colour change. Although the contribution of carotenoids was recognised to some extent, other reactions seem of major importance for colour degradation of orange juice during storage.

  9. Fermented orange juice: source of higher carotenoid and flavanone contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero-López, Blanca; Cerrillo, Isabel; Herrero-Martín, Griselda; Hornero-Méndez, Damaso; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Medina, Sonia; Ferreres, Federico; Berná, Genoveva; Martín, Francisco; Fernández-Pachón, Maria-Soledad

    2013-09-18

    The intake of bioactive compounds and moderate alcohol decreases the risk of cardiovascular diseases. These effects could be joined in a beverage created by a controlled alcoholic fermentation of orange juice. The influence of controlled alcoholic fermentation on the bioactive compound profile of orange juice has not been previously evaluated, and this is the purpose of the present study. Total and individual flavanones and carotenoids significantly increased throughout the fermentation. The reason for this was an enhanced extraction of these compounds from the pulp. Besides, the potential bioavailability of flavanones increased due to a higher content of hesperetin-7-O-glucoside (2-fold higher at the end of the fermentation process). Ascorbic acid did not undergo a significant change, and only total phenolics decreased. Antioxidant capacity was also evaluated. TEAC and FRAP values remained constant throughout the process. However, ORAC and DPPH values significantly increased. Correlation analysis concluded that the increase in ORAC and DPPH values could be due to enhancement of flavanones.

  10. Phosphorus Recovery Using Zirconium-Loaded Saponified Orange Juice Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Mitsunori; Biswas, Biplob K.; Ohura, Seichirou; Inoue, Katsutoshi; Ishikawa, Susumu; Kawakita, Hidetaka; Ohto, Keisuke

    Zirconium was immobilized to orange juice residue, to investigate the feasibility of using zirconium-loaded saponified orange juice residue (Zr-SOJR) for phosphorus recovery from secondary effluent and the extraction solution from incinerated sewage sludge ash by using H2SO4 and HCl. These had phosphorus concentrations of 68.2 mg/dm3 and 5.9 mg/dm3, respectively. The phosphorus removal rate secondary effluent increased with an increasing solid/liquid ratio in batch experiments. The adsorption capacity of Zr-SOJR was also compared with those obtained using a synthetic phosphorus solution and using zirconium-loaded ferrite. The prepared absorbent was effective for phosphorus removal and exhibited a reasonably high sorption capacity, twice that of zirconium ferrite. Secondary effluent was treated by packed column, and this reached break-through after 300 bed volumes. The results from phosphorous extraction from the ash indicate that can be treated with acid to efficiently recover phosphorous and thus can be absorbed by Zr-SOJR.

  11. Skin diseases associated with Agent Orange and other organochlorine exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Andrew T; Kaffenberger, Benjamin H; Keller, Richard A; Elston, Dirk M

    2016-01-01

    Organochlorine exposure is an important cause of cutaneous and systemic toxicity. Exposure has been associated with industrial accidents, intentional poisoning, and the use of defoliants, such as Agent Orange in the Vietnam War. Although long-term health effects are systematically reviewed by the Institute of Medicine, skin diseases are not comprehensively assessed. This represents an important practice gap as patients can present with cutaneous findings. This article provides a systematic review of the cutaneous manifestations of known mass organochlorine exposures in military and industrial settings with the goal of providing clinically useful recommendations for dermatologists seeing patients inquiring about organochlorine effects. Patients with a new diagnosis of chloracne, porphyria cutanea tarda, cutaneous lymphomas (non-Hodgkin lymphoma), and soft-tissue sarcomas including dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans and leiomyosarcomas should be screened for a history of Vietnam service or industrial exposure. Inconclusive evidence exists for an increased risk of other skin diseases in Vietnam veterans exposed to Agent Orange including benign fatty tumors, melanomas, nonmelanoma skin cancers, milia, eczema, dyschromias, disturbance of skin sensation, and rashes not otherwise specified. Affected veterans should be informed of the uncertain data in those cases. Referral to Department of Veterans Affairs for disability assessment is indicated for conditions with established associations. PMID:26210237

  12. 78 FR 23208 - Importation of Fresh Oranges and Tangerines From Egypt Into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... phytosanitary measures listed in paragraph (b) of that section. Oranges (Citrus sinensis) from Egypt were... the establishment of peach fruit fly (Bactrocera zonata), which is also a pest of citrus in Egypt. Currently, the importation of fresh oranges and tangerines (Citris reticulata) from Egypt is not...

  13. Application of ultraviolet-C light on oranges for the inactivation of postharvest wound pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germicidal effects of ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light on the postharvest wound pathogens of citrus fruits namely Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum were investigated. P. digitatum and P. italicum spores were inoculated (4.00 – 4.50 log cfu/ orange) onto Washington navel oranges (Citrus sinens...

  14. 77 FR 23659 - Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... duty order on OJ from Brazil. \\1\\ See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 76 FR 5563 (Feb. 1, 2011) (Initiation Notice). \\2\\ See Certain Orange Juice From Brazil, 77 FR 22343 (Apr. 13, 2012) (ITC... Orange Juice From Brazil, 52 FR 16426 (May 5, 1987). \\4\\ The Department preliminarily found that...

  15. APLIKASI BERBAKTI: PERANCANGAN ARSITEKTUR PERANGKAT LUNAK PENGHUBUNG ANAK DENGAN ORANG TUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Agus Santoso

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Kebutuhan perawatan kondisi orang tua sangat perlu dilakukan seiring dengan berjalannya waktu. Hambatan mulai terjadi jika antara orang tua dan anak terpisah dalam kondisi yang cukup jauh sehingga anak sebagai pihak perawat orang tua tidak dapat maksimal dalam memberikan pemantauan dan perawatan secara intens, terlebih lagi perkembangan teknologi membuat orang tua pun kesulitan dalam menggunakan teknologi terkini. Untuk mengakomodasi dan memberikan solusi atas permasalahan tersebut maka perlu pengembangan perangkat lunak yang memudahkan anak dalam memantau dan merawat orang tua secara intens. Perangkat lunak yang dikembangkan terdiri dari dua buah perangkat lunak yang saling terhubung yaitu caregiver app yang digunakan oleh anak dan elder app yang digunakan oleh orang tua. Oleh karena dalam hal ini orang tua juga menggunakan perangkat lunak aplikasi tersebut, maka elder app dikembangkan secara khusus supaya mudh digunakan oleh orang tua. Tidak hanya pada elder app, desain sistem pada perangkat lunak ini dimodelkan secara khusus dan menjadi pembahasan dalam paper ini. Kata Kunci: caregiving, orangtua, anak, perkuat jalinan hubungan

  16. 78 FR 729 - Ellman Battery Superfund Site; Orlando, Orange County, FL; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... AGENCY Ellman Battery Superfund Site; Orlando, Orange County, FL; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... concerning a previous Removal Action at the Ellman Battery Superfund Site located in Orlando, Orange County.... Submit your comments by Site name Ellman Battery Superfund Site by one of the following methods:...

  17. Glyphosate Control of Orange and Brown Rusts in Glyphosate-Sensitive Sugarcane Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Abstract: Brown and orange rust diseases cause substantial yield reductions on sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in Florida and other regions where sugarcane is grown. Brown rust caused by Puccinia melanocephala Syd. & P. Syd has been present in Florida since 1978 and orange rust caused by Pucci...

  18. MnO2/CeO2 for catalytic ultrasonic degradation of methyl orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, He; Zhang, Guangming; Zhang, Quanling

    2014-05-01

    Catalytic ultrasonic degradation of aqueous methyl orange was studied in this paper. Heterogeneous catalyst MnO2/CeO2 was prepared by impregnation of manganese oxide on cerium oxide. Morphology and specific surface area of MnO2/CeO2 catalyst were characterized and its composition was determined. Results showed big differences between fresh and used catalyst. The removal efficiency of methyl orange by MnO2/CeO2 catalytic ultrasonic process was investigated. Results showed that ultrasonic process could remove 3.5% of methyl orange while catalytic ultrasonic process could remove 85% of methyl orange in 10 min. The effects of free radical scavengers were studied to determine the role of hydroxyl free radical in catalytic ultrasonic process. Results showed that methyl orange degradation efficiency declined after adding free radical scavengers, illustrating that hydroxyl free radical played an important role in degrading methyl orange. Theoretic analysis showed that the resonance size of cavitation bubbles was comparable with the size of catalyst particles. Thus, catalyst particles might act as cavitation nucleus and enhance ultrasonic cavitation effects. Measurement of H2O2 concentration in catalytic ultrasonic process confirmed this hypothesis. Effects of pre-adsorption on catalytic ultrasonic process were examined. Pre-adsorption significantly improved methyl orange removal. The potential explanation was that methyl orange molecules adsorbed on catalysts could enter cavitation bubbles and undergo stronger cavitation. PMID:24369902

  19. Film dosimeters based on methylene blue and methyl orange in polyvinyl alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, W.H.; Miller, A.

    1994-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) films containing methylene blue and methyl orange are useful as gamma and electron radiation dosimeters. Absorbed doses should not exceed 40 kGy for methylene blue and 500 kGy for methyl orange. Because PVA is water-soluble, the films may be made without toxic solvents. Th...

  20. RANCANG BANGUN PROTOTIPE PENGHITUNG JUMLAH ORANG DALAM RUANGAN TERPADU BERBASIS MIKROKONTROLER ATMEGA328P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raka Agung

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Meningkatnya permintaan energi dunia akhir-akhir ini dan makin mahalnya harga minyak dunia menyebabkan makin tingginya harga energi listrik (TDL dari PLN. Hal ini secara langsung menyebabkan biaya operasional sebuah gedung atau ruangan semakin meningkat karena pemakaian KWH energi yang harus dibayar setiap bulan. Untuk mengurangi permasalahan  ini akan dibuat prototipe  penghitung jumlah orang dalam ruangan terpadu berbasis Mikrokontroler ATMega328P. Sistem ini adalah menghitung jumlah orang yang masuk dan keluar pada sebuah ruangan menggunakan sensor infrared dengan mikrokontroler ATMega 328P sebagai pengendalinya. Peralatan ini akan memadukan kehadiran atau jumlah orang dalam ruangan dengan hidup matinya lampu penerangan dan pengkondisi udara ruangan (AC  sehingga ruangan tetap layak digunakan dan pemakaian energinya  bisa dikurangi. Jumlah orang yang ada dalam ruangan didapat dengan mengurangi jumlah orang yang masuk dengan jumlah orang  yang ke luar dari ruangan tersebut. Jumlah orang yang ada dalam ruangan dan waktu saat itu  ditampilkan pada layar LCD.  Sistem ini juga dilengkapi rangkaian pengendali  hidup matinya lampu penerangan di depan ruangan (di luar ruangan dengan menggunakan RTC DS 1307. Dengan pengendalian ini lampu penerangan  dapat menyala otomatis pada sore hari dan mati  saat pagi hari pada waktu yang sudah diset sebelumnya. Prototipe sistem yang dibuat sudah mampu menghitung  jumlah orang yang berada dalam suatu ruangan dan mengatur hidup mati lampu penerangan dan pengkondisi udara ruangan tersebut.

  1. The vitamin C content of orange juice packed in an oxygen scavenger material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zerdin, K.; Rooney, M.L.; Vermuë, J.

    2003-01-01

    A storage study of orange juice packed in oxygen scavenging (OS) film and oxygen barrier film was conducted to determine the extent of ascorbic acid loss due to oxygen as a function of time and temperature. The initial concentration of ascorbic acid in the orange juice was 374 mg/l and this was foun

  2. Study of flavour compounds from orange juices by HS-SPME and GC-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutzer, G.; Avram, V.; Covaciu, F.; Feher, I.; Magdas, A.; David, L.; Moldovan, Z.

    2013-11-01

    The flavour of the orange juices, which gives the taste and odour of the product, is an important criterion about the products quality for consumers. A fresh single strength and two commercial orange juices (obtained from concentrate) flavour profile were studied using a selective and sensitive gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analytical system, after a solvent free, single step preconcentration and extraction technique, the headspace solid phase microextraction (HP-SPME). In the studied orange juices 55 flavour compounds were detected and classified as belonging to the esters, alcohols, ketones, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes chemical families. The fresh single strength orange juice was characterized by high amount of esters, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Limonene and valencene were the most abundant flavours in this fresh natural orange juice. Alcohols and ketones were found in higher concentration in the commercial orange juices made from concentrate, than in the single strength products. Nevertheless, in commercial juices the most abundant flavour was limonene and α-terpineol. The results highlight clear differences between fresh singles strength orange juice and juice from concentrate. The orange juices reconstructed from concentrate, made in Romania, present low quantity of flavour compounds, suggesting the absence or a low rearomatization process, but extraneous components were not detected.

  3. 75 FR 20874 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Orange County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Orange County, CA... to milepost 508.65 near the City of Brea, in Orange County, CA. The line traverses United...

  4. Phenolic compounds and the colour of oranges subjected to a combination treatment of waxing and irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moussaid, M.; Lacroix, M.; Nketsia-Tabiri, J.; Boubekri, C

    2000-03-01

    The effects of waxing, irradiation dose and storage on phenolics and colour of irradiated oranges were investigated. Mature oranges (Maroc late) waxed or unwaxed were treated with 0, 1 or 2 kGy radiation and stored up to 9 weeks at 20 deg. C and 40-50% r.h. Colour of the oranges, total phenols and flavones in the peel were measured. Phenolic compounds increased with irradiation dose and storage time. Hue angle, value and chroma of the orange colour were more affected by waxing and storage time than the irradiation treatment. Changes in the phenolic compounds were linked with changes in the redness and saturation of the orange colour. Irradiation stimulated synthesis of flavones; waxing controlled changes induced by irradiation. (author)

  5. Phenolic compounds and the colour of oranges subjected to a combination treatment of waxing and irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussaid, M.; Lacroix, M.; Nketsia-Tabiri, J.; Boubekri, C.

    2000-03-01

    The effects of waxing, irradiation dose and storage on phenolics and colour of irradiated oranges were investigated. Mature oranges ( Maroc late) waxed or unwaxed were treated with 0, 1 or 2 kGy radiation and stored up to 9 weeks at 20°C and 40-50% r.h. Colour of the oranges, total phenols and flavones in the peel were measured. Phenolic compounds increased with irradiation dose and storage time. Hue angle, value and chroma of the orange colour were more affected by waxing and storage time than the irradiation treatment. Changes in the phenolic compounds were linked with changes in the redness and saturation of the orange colour. Irradiation stimulated synthesis of flavones; waxing controlled changes induced by irradiation.

  6. Effects of pulsed electric fields on the quality of orange juice and comparison with heat pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, H W; Streaker, C B; Zhang, Q H; Min, D B

    2000-10-01

    Effects of pulsed electric fields (PEF) at 35 kV/cm for 59 micros on the quality of orange juice were investigated and compared with those of heat pasteurization at 94.6 degrees C for 30 s. The PEF treatment prevented the growth of microorganisms at 4, 22, and 37 degrees C for 112 days and inactivated 88% of pectin methyl esterase (PME) activity. The PEF-treated orange juice retained greater amounts of vitamin C and the five representative flavor compounds than the heat-pasteurized orange juice during storage at 4 degrees C (p juice had lower browning index, higher whiteness (L), and higher hue angle (theta) values than the heat-pasteurized orange juice during storage at 4 degrees C (p juice had a smaller particle size than the heat-pasteurized orange juice (p 0. 05).

  7. Citrus sinensis annotation project (CAP): a comprehensive database for sweet orange genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Chen, Dijun; Lei, Yang; Chang, Ji-Wei; Hao, Bao-Hai; Xing, Feng; Li, Sen; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Chen, Ling-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most important and widely grown fruit crop with global production ranking firstly among all the fruit crops in the world. Sweet orange accounts for more than half of the Citrus production both in fresh fruit and processed juice. We have sequenced the draft genome of a double-haploid sweet orange (C. sinensis cv. Valencia), and constructed the Citrus sinensis annotation project (CAP) to store and visualize the sequenced genomic and transcriptome data. CAP provides GBrowse-based organization of sweet orange genomic data, which integrates ab initio gene prediction, EST, RNA-seq and RNA-paired end tag (RNA-PET) evidence-based gene annotation. Furthermore, we provide a user-friendly web interface to show the predicted protein-protein interactions (PPIs) and metabolic pathways in sweet orange. CAP provides comprehensive information beneficial to the researchers of sweet orange and other woody plants, which is freely available at http://citrus.hzau.edu.cn/.

  8. Microwave-assisted extraction and determination of citrus red 2 dye in oranges and orange juice by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chao; Liu, Bin; Zhu, Zhenou; Huang, Fuzhen; Chen, Xiangzhun; Shen, Yan

    2012-12-01

    A fast, simple, low cost, and high-throughput method has been developed for the determination of citrus red 2 dye in orange and orange juice samples. The procedure is based on microwave-assisted extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. The method was optimized, and the analyte was efficiently extracted from the samples in 30 min using hexane/acetone (v/v, 3 : 1). The method was validated and showed good linearity and selectivity. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were 5 μg/kg (sample size of 2 g) for both orange and orange juice samples. The average recoveries, measured at 3 concentration levels (5, 10, and 20 μg/kg), were in the range 77.5% to 87.6% for the compound tested with relative standard deviations below 7.3%. The proposed method is rapid, accurate, and could be utilized for the routine analysis of citrus red 2 dye in orange and orange juice samples.

  9. Integrasi dan Peranan Orang Melayu di Sulawesi Selatan Pada Abad XVI-XVII: Kajian Berdasarkan Naskhah Lontara

    OpenAIRE

    Muhlis Hadrawi, SS., M.Hum.

    2007-01-01

    Eksistensi orang Melayu sebagai salah satu kelompok pendatang yang bermukim di Sulawesi Selatan menduduki peringkat awal dan istimewa daripada kelompok atau etnik pendatang lainnya seperti Jawa, Ambon, Buton, orang asing (Portugis, Hollanda, dan Inggeris). Keberadaan di Sulawesi Selatan yang telah berlaku semenjak abad akhir abad XV memiliki makna penting sebagai teras bermastuatinnya orang Melayu pada kerajaan setempat yang kemudian berseterusan hingga pada abad XIX. Keberadaan orang Melayu...

  10. In vitro bioaccessibility of carotenoids, flavonoids, and vitamin C from differently processed oranges and orange juices [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschoff, Julian K; Kaufmann, Sabrina; Kalkan, Onur; Neidhart, Sybille; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2015-01-21

    Carotenoid, flavonoid, and vitamin C concentrations were determined in fresh orange segments and a puree-like homogenate derived thereof, as well as freshly squeezed, flash-pasteurized, and pasteurized juices. Lutein and β-cryptoxanthin were slightly degraded during dejuicing, whereas β-carotene levels were retained. Vitamin C levels remained unaffected, whereas flavonoid levels decreased 8-fold upon juice extraction, most likely due to the removal of flavonoid-rich albedo and juice vesicles. Likewise, the presence of such fibrous matrix compounds during in vitro digestion was assumed to significantly lower the total bioaccessibility (BA) of all carotenoids from fresh fruit segments (12%) as compared to juices (29-30%). Mechanical disruption of orange segments prior to digestion did not alter carotenoid BA, whereas pasteurization of the freshly squeezed juice slightly increased BA by 9-11%. In addition to carotenoid BA, the stabilities of hesperidin, narirutin, and vitamin C including dehydroascorbic acid during in vitro digestion were monitored, and applied analytical methods were briefly validated.

  11. A promising orange-red emitting nanocrystalline NaCaBO3:Sm3+ phosphor for solid state lightning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orange-red emitting NaCaBO3:Sm3+ nanophosphors were prepared by combustion method using metal nitrates and urea as initial materials. The phase of the product was identified by x-ray diffraction technique (XRD) and was found to be orthorhombic with a space group Pmmn and lattice parameters a = 16.12 Å, b = 10.25 Å, c = 3.52 Å and V = 581.60 Å3 calculated with the POWD program. The average particle size of the nanophosphor calculated from the XRD data and cross verified by TEM was 34 nm. The spectral properties of the NaCaBO3:Sm3+ nanophosphors were studied under near UV and electron excitation, which shows characteristic emission lines assigned to the transition (4G5/2 to the 6Hj, j = 5/2, 7/2, 9/2, 11/2) of the Sm3+ ion. The optimal Sm3+ ion concentration and its critical energy distance were determined as x = 2 mol% and 59.97 Å, respectively and the dipole–dipole interactions were responsible for concentration quenching in the present phosphor. The band gap of the phosphor was calculated to be 5.82 eV. The phosphorescence decay curve was also measured. (papers)

  12. 76 FR 43344 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil; Scheduling of a Full Five-Year Review Concerning the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... COMMISSION Certain Orange Juice From Brazil; Scheduling of a Full Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Certain Orange Juice From Brazil AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... revocation of the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil would be likely to lead...

  13. 76 FR 30197 - Orange Juice From Brazil; Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct a Full Five-Year Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... COMMISSION Orange Juice From Brazil; Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct a Full Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Orderon Orange Juice From Brazil AGENCY: United States International Trade... whether revocation of the antidumping duty orderon orange juice from Brazil would be likely to lead...

  14. 76 FR 30655 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Final Results of the Expedited Sunset Review of the Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Final Results of the Expedited Sunset... sunset review of the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice (OJ) from Brazil, pursuant to section... the Order The scope of the order includes certain orange juice for transport and/or...

  15. Wild and Valuable? Tourist Values for Orang-utan Conservation in Sarawak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin K Zander

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluffy, orange and endearing, orang-utans have won the hearts of people all over the world. However, all sub-species are endangered in the wild with the Bornean orang-utan population having declined by more than 50% over the past 60 years. Fewer than 2,000 wild orang-utans remain in Sarawak with nearly all truly wild ones confined to a remote site on the Indonesian border. Yet each year thousands of tourists and local Sarawak people see orang-utans semi-wild in a reserve or captive in a rehabilitation centre. We investigated the attitudes of such tourists towards the conservation of the remaining wild populations by means of questionnaires, including a choice experiment. Sixty percent of the respondents were, in principle, willing to pay to ensure survival of a wild orang-utan population. International tourists tended to regard wild survival as being more important than having a high probability of seeing orang-utans personally-indeed they preferred wild orang-utans to be hard to find. Malaysian tourists were more inclined to favour investment in the small number of captive or semi-wild animals. Using conservative judgements of the difference between stated and real willingness-to-pay, we estimated that about USD 6.6 million per year could be made available to wild orang-utan conservation from voluntary contributions by visitors to the semi-wild animals. We also estimated that the 40% of visitors to these facilities who come to Sarawak primarily because of the apes, bring between USD 13 and USD 23 million into the local economy each year through their expenditure on local businesses, about 0.6% of the income earned by Sarawak from timber products. Our results suggest that far fewer would come if there were no wild orang-utans in Sarawak. Thus the value of wild orang-utans in Sarawak can be delivered through the captive facilities but the economic benefits from orang-utans require both captive and wild orang-utans.

  16. Clarification of Orange Press Liquors by PVDF Hollow Fiber Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Silvia; Conidi, Carmela; Ursino, Claudia; Cassano, Alfredo; Figoli, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Press liquors are typical by-products of the citrus juice processing characterized by a high content of organic compounds and associated problems of environmental impact, which imply high treatment costs. However, these wastes contain a great number of health promoting substances, including fibers, carotenoids and phenolic compounds (mainly flavonoids), whose recovery against waste-destruction technologies is very attractive for new business opportunities. In this work, the clarification of orange press liquor by using microfiltration (MF) membranes is studied as a preliminary step to obtain a permeate stream enriched in antioxidant compounds which can be further processed to produce extracts of nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical interest. MF poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) hollow fibers were prepared by the dry/wet spinning technique. A series of fibers was produced from the same polymeric dope, in order to investigate the effect of selected spinning parameters, i.e., bore fluid composition and flowrate, on their properties. The morphology of the produced fibers was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Fibers were further characterized for their mechanical properties, porosity, bubble point, pore size distribution and pure water permeability (PWP). Some of the produced fibers exhibited high permeability (pure water permeability ~530 L/m²·h·bar), coupled to good mechanical resistance and pore size in the range of MF membranes. These fibers were selected and used for the clarification of press liquor from orange peel processing. In optimized operating conditions, the selected fibers produced steady-state fluxes of about 41 L/m²·h with rejections towards polyphenols and total antioxidant activity of 4.1% and 1.4%, respectively. PMID:26805899

  17. Clarification of Orange Press Liquors by PVDF Hollow Fiber Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Simone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Press liquors are typical by-products of the citrus juice processing characterized by a high content of organic compounds and associated problems of environmental impact, which imply high treatment costs. However, these wastes contain a great number of health promoting substances, including fibers, carotenoids and phenolic compounds (mainly flavonoids, whose recovery against waste-destruction technologies is very attractive for new business opportunities. In this work, the clarification of orange press liquor by using microfiltration (MF membranes is studied as a preliminary step to obtain a permeate stream enriched in antioxidant compounds which can be further processed to produce extracts of nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical interest. MF poly(vinylidene fluoride (PVDF hollow fibers were prepared by the dry/wet spinning technique. A series of fibers was produced from the same polymeric dope, in order to investigate the effect of selected spinning parameters, i.e., bore fluid composition and flowrate, on their properties. The morphology of the produced fibers was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Fibers were further characterized for their mechanical properties, porosity, bubble point, pore size distribution and pure water permeability (PWP. Some of the produced fibers exhibited high permeability (pure water permeability ~530 L/m2·h·bar, coupled to good mechanical resistance and pore size in the range of MF membranes. These fibers were selected and used for the clarification of press liquor from orange peel processing. In optimized operating conditions, the selected fibers produced steady-state fluxes of about 41 L/m2·h with rejections towards polyphenols and total antioxidant activity of 4.1% and 1.4%, respectively.

  18. Disinfestation by irradiation of mangoes (Manguifera Indica L.) Kent and oranges (Citrus sinensis O.) Valencia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives in this work were to determine the minimum dose for radiation disinfestation of mangoes and oranges infested with Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens Loew) and to evaluate the quality of the fruits by organoleptic, chemical and physiological analysis of mangoes irradiated to 0.3, 0.6 and 1.0 kGy and storaged at 120C during 15 days and oranges irradiated to 0.25, 0.6 and 1.0 kGy and storaged at 150C during 21 days. To inhibit the development of larvaes in mangoes the minimum dose was 0.3 kGy and for oranges the dose was 0.45 kGy. The dose for the probit 9 security test were 0.43 kGy for mangoes and 0.63 kGy for oranges. The results of sensorial analysis in mangoes, indicated that there are no significative differences for the two panels: consumers or trained judges. The differences in the physiological and chemical analysis are greater for storage fruits than for the irradiated ones. At the end of the storage period the appearance of the irradiated mangoes was better than for the control. The observed differences in irradiated oranges were the presence of dark zones on the oranges peel which affect their quality. This effect is due to the irradiation in oranges not completely ripen. (author)

  19. Phylogenetic relationships of the Orang Asli and Iban of Malaysia based on maternal markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, K C; Leow, J W H; Yeap, W K; Hood, S; Mahani, M C; Md-Zain, B M

    2011-01-01

    Malaysia remains as a crossroad of different cultures and peoples, and it has long been recognized that studying its population history can provide crucial insight into the prehistory of Southeast Asia as a whole. The earliest inhabitants were the Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia and the indigenous groups in Sabah and Sarawak. Although they were the earliest migrants in this region, these tribes are divided geographically by the South China Sea. We analyzed DNA sequences of 18 Orang Asli using mitochondrial DNA extracted from blood samples, each representing one sub-tribe, and from five Sarawakian Iban. Mitochondrial DNA was extracted from hair samples in order to examine relationships with the main ethnic groups in Malaysia. The D-loop region and cytochrome b genes were used as the candidate loci. Phylogenetic relationships were investigated using maximum parsimony and neighbor joining algorithms, and each tree was subjected to bootstrap analysis with 1000 replicates. Analyses of the HVS I region showed that the Iban are not a distinct group from the Orang Asli; they form a sub-clade within the Orang Asli. Based on the cytochrome b gene, the Iban clustered with the Orang Asli in the same clade. We found evidence for considerable gene flow between Orang Asli and Iban. We concluded that the Orang Asli, Iban and the main ethnic groups of Malaysia are probably derived from a common ancestor. This is in agreement with a single-route migration theory, but it does not dismiss a two-route migration theory. PMID:21491374

  20. [Study on experiment of absorption spectroscopy detection of pesticide residues of carbendazim in orange juice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ren-Dong; Chen, Meng-Lan; Zhao, Zhi-Min; Zhu, Xing-Yue; Wang, Le-Xin; Liu, Quan-Jin

    2014-03-01

    Absorption spectra were studied for the carbendazim, in the mixed solution of orange juice and carbendazim using spectrophotometer. The most intensive characteristic peak (285 nm) was found in the spectrum of carbendazim standard solution. Compared with the carbendazim drug solution, the peak position of absorption spectrum has the blue shift (285-280 nm) when carbendazim (0.28 mg x mL(-1))was added in the orange juice. So that we can conclude that interaction happened between the orange juice and carbendazim. Through the method of least squares fitting, the prediction models between the absorbance of orange juice and carbendazim content was obtained with a good linear relationship. The linear function model was: I = 2.41 + 9.26x, the correlation coefficient was 0.996, and the recovery was: 81%-102%. According to the regression model, we can obtain the amount of carbendazim pesticide residues in orange juice. It was verified that the method of using ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra was feasible to detect the carbendazim residues in orange juice. The result proved that it is possible to detect pesticide residues of carbendazim in orange juice, and it can meet the needs of rapid analysis. This study provides a new way for the detection of pesticide residues.

  1. Carotenoid bioaccessibility in pulp and fresh juice from carotenoid-rich sweet oranges and mandarins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, María Jesús; Cilla, Antonio; Barberá, Reyes; Zacarías, Lorenzo

    2015-06-01

    Citrus fruits are a good source of carotenoids for the human diet; however, comparative studies of carotenoids in different citrus food matrices are scarce. In this work the concentration and bioaccessibility of carotenoids in sweet oranges and mandarins with marked differences in carotenoid composition were evaluated in pulp and compared to those in fresh juice. The pulp and juice of the red-fleshed Cara Cara sweet orange variety was highly rich in carotenes (mainly lycopene and phytoene) compared to standard Navel orange, while β-cryptoxanthin and phytoene predominated in mandarins. Total carotenoid content in the pulp of the ordinary Navel orange and in the red-fleshed Cara Cara orange, as well as in the Clementine mandarin were higher than in the corresponding juices, although individual carotenoids were differentially affected by juice preparation. Bioaccessibility of the bioactive carotenoids (the ones described to be absorbed by humans) was greater in both pulp and juice of the carotenoid-rich Cara Cara orange compared to the Navel orange while increasing levels of β-cryptoxanthin were detected in the bioaccessible fractions of pulp and juice of mandarins postharvest stored at 12 °C compared to freshly-harvested fruits. Overall, results indicated that higher soluble bioactive carotenoids from citrus fruits and, consequently, potential nutritional and health benefits are obtained by the consumption of pulp with respect to fresh juice.

  2. Citric Acid Production from Orange Peel Wastes by Solid-State Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Ana María Torrado; Sandra Cortés; José Manuel Salgado; Belén Max; Noelia Rodríguez; Bibbins, Belinda P.; Attilio Converti; José Manuel Domínguez

    2011-01-01

    Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis) peel was employed in this work as raw material for the production of citric acid (CA) by solid-state fermentation (SSF) of Aspergillus niger CECT-2090 (ATCC 9142, NRRL 599) in Erlenmeyer flasks. To investigate the effects of the main operating variables, the inoculum concentration was varied in the range 0.5·10³ to 0.7·10(8) spores/g dry orange peel, the bed loading from 1.0 to 4.8 g of dry orange peel (corresponding to 35-80 % of the total volume), and the m...

  3. 橙系发动——LEVI'S ORANGE PACKAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Levi’s继Red、White、Black之后,本次是Orange!Orange?不会是10多年前Levi’s出过的“灯旗”Orange Tab吧!当然不是,本次的Orange系列确实是日本刚开发的Orange Package“橙牌”系列。所谓橙牌.即模仿二次大战时的vintage效果.并以二战牛王44-S501XX为蓝本开发,

  4. Reflections on International Narrative Research on the Example of The Tale of the Three Oranges

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Shojaei Kawan

    2004-01-01

    The Tale of the Three Oranges, also known in different cultures as L'amour des trois oranges , As tres cidras do amor, La brutta saracina, La mora tuerta, is one of the most favourite fairy tales. The tale can be characterised by a remarkably long text history, it has been recorded in hundreds of variants, and studied by means of the historic-geographic method. On the example of The Tale of the Three Oranges the author has pointed out several barriers and problematic areas in internatio...

  5. Reflections on International Narrative Research on the Example of The Tale of the Three Oranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Shojaei Kawan

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The Tale of the Three Oranges, also known in different cultures as L'amour des trois oranges , As tres cidras do amor, La brutta saracina, La mora tuerta, is one of the most favourite fairy tales. The tale can be characterised by a remarkably long text history, it has been recorded in hundreds of variants, and studied by means of the historic-geographic method. On the example of The Tale of the Three Oranges the author has pointed out several barriers and problematic areas in international legend research.

  6. Impact of Site-Directed Mutant Luciferase on Quantitative Green and Orange/Red Emission Intensities in Firefly Bioluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Terakado, Kanako; Nakatsu, Toru

    2013-08-01

    Firefly bioluminescence has attracted great interest because of its high quantum yield and intriguing modifiable colours. Modifications to the structure of the enzyme luciferase can change the emission colour of firefly bioluminescence, and the mechanism of the colour change has been intensively studied by biochemists, structural biologists, optical physicists, and quantum-chemistry theorists. Here, we report on the quantitative spectra of firefly bioluminescence catalysed by wild-type and four site-directed mutant luciferases. While the mutation caused different emission spectra, the spectra differed only in the intensity of the green component (λmax ~ 560 nm). In contrast, the orange (λmax ~ 610 nm) and red (λmax ~ 650 nm) components present in all the spectra were almost unaffected by the modifications to the luciferases and changes in pH. Our results reveal that the intensity of the green component is the unique factor that is influenced by the luciferase structure and other reaction conditions.

  7. Tracking the degradation of fresh orange juice and discrimination of orange varieties: an example of NMR in coordination with chemometrics analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Clayton R; Carneiro, Renato L; Ferreira, Antonio G

    2014-12-01

    Brazil is currently the largest exporter of concentrated orange juice and, unlike the other exporter countries, the domestic consumption is mainly based on the fresh orange juice. The quality control by evaluating the major chemical constituents under the influence of the most important factors, such as temperature and storage time of the product, is very important in this context. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of temperature and time on the degradation of fresh orange juice for 24h, by using (1)H NMR technique and chemometric tools for data mining. The storage conditions at 24h led to the production of the formic, fumaric and acetic acids; and an increase of succinic and lactic acids and ethanol, which were observed at low concentration at the initial time. Furthermore, analysis by PCA has successfully distinguished the juice of different species/varieties as well as the metabolites responsible for their separation.

  8. Sequencing of diverse mandarin, pummelo and orange genomes reveals complex history of admixture during citrus domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, G Albert; Prochnik, Simon; Jenkins, Jerry; Salse, Jerome; Hellsten, Uffe; Murat, Florent; Perrier, Xavier; Ruiz, Manuel; Scalabrin, Simone; Terol, Javier; Takita, Marco Aurélio; Labadie, Karine; Poulain, Julie; Couloux, Arnaud; Jabbari, Kamel; Cattonaro, Federica; Del Fabbro, Cristian; Pinosio, Sara; Zuccolo, Andrea; Chapman, Jarrod; Grimwood, Jane; Tadeo, Francisco R; Estornell, Leandro H; Muñoz-Sanz, Juan V; Ibanez, Victoria; Herrero-Ortega, Amparo; Aleza, Pablo; Pérez-Pérez, Julián; Ramón, Daniel; Brunel, Dominique; Luro, François; Chen, Chunxian; Farmerie, William G; Desany, Brian; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Harkins, Tim; Fredrikson, Karin; Burns, Paul; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Borodovsky, Mark; Reforgiato, Giuseppe; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Quetier, Francis; Navarro, Luis; Roose, Mikeal; Wincker, Patrick; Schmutz, Jeremy; Morgante, Michele; Machado, Marcos Antonio; Talon, Manuel; Jaillon, Olivier; Ollitrault, Patrick; Gmitter, Frederick; Rokhsar, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Cultivated citrus are selections from, or hybrids of, wild progenitor species whose identities and contributions to citrus domestication remain controversial. Here we sequence and compare citrus genomes--a high-quality reference haploid clementine genome and mandarin, pummelo, sweet-orange and sour-orange genomes--and show that cultivated types derive from two progenitor species. Although cultivated pummelos represent selections from one progenitor species, Citrus maxima, cultivated mandarins are introgressions of C. maxima into the ancestral mandarin species Citrus reticulata. The most widely cultivated citrus, sweet orange, is the offspring of previously admixed individuals, but sour orange is an F1 hybrid of pure C. maxima and C. reticulata parents, thus implying that wild mandarins were part of the early breeding germplasm. A Chinese wild 'mandarin' diverges substantially from C. reticulata, thus suggesting the possibility of other unrecognized wild citrus species. Understanding citrus phylogeny through genome analysis clarifies taxonomic relationships and facilitates sequence-directed genetic improvement. PMID:24908277

  9. 78 FR 18899 - Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and Tangelos Grown in Florida; Hearing on Proposed Amendment of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... ``grapefruit''; (c) Citrus reticulata, commonly called ``tangerines'' or ``mandarin''; (d) C.grandis (L... oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, and tangelos (citrus) grown in Florida. Nine amendments are proposed by the Citrus Administrative Committee (committee), which is responsible for local administration of...

  10. Cameron: Archaeological Investigations on the Rancho San Clemente, Orange County, California

    OpenAIRE

    Singer, Clay A

    1990-01-01

    Archaeological Investigations on the Rancho San Clemente, Orange County, California. Constance Cameron. Coyote Press Archives of California Prehistory No. 27, 1989, viii + 270 pp., 120 figs, plus tables and appendices, $16.95 (paper).

  11. The vegetation of the north-western Orange Free State, South Africa. 1. Physical environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Kooij

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available The physiography, geology, soil, land types and climate of the north-western Orange Free State are described. The description provides a contextual framework for the subsequent vegetation classification.

  12. HUBUNGAN RASIO LINGKAR PERUT PANGGUL DENGAN RESIKO PENYAKIT KARDIOVASKULER PADA ORANG DEWASA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astuti Lamid

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian hubungan antara rasio lingkar perut dan panggul (RLPP dengan resiko penyakit kardiovaskuler pada orang dewasa usia di atas 30 tahun telah dilaksanakan di kecamatan Bogor Barat, Kodya Bogor. Dari 1145 orang dewasa usia di atas 30 tahun yang telah diukur, diambil secara random 54 orang sebagai sampel yang mempunyai RLPP tinggi (>0.85 dan 54 orang pembanding dengan RLPP rendah (<0.05. Data yang dikumpulkan pada sampel dan pembanding meliputi antropometri, faktor resiko penyakit kardiovaskuler (lipida darah, gula darah dan tekanan darah, konsumsi makanan dan sosial ekonomi. Hasil uji khi kuadrat dan uji t antara kelompok RLPP tinggi dan RLPP rendah ditemukan hanya empat variabel yaitu hipertensi, trigliserida, body mass index dan persen lemak tubuh yang berbeda secara nyata (p<0.05. Walaupun uji t pada kadar kolesterol darah tidak berbeda secara nyata antara dua kelompok namun tampak ada kecenderungan meningkat pada kelompok RLPP tinggi.

  13. Emission of linalool from Valencia orange blossoms and its observation in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arey, Janet; Corchnoy, Stephanie B.; Atkinson, Roger

    Emission measurements made over a 5-month period of a Valencia orange tree showed the significant emission of the terpenoid linalool (C 10H 18O) from Valencia orange blossoms. The average annual emission rate of this Olinda Valencia orange, derived from emission measurements which include the blossoming season, is a factor of ˜10 higher than the average annual emission rate derived from measurements taken outside of the blossom season. Ambient monoterpene and linalool concentrations were measured in Riverside, California, in the spring and supported the chamber plant emissions data, with linalool concentrations as high as 17 μg m -3 being observed in an orange grove. These results show that current biogenic emission inventories which are formulated from limited survey data, generally not including seasonal variations in the vegetative emissions, can be subject to large uncertainties.

  14. 2010 NOAA Ortho-rectified Mosaic from Color Aerial Imagery of BEAUMONT, ORANGE, PORT AUTHUR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative of BEAUMONT, ORANGE,...

  15. 2009 St. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD) Lidar: Portions of Orange and Seminole Counties, Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area covers 318 square miles in the eastern half of Seminole County plus portions of north central and northeast Orange County in the state of Florida....

  16. EFFECT OF USING NUTRITION MINERALS AND GROWTH SUBSTANCE ON PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ORANGE FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek FOUDA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried to investigate the characterization of orange fruits under using applications of nutrition minerals and one application of growth substance on physical properties of orange fruits at private farm in wadi el-netron, ELbehari governorate, Egypt during winter 2011to predict maturity stage of orange fruits . The physical properties including aspect ratio(AR, Area of flat surface(Af, Area of transverse surface (At, Arithmetic diameter (Da, Density (ρ, Geometric diameter (Dg, surface area (Sa, sphericity, Volume (V and weight and the results revealed that, the high increasing percentage of orange fruits were considered as follows 9.24, 17.08, 22.65, 9.70, 27.16, 9.70, 20.45, 6.38, 24.07 and 28.84 %

  17. Decolorization of Orange Ⅱ using an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor with and without co-substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soon-An Ong; Eiichi Toorisaka; Makoto Hirata; Tadashi Hano

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the decolorization of Orange Ⅱ with and without the addition of co-substrates and nutrients under an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR).The increase in COD concentrations from 900 to 1750 to 3730 mg/L in the system treating 100 mg/L of Orange H-containing wastewater enhanced color removal from 27% to 81% to 89%,respectively.In the absence of co-substrates and nutrients,more than 95% of decolorization was achieved by the acclimatized anaerobic microbes in the bioreactor treating 600 mg/L of Orange Ⅱ.The decrease in mixed liquor suspended solids concentration by endogenous lysis of biomass preserved a high reducing environment in the ASBR,which was important for the reduction of the Orange Ⅱ azo bond that caused decolorization.The maximum decolorization rate in the ASBR was approximately 0.17 g/hr in the absence of co-substrates and nutrients.

  18. The effectiveness of eucalyptus oil, orange oil, and xylene in dissolving different endodontic sealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Kumar Yadav

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: In general, xylene was the most effective in dissolving root canal sealers than other organic solvents. Essential oils (eucalyptus oil and orange oil were found similar in their ability to dissolve Apexit Plus and Endomethasone N.

  19. Influence of the protonation state on the binding mode of methyl orange with cucurbiturils

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Suhang; Sun, Xuzhuo; Zhang, Haibo

    2016-03-01

    Binding modes of methyl orange (MO) with cucurbiturils (CBs) have been investigated by Single Crystal X-ray Diffraction and NMR Spectroscopy. Detailed study of intermolecular interactions was supported by the Hirshfeld surface analysis. Protonation state of the anionic part of methyl orange has greatly influenced the binding mode of the complex. Stabilized by hydrogen bonding at the portal, hydrophobic and dispersion interactions in the cavity, the protonated methyl orange was deeply inserted into the cavity. On the contrary, the anionic methyl orange has been pushed towards the outside of the cavity by the electrostatic repulsion between the azo group and the portal oxygen. A "water bridge" was found in MO@CB8 linking both host and guest via hydrogen bonds.

  20. Ascorbic Acid Determination in Natural Orange Juice: As a Teaching Tool of Coulometry and Polarography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertotti, Mauro; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to determine ascorbic acid concentrations in natural orange juice. The experiment is used with undergraduate pharmacy students to allow understanding of the principles of operation of the coulometer and polarograph. (DDR)

  1. Power and selection of contract terms: The case from the Brazilian orange juice sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuiuki Costa Ito

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We propose a model to explain how contract terms are selected in the presence of a form of economic power: contract power. The orange juice sector is used to illustrate an analysis that demonstrates the effects of contract power on the economic organization of the sector. We define contract power as the ability to exploit contractual gaps or failures of contractual provisions, which are strategically left incomplete. Empirical evidence from content analysis of antitrust documents supports the logic of contract power in the orange juice sector in three forms: avoiding changes to payment methods from weight to solid contents (quality; using information asymmetries to manipulate indexes that calculate the formula of orange prices; and deliberately harvesting oranges late in order to dehydrate the fruit, which consequently reduces weight and price. The paper contributes to understanding the selection of contract terms and the debate about how antitrust offices can deal with this issue.

  2. Sequencing of diverse mandarin, pummelo and orange genomes reveals complex history of admixture during citrus domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, G Albert; Prochnik, Simon; Jenkins, Jerry; Salse, Jerome; Hellsten, Uffe; Murat, Florent; Perrier, Xavier; Ruiz, Manuel; Scalabrin, Simone; Terol, Javier; Takita, Marco Aurélio; Labadie, Karine; Poulain, Julie; Couloux, Arnaud; Jabbari, Kamel; Cattonaro, Federica; Del Fabbro, Cristian; Pinosio, Sara; Zuccolo, Andrea; Chapman, Jarrod; Grimwood, Jane; Tadeo, Francisco R; Estornell, Leandro H; Muñoz-Sanz, Juan V; Ibanez, Victoria; Herrero-Ortega, Amparo; Aleza, Pablo; Pérez-Pérez, Julián; Ramón, Daniel; Brunel, Dominique; Luro, François; Chen, Chunxian; Farmerie, William G; Desany, Brian; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Harkins, Tim; Fredrikson, Karin; Burns, Paul; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Borodovsky, Mark; Reforgiato, Giuseppe; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Quetier, Francis; Navarro, Luis; Roose, Mikeal; Wincker, Patrick; Schmutz, Jeremy; Morgante, Michele; Machado, Marcos Antonio; Talon, Manuel; Jaillon, Olivier; Ollitrault, Patrick; Gmitter, Frederick; Rokhsar, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Cultivated citrus are selections from, or hybrids of, wild progenitor species whose identities and contributions to citrus domestication remain controversial. Here we sequence and compare citrus genomes--a high-quality reference haploid clementine genome and mandarin, pummelo, sweet-orange and sour-orange genomes--and show that cultivated types derive from two progenitor species. Although cultivated pummelos represent selections from one progenitor species, Citrus maxima, cultivated mandarins are introgressions of C. maxima into the ancestral mandarin species Citrus reticulata. The most widely cultivated citrus, sweet orange, is the offspring of previously admixed individuals, but sour orange is an F1 hybrid of pure C. maxima and C. reticulata parents, thus implying that wild mandarins were part of the early breeding germplasm. A Chinese wild 'mandarin' diverges substantially from C. reticulata, thus suggesting the possibility of other unrecognized wild citrus species. Understanding citrus phylogeny through genome analysis clarifies taxonomic relationships and facilitates sequence-directed genetic improvement.

  3. 7 CFR 319.56-44 - Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines from Mexico for processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN... Mexico for processing. Untreated grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis), and tangerines (Citrus reticulata) may be imported into the United States from Mexico for extracting juice...

  4. Investigating the effect of antioxidant extract from orange peel on lipids oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uduak G. AKPAN*

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research involved investigation of the extraction yield and antioxidant property of orange peel on lipid oxidation. Orange peel was oven dried, grinded to powder and extraction procedure carried out using methanol as solvent in a soxhlet extractor. The effects of time and temperature on the extraction process were considered and results obtained showed an optimum extraction temperature and time of 50ºC and 120 minutes respectively. X-ray fluorescence analysis of the orange peel extract showed that potassium and calcium are the major elements by percentag mposition of 55.5 and 32.65 respectively. In studying the effects of oran eel extract on the melon oil sample, peroxide, free fatty acid and pH analysis were carried out for a period of 60 day. The result obtained confirmed the of ability orange peel extract as antioxidant agent.

  5. A checklist of Pteridophyta of the north-eastern Orange Free State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Roux

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available A checklist of Pteridophyta recorded within a defined area of the north-eastern Orange Free State is presented. The geology, climate and vegetation of this area are discussed in brief.

  6. Genetic control of orange hilum corona of carioca beans (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Pires Tomaz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to elucidate the genetic control of orange corona color in carioca common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris. We made four crosses between carioca group cultivars that differed in respect to the presence or absence of an orange hilum corona color. The F2, F3, F1BC11, F1BC21, F2BC11 and F2BC21 phenotypic segregations were evaluated with a chi-square test which fitted with the hypothesis that one gene with a dominant allele is responsible for the orange corona color. All generations resulting from the four different crosses showed segregation patterns which agreed with the expected proportions. Our results show that the dominant G allele controls orange corona color in the carioca bean group.

  7. Sequencing of diverse mandarin, pummelo and orange genomes reveals complex history of admixture during citrus domestication

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, G. Albert; Prochnik, Simon; Jenkins, Jerry; Salse, Jerome; Hellsten, Uffe; Murat, Florent; Perrier, Xavier; Ruiz, Manuel; Scalabrin, Simone; Terol, Javier; Takita, Marco Aurelio; Labadie, Karine; Poulain, Julie; Couloux, Arnaud; Jabbari, Kamel

    2014-01-01

    Cultivated citrus are selections from, or hybrids of, wild progenitor species whose identities and contributions to citrus domestication remain controversial. Here we sequence and compare citrus genomes-a high-quality reference haploid clementine genome and mandarin, pummelo, sweet-orange and sour-orange genomes- and show that cultivated types derive from two progenitor species. Although cultivated pummelos represent selections from one progenitor species, Citrus maxima, cultivated mandarins ...

  8. Identification, characterization and expression analysis of lineage-specific genes within sweet orange (Citrus sinensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yuantao; Wu, Guizhi; Hao, Baohai; Chen, Lingling; Deng, Xiuxin; Xu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Background With the availability of rapidly increasing number of genome and transcriptome sequences, lineage-specific genes (LSGs) can be identified and characterized. Like other conserved functional genes, LSGs play important roles in biological evolution and functions. Results Two set of citrus LSGs, 296 citrus-specific genes (CSGs) and 1039 orphan genes specific to sweet orange, were identified by comparative analysis between the sweet orange genome sequences and 41 genomes and 273 transcr...

  9. Intestinal parasitic infections amongst Orang Asli (indigenous) in Malaysia: has socioeconomic development alleviated the problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Y A L; Romano, N; Colin, N; Chow, S C; Smith, H V

    2009-08-01

    Orang Asli are the indigenous minority peoples of peninsular Malaysia. Despite proactive socioeconomic development initiated by the Malaysian Government in upgrading the quality of life of the Orang Asli communities since 1978, they still remained poor with a current poverty rate of 76.9%. Poverty exacerbates the health problems faced by these communities which include malnourishment, high incidences of infectious diseases (eg. tuberculosis, leprosy, malaria) and the perpetual problem with intestinal parasitic infections. Studies reported that the mean infection rate of intestinal parasitic infections in Orang Asli communities has reduced from 91.1% in 1978, to 64.1% in the subsequent years. Although the results was encouraging, it has to be interpreted with caution because nearly 80% of studies carried out after 1978 still reported high prevalence (i.e. >50%) of soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH) among Orang Asli communities. Prior to 1978, hookworm infection is the most predominant STH but today, trichuriasis is the most common STH infections. The risk factors for intestinal parasitic infections remained unchanged and studies conducted in recent years suggested that severe STH infections contributed to malnutrition, iron deficiency anaemia and low serum retinol in Orang Asli communities. In addition, STH may also contribute to poor cognitive functions and learning ability. Improvements in socioeconomic status in Malaysia have shown positive impact on the reduction of intestinal parasitic infections in other communities however, this positive impact is less significant in the Orang Asli communities. In view of this, a national parasitic infections baseline data on morbidity and mortality in the 18 subgroups of Orang Asli, will assist in identifying intervention programmes required by these communities. It is hope that the adoption of strategies highlighted in the World Health Organisation- Healthy Village Initiatives (WHO-HVI) into Orang Asli communities will

  10. Fiber Concentrate from Orange (Citrus sinensis L.) Bagase: Characterization and Application as Bakery Product Ingredient

    OpenAIRE

    Aurea Bernardino-Nicanor; Perla Osorio-Diaz; Luis A. Bello-Perez; Juscelino Tovar; Maria R. Romero-Lopez

    2011-01-01

    Orange is a tropical fruit used in the juice industry, yielding important quantities of by products. The objective of this work was to obtain a dietary fiber-rich orange bagasse product (DFROBP), evaluate its chemical composition and its use in the preparation of a bakery product (muffin). Muffins containing two different levels of DFROBP were studied regarding chemical composition, in vitro starch digestibility, predicted glyceamic index and acceptability in a sensory test. DFROBP showed low...

  11. The Vulnerability of Community Capitals as a Threat to Orang Kuala Community Development in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Amir Zal

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Community development emphasizes the utilization of community resources, also known as community capitals. However, it is often difficult for the community to access these resources; this difficulty retards development. Such is the predicament faced by the Orang Kuala, for whom coastal changes have resulted in greater difficulty in accessing their community resources. Nor is that the only threat that they face. For affirmation of these threats, this article lists two objectives, that is, to identify the accessibility of marine resources and to explain the types of threats faced by the Orang Kuala. To achieve these objectives, a study was conducted involving 51 household heads and 5 Orang Kuala informants, all of whom are residents of Sungai Layau village in Johor, Malaysia. This study uses a mixed-method approach, the concurrent embedded design, and also interview-based questionnaires and in-depth interviews simultaneously. For the first objective, the results show that the Orang Kuala can still attain community resources in the form of marine products. However, the Orang Kuala faced three types of threats: trends, shocks, and seasonal changes. The most significant threat to the Orang Kuala is the trend, that is, cost of living and social problems. These threats can reduce their chances of acquiring benefits from these community resources. This condition is called “vulnerability of community capitals.” The objective of this article is to put forth proposals on how to increase the capacity of community resources for the Orang Kuala so that their community can attain sustainable development. This proposal is based on the reality that the threats facing the Orang Kuala are at a critical level and that they are ready to accept changes.

  12. Effects of water extracts of apple and pomegranate peel on the quality of orange squash

    OpenAIRE

    Salah-ud Din; Kashif Akram; Umar Farooq; Afshan Shafi; Farkhandah Sarfraz; Hafeez ur Rehman; Muhammad Asim Ijaz Sidhu

    2015-01-01

    Punica granatum (pomegranate) and Malus domestica (apple) are rich source of bioactive compounds i.e. phenolics components, anthocyanins and tannins that can be potential preservative agents. The aim of the present research plan was to evaluate the quality characteristics of orange squash after addition of aqueous extracts of apple and pomegranate peels. For this purpose aqueous extracts of pomegranate and apple peels were added in orange squash and then the final product was examined for phy...

  13. Orange juices enriched with chitosan: Optimisation for extending the shelf-life

    OpenAIRE

    Barry-Ryan, Catherine; Martin-Diana, Ana Belen; Rico, Daniel; Barat, J.

    2009-01-01

    Optimisation of the incorporation of chitosan in orange juice was accomplished by the evaluation of quality and nutritional markers. Response surface methodology was applied to obtain quadratic and second degree response surface model equations. The analyses showed that increases in chitosan concentration extended the quality of the orange juice significantly (p < 0.05), reducing enzymatic and non-enzymatic browning and controlling the spoilage during the storage time; however, concentrations ...

  14. Effects of industrial orange wastes on soil characteristics and on growth and production of durum wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Belligno, Adalgisa; G. Di Leo, Marzia; Marchese, Mario; Tuttobene, Rosalena

    2005-01-01

    With the aim of evaluating the possibility of recycling industrial orange wastes as soil conditioners, a research was carried out to study the effects of different doses of this orange wastes on soil parameters, some growth parameters and production of durum wheat in a Mediterranean environment where the soils are generally poor in organic matter. Three doses were used in the first year; in the second year the same doses and the residual effects of the previous treatments were studied. Soil c...

  15. Opportunities for Western Food Products in China: The Case of Orange Juice Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xuqi; Gao, Zhifeng; House, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The rapid income per capita of Chinese consumers and increasing demand for nearly all agricultural products have attracted western food industries to focus on this booming and huge market. This research investigated the perspectives of western food products in China's market, with focus on one representative western food-orange juice, by studying the Chinese consumer knowledge, perceptions, and willingness to pay (WTP) for different types of orange juice products. Though the Chinese consumers...

  16. Tinjauan Yuridis Terhadap Kecelakaan Lalu Lintas yang menyebabkan Hilangnya Nyawa Orang Lain

    OpenAIRE

    Kiro, Muh.Ramadan

    2008-01-01

    Kecelakaan lalu lintas yang menyebabkan hilangnya nyawa orang lain akibat kesalahan pengemudi biasa terulang menjadi perdebatan para pakar hukum dalam penerapan unsur delik, bahkan yang telah menjadi Yurispundensi kasus kecelakaan lalu lintas dijadikan kembali sebagai bahan kajian hukum. Berdasarkan latar belakang diatas, maka muncul permasalahan yang harus diteliti yakni bagaimana analisis hukum pidana terhadap kecelakaan lalu lintas yang menyebabkan hilangnya nyawa orang lain. Bahan rujukan...

  17. Citric acid production from orange peel wastes by solid-state fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Torrado

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis peel was employed in this work as raw material for the production of citric acid (CA by solid-state fermentation (SSF of Aspergillus niger CECT-2090 (ATCC 9142, NRRL 599 in Erlenmeyer flasks. To investigate the effects of the main operating variables, the inoculum concentration was varied in the range 0.5·10³ to 0.7·10(8 spores/g dry orange peel, the bed loading from 1.0 to 4.8 g of dry orange peel (corresponding to 35-80 % of the total volume, and the moisture content between 50 and 100 % of the maximum water retention capacity (MWRC of the material. Moreover, additional experiments were done adding methanol or water in different proportions and ways. The optimal conditions for CA production revealed to be an inoculum of 0.5·10(6 spores/g dry orange peel, a bed loading of 1.0 g of dry orange peel, and a humidification pattern of 70 % MWRC at the beginning of the incubation with posterior addition of 0.12 mL H2O/g dry orange peel (corresponding to 3.3 % of the MWRC every 12 h starting from 62 h. The addition of methanol was detrimental for the CA production. Under these conditions, the SSF ensured an effective specific production of CA (193 mg CA/g dry orange peel, corresponding to yields of product on total initial and consumed sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose of 376 and 383 mg CA/g, respectively. These results, which demonstrate the viability of the CA production by SSF from orange peel without addition of other nutrients, could be of interest to possible, future industrial applications.

  18. Citric Acid production from orange peel wastes by solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrado, Ana María; Cortés, Sandra; Manuel Salgado, José; Max, Belén; Rodríguez, Noelia; Bibbins, Belinda P; Converti, Attilio; Manuel Domínguez, José

    2011-01-01

    Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis) peel was employed in this work as raw material for the production of citric acid (CA) by solid-state fermentation (SSF) of Aspergillus niger CECT-2090 (ATCC 9142, NRRL 599) in Erlenmeyer flasks. To investigate the effects of the main operating variables, the inoculum concentration was varied in the range 0.5·10(3) to 0.7·10(8) spores/g dry orange peel, the bed loading from 1.0 to 4.8 g of dry orange peel (corresponding to 35-80 % of the total volume), and the moisture content between 50 and 100 % of the maximum water retention capacity (MWRC) of the material. Moreover, additional experiments were done adding methanol or water in different proportions and ways. The optimal conditions for CA production revealed to be an inoculum of 0.5·10(6) spores/g dry orange peel, a bed loading of 1.0 g of dry orange peel, and a humidification pattern of 70 % MWRC at the beginning of the incubation with posterior addition of 0.12 mL H2O/g dry orange peel (corresponding to 3.3 % of the MWRC) every 12 h starting from 62 h. The addition of methanol was detrimental for the CA production. Under these conditions, the SSF ensured an effective specific production of CA (193 mg CA/g dry orange peel), corresponding to yields of product on total initial and consumed sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose) of 376 and 383 mg CA/g, respectively. These results, which demonstrate the viability of the CA production by SSF from orange peel without addition of other nutrients, could be of interest to possible, future industrial applications. PMID:24031646

  19. Changes of colour and carotenoids contents during high intensity pulsed electric field treatment in orange juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, C; Esteve, M J; Rodrigo, D; Torregrosa, F; Frígola, A

    2006-11-01

    Liquid chromatography (LC) was the method chosen to evaluate the effects of high intensity pulsed electric fields (HIPEF), with different electric field intensities (25, 30, 35 and 40 kV/cm) and different treatment times (30-340 micros), on orange juice cis/trans carotenoid contents. In parallel, a conventional heat treatment (90 degrees C, 20 s) was applied to the orange juice in order to compare the effect on the carotenoid contents. HIPEF processing of orange juice is an alternative to the thermal treatment of pasteurization, provided that it is kept refrigerated, because, when the most extreme conditions of this kind of treatment are applied, the decrease in the concentration of carotenoids with vitamin A activity is very small, and also most of the carotenoids identified have a slightly increased concentration after application of the most intense treatments, although always less than in untreated fresh juice. In any case, pasteurization treatment causes a greater decrease in the concentration of most of the carotenoids identified and the carotenoids with vitamin A activity. The total carotenoid concentration decreased by 12.6% in pasteurized orange juice with respect to untreated fresh orange juice, as opposed to decreases of 9.6%, 6.3% or 7.8% when fields of 25, 30 or 40 kV/cm were applied. Orange juice treated with HIPEF shows a greater tendency towards the colour yellow and a lesser tendency towards red with respect to untreated orange juice, while the luminance of the juice remains practically invariable. This tendency is less than in pasteurized orange juice.

  20. Citrus sinensis Annotation Project (CAP): A Comprehensive Database for Sweet Orange Genome

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jia; Chen, DiJun; Lei, Yang; Chang, Ji-Wei; Hao, Bao-Hai; Xing, Feng; Li, Sen; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Chen, Ling-ling

    2014-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most important and widely grown fruit crop with global production ranking firstly among all the fruit crops in the world. Sweet orange accounts for more than half of the Citrus production both in fresh fruit and processed juice. We have sequenced the draft genome of a double-haploid sweet orange (C. sinensis cv. Valencia), and constructed the Citrus sinensis annotation project (CAP) to store and visualize the sequenced genomic and transcriptome data. CAP provides GBrowse-...

  1. EFEKTIVITAS KOMUNIKASI INTERPERSONAL ORANG TUA TERHADAP ANAK TENTANG PENDIDIKAN SEKS DI KOTA MAKASSAR

    OpenAIRE

    HARDININGRUM, DWIASTUTI

    2012-01-01

    Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui: (1.) Untuk mengetahui efektivitas komunikasi interpersonal orang tua terhadap anak tentang pendidikan seks di kota Makassar. (2.) Untuk mengetahui cara-cara apa sajakah yang ditempuh oleh remaja di Makassar dalam memperoleh pendidikan seks. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Kota Makassar. Adapun populasi penelitian ini adalah seluruh remaja dengan usia 10-19 tahun di kota Makassar dengan jumlah 260.615 orang yang tersebar di 14 (empat belas) keca...

  2. Photoconvertible Behavior of LSSmOrange Applicable for Single Emission Band Optical Highlighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Keersmaecker, Herlinde; Fron, Eduard; Rocha, Susana; Kogure, Takako; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Hofkens, Johan; Mizuno, Hideaki

    2016-09-01

    Photoswitchable fluorescent proteins are capable of changing their spectral properties upon light irradiation, thus allowing one to follow a chosen subpopulation of molecules in a biological system. Recently, we revealed a photoinduced absorption band shift of LSSmOrange, which was originally engineered to have a large energy gap between excitation and emission bands. Here, we evaluated the performance of LSSmOrange as a fluorescent tracer in living cells. The absorption maximum of LSSmOrange in HeLa cells shifted from 437 nm to 553 nm upon illumination with a 405-, 445-, 458-, or 488-nm laser on a laser-scanning microscope, whereas the emission band remained same (∼570 nm). LSSmOrange behaves as a freely diffusing protein in living cells, enabling the use of the protein as a fluorescence tag for studies of protein dynamics. By targeting LSSmOrange in mitochondria, we observed an exchange of soluble molecules between the matrices upon mitochondrial fusion. Since converted and unconverted LSSmOrange proteins have similar emission spectra, this tracer offers unique possibilities for multicolor imaging. The fluorescence emission from LSSmOrange was spectrally distinguishable from that of eYFP and mRFP, and could be separated completely by applying linear unmixing. Furthermore, by using a femtosecond laser at 850 nm, we showed that a two-photon process could evoke a light-induced red shift of the absorption band of LSSmOrange, providing a strict confinement of the conversion volume in a three-dimensional space.

  3. Determination of Flavanones in Orange Juices Obtained from Different Sources by HPLC/DAD

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Flavanones (hesperidin, naringenin, naringin, and poncirin) in industrial, hand-squeezed orange juices and from fresh-in-squeeze machines orange juices were determined by HPLC/DAD analysis using a previously described liquid-liquid extraction method. Method validation including the accuracy was performed by using recovery tests. Samples (36) collected from different Brazilian locations and brands were analyzed. Concentrations were determined using an external standard curve. The limits of det...

  4. Teaching and Learning Problems of the Orang Asli Education: Students’ Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ramle bin Abdullah; Wan Hasmah Wan Mamat; W. A. Amir Zal; Asmawi Mohamad bin Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The standard of education among the Orang Asli people as an indigenous ethnic in Malaysia is still at a low level. The majority of the Orang Asli people receive formal education only at the primary level. However, there is a significant trend where the majority of students who completed their primary education will drop out from secondary school. Hence, only two percent have been successful in advancing their higher education in tertiary institutions. Such problems are commonly associated wit...

  5. Activated Orange Meso-Carp Carbon (AOMC); An Acceptable Remediation Techniques for Crude Oil Pollution Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Atulegwu Patrick Uzoije; Luke O. Uzoigwe; C.I.O.Kamalu

    2012-01-01

    Orange mesocarp with its potentials application to remove spilled crude oil was used to prepare an activated adsorbent. Therefore, adsorption of crude oil onto the activated orange meso-carp (AOMC) was investigated. Batch experiment was adopted for the equilibrium studies and the studies were conducted for various operational parameters such as varying crude oil concentration and temperature values. The crude oil samples of A, B, C, D and E, with concentrations 6045, 4393, 8508, 11583, and 52...

  6. Achieving a balance between small singlet-triplet energy splitting and high fluorescence radiative rate in a quinoxaline-based orange-red thermally activated delayed fluorescence emitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ling; Wu, Zhongbin; Xie, Guohua; Zhong, Cheng; Zhu, Zece; Cong, Hengjiang; Ma, Dongge; Yang, Chuluo

    2016-09-21

    A new orange-red thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitter is designed and synthesized by incorporating a fluorine-substituted quinoxaline as an electron-acceptor and a phenoxazine as an electron-donor. The rational molecular design enables small singlet-triplet energy splitting (ΔEST) and high fluorescence radiative rate (k) for long-wavelength TADF emitters. The organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) employing the new TADF emitter achieve maximum external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) of 13.9% and 9.0% for the vacuum- and solution-processed OLEDs, respectively.

  7. Detection of mandarin in orange juice by single-nucleotide polymorphism qPCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldeguer, Miriam; López-Andreo, María; Gabaldón, José A; Puyet, Antonio

    2014-02-15

    A dual-probe real time PCR (qPCR) DNA-based analysis was devised for the identification of mandarin in orange juice. A single nucleotide polymorphism at the trnL-trnF intergenic region of the chloroplast chromosome was confirmed in nine orange (Citrus sinensis) and thirteen commercial varieties of mandarin, including Citrus reticulata and Citrus unshiu species and a mandarin × tangelo hybrid. Two short minor-groove binding fluorescent probes targeting the polymorphic sequence were used in the dual-probe qPCR, which allowed the detection of both species in single-tube reactions. The similarity of PCR efficiencies allowed a simple estimation of the ratio mandarin/orange in the juice samples, which correlated to the measured difference of threshold cycle values for both probes. The limit of detection of the assay was 5% of mandarin in orange juice, both when the juice was freshly prepared (not from concentrate) or reconstituted from concentrate, which would allow the detection of fraudulently added mandarin juice. The possible use of the dual-probe system for quantitative measurements was also tested on fruit juice mixtures. qPCR data obtained from samples containing equal amounts of mandarin and orange juice revealed that the mandarin target copy number was approximately 2.6-fold higher than in orange juice. The use of a matrix-adapted control as calibrator to compensate the resulting C(T) bias allowed accurate quantitative measurements to be obtained. PMID:24128588

  8. APPLICATION OF ESSENTIAL OILS EXTRACTED FROM PEELS OF ORANGES AS A PARTIAL SUBSTITUTE OF FLOCCULANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kowalczyk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study attempts to determine the optimum conditions of the process of mechanical dewatering of municipal sewage sludge and reduction of odours emitted during this process. The process of dewatering of municipal sewage sludge was carried out using laboratory sedimentation centrifuge of MPW-350 type. Municipal sewage sludge stabilized during anaerobic digestion, taken from Wastewater Treatment Plant Jamno. The dewatering process was aided by cationic flocculant Praestol 855BS of real solution concentration 0.3% and essential oil from orange, which was extracted from orange peels in the process of steam distillation. Constant parameters of dewatering process were: pH, temperature, colour, texture, smell, water content and dry matter content. Independent variables of dewatering process were: centrifugation time (in the range 1–10 min, centrifugation speed (in the range 1000–3000 rotations/min and dose of mixture of flocculant Praestol 855BS (79% + essential oil of orange (21% in the range 0–48 ml/dm3. Water content in the sludge after the process, dry matter content in the effluent and the duration of the smell of oil in the sediment were determined. Studies showed that the essential oil from orange may be used as a partial substitute of flocculant Praestol 855BS in the process of centrifugal sedimentation. Essential oil of orange significantly reduces unpleasant odours which are emitted from sludge during mechanical dewatering. Simultaneous application of both reagents, ie. flocculant Praestol 855BS 79%, and essential oil of orange 21% of volume is recommended.

  9. Equilibrium and thermodynamic studies of Cd (II) biosorption by chemically modified orange peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arbind; Kumar, Vipin

    2016-03-01

    Agricultural wastes have great potential of removing heavy metal ions from aqueous solution. Removal of Cd (II) from aqueous solutions onto chemically modified orange peel was studied at different pH, contact time, initial metal concentrations, adsorbent doses and temperature. Batch experiments were carried out under optimized conditions to evaluate the adsorption capacity of orange peel chemically modified with NaOH. The results showed that maximum adsorption capacity of modified orange peel, approximately 97.0%, was observed 3 mg 1⁻¹ of initial Cd(II) concentration pH 6 for 4 g 1⁻¹ adsorbent dosage, 200 min contact time and 298 K temperature. Adsorption efficiency of modified orange peel decreased with increase in temperature indicated exothermic nature of adsorption. A negative value of ΔG⁰(-8.59 kJ mol⁻¹) confirmed the feasibility of adsorption process and spontaneous nature of adsorption. A negative value of ΔH⁰ (-28.08 kJ mol⁻¹) indicated exothermic nature while a negative ΔS⁰ (-66.86 J K⁻¹ mol⁻¹) value suggested decrease in degree of freedom of the adsorbed species. The results showed that biosorption process of Cd(II) ions by chemically modified orange peel is feasible, spontaneous and exothermic under studied conditions. Chemically by modified orange peel investigated in the present study showed good potential for the removal of cadmium from aqueous solutions. PMID:27097438

  10. Genetic diversity analysis of Valencia and Navel group sweet orange cultivars by SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlknur POLAT

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] fruit is one of the main citrus fruits, Navel and Valencia group sweet orange being the most representative and recognizable species of this species. The aims of this study were to determine genetic relationships and diversity of 84 Navel and 36 Valencia groups of sweet orange using SSR (simple sequence repeat molecular markers. Twenty-six SSR primers were tested on these accessions. Seven SSR primers produced thirteen polymorphic fragments, eight SSR primers produced monomorphic fragments, and eleven SSR primers produced no scorable fragments. Thirteen SSR primers produced a total of 29 fragments and 13 of them were polymorphic. The number of average polymorphic fragments per primer was 1.93. The mean polymorphism information content (PIC and marker index (MI are 0.16 and 11.74, respectively. The Dice’s similarity coefficient among Navel and Valencia group sweet oranges ranged from 0.42 to 1.00 and matrix correlation (r was 0.79. In the cluster analysis, Navel group sweet oranges were indicated as a separate group from Valencia group sweet oranges. ‘Antalya (40’ was most distinct accessions from the others.

  11. Assessing the Effects of Climate Variability on Orange Yield in Florida to Reduce Production Forecast Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha Larrauri, P.

    2015-12-01

    Orange production in Florida has experienced a decline over the past decade. Hurricanes in 2004 and 2005 greatly affected production, almost to the same degree as strong freezes that occurred in the 1980's. The spread of the citrus greening disease after the hurricanes has also contributed to a reduction in orange production in Florida. The occurrence of hurricanes and diseases cannot easily be predicted but the additional effects of climate on orange yield can be studied and incorporated into existing production forecasts that are based on physical surveys, such as the October Citrus forecast issued every year by the USDA. Specific climate variables ocurring before and after the October forecast is issued can have impacts on flowering, orange drop rates, growth, and maturation, and can contribute to the forecast error. Here we present a methodology to incorporate local climate variables to predict the USDA's orange production forecast error, and we study the local effects of climate on yield in different counties in Florida. This information can aid farmers to gain an insight on what is to be expected during the orange production cycle, and can help supply chain managers to better plan their strategy.

  12. Formation of the Inclusion Complex of Orange II with β-Cyclodextrin and Its Photostability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Ping; Liu Bin; Zhang Zhe; Wu Feng; Deng Nan-sheng

    2003-01-01

    Inclusion complex of Orange II with β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD) and the anti-photolysis effect under UV-light were investigated. The molar ratio of inclusion complex of β-Cyclodextrin and Orange Ⅱ is 1∶1. The formation constant K=1.236×103 L/mol was determined by the UV and Fluorescence spectra respectively, which was quite in accordance with the calculation with a modified Benesi-Hildbrand equation. The inclusion complex was characterized by the IR spectra and the molar ratio of inclusion complex is 1∶1 too. The formation constant K=1.266×103 L/mol was determined by 1 H NMR analysis and was nearly the same by UV and fluorescence spectra. The photocatalytic decolorization rate of Orange Ⅱ solutions containing β-CD and TiO2 was smaller by 51.9% than that of the Orange Ⅱ solutions only containing TiO2, while in the case of direct photolysis of Orange Ⅱ solutions, β-CD can lower the photolysis rate by 48.1% under UV-light. This result indicates β-CD can inhibit the photolysis and photocatalytic decolorization of Orange Ⅱ under UV-light. The β-CD inclusion complex was found to be persistent to UV-light photolysis.

  13. Satiation and satiety sensations produced by eating oatmeal vs. oranges. a comparison of different scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karalus, Melinda; Vickers, Zata

    2016-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to use the 5-Factor Satiety Questionnaire (Karalus, 2011) to compare the changes in satiation and satiety produced by eating oranges with the changes produced by eating oatmeal. A secondary objective was to compare the data from the 5-Factor Satiety Questionnaire with that from more traditionally used scales. Thirty participants evaluated hunger and fullness feelings before breakfast and at 0, 60, and 120 min after consuming breakfasts of equal volumes of oranges and oatmeal. We covertly recorded food intake from an ad libitum snack offered 2 h after breakfast. Oranges were less effective than oatmeal for decreasing mental hunger immediately after eating. Mental hunger increased more and mental fullness decreased more during the 2-h period after eating oranges than after eating oatmeal. Neither physical hunger changes nor physical fullness changes differed between the two foods. Participants ate more food at an ad libitum snack 2 h after eating the oranges compared with after eating the oatmeal. We were better able to distinguish the feelings produced by the oatmeal from the feelings produced by the oranges with the factor scales than with the traditional scales of hunger and fullness. PMID:26796421

  14. Evaluation of Pectin derived from Orange peel as a Pharmaceutical Excipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ravindrakullai reddy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work is extraction of pectin from waste of orange fruit peel and further characterization for useful alternative pharmaceutical excipient. The pectin was subjected to phytochemical and physicochemical characterization of its safety and suitability to use as binding and suspending agent. FT-IR spectroscopy, DSC studies were performed for drug, orange peel pectin powder, prepared tablet and suspension formulations. Aceclofenac tablets were prepared by wet granulation method containing mannitol as diluent; using 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 %w/w of orange peel pectin powder and 7.5 %w/w of PVP (reference as binding agents in the tablet formulation. Aceclofenac suspensions were prepared with orange peel pectin powder at 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 %w/v as suspending agent and 1.5 %w/v of sodium CMC as reference suspending agent. Pharmaceutical properties of granules and tablets such as carr’s index, Haunser’s ratio and angle of repose and post compression parameters like friability, hardness, and disintegration time studies were determine and found satisfactory. The evaluation test of suspension like sedimentation volume, redispersibility, pH, degree of flocculation were found satisfactory. In vitro release studies shows that release rate of drug is decreased with increase in the orange peel pectin powder percentage in the formulation. Orange peel pectin powder showed good binding and suspending properties at 10 %w/w and 2 %w/v, respectively.

  15. Detection of mandarin in orange juice by single-nucleotide polymorphism qPCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldeguer, Miriam; López-Andreo, María; Gabaldón, José A; Puyet, Antonio

    2014-02-15

    A dual-probe real time PCR (qPCR) DNA-based analysis was devised for the identification of mandarin in orange juice. A single nucleotide polymorphism at the trnL-trnF intergenic region of the chloroplast chromosome was confirmed in nine orange (Citrus sinensis) and thirteen commercial varieties of mandarin, including Citrus reticulata and Citrus unshiu species and a mandarin × tangelo hybrid. Two short minor-groove binding fluorescent probes targeting the polymorphic sequence were used in the dual-probe qPCR, which allowed the detection of both species in single-tube reactions. The similarity of PCR efficiencies allowed a simple estimation of the ratio mandarin/orange in the juice samples, which correlated to the measured difference of threshold cycle values for both probes. The limit of detection of the assay was 5% of mandarin in orange juice, both when the juice was freshly prepared (not from concentrate) or reconstituted from concentrate, which would allow the detection of fraudulently added mandarin juice. The possible use of the dual-probe system for quantitative measurements was also tested on fruit juice mixtures. qPCR data obtained from samples containing equal amounts of mandarin and orange juice revealed that the mandarin target copy number was approximately 2.6-fold higher than in orange juice. The use of a matrix-adapted control as calibrator to compensate the resulting C(T) bias allowed accurate quantitative measurements to be obtained.

  16. Inactivation of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores in apple and orange juice concentrates by gamma irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su-Yeon; Park, Sang-Hyun; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of reconstituted apple and orange juice on reduction of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores by gamma irradiation. Spores of A. acidoterrestris were inoculated into three concentrations of apple (18, 36, and 72 °Brix) and orange (11, 33, and 66 °Brix) juice and subjected to five radiation doses (1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 kGy). No significant reductions (P > 0.05) in spores were observed after the 1-kGy treatment for all apple and orange concentrations. Spores in 18, 36, and 72 °Brix apple juice concentrates subjected to 10 kGy were reduced to 4.34, 3.9, and 3.84 log CFU/ml, respectively. Similar results were observed for orange juice. When 10 kGy was applied to 11 °Brix orange juice, populations of spores were reduced by 5 log CFU/ml. The reduction of spores in 33 and 66 °Brix orange juice concentrates exposed to 10-kGy gamma irradiation was 4.54 and 3.85 log CFU/ml, respectively. Juice concentration did not affect (P > 0.05) the number of surviving A. acidoterrestris spores from the same kGy treatment. Gamma irradiation treatment did not change the pH or water activity of the juice (P > 0.05).

  17. Satiation and satiety sensations produced by eating oatmeal vs. oranges. a comparison of different scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karalus, Melinda; Vickers, Zata

    2016-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to use the 5-Factor Satiety Questionnaire (Karalus, 2011) to compare the changes in satiation and satiety produced by eating oranges with the changes produced by eating oatmeal. A secondary objective was to compare the data from the 5-Factor Satiety Questionnaire with that from more traditionally used scales. Thirty participants evaluated hunger and fullness feelings before breakfast and at 0, 60, and 120 min after consuming breakfasts of equal volumes of oranges and oatmeal. We covertly recorded food intake from an ad libitum snack offered 2 h after breakfast. Oranges were less effective than oatmeal for decreasing mental hunger immediately after eating. Mental hunger increased more and mental fullness decreased more during the 2-h period after eating oranges than after eating oatmeal. Neither physical hunger changes nor physical fullness changes differed between the two foods. Participants ate more food at an ad libitum snack 2 h after eating the oranges compared with after eating the oatmeal. We were better able to distinguish the feelings produced by the oatmeal from the feelings produced by the oranges with the factor scales than with the traditional scales of hunger and fullness.

  18. Formation of the Inclusion Complex of Orange Ⅱ with β-Cyclodextrin and Its Photostability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuPing; LiuBin; ZhangZhe; WuFeng; DengNan-sheng

    2003-01-01

    Inclusion complex of Orange Ⅱ with β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD)and the anti-photolysis effect under UV-light were investigated. The molar ratio of inclusion complex of β-Cyclodextrin and Orange Ⅱ is 1 : 1. The formation constant K=1.236×103 L/mol was determined by the UV and Fluorescence spectra respectively, which was quite in accordance with the calculation with a modified Benesi-Hildbrand equation. The inclusion complex was characterized by the IR spectra and the molar ratio of inclusion complex is 1:1 too. The formation constant K= 1. 266×103 L/mol was determined by 1H NMR analysis and was nearly the same by UV and fluorescence spectra. The photocatalytic decolorization rate of Orange Ⅱ solutions containing β-CD and TiO2 was smaller by 51.9% than that of the Orange Ⅱ solutions only containing TiO2, while in the case of direct photolysis of Orange Ⅱ solutions, β-CD can lower the photolysis rate by 48.1% under UV-light. This result indicates β-CD can inhibit the photolysis and photocatalytic decolorization of Orange Ⅱ under UV-light. The β-CD inclusion complex was found to be persistent to UV-light photolysis.

  19. VIABILIDADE DO PÓLEN EM VARIEDADES DE LARANJA DOCE POLLEN VIABILITY IN SWEET ORANGE VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Tobias Domingues

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Uma vez que a polinização é um dos pontos decisivos para o crescimento e desenvolvimento do fruto, contribuindo com os gametas masculinos para a fecundação e determinando, na maioria das vezes, a fixação dos frutos em citros, torna-se necessário conhecer o grau de esterilidade masculina nas diferentes variedades de laranja doce para sua possível utilização em programas de melhoramento. A esterilidade é limitante para programas que envolvam a hibridação sexual, por outro lado possui sua importância econômica em citros induzindo menor número de sementes por fruto em certas variedades. Com a finalidade de caracterizar 44 variedades de laranja doce (Citrus sinensis [L.] osbeck quanto à viabilidade do pólen, foram coletadas anteras das variedades enxertadas sobre tangerineira Cleópatra. As variedades estudadas pertencem aos principais grupos de laranja doce: com acidez (como a laranja 'Pêra', de baixa acidez (como a laranja 'Lima', com umbigo (como a laranja 'Bahia' e sangüíneas (como a laranja 'Rubi Blood'. O percentual de pólen viável foi avaliado por meio da coloração com carmim acético a 25% e contagem sob microscópio ótico. Foram observados valores que variaram desde 12,0% para a 'Pêra Sem Sementes' até 88,8% para a variedade 'Hamlin Reserva'. Os clones de laranja 'Hamlin' mostraram maior percentual de pólen viável. Não foi observada presença de pólen para as variedades produtoras de laranjas de umbigo, originadas da variedade Bahia. As variedades 'Pêra', 'Valência' e 'Natal', as quais são as principais cultivares da citricultura paulista e nacional, apresentaram baixos percentuais de pólen viável.Pollination is one of the most critical points in fruit growth and development, contributing with male gametes for fertilization and determine, greatly, fruit setting in citrus. It is necessary to evaluate male sterility in sweet orange varieties for their possible use in breeding programs. The sterility limits

  20. Effect of acid orange 7 on nitrification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yongjie (ManTech Environmental Tech., Inc., Dayton, OH (United States)); Bishop, P.L. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering)

    The effect of Acid Orange 7 (AO7), an azo dye commonly used in textile, pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries, on the nitrification process is studied using completely stirred tank reactors (CSTR) and batch treatment systems. Azo dyes are of concern because many of the dyes or their metabolic intermediates are carcinogenic. AO7 biodegradation is found to be essentially complete when solids retention times (SRT) are maintained above 7.5 days, but systems with lower SRTs are unstable. It is shown that AO7 inhibits all stages of the nitrification process. Nitrite oxidizers are found to be more sensitive to AO7 than ammonium oxidizers. The results of kinetic studies indicate that the inhibition of ammonium oxidation is typified by noncompetitive inhibition; the presence of AO7 decreases the maximum substrate utilization rate and very slightly increases K[sub s], the half-saturation constant. AO7 is found to be less toxic to nitrification than some metal and phenolic compounds, but more toxic than some common organic compounds such as formalin, methanol, or acetone.

  1. Adsorption of Methyl Orange on Magnetically Separable Mesoporous Titania Nanocomposite☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Libo Gao; Qiang Zhang; Junyang Li; Ruiting Feng; Hongyan Xu; Chenyang Xue

    2014-01-01

    The adsorption of mesoporous Fe3O4–SiO2–TiO2 (MFST), which can be separated easily from solution by a mag-net, for the removal of methyl orange (MO) was investigated. The nitrogen adsorption–desorption measurement shows successful synthesis of MFST with an average pore size of 3.8 nm and a large specific surface area of 55 m2·g−1. About 95%adsorption percentage of MO is achieved with an initial concentration of 10 mg·L−1 in the dark and the MFST exhibits superior adsorption ability under acid conditions. The adsorption data fit wel with the pseudo-second order model for adsorption. After 4 cycles, the adsorption rate for MO remains 74%in the dark and the MFST can be recovered in a magnetic field with a recovery of about 80%(by mass). It demon-strates that the samples have significant value on applications of wastewater treatment.

  2. Decolorization of Mordant Orange-1 by Marinobacter algicola MO-17

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Shertate

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The textile industries use different types of dyes in their processing units which are liberated in natural marine water bodies. This release of dyes in turn affect the marine flora and fauna very adversely. Approach: The release of textile dyes into the environment is a matter of concern due to the toxicity, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity and xenobiotic nature. Hence, considerable attention has been given in determining the ability of marine microorganism in decolorization and degradation of textile dyes. Results: The present study deals with the decolorization of Mordant Orange-1 was carried out using the acclimatized Marinobacter algicola MO-17 isolated from natural marine environment. The acclimatized strain was capable of decolorizing 800 μg mL-1 of the dye at high salt concentration (12% in 24 h. The percent decolorization of the dye was moderated by spectroscopy at 385 nm (λmax. Conclusion/Recommendations: The spectrophotometric analysis showed 78.78% decolorization in Nutrient Broth and 76.78% decolorization in Half Strength Nutrient Broth. The percent Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD reduction of the dye by the strain was 90%. From the study performed, we conclude that, this acclimatized strain can prove better option for bioremediation of textile dyes in wastes containing high salts and in marine environment.

  3. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF HEAT-TREATED ORANGE JUICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Garnacho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the main concerns when it comes to produce foodstuff is to guarantee the consumer’s safety, preserving at the same time the original nutritive and organoleptic characteristics of the product. With the purpose of extending foodstuffs shelf life, a lot of products are thermally treated before they become commercialized. However, these thermal procedures are carried out in heating exchangers, which calls for a great deal of energy to produce the heat. Nowadays, new technologies like microwaves are being researched in order to be actual alternatives to the conventional treatments. However, the industrial application of microwave energy is still limited by the uncertainty of the energy dissipation and by the lack of information on reactions except for the thermal effects. Furthermore, the social opinion about the utilization of microwaves as a thermal treatment for foodstuff is not very favorable (Wayne and Newel, 2000; Wild, n/a. It is thought by a lot of people that the use of microwaves deteriorates the final quality of food and it consequently damages consumers’ health. This paper shows a research based on the application of microwaves to thermally treat orange juice, with the purpose of investigating the viability of the technology of microwaves on foodstuff.

  4. Aerobic biodegradation pathway for Remazol Orange by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarayu, K; Sandhya, S

    2010-02-01

    Removal of azo dyes from effluent generated by textile industries is rather difficult. Azo dyes represent a major class of synthetic colorants that are mutagenic and carcinogenic. Pseudomonas aeruginosa grew well in the presence of Remazol Orange (RO) and was able to decolorize and degrade it. In the present study, the decolorization and degradation efficiency using single culture P. aeruginosa with RO and textile wastewaters is studied. The elucidation of decolorization pathway for P. aeruginosa is of special interest. The degradation pathway and the metabolic products formed during the degradation were also predicted with the help of high performance liquid chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis. The data show the cleavage of the azo dye RO to form both methyl metanilic acid and 4-aminobenzoic acid after decolorization and finally to oxidation forms benzoic acid, alkenes, aldehydes, and alkynes. The organism was able to decolorize the dye RO and wastewater effectively to the maximum of 82.4% and 62%, respectively.

  5. SURFACE ENERGY BALANCE OVER ORANGE ORCHARD USING SURFACE RENEWAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Barbagallo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Reliable estimation of surface sensible and latent heat flux is the most important process to appraise energy and mass exchange among atmosphere and biosphere. In this study the surface energy fluxes were measured over an irrigated orange orchard during 2005-2008 monitoring periods using a Surface Renewal- Energy Balance approach. The experimental area is located in a representative orchard growing area of eastern Sicily (Italy. The performance of Surface Renewal (SR analysis for estimating sensible heat flux (H was analysed and evaluated in terms of correlation with H fluxes from the eddy covariance (EC method. Study revealed that the mean available energy (RN- G and latent heat flux (LE were of about 300 W m-2 and 237 W m-2, respectively, during dry periods and unstable-case atmospheric conditions. The estimated crop coefficient Kc values for the orchard crop averaged close to 0.80, which is considerably higher than previous FAO studies that found the value to be 0.65 for citrus with 70% of ground cover. The intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (LI PAR by the crop was measured and relationships between LAI and crop coefficient (Kc were established.

  6. Optimization of microwave assisted extraction of pectin from orange peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash Maran, J; Sivakumar, V; Thirugnanasambandham, K; Sridhar, R

    2013-09-12

    In this study, microwave-assisted extraction was applied for pectin extraction from the dried orange peel and Box-Behnken response surface design was used to study and optimize the effects of processing variables (microwave power, irradiation time, pH and solid-liquid ratio) on the yield of pectin. The amount of pectin extracted increased with increasing microwave power, while it reduces as the time, pH and solid-liquid ratio increased. From the results, second order polynomial model was developed and it adequately explained the data variation and significantly represented the actual relationship between independent variables and the response. An optimization study using Derringer's desired function methodology was performed and optimal conditions based on both individual and combinations of all independent variables (microwave power of 422W, irradiation time of 169 s, pH of 1.4 and solid-liquid ratio of 1:16.9 g/ml) were determined with maximum pectin yield of 19.24%, which was confirmed through validation experiments.

  7. Moro orange juice prevents fatty liver in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Federico Salamone; Marco Giorgio; Fabio Galvano; Giovanni Li Volti; Lucilla Titta; Lidia Puzzo; Ignazio Barbagallo; Francesco La Delia; Shira Zelber-Sagi; Michele Malaguarnera; Pier Giuseppe Pelicci

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To establish if the juice of Moro,an anthocyaninrich orange,may improve liver damage in mice with diet-induced obesity.METHODS:Eight-week-old mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and were administrated water or Moro juice for 12 wk.Liver morphology,gene expression of lipid transcription factors,and metabolic enzymes were assessed.RESULTS:Mice fed HFD displayed increased body weight,insulin resistance and dyslipidemia.Moro juice administration limited body weight gain,enhanced insulin sensitivity,and decreased serum triglycerides and total cholesterol.Mice fed HFD showed liver steatosis associated with ballooning.Dietary Moro juice markedly improved liver steatosis by inducing the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-a and its target gene acylCoA-oxidase,a key enzyme of lipid oxidation.Consistently,Moro juice consumption suppressed the expression of liver X receptor-o and its target gene fatty acid synthase,and restored liver glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1 activity.CONCLUSION:Moro juice counteracts liver steatogenesis in mice with diet-induced obesity and thus may represent a promising dietary option for the prevention of fatty liver.

  8. Orange fluorescent proteins constructed from cyanobacteriochromes chromophorylated with phycoerythrobilin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ya-Fang; Xu, Jin-Guo; Tang, Kun; Miao, Dan; Gärtner, Wolfgang; Scheer, Hugo; Zhao, Kai-Hong; Zhou, Ming

    2014-05-01

    Cyanobacteriochromes are a structurally and spectrally highly diverse class of phytochrome-related photosensory biliproteins. They contain one or more GAF domains that bind phycocyanobilin (PCB) autocatalytically; some of these proteins are also capable of further modifying PCB to phycoviolobilin or rubins. We tested the chromophorylation with the non-photochromic phycoerythrobilin (PEB) of 16 cyanobacteriochrome GAFs from Nostoc sp. PCC 7120, of Slr1393 from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, and of Tlr0911 from Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1. Nine GAFs could be autocatalytically chromophorylated in vivo/in E. coli with PEB, resulting in highly fluorescent biliproteins with brightness comparable to that of fluorescent proteins like GFP. In several GAFs, PEB was concomitantly converted to phycourobilin (PUB) during binding. This not only shifted the spectra, but also increased the Stokes shift. The chromophorylated GAFs could be oligomerized further by attaching a GCN4 leucine zipper domain, thereby enhancing the absorbance and fluorescence of the complexes. The presence of both PEB and PUB makes these oligomeric GAF-"bundles" interesting models for energy transfer akin to the antenna complexes found in cyanobacterial phycobilisomes. The thermal and photochemical stability and their strong brightness make these constructs promising orange fluorescent biomarkers. PMID:24604419

  9. Tectonic subsidence history and thermal evolution of the Orange Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, K. K.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; van Wees, J.; Paton, D. A.; Kuhlmann, G.

    2008-12-01

    The Orange Basin offshore southwest Africa appears to represent a classical example of continental rifting and break up associated with large-scale, transient volcanism. The presence of lower crustal bodies of high seismic velocities indicates that large volumes of igneous crust formed as a consequence of lithospheric extension. We present results of a combined approach using subsidence analysis and basin history inversion models. Our results show that a classical uniform stretching model does not account for the observed tectonic subsidence. Moreover we find that that the thermal and subsidence implications of underplating need to be considered. Another departure from the uniform stretching model is re-newed sub-crustal stretching and linked to that uplift in the Cenozoic which is necessary to reproduce the observed phases of erosion and the present day depth of the basin. The dimension of these events has been examined and quantified in terms of tectonic uplift and sub-crustal stretching. Based on these forward models we predict the heat flow evolution not only for the available real wells but also for virtual wells over the entire study area. Finally the hydrocarbon potential and the temperature evolution is presented and shown in combination with inferred maturation of the sediments for depth intervals which comprise potential source rocks.

  10. Brassinosteroid Enhances Cold Stress Tolerance of Washington Navel Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Fruit by Regulating Antioxidant Enzymes During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Ghorbani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of brassinosteroid (BR on chilling injury of Washington Navel orange (Citrus sinensis L. fruit was investigated. BR at the concentrations of 0.75 and 1.5 ppm effectively reduced chilling injury of Washington Navel orange fruit during five months storage at 3°C, and BR at 1.5 ppm showed the best effect. BR treatment also reduced the lipid peroxidaion and peroxide hydrogen content of peel and pulp during storage. Results of physiological response in orange fruit showed that BR induced the activity of antioxidant enzymes including catalase and peroxidase. These results indicate that the elicitation of an antioxidant response in orange fruit by BR may be associated with chilling injury alleviation. Moreover, BR maintained the orange quality by decrease of lipid peroxidation and peroxide hydrogen content. The present study is the first evidence that BR enhances orange fruit tolerance to cold stress and therefore fruit quality.

  11. Insulin sensitivity and lipid profile of eutrophic individuals after acute intake of fresh orange juice in comparison to the commercial-pasteurized orange juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus flavonoids from orange juice (OJ) have shown hypolipidemic, hypotension, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the extraction and commercial pasteurization of OJ can influence its nutritional composition in comparison to the fresh squeezed OJ. We evaluated the insulin sensitivity, and th...

  12. Mild strain cross protection of tristeza: A review of research to protect against decline on sour orange in Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Richard F. Lee; Manjunath eKeremane

    2013-01-01

    Tristeza, caused by Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), has long been present in Florida but outbreaks of decline on sour orange rootstock were occasional events until the late 1970s. Sour orange rootstock was valued for the high quality of fruit produced and was widely used because of its tolerance of citrus blight, a disease of unknown etiology. Research was directed towards the selection and screening of mild strains of CTV which could protect against sour orange decline strains. Following the...

  13. In Vitro Determination of Prebiotic Properties of Oligosaccharides Derived from an Orange Juice Manufacturing By-Product Stream

    OpenAIRE

    Manderson, K.; Pinart, M.; Tuohy, K. M.; Grace, W. E.; Hotchkiss, A T; Widmer, W.; Yadhav, M. P.; Gibson, G R; Rastall, R. A.

    2005-01-01

    Fermentation properties of oligosaccharides derived from orange peel pectin were assessed in mixed fecal bacterial culture. The orange peel oligosaccharide fraction contained glucose in addition to rhamnogalacturonan and xylogalacturonan pectic oligosaccharides. Twenty-four-hour, temperature- and pH-controlled, stirred anaerobic fecal batch cultures were used to determine the effects that oligosaccharides derived from orange products had on the composition of the fecal microbiota. The effects...

  14. When Consumers Diet, Should Producers Care? An Examination of Low-Carb Dieting and U.S. Orange Juice Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Love, Leigh Ann; Sterns, James A.; Thomas H. Spreen; Wysocki, Allen F.

    2006-01-01

    From 2000 through 2004, per-capita orange juice purchases decreased by 12.3 percent in the United States, while the popularity and media coverage of low-carbohydrate dieting exploded. Content analysis was used to count selected newspaper articles topically related to low-carbohydrate dieting, the Atkins diet, and the South Beach diet. These data were included in a national orange juice demand model, where purchase data served as the independent variable and proxy for consumer demand of orange...

  15. Mild strain cross protection of tristeza: a review of research to protect against decline on sour orange in Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Richard F. Lee; Keremane, Manjunath L.

    2013-01-01

    Tristeza, caused by Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), has long been present in Florida but outbreaks of decline on sour orange rootstock were occasional events until the late 1970s. Sour orange rootstock was valued for the high quality of fruit produced and was widely used because of its tolerance of citrus blight, a disease of unknown etiology. Research was directed towards the selection and screening of mild strains of CTV which could protect against sour orange decline strains. Following the in...

  16. Compensation for Orang AsH native land in Malaysia: The perceptions and challenges in its quantification

    OpenAIRE

    Anuar Alias; Md Nasir Daud

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the results of an investigation on the challenges confronting valuers in dealing with the assessment of compensation for Orang Asli native land (OANL). In Malaysia, valuers are often ambivalent about assessing the worth of Orang Asli property rights; this is because the conventional valuation toolkits are 'ill-equipped' to cope with the multi-faceted issues involved in valuing such lands. Orang Asli view the worth of their lands from a multitude of dimensions (spiritual, ...

  17. Orange and reddish-orange light emitting phosphors: Sm{sup 3+} and Sm{sup 3+}/Eu{sup 3+} doped zinc phosphate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meza-Rocha, A.N., E-mail: ameza@fis.cinvestav.mx [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, P.O. Box 55-534, 09340 México D.F., México (Mexico); Speghini, A. [Dipartimento di Biotecnologie, Universita di Verona and INSTM, UdR Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, I-37314 Verona (Italy); IFAC CNR, Nello Carrara Institute of Applied Physics, MDF Lab, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, FI (Italy); Bettinelli, M. [Dipartimento di Biotecnologie, Universita di Verona and INSTM, UdR Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, I-37314 Verona (Italy); Caldiño, U. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, P.O. Box 55-534, 09340 México D.F., México (Mexico)

    2015-11-15

    A spectroscopy study of Sm{sup 3+} and Sm{sup 3+}/Eu{sup 3+} doped zinc phosphate glasses is performed through photoluminescence spectra and decay time profile measurements. Under Sm{sup 3+} excitation at 344 nm, the Sm{sup 3+} singly doped glass shows an orange global emission with x=0.579 and y=0.414 CIE1931 chromaticity coordinates, whereas the Sm{sup 3+}/Eu{sup 3+} co-doped sample exhibits orange overall emissions (x=0.581 and y=0.398, and x=0.595 and y=0.387) and reddish-orange overall emission (x=0.634 and y=0.355) upon excitations at 344, 360 and 393 nm, respectively. Such luminescence from the co-doped sample is originated by the simultaneous emission of Sm{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+}. Under Sm{sup 3+} excitation at 344 and 360 nm, the Eu{sup 3+} emission is sensitized and enhanced by Sm{sup 3+} through a non-radiative energy transfer process. The non-radiative nature was inferred from the shortening of the Sm{sup 3+} lifetime observed in the Sm{sup 3+}/Eu{sup 3+} co-doped sample. An analysis of the Sm{sup 3+} emission decay time profiles using the Inokuti–Hirayama model suggests that an electric quadrupole–quadrupole interaction into Sm–Eu clusters might dominate the energy transfer process, with an efficiency of 0.17. - Highlights: • Zinc phosphate glasses are optically activated with Sm{sup 3+}/Eu{sup 3+} (ZPOSmEu). • Non-radiative energy transfer Sm{sup 3+}→Eu{sup 3+} takes place in ZPOSmEu. • ZPOSmEu overall emission can be modulated with the excitation wavelength. • ZPOSmEu might be useful as orange/reddish-orange phosphor for UV-white LEDs.

  18. 三维生物高分子氧化石墨烯复合凝胶对吖啶橙吸附性能的研究%STUDY ON ADSORPTION PROPERTY OF ACRIDINE ORANGE ON THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL BIOPOLYMER GRAPHENE OXIDE COMPOSITE GEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欢; 张萍; 王晓玲

    2016-01-01

    采用一种简单的共混冷冻法制备了三维生物高分子调控的氧化石墨烯复合水凝胶(3D/bio/GO/gel).通过傅里叶红外光谱、热重分析仪、粒度分析仪和荧光显微镜对氧化石墨烯复合水凝胶进行了表征.以吖啶橙(AO)为模型,研究了3D/bio/GO/gel对AO的吸附性能,并研究了羧甲基纤维钠的加入量和pH值对吸附性能的影响,实验结果表明,3D/bio/GO/gel对AO的吸附符合二级动力学模型和Freundlich模型.

  19. La coloración fluorescente con naranja de acridina y el PAP: validación de ambas técnicas para la detección de Trichomonas vaginalis FLUORESCENT STAINING WITH ACRIDINE ORANGE AND PAP SMEAR: VALIDATION TESTS OF BOTH TECNIQUES FOR THE DETECTION OF Trichomonas vaginalis

    OpenAIRE

    SIXTO RAUL COSTAMAGNA; MARIA PRADO FIGUEROA; OSCAR SORIA; ALEJANDRO FUENTES; RICARDO FERREYRA

    2000-01-01

    Se efectuó la validación de la coloración de Papanicolaou, utilizada para citología vaginal, frente a la coloración fluorescente con naranja de acridina, a fin de evaluar el valor de un resultado negativo para Trichomonas vaginalis obtenido en un PAP. Se estudiaron 80 muestras de flujo vaginal de mujeres entre 18 y 45 años, pacientes de consultorios externos de Ginecología del Hospital Municipal de la ciudad de Bahía Blanca, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Las muestras se colorearon pa...

  20. Degradation of acid orange 7 in an aerobic biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Michael F; Kinkle, Brian K; Bishop, Paul L

    2002-01-01

    A stable microbial biofilm community capable of completely mineralizing the azo dye acid orange 7 (AO7) was established in a laboratory scale rotating drum bioreactor (RDBR) using waste liquor from a sewage treatment plant. A broad range of environmental conditions including pH (5.8-8.2), nitrification (0.0-4.0 mM nitrite), and aeration (0.2-6.2 mg O2 l(-1)) were evaluated for their effects on the biodegradation of AO7. Furthermore the biofilm maintained its biodegradative ability for over a year while the effects of these environmental conditions were evaluated. Reduction of the azo bond followed by degradation of the resulting aromatic amine appears to be the mechanism by which this dye is biodegraded. Complete loss of color, sulfanilic acid, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) indicate that AO7 is mineralized. To our knowledge this is the first reported occurrence of a sulfonated phenylazonaphthol dye being completely mineralized under aerobic conditions. Two bacterial strains (ICX and SAD4i) originally isolated from the RDBR were able to mineralize, in co-culture, up to 90% of added AO7. During mineralization of AO7, strain ICX reduces the azo bond under aerobic conditions and consumes the resulting cleavage product 1-amino-2-naphthol. Strain SAD4i consumes the other cleavage product, sulfanilic acid. The ability of the RDBR biofilm to aerobically mineralize an azo dye without exogenous carbon and nitrogen sources suggests that this approach could be used to remediate industrial wastewater contaminated with spent dye.

  1. Hypercarotenodermia in Zambia: which children turned orange during mango season?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanumihardjo, S A; Gannon, B M; Kaliwile, C; Chileshe, J

    2015-12-01

    Vitamin A (VA) deficiency is a public health problem in many countries. The World Health Organization recommends high-dose VA supplements to children aged 6-59 months based on unequivocal evidence that supplements decreased mortality risk. VA supplements were meant as a temporary intervention until more sustainable approaches could be implemented. Fortification of processed foods with preformed VA is a means to improve VA status. The most recent addition of retinyl palmitate to cooking oil in countries that may also fortify margarine and milk will undoubtedly have a positive impact on VA status. However, quantitative measures have not been used to assess the underlying VA status of the groups who have adopted widespread fortification. The addition of preformed VA to otherwise adequate diets in VA may cause excessive total body stores. Monitoring population status will require accurate VA assessment to ensure that hypervitaminosis does not prevail. This perspective describes a cohort of rural Zambian children who have adequate diets in VA, mostly as provitamin A carotenoids; who were given high-dose VA supplements till the age of 5 years; who have access to VA-fortified sugar; and whose mothers had access to VA-fortified sugar throughout pregnancy and lactation. Many of these children turned orange during mango season, and this phenomenon occurred at estimated liver reserve concentrations >1 μmol retinol equivalents/g liver. It will be necessary to continue to monitor VA status, including all sectors of the population that have access to successful interventions, to optimize health with the intent to lower retinol content of fortified foods or better target VA supplementation to areas of most need.

  2. Orange carotenoid protein burrows into the phycobilisome to provide photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Dvir; Tal, Ofir; Jallet, Denis; Wilson, Adjélé; Kirilovsky, Diana; Adir, Noam

    2016-03-22

    In cyanobacteria, photoprotection from overexcitation of photochemical centers can be obtained by excitation energy dissipation at the level of the phycobilisome (PBS), the cyanobacterial antenna, induced by the orange carotenoid protein (OCP). A single photoactivated OCP bound to the core of the PBS affords almost total energy dissipation. The precise mechanism of OCP energy dissipation is yet to be fully determined, and one question is how the carotenoid can approach any core phycocyanobilin chromophore at a distance that can promote efficient energy quenching. We have performed intersubunit cross-linking using glutaraldehyde of the OCP and PBS followed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) to identify cross-linked residues. The only residues of the OCP that cross-link with the PBS are situated in the linker region, between the N- and C-terminal domains and a single C-terminal residue. These links have enabled us to construct a model of the site of OCP binding that differs from previous models. We suggest that the N-terminal domain of the OCP burrows tightly into the PBS while leaving the OCP C-terminal domain on the exterior of the complex. Further analysis shows that the position of the small core linker protein ApcC is shifted within the cylinder cavity, serving to stabilize the interaction between the OCP and the PBS. This is confirmed by a ΔApcC mutant. Penetration of the N-terminal domain can bring the OCP carotenoid to within 5-10 Å of core chromophores; however, alteration of the core structure may be the actual source of energy dissipation. PMID:26957606

  3. The Empowerment of Orang Asli Women in the Tourism Industry in Lenggong, Perak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahaya Fatan Hamamah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Women, particularly those of the Orang Asli community, without a doubt play an important role in the family. These duties and roles include organising household affairs, giving birth and raising children, tending to the house, preparing meals for the family and sorting out their children’s school affairs. However, their roles are not limited to duties or daily routines that are done only at home. In fact, women (especially Orang Asli women, are capable of far more activities that can empower them, especially in the Lenggong’s tourism industry. This paper explores Orang Asli women empowerment through tourism industry with anthropological perspective. The empowerment of Orang Asli women can be seen from the aspect of skills that they already have which can be turned into tourism products, as well as to increase their source of income in supplementing their family expenses. Among the skills that can be highlighted are making handicrafts, being tourist guides, promoting traditional cuisine and dances as well as finding and brewing wild plant roots for medicinal purposes. The women of the Orang Asli who originally only served as housewives, can now change their family’s way of life by doing all sorts of activities which can generate new sources of income, by venturing into activities that can be used as attractions and new tourism product markets, especially in Lenggong, Perak.

  4. Red Orange: Experimental Models and Epidemiological Evidence of Its Benefits on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Grosso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been increasing public interest in plant antioxidants, thanks to the potential anticarcinogenic and cardioprotective actions mediated by their biochemical properties. The red (or blood orange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck is a pigmented sweet orange variety typical of eastern Sicily (southern Italy, California, and Spain. In this paper, we discuss the main health-related properties of the red orange that include anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and cardiovascular protection activities. Moreover, the effects on health of its main constituents (namely, flavonoids, carotenoids, ascorbic acid, hydroxycinnamic acids, and anthocyanins are described. The red orange juice demonstrates an important antioxidant activity by modulating many antioxidant enzyme systems that efficiently counteract the oxidative damage which may play an important role in the etiology of numerous diseases, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer. The beneficial effects of this fruit may be mediated by the synergic effects of its compounds. Thus, the supply of natural antioxidant compounds through a balanced diet rich in red oranges might provide protection against oxidative damage under differing conditions and could be more effective than, the supplementation of an individual antioxidant.

  5. Isolation and biological activities of decanal, linalool, valencene, and octanal from sweet orange oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kehai; Chen, Qiulin; Liu, Yanjun; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Wang, Xichang

    2012-11-01

    Product 1 (82.25% valencene), product 2 (73.36% decanal), product 3 (78.12% octanal), and product 4 (90.61% linalool) were isolated from sweet orange oil by combined usage of molecular distillation and column chromatography. The antioxidant activity of sweet orange oil and these products was investigated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and reducing power assays. In this test, product 1 (82.25% valencene), product 2 (73.36% decanal), and product 4 (90.61% linalool) had antioxidant activity, but lower than sweet orange oil. The antimicrobial activity was investigated in order to evaluate their efficacy against 5 microorganisms. The results showed that sweet orange oil, product 2 (73.36% decanal), product 3 (78.12% octanal), and product 4 (90.61% linalool) had inhibitory and bactericidal effect on the test microorganisms (except Penicillium citrinum). Valencene did not show any inhibitory effect. Saccharomyces cerivisiae was more susceptible, especially to the crude sweet orange oil (minimal inhibitory concentration 6.25 μL/mL). The cytotoxicity was evaluated on Hela cells using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. All test samples showed significant cytotoxicity on the cell lines with IC(50) values much less than 20 μg/mL.

  6. Effects of orange by-product fiber incorporation on the functional and technological properties of pasta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainara de Moraes Crizel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe incorporation of fiber into products consumed every day by the general population is important and viable. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the impact of incorporating orange juice industry dietary fiber byproducts in fettuccini of fresh pasta. Three different fiber concentrations were added to fresh pastas (25 g/kg, 50 g/kg and 75 g/kg. The results showed a significant increase in solid loss content when the incorporation of orange fiber was greater than 50 g/kg. This difference did not occur regarding weight increase values and color parameters. The pasta with 75 g/kg orange fiber can be considered a “high fiber” product, with the total dietary fiber content of the pasta increasing by 99% compared to control pasta. The carotenoid and phenolic contents of pasta increased significantly with the incorporation of fiber at 75 g/kg, but only the pasta formulation with 25 g/kg of orange fiber did not differ from control pasta in relation to all of the sensory attributes and presented an acceptance greater than 75%. The addition of orange fiber byproducts to pastas is an interesting alternative because fiber has a high nutritional value and an abundance of antioxidants.

  7. Molecular cloning, characterization and functional analysis of QRFP in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Hu; Chen, Huapu; Liu, Yun; Yang, Lidong; Yang, Yuqing; Zhang, Haifa

    2014-10-01

    The peptide QRFP plays an important role in the regulation of vertebrate feeding behavior. In this study, we cloned the full length cDNA of a QRFP precursor in a teleost fish, the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). Sequence analysis has shown that the functional regions of QRFP in other vertebrates (QRFP-25 and QRFP-7) are conserved in orange-spotted grouper. RT-PCR demonstrated that the pre-processed mRNA of QRFP is widely expressed in orange-spotted grouper. Three days of food deprivation did not change the hypothalamic pre-processed QRFP expression. However, QRFP expression significantly increased when the fish were reefed after three days of fasting. Intraperitoneal injection of QRFP-25 peptide to orange-spotted grouper suppressed expression of orexin, but elevated expression of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) in the hypothalamus. We also investigated the effects of QRFP-25 on the expression of reproductive genes. The peptide suppressed the expression of seabream-type gonadotropin-releasing hormones (sbGnRH), luteinizing hormone beta subunit (LHβ) and follicle-stimulating hormone beta subunit (FSHβ) in vivo, as well as inhibited the expression of LHβ and FSHβ in pituitary cells in primary culture. Our results indicate that QRFP may play an inhibitory role in the regulation of feeding behavior and reproduction in orange-spotted grouper.

  8. Chemical composition and selected functional properties of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) seed flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpata, M I; Akubor, P I

    1999-01-01

    Flour samples were prepared from dehulled and undehulled sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) seeds. The flour samples were evaluated for proximate composition, mineral content and selected functional properties. Proximate analysis showed a composition of 54.2% fat, 28.5% carbohydrate, 5.5% crude fiber, 3.1% crude protein and 2.5% ash for the dehulled orange seed flour (dry weight). Mineral analyses showed high levels of calcium and potassium in flour samples. Partially defatted and undefatted flour samples prepared from dehulled orange seeds had least gelation concentrations of 10 and 12% (w/v), respectively. Water absorption capacity for the defatted and undefatted dehulled flour samples were 240 and 220%, respectively. Defatting improved oil absorption capacity of the orange seed flour by 84%. Emulsion activity, emulsion stability and foaming capacity decreased following defatting of flour. Foam prepared from defatted flour was less stable than that from full-fat flour. Incorporation of NaCl up to 0.2 M improved the foaming capacity of orange seed flour. PMID:10798346

  9. Production of interstocked 'Pera' sweet orange nursey trees on 'Volkamer' lemon and 'Swingle' citrumelo rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girardi Eduardo Augusto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Incompatibility among certain citrus scion and rootstock cultivars can be avoided through interstocking. 'Pera' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck nursery tree production was evaluated on 'Swingle' citrumelo (Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf x Citrus paradisi Macf and 'Volkamer' lemon (Citrus volkameriana Pasquale incompatible rootstocks, using 'Valencia' and 'Hamlin' sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, 'Sunki' mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka, and 'Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tanaka as interstocks. Citrus nursery trees interstocked with 'Pera' sweet orange on both rootstocks were used as control. 'Swingle' citrumelo led to the highest interstock bud take percentage, the greatest interstock height and rootstock diameter, as well as the highest scion and root system dry weight. Percentage of 'Pera' sweet orange dormant bud eye was greater for plants budded on 'Sunki' mandarin than those budded on 'Valencia' sweet orange. No symptoms of incompatibility were observed among any combinations of rootstocks, interstocks and scion. Production cycle can take up to 17 months with higher plant discard.

  10. Improvement of Biogas Production from Orange Peel Waste by Leaching of Limonene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachma Wikandari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Limonene is present in orange peel wastes and is known as an antimicrobial agent, which impedes biogas production when digesting the peels. In this work, pretreatment of the peels to remove limonene under mild condition was proposed by leaching of limonene using hexane as solvent. The pretreatments were carried out with homogenized or chopped orange peel at 20–40°C with orange peel waste and hexane ratio (w/v ranging from 1 : 2 to 1 : 12 for 10 to 300 min. The pretreated peels were then digested in batch reactors for 33 days. The highest biogas production was achieved by treating chopped orange peel waste and hexane ratio of 12 : 1 at 20°C for 10 min corresponding to more than threefold increase of biogas production from 0.061 to 0.217 m3 methane/kg VS. The solvent recovery was 90% using vacuum filtration and needs further separation using evaporation. The hexane residue in the peel had a negative impact on biogas production as shown by 28.6% reduction of methane and lower methane production of pretreated orange peel waste in semicontinuous digestion system compared to that of untreated peel.

  11. Chitosan and fungicides on postharvest control of Guignardia citricarpa and on quality of 'Pêra Rio' oranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Canale Rappussi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Citrus fruits are affected by the black spot disease caused by the fungus Guignardia citricarpa. Chitosan can be used as covering for fruits and may delay the ripening process and inhibit the growth of some fungi. Thus, the control of citrus black spot using chitosan and the fungicides thiabendazole and imazalil was assessed in addition to the physicochemical quality of 'Pêra Rio' oranges. The oranges were immersed into chitosan, thiabendazole or imazalil, and in chitosan mixed with both fungicides. The fruits were then stored at 25 °C, 80% RH, for 7 days and, after this storage period, subjected to physicochemical analyses. Chitosan in association with the fungicides reduced black spot in 'Pêra Rio' oranges and delayed the change in the orange skin colour from green to yellow during the postharvest storage. Total soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, ascorbic acid content and ratio were not influenced by the treatments. Thus, chitosan applied with the fungicides thiabendazole and imazalil showed potential to control the development of black spot lesions on 'Pêra Rio' oranges during the postharvest period.

  12. Preparation of Metal Immobilized Orange Waste Gel for Arsenic(V Removal From Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biplob Kumar Biswas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - The toxicity of arsenic is known to be a risk to aquatic flora and fauna and to human health even in relatively low concentration. In this research an adsorption gel was prepared from agricultural waste material (orange waste through simple chemical modification in the view to remove arsenic (V from water. Orange waste was crushed into small particles and saponified with Ca(OH2 to prepare saponified orange waste, which was further modified by immobilizing gadolinium(III to obtain desired adsorption material (Gd(III-immobilized SOW gel. The effective pH range for arsenic adsorption was found to be 7.5 – 8.5. Adsorption capacity of the gel was evaluated to be 0.45 mol-arsenic (V/kg. Dynamic adsorption of arsenic (V in column-mode was conducted and a dynamic capacity was found to be 0.39 mol/kg. Elution of arsenate was tested after complete saturation of the column packed with gadolinium-immobilized orange waste adsorption gel. A complete elution of arsenate was achieved with the help of 1 M HCl and 28 times pre-concentration factor was attained. This study showed that a cheap and abundant agro-industrial waste material could be successfully employed for the remediation of arsenic pollution in aquatic environment. Keywords: Arsenic; Orange waste; Gadolinium(III; Adsorption; Elution.

  13. Stability and sensory shelf life of orange juice pasteurized by continuous ohmic heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leizerson, Shirly; Shimoni, Eyal

    2005-05-18

    Electrical heating of food products provides rapid and uniform heating, resulting in less thermal damage to the product. The objective of this research was to examine the effects of ohmic heating on the stability of orange juice with comparison to conventional pasteurization. During storage at 4 degrees C, degradation curves of ascorbic acid followed a linear decrease pattern in both ohmic-heated and conventionally pasteurized orange juices. For five representative flavor compounds (decanal, octana, limonene, pinene, and myrcene), higher concentrations were measured during storage in the ohmic-heated orange juice than in conventionally pasteurized juice. Although residual pectin esterase activity remained negligible in both types of juices, particle size was lower in the ohmic-heated orange juice. The sensory shelf life was determined by using the Weibull-Hazard method. Although both thermal treatments prevented the growth of microorganisms for 105 days, the sensory shelf life of ohmic-treated orange juice was >100 days and was almost 2 times longer than that of conventionally pasteurized juice.

  14. Viscous-flow properties and viscosity-average molecular mass of orange peel pectin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周尽花; 吴宇雄; 沈志强

    2008-01-01

    The viscous-flow properties of pectin from the residue of orange peel after extraction of essential oil and flavonoid were studied and the viscosity-average molecular mass(Mv,ave) of this kind of pectin was determined.Experimental results show that Arrhenius viscous-flow equation can be applied to describing the effect of temperature on viscosity of this kind of orange peel pectin solutions with the average viscous-flow activation energy being 17.91 kJ/mol(depending on the concentration).Neither power equation,η =K1 cA1,nor exponential equation,η=K2exp(A2c) can describe the effect of concentration on viscosity of this kind of orange peel pectin solutions well.However,it seems that exponential equation model is more suitable to describe their relation due to its higher linear correlation coefficient.Schulz-Blaschke equation can be used to calculate the intrinsic viscosity of this kind of orange peel pectin.The Mv,ave of the orange peel pectin is 1.65×105 g/mol.

  15. Effect of fermentation and subsequent pasteurization processes on amino acids composition of orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrillo, I; Fernández-Pachón, M S; Collado-González, J; Escudero-López, B; Berná, G; Herrero-Martín, G; Martín, F; Ferreres, F; Gil-Izquierdo, A

    2015-06-01

    The fermentation of fruit produces significant changes in their nutritional composition. An orange beverage has been obtained from the controlled alcoholic fermentation and thermal pasteurization of orange juice. A study was performed to determine the influence of both processes on its amino acid profile. UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS was used for the first time for analysis of orange juice samples. Out of 29 amino acids and derivatives identified, eight (ethanolamine, ornithine, phosphoethanolamine, α-amino-n-butyric acid, hydroxyproline, methylhistidine, citrulline, and cystathionine) have not previously been detected in orange juice. The amino acid profile of the orange juice was not modified by its processing, but total amino acid content of the juice (8194 mg/L) was significantly increased at 9 days of fermentation (13,324 mg/L). Although the pasteurization process produced partial amino acid degradation, the total amino acid content was higher in the final product (9265 mg/L) than in the original juice, enhancing its nutritional value.

  16. Citrus sinensis annotation project (CAP: a comprehensive database for sweet orange genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Wang

    Full Text Available Citrus is one of the most important and widely grown fruit crop with global production ranking firstly among all the fruit crops in the world. Sweet orange accounts for more than half of the Citrus production both in fresh fruit and processed juice. We have sequenced the draft genome of a double-haploid sweet orange (C. sinensis cv. Valencia, and constructed the Citrus sinensis annotation project (CAP to store and visualize the sequenced genomic and transcriptome data. CAP provides GBrowse-based organization of sweet orange genomic data, which integrates ab initio gene prediction, EST, RNA-seq and RNA-paired end tag (RNA-PET evidence-based gene annotation. Furthermore, we provide a user-friendly web interface to show the predicted protein-protein interactions (PPIs and metabolic pathways in sweet orange. CAP provides comprehensive information beneficial to the researchers of sweet orange and other woody plants, which is freely available at http://citrus.hzau.edu.cn/.

  17. Dramatic Domain Rearrangements of the Cyanobacterial Orange Carotenoid Protein upon Photoactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haijun; Zhang, Hao; Orf, Gregory S; Lu, Yue; Jiang, Jing; King, Jeremy D; Wolf, Nathan R; Gross, Michael L; Blankenship, Robert E

    2016-02-23

    Photosynthetic cyanobacteria make important contributions to global carbon and nitrogen budgets. A protein known as the orange carotenoid protein (OCP) protects the photosynthetic apparatus from damage by dissipating excess energy absorbed by the phycobilisome, the major light-harvesting complex in many cyanobacteria. OCP binds one carotenoid pigment, but the color of this pigment depends on conditions. It is orange in the dark and red when exposed to light. We modified the orange and red forms of OCP by using isotopically coded cross-linking agents and then analyzed the structural features by using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Unequivocal cross-linking pairs uniquely detected in red OCP indicate that, upon photoactivation, the OCP N-terminal domain (NTD) and C-terminal domain (CTD) reorient relative to each other. Our data also indicate that the intrinsically unstructured loop connecting the NTD and CTD not only is involved in the interaction between the two domains in orange OCP but also, together with the N-terminal extension, provides a structural buffer system facilitating an intramolecular breathing motion of the OCP, thus helping conversion back and forth from the orange to red form during the OCP photocycle. These results have important implications for understanding the molecular mechanism of action of cyanobacterial photoprotection. PMID:26848988

  18. Orange Recognition on Tree Using Image Processing Method Based on Lighting Density Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. R Ahmadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Within the last few years, a new tendency has been created towards robotic harvesting of oranges and some of citrus fruits. The first step in robotic harvesting is accurate recognition and positioning of fruits. Detection through image processing by color cameras and computer is currently the most common method. Obviously, a harvesting robot faces with natural conditions and, therefore, detection must be done in various light conditions and environments. In this study, it was attempted to provide a suitable algorithm for recognizing the orange fruits on tree. In order to evaluate the proposed algorithm, 500 images were taken in different conditions of canopy, lighting and the distance to the tree. The algorithm included sub-routines for optimization, segmentation, size filtering, separation of fruits based on lighting density method and coordinates determination. In this study, MLP neural network (with 3 hidden layers was used for segmentation that was found to be successful with an accuracy of 88.2% in correct detection. As there exist a high percentage of the clustered oranges in images, any algorithm aiming to detect oranges on the trees successfully should offer a solution to separate these oranges first. A new method based on the light and shade density method was applied and evaluated in this research. Finally, the accuracies for differentiation and recognition were obtained to be 89.5% and 88.2%, respectively.

  19. THE PRODUCTION OF ORANGE PRESS LIQUOR SPIRIT: TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. FERREIRA

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The orange juice industry produces, at the end of the residue extraction, a by-product called orange press liquor. Considering its high content of soluble solids and the large volume of the liquor produced in Brazilian orange juice plants, an earlier study was conducted on the technical viability of using orange press liquor as raw material for a new distilled beverage, with promising results. With a view to increasing efficiency and possibly attracting investments in the growing international market for new and exotic beverages, the aim of the present study was to optimize the orange press liquor spirit process and to evaluate the economic aspects of its production. The results showed that this process can yield a good quality beverage, comparable to the sugar cane spirit cachaça and other similar products, as well as having economic advantages and potential for immediate further growth, without extra investment costs.

  20. Calibrated photostimulated luminescence is an effective approach to identify irradiated orange during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photostimulated luminescence (PSL) has been employed as a fast screening method for various irradiated foods. In this study the potential use of PSL was evaluated to identify oranges irradiated with gamma ray, electron beam and X-ray (0–2 kGy) and stored under different conditions for 6 weeks. The effects of light conditions (natural light, artificial light, and dark) and storage temperatures (4 and 20 °C) on PSL photon counts (PCs) during post-irradiation periods were studied. Non-irradiated samples always showed negative values of PCs, while irradiated oranges exhibited intermediate results after first PSL measurements. However, the irradiated samples had much higher PCs. The PCs of all the samples declined as the storage time increased. Calibrated second PSL measurements showed PSL ratio <10 for the irradiated samples after 3 weeks of irradiation confirming their irradiation status in all the storage conditions. Calibrated PSL and sample storage in dark at 4 °C were found out to be most suitable approaches to identify irradiated oranges during storage. - Highlights: • Photostimulatedluminescence (PSL) was studied to identify irradiated orange for quarantine application. • PSL detection efficiency was compared amonggamma,electron, and X irradiation during shelf-life of oranges • PSL properties of samples were characterized by standard samples • Calibrated PSL gave a clear verdict on irradiation extending potential of PSL technique

  1. In vitro mutagenicity testing. I. Kermide 601 resin, Sylgard 184 encapsulating resin, and Sylgard 184 curing agent. [Ames Salmonella assay system used

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.Y.; Smith, D.M.

    1978-08-01

    Five compounds, Kerimide 601 resin, Sylgard 184 encapsulating resin, Sylgard 184 curing agent, benzo(a)pyrene, and acridine orange were tested for in vitro mutagenicity using the Ames Salmonella assay system. Kerimide 601 resin, Sylgard 184 encapsulating resin, and Sylgard 184 curing agent were not mutagenic under the described experimental conditions, while benzo(a)pyrene and acridine orange were both mutagenic.

  2. El tirano de Holanda: Guillermo de Orange en el discurso español del Siglo de Oro sobre las Guerras de Flandes = The tyrant of Holland: Willem of Orange in the Spanish Golden Age discourse on the Dutch revolt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Rodríguez Pérez

    2015-01-01

    Since the outbreak of the Dutch Revolt, William of Orange fulfilled a specific role in Spanish discourse, comparable to that of the Duke of Alba in the Low Countries. These historical figures were considered as tyrants in these opposing ‘national’ discourses. In Spain, the figure of William of Orang

  3. Effects of irradiation in combination with waxing on the essential oils in orange peel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moussaid, M.; Lacroix, M.; Nketsia-Tabiri, J.; Boubekri, C

    2000-03-01

    The study evaluated the effects of waxing and irradiation dose on the essential oils in orange peel. Mature oranges (Maroc late) waxed or unwaxed were treated with 0-2 kGy radiation. Volatiles in the peel were extracted and analyzed by G.C. D-limonene was significantly lower (P{<=}0.05) in waxed oranges; levels in samples treated with 2 kGy were higher than those treated with 0 or 1 kGy. Linalool, methyl anthranilate and 3.7-dimethyl-2.6-octadienal decreased as the dose increased. The analysis of variance indicates that only linalool was influenced by post-irradiation storage time. The level of this compound increased with storage time. (author)

  4. Physical properties of inulin and inulin-orange juice: physical characterization and technological application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra-Leos, M Z; Leyva-Porras, C; Martínez-Guerra, E; Pérez-García, S A; Aguilar-Martínez, J A; Álvarez-Salas, C

    2014-05-25

    In this work two systems based on a carbohydrate polymer were studied: inulin as model system and inulin-orange juice as complex system. Both system were stored at different water activity conditions and subsequently characterized. Water adsorption isotherms type II were fitted by the GAB model and the water monolayer content was determined for each system. From thermal analyzes it was found that at low water activities (aw) systems were fully amorphous. As aw increased, crystallinity was developed. This behavior was corroborated by X-ray diffraction. In the inulin-orange juice system, crystallization appears at lower water activity caused by the intensification of the chemical interaction of the low molecular weight species contained in orange juice. Glass transition temperature (Tg), determined by modulated differential scanning calorimeter, decreased with aw. As water is adsorbed, the physical appearance of samples changed which could be observed by optical microscopy and effectively related with the microstructure found by scanning electron microscopy.

  5. Heterozygosity and orange coloration are associated in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdegen, M; Dudka, K; Radwan, J

    2014-01-01

    The good-genes-as-heterozygosity hypothesis predicts that more elaborate male sexual ornaments are associated with higher levels of heterozygosity. Recent theoretical work suggests that such associations are likely to arise in finite, structured populations. We investigated the correlation between multilocus heterozygosity (MLH), which was estimated using 13 microsatellite loci, and male coloration in a wild population of guppies (Poecilia reticulata), a model species in sexual selection research. We found that MLH was a significant predictor of the relative area of orange spots, a trait that is subject to strong female preference in this species. Neither the relative area of black spots nor the number of black or orange spots was significantly correlated with MLH. We found no statistical support for local effects (i.e. strong effects of heterozygosity at specific markers), which suggests that relative orange spots area reflects genome-wide heterozygosity.

  6. Effects of irradiation in combination with waxing on the essential oils in orange peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussaid, M.; Lacroix, M.; Nketsia-Tabiri, J.; Boubekri, C.

    2000-03-01

    The study evaluated the effects of waxing and irradiation dose on the essential oils in orange peel. Mature oranges ( Maroc late) waxed or unwaxed were treated with 0-2 kGy radiation. Volatiles in the peel were extracted and analyzed by G.C. D-limonene was significantly lower ( P⩽0.05) in waxed oranges; levels in samples treated with 2 kGy were higher than those treated with 0 or 1 kGy. Linalool, methyl anthranilate and 3.7-dimethyl-2.6-octadienal decreased as the dose increased. The analysis of variance indicates that only linalool was influenced by post-irradiation storage time. The level of this compound increased with storage time.

  7. A modified ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange assay for lipoxygenase activity in rice grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timabud, Tarinee; Sanitchon, Jirawat; Pongdontri, Paweena

    2013-12-01

    Ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange assay reagent was reformulated by using spectral analysis of ferric-xylenol orange complex to detect low concentrations of lipoxygenase rice grain products. Reducing the levels of ferrous sulphate and xylenol orange in the FOX reagent enabled the detection of low concentrations of hydroperoxy fatty acid derived from lipoxygenase activity in the range of 0.1-1.5 μM. Protein, substrate and time courses of the modified FOX assay were studied to determine lipoxygenase activity in rice grain. The assay was also applicable as a high throughput technique for comparisons of lipoxygenase activity from various rice varieties. This has important implications for rapid screening for low-lipoxygenase containing rice cultivars in rice breeding program and grain quality during storage. PMID:23870974

  8. Clinical evaluation of Moro (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) orange juice supplementation for the weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardile, Venera; Graziano, Adriana Carol Eleonora; Venditti, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    In the last years, several studies have recently evaluated the beneficial effects of red orange juice (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) and its active components in weight management and obesity. Moro orange is a cultivar of red orange, particularly rich in active compounds such as anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavone glycosides and ascorbic acid, which displays anti-obesity effects in in vitro and in vivo studies. In this clinical study, the effect of a Moro juice extract (Morosil(®), 400 mg/die) supplementation was evaluated in overweight healthy human volunteers for 12 weeks. Results showed that Moro juice extract intake was able to induce a significant reduction in body mass index (BMI) after 4 weeks of treatment (p juice have a synergistic effect on fat accumulation in humans and Moro juice extract can be used in weight management and in the prevention of human obesity.

  9. Studies on orange oil methyl ester in diesel engine with hemispherical and toroidal combustion chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthickeyan Viswanathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation has been made to compare the emission characteristics of 20% orange oil methyl ester and 80% diesel in volumetric basis with Neat diesel in hemispherical combustion chamber and toroidal combustion chamber. Non-edible orange oil is selected and utilized to prepare alternative fuel to be utilized in Diesel engine. The traditional method of transestrification is employed for preparation orange oil methyl ester. The chemical properties of prepared methyl ester were determined using fouriertransform infrared spectroscopy method. Further its fuel properties were found based on American Society for Testing and Materials standards and compared with Neat diesel fuel properties. A compression ignition engine with electrical dynamometer test rig with gas analyzer has been used. It is observed that 1% of NOx and 4% of HC emission reduced in toroidal combustion chamber engine. However, smoke emission is found to be lower in hemispherical combustion chamber engine.

  10. Characterization of novel polyomaviruses from Bornean and Sumatran orang-utans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewoud, Marlous J; Fagrouch, Zahra; van Gessel, Sabine; Niphuis, Henk; Bulavaite, Aiste; Warren, Kristin S; Heeney, Jonathan L; Verschoor, Ernst J

    2010-03-01

    Serological screening of sera from orang-utans demonstrated a high percentage of sera that cross-reacted with antigens of the polyomavirus (PyV) simian virus 40. Analysis of archival DNA samples from 71 Bornean and eight Sumatran orang-utans with a broad-spectrum PCR assay resulted in the detection of PyV infections in 11 animals from both species. Sequence analysis of the amplicons revealed considerable differences between the PyVs from Bornean and Sumatran orang-utans. The genome from two PyVs, one from each species, was therefore amplified and sequenced. Both viral genomes revealed a characteristic PyV architecture, but lacked an obvious agnogene. Neighbour-joining analysis positioned the viruses in a large cluster together with viruses from bats, bovines, rodents and several primate PyVs from chimpanzees, African green monkeys, squirrel monkeys and the human Merkel cell PyV.

  11. Peran Orang Tua Tunggal Dalam Membimbing Anak Remaja Mencapai Kualitas Hidup Di Gereja Kibaid Klasis Makassar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliana Banni

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Berdasarkan pokok masalah di atas, maka yang menjadi tujuan penulis sebagaisasaran dalam penulisan karya ilmiah ini, yaitu:Pertama, agar setiap orang tua tunggalmemahami peranan mereka dalam membimbing anak remaja.Kedua, agar anak-anakremaja dari orang tua tunggal termotivasi untuk mencapai kualitas hidup.Dalam karya ilmiah ini, penulis menggunakan metode penelitian sebagaiberikut:Pertama, metode kepustakaan yaitu penulis mencari dan mengumpulkaninformasi melalui buku-buku yang berkaitan dengan karya ilmiah ini. Menurut asalkatanya kepustakaan berasal dari kata dasar “pustaka”, yang berarti (1 buku-bukukesusastraan; (2 daftar kitab yang dipakai sebagai sumber acuan untuk mengarang, dansebagainya; atau (3 semua buku atau karangan dan tulisan mengenai suatu bidang ilmu,topik, gejala atau kejadian.1 Kedua, penulis menggunakan wawancara kepada orangorangyang dapat melengkapi data yang diperlukan dalam karya ilmiah ini. Wawancaraialah (1 tanya jawab dengan seseorang (pejabat dsb yang diperlukan untuk dimintaiketerangan atau pendapatnya mengenai suatu hal, untuk dimuat dalam surat kabar,disiarkan melalui radio, atau ditayangkan pada layar televisi atau untuk kepentinganpenulisan karya ilmiah; (2 tanya jawab direksi (kepala personalia, kepala humasperusahaan dengan pelamar pekerjaan; (3 tanya jawab peneliti dengan narasumber.2Berdasarkan pembahasan penulis di atas, maka dapat dibuat kesimpulan sebagaiberikut: orang tua tunggal atau single parent Persekutuan Kaum Wanita KIBAID KlasisMakassar adalah mereka yang menyadari sepenuhnya tugas mereka sebagai orang tuayang berperan sebagai ayah dan juga ibu yang mengatur segala sesuatunya di rumah danbertanggung jawab sepenuhnya kepada anak-anak mereka. Orang Tua tunggal atausingle parent Persekutuan Kaum Wanita KIBAID Klasis Makassar sudah sangat baikdalam menjalankan fungsinya sebagai orang tua tunggal bagi anak-anaknya. Sehinggaanak-anak bertumbuh dengan baik dalam mencapai kualitas hidup mereka

  12. High-pressure vapor-liquid equilibrium data for CO2-orange peel oil

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, G R; C. Dariva; J. Vladimir Oliveira

    2000-01-01

    Recently, there has been a growing interest in fractionating orange peel oil by the use of supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2). However, progress in this area has been hindered by the lack of more comprehensive work concerning the phase equilibrium behavior of the SCCO2-orange peel oil system. In this context, the aim of this work is to provide new phase equilibrium data for this system over a wide range of temperatures and pressures, permitting the construction of coexistence PT-xy curves a...

  13. Determination of the terpene flux from orange species and Norway spruce by relaxed eddy accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, C.S.; Hummelshøj, P.; Jensen, N.O.;

    2000-01-01

    Terpene fluxes from a Norway spruce (Picea abies) forest and an orange orchard (Citrus clementii and Citrus sinensis) were measured by relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) during summer 1997. alpha-pinene and beta-pinene were the most abundant terpenes emitted from Norway spruce and constituted...... the weight of the dry biomass. The five terpenes which were detected in all samples at the orange orchard were limonene, sabinene, alpha-pinene, trans-ocimene and beta-pinene with an average Aux of 126.3 ng m(-2) s(-1). Cis-ocimene, linalool and myrcene were occasionally detected but no systematic upward...

  14. Genome Wide Characterization of Short Tandem Repeat Markers in Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Xu, Qiang; Mayer, Christoph; Deng, Xiuxin

    2014-01-01

    Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) is one of the major cultivated and most-consumed citrus species. With the goal of enhancing the genomic resources in citrus, we surveyed, developed and characterized microsatellite markers in the ≈347 Mb sequence assembly of the sweet orange genome. A total of 50,846 SSRs were identified with a frequency of 146.4 SSRs/Mbp. Dinucleotide repeats are the most frequent repeat class and the highest density of SSRs was found in chromosome 4. SSRs are non-randomly dist...

  15. Effect of gamma irradiation on the postharvest quality of blood red oranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different irradiation doses (5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 200, 300 Krad) did not alter the weight loss pattern of oranges during postharvest storage (7-20 C, 54-88 percent RH). Ascorbic acid. Reducing, nonreducing and total sugars content and decreased as an effect of irradiation. Irradiation doses at 100 krad and above caused skin injury in the form of scald and pitting, hence external appearance scores were lowered. Flavor scores of unirradiated control oranges and those irradiated at different doses were comparable after 5 weeks of storage at room conditions. (author)

  16. Orange Business Services助力跨国企业管理ICT基础架构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Orange Business Services日前宣布,将不断增强其Customized Infrastructure Care解决方案,以便在多厂商、多技术的ICT环境中提供全面的基础架构监控、管理和支持功能。Orange Business Services的Customized Infrastructure Care2.0使企业在一个采用Service Now技术的平台上通过单一基于云的面板,

  17. Orange Business Services助力跨国企业管理ICT基础架构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Orange Business Services日前宣布,将不断增强其Customized Infrastructure Care解决方案,以便在多厂商、多技术的ICT环境中提供全面的基础架构监控、管理和支持功能。Orange Business Services的Customized Infrastructure Care2.0使企业在一个采用ServiceNow技术的平台上通过单一基于云的面板,就能够监控、管理和支持整个基础架构。

  18. Differences between elemental composition of orange juices and leaves from organic and conventional production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive sampling of organic and conventional oranges was carried out in Bebedouro, an important citrus producing region of Brazil. The soils, leaves and fruits of the variety Valencia (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck) budded on Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck) were analyzed. The chemical characterization was accomplished by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Indications for a difference between organic and conventional orange juices and leaves were obtained by applying univariate and multivariate statistical analysis. There were differences between samples for Br, Co, Cs, La and Rb from both systems. (author)

  19. The Use of Synthetic Sweeteners in Cherry and Orange Fruit Drinks (Turkish with English Abstract)

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    in the present study aspartame, acesulfame K and aspartame + acesulfame K (1+1) are used instead of sucrose in cherry and orange beverages prepared at different brix values and the preferences of the panel at different sweetener and fruit ratio levels were investigated by using ranking test. The statistical evaluation of the results have shown that the 6 brix cherry drink and 5 brix orange drink plus 350 mg/l aspartame + acesulfame K combinations were preferred (P<0.05) by the panelist...

  20. Detection of orange juice frauds using front-face fluorescence spectroscopy and Independent Components Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammari, Faten; Redjdal, Lamia; Rutledge, Douglas N

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to find simple objective analytical methods to assess the adulteration of orange juice by grapefruit juice. The adulterations by addition of grapefruit juice were studied by 3D-front-face fluorescence spectroscopy followed by Independent Components Analysis (ICA) and by classical methods such as free radical scavenging activity and total flavonoid content. The results of this study clearly indicate that frauds by adding grapefruit juice to orange juice can be detected at percentages as low as 1%.

  1. The maturity characterization of orange fruit by using high frequency ultrasonic echo pulse method

    OpenAIRE

    ABOUDAOUD, Idriss; FAIZ, BOUAZZA; AASSIF, EL HOUCEIN; Moudden, Ali; IZBAIM, DRIS; EL ABASSI, DRIS; MALAININE, MOHAMED

    2012-01-01

    In this present work, our objective is to study the feasibility of the control of the maturity of orange fruit by the ultrasonic echo pulse method with immersion in water. This study relates to two varieties of orange (Navel and Mandarin) which are the most harvested particularly in the region of Souss-Massa-Drâa in Morocco. Contrary to the works already published in this field, we worked in the high frequencies by the means of a focusing transducer with 20MHz as a central frequency. By takin...

  2. Molecular and immunological characterisation of the glycosylated orange allergen Cit s 1

    OpenAIRE

    Pöltl, Gerald; Ahrazem, Oussama; Paschinger, Katharina; Ibañez, M Dolores; Salcedo, Gabriel; Wilson, Iain B. H.

    2006-01-01

    The IgE of sera from patients with a history of allergy to oranges (Citrus sinensis) bind a number of proteins in orange extract, including Cit s 1, a germin-like protein. In the present study, we have analysed its immunological cross-reactivity and its molecular nature. Sera from many of the patients examined recognise a range of glycoproteins and neoglycoconjugates containing β1,2-xylose and core α1,3-fucose on their N-glycans. These reagents also inhibited the interaction of Cit s 1 with p...

  3. Spread, genetic variation and methods for the detection of Puccinia kuehnii, the causal agent of sugarcane orange rust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane is susceptible to infection by two rust pathogens, Puccinia melanocephala and P. kuehnii, causing brown and orange rust, respectively. Orange rust of sugarcane was first reported in the Western hemisphere in Florida in July 2007. The pathogen was found to be distributed widely throughout t...

  4. 76 FR 65496 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil; Notice of Extension of Time Limits for Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Orange Juice From Brazil; Notice of Extension of Time Limits for... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil. See Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 76 FR...

  5. 75 FR 69917 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil; Notice of Extension of Time Limits for Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Orange Juice From Brazil; Notice of Extension of Time Limits for... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil. See Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 75 FR...

  6. 77 FR 77017 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony With Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony... of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice (OJ) from Brazil... of OJ from Brazil covering the POR of March 1, 2008, through February 28, 2009. See Certain...

  7. A bright cyan-excitable orange fluorescent protein facilitates dual-emission microscopy and enhances bioluminescence imaging in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jun; Oh, Younghee; Sens, Alex; Ataie, Niloufar; Dana, Hod; Macklin, John J; Laviv, Tal; Welf, Erik S; Dean, Kevin M; Zhang, Feijie; Kim, Benjamin B; Tang, Clement Tran; Hu, Michelle; Baird, Michelle A; Davidson, Michael W; Kay, Mark A; Fiolka, Reto; Yasuda, Ryohei; Kim, Douglas S; Ng, Ho-Leung; Lin, Michael Z

    2016-07-01

    Orange-red fluorescent proteins (FPs) are widely used in biomedical research for multiplexed epifluorescence microscopy with GFP-based probes, but their different excitation requirements make multiplexing with new advanced microscopy methods difficult. Separately, orange-red FPs are useful for deep-tissue imaging in mammals owing to the relative tissue transmissibility of orange-red light, but their dependence on illumination limits their sensitivity as reporters in deep tissues. Here we describe CyOFP1, a bright, engineered, orange-red FP that is excitable by cyan light. We show that CyOFP1 enables single-excitation multiplexed imaging with GFP-based probes in single-photon and two-photon microscopy, including time-lapse imaging in light-sheet systems. CyOFP1 also serves as an efficient acceptor for resonance energy transfer from the highly catalytic blue-emitting luciferase NanoLuc. An optimized fusion of CyOFP1 and NanoLuc, called Antares, functions as a highly sensitive bioluminescent reporter in vivo, producing substantially brighter signals from deep tissues than firefly luciferase and other bioluminescent proteins. PMID:27240196

  8. Pharmacokinetics of flavanone glycosides after ingestion of single doses of fresh-squeezed orange juice versus commercially processed orange juice in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Jacqueline Q; Cesar, Thais B; Manthey, John A; Baldwin, Elizabeth A; Bai, Jinhe; Raithore, Smita

    2014-12-31

    Orange juice is a rich source of flavonoids considered beneficial to cardiovascular health in humans. The objective of this study was to analyze the pharmacokinetics of the main flavanone glycosides, hesperidin and narirutin, in humans after the consumption of two styles of orange juice, fresh-squeezed (FOJ) and commercially processed (POJ), differing in their amounts of soluble and insoluble forms of these compounds. Healthy human subjects consumed 11.5 mL/kg body weight of FOJ, and after an interval of 30 days, consumed the same quantity of POJ. The results showed that there were no significant differences in the Tmax of the pharmacokinetic curves for the metabolites of hesperidin and narirutin following the consumption of the two styles of juices, and corrected for differences in doses in the POJ and FOJ, there were also no significant differences in the AUC and Cmax values and percent absorption of these compounds.

  9. An overview on the Brazilian orange juice production chain Uma visão da produção brasileira de suco de laranja

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Marcio dos Santos; Irenilza de Alencar Nääs; Mario Mollo Neto; Oduvaldo Vendrametto

    2013-01-01

    Brazil is the world's largest producer of oranges and uses more than 70% of the harvested fruits in the production of juices. The amount of processed orange is growing about 10% per year, confirming the trend of the Brazilian citrus for juice production. This research aimed to investigate the Brazilian orange juice production chain from 2005 to 2009. Data from the amount of frozen juice produced and exported, international price of orange juice, and intermediate transactions were assessed in ...

  10. Perbandingan Kadar IL-5 dan Jumlah Eosinofil Antara Anak dan Orang Dewasa yang Terinfeksi Ascaris Lumbricoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmadi ,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Ascaris lumbricoides pada umumnya menginfeksi anak, tetapi juga dapat terjadi pada orang dewasa. Respon imun hospes terhadap infeksi cacing dimulai dengan teraktifasinya Th2 dengan peningkatan yang signifikan dari IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-10 dan IL-13. IL-5 yang terbentuk merangsang perkembangan dan aktivasi eosinofil. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui perbandingan kadar IL-5 dan jumlah eosinofil antara anak dan orang dewasa yang terinfeksi oleh Ascaris lumbricoides. Telah dilakukan penelitian secara cross sectional terhadap 16 orang anak dan 16 orang dewasa yang terinfeksi Ascaris lumbricoides. Spesimen darah dan serum anak dan orang dewasa diperiksa IL-5 metode ELISA dan jumlah eosinofil metode mikroskopis. Data dianalisis dengan uji t independent dengan hasil statistik bermakna bila p<0,05. Didapatkan rerata kadar IL-5 anak 5,90±3,61 pg/ml dan 4,10±1,98 pg/ml rerata kadar IL-5 pada orang dewasa dengan nilai p=0,092 (p>0,05, sedangkan rerata jumlah eosinofil anak 14,56±7,77% dan 8,81±4,65% rerata jumlah eosinofil orang dewasa dengan nilai p=0,018 (p<0,05. Kadar IL-5 tidak berbeda signifikan antara anak dan orang dewasa, sebaliknya jumlah eosinofil terdapat perbedaan yang signifikan antara anak dan orang dewasa. Kesimpulan hasil penelitian ini ialah jumlah eosinofil anak lebih tinggi dari pada jumlah eosinofil orang dewasa yang terinfeksi Ascaris lumbricoides. Kata kunci: IL-5, jumlah eosinofil, anak, orang dewasa, infeksi Ascaris lumbricoides Abstract The infection of Ascaris lumbricides common infect children, but it also can be occurred to adult. The immune’s host respond to the worm infection begin from the activation of Th2 by the significant increasing from IL-4, IL-5, IL-9 and IL-13. IL-5 which formed stimulate the development and eosinofil’s activation. The objective of this study was to know the comparison IL-5 degree with the total of eosinofil between the child and adult who is infected by Ascaris lumbricides. The

  11. Trifoliata hybrids rootstocks for 'Lane Late' navel orange in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Legua

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Carrizo citrange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.] and Cleopatra mandarin (C. reshni Hort. ex Tan. are the most important rootstocks used in Spain, but they are problematic and it is necessary to search for new rootstocks with better all-round performance. The performance of 'Lane Late' navel orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osb] on ten rootstocks was determined in the South of the province of Alicante (Spain. They are Carrizo citrange, Cleopatra mandarin and eight new hybrids obtained at the Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias in Valencia (Spain: 020324 [Troyer citrange (C. sinensis × P. trifoliata × Cleopatra mandarin], Forner-Alcaide 418 (F&A 418 [Troyer citrange × common mandarin (C. deliciosa Ten.], Forner-Alcaide 13 (F&A 13, 030118, 030127 and 030131 (Cleopatra mandarin × P. trifoliata and 030212 and 030230 (Cleopatra mandarin × Troyer citrange. Soil is clay loam, with pH 8.5 and electric conductivity in the saturation extract at 25ºC of 5.79 mS cm-1. Yield was weighed during the first nine harvests, fruit quality was determined in the last three. Pre-harvest fruit-drop was controlled for the 4th until 9th harvests. The trees of 'Lane Late' navel budded on Cleopatra mandarin were the tallest (2.5 m and F&A 418 (1.6 m the shortest of all rootstocks tested. Trees on 030131 hybrid and Carrizo citrange rootstocks had the highest mean yield (81.2 and 80.3 kg per tree per year respectively, while trees on F&A 418 produced the lowest mean yield (22.3 kg per tree per year. Trees on 030131, 020324 and 030212 had the highest yield efficiency as total cumulative yield per cubic meter of canopy volume (62.1, 58.7 and 55.9 kg m-3 respectively whereas trees on 030127, F&A 418 and Cleopatra mandarin had lower yield efficiencies (45.0, 44.4 and 38.6 kg m-3, respectively. Pre-harvest fruit-drop was lower in trees grafted on Cleopatra mandarin (24.62 % and on 030212 (26.61 %, and was also low on F&A 418 (27

  12. Biodiesel from Citrus reticulata (Mandarin orange) seed oil, a potential non-food feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil extracted from Citrus reticulata (Mandarin orange) seeds was investigated as a potential feedstock for the production of biodiesel. The biodiesel fuel was prepared by sodium methoxide-catalyzed transesterification of the oil with methanol. Fuel properties that were determined include cetane numb...

  13. Orange County Academic Decathlon for 9th and 10th Grade Students. Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange County Academic Decathalon Association, CA.

    Orange County (California) students in grades 9 and 10 compete in an annually held series of 10 competitive events measuring academic strengths. These events include tests in grammar and literature, fine arts, mathematics, science, social science, study skills, and a super quiz--a team event held before a large audience. In addition, there are…

  14. Hemoglobinopathies and thalassemia screening among Senoi Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Danny Koh Xuan; Ismail, Endom; Sabudin, Raja Zahratul Azma Raja; Hussin, Noor Hamidah; Othman, Ainoon

    2015-09-01

    Orang Asli are the minority indigenous people in Peninsular Malaysia and can be divided into 3 main groups (Negrito, Senoi and Proto Malay) with different six sub-ethnics under each group. Within the Senoi group, the six sub-ethnics are sub-ethnic Mah Meri, Semoq Beri, Che Wong, Jah Hut, Semai and Temiar. This study was aimed to investigate the current prevalence of α- and β-thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies and their mutation types among all six sub-ethnics of Senoi Orang Asli. Blood samples from 685 Senoi participants were collected and sent immediately for routine full blood count analysis and hemoglobin sub-typing. Of 378 subjects screened, 7 subjects were found to be Hemoglobin E (HbE) beta thalassemia carriers, 13 beta thalassaemic, 35 Hemoglobin Constant Spring (HbCS) carriers, 6 compound HbE and HbCS carriers, 32 with HbE disease and 163 HbE heterozygote carriers. The findings of high HbE among Temiars and Jah Huts and high HbCS exclusively in Jah Huts in this study suggest distinct differences across sub-ethnics under Senoi group. Understanding of prevalence and wide spectrum of thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies among Senoi and Orang Asli is essential for national thalassaemia awareness and prevention program, especially in Orang Asli communities.

  15. Wnt4 in protogynous hermaphroditic orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides): identification and expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huapu; Li, Shuisheng; Xiao, Ling; Zhang, Yong; Li, Guangli; Liu, Xiaochun; Lin, Haoran

    2015-05-01

    Wnt4 (Wingless-type MMTV integration site family member 4) has been demonstrated to play critical roles in ovarian development in mammals, but its function in fish reproduction is still unclear. In the present study, two full-length wnt4 cDNA sequences (named wnt4a and wnt4b) were cloned from the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). Amino acid alignment analysis showed that both orange-spotted grouper Wnt4s proteins had the typical characteristics of the Wnt family. RT-PCR revealed that both wnt4a and wnt4b were highly expressed in the ovaries of the orange-spotted grouper. Temporal expression profiles of both wnt4 genes during embryonic and ovarian development were examined. The expressions of wnt4a and wnt4b genes were first detected at the embryonic morula stage, but the gens showed different expression patterns. During ovarian development, high expression of wnt4a was observed in the ovarian lumen formation and gonium proliferation stage, while wnt4b exhibited strong expression in the early developmental stage of oocytes. Taken together, the present study indicates that the two wnt4 genes are involved in the regulation of ovarian development in the orange-spotted grouper.

  16. Exploring optimal fertigation strategies for orange production, using soil-crop modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Wei; Heinen, Marius; Assinck, Falentijn B.T.; Oenema, Oene

    2016-01-01

    Water and nitrogen (N) are two key limiting factors in orange (Citrus sinensis) production. The amount and the timing of water and N application are critical, but optimal strategies have not yet been well established. This study presents an analysis of 47 fertigation strategies examined by a coup

  17. AT-SEA INCINERATION OF HERBICIDE ORANGE ONBOARD THE M/T VULCANUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes the at-sea incineration of three shiploads (approximately 10,400 metric tons) of U.S. Air Force-owned Herbicide Orange onboard the incinerator ship M/T Vulcanus, within an EPA-designated Pacific Ocean burn zone, west of Johnston Atoll. The first shipload, tra...

  18. Analisis Pengaruh Aktivitas Harian dan Usia Terhadap Pola Berjalan Orang Indonesia (Studi Kasus Kota Makassar)

    OpenAIRE

    Mulyadi; Ilham Bakri; Retnari Dian Mudiastuti; Nilda

    2014-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan parameter dasar pola berjalan orang Indonesia serta aktivitas harian dan usia terhadap parameter-parameter tersebut. Terdapat 270 partisipan yang dikelompokkan ke dalam enam kelompok berdasarkan usia untuk dan lima kelompok berdasarkan aktivitas harian, untuk dibandingkan pola berjalannya. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan metode pengukuran langsung dengan mengukur antropometri, merekam, serta menghitung pola berjalan (gait analysis) dari kelompok-kelo...

  19. Purification, Characterization, and Prebiotic Properties of Pectic Oligosaccharides from Orange Peel Wastes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gómez, B.; Gullón, B.; Remoroza, C.A.; Schols, H.A.; Parajó, J.C.; Alonso, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    Pectic oligosaccharides (POS) were obtained by hydrothermal treatment of orange peel wastes (OPW) and purified by membrane filtration to yield a refined product containing 90 wt % of the target products. AraOS (DP 3–21), GalOS (DP 5–12), and OGalA (DP 2–12, with variable DM) were identified in POS m

  20. Fractionation of secondary metabolites of orange (Citrus sinensis L.) leaves by fast centrifugal partition chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conventional HPLC provides ready detection of the major phenolic compounds in methanol extracts of orange leaves, yet conventional HPLC also shows the presence of many more compounds, to an extent where extensive peak overlap prevents distinct peak detection and reliable quantitation. A more complet...

  1. Fractionation of the secondary metabolites of orange (Citrus sinensis L.) leaves by fast centrifugal partition chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is interest in the detection of changes in secondary metabolites in orange leaves in response to citrus greening disease. Conventional HPLC analysis readily provides detection of major phenolic compounds, but further, more detailed chromatographic analyses show many more compounds, to an exten...

  2. Efficient all solid-state continuous-wave yellow-orange light source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janousek, Jiri; Johansson, Sandra; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter;

    2005-01-01

    We present highly efficient sum-frequency generation between two CW IR lasers using periodically poled KTP. The system is based on the 1064 and 1342 nm laser-lines of two Nd:YVO4 lasers. This is an all solid-state light source in the yellow-orange spectral range. The system is optimized in terms...

  3. Olivine or Impact Melt: Nature of the "Orange" Material on Vesta from Dawn

    CERN Document Server

    Corre, Lucille Le; Schmedemann, Nico; Becker, Kris J; O'Brien, David P; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Peplowski, Patrick N; Prettyman, Thomas H; Li, Jian-Yang; Cloutis, Edward A; Denevi, Brett W; Kneissl, Thomas; Palmer, Eric; Gaskell, Robert W; Nathues, Andreas; Gaffey, Michael J; Mittlefehldt, David W; Garry, William B; Sierks, Holger; Russell, Christopher T; Raymond, Carol A

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Dawn mission observed a great variety of colored terrains on asteroid (4) Vesta during its survey with the Framing Camera (FC). Here we present a detailed study of the orange material on Vesta, which was first observed in color ratio images obtained by the FC and presents a red spectral slope. The orange material deposits can be classified into three types, a) diffuse ejecta deposited by recent medium-size impact craters (such as Oppia), b) lobate patches with well-defined edges, and c) ejecta rays from fresh-looking impact craters. The location of the orange diffuse ejecta from Oppia corresponds to the olivine spot nicknamed "Leslie feature" first identified by Gaffey (1997) from ground-based spectral observations. The distribution of the orange material in the FC mosaic is concentrated on the equatorial region and almost exclusively outside the Rheasilvia basin. Our in-depth analysis of the composition of this material uses complementary observations from FC, the visible and infrared spectrometer (VI...

  4. Ultraviolet fluorescence to identify navel oranges with poor peel quality and decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navel oranges were sorted into four groups under ultraviolet (UV) illumination in commercial packinghouse black light rooms based upon the amount of fluorescence visible on each fruit to determine if fluorescence was predictive of peel quality. The groups corresponded to fruit with: 1) no fluorescen...

  5. The innovative process of Brazilian and US orange juice processors: a comparison using patent analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Ribeiro Rossi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, Brazil is the world´s leading producer of orange juice, and since that time has been followed by the United States (US. Over 90% of all orange juice produced in Brazil is exported, while US production is basically dedicated to internal consumption. The objective of this study was to compare the patenting dynamics of the orange juice processing industries in both Brazil and the US between 1978 and 2012. This was done by conducting a search in the Derwent Innovations Index (DII and analyzing the patent applications exclusively related to orange juice processing. For this period, a total of 45 patent applications were found, 43 filed by US processors and two by Brazilian processors. It was seen that brand ownership on the part of US processors may have led to a greater need for more innovation in their end products, compared to Brazilian processors that mainly produce and export commodities while acquiring foreign technology in the form of machinery and inputs.

  6. On the sequence selective bis-intercalation of a homodimeric thiazole orange dye in DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunkenborg, Jakob; Stidsen, M M; Jacobsen, J P

    1998-01-01

    The thiazole orange dye 1,1'-(4,4,8,8-tetramethyl-4, 8-diazaundecamethylene)-bis-4-[(3-methyl-2,3-dihydro(benzo-1, 3-thiazolyl)-2-methylidene]quinolinium tetraiodide (TOTO) binds sequence selectively to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) by bis-intercalation. Each chromophore is sandwiched between two...

  7. 7 CFR 352.30 - Untreated oranges, tangerines, and grapefruit from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Mexico. 352.30 Section 352.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL... § 352.30 Untreated oranges, tangerines, and grapefruit from Mexico. The following provisions shall apply..., and grapefruit from Mexico in transit to foreign countries via United States ports on the...

  8. A fieldstudy on Sumatran Orang Utans (Pougo pygmaeus abelii Lesson 1827) : ecology, behaviour and conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijksen, H.D.

    1978-01-01

    The results of a three year research project on the ecology, behaviour and conservation of the Sumatran orang utan are discussed. The 150 hectares Ketambe study area lie within the boundaries of the Gunung Leuser. reserve in Aceh Tenggara, and consists of mixed rainforest typical of hilly regions.Th

  9. STUDI PENURUNAN ZAT WARNA ACID ORANGE 7 DENGAN PROSES OKSIDASI MENGGUNAKAN FERRAT (FeO42-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Windy Dwiasi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Colour removal from textile wastewater has been a matter of considerable interest during the last two decades, not only because of the potential toxicity of certain dyes but often due to their visibility in receiving waters and to their low biodegradability. Due to the limited success of some physical and chemical techniques for the treatment of dye effluents it is necessary to develop destructive systems leading to complete mineralization or, at least, to less harmful or easy-to-treat compounds. Oxidation processes using ferrate (FeO42- have been found to be very effective in the degradation of dye pollutants and for the treatment of waste waters from the textile industry. Acid Orange 7 (AO7 commonly used as a textile dye and could be degraded by ferrate oxidation processes. In the oxidation degradation of dye by ferrate process, effect of some parameters such as time, pH, and molar ratio of dye was examined at experimental condition. AO7 removal by this process was calculated to be equal to 12 minute at experimental condition. Ferrate can oxidize acid orange 7 effectively at optimum pH of 9.8, with the molar ratio of ferrate : acid orange 7 at 4:1. The percentages of acid orange 7 degradation reached to 98.9%.

  10. 78 FR 28115 - Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and Tangelos Grown in Florida; Relaxing Size and Grade...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    .... At the end of the season, growers still have Valencia and other late type oranges left on the tree to..., still remain on the tree. However, most of the remaining fruit wouldn't meet grade requirements due to discoloration and scarring. As fruit continues to mature on the tree, physiological changes occur that...

  11. Using a Web Application to Conduct and Investigate Syntheses of Methyl Orange Remotely

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rens, Lisette; van Dijk, Hans; Mulder, Jan; Nieuwland, Pieter

    2013-01-01

    Thirty-six pre-university chemistry students and two chemistry teachers used flow chemistry as a technology for the synthesis of methyl orange. FutureChemistry and VU University Amsterdam cooperatively created FlowStart Remote, a device that enabled the students to remotely conduct this synthesis and in real time monitor and control the device via…

  12. POLA ASUH ORANG TUA, KONSEP DIRI, MOTIVASI DIRI, IKLIM SEKOLAH, DAN KESADARAN EMOSI SISWA SMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Heydemans

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Patterns of Parenting, Self-concept, Self-motivation, School Climate, and Emotional Awareness of Students at State Junior High Schools. The study tries to investigate the correlation between patterns of foster parents, self concept, self motivation, school climate and emotional awareness of the students at State Junior High School in Malang. Using multiple regression analysis, it is concluded  that patterns of foster parents, self motivation, school climate have effective significant contribution to emotional awareness both individually and in groups. Meanwhile, self concept has no significant effect. As a whole the effective contribution of the patterns of foster parents, self concept, self motivation, school climate to emotional awareness is 0.57 or 57%, it means that the remaining 43% of emotional awareness cannot be explained. Abstrak: Pola Asuh Orang Tua, Konsep Diri, Motivasi Diri, Iklim Sekolah, dan Kesadaran Emosi Siswa SMP. Penelitian ini mencoba untuk menjelaskan hubungan antara pola asuh orang tua, konsep diri, motivasi diri, iklim sekolah dan kesadaran emosi siswa SMP Negeri di kota Malang. Dengan menggunakan analisis multiple regresi disimpulkan bahwa pola asuh orang tua, motivasi diri, dan iklim sekolah memberi kontribusi yang signifikan terhadap kesadaran emosi, baik secara individu dan kelompok. Sementara itu konsep diri mempunyai pengaruh, tetapi tidak signifikan. Secara keseluruhan kontribusi efektif dari pola asuh orang tua, konsep diri, motivasi diri, iklim sekolah terhadap kesdaran emosi adalah 0.57 (57%. Hal itu berarti bahwa ada 43% faktor lain yang mempengaruhi kesadaran emosi, tetapi tidak bisa dijelaskan.

  13. Wet Oxidation Pretreatment of Tobacco Stalks and Orange Waste for Bioethanol Production. Preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Carlos; Fernandez, Teresa; Garcia, Ariel;

    2009-01-01

    , was inhibited compared to the fermentation of a reference glucose solution. Inhibition was more intense for the filtrate of tobacco stalks than for that of orange waste. The inhibition degree of the volumetric productivity of ethanol was higher (79.1-86.8%) than that of the ethanol yield (7.1-9.5%)....

  14. Bioactive compounds in blood oranges (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck): Level and intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallico, Biagio; Ballistreri, Gabriele; Arena, Elena; Brighina, Selina; Rapisarda, Paolo

    2017-01-15

    Both the composition and the intake of antioxidants (anthocyanins, ascorbic acid and hydroxycinnamic acids) were reported for all blood oranges including the single cultivars (Moro, Tarocco and Sanguinello) and industrially produced juices. The mean values of the studied bioactive compounds in the edible part oranges were: 9.6mg/100g of orange edible part for the anthocyanins; 8.1, 0.7, 1.3, 3.8, 2.5mg/100g for total hydroxycinnamic acids, caffeic, sinapic, ferulic and coumaric acids, respectively and 59.1mg/100g for ascorbic acid. The consumption of blood oranges contributes to a daily intake of: 9.4mg/d (up to 55mg/d) of anthocyanins and 58.5mg/d (up to 340mg/d) of vitamin C, respectively. Data suggest that the 50% of consumers, males and females, receive more than the 70% and 90% of EAR value of vitamin C, respectively. The 25% of males and the 40% of females has an intake higher than the EAR. PMID:27542451

  15. Emotion-Aware Assistive System for Humanistic Care Based on the Orange Computing Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhing-Fa Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental care has become crucial with the rapid growth of economy and technology. However, recent movements, such as green technologies, place more emphasis on environmental issues than on mental care. Therefore, this study presents an emerging technology called orange computing for mental care applications. Orange computing refers to health, happiness, and physiopsychological care computing, which focuses on designing algorithms and systems for enhancing body and mind balance. The representative color of orange computing originates from a harmonic fusion of passion, love, happiness, and warmth. A case study on a human-machine interactive and assistive system for emotion care was conducted in this study to demonstrate the concept of orange computing. The system can detect emotional states of users by analyzing their facial expressions, emotional speech, and laughter in a ubiquitous environment. In addition, the system can provide corresponding feedback to users according to the results. Experimental results show that the system can achieve an accurate audiovisual recognition rate of 81.8% on average, thereby demonstrating the feasibility of the system. Compared with traditional questionnaire-based approaches, the proposed system can offer real-time analysis of emotional status more efficiently.

  16. First Report of Orange Rust of Sugarcane Caused by Puccinia kuehnii in Ivory Coast and Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange rust of sugarcane caused by Puccinia kuehnii was detected in Florida in 2007. It was hypothesized that the pathogen originated from Africa because brown rust of sugarcane (syn. common rust) was introduced to the Western Hemisphere from Africa. Requests for rust infected sugarcane samples were...

  17. From Farmers to Entrepreneurs—Strengthening Malta Orange Value Chains Through Institutional Development in Uttarakhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyutiman Choudhary

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Malta orange (Citrus sinensis is an important cash crop in the mountain state of Uttarakhand, India. Smallholder farmers growing it face multiple challenges due to unorganized and inaccessible markets; they are forced to sell to intermediaries at very low prices. In response, the government of Uttarakhand introduced a minimum support price for Malta oranges; however, this failed to address farmers' problems due to poor implementation. This paper presents the results of an action research project with farmers in the Chamoli district of Uttarakhand to develop farmers' resilience by upgrading their position in the Malta orange value chain, targeting production, processing, and marketing through community-based enterprise development. Information was collected before and after the intervention by various means, including stakeholder meetings, focus group discussions, and interviews with farmers and value chain facilitators. Activities supported by the research have contributed to increased productivity and farmer incomes. Farmers became better organized, and their bargaining power improved considerably. The enterprise-based upgrading process brought about an inclusive and pro-poor Malta orange value chain system with improved terms of engagement for smallholder farmers. The research results show that policy change, improved provision of technical and financial services, establishment of common facility centers, and strengthening of farmers' institutions are imperative to enable smallholder farmers to engage in value chains and thus increase their resilience.

  18. Drinking orange juice increases total antioxidant status and decreases lipid peroxidation in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroudi, Shahrzad; Potter, Andrew S; Stamatikos, Alexis; Patil, Bhimanagouda S; Deyhim, Farzad

    2014-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the world and is the primary cause of mortality among Americans. One of the many reasons for the pathogenesis of CVD is attributed to eating diets high in saturated fat and refined carbohydrates and low in fruits and vegetables. Epidemiological evidence has supported a strong association between eating diets rich in fruits and vegetables and cardiovascular health. An experiment was conducted utilizing 24 adults with hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia to evaluate the impact of drinking 20 fl oz of freshly squeezed orange juice daily for 90 days on blood pressure, lipid panels, plasma antioxidant capacity, metabolic hormones, lipid peroxidation, and inflammatory markers. Except for addition of drinking orange juice, subjects did not modify their eating habits. The findings suggested that drinking orange juice does not affect (P>.1) blood pressure, lipid panels, metabolic hormones, body fat percentage, or inflammatory markers. However, total plasma antioxidant capacity was significantly increased (Porange juice consumption. Drinking orange juice may protect the cardiovascular system by increasing total plasma antioxidant status and by lowering lipid peroxidation independent of other cardiovascular risk markers evaluated in this study.

  19. Pectinesterases from the orange fruit : their purefaction, general characteristics and juice cloud destabilizing properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteeg, C.

    1979-01-01

    Twelve forms of pectinesterase were detected in citrus fruits. Two forms, representing over 90% of the total pectinesterase activity in Navel oranges, were purified. These pectinesterases, named Pectinesterase I and II have isoelectric points of 10.05 and>11.0, respectively. Both pectinesterases hav

  20. Retention of ascorbic acid in fortified orange juice powers during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Siddappa

    1960-10-01

    Full Text Available Both Coorg and Sathgudi orange juice powders are good carriers for added ascorbic acid during prolonged storage at ordinary temperatures. There is not much difference between nitrogen and air packs as regards retention of ascorbic acid during storage. Nitrogen pack, however, helps to keep the power in a better free-flowing condition.

  1. Targeted genome editing of sweet orange using Cas9/sgRNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongge Jia

    Full Text Available Genetic modification, including plant breeding, has been widely used to improve crop yield and quality, as well as to increase disease resistance. Targeted genome engineering is expected to contribute significantly to future varietal improvement, and genome editing technologies using zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs, transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR/Cas9/single guide RNA (sgRNA have already been successfully used to genetically modify plants. However, to date, there has been no reported use of any of the current genome editing approaches in sweet orange, an important fruit crop. In this study, we first developed a novel tool, Xcc-facilitated agroinfiltration, for enhancing transient protein expression in sweet orange leaves. We then successfully employed Xcc-facilitated agroinfiltration to deliver Cas9, along with a synthetic sgRNA targeting the CsPDS gene, into sweet orange. DNA sequencing confirmed that the CsPDS gene was mutated at the target site in treated sweet orange leaves. The mutation rate using the Cas9/sgRNA system was approximately 3.2 to 3.9%. Off-target mutagenesis was not detected for CsPDS-related DNA sequences in our study. This is the first report of targeted genome modification in citrus using the Cas9/sgRNA system-a system that holds significant promise for the study of citrus gene function and for targeted genetic modification.

  2. Concerted intercalation and minor groove recognition of DNA by a homodimeric thiazole orange dye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunkenborg, Jakob; Gadjev, N I; Deligeorgiev, T;

    2000-01-01

    The thiazole orange dye TOTO binds to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) by a sequence selective bis-intercalation. Each chromophore is sandwiched between two base pairs in a (5'-CpT-3'):(5'-ApG-3') site, and the linker spans two base pairs in the minor groove. We have used one- and two-dimensional NMR...

  3. Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters from Osage orange (Maclura pomifera) oil and evaluation as biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared in high yield by transesterification of Osage orange (Maclura pomifera) oil. Extracted using supercritical CO2, the crude oil was initially treated with mineral acid and methanol to lower its content of free fatty acids, thus rendering it amenable to homogeneou...

  4. The interception and retention of 238Pu deposition by orange trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinder, J E; Adriano, D C; Ciravolo, T G; Doswell, A C; Yehling, D M

    1987-06-01

    Radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) transform the heat produced during the alpha decay of 238Pu into electrical energy for use by deep-space probes, such as the Voyager spacecraft, which have returned images and other data from Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus. Future missions involving RTGs may be launched aboard the space shuttle, and there is a remote possibility that an explosion of liquid-hydrogen and liquid-oxygen fuel could rupture the RTGs and disperse 238Pu into the atmosphere over central Florida. Research was performed to determine the potential transport to man of atmospherically dispersed Pu via contaminated orange fruits. The results indicate that the major contamination of oranges would result from the interception and retention of 238Pu deposition by fruits. The resulting surface contamination could enter human food chains through transfer to internal tissues during peeling or in the reconstituted juices and flavorings made from orange skins. The interception of 238Pu deposition by fruits is especially important because the results indicate no measurable loss of Pu from fruit surfaces through time or with washing. Approximately 1% of the 238Pu deposited onto an orange grove would be harvested in the year following deposition.

  5. Biochemical Changes in Orange Fruit Due to Plant – Penicillium italicum – Antagonism Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahil GHASEMI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important orange fruit diseases is blue mold which cause by Penicillium italicum that is responsible for important economic losses. This study investigated biochemical changes in exo-mesocarp layers of orange fruits related to host- pathogen- yeast interactions. Initial result showed that among eight strains isolated, the most effective antagonist were belonged to two species of Pichia kluyveri (M45 and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa (M61. These isolates were selected for biochemical evaluation. In order to assessment of biochemical changes, the orange fruits were inoculated with 40 µl of yeast cell suspension and after 24 h, the wounds were inoculated with 20 µl of conidial suspension of P. italicum. The analysis of variance showed that all of the measured biochemical characterises were significant in both layers by treatments (yeast isolates; pathogen; yeast isolates + pathogen and control (P ≤ 0.01, including POD, CAT and β-1, 3-glucanase activities and total phenolic compounds. Also result showed that when the yeast isolates (M45 or M54 were inoculated into wounds with the pathogen, it stimulated the orange to increase produce of total phenol and enzymes activity (POD, CAT and β-1, 3-glucanase and these changes were related to incubation time. The result showed that understanding biochemical mechanism derived from plant-pathogen-antagonist interactions is essential for investigating the dynamics of infectious processes.

  6. Recovery and concentration of phenolic compounds in blood orange juice by membrane operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Destani, F.; Cassano, A.; Fazio, A.; Vincken, J.P.; Gebriele, B.

    2013-01-01

    Cross-flow ultrafiltration (UF) and osmotic distillation (OD) were implemented on laboratory scale to obtain formulations of interest for food and/or pharmaceutical industry starting from the blood orange juice produced in the Calabria region. The freshly squeezed juice, after a depectinization step

  7. Effects of water extracts of apple and pomegranate peel on the quality of orange squash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah-ud Din

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Punica granatum (pomegranate and Malus domestica (apple are rich source of bioactive compounds i.e. phenolics components, anthocyanins and tannins that can be potential preservative agents. The aim of the present research plan was to evaluate the quality characteristics of orange squash after addition of aqueous extracts of apple and pomegranate peels. For this purpose aqueous extracts of pomegranate and apple peels were added in orange squash and then the final product was examined for physiochemical and sensory attributes during storage. Results of current study demonstrated that physico-chemical parameters of orange squash significantly changed with the storage period in all the treatments in such a way that total soluble solids (°Brix were gradually decreased but the acidity increased. Sensory examination result of orange squash revealed that color, flavor and taste were decreased with the passage of time in all the treatments but preservative and 100% apple peel extract were upto acceptable level. Whereas 50% preservative and 50% pomegranate extract and 100% pomegranate extract were highly rejected.

  8. Properties of chitosan microencapsulated orange oil prepared by spray-drying and its stability to detergents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragrance encapsulated in small particles of less than 20 µm diameter is preferred for use in textiles. In this study, aromatic orange oil was emulsified in a continuous phase of chitosan and spray-dried to produce microcapsules. The most effective combination of emulsifiers, ratio of chitosan to oi...

  9. First report of Orange Rust of Sugarcane Caused by Puccinia kuehnii in Costa Rica and Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms of orange rust of sugarcane were observed in Costa Rica at Coopeagri Sugar Mill located in Pérez Zeledón, San José, during July 2007 on (a complex hybrid of Saccharum L. species) cultivar, SP 71-5574, and at Providencia Sugar Mill near Muelle and at Cutris Sugar Mill near Los Chiles, in Aug...

  10. 77 FR 3326 - Cancellation of Environmental Impact Statement in Orange County, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 14 (Monday, January 23, 2012)] [Notices] [Page 3326] [FR Doc.... Clarence W. Coleman, Jr., Preconstruction and Environmental Team Leader, Raleigh, North Carolina. [FR Doc... Environmental Impact Statement in Orange County, NC AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA),...

  11. 7 CFR 905.306 - Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine and Tangelo Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... S. Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos (7 CFR 51.1140 through 51.1179), the revised U. S. Standards for Florida Tangerines (7 CFR 51.1810 through 51.1837), or the revised U. S. Standards for Grades of Florida Grapefruit (7 CFR 51.750 through 51.784). (e)(1) All grapefruit...

  12. Orange County, Yellow History: An Intimate Encounter with Vietnamese American Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranguyen, Trangdai

    2004-01-01

    Anchored on the Vietnamese American Project (VAP), this essay presents the documentation of the Vietnamese American Experience through the voices of ethnic Vietnamese in Orange County, California, home to the largest concentration of this ethnic group outside Vietnam. Groundbreaking in its approach and method, VAP is an open forum that enables…

  13. Juvenile life history of NE Atlantic orange roughy from otolith stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Samuel; Trueman, Clive; Rickaby, Rosalind; Rogan, Emer

    2007-08-01

    Otoliths of pre-recruit orange roughy ( Hoplostethus atlanticus) were sampled from different deep-water habitats ('flat' and 'hill') and areas (north and south) on the Porcupine Bank. Age-based profiles for stable isotopes of carbon (δ 13C) and oxygen (δ 18O) in these otoliths were developed, which provide a fish life-history record of water depth and metabolic activity. These profiles were consistent among all individuals implying endogenous (ontogenic) influences on the pattern. The data indicate that post-larval orange roughy are mesopelagic active foragers, early juvenile fish move into a low energy deep-demersal phase, and older pre-recruit orange roughy assume the habitat depth and metabolic rate typical of adults. Comparison of otolith stable isotope profiles among areas and habitats on the Porcupine Bank suggest that juvenile orange roughy from South 'hill' and 'flat' habitats experience differing temperature and metabolic status at certain life stages. This may reflect oceanographic and ecological divergence between the two environments and suggests fine-scale population structure that may reduce resilience to exploitation.

  14. Sequencing of diverse mandarin, pummelo and orange genomes reveals complex history of admixture during citrus domestication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultivated citrus are selections from, or hybrids of, wild progenitor species whose identities and contributions to citrus domestication remain controversial. Here we sequence and compare citrus genomes—a high-quality reference haploid clementine genome and mandarin, pummelo, sweet-orange and sour-o...

  15. Poly(lactic acid) and Osage Orange Wood Fiber Composites for Agricultural Mulch Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osage orange wood(OO)was combined with poly(lactic acid)(PLA)to form a polymer composite intended for use as an agricultural mulch film. The PLA-OO mechanical properties were comparable to existing mulch film products and had the advantage of being completely biodegradable through a single growing ...

  16. Measuring Vitamin C Content of Commercial Orange Juice Using a Pencil Lead Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, David; Friend, Jeffrey; Kariuki, James

    2010-01-01

    A pencil lead successfully served as an electrode for the determination of ascorbic acid in commercial orange juice. Cyclic voltammetry was used as an electrochemical probe to measure the current produced from the oxidation of ascorbic acid with a variety of electrodes. The data demonstrate that the less expensive pencil lead electrode gives…

  17. Salmonella and Shigella in freshly squeezed orange juice, fresh oranges, and wiping cloths collected from public markets and street booths in Guadalajara, Mexico: incidence and comparison of analytical routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, A; Villarruel-López, A; Navarro-Hidalgo, V; Martínez-González, N E; Torres-Vitela, M R

    2006-11-01

    A survey of the presence of Salmonella and Shigella in freshly squeezed orange juice and related samples was conducted in Guadalajara, Mexico. One hundred samples of freshly squeezed orange juice were collected from 49 street booths and 51 small food service establishments. In addition, 75 fresh orange samples, each consisting of five orange units, and 75 wiping cloths were collected from the same establishments from which juice had been collected. Salmonella was isolated from 14, 20, and 23% of samples of orange juice, orange surfaces, and wiping cloths collected from street vendors, while Shigella was isolated from 6, 17, and 5% of these samples. In general, the frequency of isolation of these pathogens in samples from juice serving establishments at public markets was significantly lower than that found among street vendors (P or = 5.0 log CFU/ml and Escherichia coli counts of > 3.0 log CFU/ml, respectively. These high counts may indicate poor sanitation and potential exposure to fecal contamination either in the raw materials or during the orange-crushing and juice-serving process. These data may be useful for a further risk assessment of Salmonella or Shigella in unpasteurized, freshly squeezed juice.

  18. Effective population size dynamics and the demographic collapse of Bornean orang-utans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeta Sharma

    Full Text Available Bornean orang-utans experienced a major demographic decline and local extirpations during the Pleistocene and Holocene due to climate change, the arrival of modern humans, of farmers and recent commercially-driven habitat loss and fragmentation. The recent loss of habitat and its dramatic fragmentation has affected the patterns of genetic variability and differentiation among the remaining populations and increased the extinction risk of the most isolated ones. However, the contribution of recent demographic events to such genetic patterns is still not fully clear. Indeed, it can be difficult to separate the effects of recent anthropogenic fragmentation from the genetic signature of prehistoric demographic events. Here, we investigated the genetic structure and population size dynamics of orang-utans from different sites. Altogether 126 individuals were analyzed and a full-likelihood Bayesian approach was applied. All sites exhibited clear signals of population decline. Population structure is known to generate spurious bottleneck signals and we found that it does indeed contribute to the signals observed. However, population structure alone does not easily explain the observed patterns. The dating of the population decline varied across sites but was always within the 200-2000 years period. This suggests that in some sites at least, orang-utan populations were affected by demographic events that started before the recent anthropogenic effects that occurred in Borneo. These results do not mean that the recent forest exploitation did not leave its genetic mark on orang-utans but suggests that the genetic pool of orang-utans is also impacted by more ancient events. While we cannot identify the main cause for this decline, our results suggests that the decline may be related to the arrival of the first farmers or climatic events, and that more theoretical work is needed to understand how multiple demographic events impact the genome of species and

  19. Application of Canola Stalks Waste as Adsorbent of Acid Orange 7fromAqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Asadollahi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Objectives: The dyestuff manufacturing and textile industries consume a high volume of water and produce a great amount of wastewater containing various toxic substances. Different methods are used to remove dye compounds from wastewaters. Removal of dyes from water by adsorption processes received considerable attention and a number of studies focused on the adsorption of some dyes by non-conventional low cost and effective adsorbents. In this study, the suitability of the canola stalks for Acide orange 7 adsorption was assessed."nMaterials and Methods: The dry canola stalks obtained from the research farm were milled and screened and the particles size ranged between 0.4-0.7mmwere used in all experiments. Acid orange 7 supplied by Alvan Sabet. Initially, the effects of initial dye concentration, pH and temperature on adsorption were examined. The kinetic and equilibrium data obtained for various concentrations of evaluated on the basis of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms."nResults: The results showed that the absorption efficiency depended strongly on pH and slightly on the temperature. Absorption of acid orange 7 on the canola stalks was fairly rapid and more than 95% of adsorption occurred within the initial 5 minutes of the treatment. Both Langmuir and Freundlich models were applicable for the description of acid orange 7 dye adsorption by canola stalks."nConclusion: According to the Langmuir model, the highest capacity of canola stalks for acid orange 7 adsorption was found 24.8 mg/g which was higher than the capacity of beech wood sawdust and soil mixture with fly ash.

  20. Provitamin A potential of landrace orange maize variety (Zea mays L.) grown in different geographical locations of central Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Taeyoung; Ndolo, Victoria U; Katundu, Mangani; Nyirenda, Blessings; Bezner-Kerr, Rachel; Arntfield, Susan; Beta, Trust

    2016-04-01

    The provitamin A potential of landrace orange maize from different locations (A, B, C and D) of central Malawi has been evaluated. Physicochemical compositions, color, total carotenoid content (TCC), carotenoid profiles, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity as antioxidant capacities of maize were determined. Color values of orange maize had correlations with β-cryptoxanthin (r>0.36). TCC of white and orange maize averaged 2.12 and 59.5 mg/kg, respectively. Lutein was the most abundant carotenoid (47.8%) in orange maize, followed by zeaxanthin (24.2%), β-carotene (16.4%) and β-cryptoxanthin (11.6%). Location D showed the highest levels of lutein, zeaxanthin and antioxidant capacity. Provitamin A content of orange maize met the target level (15 μg/g) of biofortification. Retinol activity equivalent (RAE) from β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene in orange maize averaged 81.73 μg/100g. In conclusion, orange maize has the potential to be a natural source of provitamin A. PMID:26593622

  1. Provitamin A potential of landrace orange maize variety (Zea mays L.) grown in different geographical locations of central Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Taeyoung; Ndolo, Victoria U; Katundu, Mangani; Nyirenda, Blessings; Bezner-Kerr, Rachel; Arntfield, Susan; Beta, Trust

    2016-04-01

    The provitamin A potential of landrace orange maize from different locations (A, B, C and D) of central Malawi has been evaluated. Physicochemical compositions, color, total carotenoid content (TCC), carotenoid profiles, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity as antioxidant capacities of maize were determined. Color values of orange maize had correlations with β-cryptoxanthin (r>0.36). TCC of white and orange maize averaged 2.12 and 59.5 mg/kg, respectively. Lutein was the most abundant carotenoid (47.8%) in orange maize, followed by zeaxanthin (24.2%), β-carotene (16.4%) and β-cryptoxanthin (11.6%). Location D showed the highest levels of lutein, zeaxanthin and antioxidant capacity. Provitamin A content of orange maize met the target level (15 μg/g) of biofortification. Retinol activity equivalent (RAE) from β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene in orange maize averaged 81.73 μg/100g. In conclusion, orange maize has the potential to be a natural source of provitamin A.

  2. Genome-wide analysis of the R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene family in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chaoyang; Wang, Xia; Xu, Yuantao; Deng, Xiuxin; Xu, Qiang

    2014-10-01

    MYB transcription factor represents one of the largest gene families in plant genomes. Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) is one of the most important fruit crops worldwide, and recently the genome has been sequenced. This provides an opportunity to investigate the organization and evolutionary characteristics of sweet orange MYB genes from whole genome view. In the present study, we identified 100 R2R3-MYB genes in the sweet orange genome. A comprehensive analysis of this gene family was performed, including the phylogeny, gene structure, chromosomal localization and expression pattern analyses. The 100 genes were divided into 29 subfamilies based on the sequence similarity and phylogeny, and the classification was also well supported by the highly conserved exon/intron structures and motif composition. The phylogenomic comparison of MYB gene family among sweet orange and related plant species, Arabidopsis, cacao and papaya suggested the existence of functional divergence during evolution. Expression profiling indicated that sweet orange R2R3-MYB genes exhibited distinct temporal and spatial expression patterns. Our analysis suggested that the sweet orange MYB genes may play important roles in different plant biological processes, some of which may be potentially involved in citrus fruit quality. These results will be useful for future functional analysis of the MYB gene family in sweet orange.

  3. A Web Based Sweet Orange Crop Expert System using Rule Based System and Artificial Bee Colony Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof.M.S.Prasad Babu,

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Citrus fruits have a prominent place among popular and exclusively grown tropical and sub-tropical fruits. Their nature ,multifold nutritional and medicinal values have made them so important. Sweet Orange Crop expert advisory system is aimed at a collaborative venture with eminent Agriculture Scientist and Experts in the area of Sweet Orange Plantation with an excellent team of computer Engineers, Programmers and designers. This Expert System contains two main parts one is Sweet Orange Information System and the other is Sweet Orange Crop Expert System where information system, the user can get all the static information about different species, Diseases, Symptoms, chemical controls, Preventions, Pests, Virus of Sweet Orange fruits and plants. In Advisory System , the user is having an interaction with the expert system online; the user has to answer the questions asked by the Expert System. Depends on the response by the user the expert system decides the disease and displays its control measureof disease. This Sweet Orange Crop Information Expert System deals with different varieties of Sweet Crop, Identification of various diseases generally occurs to Sweet Orange crop based on the symptoms.

  4. Orange-induced skin lesions in patients with atopic eczema: evidence for a non-IgE-mediated mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockow, Knut; Hautmann, Christian; Fötisch, Kay; Rakoski, Jürgen; Borelli, Siegfried; Vieths, Stefan; Ring, Johannes

    2003-01-01

    Oranges are suspected of inducing adverse skin reactions in patients with atopic eczema. We studied 21 adult patients with atopic eczema and a history of adverse reactions to oranges and 10 patients without. A dietary history, skin tests, serum IgE and oral provocation tests with oranges were obtained. Severity of eczema was monitored by SCORAD, and serum tryptase, eosinophil cationic protein and urinary methylhistamine were measured. No allergic reactions were found to orange in skin prick or patch tests. However, 23 patients (74%) had specific serum IgE to orange. Oral provocation testing resulted in pruritic eczematous or maculopapular skin lesions predominantly at the predilection sites in 16 patients (52%). The SCORAD increased significantly in patients positive to the oral provocation test (p orange did not correlate with the clinical outcome of the oral provocation test. No significant changes were found in serum mast cell tryptase, eosinophil cationic protein or in urinary methylhistamine excretion. The negative results in the skin tests and a lack of correlation between specific IgE and oral provocation tests indicate that non-IgE-mediated mechanisms are involved in cutaneous adverse reactions to oranges in patients with atopic eczema. PMID:12636022

  5. Analysis of surface orange peel of aluminum-alloy automobile sheet by using of EBSD and X-ray diffraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Mingtu; Sun Zhifu; Wang Zhiwe; Lu Hongzhou; Zhou Mingbo

    2012-01-01

    The formation cause of orange peel of aluminum-alloy automotive sheet after tensile deformation was analysed by using X-ray diffraction and electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD). The test results showed that formation cause of surface orange peel after tensile deformation related to product texture and nonuniform deformation during the tensile process. The grain size has significant effect on deformation uniform and texture formation. Coarse grains were easy to produce nonuniform deformation and texture, which would produce surface orange peel after tensile deformation.

  6. Absorption, conjugation and excretion of the flavanones, naringenin and hesperetin from alpha-rhamnosidase-treated orange juice in human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredsdorff, Lea; Nielsen, I.L.F.; Rasmussen, S.E.;

    2010-01-01

    We have determined the absorption, conjugation and excretion of naringenin-7-O-rutinosicle (narirutin) compared to the corresponding glucoside in an orange juice matrix in human subjects. Healthy volunteers (eight men and eight women), in a double blind, randomised, crossover study, consumed orange......-rhamnosidase-treated orange juice was increased about 4-fold (P...... juice with (1) natural content of naringenin-7-O-rutinoside; (2) alpha-rhamnosidase-treated to yield naringenin-7-O-glucoside. Blood was sampled at twelve time points and three fractions of urine were collected over 24 h. The area under the plasma-time curve of naringenin from (2) alpha...

  7. STUDI KOMPARASI HARAPAN ORANG TUA SISWA SDSN DAN SD EKS RSBI DI DAERAH ISTIMEWA YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aan Sofyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbedaan harapan orang tua siswa yang menyekolahkan anaknya di SDSN dan SD Eks RSBI. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kuantitatif dengan jenis penelitian komparasi. Populasi penelitian adalah orang tua siswa kelas I SDSN dan SD eks RSBI di Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY. Sampel 322 orang tua siswa SDSN dan 226 orang tua siswa SD eks RSBI ditentukan dengan cluster random sampling technique. Instrumen penelitian yang digunakan berupa kuesioner harapan orang tua siswa. Instrumen penelitian dikembangkan berdasarkan enam kategori fungsi sekolah yaitu: (1 fungsi mengembangkan kecerdasan pikiran dan memberikan pengetahuan, (2 fungsi spesialisasi, (3 fungsi efisiensi, (4 fungsi sosialisasi, (5 fungsi konservasi, dan (6 fungsi transisi. Pengumpulan data menggunakan skala. Data dianalisis menggunakan statistik non-parametric, dengan menggunakan uji Mann-Whitney. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian yang diperoleh dapat disimpulkan bahwa tidak terdapat perbedaan antara harapan orang tua siswa SDSN dan SD eks RSBI di DIY. Hasil analisis uji Mann-Whitney menunjukkan nilai signifikansi 0,666 yang berarti bahwa hipotesis Ho diterima. Artinya, harapan orang tua siswa SDSN dan SD eks RSBI mengenai fungsi sekolah di DIY adalah sama. Secara keseluruhan baik orang tua siswa SDSN maupun orang tua siswa SD eks RSBI mengharapkan sekolah yang mereka pilih untuk anaknya bisa melaksanakan fungsinya dengan baik.   __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE EXPECTATION OF THE PARENTS OF STUDENTS OF SDSN AND EX-RSBI SD IN YOGYAKARTA SPECIAL TERRITORY ABSTRACT This study aimed to determine the differences in the expectations of parents who send their children to SDSN and SD Ex RSBI. This study uses the quantitative approach to the type of compa-rative research. The study population was parents of the students of

  8. Photoluminescence characteristics of Sm{sup 3+} doped Sr{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} as new orange-red emitting phosphor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Rui [Key Laboratory of Material and Technology for Clean Energy, Ministry of Education, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046, Xinjiang (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Autonomous Region, Institute of Applied Chemistry, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046, Xinjiang (China); Wang, Luxiang, E-mail: wangluxiang@xju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Material and Technology for Clean Energy, Ministry of Education, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046, Xinjiang (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Autonomous Region, Institute of Applied Chemistry, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046, Xinjiang (China); Xu, Mengjiao; Jia, Dianzeng [Key Laboratory of Material and Technology for Clean Energy, Ministry of Education, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046, Xinjiang (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Autonomous Region, Institute of Applied Chemistry, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046, Xinjiang (China)

    2015-10-25

    A series of Sr{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}: Sm{sup 3+} phosphors and Sr{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}: Sm{sup 3+} doped with different charge compensator (co-doping Li{sup +}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}) phosphors were prepared by the high temperature solid-state reaction process at 1100 °C in air. The phase structure, photoluminescence properties and thermal stability were of the as prepared powders were investigated. Sr{sub 2-x}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}: xSm{sup 3+} phosphors can be efficiently emitted an orange-red luminescence under ultraviolet and blue light irradiation due to {sup 4}G{sub 5/2}-{sup 6}H{sub 7/2} transition of Sm{sup 3+}. The emission spectrum with three emission peaks is located at 562, 600 and 641 nm. The emission intensity can be enhanced by introducing the charge compensator R{sup +} (R = Li, Na, K) into Sr{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}: Sm{sup 3+} phosphors. The results indicate that Sr{sub 2-x}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}: xSm{sup 3+} is a promising orange red-emitting phosphor that can be used in the LED's and other optical devices in the visible region. - Highlights: • Sr{sub 2-x}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}: xSm{sup 3+} hosts were synthesized via high temperature solid-state reaction process. • The emission intensity can be enhanced by introducing the charge compensator R{sup +} (R = Li, Na, K). • The luminescence properties and thermal stability suggest it is a good novel red emitting phosphor.

  9. Ultrasonic Degradation of Methyl Orange in Presence of Y2O3 Doping Anatase TiO2 Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jun; Guo Baodong; Pan Zhijun; Liu Zhenrong; Wen Fuyu; Zhang Zhaohong

    2004-01-01

    Various affecting factors and degradation mechanism were studied on ultrasonic degradation of methyl orange adopting Y2O3 doping anatase TiO2 catalyst prepared in laboratory.In the experiment, the UV-VIS spectrophotometer was used to follow and inspect the degradation process of methyl orange.The results indicate that the ultrasonic degradation ratios of methyl orange in the presence of anatase TiO2 catalyst are much better than those without catalyst.Moreover, the catalytic performance of Y2O3 doping anatase TiO2 catalyst is obviously higher than that of anatase TiO2 catalyst without doping.The optimal conditions were adopted in this work and the degradation and COD elimination ratio of methyl orange got to98% and 99.0% in 90 min, respectively.

  10. 2010 NOAA Ortho-rectified Mosaic from Color Aerial Imagery of BEAUMONT, ORANGE, PORT AUTHUR (NODC Accession 0074380)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative of BEAUMONT, ORANGE,...

  11. Comparison of Some Chemical Contents of Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis P. Karst Collected from Nature and Cultured on Orange Stump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezahat Turfan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis P. Karst (Reishi mushroom is one of medicinal mushroom species. The chemical content of the mushrooms shows significant changes depending on the physical and chemical properties of their growing place. In this study; total soluble protein, total soluble carbohydrate (glucose, fructose and sucrose and some mineral elements (P, K, Mg, Mn, S, Fe, Zn, Ca and Na of Ganoderma lucidum collected from the nature and cultured on orange stump were investigated. According to the results; total protein, glucose, fructose, sucrose and starch content of the G. lucidum cultured on orange stump were found higher than G. lucidum collected from nature. Phosphorus, iron, sodium, potassium and sulfur content were determined to be higher in mushroom samples cultured on orange stump. Calcium, magnesium, manganese and zinc values were found as higher in mushroom samples collected from nature. According to these results, G. lucidum cultured on orange stump had higher nutritional value than mushrooms collected from nature.

  12. 77 FR 20094 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement on the Durham-Orange Light Rail (LRT) Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... Light Rail (LRT) Project, Durham and Orange Counties, NC AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA... CONTACT: Mr. Brian C. Smart, Environmental Protection Specialist, Federal Transit Administration, 230... Robertson Scholars Express Bus. Currently, these buses operate in mixed traffic along increasingly...

  13. Enantioseparation of the fungicide imazalil in orange juice by chiral HPLC. Study on degradation rates and extractive/enrichment techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Rodríguez, L; Aguilar, A; Díaz, A N; Sánchez, F G

    2015-07-01

    Imazalil ([1-(β-allyloxy-2,4-dichlorophenethyl)imidazole]) is a systemic chiral fungicide used in postharvest protection of citruses against fungi development for during storage and transportation. The chemical structure of imazalil shows an asymmetric carbon in the C7 position. These enantiomers may have different toxicity. A method for both chiral enantiomers extraction and determination in orange juice is developed in order to provide their concentration and to study the degradation rates in orange juice. Spiked imazalil was extracted from orange juice by dispersive liquid-liquid micro extraction and solid phase extraction. Recovery assays of imazalil enantiomers from spiked orange juice samples showed that solid phase extraction is a better choice in order to obtain higher recovery values. Obtained chromatographic data show that within 24h the (-)-imazalil enantiomer decreases from 0.548 to 0.471 (expressed as enantiomer fraction).

  14. Orange-red emitting Eu2+-activated (Sr0.883Ba0.1Lu0.0.17)3(Si0.95Al0.05)O5 phosphor:structure, photoluminescence, and application in white LEDs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵凤阳; 吕雁鹏; 周广洲; 朴贤卿; 孙卓

    2015-01-01

    Orange-red emitting (Sr0.883–xBa0.1Lu0.0.17Eux)3(Si0.95Al0.05)O5 phosphors were synthesized by conventional solid-state reac-tion. The effect of NH4F flux on structural and luminescent properties of phosphors was investigated. Results suggested that the opti-mal content of NH4F flux was 3 wt.%and the optimal doping concentration of Eu2+was x=0.023 mol. The phosphors showed intense absorption in near-ultraviolet to blue region and exhibited orange-red emissions. The thermal stability of synthesized (Sr0.86Ba0.1Lu0.017Eu0.023)3(Si0.95Al0.05)O5 phosphor were examined and compared with commercial YAG:Ce3+ yellow phosphors. Combining an InGaN blue 460 nm chip and a white-emitting (Sr0.86Ba0.1Lu0.017Eu0.023)3(Si0.95Al0.05)O5 phosphor produced a white-light LED, demonstrating CIE chromaticity coordinates of (0.314, 0.329) and a color temperature of 5595 K. All results showed that this phosphor is a promising candidate as orange-red emitting phosphor for white light emitting diode (w-LED) application.

  15. Photocatalytic Degradation of Methyl Orange over Metalloporphyrins Supported on TiO2 Degussa P25

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-Jiao Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytic activity of meso-tetraphenylporphyrins with different metal centers (Fe, Co, Mn and Cu adsorbed on TiO2 (Degussa P25 surface has been investigated by carrying out the photodegradation of methyl orange (MO under visible and ultraviolet light irradiation. The photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, diffuse reflectance UV (DRS-UV-vis and infrared spectra. Copper porphyrin-sensitized TiO2 photocatalyst (CuP-TiO2 showed excellent activity for the photodegradation of MO whether under visible or ultraviolet light irradiation. Natural Bond Orbital (NBO charges analysis showed that methyl orange ion is adsorbed easier by CuP-TiO2 catalyst due to the increase of induced interactions.

  16. Photocatalytic decomposition of methyl orange over nanosized perovskite-type oxides under visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Man Woo; Jung, Won Young; Lim, Kwon Taek; Lee, Man Sig; Hong, Seong-Soo

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we have investigated the photocatalytic activity for the decomposition of methyl orange on the LaCoO3 perovskite-type oxides prepared using sol-gel method at different conditions. From the results of UV-Vis DRS, all the catalysts have the similar absorption spectrum up to visible region. The LaCoO3 catalyst prepared at 1.5 mol of malic acid and calcined at 350 degrees C shows the highest activity. The amount of photo absorption in the visible region is correlated with the photocatalytic activity. In addition, the chemisorbed oxygen plays an important role on the photocatalytic decomposition of methyl orange and the higher are the contents of chemisorbed oxygen, the better shows the performance of photocatalyst.

  17. HPLC determination of isoflavone levels in osage orange from the Midwest and southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darji, Ketur; Miglis, Cristina; Wardlow, Ashley; Abourashed, Ehab A

    2013-07-17

    The fruit of the Maclura pomifera tree is a sustainable source for the pharmacologically interesting isoflavones, osajin and pomiferin. A reversed-phase HPLC method was developed to identify osage orange samples with high isoflavone content and to determine the optimum conditions for sample preparation. Analytical run time was 8 min at a flow rate of 1 mL/min using a gradient of acetonitrile in H2O (0.1% formic acid) and UV peak detection at 274 nm. The method was validated for specificity, accuracy, precision, and limits of detection and quantitation (LOD/LOQ). The method was applied to determine the levels of osajin and pomiferin in extracts prepared from different samples of osage orange growing in the Midwest and southern United States. Results demonstrated the effect of different variables, such as sample preparation, geographical location, and growth stage, on the levels of osajin and pomiferin in analyzed samples. PMID:23772950

  18. HPLC Determination of Isoflavone Levels in Osage Orange from the United States Midwest and South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darji, Ketur; Miglis, Cristina; Wardlow, Ashley; Abourashed, Ehab A.

    2013-01-01

    The fruit of Maclura pomifera tree is a sustainable source for the pharmacologically interesting isoflavones, osajin and pomiferin. A reversed-phase HPLC method was developed to identify osage orange samples with high isoflavone content and to determine the optimum conditions for sample preparation. Analytical run time was 8 min at a flow rate of 1 mL/min using a gradient of acetonitrile in H2O (0.1% formic acid) and UV peak detection at 274 nm. The method was validated for specificity, accuracy, precision, and limits of detection and quantitation (LOD/LOQ). The method was applied to determine the levels of osajin and pomiferin in extracts prepared from different samples of osage orange growing in the United States Midwest and South. Results demonstrated the effect of different variables, such as sample preparation, geographical location, and growth stage, on the levels of osajin and pomiferin in analyzed samples. PMID:23772950

  19. Orange-flavored soft drink with the addition of isolated whey protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Souza Prado

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Current assay developed an orange-flavored soda pop with the addition of isolated whey protein, bottled in a 2L-polyethylene terephthalate container and stored at room temperature for 90 days. Physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial analyses were conducted periodically on the product. The physicochemical analysis showed pH 3.53, 11.5ºBrix and 224 mg of citric acid per 100 mL of the drink and the following proximal composition: protein 0.501%, humidity 88.9%, ash 0.084% and carbohydrates 10.5%. Microbiological analyses detected no microorganisms during the storage period of the drink. Sensorial analysis results had good acceptability. Results showed that the product is stable when stored at room temperature for 90 days. This beverage contains higher nutritional rates and the same calorie rates when compared to sodas and some oranges juices found on the consumer market.

  20. High-pressure vapor-liquid equilibrium data for CO2-orange peel oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R. Stuart

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a growing interest in fractionating orange peel oil by the use of supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2. However, progress in this area has been hindered by the lack of more comprehensive work concerning the phase equilibrium behavior of the SCCO2-orange peel oil system. In this context, the aim of this work is to provide new phase equilibrium data for this system over a wide range of temperatures and pressures, permitting the construction of coexistence PT-xy curves as well as the P-T diagram. The experiments were performed in a high-pressure variable-volume view cell in the temperature range of 50-70ºC from 70 to 135 atm and in the CO2 mass fraction composition range of 0.35-0.98. Based on the experimental phase equilibrium results, appropriate operating conditions can be set for high-pressure fractionation purposes.

  1. Degradation of Methyl Orange in Water by Contact Glow Discharge Electrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Jianying; CAI Weimin

    2007-01-01

    The degradation of methyl orange in a neutral phosphate buffer solution was investigated by means of contact glow discharge electrolysis (CGDE).The methyl oranges were degraded and eventually decomposed into inorganic carbon when CGDE was conducted under the applied DC voltage of 480 V and current of ca.80 mA.As the intermediate products,some phenolic compounds were detected as well as carboxylic acids.Experimental results showed that the oxidation process followed the first-order reaction law.Based on the analysis of the ultraviolet (UV) spectra of the solution and the intermediate products from High Pressure Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrum (HPLC-MS),the reaction pathway was proposed.The attack of hydroxyl radicals was considered to be a key step to start the whole oxidation process.

  2. Cognitive differences between orang-utan species: a test of the cultural intelligence hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forss, Sofia I F; Willems, Erik; Call, Josep; van Schaik, Carel P

    2016-01-01

    Cultural species can - or even prefer to - learn their skills from conspecifics. According to the cultural intelligence hypothesis, selection on underlying mechanisms not only improves this social learning ability but also the asocial (individual) learning ability. Thus, species with systematically richer opportunities to socially acquire knowledge and skills should over time evolve to become more intelligent. We experimentally compared the problem-solving ability of Sumatran orang-utans (Pongo abelii), which are sociable in the wild, with that of the closely related, but more solitary Bornean orang-utans (P. pygmaeus), under the homogeneous environmental conditions provided by zoos. Our results revealed that Sumatrans showed superior innate problem-solving skills to Borneans, and also showed greater inhibition and a more cautious and less rough exploration style. This pattern is consistent with the cultural intelligence hypothesis, which predicts that the more sociable of two sister species experienced stronger selection on cognitive mechanisms underlying learning. PMID:27466052

  3. ARTICLES: Orientation in Nematic Liquid Crystals Doped with Orange Dyes and Effect of Carbon Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicilar, Ahmet; Akkurt, Fatih; Kaya, Nihan

    2010-06-01

    Some properties of nematic liquid crystal E7 doped with two disperse orange dyes used together and effect of addition of carbon nanoparticles (single walled carbon nanotube or fullerene C60) on them were studied. Two dyes (disperse orange 11 and 13) having high solubility and order parameter were used as co-dopants. A notable increase in order parameter was obtained comparing to that of liquid crystal doped with single dye. When carbon nanoparticles were used as dopant, a decrease in order parameter was observed at low temperatures while it increased at high temperatures. When applied voltage changed, the order parameter abruptly increased in its threshold value and saturated in higher voltages as expected. An appreciable change in textures was not observed with addition of dopants. This addition gave rise to an increase in nematic-isotropic phase transition temperatures compared with that of pure liquid crystal.

  4. Exploring the Possibilities of Biological Fabrication of Gold Nanostructures Using Orange Peel Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Castro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of nanotechnology requires a constant innovation and improvement in many materials. The exploration of natural resources is a promising eco-friendly alternative for physical and chemical methods. In the present work, colloidal gold nanostructures were prepared using orange peel extract as a stabilizing and reducing agent. The initial pH value of the solution and the concentration of the gold precursor had an effect on the formation and morphology of nanoparticles. The method developed is environmentally friendly and allows control of nanoparticles. By controlling the pH and, especially, the gold concentration, we are able to synthesize crystalline gold nanowires using orange peel extract in the absence of a surfactant or polymer to direct nanoparticle growth, and without external seeding. UV-VIS spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD were used to characterize the nanoparticles obtained by biosynthesis.

  5. Agent Orange Footprint Still Visible in Rural Areas of Central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Banout

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Levels of polychlorinated dioxins/furans (PCDD/PCDF in selected environmental samples (soils, sediments, fish, and farm animals were analyzed from the area of Phong My commune (Thua Thien-Hue province, Vietnam. This area was affected by Agent Orange spraying during the Vietnam war (1968–1971. Whereas PCDD/PCDF content in soil and sediment samples is relatively low and ranges between 0.05 and 5.1 pg WHO-TEQ/g for soils and between 0.7 and 6.4 pg WHO-TEQ/g for sediments, the PCDD/PCDF content in poultry muscle and liver in most cases exceeded the maximum permissible limit of dioxin content per unit fat mass. In some cases of soil and sediments samples, 2,3,7,8-TCDD represented more than 90% of the total PCDD/PCDF, which indicates Agent Orange as the main source.

  6. Sequencing of diverse mandarin, pummelo and orange genomes reveals complex history of admixture during citrus domestication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, G. Albert; Prochnik, Simon; Jenkins, Jerry; Salse, Jerome; Hellsten, Uffe; Murat, Florent; Perrier, Xavier; Ruiz, Manuel; Scalabrin, Simone; Terol, Javier; Takita, Marco Aurélio; Labadie, Karine; Poulain, Julie; Couloux, Arnaud; Jabbari, Kamel; Cattonaro, Federica; Del Fabbro, Cristian; Pinosio, Sara; Zuccolo, Andrea; Chapman, Jarrod; Grimwood, Jane; Tadeo, Francisco R.; Estornell, Leandro H.; Muñoz-Sanz, Juan V.; Ibanez, Victoria; Herrero-Ortega, Amparo; Aleza, Pablo; Pérez-Pérez, Julián; Ramón, Daniel; Brunel, Dominique; Luro, François; Chen, Chunxian; Farmerie, William G.; Desany, Brian; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Harkins, Tim; Fredrikson, Karin; Burns, Paul; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Borodovsky, Mark; Reforgiato, Giuseppe; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Quetier, Francis; Navarro, Luis; Roose, Mikeal; Wincker, Patrick; Schmutz, Jeremy; Morgante, Michele; Machado, Marcos Antonio; Talon, Manuel; Jaillon, Olivier; Ollitrault, Patrick; Gmitter, Frederick; Rokhsar, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The domestication of citrus, is poorly understood. Cultivated types are selections from, or hybrids of, wild progenitor species, whose identities and contributions remain controversial. By comparative analysis of a collection of citrus genomes, including a high quality haploid reference, we show that cultivated types were derived from two progenitor species. Though cultivated pummelos represent selections from a single progenitor species, C. maxima, cultivated mandarins are introgressions of C. maxima into the ancestral mandarin species, C. reticulata. The most widely cultivated citrus, sweet orange, is the offspring of previously admixed individuals, but sour orange is an F1 hybrid of pure C. maxima and C. reticulata parents, implying that wild mandarins were part of the early breeding germplasm. A wild “mandarin” from China exhibited substantial divergence from C. reticulata, suggesting the possibility of other unrecognized wild citrus species. Understanding citrus phylogeny through genome analysis clarifies taxonomic relationships and enables sequence-directed genetic improvement. PMID:24908277

  7. Application of orange peel waste in the production of solid biofuels and biosorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Carolina Monteiro; Dweck, Jo; Viotto, Renata Silva; Rosa, André Henrique; de Morais, Leandro Cardoso

    2015-11-01

    This work aimed to study the potential use of pyrolyzed orange peels as solid biofuels and biosorption of heavy metals. The dry biomass and the biofuel showed moderate levels of carbon (44-62%), high levels of oxygen (30-47%), lower levels of hydrogen (3-6%), nitrogen (1-2.6%), sulfur (0.4-0.8%) and ash with a maximum of 7.8%. The activation energy was calculated using Kissinger method, involving a 3 step process: volatilization of water, biomass degradation and volatilization of the degradation products. The calorific value obtained was 19.3MJ/kg. The studies of metal biosorption based on the Langmuir model obtained the best possible data fits. The results obtained in this work indicated that the potential use of waste orange peel as a biosorbent and as a solid biofuel are feasible, this product could be used in industrial processes, favoring the world economy. PMID:26280099

  8. [Application of hyperspectral fluorescence image technology in detection of early rotten oranges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang-bo; Wang, Fu-jie; Ying, Yi-bin; Rao, Xiu-qin

    2012-01-01

    Rottenness is most prevalent and devastating disease that threats citrus fruit. Automatic detection of early rottenness can enhance the competitiveness and profitability of the citrus industry. However, there is no efficient automatic detection technology at this time that could detect this disease. The navel orange was selected as research objective. Hyperspectral fluorescence imaging was used to detect early rottenness in orange. Optimum index factor (OIF) method was applied to identify the optimal band combination. 100% detection rate was achieved based on the optimal bands ratio image and two threshold values. The research showed that the proposed method can effectively overcome the affect from florescence effect because stem damage area and stem also can produce florescence under ultraviolet light. This study will lay a foundation for developing multispectral detection system used in on-line detection of early rottenness fruit. PMID:22497146

  9. A COMPARATIVE ANTIBACTERIAL STUDY OF IXORA COCCINEA L. PLANTS WITH RED, ORANGE, PINK AND WHITE FLOWERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOWJANYA. PULIPATI, SUSHMA. P, V. JHANSI LAKSHMI, P. SRINIVASA BABU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Eradication of pathogenic bacterial infection is the most effective means of curing several diseases and preventingrecurrent episodes. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the comparative antibacterial activity of Ixora coccinea L.plants with red, orange, pink and white flowers against tested bacteria Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis,Klebsiella pneumoniae. Both the methanolic and aqueous extracts of all four types of flowers exhibited considerable antibacterialactivities against bacteria. The methanolic extracts of red and pink flowers exhibited high antibacterial activity whereas orangeflowers showed moderate activity while white flowers showed low activity. The aqueous extracts displayed less inhibitory effectscompared to the methanolic extracts. The aqueous extracts of red and pink flowers showed considerable high antibacterialactivity compared to orange and white flowers. The preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids,glycosides, steroids, carbohydrates, flavonoids and tannins.

  10. Influence of temperature and particle size on the fixed bed pyrolysis of orange peel residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, L. [Departamento de Mecanica, Universidad de Pinar del Rio, Cuba. Calle Marti 270, final, Pinar del Rio (Cuba); Marquez-Montesinos, F. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad de Pinar del Rio, Cuba. Calle Marti 270, final, Pinar del Rio (Cuba); Gonzalo, A.; Sanchez, J.L.; Arauzo, J. [Thermochemical Processes Group (GPT), Aragon Institute for Engineering Research (I3A), University of Zaragoza, Maria de Luna 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2008-09-15

    Orange peel is a residue from the production of juice. Its energetic valorisation could be interesting in areas where a different use, such as animal feed, is not possible. In order to investigate the viability of energy recovery, the pyrolysis of orange peel residues was studied in a fixed bed reactor, as an initial assessment of this process. The influence of pyrolysis temperature (300-600 C) and particle size (d{sub p}<300{mu}m and d{sub p}>800{mu}m) on product distribution, gas composition and char heating value has been investigated using a factorial design of experiments. Gas, char and water are the main products obtained; tar is only about 6 wt.% of the initial residue. Temperature was found to be the parameter which exerts a more important influence on the results than particle size. (author)

  11. Ozonation of azo dyes (Orange II and Acid Red 27) in saline media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Alessandra C. [Chemical Engineering Program, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Av. Horacio Macedo, 2030, P.O. Box, 68502, CEP 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pic, Jean Stephane [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees, INSA-GPE-LIPE, Toulouse (France); Sant' Anna, Geraldo L., E-mail: lippel@peq.coppe.ufrj.br [Chemical Engineering Program, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Av. Horacio Macedo, 2030, P.O. Box, 68502, CEP 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Dezotti, Marcia [Chemical Engineering Program, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Av. Horacio Macedo, 2030, P.O. Box, 68502, CEP 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-09-30

    Ozonation of two azo dyes was investigated in a monitored bench scale bubble column reactor (8.5-L), varying liquid media salt content (0, 1, 40 and 100 g L{sup -1}, NaCl). In experiments with Orange II pH was varied (5, 7.5 and 9) but ozonation of Acid Red 27 was performed at pH 7.5. Ozone self-decomposition rate-constant increased with salt concentration. Color removal was very effective and fast achieved under all experimental conditions. For the two azo dyes tested, more than 98% of color intensity was removed in 30-min ozonation assays. However, only partial mineralization of azo dyes (45%-Orange II; 20%-Acid Red 27) was attained in such experiments. The degree of mineralization (TOC removal) was negatively affected by salt concentration. Biodegradation assays conducted by respirometry revealed the inhibitory effect of dye degradation products formed during ozonation.

  12. Cognitive differences between orang-utan species: a test of the cultural intelligence hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forss, Sofia I. F.; Willems, Erik; Call, Josep; van Schaik, Carel P.

    2016-01-01

    Cultural species can - or even prefer to - learn their skills from conspecifics. According to the cultural intelligence hypothesis, selection on underlying mechanisms not only improves this social learning ability but also the asocial (individual) learning ability. Thus, species with systematically richer opportunities to socially acquire knowledge and skills should over time evolve to become more intelligent. We experimentally compared the problem-solving ability of Sumatran orang-utans (Pongo abelii), which are sociable in the wild, with that of the closely related, but more solitary Bornean orang-utans (P. pygmaeus), under the homogeneous environmental conditions provided by zoos. Our results revealed that Sumatrans showed superior innate problem-solving skills to Borneans, and also showed greater inhibition and a more cautious and less rough exploration style. This pattern is consistent with the cultural intelligence hypothesis, which predicts that the more sociable of two sister species experienced stronger selection on cognitive mechanisms underlying learning. PMID:27466052

  13. Influence of temperature and addition of fiber in the flow behavior of orange juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Siche

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study the influence of the addition of orange fiber in the flow behavior of orange juice was evaluated, using for this the Herschel-Bulkley model parameters. It was observed that the flow behavior of the juices changed due to the addition of fiber, from Newtonian to Pseudoplastic when its fiber content was 5% and the temperature changed from 30 °C to 20 °C, and from Pseudoplastic to Herschel-Bulkley when its fiber content was 12.5% and the temperature changed from 10 °C to 0 °C. The increase in fiber content resulted in a progressive increase of consistency and a decrease of the flow behavior index.

  14. Orange Business Services:本地化服务至为关键

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶惠

    2011-01-01

    @@ 在不久前举办的下一代网络通信展上,记者采访了Orange BusinessServices亚太区的首席资讯科技长Eric Haissagneme及首席呼叫中心长HaYtham,他们分别为记者介绍了Orange Business Services在中国的云计算和IT解决方案业务的发展情况以及呼叫中心业务的相关情况.值得一提的是,立足本地,放眼全球是Orange的重要方针,他们告诉记者,中国是Orange在亚太区最为重要的市场之一.

  15. The effect of aromatherapy by essential oil of orange on anxiety during labor: A randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Rashidi-Fakari, Fahimeh; Tabatabaeichehr, Mahbubeh; Mortazavi, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Labor is a stressful situation that may have an adverse impact. Aromatherapy is a method to control anxiety and stress of women. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of aromatherapy using essential oil of orange on women's anxiety during labor. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial study, 100 women during labor were randomly assigned to two groups: intervention group and control group. The women in the intervention group were exposed to orange essential oil, ...

  16. Characterization of Coconut cadang-cadang viroid variants from oil palm affected by orange spotting disease in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y H; Cheong, L C; Meon, S; Lau, W H; Kong, L L; Joseph, H; Vadamalai, G

    2013-06-01

    A 246-nt variant of Coconut cadang-cadang viroid (CCCVd) has been identified and described from oil palms with orange spotting symptoms in Malaysia. Compared with the 246-nt form of CCCVd from coconut, the oil palm variant substituted C(31)→U in the pathogenicity domain and G(70)→C in the central conserved domain. This is the first sequence reported for a 246-nt variant of CCCVd in oil palms expressing orange spotting symptoms.

  17. Enhanced orange-red emission from KSrVO4:Sm3+ nanophosphor for possible application in blue light-emitting diode based white LED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the combustion synthesis and photoluminescence properties of Sm3+ doped KSrVO4 nanophosphors are reported. The samples were characterized by different techniques such as x-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, UV–vis spectrophotometry and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The lattice parameters were calculated as a=7.4688 (4) A-ring ´, b=5.8171 (4) A-ring ´, c=9.9490 (5) A-ring ´ and V=432.2485 (5) Ǻ3. The average grain size of the samples was estimated as 42 nm using the modified Scherrer’s equation. Under near UV excitation, the sharp emission line at 560, 600, 646 and 704 nm due to characteristic transitions of Sm3+ were observed. The maximum PL emission intensity was observed at 1.5 mol.% of the Sm3+ ions. The band gap of the phosphor was calculated from diffused reflectance data and was found to be 3.74 eV. The CIE 1931 chromaticity coordinates (x, y) of the phosphor were (0.61, 0.39), in a shade of orange-red color. The potential applications of this material as a down conversion phosphor under blue light excitation were evaluated for possible application as a high color-purity phosphor in light emitting diodes (LEDs) that can fill the 590–600 nm gap. (paper)

  18. An on-line spectrophotometric determination of trace amounts of thiourea in tap water, orange juice, and orange peel samples using multi-channel flow injection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab Chamjangali, M; Goudarzi, N; Ghochani Moghadam, A; Amin, A H

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a flow injection analysis (FIA) method was introduced for the determination of trace amounts of thiourea in tap water. This method is based upon the inhibition effect of thiourea on the reaction between meta-cresol purple (MCP) and potassium bromate catalyzed by bromide ions in a sulfuric acid medium. In the presence of thiourea, an induction period appears in the reaction system, and as a result, the absorbance of MCP increases at 525 nm in the FIA manifold. The chemical and FIA variables are studied and optimized using the univariate and Simplex optimization methods. Under the optimum conditions, thiourea can be determined in the range of 0.100-13.0 μg mL(-1). The limit of detection (3σ) for thiourea was found to be 0.0310 μg mL(-1). The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for six replicate determinations of 0.500, 5.00, and 12.0 μg mL(-1) of thiourea were 4.0%, 1.8%, and 1.2%, respectively. The proposed method was also applied for the determination of thiourea in orange juice and orange peel samples with recoveries in the range of 98.0-101%. The analytical speed of the method was calculated to be about 120 sample per hour.

  19. Erosive Potential of Cola and Orange Fruit Juice on Tooth Colored Restorative Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Rajavardhan, K; Sankar, AJS; Kumar, MGM; Kumar, KR; Pranitha, K; Kishore, KK

    2014-01-01

    Background: Erosion is a common condition which manifests due to consumption of high caloric and low pH acidic food stuffs such as carbonated drinks and fruit juices which cause irreversible damage to dental hard tissues and early deterioration of the dental restorations. Aim: The main aim of this study is to evaluate and to compare the erosive potential of carbonated drink (cola) and fruit juice (orange fruit juice) by measuring the surface roughness (Ra) values on two commonly used dental r...

  20. Light-up properties of complexes between thiazole orange-small molecule conjugates and aptamers

    OpenAIRE

    Pei, Renjun; Rothman, Jeffrey; Xie, Yuli; Stojanovic, Milan N.

    2009-01-01

    The full understanding of dynamics of cellular processes hinges on the development of efficient and non-invasive labels for intracellular RNA species. Light-up aptamers binding fluorogenic ligands show promise as specific labels for RNA species containing those aptamers. Herein, we took advantage of existing, non-light-up aptamers against small molecules and demonstrated a new class of light-up probes in vitro. We synthesized two conjugates of thiazole orange dye to small molecules (GMP and A...